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Smokeless Tobacco Use and Salivary Cotinine Concentration  

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The objective of the current study was to examine demographic, tobacco-related, and psychosocial factors associated with cotinine concentration in a group of 256 male smokeless tobacco (ST) users living in the Ohio Appalachian region. Participants completed a survey that included questions on: 1) current and past tobacco use behaviors; 2) demographics; 3) tobacco dependence; 4) decisional balance; 5) health behaviors; and 6) perceived stress and depressive symptoms. Saliva samples were obtain...

2007-01-01

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Salivary cotinine concentrations in daily smokers in Barcelona, Spain: a cross-sectional study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Characterizing and comparing the determinant of cotinine concentrations in different populations should facilitate a better understanding of smoking patterns and addiction. This study describes and characterizes determinants of salivary cotinine concentration in a sample of Spanish adult daily smoker men and women. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out between March 2004 and December 2005 in a representative sample of 1245 people from the general population of Barcelona, Spain. A standard questionnaire was used to gather information on active tobacco smoking and passive exposure, and a saliva specimen was obtained to determine salivary cotinine concentration. Two hundred and eleven adult smokers (>16 years old with complete data were included in the analysis. Determinants of cotinine concentrations were assessed using linear regression models. Results Salivary cotinine concentration was associated with the reported number of cigarettes smoked in the previous 24 hours (R2 = 0.339; p R2 = 0.386; p Conclusion This study shows that salivary cotinine concentration is significantly associated with the number of cigarettes smoked and sex, but not with other smoking-related variables.

Pascual José A

2009-09-01

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Salivary cotinine concentrations in daily smokers in Barcelona, Spain: a cross-sectional study  

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Background: Characterizing and comparing the determinant of cotinine concentrations in different populations should facilitate a better understanding of smoking patterns and addiction. This study describes and characterizes determinants of salivary cotinine concentration in a sample of Spanish adult daily smoker men and women. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out between March 2004 and December 2005 in a representative sample of 1245 people from the general population of Barcelona...

Fu Balboa, Marcela; Ferna?ndez Mun?oz, Esteve; Marti?nez Sa?nchez, Jose? M.; Pascual, Jose? A.; Schiaffino, Anna; Agudo Trigueros, Antonio; Ariza, Carles; Borra?s Andre?s, Josep Maria; Samet, Jonathan M.

2009-01-01

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Determinants of salivary cotinine level: a population-based study in Brazil Determinantes dos níveis de cotinina salivar: um estudo de base populacional no Brasil  

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OBJECTIVE: A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted to assess, in active smokers, the relationship of number of cigarettes smoked and other characteristics to salivary cotinine concentrations. METHODS: A random sample of active smokers aged 15 years or older was selected using a stepwise cluster sample strategy, in the year 2000 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The study included 401 subjects. Salivary cotinine concentration was determined using gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosph...

Valeska Carvalho Figueiredo; Moyses Szklo; André Salem Szklo; Neal Benowitz; José Azevedo Lozana; Leticia Casado; Elaine Masson; Jonathan Samet

2007-01-01

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Determinants of salivary cotinine level: a population-based study in Brazil / Determinantes dos níveis de cotinina salivar: um estudo de base populacional no Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Realizou-se um estudo transversal para analisar a relação entre número de cigarros fumados e outras características com a concentração de cotinina salivar entre fumantes. MÉTODOS: Fumantes ativos de 15 anos ou mais foram selecionados por meio de amostra probabilística em múltiplos estágios [...] no ano 2000, município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. O estudo incluiu 401 fumantes. A concentração de cotinina salivar foi determinada utilizando-se cromatografia gasosa com detector de nitrogênio/fósforo. Coletaram-se informações demográficas e sobre o comportamento tabágico utilizando-se questionário padronizado. A relação entre o número de cigarros fumados nas últimas 24h e o nível de cotinina foi analisada utilizando técnica não paramétrica baseada em regressões robustas locais ponderadas. RESULTADOS: O nível médio ajustado de cotinina foi significativamente (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted to assess, in active smokers, the relationship of number of cigarettes smoked and other characteristics to salivary cotinine concentrations. METHODS: A random sample of active smokers aged 15 years or older was selected using a stepwi [...] se cluster sample strategy, in the year 2000 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The study included 401 subjects. Salivary cotinine concentration was determined using gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detection. A standard questionnaire was used to collect demographic and smoking behavioral data. The relation between the number of cigarettes smoked in the last 24h and cotinine level was examined by means of a nonparametric fitting technique of robust locally weighted regression. RESULTS: Significantly (p40 ng/mL per cigarette were excluded. CONCLUSIONS: There was found a positive association between self-reporting smoking five minutes after waking up, and inhaling more than ½ the time are consistent and higher cotinine levels. These can be markers of dependence and higher nicotine intake. Salivary cotinine proved to be a useful biomarker of recent smoking and can be used in epidemiological studies and smoking cessation programs.

Valeska Carvalho, Figueiredo; Moyses, Szklo; André Salem, Szklo; Neal, Benowitz; José Azevedo, Lozana; Leticia, Casado; Elaine, Masson; Jonathan, Samet.

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Determinants of salivary cotinine level: a population-based study in Brazil / Determinantes dos níveis de cotinina salivar: um estudo de base populacional no Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Realizou-se um estudo transversal para analisar a relação entre número de cigarros fumados e outras características com a concentração de cotinina salivar entre fumantes. MÉTODOS: Fumantes ativos de 15 anos ou mais foram selecionados por meio de amostra probabilística em múltiplos estágios [...] no ano 2000, município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. O estudo incluiu 401 fumantes. A concentração de cotinina salivar foi determinada utilizando-se cromatografia gasosa com detector de nitrogênio/fósforo. Coletaram-se informações demográficas e sobre o comportamento tabágico utilizando-se questionário padronizado. A relação entre o número de cigarros fumados nas últimas 24h e o nível de cotinina foi analisada utilizando técnica não paramétrica baseada em regressões robustas locais ponderadas. RESULTADOS: O nível médio ajustado de cotinina foi significativamente (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted to assess, in active smokers, the relationship of number of cigarettes smoked and other characteristics to salivary cotinine concentrations. METHODS: A random sample of active smokers aged 15 years or older was selected using a stepwi [...] se cluster sample strategy, in the year 2000 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The study included 401 subjects. Salivary cotinine concentration was determined using gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detection. A standard questionnaire was used to collect demographic and smoking behavioral data. The relation between the number of cigarettes smoked in the last 24h and cotinine level was examined by means of a nonparametric fitting technique of robust locally weighted regression. RESULTS: Significantly (p40 ng/mL per cigarette were excluded. CONCLUSIONS: There was found a positive association between self-reporting smoking five minutes after waking up, and inhaling more than ½ the time are consistent and higher cotinine levels. These can be markers of dependence and higher nicotine intake. Salivary cotinine proved to be a useful biomarker of recent smoking and can be used in epidemiological studies and smoking cessation programs.

Valeska Carvalho, Figueiredo; Moyses, Szklo; André Salem, Szklo; Neal, Benowitz; José Azevedo, Lozana; Leticia, Casado; Elaine, Masson; Jonathan, Samet.

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MEASURING NICOTINE INTAKE AMONG HIGHLY DEPENDENT ADOLESCENT SMOKERS: COMPARABILITY OF SALIVA AND PLASMA COTININE CONCENTRATIONS  

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Cotinine is the most common biomarker used to assess nicotine exposure and abstinence. It can be measured in various matrices including saliva, plasma, and urine. Previous research with adults has shown high correlations between saliva and plasma cotinine concentrations. However, research has not examined this relationship in adolescents. Additionally, variability in saliva flow and metabolism across gender, ethnicity, and age may impact the relationship between saliva and plasma cotinine con...

2008-01-01

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Nicotine and cotinine concentrations in serum and milk of nursing smokers.  

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Analysis of 44 milk samples from 23 nursing smokers revealed that there was a linear correlation between nicotine concentrations in serum and in milk (r = 0.70). The nicotine concentrations in milk were considerably higher than the corresponding serum concentrations: milk/serum concentration ratio = 2.92 +/- 1.09; (n = 44). There was also a linear correlation between the cotinine concentrations in serum and in milk (r = 0.89). The cotinine concentrations in milk were lower than the correspond...

1984-01-01

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MEASURING NICOTINE INTAKE AMONG HIGHLY DEPENDENT ADOLESCENT SMOKERS: COMPARABILITY OF SALIVA AND PLASMA COTININE CONCENTRATIONS  

Science.gov (United States)

Cotinine is the most common biomarker used to assess nicotine exposure and abstinence. It can be measured in various matrices including saliva, plasma, and urine. Previous research with adults has shown high correlations between saliva and plasma cotinine concentrations. However, research has not examined this relationship in adolescents. Additionally, variability in saliva flow and metabolism across gender, ethnicity, and age may impact the relationship between saliva and plasma cotinine concentration. Our aim was to examine the relationship between saliva and plasma cotinine concentration in a group of nicotine-dependent adolescent smokers. Additionally, we examined these correlations across gender, ethnicity and age. The sample consisted of 66 adolescent smokers (age 15.1 ± 1.3, 63.6% girls, 66.7% European American, CPD 18.3 ± 8.5, FTND 7.1 ± 1.3). Saliva and plasma specimens were collected before the treatment phase of a nicotine replacement therapy trial and analyzed. The relationship between saliva and plasma cotinine concentration was analyzed using Pearson’s correlation coefficients. We performed a secondary analysis using multiple regression to compare correlations across race, gender and age. Results indicated a positive correlation between saliva cotinine and plasma cotinine concentration (r = .84, p < .001). Differences in correlations across age were significant (t = 3.03, p < .01). Differences across ethnicity approached significance (t = ?1.93, p = .058). Future research should seek to further validate saliva-to-plasma cotinine concentration ratios in adolescents as well as characterize saliva-to-plasma concentration differences and their underlying mechanisms.

Parzynski, Craig S.; Jaszyna-Gasior, Maria; Franken, Frederick H.; Moolchan, Eric T.

2008-01-01

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Measuring nicotine intake among highly-dependent adolescent smokers: comparability of saliva and plasma cotinine concentrations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cotinine is the most common biomarker used to assess nicotine exposure and abstinence. It can be measured in various matrices including saliva, plasma, and urine. Previous research with adults has shown high correlations between saliva and plasma cotinine concentrations. However, the research has not examined this relationship in adolescents. Additionally, variability in saliva flow and metabolism across gender, ethnicity, and age may impact the relationship between saliva and plasma cotinine concentration. Our aim was to examine the relationship between saliva and plasma cotinine concentration in a group of nicotine-dependent adolescent smokers. Additionally, we examined these correlations across gender, ethnicity and age. The sample consisted of 66 adolescent smokers (age 15.1+/-1.3, 63.6% girls, 66.7% European American, CPD 18.3+/-8.5, FTND 7.1+/-1.3). Saliva and plasma specimens were collected before the treatment phase of a nicotine replacement therapy trial and analyzed. The relationship between saliva and plasma cotinine concentration was analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficients. We performed a secondary analysis using multiple regressions to compare correlations across race, gender and age. Results indicated a positive correlation between saliva cotinine and plasma cotinine concentration (r=0.84, p<0.001). Differences in correlations across age were significant (t=3.03, p<0.01). Differences across ethnicity approached significance (t=-1.93, p=0.058). Future research should seek to further validate saliva-to-plasma cotinine concentration ratios in adolescents as well as characterize saliva-to-plasma concentration differences and their underlying mechanisms. PMID:18199474

Parzynski, Craig S; Jaszyna-Gasior, Maria; Franken, Frederick H; Moolchan, Eric T

2008-04-01

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Determinants of salivary cotinine level: a population-based study in Brazil Determinantes dos níveis de cotinina salivar: um estudo de base populacional no Brasil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted to assess, in active smokers, the relationship of number of cigarettes smoked and other characteristics to salivary cotinine concentrations. METHODS: A random sample of active smokers aged 15 years or older was selected using a stepwise cluster sample strategy, in the year 2000 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The study included 401 subjects. Salivary cotinine concentration was determined using gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detection. A standard questionnaire was used to collect demographic and smoking behavioral data. The relation between the number of cigarettes smoked in the last 24h and cotinine level was examined by means of a nonparametric fitting technique of robust locally weighted regression. RESULTS: Significantly (p40 ng/mL per cigarette were excluded. CONCLUSIONS: There was found a positive association between self-reporting smoking five minutes after waking up, and inhaling more than ½ the time are consistent and higher cotinine levels. These can be markers of dependence and higher nicotine intake. Salivary cotinine proved to be a useful biomarker of recent smoking and can be used in epidemiological studies and smoking cessation programs.OBJETIVO: Realizou-se um estudo transversal para analisar a relação entre número de cigarros fumados e outras características com a concentração de cotinina salivar entre fumantes. MÉTODOS: Fumantes ativos de 15 anos ou mais foram selecionados por meio de amostra probabilística em múltiplos estágios no ano 2000, município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. O estudo incluiu 401 fumantes. A concentração de cotinina salivar foi determinada utilizando-se cromatografia gasosa com detector de nitrogênio/fósforo. Coletaram-se informações demográficas e sobre o comportamento tabágico utilizando-se questionário padronizado. A relação entre o número de cigarros fumados nas últimas 24h e o nível de cotinina foi analisada utilizando técnica não paramétrica baseada em regressões robustas locais ponderadas. RESULTADOS: O nível médio ajustado de cotinina foi significativamente (p<0,05 mais elevado entre indivíduos que fumaram o primeiro cigarro até cinco minutos depois de acordar e entre os que fumaram de um a 20 cigarros nas últimas 24h e tragavam mais de metade das vezes. Considerando-se fumantes de um a 20 cigarros, a inclinação da curva de regressão foi significativamente maior entre os que, após acordar, esperam mais de cinco minutos para fumar e para os que consumiam cigarros "suaves", quando comparados a seus opostos. Essas heterogeneidades desaparecem ao se excluir indivíduos com cotinina inferior a 40 ng/ml/cigarro. CONCLUSÕES: Houve associação positiva entre referir fumar até cinco minutos depois de acordar e tragar mais da metade das vezes e níveis de cotinina salivar. Essas informações podem ser marcadores de dependência e maior absorção de nicotina entre fumantes. A cotinina salivar mostrou-se útil como biomarcador do uso recente de tabaco a ser usado em estudos epidemiológicos e programas de cessação de fumar.

Valeska Carvalho Figueiredo

2007-12-01

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Punto de corte óptimo de la concentración de cotinina en saliva para discriminar entre fumadores y no fumadores en la población adulta de Barcelona / Optimal cut-point of salivary cotinine concentration to discriminate smoking status in the adult population in Barcelona  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Evaluar el punto de corte óptimo de la concentración de cotinina en saliva para discriminar el consumo de tabaco en la población adulta de Barcelona. Métodos: Estudio transversal de una muestra representativa (n=1117) de la población adulta (>16 años) de la ciudad de Barcelona (2004-2005). [...] El estudio recogió información sobre tabaquismo (activo y pasivo) mediante cuestionario y una muestra de saliva para la determinación de cotinina. Se realizó un análisis de sensibilidad y especificidad estratificado por sexo, edad, tipo de consumo (diario y ocasional) y exposición al humo ambiental del tabaco en el hogar. Se calcularon las curvas ROC y el área bajo la curva. Resultados: La prevalencia de fumadores (diarios y ocasionales) fue del 27,8% (intervalo de confianza del 95%: 25,2-30,4%). El punto de corte óptimo que separa a los no fumadores de los fumadores es 9,2ng/ml (sensibilidad del 88,7% y especificidad del 89,0%). El área bajo la curva ROC fue 0,952. El punto de corte fue 12,2ng/ml para los hombres y 7,6 para las mujeres, y aumentaba en los grupos de edad con mayor prevalencia de tabaquismo. Los fumadores diarios tenían un punto de corte superior al de los fumadores ocasionales. Conclusiones: El punto de corte óptimo que discrimina fumadores de no fumadores en la población adulta es 9,2ng/ml, con sensibilidad y especificidad cercanas al 90%. El punto de corte es más alto en los hombres y en los grupos de menor edad, y aumenta cuanto mayor es la prevalencia de consumo diario. Abstract in english Objective: To assess the optimal cut-point for salivary cotinine concentration to identify smoking status in the adult population of Barcelona. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of a representative sample (n=1,117) of the adult population (>16 years) in Barcelona (2004-2005). This study [...] gathered information on active and passive smoking by means of a questionnaire and a saliva sample for cotinine determination. We analyzed sensitivity and specificity according to sex, age, smoking status (daily and occasional), and exposure to second-hand smoke at home. ROC curves and the area under the curve were calculated. Results: The prevalence of smokers (daily and occasional) was 27.8% (95% CI: 25.2-30.4%). The optimal cut-point to discriminate smoking status was 9.2ng/ml (sensitivity=88.7% and specificity=89.0%). The area under the ROC curve was 0.952. The optimal cut-point was 12.2ng/ml in men and 7.6ng/ml in women. The optimal cut-point was higher at ages with a greater prevalence of smoking. Daily smokers had a higher cut-point than occasional smokers. Conclusions: The optimal cut-point to discriminate smoking status in the adult population is 9.2ng/ml, with sensitivities and specificities around 90%. The cut-point was higher in men and in younger people. The cut-point increases with higher prevalence of daily smokers.

Jose M., Martínez-Sánchez; Marcela, Fu; Carles, Ariza; María J., López; Esteve, Saltó; José A., Pascual; Anna, Schiaffino; Josep M., Borràs; Mercè, Peris; Antonio, Agudo; Manel, Nebot; Esteve, Fernández.

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Punto de corte óptimo de la concentración de cotinina en saliva para discriminar entre fumadores y no fumadores en la población adulta de Barcelona / Optimal cut-point of salivary cotinine concentration to discriminate smoking status in the adult population in Barcelona  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Evaluar el punto de corte óptimo de la concentración de cotinina en saliva para discriminar el consumo de tabaco en la población adulta de Barcelona. Métodos: Estudio transversal de una muestra representativa (n=1117) de la población adulta (>16 años) de la ciudad de Barcelona (2004-2005). [...] El estudio recogió información sobre tabaquismo (activo y pasivo) mediante cuestionario y una muestra de saliva para la determinación de cotinina. Se realizó un análisis de sensibilidad y especificidad estratificado por sexo, edad, tipo de consumo (diario y ocasional) y exposición al humo ambiental del tabaco en el hogar. Se calcularon las curvas ROC y el área bajo la curva. Resultados: La prevalencia de fumadores (diarios y ocasionales) fue del 27,8% (intervalo de confianza del 95%: 25,2-30,4%). El punto de corte óptimo que separa a los no fumadores de los fumadores es 9,2ng/ml (sensibilidad del 88,7% y especificidad del 89,0%). El área bajo la curva ROC fue 0,952. El punto de corte fue 12,2ng/ml para los hombres y 7,6 para las mujeres, y aumentaba en los grupos de edad con mayor prevalencia de tabaquismo. Los fumadores diarios tenían un punto de corte superior al de los fumadores ocasionales. Conclusiones: El punto de corte óptimo que discrimina fumadores de no fumadores en la población adulta es 9,2ng/ml, con sensibilidad y especificidad cercanas al 90%. El punto de corte es más alto en los hombres y en los grupos de menor edad, y aumenta cuanto mayor es la prevalencia de consumo diario. Abstract in english Objective: To assess the optimal cut-point for salivary cotinine concentration to identify smoking status in the adult population of Barcelona. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of a representative sample (n=1,117) of the adult population (>16 years) in Barcelona (2004-2005). This study [...] gathered information on active and passive smoking by means of a questionnaire and a saliva sample for cotinine determination. We analyzed sensitivity and specificity according to sex, age, smoking status (daily and occasional), and exposure to second-hand smoke at home. ROC curves and the area under the curve were calculated. Results: The prevalence of smokers (daily and occasional) was 27.8% (95% CI: 25.2-30.4%). The optimal cut-point to discriminate smoking status was 9.2ng/ml (sensitivity=88.7% and specificity=89.0%). The area under the ROC curve was 0.952. The optimal cut-point was 12.2ng/ml in men and 7.6ng/ml in women. The optimal cut-point was higher at ages with a greater prevalence of smoking. Daily smokers had a higher cut-point than occasional smokers. Conclusions: The optimal cut-point to discriminate smoking status in the adult population is 9.2ng/ml, with sensitivities and specificities around 90%. The cut-point was higher in men and in younger people. The cut-point increases with higher prevalence of daily smokers.

Jose M., Martínez-Sánchez; Marcela, Fu; Carles, Ariza; María J., López; Esteve, Saltó; José A., Pascual; Anna, Schiaffino; Josep M., Borràs; Mercè, Peris; Antonio, Agudo; Manel, Nebot; Esteve, Fernández.

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Punto de corte óptimo de la concentración de cotinina en saliva para discriminar entre fumadores y no fumadores en la población adulta de Barcelona Optimal cut-point of salivary cotinine concentration to discriminate smoking status in the adult population in Barcelona  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar el punto de corte óptimo de la concentración de cotinina en saliva para discriminar el consumo de tabaco en la población adulta de Barcelona. Métodos: Estudio transversal de una muestra representativa (n=1117 de la población adulta (>16 años de la ciudad de Barcelona (2004-2005. El estudio recogió información sobre tabaquismo (activo y pasivo mediante cuestionario y una muestra de saliva para la determinación de cotinina. Se realizó un análisis de sensibilidad y especificidad estratificado por sexo, edad, tipo de consumo (diario y ocasional y exposición al humo ambiental del tabaco en el hogar. Se calcularon las curvas ROC y el área bajo la curva. Resultados: La prevalencia de fumadores (diarios y ocasionales fue del 27,8% (intervalo de confianza del 95%: 25,2-30,4%. El punto de corte óptimo que separa a los no fumadores de los fumadores es 9,2ng/ml (sensibilidad del 88,7% y especificidad del 89,0%. El área bajo la curva ROC fue 0,952. El punto de corte fue 12,2ng/ml para los hombres y 7,6 para las mujeres, y aumentaba en los grupos de edad con mayor prevalencia de tabaquismo. Los fumadores diarios tenían un punto de corte superior al de los fumadores ocasionales. Conclusiones: El punto de corte óptimo que discrimina fumadores de no fumadores en la población adulta es 9,2ng/ml, con sensibilidad y especificidad cercanas al 90%. El punto de corte es más alto en los hombres y en los grupos de menor edad, y aumenta cuanto mayor es la prevalencia de consumo diario.Objective: To assess the optimal cut-point for salivary cotinine concentration to identify smoking status in the adult population of Barcelona. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of a representative sample (n=1,117 of the adult population (>16 years in Barcelona (2004-2005. This study gathered information on active and passive smoking by means of a questionnaire and a saliva sample for cotinine determination. We analyzed sensitivity and specificity according to sex, age, smoking status (daily and occasional, and exposure to second-hand smoke at home. ROC curves and the area under the curve were calculated. Results: The prevalence of smokers (daily and occasional was 27.8% (95% CI: 25.2-30.4%. The optimal cut-point to discriminate smoking status was 9.2ng/ml (sensitivity=88.7% and specificity=89.0%. The area under the ROC curve was 0.952. The optimal cut-point was 12.2ng/ml in men and 7.6ng/ml in women. The optimal cut-point was higher at ages with a greater prevalence of smoking. Daily smokers had a higher cut-point than occasional smokers. Conclusions: The optimal cut-point to discriminate smoking status in the adult population is 9.2ng/ml, with sensitivities and specificities around 90%. The cut-point was higher in men and in younger people. The cut-point increases with higher prevalence of daily smokers.

Jose M. Martínez-Sánchez

2009-12-01

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Trends in serum cotinine concentrations among daily cigarette smokers: data from NHANES 1999-2010.  

Science.gov (United States)

To the best of our knowledge, there have been no apparent studies of the trends in serum cotinine levels among smokers. Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the period 1999-2010 were used to evaluate trends for serum cotinine levels; average number of cigarettes smoked per day; and Cambridge filter method (CFM) tar and CFM nicotine levels by gender, race/ethnicity, and cigarette mentholation status. Regression models were fitted to evaluate the factors associated with serum cotinine levels. Serum cotinine levels increased over time for both males and females, non-Hispanic whites and others. CFM nicotine levels also rose over time for cigarettes smoked by both males and females and by both non-Hispanic whites and non-Hispanic blacks. Average number of cigarettes smoked per day decreased over time for females, non-Hispanic whites and non-Hispanic blacks. CFM tar levels fell only for Mexican Americans. Exposure to second hand smoke at home was found to be associated with more than 1 ng/ml increase in serum cotinine levels. This large study on a nationally representative sample of daily smokers suggested that increasing concentrations of CFM nicotine in cigarettes over time led to elevated serum cotinine levels even though the number of cigarettes smoked daily remained relatively constant. PMID:24291557

Jain, Ram B

2014-02-15

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Hair nicotine/cotinine concentrations as a method of monitoring exposure to tobacco smoke among infants and adults.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this pilot study, we examined the validity and usefulness of hair nicotine-cotinine evaluation as a biomarker of monitoring exposure to tobacco. Head hair samples were collected from 22 infants (<2 years of age) and 44 adults with different exposures to tobacco (through either active or passive smoking) and analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for nicotine and cotinine. Hair samples were divided into three groups, infants, passive smoker adults and active smoker adults, and into eight subgroups according to the degree of exposure. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.1 ng/mg for nicotine and 0.05 ng/mg for cotinine. Mean recovery was 69.15% for nicotine and 72.08% for cotinine. The within- and between-day precision for cotinine and nicotine was calculated at different concentrations. Moreover, hair nicotine and cotinine concentrations were highly correlated among adult active smokers (R (2) = 0.710, p < 0.001), among adult nonsmokers exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS; R (2) = 0.729, p < 0.001) and among infants (R (2) = 0.538, p = 0.01). Among the infants exposed to SHS from both parents the noted correlations were even stronger (R (2) = 0.835, p = 0.02). The above results identify the use of hair samples as an effective method for assessing exposure to tobacco, with a high association between nicotine and cotinine especially among infants heavily exposed to SHS. PMID:22027507

Tzatzarakis, M N; Vardavas, C I; Terzi, I; Kavalakis, M; Kokkinakis, M; Liesivuori, J; Tsatsakis, A M

2012-03-01

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Using questionnaire and cotinine concentration in urine for studying the smoking habits and ETS exposure of pregnant women.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the exposure of pregnant women to tobacco smoke on the basis of a standardised survey questionnaire, and determination of cotinine in urine. In the study participated 133 women delivering, checked in at the Obstetric Department of Independent Public Health Care Unit in Srem in 2003. The all women fill in the questionnaire forms referring smoking and exposure to ETS (Environmental Tobacco Smoke). In the tested group 22.6% were smoking during pregnancy. Only 5 pregnant women quit smoking, however around 60% of smokers reduced the number of cigarettes. Near 56% of women were exposed to ETS, mainly during social events. In case of women, who declared smoking the mean concentration of cotinine was 2164 ng/mg of creatinine. Passive smokers had cotinine concentration between 10 and 50 ng/mg of creatinine Cotinine may be used to validate tobacco smoke exposure assessment from surveys. PMID:15794232

Florek, Ewa; Piekoszewski, Wojciech; Rybakowski, Lukasz; Moczko, Jerzy

2004-01-01

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Quantitation of Cotinine in Nonsmoker Saliva Using Chip Based Nanoelectrospray Tandem Mass Spectrometry  

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A new analytical procedure was developed for the quantitation of nonsmoker salivary cotinine. Small volumes of saliva were diluted with water, fortified with cotinine-d{sub 3} (internal standard), then passed through small extraction columns. The analyte and internal standard were eluted with 0.1% (v/v) acetic acid/acetonitrile. Aliquots of each extract were analyzed directly, without chromatographic separation, using chip-based (NanoMate{sup TM}) nanospray tandem mass spectrometry. The calculated detection limit was 0.49 ng cotinine/mL saliva. This method was used to quantify salivary cotinine collected from nonsmoking human subjects living in one of three environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure categories or 'cells': 1. smoking home/smoking workplace; 2. smoking home/nonsmoking workplace; and 3. nonsmoking home/smoking workplace. Samples were collected during five sequential days, including Saturday, as part of a larger study to evaluate potential variability in exposure to ETS. Salivary cotinine measurements were made for the purpose of excluding misclassified smokers and for comparison with known levels of exposure to airborne nicotine in each exposure category. The concentrations observed were consistent with those reported from other large studies reported elsewhere. A non-parametric statistical test was applied to the data within each cell. No statistically significant differences were found between the mean cotinine concentrations collected on a weekday as compared to those collected on a weekend day. When the non-parametric test was applied to the three cells, a statistically significant difference was observed between cell 1 compared to cells 2 and 3. The salivary cotinine concentrations were thus statistically invariant over a five-day exposure period, and they were greatest under the conditions of smoking home and smoking workplace.

Tomkins, Bruce A [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL; Jenkins, Roger A [ORNL; Counts, Richard Wayne [ORNL

2006-01-01

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COTININE CONCENTRATIONS IN SEMEN, URINE AND BLOOD OF SMOKERS AND NONSMOKERS  

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The extent to which ambient exposures to environmental chemicals results in exposures to human genetic material is poorly understood. he purpose of the current study is to document the presence of cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine but not a known mutagen, in the semen of men exp...

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Passive exposure to tobacco smoke: saliva cotinine concentrations in a representative population sample of non-smoking schoolchildren.  

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Saliva cotinine concentrations in 569 non-smoking schoolchildren were strongly related to the smoking habits of their parents. When neither parent smoked the mean concentration was 0.44 ng/ml, rising to 3.38 ng/ml when both parents were cigarette smokers. Mothers' smoking had a stronger influence than did fathers' (p less than 0.01). In addition, there was a small independent effect of number of siblings who smoked (p less than 0.01). The dose of nicotine received from fathers' smoking was es...

Jarvis, M. J.; Russell, M. A.; Feyerabend, C.; Eiser, J. R.; Morgan, M.; Gammage, P.; Gray, E. M.

1985-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Biomonitoring of Urinary Cotinine Concentrations Associated with Plasma Levels of Nicotine Metabolites after Daily Cigarette Smoking in a Male Japanese Population  

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Full Text Available Human biomonitoring of plasma and urinary levels of nicotine, cotinine, and 3?-hydroxycotinine was conducted after daily cigarette smoking in a population of 92 male Japanese smokers with a mean age of 37 years who had smoked an average of 23 cigarettes per day for 16 years. Members of the population were genotyped for the nicotine-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6. The mean levels of nicotine, the levels of its metabolites cotinine and 3?-hydroxycotinine, and the sum of these three levels in subjects one hour after smoking the first cigarette on the sampling day were 20.1, 158, 27.7, and 198 ng/mL in plasma and 846, 1,020, 1,010, and 2,870 ng/mL in urine under daily smoking conditions. Plasma levels of 3'-hydroxycotinine and urinary levels of nicotine and 3?-hydroxycotinine were dependent on the CYP2A6 phenotype group, which was estimated from the CYP2A6 genotypes of the subjects, including those with whole gene deletion. Plasma cotinine levels were significantly correlated with the number of cigarettes smoked on the day before sampling (r = 0.71, the average number of cigarettes smoked daily (r = 0.58, and the Brinkman index (daily cigarettes × years, r = 0.48 under the present conditions. The sum of nicotine, cotinine, and 3?-hydroxycotinine concentrations in plasma showed a similar relationship to that of the plasma cotinine levels. Urinary concentrations of cotinine and the sum of nicotine metabolite concentrations also showed significant correlations with the plasma levels and the previous day’s and average cigarette consumption. The numbers of cigarettes smoked per day by two subjects with self-reported light smoking habits were predicted by measuring the urinary cotinine concentrations and using linear regression equations derived from above-mentioned data. These results indicate that biomonitoring of the urinary cotinine concentration is a good, easy-to-use marker for plasma levels of cotinine and the sum of nicotine metabolites in smokers independent of genetic polymorphism of CYP2A6.

Hiroshi Yamazaki

2010-07-01

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Good relationship between saliva cotinine kinetics and plasma cotinine kinetics after smoking one cigarette.  

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This study investigated the relationship between plasma and saliva cotinine kinetics after smoking one cigarette and the relationship between cotinine kinetics and estimated nicotine intake, which was calculated as mouth level exposure (MLE) of nicotine, from smoking two test cigarettes with different nicotine yields. This study was conducted in 16 healthy adult Japanese smokers, who did not have null nor reduced-activity alleles of CYP2A6, with a quasi-randomized crossover design of smoking a low-tar cigarette or a high-tar cigarette. Saliva cotinine showed similar concentration profiles to plasma cotinine, and all of the calculated pharmacokinetic parameters of cotinine showed the same values in plasma and saliva. The Cmax and AUC of cotinine showed almost the same dose-responsiveness to the estimated MLE of nicotine between plasma and saliva, but the tmax and t1/2 of cotinine were not affected by the estimated MLE of nicotine in either plasma or saliva. The results show that saliva cotinine kinetics reflects plasma cotinine kinetics, and measurement of saliva cotinine concentration gives the same information as plasma cotinine on the nicotine intake. Thus, saliva cotinine would be a good and less-invasive exposure marker of cigarette smoke, reflecting the plasma cotinine concentration and kinetics. PMID:23933006

Yuki, Dai; Kikuchi, Akira; Miura, Naoki; Kakehi, Aoi; Onozawa, Masahiro

2013-11-01

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Salivary Glucose Concentration and Excretion in Normal and Diabetic Subjects  

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Full Text Available The present report aims mainly at a reevaluation of salivary glucose concentration and excretion in unstimulated and mechanically stimulated saliva in both normal and diabetic subjects. In normal subjects, a decrease in saliva glucose concentration, an increase in salivary flow, but an unchanged glucose excretion rate were recorded when comparing stimulated saliva to unstimulated saliva. In diabetic patients, an increase in salivary flow with unchanged salivary glucose concentration and glucose excretion rate were observed under the same experimental conditions. Salivary glucose concentration and excretion were much higher in diabetic patients than in control subjects, whether in unstimulated or stimulated saliva. No significant correlation between glycemia and either glucose concentration or glucose excretion rate was found in the diabetic patients, whether in unstimulated or stimulated saliva. In the latter patients, as compared to control subjects, the relative magnitude of the increase in saliva glucose concentration was comparable, however, to that of blood glucose concentration. The relationship between these two variables was also documented in normal subjects and diabetic patients undergoing an oral glucose tolerance test.

Cedric Jurysta

2009-01-01

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Passive exposure to tobacco smoke: saliva cotinine concentrations in a representative population sample of non-smoking schoolchildren  

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Saliva cotinine concentrations in 569 non-smoking schoolchildren were strongly related to the smoking habits of their parents. When neither parent smoked the mean concentration was 0.44 ng/ml, rising to 3.38 ng/ml when both parents were cigarette smokers. Mothers smoking had a stronger influence than did fathers (p less than 0.01). In addition, there was a small independent effect of number of siblings who smoked (p less than 0.01). The dose of nicotine received from fathers smoking was estimated as equivalent to the active smoking of 30 cigarettes a year, that from mothers smoking as equivalent to smoking 50 cigarettes a year, and that from both parents smoking as equivalent to smoking 80 cigarettes a year. This unsolicited burden may be prolonged throughout childhood and poses a definite risk to health.

Jarvis, M.J.; Russell, M.A.; Feyerabend, C.; Eiser, J.R.; Morgan, M.; Gammage, P.; Gray, E.M.

1985-10-05

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Human Blood Concentrations of Cotinine, a Biomonitoring Marker for Tobacco Smoke, Extrapolated from Nicotine Metabolism in Rats and Humans and Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling  

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Full Text Available The present study defined a simplified physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK model for nicotine and its primary metabolite cotinine in humans, based on metabolic parameters determined in vitro using relevant liver microsomes, coefficients derived in silico, physiological parameters derived from the literature, and an established rat PBPK model. The model consists of an absorption compartment, a metabolizing compartment, and a central compartment for nicotine and three equivalent compartments for cotinine. Evaluation of a rat model was performed by making comparisons with predicted concentrations in blood and in vivo experimental pharmacokinetic values obtained from rats after oral treatment with nicotine (1.0 mg/kg, a no-observed-adverse-effect level for 14 days. Elimination rates of nicotine in vitro were established from data from rat liver microsomes and from human pooled liver microsomes. Human biomonitoring data (17 ng nicotine and 150 ng cotinine per mL plasma 1 h after smoking from pooled five male Japanese smokers (daily intake of 43 mg nicotine by smoking revealed that these blood concentrations could be calculated using a human PBPK model. These results indicate that a simplified PBPK model for nicotine/cotinine is useful for a forward dosimetry approach in humans and for estimating blood concentrations of other related compounds resulting from exposure to low chemical doses.

Masato Kitajima

2010-09-01

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Effect of Pilocarpine and Angiotensin II on Salivary Flow, Total Protein and Electrolyte Concentrations of Saliva  

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Full Text Available Present studies have focused on the effect of intraperitonially i.p. injection of angiotensin II (ANG II and pilocarpine on the salivary secretion, salivary amylase, saliva total proteins, saliva calcium sodium and potassium. Rats were anesthetized with urethane (1.25 g kg < SUP>-1 < /SUP> b. wt.. The amount of saliva secretion was studied over a 5 min period. Male Holtzman rats (250-300 g were housed in individual metabolic cages, with free access to food pellets and tap water ad libitum. The basal salivary flow after i.p saline 0.15 M NaCl as control was 17?1 mg/5 min. Angiotensin II (120 ng/0.5 mL, increased the salivary flow. The previous application of losartan (AT < SUB>1 < /SUB> ANG II receptors antagonist blocked the sialogogue effect of ANG II. PD123319 (AT < SUB>2 < /SUB>ANG II receptors antagonist blocked with smaller intensity the effect of ANG II. Animals treated with ANG II showed no change in the concentration of total protein, salivary amylase and calcium. The same happened when treated with losartan or PD123319. ANG II increased the concentration of sodium and decreased the concentration of potassium. Losartan blocked the effect of ANG II on sodium and potassium concentration. Pilocarpine increased the salivary flow. Losartan and PD123319 produced no change in salivary flow stimulated by pilocarpine. Pilocarpine did not alter the total protein, salivary amylase and calcium. Previous application of losartan and PD123319 produced no change in this pilocarpine effect. Pilocarpine decreased sodium and potassium concentration. Losartan and PD123319 produced no change in these effects of pilocarpine. In conclusion the results of the present study showed the importance of ANG II and pilocarpine in the control of the mechanism of salivary secretion and in the sodium and potassium-saliva concentration.

Wilson Abrao Saad

2005-01-01

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Saliva cotinine and recent smoking--evidence for a nonlinear relationship.  

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Cotinine concentration in various body fluids is considered to be among the most useful markers of nicotine exposure currently available. Despite the prevailing consensus concerning cotinine's usefulness, cotinine's large intrasubject variability has led some to question the value of a single-point measurement. Several individual differences (for example, age, race, sex, and so forth) may affect cotinine excretion, and a peculiar nonlinearity between the number of cigarettes smoked and cotini...

Swan, G. E.; Habina, K.; Means, B.; Jobe, J. B.; Esposito, J. L.

1993-01-01

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Monitoring the circadian rhythm of serum and salivary cortisol concentrations in the horse.  

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Daily fluctuations of cortisol concentration in the blood or saliva have been repeatedly reported. However, several contradictions in the existing literature appear on this subject. The present study was performed to definitively establish options for testing adrenocortical function. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate parallel circadian rhythms in salivary and serum cortisol concentrations during a 24-h period. Twenty horses were examined under the same conditions. Blood and saliva samples were taken every 2 h for 24 h to determine the daily changes in cortisol concentrations of saliva and serum at rest and to determine the relationship between salivary and serum cortisol levels. Cosinor analysis of group mean data confirmed a significant circadian component for both serum and salivary cortisol concentrations (P < 0.001 in both cases). The serum cortisol circadian rhythm had an acrophase at 10:50 AM (95% CI, 10:00 AM-11:40 AM), a MESOR of 22.67 ng/mL, and an amplitude of 11.93 ng/mL. The salivary cortisol circadian rhythm had an acrophase at 10:00 AM (95% CI, 9:00 AM-11:00 AM), a MESOR of 0.52 ng/mL, and an amplitude of 0.12 ng/mL. We found a significant but weak association between salivary and serum cortisol concentrations; the Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.32 (P < 0.001). The use of salivary cortisol level as an indicator of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity may be warranted. However, the salivary cortisol levels are more likely to be correlated with free plasma cortisol than with the total plasma cortisol concentration. PMID:23688596

Bohák, Zs; Szabó, F; Beckers, J-F; Melo de Sousa, N; Kutasi, O; Nagy, K; Szenci, O

2013-07-01

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Salivary testosterone concentrations in prepubertal and pubertal males: comparison with total and free plasma testosterone.  

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Salivary testosterone (T) levels in male children and adolescents were measured and compared with plasma T. Salivary concentrations correlated well with plasma total T (r = 0.72) and even better with free plasma T (r = 0.89) in subjects with plasma T levels of pubertal or adult levels (greater than 1.0 nmol/l). In subjects with prepubertal or low plasma T (less than 1.0 nmol/l), there was neither a correlation with plasma total, nor with free T. In hCG tests (responder and nonresponder), salivary T reflected plasma levels faithfully. The results suggest that salivary T, which is suitable for repeated sampling, is a good marker of T secretion in pubertal males. PMID:1823081

Ohzeki, T; Manella, B; Gübelin-De Campo, C; Zachmann, M

1991-01-01

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Salivary pH as a marker of plasma adiponectin concentrations in Women  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasma adiponectin is a significant correlate of the pro-inflammatory cardiometabolic risk profile associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Salivary pH is influenced by several cardiometabolic risk components such as inflammation, oxidation and numerous oral and systemic health modulators, including the menopausal status. This study aimed to assess the association between plasma adiponectin concentrations and salivary pH in women according to the menopausal status. Method Unstimulated saliva collection was performed in 151 Caucasian women of French-Canadian origin (53 premenopausal women (PMW and 98 menopausal women (MW. Student's t test, ANOVA and linear regression models were used to assess the association between plasma adiponectin concentrations and salivary pH. Results Plasma adiponectin levels increased as a function of salivary pH in the whole sample and among MW (r = 0.29 and r = 0.36, p 2 was 10.8% (p Conclusions These results suggest that salivary pH is a significant correlate of plasma adiponectin levels in women. With the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes and obesity, new technologies should be developed to more easily monitor health status, disease onset and progression. Salivary pH, a simple, inexpensive and non-invasive measure, could be a very promising avenue.

Tremblay Monique

2012-02-01

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Diurnal salivary cortisol concentrations in Parkinson’s disease: increased total secretion and morning cortisol concentrations  

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Full Text Available Ö Skogar1,4, P-A Fall2, G Hallgren3, J Lökk4, B Bringer2, M Carlsson1, U Lennartsson3, H Sandbjork3, C-J Törnhage51Department of Geriatrics, Ryhov Hospital, Jonkoping, 2Department of Geriatrics, University Hospital, Linkoping, 3Department of Neurology, Skaraborg Hospital, Skovde, 4Institute of Neurobiology, Care Sciences, and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, 5Department of Pediatrics, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, SwedenBackground: Parkinson’s disease (PD is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder. There is limited knowledge about the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in PD. The primary aim of this prospective study was to analyze diurnal salivary cortisol concentrations in patients with PD and correlate these with age, gender, body mass index (BMI, duration of PD, and pain. The secondary aim was to compare the results with a healthy reference group.Methods: Fifty-nine PD patients, 35 women and 24 men, aged 50–79 years, were recruited. The reference group comprised healthy individuals matched for age, gender, BMI, and time point for sampling. Salivary cortisol was collected at 8 am, 1 pm, and 8 pm, and 8 am the next day using cotton-based Salivette® tubes and analyzed using Spectria® Cortisol I125. A visual analog scale was used for estimation of pain.Results: The median cortisol concentration was 16.0 (5.8–30.2 nmol/L at 8 am, 5.8 (3.0–16.4 at 1 pm, 2.8 (1.6–8.0 at 8 pm, and 14.0 (7.5–28.7 at 8 am the next day. Total secretion and rate of cortisol secretion during the day (8 am–8 pm and the concentration of cortisol on the next morning were lower (12.5 nmol/L in the reference group. No significant correlations with age, gender, BMI, duration of PD, Hoehn and Yahr score, Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale III score, gait, pain, or cortisol concentrations were found.Conclusion: The neurodegenerative changes in PD does not seem to interfere with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Salivary cortisol concentrations in PD patients were increased in the morning compared with the reference group, and were not influenced by motor dysfunction, duration of disease, or coexistence of chronic or acute pain.Keywords: cortisol, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, Parkinson's disease

Skogar Ö

2011-08-01

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Biomonitoring of Urinary Cotinine Concentrations Associated with Plasma Levels of Nicotine Metabolites after Daily Cigarette Smoking in a Male Japanese Population  

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Human biomonitoring of plasma and urinary levels of nicotine, cotinine, and 3?-hydroxycotinine was conducted after daily cigarette smoking in a population of 92 male Japanese smokers with a mean age of 37 years who had smoked an average of 23 cigarettes per day for 16 years. Members of the population were genotyped for the nicotine-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6). The mean levels of nicotine, the levels of its metabolites cotinine and 3?-hydroxycotinine, and the sum of th...

Taku Nagano; Makiko Shimizu; Kazuma Kiyotani; Tetsuya Kamataki; Ryohji Takano; Norie Murayama; Fumiaki Shono; Hiroshi Yamazaki

2010-01-01

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Évaluation de la concentration de nicotine et de cotinine urinaires chez un groupe de fumeurs actifs et un groupe de “fumeurs passifs”, par chromatographie liquide haute performance (HPLC utilisant une méthode d’extraction en phase solide (SPE Evaluation of urinary levels of nicotine and cotinine, in active and passive groups of smokers, by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC using a solid phase extraction method (SPE  

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Full Text Available Objectifs : Évaluation de la concentration de nicotine et de cotinine urinaires et le taux de carboxyhémoglobine (HbCO chez un groupe de fumeurs actifs (n = 22 et un groupe de « fumeurs passifs » (n = 22, afin d’apprécier l’intensité de l’imprégnation tabagique. Matériels et méthodes : Évaluation de la concentration de nicotine et de cotinine urinaires par chromatographie liquide haute performance (HPLC utilisant une méthode d’extraction en phase solide (SPE; évaluation du taux de la carboxyhémoglobine (HbCO par spectrophotométrie UV-VIS. Résultats : Les concentrations urinaires de nicotine varient de 0,48 à 7,59 ?g/mL (moyenne : 3,39  ±  2,06 ?g/mL chez les fumeurs actifs et de 0,31 à 1,27 ?g/mL (moyenne : 0,64  ±  0,31 ?g/mL chez les « fumeurs passifs ». Les concentrations urinaires de cotinine varient de 0,99 à 9,17 ?g/mL (moyenne : 4,14  ±  2,35 ?g/mL chez les fumeurs actifs et de 0,14 à 2,58 ?g/mL (moyenne : 1,25  ±  0,79 ?g/mL chez les « fumeurs passifs ». Le taux de l’ HbCO varie de 0,26 à 8,02 % (moyenne : 3  ±  0,021 % chez les fumeurs actifs, les « fumeurs passifs » et les témoins présentent des taux inférieurs à la limite de détection. Conclusion : La nicotine et la cotinine sont plus spécifiques de l’exposition tabagique que l’HbCO. Les concentrations de nicotine et de cotinine urinaires, retrouvés chez les « fumeurs passifs », soulignent la réalité et l’intensité de l’exposition de ces derniers, d’où la nécessité de prendre des mesures plus restrictives en matière de lutte contre le tabagisme. Objectives: This paper evaluates the urinary levels of nicotine and cotinine and the level of carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO in active (n = 22 and passive (n = 22 groups of smokers, in order to determine the severity of tobacco impregnation. Materials and methods: The levels of nicotine and cotinine in urine were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC using the solid phase extraction method (SPE; the level of carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO was measured by UV-VIS spectrophotometry. Results: The results indicate that the concentration of nicotine in urine is 0.48 to 7.59 ?g/mL (average of 3.39  ±  2.06 ?g/mL in active smokers and 0.31 to 1.27 ?g/mL (average of 0.64  ±  0.31 ?g/mL in passive smokers. The concentration of cotinine in urine is 0.99 to 9.17 ?g/mL (average of 4.14  ±  2.35 ?g/mL in active smokers and 0.14 to 2.58 ?g/mL (average of 1.25  ±  0.79 ?g/mL in passive smokers. The level of HbCO is 0.26 to 8.02% (average of 3  ±  0.021% in active smokers and could not be detected in the passive smokers. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that cotinine and nicotine are more suitable for assessing the intensity of tobacco exposure than HbCO. The measured levels of nicotine and cotinine in passive smokers reveal the fact that this group of people faces a high risk due to tobacco exposure; thus, restrictive measures need to be taken to protect this group.

