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Salivary nicotine and cotinine concentrations in unstimulated and stimulated saliva  

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Salivary nicotine and salivary cotinine is widely used in clinical and epidemiological studies to validate smoking cessation. However, the reported collection for salivary nicotine and salivary cotinine vary by technique and duration. This study investigated the influence of salivary collection by unstimulation and stimulation technique of the concentration of salivary nicotine and salivary cotinine. It was found that unstimulated technique produced the highest salivary nicotine concentration...

Robson, Noorzurani; Bond, A. J.; Wolff, K.

2010-01-01

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Salivary nicotine and cotinine concentrations in unstimulated and stimulated saliva  

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Salivary nicotine and salivary cotinine is widely used in clinical and epidemiological studies to validate smoking cessation. However, the reported collection for salivary nicotine and salivary cotinine vary by technique and duration. This study investigated the influence of salivary collection by unstimulation and stimulation technique of the concentration of salivary nicotine and salivary cotinine. It was found that unstimulated technique produced the highest salivary nicotine concentration...

Robson, Noorzurani; Bond, A. J.; Wolff, K.

2012-01-01

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Salivary cotinine concentrations in daily smokers in Barcelona, Spain: a cross-sectional study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Characterizing and comparing the determinant of cotinine concentrations in different populations should facilitate a better understanding of smoking patterns and addiction. This study describes and characterizes determinants of salivary cotinine concentration in a sample of Spanish adult daily smoker men and women. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out between March 2004 and December 2005 in a representative sample of 1245 people from the general population of Barcelona, Spain. A standard questionnaire was used to gather information on active tobacco smoking and passive exposure, and a saliva specimen was obtained to determine salivary cotinine concentration. Two hundred and eleven adult smokers (>16 years old with complete data were included in the analysis. Determinants of cotinine concentrations were assessed using linear regression models. Results Salivary cotinine concentration was associated with the reported number of cigarettes smoked in the previous 24 hours (R2 = 0.339; p R2 = 0.386; p Conclusion This study shows that salivary cotinine concentration is significantly associated with the number of cigarettes smoked and sex, but not with other smoking-related variables.

Pascual José A

2009-09-01

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Salivary cotinine concentrations in daily smokers in Barcelona, Spain: a cross-sectional study  

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Abstract Background Characterizing and comparing the determinant of cotinine concentrations in different populations should facilitate a better understanding of smoking patterns and addiction. This study describes and characterizes determinants of salivary cotinine concentration in a sample of Spanish adult daily smoker men and women. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out between March 2004 and December 2005 in a representative sample of 1245 people fr...

Pascual José A; Martínez-Sánchez Jose M; Fernandez Esteve; Fu Marcela; Schiaffino Anna; Agudo Antoni; Ariza Carles; Borràs Josep M; Samet Jonathan M

2009-01-01

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Salivary cotinine concentration versus self-reported cigarette smoking: Three patterns of inconsistency in adolescence  

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The present study examined the extent and sources of discrepancies between self-reported cigarette smoking and salivary cotinine concentration among adolescents. The data are from household interviews with a cohort of 1,024 adolescents from an urban school system. Histories of tobacco use in the last 7 days and saliva samples were obtained. Logistic regressions identified correlates of three inconsistent patterns: (a) Pattern 1—self-reported nonsmoking among adolescents with cotinine concen...

Kandel, Denise B.; Schaffran, Christine; Griesler, Pamela C.; Hu, Mei-chen; Davies, Mark; Benowitz, Neal

2006-01-01

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Passive smoking, salivary cotinine concentrations, and middle ear effusion in 7 year old children.  

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OBJECTIVE--To assess the contribution of passive exposure to tobacco smoke to the development of middle ear underpressure and effusion. DESIGN--Cross sectional observational study. SETTING--One third of the primary schools in Edinburgh. SUBJECTS--892 Children aged 6 1/2 to 7 1/2 were examined, and satisfactory tympanograms were obtained in 872. Results of assay of salivary cotinine concentrations were available for 770 children, and satisfactory tympanograms were available for 736 of these. END POINT--Correlation of the prevalence of middle ear underpressure and effusion with concentrations of the marker of nicotine, cotinine, in the saliva of the children. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Middle ear pressure and compliance were measured in both ears by impedance tympanometry. Salivary cotinine concentrations were assayed by gas-liquid chromatography. Cotinine concentrations increased with the number of smokers in the household. Girls had higher concentrations than boys, and children living in rented housing had higher concentrations than those living in housing owned by their parents. There was a trend towards more abnormal tympanometric findings with increasing cotinine concentration, the odds ratio for a doubling of the cotinine concentration being 1.14 (95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.27). After adjustment for the sex of the child and housing tenure the odds ratio for a doubling of the cotinine concentration was 1.13 (1.00 to 1.28). CONCLUSIONS--The results of this study are consistent with those of case-control studies of children attending for an operation to relieve middle ear effusion. They indicate that the disease should be added to the list of recognised hazards associated with passive smoking. About one third of the cases of middle ear effusion in this study were statistically attributable to exposure to tobacco smoke. PMID:2503113

Strachan, D. P.; Jarvis, M. J.; Feyerabend, C.

1989-01-01

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Passive smoking, salivary cotinine concentrations, and middle ear effusion in 7 year old children.  

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OBJECTIVE--To assess the contribution of passive exposure to tobacco smoke to the development of middle ear underpressure and effusion. DESIGN--Cross sectional observational study. SETTING--One third of the primary schools in Edinburgh. SUBJECTS--892 Children aged 6 1/2 to 7 1/2 were examined, and satisfactory tympanograms were obtained in 872. Results of assay of salivary cotinine concentrations were available for 770 children, and satisfactory tympanograms were available for 736 of these. E...

Strachan, D. P.; Jarvis, M. J.; Feyerabend, C.

1989-01-01

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Determinants of salivary cotinine level: a population-based study in Brazil Determinantes dos níveis de cotinina salivar: um estudo de base populacional no Brasil  

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OBJECTIVE: A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted to assess, in active smokers, the relationship of number of cigarettes smoked and other characteristics to salivary cotinine concentrations. METHODS: A random sample of active smokers aged 15 years or older was selected using a stepwise cluster sample strategy, in the year 2000 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The study included 401 subjects. Salivary cotinine concentration was determined using gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosph...

Valeska Carvalho Figueiredo; Moyses Szklo; André Salem Szklo; Neal Benowitz; José de Azevedo Lozana; Leticia Casado; Elaine Masson; Jonathan Samet

2007-01-01

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Salivary cotinine, doctor-diagnosed asthma and respiratory symptoms in primary schoolchildren.  

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Due to impaired airway function, children are at risk for adverse respiratory symptoms if exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). A community-based, cross-sectional study of 425 children (5-11 years) attending 15 primary schools in a low socio-economic area of Merseyside/UK was undertaken to investigate the association of adverse respiratory symptoms and ETS exposure using a parent-completed questionnaire and children's salivary cotinine measurements. Overall, 28.9% of children had doctor-diagnosed asthma (DDA) and 11.3% a history of hospital admission for respiratory illnesses. The symptom triad of cough, wheeze and breathlessness (C+W+B+) occurred in 12.6% of children. The geometric mean cotinine level was 0.37 ng/ml (95% CI, 0.33-0.42 ng/ml) and it was estimated that 45.6% of children were ETS exposed. A history of asthma in the family was reported for 9.2% of fathers and 7.2% of mothers. Salivary cotinine level was significantly increased in children with DDA compared to those without (P = 0.002). Cotinine-validated levels [adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 1.8; 95% CI, 1.4-2.5), low socio-economic (disadvantaged) status (AOR, 1.4; 1.1-2.9), child's male gender (AOR, 1.6; 1.1-2.5) and maternal smoking (AOR, 2.2; 1.4-3.1) were significantly associated with DDA. The cotinine-validated level (AOR, 1.4; 1.1-2.9) as well as maternal smoking (AOR, 1.8; 1.1-2.5), were also independently associated with C+W+B+. The use of salivary cotinine as an indicator of ETS exposure could be used to inform parents of exposure risk to their asthmatic children and may help re-enforce deterrent efforts to reduce childhood parental smoking exposure. PMID:17557199

Delpisheh, Ali; Kelly, Yvonne; Rizwan, Shaheen; Brabin, Bernard J

2008-03-01

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Utility and Cutoff Value of Hair Nicotine as a Biomarker of Long-Term Tobacco Smoke Exposure, Compared to Salivary Cotinine  

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Full Text Available While hair samples are easier to collect and less expensive to store and transport than biological fluids, and hair nicotine characterizes tobacco exposure over a longer time period than blood or urine cotinine, information on its utility, compared with salivary cotinine, is still limited. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 289 participants (107 active smokers, 105 passive smokers with self-reported secondhand smoke (SHS exposure, and 77 non-smokers with no SHS exposure in Baltimore (Maryland, USA. A subset of the study participants (n = 52 were followed longitudinally over a two-month interval.  Median baseline hair nicotine concentrations for active, passive and non-smokers were 16.2, 0.36, and 0.23 ng/mg, respectively, while those for salivary cotinine were 181.0, 0.27, and 0.27 ng/mL, respectively. Hair nicotine concentrations for 10% of passive or non-smokers were higher than the 25th percentile value for active smokers while all corresponding salivary cotinine concentrations for them were lower than the value for active smokers. This study showed that hair nicotine concentration values could be used to distinguish active or heavy passive adult smokers from non-SHS exposed non-smokers. Our results indicate that hair nicotine is a useful biomarker for the assessment of long-term exposure to tobacco smoke.

Sungroul Kim

2014-08-01

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Assessment of exposure to secondhand smoke at outdoor bars and family restaurants in Athens, Georgia, using salivary cotinine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) in outdoor settings is a growing public health concern due to recent indoor smoking bans. The objective of this study was to measure salivary cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine, in subjects aged 21-30 exposed to SHS outside bars and restaurants in Athens, Georgia. Nonsmokers participated during 6-hr periods in outdoor standing or seating areas of bars and restaurants where indoor smoking was banned, as well as a control outdoor location with no smokers over six weekends during the summer and early fall of 2007. Pre- and post-exposure saliva samples (N = 25 person-days at the bar site, N = 28 person-days at the restaurant site, and N = 11 person-days at the control) were collected and analyzed for cotinine. The mean change in the response, (ln(post) - ln(pre)) salivary cotinine levels, was significantly impacted by the type of site (bar, restaurant, control) (F = 5.09; d.f. = 2, 6.7; p = 0.0455). The median percent increase in salivary cotinine from pre-test to post-test was estimated to be 162%, 102%, and 16% at the bar, restaurant, and control sites, respectively, values that were significant increases at bars (t = 4.63; d.f. = 9.24; p = 0.0011) and restaurants (t = 4.33; d.f. = 4.47; p = 0.0097) but not at the control sites. On average, these pre-test to post-test increases in salivary cotinine were significantly higher at bar sites than control sites (t = 3.05; d.f. = 9.85; p = 0.0176) and at restaurant sites compared with control sites (t = 2.35; d.f. = 5.09; p = 0.0461). Nonsmokers outside restaurants and bars in Athens, Georgia, have significantly elevated salivary cotinine levels indicative of secondhand smoke exposure. PMID:19757294

Hall, J C; Bernert, J T; Hall, D B; St Helen, G; Kudon, L H; Naeher, L P

2009-11-01

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Cotinine Concentration in Serum Correlates with Tobacco Smoke-Induced Emphysema in Mice  

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Secondhand smoke (SHS) has been associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes in nonsmokers, including emphysema (a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). One way to detect SHS exposure is to measure the concentration of cotinine, the primary metabolite of nicotine, in bodily fluids. We have developed a method for cotinine analysis by combining micellar electrokinetic chromatography with enrichment techniques. We employed the method to measure cotinine concentrations in serum samples ...

Xu, Xin; Su, Yunchao; Fan, Z. Hugh

2014-01-01

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MEASURING NICOTINE INTAKE AMONG HIGHLY DEPENDENT ADOLESCENT SMOKERS: COMPARABILITY OF SALIVA AND PLASMA COTININE CONCENTRATIONS  

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Cotinine is the most common biomarker used to assess nicotine exposure and abstinence. It can be measured in various matrices including saliva, plasma, and urine. Previous research with adults has shown high correlations between saliva and plasma cotinine concentrations. However, research has not examined this relationship in adolescents. Additionally, variability in saliva flow and metabolism across gender, ethnicity, and age may impact the relationship between saliva and plasma cotinine con...

Parzynski, Craig S.; Jaszyna-gasior, Maria; Franken, Frederick H.; Moolchan, Eric T.

2007-01-01

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Utility and Cutoff Value of Hair Nicotine as a Biomarker of Long-Term Tobacco Smoke Exposure, Compared to Salivary Cotinine  

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While hair samples are easier to collect and less expensive to store and transport than biological fluids, and hair nicotine characterizes tobacco exposure over a longer time period than blood or urine cotinine, information on its utility, compared with salivary cotinine, is still limited. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 289 participants (107 active smokers, 105 passive smokers with self-reported secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure, and 77 non-smokers with no SHS exposure) in Baltimore...

Sungroul Kim; Apelberg, Benjamin J.; Erika Avila-Tang; Lisa Hepp; Dongmin Yun; Samet, Jonathan M.; Breysse, Patrick N.

2014-01-01

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Cotinine Concentration in Serum Correlates with Tobacco Smoke-Induced Emphysema in Mice  

Science.gov (United States)

Secondhand smoke (SHS) has been associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes in nonsmokers, including emphysema (a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). One way to detect SHS exposure is to measure the concentration of cotinine, the primary metabolite of nicotine, in bodily fluids. We have developed a method for cotinine analysis by combining micellar electrokinetic chromatography with enrichment techniques. We employed the method to measure cotinine concentrations in serum samples of mice exposed to tobacco smoke for 12 or 24 weeks and found that it was 3.1-fold or 4.8-fold higher than those exposed to room air for the same period. Further, we investigated the morphological changes in lungs of mice and observed tobacco smoke induced emphysema. Our results indicate that the method can be used to measure cotinine and there is an association between the serum cotinine concentration and tobacco smoke-induced emphysema in mice.

Xu, Xin; Su, Yunchao; Fan, Z. Hugh

2014-01-01

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Increased Saliva Cotinine Concentrations in Smokers during Rapid Weight Loss.  

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Examined association between saliva cotinine levels and weight loss in nine obese female smokers during participation in protein-sparing modified fast. A significant weight loss was noted at three and six months, yet cotinine level increased significantly during this time. Results suggest that smoking-related health risks may increase during…

Niaura, Raymond; And Others

1992-01-01

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Relation of urinary cotinine concentrations to cigarette smoking and to exposure to other people's smoke.  

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The relation of urinary cotinine measurements to tobacco consumption in smokers and to exposure to other people's smoke in non-smokers was studied in 49 smokers and 184 reported non-smokers attending a health screening centre. The median urinary cotinine concentration was 1623 ng/ml in the smokers and 6.1 ng/ml in the non-smokers. In smokers the average urinary cotinine concentration increased with reported habitual cigarette consumption; in non-smokers it increased with the reported total se...

Lee, P. N.

1990-01-01

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Punto de corte óptimo de la concentración de cotinina en saliva para discriminar entre fumadores y no fumadores en la población adulta de Barcelona Optimal cut-point of salivary cotinine concentration to discriminate smoking status in the adult population in Barcelona  

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Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar el punto de corte óptimo de la concentración de cotinina en saliva para discriminar el consumo de tabaco en la población adulta de Barcelona. Métodos: Estudio transversal de una muestra representativa (n=1117 de la población adulta (>16 años de la ciudad de Barcelona (2004-2005. El estudio recogió información sobre tabaquismo (activo y pasivo mediante cuestionario y una muestra de saliva para la determinación de cotinina. Se realizó un análisis de sensibilidad y especificidad estratificado por sexo, edad, tipo de consumo (diario y ocasional y exposición al humo ambiental del tabaco en el hogar. Se calcularon las curvas ROC y el área bajo la curva. Resultados: La prevalencia de fumadores (diarios y ocasionales fue del 27,8% (intervalo de confianza del 95%: 25,2-30,4%. El punto de corte óptimo que separa a los no fumadores de los fumadores es 9,2ng/ml (sensibilidad del 88,7% y especificidad del 89,0%. El área bajo la curva ROC fue 0,952. El punto de corte fue 12,2ng/ml para los hombres y 7,6 para las mujeres, y aumentaba en los grupos de edad con mayor prevalencia de tabaquismo. Los fumadores diarios tenían un punto de corte superior al de los fumadores ocasionales. Conclusiones: El punto de corte óptimo que discrimina fumadores de no fumadores en la población adulta es 9,2ng/ml, con sensibilidad y especificidad cercanas al 90%. El punto de corte es más alto en los hombres y en los grupos de menor edad, y aumenta cuanto mayor es la prevalencia de consumo diario.Objective: To assess the optimal cut-point for salivary cotinine concentration to identify smoking status in the adult population of Barcelona. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of a representative sample (n=1,117 of the adult population (>16 years in Barcelona (2004-2005. This study gathered information on active and passive smoking by means of a questionnaire and a saliva sample for cotinine determination. We analyzed sensitivity and specificity according to sex, age, smoking status (daily and occasional, and exposure to second-hand smoke at home. ROC curves and the area under the curve were calculated. Results: The prevalence of smokers (daily and occasional was 27.8% (95% CI: 25.2-30.4%. The optimal cut-point to discriminate smoking status was 9.2ng/ml (sensitivity=88.7% and specificity=89.0%. The area under the ROC curve was 0.952. The optimal cut-point was 12.2ng/ml in men and 7.6ng/ml in women. The optimal cut-point was higher at ages with a greater prevalence of smoking. Daily smokers had a higher cut-point than occasional smokers. Conclusions: The optimal cut-point to discriminate smoking status in the adult population is 9.2ng/ml, with sensitivities and specificities around 90%. The cut-point was higher in men and in younger people. The cut-point increases with higher prevalence of daily smokers.

Jose M. Martínez-Sánchez

2009-12-01

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Punto de corte óptimo de la concentración de cotinina en saliva para discriminar entre fumadores y no fumadores en la población adulta de Barcelona / Optimal cut-point of salivary cotinine concentration to discriminate smoking status in the adult population in Barcelona  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Evaluar el punto de corte óptimo de la concentración de cotinina en saliva para discriminar el consumo de tabaco en la población adulta de Barcelona. Métodos: Estudio transversal de una muestra representativa (n=1117) de la población adulta (>16 años) de la ciudad de Barcelona (2004-2005). [...] El estudio recogió información sobre tabaquismo (activo y pasivo) mediante cuestionario y una muestra de saliva para la determinación de cotinina. Se realizó un análisis de sensibilidad y especificidad estratificado por sexo, edad, tipo de consumo (diario y ocasional) y exposición al humo ambiental del tabaco en el hogar. Se calcularon las curvas ROC y el área bajo la curva. Resultados: La prevalencia de fumadores (diarios y ocasionales) fue del 27,8% (intervalo de confianza del 95%: 25,2-30,4%). El punto de corte óptimo que separa a los no fumadores de los fumadores es 9,2ng/ml (sensibilidad del 88,7% y especificidad del 89,0%). El área bajo la curva ROC fue 0,952. El punto de corte fue 12,2ng/ml para los hombres y 7,6 para las mujeres, y aumentaba en los grupos de edad con mayor prevalencia de tabaquismo. Los fumadores diarios tenían un punto de corte superior al de los fumadores ocasionales. Conclusiones: El punto de corte óptimo que discrimina fumadores de no fumadores en la población adulta es 9,2ng/ml, con sensibilidad y especificidad cercanas al 90%. El punto de corte es más alto en los hombres y en los grupos de menor edad, y aumenta cuanto mayor es la prevalencia de consumo diario. Abstract in english Objective: To assess the optimal cut-point for salivary cotinine concentration to identify smoking status in the adult population of Barcelona. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of a representative sample (n=1,117) of the adult population (>16 years) in Barcelona (2004-2005). This study [...] gathered information on active and passive smoking by means of a questionnaire and a saliva sample for cotinine determination. We analyzed sensitivity and specificity according to sex, age, smoking status (daily and occasional), and exposure to second-hand smoke at home. ROC curves and the area under the curve were calculated. Results: The prevalence of smokers (daily and occasional) was 27.8% (95% CI: 25.2-30.4%). The optimal cut-point to discriminate smoking status was 9.2ng/ml (sensitivity=88.7% and specificity=89.0%). The area under the ROC curve was 0.952. The optimal cut-point was 12.2ng/ml in men and 7.6ng/ml in women. The optimal cut-point was higher at ages with a greater prevalence of smoking. Daily smokers had a higher cut-point than occasional smokers. Conclusions: The optimal cut-point to discriminate smoking status in the adult population is 9.2ng/ml, with sensitivities and specificities around 90%. The cut-point was higher in men and in younger people. The cut-point increases with higher prevalence of daily smokers.

Jose M., Martínez-Sánchez; Marcela, Fu; Carles, Ariza; María J., López; Esteve, Saltó; José A., Pascual; Anna, Schiaffino; Josep M., Borràs; Mercè, Peris; Antonio, Agudo; Manel, Nebot; Esteve, Fernández.

2009-12-01

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Punto de corte óptimo de la concentración de cotinina en saliva para discriminar entre fumadores y no fumadores en la población adulta de Barcelona / Optimal cut-point of salivary cotinine concentration to discriminate smoking status in the adult population in Barcelona  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Evaluar el punto de corte óptimo de la concentración de cotinina en saliva para discriminar el consumo de tabaco en la población adulta de Barcelona. Métodos: Estudio transversal de una muestra representativa (n=1117) de la población adulta (>16 años) de la ciudad de Barcelona (2004-2005). [...] El estudio recogió información sobre tabaquismo (activo y pasivo) mediante cuestionario y una muestra de saliva para la determinación de cotinina. Se realizó un análisis de sensibilidad y especificidad estratificado por sexo, edad, tipo de consumo (diario y ocasional) y exposición al humo ambiental del tabaco en el hogar. Se calcularon las curvas ROC y el área bajo la curva. Resultados: La prevalencia de fumadores (diarios y ocasionales) fue del 27,8% (intervalo de confianza del 95%: 25,2-30,4%). El punto de corte óptimo que separa a los no fumadores de los fumadores es 9,2ng/ml (sensibilidad del 88,7% y especificidad del 89,0%). El área bajo la curva ROC fue 0,952. El punto de corte fue 12,2ng/ml para los hombres y 7,6 para las mujeres, y aumentaba en los grupos de edad con mayor prevalencia de tabaquismo. Los fumadores diarios tenían un punto de corte superior al de los fumadores ocasionales. Conclusiones: El punto de corte óptimo que discrimina fumadores de no fumadores en la población adulta es 9,2ng/ml, con sensibilidad y especificidad cercanas al 90%. El punto de corte es más alto en los hombres y en los grupos de menor edad, y aumenta cuanto mayor es la prevalencia de consumo diario. Abstract in english Objective: To assess the optimal cut-point for salivary cotinine concentration to identify smoking status in the adult population of Barcelona. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of a representative sample (n=1,117) of the adult population (>16 years) in Barcelona (2004-2005). This study [...] gathered information on active and passive smoking by means of a questionnaire and a saliva sample for cotinine determination. We analyzed sensitivity and specificity according to sex, age, smoking status (daily and occasional), and exposure to second-hand smoke at home. ROC curves and the area under the curve were calculated. Results: The prevalence of smokers (daily and occasional) was 27.8% (95% CI: 25.2-30.4%). The optimal cut-point to discriminate smoking status was 9.2ng/ml (sensitivity=88.7% and specificity=89.0%). The area under the ROC curve was 0.952. The optimal cut-point was 12.2ng/ml in men and 7.6ng/ml in women. The optimal cut-point was higher at ages with a greater prevalence of smoking. Daily smokers had a higher cut-point than occasional smokers. Conclusions: The optimal cut-point to discriminate smoking status in the adult population is 9.2ng/ml, with sensitivities and specificities around 90%. The cut-point was higher in men and in younger people. The cut-point increases with higher prevalence of daily smokers.

Jose M., Martínez-Sánchez; Marcela, Fu; Carles, Ariza; María J., López; Esteve, Saltó; José A., Pascual; Anna, Schiaffino; Josep M., Borràs; Mercè, Peris; Antonio, Agudo; Manel, Nebot; Esteve, Fernández.

2009-12-01

 
 
 
 
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Validation of self-reported smokeless tobacco use by measurement of serum cotinine concentration among US adults.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although investigators have assessed the relationship between self-reported cigarette smoking and biomarker levels, the validity of self-reported information on smokeless tobacco (SLT) use is uncertain. We used aggregated data from the 2003-2004, 2005-2006, 2007-2008, and 2009-2010 administrations of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to compare self-reported SLT use with serum concentrations of cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine, among US adults aged ?18 years. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to determine the optimal serum cotinine cutpoint for discriminating SLT users from nonusers of tobacco, and concordance analysis was used to compare self-reported SLT use with cotinine levels. Among the 30,298 adult respondents who completed the NHANES during 2003-2010, 418 reported having exclusively used SLT and no other type of tobacco (cigarettes, cigars, or pipes) during the past 5 days, while 23,457 reported not using any tobacco. The optimal cotinine cutpoint for discriminating SLT users from non-tobacco users was 3.0 ng/mL (sensitivity=97.0%, specificity=93.0%), which was comparable to a revised cutpoint recommended for identifying adult cigarette smokers. Concordance with cotinine was 96.4% and 93.7% for self-reported SLT use and tobacco nonuse, respectively. These findings indicate that self-reported SLT use among adults correlates highly with serum cotinine levels and that the optimal cutpoint for minimizing misclassification of self-reported use is a serum cotinine concentration of 3.0 ng/mL. PMID:25125690

Agaku, Israel T; King, Brian A

2014-10-01

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Quantitation of Cotinine in Nonsmoker Saliva Using Chip Based Nanoelectrospray Tandem Mass Spectrometry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new analytical procedure was developed for the quantitation of nonsmoker salivary cotinine. Small volumes of saliva were diluted with water, fortified with cotinine-d{sub 3} (internal standard), then passed through small extraction columns. The analyte and internal standard were eluted with 0.1% (v/v) acetic acid/acetonitrile. Aliquots of each extract were analyzed directly, without chromatographic separation, using chip-based (NanoMate{sup TM}) nanospray tandem mass spectrometry. The calculated detection limit was 0.49 ng cotinine/mL saliva. This method was used to quantify salivary cotinine collected from nonsmoking human subjects living in one of three environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure categories or 'cells': 1. smoking home/smoking workplace; 2. smoking home/nonsmoking workplace; and 3. nonsmoking home/smoking workplace. Samples were collected during five sequential days, including Saturday, as part of a larger study to evaluate potential variability in exposure to ETS. Salivary cotinine measurements were made for the purpose of excluding misclassified smokers and for comparison with known levels of exposure to airborne nicotine in each exposure category. The concentrations observed were consistent with those reported from other large studies reported elsewhere. A non-parametric statistical test was applied to the data within each cell. No statistically significant differences were found between the mean cotinine concentrations collected on a weekday as compared to those collected on a weekend day. When the non-parametric test was applied to the three cells, a statistically significant difference was observed between cell 1 compared to cells 2 and 3. The salivary cotinine concentrations were thus statistically invariant over a five-day exposure period, and they were greatest under the conditions of smoking home and smoking workplace.

Tomkins, Bruce A [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL; Jenkins, Roger A [ORNL; Counts, Richard Wayne [ORNL

2006-01-01

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OPRM1 genetic polymorphisms are associated with the plasma nicotine metabolite cotinine concentration in methadone maintenance patients: a cross sectional study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Majority of the heroin-dependent patients smoke cigarettes. Although it has been reported that the OPRM1 genetic polymorphism is associated with the brain mu-opioid receptor binding potential in cigarette smokers, there is no direct evidence showing the impact of plasma cotinine, a nicotine metabolite, on treatment responses to methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). In this study, we aimed to test the hypothesis that the genetic polymorphisms in the OPRM1 are associated with the methadone treatment responses and the severity of cigarette smoking directly measured by the plasma concentration of cotinine in a Taiwanese MMT cohort. Fifteen OPRM1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected and genotyped on DNA samples of 366 MMT patients. Plasma concentrations of cotinine were measured by cotinine enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The plasma cotinine concentration had positive correlation with concentrations of methadone (P = 0.042) and its metabolite 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenyl-pyrrolidine (P = 0.037). Methadone treatment non-responders, defined by a positive urine morphine test, had a higher plasma concentration of cotinine (P = 0.005), but a lower plasma concentration-to-dose ratio of both R- and S-methadone (P = 0.001 and 0.012, respectively) than the responders. OPRM1 genetic variants, rs1074287, rs6912029, rs1799971, rs12209447, rs510769, rs3798676, rs553202, rs7748401, rs495491, rs10457090, rs589046, rs3778152 and rs563649, were significantly associated with the plasma concentration of cotinine when using recessive model for genotypes (general linear model (GLM), P<0.038; false discovery rate (FDR)<0.035) and additive model for allele types (GLM, P<0.03; FDR<0.049) in association analyses. The G allele carriers of SNP rs1799971 (A118G) on exon 1 of OPRM1 gene had a lower plasma cotinine concentration than the A allele carriers (GLM, P = 0.029). OPRM1 genetic polymorphisms are associated with the plasma concentration of cotinine in a Taiwanese MMT cohort. Carriers with the major allele of SNP rs1799971 had a higher plasma cotinine concentration. PMID:23223006

Chen, Yu-Ting; Tsou, Hsiao-Hui; Kuo, Hsiang-Wei; Fang, Chiu-Ping; Wang, Sheng-Chang; Ho, Ing-Kang; Chang, Yao-Sheng; Chen, Chia-Hui; Hsiao, Chin-Fu; Wu, Hsiao-Yu; Lin, Keh-Ming; Chen, Andrew Ch; Tsai-Wu, Jyy-Jih; Liu, Yu-Li

2013-02-01

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Salivary concentrations of pirmenol as a possible cause of unpleasant taste.  

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Salivary concentrations of the anti-arrhythmic, pirmenol, were compared with plasma concentrations in six patients. Group mean salivary values tended to be higher despite high plasma protein binding, suggesting the possibility of an active transport process. The observed salivary concentrations are reasonably close to those detectable in healthy volunteers as tasting unpleasant.

Johnson, B. F.; Shekar, V.; Woodman, T; Canada, A. T.

1986-01-01

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COTININE CONCENTRATIONS IN SEMEN, URINE AND BLOOD OF SMOKERS AND NONSMOKERS  

Science.gov (United States)

The extent to which ambient exposures to environmental chemicals results in exposures to human genetic material is poorly understood. he purpose of the current study is to document the presence of cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine but not a known mutagen, in the semen of men exp...

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Biomonitoring of Urinary Cotinine Concentrations Associated with Plasma Levels of Nicotine Metabolites after Daily Cigarette Smoking in a Male Japanese Population  

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Full Text Available Human biomonitoring of plasma and urinary levels of nicotine, cotinine, and 3?-hydroxycotinine was conducted after daily cigarette smoking in a population of 92 male Japanese smokers with a mean age of 37 years who had smoked an average of 23 cigarettes per day for 16 years. Members of the population were genotyped for the nicotine-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6. The mean levels of nicotine, the levels of its metabolites cotinine and 3?-hydroxycotinine, and the sum of these three levels in subjects one hour after smoking the first cigarette on the sampling day were 20.1, 158, 27.7, and 198 ng/mL in plasma and 846, 1,020, 1,010, and 2,870 ng/mL in urine under daily smoking conditions. Plasma levels of 3'-hydroxycotinine and urinary levels of nicotine and 3?-hydroxycotinine were dependent on the CYP2A6 phenotype group, which was estimated from the CYP2A6 genotypes of the subjects, including those with whole gene deletion. Plasma cotinine levels were significantly correlated with the number of cigarettes smoked on the day before sampling (r = 0.71, the average number of cigarettes smoked daily (r = 0.58, and the Brinkman index (daily cigarettes × years, r = 0.48 under the present conditions. The sum of nicotine, cotinine, and 3?-hydroxycotinine concentrations in plasma showed a similar relationship to that of the plasma cotinine levels. Urinary concentrations of cotinine and the sum of nicotine metabolite concentrations also showed significant correlations with the plasma levels and the previous day’s and average cigarette consumption. The numbers of cigarettes smoked per day by two subjects with self-reported light smoking habits were predicted by measuring the urinary cotinine concentrations and using linear regression equations derived from above-mentioned data. These results indicate that biomonitoring of the urinary cotinine concentration is a good, easy-to-use marker for plasma levels of cotinine and the sum of nicotine metabolites in smokers independent of genetic polymorphism of CYP2A6.

Hiroshi Yamazaki

2010-07-01

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Seasonal Variation in Human Salivary Cortisol Concentration  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Measurement of cortisol concentration can contribute important information about an individual's ability to adjust to various environmental demands of both physical and psychosocial origin. However, one uncertainty that affects the possibilities of correctly interpreting and designing field studies is the lack of observations of the impact of seasonal changes on cortisol excretion. For this reason, the month-to-month changes in diurnal cortisol concentration, the awakening cortisol response (ACR), maximum morning concentration, and fall during the day were studied in a group of 24 healthy men and women 32 to 61 yrs of age engaged in active work. On one workday for 12 consecutive months, participants collected saliva at four time points for determination of cortisol: at awakening, +30 min, +8 h, and at 21:00 h. Data were analyzed by a repeated measures design with month (12 levels) and time-of-day (4 levels) as categorical predictors. Cortisol concentrations were analyzed on a log scale. The diurnal pattern ofcortisol was similar across months (interaction between month and time of day: p>0.4). The main effects of month and time-of-day were statistically significant (p

Persson, Roger; Garde, Anne Helene

2008-01-01

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Comparison of Expired Carbon Monoxide and Plasma Cotinine as Markers of Cigarette Abstinence  

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The clinical pharmacology of biochemical measures of nicotine exposure has been thoroughly reviewed with regard to usefulness and limitations in detecting abstinence from cigarette smoking. While plasma nicotine concentration measures only acute nicotine exposure, plasma, salivary, and urine cotinine concentrations reflect exposure over an extended period of time. Although, expired carbon monoxide (CO) is frequently used to confirm self reports, it has a relatively short half life, calling in...

Jatlow, Peter; Toll, Benjamin A.; Leary, Vanessa; Krishnan-sarin, Suchitra; O’malley, Stephanie S.

2008-01-01

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Passive exposure to tobacco smoke: saliva cotinine concentrations in a representative population sample of non-smoking schoolchildren  

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Saliva cotinine concentrations in 569 non-smoking schoolchildren were strongly related to the smoking habits of their parents. When neither parent smoked the mean concentration was 0.44 ng/ml, rising to 3.38 ng/ml when both parents were cigarette smokers. Mothers smoking had a stronger influence than did fathers (p less than 0.01). In addition, there was a small independent effect of number of siblings who smoked (p less than 0.01). The dose of nicotine received from fathers smoking was estimated as equivalent to the active smoking of 30 cigarettes a year, that from mothers smoking as equivalent to smoking 50 cigarettes a year, and that from both parents smoking as equivalent to smoking 80 cigarettes a year. This unsolicited burden may be prolonged throughout childhood and poses a definite risk to health.

Jarvis, M.J.; Russell, M.A.; Feyerabend, C.; Eiser, J.R.; Morgan, M.; Gammage, P.; Gray, E.M.

1985-10-05

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Passive exposure to tobacco smoke: saliva cotinine concentrations in a representative population sample of non-smoking schoolchildren.  

Science.gov (United States)

Saliva cotinine concentrations in 569 non-smoking schoolchildren were strongly related to the smoking habits of their parents. When neither parent smoked the mean concentration was 0.44 ng/ml, rising to 3.38 ng/ml when both parents were cigarette smokers. Mothers' smoking had a stronger influence than did fathers' (p less than 0.01). In addition, there was a small independent effect of number of siblings who smoked (p less than 0.01). The dose of nicotine received from fathers' smoking was estimated as equivalent to the active smoking of 30 cigarettes a year, that from mothers' smoking as equivalent to smoking 50 cigarettes a year, and that from both parents smoking as equivalent to smoking 80 cigarettes a year. This unsolicited burden may be prolonged throughout childhood and poses a definite risk to health. PMID:3929967

Jarvis, M J; Russell, M A; Feyerabend, C; Eiser, J R; Morgan, M; Gammage, P; Gray, E M

1985-01-01

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Salivary and serum hyaluronic acid concentrations in patients with Sjögren's syndrome  

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OBJECTIVE—To evaluate salivary hyaluronic acid (HA) concentration in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS).?METHODS—Salivary and serum HA concentrations were evaluated using a radiometric assay. Thirty nine patients with SS served as the study group and their results were compared with 19 patients having clinical symptoms and signs of dry mouth and with 10 normal controls.?RESULTS—Salivary HA concentrations were significantly increased (p < 0.05) in the 39 patients wit...

Tishler, M.; Yaron, I.; Shirazi, I.; Yaron, M.

1998-01-01

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Human Blood Concentrations of Cotinine, a Biomonitoring Marker for Tobacco Smoke, Extrapolated from Nicotine Metabolism in Rats and Humans and Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling  

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Full Text Available The present study defined a simplified physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK model for nicotine and its primary metabolite cotinine in humans, based on metabolic parameters determined in vitro using relevant liver microsomes, coefficients derived in silico, physiological parameters derived from the literature, and an established rat PBPK model. The model consists of an absorption compartment, a metabolizing compartment, and a central compartment for nicotine and three equivalent compartments for cotinine. Evaluation of a rat model was performed by making comparisons with predicted concentrations in blood and in vivo experimental pharmacokinetic values obtained from rats after oral treatment with nicotine (1.0 mg/kg, a no-observed-adverse-effect level for 14 days. Elimination rates of nicotine in vitro were established from data from rat liver microsomes and from human pooled liver microsomes. Human biomonitoring data (17 ng nicotine and 150 ng cotinine per mL plasma 1 h after smoking from pooled five male Japanese smokers (daily intake of 43 mg nicotine by smoking revealed that these blood concentrations could be calculated using a human PBPK model. These results indicate that a simplified PBPK model for nicotine/cotinine is useful for a forward dosimetry approach in humans and for estimating blood concentrations of other related compounds resulting from exposure to low chemical doses.

Masato Kitajima

2010-09-01

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Diurnal salivary cortisol concentrations in Parkinson’s disease: increased total secretion and morning cortisol concentrations  

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Background:Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder. There is limited knowledge about the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in PD. The primary aim of this prospective study was to analyze diurnal salivary cortisol concentrations in patients with PD and correlate these with age, gender, body mass index (BMI), duration of PD, and pain. The secondary aim was to compare the results with a healthy reference group. Methods:Fifty-nine PD patients, 35 women...

Skogar, O?; Fall, Per-arne; Hallgren, G.; Lo?kk, J.; Bringer, B.; Carlsson, M.; Lennartsson, U.; Sandbjo?rk, H.; To?rnhage, C-j

2011-01-01

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Salivary glucose concentration exhibits threshold kinetics in normal-weight, overweight, and obese children  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Metabolic syndrome in childhood predicts the development of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in adulthood. Testing for features of metabolic syndrome, such as fasting plasma glucose concentration, requires blood sampling which can be difficult in children. Here we evaluated salivary glucose concentration as a surrogate measurement for plasma glucose concentration in 11-year-old US children. Methods Children from Portland, Maine, and Cambridge, Massachusetts, with a mean age of 10.6±0.2 years provided 6-hour fasting samples of both blood and whole saliva. Salivary glucose levels were measured with a high-sensitivity assay (sensitivity =0.002 mg/dL). Plasma glucose levels were determined by a commercial clinical laboratory. Blood pressure, salivary flow rate, height, and weight were also measured. Results Of the 65 children enrolled, there were two underweight children (3.1%), 30 normal-weight children (46.2%), 12 overweight children (18.4%), and 21 obese children (32.3%). The mean overall glucose concentrations were 0.11±0.02 mg/dL in saliva and 86.3±0.8 mg/dL in plasma, and these did not differ significantly by body–weight groups. By regression analysis, the plasma concentration equaled 13.5 times the saliva concentration, with a threshold level of 84.8 mg/dL. Salivary glucose values less than threshold plasma concentration were essentially zero. Diagnostic analysis indicated a positive predictive value of 50%, a negative predictive value of 90%, and a sensitivity and specificity both of approximately 75%. The salivary glucose concentration did not vary with saliva flow rate. Conclusion Taking into account the threshold response characteristics of the salivary glucose concentration response, these results suggest that testing salivary glucose levels may be useful as a screening assay for high fasting plasma glucose levels. The low false positive value is important to assure a low fraction of missed diagnoses. PMID:25565874

Hartman, Mor-Li; Goodson, J Max; Barake, Roula; Alsmadi, Osama; Al-Mutawa, Sabiha; Ariga, Jitendra; Soparkar, Pramod; Behbehani, Jawad; Behbehani, Kazem; Welty, Francine

2015-01-01

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The relationship between salivary cortisol concentrations and anxiety in adolescent and non-adolescent pregnant women  

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The main purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between salivary cortisol concentrations and self-report anxiety in 50 adolescent and 178 non-adolescent women during the last month of pregnancy. The subjects were randomly selected from a previous study involving women who attended antenatal care from September 1997 to August 2000 at 17 health services in Southeast Brazil. Salivary cortisol was measured with an enzyme immunoassay kit, and anxiety was assessed by the Sta...

Rondo?, P. H. C.; Vaz, A. J.; Moraes, F.; Tomkins, A.

2004-01-01

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Effects of cotinine on information processing in nonsmokers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cotinine, the major proximate metabolite of nicotine, is present in smokers in higher concentrations and for a longer time than nicotine, yet its effects on information processing have not previously been reported. We studied the cognitive effects of cotinine in non-smokers. Sixteen subjects were tested on three doses of cotinine (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mg cotinine base/kg), and placebo, on a choice reaction time (RT) task and on a verbal recall task with short and long lists. Cotinine significantly impaired recall on the long list and displayed non-significant but generally consistent dose-related slowing of RT and N100 latency. The acute effects of cotinine were small, and probably do not account for the cognitive deficits observed in tobacco withdrawal, although the cognitive effects of chronic cotinine administration need to be investigated. PMID:9497017

Herzig, K E; Callaway, E; Halliday, R; Naylor, H; Benowitz, N L

1998-01-01

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Diurnal salivary cortisol concentrations in Parkinson’s disease: increased total secretion and morning cortisol concentrations  

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Full Text Available Ö Skogar1,4, P-A Fall2, G Hallgren3, J Lökk4, B Bringer2, M Carlsson1, U Lennartsson3, H Sandbjork3, C-J Törnhage51Department of Geriatrics, Ryhov Hospital, Jonkoping, 2Department of Geriatrics, University Hospital, Linkoping, 3Department of Neurology, Skaraborg Hospital, Skovde, 4Institute of Neurobiology, Care Sciences, and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, 5Department of Pediatrics, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, SwedenBackground: Parkinson’s disease (PD is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder. There is limited knowledge about the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in PD. The primary aim of this prospective study was to analyze diurnal salivary cortisol concentrations in patients with PD and correlate these with age, gender, body mass index (BMI, duration of PD, and pain. The secondary aim was to compare the results with a healthy reference group.Methods: Fifty-nine PD patients, 35 women and 24 men, aged 50–79 years, were recruited. The reference group comprised healthy individuals matched for age, gender, BMI, and time point for sampling. Salivary cortisol was collected at 8 am, 1 pm, and 8 pm, and 8 am the next day using cotton-based Salivette® tubes and analyzed using Spectria® Cortisol I125. A visual analog scale was used for estimation of pain.Results: The median cortisol concentration was 16.0 (5.8–30.2 nmol/L at 8 am, 5.8 (3.0–16.4 at 1 pm, 2.8 (1.6–8.0 at 8 pm, and 14.0 (7.5–28.7 at 8 am the next day. Total secretion and rate of cortisol secretion during the day (8 am–8 pm and the concentration of cortisol on the next morning were lower (12.5 nmol/L in the reference group. No significant correlations with age, gender, BMI, duration of PD, Hoehn and Yahr score, Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale III score, gait, pain, or cortisol concentrations were found.Conclusion: The neurodegenerative changes in PD does not seem to interfere with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Salivary cortisol concentrations in PD patients were increased in the morning compared with the reference group, and were not influenced by motor dysfunction, duration of disease, or coexistence of chronic or acute pain.Keywords: cortisol, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, Parkinson's disease

Skogar Ö

2011-08-01

38

Study of salivary strontium and silver concentrations in primary school children related to dental caries.  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate the relationship between the salivary Sr and Ag concentrations and tooth conditions, saliva was collected from 521 primary school children in Kitakyushu. The salivary Sr and Ag levels were determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The salivary Sr and Ag levels were 7.73 +/- 3.62 and 0.03 +/- 0.15 ng/ml, respectively, in the sound teeth group. No sex differences were noted in either element level, nor were there differences between the lower and upper grade groups. In the caries teeth group, the Sr and Ag levels were significantly higher than those in the sound teeth group. The Sr level was significantly increased by caries experience regardless caries being treated or untreated. In second to third grade children, in whom the fluoride experience rate was high, the Sr level tended to be lower than that in the other grades. The salivary Ag level increased as the number of teeth treated with silver alloy rose. These findings suggested that the salivary Sr level increases because of caries susceptibility, and F inhibits Sr dissolution from the teeth. The salivary Ag level varied depending on the type of dental filling and was dependent on the amount of silver alloy in children treated with low-fusing silver alloy. PMID:18196208

Shigemi, T; Tanaka, T; Hayashida, Y; Maki, K

2008-01-01

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Salivary glucose concentration exhibits threshold kinetics in normal-weight, overweight, and obese children  

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Full Text Available Mor-Li Hartman,1 J Max Goodson,1 Roula Barake,2 Osama Alsmadi,3 Sabiha Al-Mutawa,4 Jitendra Ariga,4 Pramod Soparkar,1 Jawad Behbehani,5 Kazem Behbehani,6 Francine Welty7 1Department of Applied Oral Sciences, The Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, MA, USA; 2Department of Nutrition, The Dasman Diabetes Institute, Dasman, Kuwait; 3Genome Center, The Dasman Diabetes Institute, Dasman, Kuwait; 4Ministry of Health, Kuwait City, Kuwait; 5Faculty of Dentistry, Kuwait University, Kuwait City, Kuwait; 6The Dasman Diabetes Institute, Dasman, Kuwait; 7Division of Cardiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA Background: Metabolic syndrome in childhood predicts the development of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes (T2D in adulthood. Testing for features of metabolic syndrome, such as fasting plasma glucose concentration, requires blood sampling which can be difficult in children. Here we evaluated salivary glucose concentration as a surrogate measurement for plasma glucose concentration in 11-year-old US children. Methods: Children from Portland, Maine, and Cambridge, Massachusetts, with a mean age of 10.6±0.2 years provided 6-hour fasting samples of both blood and whole saliva. Salivary glucose levels were measured with a high-sensitivity assay (sensitivity =0.002 mg/dL. Plasma glucose levels were determined by a commercial clinical laboratory. Blood pressure, salivary flow rate, height, and weight were also measured. Results: Of the 65 children enrolled, there were two underweight children (3.1%, 30 normal-weight children (46.2%, 12 overweight children (18.4%, and 21 obese children (32.3%. The mean overall glucose concentrations were 0.11±0.02 mg/dL in saliva and 86.3±0.8 mg/dL in plasma, and these did not differ significantly by body–weight groups. By regression analysis, the plasma concentration equaled 13.5 times the saliva concentration, with a threshold level of 84.8 mg/dL. Salivary glucose values less than threshold plasma concentration were essentially zero. Diagnostic analysis indicated a positive predictive value of 50%, a negative predictive value of 90%, and a sensitivity and specificity both of approximately 75%. The salivary glucose concentration did not vary with saliva flow rate. Conclusion: Taking into account the threshold response characteristics of the salivary glucose concentration response, these results suggest that testing salivary glucose levels may be useful as a screening assay for high fasting plasma glucose levels. The low false positive value is important to assure a low fraction of missed diagnoses. Keywords: saliva, salivary glucose, plasma glucose, children

Hartman ML

2014-12-01

40

Comparison of salivary fluoride levels following use of dentifrices containing different concentrations of fluoride  

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Full Text Available Many industrialized countries have reported a decline in caries prevalence over the past few decades. These reductions have been related to the regular use of fluoride dentifrices. Fluoride dentifrices are the most cost-effective and efficient means of caries prevention. However, there have been concerns regarding the risk of fluorosis in children due to the ingestion of dentifrices. This has led to the use of dentifrices with low concentration of fluoride. Salivary fluoride levels after tooth-brushing have been shown to be related to the anticaries efficacy of fluoride dentifrices. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of the concentration of fluoride in the dentifrice, on the salivary fluoride level in children. Twenty children in the age group of five to six years were randomly selected and divided into two groups using, either 500ppm or 1000ppm fluoride dentifrice (sodium monofluorophosphate. Salivary fluoride levels at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, minutes after brushing were estimated. The data collected was statistically evaluated using the unpaired t-test. The results showed that salivary fluoride levels following use of 500ppm fluoride dentifrice were significantly lower than 1000ppm fluoride dentifrice. The low salivary fluoride levels may thereby reduce the anticaries efficacy. Hence, the pros and cons of recommending a low fluoride concentration dentifrice must be judiciously considered.

Nagpal D

2007-03-01

 
 
 
 
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Cotinine Concentrations in Follicular Fluid as a Measure of Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Women Undergoing In Vitro Fertilization: Inter-matrix Comparisons with Urine and Temporal Variability  

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We examined the relationship between cotinine measures in follicular fluid (FF) and urine to inform our exposure assessment strategy for an ongoing epidemiological study of secondhand tobacco smoke (STS) exposure and early pregnancy loss. Among subjects undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF), we compared cotinine levels in paired urine and FF samples from the same women and examined FF cotinine levels over time. We found a weak rank-order relationship (Spearman r <0.2) and poor agreement for...

Benedict, Merle D.; Missmer, Stacey A.; Vitonis, Allison F.; Cramer, Daniel W.; Meeker, John D.

2011-01-01

42

Concentrations of cotinine in the urine of women in a study of the effects of active and passive smoking on the lung-cancer risk  

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In dit rapport worden de resultaten beschreven van de kwantitatieve bepaling van cotinine in de urine van vrouwen bij een epidemiologisch onderzoek naar het effect van actief en passief roken op de ontwikkeling van longkanker en in de urine van een aantal cursisten van een "stop met roken" cursus. In de bestaande bepalingsmethode van cotinine in urine werden enige wijzigingen aangebracht. Bij de thans toegepaste methode wordt cotinine uit urine geisoleerd doo...

Bca, Tepas; Groot G de

2012-01-01

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Relation of passive smoking as assessed by salivary cotinine concentration and questionnaire to spirometric indices in children.  

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BACKGROUND: Previous studies of the effects of passive exposure to smoke on spirometric indices in children have largely relied on questionnaire measures of exposure. This may have resulted in underestimation of the true effect of passive smoking. Biochemical measures offer the opportunity to estimate recent exposure directly. METHODS: The relation between spirometric indices and passive exposure to tobacco smoke was examined in a large population sample of 5-7 year old children from 10 towns...

Cook, D. G.; Whincup, P. H.; Papacosta, O.; Strachan, D. P.; Jarvis, M. J.; Bryant, A.

1993-01-01

44

Adaptation of DELFIA cortisol kit for determination of salivary cortisol concentration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Salivary cortisol concentration seems to be an excellent indicator of the biologically active plasma cortisol level because of the nearly absence of corticoid-binding proteins in saliva. With regard to the easy, noninvasive, and stress-free nature of saliva sampling, this parameter greatly facilitates studies of the HPA (hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical) axis, especially in children. A commercially available TR-FIA (time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay), the DELFIA (dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluoroimmunoassay) method, proposed for plasma and urine cortisol analyses, was adapted for salivary cortisol measurement by means of simple modifications of the assay protocol. The sensitivity was determined to be 0.53 nmol/L. The intra- and interassay coefficients of variation ranged from 5.5 to 8.2 % and from 6.0 to 10.4 %, respectively. The present findings suggest that the DELFIA procedure provides a reliable, sensitive, and convenient alternative procedure to the assay for salivary cortisol. PMID:16211655

Höferl, Martina; Krist, Sabine; Buchbauer, Gerhard

2005-10-01

45

Saliva cotinine and recent smoking--evidence for a nonlinear relationship.  

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Cotinine concentration in various body fluids is considered to be among the most useful markers of nicotine exposure currently available. Despite the prevailing consensus concerning cotinine's usefulness, cotinine's large intrasubject variability has led some to question the value of a single-point measurement. Several individual differences (for example, age, race, sex, and so forth) may affect cotinine excretion, and a peculiar nonlinearity between the number of cigarettes smoked and cotini...

Swan, G. E.; Habina, K.; Means, B.; Jobe, J. B.; Esposito, J. L.

1993-01-01

46

A surrogate method for comparison analysis of salivary concentrations of Xylitol-containing products  

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Abstract Background Xylitol chewing gum has been shown to reduce Streptococcus mutans levels and decay. Two studies examined the presence and time course of salivary xylitol concentrations delivered via xylitol-containing pellet gum and compared them to other xylitol-containing products. Methods A within-subjects design was used for both studies. Study 1, adults (N = 15) received three xylitol-containing products (pellet gum (2.6 g), gummy bears (2.6 g)...