Azzouz Mohamed

2011-06-01

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Serum cotinine as a measure of tobacco smoke exposure in children  

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To document passive smoke exposure, the authors measured concentrations of serum cotinine, a major metabolite of nicotine, in 38 young children and compared the results with the smoking histories of home residents. Cotinine was detected in 26 children (68%), of which ten had no household exposure according to a questionnaire. The serum cotinine concentration was significantly elevated in blacks compared with whites after controlling for the number of smokers in the home. After stratifying by race, there was a significant direct correlation between the serum cotinine concentration and the number of smokers in the home, the amount smoked by the mother, and the amount smoked by others in the home. We conclude that the serum cotinine concentration is a useful indicator of the actual exposure of young children to tobacco smoke and that unexplained racial differences in cotinine levels exist.

Pattishall, E.N.; Strope, G.L.; Etzel, R.A.; Helms, R.W.; Haley, N.J.; Denny, F.W.

1985-11-01

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Human Blood Concentrations of Cotinine, a Biomonitoring Marker for Tobacco Smoke, Extrapolated from Nicotine Metabolism in Rats and Humans and Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling  

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The present study defined a simplified physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for nicotine and its primary metabolite cotinine in humans, based on metabolic parameters determined in vitro using relevant liver microsomes, coefficients derived in silico, physiological parameters derived from the literature, and an established rat PBPK model. The model consists of an absorption compartment, a metabolizing compartment, and a central compartment for nicotine and three equivalent compar...

2010-01-01

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Comparison of salivary fluoride levels following use of dentifrices containing different concentrations of fluoride  

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Many industrialized countries have reported a decline in caries prevalence over the past few decades. These reductions have been related to the regular use of fluoride dentifrices. Fluoride dentifrices are the most cost-effective and efficient means of caries prevention. However, there have been concerns regarding the risk of fluorosis in children due to the ingestion of dentifrices. This has led to the use of dentifrices with low concentration of fluoride. Salivary fluoride levels after toot...

Nagpal D; Damle S

2007-01-01

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Toxicokinetics and correlation of carbamazepine salivary and serum concentrations in acute poisonings  

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Full Text Available Background/Aim. Saliva is a body fluid which, like serum, can be used for determination of concentrations of certain drugs, both in pharmacotherapy as well as in acute poisonings. The aim of this study was to determine carbamazepine concentrations in both saliva and serum in acute poisoning in order to show if there is a correlation between the obtained values, as well as to monitor toxicokinetics of carbamazepine in body fluides. Methods. Saliva and serum samples were obtained from 26 patients treated with carbamazepine and 20 patients acutely poisoned by the drug immediately after their admission in the Emergency Toxicology Unit. Determination of salivary and serum carbamazepine concentrations was performed by the validated high pressure liquid chromatographyultraviolet (HPLC-UV method. Results. A significant correlation of salivary and serum carbamazepine concentrations in both therapeutic application and acute poisoning (r = 0.9481 and 0.9117, respectively was confirmed. In acute poisonings the mean ratio between salivary and serum concentrations of carbamazepine (0.43 was similar to the mean ratio after its administration in therapeutic doses (0.39, but there were high inter-individual variations in carbamazepine concentrations in the acutely poisoned patients, as a consequence of different ingested doses of the drug. In acute poisoning the halftime of carbamazepine in saliva and serum was 12.57 h and 6.76 h, respectively. Conclusion. Our results suggest a possible use of saliva as an alternative biological material for determination of carbamazepine concentrations in therapeutic application and acute poisoning as well, and a possible extrapolation of the results obtained in saliva to serum concentrations of carbamazepine.

?or?evi? Snežana

2012-01-01

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May salivary gland secretory proteins from hematophagous leeches (Hirudo verbana) reach pharmacologically relevant concentrations in the vertebrate host?  

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Saliva of hematophagous leeches (Hirudo sp.) contains bioactive proteins which allow the leech proper feeding and storage of ingested blood, but may also exert effects in the host. Leech therapy is used to treat many different ailments in humans, although only a small fraction of salivary proteins are characterized yet. Moreover, we do not know whether complete transfer of salivary proteins stored in the unicellular salivary glands in a leech to the host during feeding may generate concentrations that are sufficiently high to affect physiological processes in the host. Our 3D reconstruction of a portion of internal leech tissue from histological sections revealed that one leech contains approx. 37,000 salivary gland cells. Using tissue slices from pig liver and mouse skeletal muscle for reference, we obtained data for protein densities in leech salivary gland cells. As individual salivary cells are voluminous (67,000 µm(3)) and the stored proteins are densely packed (approx. 500 µg/mm(3)), we extrapolated that a single leech may contain up to 1.2 mg of salivary proteins. Analyzing protein extracts of unfed or fed leeches by 2D electrophoresis, we calculated the relative molar amounts of individual salivary proteins in the mass range of 17-60 kDa which may be released from a single leech during feeding. Distribution of these salivary proteins in the host (assumed plasma volume of 5 l) may result in concentrations of individual compounds between 3 and 236 pmol/l. Such concentrations seem sufficiently high to exert biochemical interactions with target molecules in the host. PMID:24058492

Lemke, Sarah; Müller, Christian; Lipke, Elisabeth; Uhl, Gabriele; Hildebrandt, Jan-Peter

2013-01-01

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Salivary testosterone concentrations in pubertal ICSI boys compared with spontaneously conceived boys.  

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BACKGROUND To date, no data exist about Leydig cell function of pubertal boys born after ICSI. To evaluate a potential risk of gonadal dysfunction in children born from fathers with compromised fertility, testicular function was assessed by the measurement of salivary testosterone. METHODS Morning salivary testosterone levels at the age of 14 years were compared between 58 ICSI teenagers who are part of the oldest ICSI cohort, and 62 boys born after spontaneous conception (SC). RESULTS Salivary testosterone levels were comparable between ICSI (113 ± 42 pg/ml) and SC (123 ± 56 pg/ml) teenagers at the age of 14 years. In the ICSI group, testosterone levels in boys from fathers with severe oligozoospermia were not different from concentrations in boys from fathers without severe oligozoospermia (115.5 ± 43 and 109 ± 41 pg/ml, respectively). CONCLUSIONS At the age of 14 years, pubertal ICSI boys show testosterone levels comparable to their peers born after SC. ICSI adolescents fathered from men with severely compromised spermatogenesis show testosterone levels comparable to those from fathers with normal spermatogenesis. This notwithstanding, further follow-up of ICSI teenagers into adulthood is mandatory to confirm a normal gonadal function. PMID:21138905

Belva, F; Bonduelle, M; Schiettecatte, J; Tournaye, H; Painter, R C; Devroey, P; De Schepper, J

2011-02-01

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Salivary protein concentration, flow rate, buffer capacity and pH estimation: A comparative study among young and elderly subjects, both normal and with gingivitis and periodontitis  

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Background: To evaluate the salivary protein concentration in gingivitis and periodontitis patients and compare the parameters like salivary total protein, salivary albumin, salivary flow rate, pH, buffer capacity and flow rate in both young and elderly patients with simple methods. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty subjects were grouped based on their age as young and elderly. Each group was subgrouped (20 subjects) as controls, gingivitis and periodontitis. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from patients and flow rate was noted down during collection of the sample. Salivary protein estimation was done using the Biuret method and salivary albumin was assessed using the Bromocresol green method. pH was estimated with a pHmeter and buffering capacity was analyzed with the titration method. Student's t-test, Fisher's test (ANOVA) and Tukey HSD (ANOVA) tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: A very highly significant rise in the salivary total protein and albumin concentration was noted in gingivitis and periodontitis subjects of both young and elderly. An overall decrease in salivary flow rate was observed among the elderly, and also the salivary flow rate of women was significantly lower than that of men. Conclusion: Significant associations between salivary total protein and albumin in gingivitis and periodontitis were found with simple biochemical tests. A decrease in salivary flow rate among elderly and among women was noted.

Shaila, Mulki; Pai, G. Prakash; Shetty, Pushparaj

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Cotinine en pédiatrie et en santé au travail Cotinine in pediatry and at the workplace  

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Full Text Available L'intérêt du suivi d'une exposition au tabac par la mesure de la concentration de la cotinine dans les milieux biologiques est connu depuis longtemps. Métabolite principal de la nicotine, avec une demi-vie d'élimination longue, le suivi de la cotinine permet l'évaluation de l'imprégnation tabagique dans les cas particuliers du tabagisme passif chez l'enfant et chez l'adulte, dans les lieux publics ou le milieu professionnel. Le suivi de ce marqueur s'avère également particulièrement intéressant en santé au travail pour la surveillance d'expositions à certains solvants organiques (benzène, toluène, éthylbenzéne, xylène, hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques... dont les concentrations ou celles de leurs métabolites sont influencées par la consommation de tabac. L'urine demeure la matrice biologique de choix pour évaluer le degré d'exposition. Un seuil de positivité mesuré à 6 ng/mL dans l'urine permet de distinguer une population pédiatrique exposée ou non. D'autres matrices comme les cheveux ou la salive apparaissent depuis plusieurs années comme utiles dans le cadre du dépistage de l'exposition au tabagisme environnemental. Le dosage de la cotinine dans les cheveux montre une nouvelle fois l'intérêt rétrospectif de l'utilisation de ce type de matrice. La salive, avec un intérêt moindre chez le nouveau né, a été utilisée dans plusieurs études pour distinguer des populations exposées et non exposées avec un seuil de positivité fixé à 1 ng/mL. Deux types de méthodes sont principalement utilisées pour le dosage de la cotinine : les méthodes chromatographiques HPLC-DAD, HPLC-MS, GC-MS et les méthodes immunologiques (RIA ou immunoenzymatiques par ELISA. Des études récentes montrent l'évolution des techniques ELISA. Elles peuvent par exemple être utilisées dans la salive avec un seuil de positivité de la cotinine à 1 ng/mL permettant de définir une population imprégnée. Actuellement, nombreuses sont les études qui utilisent avec succès les techniques immunologiques en pédiatrie et en santé au travail. Les avantages apparaissent alors multiples notamment en termes de coût et de rapidité. Elles sont suffisamment sensibles et peuvent être utilisées pour différents types de matrices biologiques. It is well known today that tobacco exposure can be assessed by the measurement of several markers in biological fluids. Cotinine, a nicotine metabolite with a longer biological half-life than nicotine, is probably the most reliable index that can be used to measure exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in adults in the context of an exposure at workplace, and also in children. Additionally, cotinine appears to be a very useful marker to investigate the exposure of workers to organic solvents (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons... given that their concentrations and/or those of their metabolites can be influenced by tobacco smoke. Urine remains an accurate biological specimen to assess the level of tobacco exposure of individuals. A urinary cotinine level of 6 ng/mL (cut-off is a precise and sensitive test in discerning exposed children to tobacco smoke from non-exposed children. Other alternative biological specimens such as hair or saliva can also be used for this purpose. Hair cotinine has proved to be a reliable tool for evaluating the level of environmental tobacco smoke in a pediatric population. Saliva has been successfully applied in several studies amongst primary school children or in workers with a cut-off value for cotinine of 1 ng/mL. Various assays are presently available for the measurement of cotinine in biological specimens. Most of them are based on chromatographic (HPLC-UV, HPLC-MS, GC-MS or immunoassay methods (RIA, EIA. Recent studies showed that ELISA can be used to measure cotinine in saliva at a level as low as 1 ng/mL, this concentration being the cut-off allowing to distinguish individuals exposed to environmental tobacco smoke from individuals not exposed. Currently, many studies dealing

Hoizey Guillaume

2009-05-01

42

Effect of mobile phone use on salivary concentrations of protein, amylase, lipase, immunoglobulin A, lysozyme, lactoferrin, peroxidase and C-reactive protein of the parotid gland.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: The possibility of side effects associated with the electromagnetic waves emitted from mobile phones is a controversial issue. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of mobile phone use on parotid gland salivary concentrations of protein, amylase, lipase, immunoglobulin A, lysozyme, lactoferrin, peroxidase and C-reactive protein. Methods: Stimulated salivary samples were collected simultaneously from both parotid glands of 86 healthy volunteers. Salivary flow rate and salivary concentrations of proteins, amylase, lipase, lysozyme, lactoferrin, peroxidase, C-reactive protein and immunoglobulin A, were measured. Data were analysed using t-tests and one-way analyses of variance. Results: Salivary flow rate and parotid gland salivary concentrations of protein were significantly higher on the right side compared to the left in those that predominantly held mobile phones on the right side. In addition, there was a decrease in concentrations of amylase, lipase, lysozyme, lactoferrin and peroxidase. Conclusion: The side of dominant mobile phone use was associated with differences in salivary flow rate and parotid gland salivary concentrations, in right-dominant users. Although mobile phone use influenced salivary composition, the relationship was not significant. PMID:24739140

Hashemipour, M S; Yarbakht, M; Gholamhosseinian, A; Famori, H

2014-05-01

43

A two-year follow-up study of salivary cortisol concentration and the risk of depression  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Stress is a suspected cause of depression. High cortisol concentration, a biomarker of an activated stress response, has been found in depressed patients. The aim of this study was to determine if a high level of salivary cortisol is a risk factor of depression. In 2007, we enrolled 4467 public employees. Morning and evening salivary cortisol concentration were measured for each participant. Participants reporting high levels of depressive, burnout, or stress symptoms, assessed by questionnaires were assigned to a psychiatric interview. In this interview 98 participants were diagnosed with depression and subsequently excluded. Two years later in 2009, 2920 participants who had provided at least one valid saliva cortisol measurement at baseline participated at follow up. The psychiatric interviews were repeated and 62 cases of newly onset depression were diagnosed. Odds ratios of depression were estimated for every 1.0nmol/l increase in morning, evening, and daily mean cortisol concentration, as well as for the difference between morning and evening cortisol concentration. The risk of depression decreased by increasing daily mean cortisol concentration and by increasing difference between morning and evening concentrations, while morning and evening cortisol concentrations were not significantly associated with depression. The adjusted odds ratios for 1.0nmol/l increase in morning, evening, and daily mean cortisol concentration were 0.69 (95% CI: 0.45, 1.05), 0.87 (95% CI: 0.59, 1.28), and 0.53 (95% CI: 0.32, 0.90), respectively. The adjusted odds ratio for 1.0nmol/l increase in difference between morning and evening concentration were 0.64 (95% CI: 0.45, 0.90). This study did not support the hypothesis that high salivary cortisol concentration is a risk factor of depression, but indicate that low mean salivary cortisol concentration and a small difference between morning and evening cortisol concentration may be risk factors of depression.

Grynderup, M. B.; Kolstad, H. A.

2013-01-01

44

Fecal and Salivary Cortisol Concentrations in Woolly (Lagothrix ssp. and Spider Monkeys (Ateles spp.  

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Full Text Available Detrimental physiological effects due to stressors can contribute to the low captive success of primates. The objective of this research was to investigate the potential impact of diet composition on cortisol concentrations in feces and saliva in woolly (n=27 and spider monkeys (n=61. The research was conducted in three studies: the first investigated spider monkeys in the United States, the second investigated spider monkeys within Europe, and the third investigated woolly monkeys within Europe. Fecal cortisol in spider monkeys in US zoos varied (P=.07 from 30 to 66 ng/g. The zoo with the highest fecal cortisol also had the highest salivary cortisol (P?.05. For European zoos, fecal cortisol differed between zoos for both spider and woolly monkeys (P?.05. Spider monkeys had higher fecal cortisol than woolly monkeys (P?.05. Zoos with the highest dietary carbohydrates, sugars, glucose, and fruit had the highest cortisol. Cortisol was highest for zoos that did not meet crude protein requirements and fed the lowest percentage of complete feeds and crude fiber. Differences among zoos in housing and diets may increase animal stress. The lifespan and reproductive success of captive primates could improve if stressors are reduced and dietary nutrients optimized.

Kimberly D. Ange-van Heugten

2009-01-01

45

A Comparative Analysis of the Influence of Human Salivary Enzymes on Odorant Concentration in Three Palm Wines  

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The influence of human salivary enzymes on palm wines’ odorant concentrations were investigated by the application of aroma extracts dilution analysis (AEDA) and by the calculation of odour activity values (OAVs), respectively. The odorants were quantified by means of stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA), and the degradation profiles of odorants by human saliva were also studied. Results revealed 46 odour-active compounds in the flavour dilution (FD) factor range of 4-256, and all were sub...

Ola Lasekan

2013-01-01

46

Serum cotinine and prognosis in breast cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Various studies have suggested that women who smoke have a worse prognosis if they develop breast cancer. Cotinine levels have been measured in sera from 511 patients with stage I and II breast cancer diagnosed between 1975 and 1980, all of whom had complete follow-up. Although the known prognostic factors, axillary nodal status, tumour size and grade were found to be significant, there was no relationship between serum cotinine and metastasis-free survival. A point estimate of serum cotinine was not found to be a determinant of survival in women with early breast cancer. PMID:22678157

Johnson, L; Agbaje, O; Doig, M; Fentiman, I S

2012-07-01

47

[Urinary cotinine as indicator of exposure to passive smoking].  

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We studied the association between self-reported exposure to passive smoking (ETS) and urinary cotinine among 95 ex-smokers, who had quit in the context of a smoking cessation trial in general practice, and among 33 ex-smokers who had been contacted in the context of a study aimed at estimating the spontaneous cessation rate among smokers, listed in the roosters of the General Practitioners participating in the trial, who had not been offered recruitment. The results of multivariate linear regression analysis indicated that duration of exposure at home was strongly related to cotinine levels (increase of 1 ng/mg every 3 hours of exposure at home), quantified by radioimmunoassay. Duration of exposure in public places showed a similar effect, but the association was significant only among subjects who reported having been exposed in a heavily ETS polluted environment (increase of 1 ng/mg every 45 minutes of exposure). Among subjects exposed at work cotinine concentration was associated to subjects' judgement of the concentration of ETS, rather than to duration of exposure. Standardized questionnaires may provide a reasonably accurate description of ETS exposure and they can be used to assess exposure in etiologic studies. Non-smokers non exposed to ETS at home may not represent an appropriate control group in such studies. Indeed, they may be exposed to other sources, as indicated by the relatively high levels of urinary cotinine among ex-smokers non exposed at home in our study. Misclassification of these subjects may result in a dilution of the effect of the exposure. PMID:10730483

Senore, C; Ponti, A; Colombo, A; Menghi, S; Aimar, D; Segnan, N

1999-01-01

48

Cotinine levels in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.  

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Cotinine is a major metabolite of nicotine. This study was planned to investigate the relationship between bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid cotinine levels and serum cotinine levels in smokers and nonsmokers with various pulmonary diseases and to investigate whether these levels are affected by passive smoking. Serum and BAL fluid cotinine levels were measured in 27 patients. BAL cotinine levels were measured using a sensitive ELISA kit produced to measure cotinine in saliva. Plates were read by microuant (BioTek, USA) micro plate reader. All patient serum cotinine levels were detectable except for one nonsmoker patient. However, BAL fluid cotinine levels were measurable in only 6 patients (two of them were nonsmokers). A significant positive correlation was seen between serum and BAL fluid cotinine levels (r = 0.726; p = 0.000). Serum cotinine levels were significantly higher in present smokers than non-smokers (21.0 +/- 16.01; 5.35 +/- 7.65; p = 0.004). However, there were no significant differences in BAL fluid cotinine levels between smokers and nonsmokers. Passive smoking can increase nicotine metabolites in serum and other body fluids, including BAL fluid. Since BAL fluid and serum cotinine levels were well correlated, there is no need to use invasive procedures, such as bronchoscopy and expensive, time consuming BAL fluid analyses. Serum cotinine levels can give a rough idea of smoking status. BAL fluid cotinine meaurements should be done for only scientific reasons. PMID:21073047

Diken, Ozlem Erçen; Unculu, Serap; Karnak, Demet; Ca?layan, Osman; Göçmen, Julide Sedef; Kayacan, Oya

2010-09-01

49

Cotinine as a biomarker of systemic nicotine exposure in spit tobacco users.  

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Unlike cigarette smokers, spit tobacco (ST) users absorb a significant amount of nicotine through the gastrointestinal tract while swallowing tobacco juice. The majority of the absorbed nicotine is rapidly converted to cotinine during first-pass hepatic metabolism. This process potentially compromises the utility of cotinine as a biomarker for systemic nicotine exposure in ST users. To investigate this question, we correlated nicotine and cotinine concentrations with clinical measures of ST use in 68 daily ST users enrolled in a non-nicotine pharmacologic intervention trial. We found that a higher frequency of swallowing tobacco juice (P=.007) was an independent predictor of higher serum cotinine concentrations. Serum nicotine concentrations, on the other hand, were not correlated with a higher frequency of swallowing. In the absence of a reliable way to measure frequency of swallowing, we conclude that cotinine should not be used for guiding clinical decisions that depend upon a precise quantification of systemic nicotine exposure, such as tailored nicotine replacement therapy. PMID:14732423

Ebbert, Jon O; Dale, Lowell C; Nirelli, Liza M; Schroeder, Darrell R; Moyer, Thomas P; Hurt, Richard D

2004-02-01

50

Determination of nicotine, cotinine, and related alkaloids in human urine and saliva by automated in-tube solid-phase microextraction coupled with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

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A simple, rapid and sensitive method for the determination of nicotine, cotinine, nornicotine, anabasine, and anatabine in human urine and saliva was developed. These compounds were analyzed by on-line in-tube solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Nicotine, cotinine and related alkaloids were separated within 7 min by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a Synergi 4u POLAR-RP 80A column and 5 mM ammonium formate/methanol (55/45, v/v) as a mobile phase at a flow-rate of 0.8 mL/min. Electrospray ionization conditions in the positive ion mode were optimized for MS detection of these compounds. The optimum in-tube SPME conditions were 25 draw/eject cycles with a sample size of 40 microL using a CP-Pora PLOT amine capillary column as the extraction device. The extracted compounds could be desorbed easily from the capillary by passage of the mobile phase, and no carryover was observed. Using the in-tube SPME LC-MS method, the calibration curves were linear in the concentration range of 0.5-20 ng/mL of nicotine, cotinine and related compounds in urine and saliva, and the detection limits (S/N=3) were 15-40 pg/mL. The method described here showed 20-46-fold higher sensitivity than the direct injection method (5 microL injection). The within-run and between-day precision (relative standard deviations) were below 4.7% and 11.3% (n=5), respectively. This method was applied successfully to analysis of urine and saliva samples without interference peaks. The recoveries of nicotine, cotinine and related compounds spiked into urine and saliva samples were above 83%, and the relative standard deviations were below 7.1%. This method was used to analyze urinary and salivary levels of these compounds in nicotine intake and smoking. PMID:19004590

Kataoka, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Reiko; Yagi, Katsuharu; Saito, Keita

2009-01-15

51

A Comparative Analysis of the Influence of Human Salivary Enzymes on Odorant Concentration in Three Palm Wines  

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Full Text Available The influence of human salivary enzymes on palm wines’ odorant concentrations were investigated by the application of aroma extracts dilution analysis (AEDA and by the calculation of odour activity values (OAVs, respectively. The odorants were quantified by means of stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA, and the degradation profiles of odorants by human saliva were also studied. Results revealed 46 odour-active compounds in the flavour dilution (FD factor range of 4-256, and all were subsequently identified. Of the 46 odorants, 41 were identified in the Elaeis guineensis wine, 36 in Raphia hookeri wine and 29 in Borassus flabellifer wine. Among the odorants, the highest FD-factors were obtained from acetoin, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine. Among the 13 potent odorants identified, five aroma compounds are reported here as important contributors to palm wine aroma, namely 3-isobutyl-2-methoxy-pyrazine, acetoin, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-methylbutylacetate and ethyl hexanoate. Meanwhile, salivary enzymic degradation of odorants was more pronounced among the aldehydes, esters and thiols.

Ola Lasekan

2013-09-01

52

A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for nicotine and cotinine; utility in screening tobacco exposure in patients taking amiodarone.  

Science.gov (United States)

A liquid chromatographic mass spectrometric (LC-MS) assay for the quantification of nicotine and cotinine in human specimens was developed. Human serum and urine (100 ?L) were subjected to liquid-liquid extraction. For glucuronidated cotinine, serum was alkalinized and hydrolyzed before extraction. The dried samples were reconstituted and run using gradient flow reverse-phase liquid chromatography with MS detection. The ions utilized for quantification of nicotine, cotinine and milrinone (internal standard) were 162.8, 176.9 and 211.9 m/z, respectively. The mean recoveries were over 80% for cotinine and nicotine with excellent linearity between nominal concentrations and peak area ratios, over a wide concentration range. The percentage coefficient of variation and mean error of the inter- and intra-day validations were <15% for nicotine and cotinine. Analysis of serum from cardiac patients receiving amiodarone suggested that a number of patients were either active smokers or exposed to second-hand smoke. Significant concentrations of nicotine and cotinine were measured in the urine of a known smoking volunteer. The method was highly specific, sensitive and applicable as a tool in detecting and monitoring the passive exposure to tobacco smoke using small specimen volumes (0.1 mL). PMID:21308701

Gabr, Raniah Q; Elsherbiny, Marwa E; Somayaji, Vishwa; Pollak, P Timothy; Brocks, Dion R

2011-10-01

53

Do whole-body vibration exercise and resistance exercise modify concentrations of salivary cortisol and immunoglobulin A?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english A single bout of resistance exercise (RE) induces hormonal and immune responses, playing an important role in a long-term adaptive process. Whole-body vibration (WBV) has also been shown to affect hormonal responses. Evidence suggests that combining WBV with RE may amplify hormonal and immune respon [...] ses due to the increased neuromuscular load. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate salivary cortisol (Scortisol) and salivary IgA (SIgA) concentrations following a RE session combined or not with WBV. Nine university students (22.9 ± 5.1 years, 175.8 ± 5.2 cm, and 69.2 ± 7.3 kg) performed five sets of squat exercise (70% one-repetition-maximum) combined (R+V30) or not (R) with WBV at 30 Hz. Saliva samples were obtained before and after exercise. Subjects also rated their effort according to the Borg CR-10 scale (RPE). Data were analyzed by a mixed model. RPE was higher after R+V30 (8.3 ± 0.7) compared to R (6.2 ± 0.7). However, Scortisol (pre: 10.6 ± 7.6 and 11.7 ± 7.6, post: 8.3 ± 6.3 and 10.2 ± 7.2 ng/mL for R and R+V30, respectively) and SIgA concentrations (pre: 98.3 ± 22.6 and 116.1 ± 51.2, post: 116.6 ± 64.7 and 143.6 ± 80.5 µg/mL for R and R+V30, respectively) were unaffected. No significant correlations were observed between Scortisol and RPE (r = 0.45, P = 0.22; r = 0.30, P = 0.42, for R and R+V30, respectively). On the basis of these data, neither protocol modified salivary cortisol or IgA, although RPE was higher after R+V30 than R.

H., Roschel; R., Barroso; M., Batista; C., Ugrinowitsch; V., Tricoli; F., Arsati; Y.B., Lima-Arsati; V.C., Araújo; A., Moreira.

54

Do whole-body vibration exercise and resistance exercise modify concentrations of salivary cortisol and immunoglobulin A?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A single bout of resistance exercise (RE induces hormonal and immune responses, playing an important role in a long-term adaptive process. Whole-body vibration (WBV has also been shown to affect hormonal responses. Evidence suggests that combining WBV with RE may amplify hormonal and immune responses due to the increased neuromuscular load. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate salivary cortisol (Scortisol and salivary IgA (SIgA concentrations following a RE session combined or not with WBV. Nine university students (22.9 ± 5.1 years, 175.8 ± 5.2 cm, and 69.2 ± 7.3 kg performed five sets of squat exercise (70% one-repetition-maximum combined (R+V30 or not (R with WBV at 30 Hz. Saliva samples were obtained before and after exercise. Subjects also rated their effort according to the Borg CR-10 scale (RPE. Data were analyzed by a mixed model. RPE was higher after R+V30 (8.3 ± 0.7 compared to R (6.2 ± 0.7. However, Scortisol (pre: 10.6 ± 7.6 and 11.7 ± 7.6, post: 8.3 ± 6.3 and 10.2 ± 7.2 ng/mL for R and R+V30, respectively and SIgA concentrations (pre: 98.3 ± 22.6 and 116.1 ± 51.2, post: 116.6 ± 64.7 and 143.6 ± 80.5 µg/mL for R and R+V30, respectively were unaffected. No significant correlations were observed between Scortisol and RPE (r = 0.45, P = 0.22; r = 0.30, P = 0.42, for R and R+V30, respectively. On the basis of these data, neither protocol modified salivary cortisol or IgA, although RPE was higher after R+V30 than R.

H. Roschel

2011-06-01

55

Simultaneous determination of nicotine and cotinine in serum using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorometric detection and postcolumn UV-photoirradiation system.  

Science.gov (United States)

A simple and rapid method for the simultaneous determination of serum nicotine and cotinine using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-fluorometric detection with a postcolumn ultraviolet-photoirradiation system was developed. Analytes were extracted from alkalinized human serum via liquid-liquid extraction using chloroform. The organic phase was back-extracted with the acidified aqueous phase, and the analytes were directly injected into an ion-pair reversed-phase HPLC system. 6-Aminoquinoline was used as an internal standard. Nicotine, cotinine, and 6-aminoquinoline were separated within 14min. The extraction efficiency of nicotine and cotinine was greater than 91%. The linear range was 0.30-1000ng for nicotine and 0.06-1000ng for cotinine. In serum samples from smokers, the concentrations of nicotine and cotinine were 8-15ng/mL and 156-372ng/mL, respectively. PMID:23896428

Yasuda, Makoto; Ota, Tatsuhiro; Morikawa, Atsushi; Mawatari, Ken-ichi; Fukuuchi, Tomoko; Yamaoka, Noriko; Kaneko, Kiyoko; Nakagomi, Kazuya

2013-09-01

56

Comparative evaluation of salivary IL-1?, IL-10 and TNF-? concentrations in patients with oral pemphigus vulgaris lesions by ELISA technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Based on recent research, cytokines particularly IL-1?, IL-10, and INF-? might play a role in the pathogenesis of pemphigus vulgaris. Some autoimmune diseases have been successfully treated with the use of antibodies against cytokines. The aim of this study was to compare salivary concentrations of IL-1?, IL-10, and TNF-? in patients with pemphigus vulgaris and normal individuals. Materials and methods: In this analytical-descriptive study, 24 pemphigus vulgaris patients referring to the Department of Dermatology, Alzahra Hospital, and 26 healthy individuals were evaluated. Unstimulated salivary samples were collected by spitting method in both groups. IL-1?, IL-10, and TNF-? concentrations were measured by ELISA technique. The results were analyzed by t-test (?=0.05.Results: The mean salivary concentrations of IL-1?, IL-10 and TNF-? were higher in pemphigus vulgaris patients compared to healthy subjects. The differences were significant in relation to IL-1? (p value = 0.024 and TNF-? (p value = 0.005 between the two groups; however, the differences were not significant in relation to IL-10 (p value = 0.243.Conclusion: The increase in salivary concentrations of IL-1? and TNF-? in patients with pemphigus vulgaris compared to healthy individuals might indicate the role of these agents in the pathogenesis of this disorder. Key words: ELISA technique, IL-1?, IL-10, TNF-?, Pemphigus vulgaris.

Faezeh Khozeimeh

2011-01-01

57

Variation of serum and urine cotinine in passive and active smokers and applicability in preconceptional smoking cessation counseling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study assessed the applicability of serum and urine cotinine as a biochemical marker of self-reported smoking habits for use in a preconception smoking cessation program. The variation of serum and urine cotinine over the course of the day was investigated in a sample of 21 smokers and 8 passive smokers who reported their smoking habits and exposure to smoke daily in a questionnaire for 10 consecutive days. Blood and urine samples were collected on two sampling days, 1 week apart. Both serum and urine cotinine assay could distinguish between passive and active smokers, but not between higher categories of smokers (1019 and ?20 cigarettes per ay) due to significant intersubject overlap. In serum, no significant differences were found between morning and afternoon cotinine concentrations in either day, in contrast to urine cotinine (with lower excretions observed n the morning). An overall coefficient of variation of 22- was observed for both specimens in smokers. Because serum cotinine is subject to lower variability over the course of the day, it is more practical for use in a clinical setting where appointments are scheduled throughout the day in order o confirm smoking status

2002-10-01

58

Racial differences in serum cotinine levels of smokers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this study was to estimate black/while differences in cotinine levels for current smokers of both sexes, and to explore the potential contribution of mentholated cigarettes to these differences. Sera from 255 current smokers sampled from Southern Community Cohort Study participants (65 black men, 65 black women, 63 white men, 62 white women) were analyzed for cotinine, and linear regression was used to model the effect of race on cotinine level, adjusting for the number of ciga...

Signorello, Lisa B.; Qiuyin Cai; Tarone, Robert E.; Mclaughlin, Joseph K.; Blot, William J.

2009-01-01

59

Effects of cotinine on cigarette self-administration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies have shown that cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine, antagonizes some of the effects of nicotine. One study showed that cotinine eliminates the beneficial effects of the nicotine patch in reducing cigarette withdrawal symptoms. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of various doses of cotinine on cigarette self-administration. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of three doses of cotinine fumarate (40, 80 and 160 mg) and placebo, each for a period of 10 days, in a randomized order. Outcome variables included measures of nicotine intake and subjective responses to smoked cigarettes. Results showed no differences in the number of cigarettes smoked, carbon monoxide levels, and weights of cigarette butts across the various doses of cotinine and placebo. However, higher nicotine serum levels were observed in the 160 mg cotinine fumarate condition compared to placebo and to 40 mg cotinine fumarate. No systematic effects of cotinine on subjective responses to cigarettes were observed. Cotinine appears potentially to have a selective modulatory effect on nicotine withdrawal symptoms but not on cigarette smoking. PMID:9718288

Hatsukami, D; Lexau, B; Nelson, D; Pentel, P R; Sofuoglu, M; Goldman, A

1998-07-01

60

Comparative evaluation of salivary IL-1?, IL-10 and TNF-? concentrations in patients with oral pemphigus vulgaris lesions by ELISA technique  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction: Based on recent research, cytokines particularly IL-1?, IL-10, and INF-? might play a role in the pathogenesis of pemphigus vulgaris. Some autoimmune diseases have been successfully treated with the use of antibodies against cytokines. The aim of this study was to compare salivary concentrations of IL-1?, IL-10, and TNF-? in patients with pemphigus vulgaris and normal individuals. Materials and methods: In this analytical-descriptive study, 24 pemphigus vulgaris patients ref...

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

In vitro and in vivo application of anti-cotinine antibody and cotinine-conjugated compounds.  

Science.gov (United States)

The combination of a high-affinity antibody to a hapten, and hapten-conjugated compounds, can provide an alternative to the direct chemical cross-linking of the antibody and compounds. An optimal hapten for in vitro use is one that is absent in biological systems. For in vivo applications, additional characteristics such as pharmacological safety and physiological inertness would be beneficial. Additionally, methods for cross-linking the hapten to various chemical compounds should be available. Cotinine, a major metabolite of nicotine, is considered advantageous in these aspects. A high-affinity anti-cotinine recombinant antibody has recently become available, and can be converted into various formats, including a bispecific antibody. The bispecific anti-cotinine antibody was successfully applied to immunoblot, enzyme immunoassay, immunoaffinity purification, and pre-targeted in vivo radioimmunoimaging. The anti-cotinine IgG molecule could be complexed with aptamers to form a novel affinity unit, and extended the in vivo half-life of aptamers, opening up the possibility of applying the same strategy to therapeutic peptides and chemical compounds. PMID:24499668

Kim, Hyori; Yoon, Soomin; Chung, Junho

2014-03-01

62

Salivary scintigraphy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Salivary gland scintigraphy with technetium 99m (99mTc) in the form pertechnetate ion is a relatively simple procedure, which can provide a unique and sensitive means for investigating salivary gland physiologic function and its derangements. However, salivary scintigraphy is poorly suited for the detection and characterization of masses in and around the salivary glands. Computed tomography (CT) has, therefore, largely supplanted scintigraphy for the evaluation of masses and is the method of choice because it can provide exquisite anatomic detail. Consequently, CT is more sensitive for mass detection and can also provide useful information as to whether a mass has arisen from within or from outside of a salivary gland or whether a mass is circumscribed or invasive. It also can disclose the relationship of the mass to the facial nerve and occasionally can provide histologic characterization of such masses as cysts, lipomas, and masseter muscle hypertrophy

1988-01-01

63

Single gas chromatography method with nitrogen phosphorus detector for urinary cotinine determination in passive and active smokers  

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Nicotine is a major addictive compound in cigarettes and is rapidly and extensively metabolized to several metabolites in humans, including urinary cotinine, considered a biomarker due to its high concentration compared to other metabolites. The aim of this study was to develop a single method for determination of urinary cotinine, in active and passive smokers, by gas chromatography with a nitrogen phosphorus detector (GC-NPD). Urine (5.0 mL) was extracted with 1.0 mL of sodium hydroxide 5 m...

Lusiane Malafatti; Patrícia Penido Maia; Matheus Coutinho Gonçalves Martins; Maria Elisa Pereira Bastos de Siqueira; Isarita Martins

2010-01-01

64

Association of serum cotinine levels and hypertension in never smokers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hypertension is a major public health problem. Identifying novel risk factors for hypertension, including widely prevalent environmental exposures, is therefore important. Active smoking is a well-known risk factor for hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. However, there are no studies investigating the relationship between secondhand smoke exposure, measured objectively by serum cotinine, and high blood pressure among never smokers. We examined 2889 never smokers from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2008. Our exposure of interest was secondhand smoke exposure among never smokers, estimated by serum cotinine level, and our main outcome was hypertension (n=1004). We found that in never smokers, higher serum cotinine levels were positively associated with hypertension. In comparison with those with serum cotinine levels ? 0.025 ng/mL, the multivariable odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of hypertension among those with serum cotinine levels ? 0.218 ng/mL was 1.44 (1.01-2.04). In addition, higher serum cotinine was positively associated with mean change in systolic blood pressure (odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 3.24 [0.86-5.63]; P=0.0061). However, no association was present with diastolic blood pressure. In conclusion, in never smokers, higher secondhand smoke exposure measured objectively by serum cotinine levels was found to be associated with systolic blood pressure and hypertension independent of age, sex, ethnicity, education, alcohol drinking, body mass index, glycohemoglobin, total cholesterol, and other confounders. PMID:23184382

Alshaarawy, Omayma; Xiao, Jie; Shankar, Anoop

2013-02-01

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The effect of pirenzepine on gastric emptying and salivary flow rate: constraints on the use of saliva paracetamol concentrations for the determination of paracetamol pharmacokinetics.  

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1. The effects of pirenzepine on gastric emptying, salivary flow and saliva paracetamol concentrations were investigated in healthy volunteers. 2. Pirenzepine significantly reduced the area under the saliva flow-time curves (7.29 +/- 3.30 g min-1 h without pirenzepine; 4.19 +/- 2.59 g min-1 h with pirenzepine, P less than 0.01). Pirenzepine had no significant effect on plasma paracetamol Cmax (17.5 +/- 7.8 micrograms ml-1 without pirenzepine; 12.6 +/- 7.7 micrograms ml-1 with pirenzepine), pl...

1992-01-01

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The Relationship between Serum Cotinine Levels and Periodontal Status  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Smoking plays a significant role in the development of periodontal disease. Quantitative relation between smoking and increased severity of periodontal disease, by means of biochemical marker has not been described in Malaysian population. The present study was designed to apply serum cotinine measurement as a quantitative method to evaluate smoking levels in Malaysian patients and to correlate these levels with the severity of periodontal disease. Approach: The study group consisted of 80 healthy individuals (20-64 year, Current Smokers 26, Non Smokers 27 and Former Smokers 27. The subjects were then asked to complete a questionnaire including the demographic, socioeconomic status, medical history and history of cigarette smoking. The periodontal variables recorded were amount of Visible Plaque score, gingival bleeding Index and community periodontal index. Samples of blood ?10 mL? were obtained in vacutainer tubes containing EDTA for quantitative analysis of serum levels of cotinine. The serum samples were analyzed for cotinine content by means of a competitive-inhibition ELISA technique. Results: Current smokers represent the highest mean cotinine serum level, 95.5 ng mL-1, compared to former smokers, 35.5 ng mL-1 and non smokers, 22.9 ng mL-1. The mean serum cotinine level in periodontally healthy patient showed the highest cotinine level (84 ng mL-1 followed by the gingivitis patients (68 ng mL-1 and (50 ng mL-1 for periodontitis patients. Conclusion: The present observations clearly indicate an association between smoking, periodontal disease clinical parameters ?plaque, gingival bleeding scores? and cotinine serum levels in current smokers. Cotinine serum levels doesn?t affected by the existence or the severity of periodontal disease.

Fouad H. AL-Bayaty

2010-01-01

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Serum cotinine levels and prehypertension in never smokers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background. Few studies have shown that self-reported secondhand smoke exposure in never smokers is associated with high blood pressure. However, there are no studies investigating the relationship between secondhand smoke exposure, measured objectively by serum cotinine levels, and high blood pressure in never smokers. Methods. We examined never smokers (n = 2027) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2008. Our exposure of interest was the secondhand smoke exposure estimated by serum cotinine level and our outcome was prehypertension (n = 734), defined as a systolic blood pressure of 120-139?mmHg or diastolic blood pressure of 80-89?mmHg. Results. We found that, in never smokers, serum cotinine levels were positively associated with prehypertension. Compared to those with cotinine levels in the lowest quartile (?0.024?ng/mL), the multivariable odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of prehypertension among those with cotinine levels in the highest quartile (?0.224?ng/mL) was 1.45(1.00, 2.11); P trend = 0.0451. In subsequent subgroup analyses, the positive association was found to be stronger among men, non-Whites, and non-obese subjects. Conclusion. Higher secondhand smoke exposure measured objectively by serum cotinine levels was found to be associated with prehypertension in certain subgroups of a representative sample of the US population. PMID:23476744

Alshaarawy, Omayma; Xiao, Jie; Andrew, Michael E; Burchfiel, Cecil; Shankar, Anoop

2013-01-01

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Cotinine and trans 3'-Hydroxycotinine in Dried Blood Spots as Biomarkers of Tobacco Exposure and Nicotine Metabolism  

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Tobacco use is the major preventable cause of premature death in the United States. Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure also contributes to a number of premature deaths as well as other negative health outcomes. An accurate assessment of tobacco smoke exposure is critical to understanding these disease processes. The plasma concentration of cotinine, the primary metabolite of nicotine, is widely accepted as a quantitative measure of tobacco and SHS exposure. However, it is not always feasible to collect plasma. Dried blood spots (DBS), which are collected routinely from newborns and often from young children for lead screening, provide an alternative sampling method. We have developed a quantitative high throughput liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method for the analysis of cotinine in DBS. The limit of quantitation was 0.3 ng/g (~ 0.2 ng/ml plasma). Cotinine levels in DBS from 83 smokers and 99 nonsmokers exposed to SHS were determined. Plasma cotinine concentrations in these subjects ranged from nicotine metabolism, in DBS from smokers. This ratio in DBS was well correlated with the ratio in plasma, 0.94 (p<0.001). In a small study we confirmed the feasibility of using extant DBS collected for lead screening to assess SHS exposure in children.

Murphy, Sharon E.; Wickham, Katherine M.; Lindgren, Bruce R.; Spector, Logan G.; Joseph, Anne

2014-01-01

69

Salivary sIgA concentrations and stimulated whole saliva flow rates among women undergoing chemotherapy for breast cancer: an exploratory study.  

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A study was conducted to evaluate the secretion of stimulated whole saliva (SWS) and secretory IgA (sIgA) among three groups of women. One group was a healthy control group, the second group consisted of women diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer before being placed on chemotherapy, while the third group consisted of women on chemotherapy taking CMF (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil) for at least one month. There were seven patients in each group. SWS was collected. Salivary sIgA concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunoabsorbant assay. The results of the study showed that the mean SWS flow rate for the chemotherapy group (x = 0.96 mL/min) was significantly lower (p > 0.03) than that of the control group (x = 2.33 mL/min) and lower than that of the group with cancer (x = 1.81 mL/min). Additionally, the results showed that the mean sIgA concentrations for the chemotherapy group (x = 10.9 ng/mg of protein) were slightly lower than those of the control group (x = 13.7 ng/mg of protein) and lower than those of the group with cancer (x = 12.6 ng/mg of protein). The results of this study suggest that women placed on CMF for treatment of carcinoma of the breast may have reduced stimulated salivary production. PMID:9680920

Harrison, T; Bigler, L; Tucci, M; Pratt, L; Malamud, F; Thigpen, J T; Streckfus, C; Younger, H

1998-01-01

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Laminated paper-based analytical devices (LPAD) with origami-enabled chemiluminescence immunoassay for cotinine detection in mouse serum.  

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Laminated paper-based analytical devices (LPAD) with origami-enabled chemiluminescence immunoassay have been developed for the detection of cotinine, a secondhand smoke (SHS) biomarker. The devices were fabricated by a craft-cutter to define flow channels, followed by lamination. This approach of cutting/lamination to fabricate LPAD is very similar to making an identification card, offering advantages in simplicity and rugged backing when compared to the common method of patterning paper using SU-8 or wax. We also developed a protocol of localized incision and paper-folding to isolate the detection zone from flow channels; the simple origami step eliminated possible reagent diffusion and flow during antibody immobilization steps and numerous washings. By incorporating luminol-based chemiluminescence for detecting horseradish peroxidase-conjugated cotinine, we employed origami-enabled LPAD to detect cotinine in mouse serum using competitive immunoassay. The detection limit was determined to be 5 ng/mL, a clinically relevant concentration. We believe that LPAD with chemiluminescence detection provides a new platform of low cost and sensitive assays for cotinine detection. PMID:24117197

Liu, Wei; Cassano, Christopher L; Xu, Xin; Fan, Z Hugh

2013-11-01

71

Radionuclide salivary gland imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific

1981-01-01

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Prevalence of Smoking Assessed Biochemically in an Urban Public Hospital: A Rationale for Routine Cotinine Screening  

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Cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine, has been used to study tobacco smoke exposure in population studies, but the authors are unaware of its use to screen hospitalized patients. The authors measured serum cotinine levels in 948 patients admitted to an urban public hospital in San Francisco, California, between September 2005 and July 2006. On the basis of cotinine levels, they classified patients as active smokers (cotinine ? 14 ng/mL), recent smokers or significantly exposed to secondhand s...

2009-01-01

73

Comparación de la concentración total de proteínas salivales de adultos y adultos mayores Comparison of total salivary protein concentration in adults and older adults  

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Full Text Available Objetivo: Entre las moléculas orgánicas que componen la saliva se han descrito un gran número de proteínas. No existe evidencia suficiente que permita especular sobre los cambios en el contenido proteico salival asociados al envejecimiento normal. El objetivo fue determinar si existen diferencias en la concentración total de proteínas en saliva de adultos y adultos mayores. Método: Se obtuvieron muestras de saliva estimulada y no estimulada de individuos pertenecientes a dos grupos etarios, adultos (A (n=30 (edad promedio: 25 años y adultos mayores (AM (n=30 (edad promedio: 68 años. Se excluyeron aquellos sujetos que presentaron alguna patología oral/sistémica o consumo de fármacos/sustancias relacionados con alteraciones del flujo o composición salival. Cada muestra fue centrifugada. A 10 µl del sobrenadante se agregaron 190 µl de solución de Bradford. Se realizó el recuento mediante lectura con espectrofotómetro (595 nm. La concentración de proteínas fue comparada entre los grupos en estudio utilizando la prueba t de Student (pObjective: A high number of proteins has been described in saliva. Scarce evidence allows to speculate about the variations on protein content associated with aging. The aim was to determine if there is a difference in total protein concentration between adults and older adults. Methods: Samples were collected from unstimulated and stimulated saliva of individuals from two age groups, adults (A (n=30 (mean age 25 years and older adults (OA (n=30(mean age: 68 years. Subjects with oral/systemic diseases or consuming medications that alter salivary flow were excluded from the study. Each sample was centrifuged and 10 ?l of the supernatant was added to 190 ?l of Bradford solution. Protein concentration was obtained by spectrophotometry (595 nm Protein concentration was compared between the groups using student’s t test (p<0.05. Results: Total protein concentration from unstimulated saliva was higher in OA (5.5±2.6 ug/ul than in A (3.2 ± 1.7 ug/ul (p<0.05. Total protein concentration of stimulated saliva was higher in OA (4.9±0.4 ug/ul than in A (4.0±0.3 ug/ul (p<0.05. Conclusion: Salivary protein concentration increases in older adults. Further studies are suggested to characterize these changes.

RJ Castro

2012-04-01

74

TUMORS OF SALIVARY GLANDS  

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Full Text Available The glands are divided into major and minor salivary gland categories. The major salivary glands are the parotid, the submandibular, and the sublingual glands. The minor glands are dispersed throughout the upper aerodigestive submucosa. Salivary gland tumors are abnormal cells growing in the ducts that drain the salivary glands. Salivary glands tumors are uncommon and are subdivided into benign neoplasms, tumor-like conditions, and malignant neoplasms. They can be removed surgically or one can undergo radiation therapy for there cure. This article throws light on the types of salivary gland tumors, their signs and symptoms, treatment etc.

Gaurav Solanki

2012-04-01

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The Relationship between Serum Cotinine Levels and Periodontal Status  

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Problem statement: Smoking plays a significant role in the development of periodontal disease. Quantitative relation between smoking and increased severity of periodontal disease, by means of biochemical marker has not been described in Malaysian population. The present study was designed to apply serum cotinine measurement as a quantitative method to evaluate smoking levels in Malaysian patients and to correlate these levels with the severity of periodontal disease. Approach: T...

2010-01-01

76

Comparación de la concentración total de proteínas salivales de adultos y adultos mayores / Comparison of total salivary protein concentration in adults and older adults  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Entre las moléculas orgánicas que componen la saliva se han descrito un gran número de proteínas. No existe evidencia suficiente que permita especular sobre los cambios en el contenido proteico salival asociados al envejecimiento normal. El objetivo fue determinar si existen diferencias en [...] la concentración total de proteínas en saliva de adultos y adultos mayores. Método: Se obtuvieron muestras de saliva estimulada y no estimulada de individuos pertenecientes a dos grupos etarios, adultos (A) (n=30) (edad promedio: 25 años) y adultos mayores (AM) (n=30) (edad promedio: 68 años). Se excluyeron aquellos sujetos que presentaron alguna patología oral/sistémica o consumo de fármacos/sustancias relacionados con alteraciones del flujo o composición salival. Cada muestra fue centrifugada. A 10 µl del sobrenadante se agregaron 190 µl de solución de Bradford. Se realizó el recuento mediante lectura con espectrofotómetro (595 nm). La concentración de proteínas fue comparada entre los grupos en estudio utilizando la prueba t de Student (p Abstract in english Objective: A high number of proteins has been described in saliva. Scarce evidence allows to speculate about the variations on protein content associated with aging. The aim was to determine if there is a difference in total protein concentration between adults and older adults. Methods: Samples wer [...] e collected from unstimulated and stimulated saliva of individuals from two age groups, adults (A) (n=30) (mean age 25 years) and older adults (OA) (n=30)(mean age: 68 years). Subjects with oral/systemic diseases or consuming medications that alter salivary flow were excluded from the study. Each sample was centrifuged and 10 ?l of the supernatant was added to 190 ?l of Bradford solution. Protein concentration was obtained by spectrophotometry (595 nm) Protein concentration was compared between the groups using student’s t test (p

RJ, Castro; G, Guzmán; RA, Giacaman.

77

Disposition kinetics of nicotine and cotinine enantiomers in rabbits and beagle dogs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The disposition kinetics of nicotine and cotinine enantiomers was determined in rabbits. The clearance of (R)-nicotine was similar to that of (S)-nicotine, but clearance of (R)-cotinine was twice that of (S)-cotinine. Fractional conversions of both enantiomers of nicotine to cotinine were approximately 50%. These results suggest that in rabbits the biotransformation pathways of cotinine, but not nicotine, are influenced by stereochemistry. The disposition kinetics of nicotine enantiomers in beagle dogs was also studied. In dogs, the clearance of (R)-nicotine was slightly greater than the clearance of (S)-nicotine. Methods for the synthesis of (R)-nicotine and (R)-cotinine of high enantiomeric purity and a gas chromatographic method for determination of nicotine enantiomeric purity are described. PMID:3411460

Jacob, P; Benowitz, N L; Copeland, J R; Risner, M E; Cone, E J

1988-05-01

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Toward improved statistical methods for analyzing Cotinine-Biomarker health association data  

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Abstract Background Serum cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine, is frequently used in research as a biomarker of recent tobacco smoke exposure. Historically, secondhand smoke (SHS) research uses suboptimal statistical methods due to censored serum cotinine values, meaning a measurement below the limit of detection (LOD). Methods We compared commonly used methods for analyzing censored serum cotinine data using parametric and non-parametric techniques employing dat...

Koru-Sengul Tulay; Clark John D; Fleming Lora E; Lee David J

2011-01-01

79

Breast feeding and smoking hygiene: major influences on cotinine in urine of smokers' infants.  

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The determinants of urine cotinine levels were studied in a group of 101 infants aged 3 months, including 79 infants whose mothers were current smokers. At a pre-arranged home visit the infants' mothers completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire, and samples of maternal urine and breast milk and infants' urine were collected. Cotinine and nicotine levels were determined by gas-liquid chromatography. Infant urine cotinine levels ranged from 0 to 140 micrograms/l (0-1120 ng cotinine/mg...

Woodward, A.; Grgurinovich, N.; Ryan, P.

1986-01-01

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Influence of high phosphorus intake on salivary and plasma concentrations, and urinary phosphorus excretion in mature ponies  

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This study addressed the question whether the concentration of phosphorus (P) in saliva of ponies is influenced by P intake. Six ponies were fed a diet high in P (HP treatment), providing 21 g P/day, and a diet low in P (LP treatment), supplying 7 g P/day. The two diets provided approximately 21 g calcium (Ca) and 6 g magnesium (Mg)/day. The experiment had an A-B-A design with treatment periods of 30 days. The ponies first received the HP diet (HP1), followed by the LP treat...

Doorn, D. A.; Everts, H.; Wouterse, J.; Homan, S.; Beynen, A. C.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Salivary changes and dental caries as potential oral markers of autoimmune salivary gland dysfunction in primary Sjögren's syndrome  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background the classification criteria for primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS include a number of oral components. In this study we evaluated if salivary flow and composition as well as dental caries are oral markers of disease severity in pSS. Methods in 20 patients fulfilling the American-European Consensus criteria for pSS and 20 age-matched healthy controls whole and parotid saliva flow rates and composition, measures of oral dryness, scores of decayed, missing and filled tooth surfaces (DMFS, periodontal indices, oral hygiene, and dietary habits were examined. Results in pSS, salivary flow rates, pH, and buffer capacities were lower, and DMFS, salivary sodium and chloride concentrations higher than in the healthy controls. DMFS also correlated inversely to salivary flow rates and positively to oral dryness. Apart from slightly increased gingival index, and more frequent dental visits in pSS, the periodontal condition, oral hygiene or sugar intake did not differ between these two groups. In pSS, findings were correlated to labial salivary gland focus score (FS and presence of serum-autoantibodies to SSA/SSB (AB. The patients having both presence of AB and the highest FS (>2 also had the highest salivary sodium and chloride concentrations, the lowest salivary phosphate concentrations, lowest salivary flow rates, and highest DMFS compared to those with normal salivary concentrations of sodium and chloride at a given flow rate. Conclusion the salivary changes observed in some pSS patients reflect impaired ductal salt reabsorption, but unaffected acinar transport mechanisms, despite low salivary secretion. Our results suggest that changes in salivary flow and composition as well as dental caries may serve as potential markers of the extent of autoimmune-mediated salivary gland dysfunction in pSS. The study also indicates that the ductal epithelium is functionally affected in some pSS patients, which calls for future pathophysiological studies on the mechanisms underlying this impaired salt reabsorption.

Nauntofte Birgitte

2005-03-01

82

Salivary testosterone levels in preadolescent children  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Saliva reflects the plasma free fraction of testosterone which is biologically active, and available for uptake by tissues. Testosterone concentration in saliva, though differing slightly from the concentration of unbound testosterone in serum, is in good correlation with the latter, indicating that salivary testosterone provides a reliable method for determination of serum free testosterone. The study aimed to investigate salivary testosterone levels and their changes in preadolescent children and to study sexual dimorphism. Methods Testosterone levels were determined in 203 healthy preadolescent children (77 girls and 126 boys from saliva samples by radioimmunoassay. Sampling was performed once a year with respect to circadian and seasonal fluctuations of testosterone. Data were statistically analyzed by Statgraphic software. Results Mean salivary testosterone concentrations (± SD were 0.038 ± 0.012 nmol/L and 0.046 ± 0.026 nmol/L for girls and boys, with the medians 0.035 nmol/L and 0.041 nmol/L, respectively. Statistical analysis did not prove changes in salivary testosterone concentrations in the preadolescent period of life, with an exception of the insignificant fall at the age of 7 years, and an insignificant rise at the age of 9 years in girls. Conclusions Generally it can be concluded that salivary testosterone levels in our prepubertal subjects remained stable. There was no significant increase of salivary testosterone levels from the age of 6 until the age of 9 in both sexes. Sexual dimorphism in salivary testosterone levels was proved with significantly higher (p = 0.009 salivary testosterone levels in boys than in girls.

Dohnányiová Monika

2002-06-01

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Effects of administration of potassium- and sodiumchlorides on faecal excretions and salivary and alimentary concentrations of, Na, K, 134Cs, Ca, Mg and P in reindeer fed a lichen diet  

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Full Text Available A comparison of the effects of administration of 350 mmol d-1 of KC1 or NaCl on faecal excretions, salivary concentrations and concentrations and pools of Na, K, 134Cs, Ca, Mg, P, and water in the alimentary tract of reindeer was carried out using three groups of three 10 months old reindeer fed a lichen diet. One group was used as a control group with no mineral supplementation. The level of K supplementation mimicked K intakes from summer pastures. NaCl was given at a rate which would mimic intake from salt licks by domestic ruminants of similar body size. Treatment with KC1 increased the salivary and alimentary concentrations and the alimentary pool sizes of K and faecal excretion of K increased. A decrease in l34Cs concentrations in all parts of the gastrointestinal tract indicated greater absorption of 134Cs during the KC1 treatment than in NaCl treated and control animals. Increased intake of Na or K had no significant effect on the digestibility of the lichen diet, but urine production increased. Little effects on pools or concentrations of Ca, Mg and P were observed. NaCl treatment increased urinary and faecal excretion of Na, but did not affect the metabolism of any of the other studied minerals.

Øyvind Pedersen

1998-02-01

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Estudo da concentração salivar do fator de crescimento epidérmico em indivíduos com laringite crônica por refluxo laringofaríngeo / Salivary EGF concentration in adults with chronic laryngitis caused by laryngopharyngeal reflux  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: A Doença do Refluxo Gastroesofágico (DRGE), chegando até a faringe e laringe, pode cursar com intensa inflamação local e rica sintomatologia (Refluxo Laringofaríngeo RLF). Os estudos atuais não foram capazes de provar que o ácido refluído é o causador das alterações visualizadas na larin [...] gite crônica. O Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico (EGF) é um polipeptídeo produzido pelas glândulas salivares, sendo implicado na indução do crescimento epitelial, na inibição da secreção gástrica e na aceleração da cicatrização. Deficiência salivar deste fator foi encontrada na esofagite de refluxo, mas não há relatos sobre a concentração salivar de EGF em indivíduos com RLF. OBJETIVO: Determinar a concentração salivar do EGF em indivíduos com RLF. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Caso controle. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODO: A concentração salivar de EGF de 39 indivíduos com RLF e 20 controles normais foi estudada pela técnica de ELISA. O RLF foi diagnosticado por história e exame videolaringoscópico característicos. Os 39 pacientes com RLF foram estratificados de acordo com os achados de endoscopia digestiva (com ou sem esofagite associada) e de acordo com a intensidade da laringite crônica. Foram, também, submetidos a manometria esofágica e pH-metria esofágica de 24 horas com dois canais. RESULTADOS: Constatou-se uma concentração de EGF significativamente menor nos indivíduos com RLF quando comparados aos controles normais (p=0,002). Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante na concentração salivar de EGF entre os indivíduos com RLF, nem em relação à presença de esofagite, nem quanto à intensidade da laringite. CONCLUSÕES: Este estudo sugere que uma deficiência na concentração salivar do Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico pode estar associada à patogenia da DRGE, e que este polipeptídeo poderia ser um co-fator na gênese do RLF. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) may cause intense inflammation and symptoms in the larynx and pharynx (Laryngopharyngeal Reflux LPR). Studies have not been able to establish a direct link between the refluxed acid and the typical laryngeal findings in LPR. The Epidermal Growth F [...] actor (EGF) is a polypeptide produced by the salivary glands and shown to induce epithelial development, inhibit gastric acid secretion and accelerate wound healing. This factor is decreased in the saliva of patients with reflux esophagitis, but there are no reports of its behavior in LPR. AIM: The objective of this study was to determine the salivary concentration of EGF in adults with LPR compared to normal controls. STUDY DESIGN: Control study. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The salivary EGF concentration of 39 patients with LPR and 20 healthy controls was determined using a commercially available ELISA kit. LPR was diagnosed based on history and typical laryngopharyngeal signs. The 39 patients with LPR were graded according to endoscopic (presence of associated esophagitis) and laryngoscopic criteria (severity of laryngitis). Patients with LPR were also submitted to esophageal manometry and 24-hour double probe pH-metry. RESULTS: Salivary EGF concentration was significantly lower in the LPR group when compared to controls (p= 0,002). No correlation between the severity of laryngeal findings or presence/absence of esophagitis and salivary EGF concentration could be determined. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that a decreased salivary concentration of Epidermal Growth Factor could be associated to the pathogenesis of GERD and that this same deficiency could also be related to LPR.

Eckley, Claudia A.; Costa, Henrique O..

85

Estudo da concentração salivar do fator de crescimento epidérmico em indivíduos com laringite crônica por refluxo laringofaríngeo Salivary EGF concentration in adults with chronic laryngitis caused by laryngopharyngeal reflux  

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Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A Doença do Refluxo Gastroesofágico (DRGE, chegando até a faringe e laringe, pode cursar com intensa inflamação local e rica sintomatologia (Refluxo Laringofaríngeo RLF. Os estudos atuais não foram capazes de provar que o ácido refluído é o causador das alterações visualizadas na laringite crônica. O Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico (EGF é um polipeptídeo produzido pelas glândulas salivares, sendo implicado na indução do crescimento epitelial, na inibição da secreção gástrica e na aceleração da cicatrização. Deficiência salivar deste fator foi encontrada na esofagite de refluxo, mas não há relatos sobre a concentração salivar de EGF em indivíduos com RLF. OBJETIVO: Determinar a concentração salivar do EGF em indivíduos com RLF. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Caso controle. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODO: A concentração salivar de EGF de 39 indivíduos com RLF e 20 controles normais foi estudada pela técnica de ELISA. O RLF foi diagnosticado por história e exame videolaringoscópico característicos. Os 39 pacientes com RLF foram estratificados de acordo com os achados de endoscopia digestiva (com ou sem esofagite associada e de acordo com a intensidade da laringite crônica. Foram, também, submetidos a manometria esofágica e pH-metria esofágica de 24 horas com dois canais. RESULTADOS: Constatou-se uma concentração de EGF significativamente menor nos indivíduos com RLF quando comparados aos controles normais (p=0,002. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante na concentração salivar de EGF entre os indivíduos com RLF, nem em relação à presença de esofagite, nem quanto à intensidade da laringite. CONCLUSÕES: Este estudo sugere que uma deficiência na concentração salivar do Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico pode estar associada à patogenia da DRGE, e que este polipeptídeo poderia ser um co-fator na gênese do RLF.INTRODUCTION: Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD may cause intense inflammation and symptoms in the larynx and pharynx (Laryngopharyngeal Reflux LPR. Studies have not been able to establish a direct link between the refluxed acid and the typical laryngeal findings in LPR. The Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF is a polypeptide produced by the salivary glands and shown to induce epithelial development, inhibit gastric acid secretion and accelerate wound healing. This factor is decreased in the saliva of patients with reflux esophagitis, but there are no reports of its behavior in LPR. AIM: The objective of this study was to determine the salivary concentration of EGF in adults with LPR compared to normal controls. STUDY DESIGN: Control study. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The salivary EGF concentration of 39 patients with LPR and 20 healthy controls was determined using a commercially available ELISA kit. LPR was diagnosed based on history and typical laryngopharyngeal signs. The 39 patients with LPR were graded according to endoscopic (presence of associated esophagitis and laryngoscopic criteria (severity of laryngitis. Patients with LPR were also submitted to esophageal manometry and 24-hour double probe pH-metry. RESULTS: Salivary EGF concentration was significantly lower in the LPR group when compared to controls (p= 0,002. No correlation between the severity of laryngeal findings or presence/absence of esophagitis and salivary EGF concentration could be determined. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that a decreased salivary concentration of Epidermal Growth Factor could be associated to the pathogenesis of GERD and that this same deficiency could also be related to LPR.

Claudia A. Eckley

2003-10-01

86

MALIGNANT SALIVARY GLAND TUMORS  

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Full Text Available Malignant salivary gland tumors make up 6% of all head and neck tumors. Several types of cancer can develop in these glands. Only malignant tumors of the salivary glands are discussed in this paper. The diagnosis and treatment of salivary gland malignancies remain complex, with challenging problems for maxillo-facial surgeon. Scientists have found few risk factors that make a person more likely to develop salivary gland cancer. Salivary gland cancer is uncommon, and there is no widely recommended screening schedule for this cancer. CT scanning or MRI is useful for determining the extent of large tumors, for evaluating extraglandular extension, for determining the actual depth of parotid tumors, and for discovering other tumors in one gland or in the controlateral gland. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB is a valuable diagnostic adjunct in evaluation of head and neck masses but its role in evaluation of salivary gland tumors is controversial. There are also discussed some histologic findings about mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, acinic cell carcinoma, carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenoma, squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma developed in salivary glands. Carefully planned and executed surgical excision is the primary treatment for all malignant tumors of the salivary glands. The principles of surgery vary with the site of origin. The extent of surgery is based on the size of the tumor, local extension and neck metastases. Staging of malignant salivary gland tumors is important for predicting prognosis and for accurate comparison of treatment results.

Violeta Trandafir

2010-05-01

87

Simultaneous and Sensitive Measurement of Nicotine, Cotinine, trans-3'-Hydroxycotinine and Norcotinine in Human Plasma by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry  

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An LCMSMS method for the simultaneous quantification of nicotine, cotinine, trans-3’-hydroxycotinine and norcotinine in human plasma was developed and fully validated. Potential endogenous and exogenous interferences were extensively evaluated and limits of quantification were determined by decreasing analyte concentration. Analytical ranges were 1–500 ng/mL for nicotine and cotinine, 5–500 ng/mL for trans-3’-hydroxycotinine and norcotinine. Mean intra- and inter-assay analytical recovery were between 101.9 and 116.8%, and intra- and inter-assay imprecision were less than 11% RSD for all analytes: parameters were evaluated at three different concentrations across the linear range of the assay. Extraction efficiency was ? 70% for all analytes. This validated method is useful for determination of nicotine and metabolites in human plasma to support research on the role of nicotine biomarkers on neuronal systems mediating cognitive and affective processes and to differentiate active, passive and environmental exposure.

Shakleya, Diaa M.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

2009-01-01

88

Determinación de cotinina y exposición a tabaco Cotinine detection and tobacco smoke exposure  

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Full Text Available La exposición a tabaco es una de las causas prevenibles de morbilidad y mortalidad prematura más importante. Se describe un método simple y rápido de detección de cotinina (principal metabolito de nicotina en orina humana. Se utilizó cromatografía gas-líquido (CGL con un detector de ionización de llama (FID. Se realizó una extracción líquido-líquido con cloroformo en medio alcalino; el extracto fue secado a 37 °C y redisuelto en 100 µL de solución alcohólica con estándar interno piridina. Se analizó la orina de personas que declararon ser fumadoras y no fumadoras. Mediante la construcción de dos curvas de calibración se cubrió un rango de linealidad de 3 a 5.000 ng/mL. Los fumadores presentaron una mediana y cuartiles (Q de concentración de cotinina: 255,4 ng/mL, 15,9 ng/mL (Q1 - 1.050,2 ng/mL (Q3, respectivamente, y los no fumadores 15,8 ng/mL, 4,1 ng/mL (Q1 - 38,4 ng/mL (Q3. Wilcoxon sumrank: z = 4,865 p Tobacco is one of the major preventable causes of morbidity and premature mortality in the world. A simple, rapid method for determination of cotinine, major metabolite of nicotine in urine, is described. The assay involves a fast liquid-liquid extraction with chloroform as a solvent in alkaline environment. The extract was dried at 37 °C and the residue was dissolved in 100 µL of standard internal of pyridine in methanol solution, and an aliquot was analyzed by gas-liquid chromatograph equipped with a flame -ionization detector. This technique was performed to test urine of a sample of smokers and non-smokers who were previously asked about their smoking habit. The limit of detection was 3.1 ng/mL, and using two calibration curves, a linearity range from 3 a 5.000 ng/mL was covered. The median and quartiles (Q of cotinine in smokers were 255.4 ng/mL, 15.9 ng/mL (Q1 -1050.2 ng/mL (Q3 ng/mL and in non-smokers 15.8 ng/mL, 4.1 ng/mL (Q1 - 38.4 ng/mL (Q3. Wilcoxon sumrank: z = 4.865 p < 0.01. There was a relationship between cotinine concentration in urine and number of smoked cigarettes. Spearman's rho = 0.5672 (p < 0.001. This technique could identify smokers, second hand smokers and non-smokers using cut-off of 10-15 ng/mL of cotinine in urine, usually adopted in epidemiological studies.

Marta Noemí Vacchino

2006-06-01

89

Elevated salivary C-reactive protein levels are associated with active and passive smoking in healthy youth: A pilot study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined salivary C-reactive protein (CRP levels in the context of tobacco smoke exposure (TSE in healthy youth. We hypothesized that there would be a dose-response relationship between TSE status and salivary CRP levels. Methods This work is a pilot study (N = 45 for a larger investigation in which we aim to validate salivary CRP against serum CRP, the gold standard measurement of low-grade inflammation. Participants were healthy youth with no self-reported periodontal disease, no objectively measured obesity/adiposity, and no clinical depression, based on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II. We assessed tobacco smoking and confirmed smoking status (non-smoking, passive smoking, and active smoking with salivary cotinine measurement. We measured salivary CRP by the ELISA method. We controlled for several potential confounders. Results We found evidence for the existence of a dose-response relationship between the TSE status and salivary CRP levels. Conclusions Our preliminary findings indicate that salivary CRP seems to have a similar relation to TSE as its widely used serum (systemic inflammatory biomarker counterpart.

Azar Rima

2011-12-01

90

Comparison of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies to cotinine in nonisotopic and isotopic immunoassays  

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Monoclonal antibodies (McAb) were used to develop nonisotopic and radioimmunoassays (RIA) for quantitative determination of the major nicotine metabolite, cotinine, in physiological fluids. Cotinine levels in saliva, serum and plasma from smokers and non-smokers determined with McAb-based assays showed a strong correlation with values obtained by RIA using rabbit antisera or by gas chromatography. Properly selected McAb offer distinct advantages over conventional antisera in non-isotopic immunoassays and RIAs for cotinine as a biochemical marker of active or passive smoking. (Auth.)

1987-02-11

91

Quantitation of Cotinine and its Metabolites in Rat Plasma and Brain Tissue by Hydrophilic Interaction Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS)  

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In this work, we developed a sensitive method to quantify cotinine (COT), norcotinine (NCOT), trans-3?-hydroxycotinine (OHCOT) and cotinine-N-oxide (COTNO) in rat plasma and brain tissue, using solid phase extraction (SPE), hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The linear range was 1–100 ng/ml for each analyte in rat plasma and brain homogenate (3–300 ng/g brain tissue). The method was validated with precision within 15% relative standard deviation (RSD) and accuracy within 15% relative error (RE). Stable isotope-labeled internal standards (IS) were used for all the analytes to achieve good reproducibility, minimizing the influence of recovery and matrix effects. This method can be used in future studies to simultaneously determine the concentrations of COT and three major metabolites in rat plasma and brain tissue.

Li, Pei; Beck, Wayne D.; Callahan, Patrick M.; Terry, Alvin V.; Bartlett, Michael G.

2014-01-01

92

Assessment of smoking status based on cotinine levels in nasal lavage fluid  

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Abstract Cotinine is a principal metabolite of nicotine with a substantially longer half-life, and cotinine levels in saliva, urine or serum are widely used to validate self-reported smoking status. The nasal cavity and olfactory system are directly exposed to tobacco smoke in smokers and in non-smokers who live with or work around smokers. However, despite the potential for a direct impact of tobacco smoke on the nasal epithelium and olfactory neurons, no prior studies have assesse...

Ozdener Mehmet; Yee Karen K; McDermott Ryan; Cowart Beverly J; Vainius Aldona A; Dalton Pamela; Rawson Nancy E

2009-01-01

93

Gene-Centric Analysis of Serum Cotinine Levels in African and European American Populations  

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To date, most genetic association studies of tobacco use have been conducted in European American subjects using the phenotype of smoking quantity (cigarettes per day). However, smoking quantity is a very imprecise measure of exposure to tobacco smoke constituents. Analyses of alternate phenotypes and populations may improve our understanding of tobacco addiction genetics. Cotinine is the major metabolite of nicotine, and measuring serum cotinine levels in smokers provides a more objective me...

2012-01-01

94

Assessment of smoking status based on cotinine levels in nasal lavage fluid  

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Full Text Available Abstract Cotinine is a principal metabolite of nicotine with a substantially longer half-life, and cotinine levels in saliva, urine or serum are widely used to validate self-reported smoking status. The nasal cavity and olfactory system are directly exposed to tobacco smoke in smokers and in non-smokers who live with or work around smokers. However, despite the potential for a direct impact of tobacco smoke on the nasal epithelium and olfactory neurons, no prior studies have assessed cotinine levels in nasal mucus. We sought to determine whether cotinine levels in nasal lavage fluid (NLF would provide a reasonable estimate of smoke exposure. We assayed cotinine using a competitive immunoassay in NLF from 23 smokers, 10 non-smokers exposed to tobacco smoke (ETS and 60 non-smokers who did not report smoke exposure. NLF cotinine levels were significantly higher in smokers than in non-smokers, regardless of their exposure to ambient tobacco smoke. Cotinine levels in this small group of exposed non-smokers were not significantly different than those of non-exposed non-smokers. A cutoff of 1 ng/ml provided a sensitivity of 91% and a specificity of 99% for smoking status in this sample. Data were consistent with self-reported smoking status, and a cutoff of 1.0 ng/ml NLF cotinine may be used to classify smoking status. While saliva is the most easily obtained body fluid, NLF can be used to provide an objective and precise indication of smoking status and more directly reflects smoke exposure in the nasal and olfactory mucosa.

Cowart Beverly J

2009-07-01

95

Salivary phenytoin radioimmunoassay  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A simple, specific and rapid radioimmunoassay method for the assessment of non-protein bound ('free') phenytoin concentrations in mixed saliva using 125I-labelled phenytoin is described. Epileptic patients on maintenance phenytoin therapy have mixed saliva phenytoin concentrations similar to 'free' drug levels measured directly in serum or cerebrospinal fluid. Salivary phenytoin levels are approximately 10% of the total serum level in treated epileptic patients and in normal subjects after ingestion of a single oral dose. The half time of disappearance of phenytoin after 100 or 300 mg doses is 12.2 +- 3.0 h in serum and 12. 3 +- 3.2 h in saliva. This method of assessing the biologically active fraction of the drug may be particularly valuable in situations where serum protein binding is abnormal or in drug interactions. It is also non-invasive and requires small sample volumes (20?l) and may therefore be valuable in paediatric practice and in pharmacokinetic studies in which multiple venepunctures would otherwise be required. (orig./MG)

1977-01-01

96

SALIVARY GLANDS - AN OVERVIEW  

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Full Text Available The glands are divided into major and minor salivary gland categories. The major salivary glands are parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands. The minor glands are dispersed throughout the upper aero-digestive submucosa. Saliva is the watery substance produced in the mouths of humans and other animals. Saliva is a component of oral fluid. Human saliva is composed of 98% water, while the other 2% consists of other compounds such as electrolytes, mucus, antibacterial compounds and various enzymes. A review of some patents on salivary glands is also provided that summarizes the recent technical advancements taken place in this area.

Gaurav Solanki

2012-04-01

97

Pediatric salivary gland imaging  

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A variety of lesions occur in the pediatric salivary glands. With modern imaging techniques such as Doppler sonography, helical CT, and MRI, identification of a specific etiology is often possible. Knowledge of clinical information, normal anatomy, and imaging characteristics of salivary gland pathology are essential for appropriate radiologic evaluation. This review illustrates the various congenital, neoplastic, and inflammatory entities that can occur within the parotid, submandibular, and sublingual spaces. (orig.)

Boyd, Zachary T. [University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City, MO (United States); Goud, Asha R. [University of California Irvine Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Orange, CA (United States); Lowe, Lisa H. [Children' s Mercy Hospitals and Clinics and the University of Missouri-Kansas City, Department of Radiology, Kansas City, MO (United States); Shao, Lei [Children' s Mercy Hospitals and Clinics and the University of Missouri-Kansas City, Department of Pathology, Kansas City, MO (United States)

2009-07-15

98

Pediatric salivary gland imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A variety of lesions occur in the pediatric salivary glands. With modern imaging techniques such as Doppler sonography, helical CT, and MRI, identification of a specific etiology is often possible. Knowledge of clinical information, normal anatomy, and imaging characteristics of salivary gland pathology are essential for appropriate radiologic evaluation. This review illustrates the various congenital, neoplastic, and inflammatory entities that can occur within the parotid, submandibular, and sublingual spaces. (orig.)

2009-07-01

99

Does cotinine act upon reactive oxygen species and peroxidases? A cotinina age sobre espécies reativas do oxigênio e peroxidases?  

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Nicotine, an oxidizing agent, is certainly one of the most widely used alkaloids in the world. It is, together with its main metabolite, cotinine, responsible for tobacco-dependence. The use of tobacco is closely associated with lung disease, morphological leukocyte modification and generation of oxidant species. The aim of this study was to look for a possible relationship between cotinine, oxidant species generation and oxidative processes. After studying the action of cotinine in some chem...

Vellosa, J. C. R.; Khalil, N. M.; Fonseca, L. M.; Brunetti, I. L.; Oliveira, O. M. M. F.

2007-01-01

100

Simultaneous serum nicotine, cotinine, and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine quantitation with minimal sample volume for tobacco exposure status of solid organ transplant patients.  

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Concentrations of nicotine and its metabolites in blood are indicative of patients' current tobacco exposure, and their quantifications have been clinically applied to multiple assessments including demonstration of abstinence prior to heart-lung transplantation. For the purpose of transplant evaluation, the laboratory work up is extensive; thereby an assay with minimal sample volume is preferred. We developed and validated a rapid LC-MS/MS assay to simultaneously quantitate nicotine and its major metabolites, Cotinine and trans-3'-OH-cotinine (3-OH-Cot), in serum. 100?L of serum was spiked with deuterated internal standards and extracted by Oasis HLB solid phase extraction cartridge. Nicotine and metabolites in the reconstituted serum extract were separated by Agilent Eclipse XDB-C8 3.5?m 2.1mm×50mm HPLC column within 4.7min, and quantified by MS/MS with positive mode electrospray ionization and multiple reaction monitoring. Ion suppression was insignificant, and extraction efficiency was 79-110% at 50ng/mL for all compounds. Limit of detection was 1.0ng/mL for nicotine and 3-OH-Cot, and Cotinine. Linearity ranges for nicotine, cotinine and 3-OH-Cot were 2-100, 2-1000, and 5-1000ng/mL with recoveries of 86-115%. Within-day and twenty-day imprecision at nicotine/cotinine/3-OH-Cot levels of 22/150/90, 37/250/150, and 50/800/500ng/mL were all 1.1-6.5%. The reconstituted serum extracts were stable for at least 7 days stored in the HPLC autosampler at 5°C. Our method correlates well with alternative LC-MS/MS methods. We successfully developed and validated an LC-MS/MS assay to quantitate concentrations of nicotine and its metabolites in serum with minimal sample volume to assess tobacco exposure of heart-lung transplant patients. PMID:23632003

Shu, Irene; Wang, Ping

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
101

Alternations in salivary glucose during ramadan fasting  

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Full Text Available During the holly month of Ramadan, Muslims fast every day from dawn to sunset. Although the effect of Ramadan fasting on general health has been widely studied, the impact of fasting on oral health and possible changes in salivary biochemicals, such as glucose, has not received much attentiom. The aim of our study was to evaluate the influence of fasting on the level of glucose in the saliva of healthy individuals. Salivary glucose was measured using an enzymatic method based on oxidation of glucose by glucoseoxidase followed by determination of resulting H2O2 in the presence of peroxidase. A reduction in mean concentration of glucose was observed in the saliva of all fasting subjects as compared to the control group. It was concluded that reduction in salivary glucose is mostly due to reduced food intake and may be beneficial to dental health.

Ali Erfani

2010-07-01

102

Estudo comparativo da concentração salivar do fator de crescimento epidérmico em indivíduos com laringite crônica por doença do refluxo gastroesofágica antes e após o tratamento: resultados preliminares Salivary egf concentration in adults with reflux chronic laryngitis before and after treatment: preliminary results  

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Full Text Available Os mecanismos fisiopatológicos do refluxo laringofaríngeo (RLF são pouco conhecidos. O Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico (EGF é a proteína de produção salivar com maior ação na regeneração do epitélio da orofaringe e tubo digestivo alto, tendo sido demonstradas deficiências em sua concentração salivar em indivíduos com RLF. OBJETIVO: Comparar a concentração salivar de EGF em um mesmo indivíduo com RLF antes e após o tratamento. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Neste estudo prospectivo doze indivíduos com DRGE e RLF de moderada intensidade tiveram sua saliva espontânea coletada antes e após o tratamento e controle da doença. A concentração salivar de EGF foi estabelecida através de exame de ELISA (Quantikine ®. RESULTADOS: Onze pacientes eram do sexo feminino e um do sexo masculino, com idade média de 49 anos. A concentração salivar de EGF pré-tratamento foi de 2.867,6pg/mL e a pós-tratamento foi 1.588,5pg/mL, sendo esta diferença estatisticamente significante (p=0,015. DISCUSSÃO E CONCLUSÕES: Apesar de a concentração salivar de EGF ser maior nos indivíduos antes do tratamento, esta não consegue alcançar àquela de uma população normal (estabelecida previamente, o que sugere uma deficiência primária deste importante fator de defesa em indivíduos com RLF.The Laryngopharyngeal Reflux (LPR physiopathology is still unknown. The Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF is a biologically active salivary protein that aids in the rapid regeneration of the oropharyngeal and upper digestive tract mucosas. Salivary deficiency of this protein in patients with LPR has been demonstrated in previous studies. AIM: To compare salivary EGF concentration in patients with LPR before and after treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective study twelve patients with GERD and moderate LPR were studied. Whole saliva samples were collected before and after treatment and salivary EGF concentration was determined using a commercially available ELISA kit (Quantikine ®. RESULTS: There were eleven females and one male among the patients, the mean age was 49 years. The mean pre-treatment salivary EGF concentration was 2,867.6 pg/mL and the mean post treatment EGF concentration was 1,588.5 pg/mL. This difference was statistically significant (p=0.015. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Although salivary EGF concentrations are higher before LPR treatment, the concentration is still much lower than the mean salivary EGF concentration in normal individuals without LPR, which suggests a primary disorder of this defense factor in individuals with LPR.

Claudia Alessandra Eckley

2007-04-01

103

Estudo comparativo da concentração salivar do fator de crescimento epidérmico em indivíduos com laringite crônica por doença do refluxo gastroesofágica antes e após o tratamento: resultados preliminares / Salivary egf concentration in adults with reflux chronic laryngitis before and after treatment: preliminary results  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os mecanismos fisiopatológicos do refluxo laringofaríngeo (RLF) são pouco conhecidos. O Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico (EGF) é a proteína de produção salivar com maior ação na regeneração do epitélio da orofaringe e tubo digestivo alto, tendo sido demonstradas deficiências em sua concentração saliv [...] ar em indivíduos com RLF. OBJETIVO: Comparar a concentração salivar de EGF em um mesmo indivíduo com RLF antes e após o tratamento. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Neste estudo prospectivo doze indivíduos com DRGE e RLF de moderada intensidade tiveram sua saliva espontânea coletada antes e após o tratamento e controle da doença. A concentração salivar de EGF foi estabelecida através de exame de ELISA (Quantikine ®). RESULTADOS: Onze pacientes eram do sexo feminino e um do sexo masculino, com idade média de 49 anos. A concentração salivar de EGF pré-tratamento foi de 2.867,6pg/mL e a pós-tratamento foi 1.588,5pg/mL, sendo esta diferença estatisticamente significante (p=0,015). DISCUSSÃO E CONCLUSÕES: Apesar de a concentração salivar de EGF ser maior nos indivíduos antes do tratamento, esta não consegue alcançar àquela de uma população normal (estabelecida previamente), o que sugere uma deficiência primária deste importante fator de defesa em indivíduos com RLF. Abstract in english The Laryngopharyngeal Reflux (LPR) physiopathology is still unknown. The Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) is a biologically active salivary protein that aids in the rapid regeneration of the oropharyngeal and upper digestive tract mucosas. Salivary deficiency of this protein in patients with LPR has be [...] en demonstrated in previous studies. AIM: To compare salivary EGF concentration in patients with LPR before and after treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective study twelve patients with GERD and moderate LPR were studied. Whole saliva samples were collected before and after treatment and salivary EGF concentration was determined using a commercially available ELISA kit (Quantikine ®). RESULTS: There were eleven females and one male among the patients, the mean age was 49 years. The mean pre-treatment salivary EGF concentration was 2,867.6 pg/mL and the mean post treatment EGF concentration was 1,588.5 pg/mL. This difference was statistically significant (p=0.015). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Although salivary EGF concentrations are higher before LPR treatment, the concentration is still much lower than the mean salivary EGF concentration in normal individuals without LPR, which suggests a primary disorder of this defense factor in individuals with LPR.

Eckley, Claudia Alessandra; Rios, Lilia da Silva; Rizzo, Luiz Vicente.

104

Correlation between Cigarette Smoking and Urine Cotinine Level in Gastric Cancer Patients.  

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Various substances in cigarette smoke including nicotine have been shown to promote/induce cancer cell proliferation. Since cotinine has a longer half life and stability in the blood, it has become the preferred biomarker for cigarette smoking exposure. Seventy-three gastric cancer patients were included in this study. The tumor tissues were stained with H & E for pathological evaluation. The cotinine levels were measured in urine using a competitive ELISA. Tumors were 90% adenocarcinoma with 63% intestinal and 37% diffuse subtypes. Tumors were poorly (45.2%) or moderately differentiated (41.1%) and localized mainly (77%) in the upper part of stomach. The levels of cotinine were significantly different between smoker (283.83 ± 178.10 ng/mL) and non-smoker (39.28 ± 113.34 ng/mL) groups (p < 0.001). However, there is no-significant correlation between tumor characteristics and cotinine level in smoker patients. Cotinine level correlates with smoking in gastric patients, however, correlation with the tumor features has not been observed. PMID:24734086

Babhadiashar, Nima; Sotoudeh, Masoud; Azizi, Ebrahim; Bashiri, Jafar; Didevar, Reza; Malekzadeh, Reza; Ghahremani, Mohammad Hossein

2014-01-01

105

Efecto de la Cotinina en la Viabilidad de Fibroblastos / EFFECT OF COTININE ON THE VIABILITY OF FIBROBLASTS.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar "in vitro" el efecto de la cotinina en la viabilidad celular utilizando un linaje continuo de fibroblastos. Fueron formados grupos experimentales según las concentraciones de cotinina : 0 (control), 50ng, 100ng, 500ng, 1ug/ml. y tiempo de condicionamento (1, 24, 4 [...] 8 horas). Cada uno de los 12 orificios de una placa para cultivo celular recibió 1 mL de medio de Eagle y 1mL de cotinina en las diferentes concentraciones, inmediatamente fue acrescentado 1ml de medio de cultivo conteniendo 1x10(5) cels/mL. Después del condicionamento con la droga, en los 3 períodos ensayados, las células fueron teñidas con azul de tripan 0,4% y observadas en un microscopio invertido, por un examinador ciego para los grupos experimentales. Los experimentos fueron repetidos 5 vezes. Los resultados mostraron que las dos concentraciones mayores de cotinina presentaron los menores porcentajes de células viables, sin embargo, esta diferencia fue reducida. La viabilidad celular presentó una pequeña disminución con el aumento del tiempo de condicionamiento. Concluimos que la cotinina puede afectar la viabilidad celular solo en las dos mayores concentraciones ensayadas. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate, in vitro, the effect of cotinine on the viability of fibroblasts from a continuous lineage. Experimental groups were formed according to drug dosage: 0 (control), 50ng, 100ng, 500ng, 1ug/ml, and time of exposure: (1, 24, 48 horas).Twelve wells microplates were [...] used. Each well received 1ml of Eagle medium and 1ml of a solution containing 1x10(5) cells/ml. Cotinine at the tested concentrations was then added to the wells. After the incubation period, cells viability was assessed by using trypan blue 0,4%. Cell viabylity were assessed on a inverted micorscope, by the single examiner who was blend to the experimentals groups. The experiment was repeated 5 times. Results demostrated that the two greater concentrations presented the more non viable cells, but these diferences were minimal. The cells viability presented minimal decreased with the increased of time exposure. Cotinine affect fibroblasts for the high tested dose.

Aurora E., Traverso Martínez; Karina, Gonzales Silvério; Carlos, Rossa Jr.

106

Salivary cytokines in healthy adolescent girls: Intercorrelations, stability, and associations with serum cytokines, age, and pubertal stage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Theoretically, the measurement of cytokines in saliva may have utility for studies of brain, behavior, and immunity in youth. Cytokines in saliva and serum were analyzed across three annual assessments in healthy adolescent girls (N?=?114, 11-17 years at enrollment). Samples were assayed for GM-CSF, IFN?, IL-1?, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, TNF?, adiponectin, and cotinine. Results revealed: (1) cytokine levels, except IFN? and IL-10, were detectable in saliva, and salivary levels, except IL-8 and IL-1?, were lower than serum levels; (2) salivary cytokine levels were lower in older girls and positively associated with adiponectin; (3) compared to serum levels, the correlations between salivary cytokines were higher, but salivary cytokines were less stable across years; and (4) except for IL-1?, there were no significant serum-saliva associations. Variation in basal salivary cytokine levels in healthy adolescent girls reflect compartmentalized activity of the oral mucosal immune system, rather than systemic cytokine activity. PMID:23868603

Riis, Jenna L; Out, Dorothee; Dorn, Lorah D; Beal, Sarah J; Denson, Lee A; Pabst, Stephanie; Jaedicke, Katrin; Granger, Douglas A

2014-05-01

107

Single gas chromatography method with nitrogen phosphorus detector for urinary cotinine determination in passive and active smokers  

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Full Text Available Nicotine is a major addictive compound in cigarettes and is rapidly and extensively metabolized to several metabolites in humans, including urinary cotinine, considered a biomarker due to its high concentration compared to other metabolites. The aim of this study was to develop a single method for determination of urinary cotinine, in active and passive smokers, by gas chromatography with a nitrogen phosphorus detector (GC-NPD. Urine (5.0 mL was extracted with 1.0 mL of sodium hydroxide 5 mol L-1, 5.0 mL of chloroform, and lidocaine used as the internal standard. Injection volume was 1 ?L in GC-NPD. Limit of quantification was 10 ng mL-1. Linearity was evaluated in the ranges 10-1000 ng mL-1 and 500-6000 ng mL-1, with determination coefficients of 0.9986 and 0.9952, respectively. Intra- and inter-assay standard relative deviations were lower than 14.2 %, while inaccuracy (bias was less than +11.9%. The efficiency of extraction was greater than 88.5%. Ruggedness was verified, according to Youden's test. Means of cotinine concentrations observed were 2,980 ng mL-1 for active smokers and 132 ng mL-1, for passive smokers. The results revealed that satisfactory chromatographic separation between the analyte and interferents was obtained with a ZB-1 column. This method is reliable, precise, linear and presented ruggedness in the range evaluated. The results suggest that it can be applied in routine analysis for passive and active smokers, since it is able to quantify a wide range of cotinine concentrations in urine.A nicotina é uma substância presente no cigarro capaz de causar dependência, sendo biotransformada em vários metabólitos nos seres humanos, dentre eles a cotinina urinária, que é considerada um indicador biológico de exposição à nicotina, devido a suas altas concentrações, comparado a outras matrizes. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um único método para determinação de cotinina urinária, em amostras de urina de fumantes ativos e passivos, através de cromatografia em fase gasosa com detector de nitrogênio- fósforo (CG-DNF. Para o preparo de amostras foram utilizados 5 mL de urina, 1 mL de hidróxido de sódio 5 mol L-1, 5 mL de clorofórmio, tendo como padrão interno a lidocaína. Na faixa de concentrações de 10-1000 ng mL-1 e 500- 6000 ng mL-1, o coeficiente de determinação foi 0,9986 e 0,9952, respectivamente e, o limite de quantificação foi 10 ng mL-1. A precisão intra- e interensaio apresentou desvio padrão relativo (% menor que 14,2% e a inexatidão foi menor que +11,9%, com uma eficiência de extração de 88,5%. O método apresentou robustez, de acordo com o teste de Youden. As concentrações médias de cotinina observadas foram 2980 ng mL-1, para fumantes ativos e 132 ng mL-1, para fumantes passivos. Os resultados sugerem que o método é confiável, preciso, linear e apresentou robustez, na faixa avaliada, podendo ser aplicado na rotina para análises de amostras de fumantes ativos e passivos, pois é capaz de quantificar uma ampla faixa de concentrações de cotinina urinária.

Lusiane Malafatti

2010-12-01

108

Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer  

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High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Poorly Differentiated Carcinoma; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer

2013-02-27

109

Nicotine and its major metabolite cotinine have different effects on aldosterone and prolactin serum levels in the normal male rat.  

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Nicotine (0.01-1.0 mg/kg, i.p.) or cotinine (0.003-1.0 mg/kg, i.p.) treatment was administered to Sprague-Dawley male rats. The time-effect curves (5, 10, 30, 60 and 180 min) were analyzed. Nicotine dose-dependently increased blood aldosterone and corticosterone levels with a peak effect 10 min after the intraperitoneal injection. Nicotine treatment weakly decreased serum levels of aldosterone at 2 h, possibly as a consequence of nicotine metabolising to cotinine, resulting in higher serum levels of cotinine than nicotine. Cotinine dose-dependently reduced serum aldosterone levels, an effect which became more marked with time, leaving plasma corticosterone unchanged. Nicotine dose-dependently increased serum prolactin levels at 5 and 10 min following treatment, an effect which had diminished at 30 min. Cotinine dose-dependently reduced serum prolactin levels at 5 min followed by a dose-dependent increase at 10 min after which a dose-dependent reduction was again found after 30 min post treatment. In conclusion, acute nicotine and cotinine treatment produced opposite effects on aldosterone and prolactin serum levels. The prolonged effect of cotinine on aldosterone levels may be involved in changes in brain function, and may be connected to the development of withdrawal effects after stopping cigarette smoking. As reported by other investigators, nicotine produced enhanced plasma corticosterone levels while cotinine treatment was ineffective. Since cotinine induced marked changes in serum prolactin levels while leaving LH levels unchanged, it seems plausible that cotinine affects neuroendocrine regulation via mechanisms not primarily related to circulatory effects. Thus, an action at the median eminence--pituitary level seems likely. PMID:8482322

Andersson, K; Jansson, A; Kuylenstierna, F; Eneroth, P

1993-04-01

110

Salivary gland organogenesis.  