Zhou Lingmei; Tolentino Ernie; Hagstrom Mary K; Mueller Gregory; Rothen Marilynn; Ly Kiet A; Milgrom Peter; Riedy Christine A; Roberts Marilyn C

2008-01-01

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Measuring nicotine intake in population surveys: comparability of saliva cotinine and plasma cotinine estimates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Both plasma and saliva cotinine levels have been reported in surveys of smoking behavior, and it is of interest to know how closely these two measures correspond. Plasma and saliva specimens were gathered from a sample of 605 respondents in the 1998 Health Survey for England and assayed for cotinine by a well-proven gas chromatographic method. Plasma and saliva cotinine concentrations were highly correlated (r=.99). On average, concentrations in saliva were 25% higher than in plasma, and this ratio applied both at the low levels attributable to passive smoking and across the range of active smoking values. The ratio was somewhat lower in younger people than in older people and also varied significantly by body mass index but did not differ by gender. Calculation of the limits of agreement revealed substantial uncertainty in the predicted plasma value corresponding to a given saliva cotinine, and vice versa. For comparisons across subjects, the mean plasma cotinine level corresponding to a mean saliva cotinine level can be estimated with confidence, but at the level of the individual, considerable predictive uncertainty remains. PMID:12791530

Jarvis, Martin J; Primatesta, Paola; Erens, Bob; Feyerabend, Colin; Bryant, Andrew

2003-06-01

48

Toxicokinetics and correlation of carbamazepine salivary and serum concentrations in acute poisonings  

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Full Text Available Background/Aim. Saliva is a body fluid which, like serum, can be used for determination of concentrations of certain drugs, both in pharmacotherapy as well as in acute poisonings. The aim of this study was to determine carbamazepine concentrations in both saliva and serum in acute poisoning in order to show if there is a correlation between the obtained values, as well as to monitor toxicokinetics of carbamazepine in body fluides. Methods. Saliva and serum samples were obtained from 26 patients treated with carbamazepine and 20 patients acutely poisoned by the drug immediately after their admission in the Emergency Toxicology Unit. Determination of salivary and serum carbamazepine concentrations was performed by the validated high pressure liquid chromatographyultraviolet (HPLC-UV method. Results. A significant correlation of salivary and serum carbamazepine concentrations in both therapeutic application and acute poisoning (r = 0.9481 and 0.9117, respectively was confirmed. In acute poisonings the mean ratio between salivary and serum concentrations of carbamazepine (0.43 was similar to the mean ratio after its administration in therapeutic doses (0.39, but there were high inter-individual variations in carbamazepine concentrations in the acutely poisoned patients, as a consequence of different ingested doses of the drug. In acute poisoning the halftime of carbamazepine in saliva and serum was 12.57 h and 6.76 h, respectively. Conclusion. Our results suggest a possible use of saliva as an alternative biological material for determination of carbamazepine concentrations in therapeutic application and acute poisoning as well, and a possible extrapolation of the results obtained in saliva to serum concentrations of carbamazepine.

?or?evi? Snežana

2012-01-01

49

May salivary gland secretory proteins from hematophagous leeches (Hirudo verbana) reach pharmacologically relevant concentrations in the vertebrate host?  

Science.gov (United States)

Saliva of hematophagous leeches (Hirudo sp.) contains bioactive proteins which allow the leech proper feeding and storage of ingested blood, but may also exert effects in the host. Leech therapy is used to treat many different ailments in humans, although only a small fraction of salivary proteins are characterized yet. Moreover, we do not know whether complete transfer of salivary proteins stored in the unicellular salivary glands in a leech to the host during feeding may generate concentrations that are sufficiently high to affect physiological processes in the host. Our 3D reconstruction of a portion of internal leech tissue from histological sections revealed that one leech contains approx. 37,000 salivary gland cells. Using tissue slices from pig liver and mouse skeletal muscle for reference, we obtained data for protein densities in leech salivary gland cells. As individual salivary cells are voluminous (67,000 µm(3)) and the stored proteins are densely packed (approx. 500 µg/mm(3)), we extrapolated that a single leech may contain up to 1.2 mg of salivary proteins. Analyzing protein extracts of unfed or fed leeches by 2D electrophoresis, we calculated the relative molar amounts of individual salivary proteins in the mass range of 17-60 kDa which may be released from a single leech during feeding. Distribution of these salivary proteins in the host (assumed plasma volume of 5 l) may result in concentrations of individual compounds between 3 and 236 pmol/l. Such concentrations seem sufficiently high to exert biochemical interactions with target molecules in the host. PMID:24058492

Lemke, Sarah; Müller, Christian; Lipke, Elisabeth; Uhl, Gabriele; Hildebrandt, Jan-Peter

2013-01-01

50

Salivary concentrations of nickel and chromium in patients with burning mouth syndrome.  

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It has been documented in vitro and in vivo that metal dental appliances release metal ions due to corrosion. Dentists must choose among many dental casting alloys available, often without knowledge of their biological properties and effect on oral mucosa. The aim of this study was to measure metal content of nickel (Ni) and chromium (Cr) in whole saliva of 85 patients with and without metal dental appliances. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected and analyzed by using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. History data, subjective complaints and objective findings on oral mucosa were recorded. The concentration of metal ions was investigated in correlation to burning mouth syndrome, erythema of oral mucosa, pH and smoking habit. Results showed a higher Ni concentration in patients with metal restorations, especially wearers of predominantly base metal appliances. The concentration of Cr showed no difference between patient groups. Although burning mouth syndrome was more frequent in the group with dental casting alloys, there was no correlation between higher Ni and Cr concentrations and burning mouth syndrome. Erythema of oral mucosa was a common finding in study patients, but did not correlate with salivary Ni and Cr ion concentrations. Salivary Ni and Cr concentrations were not related to either pH or smoking habit. PMID:21489358

Bari?evi?, Marinka; Mravak-Stipeti?, Marinka; Stanimirovi?, Andrija; Blanuša, Maja; Kern, Josipa; Lon?ar, Božana; Andabak, Ana; Bari?evi?, Denis

2011-01-01

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The relationship between salivary cortisol concentrations and anxiety in adolescent and non-adolescent pregnant women  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The main purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between salivary cortisol concentrations and self-report anxiety in 50 adolescent and 178 non-adolescent women during the last month of pregnancy. The subjects were randomly selected from a previous study involving women who att [...] ended antenatal care from September 1997 to August 2000 at 17 health services in Southeast Brazil. Salivary cortisol was measured with an enzyme immunoassay kit, and anxiety was assessed by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventories (STAI) of Spielberger. After saliva collection, the participants completed the STAI. Mean concentrations of cortisol for both pregnant adolescents (14.17 ± 6.78 nmol/l) and non-adolescents (13.81 ± 8.51 nmol/l) were similar (P = 0.89). Forty-three percent of the pregnant adolescents and 30.5% of the non-adolescents felt anxious at the time of being questioned (State Anxiety Inventory (SAI) scores >40; P = 0.06). Cortisol concentrations in adolescents were negatively related to the SAI scores (r = -0.39; P = 0.01) which assess a temporary condition of anxiety. There was a statistically significant difference in mean cortisol concentrations between adolescents with low (40) SAI scores (P = 0.03, t-test), but no differences for non-adolescents. The negative relationship between salivary cortisol concentrations and anxiety scores in adolescents may be due to puberty-related hormone differences during this period of life. Pregnant adolescents may possess unique biological or psychological characteristics compared to adults and non-pregnant adolescents. Thus, we need to know more about the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis of pregnant adolescents.

P.H.C., Rondó; A.J., Vaz; F., Moraes; A., Tomkins.

1403-14-01

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The relationship between salivary cortisol concentrations and anxiety in adolescent and non-adolescent pregnant women  

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Full Text Available The main purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between salivary cortisol concentrations and self-report anxiety in 50 adolescent and 178 non-adolescent women during the last month of pregnancy. The subjects were randomly selected from a previous study involving women who attended antenatal care from September 1997 to August 2000 at 17 health services in Southeast Brazil. Salivary cortisol was measured with an enzyme immunoassay kit, and anxiety was assessed by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventories (STAI of Spielberger. After saliva collection, the participants completed the STAI. Mean concentrations of cortisol for both pregnant adolescents (14.17 ± 6.78 nmol/l and non-adolescents (13.81 ± 8.51 nmol/l were similar (P = 0.89. Forty-three percent of the pregnant adolescents and 30.5% of the non-adolescents felt anxious at the time of being questioned (State Anxiety Inventory (SAI scores >40; P = 0.06. Cortisol concentrations in adolescents were negatively related to the SAI scores (r = -0.39; P = 0.01 which assess a temporary condition of anxiety. There was a statistically significant difference in mean cortisol concentrations between adolescents with low (40 SAI scores (P = 0.03, t-test, but no differences for non-adolescents. The negative relationship between salivary cortisol concentrations and anxiety scores in adolescents may be due to puberty-related hormone differences during this period of life. Pregnant adolescents may possess unique biological or psychological characteristics compared to adults and non-pregnant adolescents. Thus, we need to know more about the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis of pregnant adolescents.

P.H.C. Rondó

2004-09-01

53

The relationship between salivary cortisol concentrations and anxiety in adolescent and non-adolescent pregnant women  

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Full Text Available The main purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between salivary cortisol concentrations and self-report anxiety in 50 adolescent and 178 non-adolescent women during the last month of pregnancy. The subjects were randomly selected from a previous study involving women who attended antenatal care from September 1997 to August 2000 at 17 health services in Southeast Brazil. Salivary cortisol was measured with an enzyme immunoassay kit, and anxiety was assessed by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventories (STAI of Spielberger. After saliva collection, the participants completed the STAI. Mean concentrations of cortisol for both pregnant adolescents (14.17 ± 6.78 nmol/l and non-adolescents (13.81 ± 8.51 nmol/l were similar (P = 0.89. Forty-three percent of the pregnant adolescents and 30.5% of the non-adolescents felt anxious at the time of being questioned (State Anxiety Inventory (SAI scores >40; P = 0.06. Cortisol concentrations in adolescents were negatively related to the SAI scores (r = -0.39; P = 0.01 which assess a temporary condition of anxiety. There was a statistically significant difference in mean cortisol concentrations between adolescents with low (40 SAI scores (P = 0.03, t-test, but no differences for non-adolescents. The negative relationship between salivary cortisol concentrations and anxiety scores in adolescents may be due to puberty-related hormone differences during this period of life. Pregnant adolescents may possess unique biological or psychological characteristics compared to adults and non-pregnant adolescents. Thus, we need to know more about the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis of pregnant adolescents.

Rondó P.H.C.

2004-01-01

54

Intensive resistance exercise and circadian salivary testosterone concentrations among young male recreational lifters.  

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Shariat, A, Kargarfard, M, Danaee, M, and Bahri Mohd Tamrin, S. Intensive resistance exercise and circadian salivary testosterone concentrations among young male recreational lifters. J Strength Cond Res 29(1): 151-158, 2015-Strength and morphological adaptations to resistance exercise are mediated in part by anabolic hormones such as testosterone, yet the time course of variability in circadian hormone concentrations is not well characterized. This study, investigated how the circadian rhythm of salivary testosterone is altered by resistance exercise in young men. Twenty healthy young male recreational lifters (age, 18.0 ± 1.3 years) with 2 years of experience in weightlifting were recruited. A randomized controlled trial was conducted, and subjects were randomly assigned to either the resistance exercise group (n = 10), who completed a series of resistance exercise (3 times a week, in the afternoon, 6-7 repetitions, at 85% of 1 repetition maximum for 3 weeks), or a control group (n = 10), who did not exercise during the 3 weeks. Before and after the study, an unstimulated saliva sample (2 ml) was taken every 2 hours for a maximum of 16 hours during each day. A significant decrease was observed in the resistance exercise (44.2%, p = 0.001) and control group (46.1%, p = 0.001) for salivary testosterone at each time point compared with baseline (p = 0.001). There was also no significant difference between the exercise and resting conditions in both groups for salivary testosterone (p > 0.05), except a significantly higher increase by 38.4% vs. -0.02% (p = 0.001), at 1730 hours during exercise sessions in the resistance exercise group compared with the control group. Resistance exercise has no noteworthy effect on circadian secretion of salivary testosterone throughout the 16 waking hours. These results indicate that athletes can undertake resistance exercise in either the morning or afternoon with the knowledge that a similar testosterone response can be expected regardless of the time of day. PMID:25051005

Shariat, Ardalan; Kargarfard, Mehdi; Danaee, Mahmoud; Bahri Mohd Tamrin, Shamsul

2015-01-01

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Évaluation de la concentration de nicotine et de cotinine urinaires chez un groupe de fumeurs actifs et un groupe de “fumeurs passifs”, par chromatographie liquide haute performance (HPLC utilisant une méthode d’extraction en phase solide (SPE Evaluation of urinary levels of nicotine and cotinine, in active and passive groups of smokers, by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC using a solid phase extraction method (SPE  

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Full Text Available Objectifs : Évaluation de la concentration de nicotine et de cotinine urinaires et le taux de carboxyhémoglobine (HbCO chez un groupe de fumeurs actifs (n = 22 et un groupe de « fumeurs passifs » (n = 22, afin d’apprécier l’intensité de l’imprégnation tabagique. Matériels et méthodes : Évaluation de la concentration de nicotine et de cotinine urinaires par chromatographie liquide haute performance (HPLC utilisant une méthode d’extraction en phase solide (SPE; évaluation du taux de la carboxyhémoglobine (HbCO par spectrophotométrie UV-VIS. Résultats : Les concentrations urinaires de nicotine varient de 0,48 à 7,59 ?g/mL (moyenne : 3,39  ±  2,06 ?g/mL chez les fumeurs actifs et de 0,31 à 1,27 ?g/mL (moyenne : 0,64  ±  0,31 ?g/mL chez les « fumeurs passifs ». Les concentrations urinaires de cotinine varient de 0,99 à 9,17 ?g/mL (moyenne : 4,14  ±  2,35 ?g/mL chez les fumeurs actifs et de 0,14 à 2,58 ?g/mL (moyenne : 1,25  ±  0,79 ?g/mL chez les « fumeurs passifs ». Le taux de l’ HbCO varie de 0,26 à 8,02 % (moyenne : 3  ±  0,021 % chez les fumeurs actifs, les « fumeurs passifs » et les témoins présentent des taux inférieurs à la limite de détection. Conclusion : La nicotine et la cotinine sont plus spécifiques de l’exposition tabagique que l’HbCO. Les concentrations de nicotine et de cotinine urinaires, retrouvés chez les « fumeurs passifs », soulignent la réalité et l’intensité de l’exposition de ces derniers, d’où la nécessité de prendre des mesures plus restrictives en matière de lutte contre le tabagisme. Objectives: This paper evaluates the urinary levels of nicotine and cotinine and the level of carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO in active (n = 22 and passive (n = 22 groups of smokers, in order to determine the severity of tobacco impregnation. Materials and methods: The levels of nicotine and cotinine in urine were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC using the solid phase extraction method (SPE; the level of carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO was measured by UV-VIS spectrophotometry. Results: The results indicate that the concentration of nicotine in urine is 0.48 to 7.59 ?g/mL (average of 3.39  ±  2.06 ?g/mL in active smokers and 0.31 to 1.27 ?g/mL (average of 0.64  ±  0.31 ?g/mL in passive smokers. The concentration of cotinine in urine is 0.99 to 9.17 ?g/mL (average of 4.14  ±  2.35 ?g/mL in active smokers and 0.14 to 2.58 ?g/mL (average of 1.25  ±  0.79 ?g/mL in passive smokers. The level of HbCO is 0.26 to 8.02% (average of 3  ±  0.021% in active smokers and could not be detected in the passive smokers. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that cotinine and nicotine are more suitable for assessing the intensity of tobacco exposure than HbCO. The measured levels of nicotine and cotinine in passive smokers reveal the fact that this group of people faces a high risk due to tobacco exposure; thus, restrictive measures need to be taken to protect this group.

Azzouz Mohamed

2011-06-01

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Biomonitoring of Urinary Cotinine Concentrations Associated with Plasma Levels of Nicotine Metabolites after Daily Cigarette Smoking in a Male Japanese Population  

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Human biomonitoring of plasma and urinary levels of nicotine, cotinine, and 3?-hydroxycotinine was conducted after daily cigarette smoking in a population of 92 male Japanese smokers with a mean age of 37 years who had smoked an average of 23 cigarettes per day for 16 years. Members of the population were genotyped for the nicotine-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6). The mean levels of nicotine, the levels of its metabolites cotinine and 3?-hydroxycotinine, and the sum of th...

Hiroshi Yamazaki; Fumiaki Shono; Tetsuya Kamataki; Ryohji Takano; Norie Murayama; Taku Nagano; Makiko Shimizu; Kazuma Kiyotani

2010-01-01

57

Are cotinine assays of value in predicting adverse pregnancy outcome?  

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We investigated the utility of maternal cotinine concentration as a predictor of preterm and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) deliveries. Subjects were randomly selected from antenatal clinics, and their serum cotinine concentrations at approximately 16 weeks' gestation were compared with self-reports of smoking. The value of these measures in predicting preterm and SGA deliveries was examined, using likelihood ratios and logistic regression, for 845 women with singleton, live births. Smoking ...

Mathews, F.; Smith, R.; Yukdin, P.; Neil, A.

1999-01-01

58

Serum cotinine as a measure of tobacco smoke exposure in children  

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To document passive smoke exposure, the authors measured concentrations of serum cotinine, a major metabolite of nicotine, in 38 young children and compared the results with the smoking histories of home residents. Cotinine was detected in 26 children (68%), of which ten had no household exposure according to a questionnaire. The serum cotinine concentration was significantly elevated in blacks compared with whites after controlling for the number of smokers in the home. After stratifying by race, there was a significant direct correlation between the serum cotinine concentration and the number of smokers in the home, the amount smoked by the mother, and the amount smoked by others in the home. We conclude that the serum cotinine concentration is a useful indicator of the actual exposure of young children to tobacco smoke and that unexplained racial differences in cotinine levels exist.

Pattishall, E.N.; Strope, G.L.; Etzel, R.A.; Helms, R.W.; Haley, N.J.; Denny, F.W.

1985-11-01

59

Effect of xylitol gum on salivary concentration of mutans streptococci and plaque pH: a randomized clinical trial in high caries risk schoolchildren  

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The effect of 11.6 g of xylitol daily (chewing gum) on salivary mutans streptococci (MS) and plaque acidogenity in a group of high caries risk Italian schoolchildren was studied. The hypothesis was that xylitol affects salivary MS and plaque pH. A randomized clinical trial was designed and performed with 204 subjects (acceptance rate 88%). Inclusion criteria were the presence of two or three caries lesions and salivary MS concentration >105 CFU/ml. Subjects ...

Campus, Guglielmo Giuseppe; Cagetti, Maria Grazia; Sacco, Gianluca; Solinas, Maria Giuliana; Mastroberardino, Stefano; Lingstro?m, Peter

2009-01-01

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Human Blood Concentrations of Cotinine, a Biomonitoring Marker for Tobacco Smoke, Extrapolated from Nicotine Metabolism in Rats and Humans and Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling  

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The present study defined a simplified physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for nicotine and its primary metabolite cotinine in humans, based on metabolic parameters determined in vitro using relevant liver microsomes, coefficients derived in silico, physiological parameters derived from the literature, and an established rat PBPK model. The model consists of an absorption compartment, a metabolizing compartment, and a central compartment for nicotine and three equivalent compar...

Masato Kitajima; Norie Murayama; Makiko Shimizu; Taku Nagano; Ryohji Takano; Kana Horiuchi; Hiroshi Yamazaki; Fumiaki Shono

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
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A surrogate method for comparison analysis of salivary concentrations of Xylitol-containing products  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Xylitol chewing gum has been shown to reduce Streptococcus mutans levels and decay. Two studies examined the presence and time course of salivary xylitol concentrations delivered via xylitol-containing pellet gum and compared them to other xylitol-containing products. Methods A within-subjects design was used for both studies. Study 1, adults (N = 15 received three xylitol-containing products (pellet gum (2.6 g, gummy bears (2.6 g, and commercially available stick gum (Koolerz, 3.0 g; Study 2, a second group of adults (N = 15 received three xylitol-containing products (pellet gum, gummy bears, and a 33% xylitol syrup (2.67 g. For both studies subjects consumed one xylitol product per visit with a 7-day washout between each product. A standardized protocol was followed for each product visit. Product order was randomly determined at the initial visit. Saliva samples (0.5 mL to 1.0 mL were collected at baseline and up to 10 time points (~16 min in length after product consumption initiated. Concentration of xylitol in saliva samples was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. Area under the curve (AUC for determining the average xylitol concentration in saliva over the total sampling period was calculated for each product. Results In both studies all three xylitol products (Study 1: pellet gum, gummy bears, and stick gum; Study 2: pellet gum, gummy bears, and syrup had similar time curves with two xylitol concentration peaks during the sampling period. Study 1 had its highest mean peaks at the 4 min sampling point while Study 2 had its highest mean peaks between 13 to 16 minutes. Salivary xylitol levels returned to baseline at about 18 minutes for all forms tested. Additionally, for both studies the total AUC for the xylitol products were similar compared to the pellet gum (Study 1: pellet gum – 51.3 ?g.min/mL, gummy bears – 59.6 ?g.min/mL, and stick gum – 46.4 ?g.min/mL; Study 2: pellet gum – 63.0 ?g.min/mL, gummy bears – 55.9 ?g.min/mL, and syrup – 59.0 ?g.min/mL. Conclusion The comparison method demonstrated high reliability and validity. In both studies other xylitol-containing products had time curves and mean xylitol concentration peaks similar to xylitol pellet gum suggesting this test may be a surrogate for longer studies comparing various products.

Zhou Lingmei

2008-02-01

62

Salivary secretion of highly concentrated chromogranin a in response to noradrenaline and acetylcholine in isolated and perfused rat submandibular glands.  

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Chromogranin A (CgA) is a member of a family of highly acidic proteins, chromogranins, which are co-stored in the adrenergic neurons and paraneurons and co-released with adrenaline and noradrenaline (NAd) in response to adequate stimulation. The present study provides novel evidence that CgA-like immunoreactivity (IR) is stored in the exocrine cells in the granular convoluted tubule, and is secreted into saliva by stimulation with NAd and acetylcholine (ACh) in the isolated and perfused rat submandibular gland. NAd at 1 microM produced maximum secretion of CgA-like IR (salivary flow. Further increases in NAd concentration (10 or 100 microM) yielded concentration-dependent decreases in both responses. ACh at 1 microM produced maximum salivary flow and a slight elevation of CgA-like IR secretion (6 microM); 100 microM ACh decreased the salivary flow but increased the CgA-like IR secretion (0.6 mM). Electron microscopic examination showed vigorous compound exocytosis of secretory granules in the cells of the granular convoluted tubule when the submandibular gland was stimulated with 1 microM NAd. These results provide an experimental basis for the view that the salivary CgA-like IR secretion may be a sensitive and quantitative index of the activity of the sympathetic nervous system innervating the gland. PMID:10564704

Kanno, T; Asada, N; Yanase, H; Iwanaga, T; Ozaki, T; Nishikawa, Y; Iguchi, K; Mochizuki, T; Hoshino, M; Yanaihara, N

1999-11-01

63

Fecal and Salivary Cortisol Concentrations in Woolly (Lagothrix ssp. and Spider Monkeys (Ateles spp.  

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Full Text Available Detrimental physiological effects due to stressors can contribute to the low captive success of primates. The objective of this research was to investigate the potential impact of diet composition on cortisol concentrations in feces and saliva in woolly (n=27 and spider monkeys (n=61. The research was conducted in three studies: the first investigated spider monkeys in the United States, the second investigated spider monkeys within Europe, and the third investigated woolly monkeys within Europe. Fecal cortisol in spider monkeys in US zoos varied (P=.07 from 30 to 66 ng/g. The zoo with the highest fecal cortisol also had the highest salivary cortisol (P?.05. For European zoos, fecal cortisol differed between zoos for both spider and woolly monkeys (P?.05. Spider monkeys had higher fecal cortisol than woolly monkeys (P?.05. Zoos with the highest dietary carbohydrates, sugars, glucose, and fruit had the highest cortisol. Cortisol was highest for zoos that did not meet crude protein requirements and fed the lowest percentage of complete feeds and crude fiber. Differences among zoos in housing and diets may increase animal stress. The lifespan and reproductive success of captive primates could improve if stressors are reduced and dietary nutrients optimized.

Kimberly D. Ange-van Heugten

2009-01-01

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Gas chromatographic analysis of nicotine and cotinine in hair.  

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Non-invasive validation of cigarette- or cigar-smoking behaviour is necessary for large population studies. Urine or saliva samples can be used for confirmation of recent nicotine intake by analysis of cotinine, the major metabolite of nicotine. However, this test is not suitable for validation of survey data, since the quantification of cotinine in saliva only reflects nicotine exposure during the preceding week. To validate information on tobacco use, we investigated hair samples for quantifying nicotine and cotinine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Hair (about 50-100 mg) was incubated in 1 M sodium hydroxide at 100 degrees C for 10 min. After cooling, samples were extracted by diethyl ether, using ketamine as an internal standard. Drugs were separated on a 12-m BP-5 capillary column, and detected using selected-ion monitoring (m/z 84, 98 and 180 for nicotine, cotinine and ketamine, respectively). Hair from non-smokers and smokers contained nicotine and cotinine. Although it is difficult to determine an absolute cut-off concentration, more than 2 ng of nicotine per milligram of hair can be used to differentiate smokers from non-smokers. Some applications of this technique are developed to determine the status of passive smokers, the gestational exposure in babies and the pattern of an individual's nicotine use by cutting strands of hair into sections of one-month intervals. PMID:1400830

Kintz, P

1992-09-16

65

Salivary flow rate, pH, and concentrations of calcium, phosphate, and sIgA in Brazilian pregnant and non-pregnant women  

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Abstract Background Studies on salivary variables and pregnancy in Latin America are scarce. This study aimed to compare salivary flow rate, pH, and concentrations of calcium, phosphate, and sIgA of unstimulated whole saliva in pregnant and non-pregnant Brazilians. Methods Cross-sectional study. Sample was composed by 22 pregnant and 22 non-pregnant women attending the Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics, São Lucas Hospital, in Porto Alegre city, South region of ...

Lindemann Laura; Veeck Elaine B; Marinho Sandra A; Rockenbach Maria I; Shinkai Rosemary S

2006-01-01

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Cotinine en pédiatrie et en santé au travail Cotinine in pediatry and at the workplace  

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Full Text Available L'intérêt du suivi d'une exposition au tabac par la mesure de la concentration de la cotinine dans les milieux biologiques est connu depuis longtemps. Métabolite principal de la nicotine, avec une demi-vie d'élimination longue, le suivi de la cotinine permet l'évaluation de l'imprégnation tabagique dans les cas particuliers du tabagisme passif chez l'enfant et chez l'adulte, dans les lieux publics ou le milieu professionnel. Le suivi de ce marqueur s'avère également particulièrement intéressant en santé au travail pour la surveillance d'expositions à certains solvants organiques (benzène, toluène, éthylbenzéne, xylène, hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques... dont les concentrations ou celles de leurs métabolites sont influencées par la consommation de tabac. L'urine demeure la matrice biologique de choix pour évaluer le degré d'exposition. Un seuil de positivité mesuré à 6 ng/mL dans l'urine permet de distinguer une population pédiatrique exposée ou non. D'autres matrices comme les cheveux ou la salive apparaissent depuis plusieurs années comme utiles dans le cadre du dépistage de l'exposition au tabagisme environnemental. Le dosage de la cotinine dans les cheveux montre une nouvelle fois l'intérêt rétrospectif de l'utilisation de ce type de matrice. La salive, avec un intérêt moindre chez le nouveau né, a été utilisée dans plusieurs études pour distinguer des populations exposées et non exposées avec un seuil de positivité fixé à 1 ng/mL. Deux types de méthodes sont principalement utilisées pour le dosage de la cotinine : les méthodes chromatographiques HPLC-DAD, HPLC-MS, GC-MS et les méthodes immunologiques (RIA ou immunoenzymatiques par ELISA. Des études récentes montrent l'évolution des techniques ELISA. Elles peuvent par exemple être utilisées dans la salive avec un seuil de positivité de la cotinine à 1 ng/mL permettant de définir une population imprégnée. Actuellement, nombreuses sont les études qui utilisent avec succès les techniques immunologiques en pédiatrie et en santé au travail. Les avantages apparaissent alors multiples notamment en termes de coût et de rapidité. Elles sont suffisamment sensibles et peuvent être utilisées pour différents types de matrices biologiques. It is well known today that tobacco exposure can be assessed by the measurement of several markers in biological fluids. Cotinine, a nicotine metabolite with a longer biological half-life than nicotine, is probably the most reliable index that can be used to measure exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in adults in the context of an exposure at workplace, and also in children. Additionally, cotinine appears to be a very useful marker to investigate the exposure of workers to organic solvents (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons... given that their concentrations and/or those of their metabolites can be influenced by tobacco smoke. Urine remains an accurate biological specimen to assess the level of tobacco exposure of individuals. A urinary cotinine level of 6 ng/mL (cut-off is a precise and sensitive test in discerning exposed children to tobacco smoke from non-exposed children. Other alternative biological specimens such as hair or saliva can also be used for this purpose. Hair cotinine has proved to be a reliable tool for evaluating the level of environmental tobacco smoke in a pediatric population. Saliva has been successfully applied in several studies amongst primary school children or in workers with a cut-off value for cotinine of 1 ng/mL. Various assays are presently available for the measurement of cotinine in biological specimens. Most of them are based on chromatographic (HPLC-UV, HPLC-MS, GC-MS or immunoassay methods (RIA, EIA. Recent studies showed that ELISA can be used to measure cotinine in saliva at a level as low as 1 ng/mL, this concentration being the cut-off allowing to distinguish individuals exposed to environmental tobacco smoke from individuals not exposed. Currently, many studies dealing

Hoizey Guillaume

2009-05-01

67

Validation of self reported smoking by serum cotinine measurement in a community-based study  

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Study objective: The validity of self reported smoking in population surveys remains an important question. An associated question is what would be the value of measuring serum cotinine concentrations in such surveys to obtain validated smoking data.

Vartiainen, E.; Seppala, T.; Lillsunde, P.; Puska, P.

2002-01-01

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Cotinine Levels in Asthmatic Children  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Asthmatic children are more at risk to environmental tobacco smoke exposure (ETS due to impaired lower airway function. Objective: To investigate the association of low socio-economic status and ETS exposure in asthmatic children. Design: A cross-sectional study on 425 primary school children (aged 5-11years in Merseyside, using a parent completed questionnaire and childrens’ saliva samples. Results: 25.9 % of children had doctor diagnosed asthma and 12 % had a history of hospital admission for respiratory illnesses. The symptom triad of cough, wheeze and breathlessness were reported for 8.5% of children. Mean cotinine level was 2.1 ng/ml (±0.6 SD. 45.6% of children were ETS exposed (cotinine levels >1.0 ng/ml. Asthmatic children and those from disadvantaged households were more likely to be ETS exposed, compared to non-asthmatic and those from advantaged households [OR=1.7 (95%CI=1.1-2.4] and [OR=2.1(1.8-3.2 respectively]. A synergic effect of parental asthma, deprivation and high cotinine levels on childhood asthma was observed in multivariate analysis. Conclusions: A high cotinine level was significantly associated with an increased risk of asthma in children particularly amongst disadvantaged households. Interventions aimed at limiting ETS exposure particularly among disadvantaged groups with asthmatic children are needed.

A Delpisheh

2005-10-01

69

Simultaneous determination of nicotine and cotinine in various human tissues using capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

A reliable and sensitive method for the simultaneous determination of nicotine and cotinine concentrations in various human tissues was developed using capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Nicotine and cotinine were extracted using a 3-step solvent extraction procedure and quinoline as an internal standard. Quantification was carried out by single ion monitoring using ions of m/z 133 for nicotine, m/z 176 for cotinine and m/z 129 for quinoline. The lower limit of detection was 5 ng/g for nicotine and 10 ng/g for cotinine, in each tissue sample. The calibration curves of various tissues were linear in the concentration range from 5-1,200 ng/g for nicotine and 10-1,500 ng/g for cotinine. The accuracy and precision of this method were examined using human tissues and the results were satisfactory. The distribution of nicotine and cotinine was measured in tissues from 10 human autopsies. Nicotine was detected in every tissue examined at a level seen in habitual smokers. The nicotine concentration was high in the liver, kidney, spleen and lung, and low in adipose tissue. The cotinine level was highest in the liver. The tissue/blood concentration ratios of nicotine and cotinine were most stable in skeletal muscle, where the level of these drugs was close to that in whole blood. Skeletal muscle is, therefore, considered to be the most suitable tissue sample for toxicological examination, when acquisition of blood samples is not feasible. PMID:8068568

Urakawa, N; Nagata, T; Kudo, K; Kimura, K; Imamura, T

1994-01-01

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Flujo y concentración de proteínas en saliva total humana / Salivary flow rate and protein concentration in human whole saliva  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo. Determinar los promedios de flujo salival y la concentración de proteínas totales en una población joven del Estado de México. Material y métodos. Se seleccionaron 120 sujetos a quienes se les colectó saliva total humana (STH) no estimulada y estimulada, la cual se analizó por medio de gra [...] vimetría y espectrofotometría (LV/LU); se calcularon medidas de tendencia central y de dispersión; posteriormente, se correlacionaron estos datos con los índices CPOD y CPITN. Resultados. Los sujetos estudiados mostraron un promedio de flujo salival (ml/min ± DE) en STH no estimulada de 0.397±.26, y en STH estimulada, de 0.973±.53. El promedio en la concentración de proteínas (mg/ml ± DE) fue de 1.374±.45 en STH no estimulada y de 1.526±.44 en STH estimulada. Las mujeres presentaron un menor porcentaje de flujo salival y mayor concentración de proteínas. No se observaron correlaciones entre el flujo y la concentración de proteínas totales y el CPOD y CPITN; sin embargo, sí las hubo con otras variables. Conclusiones. Estos hallazgos podrían estar asociados con el grado de nutrición, las características genéticas y los niveles de salud bucal en nuestra población. El presente estudio representa la fase inicial de la creación de una base de datos en sialoquímica, cuya meta será identificar los parámetros que indiquen el riesgo de enfermedades sistémicas o bucodentales. Abstract in english Objective. To determine the average salivary flow rates and total protein concentrations in a population of the State of Mexico. Material and methods. A gravimetric and spectrophotometric analysis was applied to 120 subjects in total resting and stimulated whole saliva and results were correlated wi [...] th the DMFT and CPITN indexes. Results. Subjects allowed average salivary flow rate (ml/min ± SD) in non-stimulated human whole saliva (HWS) of 0.397±.26 and in stimulated HWS of 0.973±.53. Average protein concentration was (mg/ml ± SD) 1.374±.45 in non-stimulated HWS and 1.526±.44 in stimulated HWS. Females showed a lower percentage of salivary flow and greater protein concentrations. No correlations were observed between flow and total protein concentration, and DMFT and CPITN; however, correlations were present with other variables. Conclusions. These findings could be associated to degree of nutrition, genetic characteristics and level of oral disease in our population. Present results represent the first step to create a database in sialochemistry to identify risk indicators of specific oral and systemic diseases.

JOSÉ ANTONIO, BANDERAS-TARABAY; MIREYA, GONZÁLEZ-BEGNÉ; MARTHA, SÁNCHEZ-GARDUÑO; ELVA, MILLÁN-CORTÉZ; ARACELI, LÓPEZ-RODRÍGUEZ; ARACELI, VILCHIS-VELÁZQUEZ.

1997-09-01

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The effect of storage conditions on salivary cortisol concentrations using an Enzyme Immunoassay.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Saliva samples are easy to collect and are applicable for home-sampling, e.g. when studying HPA-axis dynamics to characterize diurnal cortisol profiles and the cortisol awakening response. However, the storing and transport conditions might be critical in the home-sampling approach. Here, we tested the stability of saliva cortisol in samples stored at different temperatures and after repeated thawing-freezing cycles when measured with an Enzyme Immuno Assay (EIA). Thirteen healthy volunteers, six women and seven men, mean age 31 (range 26-49) years collected saliva either in the morning hours (08:00-10:00 h) or before lunch (11:00-12:00 h). Storage at six different conditions were tested: Storage at - 18°C, - 4°C, 4°C and room temperature for 72 h. One condition tested was at - 18°C for 72 h and then kept in an envelope for 72 h with a freezing element in room temperature surroundings where after it was stored at - 80°C. The last tube was stored directly at - 80°C and served as the 'gold standard'. The saliva samples were assayed using Salivary Cortisol Diagnostic EIA. Differences in cortisol measurements between each of the five conditions and the 'gold standard' (- 80°C) were evaluated by one-sample t-test. No significant differences were observed. This indicates that an EIA method can be used reliably when measuring salivary cortisol samples obtained by home-sampling including a postal delivery. PMID:25510953

Nalla, Anjana A; Thomsen, Gerda; Knudsen, Gitte M; Frokjaer, Vibe G

2015-01-01

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Passive smoking and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke: prospective study with cotinine measurement.  

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OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between a biomarker of overall passive exposure to tobacco smoke (serum cotinine concentration) and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. DESIGN: Prospective population based study in general practice (the British regional heart study). PARTICIPANTS: 4729 men in 18 towns who provided baseline blood samples (for cotinine assay) and a detailed smoking history in 1978-80. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Major coronary heart disease and stroke events (fatal and n...

Whincup, Ph; Gilg, Ja; Emberson, Jr; Jarvis, Mj; Feyerabend, C.; Bryant, A.; Walker, M.; Cook, Dg

2004-01-01

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Salivary chenodeoxycholic acid and its glycine-conjugate: their determination method using LC-MS/MS and variation of their concentrations with increased saliva flow rate.  

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Measurement of steroid levels in saliva has been proposed as a new laboratory tool for characterizing steroid metabolism, but it is not known whether the salivary levels of bile acids can be measured with accuracy and if so, whether such measurements provide information that is of clinical value. We developed and validated a sensitive and specific liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method for the quantification of chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) and glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA), representative primary non-amidated and glycine-conjugated bile acids, in whole saliva. We also examined whether the salivary bile acid concentrations were dependent on the saliva flow rate, because this is a very important aspect in a discussion of the utility of salivary diagnostics. Saliva was deproteinized with ethanol and purified using a Strata-X cartridge. Bile acids were converted to their hydrazide derivatives using 2-hydrazinopyridine, and subjected to LC-MS/MS. Quantification was based on selected reaction monitoring using characteristic transitions, and deuterated CDCA and GCDCA were used as internal standards. This method allowed the reproducible and accurate quantification of the salivary bile acids using a 200-microl sample and the limits of quantification for CDCA and GCDCA were 25 and 50pg/ml, respectively. Using this method, the effect of increased saliva flow rate by gum-chewing on the salivary concentrations of CDCA and GCDCA was determined. The salivary level of GCDCA was significantly decreased by gum-chewing, whereas the concentration of CDCA remained constant. These results indicate that there is a good possibility that saliva may be a clinical tool for non-amidated bile acid testing. PMID:20117124

Higashi, Tatsuya; Shibayama, Yujin; Ichikawa, Takuya; Ito, Koichi; Toyo'oka, Toshimasa; Shimada, Kazutake; Mitamura, Kuniko; Ikegawa, Shigeo; Chiba, Hitoshi

2010-04-01

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Do whole-body vibration exercise and resistance exercise modify concentrations of salivary cortisol and immunoglobulin A?  

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Full Text Available A single bout of resistance exercise (RE induces hormonal and immune responses, playing an important role in a long-term adaptive process. Whole-body vibration (WBV has also been shown to affect hormonal responses. Evidence suggests that combining WBV with RE may amplify hormonal and immune responses due to the increased neuromuscular load. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate salivary cortisol (Scortisol and salivary IgA (SIgA concentrations following a RE session combined or not with WBV. Nine university students (22.9 ± 5.1 years, 175.8 ± 5.2 cm, and 69.2 ± 7.3 kg performed five sets of squat exercise (70% one-repetition-maximum combined (R+V30 or not (R with WBV at 30 Hz. Saliva samples were obtained before and after exercise. Subjects also rated their effort according to the Borg CR-10 scale (RPE. Data were analyzed by a mixed model. RPE was higher after R+V30 (8.3 ± 0.7 compared to R (6.2 ± 0.7. However, Scortisol (pre: 10.6 ± 7.6 and 11.7 ± 7.6, post: 8.3 ± 6.3 and 10.2 ± 7.2 ng/mL for R and R+V30, respectively and SIgA concentrations (pre: 98.3 ± 22.6 and 116.1 ± 51.2, post: 116.6 ± 64.7 and 143.6 ± 80.5 µg/mL for R and R+V30, respectively were unaffected. No significant correlations were observed between Scortisol and RPE (r = 0.45, P = 0.22; r = 0.30, P = 0.42, for R and R+V30, respectively. On the basis of these data, neither protocol modified salivary cortisol or IgA, although RPE was higher after R+V30 than R.

H. Roschel

2011-06-01

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Do whole-body vibration exercise and resistance exercise modify concentrations of salivary cortisol and immunoglobulin A?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english A single bout of resistance exercise (RE) induces hormonal and immune responses, playing an important role in a long-term adaptive process. Whole-body vibration (WBV) has also been shown to affect hormonal responses. Evidence suggests that combining WBV with RE may amplify hormonal and immune respon [...] ses due to the increased neuromuscular load. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate salivary cortisol (Scortisol) and salivary IgA (SIgA) concentrations following a RE session combined or not with WBV. Nine university students (22.9 ± 5.1 years, 175.8 ± 5.2 cm, and 69.2 ± 7.3 kg) performed five sets of squat exercise (70% one-repetition-maximum) combined (R+V30) or not (R) with WBV at 30 Hz. Saliva samples were obtained before and after exercise. Subjects also rated their effort according to the Borg CR-10 scale (RPE). Data were analyzed by a mixed model. RPE was higher after R+V30 (8.3 ± 0.7) compared to R (6.2 ± 0.7). However, Scortisol (pre: 10.6 ± 7.6 and 11.7 ± 7.6, post: 8.3 ± 6.3 and 10.2 ± 7.2 ng/mL for R and R+V30, respectively) and SIgA concentrations (pre: 98.3 ± 22.6 and 116.1 ± 51.2, post: 116.6 ± 64.7 and 143.6 ± 80.5 µg/mL for R and R+V30, respectively) were unaffected. No significant correlations were observed between Scortisol and RPE (r = 0.45, P = 0.22; r = 0.30, P = 0.42, for R and R+V30, respectively). On the basis of these data, neither protocol modified salivary cortisol or IgA, although RPE was higher after R+V30 than R.

H., Roschel; R., Barroso; M., Batista; C., Ugrinowitsch; V., Tricoli; F., Arsati; Y.B., Lima-Arsati; V.C., Araújo; A., Moreira.

2011-06-01

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Short- and long-term effects of tactile massage on salivary cortisol concentrations in Parkinson’s disease: a randomised controlled pilot study  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder with limited knowledge about the normal function and effects of non-pharmacological therapies on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The aim of the study was to analyse the basal diurnal and total secretion of salivary cortisol in short- and long-term aspects of tactile massage (TM). Methods Design: Prospective, Controlled and Randomised Multicentre Trial. Setting and interventions: Forty-five women and men, aged 50–79 years, were recruited. Twenty-nine of them were blindly randomised to tactile massage (TM) and 16 of them to the control group, rest to music (RTM). Ten interventions were given during 8 weeks followed by a 26 weeks of follow up. Salivary cortisol was collected at 8 am, 1 pm, 8 pm, and 8 am the next day, on five occasions. With the first and eighth interventions, it was collected immediately before and after intervention. Main outcome measures: The primary aim was to assess and compare cortisol concentrations before and immediately after intervention and also during the follow-up period. The secondary aim was to assess the impact of age, gender, body mass index (BMI), duration and severity of PD, effects of interventional time-point of the day, and levodopa doses on cortisol concentration. Results The median cortisol concentrations for all participants were 16.0, 5.8, 2.8, and 14.0 nmol/L at baseline, later reproduced four times without significant differences. Cortisol concentrations decreased significantly after TM intervention but no change in diurnal salivary cortisol pattern was found. The findings of reduced salivary cortisol concentrations immediately after the interventions are in agreement with previous studies. However, there was no significant difference between the TM and control groups. There were no significant correlations between cortisol concentrations and age, gender, BMI, time-point for intervention, time interval between anti-parkinson pharmacy intake and sampling, levodopa doses, duration, or severity of PD. Conclusions Diurnal salivary cortisol rhythm was normal. Salivary cortisol concentrations were significantly reduced after the TM intervention and after RTM, but there were no significant differences between the groups and no sustained long-term effect. No associations were seen between salivary cortisol concentration and clinical and/or pharmacological characteristics. Trial registration ClinicalTrial.gov, NCT01734876 and FoU Sweden 108881. PMID:24330473

2013-01-01

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Comparative evaluation of salivary IL-1?, IL-10 and TNF-? concentrations in patients with oral pemphigus vulgaris lesions by ELISA technique  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Based on recent research, cytokines particularly IL-1?, IL-10, and INF-? might play a role in the pathogenesis of pemphigus vulgaris. Some autoimmune diseases have been successfully treated with the use of antibodies against cytokines. The aim of this study was to compare salivary concentrations of IL-1?, IL-10, and TNF-? in patients with pemphigus vulgaris and normal individuals. Materials and methods: In this analytical-descriptive study, 24 pemphigus vulgaris patients referring to the Department of Dermatology, Alzahra Hospital, and 26 healthy individuals were evaluated. Unstimulated salivary samples were collected by spitting method in both groups. IL-1?, IL-10, and TNF-? concentrations were measured by ELISA technique. The results were analyzed by t-test (?=0.05.Results: The mean salivary concentrations of IL-1?, IL-10 and TNF-? were higher in pemphigus vulgaris patients compared to healthy subjects. The differences were significant in relation to IL-1? (p value = 0.024 and TNF-? (p value = 0.005 between the two groups; however, the differences were not significant in relation to IL-10 (p value = 0.243.Conclusion: The increase in salivary concentrations of IL-1? and TNF-? in patients with pemphigus vulgaris compared to healthy individuals might indicate the role of these agents in the pathogenesis of this disorder. Key words: ELISA technique, IL-1?, IL-10, TNF-?, Pemphigus vulgaris.

Faezeh Khozeimeh

2011-01-01

78

Salivary Glands  

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... We call the major salivary glands the parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands. They all secrete saliva into ... saliva, called salivary ducts, near your upper teeth, submandibular under your tongue, and the sublingual through many ...

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Determination of nicotine and cotinine in meconium from Greek neonates and correlation with birth weight and gestational age at birth.  

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Tobacco exposure during pregnancy is a major factor of morbidity and mortality for both the pregnant woman and the fetus. Several studies in the past have detected and quantified tobacco smoke biomarkers in infant meconium samples. Aim of this study was to measure prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke by detecting nicotine and cotinine in meconium and to try to evaluate the extent of exposure to smoke through passive smoking as well as the relationship between tobacco biomarker meconium concentrations and neonatal outcomes. Tobacco smoke biomarkers nicotine and cotinine were detected and quantitated in meconium from tobacco exposed and non-exposed Greek neonates using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The study included 45 neonates from active, passive and non-smoking women during pregnancy. The results showed significant values of nicotine and cotinine concentration in neonates from both active and passive smokers which reached 125 ng g(-1) for nicotine and 98.5 ng g(-1) for cotinine and varied according to the type and level of exposure. In general nicotine and cotinine concentrations correlated with the degree of active smoking by the mother. Similarly, nicotine and cotinine were measured in the meconium of infants of passive smokers at concentrations comparable to those of infants whose mothers were moderate smokers. Our findings show that exposure of the fetus to tobacco biomarkers can be substantial even in passive maternal smoking and there is a statistically significant negative correlation between nicotine or cotinine concentrations in meconium and birth weight or gestational age at birth. PMID:25460762

Tsinisizeli, Nikoleta; Sotiroudis, Georgios; Xenakis, Aristotelis; Lykeridou, Katerina E

2015-01-01

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A simplified method for the analysis of urinary cotinine by GC-MS  

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Full Text Available Cotinine is the major metabolite of nicotine and, being very stable and having a long biological half-life, it can be used as a biomarker for tobacco exposure. The aim of this study was to develop an analytical GC-MS technique to measure levels of cotinine in the urine of active and passive smokers and to compare the results with reference values. The extraction of cotinine to generate the calibration curve was performed by mixing urine (250 µL with 50 µL of a cotinine standard, 50 µL of an internal standard of deuterated cotinine (15 µg?mL-1 and 50 µL of 10% NH4 OH solution. Next, 2 mL of a mixture of MTBE:dichloromethane:ethyl acetate (30:30:40 by volume was added and the whole was vortexed, then centrifuged at 3000 rpm. Finally, 1.6 mL of the organic layer was evaporated under a stream of dry air at 50 °C. The resulting extract was dissolved in methanol and injected into the GC-MS system. The LOQ and LOD for cotinine were 100 and 20 ng?mL-1, respectively. The curve was linear over the whole tested range of 100 - 5000 ng?mL-1 and the method achieved 50% recovery. The intra and inter-day precisions were 1.62 – 7.28% and 0.86 – 2.68%, respectively. Accuracy was determined at three concentrations (low, medium and high, with six replicates (95.24 – 97.67%. The validation of this cotinine assay by GC-MS showed that it exhibited satisfactory limits and the assay could be performed with a one-step liquid-liquid extraction. The technique presented here can thus be used for the quantitation of cotinine levels in the urine of passive and active smokers.

Luiz Carlos da Cunha

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
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Concentración de ?-amilasa salival en niños con diferentes índices de caries / Salivary ?-Amylase Concentration in Children with Different Caries Indexes  

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Full Text Available Antecedentes: La a-amilasa salival humana (AASH es la proteína más abundante en la saliva; tiene varias funciones que la hacen especial desde el punto de vista cariogénico, por lo cual puede estar relacionada con el índice de caries. Propósito: Determinar las diferencias en la concentración de AASH en niños con diferentes índices de caries. Métodos: Se obtuvieron muestras de saliva de 100 niños que se clasificaron dentro de cuatro de las siete categorías del Sistema Internacional de Valoración y Detección de Caries (ICDAS, con 25 individuos por grupo: sanos, opacidad blanca, microcavidad y cavidad extensa. Se determinó la cantidad total de proteína por el método de Bradford y la concentración AASH por medio de la técnica de Elisa indirecta. Los valores obtenidos de proteína total y AASH fueron analizados por medio del software Stata versión 9.2. Resultados: Al comparar las medias de la concentración de proteína total en los cuatro grupos de estudio, no hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas. Los promedios de la concentración de AASH en tres de los cuatro grupos: sanos, microcavidad y opacidad blanca, no presentaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas. En el grupo de cavidad extensa, este valor fue menor, diferencia que fue estadísticamente significativa con respecto a los otros tres grupos. Conclusión: La menor concentración de AASH en el grupo con cavidad extensa posiblemente indica que, dada la redundancia funcional de esta enzima, la protección de las superficies orales es de mayor importancia. Background: Human salivary a-amylase (HSAA is the most abundant protein in saliva, has several functions that make it of special interest from a cariogenic point of view, thus may be related to the caries indexes. Purpose: Determine the differences according to the quantified amounts of HSAA in the saliva of children with different caries indexes. Methods: Salivary samples were obtained via spontaneous salivation from a total of 100 children, who were assigned into four groups (n=25 each according to four categories of the International Caries Detection & Assessment System (ICDAS: sound, white opacity, microcavity and extensive cavity. The total quantity of protein present in each of the samples was determined through the Bradford Method and the concentration of HSAA was determined by an indirect ELISA technique. Non-parametric statistical was perform with Stata 9.2 software. Results: Non-significant statistical differences for variable total protein in the four groups were found. The concentration of HSAA showed statistically significant differences between groups of individuals with white opacity and extensive cavities, microcavity and extensive cavity, and sound and extensive cavity. Conclusions: The findings suggest that from the different functions identified for HSAA, protection of the tooth surfaces has a major relevance.

Claudia Patricia Lamby Tovar

2013-09-01

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Determination of nicotine, cotinine, and related alkaloids in human urine and saliva by automated in-tube solid-phase microextraction coupled with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

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A simple, rapid and sensitive method for the determination of nicotine, cotinine, nornicotine, anabasine, and anatabine in human urine and saliva was developed. These compounds were analyzed by on-line in-tube solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Nicotine, cotinine and related alkaloids were separated within 7 min by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a Synergi 4u POLAR-RP 80A column and 5 mM ammonium formate/methanol (55/45, v/v) as a mobile phase at a flow-rate of 0.8 mL/min. Electrospray ionization conditions in the positive ion mode were optimized for MS detection of these compounds. The optimum in-tube SPME conditions were 25 draw/eject cycles with a sample size of 40 microL using a CP-Pora PLOT amine capillary column as the extraction device. The extracted compounds could be desorbed easily from the capillary by passage of the mobile phase, and no carryover was observed. Using the in-tube SPME LC-MS method, the calibration curves were linear in the concentration range of 0.5-20 ng/mL of nicotine, cotinine and related compounds in urine and saliva, and the detection limits (S/N=3) were 15-40 pg/mL. The method described here showed 20-46-fold higher sensitivity than the direct injection method (5 microL injection). The within-run and between-day precision (relative standard deviations) were below 4.7% and 11.3% (n=5), respectively. This method was applied successfully to analysis of urine and saliva samples without interference peaks. The recoveries of nicotine, cotinine and related compounds spiked into urine and saliva samples were above 83%, and the relative standard deviations were below 7.1%. This method was used to analyze urinary and salivary levels of these compounds in nicotine intake and smoking. PMID:19004590

Kataoka, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Reiko; Yagi, Katsuharu; Saito, Keita

2009-01-15

83

Fecal and Salivary Cortisol Concentrations in Woolly (Lagothrix ssp.) and Spider Monkeys (Ateles spp.)  

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Detrimental physiological effects due to stressors can contribute to the low captive success of primates. The objective of this research was to investigate the potential impact of diet composition on cortisol concentrations in feces and saliva in woolly (n=27) and spider monkeys (n=61). The research was conducted in three studies: the first investigated spider monkeys in the United States, the second investigated spider monkeys within Europe, and the third investigated woolly monkeys within E...

Ange-van Heugten, Kimberly D.; Eric van Heugten; Saskia Timmer; Guido Bosch; Abahor Elias; Scott Whisnant; Swarts, Hans J. M.; Peter Ferket; Verstegen, Martin W. A.

2009-01-01

84

R-(+) and s-(-) isomers of cotinine augment cholinergic responses in vitro and in vivo.  

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The nicotine metabolite cotinine (1-methyl-5-[3-pyridynl]-2-pyrrolidinone), like its precursor, has been found to exhibit procognitive and neuroprotective effects in some model systems; however, the mechanism of these effects is unknown. In this study, both the R-(+) and S-(-) isomers of cotinine were initially evaluated in an extensive profiling screen and found to be relatively inactive across a wide range of potential pharmacologic targets. Electrophysiological studies on human ?4?2 and ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) expressed in Xenopus oocytes confirmed the absence of agonistic activity of cotinine at ?4?2 or ?7 nAChRs. However, a significant increase in the current evoked by a low concentration of acetylcholine was observed at ?7 nAChRs exposed to 1.0 ?M R-(+)- or S-(-)-cotinine. Based on these results, we used a spontaneous novel object recognition (NOR) procedure for rodents to test the hypothesis that R-(+)- or S-(-)-cotinine might improve recognition memory when administered alone or in combination with the Alzheimer's disease (AD) therapeutic agent donepezil. Although both isomers enhanced NOR performance when they were coadministered with donepezil, neither isomer was active alone. Moreover, the procognitive effects of the drug combinations were blocked by methyllycaconitine and dihydro-?-erythroidine, indicating that both ?7 and ?4?2 nAChRs contribute to the response. These results indicate that cotinine may sensitize ?7 nAChRs to low levels of acetylcholine (a previously uncharacterized mechanism), and that cotinine could be used as an adjunctive agent to improve the effective dose range of cholinergic compounds (e.g., donepezil) in the treatment of AD and other memory disorders. PMID:25503389

Terry, Alvin V; Callahan, Patrick M; Bertrand, Daniel

2015-02-01

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A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for nicotine and cotinine; utility in screening tobacco exposure in patients taking amiodarone.  