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Our understanding of vertebrate salivary gland organogenesis has been largely informed by the study of the developing mouse submandibular gland (SMG), which will be the major focus of this review. The mouse SMG has been historically used as a model system to study epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, growth factor-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions, and branching morphogenesis. SMG organogenesis involves interactions between a variety of cell types and their stem/progenitor cells, including the epithelial, neuronal, and mesenchymal cells, and their ECM microenvironment, or niche. Here, we will review recent literature that provides conceptual advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms of salivary gland development. We will describe SMG organogenesis, introduce the model systems used to study development, and outline the key signaling pathways and cellular processes involved. We will also review recent research focusing on the identification of stem/progenitor cells in the SMG and how they are directed along a series of cell fate decisions to form a functional gland. The mechanisms that drive SMG organogenesis provide a template to regenerate functional salivary glands in patients who suffer from salivary hypofunction due to irreversible glandular damage after irradiation or removal of tumors. Additionally, these mechanisms may also control growth and development of other organ systems. PMID:23801668

Knosp, Wendy M; Knox, Sarah M; Hoffman, Matthew P

2012-01-01

111

Salivary Diagnostics- Reloaded  

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Full Text Available As we approach the threshold of genomic medicine, the increasing use of salivary diagnostics will helpcatalyze a shift from disease diagnosis to health surveillance. With new techniques for detecting small quantities ofsalivary components, including proteins and messenger RNA (mRNA, the field of salivary diagnostics hasemerged as one of dentistry’s most promising areas of research. Because collecting saliva is noninvasive, it isbecoming the preferable way in bridging state-of-the-art saliva-based biosensors and disease-discriminatorysalivary biomarkers in diagnostic applications.The challenge to make salivary diagnostics a clinical reality is in establishing the scientific foundation and clinicalvalidations necessary to position it as a highly accurate and feasible technology, which can achieve definite pointof-care assessment of patient health and disease status.The field of salivary diagnostics is now becoming a broad,complex and crosscutting area of scientific research with enormous potential to impact the practicing dentist andhealth care in general.

Ambil Sara Varghese

2011-01-01

112

Cotinine reduces depressive-like behavior, working memory deficits, and synaptic loss associated with chronic stress in mice.  

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Chronic stress underlies and/or exacerbates many psychiatric conditions and often results in memory impairment as well as depressive symptoms. Such afflicted individuals use tobacco more than the general population and this has been suggested as a form of self-medication. Cotinine, the predominant metabolite of nicotine, may underlie such behavior as it has been shown to ameliorate anxiety and memory loss in animal models. In this study, we sought to investigate the effects of cotinine on working memory and depressive-like behavior in mice subjected to prolonged restraint. Cotinine-treated mice displayed better performance than vehicle-treated cohorts on the working memory task, the radial arm water maze test. In addition, with or without chronic stress exposure, cotinine-treated mice engaged in fewer depressive-like behaviors as assessed using the tail suspension and Porsolt's forced swim tests. These antidepressant and nootropic effects of cotinine were associated with an increase in the synaptophysin expression, a commonly used marker of synaptic density, in the hippocampus as well as the prefrontal and entorhinal cortices of restrained mice. The beneficial effects of cotinine in preventing various consequences of chronic stress were underscored by the inhibition of the glycogen synthase kinase 3 ? in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Taken together, our results show for the first time that cotinine reduces the negative effects of stress on mood, memory, and the synapse. PMID:24713149

Grizzell, J Alex; Iarkov, Alexandre; Holmes, Rosalee; Mori, Takahashi; Echeverria, Valentina

2014-07-15

113

Cotinine and interferon-gamma levels in pre-school children exposed to household tobacco smoke  

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Full Text Available Background Environmental tobacco smoke has been consistently linked to negative health outcomes, especially in children, including an increased susceptibility to infections. Cigarette smoking has a depressive effect on interferon-? (IFN-?. Serum cotinine is a marker of exposure to smoke. Objective To determine the association between serum cotinine and interferon-? (IFN-? levels in children with household tobacco smoke exposure. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study at the Tumumpa and Singkil Districts of Manado, Indonesia, from February to May 2012. Subjects were collected by consecutively sampling of healthy children aged 1-3 years who came to the integrated health posts. Seventy-four children were recruited and consisted of two groups of 37 subjects each, the tobacco smoke exposure group and the non-tobacco smoke exposure group. Blood specimens were collected from all subjects for laboratory blood tests of cotinine and IFN-? levels. Results were analyzed by T-test and Pearson’s correlation analysis with a P<0.05 is considered as statistically significant. Results There was no significant correlation between serum cotinine and interferon-? levels in the tobacco smoke exposure group. However, the interferon-? level in the tobacco smoke exposure group was significantly lower than that of the non-tobacco smoke exposure group (P<0.0001. Conclusion Cotinine is not related to the interferon-? level in children exposed to tobacco smoke, however, the interferon-? level in children with tobacco smoke exposure is lower than in the non-tobacco smoke exposure group. [Paediatr Indones. 2013;53:287-90.].

Lina Kalalo

2013-09-01

114

Quantitative and qualitative analyses of human salivary NEFA with gas-chromatography and mass spectrometry  

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Salivary non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) are proposed to play a role in oral health, oral fat detection, and they may hold diagnostic and prognostic potential. Yet, little is known about the array and concentrations of NEFA in saliva. The aim of the study was to conduct qualitative and quantitative analyses of salivary NEFA in healthy humans and to present a new, efficient protocol to perform such analyses. Resting saliva samples from fifteen participants were collected. The salivary lipids...

Kulkarni, Bhushan V.; Wood, Karl V.; Mattes, Richard D.

2012-01-01

115

Decrease in salivary lactoferrin output in chronically intoxicated alcohol-dependent patients  

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Salivary lactoferrin is a glycoprotein involved in the elimination of pathogens and the prevention of massive overgrowth of microorganisms that affect oral and general health. A high concentration of lactoferrin in saliva is often considered to be a marker of damage to the salivary glands, gingivitis, or leakage through inflamed or damaged oral mucosa, infiltrated particularly by neutrophils. We conducted a study to determine the effect of chronic alcohol intoxication on salivary lac...

Napoleon Waszkiewicz; Beata Zalewska-Szajda; Anna Zalewska; Magdalena Waszkiewicz; S?awomir Dariusz Szajda; Bernadeta Repka; Agata Szulc; Alina K?pka; Alina Minarowska; Sylwia Chojnowska; Beata Konarzewska; Jerzy Robert ?adny; Urszula Kowzan; Krzysztof Zwierz

2012-01-01

116

Diagnostics of salivary gland disorders  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this article several diagnostic techniques are described for the diagnosis of the salivary glands. Sialography can be used for chronic inflammations and obstructions. Scintiscanning is useful in the determination of function disorders and the simultaneous diagnosis of all big salivary glands. With echography it is possible to distinguish solid and cystoid tumors. Computer tomography locates space occupying processes. Still the clinical investigations and anamneses are the most important diagnostic means for disorders of the salivary glands. 34 refs.; 6 figs.; 1 table

1987-10-03

117

SALIVARY ANTIMICROBIAL PROTEIN RESPONSE TO PROLONGED RUNNING  

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Full Text Available Prolonged exercise may compromise immunity through a reduction of salivary antimicrobial proteins (AMPs. Salivary IgA (IgA has been extensively studied, but little is known about the effect of acute, prolonged exercise on AMPs including lysozyme (Lys and lactoferrin (Lac. Objective: To determine the effect of a 50-km trail race on salivary cortisol (Cort, IgA, Lys, and Lac. Methods: 14 subjects: (6 females, 8 males completed a 50km ultramarathon. Saliva was collected pre, immediately after (post and 1.5 hrs post race ( 1.5. Results: Lac concentration was higher at 1.5 hrs post race compared to post exercise (p0.05. IgA concentration, secretion rate, and IgA/Osm were lower 1.5 hrs post compared to pre race (p<0.05. Cort concentration was higher at post compared to 1.5 (p<0.05, but was unaltered from pre race levels. Subjects finished in 7.81 ± 1.2 hrs. Saliva flow rate did not differ between time points. Saliva Osm increased at post (p<0.05 compared to pre race. Conclusions: The intensity could have been too low to alter Lys and Lac secretion rates and thus, may not be as sensitive as IgA to changes in response to prolonged running. Results expand our understanding of the mucosal immune system and may have implications for predicting illness after prolonged running.

Suzanne Schneider

2013-01-01

118

Yohimbine increases human salivary secretion.  

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The effect of oral yohimbine (14 mg) on salivary secretion was evaluated in healthy volunteers. Yohimbine significantly increased salivary secretion when compared with placebo. This effect was significant from 60 min until 180 min after administration under our experimental conditions. Yohimbine (or alpha 2-adrenoceptor blocking agents) could have a potential interest in the treatment of dry mouths.

Chatelut, E.; Rispail, Y.; Berlan, M.; Montastruc, J. L.

1989-01-01

119

Menthol smoking in relation to time to first cigarette and cotinine: Results from a community-based study  

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Smokers who have their first cigarette shortly after waking, an indicator of nicotine dependence, have substantially higher cotinine levels. There is controversy regarding the role of menthol in nicotine dependence. We hypothesized that menthol smokers have a shorter time to first cigarette (TTFC), and tested whether any statistical association actually reflects increased dependence by measuring nicotine uptake (e.g. cotinine) in the same group of smokers. A cross-sectional community-based st...

Muscat, Joshua E.; Liu, Hsiao-pin; Stellman, Steven D.; Richie, John P.

2012-01-01

120

CYP2A6 genotype but not age determines cotinine half-life in infants and children.  

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The formation of cotinine, the main proximate metabolite and a biomarker of nicotine exposure, is mediated primarily by cytochrome P450 (CYP)2A6. Our aim was to determine whether higher cotinine levels in young children exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) are a result of age-related differences in pharmacokinetics. Forty-nine participants, aged 2-84 months, received oral deuterium-labeled cotinine, with daily urine samples for up to 10 days for cotinine half-life measurement. DNA from saliva was used for CYP2A6 genotyping. The estimate of half-life using a mixed-effect model was 17.9?h (95% confidence interval: 16.5, 19.3), similar to that reported in adults. There was no statistically significant effect of sex, race, age, or weight. Children with normal-activity CYP2A6*1/*1 genotypes had a shorter half-life than those with one or two reduced-activity variant alleles. Our data suggest that higher cotinine levels in SHS-exposed young children as compared with adults are due to greater SHS exposure rather than to different cotinine pharmacokinetics. PMID:23714690

Dempsey, D A; Sambol, N C; Jacob, P; Hoffmann, E; Tyndale, R F; Fuentes-Afflick, E; Benowitz, N L

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
121

Radioimmunoassay of salivary steroid hormones for easy diagnosis of and adrenal functions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The salivary levels of progesterone, estradiol and cortisol were determined by radioimmunoassay in fertile and infertile women. progesterone concentration was also determined in sera of both groups. Results have shown salivary progesterone to be promising in the assessment of ovarian function. Positive and significant correlation was obtained between serum and salivary progesterone for both considered groups. Although, concentrations of estradiol in saliva seems to be useful in predicting the time of ovulation onset however, further evaluations, are still needed. High levels of salivary cortisol were obtained reflecting stress during menses, ovulation and awaiting for the onset of the next cycle. Consequently, salivary cortisol is a good monitor for adrenal function. 6 figs., 5 tabs

1996-07-01

122

Salivary and serum analysis in children diagnosed with pneumonia.  

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The aim of the current study was to evaluate specific markers for pneumonia by using a non-invasive assessment of inflammatory/oxidative biomarkers in saliva accompanying a routine serum analysis. No study evaluating saliva of children with pneumonia has been published previously. Salivary analysis was performed in 15 children diagnosed with lobar pneumonia and in a parallel group of 16 children matching in age and gender in whom there was no respiratory illness, and compared to the serum analysis obtained routinely in both groups of children. Salivary flow rate was lower in the patients' group as was uric acid concentration (by 60%). Increase in salivary concentrations of almost all parameters analyzed was found: Ca, P, and Mg concentrations were higher in the patients' group by 23%, 55%, and 33%, respectively, while LDH, total protein amylase and albumin concentrations were higher by 275%, 79%, and 42%, respectively. In the serum, white cell counts and neutrophils were significantly higher, and sodium level significantly lower in the patients' group. Compositional changes were in the range of 3-80% while the saliva alterations were more profound, in the range of 42-275%. The results demonstrated in the current study indicate salivary analysis as a potentially novel tool for children with pneumonia. Human salivary collection and analysis is a non-invasive tool that could provide additional information for diagnosis and follow-up of pneumonia, especially in children. This is especially beneficial for pediatric patients, as salivary collection is simple, non-invasive, and patient-friendly. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2014; 49:569-573. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23532916

Klein Kremer, Adi; Kuzminsky, Ela; Bentur, Lea; Nagler, Rafael M

2014-06-01

123

Circulating immune complexes, immunoglobulin G, salivary proteins and salivary immunoglobulin A in patients with Sjögren's syndrome  

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Full Text Available Introduction. Sjögren's syndrome (SS is a chronic autoimmune disorder, with its major clinical manifestations resulting from changes in exocrine glands. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate serum concentrations of circulating immune complexes (CIC and immunoglobulin G (IgG, and salivary proteins (SP and salivary immunoglobulin A (sIgA in 40 patients with SS, and to correlate these values among themselves, as well as with the unstimulated salivary flow rate (USFR and the duration of disease. Methods. The total of 40 patients were included in this research. CIC was determined using the solution of polyethylene glycol and IgG with the standard procedure of radial immunodiffusion. SP was investigated by the method of Lowry and sIgA was separated from the whole saliva using the method of immune chromatography. Results. The values of most of the studied parameters exceeded the normal range in a high degree: CIC 72.5%, IgG 70%, SP 80%. The concentrations of CIC were significantly higher in the patients with the duration of disease less than 10 years. With the decrease of USFR, the concentration of sIgA and IgG were increased with statistical significance. Conclusion The increased prevalence of abnormal values of CIC, IgG and SP indicate that the patients with SS have developed a higher level of immune reactivity. These results could be useful in diagnosis and disease activity monitoring.

Hadži-Mihailovi? Miloš

2009-01-01

124

Stages of Salivary Gland Cancer  

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... risk. Although the cause of most salivary gland cancers is not known, risk factors include the following: Older age. Treatment with radiation therapy to the head and neck. Being exposed to certain substances at ...

125

Salivary exoglycosidases in gestational diabetes   

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Full Text Available Introduction: As exoglycosidases have been described as potential markers of salivary gland pathology, we decided to check the possibility of the use of these enzymes in the detection of salivary gland involvement in gestational diabetes.Materials and methods: For this purpose diabetic pregnant women were compared to pregnant and non-pregnant healthy women. The activities of total HEX as well as GLU in the saliva were determined in duplicate according to Marciniak et al. The activities of GAL, FUC, and MAN in the saliva were determined in duplicate according to Zwierz et al.Results: It was found that the specific activities of exoglycosidases in the saliva of diabetic pregnant women significantly increased in comparison to healthy pregnant and non-pregnant women.Conclusion: Increased specific activity of exoglycosidases suggests that gestational diabetes provokes structural/functional alterations in salivary glands and changes in the salivary glycoconjugates metabolism.

Anna Zalewska

2013-04-01

126

Current developments in salivary diagnostics  

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Salivary diagnostics is an emerging field that has progressed through several important developments in the past decade, including the publication of the human salivary proteome and the infusion of federal funds to integrate nanotechnologies and microfluidic engineering concepts into developing compact point-of-care devices for rapid analysis of this secretion. In this article, we discuss some of these developments and their relevance to the prognosis, diagnosis and management of periodontiti...

Miller, Craig S.; Foley, Joseph D.; Bailey, Alison L.; Campell, Charles L.; Humphries, Roger L.; Christodoulides, Nicolaos; Floriano, Pierre N.; Simmons, Glennon; Bhagwandin, Bryon; Jacobson, James W.; Redding, Spencer W.; Ebersole, Jeffrey L.; Mcdevitt, John T.

2010-01-01

127

Salivary gland tumors - our experience  

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Salivary gland neoplasms represent the most complex and diverse group of tumors encountered by the head and neck oncologist. Their diagnosis and management is complicated by their relative infrequency (1% of head and neck tumors)1, the limited amount of pre-treatment information available and the wide range of biologic behavior seen with the different pathologic lesion. Approximately 80% of salivary gland tumors are found in the parotid gland, 10 to 15% in the submandibular gland and 5 to 10%...

2004-01-01

128

Multilocular developmental salivary gland defect  

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Developmental salivary gland defect is a bone depression on the lingual surface of the mandible containing salivary gland or fatty soft tissue. The most common location is within the submandibular gland fossa and often close to the inferior border of the mandible. This defect is asymptomatic and generally discovered only incidentally during radiographic examination of the area. This defect also appears as a well-defined, corticated, unilocular radiolucency below the mandibular canal. Although...

Kim, Jin-soo

2012-01-01

129

Direct radioimmunoassay (RIA) of salivary testosterone: correlation with free and total serium testosterone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Simple and sensitive direct RIA for determination of salivary testosterone was developed by using RSL NOSOLVEX TM (125 1) kit produced by Radioassay System Laboratories (Carcon, California). In addition, a relationship between salivary and serum free and total testosterone concentrations was studied in randomly selected 45 healthy subjects, 5 females on oral contraceptive pills and 28 hypertensive patients on various treatment regimens. The lowest weight of testosterone detectable by the modified method was equivalent to 1 pg/ml of saliva, taking into account analytical variability. Intra- and interassay coefficients of variation were 5.09 +/- 2.7% and 8.2 +/- 5.9% respectively. Statistically significant correlations were found between salivary and serum free testosterone (r = 0.97) and salivary and serum total testosterone concentrations (r = 0.70 - 0.87). The exception to this was a group of hypertensive females in which no correlation (r = 0.14) between salivary and total serum testosterone was found. It is also of interest that, while salivary testosterone was significantly increased in subjects taking oral contraceptives and most of the hypertensive patients, the total serum testosterone concentration was in normal range. These findings suggest that the determination of salivary testosterone is a reliable method to detect changes in the concentration of available biologically active hormone in the circulation. 21 references, 4 figures, 1 table

1985-08-26

130

Detection of Heparin in the Salivary Gland and Midgut of Aedes togoi  

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Mosquitoes secrete saliva that contains biological substances, including anticoagulants that counteract a host's hemostatic response and prevent blood clotting during blood feeding. This study aimed to detect heparin, an anticoagulant in Aedes togoi using an immunohistochemical detection method, in the salivary canal, salivary gland, and midgut of male and female mosquitoes. Comparisons showed that female mosquitoes contained higher concentrations of heparin than male mosquitoes. On average, the level of heparin was higher in blood-fed female mosquitoes than in non-blood-fed female mosquitoes. Heparin concentrations were higher in the midgut than in the salivary gland. This indicates presence of heparin in tissues of A. togoi.

Ha, Young-Ran; Oh, So-Ra; Seo, Eun-Seok; Kim, Bo-Heum; Lee, Dong-Kyu

2014-01-01

131

Comparison of salivary cortisol concentrations in Jaguars kept in captivity with differences in exposure to the public Comparação das concentrações de cortisol salivar em onças-pintadas criadas em cativeiro com diferenças de exposição ao público  

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For the most part, jaguars kept in captivity are used for educational and recreational purposes and it hasn't been determined the different impacts that public exposure would have on these animals. In this study, we compared the salivary cortisol, one of the stress indicator hormones, in seven captive jaguars exposed to the high and low public visitation. Saliva was collected using an absorbent material that was chewed by the animals and subsequently analyzed through an immunoenzymatic assay....

Julio César Montanha; Sérgio Leme Silva; Vanner Boere

2009-01-01

132

[Quality of life, asthma control, urinary cotinine and therapeutic education among asthmatic children].  

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Therapeutic patient education (TPE) has been standard practice in France for roughly 20 years. However, TPE has only recently been officially recognized and has rarely been assessed. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of TPE on passive smoking exposure and asthma outcomes in young patients referred to a hospital school for children with asthma. A prospective cohort study was conducted to determine the socio-economic status, environmental exposure (including parental tobacco consumption) and medical history of children starting out on a TPE course. The study measured quality of life and urinary cotinine. Asthma control was also assessed. Out of a total of 54 children (median age 8.6 years), 35 and 26 children attended three or at least four TPE sessions, respectively. Uncontrolled asthma and a history of hospitalization for exacerbation of asthma were frequent (43% and 61%, respectively). In utero passive smoke exposure was more frequent in the hospitalization group (p = 0.07). Urinary cotinine levels were similar in children exposed and not exposed to tobacco smoke (259 vs 141 nMol.L-1, p = 0.15), but only decreased in the group of exposed children. In 34 children, quality of life improved significantly between the first and the third or fourth sessions (n = 23, median increase 1.06, p = 0.1), while asthma control improved in 64% of the patients (n = 33, p = 0.01) and emergency attendances decreased (n = 34, p = 0.001). The positive effects of TPE on asthma control and quality of life were quickly visible but did not prevent children from withdrawing from the program. Urinary cotinine was not useful for detecting exposure to tobacco smoke, but may be useful as an indicator of exposure to tobacco smoke. The results indicate an improvement in quality of life and asthma control as TPE proceeded. PMID:22789116

Beydon, Nicole; Robbe, Margaret; Lebras, Marie-Noelle; Marchand, Valérie; Périès, Marie-Annick; Alberti, Corinne; Dupré, Thierry

2012-01-01

133

Gene-centric analysis of serum cotinine levels in African and European American populations.  

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To date, most genetic association studies of tobacco use have been conducted in European American subjects using the phenotype of smoking quantity (cigarettes per day). However, smoking quantity is a very imprecise measure of exposure to tobacco smoke constituents. Analyses of alternate phenotypes and populations may improve our understanding of tobacco addiction genetics. Cotinine is the major metabolite of nicotine, and measuring serum cotinine levels in smokers provides a more objective measure of nicotine dose than smoking quantity. Previous genetic association studies of serum cotinine have focused on individual genes. We conducted a genetic association study of the biomarker in African American (N=365) and European American (N=315) subjects from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study using a chip containing densely-spaced tag SNPs in ?2100 genes. We found that rs11187065, located in the non-coding region (intron 1) of insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE), was the most strongly associated SNP (p=8.91 × 10(-6)) in the African American cohort, whereas rs11763963, located on chromosome 7 outside of a gene transcript, was the most strongly associated SNP in European Americans (p=1.53 × 10(-6)). We then evaluated how the top variant association in each population performed in the other group. We found that the association of rs11187065 in IDE was also associated with the phenotype in European Americans (p=0.044). Our top SNP association in European Americans, rs11763963 was non-polymorphic in our African American sample. It has been previously shown that psychostimulant self-administration is reduced in animals with lower insulin because of interference with dopamine transmission in the brain reward centers. Our finding provides a platform for further investigation of this, or additional mechanisms, involving the relationship between insulin and self-administered nicotine dose. PMID:22089314

Hamidovic, Ajna; Goodloe, Robert J; Bergen, Andrew W; Benowitz, Neal L; Styn, Mindi A; Kasberger, Jay L; Choquet, Helene; Young, Taylor R; Meng, Yan; Palmer, Cameron; Pletcher, Mark; Kertesz, Stefan; Hitsman, Brian; Spring, Bonnie; Jorgenson, Eric

2012-03-01

134

Imaging of salivary gland tumours  

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Salivary gland neoplasms account for <3% of all tumors. Most of them are benign and parotid gland is the commonest site. As a general rule, the smaller the involved salivary gland, the higher is the possibility of the tumor being malignant. The role of imaging in assessment of salivary gland tumour is to define intra-glandular vs. extra-glandular location, detect malignant features, assess local extension and invasion, detect nodal metastases and systemic involvement. Image guided fine needle aspiration cytology provides a safe means to obtain cytological confirmation. For lesions in the superficial parotid and submandibular gland, ultrasound is an ideal tool for initial assessment. These are superficial structures accessible by high resolution ultrasound and FNAC which provides excellent resolution and tissue characterization without a radiation hazard. Nodal involvement can also be assessed. If deep tissue extension is suspected or malignancy confirmed on cytology, an MRI or CT is mandatory to evaluate tumour extent, local invasion and perineural spread. For all tumours in the sublingual gland, MRI should be performed as the risk of malignancy is high. For lesions of the deep lobe of parotid gland and the minor salivary glands, MRI and CT are the modalities of choice. Ultrasound has limited visualization of the deep lobe of parotid gland which is obscured by the mandible. Minor salivary gland lesions in the mucosa of oral cavity, pharynx and tracheo-bronchial tree, are also not accessible by conventional ultrasound. Recent study suggests that MR spectroscopy may differentiate malignant and benign salivary gland tumours as well as distinguishing Warthin's tumor from pleomorphic adenoma. However, its role in clinical practice is not well established. Similarly, the role of nuclear medicine and PET scan, in imaging of parotid masses is limited. Sialography is used to delineate the salivary ductal system and has limited role in assessment of tumour extent.

Lee, Y.Y.P.; Wong, K.T.; King, A.D. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin NT, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Ahuja, A.T. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin NT, Hong Kong (Hong Kong)], E-mail: aniltahuja@cuhk.edu.hk

2008-06-15

135

What interactions drive the salivary mucosal pellicle formation?  

Science.gov (United States)

The bound salivary pellicle is essential for protection of both the enamel and mucosa in the oral cavity. The enamel pellicle formation is well characterised, however the mucosal pellicle proteins have only recently been clarified and what drives their formation is still unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the salivary pellicle on particles with different surface properties (hydrophobic or hydrophilic with a positive or negative charge), to determine a suitable model to mimic the mucosal pellicle. A secondary aim was to use the model to test how transglutaminase may alter pellicle formation. Particles were incubated with resting whole mouth saliva, parotid saliva and submandibular/sublingual saliva. Following incubation and two PBS and water washes bound salivary proteins were eluted with two concentrations of SDS, which were later analysed using SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. Experiments were repeated with purified transglutaminase to determine how this epithelial-derived enzyme may alter the bound pellicle. Protein pellicles varied according to the starting salivary composition and the particle chemistry. Amylase, the single most abundant protein in saliva, did not bind to any particle indicating specific protein binding. Most proteins bound through hydrophobic interactions and a few according to their charges. The hydrophobic surface most closely matched the known salivary mucosal pellicle by containing mucins, cystatin and statherin but an absence of amylase and proline-rich proteins. This surface was further used to examine the effect of added transglutaminase. At the concentrations used only statherin showed any evidence of crosslinking with itself or another saliva protein. In conclusion, the formation of the salivary mucosal pellicle is probably mediated, at least in part, by hydrophobic interactions to the epithelial cell surface. PMID:24921197

Gibbins, Hannah L; Yakubov, Gleb E; Proctor, Gordon B; Wilson, Stephen; Carpenter, Guy H

2014-08-01

136

Dynamic radioisotopic study of the salivary glands. Quantification test  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Quantified dynamic radioisotopic exploration, a new and rational examination, should find its place in a thorough check-up of the salivary glands together with clinical, immunological, anatomopathological and sialographic investigations. The object of this work was to standardise the test procedure with a view to routine use on patients and to define certain quantified parameters representing objectively the different aspects of the salivary functions. Our procedure through reeding sophisticated equipment, is simple to perform and relies on use of: radiotechnetium employed at activities which allow repetitive exlorations whereby pathological changes may be followed; the gamma camera and its data processing system which records all radioactive information obtained on the patient's head. These results will supply the data needed to judge the salivary functions as a whole. The apparatus used provides a remarkable pictorial record made up not only of morphological and functional images at each stage of the examination but also of ciphered radioactivity versus time curves for each of the main salivary glands and for any other zone of interest. From these curves it is then possible to define quantified parameters, reproducible and expressing functional activity. This procedure, safe and painless, seems to suit the patients who lie still without complaint for 60 minutes, 45 minutes for the concentration study and 15 minutes for the post-stimulus excretion study. The dynamic radioisotopic examination of the salivary glands, by the comparison of concentration and excretion images and by the study of parameters, separately and as a whole, is thus a useful complement to other paraclinical examinations and contributes essential information in most salivary diseases

1976-01-01

137

Biotransformation of caffeine, cotinine, and nicotine in stream sediments: Implications for use as wastewater indicators  

Science.gov (United States)

Microbially catalyzed cleavage of the imadazole ring of caffeine was observed in stream sediments collected upstream and downstream of municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in three geographically separate stream systems. Microbial demethylation of the N-methyl component of cotinine and its metabolic precursor, nicotine, also was observed in these sediments. These findings indicate that stream sediment microorganisms are able to substantially alter the chemical structure and thus the analytical signatures of these candidate waste indicator compounds. The potential for in situ biotransformation must be considered if these compounds are employed as markers to identify the sources and track the fate of wastewater compounds in surface-water systems. ?? 2007 SETAC.

Bradley, P. M.; Barber, L. B.; Kolpin, D. W.; McMahon, P. B.; Chapelle, F. H.

2007-01-01

138

Simultaneous Quantification of Nicotine, Cotinine, trans-3?-Hydroxycotinine, Norcotinine and Mecamylamine in Human Urine by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Mecamylamine is a nicotine antagonist under investigation in combination with nicotine replacement for smoking treatment. Methods A simple, rapid and reliable liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMSMS) method was developed and validated for quantifying nicotine, cotinine, trans-3?-hydroxycotinine, norcotinine and mecamylamine in human urine. Chromatography was performed on a Synergi PolarRP column with a gradient of 0.1% formic acid and 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile at 0.25 ml/min with an 8-min total runtime. Analytes were monitored by positive mode electrospray ionization and multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry. Results Linear dynamic ranges were 1–500 ng/ml for nicotine and norcotinine, 0.5–500 ng/ml for trans-3?-hydroxycotinine, 0.2–500 ng/ml for cotinine, and 0.1–100 ng/ml for mecamylamine; correlation coefficients were consistently greater than 0.99, and all calibrator concentrations were within 20% of target Extensive endogenous and exogenous interferences were evaluated. At 3 concentrations spanning the linear dynamic range of the assay, mean extraction efficiencies from urine were 55.1–109.1% with analytical recovery (bias) 82.0–118.7% and total imprecision of 0.7–9.1%. Analytes were stable for 24 h at room temperature, 72h at 4°C, 72h in autosampler at 15°C and after three freeze/thaw cycles. Conclusion This method is useful for monitoring mecamylamine, nicotine and nicotine metabolites in smoking cessation and other clinical nicotine research.

Scheidweiler, Karl B.; Shakleya, Diaa M.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

2012-01-01

139

Multilocular developmental salivary gland defect  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Developmental salivary gland defect is a bone depression on the lingual surface of the mandible containing salivary gland or fatty soft tissue. The most common location is within the submandibular gland fossa and often close to the inferior border of the mandible. This defect is asymptomatic and generally discovered only incidentally during radiographic examination of the area. This defect also appears as a well-defined, corticated, unilocular radiolucency below the mandibular canal. Although it is not uncommon for this defect to appear as a round or ovoid radiolucency, multilocular radiolucency of these defects is relatively rare. This report presents a case of a developmental salivary gland defect with multilocular radiolucency in a male patient.

2012-09-01

140

Multilocular developmental salivary gland defect  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Developmental salivary gland defect is a bone depression on the lingual surface of the mandible containing salivary gland or fatty soft tissue. The most common location is within the submandibular gland fossa and often close to the inferior border of the mandible. This defect is asymptomatic and generally discovered only incidentally during radiographic examination of the area. This defect also appears as a well-defined, corticated, unilocular radiolucency below the mandibular canal. Although it is not uncommon for this defect to appear as a round or ovoid radiolucency, multilocular radiolucency of these defects is relatively rare. This report presents a case of a developmental salivary gland defect with multilocular radiolucency in a male patient.

Kim, Jin Soo [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Oral Biology Research Institute, School of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

2012-09-15

 
 
 
 
141

Effects of cobalt 60 irradiation on rat salivary glands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A single irradiation of Co-60 was given to the head and neck region in male Sprague-Dawley rats. According to the time, dose and fractionation factor (TDF), the experimental animals were equally divided into the group of 11.36 Gy (TDF 50), the group of 17.82 Gy (TDF 100), and the group of 27.97 Gy (TDF 200). Parotid, submandibular, and sublingual salivary glands were examined by light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and biochemically one, 3, and 7 days after irradiation. Parotid saliva samples were also collected after stimulation with pilocarpine, and the flow rate, concentration of total salivary protein, and ?-amylase activity were assessed. The parotid gland showed the most significant decrease in ?-amylase activity at 3 days in all groups. ?-amylase activity in the submandibular and sublingual glands was much lower than in the parotid gland. Non-lysosome enzyme, acid p-nitrophenyl phosphatase activity in the salivary glands was increased. Similarly, a lysosomal enzyme, ?-D-glucuronidase in the salivary glands was increased. Alkaline phosphatase activity was increased in the parotid gland and decreased in the submandibular and sublingual glands. Salivary flow rate in the parotid gland was decreased one, 3, and 7 days after irradiation, markedly depending on irradiation doses. Light microscopy of the salivary glands revealed atrophy, vacuolization, and degranulation in acinar cells, especially in granular tubule cells. Electron microscopy revealed vacuolization and degeneration of mitochondria, secretory granules, and other organelles in the cytoplasm of acinar cells. Morphological changes of secretory granules were dose-dependent. Not only morphological but also biochemical changes in the parotid gland occurred synchronously. (N.K.) 56 refs

1991-01-01

142

Utilisation de la cotinine contenue dans les cheveux comme marqueur d'une exposition à la fumée de tabac. Méta-analyse d'études internationales Benchmarking hair cotinine as a marker of tobacco smoke exposure. Meta-analysis of international studies  

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Full Text Available Au cours des 12 dernières années, nous avons établi et validé l'utilisation de la cotinine contenue dans les cheveux comme marqueur de l'exposition à la fumée de tabac. Cette méta-analyse, réalisée à partir de toutes les études disponibles de notre laboratoire et d'autres centres, est destinée à établir des valeurs de cotinine dans les cheveux, dans le contexte de l'exposition f à la fumée de tabac environnante. Les valeurs ci-dessous ont été mesurées sur plus de 1000 patients :?Femmes non enceintes : Fumeuses actives $ightarrow$ cotinine (ng/mg = 2.72 et [95% IC] = 2.32-3.13 Fumeuses passives $ightarrow$ cotinine (ng/mg = 0.62 et [95% IC] = 0.51-0.74 Non exposées $ightarrow$ cotinine (ng/mg = 0.29 et [95% IC] = 0.23-0.36 ?Femmes enceintes : Fumeuses actives $ightarrow$ cotinine (ng/mg = 1. 7 et [95% IC] = 1.46-1.94 Fumeuses passives $ightarrow$ cotinine (ng/mg = 0.07 et [95% IC] = 0-0.09 Non exposées $ightarrow$ cotinine (ng/mg = 0.08 et [95% IC] = 0-0.09 ?Enfants : Passifs $ightarrow$ cotinine (ng/mg = 0.96 et [95% IC] = 0.86-1.07 Non exposés $ightarrow$ cotinine (ng/mg = 0.33 et [95% IC] = 0.25-0.4 ?Nouveau-nés : Exposés in utéro $ightarrow$ cotinine (ng/mg = 1.42 et [95% IC] = 1.18-1.65 ? ? La séparation entre les différents états d'exposition avec un intervalle de confiance à 95% devrait pouvoir faciliter les recherches, ainsi que les cas cliniques où une exposition passive peut être dangereuse (par exemple des enfants avec de l'asthme vivant dans une maison de fumeurs et aider l'assurance maladie. Over the last 12 years we established and validated the use of hair cotinine as a biomarker of exposure to tobacco smoke. This meta analysis of all available studies from our laboratory and other centers, aimed at establishing values of hair cotinine in the context offetal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. The following are the values arrived at with over 1000 patients:?Non pregnant women: active smokers $ightarrow$ cotinine (ng/mg = 2.72 et [95% IC] = 2.32-3.13 passive smokers $ightarrow$ cotinine (ng/mg = 0.62 et [95% IC] = 0.51-0.74 unexposed $ightarrow$ cotinine (ng/mg = 0.29 et [95% IC] = 0.23-0.36 ?Pregnant women:active smokers $ightarrow$ cotinine (ng/mg = 1. 7 et [95% IC] = 1.46-1.94 passive smokers $ightarrow$ cotinine (ng/mg = 0.07 et [95% IC] = 0-0.09 unexposed $ightarrow$ cotinine (ng/mg = 0.08 et [95% IC] = 0-0.09 ?Children: Passive $ightarrow$ cotinine (ng/mg = 0.96 et [95% IC] = 0.86-1.07 unexposed $ightarrow$ cotinine (ng/mg = 0.33 et [95% IC] = 0.25-0.4 ?Neonates: Exposed in utero $ightarrow$ cotinine (ng/mg = 1.42 et [95% IC] = 1.18-1.65 ? The clear 95% confidence interval separation between the different states of exposure mayfacilitate research, as well as clinical cases where passive exposure can be life threatening (eg children with asthma in homes of smokers, and in health insurance.

Florescu Ana

2008-02-01

143

Effect of fluoride dentifrices on salivary fluoride levels in children.  

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Fluoride dentifrices are well accepted for their caries preventive effects. The fluoride concentration in the oral fluids after tooth brushing with fluoride dentifrices may have an important relationship to the caries reducing capacity. The present study was aimed to clinically evaluate the salivary fluoride retention of dentifrices containing low fluoride concentration in 50 children, aged 7-9 years before, during and after the use of fluoride toothpaste. Estimation of fluoride in saliva was...

Paul S; Tandon S; Murthy K

1993-01-01

144

Does cotinine act upon reactive oxygen species and peroxidases? / A cotinina age sobre espécies reativas do oxigênio e peroxidases?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A nicotina, um agente oxidante, é certamente um dos alcalóides mais amplamente utilizados no mundo. Juntamente com seu principal metabolito, a cotinina, a nicotina é responsável pela tabaco-dependência. O uso de tabaco está intimamente associado a doenças pulmonares, modificações morfológicas em leu [...] cócitos e a geração de espécies oxidantes. O principal objetivo deste estudo foi identificar uma possível relação entre cotinina, geração de espécies reativas do oxigênio e processos oxidativos. Após o estudo da ação da cotinina em diferentes modelos químicos e em cinéticas enzimáticas com peroxidases (mieloperoxidase e peroxidase de raiz forte), conclui-se que a cotinina não age diretamente sobre H2O2, HOCl, taurine cloramina, peroxidase de raiz forte ou mieloperoxidase. Abstract in english Nicotine, an oxidizing agent, is certainly one of the most widely used alkaloids in the world. It is, together with its main metabolite, cotinine, responsible for tobacco-dependence. The use of tobacco is closely associated with lung disease, morphological leukocyte modification and generation of ox [...] idant species. The aim of this study was to look for a possible relationship between cotinine, oxidant species generation and oxidative processes. After studying the action of cotinine in some chemical oxidation models and on the enzymatic kinetics of peroxidases (myeloperoxidase and horseradish peroxidase), we concluded that cotinine does not act directly upon H2O2, HOCl, taurine chloramines, horseradish peroxidase or myeloperoxidase.

J.C.R., Vellosa; N.M., Khalil; L.M., Fonseca; I.L., Brunetti; O.M.M.F., Oliveira.

145

Who Is Exposed to Secondhand Smoke? Self-Reported and Serum Cotinine Measured Exposure in the U.S., 1999-2006  

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Full Text Available This study presents self-reported and serum cotinine measures of exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS for nonsmoking children, adolescents, and adults. Estimates are disaggregated by time periods and sociodemographic characteristics based on analyses of the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Self-reported exposure rates are found to be highest for children, followed by adolescents and adults. Important differences in exposure are found by socioeconomic characteristics. Using serum cotinine to measure exposure yields much higher prevalence rates than self-reports. Rates of SHS exposure remain high, but cotinine levels are declining for most groups.

Yanling Shi

2009-05-01

146

What's New in Salivary Gland Cancer Research and Treatment?  

Science.gov (United States)

... salivary gland cancer What’s new in salivary gland cancer research and treatment? Medical centers throughout the world are ... Doctor After Treatment What`s New in Salivary Gland Cancer Research? Other Resources and References Cancer Information Cancer Basics ...

147

Determinación de los niveles de cortisol salival en una muestra de sujetos de Santiago de Chile Salivary cortisol among subjects with and without Cushing syndrome  

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Background: Salivary cortisol measurement is recommended as a screening mea-sure when a Cushing Syndrome is suspected. Theproposed cut-offpointfor aprobable diagnosis is 0.16 ug/dL. Aim: To determine salivary cortisol concentrations during the day inpatients with and without Cushing syndrome and with depression. Material and Methods: Salivary cortisol was measured by competitive enzyme immuno assay (EIA), in samples obtained at 8:00,15:00 and 23:00 h in 78 pat...

2010-01-01

148

Recent Advances In Salivary Diagnostics  

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Full Text Available Saliva has been the most efficient diagnostic tool since ages, its progress frombeing a lie detector in the times of the ancient Greeks to the present evolution into amaster tool in the much talked about metabonomics. This review article attempts toshow the way how saliva has reached its potential to serve the status of a potentialdiagnostic aid. This article also focuses on the developments made in the past and alsothe futuristic plans in the field of salivary diagnostics.

Sumit Majumdar

2012-07-01

149

Salivary uric acid as a noninvasive biomarker of metabolic syndrome  

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Abstract Background Elevated serum uric acid is associated with obesity, hypertension and metabolic syndrome. Because a linear relationship exists between serum and salivary uric acid (SUA) concentration, saliva testing may be a useful noninvasive approach for monitoring cardiometabolic risk. The goal of this pilot study was to determine if SUA is increased in patients with metabolic syndrome and to investigate correlations between SUA and individual cardiometabolic risk fact...

Soukup Maria; Biesiada Izabela; Henderson Aaron; Idowu Benmichael; Rodeback Derek; Ridpath Lance; Bridges Edward G; Nazar Andrea M; Bridges Kristie

2012-01-01

150

Salivary paracetamol elimination kinetics during the menstrual cycle.  

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Studies were done to examine the influence of the menstrual cycle on the elimination kinetics of paracetamol. Salivary concentrations of paracetamol were determined after oral administration of 1 g of paracetamol on day 3, 10, 14, 20 and 25 of the menstrual cycle in normal healthy women volunteers with regular menstrual cycles. There was no significant difference in elimination half-life (t 1/2) or metabolic clearance rate (CL) between the various days of the menstrual cycle. The result sugge...

Somaja, L.; Thangam, J.

1987-01-01

151

Quantitative evaluation of Streptococcus mutans and Candida sp and salivary factors in the oral cavity of patients submitted to radiotherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to quantify the microorganisms Streptococcus mutans and Candida sp in the oral cavity of patients with oropharynx carcinoma, before, during and after radiotherapy, and to correlate the results with salivary factors such as pH, buffer capacity and flow rate. Saliva samples were collected, diluted and inoculated in SB-20 agar and in Sabouraud agar, for Streptococcus mutans and Candida sp, respectively. Previously to dilution, the concentrated saliva was analyzed, and the salivary factors were determined. After the growth of colonies, the number of microorganisms was determined in CFU/ml. The analysis of the results allowed to conclude that the salivary factors are related to the presence of microorganisms, and that the number of CFU/ml increased as salivary flow rate decreased. The effects of radiation compromised salivary homeostasis and favored the increase of infection by yeasts and bacteria. (author)

2001-01-01

152

Salivary characteristics of diabetic children  

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Full Text Available Salivary components may suffer variations that can be detected by chemical determinations. The aim of this work was to determine physical and biochemical characteristics of the saliva of a group of diabetic children compared to those of a control group. Relation to oral health indices was also determined. Twenty diabetic children (3-15-years-old and 21 control children (5-12-years-old were included in this study. Total proteins, sugars and calcium were determined by colorimetric methods, and glucose, urea, alpha-amylase and acid phosphatase by enzymatic methods. Our results demonstrated that acidic pH, diminished salivary flow rate and excess foam are usually present in saliva of diabetic children. Total sugars, glucose, urea and total proteins were greater in diabetic patients than controls, while calcium values were decreased. These differences were confirmed by the discrimination test. Diabetic children have higher DMFT-dmft-deft and DMFS-dmfs-defs values compared to those of the control children despite their lower sugar intake. Some salivary components in addition to the diminished flow rate could be involved in the characterization of the oral health state of diabetic children.

López María Elena

2003-01-01

153

Age-dependent modifications of the human salivary secretory protein complex.  

Science.gov (United States)

Physiological variability of the naturally occurring, human salivary secretory peptidome was studied as a function of age. The qualitative and quantitative changes occurring in the secretion of proteins/peptides specific to the oral cavity (i.e., basic salivary proline-rich proteins, salivary acidic proline-rich phosphoproteins, statherin, proline-rich peptide P-B, salivary cystatins, and histatins) were investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry in 67 subjects aged between 3 and 44 years. Subjects were divided into five age groups: group A, 8 donors, 3-5 years; group B, 11 donors, 6-9 years; group C, 20 donors, 10-12 years; group D, 15 donors, 13-17 years; group E, 13 donors, 24-44 years. Basic salivary proline-rich proteins, almost undetectable in the 3-5 and 6-9 years groups, reached salivary levels comparable to that of adults (24-44 years) around puberty. Levels of peptide P-D, basic peptide P-F, peptide P-H, peptide P-J (a new basic salivary proline-rich protein characterized in this study), and basic proline-rich peptide IB-1 were significantly higher in the 10-12-year-old group than in the 3-5-year-old group, whereas the increase of proline-rich peptide II-2 was significant only after the age of 12 years. The concentration of salivary acidic proline-rich phosphoproteins, histatin-3 1/24, histatin-3 1/25, and monophosphorylated and diphosphorylated cystatin S showed a minimum in the 6-9-year-old group. Finally, the histatin-1 concentration was significantly higher in the youngest subjects (3-5 years) than in the other groups. PMID:19591489

Cabras, Tiziana; Pisano, Elisabetta; Boi, Roberto; Olianas, Alessandra; Manconi, Barbara; Inzitari, Rosanna; Fanali, Chiara; Giardina, Bruno; Castagnola, Massimo; Messana, Irene

2009-08-01

154

Protective effects of Chinese herbal medicine Huqi extractum on salivary glands against radiation in Wistar rats  

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Full Text Available Objective: To explore the protective effects of Huqi extractum, a compound Chinese herbal medicine, on salivary glands against radiation in Wistar rats. Methods: One hundred Wistar rats were randomly divided into sham-exposure group, untreated group, and low-, medium- and high-dose Huqi groups. Local irradiation of 60Co gamma-rays with a single dose of 15 Gy was applied to the salivary glands of the Wistar rats except the sham-exposure group. After 3- and 40-day treatment, saliva was collected. Colorimetric method, iodine-amylase colorimetric method and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to detect concentrations of sodium (Na+, potassium (K+ and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA and activity of salivary amylase. Pathological changes of salivary gland tissues were observed by hematoxylin-eosin straining. Results: After 3-day administration, radiation-induced salivary gland injuries were obvious and prevalent in irradiated rats. Comparing with the sham-exposure group, saliva concentration of sIgA and body weight were reduced in other irradiated groups, except those in the high-dose Huqi group, while salivary amylase level was increased. At 3-day phase, pathologic changes of the salivary glands were featured as swelling acinus plasm and vacuolation. At 40-day phase, atrophy of gland cells was dominant. After 40-day administration, there were no significant differences between the high-dose Huqi group and sham-exposure group in sIgA and amylase levels and body weight, and according to the histological examination, no significant difference was revealed under the optical microscope.Conclusion: Chinese herbal medicine is helpful for the recovery of the salivary glands from the radiation injury, morphologically and functionally in rats.

Yan-li Zhang

2011-01-01

155

Serum and salivary oxidative analysis in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although both inflammatory and neural mechanisms have been suggested as potential contributors to Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type I (CRPS-I), the pathogenesis of the syndrome is still unclear. Clinical trials have shown that free radical scavengers can reduce signs and symptoms of CRPS-I, indirectly suggesting that free radicals and increased oxidative stress are involved in the pathogenesis of CRPS-I. This study investigated this premise by determining the levels of antioxidants in the serum and saliva of 31 patients with CRPS-I and in a control group of 21 healthy volunteers. Serum lipid peroxidation products (MDA) and all antioxidative parameters analyzed were significantly elevated in CRPS-I patients: median salivary peroxidase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity values, uric acid (UA) concentration and total antioxidant status (TAS) values were higher in CRPS-I patients by 150% (p=0.01), 280% (p=0.04), 60% (p=0.0001), and 200% (p=0.0003), respectively, as compared with controls. Similar although not as extensive pattern of oxidative changes were found in the serum: mean serum UA and MDA concentrations and TAS value in the CRPS-I patients were higher by 16% (p=0.04), 25% (p=0.02), and 22% (p=0.05), respectively, than in the controls. Additionally, median salivary albumin concentration and median salivary LDH activities in the patients were 2.5 times (p=0.001) and 3.1 (p=0.004) times higher than in the controls. The accumulated data show that free radicals are involved in the pathophysiology of CRPS-I, which is reflected both in serum and salivary analyses. These data could be used for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in CRPS-I patients. PMID:18539395

Eisenberg, Elon; Shtahl, Shalom; Geller, Rimma; Reznick, Abraham Z; Sharf, Ordi; Ravbinovich, Meirav; Erenreich, Adam; Nagler, Rafael M

2008-08-15

156

Role of amylase, mucin, IgA and albumin on salivary protein buffering capacity: a pilot study.  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been suggested that proteins serve as major salivary buffers below pH5. It remains unclear, however, which salivary proteins are responsible for these buffering properties. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the correlation between salivary concentration of total protein, amylase, mucin, immunoglobulin A (IgA), albumin and total salivary protein buffering capacity at a pH range of 4-5. In addition, the buffering capacity and the number of carboxylic acid moieties of single proteins were assessed. Stimulated saliva samples were collected at 9:00, 13:00 and 17:00 from 4 healthy volunteers on 3 successive days. The buffering capacities were measured for total salivary protein or for specific proteins. Also, the concentration of total protein, amylase, mucin, IgA and albumin were analysed. Within the limits of the current study, it was found that salivary protein buffering capacity was highly positively correlated with total protein, amylase and IgA concentrations. A weak correlation was observed for both albumin and mucin individually. Furthermore, the results suggest that amylase contributed to 35 percent of the salivary protein buffering capacity in the pH range of 4-5. PMID:23660660

Cheaib, Zeinab; Lussi, Adrian

2013-06-01

157

Cord serum cotinine as a biomarker of fetal exposure to cigarette smoke at the end of pregnancy.  

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This study investigated the association between biomarkers of fetal exposure to cigarette smoke at the end of pregnancy, cotinine in cord serum and in maternal and newborn urine samples, and quantitative measurement of smoking intake and exposure evaluated by maternal self-reported questionnaire. Study subjects were 429 mothers and their newborns from a hospital in Barcelona, Spain. A questionnaire including smoking habits was completed in the third trimester of pregnancy and on the day of de...

2000-01-01

158

Salivary duct carcinoma of parotid gland.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 40-year old male presented with rapidly growing swelling in the right parotid region. Based on the fine needle aspiration cytology report of adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified, superficial parotidectomy was performed, which showed the features of salivary duct carcinoma by histopathological examination. The smears were reviewed to identify the potential pitfalls in the cytological diagnosis of salivary duct carcinoma. PMID:21887008

Kinnera, Vijay Sreedhar Babu; Mandyam, Kumaraswamy Reddy; Chowhan, Amit Kumar; Nandyala, Rukmangadha; Bobbidi, Venkata Phaneendra; Vutukuru, Venkatarami Reddy

2009-07-01

159

Nizatidine Improves Impaired Salivary Secretion in GERD  

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Full Text Available During esophageal acid clearance, salivation plays an important role in defending the esophageal mucosa. Nizatidine, a histamine H2 receptor antagonist, inhibits acetylcholine esterase, with a resultant increase in acetylcholine. We experienced a patient with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD and impaired salivary secretion who has been successfully treated with nizatidine.Case report: A 63-year-old female visited our hospital with complaints of heartburn and continuous laryngeal discomfort. Saliva scintigraphy was performed to evaluate the salivary function. Washout ratio was decreased to be 25%–40% in individual salivary gland. After the treatment with nizatidine, salivary scintigraphy demonstrated the increased washout ratios. The values of both parotid glands increased up to 90%, whereas those of submandibular glands improved to be around a normal range. GERD symptoms disappeared completely after treatment. In conclusion, nizatidine may be one of therapeutic options for low salivary excretion.

Yoshihisa Urita

2008-01-01

160

Evaluation of Salivary Glucose, IgA and Flow Rate in Diabetic Patients: A Case-Control Study  

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Full Text Available Objective: An association between diabetes mellitus and alterations in the oral cavity has been noted. In this study, we evaluated differences between salivary IgA, glucose and flow rate in diabetic patients compared with healthy controls.Materials and Methods: Forty patients with type 1 diabetes, 40 patients with type 2 diabetes and 40 healthy controls were selected. Whole unstimulated saliva samples were collected by the standard method and the salivary flow rate was determined. Nephelometricand Pars method were used to measure salivary IgA and salivary glucose concentrations,respectively. Statistical analysis was performed by Chi-square and t test.Results: There were no significant differences in salivary IgA and glucose concentrations between type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients and their matched control subjects (P>0.05.Salivary flow rate was significantly lower in diabetic patients (P<0.05. In addition,DMFT was higher in diabetic patients than the controls.Conclusion: Determination of salivary constituents may be useful in the description and management of oral findings in diabetic patients.

P. Bakianian Vaziri

2010-03-01

 
 
 
 
161

Immunochromatographic assay using gold nanoparticles for measuring salivary secretory IgA in dogs as a stress marker  

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Full Text Available The concentration of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA is a well-known stress marker for humans. The concentration of salivary sIgA in dogs has also been reported as a useful stress marker. In addition, salivary sIgA in dogs has been used to determine the adaptive ability of dogs for further training. There are conventional procedures based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs. However, ELISA requires long assay time, complicated operations and is costly. In the present study, we developed an immunochromatographic assay for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs using a dilution buffer containing a non-ionic surfactant. We determined 2500-fold dilution as the optimum condition for dog saliva using a phosphate buffer (50 mM, pH 7.2 containing non-ionic surfactant (3 wt% Tween 20. The results obtained from the saliva samples of three dogs using immunochromatographic assay were compared with those obtained from ELISA. It was found that the immunochromatographic assay is applicable to judge the change in salivary sIgA in each dog. The immunochromatographic assay for salivary sIgA in dogs is a promising tool, which should soon become commercially available for predicting a dog's psychological condition and estimating adaptive ability for training as guide or police dogs.

Aki Takahashi, Shigeru Uchiyama, Yuya Kato, Teruko Yuhi, Hiromi Ushijima, Makoto Takezaki, Toshihiro Tominaga, Yoshiko Moriyama, Kunio Takeda, Toshiro Miyahara and Naoki Nagatani

2009-01-01

162

Development of simple HPLC/UV with a column-switching method for the determination of nicotine and cotinine in hair samples  

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Full Text Available Nicotine and cotinine in hair are good biomarkers for assessing long-term exposure to smoking. However, analytical devices such as GC/MS are associated with high cost and are not widely used. HPLC/UV is used widely in laboratories, but is unsuitable for measurement of minor constituents, except when using the column-switching method. Thus, we aimed to establish a simple, inexpensive and sensitive method based on HPLC/UV with column switching for measuring nicotine and cotinine in hair. First, we compared the presence and absence of a column selection unit. We then measured amounts of nicotine and cotinine in hair samples collected from the general population, and compared both the corresponding levels and the detection limits with those in previous studies. Finally, initial and running costs of HPLC/UV were compared with other analytical methods. As one of the results, the areas of nicotine and cotinine measured by HPLC/UV with column-switching method were 12.9 and 16.9 times greater, respectively, than those without the column-switching method. The amount of nicotine and cotinine in hair was significantly correlated to number of cigarettes smoked per day (r = 0.228, p = 0.040. In addition, the HPLC/UV method showed similar sensitivity and detection limit (nicotine, 0.10 ng/mg; cotinine, 0.08 ng/mg as reported in previous studies. The cost of the HPLC/UV method is lower than that of other analytical methods. We were able to establish a low-cost method with good sensitivity for measuring nicotine and cotinine in hair. The HPLC/UV with a column-switching method will be useful as a first step in screening surveys in order to better understand the effects of smoking exposure.

Masayoshi Tsuji

2013-04-01

163

Effect of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 on Salivary Glucose - A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies  

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Background Early screening of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is essential for improved prognosis and effective delay of clinical complications. However, testing for high glycemia often requires invasive and painful blood testing, limiting its large-scale applicability. We have combined new, unpublished data with published data comparing salivary glucose levels in type 2 DM patients and controls and/or looked at the correlation between salivary glucose and glycemia/HbA1c to systematically review the effectiveness of salivary glucose to estimate glycemia and HbA1c. We further discuss salivary glucose as a biomarker for large-scale screening of diabetes or developing type 2 DM. Methods and Findings We conducted a meta-analysis of peer-reviewed published articles that reported data regarding mean salivary glucose levels and/or correlation between salivary glucose levels and glycemia or HbA1c for type 2 DM and non-diabetic individuals and combined them with our own unpublished results. Our global meta-analysis of standardized mean differences on salivary glucose levels shows an overall large positive effect of type 2 DM over salivary glucose (Hedge's g?=?1.37). The global correlation coefficient (r) between salivary glucose and glycemia was large (r?=?0.49), with subgroups ranging from medium (r?=?0.30 in non-diabetics) to very large (r?=?0.67 in diabetics). Meta-analysis of the global correlation between salivary glucose and HbA1c showed an overall association of medium strength (r?=?0.37). Conclusions Our systematic review reports an overall meaningful salivary glucose concentration increase in type 2 DM and a significant overall relationship between salivary glucose concentration and associated glycemia/HbA1c values, with the strength of the correlation increasing for higher glycemia/HbA1c values. These results support the potential of salivary glucose levels as a biomarker for type 2 DM, providing a less painful/invasive method for screening type 2 DM, as well as for monitoring blood glucose levels in large cohorts of DM patients.

Mascarenhas, Paulo; Fatela, Bruno; Barahona, Isabel

2014-01-01

164

Primary culture of Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae salivary gland cells  

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Full Text Available In the present paper, we developed a primary culture of Rhodnius prolixus salivary gland and main salivary canal cells. Cells remained viable in culture for 30 days. Three types of cells were indentified in the salivary gland cultures, with binuclear cells being the most abundant. The supernatants of salivary cultures contained mainly 16-24 kDa proteins and presented anticoagulant and apyrase activities. Secretion vesicles were observed budding from the cellular monolayer of the main salivary canal cells. These results indicate that R. prolixus salivary proteins may be produced in vitro and suggest that the main salivary canal may have a possible secretory role.

Fernanda F Rocha

2010-03-01

165

Quantitative and qualitative analyses of human salivary NEFA with gas-chromatography and mass spectrometry  

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Salivary non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) are proposed to play a role in oral health, oral fat detection, and they may hold diagnostic and prognostic potential. Yet, little is known about the array and concentrations of NEFA in saliva. The aim of the study was to conduct qualitative and quantitative analyses of salivary NEFA in healthy humans and to present a new, efficient protocol to perform such analyses. Resting saliva samples from fifteen participants were collected. The salivary lipids were extracted using a modified Folch extraction. The NEFA in the extracted lipids were selectively subjected to pentafluorobenzyl bromide (PFB) derivatization and qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). A total of 16 NEFA were identified in resting saliva. The four major NEFA were palmitic, linoleic, oleic, and stearic acids. Their concentrations ranged from 2 to 9 ?M. This is the first study to characterize individual human salivary NEFA and their respective concentrations. The method used in the study is sensitive, precise, and accurate. It is specific to fatty acids in non-esterified form and hence enables analysis of NEFA without their separation from other lipid classes. Thus, it saves time, reagents and prevents loss of sample. These properties make it suitable for large scale analysis of salivary NEFA.

Kulkarni, Bhushan V.; Wood, Karl V.; Mattes, Richard D.

2012-01-01

166

Quantitative and qualitative analysis of human salivary NEFA with gas-chromatography and mass spectrometry  

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Full Text Available Salivary NEFA are proposed to play a role in oral health, oral fat detection, and they may hold diagnostic and prognostic potential. Yet, little is known about the array and concentrations of NEFA in saliva. The aim of the study was to conduct qualitative and quantitative analysis of salivary NEFA in healthy humans and to present a new, efficient protocol to perform such analyses. Resting saliva samples from fifteen participants were collected. The salivary lipids were extracted using a modified Folch extraction. The NEFA in the extracted lipids were selectively subjected to pentafluorobenzyl bromide derivatization and qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. A total 16 NEFA were identified in resting saliva. The four major NEFA were palmitic, linoleic, oleic and stearic acids. Their concentrations ranged from 2-9 micromolar. This is the first study to characterize individual human salivary NEFA and their respective concentrations. The method used in the study is sensitive, precise, and accurate. It is specific to fatty acids in non-esterified form and hence enables analysis of NEFA without their separation from other lipid classes. Thus, it saves time, reagents and prevents loss of sample. These properties make it suitable for large scale analysis of salivary NEFA.

BhushanVKulkarni

2012-08-01

167

Salivary DJ-1 could be an indicator of Parkinson's disease progression  

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Objective: The goal of the current investigation was to explore whether salivary DJ-1 could be a potential biomarker for monitoring disease progression in Parkinson's disease (PD) by evaluating the association between salivary DJ-1 concentrations and nigrostriatal dopaminergic function. Methods: First, in 74 patients with PD and 12 age-matched normal controls, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging with labeled dopamine transporters (DAT) (99mTc-TRODAT-1), which has been used for measuring DAT density in PD was prformed. Then, the DJ-1 level in their saliva was analyzed by quantitative and sensitive Luminex assay and compared to caudate or putamen DAT density. Finally, based on the above, our cross-section study was carried out in 376 research volunteers (285 patients with PD and 91 healthy controls) to measure salivary DJ-1 level. Results: From our analysis, we found a correlation between salivary concentration of DJ-1 and putamen nucleus uptake of 99mTc-TRODAT-1 in the PD group. Although salivary DJ-1 levels were not affected by UPDRS scores, gender, age, and pharmacotherapy, DJ-1 levels in H&Y 4 stage of PD were higher than those in H&Y 1-3 stage as well as those in healthy controls. Salivary DJ-1 also decreased significantly in mixed type PD patients compared to the tremor-dominant type (TDT) and akinetic-rigid dominant type (ARDT) PD patients. Conclusions: According to the investigation in a large cohort, we reported for the first time the prognostic potential of the salivary DJ-1 as a biomarker for evaluating nigrostriatal dopaminergic function in PD.

Kang, Wen-Yan; Yang, Qiong; Jiang, Xu-Feng; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Lin-Yuan; Wang, Xiao-Ying; Zhang, Li-Na; Quinn, Thomas J.; Liu, Jun; Chen, Sheng-Di

2014-01-01

168

Iatrogenic causes of salivary gland dysfunction.  

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Saliva is important for maintaining oral health and function. There are instances when medical therapy is intended to decrease salivary flow, such as during general anesthesia, but most instances of iatrogenic salivary gland dysfunction represent untoward or unavoidable side-effects. The clinical expression of the salivary dysfunction can range from very minor transient alteration in saliva flow to a total loss of salivary function. The most common forms of therapy that interfere with salivation are drug therapies, cancer therapies (radiation or chemotherapy), and surgical therapy. These therapies can affect salivation by a number of different mechanisms that include: disruption of autonomic nerve function related to salivation, interference with acinar or ductal cell functions related to salivation, cytotoxicity, indirect effects (vasoconstriction/dilation, fluid and electrolyte balance, etc.), and physical trauma to salivary glands and nerves. A wide variety of drugs is capable of increasing or decreasing salivary flow by mimicking autonomic nervous system actions or by directly acting on cellular processes necessary for salivation: drugs can also indirectly affect salivation by altering fluid and electrolyte balance or by affecting blood flow to the glands. Ionizing radiation can cause permanent damage to salivary glands, damage that is manifest as acinar cell destruction with subsequent atrophy and fibrosis of the glands. Cancer chemotherapy can cause changes in salivation, but the changes are usually much less severe and only transient. Finally, surgical and traumatic injuries interfere with salivation because of either disruption of gland innervation or gross physical damage (or removal) of glandular tissue (including ducts). PMID:3305644

Schubert, M M; Izutsu, K T

1987-02-01

169

Salivary glands in ixodid ticks: control and mechanism of secretion.  

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The salivary glands are vital to the biological success of ixodid ticks and the major route for pathogen transmission. Important functions include the absorption of water vapor from unsaturated air by free-living ticks, excretion of excess fluid for blood meal concentration, and the secretion of bioactive protein and lipid compounds during tick feeding. Fluid secretion is controlled by nerves. Dopamine is the neurotransmitter at the neuroeffector junction regulating secretion via adenylate cyclase and an increase in cellular cAMP. Dopamine also affects the release of arachidonic acid which is subsequently converted to prostaglandins. Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) is secreted at extremely high levels into tick saliva for export to the host where it impacts the host physiology. Additionally, PGE(2) has an autocrine or paracrine role within the salivary gland itself where it interacts with a PGE(2) receptor to induce secretion (exocytosis) of bioactive saliva proteins via a phosphoinositide signalling pathway and an increase in cellular Ca(2+). Regulation of fluid secretion has been extensively studied, but little is known about the mechanism of fluid secretion. Continuing advances in tick salivary gland physiology will be made as key regulatory and secretory gland proteins are purified and/or their genes cloned and sequenced. PMID:10817833

Sauer; Essenberg; Bowman

2000-07-01

170

Salivary Duct Carcinoma of the Minor Salivary Gland: A Rare Case Report  

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Full Text Available Salivary duct carcinoma is a rare invasive malignancy arising in the ductal epithelium of the salivary glands. Nearly 85% of the cases occur in the parotid gland followed by submandibular gland. Rarely is it described in the hard palate. Salivary duct carcinomas affecting the minor salivary glands have been reported in only 4% of the SDC cases and constitute 2% of all the salivary gland malignant neoplasms. It is characterized by aggressive behavior with early metastasis, local recurrence and significant mortality. The tumor has predilection for older men in the 6th to 7th decades of life. In this article; we report a case of a salivary gland carcinoma which was present in the right posterior region of the maxilla of a 50 year old female patient. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2013; 1(4.000: 222-226

Shalini Gupta

2013-08-01

171

Salivary duct carcinoma of the palate  

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Full Text Available Salivary duct carcinoma is a rare high-grade neoplasm that more frequently affects the parotid gland. Though neoplasms of this type are infrequent in minor salivary glands, they are less aggressive and may lead to early diagnosis before distant metastases could occur. Salivary duct carcinoma is also the most frequent epithelial component of carcinosarcoma. The present article reports a case of SDC of the palate in a 26-year-old male and discusses SDC as a malignant epithelial component in carcinosarcoma.

Ponniah I

2005-01-01

172

Parotid gland is the main source of human salivary epidermal growth factor  

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To clarify the production of human epidermal growth factor (EGF) by different salivary glands, the authors measured its concentration by radioimmunoassay separately in whole saliva, in parotid gland (PG) saliva and in mixed submandibular (SMG) and sublingual gland (SLG) saliva. Also, they studied the presence of EGF in PG and SMG by immunohistochemistry. The mean concentrations of EDG in PG saliva was higher than in whole saliva, which in turn was higher than in mixed SMG + SLG saliva. No sex difference existed in any salivary gland EGF. Immunohistochemistry revealed EGF in the acinar cells of both PG and SMG, buy only in PG there were prominent EDG deposits in luminal spaces. Their data suggest that EDG is produced by both PG and SMG, but that more of it is secreted from the PG. This result is new and challenges the general view that human salivary EDG is mainly from SMG

1988-01-01

173

Parotid gland is the main source of human salivary epidermal growth factor  

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To clarify the production of human epidermal growth factor (EGF) by different salivary glands, the authors measured its concentration by radioimmunoassay separately in whole saliva, in parotid gland (PG) saliva and in mixed submandibular (SMG) and sublingual gland (SLG) saliva. Also, they studied the presence of EGF in PG and SMG by immunohistochemistry. The mean concentrations of EDG in PG saliva was higher than in whole saliva, which in turn was higher than in mixed SMG + SLG saliva. No sex difference existed in any salivary gland EGF. Immunohistochemistry revealed EGF in the acinar cells of both PG and SMG, buy only in PG there were prominent EDG deposits in luminal spaces. Their data suggest that EDG is produced by both PG and SMG, but that more of it is secreted from the PG. This result is new and challenges the general view that human salivary EDG is mainly from SMG.

Thesleff, I.; Viinikka, L.; Saxen, L.; Lehtonen, E.; Perheentupa, J.

1988-01-01

174

[The influence of alcohol on the oral cavity, salivary glands and saliva].  

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Ethanol diffuses rapidly into saliva during the drinking, and immediately after its salivary concentration is temporarily much higher than in plasma. Within 30 minutes, salivary ethanol concentration equilibrates with the plasma level, thus suggesting that ethanol easily penetrates the whole body, including oral cavity tissues and salivary glands. After alcohol intake, the level of acetaldehyde in saliva strikingly exceeds the level in systemic blood. From saliva, acetaldehyde and ethanol easily reach all local tissues. Damage to the oral tissues seems to be ascribed mostly to the action of acetaldehyde, although some acute effects depend on a direct action of ethanol and formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs). It is known that the oral mucosal surface is the home of numerous normal flora microorganisms and is the portal of entry for the majority of pathogens. The oral cavity and salivary antimicrobial immune defense systems eliminate pathogens and prevent massive overgrowth of microorganisms. An oral defense system participate in the protection of not only oral tissues, but also in the protection of upper digestive and respiratory tracts, against a number of microbial pathogens. Saliva plays the role in the oral cavity lubrication, maintenance of mucosal and tooth integrity, esophageal physiology, digestion and gastric cytoprotection. As alcohol abuse affects the structure and function of oral cavity mucosa, salivary glands and saliva, the maintenance of oral and general health under normal conditions is seriously impaired during the drinking. The severe tissue damage occurs in particular when alcohol abuse coincides with smoking. PMID:21542250

Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Zalewska, Anna; Szulc, Agata; Kepka, Alina; Konarzewska, Beata; Zalewska-Szajda, Beata; Chojnowska, Sylwia; Waszkiel, Danuta; Zwierz, Krzysztof

2011-01-01

175

Upregulation of Serum Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Patients with Salivary Gland Tumor  

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Neoangiogenesis is essential for tumor development, invasion, and dissemination. The most potent of the cytokines associated with angiogenesis is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The aim of the present study was to determine VEGF serum level in patients with salivary gland tumor. Using an ELISA kit, the circulating levels of VEGF in sera from 58 patients with salivary gland tumor and 30 healthy controls were assessed. Mean VEGF levels in sera of patients with salivary gland tumors (574.9 ± 414.3) were significantly higher than those in controls (263.9 ± 310.0) (P = 0.009). Within the salivary gland tumor group, mean serum VEGF concentration in malignant tumors (n = 27) was 727.3 ± 441.8?pg/mL, and that in benign tumors (n = 31) was 442.2 ± 343.3?pg/mL. Mean serum VEGF concentration was significantly higher in malignant tumors than in benign tumors (P = 0.008) and was higher in benign tumors than in controls (P = 0.03). The data in the present study clearly show that VEGF level was consistently upregulated in benign and malignant tumors in comparison to healthy controls. However, the role of VEGF as a prognostic factor in salivary gland tumor and its application in antiangiogenic therapy require further clinical research.

Andisheh Tadbir, Azadeh; Mardani, Maryam

2013-01-01

176

Pharmacokinetic study of yohimbine and its pharmacodynamic effects on salivary secretion in patients treated with tricyclic antidepressants.  

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The pharmacokinetic parameters and the time course of the effect after acute oral administration of yohimbine on salivary secretion in patients treated with tricyclic antidepressants were investigated. Yohimbine (10 mg) increased both salivary outflow and plasma noradrenaline levels for 4 h. Pharmacokinetic parameters (t1/2, tmax, Cmax and AUCexp) and plasma concentrations of noradrenaline were higher in patients treated with tricyclic antidepressants than in controls. At this dose, yohimbine...

Bagheri, H.; Picault, P.; Schmitt, L.; Houin, G.; Berlan, M.; Montastruc, J. L.

1994-01-01

177

Molecular structure of cotinine studied by gas electron diffraction combined with theoretical calculations  

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The molecular structure of cotinine (( S)-1-methyl-5-(3-pyridinyl)-2-pyrrolidinone), the major metabolite of nicotine, has been determined at about 182 °C by gas electron diffraction combined with MP2 and DFT calculations. The diffraction data are consistent with the existence of the (ax, sc), (ax, ap), (eq, sp) and (eq, ap) conformers, where ax and eq indicate the configuration of the pyrrolidinone ring by means of the position (axial and equatorial) of the pyridine ring, and sc, sp and ap distinguish the isomers arising from the internal rotation around the bond connecting the two rings. The (CH 3)NCCC(N) dihedral angles, ?, of the (ax, sc) and (eq, sp) conformers were determined independently to be 158(12)° and 129(13)°, respectively, where the numbers in parentheses are three times the standard errors, 3 ?. According to the MP2 calculations, the corresponding dihedral angles for the (ax, ap) and (eq, ap) conformers were assumed to differ by 180° from their syn counterparts. The ratios x(ax, sc)/ x(ax, ap) and x(eq, sp)/ x(eq, ap) were taken from the theoretically estimated free energy differences, ? G, where x is the abundance of the conformer. The resultant abundances of (ax, sc), (ax, ap), (eq, sp) and (eq, ap) conformers are 34(6)%, 21% (d.p.), 28% (d.p.), and 17% (d.p.), respectively, where d.p. represents dependent parameters. The determined structural parameters ( rg (Å) and ? ? (°)) of the most abundant conformer, (ax, sc), are as follows: r(N sbnd C) pyrrol = 1.463(5); r(N sbnd C methyl) = 1.457(?); r(N sbnd C( dbnd O)) = 1.384(12); r(C dbnd O) = 1.219(5); = 1.541(3); r(C pyrrolsbnd C pyrid) = 1.521(?); = 1.396(2); = 1.343(?); ?(CNC) pyrrol = 113.9(11); ?CCC pyrrol(-C pyrid) = 103.6(?); ?NCO = 124.1(13); ?NC pyrrolC pyrid = 113.1(12); ?C pyrrolC pyrrolC pyrid = 113.3(?); ?(CNC) pyrid = 117.1(2); = 124.4(?); ?C methylNC( dbnd O) = ?C methylNC(-C pyrid) = 122.8(d.p.); ?NC( dbnd O)C = 107.1(d.p.); ?NC pyrrol(-C pyrid)C pyrrol = 103.0(d.p.) and ?CCC( dbnd O) = 105.2(d.p.), where ? in the parentheses means that the parameter is bound to the preceding one and denote average values. The puckering angle, ?, of the pyrrolidinone ring is 26(3)°. The N⋯N distances of the (ax, sc) and (eq, sp) conformers, which are 4.844(5) and 4.740(5) Å, respectively, are close to that of the most stable conformer of nicotine, 4.885(6) Å and the corresponding one of arecoline, 4.832(13) Å. It is concluded that the weak nicotinic activity of cotinine cannot be ascribed to such a small difference in the N⋯N distances.

Takeshima, Tsuguhide; Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Egawa, Toru; Konaka, Shigehiro

2007-09-01

178

Salivary characteristics of diabetic children  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Os componentes salivares podem sofrer variações que podem ser detectadas por análise química. O objetivo desse trabalho foi determinar as características físicas e bioquímicas da saliva de um grupo de crianças diabéticas comparadas a um grupo controle. A relação com a saúde oral também foi determina [...] da. Vinte crianças diabéticas (3-15 anos) e 21 crianças do grupo controle (5-12 anos) foram incluídas nesse estudo. Quantidade total de proteínas, açúcares e cálcio foram determinadas por métodos colorimétricos e glicose, uréia, a-amilase e ácido fosfórico por métodos enzimáticos. Nossos resultados demonstraram que o pH ácido diminuiu o fluxo salivar e o excesso de espuma são normalmente encontrados na saliva de crianças diabéticas. O total de açúcares, glucose, uréia e proteínas foram maiores em pacientes diabéticos do que no controle enquanto o cálcio diminuiu. Essas diferenças foram confirmadas pelo teste de discriminação. As crianças diabéticas têm maiores valores de DMFT-dmft-deft and DMFS-dmfs-defs quando comparadas àquelas do grupo controle apesar do menor consumo de açúcar. Alguns componentes salivares e a diminuição do fluxo salivar podem estar envolvidos na caracterização da saúde oral das crianças diabéticas. Abstract in english Salivary components may suffer variations that can be detected by chemical determinations. The aim of this work was to determine physical and biochemical characteristics of the saliva of a group of diabetic children compared to those of a control group. Relation to oral health indices was also deter [...] mined. Twenty diabetic children (3-15-years-old) and 21 control children (5-12-years-old) were included in this study. Total proteins, sugars and calcium were determined by colorimetric methods, and glucose, urea, alpha-amylase and acid phosphatase by enzymatic methods. Our results demonstrated that acidic pH, diminished salivary flow rate and excess foam are usually present in saliva of diabetic children. Total sugars, glucose, urea and total proteins were greater in diabetic patients than controls, while calcium values were decreased. These differences were confirmed by the discrimination test. Diabetic children have higher DMFT-dmft-deft and DMFS-dmfs-defs values compared to those of the control children despite their lower sugar intake. Some salivary components in addition to the diminished flow rate could be involved in the characterization of the oral health state of diabetic children.

López, María Elena; Colloca, María Eugenia; Páez, Rafael Gustavo; Schallmach, Judit Nora; Koss, Myriam Adriana; Chervonagura, Amalia.

179

Simple and Rapid Assay Method for Simultaneous Quantification of Urinary Nicotine and Cotinine using Micro-Extraction by Packed Sorbent and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry  

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Full Text Available A simple and rapid method for determination of nicotine and cotinine levels in urine was developed using samples prepared by micro-extraction by packed sorbent (MEPS and subjected to gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis. This method provided good reproducibility, as well as good linearity of calibration curves in the range of 1–100 and 50–1000 ng/mL for quality control samples spiked with nicotine and cotinine, respectively. The detection limit of nicotine and cotinine was as low as 0.25 and 20 ng/mL, respectively. An evaporation procedure is not suitable for nicotine determination, thus an advantage of the present MEPS assay method is direct testing with GC-MS without the need for evaporation to a dry solvent. Our findings show that it may be useful for determining nicotine levels in various types of research studies.

HIROSHI SENO

2013-08-01

180

Tyrosine crystals in salivary gland tumours.  

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Tyrosine crystals were seen in 24 of 113 salivary gland pleomorphic adenomas from Malawi and one of six carcinomas arising in a pleomorphic adenoma; they were present in tumours from all common anatomical sites. They were not found in 71 other salivary tumours of varying histological type. Similar crystals were found in one out of 56 pleomorphic adenomas from patients operated on at St Thomas's Hospital. No excess tyrosine was demonstrated in a tumour containing many crystals. Their great fre...

Thomas, K.; Hutt, M. S.

1981-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Assessment of post-radiotherapy salivary glands  

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Salivary glands are usually irradiated during radiotherapy for head and neck cancers, which can lead to radiation-induced damage. Radiation-induced xerostomia (oral dryness) is the most common post-radiotherapy complication for head and neck cancer patients and can reduce the patient’s quality of life. Accurate and efficient salivary gland assessment methods provide a better understanding of the cause and degree of xerostomia, and may help in patient management. At present, there are differ...

2011-01-01

182

Measuring human salivary amylase copy number variation  

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Copy number variations represent large scale genomic alterations varying from 1kb to 3Mb and are proposed as a driving force for genome evolution and variation. One such locus exhibiting copy number variation and genome evolution is salivary amylase, which is responsible for the digestion of starch in the human parotid glands. It was reported that since human salivary amylase gene (AMY1) copy numbers are correlated positively with protein levels, and also due to the correlation of high gene c...

2010-01-01

183

Alternations in salivary glucose during ramadan fasting  

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During the holly month of Ramadan, Muslims fast every day from dawn to sunset. Although the effect of Ramadan fasting on general health has been widely studied, the impact of fasting on oral health and possible changes in salivary biochemicals, such as glucose, has not received much attentiom. The aim of our study was to evaluate the influence of fasting on the level of glucose in the saliva of healthy individuals. Salivary glucose was measured using an enzymatic method based on oxidation of ...

2010-01-01

184

Scientific Frontiers: Emerging Technologies for Salivary Diagnostics  

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Saliva, a biofluid historically well-studied biochemically and physiologically, has entered the post-genomic ‘omics’ era, where its proteomic, genomic, and microbiome constituents have been comprehensively deciphered. The translational path of these salivary constituents has begun toward a variety of personalized individual medical applications, including early detection of cancer. Salivary diagnostics is a late-comer, but it is catching up where dedicated resources, like the Salivaomics ...

Baum, B. J.; Yates, J. R.; Srivastava, S.; Wong, D. T. W.; Melvin, J. E.

2011-01-01

185

Salivary electrolytes in psoriasis: A preliminary study  

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Full Text Available Background: There have been few isolated studies on alteration of salivary electrolytes in psoriasis but this subject has not been pursued extensively. Purpose: The present study was conducted to assess any alteration in the levels of salivary electrolytes in psoriasis and to correlate the same with type and severity of the disease. Materials and Methods: Fifteen patients of uncomplicated psoriasis and 12 age and sex matched controls attending the outpatient department of R.L.J.H. and S.N.R. Hospitals, Kolar, India were included for analysis of salivary electrolytes. PASI scoring was used to assess the severity of the disease. Student?s t-test ( P < 0.05; significant was utilized for statistical evaluation of results. Results: Salivary sodium levels were significantly elevated in psoriasis ( P value 0.002, whereas there was no significant rise in levels of salivary potassium. However, potassium levels correlated significantly with severity of the disease ( P value 0.043. Conclusion: There was elevation of salivary sodium levels in patients of psoriasis and potassium levels correlated with severity of the disease. Limitation: Unicentre hospital based study with small sample size; hence the results cannot be generalized.

Singh Gurcharan

2006-01-01

186

Differential Radiodiagnosis of Salivary Gland Masses  

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Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to evaluate the possibilities of radiological methods in differential diagnostics of salivary gland masses. Materials and Methods. 76 patients with tumors and tumor-like salivary gland masses were examined. We analyzed the findings of their physical examination, and performed operative interventions compared to the data of histological verification, multiplanar reconstruction sialography and ultrasound investigation. Results. At clinical examination the symptoms were non-specific. 97.5% of patients presented with a constant mass in the affected salivary gland. in 14.5% of patients the mass grew during the last 3–4 months; and in 2.5% of patients it was an incidental finding and had no manifestations. The mostly involved glands (96% of cases were parotid and submaxillary salivary glands. Tumor-like masses were found in 16 patients (21%, benign tumors — in 57 (75.0%, malignancies and locally destructive tumors — in 3 (4.0%. Conclusion. High resolution ultrasound is the primary diagnostic technique of neoplastic masses of major salivary glands, and allows a reliable evaluation of the mass localization, shape, size, structure, borders, and vascularisation. Multiplanar reconstruction sialography enables to assess more precisely anatomical localisation of tumors and tumor-like masses of salivary glands with duct system, adjacent bone and soft tissue structures.

?.?. Egorova

2013-08-01

187

Salivary secretion during meals in lactating dairy cattle  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Four multiparous Holstein cows in midlactation were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square to evaluate whether source of forage influenced salivary secretion during eating in lactating dairy cows. The forages were allocated separately from the pelleted concentrates. Cows were offered 1 of 4 forages each period: barley silage, alfalfa silage, long-stemmed alfalfa hay, or chopped barley straw. Saliva secretion was measured during the morning meal by collecting masticates through the rumen cannula at the cardia of each cow. Rate of salication (213 g/min) was not affected by forage source. However, the forage sources differed in eating rate (g og DM/min), which led to differences in ensalivation of forages (g of saliva/g of DM and g of saliva/g of NDF). On the basis of DM, ensalivation (g of saliva/g of DM) was greatest for straw (7.23) and similar for barley sialge, alfalfa silage, and alfalfa hay (4.15, 3.40, and 4.34 g/g of DM, respectively). Higher ensalivation of straw could be accounted for by its higher neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content; ensalivation of NDF (g of saliva/g of NDF) was actually greatest for long-stemmed alfalfa hay (12.4) and similar for the other chopped forages (8.9). Cows consumed concentrate about 3 to 12 times faster than the various forages (DM basis), and ensalivation of concentrate was much lower (1.12 g of saliva/g of DM) than for forages. Feed characteristics such as particle size, DM, and NDF content affect salivary output during eating by affecting the eating rate. Slower eating rate and greater time spent eating may help prevent ruminal acidosis by increasing the total daily salivary secretion in dairy cows.

Beauchemin, K.A.; Eriksen, L.

2008-01-01

188

Inducible HSP70 Protects Radiation-Induced Salivary Gland Damage  

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Irradiation (IR) delivered to the head and neck is a common treatment for malignancies. Salivary glands in the irradiation field are severely damaged, and consequently this resulted in marked salivary hypofunction. While the exact mechanism of salivary gland damage remains enigmatic, fluid secreting acinar cells are lost, and saliva output is dramatically reduced. Previously we have reported that inducible heat shock protein 70 (HSP70i) induced radioresistance in vitro. Moreover, HSP70i localized to salivary glands by gene transfer has great potential for the treatment of salivary gland. Herein, we investigated whether HSP70 can use as radio protective molecules for radiation-induced salivary gland damage in vivo.

Lee, Hae-June; Lee, Yoon-Jin; Kwon, Hee-Choong; Lee, Su-Jae; Bae, Sang-Woo; Lee, Yun-Sil [Korea Institute of Radiological Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung-Ho [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

2006-07-01

189

Inducible HSP70 Protects Radiation-Induced Salivary Gland Damage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Irradiation (IR) delivered to the head and neck is a common treatment for malignancies. Salivary glands in the irradiation field are severely damaged, and consequently this resulted in marked salivary hypofunction. While the exact mechanism of salivary gland damage remains enigmatic, fluid secreting acinar cells are lost, and saliva output is dramatically reduced. Previously we have reported that inducible heat shock protein 70 (HSP70i) induced radioresistance in vitro. Moreover, HSP70i localized to salivary glands by gene transfer has great potential for the treatment of salivary gland. Herein, we investigated whether HSP70 can use as radio protective molecules for radiation-induced salivary gland damage in vivo

2006-05-25

190

Association of serum cotinine level with a cluster of three nicotinic acetylcholine receptor genes (CHRNA3/CHRNA5/CHRNB4) on chromosome 15  

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A cluster of three nicotinic acetylcholine receptor genes on chromosome 15 (CHRNA5/CHRNA3/CHRNB4) has been shown to be associated with nicotine dependence and smoking quantity. The aim of this study was to clarify whether the variation at this locus regulates nicotine intake among smokers by using the level of a metabolite of nicotine, cotinine, as an outcome. The number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) and immune-reactive serum cotinine level were determined in 516 daily smokers (age 30–...

2009-01-01

191

Circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus): a factor to consider during welfare assessment.  

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Elevated glucocorticoid levels during an extended time period might be a stress indicator in nonhuman animals. Therefore, knowledge of the circadian pattern of cortisol secretion is very important to correctly interpret data obtained for welfare assessment of animals in captivity through salivary cortisol. In order to define the circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol secretion in the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus), morning and evening saliva samples of 3 Asian elephants were collected and analyzed by radioimmunoassay. Significantly higher salivary cortisol concentrations were found in the morning than in the evening in all individuals. These results show that salivary cortisol of Asian elephants follows a diurnal pattern of secretion, which could be taken into account when using this methodology to assess welfare in captive Asian elephants. PMID:23009627

Menargues, Asunción; Urios, Vicente; Limiñana, Ruben; Mauri, Montserrat

2012-01-01

192

Salivary cortisol assessment in the evaluation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function  

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A simple, short and sensitive direct radio-immunoassay technique for the determination of salivary cortisol concentration was employed to assess saliva as a medium for evaluating cortisol response during endocrine testing in 9 controls and 40 patients. Results in controls suggested that an adequate salivary cortisol response to insulin hypoglycaemia was an increase of 150% above the basal value with a minimum peak of 15 nmol/l. Thirty-three patients were classified as being either good or poor responders to insulin hypoglycaemia on the basis of criteria for plasma cortisol levels. When the defined salivary cortisol response was used for assessment, all 33 patients were correctly categorized into the same response groups. The salivary cortisol response to intramuscular tetracosactin in 3 patients and an intravenous dexamethasone infusion in 4 patients confirmed the value of saliva as an assay medium. These studies show that the salivary cortisol response parallels that of total plasma cortisol in all cases. However, with sampling at short intervals a lag in secretion of the free fraction from the plasma into the saliva becomes apparent. The relative change in cortisol levels from the basal value is greater in saliva than in plasma.

Kahn, S.E.; Maxwell, J.U.; Barron, J.L. (Cape Town Univ. (South Africa))

1984-05-26

193

[Stress among nurses: an examination of salivary cortisol levels on work and day off].  

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The present study evaluates the use of salivary cortisol concentration as a physiological index of the stress level among nurses on their work day and day off and correlates it with the questionnaire used to measure occupational stress in nurses (Inventário de Estresse em Enfermeiros - IEE). This is a comparative, cross-sectional descriptive study in which sociodemographic data, IEE results and salivary cortisol levels were used. Fifty-seven nurses participated in the study (80.7% females and a mean age of 37.1 years old). The IEE average score was 124.5. The average cortisol level was 564.1 ng/m on work day and 354.1 ng/mL on day off. Nurses who had double workdays presented high values of salivary cortisol during the work day (638.1 ng/mL). In conclusion, salivary cortisol identified the nurses' stress level, and differences were found between a work day and day off. On the nurses' day off, their salivary cortisol levels and stress scores were lower. PMID:24346461

Pires da Rocha, Maria Cecília; Figueiredo de Martino, Milva Maria; Grassi-Kassisse, Dora Maria; Luiz de Souza, Aglécio

2013-10-01

194

Salivary Surrogates of Plasma Nitrite and Catecholamines during a 21-Week Training Season in Swimmers  

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The collection of samples of saliva is noninvasive and straightforward, which turns saliva into an ideal fluid for monitoring the adaptive response to training. Here, we investigated the response of the salivary proteins alpha-amylase (sAA), chromogranin A (sCgA), and the concentration of total protein (sTP) as well as salivary nitrite (sNO2) in relation to plasma catecholamines and plasma nitrite (pNO2), respectively. The variation in these markers was compared to the intensity and load of t...

Di?az Go?mez, Miguel Mauricio; Bocanegra Jaramillo, Olga Lucia; Teixeira, Renata Roland; Espindola, Foued Salmen

2013-01-01

195

Ionic bases of resting and action potentials in salivary gland acinar cells of the snail Helisoma.  

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Values for resting and action potentials of Helisoma salivary gland cells are much the same as in most neurones and muscle cells. The resting potential is primarily due to the distribution of potassium ions across the membrane, with a small contribution by an electrogenic sodium pump. Estimated values for intracellular potassium concentration and the relative membrane permeabilities to sodium and potassium ions correspond to similar estimates in other excitable tissues. The inward current of the salivary gland action potential is carried predominantly by calcium ions and possibly serves as a mechanism of calcium entry for stimulus-secretion coupling. PMID:7365417

Hadley, R D; Murphy, A D; Kater, S B

1980-02-01

196

Ultradian rhythmicity and induced changes in salivary testosterone.  

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Testosterone and cortisol respond to exercise stimuli and modulate adaptation. Episodic basal secretion of these hormones may modify the responsiveness of these hormones. We sought to identify episodic steroid secretion via frequent salivary sampling and investigate any interaction between ultradian rhythmicity and induced changes in testosterone. Salivary testosterone and cortisol concentrations of seven males (age 20-40 years) were measured every 10 min between 0800 and 1600 h on three consecutive days. On either the second or third day, three interventions designed to elicit a hormonal response were randomly assigned: sprint exercise (two 30-s maximal efforts on a cycle ergometer); boxing (two 30-s maximal punching efforts); and a violent video game (10 min of player vs. player combat). On the other days subjects were inactive. Testosterone data on non-intervention days suggested pulsatile secretion with a pulse interval of 47 +/- 9 min (mean +/- SD). The sprint intervention substantially affected hormones: it elicited a small transient elevation in testosterone (by a factor of 1.21; factor 90% confidence limits x/ divided by 1.21) 10 min after exercise, and a moderate elevation in cortisol peaking 50 min post-exercise (factor 2.3; x/ divided by 2.6). The testosterone response correlated with the change in testosterone concentration in the 10 min prior to the sprint (r = 0.78; 90% CL 0.22-0.95) and with a measure of randomness in testosterone fluctuations (r = 0.83; 0.35-0.96). Thus, the salivary testosterone response to exercise may be dependent on the underlying ultradian rhythm and aspects of its regulation. This interaction may have important implications for adaptation to exercise. PMID:20512500

Beaven, C Martyn; Ingram, John R; Gill, Nicholas D; Hopkins, Will G

2010-09-01

197

Diazepam and N-desmethyldiazepam concentrations in saliva, plasma and CSF.  

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1 Salivary and plasma diazepam and nordiazepam concentrations were measured in 51 paired samples from four experimental situations. In seven of the patients CSF samples were estimated. 2 Correlation of 0.89 (P less than 0.001) was observed between salivary and plasma diazepam and 0.81 (P less than 0.001) between salivary and plasma nordiazepam. 3 Mean salivary diazepam was 1.6% (+/- 0.3%) of the plasma diazepam. It was found to vary markedly in an acute dosage study. Mean salivary nordiazepam...

Hallstrom, C.; Lader, M. H.

1980-01-01

198

Studies on the Ig response from human peripheral mononuclear cells in the presence of environmental agents - Effect of nicotine and cotinine and respiratory syncytial virus on non specific and specific immune response; Die Modulation der primaeren und sekundaeren in vitro Immunantwort humaner Lymphozyten durch Umweltschadstoffe - Einfluss von Nikotin und Cotinin sowie RSV auf Parameter der unspezifischen und spezifischen Immunantwort  

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The cell- and molecularbiological mechanisms of the Ig-response (G,A,E) was studied with human peripheral mononuclear cells and the effect of RSV (respiratory syncytial virus), nicotine and cotinine alone as well as combined were analysed. In addition to the mononuclear cells bronchial epithelial cells (cell lines) were used and the effect of RSV, nicotine and cotinine were studied. Using this two compartment system (bronchial epithelial cells, cell lines) and human immunoeffector cells (coculture and transwell) the in vivo situation can be experimentally mimicked in vitro. Our results show that RSV modulates the Ig-response and the conditions of (polyclonal) IgE-induction with RSV are established. Nicotine and cotinine (10{sup -5} M - 10{sup -10} M) induce mRNA expression for various cytokines in PBMC and also modulate the cytokine induced Ig-response. Nicotine and cotinine prime bronchial epithelial cells so that a subsequent microbial interaction (RSV, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) leads to an exaggerated inflammatory (cytokines, leukotrienes) response. It is suggested that proinflammatory mediators from epithelial cells modulate the Ig-response of cytokine primed B-cells thus affecting secondarily the mucosa barrier. This system will be used to study the effects of environmental agents on the non specific and specific immune response and will be challenged with additional agents. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es wurden die zell- und molekularbiologischen Mechanismen der primaeren und sekundaeren Ig-(G,A,E,M) Antwort unter dem Einfluss von RSV (repiratory syncytial virus) sowie Nikotin und Cotinin bearbeitet. Neben peripheren mononukleaeren Zellen wurden Bronchialepithelzellen (Zellinien) analysiert und die Einwirkung von RSV, Nikotin und Cotinin ueberprueft. Das System wurde benutzt, um die Wechselwirkung mit Immuneffektorzellen unter dem Einfluss der Schadstoffe zu analysieren. Es wird gezeigt, dass RSV als Infektionsstimulus die primaere und sekundaere Ig-Antwort in unterschiedlichem Masse fuer sich allein als auch unter dem Einfluss von Zytokinen (IL-2, IL-4) moduliert. Die Bedingungen der polyklonalen Ig(E)-Synthese unter dem Einfluss von Interleukin 2 und RSV wurden erarbeitet. Nikotin und Cotinin induzieren die mRNA Expression fuer verschiedene Zytokine. Nikotin und Cotinin ``primen`` Immuneffektorzellen, so dass ein nachfolgender mikrobieller Stimulus (RSV, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) zu einer verstaerkten Mediatorfreisetzung (IL-8) fuehrt. RSV loest die Freisetzung proinflammatorischer Mediatoren (IL-1, IL-6, IL-8) aus Bronchialepithelzellen aus, die ihrerseits unter dem Einfluss von Nikotin und Cotinin Immuneffektorzellen aktivieren und damit die Ig-Synthese und den Mukosaschutz veraendern. Das in vitro Zweikomponentensystem (Bronchialepithelzellen + periphere mononukleaere Zellen) in Kokultur oder Transwellkultur erweist sich als ein gutes in vitro Modell, um den Einfluss von Umweltschadstoffen an humanen Effektorzellen funktionell zu analysieren. (orig.)