Science.gov (United States)

A liquid chromatographic mass spectrometric (LC-MS) assay for the quantification of nicotine and cotinine in human specimens was developed. Human serum and urine (100 ?L) were subjected to liquid-liquid extraction. For glucuronidated cotinine, serum was alkalinized and hydrolyzed before extraction. The dried samples were reconstituted and run using gradient flow reverse-phase liquid chromatography with MS detection. The ions utilized for quantification of nicotine, cotinine and milrinone (internal standard) were 162.8, 176.9 and 211.9 m/z, respectively. The mean recoveries were over 80% for cotinine and nicotine with excellent linearity between nominal concentrations and peak area ratios, over a wide concentration range. The percentage coefficient of variation and mean error of the inter- and intra-day validations were <15% for nicotine and cotinine. Analysis of serum from cardiac patients receiving amiodarone suggested that a number of patients were either active smokers or exposed to second-hand smoke. Significant concentrations of nicotine and cotinine were measured in the urine of a known smoking volunteer. The method was highly specific, sensitive and applicable as a tool in detecting and monitoring the passive exposure to tobacco smoke using small specimen volumes (0.1 mL). PMID:21308701

Gabr, Raniah Q; Elsherbiny, Marwa E; Somayaji, Vishwa; Pollak, P Timothy; Brocks, Dion R

2011-10-01

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Time to first cigarette after waking predicts cotinine levels  

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There is wide variability in cotinine levels per cigarette smoked. We hypothesized that in addition to smoking frequency, other behavioral measures of nicotine dependence such as the time to first cigarette after waking are associated with cotinine levels. To test this hypothesis, we measured plasma and urinary cotinine in a community-based study of 252 black and white daily cigarette smokers. Results: Among one pack per day smokers, plasma cotinine levels varied from 16 to 1180 (ng/ml), a 74...

Muscat, Joshua E.; Stellman, Steven D.; Caraballo, Ralph S.; Richie, John P.

2009-01-01

87

Variation of serum and urine cotinine in passive and active smokers and applicability in preconceptional smoking cessation counseling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study assessed the applicability of serum and urine cotinine as a biochemical marker of self-reported smoking habits for use in a preconception smoking cessation program. The variation of serum and urine cotinine over the course of the day was investigated in a sample of 21 smokers and 8 passive smokers who reported their smoking habits and exposure to smoke daily in a questionnaire for 10 consecutive days. Blood and urine samples were collected on two sampling days, 1 week apart. Both serum and urine cotinine assay could distinguish between passive and active smokers, but not between higher categories of smokers (1019 and ?20 cigarettes per ay) due to significant intersubject overlap. In serum, no significant differences were found between morning and afternoon cotinine concentrations in either day, in contrast to urine cotinine (with lower excretions observed n the morning). An overall coefficient of variation of 22- was observed for both specimens in smokers. Because serum cotinine is subject to lower variability over the course of the day, it is more practical for use in a clinical setting where appointments are scheduled throughout the day in order o confirm smoking status

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Summary of: 'Salivary stones: symptoms, aetiology, biochemical composition and treatment'.  

Science.gov (United States)

Salivary stones, also known as sialoliths, are calcified concrements in the salivary glands. Sialoliths are more frequently located in the submandibular gland (84%), than in the parotid gland (13%). The majority of the submandibular stones are located in Wharton's duct (90%), whereas parotid stones are more often located in the gland itself. Salivary stones consist of an amorphous mineralised nucleus, surrounded by concentric laminated layers of organic and inorganic substances. The organic components of salivary stones include collagen, glycoproteins, amino acids and carbohydrates. The major inorganic components are hydroxyapatite, carbonate apatite, whitlockite and brushite. The management of salivary stones is focused on removing the salivary stones and preservation of salivary gland function which depends on the size and location of the stone. Conservative management of salivary stones consists of salivary gland massage and the use of sialogogues. Other therapeutic options include removal of the stone or in some cases surgical removal of the whole salivary gland. PMID:25476641

Carr, Andrew; Macleod, R Iain

2014-12-01

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Salivary stones: symptoms, aetiology, biochemical composition and treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Salivary stones, also known as sialoliths, are calcified concrements in the salivary glands. Sialoliths are more frequently located in the submandibular gland (84%), than in the parotid gland (13%). The majority of the submandibular stones are located in Wharton's duct (90%), whereas parotid stones are more often located in the gland itself. Salivary stones consist of an amorphous mineralised nucleus, surrounded by concentric laminated layers of organic and inorganic substances. The organic components of salivary stones include collagen, glycoproteins, amino acids and carbohydrates. The major inorganic components are hydroxyapatite, carbonate apatite, whitlockite and brushite. The management of salivary stones is focused on removing the salivary stones and preservation of salivary gland function which depends on the size and location of the stone. Conservative management of salivary stones consists of salivary gland massage and the use of sialogogues. Other therapeutic options include removal of the stone or in some cases surgical removal of the whole salivary gland. PMID:25476659

Kraaij, S; Karagozoglu, K H; Forouzanfar, T; Veerman, E C I; Brand, H S

2014-12-01

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Determinants of serum cotinine and hair cotinine as biomarkers of childhood secondhand smoke exposure  

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Understanding the determinants of childhood secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is important in measuring and preventing exposure to this widespread environmental contaminant. We evaluated the ability of a broad set of factors to explain variability in serum cotinine, reflecting recent exposure, and hair cotinine, reflecting longer-term exposure. We included repeated measures from 223 elementary-school-age asthmatic children residing with a smoker. We used a manual model-building approach and lik...

Kalkbrenner, Amy E.; Hornung, Richard W.; Bernert, John T.; Hammond, S. Katherine; Braun, Joe M.; Lanphear, Bruce P.

2010-01-01

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[Saliva cotinine determination using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode - array detection].  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of tobacco is a very serious threat to public health. Reducing the proportion of smokers easily leads to improved health of the general population. Smoking is a proven risk factor for respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease and cancer and complications during pregnancy. To verify the level of exposure to tobacco smoke in most patients used a simple test markers of exposure. The most commonly used marker in the evaluation of exposure to tobacco products is cotinine, which is a major metabolite of nicotine contained in tobacco smoke. Biological material most commonly used in this type of study is blood, urine and saliva. In the present study Sarstedt Salivette tubes were used to samples collection. In order to determine the concentration of cotinine in saliva samples analyzed with high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection after extraction of cotinine from saliva by solid phase extraction. The method was linear of 10 to 400 ng/ml. The limit of detection was the value of the signal-to-noise ratio S/N=3, it amounted to 6 ng/ml, the limit of quantification was 10 ng/ml. The intraday repeatability was 8% for lowconcentrations, for high concentrations - 3.7%. Reproducibility interdays for low concentrations was 2.4%, for high concentrations - 4.1%. We analyzed 18 samples of saliva derived from patients smoking volunteers from the Department of Conservative Dentistry and Periodontology, University of Medical Sciences. University of Medical Sciences and the Chair and Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Internal Medicine, University of Medical Sciences. University of Medical Sciences. Mean concentrations of cotinine in patients was 240.9 ng/ml of saliva. In this study we demonstrated the usefulness of the saliva cotinine determination method in the assessment of patient exposure to tobacco smoke. PMID:23421043

Kulza, Maksymilian; Wo?niak, Anna; Se?czuk-Przyby?owska, Monika; Czarnywojtek, Agata; Kurha?ska-Flisykowska, Anna; Florek, Ewa

2012-01-01

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Radionuclide salivary gland imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific

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Deuterium isotope effects in the in vivo metabolism of cotinine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In an attempt to further understanding of the molecular mechanisms associated with the mammalian oxidative metabolism of foreign substances, the deuterium isotope effect involved in the in vivo metabolism of the tobacco alkaloid cotinine was investigated. Mixtures of cotinine-d0 and cotinine-3,3-d2 in varying ratios were administered to Rhesus monkeys. Unchanged drug and several of its oxidized metabolites including trans-3-hydroxycotinine were isolated from the 24-hr urine collection. The deuterium contents of these isolated compounds were found to be greater than that present in the administered cotinine except for trans-3-hydroxycotinine which showed a substantial decrease in the deuterium to proton ratio. On the basis of these determinations the deuterium isotope effect for the 3-hydroxylation of cotinine was calculated to be between 6 and 7, indicating that carbon--hydrogen bond cleavage is likely to be involved in the rate-determining step in this metabolic conversion. (U.S.)

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Serum cotinine level as predictor of lung cancer risk.  

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BACKGROUND: No prospective studies are available on serum cotinine level as a marker of lung cancer risk. METHODS: We analyzed serum cotinine level among 1,741 individuals enrolled since the 1970s in a prospective study of Norwegian volunteers who developed lung cancer during the follow-up and 1,741 matched controls free from lung cancer. Serum cotinine was measured with a competitive immunoassay. Regression dilution was corrected for based on repeated measures on samples from 747 subjects. R...

Boffetta, P.; Clark, S.; Shen, M.; Gislefoss, R.; Peto, R; Andersen, A.

2006-01-01

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Racial Differences in Serum Cotinine Levels of Smokers  

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The purpose of this study was to estimate black/white differences in cotinine levels for current smokers of both sexes, and to explore the potential contribution of mentholated cigarettes to these differences. Sera from 255 current smokers sampled from Southern Community Cohort Study participants (65 black men, 65 black women, 63 white men, 62 white women) were analyzed for cotinine, and linear regression was used to model the effect of race on cotinine level, adjusting for the number of ciga...

Signorello, Lisa B.; Qiuyin Cai; Tarone, Robert E.; Mclaughlin, Joseph K.; Blot, William J.

2009-01-01

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Comparación de la concentración total de proteínas salivales de adultos y adultos mayores Comparison of total salivary protein concentration in adults and older adults  

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Full Text Available Objetivo: Entre las moléculas orgánicas que componen la saliva se han descrito un gran número de proteínas. No existe evidencia suficiente que permita especular sobre los cambios en el contenido proteico salival asociados al envejecimiento normal. El objetivo fue determinar si existen diferencias en la concentración total de proteínas en saliva de adultos y adultos mayores. Método: Se obtuvieron muestras de saliva estimulada y no estimulada de individuos pertenecientes a dos grupos etarios, adultos (A (n=30 (edad promedio: 25 años y adultos mayores (AM (n=30 (edad promedio: 68 años. Se excluyeron aquellos sujetos que presentaron alguna patología oral/sistémica o consumo de fármacos/sustancias relacionados con alteraciones del flujo o composición salival. Cada muestra fue centrifugada. A 10 µl del sobrenadante se agregaron 190 µl de solución de Bradford. Se realizó el recuento mediante lectura con espectrofotómetro (595 nm. La concentración de proteínas fue comparada entre los grupos en estudio utilizando la prueba t de Student (pObjective: A high number of proteins has been described in saliva. Scarce evidence allows to speculate about the variations on protein content associated with aging. The aim was to determine if there is a difference in total protein concentration between adults and older adults. Methods: Samples were collected from unstimulated and stimulated saliva of individuals from two age groups, adults (A (n=30 (mean age 25 years and older adults (OA (n=30(mean age: 68 years. Subjects with oral/systemic diseases or consuming medications that alter salivary flow were excluded from the study. Each sample was centrifuged and 10 ?l of the supernatant was added to 190 ?l of Bradford solution. Protein concentration was obtained by spectrophotometry (595 nm Protein concentration was compared between the groups using student’s t test (p<0.05. Results: Total protein concentration from unstimulated saliva was higher in OA (5.5±2.6 ug/ul than in A (3.2 ± 1.7 ug/ul (p<0.05. Total protein concentration of stimulated saliva was higher in OA (4.9±0.4 ug/ul than in A (4.0±0.3 ug/ul (p<0.05. Conclusion: Salivary protein concentration increases in older adults. Further studies are suggested to characterize these changes.

RJ Castro

2012-04-01

97

Combined Analysis of the Tobacco Metabolites Cotinine and 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol in Human Urine.  

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Two of the most widely measured compounds in the urine of people who use tobacco products are cotinine, a major metabolite of the addictive constituent nicotine, and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), a metabolite of the powerful lung carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). Thousands of analyses have been reported in the literature, carried out exclusively, to the best of our knowledge, by separate methods. In the study reported here, we have developed a sensitive, accurate, and precise liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry-selected reaction monitoring method for the combined analysis of total cotinine (the sum of cotinine and its glucuronide) and total NNAL (the sum of NNAL and its glucuronide). The new method quantifies naturally occurring [(13)C]cotinine to minimize problems associated with the vast differences in concentration of total cotinine and total NNAL in urine. This method should greatly facilitate future determinations of these important compounds. PMID:25544129

Kotandeniya, Delshanee; Carmella, Steven G; Ming, Xun; Murphy, Sharon E; Hecht, Stephen S

2015-02-01

98

Combined Analysis of the Tobacco Metabolites Cotinine and 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol in Human Urine  

Science.gov (United States)

Two of the most widely measured compounds in the urine of people who use tobacco products are cotinine, a major metabolite of the addictive constituent nicotine, and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), a metabolite of the powerful lung carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). Thousands of analyses have been reported in the literature, carried out exclusively – to the best of our knowledge – by separate methods. In the study reported here, we have developed a sensitive, accurate, and precise liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry-selected reaction monitoring method for the combined analysis of total cotinine (the sum of cotinine and its glucuronide) and total NNAL (the sum of NNAL and its glucuronide). The new method quantifies naturally occurring [13C]cotinine to minimize problems associated with the vast differences in concentration of total cotinine and total NNAL in urine. This method should greatly facilitate future determinations of these important compounds. PMID:25544129

Kotandeniya, Delshanee; Carmella, Steven G.; Ming, Xun; Murphy, Sharon E.; Hecht, Stephen S.

2015-01-01

99

Determination of a saliva cotinine cut-off to distinguish pregnant smokers from pregnant non-smokers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Objective validation of smoking status is necessary. Earlier studies have used saliva cotinine concentrations between 14.2 and 30 ng/ml as cut-off values to distinguish pregnant smokers from non-smokers. However, these cut-offs derive from studies including men and non-pregnant women. This constitutes a problem, as recent studies have reported an accelerated metabolism in pregnant smokers. The aim of this study was to determine the optimum cut-off cotinine level distinguishing pregnant smokers from pregnant non-smokers.

Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne

2007-01-01

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What happens to women's self-reported cigarette consumption and urinary cotinine levels in pregnancy?  

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AIMS: To describe the pattern of self-reported cigarette consumption and nicotine consumption, measured by urinary cotinine concentration, in a cohort of pregnant women who did not stop smoking. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Randomly selected general practices from the West Midlands, UK. PARTICIPANTS: Five hundred and fifty-nine pregnant women in a clinical trial who were enrolled at booking for maternity care (about 12 weeks of gestation), who were followed up in mid and late pregnancy and ...

Lawrence, T.; Aveyard, P.; Croghan, E.

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Determination of nicotine and cotinine in tobacco harvesters' urine by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography.  

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A solid-phase extraction method using Drug Test-1 column containing chemically modified silica as a solid support for sample clean up and reversed phase ion-paired high-pressure liquid chromatography method have been developed for the simultaneous determination of nicotine and its metabolite cotinine from the urine samples. Mobile phase was consisted of acetate buffer (containing 0.03 M sodium acetate and 0.1 M acetic acid) pH 3.1 and acetonitrile (78:22% (v/v)) containing 0.02 M sodium octanosulfonate as an ion pair agent. pH of the mobile phase was adjusted to 3.6 with triethylamine for better resolution and to prevent peak tailing. The linearity was obtained in the range of 0.5-10 microg/ml concentrations of nicotine and cotinine standards. The correlation coefficients were 0.998 for cotinine and 0.999 for nicotine. The recoveries were obtained in the range of 79-97% with average value of 85% for nicotine and in the range of 82-98% with average value of 88% for cotinine. The limit of detection was 2 ng/ml for cotinine and 5 ng/ml for nicotine with 2 ml urine for extraction, calculated by taking signal to noise ratio 10:3. The intra-day co-efficient of variation (CV) were nicotine and cotinine, respectively. The method was applied to the urine samples of tobacco harvesters, who suffer from green tobacco sickness (GTS) to check the absorption of nicotine through dermal route during the various processes of tobacco cultivation due to its good reproducibility and sensitivity. PMID:15018794

Doctor, P B; Gokani, V N; Kulkarni, P K; Parikh, J R; Saiyed, H N

2004-04-01

102

Salivary testosterone levels in preadolescent children  

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Abstract Background Saliva reflects the plasma free fraction of testosterone which is biologically active, and available for uptake by tissues. Testosterone concentration in saliva, though differing slightly from the concentration of unbound testosterone in serum, is in good correlation with the latter, indicating that salivary testosterone provides a reliable method for determination of serum free testosterone. The study aimed to investigate salivary testosterone levels and ...

Dohnányiová Monika; Putz Zdenek; Pastor Karol; Ostatníková Daniela; Mat'ašeje Anna; Hampl Richard

2002-01-01

103

Salivary Gland Cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

... t y g H Types of Cancer Navigating Cancer Care Coping and Emotions Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About Us s You are here Home > Types of Cancer > Salivary Gland Cancer Salivary Gland Cancer This is ...

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Relationship between Caregivers’ Smoking at Home and Urinary Levels of Cotinine in Children  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: To assess the impact of different smoking behaviors of caregivers on environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in children aged 5–6 years in Changsha, China. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, random digit-dial telephone survey of caregivers (n = 543) between August and October 2013. Caregivers’ smoking behaviors were collected by a questionnaire. Exposure assessment was based upon determination of urinary cotinine levels in children employing gas chromatography–triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Results: In children not living with a smoker, children living with one smoker, and children living with more than one smoker at home, median urinary cotinine concentrations (ng/mL) were 0.72, 2.97, and 4.46, respectively. For children living with one smoker, median urinary cotinine levels of children exposed to ETS were associated with caregiver smoking behaviors, i.e., if a caregiver consumed more cigarettes (>20 compared with ?10; 7.73 versus 2.29 ng/mL, respectively). Conclusions: The magnitude of ETS exposure in children is correlated with the smoking behaviors of the caregiver. Counseling for smoking cessation and educational interventions are needed urgently for smoking caregivers to increase their awareness about ETS exposure and to encourage smoking cessation at home or to take precautions to protect children’s health. PMID:25469922

Wang, Yun; Yang, Mei; Tian, Lang; Huang, Zhiqiang; Chen, Faming; Hu, Jingsong; Wang, Fuzhi; Chen, Gui; Xiao, Shuiyuan

2014-01-01

105

Relationship between Caregivers’ Smoking at Home and Urinary Levels of Cotinine in Children  

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Full Text Available Objective: To assess the impact of different smoking behaviors of caregivers on environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure in children aged 5–6 years in Changsha, China. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, random digit-dial telephone survey of caregivers (n = 543 between August and October 2013. Caregivers’ smoking behaviors were collected by a questionnaire. Exposure assessment was based upon determination of urinary cotinine levels in children employing gas chromatography–triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS. Results: In children not living with a smoker, children living with one smoker, and children living with more than one smoker at home, median urinary cotinine concentrations (ng/mL were 0.72, 2.97, and 4.46, respectively. For children living with one smoker, median urinary cotinine levels of children exposed to ETS were associated with caregiver smoking behaviors, i.e., if a caregiver consumed more cigarettes (>20 compared with ?10; 7.73 versus 2.29 ng/mL, respectively. Conclusions: The magnitude of ETS exposure in children is correlated with the smoking behaviors of the caregiver. Counseling for smoking cessation and educational interventions are needed urgently for smoking caregivers to increase their awareness about ETS exposure and to encourage smoking cessation at home or to take precautions to protect children’s health.

Yun Wang

2014-12-01

106

The Relationship between Serum Cotinine Levels and Periodontal Status  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Smoking plays a significant role in the development of periodontal disease. Quantitative relation between smoking and increased severity of periodontal disease, by means of biochemical marker has not been described in Malaysian population. The present study was designed to apply serum cotinine measurement as a quantitative method to evaluate smoking levels in Malaysian patients and to correlate these levels with the severity of periodontal disease. Approach: The study group consisted of 80 healthy individuals (20-64 year, Current Smokers 26, Non Smokers 27 and Former Smokers 27. The subjects were then asked to complete a questionnaire including the demographic, socioeconomic status, medical history and history of cigarette smoking. The periodontal variables recorded were amount of Visible Plaque score, gingival bleeding Index and community periodontal index. Samples of blood ?10 mL? were obtained in vacutainer tubes containing EDTA for quantitative analysis of serum levels of cotinine. The serum samples were analyzed for cotinine content by means of a competitive-inhibition ELISA technique. Results: Current smokers represent the highest mean cotinine serum level, 95.5 ng mL-1, compared to former smokers, 35.5 ng mL-1 and non smokers, 22.9 ng mL-1. The mean serum cotinine level in periodontally healthy patient showed the highest cotinine level (84 ng mL-1 followed by the gingivitis patients (68 ng mL-1 and (50 ng mL-1 for periodontitis patients. Conclusion: The present observations clearly indicate an association between smoking, periodontal disease clinical parameters ?plaque, gingival bleeding scores? and cotinine serum levels in current smokers. Cotinine serum levels doesn?t affected by the existence or the severity of periodontal disease.

Fouad H. AL-Bayaty

2010-01-01

107

The influence of parental smoking and family type on saliva cotinine in UK ethnic minority children: a cross sectional study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In the United Kingdom, there has been an increase in cigarette smoking in ethnic minority adults since the 1970s; in some groups levels are now similar to that of White British people. We aimed to examine the determinants of exposure to secondhand smoke in ethnic minority children. We hypothesised that exposure to secondhand smoke in children will vary across ethnic groups, but that the correlates of exposure would be similar to that of Whites. Methods The Determinants of Adolescent Social well-being and Health sample comprises 3468 White United Kingdom and ethnic minority (Black Caribbean, Black African, Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi pupils aged 11-13 yrs. Outcome was saliva cotinine concentration. Explanatory variables collected by self-complete questionnaire included ethnicity, child reported household smoking and socio-economic circumstances. Data were analysed using linear regression models with a random intercept function. Results Ethnic minority children had lower saliva cotinine than Whites, partly explained by less smoking among parents. White and Black Caribbean children had higher cotinine levels if they lived in a household with a maternal smoker only, than with a paternal smoker only. Living in a lone compared to a dual parent household was associated with increased cotinine concentration of 45% (95%CI 5, 99% in Whites, 27% (95%CI 5,53% in Black Caribbeans and 21% (95%CI 1, 45% in Black Africans after adjusting for household smoking status. Material disadvantage was a significant correlate only for White children (40% (95%CI 1, 94% increase in cotinine in least compared to most advantaged group. Conclusions Ethnic minority children were less exposed to secondhand smoke than Whites, but the variations within groups were similarly patterned. These findings suggest that it is important not to be complacent about low smoking prevalence in some minority groups.

Harding Seeromanie

2010-05-01

108

Salivary changes and dental caries as potential oral markers of autoimmune salivary gland dysfunction in primary Sjögren's syndrome  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background the classification criteria for primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS include a number of oral components. In this study we evaluated if salivary flow and composition as well as dental caries are oral markers of disease severity in pSS. Methods in 20 patients fulfilling the American-European Consensus criteria for pSS and 20 age-matched healthy controls whole and parotid saliva flow rates and composition, measures of oral dryness, scores of decayed, missing and filled tooth surfaces (DMFS, periodontal indices, oral hygiene, and dietary habits were examined. Results in pSS, salivary flow rates, pH, and buffer capacities were lower, and DMFS, salivary sodium and chloride concentrations higher than in the healthy controls. DMFS also correlated inversely to salivary flow rates and positively to oral dryness. Apart from slightly increased gingival index, and more frequent dental visits in pSS, the periodontal condition, oral hygiene or sugar intake did not differ between these two groups. In pSS, findings were correlated to labial salivary gland focus score (FS and presence of serum-autoantibodies to SSA/SSB (AB. The patients having both presence of AB and the highest FS (>2 also had the highest salivary sodium and chloride concentrations, the lowest salivary phosphate concentrations, lowest salivary flow rates, and highest DMFS compared to those with normal salivary concentrations of sodium and chloride at a given flow rate. Conclusion the salivary changes observed in some pSS patients reflect impaired ductal salt reabsorption, but unaffected acinar transport mechanisms, despite low salivary secretion. Our results suggest that changes in salivary flow and composition as well as dental caries may serve as potential markers of the extent of autoimmune-mediated salivary gland dysfunction in pSS. The study also indicates that the ductal epithelium is functionally affected in some pSS patients, which calls for future pathophysiological studies on the mechanisms underlying this impaired salt reabsorption.

Nauntofte Birgitte

2005-03-01

109

In Vitro Inhibition of Human Sperm Creatine Kinase by Nicotine,Cotinine and Cadmium, as a Mechanism in Smoker Men Infertility  

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Full Text Available Background: Nicotine, cotinine and cadmium are harmful components of cigarettes that have aneffect on human reproductive function. Although the effects of cigarette smoke on male reproductivefunction is characterized in several articles its mechanism of action is still unknown.In the present study, we investigate the effect of nicotine, cotinine and cadmium on human spermcreatine kinase activity in vitro.Materials and Methods: Total creatine kinase activity is measured in sperm homogenates afterchromatography on a diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-32 column.Results: We show that creatine kinase activity is significantly inhibited by nicotine (44%, cotinine(39% and cadmium (65% at a concentration of 60 ?g/ml. Kinetic studies reveal that the inhibitoryeffect of nicotine, cotinine and cadmium are competitive in relation to creatine phosphate.Conclusion: Considering the importance of creatine kinase activity for normal sperm energymetabolism, our results suggest that inhibition of this enzyme by nicotine, cotinine and cadmium maybe an important mechanism in infertility amongst male smokers. However, further investigationsare needed to elucidate the exact mechanism of cigarette effect on male reproductive function atthe molecular level.

Mohammad Ali Ghaffari

2009-01-01

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Effect of nicotine, cotinine and phenethyl isothiocyanate on 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) metabolism in the Syrian golden hamster.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of nicotine, cotinine and phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) on metabolism of the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) was studied in the Syrian golden hamster. Urinary metabolite profiles were determined in 24 h urine after a single subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of [5-(3)H]NNK (80 nmol/kg, s.c.). Co-administration of either a 500-fold higher dose of nicotine (40 micromol/kg, s.c.) or a 5000-fold higher dose of cotinine (400 micromol/kg, s.c.) significantly (Pnicotine (155%), and significantly increased by cotinine (670%, Ptest agents. Detoxification of NNK and NNAL by N-oxidation was marginally increased by nicotine, reduced by PEITC, and significantly reduced by cotinine. The urinary metabolite profiles suggest that nicotine, which occurs in concentrations up to 30000-fold higher than NNK in mainstream cigarette smoke, and cotinine, its proximal metabolite, may have a significant protective effect against in vivo metabolic activation of NNK. PMID:12204546

Richter, Elmar; Tricker, Anthony R

2002-09-30

111

Effects of administration of potassium- and sodiumchlorides on faecal excretions and salivary and alimentary concentrations of, Na, K, 134Cs, Ca, Mg and P in reindeer fed a lichen diet  

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Full Text Available A comparison of the effects of administration of 350 mmol d-1 of KC1 or NaCl on faecal excretions, salivary concentrations and concentrations and pools of Na, K, 134Cs, Ca, Mg, P, and water in the alimentary tract of reindeer was carried out using three groups of three 10 months old reindeer fed a lichen diet. One group was used as a control group with no mineral supplementation. The level of K supplementation mimicked K intakes from summer pastures. NaCl was given at a rate which would mimic intake from salt licks by domestic ruminants of similar body size. Treatment with KC1 increased the salivary and alimentary concentrations and the alimentary pool sizes of K and faecal excretion of K increased. A decrease in l34Cs concentrations in all parts of the gastrointestinal tract indicated greater absorption of 134Cs during the KC1 treatment than in NaCl treated and control animals. Increased intake of Na or K had no significant effect on the digestibility of the lichen diet, but urine production increased. Little effects on pools or concentrations of Ca, Mg and P were observed. NaCl treatment increased urinary and faecal excretion of Na, but did not affect the metabolism of any of the other studied minerals.

Øyvind Pedersen

1998-02-01

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Prevalence of Smoking Assessed Biochemically in an Urban Public Hospital: A Rationale for Routine Cotinine Screening  

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Cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine, has been used to study tobacco smoke exposure in population studies, but the authors are unaware of its use to screen hospitalized patients. The authors measured serum cotinine levels in 948 patients admitted to an urban public hospital in San Francisco, California, between September 2005 and July 2006. On the basis of cotinine levels, they classified patients as active smokers (cotinine ? 14 ng/mL), recent smokers or significantly exposed to secondhand s...

Benowitz, Neal L.; Schultz, Katherine E.; Haller, Christine A.; Wu, Alan H. B.; Dains, Katherine M.; Jacob, Peyton

2009-01-01

113

Enhancement of both salivary protein-enological tannin interactions and astringency perception by ethanol.  

Science.gov (United States)

Red wine astringency has been associated with interactions of tannins with salivary proteins. Tannins are active protein precipitants. Not much evidence exists demonstrating contribution of other wine components to astringency. We aimed to investigate an eventual role of ethanol both in astringency and salivary protein-enological tannin interactions. A trained sensory panel scored perceived astringency. Salivary protein-tannin interactions were assessed by observing both tannin-dependent changes in salivary protein diffusion on cellulose membranes and tannin-induced salivary protein precipitation. Proanthocyanidins and gallotannins in aqueous and hydroalcoholic solutions were assayed. A biphasic mode of diffusion on cellulose membranes displayed by salivary proteins was unaffected after dilution with water or enological concentrations of ethanol. At those concentrations ethanol was not astringent. In aqueous solution, tannins provoked both restriction of salivary protein diffusion, protein precipitation, and astringency. Those effects were exacerbated by 13% ethanol. In summary, enological concentrations of ethanol exacerbate astringency and salivary protein-tannin interactions. PMID:20158256

Obreque-Slíer, Elías; Peña-Neira, Alvaro; López-Solís, Remigio

2010-03-24

114

[Urinary cotinine in patients with hyperthyroidism].  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of our study was an analysis of cotynine, the main nicotine metabolite in the urine among hyperthyroid patients. The study group included 39 females and 4 males. The mean age was 35.59+/-14.22 yrs. (range: 18-73 yrs.; median: 32 yrs) among hyperthyroid patients suffering from: Graves-Basedow disease (GB), Graves' Ophtalmopathy (GO) and toxic nodular goiter (TNG). To evaluate the nicotine smoking intensity and ETS Environmental Tobacco Smoke, the urine analysis of cotynine level were performed. According to the statistical analysis using the Mann-Whitney test, the statistically significant difference between the level of cotynine among smokers suffering from GO and Graves-Basedow disease was revealed (p = 0.03). Similar results were obtained among the GO and TNG (p=0.02) using t-Student test with Welsch correction. To compare, there was no stastistically significant difference between the GB and TNG series (p=0.4). In the group of smoking patients with GO we found out incresed level of urine cotinine than in smoking patients with GB and TNG. We didn't found differences between GB and TNG in depends on an urine analysis of cotynine level. PMID:16521942

Czarnywojtek, Agata; Rabska-Pietrzak, Barbara; Rucha?a, Marek; Florek, Ewa; Piekoszewski, Wojciech; Warmuz-Stangierska, Izabela; Micha?ek, Krzysztof; Sowi?ski, Jerzy

2005-01-01

115

Estudo da concentração salivar do fator de crescimento epidérmico em indivíduos com laringite crônica por refluxo laringofaríngeo / Salivary EGF concentration in adults with chronic laryngitis caused by laryngopharyngeal reflux  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: A Doença do Refluxo Gastroesofágico (DRGE), chegando até a faringe e laringe, pode cursar com intensa inflamação local e rica sintomatologia (Refluxo Laringofaríngeo RLF). Os estudos atuais não foram capazes de provar que o ácido refluído é o causador das alterações visualizadas na larin [...] gite crônica. O Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico (EGF) é um polipeptídeo produzido pelas glândulas salivares, sendo implicado na indução do crescimento epitelial, na inibição da secreção gástrica e na aceleração da cicatrização. Deficiência salivar deste fator foi encontrada na esofagite de refluxo, mas não há relatos sobre a concentração salivar de EGF em indivíduos com RLF. OBJETIVO: Determinar a concentração salivar do EGF em indivíduos com RLF. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Caso controle. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODO: A concentração salivar de EGF de 39 indivíduos com RLF e 20 controles normais foi estudada pela técnica de ELISA. O RLF foi diagnosticado por história e exame videolaringoscópico característicos. Os 39 pacientes com RLF foram estratificados de acordo com os achados de endoscopia digestiva (com ou sem esofagite associada) e de acordo com a intensidade da laringite crônica. Foram, também, submetidos a manometria esofágica e pH-metria esofágica de 24 horas com dois canais. RESULTADOS: Constatou-se uma concentração de EGF significativamente menor nos indivíduos com RLF quando comparados aos controles normais (p=0,002). Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante na concentração salivar de EGF entre os indivíduos com RLF, nem em relação à presença de esofagite, nem quanto à intensidade da laringite. CONCLUSÕES: Este estudo sugere que uma deficiência na concentração salivar do Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico pode estar associada à patogenia da DRGE, e que este polipeptídeo poderia ser um co-fator na gênese do RLF. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) may cause intense inflammation and symptoms in the larynx and pharynx (Laryngopharyngeal Reflux LPR). Studies have not been able to establish a direct link between the refluxed acid and the typical laryngeal findings in LPR. The Epidermal Growth F [...] actor (EGF) is a polypeptide produced by the salivary glands and shown to induce epithelial development, inhibit gastric acid secretion and accelerate wound healing. This factor is decreased in the saliva of patients with reflux esophagitis, but there are no reports of its behavior in LPR. AIM: The objective of this study was to determine the salivary concentration of EGF in adults with LPR compared to normal controls. STUDY DESIGN: Control study. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The salivary EGF concentration of 39 patients with LPR and 20 healthy controls was determined using a commercially available ELISA kit. LPR was diagnosed based on history and typical laryngopharyngeal signs. The 39 patients with LPR were graded according to endoscopic (presence of associated esophagitis) and laryngoscopic criteria (severity of laryngitis). Patients with LPR were also submitted to esophageal manometry and 24-hour double probe pH-metry. RESULTS: Salivary EGF concentration was significantly lower in the LPR group when compared to controls (p= 0,002). No correlation between the severity of laryngeal findings or presence/absence of esophagitis and salivary EGF concentration could be determined. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that a decreased salivary concentration of Epidermal Growth Factor could be associated to the pathogenesis of GERD and that this same deficiency could also be related to LPR.

Claudia A., Eckley; Henrique O., Costa.

2003-10-01

116

MALIGNANT SALIVARY GLAND TUMORS  

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Full Text Available Malignant salivary gland tumors make up 6% of all head and neck tumors. Several types of cancer can develop in these glands. Only malignant tumors of the salivary glands are discussed in this paper. The diagnosis and treatment of salivary gland malignancies remain complex, with challenging problems for maxillo-facial surgeon. Scientists have found few risk factors that make a person more likely to develop salivary gland cancer. Salivary gland cancer is uncommon, and there is no widely recommended screening schedule for this cancer. CT scanning or MRI is useful for determining the extent of large tumors, for evaluating extraglandular extension, for determining the actual depth of parotid tumors, and for discovering other tumors in one gland or in the controlateral gland. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB is a valuable diagnostic adjunct in evaluation of head and neck masses but its role in evaluation of salivary gland tumors is controversial. There are also discussed some histologic findings about mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, acinic cell carcinoma, carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenoma, squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma developed in salivary glands. Carefully planned and executed surgical excision is the primary treatment for all malignant tumors of the salivary glands. The principles of surgery vary with the site of origin. The extent of surgery is based on the size of the tumor, local extension and neck metastases. Staging of malignant salivary gland tumors is important for predicting prognosis and for accurate comparison of treatment results.

Violeta Trandafir

2010-05-01

117

Intracerebellar behavioral interactions between nicotine, cotinine and ethanol in mice  

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Using ethanol-induced motor incoordination as the test response as evaluated by rotorod, possible behavioral interactions between ethanol and (-)-nicotine in the cerebellum, one of the key motor area, were investigated. (-)-Nicotine, 5, 1.25, 0.625 ng/100nL intracerebellarly significantly attenuated motor incoordination due to ethanol in a dose-dependent manner. Similarly, (-)-cotinine, a major metabolite of nicotine, 5, 2.5, and 1.25 ng/100nL, significantly but less marked compared to (-)-nicotine attenuated ethanol-induced motor incoordination. The highest, 5 ng/100nL, dose of (-)-nicotine or (-)-cotinine followed by saline instead of ethanol did not alter normal motor coordination. The attenuation of ethanol-induced motor incoordination by (-)-nicotine and (-)- cotinine was blocked by intracerebellar hexamethonium 1 ug/100nL, a purported nicotinic cholinergic antagonist. The data obtained strongly suggest participation of cerebellar nicotinic cholinergic receptor in the ethanol-induced motor incoordination.

Dar, M.S.; Li, C. (East Carolina Univ., Greenville, NC (United States))

1992-02-26

118

Environmental tobacco smoke and canine urinary cotinine level  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Epidemiologic studies of companion animals such as dogs have been established as models for the relationship between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and cancer risk in humans. While results from these studies are provocative, pet owner report of a dog's ETS exposure has not yet been validated. We have evaluated the relationship between dog owner's report of household smoking by questionnaire and dog's urinary cotinine level. Between January and October 2005, dog owners presenting their pet for non-emergency veterinary care at the Foster Hospital for Small Animals at Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, were asked to complete a 10-page questionnaire measuring exposure to household ETS in the previous 24 h and other factors. A free-catch urine sample was also collected from dogs. Urinary cotinine level was assayed for 63 dogs, including 30 whose owners reported household smoking and 33 unexposed dogs matched on age and month of enrollment. Urinary cotinine level was significantly higher in dogs exposed to household smoking in the 24 h before urine collection compared to unexposed dogs (14.6 ng/ml vs. 7.4 ng/ml; P=0.02). After adjustment for other factors, cotinine level increased linearly with number of cigarettes smoked by all household members (P=0.004). Other canine characteristics including age, body composition and nose length were also associated with cotinine level. Findings from our study suggest that household smoking levels ady suggest that household smoking levels as assessed by questionnaire are significantly associated with canine cotinine levels

119

Salivary Gland Cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Salivary gland cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. It is rare. It may not cause any ... pain in your face Doctors diagnose salivary gland cancer using a physical exam, imaging tests, and a ...

120

Detection by radioimmunoassay of nicotinamide nucleotide analogues in tissues of rabbits injected with nicotine and cotinine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The formation of the NAD and NADP analogues of nicotine and cotinine in vitro by the NAD glycohydrolase-catalyzed exchange reaction suggested that such compounds (and the related mononucleotides) might also be produced in animals receiving the alkaloid or its metabolite. Since only sensitive and specific analytical methods could detect small amounts of the nicotine and cotinine analogues in the presence of the naturally occurring and abundant NMN, NAD and NADP compounds, radioimmunoassays were developed and used for this purpose. In rabbits injected with cotinine, cotinine nucleotide analogues were found at pmole levels/g of wet tissue in extracts from liver, kidney and lung. In both liver and lung extracts, cotinine mononucleotide was identified as the major product. Cotinine nucleotides were also found in the tissues of rabbits injected with nicotine. The rapid metabolism of nicotine to cotinine in vivo probably contributes to the sparsity of the nicotine analogues in tissue extracts from these animals. (author)

 
 
 
 
121

Elevated salivary C-reactive protein levels are associated with active and passive smoking in healthy youth: A pilot study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined salivary C-reactive protein (CRP levels in the context of tobacco smoke exposure (TSE in healthy youth. We hypothesized that there would be a dose-response relationship between TSE status and salivary CRP levels. Methods This work is a pilot study (N = 45 for a larger investigation in which we aim to validate salivary CRP against serum CRP, the gold standard measurement of low-grade inflammation. Participants were healthy youth with no self-reported periodontal disease, no objectively measured obesity/adiposity, and no clinical depression, based on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II. We assessed tobacco smoking and confirmed smoking status (non-smoking, passive smoking, and active smoking with salivary cotinine measurement. We measured salivary CRP by the ELISA method. We controlled for several potential confounders. Results We found evidence for the existence of a dose-response relationship between the TSE status and salivary CRP levels. Conclusions Our preliminary findings indicate that salivary CRP seems to have a similar relation to TSE as its widely used serum (systemic inflammatory biomarker counterpart.

Azar Rima

2011-12-01

122

Salivary phenytoin radioimmunoassay  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A simple, specific and rapid radioimmunoassay method for the assessment of non-protein bound ('free') phenytoin concentrations in mixed saliva using 125I-labelled phenytoin is described. Epileptic patients on maintenance phenytoin therapy have mixed saliva phenytoin concentrations similar to 'free' drug levels measured directly in serum or cerebrospinal fluid. Salivary phenytoin levels are approximately 10% of the total serum level in treated epileptic patients and in normal subjects after ingestion of a single oral dose. The half time of disappearance of phenytoin after 100 or 300 mg doses is 12.2 +- 3.0 h in serum and 12. 3 +- 3.2 h in saliva. This method of assessing the biologically active fraction of the drug may be particularly valuable in situations where serum protein binding is abnormal or in drug interactions. It is also non-invasive and requires small sample volumes (20?l) and may therefore be valuable in paediatric practice and in pharmacokinetic studies in which multiple venepunctures would otherwise be required. (orig./MG)

123

Cotinine and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Levels in the Amniotic Fluid and Fetal Cord at Birth and in the Urine from Pregnant Smokers  

Science.gov (United States)

Cigarette smoking during pregnancy has several impacts on fetal development, including teratogenic effects. The objective of this study was to assess whether the toxic substances (cotinine and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) found in pregnant smokers are transmitted to their fetuses. The outcomes were analyzed measuring cotinine and 1-hydroxypyrene in the amniotic fluid and maternal urine, benzopyrene and cotinine in the umbilical cord blood. Through a controlled cross-sectional design, 125 pregnant women were selected and classified according to their smoking status: 37 current smokers, 25 passive smokers and 63 non-smokers (controls). We performed high-performance liquid chromatography to measure substances’ concentrations. A post-hoc Tukey’s test was used to analyze the differences between the groups. All variables were significantly different between controls and smokers. The mean ratios between the concentration of cotinine in smokers compared to controls were as follows: 5.9 [2.5–13.5], pgroups together, there were statistical differences between all variables. Thus, the fetuses of pregnant smokers are exposed to toxic and carcinogens substances. To our knowledge, this is the first study to measure 1-hydroxypyrene in the amniotic fluid and benzopyrene in umbilical cord blood by high-performance liquid chromatography when considering pregnant women in relation to smoking exposure only. PMID:25549364

Machado, Julia de Barros; Chatkin, José Miguel; Zimmer, Aline Rigon; Goulart, Ana Paula Szezepaniak; Thiesen, Flávia Valladão

2014-01-01

124

SALIVARY GLANDS - AN OVERVIEW  

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Full Text Available The glands are divided into major and minor salivary gland categories. The major salivary glands are parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands. The minor glands are dispersed throughout the upper aero-digestive submucosa. Saliva is the watery substance produced in the mouths of humans and other animals. Saliva is a component of oral fluid. Human saliva is composed of 98% water, while the other 2% consists of other compounds such as electrolytes, mucus, antibacterial compounds and various enzymes. A review of some patents on salivary glands is also provided that summarizes the recent technical advancements taken place in this area.

Gaurav Solanki

2012-04-01

125

The elimination half-life of urinary cotinine in children of tobacco-smoking mothers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is strongly associated with childhood morbidity. Cotinine, the major metabolite of nicotine, is a useful marker of tobacco smoke exposure. Cotinine levels in infants are higher than in older children or adults exposed to the same reported quantity of ETS. One hypothesis to explain this difference is that the urinary elimination half-life of cotinine is different between infants and older children. Urine was collected at admission, 12, 24 and 48 h, cotinine levels were subsequently measured and then standardized by correcting for creatinine excretion. Urinary elimination half-life of cotinine was calculated in 31 infants and 23 older children. The median half-life was 28.3 h (range 6.3-258.5 h) in infants, and 27.14 h (range 9.7-99.42 h) in older children. A Mann-Whitney U test showed no significant difference in the median half-life of cotinine between the two age groups (P = 0.18). Multivariate linear regression analysis demonstrated no significant relationship between half-life of cotinine and corrected cotinine level (P = 0.24). Our results support the hypothesis that higher cotinine levels in infants is due to greater exposure, rather than slower metabolism of cotinine. PMID:10101746

Leong, J W; Dore, N D; Shelley, K; Holt, E J; Laing, I A; Palmer, L J; LeSouef, P N

1998-01-01

126

Salivary duct stones  

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... of these glands is called parotitis, or parotiditis. Submandibular glands. These two glands located at the back ... the mouth. Salivary stones most often affect the submandibular glands. They can also affect the parotid glands.

127

Pediatric salivary gland imaging  

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A variety of lesions occur in the pediatric salivary glands. With modern imaging techniques such as Doppler sonography, helical CT, and MRI, identification of a specific etiology is often possible. Knowledge of clinical information, normal anatomy, and imaging characteristics of salivary gland pathology are essential for appropriate radiologic evaluation. This review illustrates the various congenital, neoplastic, and inflammatory entities that can occur within the parotid, submandibular, and sublingual spaces. (orig.)

Boyd, Zachary T. [University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City, MO (United States); Goud, Asha R. [University of California Irvine Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Orange, CA (United States); Lowe, Lisa H. [Children' s Mercy Hospitals and Clinics and the University of Missouri-Kansas City, Department of Radiology, Kansas City, MO (United States); Shao, Lei [Children' s Mercy Hospitals and Clinics and the University of Missouri-Kansas City, Department of Pathology, Kansas City, MO (United States)

2009-07-15

128

Salivary glands neoplasms  

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Introduction: Salivary glands neoplasms represent a rare and diverse group of tumors with different characteristics. To avoid complications and unnecessary procedures, the treatment depends on an accurate diagnosis. Objective: Review the literature emphasizing the latest advances in diagnosis and treatment. Method: An electronic research was performed on MEDLINE, OVID, PubMed and SciELO databases articles in a period between 1997 and 2007. Conclusion: The proper diagnosis of salivary glands n...

Heshiki, Rosana Emiko; Navarro, Paulo Lima; Ogawa, Allex Itar; Takemoto, Lucio Eidy

2008-01-01

129

Salivary Diagnostics- Reloaded  

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As we approach the threshold of genomic medicine, the increasing use of salivary diagnostics will helpcatalyze a shift from disease diagnosis to health surveillance. With new techniques for detecting small quantities ofsalivary components, including proteins and messenger RNA (mRNA), the field of salivary diagnostics hasemerged as one of dentistry’s most promising areas of research. Because collecting saliva is noninvasive, it isbecoming the preferable way in bridging state-of-the-art saliv...

Ambil Sara Varghese; Tharun Varghese Jacob

2011-01-01

130

Simultaneous determination of cotinine and trans-3-hydroxycotinine in urine by automated solid-phase extraction using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Science.gov (United States)

A gas chromatography–mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the simultaneous automated solid-phase extraction and quantification of cotinine and trans-3-hydroxycotinine in human urine. Good linearity was observed over the concentration ranges studied (R2 > 0.99). The limit of quantification was 10 ng/mL for both analytes. The limits of detection were 0.06 ng/mL for cotinine (COT) and 0.02 ng/mL for trans-3-hydroxycotinine (OH-COT). Accuracy for COT ranged from 0.98 to 5.28% and the precision ranged from 1.24 to 8.78%. Accuracy for OH-COT ranged from ?2.66 to 3.72% and the precision ranged from 3.15 to 7.07%. Mean recoveries for cotinine and trans-3-hydroxycotinine ranged from 77.7 to 89.1%, and from 75.4 to 90.2%, respectively. This analytical method for the simultaneous measurement of cotinine and trans-3-hydroxycotinine in urine will be used to monitor tobacco smoking in pregnant women and will permit the usefulness of trans-3-hydroxycotinine as a specific biomarker of tobacco exposure to be determined. © 2014 The Authors. Biomedical Chromatography published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:24616054

Chiadmi, Fouad; Schlatter, Joël

2014-01-01

131

LC-MS-MS Measurements of Urinary Creatinine and the Application of Creatinine Normalization Technique on Cotinine in Smokers' 24 Hour Urine.  

Science.gov (United States)

A simple and sensitive high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS-MS) method was developed and validated for the quantification of creatinine in human urine. The analysis was carried out on an Agilent Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C18 column (2.1 × 150?mm, 3.5??m). The mobile phase was 0.1% formic acid in water and 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile (50/50, v/v). Linear calibration curves were obtained in the concentration range of 1-2000.0?ng/mL, with a lower limit of quantification of 0.99?ng/mL. The intra- and interday precision (RSD) values were below 3%. The method was successfully applied to a bioequivalence study of creatinine in Chinese smokers and nonsmokers. The total cotinine in 24?h urine and cotinine?:?creatinine ratio were also positively associated (Pearson R = 0.942, P creatinine ratio varied significantly across smoking groups for the difference of individual. 24?h urinary cotinine was more appropriate for expressing correlation with tar than cotinine?:?creatinine ratio. PMID:23209947

Hou, Hongwei; Xiong, Wei; Zhang, Xiaotao; Song, Dongkui; Tang, Gangling; Hu, Qingyuan

2012-01-01

132

On the Relationship between the Rate of Salivary Flow and Salivary Fluoride Clearance.  

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The amount of fluoride retained in the mouth following the application of dentifrices, mouthwashes, etc. may be important in determining their anticaries efficacy. In this study we investigated the relationship between the salivary flow rate and salivary fluoride clearance. Ten adults tested six mouthrinses, consisting of aqueous sodium fluoride solutions (0.013, 0.026 mol/l) with and without added sodium chloride (1.28 mol/l) or sucrose (0.44 mol/l), in a randomised order. Prior to each test, subjects swallowed, rinsed for 2 min with 2 ml water and then expectorated into a preweighed container to obtain a measure of initial saliva flow rate. Next, the procedure was repeated using one of the test rinses. Finally, samples of unstimulated whole saliva were collected for up to 3 h after each mouthrinse application and analysed for fluoride. Salivary fluoride concentrations were significantly lower after application of mouthrinses that contained either sucrose or NaCl, both of which compounds markedly enhanced salivary flow, than after the use of corresponding mouthrinses without any additive. Area under the salivary fluoride clearance curve (AUC) values were inversely correlated with salivary flow rate on an individual basis (p dilution by saliva at the time of application. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:25634162

Duckworth, Ralph M; Jones, S

2015-01-01

133

Alternations in salivary glucose during ramadan fasting  

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Full Text Available During the holly month of Ramadan, Muslims fast every day from dawn to sunset. Although the effect of Ramadan fasting on general health has been widely studied, the impact of fasting on oral health and possible changes in salivary biochemicals, such as glucose, has not received much attentiom. The aim of our study was to evaluate the influence of fasting on the level of glucose in the saliva of healthy individuals. Salivary glucose was measured using an enzymatic method based on oxidation of glucose by glucoseoxidase followed by determination of resulting H2O2 in the presence of peroxidase. A reduction in mean concentration of glucose was observed in the saliva of all fasting subjects as compared to the control group. It was concluded that reduction in salivary glucose is mostly due to reduced food intake and may be beneficial to dental health.

Ali Erfani

2010-07-01

134

Cotinine – metabolism, application as a biomarker and the effects on the organism   

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This review presents the current state of knowledge on cotinine, the major metabolite of nicotine. Special attention is paid to the formation of this compound in the organism, its metabolism, application in diagnostic procedures and evaluation of its in vitro and in vivo activities. For many years, cotinine has been used as a biomarker of exposure to tobacco smoke. Currently, this compound is applied in many other studies including the use of cotinine in the treatment of various diseases. Sev...

Jakub Marcin Nowak; Agnieszka ?ury?; Alina Grzanka

2012-01-01

135

Toward improved statistical methods for analyzing Cotinine-Biomarker health association data  

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Abstract Background Serum cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine, is frequently used in research as a biomarker of recent tobacco smoke exposure. Historically, secondhand smoke (SHS) research uses suboptimal statistical methods due to censored serum cotinine values, meaning a measurement below the limit of detection (LOD). Methods We compared commonly used methods for analyzing censored serum cotinine data using parametric and non-parametric techniques employing dat...

Clark John D; Koru-Sengul Tulay; Fleming Lora E; Lee David J

2011-01-01

136

Active and passive exposure status to tobacco smoke of department store employees measured by cotinine ELISA  

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Quantitation of urinary cotinine, a major metabolite of nicotine, by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), was performed in parallel with questionnaires containing items on smoking status, such as active and/or passive smokers, the number of cigarettes smoked, and the presence or absence of active smokers in the surroundings in a department store (517 employees). The cotinine values corrected by creatinine (cotinine-creatinine ratios, CCRs) approximately conformed to the extent of sel...

Yoshioka, Nobuo; Yonemasu, Kunio; Dohi, Yoshiko; Sakanashi, Teruko; Mizutani, Rika; Kurumatani, Norio; Zheng, Yan; Ohkado, Takashi

1998-01-01

137

Synthesis of [pyrrolidine-14C]-cotinine from 14C-nicotine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The synthesis and purification of 14C-cotinine is reported. 14C-nicotine is converted into 14C-dibromocotinine. Debromination of the latter results in 14C-cotinine which is purified by high performance liquid chromatography. The total radioactive yield of the synthesis is 44.8%. Starting from 500 ?Ci 14C-nicotine, 224 ?Ci 14C-cotinine is obtained with a specific activity of 0,23 mCi/mmol. (Author)

138

Genome-wide Linkage of Cotinine Pharmacokinetics Suggests Candidate Regions on Chromosomes 9 and 11  

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Characterizing cotinine pharmacokinetics is a useful way to study nicotine metabolism because the same liver enzyme is primarily responsible for the metabolism of both, and the clearances of nicotine and cotinine are highly correlated. We conducted a whole-genome linkage analysis to search for candidate regions influencing quantitative variation in cotinine pharmacokinetics in a large-scale pharmacokinetic study with 61 families containing 224 healthy adult participants. The strongest linkage...

He, Yungang; Bergen, Andrew W.; Hops, Hyman; Andrews, Judy A.; Tildesley, Elizabeth; Lessov-schlaggar, Christina N.; Webster, Cris; Benowitz, Neal; Swan, Gary E.