Koenig, W. [Ruhr-Universitaet, Bochum (Germany). Med. Mikrobiologie und Immunologie, Arbeitsgruppe fuer Infektabwehrmechanismen; Arnold, R. [Ruhr-Universitaet, Bochum (Germany). Med. Mikrobiologie und Immunologie, Arbeitsgruppe fuer Infektabwehrmechanismen; Fischer, A. [Ruhr-Universitaet, Bochum (Germany). Med. Mikrobiologie und Immunologie, Arbeitsgruppe fuer Infektabwehrmechanismen; Kasimir-Bauer, S. [Ruhr-Universitaet, Bochum (Germany). Med. Mikrobiologie und Immunologie, Arbeitsgruppe fuer Infektabwehrmechanismen

1994-04-01

199

Anopheles salivary gland proteomes from major malaria vectors  

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BackgroundAntibody responses against Anopheles salivary proteins can indicate individual exposure to bites of malaria vectors. The extent to which these salivary proteins are species-specific is not entirely resolved. Thus, a better knowledge of the diversity among salivary protein repertoires from various malaria vector species is necessary to select relevant genus-, subgenus- and/or species-specific salivary antigens. Such antigens could be used for quantitative (mosquito density) and...

Fontaine, Albin; Fusai?, Thierry; Briolant, Se?bastien; Buffet, Sylvain; Villard, Claude; Baudelet, Emilie; Pophillat, Mathieu; Granjeaud, Samuel; Rogier, Christophe; Almeras, Lionel

2012-01-01

200

Heterotopic salivary gland tissue: A report of two cases  

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The heterotopic salivary gland or salivary choristoma is defined as a tumor - like growth of otherwise normal salivary gland found in an abnormal location. In general, salivary gland tissue is not observed in the gingiva, with only isolated case reports having been found. The occurrence of the case in the midline, especially in the anterior two - thirds of the hard palate, has not been documented so far (PubMed search engine). It is apparent that these reported cases constitute a unique clini...

Gheena, S.; Chandrasekhar, T.; Ramani, Pratibha

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Effect of competitional stress on salivary dehydroepiandrosterone, cortisol in female handballists  

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Full Text Available Background: Hormonal responses to competitions and their relationships have been extensively examined in male athletes, but there are few studies in women. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of competition stress on salivary dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA and cortisol in female handballists. Materials and Method: Ten female handballists of Islamic Azad University (Sari Branch (age 21.5±2.5 years participated in this study. Salivary samples were collected 30 min and 5 min before competition, between two half times and immediately after four competitions. The salivary DHEA and cortisol concentrations were measured by ELISA method. Results: The results of one-way ANOVA with repeated measures have shown a significant (p=0.001 increases for DHEA concentration after four competitions, however, cortisol and DHEA/cortisol ratio did not show any changes after four competition (p>0.05. Conclusion: These results indicate that salivary DHEA is more sensitive to competition situations than cortisol concentration. We suggested that androgens maybe more affected by competition

Parvin Farzanegi

2010-11-01

202

Tick salivary glands: function, physiology and future.  

Science.gov (United States)

The salivary glands are the organs of osmoregulation in ticks and, as such, are critical to the biological success of ticks both during the extended period off the host and also during the feeding period on the host. Absorption of water vapour from unsaturated air into hygroscopic fluid produced by the salivary glands permit the tick to remain hydrated and viable during the many months between blood-meals. When feeding, the tick is able to return about 70% of the fluid and ion content of the blood-meal into the host by salivation into the feeding site. This saliva also contains many bioactive protein and lipid components that aid acquisition of the blood-meal. The salivary glands are the site of pathogen development and the saliva the route of transmission. The importance of the multifunctional salivary glands to tick survival and vector competency makes the glands a potential target for intervention. Here we review the cell biology of tick salivary glands and discuss the application of new approaches such as expressed sequence tag projects and RNA interference to this important area in the field of tick and tick-borne pathogen research. PMID:15938505

Bowman, A S; Sauer, J R

2004-01-01

203

Imaging in major salivary gland diseases  

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Full Text Available Most of the salivary glands diseases are characterized only by a few distinct clinical patterns. Medical history and clinical examination are still considered of great relevance. However, in order to obtaine a definite diagnosis, imaging techniques are required in most of the cases. Salivary glands ultrasonography (US is the technique to be used as the first because US can easily differentiate calculosis, inflammatory diseases and tumors. Sonography is also frequently needed to perform needle aspiration or biopsy (FNAC. Sialography should be used essentially for assessing chronic sialoadenitis as well as Sjögren’s syndrome. At present, Magnetic Resonance sialography should be preferred because of the greater sensibility in diagnosing inflammatory diseases of the salivary glands. It allows to evaluate both intraglandular oedema and nodules, so that incannulation of the salivary duct is not required. Computer Tomography (CT and Magnetic Resonance imaging (MR are useful when neoplasm are suspected, particularly if deep areas of the gland, which cannot be visualized by US, are involved. Sequential scintigraphy is currently employed for assessing the functional status of all the 4 major salivary glands and evaluating the chronic evolution of glandular damage.

P. Zucchetta

2011-09-01

204

Low salivary testosterone levels in patients with breast cancer  

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Abstract Background Correlation between circulating sex steroid levels and breast cancer has been controversial, with measurement of free, or bioavailable hormone rarely available. Salivary hormone levels represent the bioavailable fraction. To further elucidate the role of endogenous hormones in breast cancer, we aimed to assess correlation between salivary sex steroid levels and breast cancer prevalence. Methods Salivary hormone levels of testosterone (T), Est...

Dimitrakakis Constantine; Zava David; Marinopoulos Spyros; Tsigginou Alexandra; Antsaklis Aris; Glaser Rebecca

2010-01-01

205

Surgical Management of Minor Salivary Gland Neoplasms of the Palate  

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Objective: Minor salivary gland tumors are uncommon, accounting for up to 15% of salivary gland neoplasms. We describe our experience with both benign and malignant tumors of the palatal minor salivary glands, focusing on the extent of resection and options for defect reconstruction.

2008-01-01

206

NETRIN and SLIT guide salivary gland migration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Directed migration is pivotal for the proper placement and function of nearly all organs. The majority of known guidance molecules involved in directed migration have been identified from studies of migrating axons during nervous system development. Here, we show that at least two of these axon guidance molecules, NETRIN and SLIT, act through their canonical receptors, to guide Drosophila embryonic salivary glands. NETRIN serves as a chemo-attractant while SLIT functions antagonistically to NETRIN as a chemo-repellent during salivary gland migration. CNS midline expression of both NETRIN and SLIT directs the glands to move unswervingly parallel to the CNS. NETRIN expression is also required in the visceral mesoderm, along which the glands move during their migration. We propose that analogous to axon guidance, a balance between chemo-attractants and chemo-repellents is required for the proper migratory path of the developing salivary glands. PMID:15950216

Kolesnikov, Tereza; Beckendorf, Steven K

2005-08-01

207

Mercuric dichloride induces DNA damage in human salivary gland tissue cells and lymphocytes  

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Amalgam is still one of the most frequently used dental filling materials. However, the possible adverse effects especially that of the mercuric component have led to continued controversy. Considering that mercury may be released from amalgam fillings into the oral cavity and also reach the circulating blood after absorption and resorption, it eventually may contribute to tumorigenesis in a variety of target cells. The present investigation focuses on genotoxic effects below a cytotoxic dose level of mercuric dichloride (HgCl{sub 2}) in human samples of salivary glands and lymphocytes to elucidate a possible role in tumor initiation. DNA migration due to single strand breaks, alkali labile sites and incomplete excision repair was quantified with the aid of the single cell microgel electrophoresis (Comet) assay. The concepts of Olive Tail Moment, percentage of DNA in the Tail and Tail Length were used as measures of DNA damage. To control for cytotoxic effects, the trypan blue exclusion test was applied. Human samples of the parotid salivary gland and lymphocytes of ten donors were exposed to HgCl{sub 2} concentrations from 1 to 50 {mu}M. N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) served as controls. Increasing dose-dependent DNA migration could be demonstrated after exposure to HgCl{sub 2} in cells of the salivary glands and lymphocytes. In both cell types a significant increase in DNA migration could be shown starting from HgCl{sub 2} concentrations of 5 {mu}M in comparison to the negative control. The viability of the cell systems was not affected except at the highest concentration (50 {mu}M) tested. These data indicate genotoxic effects of mercuric dichloride in human salivary glands and lymphocytes at concentrations not leading to cytotoxic effects or cell death. Consequently, a contributory role in oral salivary gland tumor initiation warrants further investigation. (orig.)

Schmid, Katharina; Kroemer, Susanne [University of Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany); Sassen, Andrea [University of Regensburg, Department of Pathology, Regensburg (Germany); Staudenmaier, Rainer [Technical University of Munich, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Munich (Germany); Reichl, Franz-Xaver [University of Munich, Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Munich (Germany); Harreus, Ulrich [University of Munich, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Munich (Germany); Hagen, Rudolf; Kleinsasser, Norbert [University of Wuerzburg, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Wuerzburg (Germany)

2007-11-15

208

Chlorella intake attenuates reduced salivary SIgA secretion in kendo training camp participants  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The green alga Chlorella contains high levels of proteins, vitamins, and minerals. We previously reported that a chlorella-derived multicomponent supplement increased the secretion rate of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA in humans. Here, we investigated whether intake of this chlorella-derived supplement attenuated the reduced salivary SIgA secretion rate during a kendo training camp. Methods Ten female kendo athletes participated in inter-university 6-day spring and 4-day summer camps. They were randomized into two groups; one took placebo tablets during the spring camp and chlorella tablets during the summer camp, while the other took chlorella tablets during the spring camp and placebo tablets during the summer camp. Subjects took these tablets starting 4 weeks before the camp until post-camp saliva sampling. Salivary SIgA concentrations were measured by ELISA. Results All subjects participated in nearly all training programs, and body-mass changes and subjective physical well-being scores during the camps were comparable between the groups. However, salivary SIgA secretion rate changes were different between these groups. Salivary SIgA secretion rates decreased during the camp in the placebo group (before vs. second, middle, and final day of camp, and after the camp: 146 ± 89 vs. 87 ± 56, 70 ± 45, 94 ± 58, and 116 ± 71 ?g/min, whereas no such decreases were observed in the chlorella group (121 ± 53 vs. 113 ± 68, 98 ± 69,115 ± 80, and 128 ± 59 ?g/min. Conclusion Our results suggest that a use of a chlorella-derived dietary supplement attenuates reduced salivary SIgA secretion during a training camp for a competitive sport.

Otsuki Takeshi

2012-12-01

209

Salivary Output in Type 2 Diabetic Patients  

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Full Text Available Background: Diabetes Mellitus (DM is a common but complex metabolic disorder affecting various systems in the body. Oral cavity is no exception as this chronic condition exerts a huge impact on oral health. Salivary dysfunction has been reported to be a frequent oral complication in Type 2 diabetics which in turn leads to an array of oral complications because oral health is to a greater extent dependent on the quality and quantity of saliva. Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the salivary flow rate and prevalence of subjective symptoms of xerostomia in diabetics and non-diabetics. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 100 type 2 diabetic patients and 50 non-diabetic subjects. Random non-fasting plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels were used to determine the diabetic status of the individuals. Unstimulated saliva was collected using “Spit technique”. Stimulated saliva was collected using 2% citric acid. Unstimulated and Stimulated Salivary Flow Rate (USFR and SSFR was calculated for every patient and expressed as ml/min. Xerostomia was evaluated using a multi-item inventory comprising 19 questions. Results: In our study, both whole unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rates were decreased in diabetics compared to non-diabetics and this difference was statistically significant (p = 0.000. A greater percentage of diabetic patients perceived xerostomia symptoms compared to non-diabetics. Conclusion: Type 2 diabetics have higher prevalence of xerostomia and significantly reduced salivary flow rate compared to non-diabetics. Alterations in salivary flow create an imbalance in the homeostasis of oral environment leading to spectrum of oral ailments in these individuals

T. Radhika

2014-01-01

210

Industrial noise exposure and salivary cortisol in blue collar industrial workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Measuring non-auditory effects of noise such as stress-inducing ones have become of interest recently. Salivary cortisol has become a popular measure in stress research. So, assessing noise-induced stress via saliva cortisol evaluation can present a bright future in non-invasive exposure assessment methods. This study had 3 goals: (1) Assess and compare saliva cortisol concentrations in the morning and evening in normal work day and leisure day in industrial workers, (2) assess the relationship between industrial noise exposure and salivary cortisol concentrations, and (3) assess the possibility of using salivary cortisol as a possible marker of noise-induced stress. This study included 80 male participants working in 4 different parts (painting, assembling lines, casting, and packaging) of a household manufacturing company. Morning and evening saliva samples were collected at 7.00 am and 4.00 pm, respectively. Noise exposure levels were assessed by sound level meter and noise dosimeter. All measurements occurred in two days: One in leisure day and other in working day. Descriptive statistics, paired sample t-test, and regression analysis were used as statistical tools of this study with P 80 dBA. Our study revealed that industrial noise, with levels > 80 dBA, has a significant effect on salivary cortisol elevation. PMID:22918149

Fouladi, D Behzad; Nassiri, Parvin; Monazzam, E Mohammadreza; Farahani, Saeed; Hassanzadeh, Gholamreza; Hoseini, Mostafa

2012-01-01

211

Salivary Defense Proteins: Their Network and Role in Innate and Acquired Oral Immunity  

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Full Text Available There are numerous defense proteins present in the saliva. Although some of these molecules are present in rather low concentrations, their effects are additive and/or synergistic, resulting in an efficient molecular defense network of the oral cavity. Moreover, local concentrations of these proteins near the mucosal surfaces (mucosal transudate, periodontal sulcus (gingival crevicular fluid and oral wounds and ulcers (transudate may be much greater, and in many cases reinforced by immune and/or inflammatory reactions of the oral mucosa. Some defense proteins, like salivary immunoglobulins and salivary chaperokine HSP70/HSPAs (70 kDa heat shock proteins, are involved in both innate and acquired immunity. Cationic peptides and other defense proteins like lysozyme, bactericidal/permeability increasing protein (BPI, BPI-like proteins, PLUNC (palate lung and nasal epithelial clone proteins, salivary amylase, cystatins, prolin-rich proteins, mucins, peroxidases, statherin and others are primarily responsible for innate immunity. In this paper, this complex system and function of the salivary defense proteins will be reviewed.

Gábor Fábián

2012-04-01

212

Primary culture of Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) salivary gland cells  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In the present paper, we developed a primary culture of Rhodnius prolixus salivary gland and main salivary canal cells. Cells remained viable in culture for 30 days. Three types of cells were indentified in the salivary gland cultures, with binuclear cells being the most abundant. The supernatants o [...] f salivary cultures contained mainly 16-24 kDa proteins and presented anticoagulant and apyrase activities. Secretion vesicles were observed budding from the cellular monolayer of the main salivary canal cells. These results indicate that R. prolixus salivary proteins may be produced in vitro and suggest that the main salivary canal may have a possible secretory role.

Rocha, Fernanda F; Araujo, Ricardo N; Silva, Luciana M; Gontijo, Nelder F; Pereira, Marcos H.

213

DETERMINATION OF SALIVARY CORTISOL IN HEALTHY CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS  

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Full Text Available Recognized as a reliable tool for assessing the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, measurement of salivary cortisol plays an important role in both the clinical and research settings. To establish a normative data, which forms the basis for the usage of this valuable parameter, we gathered 8:00 h saliva samples from 94 healthy individuals aged 6-14 years. Cortisol levels were measured by radioimmunoassay technique, using Orion Diagnostica's coated tube technology. Based on mean±2SD, we established a normal range for salivary cortisol concentrations in this age group: 1.69 - 12.81nmol/L. Considering a confidence interval for upper and lower limits, there was an upper limit equal to 11.42 -14.29 nmol/L and a lower limit of 1.21 - 2.25 nmol/L. Regarding the results of this study, cortisol levels were age dependent, and although with a low correlation coefficient, there was a positive correlation between cortisol levels and weight and height. There was no correlation with BMI and no sex difference was found.

E. Safarzadeh

2005-04-01

214

Caries Experience and Salivary Parameters among Overweight Children and Adolescents  

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Full Text Available Obesity is a chronic disease characterized by excess body fat, which can lead to other health problems, including insulin resistance, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, polycystic ovary syndrome, hypertension, dyslipidemia, sleep apnea, asthma, heart attack, stroke, atherosclerosis and metabolic syndrome. Currently, obesity and dental caries are major public health concerns and dietary habits are a very important common component of their etiological factors, showing some correlation with the sociodemographic characteristics of individuals presenting these diseases. In relation to caries experience, the literature suggests a correlation between obesity and dental caries in children and adolescents, in primary and/or permanent dentition, though divergent results exist regarding assessment based on the method recommended by the WHO (1997, i.e., restricted to carious lesions with cavitation. Some studies indicate greater prevalence of proximal carious lesions in obese adolescents compared with those with normal weight. Salivary changes, such as the concentrations of phosphate, sialic acid, proteins and immunoglobulins and in peroxidase activity could explain the increased probability of obese children presenting greater risk of dental caries. Thus, it is important to consider the contribution of salivary parameters in caries experience of overweight children and adolescents and the implementation of preventive measures in this population.

Michele B. Diniz

2013-11-01

215

Microgravity alters the expression of salivary proteins.  

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Spaceflight provides a unique opportunity to study how physiologic responses are influenced by the external environment. Microgravity has been shown to alter the function of a number of tissues and organ systems. Very little, however, is known about how microgravity affects the oral cavity. The rodent model is useful for study in that their salivary gland morphology and physiology is similar to that of humans. Useful also is the fact that saliva, a product of the salivary glands with a major role in maintaining oral health, can be easily collected in humans whereas the glands can be studied in experimental animals. Our working hypothesis is that expression of secretory proteins in saliva will respond to microgravity and will be indicative of the nature of physiologic reactions to travel in space. This study was designed to determine which components of the salivary proteome are altered in mice flown on the US space shuttle missions and to determine if a subset with predictive value can be identified using microscopy and biochemistry methods. The results showed that the expression of secretory proteins associated with beta-adrenergic hormone regulated responses and mediated via the cyclic AMP pathway was significantly altered, whereas that of a number of unrelated proteins was not. The findings are potentially applicable to designing a biochemical test system whereby specific salivary proteins can be biomarkers for stress associated with travel in space and eventually for monitoring responses to conditions on earth. PMID:24984624

Mednieks, Maija; Khatri, Aditi; Rubenstein, Renee; Burleson, Joseph A; Hand, Arthur R

2014-06-01

216

Modern management of obstructive salivary diseases.  

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Over the last fifteen years, increasing public demand for minimally-invasive surgery and recent technological advances have led to the development of a number of conservative options for the therapeutic management of obstructive salivary disorders such as calculi and duct stenosis. These include extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy, sialoendoscopy, laser intra-corporeal lithotripsy, interventional radiology, the video-assisted conservative surgical removal of parotid and sub-mandibular calculi and botulinum toxin therapy. Each of these techniques may be used as a single therapeutic modality or in combination with one or more of the above-mentioned options, usually in day case or one-day case under local or general anaesthesia. The multi-modal approach is completely successful in about 80% of patients and reduces the need for gland removal in 3%, thus justifying the combination of, albeit, time-consuming and relatively expensive techniques as part of the modern and functional management of salivary calculi. With regard to the management of salivary duct anomalies, such as strictures and kinkings, interventional radiology with fluoroscopically controlled balloon ductoplasty seems to be the most suitable technique despite the use of radiation. Operative sialoendoscopy alone is the best therapeutic option for all mobile intra-luminal causes of obstruction, such as microliths, mucous plugs or foreign bodies, or for the local treatment of inflammatory conditions such as recurrent chronic parotitis or autoimmune salivary disorders. Finally, in the case of failure of one of the above techniques and regardless of the cause of obstruction, botulinum toxin injection into the parenchyma of the salivary glands using colour Doppler ultrasonographic monitoring should be considered before deciding on surgical gland removal. PMID:17957846

Capaccio, P; Torretta, S; Ottavian, F; Sambataro, G; Pignataro, L

2007-08-01

217

Reduced salivary flow and colonization by mutans streptococci in children with Down syndrome  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Although individuals with Down syndrome have considerable oral disease, the prevalence of dental caries in this group is low. The present study aimed to compare known risk factors for dental caries development in children with Down syndrome and a matched population (siblings. In both populations, the number of acidogenic microorganisms, such as mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and Candida species, and the paraffin-stimulated pH, flow rate and IgA concentration in whole saliva were evaluated and compared. METHOD: Saliva was collected, and the caries index was evaluated in 45 sibling pairs aged between 6 and 18 years old. The salivary IgA concentration was determined by immunoturbidimetry. Salivary mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and Candida species were quantified on mitis salivarius agar containing bacitracin and 20% sucrose, rogosa agar supplemented with glacial acetic acid and sabouraud agar supplemented with chloramphenicol, respectively. RESULTS: Down syndrome children had a higher caries-free rate (p<0.05 and lower salivary mutans streptococci counts (p<0.03 compared to their siblings. Similar numbers of lactobacilli and Candida species were found in both groups. Salivary flow rates were 36% lower in Down syndrome children compared to their siblings (p<0.05. The salivary pH did not differ between Down syndrome children and controls. The Down syndrome children had an IgA secretion rate 29% lower than that of their siblings, but this difference was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the lower number of mutans streptococci in the saliva may be one of the factors contributing to the lower caries rate observed in Down syndrome children, despite evidence of hyposalivation.

Cristina Areias

2012-09-01

218

Salivary testosterone and immunoglobulin A were increased by resistance training in adults with Down syndrome  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This study was designed to assess the influence of resistance training on salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels and hormone profile in sedentary adults with Down syndrome (DS). A total of 40 male adults with DS were recruited for the trial through different community support groups for people with [...] intellectual disabilities. All participants had medical approval for participation in physical activity. Twenty-four adults were randomly assigned to perform resistance training in a circuit with six stations, 3 days per week for 12 weeks. Training intensity was based on functioning in the eight-repetition maximum (8RM) test for each exercise. The control group included 16 age-, gender-, and BMI-matched adults with DS. Salivary IgA, testosterone, and cortisol levels were measured by ELISA. Work task performance was assessed using the repetitive weighted-box-stacking test. Resistance training significantly increased salivary IgA concentration (P=0.0120; d=0.94) and testosterone levels (P=0.0088; d=1.57) in the exercising group. Furthermore, it also improved work task performance. No changes were seen in the controls who had not exercised. In conclusion, a short-term resistance training protocol improved mucosal immunity response as well as salivary testosterone levels in sedentary adults with DS.

Fornieles, G.; Rosety, M.A.; Elosegui, S.; Rosety, J.M.; Alvero-Cruz, J.R.; Garcia, N.; Rosety, M.; Rodriguez-Pareja, T.; Toro, R.; Rosety-Rodriguez, M.; Ordonez, F.J.; Rosety, I..

2014-04-01

219

Salivary testosterone and immunoglobulin A were increased by resistance training in adults with Down syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was designed to assess the influence of resistance training on salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels and hormone profile in sedentary adults with Down syndrome (DS). A total of 40 male adults with DS were recruited for the trial through different community support groups for people with intellectual disabilities. All participants had medical approval for participation in physical activity. Twenty-four adults were randomly assigned to perform resistance training in a circuit with six stations, 3 days per week for 12 weeks. Training intensity was based on functioning in the eight-repetition maximum (8RM) test for each exercise. The control group included 16 age-, gender-, and BMI-matched adults with DS. Salivary IgA, testosterone, and cortisol levels were measured by ELISA. Work task performance was assessed using the repetitive weighted-box-stacking test. Resistance training significantly increased salivary IgA concentration (P=0.0120; d=0.94) and testosterone levels (P=0.0088; d=1.57) in the exercising group. Furthermore, it also improved work task performance. No changes were seen in the controls who had not exercised. In conclusion, a short-term resistance training protocol improved mucosal immunity response as well as salivary testosterone levels in sedentary adults with DS. PMID:24714816

Fornieles, G; Rosety, M A; Elosegui, S; Rosety, J M; Alvero-Cruz, J R; Garcia, N; Rosety, M; Rodriguez-Pareja, T; Toro, R; Rosety-Rodriguez, M; Ordonez, F J; Rosety, I

2014-04-01

220

Determination of the Nicotine Metabolites Cotinine and Trans-3?-Hydroxycotinine in Biologic fluids of Smokers and Non-Smokers using Liquid Chromatography - Tandem Mass Spectrometry: Biomarkers for Tobacco Smoke Exposure and for Phenotyping Cytochrome P450 2A6 Activity  

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The nicotine metabolite cotinine is widely used to assess the extent of tobacco use in smokers, and secondhand smoke exposure in non-smokers. The ratio of another nicotine metabolite, trans-3?-hydroxycotinine, to cotinine in biofluids is highly correlated with the rate of nicotine metabolism, which is catalyzed mainly by Cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6). Consequently, this nicotine metabolite ratio is being used to phenotype individuals for CYP2A6 activity and to individualize pharmacotherapies...

Jacob, Peyton; Yu, Lisa; Duan, Minjiang; Ramos, Lita; Yturralde, Olivia; Benowitz, Neal L.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Salivary thyroxine as an estimate of free thyroxine: concise communication  

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To test the hypothesis that the levels of salivary thyroxine (T/sub 4/) reflect those of circulating free T/sub 4/, we developed a radioimmunoassay (RIA) sensitive to low levels of T/sub 4/. Concurrent saliva and serum samples were obtained from 32 euthyroid volunteers, ages 19 to 64. Salivary and serum T/sub 4/ and cortisol levels were measured by RIA. Salivary albumin was measured by nephelometry. Salivary T/sub 4/ levels were higher than predicted. No correlation was found between salivary T/sub 4/ and serum levels of free T/sub 4/ and total T/sub 4/ but there was a significant correlation between salivary T/sub 4/ and albumin (r = 0.82). Salivary cortisol levels agreed with reported results and showed no correlation with salivary albumin. We conclude that salivary levels of drugs and hormones may be strongly affected by protein binding, and caution must be exercised in using salivary levels as an estimate of circulating free levels.

Elson, M.K.; Morley, J.E.; Shafer, R.B.

1983-08-01

222

Anopheles salivary gland proteomes from major malaria vectors  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibody responses against Anopheles salivary proteins can indicate individual exposure to bites of malaria vectors. The extent to which these salivary proteins are species-specific is not entirely resolved. Thus, a better knowledge of the diversity among salivary protein repertoires from various malaria vector species is necessary to select relevant genus-, subgenus- and/or species-specific salivary antigens. Such antigens could be used for quantitative (mosquito density and qualitative (mosquito species immunological evaluation of malaria vectors/host contact. In this study, salivary gland protein repertoires (sialomes from several Anopheles species were compared using in silico analysis and proteomics. The antigenic diversity of salivary gland proteins among different Anopheles species was also examined. Results In silico analysis of secreted salivary gland protein sequences retrieved from an NCBInr database of six Anopheles species belonging to the Cellia subgenus (An. gambiae, An. arabiensis, An. stephensi and An. funestus and Nyssorhynchus subgenus (An. albimanus and An. darlingi displayed a higher degree of similarity compared to salivary proteins from closely related Anopheles species. Additionally, computational hierarchical clustering allowed identification of genus-, subgenus- and species-specific salivary proteins. Proteomic and immunoblot analyses performed on salivary gland extracts from four Anopheles species (An. gambiae, An. arabiensis, An. stephensi and An. albimanus indicated that heterogeneity of the salivary proteome and antigenic proteins was lower among closely related anopheline species and increased with phylogenetic distance. Conclusion This is the first report on the diversity of the salivary protein repertoire among species from the Anopheles genus at the protein level. This work demonstrates that a molecular diversity is exhibited among salivary proteins from closely related species despite their common pharmacological activities. The involvement of these proteins as antigenic candidates for genus-, subgenus- or species-specific immunological evaluation of individual exposure to Anopheles bites is discussed.

Fontaine Albin

2012-11-01

223

Who Is Exposed to Secondhand Smoke? Self-Reported and Serum Cotinine Measured Exposure in the U.S., 1999-2006  

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This study presents self-reported and serum cotinine measures of exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) for nonsmoking children, adolescents, and adults. Estimates are disaggregated by time periods and sociodemographic characteristics based on analyses of the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Self-reported exposure rates are found to be highest for children, followed by adolescents and adults. Important differences in exposure are found by socioeconomic characteristics. ...

2009-01-01

224

CHANGES IN SOME BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN THE SALIVARY GLANDS OF TWO IXODID TICKS  

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Full Text Available Extracts of salivary glands of the two types of ticks namely, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and a Rhipocephalus sanguineus sanguineus , were subjected to the test of some biochemical parameters . The total protein intensity has been estimated in salivary glands extracts in the two types, high percentage was found in H.anatolicum compared with R.sanguineus forms, (104.12±4.93 and (91.33±3.04 microgram/Cm3 respectively. The intensity of carbohydrates in salivary gland extracts was high in H.anatolicum (0.640±0.009, after comparing with a lower intensity for R.sanguineuss (0.360 ±0.004 microgram/Cm3. The lipid intensity in salivary glands was high in R.sanguineus (245.37±8.76 compared with concentrations in H.anatolicum (244.80±9.27microgram/Cm3.The total isolation of protein amount in the salivary glands in both types of tick, electrophoresis technique with Poly acrylamid gel with SDS has been implied to trace the most important separated proteins. The results denotes the existence of the four protein bands in H.anatolicum, and three protein bands in R.sanguineus, and their molecular weights were recognized. The Molecular weights for the four bands were; 76.190, 53.616, 38.168, and 16.614 kDa, respectively, while the molecular weight for the three protein bands were 73.569, 51.760, and 32.779 kDa, respectively.

Iman Daham H. Al-Mola

2012-06-01

225

Hemangioma in minor salivary glands: real or illusion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hemangioma is a common soft tissue lesion in the head and neck region. Hemangioma in the context of minor salivary glands is rarely encountered in surgical pathology practice, and for this reason most pathologist are often unfamiliar with its histomorphological features. We report a rare histological finding of salivary gland structures within a cavernous hemangioma, which may or may not have originated in the minor salivary gland. PMID:17002811

Ponniah, Irulandy; SureshKumar, Palani; Karunakaran, Kaliappan; Shankar, Kolappan A; Kumaran, Mayelam G; Preeti, Lakshmi Narasimhan

2006-01-01

226

Hemangioma in minor salivary glands: real or illusion  

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Abstract Hemangioma is a common soft tissue lesion in the head and neck region. Hemangioma in the context of minor salivary glands is rarely encountered in surgical pathology practice, and for this reason most pathologist are often unfamiliar with its histomorphological features. We report a rare histological finding of salivary gland structures within a cavernous hemangioma, which may or may not have originated in the minor salivary gland.

Ponniah Irulandy; SureshKumar Palani; Karunakaran Kaliappan; Shankar Kolappan A; Kumaran Mayelam G; Preeti Lakshmi

2006-01-01

227

Pleomorphic adenoma of minor salivary gland: a case report  

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Introduction: World literature suggests salivary gland tumors account for less than 3% of the head and neck tumors and benign pleomorphic adenoma of minor salivary glands arising de novo is very rare. Objective, case report and conclusion: A case of pleomorphic adenoma of minor salivary glands in the buccal mucosa in a 55 year-old female is discussed. It includes review of literature, clinical features, histopathology, radiological findings and treatment of the tumor, with emphasis on diagnos...

2012-01-01

228

Plexiform Neurofibroma: A Rare Tumor of Submandibular Salivary Gland  

Science.gov (United States)

A 15-year-old boy presented with swelling in the submandibular region. X-ray of the swollen part showed faint radio opaque shadow. A provisional diagnosis of sialadenitis with sialolithiasis was made. Excised mass was reported histopathologically as plexiform neurofibroma of submandibular salivary gland. Plexiform neurofibroma of the salivary gland is a rare benign tumor often present in the parotid gland. It is very rare in submandibular salivary gland. It is a slow growing, locally infiltrating tumor.

Shekar, T. Y.; Gole, Gautam; Prabhala, Shailaja; Gole, Sheetal

2010-01-01

229

Plexiform Neurofibroma of the Submandibular Salivary Gland: A Rare Tumour  

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A 15 year old boy presented with swelling in the submandibular region. X ray of the part showed faint radio opaque shadow. A provisional diagnosis of sialadenitis with sialiolithiasis was made. Excised mass was reported histopathologically as plexiform neurofibroma of submandibular salivary gland. Plexiform neurofibroma of the salivary gland is a rare benign tumour, often present in the parotid gland. It is very rare in submandibular salivary gland. It is a slow growing, locally infiltrating...

2011-01-01

230

Hemangioma in minor salivary glands: real or illusion  

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Full Text Available Abstract Hemangioma is a common soft tissue lesion in the head and neck region. Hemangioma in the context of minor salivary glands is rarely encountered in surgical pathology practice, and for this reason most pathologist are often unfamiliar with its histomorphological features. We report a rare histological finding of salivary gland structures within a cavernous hemangioma, which may or may not have originated in the minor salivary gland.

Kumaran Mayelam G

2006-08-01

231

Hemangioma in minor salivary glands: real or illusion  

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Hemangioma is a common soft tissue lesion in the head and neck region. Hemangioma in the context of minor salivary glands is rarely encountered in surgical pathology practice, and for this reason most pathologist are often unfamiliar with its histomorphological features. We report a rare histological finding of salivary gland structures within a cavernous hemangioma, which may or may not have originated in the minor salivary gland.

Ponniah, Irulandy; Sureshkumar, Palani; Karunakaran, Kaliappan; Shankar, Kolappan A.; Kumaran, Mayelam G.; Preeti, Lakshmi Narasimhan

2006-01-01

232

Lifestyle, mental health status and salivary secretion rates  

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The relations between salivary variables, lifestyle and mental health status were investigated for 61 healthy female university students. The salivary secretion rates were significantly higher in the good lifestyle groups compared with the poor lifestyle groups. Among the 8 lifestyle items tested. “eating breakfast” and “mental stress” were significantly related to the salivary secretion rates. The present findings suggest that the acquisition of a good lifestyle is also very importan...

Toda, Masahiro; Morimoto, Kanehisa; Fukuda, Sanae; Hayakawa, Kazuo

2002-01-01

233

Human Kallikrein 8 Expression in Salivary Gland Tumors  

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The human kallikrein 8 protein (KLK8) is expressed in many normal tissues including esophagus, skin, testis, tonsil, kidney, breast, and salivary gland, and is found in biological fluids including breast milk, amniotic fluid, seminal fluid and serum. It has also been shown to be a biomarker and prognostic factor for breast cancer. The aim of this study was to determine whether KLK8 is expressed in salivary gland tissues and salivary gland tumors (both benign and malignant), in order to compar...

2008-01-01

234

Sialolithiasis: An unusually large asymptomatic submandibular salivary stone  

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Full Text Available Salivary gland calculi account for the most common disease of salivary glands. The majority of sialoliths occur in submandibular gland or its duct and they are a common cause of acute and chronic infections. This case report describes an asymptomatic patient presenting with a large submandibular duct sialolith, the subsequent non surgical management of the patient along with etiology, diagnosis and various treatment modalities available for the treatment of salivary gland calculi depending on their site and size.

Kamtane Smita

2013-01-01

235

Tissue tropism of the Musca domestica salivary gland hypertrophy virus  

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The tissue tropism of Musca domestica salivary gland hypertrophy virus (MdSGHV) infecting adult house flies was examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and quantitative real-time PCR. TEM demonstrated that characteristic MdSGHV-induced nuclear and cellular hypertrophy was restricted to the salivary glands. Both nucleocapsids and enveloped virions were present in salivary gland cells. In contrast, thin sections of midguts, ovaries, abdominal fat body, crops, air sacs and brains show...

Lietze, Verena-ulrike; Salem, Tamer Z.; Prompiboon, Pannipa; Boucias, Drion G.

2011-01-01

236

Salivary gland doses from dental radiographic exposures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Salivary gland doses incurred during dental radiography were measured by phantom dosimetry, and these dose data and data obtained during a two-week survey of Hiroshima and Nagasaki dental hospitals and clinics were used to estimate the respective doses to members of the populations of the two cities. The results obtained were used to supplement previously determined doses to the thyroid gland, lens, and pituitary gland from dental radiography. No significant differences in doses were observed by age, sex or city. Doses to the salivary glands during dental radiography are probably not sufficiently large to cause bias in assessments of atomic bomb survivors for late radiation effects. However, the steadily increasing use of dental radiography underscores the need for continued monitoring of dental radiography doses in the interests of these assessments. (author)

1989-01-01

237

Salivary Lipid Peroxidation and Total Sialic Acid Levels in Smokers and Smokeless Tobacco Users as Mara? Powder  

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Mara? powder (MP), a different type of smokeless tobacco (ST) and prepared from a tobacco of species Nicotiana rustica Linn, is widely used in Turkey. We aimed to investigate the effects of MP on salivary total sialic acid (TSA) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and to compare these parameters in smokers and MP users (MPUs). The salivary TSA and MDA concentrations were significantly higher in the smokers and MPU than those of control subjects and also in MPU than that of smokers. We have also...

Kurtul, Naciye; Go?kp?nar, Engin

2012-01-01

238

Modern management of obstructive salivary diseases  

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Over the last fifteen years, increasing public demand for minimally-invasive surgery and recent technological advances have led to the development of a number of conservative options for the therapeutic management of obstructive salivary disorders such as calculi and duct stenosis. These include extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy, sialoendoscopy, laser intra-corporeal lithotripsy, interventional radiology, the video-assisted conservative surgical removal of parotid and sub-mandibular calcu...

Capaccio, P.; Torretta, S.; Ottaviani, F.; Sambataro, G.; Pignataro, L.

2007-01-01

239

Evaluation of Salivary Albumin in Diabetic Patients  

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"nBackground: The clinical symptoms of diabetes mellitus in oral cavity are xerostomia, pathological changes in periodontal tis­sues and caries. It has been suggested that the determination of salvia`s components in diabetic patients may be useful in de­scribing and further understanding the oral findings in this condition. The aim of this study was to detect differences be­tween the salivary albumin in diabetic patients and healthy people."nMethods: A case-control study...

Pb, Vaziri; Vahedi, M.; Sh, Abdollahzadeh; Hr, Abdolsamadi; Hajilooi, M.; Sh, Kasraee

2009-01-01

240

Electrochemical Measurements of Salivary Amylase Activity  

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Stress constitutes a more and more common cause for many health disorders inmodern society. Salivary -amylase (AA), the most abundant enzyme in humanwhole saliva, has in recent years been found to be a good surrogate biomarker formonitoring stress levels in individuals. This work aims to form the foundation ofa novel approach for measuring the activity of the enzyme in saliva samples bymeans of electrochemistry. The idea is to implement several enzymes along witha starch substrate and an elec...

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Central Nifedipine-induced Alterations in Salivary Flow and Compounds: Role of Nitric Oxide  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the role of nifedipine and Nitric Oxide (NO on salivary flow and compounds (salivary amylase, saliva total proteins, saliva calcium, sodium and potassium. Male Holtzman rats weighting 200-250 g were anesthetized with zoletil 50 mg kg-1 (tiletamine chloridrate 125.0 mg and zolazepan chloridrate 125.0 mg into quadriceps muscle and stainless steel cannulas were implanted into their lateral ventricle of the brain (LV. Animals in divided group were injected with nifedipine (50 ?g ?L-1 alone and in combination with 7-nitroindazol (7-NIT (40 ?g ?L-1, neuronal NO Sinthase Inhibitor (nNOSI and Sodium Nitroprussate (SNP (30 ?g ?L-1 NO donor agent. As a secretory stimuli, pilocarpine dissolved in isotonic was administered intraperitoneally (ip at a dosage of 10 mg kg-1 body weight. Saliva was collected for 7 min with four cotton balls weighing approximately 20 mg each, two of which were placed on either side of the oral cavity, with the other two placed under the tongue. Nifedipine treatment induced a reduction in saliva secretion rate and concentration of amylase, total protein and calcium without changes in sodium and potassium concentration in comparison with controls. Co-treatment of animals with nifedipine and SNP retained flow rate and concentration of amylase, total protein and calcium in normal levels. Co-treatment of animals with nifedipine and 7-NIT potentiated the effect of nifedipine on the reduction of saliva secretion and concentrations of amylase, total protein and calcium. Nifedipine (dihydroperidine calcium-channel blocker widely in use is associated with salivary dysfunction acting in the central nervous system structures. NO might be the mechanism for protective effect against the nifedipine-induce salivary dysfunction, acting in the CNS.

Wilson Abrao Saad

2006-01-01

242

Effect of sensory stimulation on salivary IgA secretion rate in karate players  

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Objectives: Secretory IgA is predominant immunoglobulin in secretions of the mucosal immune system. Low concentration of salivary IgA is associated with a higher risk of respiratory tract infections episodes in athletes during the training season. The purpose of this study was to determine whether orange-flavored whey based drink has beneficial effect on level of IgA in saliva after the training. Methods: Twenty healthy, young karate players participated in this study. They were divided into ...

2010-01-01

243

Cancer of the thyroid and salivary glands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since 1960, A-bomb radiation related thyroid cancer has been studied with the Adult Health Study (AHS) sample at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commision-Radiation Effects Research Foundation (ABCC-RERF). The number of A-bomb survivors developing thyroid cancer has increased with time. The observations have led to the conclusion that the incidence of thyroid cancer is high among A-bomb survivors, especially those exposed within 1,500 m from ground zero. Similar findings were observed among patients from the Hiroshima University School of Medicine and from the national health insurance program. Ezaki has studied the incidence of clinical and occult thyroid cancer in Hiroshima during 1958 - 79 using the ABCC-RERF Life Span Study sample consisting of 75,493 subjects. The incidence of clinical cancer was higher with increasing radiation doses, especially in females under the age of 20 when exposed. The incidence of occult cancer was significantly higher in survivors with 50+ rad than in the control group. Studies for cancer of the salivary glands have been commenced in the 1970s. Takeichi et al. and Belsky et al. have reported a high incidence of salivary gland cancer among A-bomb survivors. The subsequent study with the AHS sample has revealed that the overall incidence of benign and malignant salivary gland tumors and the incidence of malignant tumors were 9.3 times and 21.8 times higher, respectively, in the group with 300+ rad than in the control group. (Namekawa, K.)

1986-01-01

244

Decrease in salivary lactoferrin output in chronically intoxicated alcohol-dependent patients  

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Full Text Available

Salivary lactoferrin is a glycoprotein involved in the elimination of pathogens and the prevention of massive overgrowth of microorganisms that affect oral and general health. A high concentration of lactoferrin in saliva is often considered to be a marker of damage to the salivary glands, gingivitis, or leakage through inflamed or damaged oral mucosa, infiltrated particularly by neutrophils. We conducted a study to determine the effect of chronic alcohol intoxication on salivary lactoferrin concentration and output. The study included 30 volunteers consisting of ten non-smoking male patients after chronic alcohol intoxication (group A, and 20 control nonsmoking male social drinkers (group C with no history of alcohol abuse. Resting whole saliva was collected 24 to 48 hours after a chronic alcohol intoxication period. Lactoferrin was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. For all participants, the DMFT index (decayed, missing, or filled teeth, gingival index (GI and papilla bleeding index (PBI were assessed. The differences between groups were evaluated using the Mann–Whitney U test. We noticed significantly decreased salivary flow (SF in alcohol dependent patients after chronic alcohol intoxication (A, compared to the control group (C. Although there was no significant difference in salivary lactoferrin concentration between the alcohol dependent group A and the control group C, we found significantly decreased lactoferrin output in group A compared to group C. We found a significant correlation between the amount of daily alcohol use and a decrease in lactoferrin output. There was a significant increase in GI and a tendency of PBI to increase in group A compared to group C. We demonstrated that chronic alcohol intoxication decreases SF and lactoferrin output. The decreased lactoferrin output in persons chronically intoxicated by alcohol may be the result of lactoferrin exhaustion during drinking (due to its alcohol-related lower biosynthesis or higher catabolism or to decreased function of neutrophils affected by the ethanol. The poorer periodontal state in alcohol dependent persons compared to controls may be a result of lower salivary flow and decreased protection of the oral cavity by lactoferrin.

Napoleon Waszkiewicz

2012-07-01

245

Salivary gland determination in Drosophila: a salivary-specific, fork head enhancer integrates spatial pattern and allows fork head autoregulation.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the early Drosophila embryo, a system of coordinates is laid down by segmentation genes and dorsoventral patterning genes. Subsequently, these coordinates must be interpreted to define particular tissues and organs. To begin understanding this process for a single organ, we have studied how one of the first salivary gland genes, fork head (fkh), is turned on in the primordium of this organ, the salivary placode. A placode-specific fkh enhancer was identified 10 kb from the coding sequence. Dissection of this enhancer showed that the apparently homogeneous placode is actually composed of at least four overlapping domains. These domains appear to be developmentally important because they predict the order of salivary invagination, are evolutionarily conserved, and are regulated by patterning genes that are important for salivary development. Three dorsoventral domains are defined by EGF receptor (EGFR) signaling, while stripes located at the anterior and posterior edges of the placode depend on wingless signaling. Further analysis identified sites in the enhancer that respond either positively to the primary activator of salivary gland genes, SEX COMBS REDUCED (SCR), or negatively to EGFR signaling. These results show that fkh integrates spatial pattern directly, without reference to other early salivary gland genes. In addition, we identified a binding site for FKH protein that appears to act in fkh autoregulation, keeping the gene active after SCR has disappeared from the placode. This autoregulation may explain how the salivary gland maintains its identity after the organ is established. Although the fkh enhancer integrates information needed to define the salivary placode, and although fkh mutants have the most extreme effects on salivary gland development thus far described, we argue that fkh is not a selector gene for salivary gland development and that there is no master, salivary gland selector gene. Instead, several genes independently sense spatial information and cooperate to define the salivary placode. PMID:11518505

Zhou, B; Bagri, A; Beckendorf, S K

2001-09-01

246

Study of total serum amylase, its salivary and pancreatic fraction and the pancreatic to salivary amylase ratio in testicular tumours.  

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Serum levels of total amylase, its pancreatic fraction (P), salivary fraction (S), and the ratio of pancreatic to salivary fraction (P/S) were determined in 52 cases of histologically proved testicular germ cell tumours and 33 healthy controls. Total serum amylase remained unchanged, but the salivary fraction had a lower mean value. P/S ratio and the pancreatic fraction were significantly elevated in both seminomatous and non- seminomatous tumours. The ratio was more frequently raised in non-...