2009-01-01

139

Breast feeding and smoking hygiene: major influences on cotinine in urine of smokers' infants.  

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The determinants of urine cotinine levels were studied in a group of 101 infants aged 3 months, including 79 infants whose mothers were current smokers. At a pre-arranged home visit the infants' mothers completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire, and samples of maternal urine and breast milk and infants' urine were collected. Cotinine and nicotine levels were determined by gas-liquid chromatography. Infant urine cotinine levels ranged from 0 to 140 micrograms/l (0-1120 ng cotinine/mg...

Woodward, A.; Grgurinovich, N.; Ryan, P.

1986-01-01

140

Estudo comparativo da concentração salivar do fator de crescimento epidérmico em indivíduos com laringite crônica por doença do refluxo gastroesofágica antes e após o tratamento: resultados preliminares Salivary egf concentration in adults with reflux chronic laryngitis before and after treatment: preliminary results  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Os mecanismos fisiopatológicos do refluxo laringofaríngeo (RLF são pouco conhecidos. O Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico (EGF é a proteína de produção salivar com maior ação na regeneração do epitélio da orofaringe e tubo digestivo alto, tendo sido demonstradas deficiências em sua concentração salivar em indivíduos com RLF. OBJETIVO: Comparar a concentração salivar de EGF em um mesmo indivíduo com RLF antes e após o tratamento. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Neste estudo prospectivo doze indivíduos com DRGE e RLF de moderada intensidade tiveram sua saliva espontânea coletada antes e após o tratamento e controle da doença. A concentração salivar de EGF foi estabelecida através de exame de ELISA (Quantikine ®. RESULTADOS: Onze pacientes eram do sexo feminino e um do sexo masculino, com idade média de 49 anos. A concentração salivar de EGF pré-tratamento foi de 2.867,6pg/mL e a pós-tratamento foi 1.588,5pg/mL, sendo esta diferença estatisticamente significante (p=0,015. DISCUSSÃO E CONCLUSÕES: Apesar de a concentração salivar de EGF ser maior nos indivíduos antes do tratamento, esta não consegue alcançar àquela de uma população normal (estabelecida previamente, o que sugere uma deficiência primária deste importante fator de defesa em indivíduos com RLF.The Laryngopharyngeal Reflux (LPR physiopathology is still unknown. The Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF is a biologically active salivary protein that aids in the rapid regeneration of the oropharyngeal and upper digestive tract mucosas. Salivary deficiency of this protein in patients with LPR has been demonstrated in previous studies. AIM: To compare salivary EGF concentration in patients with LPR before and after treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective study twelve patients with GERD and moderate LPR were studied. Whole saliva samples were collected before and after treatment and salivary EGF concentration was determined using a commercially available ELISA kit (Quantikine ®. RESULTS: There were eleven females and one male among the patients, the mean age was 49 years. The mean pre-treatment salivary EGF concentration was 2,867.6 pg/mL and the mean post treatment EGF concentration was 1,588.5 pg/mL. This difference was statistically significant (p=0.015. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Although salivary EGF concentrations are higher before LPR treatment, the concentration is still much lower than the mean salivary EGF concentration in normal individuals without LPR, which suggests a primary disorder of this defense factor in individuals with LPR.

Claudia Alessandra Eckley

2007-04-01

 
 
 
 
141

Estudo comparativo da concentração salivar do fator de crescimento epidérmico em indivíduos com laringite crônica por doença do refluxo gastroesofágica antes e após o tratamento: resultados preliminares / Salivary egf concentration in adults with reflux chronic laryngitis before and after treatment: preliminary results  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os mecanismos fisiopatológicos do refluxo laringofaríngeo (RLF) são pouco conhecidos. O Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico (EGF) é a proteína de produção salivar com maior ação na regeneração do epitélio da orofaringe e tubo digestivo alto, tendo sido demonstradas deficiências em sua concentração saliv [...] ar em indivíduos com RLF. OBJETIVO: Comparar a concentração salivar de EGF em um mesmo indivíduo com RLF antes e após o tratamento. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Neste estudo prospectivo doze indivíduos com DRGE e RLF de moderada intensidade tiveram sua saliva espontânea coletada antes e após o tratamento e controle da doença. A concentração salivar de EGF foi estabelecida através de exame de ELISA (Quantikine ®). RESULTADOS: Onze pacientes eram do sexo feminino e um do sexo masculino, com idade média de 49 anos. A concentração salivar de EGF pré-tratamento foi de 2.867,6pg/mL e a pós-tratamento foi 1.588,5pg/mL, sendo esta diferença estatisticamente significante (p=0,015). DISCUSSÃO E CONCLUSÕES: Apesar de a concentração salivar de EGF ser maior nos indivíduos antes do tratamento, esta não consegue alcançar àquela de uma população normal (estabelecida previamente), o que sugere uma deficiência primária deste importante fator de defesa em indivíduos com RLF. Abstract in english The Laryngopharyngeal Reflux (LPR) physiopathology is still unknown. The Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) is a biologically active salivary protein that aids in the rapid regeneration of the oropharyngeal and upper digestive tract mucosas. Salivary deficiency of this protein in patients with LPR has be [...] en demonstrated in previous studies. AIM: To compare salivary EGF concentration in patients with LPR before and after treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective study twelve patients with GERD and moderate LPR were studied. Whole saliva samples were collected before and after treatment and salivary EGF concentration was determined using a commercially available ELISA kit (Quantikine ®). RESULTS: There were eleven females and one male among the patients, the mean age was 49 years. The mean pre-treatment salivary EGF concentration was 2,867.6 pg/mL and the mean post treatment EGF concentration was 1,588.5 pg/mL. This difference was statistically significant (p=0.015). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Although salivary EGF concentrations are higher before LPR treatment, the concentration is still much lower than the mean salivary EGF concentration in normal individuals without LPR, which suggests a primary disorder of this defense factor in individuals with LPR.

Claudia Alessandra, Eckley; Lilia da Silva, Rios; Luiz Vicente, Rizzo.

2007-04-01

142

Serum Cotinine Levels and Prehypertension in Never Smokers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background. Few studies have shown that self-reported secondhand smoke exposure in never smokers is associated with high blood pressure. However, there are no studies investigating the relationship between secondhand smoke exposure, measured objectively by serum cotinine levels, and high blood pressure in never smokers. Methods. We examined never smokers (n = 2027) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2008. Our exposure of interest was the secondhand smoke expo...

Omayma Alshaarawy; Jie Xiao; Andrew, Michael E.; Cecil Burchfiel; Anoop Shankar

2013-01-01

143

The Relationship between Serum Cotinine Levels and Periodontal Status  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: Smoking plays a significant role in the development of periodontal disease. Quantitative relation between smoking and increased severity of periodontal disease, by means of biochemical marker has not been described in Malaysian population. The present study was designed to apply serum cotinine measurement as a quantitative method to evaluate smoking levels in Malaysian patients and to correlate these levels with the severity of periodontal disease. Approach: T...

Al-bayaty, Fouad H.; Baharuddin, Noor A.; Abdulla, Mahmood A.

2010-01-01

144

Environmental tobacco smoke and canine urinary cotinine level  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Epidemiologic studies of companion animals such as dogs have been established as models for the relationship between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and cancer risk in humans. While results from these studies are provocative, pet owner report of a dog’s ETS exposure has not yet been validated. We have evaluated the relationship between dog owner’s report of household smoking by questionnaire and dog’s urinary cotinine level. Between January and October, 2005, dog owners pr...

Bertone-johnson, Elizabeth R.; Procter-gray, Elizabeth; Gollenberg, Audra L.; Bundga, Michele E.; Barber, Lisa G.

2007-01-01

145

What Is Salivary Gland Cancer?  

Science.gov (United States)

... most malignant (cancerous) salivary gland tumors start. The submandibular glands are smaller and are below the jaw. ... parotid glands. They develop less often in the submandibular glands or in minor salivary glands inside the ...

146

Cotinine-conjugated aptamer/anti-cotinine antibody complexes as a novel affinity unit for use in biological assays  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aptamers are synthetic, relatively short (e.g., 20-80 bases) RNA or ssDNA oligonucleotides that can bind targets with high affinity and specificity, similar to antibodies, because they can fold into unique, three-dimensional shapes. For use in various assays and experiments, aptamers have been conjugated with biotin or digoxigenin to form complexes with avidin or anti-digoxigenin antibodies, respectively. In this study, we developed a method to label the 5' ends of aptamers with cotinine, whi...

Park, Sunyoung; Hwang, Dobin; Chung, Junho

2012-01-01

147

Comparison of salivary cortisol concentrations in Jaguars kept in captivity with differences in exposure to the public Comparação das concentrações de cortisol salivar em onças-pintadas criadas em cativeiro com diferenças de exposição ao público  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For the most part, jaguars kept in captivity are used for educational and recreational purposes and it hasn't been determined the different impacts that public exposure would have on these animals. In this study, we compared the salivary cortisol, one of the stress indicator hormones, in seven captive jaguars exposed to the high and low public visitation. Saliva was collected using an absorbent material that was chewed by the animals and subsequently analyzed through an immunoenzymatic assay. Salivary cortisol concentrations were significantly higher in the jaguars with higher public exposure, which suggest a more hormonal stress response. These results indicated that jaguars, animals usually of solitary and secretive behavior, may have their welfare considerably diminished by increased public exposure. Additionally, design of the enclosures, without refuges and proximity of people, could predispose jaguars to psychological stress.Em geral, onças-pintadas criadas em cativeiro são usadas para fins educacionais e de recreação. No entanto, o impacto da exposição ao público sobre esses animais não tem sido avaliado. Neste estudo, foi comparado o impacto de dois diferentes níveis de exposição ao público em sete onças-pintadas, alojadas em dois criadouros, por meio da avaliação de um dos hormônios indicadores de estresse, o cortisol salivar. A saliva foi coletada usando um material absorvente que foi mastigado pelos animais e subsequentemente analisado por imunoenzimoensaio. As concentrações de cortisol salivar foram significativamente maiores em onças-pintadas com maior exposição ao público. Esses resultados sugerem que onças-pintadas, normalmente solitárias e esquivas na natureza, podem ter seu bem-estar consideravelmente diminuído pelo aumento de exposição ao público. Este estudo é o primeiro relato de mensuração de cortisol salivar em onças-pintadas.

Julio César Montanha

2009-09-01

148

Comparison of salivary cortisol concentrations in Jaguars kept in captivity with differences in exposure to the public / Comparação das concentrações de cortisol salivar em onças-pintadas criadas em cativeiro com diferenças de exposição ao público  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Em geral, onças-pintadas criadas em cativeiro são usadas para fins educacionais e de recreação. No entanto, o impacto da exposição ao público sobre esses animais não tem sido avaliado. Neste estudo, foi comparado o impacto de dois diferentes níveis de exposição ao público em sete onças-pintadas, alo [...] jadas em dois criadouros, por meio da avaliação de um dos hormônios indicadores de estresse, o cortisol salivar. A saliva foi coletada usando um material absorvente que foi mastigado pelos animais e subsequentemente analisado por imunoenzimoensaio. As concentrações de cortisol salivar foram significativamente maiores em onças-pintadas com maior exposição ao público. Esses resultados sugerem que onças-pintadas, normalmente solitárias e esquivas na natureza, podem ter seu bem-estar consideravelmente diminuído pelo aumento de exposição ao público. Este estudo é o primeiro relato de mensuração de cortisol salivar em onças-pintadas. Abstract in english For the most part, jaguars kept in captivity are used for educational and recreational purposes and it hasn't been determined the different impacts that public exposure would have on these animals. In this study, we compared the salivary cortisol, one of the stress indicator hormones, in seven capti [...] ve jaguars exposed to the high and low public visitation. Saliva was collected using an absorbent material that was chewed by the animals and subsequently analyzed through an immunoenzymatic assay. Salivary cortisol concentrations were significantly higher in the jaguars with higher public exposure, which suggest a more hormonal stress response. These results indicated that jaguars, animals usually of solitary and secretive behavior, may have their welfare considerably diminished by increased public exposure. Additionally, design of the enclosures, without refuges and proximity of people, could predispose jaguars to psychological stress.

Julio César, Montanha; Sérgio Leme, Silva; Vanner, Boere.

1745-17-01

149

Undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas may be divided into small cell and large cell types. Among large cell undifferentiated carcinomas, lymphoepithelial carcinomas have to be distinguished, the latter of which are endemic in the Arctic regions and southern China where virtually all cases of these tumors are associated with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Association with EBV may also be observed in sporadic cases, and detection of EBV gene products may aid their diagnosis. Immunohistology may be employed to resolve the differential diagnosis of undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas, comprising malignant lymphomas, amelanotic melanomas, Merkel cell carcinomas, and adenoid cystic carcinomas, in particular in small biopsy materials. Because of the rarity of undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas, the differential diagnosis should always include metastases of undifferentiated carcinomas arising at other primary sites, particularly when expressing the thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) Udgivelsesdato: 2004

Herbst, H.; Hamilton-Dutoit, S.

2004-01-01

150

A convenient synthesis of sup 14 C-cotinine from sup 14 C-nicotine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A convenient synthesis with analytical monitoring of {sup 14}C-cotinine is reported. {sup 14}C-Nicotine was converted into {sup 14}C-dibromocotinine hydrobromide perbromide. Debromination, achieved by using Zn dust/acetic acid, resulted in high yields (71%) of {sup 14}C-cotinine. (author).

Desai, D.H.; Djordjevic, M.V.; Amin, S. (American Health Foundation, Valhalla, NY (USA). Naylor Dana Inst. for Disease Prevention)

1991-03-01

151

Electrochemical Immunoassay of Cotinine in Serum Based on Nanoparticle Probe and Immunochromatographic Strip  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A disposable sensor for the determination of cotinine in human serum was developed based on immunochromatographic test strip and quantum dot label. In this assay, cotinine modified on quantum dot competes with cotinine in sample to bind to anti-cotinine antibody in the test strip and the quantum dots serve as signal vehicles for electrochemical readout. Some parameters governing the performance of the sensor were optimized. The sensor shows a wide linear range from 1 ng mL-1 to 100 ng mL-1 cotinine with a detection limit of 1.0 ng mL-1. The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) of the sensor was less than 2% for cotinine. The sensor was validated with spiked human serum samples and it was found that this method was reliable in measuring cotinine in human serum with average recovery of 100.99%. The results demonstrate that this sensor is a rapid, clinically accurate, and less expensive and has the potential for point of care (POC) detection of cotinine and fast screening of tobacco smoke exposure.

Nian, Hung-Chi; Wang, Jun; Wu, Hong J.; Lo, Jiunn-Guang; Chiu, Kong-Hwa; Pounds, Joel G.; Lin, Yuehe

2012-02-03

152

Electrochemical immunoassay of cotinine in serum based on nanoparticle probe and immunochromatographic strip  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using nanoparticle probe in immunochromatographic strip. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enhanced sensitivity by using nanoparticle label. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rapid and sensitive detection of cotinine in serum. - Abstract: A disposable sensor for the determination of cotinine in human serum was developed based on immunochromatographic test strip and quantum dot label. In this assay, cotinine linked with quantum dot competes with cotinine in sample to bind to anti-cotinine antibody in the test strip and the quantum dots serve as signal vehicles for electrochemical readout. Some parameters governing the performance of the sensor were optimized. The sensor shows a wide linear range from 1 ng mL{sup -1} to 100 ng mL{sup -1} cotinine with a detection limit of 1.0 ng mL{sup -1}. The sensor was validated with spiked human serum samples and it was found that this method was reliable in measuring cotinine in human serum. The results demonstrate that this sensor is rapid, accurate, and less expensive and has the potential for point of care (POC) detection of cotinine and fast screening of tobacco smoke exposure.

Nian Hungchi [Pacific Norwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, 30013, Taiwan (China); Wang Jun; Wu Hong [Pacific Norwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Lo, Jiunn-Guang [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, 30013, Taiwan (China); Chiu, Kong-Hwa [Department of Applied Science, National DongHwa University, Hualien, 970, 30013, Taiwan (China); Pounds, Joel G. [Pacific Norwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Lin Yuehe, E-mail: yuehe.lin@pnnl.gov [Pacific Norwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

2012-02-03

153

A convenient synthesis of 14C-cotinine from 14C-nicotine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A convenient synthesis with analytical monitoring of 14C-cotinine is reported. 14C-Nicotine was converted into 14C-dibromocotinine hydrobromide perbromide. Debromination, achieved by using Zn dust/acetic acid, resulted in high yields (71%) of 14C-cotinine. (author)

154

Electrochemical immunoassay of cotinine in serum based on nanoparticle probe and immunochromatographic strip  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Using nanoparticle probe in immunochromatographic strip. ? Enhanced sensitivity by using nanoparticle label. ? Rapid and sensitive detection of cotinine in serum. - Abstract: A disposable sensor for the determination of cotinine in human serum was developed based on immunochromatographic test strip and quantum dot label. In this assay, cotinine linked with quantum dot competes with cotinine in sample to bind to anti-cotinine antibody in the test strip and the quantum dots serve as signal vehicles for electrochemical readout. Some parameters governing the performance of the sensor were optimized. The sensor shows a wide linear range from 1 ng mL?1 to 100 ng mL?1 cotinine with a detection limit of 1.0 ng mL?1. The sensor was validated with spiked human serum samples and it was found that this method was reliable in measuring cotinine in human serum. The results demonstrate that this sensor is rapid, accurate, and less expensive and has the potential for point of care (POC) detection of cotinine and fast screening of tobacco smoke exposure.

155

HOME AIR NICOTINE LEVELS AND URINE COTININE-CREATININE RATIOS IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN  

Science.gov (United States)

We studied urine cotinine excretion in 27 children who attended a research day care center to determine the extent of correlation between urine cotinine-creatinine ratios (CCR) and intensity of nicotine exposure in the home. verage nicotine levels in home air were determined by a...

156

Cotinine – metabolism, application as a biomarker and the effects on the organism   

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This review presents the current state of knowledge on cotinine, the major metabolite of nicotine. Special attention is paid to the formation of this compound in the organism, its metabolism, application in diagnostic procedures and evaluation of its in vitro and in vivo activities. For many years, cotinine has been used as a biomarker of exposure to tobacco smoke. Currently, this compound is applied in many other studies including the use of cotinine in the treatment of various diseases. Several years ago, Scott et al. patented therapeutic applications of cotinine in chronic and acute inflammation. Cotinine is an interesting compound with a well-known metabolism; therefore there are suggestions for its application in the diagnosis and treatment of certain diseases. 

Jakub Marcin Nowak

2012-12-01

157

Passive smoking by self report and serum cotinine and the prevalence of respiratory and coronary heart disease in the Scottish heart health study.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

STUDY OBJECTIVE--To explore the relationship between self reported environmental tobacco smoke exposure (or passive smoking), the serum cotinine concentration, and evidence of respiratory or coronary disease in men and women who have never smoked. DESIGN--Cross sectional random population survey identifying disease markers and relating them to measures of passive smoking. Disease markers were previous medical diagnoses, response to standard symptom questionnaires, and electrocardiographic sig...

Tunstall-pedoe, H.; Brown, C. A.; Woodward, M.; Tavendale, R.

1995-01-01

158

Quantitative and qualitative analyses of human salivary NEFA with gas-chromatography and mass spectrometry  

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Salivary non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) are proposed to play a role in oral health, oral fat detection, and they may hold diagnostic and prognostic potential. Yet, little is known about the array and concentrations of NEFA in saliva. The aim of the study was to conduct qualitative and quantitative analyses of salivary NEFA in healthy humans and to present a new, efficient protocol to perform such analyses. Resting saliva samples from fifteen participants were collected. The salivary lipids...

Kulkarni, Bhushan V.; Wood, Karl V.; Mattes, Richard D.

2012-01-01

159

Determinación de cotinina y exposición a tabaco Cotinine detection and tobacco smoke exposure  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La exposición a tabaco es una de las causas prevenibles de morbilidad y mortalidad prematura más importante. Se describe un método simple y rápido de detección de cotinina (principal metabolito de nicotina en orina humana. Se utilizó cromatografía gas-líquido (CGL con un detector de ionización de llama (FID. Se realizó una extracción líquido-líquido con cloroformo en medio alcalino; el extracto fue secado a 37 °C y redisuelto en 100 µL de solución alcohólica con estándar interno piridina. Se analizó la orina de personas que declararon ser fumadoras y no fumadoras. Mediante la construcción de dos curvas de calibración se cubrió un rango de linealidad de 3 a 5.000 ng/mL. Los fumadores presentaron una mediana y cuartiles (Q de concentración de cotinina: 255,4 ng/mL, 15,9 ng/mL (Q1 - 1.050,2 ng/mL (Q3, respectivamente, y los no fumadores 15,8 ng/mL, 4,1 ng/mL (Q1 - 38,4 ng/mL (Q3. Wilcoxon sumrank: z = 4,865 p Tobacco is one of the major preventable causes of morbidity and premature mortality in the world. A simple, rapid method for determination of cotinine, major metabolite of nicotine in urine, is described. The assay involves a fast liquid-liquid extraction with chloroform as a solvent in alkaline environment. The extract was dried at 37 °C and the residue was dissolved in 100 µL of standard internal of pyridine in methanol solution, and an aliquot was analyzed by gas-liquid chromatograph equipped with a flame -ionization detector. This technique was performed to test urine of a sample of smokers and non-smokers who were previously asked about their smoking habit. The limit of detection was 3.1 ng/mL, and using two calibration curves, a linearity range from 3 a 5.000 ng/mL was covered. The median and quartiles (Q of cotinine in smokers were 255.4 ng/mL, 15.9 ng/mL (Q1 -1050.2 ng/mL (Q3 ng/mL and in non-smokers 15.8 ng/mL, 4.1 ng/mL (Q1 - 38.4 ng/mL (Q3. Wilcoxon sumrank: z = 4.865 p < 0.01. There was a relationship between cotinine concentration in urine and number of smoked cigarettes. Spearman's rho = 0.5672 (p < 0.001. This technique could identify smokers, second hand smokers and non-smokers using cut-off of 10-15 ng/mL of cotinine in urine, usually adopted in epidemiological studies.

Marta Noemí Vacchino

2006-06-01

160

Sialography And Salivary Scan Study Of Salivary Diseases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to established the characteristic radiographic features in salivary gland diseases by means of sialography and scintigraphy. Sialograms and scintigrams with diseases of salivary gland were examined. In this group were 5 salivary stones, 14 sialadenitis, 17 Sjogren's syndromes and 8 benign tumors. The obtained results were as follows;1. In the configuration of the shape of main duct, those revealed that modified curvilinear and curvilinear types were predominant in Sjogren's syndromes but reverse sigmoid and angular types were in sialolithiasis and sialadenitis combined with sialodochitis. 2. In the configuration of the course of main duct, those revealed that smooth types were predominant in sialadenitis and irregular types were predominant in Sjogren's syndromes and benign tumors and irregular types were seen in all salivary stones and sialadenitis combined with sialodochitis. 3. In the type of intraglandular pattern, those revealed that destructive changes of salivary duct system and parenchyma were severe in sialadenitis and salivary stones and predominantly severe in Sjogren's syndromes. 4. The function of salivary gland was decreased severely in Sjogren's syndrome. and also decrease in salivary stone and sialadenitis. In benign tumor, the uptake of radioisotope was not seen in lesion and the function of salivary gland decreased in its remaining normal parenchyma.

 
 
 
 
161

Improved /sup 125/I radioimmunoassay for cotinine by selective removal of bridge antibodies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We describe an /sup 125/I-based RIA for cotinine, the major metabolite of nicotine. The slope of the dose-response curve was quite shallow (6-8% change in binding per doubling dose), resulting in between-assay CVs of 15 to 20%. This effect occurred because the radioligand formed by linking a cotinine derivative to tyramine manifested greater affinity for the anti-cotinine antibodies than did cotinine itself. We absorbed the serum with a derivative of nicotine coupled to the carrier protein via a chemical bridge similar to that used to form the cotinine/carrier protein immunogen. An RIA in which we used such absorbed serum showed a significantly increased slope of the dose-response curve (11-13% change in binding per doubling dose), and between-assay CVS were only 6 to 8%. We suggest that this improvement results because absorption removes anti-bridge antibodies directed against the chemical-bond common to the cotinine/carrier-protein immunogen and to the cotinine/tyramine radioligand.

Knight, G.J.; Wylie, P.; Holman, M.S.; Haddow, J.E.

1985-01-01

162

Improved 125I radioimmunoassay for cotinine by selective removal of bridge antibodies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We describe an 125I-based RIA for cotinine, the major metabolite of nicotine. The slope of the dose-response curve was quite shallow (6-8% change in binding per doubling dose), resulting in between-assay CVs of 15 to 20%. This effect occurred because the radioligand formed by linking a cotinine derivative to tyramine manifested greater affinity for the anti-cotinine antibodies than did cotinine itself. We absorbed the serum with a derivative of nicotine coupled to the carrier protein via a chemical bridge similar to that used to form the cotinine/carrier protein immunogen. An RIA in which we used such absorbed serum showed a significantly increased slope of the dose-response curve (11-13% change in binding per doubling dose), and between-assay CVS were only 6 to 8%. We suggest that this improvement results because absorption removes anti-bridge antibodies directed against the chemical-bond common to the cotinine/carrier-protein immunogen and to the cotinine/tyramine radioligand

163

Radionuclide imaging of salivary glands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Salivary scintigraphy is a relatively simple and non-invasive technique for assessing global and regional glandular function in many clinical settings. In contradistinction to other imaging modalities it gives specific functional information (sialadenitis, Sjogrens' disease) and reasonably useful anatomical information (abscess, granuloma, neoplasm) about all the major salivary glands. If performed routinely in appropriate clinical settings the salivary scintigraphy can be of immense diagnostic importance in clinical practice. (author). 7 refs., 3 figs

164

SALIVARY ANTIMICROBIAL PROTEIN RESPONSE TO PROLONGED RUNNING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Prolonged exercise may compromise immunity through a reduction of salivary antimicrobial proteins (AMPs. Salivary IgA (IgA has been extensively studied, but little is known about the effect of acute, prolonged exercise on AMPs including lysozyme (Lys and lactoferrin (Lac. Objective: To determine the effect of a 50-km trail race on salivary cortisol (Cort, IgA, Lys, and Lac. Methods: 14 subjects: (6 females, 8 males completed a 50km ultramarathon. Saliva was collected pre, immediately after (post and 1.5 hrs post race ( 1.5. Results: Lac concentration was higher at 1.5 hrs post race compared to post exercise (p0.05. IgA concentration, secretion rate, and IgA/Osm were lower 1.5 hrs post compared to pre race (p<0.05. Cort concentration was higher at post compared to 1.5 (p<0.05, but was unaltered from pre race levels. Subjects finished in 7.81 ± 1.2 hrs. Saliva flow rate did not differ between time points. Saliva Osm increased at post (p<0.05 compared to pre race. Conclusions: The intensity could have been too low to alter Lys and Lac secretion rates and thus, may not be as sensitive as IgA to changes in response to prolonged running. Results expand our understanding of the mucosal immune system and may have implications for predicting illness after prolonged running.

Suzanne Schneider

2013-01-01

165

Cotinine level is associated with asthma severity in passive smoker children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Asthma environmental triggers play important roles in severity of disease. Passive smoking could exacerbate asthma symptoms and enhance the decrease in lung function. Cotinine levels could be a reflection of passive exposure to the cigarette both in adults and pediatrics. The aim of this study was to determine degree of association of asthma severity and cotinine level as a marker of passive smoking. In a cross-sectional study, 100 pediatric patients (under 10 years old) with asthma were enrolled, 50 of whom, had been exposed to passive smoking and 50 others included as controls. A complete clinical history, lab exam, and spirometry were performed. A sample of urine, serum and saliva was collected from all attendant patients and controls in the study after confirmation of diagnosis and determination of severity of asthma. The results revealed that age, sex, age of onset of asthma, family history and allergic history were not significantly different between two groups of patients. According to GINA classification, percentage of patients with severe asthma was significantly higher in passive smoker group (p=0.001). Cotinine was significantly higher in passive smoker group compared to control group in serum (p=001), saliva (p=0.001), and urine (p=0.0014). In passive smoker group, cotinine levels were significantly higher in serum (p=0.001), urine (p=0.007), and saliva (p=0.01) of patients with severe asthma than moderate and mild asthma. Serum cotinine (OR: 1.81, 95% CI: 1.35-2.32, p=0.024), urine cotinine (OR: 3.56,95% CI = 1.29-5.53, p=0.01) and saliva cotinine (OR: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.23-1.98, p=0.031) were also significantly associated with higher risk of severe asthma. Cotinine levels were higher in passive smokers compared to non-passive smokers. Besides, cotinine was a predictive risk factor for severe asthma. PMID:25530141

Hassanzad, Maryam; Khalilzadeh, Soheila; Eslampanah Nobari, Shabnam; Bloursaz, Mohammadreza; Sharifi, Hooman; Mohajerani, Seyed Amir; Tashayoie Nejad, Sabereh; Velayati, Ali Akbar

2015-02-01

166

Taxonomy of Salivary Gland Neoplasm  

Science.gov (United States)

Classification of neoplasms of any organ should be predicted on the patterns of differentiation that reflect the organization and cell types of the parental tissue. The ability to classify a neoplasm instills confidence in its predicted biologic behavior and the selection of treatment. There has not been a single universally used classification system for salivary gland tumor. Histogenetic and morphogenetic concepts and the developing information on various molecular parameters will have significant influence on the classification of salivary glands tumors. In this article we would highlight the histogenetic and morphogenetic concepts in salivary gland neoplasms and elaborate on the taxonomic system of classification of salivary gland neoplasms. PMID:24783163

Sreeja, C.; Shahela, Tanveer; Aesha, Syeda; Satish, Muthu Kumar

2014-01-01

167

Synthesis of [pyrrolidine-[sup 14]C]-cotinine from [sup 14]C-nicotine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The synthesis and purification of [sup 14]C-cotinine is reported. 14C-nicotine is converted into [sup 14]C-dibromocotinine. Debromination of the latter results in [sup 14]C-cotinine which is purified by high performance liquid chromatography. The total radioactive yield of the synthesis is 44.8%. Starting from 500 [mu]Ci [sup 14]C-nicotine, 224 [mu]Ci [sup 14]C-cotinine is obtained with a specific activity of 0,23 mCi/mmol. (Author).

Peeters, R.; Daenens, P. (Catholic Univ. of Louvain (Belgium). Dept. of Toxicology)

1989-05-01

168

Elimination of cotinine from body fluids: implications for noninvasive measurement of tobacco smoke exposure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cotinine elimination from plasma, saliva, and urine was studied over 11 days in five subjects (three nonsmokers and two occasional smokers). Half-lives for cotinine averaged 16-19 hours in the different body fluids (range 10 to 27 hours between subjects). There was no tendency for the half-life in saliva to be longer than in plasma or urine. We conclude that choice of body fluid for cotinine assay in smoking studies should depend on practical rather than pharmacokinetic considerations. PMID:3369603

Jarvis, M J; Russell, M A; Benowitz, N L; Feyerabend, C

1988-01-01

169

Comparison of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies to cotinine in nonisotopic and isotopic immunoassays  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Monoclonal antibodies (McAb) were used to develop nonisotopic and radioimmunoassays (RIA) for quantitative determination of the major nicotine metabolite, cotinine, in physiological fluids. Cotinine levels in saliva, serum and plasma from smokers and non-smokers determined with McAb-based assays showed a strong correlation with values obtained by RIA using rabbit antisera or by gas chromatography. Properly selected McAb offer distinct advantages over conventional antisera in non-isotopic immunoassays and RIAs for cotinine as a biochemical marker of active or passive smoking. (Auth.)

170

The effects of saliva collection, handling and storage on salivary testosterone measurement.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several endocrine parameters commonly measured in plasma, such as steroid hormones, can be measured in the oral fluid. However, there are several technical aspects of saliva sampling and processing that can potentially bias the validity of salivary testosterone measurement. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects caused by repeated sampling; 5 min centrifugation (at 2000, 6000 or 10,000g); the stimulation of saliva flow by a cotton swab soaked in 2% citric acid touching the tongue; different storage times and conditions as well as the impact of blood contamination on salivary testosterone concentration measured using a commercially available ELISA kit. Fresh, unprocessed, unstimulated saliva samples served as a control. Salivary testosterone concentrations were influenced neither by repeated sampling nor by stimulation of salivary flow. Testosterone levels determined in samples stored in various laboratory conditions for time periods up to 1 month did not differ in comparison with controls. For both genders, salivary testosterone levels were substantially reduced after centrifugation (men F=29.1; women F=56.17, p<0.0001). Blood contamination decreased salivary testosterone levels in a dose-dependent manner (men F=6.54, p<0.01, F=5.01, p<0.05). Salivary testosterone can be considered A robust and stable marker. However, saliva processing and blood leakage can introduce bias into measurements of salivary testosterone using ELISA. Our observations should be considered in studies focusing on salivary testosterone. PMID:24051109

Durdiaková, Jaroslava; Fábryová, Helena; Koborová, Ivana; Ostatníková, Daniela; Celec, Peter

2013-12-20

171

Sialorrhea and Salivary Composition in Patients With Parkinson's Disease  

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Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the salivary composition and production in mild and severe Parkinson's Disease (PD patients.Materials and Methods: A total of 37 patients with PD and age matched 30 control subjects were participated in this study. The Hoehn and Yahr (HY disability scale was used to determine the severity of the disease. Salivary collection was performed according to a methodology described in the literature and salivary composition was determined. Between group comparisons were performed using the independent t test and chi-square.Results: Salivary production in patients of the Parkinson group was significantly lower than in controls (0.68±0.26 mg vs. 1.27±0.65 mg, respectively; p=0.009. But there was no significant difference in salivary production between mild and severe Parkinson patients (0.71±0.33 mg vs. 0.66±0.17 mg, respectively; p=0.62. Decrease in the production of saliva was not significantly correlated with levodopa/benserazide dose, HY scale and UPDRS score (r=0.283, p=0.09; r=-0.166, p=0.325; r=-0.208, p=0.217; respectively.In PD patients, salivary concentrations of sodium, potassium, chloride were higher but amylase was lower than in controls (p=0.02, p<0.001, p=0.003, p=0.04, respectively. When mild and severe PD patients were compared there were no significant difference between amylase, potassium, and chloride concentrations of the groups (p=0.07, p=0.32, p=0.16, respectively.Conclusions: PD is associated with decreased salivary production, abnormally high electrolyte and low amylase concentrations. Drooling of saliva is caused by concomitant swallowing difficulties. Thus, using botulinum toxin or anticolinergic drugs in treatment of drooling may cause xerostomia.

Bugra KOCA

2009-12-01

172

Correlation between Cigarette Smoking and Urine Cotinine Level in Gastric Cancer Patients  

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Various substances in cigarette smoke including nicotine have been shown to promote/induce cancer cell proliferation. Since cotinine has a longer half life and stability in the blood, it has become the preferred biomarker for cigarette smoking exposure.

Babhadiashar, Nima; Sotoudeh, Masoud; Azizi, Ebrahim; Bashiri, Jafar; Didevar, Reza; Malekzadeh, Reza; Ghahremani, Mohammad Hossein

2014-01-01

173

TRPV1 in Salivary Gland Epithelial Cells Is Not Involved in Salivary Secretion via Transcellular Pathway.  

Science.gov (United States)

Transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) was originally found in sensory neurons. Recently, it has been reported that TRPV1 is expressed in salivary gland epithelial cells (SGEC). However, the physiological role of TRPV1 in salivary secretion remains to be elucidated. We found that TRPV1 is expressed in mouse and human submandibular glands (SMG) and HSG cells, originated from human submandibular gland ducts at both mRNA and protein levels. However, capsaicin (CAP), TRPV1 agonist, had little effect on intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in these cells, although carbachol consistently increased [Ca(2+)]i. Exposure of cells to high temperature (>43?) or acidic bath solution (pH5.4) did not increase [Ca(2+)]i, either. We further examined the role of TRPV1 in salivary secretion using TRPV1 knock-out mice. There was no significant difference in the pilocarpine (PILO)-induced salivary flow rate between wild-type and TRPV1 knock-out mice. Saliva flow rate also showed insignificant change in the mice treated with PILO plus CAP compared with that in mice treated with PILO alone. Taken together, our results suggest that although TRPV1 is expressed in SGEC, it appears not to play any direct roles in saliva secretion via transcellular pathway. PMID:25598668

Choi, Seulki; Shin, Yong-Hwan; Namkoong, Eun; Hwang, Sung-Min; Cong, Xin; Yu, Guangyan; Park, Kyungpyo

2014-12-01

174

Cotinine and interferon-gamma levels in pre-school children exposed to household tobacco smoke  

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Background Environmental tobacco smoke has been consistently linked to negative health outcomes, especially in children, including an increased susceptibility to infections. Cigarette smoking has a depressive effect on interferon-? (IFN-?). Serum cotinine is a marker of exposure to smoke. Objective To determine the association between serum cotinine and interferon-? (IFN-?) levels in children with household tobacco smoke exposure. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study at th...

Lina Kalalo; Diana Takumansang-Sondakh; Audrey Wahani

2013-01-01

175

Assessment of smoking status based on cotinine levels in nasal lavage fluid  

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Full Text Available Abstract Cotinine is a principal metabolite of nicotine with a substantially longer half-life, and cotinine levels in saliva, urine or serum are widely used to validate self-reported smoking status. The nasal cavity and olfactory system are directly exposed to tobacco smoke in smokers and in non-smokers who live with or work around smokers. However, despite the potential for a direct impact of tobacco smoke on the nasal epithelium and olfactory neurons, no prior studies have assessed cotinine levels in nasal mucus. We sought to determine whether cotinine levels in nasal lavage fluid (NLF would provide a reasonable estimate of smoke exposure. We assayed cotinine using a competitive immunoassay in NLF from 23 smokers, 10 non-smokers exposed to tobacco smoke (ETS and 60 non-smokers who did not report smoke exposure. NLF cotinine levels were significantly higher in smokers than in non-smokers, regardless of their exposure to ambient tobacco smoke. Cotinine levels in this small group of exposed non-smokers were not significantly different than those of non-exposed non-smokers. A cutoff of 1 ng/ml provided a sensitivity of 91% and a specificity of 99% for smoking status in this sample. Data were consistent with self-reported smoking status, and a cutoff of 1.0 ng/ml NLF cotinine may be used to classify smoking status. While saliva is the most easily obtained body fluid, NLF can be used to provide an objective and precise indication of smoking status and more directly reflects smoke exposure in the nasal and olfactory mucosa.

Cowart Beverly J

2009-07-01

176

Plasma cotinine levels and pancreatic cancer in the EPIC cohort study  

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Smoking is an established risk factor for pancreatic cancer, previously investigated by the means of questionnaires. Using cotinine as a biomarker for tobacco exposure allows more accurate quantitative analyses to be performed. This study on pancreatic cancer, nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC cohort), included 146 cases and 146 matched controls. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, plasma cotinine levels were analyzed on average 8....

Leenders, M.; Chuang, Sc; Dahm, Cc; Overvad, K.; Ueland, Pm; Midttun, O.; Vollset, Se; Tjønneland, A.; Halkjaer, J.; Jenab, M.; Clavel-chapelon, F.; Boutron-ruault, Mc; Kaaks, R.; Canzian, F.; Boeing, H.

2011-01-01

177

Assessment of smoking status based on cotinine levels in nasal lavage fluid  

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Abstract Cotinine is a principal metabolite of nicotine with a substantially longer half-life, and cotinine levels in saliva, urine or serum are widely used to validate self-reported smoking status. The nasal cavity and olfactory system are directly exposed to tobacco smoke in smokers and in non-smokers who live with or work around smokers. However, despite the potential for a direct impact of tobacco smoke on the nasal epithelium and olfactory neurons, no prior studies have assesse...

Cowart Beverly J; McDermott Ryan; Yee Karen K; Ozdener Mehmet; Vainius Aldona A; Dalton Pamela; Rawson Nancy E

2009-01-01

178

Cotinine Selectively Activates a Subpopulation of ?3/?6?2* Nicotinic Receptors in Monkey Striatum  

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The nicotine metabolite cotinine is an abundant long-lived bio-active compound that may contribute to the overall physiological effects of tobacco use. Although its mechanism of action in the central nervous system has not been extensively investigated, cotinine is known to evoke dopamine release in the nigrostriatal pathway through an interaction at nicotinic receptors (nAChRs). Because considerable evidence now demonstrates the presence of multiple nAChRs in the striatum, the present experi...

O’leary, Kathryn; Parameswaran, Neeraja; Mcintosh, J. Michael; Quik, Maryka

2008-01-01

179

Gene-Centric Analysis of Serum Cotinine Levels in African and European American Populations  

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To date, most genetic association studies of tobacco use have been conducted in European American subjects using the phenotype of smoking quantity (cigarettes per day). However, smoking quantity is a very imprecise measure of exposure to tobacco smoke constituents. Analyses of alternate phenotypes and populations may improve our understanding of tobacco addiction genetics. Cotinine is the major metabolite of nicotine, and measuring serum cotinine levels in smokers provides a more objective me...

Hamidovic, Ajna; Goodloe, Robert J.; Bergen, Andrew W.; Benowitz, Neal L.; Styn, Mindi A.; Kasberger, Jay L.; Choquet, Helene; Young, Taylor R.; Meng, Yan; Palmer, Cameron; Pletcher, Mark; Kertesz, Stefan; Hitsman, Brian; Spring, Bonnie; Jorgenson, Eric

2012-01-01

180

Plasma cotinine levels and pancreatic cancer in the EPIC cohort study.  

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Smoking is an established risk factor for pancreatic cancer, previously investigated by the means of questionnaires. Using cotinine as a biomarker for tobacco exposure allows more accurate quantitative analyses to be performed. This study on pancreatic cancer, nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC cohort), included 146 cases and 146 matched controls. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, plasma cotinine levels were analyzed on average 8....

Leenders, M.; Chuang, Sc; Dahm, Cc; Overvad, K.; Ueland, Pm; Midttun, O.; Vollset, Se; Tjønneland, A.; Halkjaer, J.; Jenab, M.; Clavel-chapelon, F.; Boutron-ruault, Mc; Kaaks, R.; Canzian, F.; Boeing, H.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Plasma cotinine levels and pancreatic cancer in the EPIC cohort study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Smoking is an established risk factor for pancreatic cancer, previously investigated by the means of questionnaires. Using cotinine as a biomarker for tobacco exposure allows more accurate quantitative analyses to be performed. This study on pancreatic cancer, nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC cohort), included 146 cases and 146 matched controls. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, plasma cotinine levels were analyzed on average 8.0 years before cancer onset (5-95% range: 2.8-12.0 years). The relation between plasma cotinine levels and pancreatic cancer was analyzed with conditional logistic regression for different levels of cotinine in a population of never and current smokers. This was also done for the self-reported number of smoked cigarettes per day at baseline. Every increase of 350 nmol/L of plasma cotinine was found to significantly elevate risk of pancreatic cancer (odds ratio (OR): 1.33, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11-1.60). People with a cotinine level over 1187.8 nmol/L, a level comparable to smoking 17 cigarettes per day, have an elevated risk of pancreatic cancer, compared to people with cotinine levels below 55 nmol/L (OR: 3.66, 95% CI: 1.44-9.26). The results for self-reported smoking at baseline also show an increased risk of pancreatic cancer from cigarette smoking based on questionnaire information. People who smoke more than 30 cigarettes per day showed the highest risk compared to never smokers (OR: 4.15, 95% CI: 1.02-16.42). This study is the first to show that plasma cotinine levels are strongly related to pancreatic cancer. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Leenders, Max; Chuang, Shu-Chun

2012-01-01

182

Responses of salivary cortisol and ?-amylase to official competition  

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Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the relationship between salivary cortisol, ?-amylase and total protein response in the official football players during the course of a game. Nine young amateur football players agreed to participate in the study. Saliva samples were collected from each player 30 min and 5 min before the start of the competition, at half time, and then again 5 and 30 min after the end of competition. A significant increase in cortisol (p=0.04 in response to playing the competition was observed including a significantly higher concentration 30 min after match as compared to half time (p=0.016. In contrast, changes in salivary ?-amylase changes were irregular, but there was significant decline 5 min after end of match as compared to the 5 min before the beginning of match (p<0.019. No significant difference in total protein concentration was observed. Though salivary cortisol, ?-amylase and total protein changes were observed concomitantly, but there no significant relationship between them. We conclude that participation in competition has an accumulative effect on salivary cortisol concentration, but this was not related changes in salivary ?-amylase.

MOHAMMAD A. AZARBAYJANI

2011-06-01

183

Salivary gland sparing radiotherapy  

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Dry mouth or xerostomia is the most frequently observed side-effect of radiotherapy (RT) in the head-and-neck region and is caused by salivary gland damage. The aim of this thesis was to determine the RT dose-response relationships for the parotid and submandibular glands and to investigate the effect of their sparing on patient-reported xerostomia after RT for tumors of the oropharynx. The mean parotid gland dose can be used to estimate the risk of significant functional decline (flow re...

Dijkema, T.

2013-01-01

184

Determination of cotinine by LC-MS-MS with automated solid-phase extraction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cotinine is the primary metabolite of nicotine and the preferred biomarker for assessing cigarette smoke exposure. Several liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) methods have been described for measuring cotinine in biological fluids. Sample preparation typically involves manual solvent evaporation and reconstitution steps. This study describes a novel LC-MS-MS method for the quantification of cotinine by using electrospray ionization with multiple reaction monitoring and cotinine-d3 as internal standard, coupled with an automated solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure. The assay was linear over the analytical range of 0.5-1,000 ng/mL. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.13 and 0.20 ng/mL, respectively. Intra-assay and inter-assay imprecision of cotinine in all samples was 95-100%. Matrix effects in serum and plasma were protocol. The application of this method to an epidemiological study has demonstrated its utility for batch analyses of a large sample set (>500 samples). PMID:23625914

Dunlop, Allan J; Clunie, Iain; Stephen, Duncan W S; Allison, James J

2014-04-01

185

Mécanisme d'Action de la Cotinine : Interactions Nicotiniques, Étude Pharmacocinétique et Pharmacodynamique, Identification et Purification de son Récepteur  

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Les études comparatives de la nicotine et de son métabolite obtenu par addition d'une fonction cétone en ? par rapport à l'azote du noyau pyrrolidine, la cotinine, ont été réalisées par différentes approches expérimentales : interaction toxique chez la mouche et chez la souris, interaction avec les récepteurs nicotiniques à l'acétylcholine neuronaux et périphériques, étude du passage de la cotinine dans le cerveau et de sa régulation chez le rat, usage de la [125I]cotinine p...

Riah, Victor

1996-01-01

186

Radioimmunoassay of salivary steroid hormones for easy diagnosis of and adrenal functions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The salivary levels of progesterone, estradiol and cortisol were determined by radioimmunoassay in fertile and infertile women. progesterone concentration was also determined in sera of both groups. Results have shown salivary progesterone to be promising in the assessment of ovarian function. Positive and significant correlation was obtained between serum and salivary progesterone for both considered groups. Although, concentrations of estradiol in saliva seems to be useful in predicting the time of ovulation onset however, further evaluations, are still needed. High levels of salivary cortisol were obtained reflecting stress during menses, ovulation and awaiting for the onset of the next cycle. Consequently, salivary cortisol is a good monitor for adrenal function. 6 figs., 5 tabs

187

CYP2A6 Genotype but not Age Determines Cotinine Half-life in Infants and Children  

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The formation of cotinine, the main proximate metabolite and a biomarker of nicotine exposure, is mediated primarily by CYP2A6. Our aim was to determine if higher cotinine levels in young children exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) are a result of age-related differences in pharmacokinetics. Forty-nine participants, 2 to 84 months old, received oral deuterium-labeled cotinine, with daily urine samples for up to 10 days for cotinine half-life measurement. DNA from saliva was used for CYP2A6 gen...

Dempseyl, Delia A.; Sambol, Nancy C.; Jacob, Peyton; Hoffmann, E.; Tyndale, Rachel F.; Fuentes-afflick, Elena; Benowitz, Neal L.

2013-01-01

188

Immunochromatographic assay using gold nanoparticles for measuring salivary secretory IgA in dogs as a stress marker  

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The concentration of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) is a well-known stress marker for humans. The concentration of salivary sIgA in dogs has also been reported as a useful stress marker. In addition, salivary sIgA in dogs has been used to determine the adaptive ability of dogs for further training. There are conventional procedures based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs. However, ELISA requires long assay time, complicated operations...

Aki Takahashi, Shigeru Uchiyama

2009-01-01

189

Circulating immune complexes, immunoglobulin G, salivary proteins and salivary immunoglobulin A in patients with Sjögren's syndrome  

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Full Text Available Introduction. Sjögren's syndrome (SS is a chronic autoimmune disorder, with its major clinical manifestations resulting from changes in exocrine glands. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate serum concentrations of circulating immune complexes (CIC and immunoglobulin G (IgG, and salivary proteins (SP and salivary immunoglobulin A (sIgA in 40 patients with SS, and to correlate these values among themselves, as well as with the unstimulated salivary flow rate (USFR and the duration of disease. Methods. The total of 40 patients were included in this research. CIC was determined using the solution of polyethylene glycol and IgG with the standard procedure of radial immunodiffusion. SP was investigated by the method of Lowry and sIgA was separated from the whole saliva using the method of immune chromatography. Results. The values of most of the studied parameters exceeded the normal range in a high degree: CIC 72.5%, IgG 70%, SP 80%. The concentrations of CIC were significantly higher in the patients with the duration of disease less than 10 years. With the decrease of USFR, the concentration of sIgA and IgG were increased with statistical significance. Conclusion The increased prevalence of abnormal values of CIC, IgG and SP indicate that the patients with SS have developed a higher level of immune reactivity. These results could be useful in diagnosis and disease activity monitoring.

Hadži-Mihailovi? Miloš

2009-01-01

190

Salivary gland diseases in children  

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Salivary gland diseases in children are rare, apart from viral-induced diseases. Nevertheless, it is essential for the otolaryngologist to recognize these uncommon findings in children and adolescents and to diagnose and initiate the proper treatment.

Iro, Heinrich; Zenk, Johannes

2014-01-01

191

Efecto de la Cotinina en la Viabilidad de Fibroblastos / EFFECT OF COTININE ON THE VIABILITY OF FIBROBLASTS.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar "in vitro" el efecto de la cotinina en la viabilidad celular utilizando un linaje continuo de fibroblastos. Fueron formados grupos experimentales según las concentraciones de cotinina : 0 (control), 50ng, 100ng, 500ng, 1ug/ml. y tiempo de condicionamento (1, 24, 4 [...] 8 horas). Cada uno de los 12 orificios de una placa para cultivo celular recibió 1 mL de medio de Eagle y 1mL de cotinina en las diferentes concentraciones, inmediatamente fue acrescentado 1ml de medio de cultivo conteniendo 1x10(5) cels/mL. Después del condicionamento con la droga, en los 3 períodos ensayados, las células fueron teñidas con azul de tripan 0,4% y observadas en un microscopio invertido, por un examinador ciego para los grupos experimentales. Los experimentos fueron repetidos 5 vezes. Los resultados mostraron que las dos concentraciones mayores de cotinina presentaron los menores porcentajes de células viables, sin embargo, esta diferencia fue reducida. La viabilidad celular presentó una pequeña disminución con el aumento del tiempo de condicionamiento. Concluimos que la cotinina puede afectar la viabilidad celular solo en las dos mayores concentraciones ensayadas. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate, in vitro, the effect of cotinine on the viability of fibroblasts from a continuous lineage. Experimental groups were formed according to drug dosage: 0 (control), 50ng, 100ng, 500ng, 1ug/ml, and time of exposure: (1, 24, 48 horas).Twelve wells microplates were [...] used. Each well received 1ml of Eagle medium and 1ml of a solution containing 1x10(5) cells/ml. Cotinine at the tested concentrations was then added to the wells. After the incubation period, cells viability was assessed by using trypan blue 0,4%. Cell viabylity were assessed on a inverted micorscope, by the single examiner who was blend to the experimentals groups. The experiment was repeated 5 times. Results demostrated that the two greater concentrations presented the more non viable cells, but these diferences were minimal. The cells viability presented minimal decreased with the increased of time exposure. Cotinine affect fibroblasts for the high tested dose.

Aurora E., Traverso Martínez; Karina, Gonzales Silvério; Carlos, Rossa Jr.

2004-01-01

192

Arti fi cial Salivary Glands  

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Full Text Available Head and neck cancer is the fi fth most common malignancy and accounts for 3% of all new cancer cases each year. Treat- ment for most patients with head and neck cancers includes ionizing radiation. A consequence of this treatment is irreversible damage to salivary glands which is accompanied by a loss of fl uid-secreting acinar-cells and a considerable decrease of saliva output. Despite recent improvements in treating xerostomia (e.g. saliva stimulants, saliva substitutes, and gene therapy, there is a need of more scienti fi c advancements that can be clinically applied toward restoration of compromised salivary gland func- tion. Here we provide a summary of the current salivary cell models that have been used to advance restorative treatments via development of an arti fi cial salivary gland. Although these models are not fully characterized, their improvement may lead to the construction of an arti fi cial salivary gland that is in high demand for improving the quality of life of many patients suffe- ring from salivary secretory dysfunction

Rezwana Begum Mohammed

2014-07-01

193

Direct radioimmunoassay (RIA) of salivary testosterone: correlation with free and total serium testosterone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Simple and sensitive direct RIA for determination of salivary testosterone was developed by using RSL NOSOLVEX TM (125 1) kit produced by Radioassay System Laboratories (Carcon, California). In addition, a relationship between salivary and serum free and total testosterone concentrations was studied in randomly selected 45 healthy subjects, 5 females on oral contraceptive pills and 28 hypertensive patients on various treatment regimens. The lowest weight of testosterone detectable by the modified method was equivalent to 1 pg/ml of saliva, taking into account analytical variability. Intra- and interassay coefficients of variation were 5.09 +/- 2.7% and 8.2 +/- 5.9% respectively. Statistically significant correlations were found between salivary and serum free testosterone (r = 0.97) and salivary and serum total testosterone concentrations (r = 0.70 - 0.87). The exception to this was a group of hypertensive females in which no correlation (r = 0.14) between salivary and total serum testosterone was found. It is also of interest that, while salivary testosterone was significantly increased in subjects taking oral contraceptives and most of the hypertensive patients, the total serum testosterone concentration was in normal range. These findings suggest that the determination of salivary testosterone is a reliable method to detect changes in the concentration of available biologically active hormone in the circulation. 21 references, 4 figures, 1 tablees, 4 figures, 1 table

194

Adrenergic effects on secretion of amylase from the rat salivary glands  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of adrenergic agents on secretion of amylase from the salivary glands in vivo. Saliva was collected from the distal oesophagus in conscious rats. Adrenaline increased the concentration of amylase in saliva and serum significantly. The result of infusion of alpha- and beta-adrenergic antagonists as well as noradrenaline and isoproterenol showed that secretion of salivary amylase is predominantly mediated by stimulation of beta-adrenergic receptors, especially of the beta 1-subtype. Investigation of the isoenzyme pattern in saliva, pancreatic juice and serum demonstrated that the major component in serum is salivary amylase. This study has shown that beta-adrenergic agents stimulate secretion of amylase from the salivary glands in rats. Though the secretion is mainly exocrine small amounts of amylase is found in serum, which seems to originate from the salivary glands.