Khanolkar M; Sirsat A; Deshmane V; Kamat M

1991-01-01

247

pH Salival, Capacidad Buffer, Proteínas Totales y Flujo Salival en Pacientes Hipertensos Controlados Usuarios de Diuréticos / Salivary pH, Buffer Capacity, Total Proteins and Salivary Flow in Controlled Hypertensive Patients Diuretic Users  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La hipertensión arterial (HTA) es una enfermedad cardiovascular que padece gran parte de la población mundial y nacional, alcanzando en Chile un 26,9% en el año 2010. El objetivo fue determinar pH salival, capacidad buffer, proteínas totales y flujo salival, en pacientes hipertensos controlados usua [...] rios de diuréticos. Se analizaron 14 muestras de saliva no estimulada de pacientes hipertensos controlados con diuréticos y 10 muestras de saliva no estimulada de personas que no padecían enfermedades sistémicas y no tomaban medicamentos, los valores obtenidos de pH salival, capacidad buffer, flujo salival y proteínas totales fueron determinados en ambos grupos. La mediana obtenida en las muestras de hipertensos controlados con diuréticos, para el pH salival fue de 6,83; para la capacidad buffer fue 4,86; para el flujo salival fue 0,55 ml/min y para las proteínas totales salivales fue de 1,09 g/dL. Para el grupo de pacientes sanos la mediana fue de 6,88 para el pH; 4,25 para la capacidad buffer; 1,8 ml/min para el flujo salival y 0,29 g/dL para las proteínas totales salivales. Además, no se encontró asociación entre el flujo salival (rs = 0,425), capacidad buffer (rs = 0,283) y concentración de proteínas (rs = 0,245) con la dosis del diurético (p > 0,05) . Se encontró que existieron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en el flujo salival y la concentración de proteínas salivales entre el grupo de pacientes hipertensos y de pacientes sanos (U Mann-Wthitney P 0,005). Los pacientes que sufren HTA y están siendo controlados con diuréticos tienen una disminución del flujo salival y un aumento de la concentración de proteínas, no viéndose afectadas las variables de pH y capacidad buffer. Abstract in english Introduction: Hypertension (HT) is a cardiovascular disease with a high prevalence around the world. In Chile at year 2010 it reached 26.9% of the population. Objective: To determine salivary pH, buffering capacity, total proteins and salivary flow in controlled hypertensive diuretic users and a gro [...] up without systemic diseases. Methods: 14 samples of unstimulated saliva of patients with hypertension treated with diuretics and 10 samples of unstimulated saliva of people without systemic diseases and not taking medication were analyzed. pH, salivary buffering, salivary flow and total protein were determined in both groups. Results: The figures for the treated HT patients were as follows: pH: 6.83, buffer capacity: 4.86, salivary flow: 0.55 ml / min and total salivary proteins: 1.09 g / dL. For those without systemic diseases the results were: pH: 6,88, buffer capacity: 4,25, saliva flow: 1.8 ml / min and total salivary protein: 0.29 g / dL. No association was found between salivary flow (rs = 0.425), buffering capacity (rs = 0.283) and protein concentration (rs = 0.245) with the diuretic dose (p > 0.05). Statistically significant differences were found in salivary flow and total salivary protein concentration between the group with hypertension and without. (U Mann-Wthitney P > 0.005). No statistically significant differences in salivary pH and buffering capacity were found among the study groups (U Mann-Wthitney > 0.005). Conclusion: Patients with hypertension and treated with diuretics have a decreased salivary flow and an increased total protein concentration while ph and buffer capacity remained normal.

Samuel, Muñoz L; Carmen Gloria, Narváez.

248

Salivary IL-21 and IgA responses to a competitive match in elite basketball players.  

Science.gov (United States)

Athletes engaged in strenuous training might experience transient immune suppression that could lead to greater incidence of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI). Since interleukin 21 (IL-21) stimulates immunoglobulin A (IgA) secreting cells and a low level of this immunoglobulin is associated with increased incidence of URTI, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of a basketball match on salivary cortisol (sC), salivary IL-21 (sIL-21) and salivary IgA (sIgA) levels. Twenty male basketball players participated in an official game in two teams (10 players in each team). The saliva samples were collected before the warm-up and approximately 10-15 min after the end of the match and were analysed by ELISA methods. sC concentration increased significantly after the match while sIL-21 level was reduced (p < 0.05). In opposition to the study's hypothesis, sIgA level did not change in response to the match. The present findings suggest that a basketball match is sufficiently stressful to elevate sC concentration and attenuates the sIL-21 output without compromising the sIgA level. It is reasonable to speculate that the stability of sIgA acute responses to the match, despite the decrement in sIL-21, indicates that other mechanisms rather than IL-21 stimulating B cell proliferation/differentiation might modulate IgA concentration and secretion rate. PMID:24744495

Moreira, A; Bacurau, R F P; Napimoga, M H; Arruda, A F S; Freitas, C G; Drago, G; Aoki, M S

2013-12-01

249

Investigation on laser induced salivary stone fragmentation  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: It was the objective of this in-vitro study to investigate photon-based techniques for identifying the composition and fragmentation of salivary stones using a Ho:YAG laser. Materials and Method: Salivary stones (n=47) extracted from patients with clinical symptoms of sialolithiasis were examined in-vitro. After extraction, the stones were kept in Ringers solution until size and volume measurements could be performed. Thereafter, dual-energy CT scans (DECT) were performed to classify the composition of the stones. Subsequently, fluorescence measurements were performed by taking images under blue light excitation as well as by fluorescence spectroscopy, measuring excitation-emission-matrixes (EEM). Further investigation to identify the exact composition of the stone was performed by Raman spectroscopy and FTIR spectroscopy of stone fragments and debris. Fragmentation was performed in an aquarium set-up equipped with a mesh (hole: 1.5mm) using a Ho:YAG-laser to deliver laser pulses of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5J/pulse at a frequency of 3Hz through a 200?m-fibre to the stone surface. The collected data were analyzed and fragmentation rates were calculated. Finally, correlation between stone composition and fragmentation was performed. Results: Blue light fluorescence excitation resulted in either fluorescence in the green spectral region or in a combination of green and red fluorescence emission. EEM-measurement showed the corresponding spectra. Raman spectroscopy showed a mixture of carbonate apatite and keratin. DECT results in evidence of calcium containing components. FTIR-spectroscopy results showed that carbonate apatite is the main component. Fragmentation experiment showed a dependency on the energy per pulse applied if the evaluation implies the ratio of fragmented weight to pulse, while the ratio fragmented weight to energy remains about constant for the three laser parameter used. Conclusion: The composition of salivary stones could be determined using different photonic techniques. Attempts to correlate salivary stone composition to fragmentation rates resulted in no correlation. Thus it could be concluded that each salivary stone could be easily destroyed using Ho:YAG-laser light by means of a 200?m bare fibre at lowest energy per pulse.

Sroka, Ronald; Pongratz, Thomas; Eder, Matthias; Domes, Mona; Vogeser, Michael; Johnson, Thorsten; Siedeck, Vanessa; Schroetzlmair, Florian; Zengel, Pamela

2014-03-01

250

Salivary expression of soluble HER2 in breast cancer patients with positive and negative HER2 status  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between salivary concentration of the soluble fragment of the HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor) protein and its status in mammary tissues. Methods This case-control study was done in 27 breast cancer patients with no visible metastatic disease treated at the gynecology service, Maternity Souissi Hospital, Rabat, Morocco. Two groups were selected, ie, patients with positive and negative HER2 status in mammary tissue. The salivary HER2 protein concentration was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The salivary HER2 concentration was compared between the HER2-positive and HER2-negative groups using the Mann-Whitney U test. A P-value 0.05), except for the progesterone hormone receptor which was statistically significant in both the case and control groups (P=0.047). Conclusion According to our data, salivary expression of the HER2 receptor may not be a reliable alternative to tissue assessment.

Laidi, Fatna; Bouziane, Amal; Lakhdar, Amina; Khabouze, Samira; Rhrab, Brahim; Zaoui, Fatima

2014-01-01

251

Exoglycosidases and lectins as sequencing approaches of salivary gland oligosaccharides  

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This review was focused on the salivary gland oligosaccharide chains studied by lectin histochemistry combined with exoglycosidase digestion. Glycoconjugates play an important role in many biofunctions and, generally. salivary mucins, which consist of numerous oligosaccharide chains attached at closely spaced intervals to a peptide backbone, serve as lubricants and protective agents, but in many instances we are ignorant about the role of biochemically iden...

Menghi, G.; Materazzi, G.

1994-01-01

252

Direct salivary cortisol radio-immunoassay determination. Clinical applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Salivary cortisol levels reflect the biologically active free fraction of blood cortisol. The authors describe the results obtained with the aim of a radio-immunoassay commercial serum cortisol kit, without prealable extraction in different physiological and pathological situations. Salivary cortisol determination appears performant both in nycthemeral studies and in stimulation or freination tests.

Simon, C.; Cherfan, J.; Kurtz, F.; Vignon, F.; Schlienger, J.L.; Chabrier, G.; Sapin, R.

1987-04-01

253

Is there a parotid-salivary reflex response to fat stimulation in humans?  

Science.gov (United States)

The perception of fats in foods may involve gustatory, olfactory or textural cues. There is contradictory evidence as to whether the orosensory perception of fat is as a basic quality of taste or related to the physical characteristics of fat. A dose-response reflex parotid-salivary secretion has, however, been shown for the accepted basic taste qualities. The aim of this study was to establish whether varying fat concentration in two food types causes an associated dose-response reflex parotid secretion in humans. Parotid salivary flow was recorded using Lashley cups and cannulae connected to an instantaneous flow meter. Gustatory stimuli were achieved using 3 ml of skimmed (0.1% fat), semi-skimmed (1.7% fat) or full (3.6% fat) milk (Sainsbury) or 5 g of extra-light (5% fat), light (16% fat) or original (24% fat) cream cheese (Kraft). No significant differences in salivary flow rate were shown within the milk group (n=10, P=.93) or within the cream-cheese group (n=11, P=.82). Furthermore, no correlation was observed between increasing fat concentration and flow within either the milk (P=.98) or the cream-cheese group (P=.69; Pearson Product Moment Correlation). These results do not support the hypothesis that there is a fat-specific dose-response parotid reflex. PMID:15451644

Hodson, N A; Linden, R W A

2004-10-15

254

Determinación de los niveles de cortisol salival en una muestra de sujetos de Santiago de Chile Salivary cortisol among subjects with and without Cushing syndrome  

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Full Text Available Background: Salivary cortisol measurement is recommended as a screening mea-sure when a Cushing Syndrome is suspected. Theproposed cut-offpointfor aprobable diagnosis is 0.16 ug/dL. Aim: To determine salivary cortisol concentrations during the day inpatients with and without Cushing syndrome and with depression. Material and Methods: Salivary cortisol was measured by competitive enzyme immuno assay (EIA, in samples obtained at 8:00,15:00 and 23:00 h in 78 patients without Cushing syndrome, aged 40 ± 15years (28 males, 30 patients with depression aged 40 ± 12years (nine males and four jemales with Cushing syndrome aged 42 ± 17 years. Results: Salivary cortisol was higher among patients with Cushing syndrome than the rest of patients. A salivary cortisol over the cut-off value of O.16 ug/dL was found in 42% of subjects without Cushing syndrome and in 33% of patients with depression. Median values among patients without Cushing syndrome, depression and with Cushing syndrome were 0.21 (range < 0.1-1.42, 0.2 (range 0,12-0.9 and 0.58 (range 0.37-1.1 ug/dL, respectively Conclusions: Salivary cortisol measured by EIA method was higher among patients with Cushing syndrome but there was a great overlap with values obtained in subjects without the syndrome.

MACARENA LÉPEZ

2010-02-01

255

Salivary gland accumulation of meta-[131I]iodobenzylguanidine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Intense uptake of m-[131I]iodobenzylguanidine (I-131 MIBG) has been observed in the salivary glands of patients undergoing scintigraphy for the location of suspected pheochromocytomas. This uptake of radioativity was not due to free I-131 derived from the I-131 MIBG but rather to uptake of I-131 MIBG by sympathetic neuronal elements in the salivary glands. In keeping with this, administration of tricycle antidepressants reversibly blocked salivary uptake of I-131 MIBG. Furthermore, I-131 MIBG uptake was markedly diminished by the ipsilateral salivary glands in a patient with Horner's syndrome, and was bilaterally diminished in a patient with severe idiopathic sympathetic autonomic neuropathy. The salivary gland uptake of I-131 MIBG may provide a means for the study of sympathetic innervation of these organs, and thus for the study of generalized disorders of autonomic innervation

1984-01-01

256

Second primary malignancies following salivary gland cancers.  

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Four hundred and fifteen males and 367 females who had invasive malignant tumours of the salivary glands as their first cancer diagnosed in Connecticut between 1935 and 1978 were identified and followed 2342 and 2868 person-years respectively. Overall a slight excess of second primary cancers (relative risk 1.35) was observed. Significant excesses were noted for respiratory cancers in males (relative risk 2.8) and for ovarian cancer (relative risk 5.3) but not breast cancer (relative risk 1.3...

Biggar, R. J.; Curtis, R. E.; Hoffman, D. A.; Flannery, J. T.

1983-01-01

257

A hypothesis to relate salivary tumors with mammary and prostate neoplasias  

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Salivary, mammary and prostate glands are sex hormone-dependent organs sharing common aspects in structure, hormonal responsiveness and tumor histopathology. Salivary tumors (especially the malignant types) are not as frequent as mammary and prostate neoplasias. Hence, prognosis of some salivary tumors is not always efficient. Here, we review the oncology of salivary gland and its putative relation to breast/prostate tumors.

Actis, Adriana B.

2005-01-01

258

Salivary Secretory Immunoglobulin a secretion increases after 4-weeks ingestion of chlorella-derived multicomponent supplement in humans: a randomized cross over study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlorella, a unicellular green alga that grows in fresh water, contains high levels of proteins, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fibers. Some studies have reported favorable immune function-related effects on biological secretions such as blood and breast milk in humans who have ingested a chlorella-derived multicomponent supplement. However, the effects of chlorella-derived supplement on mucosal immune functions remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether chlorella ingestion increases the salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA secretion in humans using a blind, randomized, crossover study design. Methods Fifteen men took 30 placebo and 30 chlorella tablets per day for 4 weeks separated by a 12-week washout period. Before and after each trial, saliva samples were collected from a sterile cotton ball that was chewed after overnight fasting. Salivary SIgA concentrations were measured using ELISA. Results Compliance rates for placebo and chlorella ingestions were 97.0 ± 1.0% and 95.3 ± 1.6%, respectively. No difference was observed in salivary SIgA concentrations before and after placebo ingestion (P = 0.38. However, salivary SIgA concentrations were significantly elevated after chlorella ingestion compared to baseline (P P = 0.36, it significantly increased after 4-week chlorella ingestion than before intake (P Conclusions These results suggest 4-week ingestion of a chlorella-derived multicomponent supplement increases salivary SIgA secretion and possibly improves mucosal immune function in humans.

Iemitsu Motoyuki

2011-09-01

259

Elevada concentración de metabolitos de cotinina en hijos de padres fumadores / High levels of cotinine metabolite in smoker's parents children  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish INTRODUCCIÓN: La exposición al humo de tabaco de segunda mano (HTSM) en niños y adultos puede ser común en oficinas gubernamentales, lugares de trabajo, vehículos y espacios públicos, pero es de particular importancia en el hogar. Los grados de exposición elevados en niños pueden constituirse como l [...] a principal justificación para restringir el tabaquismo dentro del hogar. El objetivo fue determinar los valores de HTSM mediante biomarcadores séricos en binomios padres- hijos menores de cinco años, en México, participantes de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud 2000. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se seleccionaron 76 binomios padres-hijos de hogares con adultos no fumadores y 83 binomios similares pero con adultos fumadores en el hogar. La selección se restringió a hogares donde hubiera presencia de niños menores de cinco años de edad. Las muestras séricas se analizaron por cromatografía líquida. Se construyeron modelos de correlación de exposición entre los binomios padres-hijos estratificados por el antecedente de tabaquismo en los padres. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de individuos con más de 15 ng/mL de cotinina en suero en los fumadores fue de 100%; la cuantificación mínima fue 18.50 y la máxima de 221.5 ng/mL. En los adultos, los valores séricos de cotinina fueron 50 veces mayores en los fumadores (107.4 ng/mL) que en los no fumadores (1.99 ng/mL); similar observación a la referida tuvo la exposición a 3’-hidroxicotinina (0.69 en no fumadores vs. 33.59 ng/mL en adultos fumadores). Hubo una diferencia significativa tres veces mayor de valores de cotinina (0.19 vs. 0.60 ng/mL) y de 3’-hidroxicotinina (0.06 vs. 0.19 ng/mL) en los hijos de fumadores. CONCLUSIONES: A pesar de que existe diferencia significativa de HTSM en niños de padres fumadores, la exposición observada de HTSM en niños menores de cinco años de padres no fumadores también es relevante. En México se documenta por primera vez una elevada exposición al HTSM en niños, no sólo de padres fumadores sino también de padres no fumadores. Esto pone de relevancia que la exposición al HTSM no es sólo un problema de salud pública que se presenta en hogares de padres fumadores, sino que la exposición en niños mexicanos es frecuente en diversos lugares públicos. Es necesario implementar estudios adicionales en México para evaluar el impacto de intervenciones que garanticen hogares y espacios libres de humo de tabaco. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Children and adult exposure to SecondHand Smoke (SHS) may occur in government offices, work and public places as well as in vehicles. Nevertheless, SHS is particularly important at home. High exposure levels in children may be the main reason to prevent parents and other family members [...] from smoking at home. This study aims at establishing SHS levels by measuring biomakers in serum in pairs of parents and their younger than five years old children in Mexico, included in the 2000 National Health Survey. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventy-six parents-children pairs were taken from households with non smokers adults, as well as 83 pairs with adult smokers at home. Selection was limited to the adult population in households with children under five years old. Serum samples were analyzed through liquid chromatographic. Correlation exposure models between parents-children pairs were built and stratified according to parents’ background concerning smoking. RESULTS: In the smokers group, people with more than 15ng/mL of cotinine metabolites in serum showed prevalence of 100%. Minimum quantification was 18.50 and maximum 221.5ng/mL. In adults, cotinine metabolite levels in serun were 50 times higher in smokers (107.4ng/mL), than in non smokers (1.99 ng/mL). Concerning 3-hydroxycotinine, something similar was observed (0.60 in non smokers vs. 33.50 ng/mL in smokers). A significant difference three times higher in cotinine levels (0.10 vs. 0.60ng/mL) and 3-hydroxycotinine (0.06 vs. 0.19ng/mL) was found in those child

Eduardo, Lazcano-Ponce; Luisa María, Sánchez-Zamorano; Neil, Benowitz; Larissa, Barbosa-Sánchez; Mauricio, Hernández-Ávila.

260

Elevada concentración de metabolitos de cotinina en hijos de padres fumadores High levels of cotinine metabolite in smoker's parents children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: La exposición al humo de tabaco de segunda mano (HTSM en niños y adultos puede ser común en oficinas gubernamentales, lugares de trabajo, vehículos y espacios públicos, pero es de particular importancia en el hogar. Los grados de exposición elevados en niños pueden constituirse como la principal justificación para restringir el tabaquismo dentro del hogar. El objetivo fue determinar los valores de HTSM mediante biomarcadores séricos en binomios padres- hijos menores de cinco años, en México, participantes de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud 2000. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se seleccionaron 76 binomios padres-hijos de hogares con adultos no fumadores y 83 binomios similares pero con adultos fumadores en el hogar. La selección se restringió a hogares donde hubiera presencia de niños menores de cinco años de edad. Las muestras séricas se analizaron por cromatografía líquida. Se construyeron modelos de correlación de exposición entre los binomios padres-hijos estratificados por el antecedente de tabaquismo en los padres. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de individuos con más de 15 ng/mL de cotinina en suero en los fumadores fue de 100%; la cuantificación mínima fue 18.50 y la máxima de 221.5 ng/mL. En los adultos, los valores séricos de cotinina fueron 50 veces mayores en los fumadores (107.4 ng/mL que en los no fumadores (1.99 ng/mL; similar observación a la referida tuvo la exposición a 3’-hidroxicotinina (0.69 en no fumadores vs. 33.59 ng/mL en adultos fumadores. Hubo una diferencia significativa tres veces mayor de valores de cotinina (0.19 vs. 0.60 ng/mL y de 3’-hidroxicotinina (0.06 vs. 0.19 ng/mL en los hijos de fumadores. CONCLUSIONES: A pesar de que existe diferencia significativa de HTSM en niños de padres fumadores, la exposición observada de HTSM en niños menores de cinco años de padres no fumadores también es relevante. En México se documenta por primera vez una elevada exposición al HTSM en niños, no sólo de padres fumadores sino también de padres no fumadores. Esto pone de relevancia que la exposición al HTSM no es sólo un problema de salud pública que se presenta en hogares de padres fumadores, sino que la exposición en niños mexicanos es frecuente en diversos lugares públicos. Es necesario implementar estudios adicionales en México para evaluar el impacto de intervenciones que garanticen hogares y espacios libres de humo de tabaco.INTRODUCTION: Children and adult exposure to SecondHand Smoke (SHS may occur in government offices, work and public places as well as in vehicles. Nevertheless, SHS is particularly important at home. High exposure levels in children may be the main reason to prevent parents and other family members from smoking at home. This study aims at establishing SHS levels by measuring biomakers in serum in pairs of parents and their younger than five years old children in Mexico, included in the 2000 National Health Survey. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventy-six parents-children pairs were taken from households with non smokers adults, as well as 83 pairs with adult smokers at home. Selection was limited to the adult population in households with children under five years old. Serum samples were analyzed through liquid chromatographic. Correlation exposure models between parents-children pairs were built and stratified according to parents’ background concerning smoking. RESULTS: In the smokers group, people with more than 15ng/mL of cotinine metabolites in serum showed prevalence of 100%. Minimum quantification was 18.50 and maximum 221.5ng/mL. In adults, cotinine metabolite levels in serun were 50 times higher in smokers (107.4ng/mL, than in non smokers (1.99 ng/mL. Concerning 3-hydroxycotinine, something similar was observed (0.60 in non smokers vs. 33.50 ng/mL in smokers. A significant difference three times higher in cotinine levels (0.10 vs. 0.60ng/mL and 3-hydroxycotinine (0.06 vs. 0.19ng/mL was found in those children with, at least, one of both parents who smoked. CONCLUSIONS: It is worthwhile noting that although ther

Eduardo Lazcano-Ponce

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Elevada concentración de metabolitos de cotinina en hijos de padres fumadores / High levels of cotinine metabolite in smoker's parents children  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish INTRODUCCIÓN: La exposición al humo de tabaco de segunda mano (HTSM) en niños y adultos puede ser común en oficinas gubernamentales, lugares de trabajo, vehículos y espacios públicos, pero es de particular importancia en el hogar. Los grados de exposición elevados en niños pueden constituirse como l [...] a principal justificación para restringir el tabaquismo dentro del hogar. El objetivo fue determinar los valores de HTSM mediante biomarcadores séricos en binomios padres- hijos menores de cinco años, en México, participantes de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud 2000. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se seleccionaron 76 binomios padres-hijos de hogares con adultos no fumadores y 83 binomios similares pero con adultos fumadores en el hogar. La selección se restringió a hogares donde hubiera presencia de niños menores de cinco años de edad. Las muestras séricas se analizaron por cromatografía líquida. Se construyeron modelos de correlación de exposición entre los binomios padres-hijos estratificados por el antecedente de tabaquismo en los padres. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de individuos con más de 15 ng/mL de cotinina en suero en los fumadores fue de 100%; la cuantificación mínima fue 18.50 y la máxima de 221.5 ng/mL. En los adultos, los valores séricos de cotinina fueron 50 veces mayores en los fumadores (107.4 ng/mL) que en los no fumadores (1.99 ng/mL); similar observación a la referida tuvo la exposición a 3’-hidroxicotinina (0.69 en no fumadores vs. 33.59 ng/mL en adultos fumadores). Hubo una diferencia significativa tres veces mayor de valores de cotinina (0.19 vs. 0.60 ng/mL) y de 3’-hidroxicotinina (0.06 vs. 0.19 ng/mL) en los hijos de fumadores. CONCLUSIONES: A pesar de que existe diferencia significativa de HTSM en niños de padres fumadores, la exposición observada de HTSM en niños menores de cinco años de padres no fumadores también es relevante. En México se documenta por primera vez una elevada exposición al HTSM en niños, no sólo de padres fumadores sino también de padres no fumadores. Esto pone de relevancia que la exposición al HTSM no es sólo un problema de salud pública que se presenta en hogares de padres fumadores, sino que la exposición en niños mexicanos es frecuente en diversos lugares públicos. Es necesario implementar estudios adicionales en México para evaluar el impacto de intervenciones que garanticen hogares y espacios libres de humo de tabaco. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Children and adult exposure to SecondHand Smoke (SHS) may occur in government offices, work and public places as well as in vehicles. Nevertheless, SHS is particularly important at home. High exposure levels in children may be the main reason to prevent parents and other family members [...] from smoking at home. This study aims at establishing SHS levels by measuring biomakers in serum in pairs of parents and their younger than five years old children in Mexico, included in the 2000 National Health Survey. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventy-six parents-children pairs were taken from households with non smokers adults, as well as 83 pairs with adult smokers at home. Selection was limited to the adult population in households with children under five years old. Serum samples were analyzed through liquid chromatographic. Correlation exposure models between parents-children pairs were built and stratified according to parents’ background concerning smoking. RESULTS: In the smokers group, people with more than 15ng/mL of cotinine metabolites in serum showed prevalence of 100%. Minimum quantification was 18.50 and maximum 221.5ng/mL. In adults, cotinine metabolite levels in serun were 50 times higher in smokers (107.4ng/mL), than in non smokers (1.99 ng/mL). Concerning 3-hydroxycotinine, something similar was observed (0.60 in non smokers vs. 33.50 ng/mL in smokers). A significant difference three times higher in cotinine levels (0.10 vs. 0.60ng/mL) and 3-hydroxycotinine (0.06 vs. 0.19ng/mL) was found in those children wit

Eduardo, Lazcano-Ponce; Luisa María, Sánchez-Zamorano; Neil, Benowitz; Larissa, Barbosa-Sánchez; Mauricio, Hernández-Ávila.

262

The human salivary proteome is radiation responsive.  

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In the event of a nuclear incident in a heavily populated area, the surge in demand for medical evaluation will likely overwhelm our emergency care system, compromising our ability to care for victims with life-threatening injuries or exposures. Therefore, there exists a need for a rapidly deployable biological assay for radiation exposure that can be performed in the field by individuals with little to no medical training. Saliva is an attractive biofluid for this purpose, due to the relative ease of its collection and the wide array of biomolecules it contains. To determine whether the human salivary proteome is responsive to ionizing radiation exposure, we characterized the abundances of salivary proteins in humans before and after total body irradiation. Using an assay panel targeting 90 analytes (growth factors, chemokines and cytokines), we identified proteins that were significantly radiation responsive in human saliva. The responses of three proteins (monocyte chemo-attractant protein 1, interleukin 8 and intercellular adhesion molecule 1) were confirmed using independent immunoassay platforms and then verified and further characterized in 130 saliva samples from a completely independent set of 38 patients undergoing total body irradiation. The results demonstrate the potential for detecting radiation exposure based on analysis of human saliva. PMID:24720749

Moore, Heather D; Ivey, Richard G; Voytovich, Uliana J; Lin, Chenwei; Stirewalt, Derek L; Pogosova-Agadjanyan, Era L; Paulovich, Amanda G

2014-05-01

263

Imunoglobulina A secretora, proteínas totais e fluxo de saliva nas ulcerações aftosas recorrentes Secretory A immunoglobulin, total proteins and salivary flow in Recurrent Aphthous Ulceration  

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Full Text Available De etiologia discutível, as ulcerações aftosas recorrentes (UAR são, na maioria das vezes, consideradas em um quadro de deficiência imunológica. OBJETIVOS: Este trabalho baseia-se na revisão de literatura e em investigações clínico-laboratoriais dos títulos salivares de imunoglobulina A secretora (IgA-s, proteínas totais e fluxo de saliva (em repouso de pacientes nos períodos de atividade e quiescência das Ulcerações aftosas recorrentes. Forma de Estudo: Estudo clínico e experimental. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Empregou-se a Nefelometria na quantificação das IgA-s salivares, o vermelho de Pirogalol para as proteínas totais salivares e a análise gravimétrica para a determinação do fluxo de saliva. RESULTADOS: Os resultados demonstraram aumento estatisticamente significativo das IgA-s salivares nos períodos de lesão ativa em relação aos de quiescência. Não houve diferença estatística nas concentrações de proteínas totais e no fluxo de saliva. CONCLUSÃO: Sugere-se que a IgA-s pode ser usada como parâmetro do status imune da mucosa oral.Clinical and experimental study. Introduction. Of debatable etiology, Recurrent Aphthous Ulcerations (R.A.U, is most of the time considered an immunological deficiency. AIM: The aim of this paper is to review the literature and clinical investigations regarding IgA-s, total proteins salivary concentration and basal salivary flow of patients with R.A.U. during activity and quiescence. METHODOLOGY: Nephelometry was used to measure salivary IgA-s; Pyrogallol red was used for total salivary proteins and the gravimetrical analysis for salivary flow measurement. RESULTS: Results demonstrated a significant increase in salivary IgA-s in active lesions in relation to quiescence. On the other hand, protein concentration rates were similar in both periods. CONCLUSION: Salivary IgA-s can be used as a parameter to study the immune status of the oral mucosa.

Kennedy de Oliveira Martinez

2007-06-01

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The influence of cigarette smoking on gingival bleeding and serum concentrations of haptoglobin and alpha 1-antitrypsin.  

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The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of cigarette smoking on gingival bleeding and serum concentrations of cotinine, haptoglobin, and alpha 1-antitrypsin in Malaysian smokers. A total of 197 male smokers and nonsmokers were recruited for this study. Plaque index, bleeding on probing (BOP), and levels of serum cotinine, haptoglobin, and alpha 1-antitrypsin were evaluated. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0, with the significance level set at ? ? 0.05. Linear regression analyses were performed. The mean cigarette consumption per day was 13.39 ± 5.75 cigarettes; the mean duration was 16.03 ± 8.78 years. Relatively low BOP values (26.05 ± 1.48) and moderate plaque indexes (51.35 ± 11.27) were found. The levels of serum cotinine (106.9 ± 30.71?ng/dL), haptoglobin (76.04 ± 52.48?mg/dL), and alpha 1-antitrypsin (141.90 ± 18.40?mg/dL) were significantly higher in smokers compared to non-smokers. Multiple logistic regression models for all variables and smokers demonstrated observed differences between BOP, the number of cigarettes per day, and duration of smoking, while serum cotinine, haptoglobin and alpha-1 antitrypsin levels showed no significant differences. Duration of smoking (years) and the cotinine level in serum showed a significant correlation with plaque index. The present analysis demonstrated that the duration of smoking in years, but not the number of cigarettes smoked per day, was associated with reduced gingival bleeding in smokers. PMID:24286083

Al-Bayaty, Fouad H; Baharuddin, Noradinar; Abdulla, Mahmood A; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Arkilla, Magaji B; ALBayaty, Mustafa F

2013-01-01

265

Fat-containing salivary gland tumors: a review.  

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Fat-containing tumors of the salivary glands are uncommon. Their wide histological spectrum varies from pure lipomatous neoplasms similar to their cutaneous and soft tissue counterparts to mixed lipoepithelial lesions specific to the salivary glands. With few exceptions, these uncommon lesions affect mainly the elderly, with a mean age at presentation of ? 50 years and show a predilection for males. A few cases occur in childhood; some of them represent congenital lesions. In decreasing order of frequency, ordinary (soft-tissue type) lipoma, oncocytic lipoadenoma, non-oncocytic sialolipoma, and pleomorphic adenoma/myoepithelioma with extensive lipometaplasia are the main variants of fat containing tumors encountered in the salivary glands. While pleomorphic adenoma/myoepithelioma with lipometaplasia behave in the same way as their non-fat-containing counterparts, other lipomatous salivary gland tumors listed above are cured with simple excision and do not carry a risk of recurrence. Other lipoma variants (spindle cell lipoma, osteolipoma, fibrolipoma, angiolipoma, pleomorphic lipoma, lipoblastoma and hibernoma) are exceptionally rare in the salivary gland. Atypical lipomatous tumors/liposarcoma have been only rarely reported in the salivary gland and they behave in a similar fashion to their soft-tissue counterparts. Diffuse lipomatosis and lobular fatty atrophy are the two tumor-like lesions that might closely mimic sialolipoma, particularly in limited biopsy material without knowledge of the gross findings. This review summarizes the clinicopathological features of the main types of salivary fat-containing lesions and discusses their differential diagnoses. PMID:23821211

Agaimy, Abbas

2013-07-01

266

Modeling neuroendocrine stress reactivity in salivary cortisol: adjusting for peak latency variability.  

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Abstract In this report, we present growth curve modeling (GCM) with landmark registration as an alternative statistical approach for the analysis of time series cortisol data. This approach addresses an often-ignored but critical source of variability in salivary cortisol analyses: individual and group differences in the time latency of post-stress peak concentrations. It allows for the simultaneous examination of cortisol changes before and after the peak while controlling for timing differences, and thus provides additional information that can help elucidate group differences in the underlying biological processes (e.g. intensity of response, regulatory capacity). We tested whether GCM with landmark registration is more sensitive than traditional statistical approaches (e.g. repeated measures ANOVA - rANOVA) in identifying sex differences in salivary cortisol responses to a psychosocial stressor (Trier Social Stress Test -TSST) in healthy adults (mean age 23). We used plasma ACTH measures as our "standard" and show that the new approach confirms in salivary cortisol the ACTH finding that males had longer peak latencies, higher post-stress peaks but a more intense post-peak decline. This finding would have been missed if only saliva cortisol was available and only more traditional analytic methods were used. This new approach may provide neuroendocrine researchers with a highly sensitive complementary tool to examine the dynamics of the cortisol response in a way that reduces risk of false negative findings when blood samples are not feasible. PMID:24754834

Lopez-Duran, Nestor L; Mayer, Stefanie E; Abelson, James L

2014-07-01

267

Influence of menstrual cycle and salivary ß-estradiol on volatile sulfur compound  

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Full Text Available BACKGROUND: ß -estradiol is a steroid sex hormone that plays important role in oral physiology. The aim of this studywas to determin the association of the menstrual cycle and salivary ß-estradiol with the production of volatile sulfurcompounds (VSC.METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, twenty female dental students in good oral and general health were recruited forevaluation of VSC, salivary flow, ß-estradiol concentration, oral dryness feeling and dysmenorrhea. Data were analyzedby marginal homogeneity test and xtgee model.RESULTS: The only covariates that significantly related to VSC were being at the follicular phase (B = -0.21, P = 0.02,being at the pre-menstrual phase (B = -0.25, P = 0.01, stressfulness (B = 0.02, P = 0.01 and oral dryness feeling(B = 0.34, P = 0.02. Salivary ß-estradiol was at the level of 59.7 ? 31.2 in those having halitosis (VSC ? 75 while inthe others (VSC < 75 it was about 40.8 ? 18.0 (P < 0.009. This difference was not statistically significant in multivariateanalysis.CONCLUSIONS: The menstrual cycle, stress and oral dryness were the most important determinants of halitosis. Thesalivary ß-estradiol level could not explain such relationship as its effect was eliminated considering the other factors.

Shahla Kakoei DDS, MSc

2012-04-01

268

Immunohistochemical evaluation of transforming growth factor (TGF-b1 in malignant salivary gland tumours  

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Full Text Available The development of malignant tumours is defined by interactions between tumour cells and the stroma through cell membrane proteins and the release of cytokines. ?t has been indicated that high concentrations of transforming growth factor (TGF-b1 inaggressive tumours of the breast, prostate etc. can promotecarcinogenesis. Aim: The aim of this study is to examine TGF-b1expression in malignant salivary gland tumours and correlateit with clinical parameters. Material and methods: 54 specimens of malignant salivary gland tumours obtained between 1996 and 2008(12 years were the material of the study. 54 cases were evaluated 29 male and 25 female, 16-75 years of age. Results: TGF-b1 expression was weak and focal, locatedin neoplastic cells, as well as in the stroma. A positive correlation to tumour staging was also detected. Conclusions: TGF-b1 expression in malignant salivary gland tumours and its positive correlation with tumour staging provide a useful basis for the further investigation of its potential role as a prognostic index.

Dionisios Fotopoulos, Nikolaos Papadogeorgakis, Ioannis Iatrou, Sofia Tseleni, Alexandra Sklavounou, Constantinos Alexandridis

2011-04-01

269

Anti-apoptotic gene transcription signature of salivary gland neoplasms  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Development of accurate therapeutic approaches to salivary gland neoplasms depends on better understanding of their molecular pathogenesis. Tumour growth is regulated by the balance between proliferation and apoptosis. Few studies have investigated apoptosis in salivary tumours relying almost exclusively on immunohistochemistry or TUNEL assay. Furthermore, there is no information regarding the mRNA expression profile of apoptotic genes in salivary tumors. Our objective was to investigate the quantitative expression of BCL-2 (anti-apoptotic, BAX and Caspase3 (pro-apoptotic genes mRNAs in salivary gland neoplasms and examine the association of these data with tumour size, proliferative activity and p53 staining (parameters associated with a poor prognosis of salivary tumours patients. Methods We investigated the apoptotic profile of salivary neoplasms in twenty fresh samples of benign and seven samples of malignant salivary neoplasms, using quantitative real time PCR. We further assessed p53 and ki-67 immunopositivity and obtained clinical tumour size data. Results We demonstrated that BCL-2 mRNA is overexpressed in salivary neoplasms, leading to an overall anti-apoptotic profile. We also found an association between the anti-apoptotic index (BCL-2/BAX with p53 immunoexpression. A higher proliferative activity was found in the malignant tumours. In addition, tumour size was associated with cell proliferation but not with the transcription of apoptotic genes. Conclusion In conclusion, we show an anti-apoptotic gene expression profile in salivary neoplasms in association with p53 staining, but independent of cell proliferation and tumour size.

Gomes Carolina

2012-02-01

270

Salivary duct carcinoma: diagnostic clues, histology and treatment.  

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Salivary duct carcinoma is a very rare, highly-malignant epithelial tumour. We present a case of a 75-year-old man with a rapidly- growing salivary duct carcinoma in the parotid gland, of one month's evolution. Histopathologically, salivary duct carcinoma is characterised by its resemblance to ductal carcinoma of the breast. It usually develops aggressively with possibilities of early distant metastasis and local recurrence. The tumour is managed with total parotidectomy, ipsilateral neck dissection and adjunctive radiation. In advanced cases, we recommend treatment with anti-Her-2 monoclonal antibodies such as trastuzumab. PMID:22153962

Pont, Elena; Plá, Ángel; Cruz Mojarrieta, Julia; Ferrandis, Eduardo; Brotons, Simón; Vendrell, Juan B

2013-01-01

271

Basal cell adenocarcinoma arising in salivary gland metaplasia of the breast: a novel salivary gland-type tumor developing in the breast.  

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A variety of salivary gland-type lesions occur in the breast. Three cases of a novel mammary carcinoma arising in a background of salivary gland metaplasia and morphologically similar to basal cell adenocarcinoma of the salivary gland are presented. The clinical presentation, morphologic features, treatment, and follow-up of these cases are discussed. PMID:22658519

Flynn, Christopher; Kadivar, Maryam; Kwon, Meeae Y; Bonzanini, Mariella; Haines, G Kenneth; Tavassoli, Fattaneh A

2012-10-01

272

Nanowear of salivary films vs. substratum wettability.  

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The pellicle serves as a multifunctional protective layer, providing, e.g., lubrication and remineralization and also acting as a diffusion barrier. In addition, since the formation of the pellicle precedes the adhesion of micro-organisms, it is also important as a conditioning film. We present a novel approach to study the influence of the water wettability of solid surfaces on the strength of adsorbed salivary films. It is based on studying the wear resistance of the films with an atomic force microscope operated in the friction force spectroscopy mode. This methodology provides the strength of the films in terms of the forces needed for breaking and removing them. Our results indicate that these forces are highly dependent on the water wettability of the underlying substrata, decreasing with increasing hydrophobicity. Thus, this study provides valuable information for the design of materials exposed in the oral cavity, i.e., materials that will minimize plaque formation and be easy to clean. PMID:22875480

Sotres, J; Pettersson, T; Lindh, L; Arnebrant, T

2012-10-01

273

In vitro hydroxyapatite adsorbed salivary proteins  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In spite of the present knowledge about saliva components and their respective functions, the mechanism(s) of pellicle and dental plaque formation have hitherto remained obscure. This has prompted recent efforts on in vitro studies using hydroxyapatite (HA) as an enamel model. In the present study salivary proteins adsorbed to HA were extracted with TFA and EDTA and resolved by 2D electrophoresis over a pH range between 3 and 10, digested, and then analysed by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry. Nineteen different proteins were identified using automated MS and MS/MS data acquisition. Among them, cystatins, amylase, carbonic anhydrase, and calgranulin B, were identified

2004-07-23

274

Pleomorphic adenoma of minor salivary gland: a case report  

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Full Text Available Introduction: World literature suggests salivary gland tumors account for less than 3% of the head and neck tumors and benign pleomorphic adenoma of minor salivary glands arising de novo is very rare. Objective, case report and conclusion: A case of pleomorphic adenoma of minor salivary glands in the buccal mucosa in a 55 year-old female is discussed. It includes review of literature, clinical features, histopathology, radiological findings and treatment of the tumor, with emphasis on diagnosis. The salivary glands may present with a diverse range of lesions presenting a challenge to even the most experienced clinician and pathologist. Resection with surrounding dispensable normal tissues is the key to successful treatment of such tumors.

Amit Aggarwal

2012-01-01

275

Individual variability of salivary gland proteins in three Phlebotomus species.  

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Pooled salivary gland samples are frequently used to ensure the sufficient amount of material for the experiments; however, this could mask an individual variability. Thus, we compared salivary protein profiles in seven colonies of three Phlebotomus species: Phlebotomus sergenti, Phlebotomus perniciosus, and Phlebotomus papatasi. Surprisingly, the individual profiles differed significantly between the colonies as well as between individuals. The highest variability was observed in proteins with molecular masses of 42-46 kDa corresponding to the yellow-related proteins. The phenogram constructed from salivary gland profiles revealed the existence of two main groups in P. sergenti, corresponding well with the geographical origin. The F1 progeny obtained from cross-mating studies between P. sergenti colonies of different geographical origin formed a distinct subgroup within the parental groups. In P. papatasi, several groups of protein profiles were observed with no relationship to the geographical origin. The biological role of salivary proteins variability is discussed. PMID:22197318

Rohoušová, Iva; Volfová, V?ra; Nová, So?a; Volf, Petr

2012-04-01

276

Place of salivary ? glucuronidase activity in head & neck cancers  

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Salivary ?-glucuronidase activity was studied in 20 healthy subjects without habits and 10 with habits, 38 untreated patients of advanced head and neck cancer and 21 patients after treatment either after surgery or radiation.

2006-01-01

277

MR anatomy of salivary glands in the dog.  

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This retrospective analysis documented the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance of normal salivary glands based on 101 studies in dogs with no detectable disease in the splanchnocranium. Surface, signal intensity, homogeneity, structure, symmetry and the relationship of glands to surrounding tissues were noted, and gland topography was assessed with E12 plastinated embedded sections. Signal intensity of salivary glands was isointense (7-40%) to hyperintense (60-90%) to muscle tissue on T1- and hyperintense on T2-weighted images. Salivary glands had an increased T1 signal after contrast medium was applied. Salivary gland structure appeared homogeneous in mandibular and major sublingual glands and heterogeneous in zygomatic and parotid glands. Consistent landmarks were the external auditory canal for parotid glands, the digastric muscle for mandibular and major sublingual glands, and the pterygopalatine fossa for zygomatic glands. The minor sublingual and ventral buccal glands could not be localized with low-field MRI. PMID:22034923

Weidner, S; Probst, A; Kneissl, S

2012-04-01

278

Irradiation of salivary glands in the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

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The irradiation of salivary glands in the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is efficient. A dose about 20 Gy in five seances delivered by electrons seems a correct compromise between efficiency and toxicity. (N.C.)

2006-11-01

279

Calcium, amylase, glucose, total protein concentrations, flow rate, pH and buffering capacity of saliva in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate qualitative and quantitative changes in the saliva of individuals undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. METHODS: Salivary samples were collected from 50 individuals divided in two groups: Experimental Group - patients with fixed orthodontic appliances (n=25); [...] and Control Group - subjects with no orthodontic appliances (n=25). Salivary flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, amylase activity, concentrations of total proteins, calcium and glucose were measured in all salivary samples. RESULTS: There was a reduction in salivary pH and buffering capacity and an increase in the concentration of calcium ions in the experimental group (p

Hellen Soares, Teixeira; Stella Maris Oliveira, Kaulfuss; Jucienne Salgado, Ribeiro; Betina do Rosário, Pereira; João Armando, Brancher; Elisa Souza, Camargo.

280

Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of Minor Salivary Glands  

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Full Text Available Introduction: The Mucoepidermoid Carcinomas (MEC represent about 5% of all tumors in the salivary glands. It is an aggressive lesion and must be considered as a diagnosis hypothesis in the oral mucosa proliferative lesions. The early diagnosis and the correct management of this neoplasm are key factors for the prognosis. Wide local resection and eventually postoperative radiotherapy is the choice treatment. Objective: To report the case of a patient with mucoepidermoid carcinoma of oral cavity, exteriorizing through the mouth and being submitted to surgical exeresis and radiotherapy that evolved to death on the fourth month from beginning of the treatment. Case Report: CT, 47 years old, white woman was forwarded to the ORL service of the HSJA after a critical bleeding episode in oral cavity. She reported the appearing of a mass with fast and expansive growth in a topography of canine fossa for +/- 06 months, associated to the loss of 10 kg. Patient dehydrated, pale with pediculated tumoration of +/- 06 cm, firm consistency, painless upon palpation and bleeding. Chronic alcoholic and smoker. Non-palpable cervical lymph nodes. Faced with the case we opted for a surgical resection of the tumor and the performance of histopathological exam that confirmed mucoepidermoid carcinoma of minor salivary glands. The patient was sent to the radiotherapy service; but she abandoned the treatment and evolved with death 4 months after. Final Comments: In this case, the fast and aggressive growth of the lesion, the size of the tumor and the abandonment of the proposed treatment was determinant for the patient's prognosis.

Tinoco, Paulo

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Estimation of long-term salivary gland damage induced by radiotherapy  

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A classification is proposed for estimating salivary gland damage induced by radiotherapy to the head and neck. The volume of salivary glands irradiated was evaluated, and their relative proportions of whole saliva output were calculated. Stimulated salivary flow rate was measured in 61 patients treated with radiotherapy for head and neck malignancies. A highly significant negative correlation was found between the classification of salivary gland damage and stimulated salivary flow rate. The volume of the major salivary glands irradiated seems to be the most important factor affecting the postirradiation salivary flow after a curative dose of radiotherapy. If possible, partial sparing of the salivary glands may help to keep the patient's salivary secretion at an acceptable level and promote protection against dental caries. Most patients irradiated to the head and neck, however, need an effective prophylactic programme for the rest of their lives in order to preserve their teeth. (orig.)

1987-01-01

282

Minor salivary gland tumors: a clinicopathological study of 18 cases  

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Introduction: Minor salivary gland tumors (MSGTs) are infrequent, representing 10-15% of all salivary neoplasms. Despite this low frequency, MSGTs conform a heterogeneous group of neoplasms characterized by a broad range of histological types. Patients and method: We identified cases of MSGT in a retrospective study of the biopsies made in the period 1997-2007 in the Service of Oral Surgery (Dental Clinic of the University of Barcelona, Spain). The data collected comprised patient age and sex...

Pons Vicente, Olivia; Almendros-marque?s, Nieves; Berini Ayte?s, Leonardo; Gay Escoda, Cosme

2008-01-01

283

Interaction of Helicobacter pylori with glycosylated salivary proteins  

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Since the discovery of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in 1983 enormous progress has been made in determining the pathogenesis of this microbe in gastric disease. While the way of transmission is still under dispute, it is generally accepted that H. pylori must reach the stomach via the oral cavity. During this passage it comes into contact with salivary components. However, there are only few studies about interactions of H. pylori with salivary components and no study about the influence of...

Walz, Anke

2006-01-01

284

Mena, a new available marker in tumors of salivary glands?  

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Mena (mammalian Ena) is an actin regulatory protein involved in cell motility and adhesion. Based on its potential role in malignant transformation revealed in other organs, we analyzed the Mena expression in normal salivary glands (SG) and salivary tumors. Mena expression was determined in normal SG (n=10) and also benign (n=20) and malignant (n=35) lesions of SG. For the immunohistochemical staining we used the anti-Mena antibody. All normal SG and the benign lesions (10 pleomorphic adenoma...