Poulsen, Steen Seier; NexØ, Ebba

1988-01-01

195

Anti-smoking legislation and its effects on urinary cotinine and cadmium levels.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anti-smoking legislation has been associated with an improvement in health indicators. Since the cadmium (Cd) body burden in the general population is markedly increased by smoke exposure, we analyzed the impact of the more restrictive legislation that came into force in Spain in 2011 by measuring Cd and cotinine in first morning urine samples from 83 adults in Madrid (Spain) before (2010) and after (2011) introduction of this law. Individual pair-wise comparisons showed a reduction of creatinine corrected Cotinine and Cd levels for non-active smokers, i. e. those which urinary cotinine levels are below 50?g/L. After the application of the stricter law, cotinine levels in urine only decreased in non-active smokers who self-reported not to be exposed to second-hand smoke. The reduction in second hand smoke exposure was significantly higher in weekends (Friday to Sunday) than in working days (Monday to Thursday). The decrease in U-Cd was highly significant in non-active smokers and, in general, correlated with lower creatinine excretion. Therefore correction by creatinine could bias urinary Cd results, at least for cotinine levels higher than 500?g/L. The biochemical/toxicological benefits detected herein support the stricter application of anti-smoking legislation and emphasize the need to raise the awareness of the population as regards exposure at home. PMID:25460641

Sánchez-Rodríguez, Jinny E; Bartolomé, Mónica; Cañas, Ana I; Huetos, Olga; Navarro, Carmen; Rodríguez, A Carolina; Arribas, Misericordia; Esteban, Marta; López, Ana; Castaño, Argelia

2015-01-01

196

Dynamic radioisotopic study of the salivary glands. Quantification test  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Quantified dynamic radioisotopic exploration, a new and rational examination, should find its place in a thorough check-up of the salivary glands together with clinical, immunological, anatomopathological and sialographic investigations. The object of this work was to standardise the test procedure with a view to routine use on patients and to define certain quantified parameters representing objectively the different aspects of the salivary functions. Our procedure through reeding sophisticated equipment, is simple to perform and relies on use of: radiotechnetium employed at activities which allow repetitive exlorations whereby pathological changes may be followed; the gamma camera and its data processing system which records all radioactive information obtained on the patient's head. These results will supply the data needed to judge the salivary functions as a whole. The apparatus used provides a remarkable pictorial record made up not only of morphological and functional images at each stage of the examination but also of ciphered radioactivity versus time curves for each of the main salivary glands and for any other zone of interest. From these curves it is then possible to define quantified parameters, reproducible and expressing functional activity. This procedure, safe and painless, seems to suit the patients who lie still without complaint for 60 minutes, 45 minutes for the concentration study and 15 minutes for the post-stimulus excretion study. The dynamic radioisotopic examination of the salivary glands, by the comparison of concentration and excretion images and by the study of parameters, separately and as a whole, is thus a useful complement to other paraclinical examinations and contributes essential information in most salivary diseases

197

What interactions drive the salivary mucosal pellicle formation?  

Science.gov (United States)

The bound salivary pellicle is essential for protection of both the enamel and mucosa in the oral cavity. The enamel pellicle formation is well characterised, however the mucosal pellicle proteins have only recently been clarified and what drives their formation is still unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the salivary pellicle on particles with different surface properties (hydrophobic or hydrophilic with a positive or negative charge), to determine a suitable model to mimic the mucosal pellicle. A secondary aim was to use the model to test how transglutaminase may alter pellicle formation. Particles were incubated with resting whole mouth saliva, parotid saliva and submandibular/sublingual saliva. Following incubation and two PBS and water washes bound salivary proteins were eluted with two concentrations of SDS, which were later analysed using SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. Experiments were repeated with purified transglutaminase to determine how this epithelial-derived enzyme may alter the bound pellicle. Protein pellicles varied according to the starting salivary composition and the particle chemistry. Amylase, the single most abundant protein in saliva, did not bind to any particle indicating specific protein binding. Most proteins bound through hydrophobic interactions and a few according to their charges. The hydrophobic surface most closely matched the known salivary mucosal pellicle by containing mucins, cystatin and statherin but an absence of amylase and proline-rich proteins. This surface was further used to examine the effect of added transglutaminase. At the concentrations used only statherin showed any evidence of crosslinking with itself or another saliva protein. In conclusion, the formation of the salivary mucosal pellicle is probably mediated, at least in part, by hydrophobic interactions to the epithelial cell surface. PMID:24921197

Gibbins, Hannah L; Yakubov, Gleb E; Proctor, Gordon B; Wilson, Stephen; Carpenter, Guy H

2014-08-01

198

Single gas chromatography method with nitrogen phosphorus detector for urinary cotinine determination in passive and active smokers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A nicotina é uma substância presente no cigarro capaz de causar dependência, sendo biotransformada em vários metabólitos nos seres humanos, dentre eles a cotinina urinária, que é considerada um indicador biológico de exposição à nicotina, devido a suas altas concentrações, comparado a outras matrize [...] s. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um único método para determinação de cotinina urinária, em amostras de urina de fumantes ativos e passivos, através de cromatografia em fase gasosa com detector de nitrogênio- fósforo (CG-DNF). Para o preparo de amostras foram utilizados 5 mL de urina, 1 mL de hidróxido de sódio 5 mol L-1, 5 mL de clorofórmio, tendo como padrão interno a lidocaína. Na faixa de concentrações de 10-1000 ng mL-1 e 500- 6000 ng mL-1, o coeficiente de determinação foi 0,9986 e 0,9952, respectivamente e, o limite de quantificação foi 10 ng mL-1. A precisão intra- e interensaio apresentou desvio padrão relativo (%) menor que 14,2% e a inexatidão foi menor que +11,9%, com uma eficiência de extração de 88,5%. O método apresentou robustez, de acordo com o teste de Youden. As concentrações médias de cotinina observadas foram 2980 ng mL-1, para fumantes ativos e 132 ng mL-1, para fumantes passivos. Os resultados sugerem que o método é confiável, preciso, linear e apresentou robustez, na faixa avaliada, podendo ser aplicado na rotina para análises de amostras de fumantes ativos e passivos, pois é capaz de quantificar uma ampla faixa de concentrações de cotinina urinária. Abstract in english Nicotine is a major addictive compound in cigarettes and is rapidly and extensively metabolized to several metabolites in humans, including urinary cotinine, considered a biomarker due to its high concentration compared to other metabolites. The aim of this study was to develop a single method for d [...] etermination of urinary cotinine, in active and passive smokers, by gas chromatography with a nitrogen phosphorus detector (GC-NPD). Urine (5.0 mL) was extracted with 1.0 mL of sodium hydroxide 5 mol L-1, 5.0 mL of chloroform, and lidocaine used as the internal standard. Injection volume was 1 ?L in GC-NPD. Limit of quantification was 10 ng mL-1. Linearity was evaluated in the ranges 10-1000 ng mL-1 and 500-6000 ng mL-1, with determination coefficients of 0.9986 and 0.9952, respectively. Intra- and inter-assay standard relative deviations were lower than 14.2 %, while inaccuracy (bias) was less than +11.9%. The efficiency of extraction was greater than 88.5%. Ruggedness was verified, according to Youden's test. Means of cotinine concentrations observed were 2,980 ng mL-1 for active smokers and 132 ng mL-1, for passive smokers. The results revealed that satisfactory chromatographic separation between the analyte and interferents was obtained with a ZB-1 column. This method is reliable, precise, linear and presented ruggedness in the range evaluated. The results suggest that it can be applied in routine analysis for passive and active smokers, since it is able to quantify a wide range of cotinine concentrations in urine.

Lusiane, Malafatti; Patrícia Penido, Maia; Matheus Coutinho Gonçalves, Martins; Maria Elisa Pereira Bastos de, Siqueira; Isarita, Martins.

2010-12-01

199

Single gas chromatography method with nitrogen phosphorus detector for urinary cotinine determination in passive and active smokers  

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Full Text Available Nicotine is a major addictive compound in cigarettes and is rapidly and extensively metabolized to several metabolites in humans, including urinary cotinine, considered a biomarker due to its high concentration compared to other metabolites. The aim of this study was to develop a single method for determination of urinary cotinine, in active and passive smokers, by gas chromatography with a nitrogen phosphorus detector (GC-NPD. Urine (5.0 mL was extracted with 1.0 mL of sodium hydroxide 5 mol L-1, 5.0 mL of chloroform, and lidocaine used as the internal standard. Injection volume was 1 ?L in GC-NPD. Limit of quantification was 10 ng mL-1. Linearity was evaluated in the ranges 10-1000 ng mL-1 and 500-6000 ng mL-1, with determination coefficients of 0.9986 and 0.9952, respectively. Intra- and inter-assay standard relative deviations were lower than 14.2 %, while inaccuracy (bias was less than +11.9%. The efficiency of extraction was greater than 88.5%. Ruggedness was verified, according to Youden's test. Means of cotinine concentrations observed were 2,980 ng mL-1 for active smokers and 132 ng mL-1, for passive smokers. The results revealed that satisfactory chromatographic separation between the analyte and interferents was obtained with a ZB-1 column. This method is reliable, precise, linear and presented ruggedness in the range evaluated. The results suggest that it can be applied in routine analysis for passive and active smokers, since it is able to quantify a wide range of cotinine concentrations in urine.A nicotina é uma substância presente no cigarro capaz de causar dependência, sendo biotransformada em vários metabólitos nos seres humanos, dentre eles a cotinina urinária, que é considerada um indicador biológico de exposição à nicotina, devido a suas altas concentrações, comparado a outras matrizes. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um único método para determinação de cotinina urinária, em amostras de urina de fumantes ativos e passivos, através de cromatografia em fase gasosa com detector de nitrogênio- fósforo (CG-DNF. Para o preparo de amostras foram utilizados 5 mL de urina, 1 mL de hidróxido de sódio 5 mol L-1, 5 mL de clorofórmio, tendo como padrão interno a lidocaína. Na faixa de concentrações de 10-1000 ng mL-1 e 500- 6000 ng mL-1, o coeficiente de determinação foi 0,9986 e 0,9952, respectivamente e, o limite de quantificação foi 10 ng mL-1. A precisão intra- e interensaio apresentou desvio padrão relativo (% menor que 14,2% e a inexatidão foi menor que +11,9%, com uma eficiência de extração de 88,5%. O método apresentou robustez, de acordo com o teste de Youden. As concentrações médias de cotinina observadas foram 2980 ng mL-1, para fumantes ativos e 132 ng mL-1, para fumantes passivos. Os resultados sugerem que o método é confiável, preciso, linear e apresentou robustez, na faixa avaliada, podendo ser aplicado na rotina para análises de amostras de fumantes ativos e passivos, pois é capaz de quantificar uma ampla faixa de concentrações de cotinina urinária.

Lusiane Malafatti

2010-12-01

200

Measurement of late-night salivary cortisol with an automated immunoassay system  

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Background: Measurement of late-night salivary cortisol concentrations is increasingly used as a screening test in suspected Cushing's syndrome. Cortisol concentrations are typically extremely low in late-night samples and discordant assay-specific reference ranges have been reported. Therefore, the aim of our study was to assess the analytical performance of the first automated cortisol immunoassay specified for salivary measurements and to establish late-night sampling reference-range data ...

Vogeser, Michael; Durner, Ju?rgen; Seliger, Ewald; Auernhammer, Christoph

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Imaging of salivary gland tumours  

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Salivary gland neoplasms account for <3% of all tumors. Most of them are benign and parotid gland is the commonest site. As a general rule, the smaller the involved salivary gland, the higher is the possibility of the tumor being malignant. The role of imaging in assessment of salivary gland tumour is to define intra-glandular vs. extra-glandular location, detect malignant features, assess local extension and invasion, detect nodal metastases and systemic involvement. Image guided fine needle aspiration cytology provides a safe means to obtain cytological confirmation. For lesions in the superficial parotid and submandibular gland, ultrasound is an ideal tool for initial assessment. These are superficial structures accessible by high resolution ultrasound and FNAC which provides excellent resolution and tissue characterization without a radiation hazard. Nodal involvement can also be assessed. If deep tissue extension is suspected or malignancy confirmed on cytology, an MRI or CT is mandatory to evaluate tumour extent, local invasion and perineural spread. For all tumours in the sublingual gland, MRI should be performed as the risk of malignancy is high. For lesions of the deep lobe of parotid gland and the minor salivary glands, MRI and CT are the modalities of choice. Ultrasound has limited visualization of the deep lobe of parotid gland which is obscured by the mandible. Minor salivary gland lesions in the mucosa of oral cavity, pharynx and tracheo-bronchial tree, are also not accessible by conventional ultrasound. Recent study suggests that MR spectroscopy may differentiate malignant and benign salivary gland tumours as well as distinguishing Warthin's tumor from pleomorphic adenoma. However, its role in clinical practice is not well established. Similarly, the role of nuclear medicine and PET scan, in imaging of parotid masses is limited. Sialography is used to delineate the salivary ductal system and has limited role in assessment of tumour extent.

Lee, Y.Y.P.; Wong, K.T.; King, A.D. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin NT, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Ahuja, A.T. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin NT, Hong Kong (Hong Kong)], E-mail: aniltahuja@cuhk.edu.hk

2008-06-15

202

Imaging of salivary gland tumours  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Salivary gland neoplasms account for <3% of all tumors. Most of them are benign and parotid gland is the commonest site. As a general rule, the smaller the involved salivary gland, the higher is the possibility of the tumor being malignant. The role of imaging in assessment of salivary gland tumour is to define intra-glandular vs. extra-glandular location, detect malignant features, assess local extension and invasion, detect nodal metastases and systemic involvement. Image guided fine needle aspiration cytology provides a safe means to obtain cytological confirmation. For lesions in the superficial parotid and submandibular gland, ultrasound is an ideal tool for initial assessment. These are superficial structures accessible by high resolution ultrasound and FNAC which provides excellent resolution and tissue characterization without a radiation hazard. Nodal involvement can also be assessed. If deep tissue extension is suspected or malignancy confirmed on cytology, an MRI or CT is mandatory to evaluate tumour extent, local invasion and perineural spread. For all tumours in the sublingual gland, MRI should be performed as the risk of malignancy is high. For lesions of the deep lobe of parotid gland and the minor salivary glands, MRI and CT are the modalities of choice. Ultrasound has limited visualization of the deep lobe of parotid gland which is obscured by the mandible. Minor salivary gland lesions in the mucosa of oral cavity, pharynx and tracheo-bronchial tree, vity, pharynx and tracheo-bronchial tree, are also not accessible by conventional ultrasound. Recent study suggests that MR spectroscopy may differentiate malignant and benign salivary gland tumours as well as distinguishing Warthin's tumor from pleomorphic adenoma. However, its role in clinical practice is not well established. Similarly, the role of nuclear medicine and PET scan, in imaging of parotid masses is limited. Sialography is used to delineate the salivary ductal system and has limited role in assessment of tumour extent

203

Giant salivary calculi of the submandibular gland  

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Sialolithasis is the most common salivary gland disease. A case of an unusually large sialolith arising in the submandibular gland is presented, along with a review of the management of giant salivary gland calculi.

Fowell, C.; Macbean, A.

2012-01-01

204

Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke measured by cotinine 125I-radioimmunoassay  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We describe a polyclonal-antiserum-based 125I-radioimmunoassay for cotinine that is suitable for measuring nonsmokers' passive exposure to tobacco smoke in the environment. The standard curve ranged from 0.25 to 12.0 micrograms/L, with an estimated lower limit of sensitivity of 0.2 microgram/L (95% B/Bo = 0.2 microgram/L; 50% B/Bo = 4.0 micrograms/L). The median within-assay CVs for patients' samples with cotinine values from 0.4 to 1.3, 1.4 to 2.4, 2.5 to 4.6, and 4.7 to 15.6 micrograms/L were 13.9%, 7.2%, 5.1%, and 5.7%, respectively. Between-assay CVs for two quality-control sera with average values of 1.53 and 3.68 micrograms/L were 14.3% and 7.8%, respectively. Analytical recoveries of cotinine from smokers' sera diluted in zero calibrant ranged from 91% to 116%. Cotinine values determined on 79 paired sera and urines from nonsmokers showed significant correlation with self-reported exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (r = 0.49, P less than 0.001 for sera; r = 0.57, P less than 0.001 for urine). The log of the values for serum and urine cotinine were also significantly correlated (r = 0.85, P less than 0.001). Evidently, polyclonal antiserum can be used to develop a cotinine assay for measuring exposure to environmental tobacco smoke that compares well with that described for monoclonal-based assays

205

Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke measured by cotinine sup 125 I-radioimmunoassay  

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We describe a polyclonal-antiserum-based {sup 125}I-radioimmunoassay for cotinine that is suitable for measuring nonsmokers' passive exposure to tobacco smoke in the environment. The standard curve ranged from 0.25 to 12.0 micrograms/L, with an estimated lower limit of sensitivity of 0.2 microgram/L (95% B/Bo = 0.2 microgram/L; 50% B/Bo = 4.0 micrograms/L). The median within-assay CVs for patients' samples with cotinine values from 0.4 to 1.3, 1.4 to 2.4, 2.5 to 4.6, and 4.7 to 15.6 micrograms/L were 13.9%, 7.2%, 5.1%, and 5.7%, respectively. Between-assay CVs for two quality-control sera with average values of 1.53 and 3.68 micrograms/L were 14.3% and 7.8%, respectively. Analytical recoveries of cotinine from smokers' sera diluted in zero calibrant ranged from 91% to 116%. Cotinine values determined on 79 paired sera and urines from nonsmokers showed significant correlation with self-reported exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (r = 0.49, P less than 0.001 for sera; r = 0.57, P less than 0.001 for urine). The log of the values for serum and urine cotinine were also significantly correlated (r = 0.85, P less than 0.001). Evidently, polyclonal antiserum can be used to develop a cotinine assay for measuring exposure to environmental tobacco smoke that compares well with that described for monoclonal-based assays.

Knight, G.J.; Palomaki, G.E.; Lea, D.H.; Haddow, J.E. (Foundation for Blood Research, Scarborough, ME (USA))

1989-06-01

206

Toward improved statistical methods for analyzing Cotinine-Biomarker health association data  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Serum cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine, is frequently used in research as a biomarker of recent tobacco smoke exposure. Historically, secondhand smoke (SHS research uses suboptimal statistical methods due to censored serum cotinine values, meaning a measurement below the limit of detection (LOD. Methods We compared commonly used methods for analyzing censored serum cotinine data using parametric and non-parametric techniques employing data from the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES. To illustrate the differences in associations obtained by various analytic methods, we compared parameter estimates for the association between cotinine and the inflammatory marker homocysteine using complete case analysis, single and multiple imputation, "reverse" Kaplan-Meier, and logistic regression models. Results Parameter estimates and statistical significance varied according to the statistical method used with censored serum cotinine values. Single imputation of censored values with either 0, LOD or LOD/?2 yielded similar estimates and significance; multiple imputation method yielded smaller estimates than the other methods and without statistical significance. Multiple regression modelling using the "reverse" Kaplan-Meier method yielded statistically significant estimates that were larger than those from parametric methods. Conclusions Analyses of serum cotinine data with values below the LOD require special attention. "Reverse" Kaplan-Meier was the only method inherently able to deal with censored data with multiple LODs, and may be the most accurate since it avoids data manipulation needed for use with other commonly used statistical methods. Additional research is needed into the identification of optimal statistical methods for analysis of SHS biomarkers subject to a LOD.

Clark John D

2011-10-01

207

Salivary gland calculi - contemporary methods of imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sialolithiasis is the most common disorder of major salivary glands. The main site of salivary stones formation is submandibular gland, followed by parotid and sublingual gland. The aim of this article was to present current diagnostic imaging modalities carried out in patients suspected with salivary stones on the basis of own material and review of literature. Current diagnostic imaging tools used in the imaging of salivary stones were described and illustrated in this paper. These are: conventional radiography, sialography, ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance sialography and sialoendoscopy. Digital subtraction sialography and ultrasonography are the methods of choice in the imaging of salivary gland calculi. Although sialography is a very old diagnostic method, still it is the best diagnostic tool in the imaging of subtle anatomy of salivary gland duct system. Digital subtraction sialography can show the exact location of salivary stone and enables imaging of salivary ducts pathology (e.g. stenoses), which is especially important when sialoendoscopy is planned. Sialography is also used as the treatment method, i.e. interventional sialography. Non enhanced computed tomography is recommended when multiple and tiny salivary stones are suspected. Magnetic resonance imaging is the evolving alternative diagnostic method. In this diagnostic modality there is no need for salivary ducts cannulation and administration of contrast material. Thus magnetic ation of contrast material. Thus magnetic resonance sialography can also be carried out in the acute sialoadenitis. In the future, sialoendoscopy may become one of the main diagnostic and treatment procedures for salivary duct disorders, especially in salivary stone cases. (authors)

208

Effects of cobalt 60 irradiation on rat salivary glands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A single irradiation of Co-60 was given to the head and neck region in male Sprague-Dawley rats. According to the time, dose and fractionation factor (TDF), the experimental animals were equally divided into the group of 11.36 Gy (TDF 50), the group of 17.82 Gy (TDF 100), and the group of 27.97 Gy (TDF 200). Parotid, submandibular, and sublingual salivary glands were examined by light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and biochemically one, 3, and 7 days after irradiation. Parotid saliva samples were also collected after stimulation with pilocarpine, and the flow rate, concentration of total salivary protein, and ?-amylase activity were assessed. The parotid gland showed the most significant decrease in ?-amylase activity at 3 days in all groups. ?-amylase activity in the submandibular and sublingual glands was much lower than in the parotid gland. Non-lysosome enzyme, acid p-nitrophenyl phosphatase activity in the salivary glands was increased. Similarly, a lysosomal enzyme, ?-D-glucuronidase in the salivary glands was increased. Alkaline phosphatase activity was increased in the parotid gland and decreased in the submandibular and sublingual glands. Salivary flow rate in the parotid gland was decreased one, 3, and 7 days after irradiation, markedly depending on irradiation doses. Light microscopy of the salivary glands revealed atrophy, vacuolization, and degranulation in acinar cells, especially in granular tubule cells. Electron microscopy revealedle cells. Electron microscopy revealed vacuolization and degeneration of mitochondria, secretory granules, and other organelles in the cytoplasm of acinar cells. Morphological changes of secretory granules were dose-dependent. Not only morphological but also biochemical changes in the parotid gland occurred synchronously. (N.K.) 56 refs

209

Multilocular developmental salivary gland defect  

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Developmental salivary gland defect is a bone depression on the lingual surface of the mandible containing salivary gland or fatty soft tissue. The most common location is within the submandibular gland fossa and often close to the inferior border of the mandible. This defect is asymptomatic and generally discovered only incidentally during radiographic examination of the area. This defect also appears as a well-defined, corticated, unilocular radiolucency below the mandibular canal. Although it is not uncommon for this defect to appear as a round or ovoid radiolucency, multilocular radiolucency of these defects is relatively rare. This report presents a case of a developmental salivary gland defect with multilocular radiolucency in a male patient.

Kim, Jin Soo [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Oral Biology Research Institute, School of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

2012-09-15

210

Irradiation induced salivary gland neoplasia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Twenty-six patients with a prior history of irradiation for benign conditions of the head and neck and salivary gland abnormalities are reported. All the patients had preoperative physical findings suggestive of tumor, not glandular infection. Forty-six per cent of the patients had one carcinoma and 11% had two carcinomas within the irradiated field. Eight of the 11 malignant tumors in these 26 patients were in the parotid gland. The nonmalignant salivary changes were similar to those previously reported in glands receiving therapeutic irradiation for carcinoma

211

ELIMINATION OF URINARY COTININE IN CHILDREN EXPOSED TO KNOWN LEVELS OF SIDE-STREAM CIGARETTE SMOKE  

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The establishment of a quantitative personal marker of side-stream smoke exposure in children is important in the study of potential health effects in the group. Cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine, has been shown to exhibit a dose-response relationship to side-stream smoke exposu...

212

A sensitive HPLC-ESI-MS-MS method for the determination of cotinine in urine.  

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A simple, sensitive, selective, and reproducible method based on high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry was developed for the determination of nicotine and its major metabolite cotinine in human urine. The internal standard (acetaminophen) was separated from cotinine on a Hypersil Gold C(18) column with retention times of 9.3 and 13.0 min, respectively. The mobile phase consisted of a mixture of 10 mM acetate buffer (pH 5.4) and methanol (45:55, v/v), running through the column at a flow rate of 0.6 mL/min. The chromatographic analysis was operated at 25 degrees C. Sample preparation was prepared by liquid-liquid extraction with a mixture of methyl-t-butyl ether in dichloromethane (1:1, v/v). The precision of the method based on within-day repeatability and reproducibility (day-to-day variation) was below 15% (% coefficient of variation). Good accuracy was observed for both the intra-day or inter-day assays. Limit of quantification was accepted as 0.02 ng using 100 mL samples. The mean recoveries for cotinine and the internal standard were greater than 90%. The method has been applied to the investigation of a 2-h urinary excretion of cotinine in 154 healthy non-smoking Thai volunteers (aged 18-45 years) following the administration of a half-piece (2 mg) of nicotine gum. PMID:20822661

Apinan, Roongnapa; Choemung, Anuruk; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

2010-07-01

213

Cotinine as a biomarker of tobacco exposure: development of a HPLC method and comparison of matrices.  

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Tobacco dependence reaches one-third of the world population, and is the second leading cause of death around the world. Cotinine, a major metabolite of nicotine, is the most appropriate parameter to evaluate tobacco exposure and smoking status due to its higher stability and half-life when compared to nicotine. The procedure involves liquid-liquid extraction, separation on a RP column (Zorbax XDB C(8)), isocratic pump (0.5 mL/min of water-methanol-sodium acetate (0.1 M)-ACN (50:15:25:10, v/v/v/v), 1.0 mL of citric acid (0.034 M) and 5.0 mL of triethylamine for each liter) and HPLC-UV detection (261 nm). The analytical procedure proved to be sensitive, selective, precise, accurate and linear (r>0.99) in the range of 5-500.0 ng/mL for cotinine. 2-Phenylimidazole was used as the internal standard. The LOD was 0.18 ng/mL and the LOQ was 5.0 ng/mL. All samples from smoking volunteers were collected simultaneously to establish a comparison between serum, plasma, and urine. The urinary cotinine levels were normalized by the creatinine and urine density. A significant correlation was found (pcreatinine or density is unnecessary. This method is considered reliable for determining cotinine in serum and plasma of smokers and in environmental tobacco smoke exposure. PMID:20155742

Petersen, Guilherme Oliveira; Leite, Carlos Eduardo; Chatkin, José Miguel; Thiesen, Flavia Valladão

2010-03-01

214

Cotinine impacts sensory processing in DBA/2 mice through changes in the conditioning amplitude.  

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Cotinine, a major metabolite of nicotine, has produced improved learning and memory in rodents and non-human primates and corrects apomorphine-induced loss of pre-pulse startle inhibition in rats. The present study assessed cotinine, both acute and chronic (7-day), in the sensory inhibition paradigm in DBA/2 mice. These mice spontaneously show a deficit in hippocampal sensory inhibition, as assessed by the P20-N40 EEG paradigm, which models the deficit observed in schizophrenia patients. Anesthetized DBA/2 mice were recorded in the CA3 region of hippocampus for inhibition of paired, identical auditory stimuli, then administered cotinine (0.33, 0.1, 0.33, 1.0 or 3.3 mg/kg SQ) and recorded for 90 min. At doses of 0.1, 0.33 and 1.0 mg/kg, there were significant increases in conditioning amplitude, with no changes in test amplitude or TC ratio. Blockade of ?4?2 nicotinic receptors with central administration of DH?E blocked the increase in the conditioning amplitude induced by the 1.0 mg/kg dose of cotinine, as did blockade of ?7 nicotinic receptors with ?-bungarotoxin. Daily injections of 0.33, 1.0 or 3.3 mg/kg for 7 days produced similar increases in the conditioning amplitude on the 7th day, but only at the 0.33 and 3.3 mg/kg doses. Determination of the "carry over" effect of the previous 6 daily doses of cotinine, prior to the 7th dose, showed that there was a significant increase in the conditioning amplitude as compared to the baseline data for mice receiving the equivalent acute dose. There were no significant effects on test amplitude or TC ratio for any of the chronic doses. These data suggest that cotinine modulates the conditioning amplitude in the sensory inhibition paradigm through the ?4?2 nicotinic receptor and possibly also through the ?7 nicotinic receptor, as well. However the data do not suggest that cotinine is a potential therapeutic for the treatment of sensory inhibition deficits in schizophrenia. PMID:24374321

Wildeboer-Andrud, Kristin M; Zheng, Lijun; Choo, Kevin S; Stevens, Karen E

2014-02-01

215

Acute citalopram administration produces correlated increases in plasma and salivary cortisol.  

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RATIONALE: Intravenous administration of the selective serotonin (5-HT) re-uptake inhibitor, citalopram, increases plasma cortisol. This would be expected to produce a parallel increase in salivary cortisol concentration. OBJECTIVE: To find out whether IV citalopram produces correlated increases in plasma and salivary cortisol levels. METHODS: Twelve healthy volunteers were tested on two occasions receiving either citalopram (10 mg IV) or saline in a double-blind, randomised, cross-over desig...

Bhagwagar, Z.; Hafizi, S.; Cowen, Pj

2002-01-01

216

Green Tea Consumption after Intense Taekwondo Training Enhances Salivary Defense Factors and Antibacterial Capacity  

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The aim of this study was to investigate the short-term effects of green tea consumption on selected salivary defense proteins, antibacterial capacity and anti-oxidation activity in taekwondo (TKD) athletes, following intensive training. Twenty-two TKD athletes performed a 2-hr TKD training session. After training, participants ingested green tea (T, caffeine 6 mg/kg and catechins 22 mg/kg) or an equal volume of water (W). Saliva samples were collected at three time points: before training (BT-T; BT-W), immediately after training (AT-T; AT-W), and 30 min after drinking green tea or water (Rec-T; Rec-W). Salivary total protein, immunoglobulin A (SIgA), lactoferrin, ?-amylase activity, free radical scavenger activity (FRSA) and antibacterial capacity were measured. Salivary total protein, lactoferrin, SIgA concentrations and ?-amylase activity increased significantly immediately after intensive TKD training. After tea drinking and 30 min rest, ?-amylase activity and the ratio of ?-amylase to total protein were significantly higher than before and after training. In addition, salivary antibacterial capacity was not affected by intense training, but green tea consumption after training enhanced salivary antibacterial capacity. Additionally, we observed that salivary FRSA was markedly suppressed immediately after training and quickly returned to pre-exercise values, regardless of which fluid was consumed. Our results show that green tea consumption significantly enhances the activity of ?-amylase and salivary antibacterial capacity. PMID:24498143

Lin, Shiuan-Pey; Li, Chia-Yang; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Chang, Chen-Kang; Chou, Kuei-Ming; Fang, Shih-Hua

2014-01-01

217

Cotinine and interferon-gamma levels in pre-school children exposed to household tobacco smoke  

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Full Text Available Background Environmental tobacco smoke has been consistently linked to negative health outcomes, especially in children, including an increased susceptibility to infections. Cigarette smoking has a depressive effect on interferon-? (IFN-?. Serum cotinine is a marker of exposure to smoke. Objective To determine the association between serum cotinine and interferon-? (IFN-? levels in children with household tobacco smoke exposure. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study at the Tumumpa and Singkil Districts of Manado, Indonesia, from February to May 2012. Subjects were collected by consecutively sampling of healthy children aged 1-3 years who came to the integrated health posts. Seventy-four children were recruited and consisted of two groups of 37 subjects each, the tobacco smoke exposure group and the non-tobacco smoke exposure group. Blood specimens were collected from all subjects for laboratory blood tests of cotinine and IFN-? levels. Results were analyzed by T-test and Pearson’s correlation analysis with a P<0.05 is considered as statistically significant. Results There was no significant correlation between serum cotinine and interferon-? levels in the tobacco smoke exposure group. However, the interferon-? level in the tobacco smoke exposure group was significantly lower than that of the non-tobacco smoke exposure group (P<0.0001. Conclusion Cotinine is not related to the interferon-? level in children exposed to tobacco smoke, however, the interferon-? level in children with tobacco smoke exposure is lower than in the non-tobacco smoke exposure group. [Paediatr Indones. 2013;53:287-90.].

Lina Kalalo

2013-09-01

218

The Danish contribution to the European DEMOCOPHES project: A description of cadmium, cotinine and mercury levels in Danish mother-child pairs and the perspectives of supplementary sampling and measurements.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human biomonitoring (HBM) is an important tool, increasingly used for measuring true levels of the body burdens of environmental chemicals in the general population. In Europe, a harmonized HBM program was needed to open the possibility to compare levels across borders. To explore the prospect of a harmonized European HBM project, DEMOCOPHES (DEMOnstration of a study to COordinate and Perform Human biomonitoring on a European Scale) was completed in 17 European countries. The basic measurements performed in all implemented countries of DEMOCOPHES included cadmium, cotinine and phthalate metabolites in urine and mercury in hair. In the Danish participants, significant correlations between mothers and children for mercury in hair and cotinine in urine were found. Mercury in hair was further significantly associated with intake of fish and area of residence. Cadmium was positively associated with BMI in mothers and an association between cadmium and cotinine was also found. As expected high cotinine levels were found in smoking mothers. For both mercury and cadmium significantly higher concentrations were found in the mothers compared to their children. In Denmark, the DEMOCOPHES project was co-financed by the Danish ministries of health, environment and food safety. The co-financing ministries agreed to finance a number of supplementary measurements of substances of current toxicological, public and regulatory interest. This also included blood sampling from the participants. The collected urine and blood samples were analyzed for a range of other persistent and non-persistent environmental chemicals as well as two biomarkers of effect. The variety of supplementary measurements gives the researchers further information on the exposure status of the participants and creates a basis for valuable knowledge on the pattern of exposure to various chemicals. PMID:25440293

Mørck, Thit A; Nielsen, Flemming; Nielsen, Jeanette K S; Jensen, Janne F; Hansen, Pernille W; Hansen, Anne K; Christoffersen, Lea N; Siersma, Volkert D; Larsen, Ida H; Hohlmann, Linette K; Skaanild, Mette T; Frederiksen, Hanne; Biot, Pierre; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Schwedler, Gerda; Castaño, Argelia; Angerer, Jürgen; Koch, Holger M; Esteban, Marta; Schoeters, Greet; Den Hond, Elly; Exley, Karen; Sepai, Ovnair; Bloemen, Louis; Joas, Reinhard; Joas, Anke; Fiddicke, Ulrike; Lopez, Ana; Cañas, Ana; Aerts, Dominique; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

2014-10-14

219

An Evaluation of Cotinine as an Index of Exposure to Tabacco Smoke in Children with Recurrent Respiratory Tract Infections Using HPLC Method  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The authors evaluated the frequency of exposure to tobacco smoke among children suffering from respiratory tract infections. The investigations comprised 141 children aged from 2 months to 6 years that were treated in the 2nd Department of Pediatric and Allergology of Polish Mother’s Memorial Hospital Research Institute in ?ód? (Poland. 69 of them were exposed to tobacco smoke in their home environment. The remaining 72 children came from non-smoking families. 26 (37.7% individuals among the passive smokers and 15 (20.83% among the children from non-smoking families suffered from recurrent respiratory tract infections. Cotinine concentrations were evaluated in the group of 69 children using the HPLC-UV method. The determined average cotinine/creatinine index expressed as median was higher in passive smokers with recurrent respiratory infections than among passive smokers with non-recurrent respiratory infections. Moreover, it was stated that the exposure to cigarette smoke was more often among children of younger and less well educated parents as well as living in poor housing conditions. These studies clearly indicate that there is a need for extensive education on the harmful effects of passive smoking and the recurrence of infections.

Wioletta Grys

2013-07-01

220

Development and comparison of two competitive ELISAs for estimation of cotinine in human exposed to environmental tobacco smoke.  

Science.gov (United States)

We simultaneously set up two competitive (direct and indirect) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based on the same antibody for estimation of cotinine (COT) in pregnant women especially and population generally exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. The results show that the limits of detection (LODs) for direct competitive ELISA and indirect competitive ELISA were 0.04 ?gL(-1) and 0.1 ?gL(-1), respectively. Direct competitive ELISA was found to be more sensitive than indirect competitive ELISA. Thereafter, we applied our direct competitive ELISA for the detection of COT from urinary samples taken from 450 volunteers from the Zhejiang Province of China. COT was detected in 100% of participants with concentration ranging from LOD to 5358.0 ?gL(-1). The GM and 95th percentile concentration of COT in pregnant women were 6.3 ?gL(-1) and 57.2 ?gL(-1), respectively. Males had statistically higher COT concentrations than females (P people generally and pregnant women especially were highly exposed to COT. Further studies are needed to focus on the sources of exposure, potential health effects and risk assessment of exposure to COT. PMID:24470075

Lei, Yajing; Zhang, Qian; Fang, Lizheng; Akash, Muhammad Sajid Hamid; Rehman, Kanwal; Liu, Zhiming; Shi, Weixing; Chen, Shuqing

2014-10-01

 
 
 
 
221

Determinación de los niveles de cortisol salival en una muestra de sujetos de Santiago de Chile Salivary cortisol among subjects with and without Cushing syndrome  

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Background: Salivary cortisol measurement is recommended as a screening mea-sure when a Cushing Syndrome is suspected. Theproposed cut-offpointfor aprobable diagnosis is 0.16 ug/dL. Aim: To determine salivary cortisol concentrations during the day inpatients with and without Cushing syndrome and with depression. Material and Methods: Salivary cortisol was measured by competitive enzyme immuno assay (EIA), in samples obtained at 8:00,15:00 and 23:00 h in 78 patients wi...

MACARENA LÉPEZ; EGARDO CAAMAÑO; CARMEN ROMERO; JENNY FIEDLER; VERÓNICA ARAYA

2010-01-01

222

Understanding Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Effects in Asthmatic Children through Determination of Urinary Cotinine and Targeted Metabolomics of Plasma  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Effects in Asthmatic Children through Determination of Urinary Cotinine and Targeted Metabolomics of Plasma Introduction Asthma is a complex disease with multiple triggers and causal factors, Exposure to environmental tob...

223

Dynamic uptake of radioactive substance in rat salivary gland following 3H-melatonin administration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dynamics of radioactive accumulation in rat greater salivary gland following systemic administration of 3H-melatonin was studied to determine a possible action of the hormone in the gland. Progressive decline of 3H-melatonin concentrations was found in the serum, lung, skeletal muscle, liver, kidney, and salivary gland during 60 min following the administration. On the contrary, there was a progressive accumulation of radioactive substance other than 3H-melatonin in the salivary gland but not in other tissues mentioned. The radioactivity was also progressively and preferentially localized in the nuclear fraction of the gland cells. These results suggest a possible direct action of melatonin derivative in rat salivary gland

224

Cotinine inhibits the pro-inflammatory response initiated by multiple cell surface Toll-like receptors in monocytic THP cells  

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Abstract Background The primary, stable metabolite of nicotine [(S)-3-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl) pyridine] in humans is cotinine [(S)-1-methyl-5-(3-pyridinyl)-2-pyrrolidinone]. We have previously shown that cotinine exposure induces convergence and amplification of the GSK3?-dependent PI3 kinase and cholinergic anti-inflammatory systems. The consequence is reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion by human monocytes responding to bacteria or LPS, a TLR4 agonist. Find...

Bagaitkar Juhi; Zeller Iris; Renaud Diane E; Scott David A

2012-01-01

225

Self-reported Smoking and Urinary Cotinine Levels among Pregnant Women in Korea and Factors Associated with Smoking during Pregnancy  

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This study examined urinary cotinine levels and self-reported smoking among pregnant women in Korea and the factors associated with smoking during pregnancy. The subjects were selected from pregnant women who visited 30 randomly sampled obstetric clinics and prenatal care hospitals in Korea in 2006. Smoking status was determined by self-reporting and urinary cotinine measurement. A total of 1,090 self-administered questionnaires and 1,057 urine samples were analyzed. The percentage of smoking...

Jhun, Hyung-joon; Seo, Hong-gwan; Lee, Do-hoon; Sung, Moon-woo; Kang, Yoon-dan; Syn, Hee Chul; Jun, Jong Kwan

2010-01-01

226

Menthol smoking in relation to time to first cigarette and cotinine: Results from a community-based study  

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Smokers who have their first cigarette shortly after waking, an indicator of nicotine dependence, have substantially higher cotinine levels. There is controversy regarding the role of menthol in nicotine dependence. We hypothesized that menthol smokers have a shorter time to first cigarette (TTFC), and tested whether any statistical association actually reflects increased dependence by measuring nicotine uptake (e.g. cotinine) in the same group of smokers. A cross-sectional community-based st...

Muscat, Joshua E.; Liu, Hsiao-pin; Stellman, Steven D.; Richie, John P.

2012-01-01

227

Relationships of Cotinine and Self-Reported Cigarette Smoking With Hemoglobin \\(A_{1c}\\) in the U.S.  

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OBJECTIVE: Whether nicotine leads to a persistent increase in blood glucose levels is not clear. Our objective was to assess the relationship between cotinine, a nicotine metabolite, and glycated hemoglobin (Hb\\(A_{1c}\\)), an index of recent glycemia. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We used cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1999 to 2008. We limited our analysis to 17,287 adults without diabetes. We created three cotinine categories: <0.0...

Clair, Carole; Bitton, Asaf; Meigs, James Benjamin; Rigotti, Nancy Ann

2011-01-01

228

Salivary paracetamol elimination kinetics during the menstrual cycle.  

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Studies were done to examine the influence of the menstrual cycle on the elimination kinetics of paracetamol. Salivary concentrations of paracetamol were determined after oral administration of 1 g of paracetamol on day 3, 10, 14, 20 and 25 of the menstrual cycle in normal healthy women volunteers with regular menstrual cycles. There was no significant difference in elimination half-life (t 1/2) or metabolic clearance rate (CL) between the various days of the menstrual cycle. The result sugge...

Somaja, L.; Thangam, J.

1987-01-01

229

Quantitative evaluation of Streptococcus mutans and Candida sp and salivary factors in the oral cavity of patients submitted to radiotherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to quantify the microorganisms Streptococcus mutans and Candida sp in the oral cavity of patients with oropharynx carcinoma, before, during and after radiotherapy, and to correlate the results with salivary factors such as pH, buffer capacity and flow rate. Saliva samples were collected, diluted and inoculated in SB-20 agar and in Sabouraud agar, for Streptococcus mutans and Candida sp, respectively. Previously to dilution, the concentrated saliva was analyzed, and the salivary factors were determined. After the growth of colonies, the number of microorganisms was determined in CFU/ml. The analysis of the results allowed to conclude that the salivary factors are related to the presence of microorganisms, and that the number of CFU/ml increased as salivary flow rate decreased. The effects of radiation compromised salivary homeostasis and favored the increase of infection by yeasts and bacteria. (author)

230

The Development of Conductive Elements for the Selective Detection of Formaldehyde and Cotinine  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of new materials and techniques presents an opportunity to revisit old problems. Innovations in materials engineering revolutionize the status quo by expanding the tool kit needed to develop robust solutions to complex problems. Challenges that had hitherto been intractable become surmountable; previously established methods are significantly enhanced; fresh impetus is injected into the materials design engine. In one way or another, every scientist contributes to this dynamic creative process where ideas are incubated and developed through fundamental research that culminates in compelling findings applicable in various realms of science. The work presented herein embodies this ethos. Our investigations have applied the relatively nascent technology of molecular imprinting to develop sensing elements for detection of cotinine and formaldehyde. Additionally, we have used different polymer systems to address the inherent limitations of conventional materials using a simple, cost-effective and efficient materials approach. Specifically, in Part I, we investigate molecular imprinting of nylon-6, polyvinylphenol and ElvamideRTM, with cotinine. We examine the capacity of these materials as polymer hosts for molecular imprinting by studying the effect of cotinine imprinting on their nanomechanical properties. By monitoring variations in mechanical properties induced by cotinine templating, we determine the factors critical for effective imprinting and ultimately demonstrate that polyvinylphenol is the most suitable polymer host. Based on these results, we develop a cotinine-imprinted polyvinylphenol-single walled carbon nanotube sensor that readily detects cotinine. Using electrical, spectral and chromatographic characterization, we rigorously demonstrate the enhanced affinity programmed into the sensing layer via molecular imprinting. Part II is dedicated to a familiar problem: formaldehyde sensing. While this challenge has been a trope of the electrochemical sensor industry for years, there still remains a clear need for an affordable device with heightened sensitivity. We achieve this goal in two different ways. The first sensing system is a polyaniline-polyethylenimine composite film that exhibits a profound sensitivity to formaldehyde, but discriminates against a number of selected molecules. This transducing layer complements polyaniline's tunable conductivity with the formaldehyde-binding reactivity of polyethylenimine, to detect formaldehyde. The second approach still relies on the excellent electrical properties of polyaniline but, unlike the polyaniline-polyethylenimine system where the polymers are blended, two separate films in a bilayer assembly are applied for sensing. The top layer, fluoral-p reacts with formaldehyde to form a lutidine compound along with ammonia that tempers the conductivity of the sensor. We articulate the importance of molecular imprinting in optimizing analyte detection by showing that imprinting the underlying polyaniline layer in this bilayer system further enhances the sensor's sensitivity. Findings are summarized at the end of each chapter along with potential opportunities for future work based on the experimental results.

Antwi-Boampong, Sadik

231

Aspiration biopsy cytology of the salivary gland.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aspiration biopsy by fine needle from the major salivary glands has been an under-utilized technic in the United States. To evaluate this form of biopsy, 69 patients with salivary gland enlargement were examined by this technic; 47 had confirmative histology. Characteristic ABC patterns were seen in the benign mixed tumor, the papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum, the mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and malignancy metastatic to the salivary gland. These findings are described. The method proved complication-free and accurate and is recommended for all tumors of the salivary gland. PMID:6269419

Kline, T S; Merriam, J M; Shapshay, S M

1981-09-01

232

Serum and salivary macrophage migration inhibitory factor in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

The overexpression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) has been identified in a variety of tumors and the investigation of its molecular mechanisms in tumor progression is a key topic of research. The present study aimed to investigate MIF as a potential marker for disease control or recurrence, and to assess the association between serum and salivary MIF and the clinicopathological characteristics of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Serum and salivary samples were collected prior to and following the surgical treatment of 50 patients with OSCC. MIF concentrations were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the adopted level of statistical significance was PMIF concentrations were significantly reduced following tumor resection in OSCC patients. Furthermore, higher preoperative salivary MIF concentrations were observed in patients with larger tumors and in those who succumbed to the disease. In conclusion, high salivary and serological MIF concentrations were identified in patients with OSCC. Nevertheless, only serological MIF concentrations may be considered as a potential marker for the early detection of OSCC recurrence once the salivary levels, prior and following treatment, do not show any significant differences. PMID:25289107

DE Souza, Mariana Barbosa; Curioni, Otávio Alberto; Kanda, Jossi Ledo; DE Carvalho, Marcos Brasilino

2014-11-01

233

The nicotine metabolite, cotinine, attenuates glutamate (NMDA) antagonist-related effects on the performance of the five choice serial reaction time task (5C-SRTT) in rats  

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Cotinine, the most predominant metabolite of nicotine in mammalian species, has a pharmacological half-life that greatly exceeds its precursor. However, until recently, relatively few studies had been conducted to systematically characterize the behavioral pharmacology of cotinine. Our previous work indicated that cotinine improves prepulse inhibition of the auditory startle response in rats in pharmacological impairment models and that it improves working memory in non-human primates. Here w...

Terry, Alvin V.; Buccafusco, Jerry J.; Schade, R. Foster; Vandenhuerk, Leah; Callahan, Patrick M.; Beck, Wayne D.; Hutchings, Elizabeth J.; Chapman, James M.; Li, Pei; Bartlett, Michael G.

2012-01-01

234

Development of a sensitive method for the determination of cotinine in human urine with capillary gas chromatography and nitrogen-selective detection after solid-phase extraction  

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In dit rapport wordt de ontwikkeling van een gevoelige methode beschreven voor de kwantitatieve bepaling van cotinine in humane urine. Cotinine is een metaboliet van nicotine, die in de urine wordt uitgescheiden en gerelateerd kan worden aan de actieve of passieve inhalatie van tabaksrook. Cotinine wordt uit urine geisoleerd door middel van een vaste-fase extractie gevolgd door een clean-up van het vaste-fase extract door selective heroplossing in een niet mengbare com...

Doorn C van; Groot G de

2012-01-01

235

Cotinine and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Levels in the Amniotic Fluid and Fetal Cord at Birth and in the Urine from Pregnant Smokers  

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Cigarette smoking during pregnancy has several impacts on fetal development, including teratogenic effects. The objective of this study was to assess whether the toxic substances (cotinine and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) found in pregnant smokers are transmitted to their fetuses. The outcomes were analyzed measuring cotinine and 1-hydroxypyrene in the amniotic fluid and maternal urine, benzopyrene and cotinine in the umbilical cord blood. Through a controlled cross-sectional design, 125...

Machado, Julia Barros; Chatkin, Jose? Miguel; Zimmer, Aline Rigon; Goulart, Ana Paula Szezepaniak; Thiesen, Fla?via Vallada?o

2014-01-01

236

Simple and Rapid Assay Method for Simultaneous Quantification of Urinary Nicotine and Cotinine using Micro-Extraction by Packed Sorbent and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry  

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A simple and rapid method for determination of nicotine and cotinine levels in urine was developed using samples prepared by micro-extraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) and subjected to gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. This method provided good reproducibility, as well as good linearity of calibration curves in the range of 1–100 and 50–1000 ng/mL for quality control samples spiked with nicotine and cotinine, respectively. The detection limit of nicotine and cotinine ...

HIROSHI SENO; OSAMU SUZUKI; AKIRA ISHII; KEI ZAITSU; HIDEKI HATTORI; TADASHI OGAWA; MASAE IWAI

2013-01-01

237

Teeth with periodontal bone loss, cigarette smoking and plasma cotinine levels.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study is to assess teeth with periodontal bone loss, cigarette smoking and plasma cotinine levels. We enrolled 120 untreated periodontal patients with chronic periodontitis into the study. The group comprised 48 men and 72 women, ranging in age from 21 to 75 years (mean age, 42.4 years). We divided the patients into five groups based on self-reported smoking status: (1) heavy smokers (n=35); (2) light smokers (n = 17); (3) recent former smokers (n = 8); (4) long-term former smokers (n = 17); (5) non-smokers (n = 43). We calculated packyear: (number of cigarette/day/20 x years) for all smokers. Smoking status was confirmed by measurement of plasma cotinine levels in 116 subjects. Periodontal disease was assessed on a full set of periapical radiographs. The number of teeth with bone loss was scored in four categories (no bone loss, light bone loss, moderate bone loss or serious bone loss) in all patients. The results demonstrated that plasma cotinine levels correlated significantly with the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Moreover, heavy smokers had fewer teeth with no bone loss (P < 0.001) and more teeth with moderate bone loss (P < 0.001) than non-smokers. In addition, we found a negative correlation between packyears and the number of teeth with no bone loss (P < 0.04) and a positive correlation between packyears and the number of teeth with light bone loss (P < 0.005). However, we found no correlation between plasma cotinine levels and the number of teeth with bone loss. These clinical findings suggest that cigarette smoking affects the number of teeth with or without periodontal bone loss, and this effect is related to the degree of smoking exposure. PMID:12685806

Xu, Li; Loos, B G; Craandijk, J; Ritsema, E; Huffels, R A M; van der Velden, U

2002-04-01

238

Nicotine, cotinine, and anabasine inhibit aromatase in human trophoblast in vitro.  

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Epidemiologic studies suggest that women who smoke have lower endogenous estrogen than nonsmokers. To explore the possible link between cigarette smoking and decreased endogenous estrogens, we have examined the effects of constituents of tobacco on estrogen production in human choriocarcinoma cells and term placental microsomes. In choriocarcinoma cell cultures, nicotine, cotinine (a major metabolite of nicotine), and anabasine (a minor component of cigarette tobacco) all inhibited androstene...

Barbieri, R. L.; Gochberg, J.; Ryan, K. J.

1986-01-01

239

Arteriovenous hemangioma involving submandibular salivary gland  

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We present a case of an arteriovenous hemangioma involving the submandibular salivary gland in a 20 year old girl. Hemangiomas in this region are rare. Out of the reported cases most have been cavernous hemangiomas. The rarity of an arteriovenous malformation in the submandibular salivary gland prompted us to report this case.

Singh, P. P.; Gupta, Neelima; Jain, Mona

2001-01-01

240

Salivary duct carcinoma of parotid gland  

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Full Text Available A 40-year old male presented with rapidly growing swelling in the right parotid region. Based on the fine needle aspiration cytology report of adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified, superficial parotidectomy was performed, which showed the features of salivary duct carcinoma by histopathological examination. The smears were reviewed to identify the potential pitfalls in the cytological diagnosis of salivary duct carcinoma.

Kinnera Vijay Sreedhar

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Salivary duct carcinoma of parotid gland  

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A 40-year old male presented with rapidly growing swelling in the right parotid region. Based on the fine needle aspiration cytology report of adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified, superficial parotidectomy was performed, which showed the features of salivary duct carcinoma by histopathological examination. The smears were reviewed to identify the potential pitfalls in the cytological diagnosis of salivary duct carcinoma.

Kinnera Vijay Sreedhar; Mandyam Kumaraswamy; Chowhan Amit; Nandyala Rukmangadha; Bobbidi Venkata; Vutukuru Venkatarami

2009-01-01

242

Simple, rapid and sensitive assay method for simultaneous quantification of urinary nicotine and cotinine using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nicotine is a major addictive compound in cigarette. Its smoke is rapidly and extensively metabolized to several metabolites in human. Cotinine as a major metabolite of nicotine is commonly used as a biomarker to determine active and passive smokers. Cotinine has a longer half-life ( approximately 20 h) compared to nicotine ( approximately 2h). A simple, sensitive, rapid and high throughput GC-MS method was developed for simultaneous quantification of urinary nicotine and cotinine in passive and active smokers. In the sample preparation method, the analytes and internal standard were first basified and followed by liquid-liquid extraction. Upon completion, anhydrous sodium sulphate was added to the solvent mixture to trap moistures. The clear extract obtained was directly injected into GC-MS, operating under selective ion monitoring (SIM) mode. Calibration curves in the range of 0.5-5000 ng/mL of the analytes in urine matrix were established with linear correlation coefficients (r(2)) greater than 0.997. The limit of detection for both nicotine and cotinine were 0.20 ng/mL. The mean recoveries for nicotine and cotinine were 93.0 and 100.4%, respectively. The within- and between-assay accuracies were between 2.1 and 7.9% for nicotine and between 0.7 and 11.1% for cotinine. Within- and between-assay precisions of 3.3-9.5% for nicotine and 3.4-9.8% for cotinine were also achieved. The method can be used in routine assessment and monitoring of active smoking and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. The applicability of the assay was demonstrated in a small-scale comparison study between smokers and non-smokers. PMID:16908224

Man, Che Nin; Gam, Lay-Harn; Ismail, Syazwani; Lajis, Razak; Awang, Rahmat

2006-12-01

243

Immunochromatographic assay using gold nanoparticles for measuring salivary secretory IgA in dogs as a stress marker  

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The concentration of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) is a well-known stress marker for humans. The concentration of salivary sIgA in dogs has also been reported as a useful stress marker. In addition, salivary sIgA in dogs has been used to determine the adaptive ability of dogs for further training. There are conventional procedures based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs. However, ELISA requires long assay time, complicated operations and is costly. In the present study, we developed an immunochromatographic assay for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs using a dilution buffer containing a non-ionic surfactant. We determined 2500-fold dilution as the optimum condition for dog saliva using a phosphate buffer (50 mM, pH 7.2) containing non-ionic surfactant (3 wt% Tween 20). The results obtained from the saliva samples of three dogs using immunochromatographic assay were compared with those obtained from ELISA. It was found that the immunochromatographic assay is applicable to judge the change in salivary sIgA in each dog. The immunochromatographic assay for salivary sIgA in dogs is a promising tool, which should soon become commercially available for predicting a dog's psychological condition and estimating adaptive ability for training as guide or police dogs.

Takahashi, Aki; Kato, Yuya; Takezaki, Makoto; Tominaga, Toshihiro; Moriyama, Yoshiko; Takeda, Kunio; Miyahara, Toshiro; Nagatani, Naoki [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Okayama University of Science, 1-1 Ridai-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-0005 (Japan); Uchiyama, Shigeru [Okayama University of Science Specialized Training College, 8-3 Handa-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-0003 (Japan); Yuhi, Teruko; Ushijima, Hiromi, E-mail: nagatani@dac.ous.ac.j [Biodevicetechnology Ltd. 2-13 Asahidai, Nomi-City, Ishikawa 923-1211 (Japan)

2009-06-15

244

Immunochromatographic assay using gold nanoparticles for measuring salivary secretory IgA in dogs as a stress marker  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The concentration of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA is a well-known stress marker for humans. The concentration of salivary sIgA in dogs has also been reported as a useful stress marker. In addition, salivary sIgA in dogs has been used to determine the adaptive ability of dogs for further training. There are conventional procedures based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs. However, ELISA requires long assay time, complicated operations and is costly. In the present study, we developed an immunochromatographic assay for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs using a dilution buffer containing a non-ionic surfactant. We determined 2500-fold dilution as the optimum condition for dog saliva using a phosphate buffer (50 mM, pH 7.2 containing non-ionic surfactant (3 wt% Tween 20. The results obtained from the saliva samples of three dogs using immunochromatographic assay were compared with those obtained from ELISA. It was found that the immunochromatographic assay is applicable to judge the change in salivary sIgA in each dog. The immunochromatographic assay for salivary sIgA in dogs is a promising tool, which should soon become commercially available for predicting a dog's psychological condition and estimating adaptive ability for training as guide or police dogs.

Aki Takahashi, Shigeru Uchiyama, Yuya Kato, Teruko Yuhi, Hiromi Ushijima, Makoto Takezaki, Toshihiro Tominaga, Yoshiko Moriyama, Kunio Takeda, Toshiro Miyahara and Naoki Nagatani

2009-01-01

245

Immunochromatographic assay using gold nanoparticles for measuring salivary secretory IgA in dogs as a stress marker  

Science.gov (United States)

The concentration of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) is a well-known stress marker for humans. The concentration of salivary sIgA in dogs has also been reported as a useful stress marker. In addition, salivary sIgA in dogs has been used to determine the adaptive ability of dogs for further training. There are conventional procedures based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs. However, ELISA requires long assay time, complicated operations and is costly. In the present study, we developed an immunochromatographic assay for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs using a dilution buffer containing a non-ionic surfactant. We determined 2500-fold dilution as the optimum condition for dog saliva using a phosphate buffer (50 mM, pH 7.2) containing non-ionic surfactant (3 wt% Tween 20). The results obtained from the saliva samples of three dogs using immunochromatographic assay were compared with those obtained from ELISA. It was found that the immunochromatographic assay is applicable to judge the change in salivary sIgA in each dog. The immunochromatographic assay for salivary sIgA in dogs is a promising tool, which should soon become commercially available for predicting a dog's psychological condition and estimating adaptive ability for training as guide or police dogs.

Takahashi, Aki; Uchiyama, Shigeru; Kato, Yuya; Yuhi, Teruko; Ushijima, Hiromi; Takezaki, Makoto; Tominaga, Toshihiro; Moriyama, Yoshiko; Takeda, Kunio; Miyahara, Toshiro; Nagatani, Naoki

2009-06-01

246

Nizatidine Improves Impaired Salivary Secretion in GERD  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During esophageal acid clearance, salivation plays an important role in defending the esophageal mucosa. Nizatidine, a histamine H2 receptor antagonist, inhibits acetylcholine esterase, with a resultant increase in acetylcholine. We experienced a patient with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD and impaired salivary secretion who has been successfully treated with nizatidine.Case report: A 63-year-old female visited our hospital with complaints of heartburn and continuous laryngeal discomfort. Saliva scintigraphy was performed to evaluate the salivary function. Washout ratio was decreased to be 25%–40% in individual salivary gland. After the treatment with nizatidine, salivary scintigraphy demonstrated the increased washout ratios. The values of both parotid glands increased up to 90%, whereas those of submandibular glands improved to be around a normal range. GERD symptoms disappeared completely after treatment. In conclusion, nizatidine may be one of therapeutic options for low salivary excretion.

Yoshihisa Urita

2008-01-01

247

Serum and salivary cortisol in the diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency and as a predictor of the outcome in patients with severe sepsis Avaliação do cortisol sérico e salivar no diagnóstico da insuficiência adrenal e como parâmetro preditor da evolução de pacientes com sepse grave  

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OBJECTIVES: To compare salivary with serum total cortisol in patients with severe sepsis, postoperative patients and healthy controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Serum total cortisol was determined by chemiluminescence immunoassay; salivary cortisol was determined by enzyme immunoassay. RESULTS: In patients with severe sepsis, median concentration of salivary cortisol was 14.0 and 2.6 higher than that of postoperative patients and healthy subjects. In postoperative patients, salivary cortisol was...

Rômulo Carvalho Vaz de Mello; Sad, Eduardo F.; Bertha Coelho Andrade; Suzane Pretti Figueiredo Neves; Silvana Maria Elói Santos; Sarquis, Marta Maria S.; Marik, Paul E.; Eduardo Pimentel Dias

2011-01-01

248

Quantitative and qualitative analysis of human salivary NEFA with gas-chromatography and mass spectrometry  

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Full Text Available Salivary NEFA are proposed to play a role in oral health, oral fat detection, and they may hold diagnostic and prognostic potential. Yet, little is known about the array and concentrations of NEFA in saliva. The aim of the study was to conduct qualitative and quantitative analysis of salivary NEFA in healthy humans and to present a new, efficient protocol to perform such analyses. Resting saliva samples from fifteen participants were collected. The salivary lipids were extracted using a modified Folch extraction. The NEFA in the extracted lipids were selectively subjected to pentafluorobenzyl bromide derivatization and qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. A total 16 NEFA were identified in resting saliva. The four major NEFA were palmitic, linoleic, oleic and stearic acids. Their concentrations ranged from 2-9 micromolar. This is the first study to characterize individual human salivary NEFA and their respective concentrations. The method used in the study is sensitive, precise, and accurate. It is specific to fatty acids in non-esterified form and hence enables analysis of NEFA without their separation from other lipid classes. Thus, it saves time, reagents and prevents loss of sample. These properties make it suitable for large scale analysis of salivary NEFA.

BhushanVKulkarni

2012-08-01

249

Nizatidine and cisapride increase salivary secretion in rats.  

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Saliva is a neurally induced solution with buffering capacity against acidic solutions. Salivation therefore plays an important role in defending the esophageal mucosa against refluxed gastric acid and is evoked by cholinergic stimulation. Both nizatidine and cisapride are reported to increase acetylcholine concentrations in the postganglionic cholinergic synapses. We performed this study to clarify the effect of administration of nizatidine and cisapride on salivary secretion. Eight-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were used for the experiments. Histamine-stimulated gastric acid secretion was measured after intraduodenal administration of nizatidine or famotidine to determine the equipotent acid-suppressing doses. Salivary secretion was then measured for 3 hr after intraduodenal administration of nizatidine (30 mg/kg), famotidine (3 mg/kg), or cisapride (1 mg/kg). Both nizatidine and famotidine dose-dependently inhibited histamine-stimulated gastric acid secretion. Total salivary secretion was significantly increased by nizatidine (P = 0.02) and cisapride (P = 0.02) but not by famotidine (P = 0.50) compared with controls. PMID:15139487

Adachi, Kyoichi; Furuta, Kenji; Katsube, Tomoko; Fujisawa, Tomoo; Azumi, Takane; Fujishiro, Hirofumi; Ishihara, Shunji; Amano, Yuji; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu

2004-03-01

250

Basic fibroblast growth factor in rat salivary glands.  

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We studied the occurrence and localization of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in rat salivary glands using a specific monoclonal antibody. It was shown that the extract of rat salivary glands has a pronounced stimulatory activity on the growth of bovine capillary endothelial cells, which is blocked by the addition of an antibody against bFGF. The concentration of bFGF in the submandibular/sublingual gland, as determined by radioimmunoassay, was approximately 80% that in the brain. Immunocytochemistry revealed bFGF-immunoreactivity localized primarily in the epithelial cells lining the striated ducts and excretory ducts of the parotid, sublingual and submandibular glands. In addition, intense bFGF-immunoreactivity was observed in the granular convoluted tubule of the submandibular gland, localized predominantly in the agranular pillar cells, which lay in small numbers among the majority of weakly immunostained cells containing many apical secretory granules. At the electron-microscopic level, the immunoreactive material was distributed diffusely in the cytoplasmic matrix and nuclei of all immunoreactive cells, whereas it was absent from all cytoplasmic organelles including the secretory granules. These results indicate that bFGF is localized in different cellular and subcellular compartments from those of other growth factors in the duct system of rat salivary glands. PMID:8402829

Amano, O; Yoshitake, Y; Nishikawa, K; Iseki, S

1993-09-01

251

MRI of salivary gland tumors  

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MRI findings of 13 patients with proven salivary gland tumors, including 7 cases of parotid gland tumors, 2 cases of submandibular gland tumors, and 4 cases of minor salivary gland tumors, were reviewed. All examinations were carried out on a 1.5-T MRI system (General Electric, SIGNA Performance plus and SIMAZU, SMT-150X) with spin echo sequence. T1 and T2 weighted images and Gd-DTPA enhanced T1 weighted images were obtained. The results were as follows: All tumors demonstrated low to intermediate signal intensity on T1 weighted images and intermediate to high signal intensity on T2 weighted images. The differences between malignant and benign tumors were not detected by means of the signal intensity of the tumors. Tumor margins were clear except for 2 cases, including inflamed pleomorphic adenoma of the submandibular gland and adenoid cystic carcinoma of the parotid gland. Except for the case of adenolymphoma, internal structures of the tumor are inhomogenous, especially on T2 weighted images. Although the intraparotid facial nerve is not detected directly, whether the tumor is located on superficial or deep lobe could be detected by drawing a line between the lateral surface of the posterior belly of the digastric muscle and the lateral posterior border of the mandible except for one case and using the retromandibular vein except for two cases. (author).

Ariyoshi, Yasunori; Shimahara, Masashi; Senda, Jyunko; Sakinaka, Isao [Osaka Medical Coll., Takatsuki (Japan); Nakano, Yoshinobu

1996-04-01

252

MRI of salivary gland tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

MRI findings of 13 patients with proven salivary gland tumors, including 7 cases of parotid gland tumors, 2 cases of submandibular gland tumors, and 4 cases of minor salivary gland tumors, were reviewed. All examinations were carried out on a 1.5-T MRI system (General Electric, SIGNA Performance plus and SIMAZU, SMT-150X) with spin echo sequence. T1 and T2 weighted images and Gd-DTPA enhanced T1 weighted images were obtained. The results were as follows: All tumors demonstrated low to intermediate signal intensity on T1 weighted images and intermediate to high signal intensity on T2 weighted images. The differences between malignant and benign tumors were not detected by means of the signal intensity of the tumors. Tumor margins were clear except for 2 cases, including inflamed pleomorphic adenoma of the submandibular gland and adenoid cystic carcinoma of the parotid gland. Except for the case of adenolymphoma, internal structures of the tumor are inhomogenous, especially on T2 weighted images. Although the intraparotid facial nerve is not detected directly, whether the tumor is located on superficial or deep lobe could be detected by drawing a line between the lateral surface of the posterior belly of the digastric muscle and the lateral posterior border of the mandible except for one case and using the retromandibular vein except for two cases. (author)

253

Salivary Duct Carcinoma of the Minor Salivary Gland: A Rare Case Report  

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Full Text Available Salivary duct carcinoma is a rare invasive malignancy arising in the ductal epithelium of the salivary glands. Nearly 85% of the cases occur in the parotid gland followed by submandibular gland. Rarely is it described in the hard palate. Salivary duct carcinomas affecting the minor salivary glands have been reported in only 4% of the SDC cases and constitute 2% of all the salivary gland malignant neoplasms. It is characterized by aggressive behavior with early metastasis, local recurrence and significant mortality. The tumor has predilection for older men in the 6th to 7th decades of life. In this article; we report a case of a salivary gland carcinoma which was present in the right posterior region of the maxilla of a 50 year old female patient. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2013; 1(4.000: 222-226

Shalini Gupta

2013-08-01

254

Ornithodoros brasiliensis (mouro tick) salivary gland homogenates inhibit in vivo wound healing and in vitro endothelial cell proliferation.  

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Ornithodoros brasiliensis is a nidicolous tick only found in the southern Brazilian highlands region. O. brasiliensis parasitism is frequently associated with toxicosis syndrome, which can lead to severe reactions, ranging from local pruritus and pain to systemic disturbances both in humans and dogs. One of the most frequent findings associated with an O. brasiliensis bite is a slow healing lesion at the site of tick attachment, which can take several weeks to heal. This work tested the hypothesis that an O. brasiliensis salivary gland homogenate is able to modulate the skin wound-healing process in vivo, using a model of excisional skin lesion in rats, which are divided into two groups: (1) control group and (2) treated group, which topically received salivary gland homogenate equivalent to the protein amount of one whole salivary gland (?5 ?g protein). The hypothesis that O. brasiliensis salivary gland homogenates interfere with endothelial cell proliferation, a key role phenomenon in wound healing, was also tested. O. brasiliensis salivary gland homogenates significantly delay skin wound healing. The time to full healing of skin lesions in control rats was 15 days, contrasting with 24 days in rats topically treated with O. brasiliensis salivary gland homogenates. The calculated HT50 (healing time to recover 50% of the wound area) for control groups was 3.6 days (95% CI, 3.2-3.9) and for salivary gland treated rats was 7.7 days (95% CI, 7.0-8.4). Salivary gland homogenates have a strong cytotoxic activity on cultured endothelial cells (LC50, 13.6 mg/ml). Also, at sublethal concentrations (?3 mg/ml), salivary gland homogenates have a remarkable anti-proliferative activity (IC50 0.7 mg/ml) on endothelial cells, equivalent to ?0.03 salivary gland pairs, an activity which seems to be much greater than reported for any other tick species. This is the first report about the biological activities of O. brasiliensis salivary compounds and provides the first in vivo evidence to support the concept of wound-healing modulation by tick salivary secretions. Results shown here contribute to an understanding of O. brasiliensis tick toxicosis syndrome, and also increase our knowledge of tick salivary bioactive compounds. PMID:23397378

Reck, José; Marks, Fernanda S; Termignoni, Carlos; Guimarães, Jorge A; Martins, João Ricardo

2013-04-01

255

Salivary duct carcinoma of the palate  

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Full Text Available Salivary duct carcinoma is a rare high-grade neoplasm that more frequently affects the parotid gland. Though neoplasms of this type are infrequent in minor salivary glands, they are less aggressive and may lead to early diagnosis before distant metastases could occur. Salivary duct carcinoma is also the most frequent epithelial component of carcinosarcoma. The present article reports a case of SDC of the palate in a 26-year-old male and discusses SDC as a malignant epithelial component in carcinosarcoma.

Ponniah I

2005-01-01

256

Nicotine, cotinine, and ?-nicotyrine inhibit NNK-induced DNA-strand break in the hepatic cell line HepaRG.  

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Recent in vitro work using purified enzymes demonstrated that nicotine and/or a nicotine metabolite could inhibit CYPs (CYP2A6, 2A13, 2E1) involved in the metabolism of the genotoxic tobacco nitrosamine NNK. This observation raises the possibility of nicotine interaction with the mechanism of NNK bioactivation. Therefore, we hypothesized that nicotine or a nicotine metabolite such as cotinine might contribute to the inhibition of NNK-induced DNA strand breaks by interfering with CYP enzymes. The effect of nicotine and cotinine on DNA strand breaks was evaluated using the COMET assay in CYP competent HepaRG cells incubated with bioactive CYP-dependent NNK and CYP-independent NNKOAc (4-(acetoxymethylnitrosoamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone). We report a dose-dependent reduction in DNA damage in hepatic-derived cell lines in the presence of nicotine and cotinine. Those results are discussed in the context of the in vitro model selected. PMID:25075717

Ordonez, Patricia; Sierra, Ana Belen; Camacho, Oscar M; Baxter, Andrew; Banerjee, Anisha; Waters, David; Minet, Emmanuel

2014-07-15

257

Gene-centric analysis of serum cotinine levels in African and European American populations.  

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To date, most genetic association studies of tobacco use have been conducted in European American subjects using the phenotype of smoking quantity (cigarettes per day). However, smoking quantity is a very imprecise measure of exposure to tobacco smoke constituents. Analyses of alternate phenotypes and populations may improve our understanding of tobacco addiction genetics. Cotinine is the major metabolite of nicotine, and measuring serum cotinine levels in smokers provides a more objective measure of nicotine dose than smoking quantity. Previous genetic association studies of serum cotinine have focused on individual genes. We conducted a genetic association study of the biomarker in African American (N=365) and European American (N=315) subjects from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study using a chip containing densely-spaced tag SNPs in ?2100 genes. We found that rs11187065, located in the non-coding region (intron 1) of insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE), was the most strongly associated SNP (p=8.91 × 10(-6)) in the African American cohort, whereas rs11763963, located on chromosome 7 outside of a gene transcript, was the most strongly associated SNP in European Americans (p=1.53 × 10(-6)). We then evaluated how the top variant association in each population performed in the other group. We found that the association of rs11187065 in IDE was also associated with the phenotype in European Americans (p=0.044). Our top SNP association in European Americans, rs11763963 was non-polymorphic in our African American sample. It has been previously shown that psychostimulant self-administration is reduced in animals with lower insulin because of interference with dopamine transmission in the brain reward centers. Our finding provides a platform for further investigation of this, or additional mechanisms, involving the relationship between insulin and self-administered nicotine dose. PMID:22089314

Hamidovic, Ajna; Goodloe, Robert J; Bergen, Andrew W; Benowitz, Neal L; Styn, Mindi A; Kasberger, Jay L; Choquet, Helene; Young, Taylor R; Meng, Yan; Palmer, Cameron; Pletcher, Mark; Kertesz, Stefan; Hitsman, Brian; Spring, Bonnie; Jorgenson, Eric

2012-03-01

258

Imaging of the major salivary glands.  

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The major salivary glands, submandibular, parotid and sublingual glands play an important role in preserving the oral cavity and dental health. Patients with problems of the major salivary glands may present with symptoms such as dry mouth, dysphagia and obstruction of duct, inflammation, severe dental caries or swelling. Imaging plays an important role in visualization of morphology and function, to establish a diagnosis, for treatment, and for surgical planning. There are several options for diagnostic imaging: plain radiography, sialography, ultrasound (US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), salivary gland scintigraphy and (18) F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET). We present an overview of the modalities in relation to common salivary gland disease. PMID:25319072

Afzelius, Pia; Nielsen, Ming-Yuan; Ewertsen, Caroline; Bloch, Klaus Poulsen

2014-10-16

259

Cancer of the thyroid and salivary glands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The relationship of atomic bomb exposure to tumors of the head and neck has been studied in detail for the thyroid and salivary gland. It has been deomonstrated by animal experiments and studies conducted on those undergoing radiation therapy of the neck during childhood, and on those exposed to radioactive fallout from hydrogen-bomb tests in the Marshall Islands, that thyroid neoplasms can be induced by radiation. Although it was assumed that radiation would ahve a similar effect on the salivary gland located near the thyroid gland, it was in the 1970s that studies were commenced on the salivary gland. A study of the Adult Health Study population presented data which show that the incidence of salivary gland tumors was 9.3-fold higher in the group exposed to 300+ rad than in the control group and when confined only to malignant tumors the incidence was 21.8-fold higher

260

Development of a simple and rapid elisa of urinary cotinine for epidemiological application  

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Highly stereospecific polyclonal antibodies (anti-CN) to cotinine (CN), a major metabolite of nicotine, were prepared from rabbit antisera to CN-linked keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) by removing the antibodies to KLH and to its binding regions of CN. This was achieved by using immunoadsorbents consisting of insolubilized KLH onto CNBr-activated-Sepharose 4B. A new simple and rapid enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) of urinary CN was developed using the anti-CN. A brief outline of the ...

Yoshioka, Nobuo; Dohi, Yoshiko; Yonemasu, Kunio

1998-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Novel method for the isolation and quantitative analysis of nicotine and cotinine in biological fluids  

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A rapid quantitative method has been developed for the estimation of nicotine and cotinine in blood and urine. Isolation is accomplished by adsorption of the alkaloids on Amberlite XAD-2 resin and subsequent elution with chloroform/methanol. No solvent extraction or further purification is required. The final determination is made by high performance liquid chromatography using uv detection. Absolute recovery of nicotine was at least 80% in all samples. The accuracy of the method is estimated to be +-5% on standard addition measurements. Detection limits of 2 ng/ml urine may be routinely obtained.

Maskarinec, M.P.; Harvey, R.W.; Caton, J.E.

1978-07-01

262

Biotransformation of caffeine, cotinine, and nicotine in stream sediments: Implications for use as wastewater indicators  

Science.gov (United States)

Microbially catalyzed cleavage of the imadazole ring of caffeine was observed in stream sediments collected upstream and downstream of municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in three geographically separate stream systems. Microbial demethylation of the N-methyl component of cotinine and its metabolic precursor, nicotine, also was observed in these sediments. These findings indicate that stream sediment microorganisms are able to substantially alter the chemical structure and thus the analytical signatures of these candidate waste indicator compounds. The potential for in situ biotransformation must be considered if these compounds are employed as markers to identify the sources and track the fate of wastewater compounds in surface-water systems. ?? 2007 SETAC.

Bradley, P.M.; Barber, L.B.; Kolpin, D.W.; McMahon, P.B.; Chapelle, F.H.

2007-01-01

263

Utilisation de la cotinine contenue dans les cheveux comme marqueur d'une exposition à la fumée de tabac. Méta-analyse d'études internationales Benchmarking hair cotinine as a marker of tobacco smoke exposure. Meta-analysis of international studies  

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Full Text Available Au cours des 12 dernières années, nous avons établi et validé l'utilisation de la cotinine contenue dans les cheveux comme marqueur de l'exposition à la fumée de tabac. Cette méta-analyse, réalisée à partir de toutes les études disponibles de notre laboratoire et d'autres centres, est destinée à établir des valeurs de cotinine dans les cheveux, dans le contexte de l'exposition f à la fumée de tabac environnante. Les valeurs ci-dessous ont été mesurées sur plus de 1000 patients :?Femmes non enceintes : Fumeuses actives $ightarrow$ cotinine (ng/mg = 2.72 et [95% IC] = 2.32-3.13 Fumeuses passives $ightarrow$ cotinine (ng/mg = 0.62 et [95% IC] = 0.51-0.74 Non exposées $ightarrow$ cotinine (ng/mg = 0.29 et [95% IC] = 0.23-0.36 ?Femmes enceintes : Fumeuses actives $ightarrow$ cotinine (ng/mg = 1. 7 et [95% IC] = 1.46-1.94 Fumeuses passives $ightarrow$ cotinine (ng/mg = 0.07 et [95% IC] = 0-0.09 Non exposées $ightarrow$ cotinine (ng/mg = 0.08 et [95% IC] = 0-0.09 ?Enfants : Passifs $ightarrow$ cotinine (ng/mg = 0.96 et [95% IC] = 0.86-1.07 Non exposés $ightarrow$ cotinine (ng/mg = 0.33 et [95% IC] = 0.25-0.4 ?Nouveau-nés : Exposés in utéro $ightarrow$ cotinine (ng/mg = 1.42 et [95% IC] = 1.18-1.65 ? ? La séparation entre les différents états d'exposition avec un intervalle de confiance à 95% devrait pouvoir faciliter les recherches, ainsi que les cas cliniques où une exposition passive peut être dangereuse (par exemple des enfants avec de l'asthme vivant dans une maison de fumeurs et aider l'assurance maladie. Over the last 12 years we established and validated the use of hair cotinine as a biomarker of exposure to tobacco smoke. This meta analysis of all available studies from our laboratory and other centers, aimed at establishing values of hair cotinine in the context offetal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. The following are the values arrived at with over 1000 patients:?Non pregnant women: active smokers $ightarrow$ cotinine (ng/mg = 2.72 et [95% IC] = 2.32-3.13 passive smokers $ightarrow$ cotinine (ng/mg = 0.62 et [95% IC] = 0.51-0.74 unexposed $ightarrow$ cotinine (ng/mg = 0.29 et [95% IC] = 0.23-0.36 ?Pregnant women:active smokers $ightarrow$ cotinine (ng/mg = 1. 7 et [95% IC] = 1.46-1.94 passive smokers $ightarrow$ cotinine (ng/mg = 0.07 et [95% IC] = 0-0.09 unexposed $ightarrow$ cotinine (ng/mg = 0.08 et [95% IC] = 0-0.09 ?Children: Passive $ightarrow$ cotinine (ng/mg = 0.96 et [95% IC] = 0.86-1.07 unexposed $ightarrow$ cotinine (ng/mg = 0.33 et [95% IC] = 0.25-0.4 ?Neonates: Exposed in utero $ightarrow$ cotinine (ng/mg = 1.42 et [95% IC] = 1.18-1.65 ? The clear 95% confidence interval separation between the different states of exposure mayfacilitate research, as well as clinical cases where passive exposure can be life threatening (eg children with asthma in homes of smokers, and in health insurance.

Florescu Ana

2008-02-01

264

Dental mineralization and salivary activity are reduced in offspring of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) A mineralização dental e a atividade salivar estão reduzidas em filhotes de ratas espontaneamente hipertensas (SHR)  

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Several pathologies have been diagnosed in children of hypertensive mothers; however, some studies that evaluated the alterations in their oral health are not conclusive. This study analyzed the salivary gland activity and dental mineralization of offsprings of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Thirty-day-old SHR males and Wistar rats were studied. The salivary flow was evaluated by injection of pilocarpine, the protein concentration and salivary amylase activity, by the Lowry method and...

Gracieli Prado Elias; Otoniel Antonio Macedo dos Santos; Kikue Takebayashi Sassaki; Alberto Carlos Botazzo Delbem; Cristina Antoniali

2006-01-01

265

Differential Radiodiagnosis of Salivary Gland Masses  

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The aim of the investigation was to evaluate the possibilities of radiological methods in differential diagnostics of salivary gland masses. Materials and Methods. 76 patients with tumors and tumor-like salivary gland masses were examined. We analyzed the findings of their physical examination, and performed operative interventions compared to the data of histological verification, multiplanar reconstruction sialography and ultrasound investigation. Results. At clinical examination the ...

Egorova, ?. ?.; Smyslenova, ?. V.; Obinya, N. P.; Faskhutdinov, D. ?.

2013-01-01

266

Increased salivary cortisol after waking in depression.  

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RATIONALE: Cortisol hypersecretion is regarded as important in the pathophysiology of major depression. However, recent studies in community-based samples have been inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether acutely depressed, medication-free subjects show an exaggerated release of cortisol in saliva in relation to awakening. METHODS: We studied the pattern of waking salivary cortisol in 20 unmedicated acutely depressed subjects and 40 healthy controls. RESULTS: In both groups, salivary co...

Bhagwagar, Z.; Hafizi, S.; Cowen, Pj

2005-01-01

267

Enhanced early morning salivary cortisol in neuroticism.  

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OBJECTIVE: Neuroticism is a predisposing factor for major depression. The increase in salivary cortisol that follows waking provides a reliable measure of adrenocortical activity, and this response is increased in recovered depressed patients. This study compared waking cortisol levels in healthy subjects with high and low levels of neuroticism without a previous history of depression. METHOD: Salivary cortisol levels were measured upon waking and at 15-minute intervals for the next hour in v...

Portella, Mj; Harmer, Cj; Flint, J.; Cowen, P.; Goodwin, Gm

2005-01-01

268

Alternations in salivary glucose during ramadan fasting  

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During the holly month of Ramadan, Muslims fast every day from dawn to sunset. Although the effect of Ramadan fasting on general health has been widely studied, the impact of fasting on oral health and possible changes in salivary biochemicals, such as glucose, has not received much attentiom. The aim of our study was to evaluate the influence of fasting on the level of glucose in the saliva of healthy individuals. Salivary glucose was measured using an enzymatic method based on oxidation of ...

Ali Erfani; Reyhaneh Sariri; Abdolali Varasteh

2010-01-01

269

Salivary electrolytes in psoriasis: A preliminary study  

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Background: There have been few isolated studies on alteration of salivary electrolytes in psoriasis but this subject has not been pursued extensively. Purpose: The present study was conducted to assess any alteration in the levels of salivary electrolytes in psoriasis and to correlate the same with type and severity of the disease. Materials and Methods: Fifteen patients of uncomplicated psoriasis and 12 age and sex matched controls attending the outpatient departme...

Singh Gurcharan; Rajashekar T; Krishnamurthy,; Haneef Nayeem Sadath

2006-01-01

270

Differential Radiodiagnosis of Salivary Gland Masses  

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Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to evaluate the possibilities of radiological methods in differential diagnostics of salivary gland masses. Materials and Methods. 76 patients with tumors and tumor-like salivary gland masses were examined. We analyzed the findings of their physical examination, and performed operative interventions compared to the data of histological verification, multiplanar reconstruction sialography and ultrasound investigation. Results. At clinical examination the symptoms were non-specific. 97.5% of patients presented with a constant mass in the affected salivary gland. in 14.5% of patients the mass grew during the last 3–4 months; and in 2.5% of patients it was an incidental finding and had no manifestations. The mostly involved glands (96% of cases were parotid and submaxillary salivary glands. Tumor-like masses were found in 16 patients (21%, benign tumors — in 57 (75.0%, malignancies and locally destructive tumors — in 3 (4.0%. Conclusion. High resolution ultrasound is the primary diagnostic technique of neoplastic masses of major salivary glands, and allows a reliable evaluation of the mass localization, shape, size, structure, borders, and vascularisation. Multiplanar reconstruction sialography enables to assess more precisely anatomical localisation of tumors and tumor-like masses of salivary glands with duct system, adjacent bone and soft tissue structures.

?.?. Egorova

2013-08-01

271

Inducible HSP70 Protects Radiation-Induced Salivary Gland Damage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Irradiation (IR) delivered to the head and neck is a common treatment for malignancies. Salivary glands in the irradiation field are severely damaged, and consequently this resulted in marked salivary hypofunction. While the exact mechanism of salivary gland damage remains enigmatic, fluid secreting acinar cells are lost, and saliva output is dramatically reduced. Previously we have reported that inducible heat shock protein 70 (HSP70i) induced radioresistance in vitro. Moreover, HSP70i localized to salivary glands by gene transfer has great potential for the treatment of salivary gland. Herein, we investigated whether HSP70 can use as radio protective molecules for radiation-induced salivary gland damage in vivo

272

Inducible HSP70 Protects Radiation-Induced Salivary Gland Damage  

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Irradiation (IR) delivered to the head and neck is a common treatment for malignancies. Salivary glands in the irradiation field are severely damaged, and consequently this resulted in marked salivary hypofunction. While the exact mechanism of salivary gland damage remains enigmatic, fluid secreting acinar cells are lost, and saliva output is dramatically reduced. Previously we have reported that inducible heat shock protein 70 (HSP70i) induced radioresistance in vitro. Moreover, HSP70i localized to salivary glands by gene transfer has great potential for the treatment of salivary gland. Herein, we investigated whether HSP70 can use as radio protective molecules for radiation-induced salivary gland damage in vivo.

Lee, Hae-June; Lee, Yoon-Jin; Kwon, Hee-Choong; Lee, Su-Jae; Bae, Sang-Woo; Lee, Yun-Sil [Korea Institute of Radiological Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung-Ho [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

2006-07-01

273

Diurnal salivary cortisol measurement in the neurosurgical-surgical intensive care unit in critically ill acute trauma patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Acute trauma patients represent a specific subgroup of the critically ill population due to sudden and dramatic changes in homeostasis and consequently extreme demands on the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis. Salivary cortisol is an accepted surrogate for serum free cortisol in the assessment of HPA axis function. The purpose of this study was (1) to establish the feasibility of salivary cortisol measurement in acute trauma patients in the neurosurgical-surgical intensive care unit (NSICU), and (2) to determine the diurnal pattern of salivary cortisol in the acute phase after injury. Saliva from 50 acute trauma patients was prospectively collected twice a day at 6AM and 4PM during the first week after injury in the NSICU. Mean PM cortisol concentrations were significantly higher in subjects versus controls (pcortisol concentration seen in controls (p=0.005). Salivary cortisol did not vary significantly with baseline Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), Injury Severity Score, sex, injury type, ethnicity, or age. When comparing mean AM and PM salivary cortisol by GCS severity category (GCS ?8 and GCS >8) the AM salivary cortisol was significantly higher in patients with GCS ?8 (p=0.002). The results show a loss of diurnal cortisol variation in acute trauma patient in the NSICU during the first week of hospitalization. Patients with severe brain injury had higher morning cortisol levels than those with mild/moderate brain injury. PMID:25065844

Bartanusz, Viktor; Corneille, Michael G; Sordo, Salvador; Gildea, Marianne; Michalek, Joel E; Nair, Prakash V; Stewart, Ronald M; Jezova, Daniela

2014-12-01

274

DIETARY TRYPTOPHAN EFFECTS ON PLASMA AND SALIVARY CORTISOL AND MEAT QUALITY IN PIGS  

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Four experiments were conducted to determine the effects of supplemental Trp on meat quality, plasma and salivary cortisol, and plasma lactate. Experiment 1 was a preliminary study to measure plasma cortisol concentrations in four barrows (50 kg BW) that were snared for 30 s at time 0 min. Pigs we...

275

High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of cotinine in urine in isocratic mode.  

Science.gov (United States)

A simple procedure for the determination of cotinine, major metabolite of nicotine in urine, is described. The assay involved a liquid-liquid extraction with dichloromethane in alkaline environment. The extract was dried at ambient temperature under a gentle stream of nitrogen. The residue was dissolved in 300 microl of mobile phase and 30 microl aliquot was injected via an automatic sampler into the liquid chromatograph and eluted with the mobile phase (10-9%, v/v methanol and acetonitrile, respectively in potassium dihydrogenphosphate buffer adjusted to pH 3.4) at a flow rate of 1 ml/min on a C8 Symmetry cartridge column (5 microm, 150 mm x 3.9 mm, Waters) at 25 degrees C. The eluate was detected at 260 nm. Internal standard was 2-phenylimidazole. Sensitive and specific, this technique was performed to test urine of diabetic patients (smokers and non-smokers) admitted in an endocrinology service. Urinary cotinine seems to be a better marker of smoking status than thiocyanates. PMID:11076063

Ceppa, F; El Jahiri, Y; Mayaudon, H; Dupuy, O; Burnat, P

2000-09-15

276

Association between salivary pH and metabolic syndrome in women: a cross-sectional study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The salivary flow rate is an important determinant of salivary pH. It is influenced by several metabolic syndrome (MetS components as well as the menopausal status. The cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors that characterizes the MetS could be exacerbated following menopause. The objective of this study was therefore to document the association between salivary pH and MetS expression in women according to the menopausal status. Methods In this cross-sectional study, unstimulated saliva collection was performed on 198 Caucasian women of French-Canadian origin of which 55 were premenopausal women (PMW and 143 menopausal women (MW. Student’s t test, ANOVA and correlation analyses were used to assess the association between salivary pH and MetS components. Results The salivary pH level was significantly correlated with several MetS covariates, namely triglycerides (TG, apolipoprotein B (apo B and plasma glucose concentrations as well as waist circumference and the number of MetS components present in the whole sample and PMW only. Mean pH levels decreased as the number of MetS components increased (p?=?0.004. The correlations between salivary pH and variables associated with MetS components tended to be stronger in PMW. The proportion of the variance (R2 of salivary pH explained by MetS-related variables in PMW, MW and the whole sample was 23.6% (p?=?0.041, 18.1% and 17.0% (p? Conclusions The increasing prevalence of obesity calls for the development of new technologies to more easily monitor health status without increasing the burden of healthcare costs. As such, the salivary pH could be an inexpensive screening tool. These exploratory data suggest that salivary pH may be a significant correlate of the expression of MetS components. However, other studies with different populations are needed to confirm these findings before our observations lead to practical use in clinical settings.

Tremblay Monique

2012-09-01

277

Does cotinine act upon reactive oxygen species and peroxidases? / A cotinina age sobre espécies reativas do oxigênio e peroxidases?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A nicotina, um agente oxidante, é certamente um dos alcalóides mais amplamente utilizados no mundo. Juntamente com seu principal metabolito, a cotinina, a nicotina é responsável pela tabaco-dependência. O uso de tabaco está intimamente associado a doenças pulmonares, modificações morfológicas em leu [...] cócitos e a geração de espécies oxidantes. O principal objetivo deste estudo foi identificar uma possível relação entre cotinina, geração de espécies reativas do oxigênio e processos oxidativos. Após o estudo da ação da cotinina em diferentes modelos químicos e em cinéticas enzimáticas com peroxidases (mieloperoxidase e peroxidase de raiz forte), conclui-se que a cotinina não age diretamente sobre H2O2, HOCl, taurine cloramina, peroxidase de raiz forte ou mieloperoxidase. Abstract in english Nicotine, an oxidizing agent, is certainly one of the most widely used alkaloids in the world. It is, together with its main metabolite, cotinine, responsible for tobacco-dependence. The use of tobacco is closely associated with lung disease, morphological leukocyte modification and generation of ox [...] idant species. The aim of this study was to look for a possible relationship between cotinine, oxidant species generation and oxidative processes. After studying the action of cotinine in some chemical oxidation models and on the enzymatic kinetics of peroxidases (myeloperoxidase and horseradish peroxidase), we concluded that cotinine does not act directly upon H2O2, HOCl, taurine chloramines, horseradish peroxidase or myeloperoxidase.

J.C.R., Vellosa; N.M., Khalil; L.M., Fonseca; I.L., Brunetti; O.M.M.F., Oliveira.

278

Metabolism of nicotine by rat liver cytochromes P-450. Assessment utilizing monoclonal antibodies to nicotine and cotinine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Because of the prevalence of cigarette smoking in the general population and because studies suggest that a large percentage of nicotine is metabolized to cotinine in humans, it is important to study the enzymes responsible for nicotine metabolism. The cytochromes P-450 have long been implicated in the first step in the conversion of nicotine to nicotine delta 1'(5')-iminium ion. We demonstrate here that rat liver P-450IIB1 is able to convert nicotine to cotinine in the presence of cytosol with a Km of 5-7 microM. A constitutive form of P-450 is also implicated in nicotine metabolism, while purified P-450IA1 and P-450IIC6 show no detectable activity. The lack of P-450IA1 activity substantiates work by others who also failed to observe an increase in the efficiency of nicotine metabolism to cotinine by microsomes from rats that had been pretreated with benzanthracene. This result is in contrast to work with purified rabbit liver enzymes, in which P-450IA1 exhibited low but measurable activity. Our results support the notion that nicotine metabolism to cotinine by P-450 enzymes is highly species dependent. Thus, it is unwise in some cases to extrapolate results obtained by animal model study to the possible role of specific forms of the P-450 enzymes in nicotine metabolism in humans. PMID:1680658

Hammond, D K; Bjercke, R J; Langone, J J; Strobel, H W

1991-01-01

279

Nicotine, but not cotinine, has a direct toxic effect on ovarian function in the immature gonadotropin-stimulated rat.  

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PMSG-primed and hCG-triggered rat ovaries were exposed to nicotine and its major metabolite, cotinine, using in vitro and in vivo experimental approaches. In vivo, a dose-dependent reduction in oocytes within the fallopian tube was noted in nicotine treated rats (6.25 ng/g animal weight, P weight gain. Cotinine had no effects. In vitro, nicotine also caused a dose-dependent reduction in oocytes in the collection chamber (P < 0.0001). Estradiol levels in nicotine-treated perfusions were reduced and reached statistical significance at 7 h (P < 0.003). The in vitro fertilization rate was reduced for nicotine-treated perfusions exposed to 1.43 pg/mL of nicotine (P < 0.001). Cotinine had no effect in vitro. We conclude that nicotine inhibits ovulation, estradiol production, and fertilization both in vivo and in vitro in rat models of ovulation. Cotinine did not affect these parameters. These effects of nicotine are notably independent of nicotine's known effect on the midcycle gonadotropin surge. PMID:7949758

Blackburn, C W; Peterson, C A; Hales, H A; Carrell, D T; Jones, K P; Urry, R L; Peterson, C M

1994-01-01

280

Iatrogenic causes of salivary gland dysfunction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Saliva is important for maintaining oral health and function. There are instances when medical therapy is intended to decrease salivary flow, such as during general anesthesia, but most instances of iatrogenic salivary gland dysfunction represent untoward or unavoidable side-effects. The clinical expression of the salivary dysfunction can range from very minor transient alteration in saliva flow to a total loss of salivary function. The most common forms of therapy that interfere with salivation are drug therapies, cancer therapies (radiation or chemotherapy), and surgical therapy. These therapies can affect salivation by a number of different mechanisms that include: disruption of autonomic nerve function related to salivation, interference with acinar or ductal cell functions related to salivation, cytotoxicity, indirect effects (vasoconstriction/dilation, fluid and electrolyte balance, etc.), and physical trauma to salivary glands and nerves. A wide variety of drugs is capable of increasing or decreasing salivary flow by mimicking autonomic nervous system actions or by directly acting on cellular processes necessary for salivation: drugs can also indirectly affect salivation by altering fluid and electrolyte balance or by affecting blood flow to the glands. Ionizing radiation can cause permanent damage to salivary glands, damage that is manifest as acinar cell destruction with subsequent atrophy and fibrosis of the glands. Cancer chemotherapy can cause changes in sCancer chemotherapy can cause changes in salivation, but the changes are usually much less severe and only transient. Finally, surgical and traumatic injuries interfere with salivation because of either disruption of gland innervation or gross physical damage (or removal) of glandular tissue (including ducts)

 
 
 
 
281

Who Is Exposed to Secondhand Smoke? Self-Reported and Serum Cotinine Measured Exposure in the U.S., 1999-2006  

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Full Text Available This study presents self-reported and serum cotinine measures of exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS for nonsmoking children, adolescents, and adults. Estimates are disaggregated by time periods and sociodemographic characteristics based on analyses of the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Self-reported exposure rates are found to be highest for children, followed by adolescents and adults. Important differences in exposure are found by socioeconomic characteristics. Using serum cotinine to measure exposure yields much higher prevalence rates than self-reports. Rates of SHS exposure remain high, but cotinine levels are declining for most groups.

Yanling Shi

2009-05-01

282

Urinary concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Israeli adults: demographic and life-style predictors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants associated with adverse health outcomes, including cancer, asthma, and reduced fertility. Because data on exposure to these contaminants in Israel and the Middle East are very limited this study was conducted to measure urinary levels of PAHs in the general adult population in Israel and to identify demographic and life-style predictors of exposure. We measured concentrations of five PAH metabolites: 1-hydroxypyrene (1OH_pyrene) and four different hydroxyphenanthrenes (1-hydroxyphenanthrene, 2-hydroxyphenanthrene, 3-hydroxyphenanthrene, 4-hydroxyphenanthrene), as well as cotinine in urine samples collected from 243 Israeli adults from the general population. We interviewed participants using structured questionnaires to collect detailed demographic, smoking and dietary data. For over 99% of the study participants, urinary concentration of at least one of the PAHs was above both the limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ). All PAHs were significantly correlated (rho=0.67-0.92). Urinary concentration of hydroxyphenanthrenes, but not 1OH_pyrene, was significantly higher among Arabs and Druze study participants (N=56) compared to Jewish participants (N=183). For 4-hydroxyphenanthrene, concentration in Arabs and Druze was 1.95 (95% CI 1.50-2.52) that of Jews, after controlling for creatinine, age and cotinine levels. Urinary concentrations of all PAHs were significantly higher among current smokers or participants with higher cotinine levels and increased significantly with smoking frequency. While PAHs concentrations were not associated with cotinine concentrations in nonsmokers in the overall study population, PAHs concentration was significantly higher among nonsmoking Jews with cotinine ?LOQ (1?g/L), which represents exposure to environmental tobacco smoking, compared to nonsmoking Jews with cotinine concentrations concentrations were found for those consuming grilled food once a month or more. For 3-hydroxyphenanthrene, concentration in those consuming grilled food once a month or more was 2.72 (95% CI 1.01-4.98) times that of those consuming grilled food less than once a month or not at all, after controlling for creatinine, age and cotinine levels. In conclusion, we found that the general adult population in Israel is widely exposed to PAHs. Exposure differed by ethnic sub-groups both in magnitude and sources of exposure. The finding of higher exposure among Arabs and Druze highlights disparities in environmental exposures across subpopulations and suggests that further research and preventive measure are warranted to reduce PAHs exposure and associated health outcomes, especially in the Arab population in the Middle East. PMID:25456148

Levine, Hagai; Berman, Tamar; Goldsmith, Rebecca; Göen, Thomas; Spungen, Judith; Novack, Lena; Amitai, Yona; Shohat, Tamar; Grotto, Itamar

2015-01-01

283

Effect of competitional stress on salivary dehydroepiandrosterone, cortisol in female handballists  

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Full Text Available Background: Hormonal responses to competitions and their relationships have been extensively examined in male athletes, but there are few studies in women. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of competition stress on salivary dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA and cortisol in female handballists. Materials and Method: Ten female handballists of Islamic Azad University (Sari Branch (age 21.5±2.5 years participated in this study. Salivary samples were collected 30 min and 5 min before competition, between two half times and immediately after four competitions. The salivary DHEA and cortisol concentrations were measured by ELISA method. Results: The results of one-way ANOVA with repeated measures have shown a significant (p=0.001 increases for DHEA concentration after four competitions, however, cortisol and DHEA/cortisol ratio did not show any changes after four competition (p>0.05. Conclusion: These results indicate that salivary DHEA is more sensitive to competition situations than cortisol concentration. We suggested that androgens maybe more affected by competition

Parvin Farzanegi

2010-11-01

284

Anopheles salivary gland proteomes from major malaria vectors  

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BackgroundAntibody responses against Anopheles salivary proteins can indicate individual exposure to bites of malaria vectors. The extent to which these salivary proteins are species-specific is not entirely resolved. Thus, a better knowledge of the diversity among salivary protein repertoires from various malaria vector species is necessary to select relevant genus-, subgenus- and/or species-specific salivary antigens. Such antigens could be used for quantitative (mosquito density) and...

Fontaine, Albin; Fusai?, Thierry; Briolant, Se?bastien; Buffet, Sylvain; Villard, Claude; Baudelet, Emilie; Pophillat, Mathieu; Granjeaud, Samuel; Rogier, Christophe; Almeras, Lionel

2012-01-01

285

Salivary duct carcinoma of parotid gland- An incidental finding  

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Salivary duct carcinoma, a recently added separate entity of salivary gland tumor is a rare tumour with its aggressive behaviour. Due to morphological similarities with ductal carcinoma of breast the name salivary duct carcinoma is given. It is more common in male than in female. But our case is of 45yr female with mass in the parotid region. The diagnosis on USG and CT was organized collection. But on excision the diagnosis turned to be salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland

Suparna Suvernakar V, Shubha Deshpande A.

2014-01-01

286

Expression of CDK6 in Salivary Gland Tumors  

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To investigate the expression of CDK6 in salivary gland tumors. In this study, 59 samples of salivary gland tumors from Khalili Hospital pathology archive, including 19 cases of pleomorphic Adenoma, 14 cases of Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma and 19 cases of Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma, as well as 10 cases of normal salivary gland tissue, were reviewed by Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for CDK6 staining. CDK6 expression in normal salivary gland was limited to the cytoplasm of ductal cells, but in tum...

Mohammad Javad Ashraf; Ali Dehghani Najvani; Zohreh Jafari Ashkavandi; Azadeh Andisheh Tadbir; Soheil Pardis; Hoda Ranjbaran

2012-01-01

287

Salivary glands, glycoconjugates and diabetes mellitus.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is generally accepted that glycoconjugates secreted by salivary glands are important in the protection of the oral environment. Studies with diabetic rodents have shown that their salivary glands are adversely affected. Little effort has been made to determine whether altered synthesis and/or secretion of glycoconjugates occur in salivary glands of diabetic individuals, either human or non-human. The major salivary glands of male Swiss-Webster mice, rendered diabetic with alloxan, were examined and compared to controls. Sections of major salivary glands were examined using a battery of non-lectin staining methods for glycoconjugates. Granular duct diameters were measured in sections of the submandibular glands (SM) from controls and all experimental groups. Neutral glycoconjugate staining in SM acini of glands from diabetic animals was depressed, while staining of acidic glycoconjugates increased. Neutral glycoconjugate staining in granular ducts of SM glands of diabetic animals was depressed, as were granule content and granular duct diameters. Induced diabetes did not affect staining of neutral glycoconjugates in parotid glands but staining of acidic non-sulfated glycoconjugates appeared to increase. There were no apparent differences in neutral or acidic glycoconjugate staining of sublingual (SL) glands of diabetic or control mice. PMID:8874094

Pinkstaff, C A

1996-08-01

288

Surgical Management of Minor Salivary Gland Neoplasms of the Palate  

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Objective: Minor salivary gland tumors are uncommon, accounting for up to 15% of salivary gland neoplasms. We describe our experience with both benign and malignant tumors of the palatal minor salivary glands, focusing on the extent of resection and options for defect reconstruction.

Moore, Brian A.; Burkey, Brian B.; Netterville, James L.; Butcher, R. Brent; Amedee, Ronald G.

2008-01-01

289

Low salivary testosterone levels in patients with breast cancer  

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Abstract Background Correlation between circulating sex steroid levels and breast cancer has been controversial, with measurement of free, or bioavailable hormone rarely available. Salivary hormone levels represent the bioavailable fraction. To further elucidate the role of endogenous hormones in breast cancer, we aimed to assess correlation between salivary sex steroid levels and breast cancer prevalence. Methods Salivary hormone levels of testosterone (T), Est...

Tsigginou Alexandra; Marinopoulos Spyros; Zava David; Dimitrakakis Constantine; Antsaklis Aris; Glaser Rebecca

2010-01-01

290

Anti-apoptotic gene transcription signature of salivary gland neoplasms  

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Abstract Background Development of accurate therapeutic approaches to salivary gland neoplasms depends on better understanding of their molecular pathogenesis. Tumour growth is regulated by the balance between proliferation and apoptosis. Few studies have investigated apoptosis in salivary tumours relying almost exclusively on immunohistochemistry or TUNEL assay. Furthermore, there is no information regarding the mRNA expression profile of apoptotic genes in salivary tumors. ...

Gomes Carolina; Bernardes Vanessa; Diniz Marina; De Marco Luiz; Gomez Ricardo

2012-01-01

291

Alterations of the salivary secretory peptidome profile in children affected by type 1 diabetes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The acidic soluble fraction of whole saliva of type 1 diabetic children was analyzed by reversed phase (RP)(1)-HPLC-ESI-MS and compared with that of sex- and age-matched control subjects. Salivary acidic proline-rich phosphoproteins (aPRP), histatins, ?-defensins, salivary cystatins, statherin, proline-rich peptide P-B (P-B), beta-thymosins, S100A8 and S100A9*(S100A9* corresponds to S100A9 vairant lacking the first four amino acids), as well some naturally occurring peptides derived from salivary acidic proline-rich phosphoproteins, histatins, statherin, and P-B peptide, were detected and quantified on the basis of the extracted ion current peak area. The level of phosphorylation of salivary acidic proline-rich phosphoproteins, histatin-1 (Hst-1), statherin and S100A9* and the percentage of truncated forms of salivary acidic proline-rich phosphoproteins was also determined in the two groups. The study revealed that statherin, proline-rich peptide P-B, P-C peptide, and histatins, were significantly less concentrated in saliva of diabetic subjects than in controls, while concentration of ?-defensins 1, 2 and 4 and S100A9* was higher. The low concentration of P-C peptide was paralleled by high levels of some of its fragments. On the whole, the study highlighted the severe impairment of the repertoire of peptides involved in the safeguard of the oral cavity in children who have diabetes, as well as an higher concentration of the proinflammatory mediator S100A9* with respect to healthy children. PMID:20585025

Cabras, Tiziana; Pisano, Elisabetta; Mastinu, Andrea; Denotti, Gloria; Pusceddu, Pietro Paolo; Inzitari, Rosanna; Fanali, Chiara; Nemolato, Sonia; Castagnola, Massimo; Messana, Irene

2010-10-01

292

Mercuric dichloride induces DNA damage in human salivary gland tissue cells and lymphocytes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Amalgam is still one of the most frequently used dental filling materials. However, the possible adverse effects especially that of the mercuric component have led to continued controversy. Considering that mercury may be released from amalgam fillings into the oral cavity and also reach the circulating blood after absorption and resorption, it eventually may contribute to tumorigenesis in a variety of target cells. The present investigation focuses on genotoxic effects below a cytotoxic dose level of mercuric dichloride (HgCl{sub 2}) in human samples of salivary glands and lymphocytes to elucidate a possible role in tumor initiation. DNA migration due to single strand breaks, alkali labile sites and incomplete excision repair was quantified with the aid of the single cell microgel electrophoresis (Comet) assay. The concepts of Olive Tail Moment, percentage of DNA in the Tail and Tail Length were used as measures of DNA damage. To control for cytotoxic effects, the trypan blue exclusion test was applied. Human samples of the parotid salivary gland and lymphocytes of ten donors were exposed to HgCl{sub 2} concentrations from 1 to 50 {mu}M. N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) served as controls. Increasing dose-dependent DNA migration could be demonstrated after exposure to HgCl{sub 2} in cells of the salivary glands and lymphocytes. In both cell types a significant increase in DNA migration could be shown starting from HgCl{sub 2} concentrations of 5 {mu}M in comparison to the negative control. The viability of the cell systems was not affected except at the highest concentration (50 {mu}M) tested. These data indicate genotoxic effects of mercuric dichloride in human salivary glands and lymphocytes at concentrations not leading to cytotoxic effects or cell death. Consequently, a contributory role in oral salivary gland tumor initiation warrants further investigation. (orig.)

Schmid, Katharina; Kroemer, Susanne [University of Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany); Sassen, Andrea [University of Regensburg, Department of Pathology, Regensburg (Germany); Staudenmaier, Rainer [Technical University of Munich, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Munich (Germany); Reichl, Franz-Xaver [University of Munich, Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Munich (Germany); Harreus, Ulrich [University of Munich, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Munich (Germany); Hagen, Rudolf; Kleinsasser, Norbert [University of Wuerzburg, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Wuerzburg (Germany)

2007-11-15

293

Establishment of Functional Acinar-like Cultures from Human Salivary Glands.  

Science.gov (United States)

Disorders of human salivary glands resulting from therapeutic radiation treatment for head and neck cancers or from the autoimmune disease Sjögren syndrome (SS) frequently result in the reduction or complete loss of saliva secretion. Such irreversible dysfunction of the salivary glands is due to the impairment of acinar cells, the major glandular cells of protein, salt secretion, and fluid movement. Availability of primary epithelial cells from human salivary gland tissue is critical for studying the underlying mechanisms of these irreversible disorders. We applied 2 culture system techniques on human minor salivary gland epithelial cells (phmSG) and optimized the growth conditions to achieve the maintenance of phmSG in an acinar-like phenotype. These phmSG cells exhibited progenitor cell markers (keratin 5 and nanog) as well as acinar-specific markers-namely, ?-amylase, cystatin C, TMEM16A, and NKCC1. Importantly, with an increase of the calcium concentration in the growth medium, these phmSG cells were further promoted to acinar-like cells in vitro, as indicated by an increase in AQP5 expression. In addition, these phmSG cells also demonstrated functional calcium mobilization, formation of epithelial monolayer with high transepithelial electrical resistance (TER), and polarized secretion of ?-amylase secretion after ?-adrenergic receptor stimulation. Taken together, suitable growth conditions have been established to isolate and support culture of acinar-like cells from the human salivary gland. These primary epithelial cells can be useful for study of molecular mechanisms involved in regulating the function of acinar cells and in the loss of salivary gland function in patients. PMID:25416669

Jang, S I; Ong, H L; Gallo, A; Liu, X; Illei, G; Alevizos, I

2015-02-01

294

Chlorella intake attenuates reduced salivary SIgA secretion in kendo training camp participants  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The green alga Chlorella contains high levels of proteins, vitamins, and minerals. We previously reported that a chlorella-derived multicomponent supplement increased the secretion rate of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA in humans. Here, we investigated whether intake of this chlorella-derived supplement attenuated the reduced salivary SIgA secretion rate during a kendo training camp. Methods Ten female kendo athletes participated in inter-university 6-day spring and 4-day summer camps. They were randomized into two groups; one took placebo tablets during the spring camp and chlorella tablets during the summer camp, while the other took chlorella tablets during the spring camp and placebo tablets during the summer camp. Subjects took these tablets starting 4 weeks before the camp until post-camp saliva sampling. Salivary SIgA concentrations were measured by ELISA. Results All subjects participated in nearly all training programs, and body-mass changes and subjective physical well-being scores during the camps were comparable between the groups. However, salivary SIgA secretion rate changes were different between these groups. Salivary SIgA secretion rates decreased during the camp in the placebo group (before vs. second, middle, and final day of camp, and after the camp: 146 ± 89 vs. 87 ± 56, 70 ± 45, 94 ± 58, and 116 ± 71 ?g/min, whereas no such decreases were observed in the chlorella group (121 ± 53 vs. 113 ± 68, 98 ± 69,115 ± 80, and 128 ± 59 ?g/min. Conclusion Our results suggest that a use of a chlorella-derived dietary supplement attenuates reduced salivary SIgA secretion during a training camp for a competitive sport.

Otsuki Takeshi

2012-12-01

295

Utility of Salivary Biomarkers for Demonstrating Acute Myocardial Infarction.  

Science.gov (United States)

The comparative utility of serum and saliva as diagnostic fluids for identifying biomarkers of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was investigated. The goal was to determine if salivary biomarkers could facilitate a screening diagnosis of AMI, especially in cases of non-ST elevation MI (NSTEMI), since these cases are not readily identified by electrocardiogram (ECG). Serum and unstimulated whole saliva (UWS) collected from 92 AMI patients within 48 hours of chest pain onset and 105 asymptomatic healthy control individuals were assayed for 13 proteins relevant to cardiovascular disease, by Beadlyte technology (Luminex(®)) and enzyme immunoassays. Data were analyzed with concentration cut-points, ECG findings, logistic regression (LR) (adjusted for matching for age, gender, race, smoking, number of teeth, and oral health status), and classification and regression tree (CART) analysis. A sensitivity analysis was conducted by repetition of the CART analysis in 58 cases and 58 controls, each matched by age and gender. Serum biomarkers demonstrated AMI sensitivity and specificity superior to that of saliva, as determined by LR and CART. The predominant discriminators in serum by LR were troponin I (TnI), B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), and TnI and BNP by CART. In saliva, LR identified C-reactive protein (CRP) as the biomarker most predictive of AMI. A combination of smoking tobacco, UWS CRP, CK-MB, sCD40 ligand, gender, and number of teeth identified AMI in the CART decision trees. When ECG findings, salivary biomarkers, and confounders were included, AMI was predicted with 80.0% sensitivity and 100% specificity. These analyses support the potential utility of salivary biomarker measurements used with ECG for the identification of AMI. Thus, saliva-based tests may provide additional diagnostic screening information in the clinical course for patients suspected of having an AMI. PMID:24879575

Miller, C S; Foley, J D; Floriano, P N; Christodoulides, N; Ebersole, J L; Campbell, C L; Bailey, A L; Rose, B G; Kinane, D F; Novak, M J; McDevitt, J T; Ding, X; Kryscio, R J

2014-05-30

296

Primary tuberculosis of submandibular salivary gland  

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Full Text Available Tuberculosis of the submandibular salivary gland is a rare condition and only a few cases have been reported in literature. Tubercular sialadenitis is most frequently seen in immunosuppressed patients. Diagnosis of this disease is difficult. Although fine needle aspiration cytology is useful in diagnosis, excisional biopsy is often required. Polymerase chain reaction for mycobacterium tuberculosis is a reliable diagnostic tool, and if available, it should be performed before surgical intervention to enable differential diagnosis of a salivary gland tumor. We report two cases of the submandibular salivary gland tuberculosis from South India (Mangalore located in the coastal belt of Karnataka that proved diagnostically challenging. Both patients responded well to antitubercular therapy and surgery was avoided.

Tauro Leo

2011-01-01

297

Stress and salivary cortisol during pregnancy  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The purpose of this study was to determine whether exposure to stressful life events was associated with changes in levels of circulating cortisol during pregnancy in a population of 603 pregnant women. The participating pregnant women filled out a questionnaire and collected a morning and evening sample of saliva in early pregnancy (median 14th gestational week) and in late pregnancy (median and 30th gestational week). They were asked to report the number of life events experienced during first and second trimester, respectively, and were asked to rate the intensity of the experienced events. Complications related to the pregnancy such as vaginal bleeding and suspected growth retardation were registered and the women were asked about concerns about their pregnancy. The salivary samples were analyzed for cortisol and the levels were higher in late than in early pregnancy. In late pregnancy women exposed to more than one life event or were concerned about pregnancy complications during second trimester had a higher evening cortisol level, whereas morning values were unaffected. After adjustment for smoking women who experienced more than one very stressful life event had 27% higher evening cortisol concentrations (95% confidence intervals: 1-59%). Women with worries about pregnancy complications had 27% (95% confidence intervals: 2-57%) higher levels. In early pregnancy women reporting stressful life events did not have higher evening cortisol levels, but tended to have a blunted morning HPA response. In conclusion, we found differences in the associations between chronic stress in early and late pregnancy and cortisol levels indicating that the response to chronic stress is dependent on the stage of the pregnancy.

Obel, Carsten; Hedegaard, M

2005-01-01

298

On the mechanism of salivary gland radiosensitivity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To contribute to the understanding of the enigmatic radiosensitivity of the salivary glands by analysis of appropriate literature, especially with respect to mechanisms of action of early radiation damage, and to supply information on the possibilities of amelioration of radiation damage to the salivary glands after radiotherapy of head-and-neck cancer. Methods and Materials: Selected published data on the mechanism of salivary gland radiosensitivity and radioprotection were studied and analyzed. Results: From a classical point of view, the salivary glands should not respond as rapidly to radiation as they appear to do. Next to the suggestion of massive apoptosis, the leakage of granules and subsequent lysis of acinar cells was suggested to be responsible for the acute radiation-induced function loss of the salivary glands. The main problem with these hypotheses is that recently performed assays show no cell loss during the first days after irradiation, while saliva flow is dramatically diminished. The water secretion is selectively hampered during the first days after single-dose irradiation. Literature is discussed that shows that the compromised cells suffer selective radiation damage to the plasma membrane, disturbing signal transduction primarily affecting watery secretion. Although the cellular composition of the submandibular gland and the parotid gland are different, the damage response is very alike. The acute radiation-induced function loss in both e radiation-induced function loss in both salivary glands can be ameliorated by prophylactic treatment with specific receptor agonists. Conclusions: The most probable mechanism of action, explaining the enigmatic high radiosensitivity for early effects, is selective radiation damage to the plasma membrane of the secretory cells, disturbing muscarinic receptor stimulated watery secretion. Later damage is mainly due to classical mitotic cell death of progenitor cells, leading to a hampered replacement capacity of the gland for secretory cells, but is also caused by damage to the extracellular environment, preventing proper cell functioning

299

Histopathological audit of salivary gland neoplasms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Salivary gland neoplasms are uncommon but important presentation to general surgeons. Objective: To analyze the relative frequency and distribution of Salivary gland neoplasms in our division. Setting: Department of surgery and pathology, Peoples Medical University hospital and GMMMC hospital Sukkur. Study design: Descriptive (case series) Subjects and methods: A total of 40 patients registered for salivary gland tumors from oct 2008 to 0ct 2013 were included in the study. A thorough history, clinical examination, routine haematological and biochemical studies were done in all patients. FNAC was done in all cases. All patients were subjected to surgical intervention on standard rules. Each resected specimen was sent for histopathology. Information about age, gender and tumor location was obtained from clinical record and frequency of different neoplasms was studied from histopathological report. All data was collected on especially designed proforma. Data analysis was done using spss version 17. Results: A total of 40 patients were registered for salivary gland neoplasms. 28 patients (70%) had parotid lesions, 10 patients (25%) had submandibular gland involvement and 2 patients ( 5%) had minor salivary gland tumors. Patients were between 15 - 80 years of age( mean age =34.7 years) 24 patients(60%) were male and 16 (40%) were female,with male to female ratio of 1.5:1.32 . 22 (80%) had benign lesions and 8 patients (20%) had malignant lesions. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common benign tumor affecting the parotid gland. Adenocarcinoma represented as the most prevelant parotid malignancy. Benign neoplasms occurred in third and fourth decades of life and malignant neoplasms were diagnosed in sixth and seventh decades of life. Conclusion:Salivary gland neoplasms are uncommon but they have occasioned much interest and debate because of broad histological spectrum. The data presented in this study is corroborated with most of the studied literature worldwide. (author)

300

Salivary Output in Type 2 Diabetic Patients  

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Full Text Available Background: Diabetes Mellitus (DM is a common but complex metabolic disorder affecting various systems in the body. Oral cavity is no exception as this chronic condition exerts a huge impact on oral health. Salivary dysfunction has been reported to be a frequent oral complication in Type 2 diabetics which in turn leads to an array of oral complications because oral health is to a greater extent dependent on the quality and quantity of saliva. Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the salivary flow rate and prevalence of subjective symptoms of xerostomia in diabetics and non-diabetics. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 100 type 2 diabetic patients and 50 non-diabetic subjects. Random non-fasting plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels were used to determine the diabetic status of the individuals. Unstimulated saliva was collected using “Spit technique”. Stimulated saliva was collected using 2% citric acid. Unstimulated and Stimulated Salivary Flow Rate (USFR and SSFR was calculated for every patient and expressed as ml/min. Xerostomia was evaluated using a multi-item inventory comprising 19 questions. Results: In our study, both whole unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rates were decreased in diabetics compared to non-diabetics and this difference was statistically significant (p = 0.000. A greater percentage of diabetic patients perceived xerostomia symptoms compared to non-diabetics. Conclusion: Type 2 diabetics have higher prevalence of xerostomia and significantly reduced salivary flow rate compared to non-diabetics. Alterations in salivary flow create an imbalance in the homeostasis of oral environment leading to spectrum of oral ailments in these individuals

T. Radhika

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Determination of nicotine and its major metabolite cotinine in plasma or serum by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using ion-trap detection.  

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A specific method has been developed for the quantitative determination of nicotine and its major metabolite cotinine in plasma or serum of active and passive smokers. Deuterium-labelled nicotine and cotinine were used as internal standards. The amounts of nicotine and cotinine present in a sample of plasma or serum were extracted with a simple extraction procedure (liquid-liquid or solid-phase extraction). The extracts were analysed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry using ion-trap detection. The analysis was done in positive chemical ionisation with methanol as the liquid reagent. The method has been demonstrated to be linear up to 1000 microg/l. Limits of quantification for nicotine and cotinine are 10 and 5 microg/l, respectively with liquid-liquid extraction, and 1 microg/l for each of the compounds with solid-phase extraction. The present method has been applied to several real cases. PMID:14708884

Cognard, Emmanuelle; Staub, Christian

2003-12-01

302

The incorporation of radio-labelled nucleic acid precursors by Theileria parva in bovine blood and salivary glands of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The uptake of radio-labelled nucleic acid precursors by blood and tick salivary gland forms of Theileria parva was studied. Piroplasms took up tritiated purines, particularly hypoxanthine, but not pyrimidines. Similar uptake was recorded by T. parva, both in tick saliva and in salivary glands maintained in vitro. Intermediate parasite stages were those most readily labelled in glands; this reflected active nucleic acid synthesis associated with rapid parasite division. Radio-labelling of T. parva in tick salivary glands could be of value in procedures used for concentrating and purifying theilerial sporozoites. (author)

303

Incorporation of radio-labelled nucleic acid precursors by Theileria parva in bovine blood and salivary glands of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks  

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The uptake of radio-labelled nucleic acid precursors by blood and tick salivary gland forms of Theileria parva was studied. Piroplasms took up tritiated purines, particularly hypoxanthine, but not pyrimidines. Similar uptake was recorded by T. parva, both in tick saliva and in salivary glands maintained in vitro. Intermediate parasite stages were those most readily labelled in glands; this reflected active nucleic acid synthesis associated with rapid parasite division. Radio-labelling of T. parva in tick salivary glands could be of value in procedures used for concentrating and purifying theilerial sporozoites.

Irvin, A.D.; Boarer, C.D.H.; Kurtti, T.J.; Ocama, J.G.R. (International Lab. for Research on Animal Diseases, Nairobi (Kenya))

1981-12-01

304

In Vitro Inhibition of Human Sperm Creatine Kinase by Nicotine,Cotinine and Cadmium, as a Mechanism in Smoker Men Infertility  

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Background: Nicotine, cotinine and cadmium are harmful components of cigarettes that have aneffect on human reproductive function. Although the effects of cigarette smoke on male reproductivefunction is characterized in several articles its mechanism of action is still unknown.In the present study, we investigate the effect of nicotine, cotinine and cadmium on human spermcreatine kinase activity in vitro.Materials and Methods: Total creatine kinase activity is measured in sperm homogenates af...

Mohammad Ali Ghaffari; Mohammad Abromand; Behrooz Motlagh

2009-01-01

305

Cotinine halts the advance of Alzheimer’s disease-like pathology and associated depressive-like behavior in Tg6799 mice  

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Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is associated with cognitive and non-cognitive symptoms for which there are currently no effective therapies. We have previously reported that cotinine, a natural product obtained from tobacco leaves, prevented memory loss and diminished amyloid-? (A?) plaque pathology in the transgenic 6799 mice (Tg6799 mice) when treated prior to the development of the pathology. We have also shown that cotinine reduces depressive-like behavior in normal and chronically stress...

Valentina Echeverria Moran; Alex Grizzell, J.; Takashi Mori

2014-01-01

306

Levels of Cotinine in Dried Blood Specimens from Newborns as a Biomarker of Maternal Smoking Close to the Time of Delivery  

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The precise quantitation of smoking during pregnancy is difficult in retrospective studies. Routinely collected blood specimens from newborns, stored as dried blood spots, may provide a low-cost method to objectively measure maternal smoking close to the time of delivery. This article compares cotinine levels in dried blood spots to those in umbilical cord blood to assess cotinine in dried blood spots as a biomarker of maternal smoking close to the time of delivery. The California Genetic Dis...

Yang, Juan; Pearl, Michelle; Jacob, Peyton; Delorenze, Gerald N.; Benowitz, Neal L.; Yu, Lisa; Havel, Christopher; Kharrazi, Martin

2013-01-01

307

Saliva versus plasma pharmacokinetics: theory and application of a salivary excretion classification system.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aims of this work were to study pharmacokinetics of randomly selected drugs in plasma and saliva samples in healthy human volunteers, and to introduce a Salivary Excretion Classification System. Saliva and plasma samples were collected for 3-5 half-life values of sitagliptin, cinacalcet, metformin, montelukast, tolterodine, hydrochlorothiazide (HCT), lornoxicam, azithromycin, diacerhein, rosuvastatin, cloxacillin, losartan and tamsulosin after oral dosing. Saliva and plasma pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by noncompartmental analysis using the Kinetica program. Effective intestinal permeability (Peff) values were estimated by the Nelder-Mead algorithm of the Parameter Estimation module using the SimCYP program. Peff values were optimized to predict the actual average plasma profile of each drug. All other physicochemical factors were kept constant during the minimization processes. Sitagliptin, cinacalcet, metformin, tolterodine, HCT, azithromycin, rosuvastatin and cloxacillin had salivary excretion with correlation coefficients of 0.59-0.99 between saliva and plasma concentrations. On the other hand, montelukast, lornoxicam, diacerhein, losartan and tamsulosin showed no salivary excretion. Estimated Peff ranged 0.16-44.16 × 10(-4) cm/s, while reported fraction unbound to plasma proteins (fu) ranged 0.01-0.99 for the drugs under investigation. Saliva/plasma concentrations ratios ranged 0.11-13.4, in agreement with drug protein binding and permeability. A Salivary Excretion Classification System (SECS) was suggested based on drug high (H)/low (L) permeability and high (H)/low (L) fraction unbound to plasma proteins, which classifies drugs into 4 classes. Drugs that fall into class I (H/H), II (L/H) or III (H/L) are subjected to salivary excretion, while those falling into class IV (L/L) are not. Additional data from literature was also analyzed, and all results were in agreement with the suggested SECS. Moreover, a polynomial relationship with correlation coefficient of 0.99 is obtained between S* and C*, where S* and C* are saliva and concentration dimensionless numbers respectively. The proposed Salivary Excretion Classification System (SECS) can be used as a guide for drug salivary excretion. Future work is planned to test these initial findings, and demonstrate SECS robustness across a range of carefully selected (based on physicochemical properties) drugs that fall into classes I, II or III. PMID:22784220

Idkaidek, Nasir; Arafat, Tawfiq

2012-08-01

308

Caries Experience and Salivary Parameters among Overweight Children and Adolescents  

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Full Text Available Obesity is a chronic disease characterized by excess body fat, which can lead to other health problems, including insulin resistance, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, polycystic ovary syndrome, hypertension, dyslipidemia, sleep apnea, asthma, heart attack, stroke, atherosclerosis and metabolic syndrome. Currently, obesity and dental caries are major public health concerns and dietary habits are a very important common component of their etiological factors, showing some correlation with the sociodemographic characteristics of individuals presenting these diseases. In relation to caries experience, the literature suggests a correlation between obesity and dental caries in children and adolescents, in primary and/or permanent dentition, though divergent results exist regarding assessment based on the method recommended by the WHO (1997, i.e., restricted to carious lesions with cavitation. Some studies indicate greater prevalence of proximal carious lesions in obese adolescents compared with those with normal weight. Salivary changes, such as the concentrations of phosphate, sialic acid, proteins and immunoglobulins and in peroxidase activity could explain the increased probability of obese children presenting greater risk of dental caries. Thus, it is important to consider the contribution of salivary parameters in caries experience of overweight children and adolescents and the implementation of preventive measures in this population.

Michele B. Diniz

2013-11-01

309

DETERMINATION OF SALIVARY CORTISOL IN HEALTHY CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS  

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Full Text Available Recognized as a reliable tool for assessing the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, measurement of salivary cortisol plays an important role in both the clinical and research settings. To establish a normative data, which forms the basis for the usage of this valuable parameter, we gathered 8:00 h saliva samples from 94 healthy individuals aged 6-14 years. Cortisol levels were measured by radioimmunoassay technique, using Orion Diagnostica's coated tube technology. Based on mean±2SD, we established a normal range for salivary cortisol concentrations in this age group: 1.69 - 12.81nmol/L. Considering a confidence interval for upper and lower limits, there was an upper limit equal to 11.42 -14.29 nmol/L and a lower limit of 1.21 - 2.25 nmol/L. Regarding the results of this study, cortisol levels were age dependent, and although with a low correlation coefficient, there was a positive correlation between cortisol levels and weight and height. There was no correlation with BMI and no sex difference was found.

E. Safarzadeh

2005-04-01

310

Excretory function of salivary gland during static salivary scintigraphy using technetium-99m pertechnetate: a correlation study with salivary flow rate in sjogrens syndrome  

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Salivary scintigraphy is useful in the evaluation of xerostomia. To identify the relevant and clinically applicable parameter for the evaluation of xerostomia, we performed static salivary scintigraphy using Tc-99m and compared it with salivary flow rate in patients with xerostomia. Twenty-three female patients (age 51.2{+-}10.4 years) who suffered from xerostomia were investigated. Nine patients were classified as Sjogrens syndrome (SS) by clinical criteria, and 14 patients were classified as non-Sjogrens syndrome. Un-stimulated salivary flow rate and simulated salivary flow rate were checked. Salivary scintigraphy was performed with injection of 25 mCi Tc-99m pertechnetate after injection anterior static image was obtained over face as basal uptake. ROIs were drawn over each salivary gland with background subtraction by square ROI drawn over skull. We used the mean data of right and left salivary glands for analysis. Percent excretion of salivary gland was calculated. Un-stimulated salivary flow rates(SFR) were different between groups (p<0.05): 0.58{+-}0.49 ml/15 min in SS, and 1.40{+-}1.14 ml/m in non-SS. However, SFR were not different between groups (p>0.05): 5.88{+-}4.07 ml/15 min in SS, and 10.31{+-}6.49 ml/15 min in non-SS. The uptake value in submandibular gland revealed significant difference between the groups. The percent excretion of submandibular gland had positive correlation with un-stimulated salivary flow rate (r=0.534, p=0.009), and that of parotid gland was also positive correlation (r=0.437, p=0.037). The result of multiple regression analysis revealed only percent excretion of submandibular gland was single determinant of unstimulated SFR. Percent excretion of submandibular gland had positive correlation with un-stimulated SFR. Thus, excretory function of submandibular gland assessed by salivary scintigraphy appears more related with xerostomia than parotid gland.

Jang, S. J.; Lee, W. W.; Lee, Y. J.; So, Y.; Jeong, J. G.; Lee, M. C.; Kim, S. E. [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2005-07-01

311

Clinicopathological features of salivary and non-salivary adenoid cystic carcinomas.  

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Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC), commonly from salivary glands, is known for its insidious local growth and usually protracted clinical course. ACC developing from non-salivary glands (i.e., non-salivary ACC) is heterogeneous, and its clinicopathological features remain poorly defined. Patients treated for ACC in a single institution between 1995 and 2007 were included in this study. Immunohistochemical evaluation of Ki-67, E-cadherin, p16, and cyclinD1 was performed. The prognostic significance of clinical and immunophenotypic markers was evaluated. 83 cases of salivary ACC and 24 cases of non-salivary ACC were included. The expression levels of Ki-67 (54.8%), E-cadherin (90.4%), p16 (32.9%), and cyclinD1 (19.2%) between ACCs present at various sites were not different. Sinonasal, lacrimal, and tracheobronchial ACCs had significantly worse outcomes than those of ACC of the major salivary glands. Postoperative radiotherapy reduced the recurrence rate of patients with a negative resection margin (P=0.028). Older age (age >60 years), advanced stage, positive resection margin, high histological grade, and high expression of Ki-67 were significantly correlated with poor prognosis. In conclusion, the site of origin plays a role in the prognosis of ACC, in which positive resection margin and advanced stage are possible factors underlying the differences in outcomes. PMID:22230288

Lin, Yu-Chin; Chen, Ko-Chin; Lin, Ching-Hung; Kuo, Kuan-Ting; Ko, Jeng-Yuh; Hong, Ruey-Long

2012-03-01

312

Salivary gland choristoma of the middle ear.  

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Choristoma of the middle ear is a rare condition characterized by the presence of normal salivary gland tissue in the middle ear space. Salivary gland choristomas are benign lesions that are frequently associated with ossicular chain and facial nerve anomalies. Total surgical excision is indicated when there is no risk of damaging the facial nerve. We describe a new case of salivary gland choristoma of the middle ear, and we discuss the etiology, histologic features, and management of such lesions. Our patient was a 22-year-old woman in whom we surgically removed a whitish retrotympanic mass. Intraoperatively, we also detected an ossicular chain malformation. Histologic examination of the choristoma revealed the presence of salivary gland tissue. Furthermore, the lesion contained an extensive and previously undescribed component: a well-defined pseudostratified respiratory-type epithelium, similar to that of a normal eustachian tube. Ten months after removal of the choristoma, we surgically repaired the ossicular chain anomalies. No recurrence was noted on follow-up. PMID:25397377

Fois, Paolo; Giannuzzi, Anna Lisa; Paties, Carlo Terenzio; Falcioni, Maurizio

2014-01-01

313

Microgravity alters the expression of salivary proteins.  

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Spaceflight provides a unique opportunity to study how physiologic responses are influenced by the external environment. Microgravity has been shown to alter the function of a number of tissues and organ systems. Very little, however, is known about how microgravity affects the oral cavity. The rodent model is useful for study in that their salivary gland morphology and physiology is similar to that of humans. Useful also is the fact that saliva, a product of the salivary glands with a major role in maintaining oral health, can be easily collected in humans whereas the glands can be studied in experimental animals. Our working hypothesis is that expression of secretory proteins in saliva will respond to microgravity and will be indicative of the nature of physiologic reactions to travel in space. This study was designed to determine which components of the salivary proteome are altered in mice flown on the US space shuttle missions and to determine if a subset with predictive value can be identified using microscopy and biochemistry methods. The results showed that the expression of secretory proteins associated with beta-adrenergic hormone regulated responses and mediated via the cyclic AMP pathway was significantly altered, whereas that of a number of unrelated proteins was not. The findings are potentially applicable to designing a biochemical test system whereby specific salivary proteins can be biomarkers for stress associated with travel in space and eventually for monitoring responses to conditions on earth. PMID:24984624

Mednieks, Maija; Khatri, Aditi; Rubenstein, Renee; Burleson, Joseph A; Hand, Arthur R

2014-06-01

314

General Information about Salivary Gland Cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

... to treat some salivary gland tumors . These include: Fast neutron radiation therapy : Fast neutron radiation therapy is a type of high-energy ... neutrons, at the cancer cells to kill them. Fast neutron radiation therapy uses a higher-energy radiation than ...

315

Reduced salivary flow and colonization by mutans streptococci in children with Down syndrome  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Although individuals with Down syndrome have considerable oral disease, the prevalence of dental caries in this group is low. The present study aimed to compare known risk factors for dental caries development in children with Down syndrome and a matched population (siblings. In both populations, the number of acidogenic microorganisms, such as mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and Candida species, and the paraffin-stimulated pH, flow rate and IgA concentration in whole saliva were evaluated and compared. METHOD: Saliva was collected, and the caries index was evaluated in 45 sibling pairs aged between 6 and 18 years old. The salivary IgA concentration was determined by immunoturbidimetry. Salivary mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and Candida species were quantified on mitis salivarius agar containing bacitracin and 20% sucrose, rogosa agar supplemented with glacial acetic acid and sabouraud agar supplemented with chloramphenicol, respectively. RESULTS: Down syndrome children had a higher caries-free rate (p<0.05 and lower salivary mutans streptococci counts (p<0.03 compared to their siblings. Similar numbers of lactobacilli and Candida species were found in both groups. Salivary flow rates were 36% lower in Down syndrome children compared to their siblings (p<0.05. The salivary pH did not differ between Down syndrome children and controls. The Down syndrome children had an IgA secretion rate 29% lower than that of their siblings, but this difference was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the lower number of mutans streptococci in the saliva may be one of the factors contributing to the lower caries rate observed in Down syndrome children, despite evidence of hyposalivation.

Cristina Areias

2012-09-01

316

Estimation of Levels of Salivary Mucin, Amylase and Total Protein in Gingivitis and Chronic Periodontitis Patients  

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Background: Periodontal diseases are a group of inflammatory conditions resulting from interaction between a pathogenic bacterial biofilm and susceptible host’s inflammatory response eventually leading to the destruction of periodontal structures and subsequent tooth loss. Hence, investigation of salivary proteins in individuals with periodontal diseases may be useful to enhance the knowledge of their roles in these diseases. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was conducted at A.B. Shetty Memorial Institute of Dental Sciences, Mangalore. The study comprised of 90 patients of age between 25-60 years who were clinically examined and divided into three groups of 30 each: namely clinically healthy, gingivitis and chronic periodontitis. These were classified according to the values of gingival index score, clinical attachment loss and probing pocket depth. Unstimulated saliva was collected and salivary mucin, amylase and total protein levels were determined. Statistical analysis: Results obtained were tabulated and statistically analyzed using ANOVA test and Karl pearson’s correlation test. Results: The results of the study showed an increased concentration of salivary mucin, amylase and total protein in gingivitis patients and increased levels of amylase and total protein in saliva of chronic periodontitis patients compared to healthy individuals which were statistically significant. A decrease in mucin concentration was observed in the periodontitis group compared to gingivitis group. A positive correlation was present between salivary mucin, amylase and total protein levels in the three groups. Conclusion: Salivary mucin, amylase and total protein may serve as an important biochemical parameter of inflammation of the periodontium. Also, it can be hypothesized that various enzyme inhibitors might be useful as a part of host modulation therapy in the treatment of periodontal diseases. PMID:25478449

Bhandary, Rahul; Thomas, Biju; Kumari, Suchetha

2014-01-01

317

Salivary testosterone and immunoglobulin A were increased by resistance training in adults with Down syndrome  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This study was designed to assess the influence of resistance training on salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels and hormone profile in sedentary adults with Down syndrome (DS). A total of 40 male adults with DS were recruited for the trial through different community support groups for people with [...] intellectual disabilities. All participants had medical approval for participation in physical activity. Twenty-four adults were randomly assigned to perform resistance training in a circuit with six stations, 3 days per week for 12 weeks. Training intensity was based on functioning in the eight-repetition maximum (8RM) test for each exercise. The control group included 16 age-, gender-, and BMI-matched adults with DS. Salivary IgA, testosterone, and cortisol levels were measured by ELISA. Work task performance was assessed using the repetitive weighted-box-stacking test. Resistance training significantly increased salivary IgA concentration (P=0.0120; d=0.94) and testosterone levels (P=0.0088; d=1.57) in the exercising group. Furthermore, it also improved work task performance. No changes were seen in the controls who had not exercised. In conclusion, a short-term resistance training protocol improved mucosal immunity response as well as salivary testosterone levels in sedentary adults with DS.

G., Fornieles; M.A., Rosety; S., Elosegui; J.M., Rosety; J.R., Alvero-Cruz; N., Garcia; M., Rosety; T., Rodriguez-Pareja; R., Toro; M., Rosety-Rodriguez; F.J., Ordonez; I., Rosety.

2014-04-01

318

Inhibitition of Human Cytochrome P450 2E1 by Nicotine, Cotinine, and Aqueous Cigarette Tar Extract in Vitro  

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Cigarette smoke is a complex mixture containing, among other chemicals, pyridine alkaloids and N-nitrosamines. Carcinogenic tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), are both activated by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2E1 in rats. Previous reports indicate that nicotine and the main nicotine metabolite, cotinine, reduce the mutagenicity of both NNK and NDMA in Salmonella typhimurium. To study the mechanism of this effect,...

Vleet, Terry R.; Bombick, David W.; Coulombe, Roger A.

2001-01-01

319

Cord serum cotinine as a biomarker of fetal exposure to cigarette smoke at the end of pregnancy.  

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This study investigated the association between biomarkers of fetal exposure to cigarette smoke at the end of pregnancy, cotinine in cord serum and in maternal and newborn urine samples, and quantitative measurement of smoking intake and exposure evaluated by maternal self-reported questionnaire. Study subjects were 429 mothers and their newborns from a hospital in Barcelona, Spain. A questionnaire including smoking habits was completed in the third trimester of pregnancy and on the day of de...

Pichini, S.; Basagan?a, X. B.; Pacifici, R.; Garcia, O.; Puig, C.; Vall, O.; Harris, J.; Zuccaro, P.; Segura, J.; Sunyer, J.

2000-01-01

320

Salivary thyroxine as an estimate of free thyroxine: concise communication  

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To test the hypothesis that the levels of salivary thyroxine (T/sub 4/) reflect those of circulating free T/sub 4/, we developed a radioimmunoassay (RIA) sensitive to low levels of T/sub 4/. Concurrent saliva and serum samples were obtained from 32 euthyroid volunteers, ages 19 to 64. Salivary and serum T/sub 4/ and cortisol levels were measured by RIA. Salivary albumin was measured by nephelometry. Salivary T/sub 4/ levels were higher than predicted. No correlation was found between salivary T/sub 4/ and serum levels of free T/sub 4/ and total T/sub 4/ but there was a significant correlation between salivary T/sub 4/ and albumin (r = 0.82). Salivary cortisol levels agreed with reported results and showed no correlation with salivary albumin. We conclude that salivary levels of drugs and hormones may be strongly affected by protein binding, and caution must be exercised in using salivary levels as an estimate of circulating free levels.

Elson, M.K.; Morley, J.E.; Shafer, R.B.

1983-08-01

 
 
 
 
321

Anopheles salivary gland proteomes from major malaria vectors  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibody responses against Anopheles salivary proteins can indicate individual exposure to bites of malaria vectors. The extent to which these salivary proteins are species-specific is not entirely resolved. Thus, a better knowledge of the diversity among salivary protein repertoires from various malaria vector species is necessary to select relevant genus-, subgenus- and/or species-specific salivary antigens. Such antigens could be used for quantitative (mosquito density and qualitative (mosquito species immunological evaluation of malaria vectors/host contact. In this study, salivary gland protein repertoires (sialomes from several Anopheles species were compared using in silico analysis and proteomics. The antigenic diversity of salivary gland proteins among different Anopheles species was also examined. Results In silico analysis of secreted salivary gland protein sequences retrieved from an NCBInr database of six Anopheles species belonging to the Cellia subgenus (An. gambiae, An. arabiensis, An. stephensi and An. funestus and Nyssorhynchus subgenus (An. albimanus and An. darlingi displayed a higher degree of similarity compared to salivary proteins from closely related Anopheles species. Additionally, computational hierarchical clustering allowed identification of genus-, subgenus- and species-specific salivary proteins. Proteomic and immunoblot analyses performed on salivary gland extracts from four Anopheles species (An. gambiae, An. arabiensis, An. stephensi and An. albimanus indicated that heterogeneity of the salivary proteome and antigenic proteins was lower among closely related anopheline species and increased with phylogenetic distance. Conclusion This is the first report on the diversity of the salivary protein repertoire among species from the Anopheles genus at the protein level. This work demonstrates that a molecular diversity is exhibited among salivary proteins from closely related species despite their common pharmacological activities. The involvement of these proteins as antigenic candidates for genus-, subgenus- or species-specific immunological evaluation of individual exposure to Anopheles bites is discussed.

Fontaine Albin

2012-11-01

322

Cotinine halts the advance of Alzheimer’s disease-like pathology and associated depressive-like behavior in Tg6799 mice  

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Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is associated with cognitive and non-cognitive symptoms for which there are currently no effective therapies. We have previously reported that cotinine, a natural product obtained from tobacco leaves, prevented memory loss and diminished amyloid-? (A? plaque pathology in the transgenic 6799 mice (Tg6799 mice when treated prior to the development of the pathology. We have also shown that cotinine reduces depressive-like behavior in normal and chronically stressed C57BL/6 mice. Here, we extend our previous studies by investigating the effects of cotinine on the progression of AD-like pathology, depressive-like behavior, and the mechanisms underlying its beneficial effects in the Tg6799 mice when left untreated until after a more advanced stage of the disease’s development. The results show that vehicle-treated Tg6799 mice displayed an accentuated loss of working memory and an abundant A? plaque pathology that were accompanied by higher levels of depressive-like behavior as compared to control littermates. By contrast, prolonged daily cotinine treatment, withheld until after a mid-level progression of AD-like pathology, reduced A? levels, A? plaques, and depressive-like behavior as well as dramatically improved working memory in Tg6799 mice to levels no different from control littermates. The beneficial effects of cotinine were accompanied by an increase in the expression of the active form of protein kinase B (Akt and the postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95 in the hippocampi and frontal cortices of Tg6799 mice. This suggests that cotinine halts the progression of AD-like pathology while reducing depressive-like behavior by stimulating signaling pathways supporting synaptic plasticity in Tg6799 mice. The potential use of cotinine to treat cognitive and non-cognitive symptoms of AD is discussed.

Valentina Echeverria Moran

2014-07-01

323

Development of simple HPLC/UV with a column-switching method for the determination of nicotine and cotinine in hair samples  

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Full Text Available Nicotine and cotinine in hair are good biomarkers for assessing long-term exposure to smoking. However, analytical devices such as GC/MS are associated with high cost and are not widely used. HPLC/UV is used widely in laboratories, but is unsuitable for measurement of minor constituents, except when using the column-switching method. Thus, we aimed to establish a simple, inexpensive and sensitive method based on HPLC/UV with column switching for measuring nicotine and cotinine in hair. First, we compared the presence and absence of a column selection unit. We then measured amounts of nicotine and cotinine in hair samples collected from the general population, and compared both the corresponding levels and the detection limits with those in previous studies. Finally, initial and running costs of HPLC/UV were compared with other analytical methods. As one of the results, the areas of nicotine and cotinine measured by HPLC/UV with column-switching method were 12.9 and 16.9 times greater, respectively, than those without the column-switching method. The amount of nicotine and cotinine in hair was significantly correlated to number of cigarettes smoked per day (r = 0.228, p = 0.040. In addition, the HPLC/UV method showed similar sensitivity and detection limit (nicotine, 0.10 ng/mg; cotinine, 0.08 ng/mg as reported in previous studies. The cost of the HPLC/UV method is lower than that of other analytical methods. We were able to establish a low-cost method with good sensitivity for measuring nicotine and cotinine in hair. The HPLC/UV with a column-switching method will be useful as a first step in screening surveys in order to better understand the effects of smoking exposure.

Masayoshi Tsuji

2013-04-01

324

THE EFFECT OF SPORT COMPETITION ON SALIVARY STEROIDS IN AMATEUR FEMALE KARATE ATHLETES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of present study was to investigate the impact of repeated competition on salivary cortisol and DHEA-S in amateur women karate athletes. We recruited 20 young elite female karate fighters [height 158 ± 7 cm (mean ± S.D., weight 59.5 ± 10.9 kg, age 21.1 ± 3.0 years], who were placed first till fourth in the Iranian championship tournament. Five ml of unstimulated whole saliva was collected 30-min before and 5 - min after first and last match in competition and analyzed for cortisol and DHEA-S concentrations. The results showed that participation in competition resulted in significantly increased saliva cortisol level (p 0.05. Significant differences insalivary steroids were not different between winners and losers (p > 0.05. The results of present study show that salivary cortisol concentration is a suitable index for showing competing stress.

Mohammad Ali Azarbayjani

2010-06-01

325

Nicotine, cotinine, and myosmine determination using polymer films of tailor-designed zinc porphyrins as recognition units for piezoelectric microgravimetry chemosensors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two electropolymerizable zinc porphyrins with receptor sites tailor-designed for selective recognition of the nicotine, cotinine, or myosmine alkaloids were synthesized. These were 5-(2-phenoxyacetamide)-10,15,20-tris(triphenylamino)porphyrinato zinc(II) 1 and 5-(2,5-phenylene-bis(oxy)diacetamide)-10,15,20-tris(triphenylamino)porphyrinato zinc(II) 2 featuring one and two pendant amide side "pincers", respectively, and three triphenylamine substituents at the meso positions of the porphyrin macrocycles capable of electrochemical polymerization. Thin polymerfilms of these porphyrins served for recognition and the piezoelectric microgravimetry (PM) for analytical signal transduction of a new chemical sensor devised for determination of these alkaloids. The films were deposited by potentiodynamic electropolymerization on the 10 MHz quartz resonators of the electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) without affecting the electronic structure of the porphyrin macrocycles. Under favorable flow injection analysis (FIA) conditions, the alkaloid analytes were determined at the concentration level of 0.1 mM with high sensitivity and selectivity. Affinity toward the analytes of the polymer of 2 was higher than that of 1 due to the higher binding ability offered by two pendant pincers of the former. Because of the selective receptors and PM applied under FIA conditions, the developed procedure offered an alternative to the time-consuming and relatively expensive high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), capillary electrophoresis (CE), and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methods of detection and quantification of these alkaloids. PMID:22394091

Noworyta, Krzysztof; Kutner, Wlodzimierz; Wijesinghe, Channa A; Srour, Serge G; D'Souza, Francis

2012-03-01

326

Determinación de cotinina y exposición a tabaco / Cotinine detection and tobacco smoke exposure  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La exposición a tabaco es una de las causas prevenibles de morbilidad y mortalidad prematura más importante. Se describe un método simple y rápido de detección de cotinina (principal metabolito de nicotina) en orina humana. Se utilizó cromatografía gas-líquido (CGL) con un detector de ionización de [...] llama (FID). Se realizó una extracción líquido-líquido con cloroformo en medio alcalino; el extracto fue secado a 37 °C y redisuelto en 100 µL de solución alcohólica con estándar interno piridina. Se analizó la orina de personas que declararon ser fumadoras y no fumadoras. Mediante la construcción de dos curvas de calibración se cubrió un rango de linealidad de 3 a 5.000 ng/mL. Los fumadores presentaron una mediana y cuartiles (Q) de concentración de cotinina: 255,4 ng/mL, 15,9 ng/mL (Q1) - 1.050,2 ng/mL (Q3), respectivamente, y los no fumadores 15,8 ng/mL, 4,1 ng/mL (Q1) - 38,4 ng/mL (Q3). Wilcoxon sumrank: z = 4,865 p Abstract in english Tobacco is one of the major preventable causes of morbidity and premature mortality in the world. A simple, rapid method for determination of cotinine, major metabolite of nicotine in urine, is described. The assay involves a fast liquid-liquid extraction with chloroform as a solvent in alkaline env [...] ironment. The extract was dried at 37 °C and the residue was dissolved in 100 µL of standard internal of pyridine in methanol solution, and an aliquot was analyzed by gas-liquid chromatograph equipped with a flame -ionization detector. This technique was performed to test urine of a sample of smokers and non-smokers who were previously asked about their smoking habit. The limit of detection was 3.1 ng/mL, and using two calibration curves, a linearity range from 3 a 5.000 ng/mL was covered. The median and quartiles (Q) of cotinine in smokers were 255.4 ng/mL, 15.9 ng/mL (Q1) -1050.2 ng/mL (Q3) ng/mL and in non-smokers 15.8 ng/mL, 4.1 ng/mL (Q1) - 38.4 ng/mL (Q3). Wilcoxon sumrank: z = 4.865 p

Marta Noemí, Vacchino; Susana María, Velurtas; Guillermo Pablo, Salinas; Héctor Hugo, Garcialoredo.

2006-06-01

327

Immunohistochemical and quantitative changes in salivary EGF, amylase and haptocorrin following radiotherapy for oral cancer  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Epidermal growth factor (EGF), amylase and haptocorrin are molecules produced in the salivary glands. The aim of the present study was to determine immunohistochemical and quantitative alterations in EGF as compared with haptocorrin and amylase following radiotherapy for oral cancer. Changes in the salivary secretion of EGF are of interest because of the importance of EGF in mucosal regeneration. Immunohistochemical studies on normal tissue from parotid and submandibular glands have demonstrated EGF in the serous acini with a tendency to single cell expression in the parotid gland. Amylase has been found in the serous acini of both the submandibular and parotid glands. Haptocorrin was localized in the duct system of both glands. In the submandibular glands with radiotherapy induced sialoadenitis only very few acini with weak or no staining for EGF and amylase were demonstrated, while no changes were observed in the staining for haptocorrin. Analysis on stimulated whole saliva samples collected from 20 healthyindividuals and from 20 patients prior to, and 1, 2 and 3 weeks following radiotherapy showed significant reduction in salivary contents of EGF and amylase after treatment as expressed per g protein (p <0.0002). The salivary content of haptocorrin increased significantly after treatment (p <0.002). These alterations may be explained by the different cellular sites of the molecules studied, the serous acini being more sensitive to ionising radiation than the duct system. The concentration of EGF in saliva before treatment was significantly higher in patients than in the control group (p <0.02), which may indicate that the tumors induce increased secretion of salivary EGF, or alternatively that the oral tumors contribute with EGF to the saliva. In conclusion we have demonstrated a reduction in the mitogenic peptide EGF both immunohistochemically and quantitatively following irradiation for oral cancer, results which may contribute to the understanding of the clinical signs of mucositis.

Christensen, M E; Hansen, H S

1996-01-01

328

A nucleotide receptor that mobilizes Ca2+ in the mouse submandibular salivary cell line ST885.  

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1. We have identified a Ca(2+)-mobilizing receptor that responds to extracellular ATP (0.1-1000 microM) in a salivary epithelial cell line (ST885). The activated receptor also stimulates Ca2+ entry from the extracellular fluid. 2. The receptor shows an agonist selectivity profile consistent with the behaviour of the nucleotide receptor class. In particular, the pyrimidine nucleotide, UTP, was equipotent with ATP. 3. Analysis of concentration-response data for the ATP and UTP-activated recepto...

Gibb, C. A.; Singh, S.; Cook, D. I.; Poronnik, P.; Conigrave, A. D.

1994-01-01

329

Central Nifedipine-induced Alterations in Salivary Flow and Compounds: Role of Nitric Oxide  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the role of nifedipine and Nitric Oxide (NO on salivary flow and compounds (salivary amylase, saliva total proteins, saliva calcium, sodium and potassium. Male Holtzman rats weighting 200-250 g were anesthetized with zoletil 50 mg kg-1 (tiletamine chloridrate 125.0 mg and zolazepan chloridrate 125.0 mg into quadriceps muscle and stainless steel cannulas were implanted into their lateral ventricle of the brain (LV. Animals in divided group were injected with nifedipine (50 ?g ?L-1 alone and in combination with 7-nitroindazol (7-NIT (40 ?g ?L-1, neuronal NO Sinthase Inhibitor (nNOSI and Sodium Nitroprussate (SNP (30 ?g ?L-1 NO donor agent. As a secretory stimuli, pilocarpine dissolved in isotonic was administered intraperitoneally (ip at a dosage of 10 mg kg-1 body weight. Saliva was collected for 7 min with four cotton balls weighing approximately 20 mg each, two of which were placed on either side of the oral cavity, with the other two placed under the tongue. Nifedipine treatment induced a reduction in saliva secretion rate and concentration of amylase, total protein and calcium without changes in sodium and potassium concentration in comparison with controls. Co-treatment of animals with nifedipine and SNP retained flow rate and concentration of amylase, total protein and calcium in normal levels. Co-treatment of animals with nifedipine and 7-NIT potentiated the effect of nifedipine on the reduction of saliva secretion and concentrations of amylase, total protein and calcium. Nifedipine (dihydroperidine calcium-channel blocker widely in use is associated with salivary dysfunction acting in the central nervous system structures. NO might be the mechanism for protective effect against the nifedipine-induce salivary dysfunction, acting in the CNS.

Wilson Abrao Saad

2006-01-01

330

Sialolithiasis: An unusually large asymptomatic submandibular salivary stone  

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Salivary gland calculi account for the most common disease of salivary glands. The majority of sialoliths occur in submandibular gland or its duct and they are a common cause of acute and chronic infections. This case report describes an asymptomatic patient presenting with a large submandibular duct sialolith, the subsequent non surgical management of the patient along with etiology, diagnosis and various treatment modalities available for the treatment of salivary gland calculi depend...

Kamtane Smita; Ghodke Monali

2013-01-01

331

Pleomorphic adenoma of the minor salivary gland of the cheek.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common tumour of the salivary gland. While the majority arises from the parotid gland, only a small percentage arises from the minor salivary glands. The cheek, however, is a rarely affected site with respect to pleomorphic adenomas of the minor salivary glands. Herein, we report a case of pleomorphic adenoma of the cheek, which presented with intraoral swelling, and conclude that complete surgical excision can be a curative treatment for this benign tumour. PMID:24068067

Sharma, Arpit; Deshmukh, Shraddha; Shaikh, Ahmed; Dabholkar, Jyoti

2013-09-01

332

Hemangioma in minor salivary glands: real or illusion  

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Abstract Hemangioma is a common soft tissue lesion in the head and neck region. Hemangioma in the context of minor salivary glands is rarely encountered in surgical pathology practice, and for this reason most pathologist are often unfamiliar with its histomorphological features. We report a rare histological finding of salivary gland structures within a cavernous hemangioma, which may or may not have originated in the minor salivary gland.

Kumaran Mayelam G; Shankar Kolappan A; Karunakaran Kaliappan; SureshKumar Palani; Ponniah Irulandy; Preeti Lakshmi

2006-01-01

333

Hemangioma in minor salivary glands: real or illusion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Hemangioma is a common soft tissue lesion in the head and neck region. Hemangioma in the context of minor salivary glands is rarely encountered in surgical pathology practice, and for this reason most pathologist are often unfamiliar with its histomorphological features. We report a rare histological finding of salivary gland structures within a cavernous hemangioma, which may or may not have originated in the minor salivary gland.

Kumaran Mayelam G

2006-08-01

334

Plexiform Neurofibroma of the Submandibular Salivary Gland: A Rare Tumour  

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A 15 year old boy presented with swelling in the submandibular region. X ray of the part showed faint radio opaque shadow. A provisional diagnosis of sialadenitis with sialiolithiasis was made. Excised mass was reported histopathologically as plexiform neurofibroma of submandibular salivary gland. Plexiform neurofibroma of the salivary gland is a rare benign tumour, often present in the parotid gland. It is very rare in submandibular salivary gland. It is a slow growing, locally infiltrating...

Tati, Shekar Y.; Gole, Gautam N.; Prabhala, Shailaja; Gole, Sheetal G.

2010-01-01

335

Salivary gland doses from dental radiographic exposures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Salivary gland doses incurred during dental radiography were measured by phantom dosimetry, and these dose data and data obtained during a two-week survey of Hiroshima and Nagasaki dental hospitals and clinics were used to estimate the respective doses to members of the populations of the two cities. The results obtained were used to supplement previously determined doses to the thyroid gland, lens, and pituitary gland from dental radiography. No significant differences in doses were observed by age, sex or city. Doses to the salivary glands during dental radiography are probably not sufficiently large to cause bias in assessments of atomic bomb survivors for late radiation effects. However, the steadily increasing use of dental radiography underscores the need for continued monitoring of dental radiography doses in the interests of these assessments. (author)

336

Decrease in salivary lactoferrin output in chronically intoxicated alcohol-dependent patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Salivary lactoferrin is a glycoprotein involved in the elimination of pathogens and the prevention of massive overgrowth of microorganisms that affect oral and general health. A high concentration of lactoferrin in saliva is often considered to be a marker of damage to the salivary glands, gingivitis, or leakage through inflamed or damaged oral mucosa, infiltrated particularly by neutrophils. We conducted a study to determine the effect of chronic alcohol intoxication on salivary lactoferrin concentration and output. The study included 30 volunteers consisting of ten non-smoking male patients after chronic alcohol intoxication (group A, and 20 control nonsmoking male social drinkers (group C with no history of alcohol abuse. Resting whole saliva was collected 24 to 48 hours after a chronic alcohol intoxication period. Lactoferrin was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. For all participants, the DMFT index (decayed, missing, or filled teeth, gingival index (GI and papilla bleeding index (PBI were assessed. The differences between groups were evaluated using the Mann–Whitney U test. We noticed significantly decreased salivary flow (SF in alcohol dependent patients after chronic alcohol intoxication (A, compared to the control group (C. Although there was no significant difference in salivary lactoferrin concentration between the alcohol dependent group A and the control group C, we found significantly decreased lactoferrin output in group A compared to group C. We found a significant correlation between the amount of daily alcohol use and a decrease in lactoferrin output. There was a significant increase in GI and a tendency of PBI to increase in group A compared to group C. We demonstrated that chronic alcohol intoxication decreases SF and lactoferrin output. The decreased lactoferrin output in persons chronically intoxicated by alcohol may be the result of lactoferrin exhaustion during drinking (due to its alcohol-related lower biosynthesis or higher catabolism or to decreased function of neutrophils affected by the ethanol. The poorer periodontal state in alcohol dependent persons compared to controls may be a result of lower salivary flow and decreased protection of the oral cavity by lactoferrin.

Napoleon Waszkiewicz

2012-07-01

337

Oxidative DNA damage and repair in children exposed to low levels of arsenic in utero and during early childhood: Application of salivary and urinary biomarkers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study aimed to assess arsenic exposure and its effect on oxidative DNA damage and repair in young children exposed in utero and continued to live in arsenic-contaminated areas. To address the need for biological specimens that can be acquired with minimal discomfort to children, we used non-invasive urinary and salivary-based assays for assessing arsenic exposure and early biological effects that have potentially serious health implications. Levels of arsenic in nails showed the greatest magnitude of difference between exposed and control groups, followed by arsenic concentrations in saliva and urine. Arsenic levels in saliva showed significant positive correlations with other biomarkers of arsenic exposure, including arsenic accumulation in nails (r = 0.56, P < 0.001) and arsenic concentration in urine (r = 0.50, P < 0.05). Exposed children had a significant reduction in arsenic methylation capacity indicated by decreased primary methylation index and secondary methylation index in both urine and saliva samples. Levels of salivary 8-OHdG in exposed children were significantly higher (? 4-fold, P < 0.01), whereas levels of urinary 8-OHdG excretion and salivary hOGG1 expression were significantly lower in exposed children (? 3-fold, P < 0.05), suggesting a defect in hOGG1 that resulted in ineffective cleavage of 8-OHdG. Multiple regression analysis results showed that levels of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in saliva and urine had a significant positive association with salivary 8-OHdG and a significant negative association with salivary hOGG1 expression. - Highlights: • The effects of arsenic exposure in utero and through early childhood were studied. • Arsenic-exposed children had a reduction in arsenic methylation capacity. • Exposed children had more DNA damage, observed as elevated salivary 8-OHdG. • Lower salivary hOGG1 in exposed children indicated impairment of 8-OHdG repair. • Salivary and urinary 8-OHdG levels were discordant

338

Hydatid cyst in submandibular salivary gland  

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This case of 52-year male with swelling in the left submandibular area for 1 year came to ENT OPD of Patna medical college, Patna. Clinical examination showed swelling to be multiple nontender cysts with enlarged submandibular salivary gland. CT-scan revealed large well-defined encapsulated multicystic lesions in the left submandibular gland. FNAC was suggestive of aspirate to be ectopic to that area. Excision biopsy was done. HPE showed features suggestive of parasitic infestation along with...

Pal, Parmanand Prasad; Shankar, Siddharth

2008-01-01

339

Glycoprofiling of the Human Salivary Proteome  

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Glycosylation is important for a number of biological processes and is perhaps the most abundant and complicated of the known post-translational modifications found on proteins. This work combines two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and lectin blotting to map the salivary glycome, and mass spectrometry to identity the proteins that are associated with the glycome map. A panel of 15 lectins that recognize six sugar-specific categories was used to visualize the type and ex...

Sondej, Melissa; Denny, Patricia A.; Xie, Yongming; Ramachandran, Prasanna; Si, Yan; Takashima, Jona; Shi, Wenyuan; Wong, David T.; Loo, Joseph A.; Denny, Paul C.

2009-01-01

340

Effect of two mouthwashes on salivary ph.  

Science.gov (United States)

To analyze the effect of two mouthwashes on salivary pH and correlate it with age, buffer capacity and saliva flow rate in healthy volunteers, a crossover phase IV clinical study involving three age-based groups was designed. Two commercial mouthwashes (MW), Cool Mint ListerineR (MWa) and Periobacter R (MWb) were used. The unstimulated saliva of each individual was first characterized by measuring flow rate, pH, and buffer capacity. Salivary pH was evaluated before rinsing with a given MW, immediately after rinsing, 5 minutes later, and then every 10 min (at 15, 25, 35 min) until the baseline pH was recovered. Paired t-test, ANOVA with a randomized block design, and Pearson correlation tests were used. Averages were 0.63 mL/min, 7.06, and 0.87 for flow rate, pH, and buffer capacity, respectively. An immediate significant increase in salivary pH was observed after rinsing, reaching average values of 7.24 (MWb) and 7.30 (MWa), which declined to an almost stable value 15 minutes. The great increase in salivary pH, after MW use shows that saliva is a dynamic system, and that the organism is capable of responding to a stimulus with changes in its composition. It is thus evident that pH of the external agent alone is not a good indicator for its erosive potential because biological systems tend to neutralize it. The results of this study enhance the importance of in vivo measurements and reinforce the concept of the protective action of saliva. PMID:25523957

Belardinelli, Paola A; Morelatto, Rosana A; Benavidez, Tomás E; Baruzzi, Ana M; López de Blanc, Silvia A

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Salivary gland malignant neoplasms: treatment and prognosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A retrospective analysis of 183 patients with malignant salivary gland tumors treated between 1955 and 1978 is presented. The analysis showed that radiation therapy lowered the recurrence rates after surgery and controlled approximately one-third of the inoperable tumors. A dose-response relationship exists and the data suggest that the radiation dose should not be less than that corresponding to a CRE-value of 1950 reu (70 Gy/7 weeks). Histology, location and clinical stage are important prognostic factors

342

Salivary gland tumors induced by 32P  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The oncogenic power of 32P was demonstrated in salivary glands. An intraglandular injection of 0.25 mCi of chromic colloidal phosphate (32P) was administered to young adult Wistar rats. Seven months post-injection, tumors began to appear in the neck region in 64% of the rats. The tumors were sarcomas (50%), carcinomas (35.70%), and carcino-sarcomas (14.28%). (author)

343

Salivary Mucocele in a Laboratory Beagle  

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The histologic characteristics of a salivary mucocele in a beagle used in a toxicity study are described in this report. A pale yellowish cyst under the mandibular skin containing frothy mucus was observed at necropsy. Microscopically, numerous villous projections arose from the internal surface of the cyst and were lined by stratified epithelial-like macrophages, which were immunopositive for macrophage scavenger receptor A. A ...

Yasuno, Hironobu; Nagai, Hirofumi; Ishimura, Yoshimasa; Watanabe, Takeshi; Yamasaki, Hideki; Anayama, Hisashi; Takai, Yuichi; Yamauchi, Hirofumi; Hara, Yoko; Murai, Fumi; Kandori, Hitoshi

2011-01-01

344

Modern management of obstructive salivary diseases  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Over the last fifteen years, increasing public demand for minimally-invasive surgery and recent technological advances have led to the development of a number of conservative options for the therapeutic management of obstructive salivary disorders such as calculi and duct stenosis. These include extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy, sialoendoscopy, laser intra-corporeal lithotripsy, interventional radiology, the video-assisted conservative surgical removal of parotid and sub-mandibular calcu...

Capaccio, P.; Torretta, S.; Ottaviani, F.; Sambataro, G.; Pignataro, L.

2007-01-01

345

Salivary cortisol and psychosocial hazards at work  

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Background Experimental and clinical evidence suggest that stress can lead to ill-health through the disregulation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis. Studies to date have produced equivocal results likely due to different methodologies and failure to account for confounding factors. This investigation aimed to assess the relation between self-reported work-related stressors and salivary cortisol and to clarify the role of the potential confounders. Methods Thirty-six cal...

Maina, Giovanni

2009-01-01

346

Aphasia Severity and Salivary Cortisol over Time  

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The current study explored the complicated interplay between aphasia and the stress biomarker, cortisol, in left hemisphere (LH) and right hemisphere (RH) stroke patients. Nineteen LH patients and 12 RH patients began the study between one to six months post-stroke and were followed for three months. During this time, language skills were assessed monthly while afternoon salivary cortisol samples were collected biweekly. The LH and RH groups showed improvements in language test scores over th...

Laures-gore, Jacqueline S.

2012-01-01

347

Nizatidine Improves Impaired Salivary Secretion in GERD  

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During esophageal acid clearance, salivation plays an important role in defending the esophageal mucosa. Nizatidine, a histamine H2 receptor antagonist, inhibits acetylcholine esterase, with a resultant increase in acetylcholine. We experienced a patient with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and impaired salivary secretion who has been successfully treated with nizatidine.Case report: A 63-year-old female visited our hospital with complaints of heartburn and continuous laryngeal discomf...

Yoshihisa Urita; Toshiyasu Watanabe; Kazuo Hike; Makie Nanami; Tadashi Maeda; Yosuke Sasaki; Asuka Nakayama; Takamasa Ishii; Kaoru Domon; Susumu Ishihara; Masaki Sanaka; Hitoshi Nakajima; Motonobu Sugimoto

2008-01-01

348

Anaerobic Threshold and Salivary ?-amylase during Incremental Exercise.  

Science.gov (United States)

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to clarify the validity of salivary ?-amylase as a method of quickly estimating anaerobic threshold and to establish the relationship between salivary ?-amylase and double-product breakpoint in order to create a way to adjust exercise intensity to a safe and effective range. [Subjects and Methods] Eleven healthy young adults performed an incremental exercise test using a cycle ergometer. During the incremental exercise test, oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, and ventilatory equivalent were measured using a breath-by-breath gas analyzer. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured to calculate the double product, from which double-product breakpoint was determined. Salivary ?-amylase was measured to calculate the salivary threshold. [Results] One-way ANOVA revealed no significant differences among workloads at the anaerobic threshold, double-product breakpoint, and salivary threshold. Significant correlations were found between anaerobic threshold and salivary threshold and between anaerobic threshold and double-product breakpoint. [Conclusion] As a method for estimating anaerobic threshold, salivary threshold was as good as or better than determination of double-product breakpoint because the correlation between anaerobic threshold and salivary threshold was higher than the correlation between anaerobic threshold and double-product breakpoint. Therefore, salivary threshold is a useful index of anaerobic threshold during an incremental workload. PMID:25140097

Akizuki, Kazunori; Yazaki, Syouichirou; Echizenya, Yuki; Ohashi, Yukari

2014-07-01

349

Acinic cell carcinoma arising in ectopic salivary gland tissue.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two cases of a rare entity, acinic cell carcinomas, which apparently arose primarily from ectopic salivary gland tissue, are presented. Salivary gland ducts and acini frequently may be found incorporated within intraparotid lymph nodes and less commonly within extraglandular cervical nodes. Ectopic salivary glands may also be seen, although rarely, elsewhere in the head and neck area. The most common tumor to arise from intranodal salivary gland tissue is papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum; however, other salivary gland-type neoplasms rarely may do so. In our cases, one tumor apparently originated primarily within a paraparotid lymph node and the other in the lateral mid- to low-neck area. Neither of our patients had a demonstrable lesion of a major or minor salivary gland; thus their tumors are presumed to have originated primarily from ectopic salivary gland tissue. The clinician and the pathologist should consider the possibility of a neoplasm arising in ectopic tissue when a salivary gland type tumor is identified away from sites where major and minor salivary glands normally are found. PMID:7260848

Perzin, K H; Livolsi, V A

1980-03-01

350

Salivary duct carcinoma of parotid gland- An incidental finding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Salivary duct carcinoma, a recently added separate entity of salivary gland tumor is a rare tumour with its aggressive behaviour. Due to morphological similarities with ductal carcinoma of breast the name salivary duct carcinoma is given. It is more common in male than in female. But our case is of 45yr female with mass in the parotid region. The diagnosis on USG and CT was organized collection. But on excision the diagnosis turned to be salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland

Suparna Suvernakar V, Shubha Deshpande A, Prabha Mulay S

2014-07-01

351

pH Salival, Capacidad Buffer, Proteínas Totales y Flujo Salival en Pacientes Hipertensos Controlados Usuarios de Diuréticos / Salivary pH, Buffer Capacity, Total Proteins and Salivary Flow in Controlled Hypertensive Patients Diuretic Users  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La hipertensión arterial (HTA) es una enfermedad cardiovascular que padece gran parte de la población mundial y nacional, alcanzando en Chile un 26,9% en el año 2010. El objetivo fue determinar pH salival, capacidad buffer, proteínas totales y flujo salival, en pacientes hipertensos controlados usua [...] rios de diuréticos. Se analizaron 14 muestras de saliva no estimulada de pacientes hipertensos controlados con diuréticos y 10 muestras de saliva no estimulada de personas que no padecían enfermedades sistémicas y no tomaban medicamentos, los valores obtenidos de pH salival, capacidad buffer, flujo salival y proteínas totales fueron determinados en ambos grupos. La mediana obtenida en las muestras de hipertensos controlados con diuréticos, para el pH salival fue de 6,83; para la capacidad buffer fue 4,86; para el flujo salival fue 0,55 ml/min y para las proteínas totales salivales fue de 1,09 g/dL. Para el grupo de pacientes sanos la mediana fue de 6,88 para el pH; 4,25 para la capacidad buffer; 1,8 ml/min para el flujo salival y 0,29 g/dL para las proteínas totales salivales. Además, no se encontró asociación entre el flujo salival (rs = 0,425), capacidad buffer (rs = 0,283) y concentración de proteínas (rs = 0,245) con la dosis del diurético (p > 0,05) . Se encontró que existieron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en el flujo salival y la concentración de proteínas salivales entre el grupo de pacientes hipertensos y de pacientes sanos (U Mann-Wthitney P 0,005). Los pacientes que sufren HTA y están siendo controlados con diuréticos tienen una disminución del flujo salival y un aumento de la concentración de proteínas, no viéndose afectadas las variables de pH y capacidad buffer. Abstract in english Introduction: Hypertension (HT) is a cardiovascular disease with a high prevalence around the world. In Chile at year 2010 it reached 26.9% of the population. Objective: To determine salivary pH, buffering capacity, total proteins and salivary flow in controlled hypertensive diuretic users and a gro [...] up without systemic diseases. Methods: 14 samples of unstimulated saliva of patients with hypertension treated with diuretics and 10 samples of unstimulated saliva of people without systemic diseases and not taking medication were analyzed. pH, salivary buffering, salivary flow and total protein were determined in both groups. Results: The figures for the treated HT patients were as follows: pH: 6.83, buffer capacity: 4.86, salivary flow: 0.55 ml / min and total salivary proteins: 1.09 g / dL. For those without systemic diseases the results were: pH: 6,88, buffer capacity: 4,25, saliva flow: 1.8 ml / min and total salivary protein: 0.29 g / dL. No association was found between salivary flow (rs = 0.425), buffering capacity (rs = 0.283) and protein concentration (rs = 0.245) with the diuretic dose (p > 0.05). Statistically significant differences were found in salivary flow and total salivary protein concentration between the group with hypertension and without. (U Mann-Wthitney P > 0.005). No statistically significant differences in salivary pH and buffering capacity were found among the study groups (U Mann-Wthitney > 0.005). Conclusion: Patients with hypertension and treated with diuretics have a decreased salivary flow and an increased total protein concentration while ph and buffer capacity remained normal.

Samuel, Muñoz L; Carmen Gloria, Narváez.

2012-04-01

352

Interference of Salivary immunoglobulin A antibodies and other salivary fractions with adherence of Streptococcus mutans to hydroxyapatite.  

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The adherence of Streptococcus mutans to hydroxyapatite was studied in the presence of salivary fractions with varying activity of naturally occurring immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies. Human parotid saliva from different donors was fractionated by chromatography and compared. Salivary IgA antibodies had no decisive effect on the adherence of the S. mutans strain used. High-molecular-weight salivary components from some subjects had an adherence-promoting effect, whereas fractions collected a...

Gahnberg, L.; Olsson, J.; Krasse, B.; Carle?n, A.

1982-01-01

353

Beneficial effects of nicotine, cotinine and its metabolites as potential agents for Parkinson’s disease  

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Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, which is characterized by neuroinflammation, dopaminergic neuronal cell death and motor dysfunction, and for which there are no proven effective treatments. The negative correlation between tobacco consumption and PD suggests that tobacco-derived compounds can be beneficial against PD. Nicotine, the more studied alkaloid derived from tobacco, is considered to be responsible for the beneficial behavioral and neurological effects of tobacco use in PD. However, several metabolites of nicotine, such as cotinine, also increase in the brain after nicotine administration. The effect of nicotine and some of its derivatives on dopaminergic neurons viability, neuroinflammation, and motor and memory functions, have been investigated using cellular and rodent models of PD. Current evidence shows that nicotine, and some of its derivatives diminish oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in the brain and improve synaptic plasticity and neuronal survival of dopaminergic neurons. In vivo these effects resulted in improvements in mood, motor skills and memory in subjects suffering from PD pathology. In this review, we discuss the potential benefits of nicotine and its derivatives for treating PD.

Barreto, George E.; Iarkov, Alexander; Moran, Valentina Echeverria

2015-01-01

354

endoProteoFASP: A novel FASP approach to profile salivary peptidome and disclose salivary proteases.  

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The salivary peptidome, which can represent up to 20% of total secreted proteins in human saliva, is highly influenced by proteolytic events. However, the development of strategies to understand the dynamics underlying the generation of salivary peptides has been a challenging task. In order to disclose in more detail the proteolytic events taking place in saliva, we aimed to characterize salivary peptidome and predict salivary proteases by applying, for the first time, a filter-aided sample preparation (FASP) approach to saliva. Thus, as a proof-of-concept of this application, harvested saliva samples from healthy individuals were incubated in 30kDa cut-off spin filters for 18 or 115h, at 37°C, to promote saliva autolysis and the attained peptidome was characterized and compared with the naturally occurring one. In ex vivo conditions, proline-rich proteins, P-B peptide, histatin 1 and statherin were found to be the most susceptible salivary proteins to proteolysis. Peptide fragments were mainly attributed to the activity of cathepsin L1 and K at 18h, whereas at 115h, the attained peptide fragments were attributed to the activity of cathepsins K and L1, and MEP1A. Overall, the described endoProteoFASP approach makes the most of saliva?s own protease pool and avoids the use of synthetic peptides and exogenous proteases to understand the proteolytic events occurring in the oral fluid. Hence, it could be very helpful in future studies targeting the characterization of salivary proteases and peptidome from different pathophysiological conditions. PMID:25476335

Trindade, Fábio; Amado, Francisco; Gomes, Pedro S; Vitorino, Rui

2015-01-15

355

Investigation on laser induced salivary stone fragmentation  

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Objective: It was the objective of this in-vitro study to investigate photon-based techniques for identifying the composition and fragmentation of salivary stones using a Ho:YAG laser. Materials and Method: Salivary stones (n=47) extracted from patients with clinical symptoms of sialolithiasis were examined in-vitro. After extraction, the stones were kept in Ringers solution until size and volume measurements could be performed. Thereafter, dual-energy CT scans (DECT) were performed to classify the composition of the stones. Subsequently, fluorescence measurements were performed by taking images under blue light excitation as well as by fluorescence spectroscopy, measuring excitation-emission-matrixes (EEM). Further investigation to identify the exact composition of the stone was performed by Raman spectroscopy and FTIR spectroscopy of stone fragments and debris. Fragmentation was performed in an aquarium set-up equipped with a mesh (hole: 1.5mm) using a Ho:YAG-laser to deliver laser pulses of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5J/pulse at a frequency of 3Hz through a 200?m-fibre to the stone surface. The collected data were analyzed and fragmentation rates were calculated. Finally, correlation between stone composition and fragmentation was performed. Results: Blue light fluorescence excitation resulted in either fluorescence in the green spectral region or in a combination of green and red fluorescence emission. EEM-measurement showed the corresponding spectra. Raman spectroscopy showed a mixture of carbonate apatite and keratin. DECT results in evidence of calcium containing components. FTIR-spectroscopy results showed that carbonate apatite is the main component. Fragmentation experiment showed a dependency on the energy per pulse applied if the evaluation implies the ratio of fragmented weight to pulse, while the ratio fragmented weight to energy remains about constant for the three laser parameter used. Conclusion: The composition of salivary stones could be determined using different photonic techniques. Attempts to correlate salivary stone composition to fragmentation rates resulted in no correlation. Thus it could be concluded that each salivary stone could be easily destroyed using Ho:YAG-laser light by means of a 200?m bare fibre at lowest energy per pulse.

Sroka, Ronald; Pongratz, Thomas; Eder, Matthias; Domes, Mona; Vogeser, Michael; Johnson, Thorsten; Siedeck, Vanessa; Schroetzlmair, Florian; Zengel, Pamela

2014-03-01

356

Nicotine, cotinine, and b-nicotyrine inhibit NNK-induced DNA-strand break in the hepatic cell line HepaRG.  

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Recent in vitro work using purified enzymes demonstrated that nicotine and/or a nicotine metabolite could inhibit CYPs (CYP2A6, 2A13, 2E1) involved in the metabolism of the genotoxic tobacco nitrosamine NNK. This observation raises the possibility of nicotine interaction with the mechanism of NNK bioactivation. Therefore, we hypothesized that nicotine or a nicotine metabolite such as cotinine might contribute to the inhibition of NNK-induced DNA strand breaks by interfering with CYP enzymes. The effect of nicotine and cotinine on DNA strand breaks was evaluated using the COMET assay in CYP competent HepaRG cells incubated with bioactive CYP-dependent NNK and CYP-independent NNKOAc (4-(acetoxymethylnitrosoamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone). We report a dose-dependent reduction in DNA damage in hepatic-derived cell lines in the presence of nicotine and cotinine. Those results are discussed in the context of the in vitro model selected. PMID:25221795

Ordonez; Sierra, Ana Belen; Camacho, Oscar M; Baxter, Andrew; Banerjee, Anisha; Waters, David; Minet, Emmanuel

2014-10-01

357

Simple and rapid assay method for simultaneous quantification of urinary nicotine and cotinine using micro-extraction by packed sorbent and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

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A simple and rapid method for determination of nicotine and cotinine levels in urine was developed using samples prepared by micro-extraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) and subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. This method provided good reproducibility, as well as good linearity of calibration curves in the range of 1-100 and 50-1000 ng/mL for quality control samples spiked with nicotine and cotinine, respectively. The detection limit of nicotine and cotinine was as low as 0.25 and 20 ng/mL, respectively. An evaporation procedure is not suitable for nicotine determination, thus an advantage of the present MEPS assay method is direct testing with GC-MS without the need for evaporation to a dry solvent. Our findings show that it may be useful for determining nicotine levels in various types of research studies. PMID:24640182

Iwai, Masae; Ogawa, Tadashi; Hattori, Hideki; Zaitsu, Kei; Ishii, Akira; Suzuki, Osamu; Seno, Hiroshi

2013-08-01

358

Salivary secretory immunoglobulin a response of elite speed skaters during a competition period.  

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We aimed to determine the responses of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) and the incidence of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) symptoms among elite speed skaters during an actual competition period. The subjects were 8 international-class elite speed skaters. Saliva samples were obtained 3, 2, and 1 days before the race, the day of the race, and 1 day after the race. Salivary secretory immunoglobulin A concentration was measured by enzyme immunoassay, and SIgA secretion rate was calculated. A visual analogue scale was used to subjectively assess fatigue and tension. Daily URTI symptoms were recorded by using a questionnaire. There was no statistically significant difference in the saliva flow rate (p = 0.69), SIgA concentration (p = 0.07), and subjective fatigue (p = 0.07) during the competition period. The SIgA secretion rate recorded for the day of the race was significantly high compared with that of 3 and 2 days before and 1 day after the race (p speed skaters increased after a tapering period and that an actual high-intensity speed skating race decreased salivary SIgA in elite speed skaters. These data also suggest that the incidence of URTI symptoms might be related to the SIgA level. Coaches may need to take precautions after competitions to minimize their athletes' contact with cold viruses and adjust training load for a few days after competition to improve the decreased mucosal immune function. PMID:19918193

Kon, Michihiro; Iizuka, Taro; Maegawa, Taketeru; Hashimoto, Emi; Yuda, Jun; Aoyanagi, Toru; Akimoto, Takayuki; Takahashi, Hideyuki

2010-08-01

359

Abnormal gallium scan patterns of the salivary gland in pulmonary sarcoidosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The findings of gallium imaging suggest that parotid abnormalities in sarcoidosis are common. Correlation with lung and mediastinal uptake suggests that this represents an early disease state and that it responds to steroid administration. That the findings after therapy do not simply represent suppression of the uptake mechanism for gallium is supported by objective improvement in pulmonary function as well as symptomatic relief. Salivary gland accumulation of gallium citrate occurred in one third of our control group patients--in those who had collagen disease and presumably either were alcoholic or had infectious parotitis. This may also be seen in lymphoma and after radiation therapy. Although the combination of salivary gland, pulmonary, and hilar concentration of gallium is not specific, in the appropriate clinical setting the pattern may be helpful in suggesting the correct diagnosis

360

Determinación de los niveles de cortisol salival en una muestra de sujetos de Santiago de Chile Salivary cortisol among subjects with and without Cushing syndrome  

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Full Text Available Background: Salivary cortisol measurement is recommended as a screening mea-sure when a Cushing Syndrome is suspected. Theproposed cut-offpointfor aprobable diagnosis is 0.16 ug/dL. Aim: To determine salivary cortisol concentrations during the day inpatients with and without Cushing syndrome and with depression. Material and Methods: Salivary cortisol was measured by competitive enzyme immuno assay (EIA, in samples obtained at 8:00,15:00 and 23:00 h in 78 patients without Cushing syndrome, aged 40 ± 15years (28 males, 30 patients with depression aged 40 ± 12years (nine males and four jemales with Cushing syndrome aged 42 ± 17 years. Results: Salivary cortisol was higher among patients with Cushing syndrome than the rest of patients. A salivary cortisol over the cut-off value of O.16 ug/dL was found in 42% of subjects without Cushing syndrome and in 33% of patients with depression. Median values among patients without Cushing syndrome, depression and with Cushing syndrome were 0.21 (range < 0.1-1.42, 0.2 (range 0,12-0.9 and 0.58 (range 0.37-1.1 ug/dL, respectively Conclusions: Salivary cortisol measured by EIA method was higher among patients with Cushing syndrome but there was a great overlap with values obtained in subjects without the syndrome.

MACARENA LÉPEZ

2010-02-01

 
 
 
 
361

The prevalence of self-reported smoking and validation with urinary cotinine among commercial drivers in major parks in Lagos, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The validity of self-reported smoking is questionable because smokers are inclined to deny smoking. We aimed to determine the prevalence of self-reported smoking among intra-city commercial drivers in Lagos, and assess its validity based on urinary cotinine assessment. This study was conducted at three major motor parks in Lagos, Nigeria. Information on smoking status and habits was obtained from 500 consecutive male drivers using a structured questionnaire during a face-to-face interview. Eighty-one self-reported smokers and non-smokers were selected by systematic random sampling for urinary cotinine assessment using cotinine strips. The prevalence of self-reported smoking was compared to the prevalence of smoking based on urinary cotinine and the specificity and positive predictive values of self-reported smoking was determined. Prevalence of self-reported current smoking was 32% and 17.9% of nonsmokers were passive smokers. Among 81 drivers in whom urinary cotinine assessment was performed, the prevalence of smoking based on self-report was 34 (42% compared to 41 (50.6% when based on urinary cotinine, (X2=38.56, P<0.001. The rate of misclassification among self-reported non-smokers as smokers was 21.3% and misclassification rate for self-reported smokers as non-smokers was 8.8%. The sensitivity of self-reported smoking in accurately classifying smoking status was 91.2% and the specificity was 78.7%. The prevalence of self-reported cigarette smoking among commercial drivers in Lagos is high and a significant proportion of self-reported non-smokers are passive smokers. Self-reported smoking status obtained during face-to-face interview appears unreliable in obtaining accurate smoking data in our locality.

Obianuju B. Ozoh

2014-02-01

362

Intimate Partner Violence Exposure, Salivary Cortisol, and Childhood Asthma  

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Parents were given supplies to collect 3 child salivary cortisol samples (awakening, 30-min after awakening, bedtime) at home on a typical day, and return them via mail. Medical records also were abstracted. Results: Fifty-three percent (n = 29) returned child salivary samples. Families who returned samples typically returned them within 2 weeks,…

Bair-Merritt, Megan H.; Johnson, Sara B.; Okelo, Sande; Page, Gayle

2012-01-01

363

Direct salivary cortisol radio-immunoassay determination. Clinical applications  

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Salivary cortisol levels reflect the biologically active free fraction of blood cortisol. The authors describe the results obtained with the aim of a radio-immunoassay commercial serum cortisol kit, without prealable extraction in different physiological and pathological situations. Salivary cortisol determination appears performant both in nycthemeral studies and in stimulation or freination tests.

Simon, C.; Cherfan, J.; Kurtz, F.; Vignon, F.; Schlienger, J.L.; Chabrier, G.; Sapin, R.

1987-04-01

364

Direct salivary cortisol radio-immunoassay determination. Clinical applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Salivary cortisol levels reflect the biologically active free fraction of blood cortisol. The authors describe the results obtained with the aim of a radio-immunoassay commercial serum cortisol kit, without prealable extraction in different physiological and pathological situations. Salivary cortisol determination appears performant both in nycthemeral studies and in stimulation or freination tests

365

Association of serum cotinine level with a cluster of three nicotinic acetylcholine receptor genes (CHRNA3/CHRNA5/CHRNB4) on chromosome 15  

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A cluster of three nicotinic acetylcholine receptor genes on chromosome 15 (CHRNA5/CHRNA3/CHRNB4) has been shown to be associated with nicotine dependence and smoking quantity. The aim of this study was to clarify whether the variation at this locus regulates nicotine intake among smokers by using the level of a metabolite of nicotine, cotinine, as an outcome. The number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) and immune-reactive serum cotinine level were determined in 516 daily smokers (age 30–...

Keskitalo, Kaisu; Broms, Ulla; Helio?vaara, Markku; Ripatti, Samuli; Surakka, Ida; Perola, Markus; Pitka?niemi, Janne; Peltonen, Leena; Aromaa, Arpo; Kaprio, Jaakko

2009-01-01

366

The Ratio of a Urinary Tobacco-Specific Lung Carcinogen Metabolite to Cotinine is Significantly Higher in Passive than in Active Smokers  

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4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol plus its glucuronides (total NNAL), metabolites of the lung carcinogen NNK, and total cotinine, metabolites of nicotine, are biomarkers of active and passive cigarette smoking. We calculated the total NNAL: total cotinine (× 103) ratio in 408 passive (infants, children, adults) and 1088 active smokers. The weighted averages were 0.73 (95% CI 0.71, 0.76) for passive smokers and 0.07 (0.06, 0.08) for active smokers (p<0.0001). These results demonst...

Vogel, Rachel Isaksson; Carmella, Steven G.; Stepanov, Irina; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Hecht, Stephen S.

2011-01-01

367

31phosphorus spectroscopy of space-occupying lesions of the salivary glands. Clinic results and differential diagnosis  

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In a prospective study, 15 normals and 20 patients with space-occupying lesions of the salivary glands were examined by MRT images and by in vivo 31phosphorus spectroscopy. The spectra of malignant tumours showed a significant increase in concentration of phosphomonoesters, phosphodiesters and inorganic phosphates when compared with normals. In addition there was an enormous reduction in creatine phosphates. Increased pH values and marked increase in concentration of inorganic phosphates correlated with poorly vascularised necrotic tumour segments. Concentrations of ATP and PCr were similar to normal muscle tissue. High concentrations of PME and PDE correlated directly with the proliferation of tumour cells and were an important marker for the bioenergy and phospholipid metabolism of the growing tumour. Standardised in vivo 31phosphorus spectroscopy of space-occupying lesions of the salivary glands provides noninvasive prognostic information on the type and behaviour of the lesion and is complementary to clinical and histological findings. (orig.)

368

Solid blue dot tumour: minor salivary gland acinic cell carcinoma.  

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Acinic cell adenocarcinoma (ACC) is a low-grade malignant salivary neoplasm that constitutes approximately 17% of all primary salivary gland malignancies. In the head and neck region, the parotid gland is the predominant site of origin and ACC is usually more frequent in women than men. Previous radiation exposure and familial predisposition are some of the risk factors for ACC. ACCs rarely involve minor salivary glands constituting only 13-17% of all minor salivary gland tumours. Generally, a slowly enlarging mass lesion in the tail of the parotid gland is the most frequent presentation. ACC has a significant tendency to recur, metastasise and may have an aggressive evolution. Therefore, a long-term follow-up is mandatory after treatment. Here we report the case of a woman in her 60s with an ACC in association with the labial minor salivary gland, presenting in the post-treatment period of squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. PMID:24928927

Bavle, Radhika M; Makarla, Soumya; Nadaf, Afreen; Narasimhamurthy, Srinath

2014-01-01

369

Salivary biomarkers of stress among teachers in an urban setting.  

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The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of job stress among secondary school teachers using Karasek Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ), the association between salivary cortisol, salivary IgA, and sociodemographic characteristics, and the association between log cortisol, IgA levels, and job strain categories. A cross-sectional study was undertaken using JCQ and salivary cortisol and IgA samples. Cluster sampling was done yielding 302 respondents. The prevalence of stress among all teachers was 20.2%. Being a Malay, teaching experience of 5 to 10 years, and those without a supervisor's support had higher prevalence of high job strain. Teachers in the 31 to 40 years age bracket, educating handicapped children with the absence of supervisor support exhibited higher stress levels with lower log salivary IgA levels. Further studies must be conducted using salivary biomarkers to study the in-depth relationship of stress, extending into other occupational groups. PMID:21385771

Masilamani, Retneswari; Darus, Azlan; Ting, Anselm Su; Ali, Roslinah; Mahmud, Awang Bulgiba Awang; David, Koh

2012-03-01

370

Evaluation of the Effects of Quercetin on Damaged Salivary Secretion  

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With the aim of discovering an effective method to treat dry mouth, we analyzed the effects of quercetin on salivary secretion and its mechanism of action. We created a mouse model with impaired salivary secretion by exposure to radiation and found that impaired secretion is suppressed by quercetin intake. Moreover, secretion levels were enhanced in quercetin-fed normal mice. To elucidate the mechanisms of these effects on salivary secretion, we conducted an analysis using mouse submandibular gland tissues, a human salivary gland epithelial cell line (HSY), and mouse aortic endothelial cells (MAECs). The results showed that quercetin augments aquaporin 5 (AQP5) expression and calcium uptake, and suppresses oxidative stress and inflammatory responses induced by radiation exposure, suggesting that quercetin intake may be an effective method to treat impaired salivary secretion. PMID:25629520

Takahashi, Ayako; Inoue, Hiroko; Mishima, Kenji; Ide, Fumio; Nakayama, Ryoko; Hasaka, Ayaka; Ryo, Koufuchi; Ito, Yumi; Sakurai, Takashi; Hasegawa, Yoshinori; Saito, Ichiro

2015-01-01

371

Molecular structure of cotinine studied by gas electron diffraction combined with theoretical calculations  

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The molecular structure of cotinine (( S)-1-methyl-5-(3-pyridinyl)-2-pyrrolidinone), the major metabolite of nicotine, has been determined at about 182 °C by gas electron diffraction combined with MP2 and DFT calculations. The diffraction data are consistent with the existence of the (ax, sc), (ax, ap), (eq, sp) and (eq, ap) conformers, where ax and eq indicate the configuration of the pyrrolidinone ring by means of the position (axial and equatorial) of the pyridine ring, and sc, sp and ap distinguish the isomers arising from the internal rotation around the bond connecting the two rings. The (CH 3)NCCC(N) dihedral angles, ?, of the (ax, sc) and (eq, sp) conformers were determined independently to be 158(12)° and 129(13)°, respectively, where the numbers in parentheses are three times the standard errors, 3 ?. According to the MP2 calculations, the corresponding dihedral angles for the (ax, ap) and (eq, ap) conformers were assumed to differ by 180° from their syn counterparts. The ratios x(ax, sc)/ x(ax, ap) and x(eq, sp)/ x(eq, ap) were taken from the theoretically estimated free energy differences, ? G, where x is the abundance of the conformer. The resultant abundances of (ax, sc), (ax, ap), (eq, sp) and (eq, ap) conformers are 34(6)%, 21% (d.p.), 28% (d.p.), and 17% (d.p.), respectively, where d.p. represents dependent parameters. The determined structural parameters ( rg (Å) and ? ? (°)) of the most abundant conformer, (ax, sc), are as follows: r(N sbnd C) pyrrol = 1.463(5); r(N sbnd C methyl) = 1.457(?); r(N sbnd C( dbnd O)) = 1.384(12); r(C dbnd O) = 1.219(5); = 1.541(3); r(C pyrrolsbnd C pyrid) = 1.521(?); = 1.396(2); = 1.343(?); ?(CNC) pyrrol = 113.9(11); ?CCC pyrrol(-C pyrid) = 103.6(?); ?NCO = 124.1(13); ?NC pyrrolC pyrid = 113.1(12); ?C pyrrolC pyrrolC pyrid = 113.3(?); ?(CNC) pyrid = 117.1(2); = 124.4(?); ?C methylNC( dbnd O) = ?C methylNC(-C pyrid) = 122.8(d.p.); ?NC( dbnd O)C = 107.1(d.p.); ?NC pyrrol(-C pyrid)C pyrrol = 103.0(d.p.) and ?CCC( dbnd O) = 105.2(d.p.), where ? in the parentheses means that the parameter is bound to the preceding one and denote average values. The puckering angle, ?, of the pyrrolidinone ring is 26(3)°. The N⋯N distances of the (ax, sc) and (eq, sp) conformers, which are 4.844(5) and 4.740(5) Å, respectively, are close to that of the most stable conformer of nicotine, 4.885(6) Å and the corresponding one of arecoline, 4.832(13) Å. It is concluded that the weak nicotinic activity of cotinine cannot be ascribed to such a small difference in the N⋯N distances.

Takeshima, Tsuguhide; Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Egawa, Toru; Konaka, Shigehiro

2007-09-01

372

Cotinine versus questionnaire: early-life environmental tobacco smoke exposure and incident asthma  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of biomarkers has expanded considerably, as an alternative to questionnaire-based metrics of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS; few studies have assessed the affect of such alternative metrics on diverse respiratory outcomes in children, and we aimed to do so. Methods We evaluated various measures of birth-year ETS, in association with multiple respiratory endpoints early years of life, in the novel context of a birth cohort at high risk for asthma. We administered questionnaires to parents, both at the end of pregnancy and at one year of life, and measured cotinine in cord blood (CCot; in 275 children and in urine (UCot; obtained at 12 months in 365 children, each by radioimmunoassay. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess the association of the various metrics with recurrent wheeze at age 2 and with bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR and asthma at age 7. Results Self-reported 3rd trimester maternal smoking was associated with significantly increased risk for recurrent wheeze at age 2 (odds ratio 3.5 [95% confidence interval = 1.2,10.7]; the risks associated with CCot and 3rd trimester smoking in any family member were similar (OR 2.9 [1.2,7.0] and 2.6 [1.0,6.5], respectively. No metric of maternal smoking at 12 months appeared to significantly influence the risk of recurrent wheeze at age 2, and no metric of ETS at any time appeared to significantly influence risk of asthma or BHR at age 7. Conclusions Biomarker- and questionnaire-based assessment of ETS in early life lead to similar estimates of ETS-associated risk of recurrent wheeze and asthma.

Carlsten Chris

2012-12-01

373

Cancer of the thyroid and salivary glands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since 1960, A-bomb radiation related thyroid cancer has been studied with the Adult Health Study (AHS) sample at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commision-Radiation Effects Research Foundation (ABCC-RERF). The number of A-bomb survivors developing thyroid cancer has increased with time. The observations have led to the conclusion that the incidence of thyroid cancer is high among A-bomb survivors, especially those exposed within 1,500 m from ground zero. Similar findings were observed among patients from the Hiroshima University School of Medicine and from the national health insurance program. Ezaki has studied the incidence of clinical and occult thyroid cancer in Hiroshima during 1958 - 79 using the ABCC-RERF Life Span Study sample consisting of 75,493 subjects. The incidence of clinical cancer was higher with increasing radiation doses, especially in females under the age of 20 when exposed. The incidence of occult cancer was significantly higher in survivors with 50+ rad than in the control group. Studies for cancer of the salivary glands have been commenced in the 1970s. Takeichi et al. and Belsky et al. have reported a high incidence of salivary gland cancer among A-bomb survivors. The subsequent study with the AHS sample has revealed that the overall incidence of benign and malignant salivary gland tumors and the incidence of malignant tumors were 9.3 times and 21.8 times higher, respectively, in the group with 300+ rad than in the control group. (Namekawa, K.)in the control group. (Namekawa, K.)

374

The Rapalogue, CCI-779, Improves Salivary Gland Function following Radiation  

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The standard of care for head and neck cancer typically includes surgical resection of the tumor followed by targeted head and neck radiation. However depending on tumor location and stage, some cases may not require surgical resection while others may be treated with chemoradiation. Unfortunately, these radiation treatments cause chronic negative side effects for patients. These side effects are associated with damage to surrounding normal salivary gland tissue and include xerostomia, changes in taste and malnutrition. The underlying mechanisms of chronic radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction are unknown, however, in rodent models persistently elevated proliferation is correlated with reduced stimulated salivary flow. The rapalogue, CCI-779, has been used in other cell systems to induce autophagy and reduce proliferation, therefore the aim of this study was to determine if CCI-779 could be utilized to ameliorate chronic radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction. Four to six week old Atg5f/f; Aqp5-Cre, Atg5+/+; Aqp5-Cre and FVB mice were treated with targeted head and neck radiation. FVB mice were treated with CCI-779, chloroquine, or DMSO post-radiation. Stimulated salivary flow rates were determined and parotid and submandibular salivary gland tissues were collected for analyses. Mice with a defect in autophagy, via a conditional knockout of Atg5 in the salivary glands, display increased compensatory proliferation in the acinar cell compartment and hypertrophy at 24-72 hours following radiation. FVB mice treated with post-therapy CCI-779 have significant improvements in salivary gland physiology as determined by stimulated salivary flow rates, proliferation indices and amylase production and secretion. Consequently, post-radiation use of CCI-779 allows for improvement of salivary gland function and reestablishment of glandular homeostasis. As CCI-779 is already FDA approved for other uses, it could have a secondary use to alleviate the chronic side effects in head and neck cancer patients who have completed anti-tumor therapy. PMID:25437438

Morgan-Bathke, Maria; Harris, Zoey I.; Arnett, Deborah G.; Klein, Rob R.; Burd, Randy; Ann, David K.; Limesand, Kirsten H.

2014-01-01

375

Salivary Secretory Immunoglobulin a secretion increases after 4-weeks ingestion of chlorella-derived multicomponent supplement in humans: a randomized cross over study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlorella, a unicellular green alga that grows in fresh water, contains high levels of proteins, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fibers. Some studies have reported favorable immune function-related effects on biological secretions such as blood and breast milk in humans who have ingested a chlorella-derived multicomponent supplement. However, the effects of chlorella-derived supplement on mucosal immune functions remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether chlorella ingestion increases the salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA secretion in humans using a blind, randomized, crossover study design. Methods Fifteen men took 30 placebo and 30 chlorella tablets per day for 4 weeks separated by a 12-week washout period. Before and after each trial, saliva samples were collected from a sterile cotton ball that was chewed after overnight fasting. Salivary SIgA concentrations were measured using ELISA. Results Compliance rates for placebo and chlorella ingestions were 97.0 ± 1.0% and 95.3 ± 1.6%, respectively. No difference was observed in salivary SIgA concentrations before and after placebo ingestion (P = 0.38. However, salivary SIgA concentrations were significantly elevated after chlorella ingestion compared to baseline (P P = 0.36, it significantly increased after 4-week chlorella ingestion than before intake (P Conclusions These results suggest 4-week ingestion of a chlorella-derived multicomponent supplement increases salivary SIgA secretion and possibly improves mucosal immune function in humans.

Iemitsu Motoyuki

2011-09-01

376

A hypothesis to relate salivary tumors with mammary and prostate neoplasias  

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Salivary, mammary and prostate glands are sex hormone-dependent organs sharing common aspects in structure, hormonal responsiveness and tumor histopathology. Salivary tumors (especially the malignant types) are not as frequent as mammary and prostate neoplasias. Hence, prognosis of some salivary tumors is not always efficient. Here, we review the oncology of salivary gland and its putative relation to breast/prostate tumors.

Actis, Adriana B.

2005-01-01

377

The Comparison of Salivary IgA and IgE Levels in Children with Breast- and Formula- Feeding During Infancy Period  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Oral local immune factors may play a protective role against oral diseases and defend against microbial agents. Salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA is a major factor for the local host defence against caries and periodontal disease. The aims of this study were to determine the concentrations of salivary IgA and IgE levels in breast-fed and formula-fed children in infancy period.Methods and Materials: Totally, 80 healthy 5 years old children were included in the study. According to type of feeding in infancy period, the children divided into two groups: 50 breast-fed and 30 formula-fed. One milliliter of saliva was collected from each participant, centrifuged, and stored at -70 C. The salivary IgA and IgE concentrations were measured, using ELISA technique.Results: In breast-fed children, the salivary IgA level (39.6 mg/l ± 17.3 was significantly higher than that in formula-fed children (26.9 mg/l ± 14 (P=0.0001. However, the salivary IgE level was significantly lower in breast-fed children, comparing with formula fed ones (5.01 IU/ml ± 19.70 vs. 11.74 IU/ml ± 39.40 (P=0.047.Discussion: These results suggest that breast feeding enhances salivary IgA level in the early period of life which may contribute in oral cavity immunity. Higher salivary IgE level observed in formula-fed subjects may have a potential role in development of allergic or inflammatory reactions.

A. Jafarzadeh

2007-01-01

378

Studies on the Ig response from human peripheral mononuclear cells in the presence of environmental agents - Effect of nicotine and cotinine and respiratory syncytial virus on non specific and specific immune response; Die Modulation der primaeren und sekundaeren in vitro Immunantwort humaner Lymphozyten durch Umweltschadstoffe - Einfluss von Nikotin und Cotinin sowie RSV auf Parameter der unspezifischen und spezifischen Immunantwort  

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The cell- and molecularbiological mechanisms of the Ig-response (G,A,E) was studied with human peripheral mononuclear cells and the effect of RSV (respiratory syncytial virus), nicotine and cotinine alone as well as combined were analysed. In addition to the mononuclear cells bronchial epithelial cells (cell lines) were used and the effect of RSV, nicotine and cotinine were studied. Using this two compartment system (bronchial epithelial cells, cell lines) and human immunoeffector cells (coculture and transwell) the in vivo situation can be experimentally mimicked in vitro. Our results show that RSV modulates the Ig-response and the conditions of (polyclonal) IgE-induction with RSV are established. Nicotine and cotinine (10{sup -5} M - 10{sup -10} M) induce mRNA expression for various cytokines in PBMC and also modulate the cytokine induced Ig-response. Nicotine and cotinine prime bronchial epithelial cells so that a subsequent microbial interaction (RSV, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) leads to an exaggerated inflammatory (cytokines, leukotrienes) response. It is suggested that proinflammatory mediators from epithelial cells modulate the Ig-response of cytokine primed B-cells thus affecting secondarily the mucosa barrier. This system will be used to study the effects of environmental agents on the non specific and specific immune response and will be challenged with additional agents. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es wurden die zell- und molekularbiologischen Mechanismen der primaeren und sekundaeren Ig-(G,A,E,M) Antwort unter dem Einfluss von RSV (repiratory syncytial virus) sowie Nikotin und Cotinin bearbeitet. Neben peripheren mononukleaeren Zellen wurden Bronchialepithelzellen (Zellinien) analysiert und die Einwirkung von RSV, Nikotin und Cotinin ueberprueft. Das System wurde benutzt, um die Wechselwirkung mit Immuneffektorzellen unter dem Einfluss der Schadstoffe zu analysieren. Es wird gezeigt, dass RSV als Infektionsstimulus die primaere und sekundaere Ig-Antwort in unterschiedlichem Masse fuer sich allein als auch unter dem Einfluss von Zytokinen (IL-2, IL-4) moduliert. Die Bedingungen der polyklonalen Ig(E)-Synthese unter dem Einfluss von Interleukin 2 und RSV wurden erarbeitet. Nikotin und Cotinin induzieren die mRNA Expression fuer verschiedene Zytokine. Nikotin und Cotinin ``primen`` Immuneffektorzellen, so dass ein nachfolgender mikrobieller Stimulus (RSV, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) zu einer verstaerkten Mediatorfreisetzung (IL-8) fuehrt. RSV loest die Freisetzung proinflammatorischer Mediatoren (IL-1, IL-6, IL-8) aus Bronchialepithelzellen aus, die ihrerseits unter dem Einfluss von Nikotin und Cotinin Immuneffektorzellen aktivieren und damit die Ig-Synthese und den Mukosaschutz veraendern. Das in vitro Zweikomponentensystem (Bronchialepithelzellen + periphere mononukleaere Zellen) in Kokultur oder Transwellkultur erweist sich als ein gutes in vitro Modell, um den Einfluss von Umweltschadstoffen an humanen Effektorzellen funktionell zu analysieren. (orig.)

Koenig, W. [Ruhr-Universitaet, Bochum (Germany). Med. Mikrobiologie und Immunologie, Arbeitsgruppe fuer Infektabwehrmechanismen; Arnold, R. [Ruhr-Universitaet, Bochum (Germany). Med. Mikrobiologie und Immunologie, Arbeitsgruppe fuer Infektabwehrmechanismen; Fischer, A. [Ruhr-Universitaet, Bochum (Germany). Med. Mikrobiologie und Immunologie, Arbeitsgruppe fuer Infektabwehrmechanismen; Kasimir-Bauer, S. [Ruhr-Universitaet, Bochum (Germany). Med. Mikrobiologie und Immunologie, Arbeitsgruppe fuer Infektabwehrmechanismen

1994-04-01

379

Influence of menstrual cycle and salivary ß-estradiol on volatile sulfur compound  

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Full Text Available BACKGROUND: ß -estradiol is a steroid sex hormone that plays important role in oral physiology. The aim of this studywas to determin the association of the menstrual cycle and salivary ß-estradiol with the production of volatile sulfurcompounds (VSC.METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, twenty female dental students in good oral and general health were recruited forevaluation of VSC, salivary flow, ß-estradiol concentration, oral dryness feeling and dysmenorrhea. Data were analyzedby marginal homogeneity test and xtgee model.RESULTS: The only covariates that significantly related to VSC were being at the follicular phase (B = -0.21, P = 0.02,being at the pre-menstrual phase (B = -0.25, P = 0.01, stressfulness (B = 0.02, P = 0.01 and oral dryness feeling(B = 0.34, P = 0.02. Salivary ß-estradiol was at the level of 59.7 ? 31.2 in those having halitosis (VSC ? 75 while inthe others (VSC < 75 it was about 40.8 ? 18.0 (P < 0.009. This difference was not statistically significant in multivariateanalysis.CONCLUSIONS: The menstrual cycle, stress and oral dryness were the most important determinants of halitosis. Thesalivary ß-estradiol level could not explain such relationship as its effect was eliminated considering the other factors.

Shahla Kakoei DDS, MSc

2012-04-01

380

The role of secretory granules in radiation-induced dysfunction of rat salivary glands  

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To investigate the possible role of secretory granules in radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction, rats were pretreated with isoproterenol (5 mg/kg intraperitoneally) to degranulate salivary gland acini. At maximal depletion, salivary glands were locally irradiated with a single dose of 15 Gy of X rays. Parotid and submandibular/sublingual saliva samples were collected before and 1-10 days after irradiation. The lag phase, flow rate, concentrations of potassium and sodium, and amylase secretion were determined. Sham-treated, isoproterenol-treated and irradiated animals provided reference data. In the parotid gland, but not in the submandibular gland, protection against radiation-induced changes in flow rate and composition of saliva occurred after pretreatment with isoproterenol. Combining morphological data from a previous study with data from the current study, it is suggested that improvement of parotid gland function is attributed predominantly to a proliferative stimulus on acinar cells by isoproterenol and not to its degranulation effect. After pretreatment with isoproterenol, an earlier expression of radiation-induced acinar cell damage leading to death was observed, followed by a faster tissue recovery. Thus the proliferative stimulus on acinar cells may accelerate the unmasking of latent lethal damage, resulting in the earlier replacement of dead cells by new, functionally intact cells. 33 refs., 2 figs

 
 
 
 
381

Glycoprofiling of the Human Salivary Proteome.  

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Glycosylation is important for a number of biological processes and is perhaps the most abundant and complicated of the known post-translational modifications found on proteins. This work combines two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and lectin blotting to map the salivary glycome, and mass spectrometry to identity the proteins that are associated with the glycome map. A panel of 15 lectins that recognize six sugar-specific categories was used to visualize the type and extent of glycosylation in saliva from two healthy male individuals. Lectin blots were compared to 2-D gels stained either with Sypro Ruby (protein stain) or Pro-Q Emerald 488 (glycoprotein stain). Each lectin shows a distinct pattern, even those belonging to the same sugar-specific category. In addition, the glycosylation profiles generated from the lectin blots show that most of the salivary proteins are glycosylated and that the pattern is more widespread than is demonstrated by the glycoprotein stained gel. Finally, the co-reactivity between two lectins was measured to determine the glycan structures that are most and least often associated with one another along with the population variation of the lectin reactivity for 66 individuals. PMID:20161393

Sondej, Melissa; Denny, Patricia A; Xie, Yongming; Ramachandran, Prasanna; Si, Yan; Takashima, Jona; Shi, Wenyuan; Wong, David T; Loo, Joseph A; Denny, Paul C

2009-03-01

382

Damage to salivary glands by radioiodine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Functional scintiscans of 113 thyroidectomized patients have been investigated. 37 patients had not received radioiodine, 76 patients at least 170 mCi I-131. Criteria of damage employed in the study were, on the one hand, a lack of Tc-99m-pertechnetate secretion in the glands and, on the other hand, non-measurable activity excretion after stimulation with lemon juice. Damage of at least one salivary gland increased from 5% of all cases before radioiodine administration to 28% after radioiodine administration. The parotid glands were more frequently affected than the submandibular glands, mainly with regard to impaired secretion. For a longitudinal study of dose dependence, course control by functional scintiscanning was carried out in 20 thyroidectomized patients. The patients were examined before and after 170 mCi I-131; 12 patients were re-examined after 270 mCi I-131. A continuous deterioration of the secretion and excretion characteristics of the salivary glands was found which was easy to quantify. (orig./MG)

383

Ageing exacerbates damage of systemic and salivary neutrophils from patients presenting Candida-related denture stomatitis  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Ageing leads to a decline in the function of the immune system, increasing the body's susceptibility to infections through the impairment of T-cells, macrophages, neutrophils and dendritic cells Denture stomatitis is a primary oral disease affecting elderly d