Gurzu, S.; Krause, M.; Ember, I.; Azamfirei, L.; Gobel, G.; Feher, K.; Jung, I.

2012-01-01

285

Salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland: the cytohistological features.  

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A 62-year-old man presented with rapidly growing tumour in the right parotid region with associated pain and facial nerve palsy. Based on the fine needle aspiration cytology report of high-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma, parotidectomy was performed which showed features of salivary duct carcinoma. The smears were reviewed to identify the potential pitfalls in the cytological diagnosis of salivary duct carcinoma. PMID:18306594

Pai, Radha Ramachandra; Alwar, Vanamala; Rao, Vatsala Srinivas; Somayaji, Vasudeva

2007-10-01

286

Systems analysis of salivary gland development and disease  

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Branching morphogenesis is a crucial developmental process in which vertebrate organs generate extensive epithelial surface area while retaining a compact size. In the vertebrate submandibular salivary gland, branching morphogenesis is crucial for generation of the large surface area necessary to produce sufficient saliva. However, in many salivary gland diseases, saliva-producing acinar cells are destroyed, resulting in dry mouth and secondary health conditions. Systems-based approaches can ...

Larsen, Melinda; Yamada, Kenneth M.; Musselmann, Kurt

2010-01-01

287

Diseases of the salivary glands in infants and adolescents  

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Abstract Background Diseases of the salivary glands are rare in infants and children (with the exception of diseases such as parotitis epidemica and cytomegaly) and the therapeutic regimen differs from that in adults. It is therefore all the more important to gain exact and extensive insight into general and special aspects of pathological changes of the salivary glands in these age groups. Etiology and pathogenesis of these entities is still not yet fully known for the age g...

Ellies Maik; Laskawi Rainer

2010-01-01

288

Maspin and MCM2 immunoprofiling in salivary gland carcinomas  

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Abstract Background The pathogenesis of salivary gland carcinomas is very complex and prognostic markers are difficult to find in these carcinomas of which the different subtypes have varying malignant potential. The study was conducted to examine the cellular distribution of maspin and MCM2 in salivary gland carcinomas and their value to predict lymph node metastasis. Materials and methods Fifty three paraffin blocks of different lesions (15 muco-epidermoid car...

2011-01-01

289

Characterization of salivary alpha-amylase binding to Streptococcus sanguis.  

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The purpose of this study was to identify the major salivary components which interact with oral bacteria and to determine the mechanism(s) responsible for their binding to the bacterial surface. Strains of Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, and Actinomyces viscosus were incubated for 2 h in freshly collected human submandibular-sublingual saliva (HSMSL) or parotid saliva (HPS), and bound salivary components were eluted with 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate. By sodium ...

Scannapieco, F. A.; Bergey, E. J.; Reddy, M. S.; Levine, M. J.

1989-01-01

290

Saliva-microbe interactions and salivary gland dysfunction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adequate salivary secretion is crucial to both oral and general health, since it provides a complex milieu for support of the microbial populations of the mouth, while at the same time containing antimicrobial products that help control these microbial populations. This paper summarizes several aspects of salivary component function, gland secretion mechanisms, and immunopathogenesis as related to oral health and disease. Salivary components mediate microbial attachment to oral surfaces, and also interact with planktonic microbial surfaces to facilitate agglutination and elimination of pathogens from the oral cavity. Adhesive interactions are often mediated by lectin-like bacterial proteins that bind to glycan motifs on salivary glycoproteins. An important salivary antimicrobial protein is histatin 5 (Hst 5), which shows potent and selective antifungal activity and also susceptibility to proteolytic degradation. Coupling of Hst 5 with the carrier molecule spermidine significantly enhanced killing of C. albicans and resistance to proteolytic degradation, compared with the parent peptide. Loss of salivary secretion may be caused by disorders such as Sjögren's syndrome (SS) or ectodermal dysplasia, or may be a side-effect of radiation therapy. Two new approaches to the treatment of salivary gland dysfunction include the use of resolvins and the creation of differentiated acinar structures to construct an artificial salivary gland. B-cells contribute to the pathogenesis of SS by releasing cytokines and autoantibodies and by influencing T-cell differentiation. CXCL13, a potent B-cell chemokine associated with autoimmune diseases, is elevated locally and systemically in SS and may represent a novel biomarker or therapeutic target in the management and treatment of SS. PMID:24736699

Baker, O J; Edgerton, M; Kramer, J M; Ruhl, S

2014-05-01

291

Dialysis Unmasks the Fungicidal Properties of Glandular Salivary Secretions  

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Several salivary proteins exhibit fungicidal activity against the opportunistic oral pathogen Candida albicans when they are tested as pure proteins in vitro. However, salivary secretions that are examined by the same assays either lack or exhibit very low candidacidal activity. Since ionic strength is known to have an inhibitory effect on the fungicidal activities of some proteins, parotid secretion was subjected to dialysis with membranes having molecular weight cutoffs (MWCOs) of 500, 1,00...

Helmerhorst, Eva J.; Flora, Bianca; Troxler, Robert F.; Oppenheim, Frank G.

2004-01-01

292

Mucocele: An unusual presentation of the minor salivary gland lesion  

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A mucocele is a benign, mucus-containing cystic lesion of the minor salivary gland. This type of lesion is most commonly referred to as mucocele. The more common is a mucus extravasation cyst; the other is a mucus retention cyst. Other three clinical variants are: Superficial mucocele that is located directly under the mucosa, classic variant located in the upper submucosa, and deep mucocele located in the lower cornium. Mucocele occurs either due to rupture of salivary gland duct or by block...

2012-01-01

293

Diagnostic significance of free salivary testosterone measurement using a direct luminescence immunoassay in healthy men and in patients with disorders of androgenic status.  

Science.gov (United States)

The accurate measurement of testosterone remains a challenge. The determination of the blood testosterone concentrations in serum by conventional immunoassays is inaccurate in men and even more so in females and children. A new luminescence enzyme immunoassay (LIA) has been developed and validated. The high analytical (8.7 pmol/L) and functional (17.3 pmol/L) sensitivity allows the quantification of the very low concentration in saliva, as well as in serum, after 1/40 dilution. This study measured salivary testosterone levels and compared the results with the free levels calculated from total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin in eugonadal and hypogonadal men. Salivary testosterone concentrations in healthy men in morning hours were 369 pmol/L (mean), range 263-544 pmol/L, which was statistically significantly higher than that in men with androgen deficiency, 215 pmol/L (mean), range 51-249 pmol/L. Repetitive determination of free testosterone concentrations in saliva (once a week for 5 weeks) showed high stability of results over time, with coefficient of variation 9% (range 5-23%). In this study we showed that free salivary testosterone levels in morning samples correlated well with calculated free testosterone in blood, both in healthy men (R = 0.754, P = 0.001), and in patients with androgen deficiency (R = 0.889, P = 0.0001), though in cases with very low testosterone, salivary concentrations were systematically higher than calculated free testosterone levels in blood. PMID:16916746

Goncharov, Nikolai; Katsya, Gulinara; Dobracheva, Anna; Nizhnik, Alexander; Kolesnikova, Galina; Herbst, Victor; Westermann, Jürgen

2006-06-01

294

Salivary Gland Tumours at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Ghana  

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Full Text Available In African studies on salivary gland tumours, there are considerable epidemiological differences in different parts of the continent. There is no study of salivary gland tumours from the second largest hospital in Ghana, Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital. Aim: This study was to look at the prevalence and demographic distribution of salivary gland tumours at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH. Method: Histopathologically diagnosed salivary gland tumours of consecutive patients were evaluated. The study duration was from 1999 to 2010 October. Result: The total number of salivary gland tumours were 121. Male to female ratio was 1.75:1. Out of the total of 34 salivary malignancies seen, male to female ratio was 1.8:1. Malignant tumour was 28.1% while 71.9% were benign. Mean age for malignancy was 53.5 years (SD = 9.7 and that for benign was 35.5 years (SD = 8.2. Conclusion: The commonest benign tumour of the parotid was Pleomorphic adenoma (48.3% which is consistent with most of the African and western reports. Warthin’s tumour prevalence was higher than most of the studies from Africa.

Osei Afriyie-Owusu

2013-02-01

295

Diseases of the salivary glands in infants and adolescents  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Diseases of the salivary glands are rare in infants and children (with the exception of diseases such as parotitis epidemica and cytomegaly and the therapeutic regimen differs from that in adults. It is therefore all the more important to gain exact and extensive insight into general and special aspects of pathological changes of the salivary glands in these age groups. Etiology and pathogenesis of these entities is still not yet fully known for the age group in question so that general rules for treatment, based on clinical experience, cannot be given, particularly in view of the small number of cases of the different diseases. Swellings of the salivary glands may be caused by acute and chronic inflammatory processes, by autoimmune diseases, by duct translocation due to sialolithiasis, and by tumors of varying dignity. Clinical examination and diagnosis has also to differentiate between salivary gland cysts and inflammation or tumors. Conclusion Salivary gland diseases are rare in childhood and adolescence. Their pattern of incidence differs very much from that of adults. Acute and chronic sialadenitis not responding to conservative treatment requires an appropriate surgical approach. The rareness of salivary gland tumors is particularly true for the malignant parotid tumors which are more frequent in juvenile patients, a fact that has to be considered in diagnosis and therapy.

Laskawi Rainer

2010-02-01

296

Salivary uric acid as a noninvasive biomarker of metabolic syndrome  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated serum uric acid is associated with obesity, hypertension and metabolic syndrome. Because a linear relationship exists between serum and salivary uric acid (SUA concentration, saliva testing may be a useful noninvasive approach for monitoring cardiometabolic risk. The goal of this pilot study was to determine if SUA is increased in patients with metabolic syndrome and to investigate correlations between SUA and individual cardiometabolic risk factors. Findings Volunteers between the ages of 18 and 65 without conditions known to affect serum uric acid levels were recruited. Height, weight, blood pressure and waist circumference were measured and a full lipid panel along with fasting blood glucose was obtained. Saliva samples were collected and uric acid levels were determined. 78 volunteers, 35% of whom had metabolic syndrome, completed the study. SUA was significantly elevated in patients with metabolic syndrome (p=.002. The incidence of metabolic syndrome in the 4th quartile for SUA was 67% compared to 25% in quartiles1-3 combined. Significant correlations were seen between SUA and systolic blood pressure (r=.440, p=.000, diastolic blood pressure ( r=.304, p=.007, waist circumference (r=.332, p=.003, BMI ( r=.269, p=.018, fasting blood glucose ( r=.341, p=.002, triglycerides (r=.410, p=.000, HDL ( r=.237, p=.036 and the number of cardiometabolic risk factors present (r=0.257, p=.023. Conclusions These results suggest that SUA may be a useful biomarker for noninvasive monitoring of cardiometabolic risk. Larger studies are needed to validate this approach.

Soukup Maria

2012-04-01

297

Salivary cortisol and sleep problems among civil servants  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVE: The present study used information from a field study conducted among 4489 civil servants (70% women) in Denmark in 2007. The purpose was to examine the association between sleep problems and salivary cortisol by using a cross-sectional design with repeated measures in a subsample three-month later. METHODS: Sleep problems during the past night and the past 4 weeks were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire on overall sleep quality, disturbed sleep, sleep length and awakening problems. Saliva samples were collected in a single day, using cotton tubes, 30min after awakening and again at 2000h. A subsample of 387 participants collected saliva samples three-month later at awakening, +20min and +40min after awakening and at 2000h. We adjusted for confounders related to sampling time, life style and personal characteristics, socioeconomic status and work aspects. RESULTS: Sleep problems during the past four weeks were associated with low morning and evening saliva cortisol concentrations: [-3.1%per score of disturbed sleep (p=.009); and -4.7% per score of awakening problems (p

Hansen, �se Marie; Thomsen, Jane Frølund

2012-01-01

298

Salivary interleukin-6 and -8 in patients with oral cancer and patients with chronic oral inflammatory diseases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Previous research has indicated that salivary interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 are potential biomarkers for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). However, their levels have been found to be significantly elevated in patients with chronic periodontitis (CP) or oral lichen planus (OLP). The data also showed wide variations in levels among the different studies, and no standardization procedure was ever performed. Therefore, the objective of this study is to determine whether CP or OLP confounds the use of IL-6 or IL-8 for OSCC detection. Methods: Saliva samples were collected from five groups: OSCC before treatment (n = 18); CP (n = 21); disease-active OLP (n = 21); disease-inactive OLP (n = 20); and healthy controls (n = 21). IL-6 and IL-8 concentrations (determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays) were compared, using total salivary protein-standardized levels to validate the data. The Kruskal-Wallis test (? = 0.05) followed by pairwise Mann-Whitney U (post hoc) tests with Bonferroni adjustments (? = 0.00625) were used for statistical analysis. Results: Salivary IL-6 levels were significantly higher in patients with OSCC than in patients with CP (P <0.001), disease-active OLP (P = 0.001), disease-inactive OLP (P <0.001), and healthy controls (P <0.001). Salivary IL-8 levels were significantly higher in patients with OSCC than in patients with CP (P <0.001), but only marginally significantly higher than in healthy controls (P = 0.014). Statistical results of standardized IL-6 and IL-8 levels were consistent with the non-standardized levels in all pairs except one. Conclusion: Salivary IL-6 may be a useful biomarker in the detection of OSCC, unconfounded by CP or OLP. PMID:24147842

Lisa Cheng, Yi-Shing; Jordan, Lee; Gorugantula, Lakshmi Mitreyi; Schneiderman, Emet; Chen, Huey-Shys; Rees, Terry

2014-07-01

299

Characterization of the in vitro kinetic interaction of chlorpyrifos-oxon with rat salivary cholinesterase: a potential biomonitoring matrix.  

Science.gov (United States)

The primary mechanism of action for organophosphorus (OP) insecticides such as chlorpyrifos (CPF) involves the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by their active oxon metabolites resulting in a wide range of neurotoxic effects. These oxons also inhibit other cholinesterases (ChE) such as butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), which represents a detoxification mechanism and a potential biomarker for OP insecticide exposure/response. Salivary biomonitoring has recently been explored as a practical method for examination of chemical exposure, however, there are few studies exploring the use of saliva for OP insecticides. To evaluate the use of salivary ChE as a biological monitor for OP insecticide exposure, a modified Ellman assay in conjunction with a pharmacodynamic model was used to characterize salivary ChE in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Comparison of rat saliva, brain, and plasma ChE activity in the presence of selective inhibitors of AChE and BuChE (BW284C51 and iso-OMPA, respectively) with different ChE substrates indicated that rat salivary ChE activity is primarily associated with BuChE (>95%). Further characterization of rat salivary BuChE kinetics yielded an average total BuChE active site concentration of 1.20+/-0.13 fmol ml(-1) saliva, an average reactivation rate constant (Kr) of 0.070+/-0.008 h(-1), and an inhibitory rate constant (Ki) of approximately 9 nM(-1) h(-1). The pharmacodynamic model successfully described the in vitro BuChE activity profile as well as the kinetic parameters. These results support the potential utility of saliva as a biomonitoring matrix for evaluating occupational and environmental exposure to CPF and other OP insecticides. PMID:12767693

Kousba, A A; Poet, T S; Timchalk, Charles

2003-06-30

300

Detection of Salivary Interleukin 2 and Interleukin 6 in Patients With Burning Mouth Syndrome  

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The etiology of BMS remains unknown. Role of various cytokines has been implicated in the development of BMS. The aim of this study was to evaluate levels of salivary IL-2 and IL-6 in patients with BMS, compared with age-matched healthy volunteers (control group). Whole saliva from 30 patients with BMS, age range 55–65, was tested for the presence of IL-6 and IL-2 by enzyme immunoassay. Control group consisted of 30 healthy participants, aged 55–65 years. Saliva IL-2 concentrations in ...

Simc?ic?, Daria; Pezelj-ribaric?, Sonja; Grz?ic?, Renata; Horvat, Jelena; Brumini, Gordana; Muhvic?-urek, Miranda

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Efficacy of Scopolamine patch on the Secretory Function of salivary Glands by TC-99m Pertechnetate Salivary Scintigraphy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to evaluate quantitatively the reducing effect of the anticholinergics (scopolamine patch) on the salivary glands by dynamic salivary scintigraphy. Eleven normal volunteers were studied by salivary gland scintigraphy. After injection of 370 MBq Tc-99m pertechnetate, dynamic salivary scintigraphy with citric acid stimulation was performed for 30 minutes. After 5 days, they were administrated the scopolamine patch. The salivary scintigraphy were performed by same method after 2 days. Functional parameters for the parotid and submandibular glands, that is uptake radio(UR), Tmax, Tmin, maximum accumulation(MA), and maximum secretion(MS), were calculated. In submandibular glands, there was no statistical significance in UR, Tmax, Tmin and MA between before and after the scopolamine patch(p>0.05). The MS of submandibular gland after the scopolamine patch was significantly higher than before patch(p>0.05). In parotid glands, there was no statistical significance in UR, Tmax, Tmin, MA, and MS between before and after patch(p>0.05). It seems that is not satisfied the reducing effect of the scopolamine patch on the secretory function of salivary glands

2003-11-14

302

Quantitative evaluation of Streptococcus mutans and Candida sp and salivary factors in the oral cavity of patients submitted to radiotherapy; Avaliacao quantitativa de Streptococcus do grupo mutans e Candida sp e fatores salivares na cavidade bucal de pacientes submetidos a radioterapia  

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The aim of this study was to quantify the microorganisms Streptococcus mutans and Candida sp in the oral cavity of patients with oropharynx carcinoma, before, during and after radiotherapy, and to correlate the results with salivary factors such as pH, buffer capacity and flow rate. Saliva samples were collected, diluted and inoculated in SB-20 agar and in Sabouraud agar, for Streptococcus mutans and Candida sp, respectively. Previously to dilution, the concentrated saliva was analyzed, and the salivary factors were determined. After the growth of colonies, the number of microorganisms was determined in CFU/ml. The analysis of the results allowed to conclude that the salivary factors are related to the presence of microorganisms, and that the number of CFU/ml increased as salivary flow rate decreased. The effects of radiation compromised salivary homeostasis and favored the increase of infection by yeasts and bacteria. (author)

Spolidorio, Denise Madalena Palomari; Spolidorio, Luis Carlos; Barbeiro, Roberto Henrique; Bernardo, Wagner Luis Carvalho; Pavan, Sabrina [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia; Hoefling, Jose Francisco [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia

2001-12-01

303

New diagnostic markers in salivary gland tumors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Parotid gland tumors are a rare and heterogeneous entity. Molecular markers are sparse. The aim of the study was to identify new diagnostic markers in benign and malignant salivary tumors. A tissue microarray was constructed with 158 tumor samples. Expression of 21 tumor antigens involved in tumor cell survival and known for prognostic potential was assessed immunohistochemically in all parotid gland samples. CEA, Cox-1, Cox-2, Sigma, beta-Catenin, WISP-1 and PDGF-beta were differently regulated in benign and malignant parotid tumors. Subsequently, these seven proteins entered the step-wise logistic regression analysis. As a second step, we defined a score for differentiating benign versus malignant parotid lesions: 4*CEA+15*Cox-1+4*Cox-2+4*Sigma+3*PDGF-beta+10*beta-Catenin+14*Wisp1. Sensitivity and specificity of 94 and 83 % were reached. Besides routine hematoxylin and eosin staining, definition of new diagnostic markers and subsequently a new diagnostic score are an attempt to create an additional tool for the diagnosis of parotid gland tumors. PMID:24091559

Schneider, Sven; Kloimstein, Philipp; Pammer, Johannes; Brannath, Werner; Grasl, Matthaeus Ch; Erovic, Boban M

2014-07-01

304

Unstimulated salivary flow rate, pH and buffer capacity of saliva in healthy volunteers / Débito basal, pH y capacidad tampón de la secreción salivar en sujetos sanos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in spanish Objetivos: conocer el débito, pH y capacidad tampón de la saliva en sujetos sanos y sus relaciones con edad, sexo, obesidad y hábitos tabáquico y alcohólico, así como establecer la definición de hiposialia. Métodos: estudio observacional prospectivo en 159 voluntarios sanos (> 18 años, sin factores [...] conocidos que disminuyan la secreción salivar). Se ha recogido la saliva total, sin estímulo, durante 10 minutos, determinando su débito (ml/min), pH y capacidad tampón (concentración de bicarbonato en mmol/l) mediante autoanalizador Radiometer ABL 520. Se han calculado los límites inferiores del débito salivar y concentración de bicarbonato por el percentil 5. Resultados: la mediana del débito salivar es 0,48 ml/min (rango 0,1-2). La mayor edad condiciona una disminución del débito salivar; los sujetos con edad Abstract in english Objectives: to assess the salivary flow rate, pH, and buffer capacity of healthy volunteers, and their relationships with age, gender, obesity, smoking, and alcohol consumption, and to establish the lower-end value of normal salivary flow (oligosialia). Methods: a prospective study was conducted in [...] 159 healthy volunteers (age > 18 years, absence of medical conditions that could decrease salivary flow). Unstimulated whole saliva was collected during ten minutes, and salivary flow rate (ml/min), pH, and bicarbonate concentration (mmol/l) were measured using a Radiometer ABL 520. The 5 percentile of salivary flow rate and bicarbonate concentration was considered the lower limit of normality. Results: median salivary flow rate was 0.48 ml/min (range: 0.1-2 ml/min). Age younger than 44 years was associated with higher flow rates (OR 2.10). Compared with women, men presented a higher flow rate (OR 3.19) and buffer capacity (OR 2.81). Bicarbonate concentration correlated with salivary flow rate. The lower-end values of normal flow rate and bicarbonate concentration were 0.15 ml/min and 1.800 mmol/l, respectively. The presence of obesity, smoking, and alcohol consumption did not influence salivary parameters. Conclusions: in healthy volunteers, salivary flow rate depends on age and gender, and correlates with buffer capacity. Obesity, smoking, and alcohol use do not influence salivary secretion.

Fenoll-Palomares, C.; Muñoz-Montagud, J. V.; Sanchiz, V.; Herreros, B.; Hernández, V.; Mínguez, M.; Benages, A..

305

Anopheles salivary gland proteomes from major malaria vectors  

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Abstract Background Antibody responses against Anopheles salivary proteins can indicate individual exposure to bites of malaria vectors. The extent to which these salivary proteins are species-specific is not entirely resolved. Thus, a better knowledge of the diversity among salivary protein repertoires from various malaria vector species is necessary to select relevant genus-, subgenus- and/or species-specific salivary antigens. Such antigens could be used for quant...

Fontaine Albin; Fusaï Thierry; Briolant Sébastien; Buffet Sylvain; Villard Claude; Baudelet Emilie; Pophillat Mathieu; Granjeaud Samuel; Rogier Christophe; Almeras Lionel

2012-01-01

306

Acute Short-Term Mental Stress Does Not Influence Salivary Flow Rate Dynamics  

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Background: Results of studies that address the influence of stress on salivary flow rate and composition are controversial. The aim of this study was to reveal the influence of stress vulnerability and different phases of stress reactivity on the unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rate. We examined that acute mental stress does not change the salivary flow rate. In addition, we also examined the salivary cortisol and protein level in relation to acute mental stress stimuli. Methods: S...

Naumova, Ella A.; Sandulescu, Tudor; Al Khatib, Philipp; Thie, Michael; Lee, Wing-kee; Zimmer, Stefan; Arnold, Wolfgang H.

2012-01-01

307

Study on Salivary Glands ?-amylase In Wheat Bug Eurygaster maura (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae)  

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?-amylase activity in the salivary glands of Eurygaster maura was determined by biochemical experiments. Some of adult insect was collected and their salivary glands isolated and characterized. Enzyme samples from salivary glands of adults were prepared by the method of Cohen with slight modifications. ?-Amylase activity was assayed based on Bernfeld method by the dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) procedure. The activity of ?-amylase in salivary glands was 0.050 U/insect. The ...

Mohammad Mehrabadi; Bandani, Ali R.

2009-01-01

308

Ectopic ossification presenting as osteoid metaplasia in a salivary mucocele in a Shih Tzu dog  

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Abstract Background Salivary mucocele is an accumulation of saliva in a single or multiloculated cavity lined by connective tissue that is contiguous to a salivary gland-duct complex and is the most common condition affecting the salivary glands in dogs. Occasionally, different types of metaplastic lesions, such as squamous and osseous metaplasia - which are rare lesions in animals - can be observed in association with salivary mucocele. Case presentation A righ...

2012-01-01

309

Some factors influencing salivary function when treating with radiotherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Salivary flow rate was studied in 29 patients treated with external irradiation to head and neck areas. Resting saliva samples were collected before, during the radiotherapy course and follow-up. Several parameters were investigated: field arrangement, amount of salivary glands irradiated, dose to these glands, initial FR, its recovery during and after irradiation, and influence of therapy interruption in FR. It was found that the level of the upper border of the field is a critical factor when using parallel-opposed lateral fields to the upper neck area and lateral face. More than 50% of the parotids have to be outside the fields to prevent severe dryness. Neck fields which do not encompass salivary glands do not decrease salivary secretion. There is some relation between the initial FR and the dose necessary to produce dryness: patients with high initial salivary FR require higher doses. FR recovery occurs during weekend interruptions before xerostomia develops. Interruptions of therapy for more than two weeks during the radiotherapy course prior to development of dryness might decrease late xerostomia, at least in patients with high initial FR. Objective recovery of the FR has not been observed after treatment in spite of the subjective improvement in the sensation of dryness of some patients

1981-01-01

310

Physiological role of alpha-adrenoceptors in salivary secretion.  

Science.gov (United States)

The submaxillary gland (SM) of rat is innervated by both branches of the autonomic nervous system. Secretion is mediated by the activation of both muscarinic-cholinergic and alpha/beta adrenergic receptors. Studies of the relative affinity of pharmacological agonists and antagonists have warranted a subclassification of alpha adrenoceptors into types alpha 1 and alpha 2. Our studies involve an analysis of the physiologic role of both types of alpha adrenoceptors in salivary secretion. Dose response curves (DRC) to noradrenaline (NA) following administration of alpha adrenoceptor antagonists, i.e. prazosin (alpha 1 antagonist), yohimbine (alpha 2 antagonist) and phentolamine (alpha 1-alpha 2 antagonist) were constructed. Our results demonstrate that prazosin is 100 times more effective than yohimbine in blocking NA-induced salivary secretion. The alpha 2 agonist clonidine (10 micrograms/Kg) blocked the DRCs to methacholine, noradrenaline and substance P-but failed to modify the DRC to isoproterenol. Our results reveal that the subtypes of alpha adrenergic receptors play antagonistic roles in salivary secretion. Alpha 1 stimulation elicits profuse salivary secretion whereas alpha 2 stimulation inhibits salivary secretion induced by 3 different types of agonists, i.e. alpha 1, muscarinic-cholinergic and neurokininergic without affecting beta receptor mediated responses. PMID:1963779

Elverdin, J C; Kaniucki, M O; Stefano, F J; Perec, C J

1990-01-01

311

Transcriptional regulation of salivary proline-rich protein gene expression.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mechanisms governing gene expression and regulation in eukaryotes are remarkably complex. The results from in vivo transgenic and in vitro transfection studies designed to identify cis-element(s) and trans-factor(s) associated with the salivary proline-rich proteins (PRPs) gene expression are utilized as a paradigm to discuss the regulation of salivary-specific gene expression. Particular attention is given to the molecular mechanism(s) underlying the salivary PRP R15 gene regulation. In rodents, the PRPs are selectively expressed in the acinar cells of salivary glands, and are inducible by the beta-agonist isoproterenol as well as by dietary tannins. The results from a series of experiments using chimeric reporter constructs containing different lengths of the R15 distal enhancer region, their mutations, and various expressing constructs are analyzed and discussed. These data suggest that the inducible nuclear orphan receptor NGFI-B may participate in the regulation of salivary acinar cell-specific and inducible expression of the rat R15 gene via three distinct distal NGFI-B sites. Taken together, a model for the induction of R15 gene expression by isoproterenol is proposed. However, the exact molecular basis of this NGFI-B-mediated transactivation of cAMP-regulated R15 expression remains to be established. PMID:9599300

Ann, D K; Lin, H H

1998-04-15

312

Regulation of salivary-gland-specific gene expression.  

Science.gov (United States)

The results from in vivo transgenic and in vitro transfection studies designed to identify cis-element(s) and transfactor(s) governing the salivary proline-rich proteins (PRPs), amylase, and parotid secretory protein (PSP) gene expression are utilized as a paradigm to discuss the regulation of salivary-specific gene expression. Particular attention is given to the molecular mechanism(s) underlying the salivary PRP R15 gene regulation. In rodents, the PRPs are selectively expressed in the acinar cells of salivary glands, and are inducible by the beta-agonist isoproterenol and by dietary tannins. The results from a series of experiments using chimeric reporter constructs containing different lengths of the R15 distal enhancer region, their mutations, and various expressing constructs are analyzed and discussed. These data suggest that the inducible nuclear orphan receptor NGFI-B may participate in the regulation of salivary acinar-cell-specific and inducible expression of the rat R15 gene via three distinct distal NGFI-B sites. Taken together, a model for the induction of R15 gene expression by Ipr is proposed. However, the exact molecular basis of this NGFI-B-mediated transactivation of cAMP-regulated R15 expression remains to be established. PMID:9260042

Ann, D K; Lin, H H; Kousvelari, E

1997-01-01

313

Salivary Immunoglobulin A in Patients with Recurrent Aphthous Ulceration  

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Full Text Available It was hypothesized that serum level of immunoglobulins may play a role in the pathogenesis of oral mucosal diseases but little is known about the role of salivary immunoglobulins in the pathogenesis of these diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible alterations in salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA-s level in patients with oral aphthous ulcers and its relation with clinical parameters. Level of IgA was measured by "ELISA" test in the resting whole saliva of 24 patients with acute Recurrent Aphthous Ulceration (RAU and during remission and the results were compared with 24 healthy volunteers. IgA was increased in acute RAU in comparison with healthy controls. Results demonstrated a significant increase in salivary IgA level in active lesions in relation to quiescence phase. No differences were found in salivary IgA level between major and minor acute RAU and other clinical parameters. The results of our study suggest a possible role of mucosal immune system in the pathogenesis of these lesions. It is reasonable to postulate that modulation of salivary immune system in vivo or production of immune materials in vitro can be efficient in the prevention or control of aphthous lesions.

H. Abbaszadeh

2010-01-01

314

Expression of CDK6 in Salivary Gland Tumors  

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Full Text Available To investigate the expression of CDK6 in salivary gland tumors. In this study, 59 samples of salivary gland tumors from Khalili Hospital pathology archive, including 19 cases of pleomorphic Adenoma, 14 cases of Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma and 19 cases of Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma, as well as 10 cases of normal salivary gland tissue, were reviewed by Immunohistochemistry (IHC for CDK6 staining. CDK6 expression in normal salivary gland was limited to the cytoplasm of ductal cells, but in tumoral tissues was both nuclear and cytoplasmic. Mean percentage of CDK6 staining in the tumoral group (17.38±21.25 was significantly higher than the normal group (1.1±0.99. So, we recognized a higher expression of this marker in tumoral lesions than in normal tissues (p = 0.021. But there wasn’t any statistically significant difference between expression of CDK6 in different types of tumors (p = 0.2. This study demonstrated that over expression of nuclear CDK6 and the dysregulation of PRb pathway play a role in the oncogenesis of salivary gland tumors.

Mohammad Javad Ashraf

2012-01-01

315

Oral Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. polymorphum binds to human salivary ?-amylase.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fusobacterium nucleatum acts as an intermediate between early and late colonizers in the oral cavity. In this study, we showed that F. nucleatum subsp. polymorphum can bind to a salivary component with a molecular weight of approximately 110 kDa and identified the protein and another major factor of 55 kDa, as salivary ?-amylase by time-of-flight mass spectrometry and immuno-reactions. Salivary ?-amylase is present in both monomeric and dimeric forms and we found that formation of the dimer depends on copper ions. The F. nucleatum adhered to both monomeric and dimeric salivary ?-amylases, but the numbers of bacteria bound to the dimeric form were more than those bound to the monomeric form. The degree of adherence of F. nucleatum to four ?-amylases from different sources was almost the same, however its binding to ?-amylase was considerably decreased. Among four ?-amylase inhibitors tested, acarbose and type 1 and 3 inhibitors derived from wheat flour showed significant activity against the adhesion of F.nucleatum to monomeric and dimeric amylases, however voglibose had little effect. Moreover F. nucleatum cells inhibited the enzymatic activity of salivary ?-amylase in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that F. nucleatum plays more important and positive role as an early colonizer for maturation of oral microbial colonization. PMID:23906425

Zulfiqar, M; Yamaguchi, T; Sato, S; Oho, T

2013-12-01

316

Maspin and MCM2 immunoprofiling in salivary gland carcinomas  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathogenesis of salivary gland carcinomas is very complex and prognostic markers are difficult to find in these carcinomas of which the different subtypes have varying malignant potential. The study was conducted to examine the cellular distribution of maspin and MCM2 in salivary gland carcinomas and their value to predict lymph node metastasis. Materials and methods Fifty three paraffin blocks of different lesions (15 muco-epidermoid carcinoma, 14 adenoid cystic carcinoma, 3 epi-myoepithelial carcinoma, 5 salivary duct carcinoma, 5 malignant pleomorphic adenoma, 6 polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma and 5 acinic cell carcinoma were prepared for immunohistochemical staining with maspin and MCM2 antibodies. ANOVA and Pearson correlation tests were used for the statistical analysis of the results. Results All salivary gland carcinomas express maspin and MCM2 with variable cellular localization. There was a significant difference in the expression of each antibody between mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma and polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma. No association was found between examined markers and lymph node metastasis. Conclusions Salivary gland carcinomas express maspin and MCM2 with variable levels and cellular localization, consisting important markers of biological behavior in these tumors. The level of MCM2 expression can be used in the differential diagnosis of adenoid cystic carcinoma and polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma. Further study with large sample size is recommended to assess their value in prediction of lymph node metastasis.

Helmy Iman M

2011-09-01

317

Low salivary testosterone levels in patients with breast cancer  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Correlation between circulating sex steroid levels and breast cancer has been controversial, with measurement of free, or bioavailable hormone rarely available. Salivary hormone levels represent the bioavailable fraction. To further elucidate the role of endogenous hormones in breast cancer, we aimed to assess correlation between salivary sex steroid levels and breast cancer prevalence. Methods Salivary hormone levels of testosterone (T, Estradiol (E2, Progesterone (P, Estriol (E3, Estrone (E1, DHEAS and Cortisol (C were measured by Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA in 357 women with histologically verified breast cancer and 184 age-matched control women. Results Salivary T and DHEAS levels were significantly lower in breast cancer cases vs. controls (27.2+13.9 vs. 32.2+17.5 pg/ml, p Conclusions Salivary T levels, representing the bioavailable hormone, are significantly lower in women with breast cancer compared to age-matched control women. These findings support the protective role of biovailable testosterone in counteracting the proliferative effects of estrogens on mammary tissue.

Tsigginou Alexandra

2010-10-01

318

Pleomorphic adenoma of minor salivary gland: rare tumor in tongue base  

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Full Text Available Pleomorphic adenoma (PA is the neoplasm most common salivary gland. Mainly affects themajor salivary glands, and is much less commonly found in minor salivary glands, the mostfrequent being the palate and upper lip. Although pleomorphic adenoma is abenign neoplasm, usually the capsule is incomplete and tends to recur after incompletesurgical resection.

P. Blanco Pérez

2010-12-01

319

Measurement of salivary cortisol--effects of replacing polyester with cotton and switching antibody  

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Stable performance between-runs are essential in longitudinal studies and when different studies are being compared. However, changes in analytical kits and laboratory material occur and have the potential to threaten analytical stability. In the present case, we examined how salivary cortisol measurements in our laboratory were affected by: 1) changes in the tampon material and 2) changes in the antibody of the analytical kit. In study 1, saliva from healthy subjects (n = 19) was split and spiked to Salivette polyester and cotton tampons, respectively, and treated as ordinary samples before being analysed for cortisol using a Spectria RIA kit for cortisol. In study 2, 68 anonymous saliva samples were analysed with the Spectria Cortisol RIA kit both before and after the manufacturer changed the antibody. The change from polyester to cotton tampons reduced the measured concentration of salivary cortisol by 62 %. A difference of 12 % between the two runs with different antibodies could not be attributed to differences in storage or in thawing and freezing of samples. To conclude, both a change in the material of the Salivette used for collecting saliva samples as well as a change of antibody in a kit can have a major impact on measurements, as illustrated here for concentrations of cortisol in saliva. It is therefore recommended always to check that the analysis stays in statistical control in one's own laboratory when changes are made, even if the manufacturer reports that the changes should have no effects.

Hansen, Ase Marie; Garde, Anne Helene

2008-01-01

320

Reduced salivary flow and colonization by mutans streptococci in children with Down syndrome  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: Although individuals with Down syndrome have considerable oral disease, the prevalence of dental caries in this group is low. The present study aimed to compare known risk factors for dental caries development in children with Down syndrome and a matched population (siblings). In both po [...] pulations, the number of acidogenic microorganisms, such as mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and Candida species, and the paraffin-stimulated pH, flow rate and IgA concentration in whole saliva were evaluated and compared. METHOD: Saliva was collected, and the caries index was evaluated in 45 sibling pairs aged between 6 and 18 years old. The salivary IgA concentration was determined by immunoturbidimetry. Salivary mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and Candida species were quantified on mitis salivarius agar containing bacitracin and 20% sucrose, rogosa agar supplemented with glacial acetic acid and sabouraud agar supplemented with chloramphenicol, respectively. RESULTS: Down syndrome children had a higher caries-free rate (p

Areias, Cristina; Sampaio-Maia, Benedita; Pereira, Maria de Lurdes; Azevedo, Alvaro; Melo, Paulo; Andrade, Casimiro; Scully, Crispian.

 
 
 
 
321

Ultrasonographic changes of major salivary glands in primary Sjoegren's syndrome  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of our study was to determine the reproducibility of a new semi-quantitative scoring system based on ultrasonographic (US) evaluation of structural changes of salivary glands in primary Sjoegren's syndrome (SS). US evaluation of parotid and submandibular glands was performed in 28 SS patients and 29 control subjects independently by two blinded observers. Echogenicity, delineation of glandular borders and sonographic structure (homogeneity, hypoechoic areas, hyperechoic foci) of salivary glands were semi-quantitatively assessed and the final US score calculated. Inter-observer variability was determined by Cohen's test. A high degree of inter-observer agreement was found regarding the final US score (0.90) and in the assessment of glandular homogeneity (0.90), echogenicity (0.88) and hypoechoic areas (0.88). This study showed good reproducibility of the US evaluation of salivary glands using our novel scoring system. This may have important implications on the diagnostic algorithm in patients with SS

2007-09-01

322

Incidence of salivary gland neoplasms in a defined UK population.  

Science.gov (United States)

To establish a true prevalence of salivary gland tumours in a fixed population in the United Kingdom (UK), we searched the unified computerised pathology records of two teaching hospitals, including two private hospitals, for all salivary gland neoplasms (benign and malignant) over two 10-year periods (January 1988-December 1997, and January 1998-December 2007). Reports included needle biopsy, open biopsy, or excision biopsy. Equivocal results were checked by review of the medical notes. Patients referred from outside the catchment area were excluded. Both series combined showed that all neoplasms confirmed the 10:1:1 rule of distribution, but the benign to malignant ratio did not conform to standard teaching. The data suggest that 70-75 benign, and 8-14 malignant neoplasms present annually/million population, which is consistent with established patterns. However, this points towards a lower incidence of cancer in the major salivary glands than was traditionally thought. PMID:23103239

Bradley, Patrick J; McGurk, Mark

2013-07-01

323

Serum ?-amylase and radioinduced changes in the parotid salivary glands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using the inhibitory chromogenic method of O'Donel et al. the authors determined ?-amylase and salivary isoenzyme activities in 30 patients with oncologic diseases (19 men and 11 women), 14 to 71 years of age, with localized tumors in the epipharynx, tonsils, hypopharynx, maxillary sinuses, lingual base, in whom the two parotid salivary glands had come within the range of the external beam gamma-therapy at different involvement degree. Measurements were performed within the 30-40 Gy interval, and the results were compared with those in a control group of normal subjects. There was increase in total amylase and salivary isomerase activities, mostly when 100% of the parotid glands had been involved. This is a sound reason for clinical search of radioinduced changes in the glands

1986-01-01

324

Dietary and flight energetic adaptations in a salivary gland transcriptome of an insectivorous bat.  

Science.gov (United States)

We hypothesized that evolution of salivary gland secretory proteome has been important in adaptation to insectivory, the most common dietary strategy among Chiroptera. A submandibular salivary gland (SMG) transcriptome was sequenced for the little brown bat, Myotis lucifugus. The likely secretory proteome of 23 genes included seven (RETNLB, PSAP, CLU, APOE, LCN2, C3, CEL) related to M. lucifugus insectivorous diet and metabolism. Six of the secretory proteins probably are endocrine, whereas one (CEL) most likely is exocrine. The encoded proteins are associated with lipid hydrolysis, regulation of lipid metabolism, lipid transport, and insulin resistance. They are capable of processing exogenous lipids for flight metabolism while foraging. Salivary carboxyl ester lipase (CEL) is thought to hydrolyze insect lipophorins, which probably are absorbed across the gastric mucosa during feeding. The other six proteins are predicted either to maintain these lipids at high blood concentrations or to facilitate transport and uptake by flight muscles. Expression of these seven genes and coordinated secretion from a single organ is novel to this insectivorous bat, and apparently has evolved through instances of gene duplication, gene recruitment, and nucleotide selection. Four of the recruited genes are single-copy in the Myotis genome, whereas three have undergone duplication(s) with two of these genes exhibiting evolutionary 'bursts' of duplication resulting in multiple paralogs. Evidence for episodic directional selection was found for six of seven genes, reinforcing the conclusion that the recruited genes have important roles in adaptation to insectivory and the metabolic demands of flight. Intragenic frequencies of mobile- element-like sequences differed from frequencies in the whole M. lucifugus genome. Differences among recruited genes imply separate evolutionary trajectories and that adaptation was not a single, coordinated event. PMID:24454705

Phillips, Carleton J; Phillips, Caleb D; Goecks, Jeremy; Lessa, Enrique P; Sotero-Caio, Cibele G; Tandler, Bernard; Gannon, Michael R; Baker, Robert J

2014-01-01

325

Dietary and Flight Energetic Adaptations in a Salivary Gland Transcriptome of an Insectivorous Bat  

Science.gov (United States)

We hypothesized that evolution of salivary gland secretory proteome has been important in adaptation to insectivory, the most common dietary strategy among Chiroptera. A submandibular salivary gland (SMG) transcriptome was sequenced for the little brown bat, Myotis lucifugus. The likely secretory proteome of 23 genes included seven (RETNLB, PSAP, CLU, APOE, LCN2, C3, CEL) related to M. lucifugus insectivorous diet and metabolism. Six of the secretory proteins probably are endocrine, whereas one (CEL) most likely is exocrine. The encoded proteins are associated with lipid hydrolysis, regulation of lipid metabolism, lipid transport, and insulin resistance. They are capable of processing exogenous lipids for flight metabolism while foraging. Salivary carboxyl ester lipase (CEL) is thought to hydrolyze insect lipophorins, which probably are absorbed across the gastric mucosa during feeding. The other six proteins are predicted either to maintain these lipids at high blood concentrations or to facilitate transport and uptake by flight muscles. Expression of these seven genes and coordinated secretion from a single organ is novel to this insectivorous bat, and apparently has evolved through instances of gene duplication, gene recruitment, and nucleotide selection. Four of the recruited genes are single-copy in the Myotis genome, whereas three have undergone duplication(s) with two of these genes exhibiting evolutionary ‘bursts’ of duplication resulting in multiple paralogs. Evidence for episodic directional selection was found for six of seven genes, reinforcing the conclusion that the recruited genes have important roles in adaptation to insectivory and the metabolic demands of flight. Intragenic frequencies of mobile- element-like sequences differed from frequencies in the whole M. lucifugus genome. Differences among recruited genes imply separate evolutionary trajectories and that adaptation was not a single, coordinated event.

Phillips, Carleton J.; Phillips, Caleb D.; Goecks, Jeremy; Lessa, Enrique P.; Sotero-Caio, Cibele G.; Tandler, Bernard; Gannon, Michael R.; Baker, Robert J.

2014-01-01

326

The relationship between psychological distress with salivary ?-amylase and stress related symptoms among breast cancer survivors  

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Full Text Available Background and Aims: This study examined the stress levels, the stressors and biomarker such as Alpha (?-Amylase enzyme which is secreted under distress conditions. The aim was to determine the relationship between these three variables. Methods: The study respondents were made up of cancer outpatients from 3 hospitals namely the Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Seberang Jaya and Johor Baru, Pantai Ipoh and Putrajaya. The Personal Stress Inventory (PSI questionnaire was used to identify stressors, while the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS were used to determine the psychological distress levels. The Salimentary Oral Swab (SOS Technique was used to collect the saliva and then the Salivary ?-Amylase Assay Kit was used to analyse for ? amylase. Results: The majority of respondents were stressed due to their sensitive emotion and nervousness in their daily lives (68.7%, they had poor memory and short attention spans of carrying out job tasks (67.3% as well as they were emotionally depressed (65.3%. Their poor memory and short attention span (p = 0.037, heavy work load and poor task delivery (p = 0.008 were predictors for distress using HADS. The salivary ?-amylase concentration was significantly related to the stress levels (p = 0.002. Conclusion: Breast cancer respondents with musculoskeletal system related symptoms, with heavy work load and poor task delivery, as well as had poor memory and short attention span were at higher risk of experiencing psychological distress. The salivary ?-amylase which had significant relationships with psychological distress was therefore, a potential biological indicator for distress, while the musculoskeletal system related symptoms from the PSI questionnaire were predictors for distress.

H. W. Yong

2013-04-01

327

Bone marrow cells are a source of undifferentiated cells to prevent Sjögren's syndrome and to preserve salivary glands function in the non-obese diabetic mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice develop Sjögren's-like syndrome (Ss) and a gradual loss of saliva secretory function. Our previous study showed that injections of matched normal spleen cells with Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) reversed salivary gland dysfunction in 14-week-old NOD mice, which had established Ss. The spleen and bone marrow are closely related organs, and both are among the first sites of hematopoiesis during gestation. Noticing a rapidly increasing number of clinical trials using bone marrow (BM) cells treatments for autoimmune diseases, we tested if BM cells can prevent Ss and restore salivary glands' function. We injected CFA and MHC class I-matched normal BM cells in 7-week-old NOD mice, which had not yet developed Ss. We found at week 52 post-treatment that all NOD mice receiving BM cells and CFA had a recovery of salivary flow and were protected from Ss and diabetes. BM cells-treated mice had their salivary function restored quantitatively and qualitatively. Saliva flow was higher (p<0.05) in BM cells-transplanted mice when compared to control mice, which continued to deteriorate over time. Total proteins, epidermal growth factor, amylase, and electrolytes concentrations in saliva of BM cells-treated mice were not significantly changed at week 44 and 52 post-therapy when compared to pre-therapy (when the mice did not have Ss). Restoration of salivary flow could have resulted from a combination of rescue and paracrine effects from BM cells. This study suggests that a combined immuno- and cell-based therapy can permanently prevent Ss and restored salivary function in NOD mice. PMID:20732442

Khalili, Saeed; Liu, Younan; Sumita, Yoshinori; Maria, Ola M; Blank, David; Key, Sharon; Mezey, Eva; Tran, Simon D

2010-11-01

328

Analysis of the Salivary Gland Transcriptome of Frankliniella occidentalis  

Science.gov (United States)

Saliva is known to play a crucial role in insect feeding behavior and virus transmission. Currently, little is known about the salivary glands and saliva of thrips, despite the fact that Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (the western flower thrips) is a serious pest due to its destructive feeding, wide host range, and transmission of tospoviruses. As a first step towards characterizing thrips salivary gland functions, we sequenced the transcriptome of the primary salivary glands of F. occidentalis using short read sequencing (Illumina) technology. A de novo-assembled transcriptome revealed 31,392 high quality contigs with an average size of 605 bp. A total of 12,166 contigs had significant BLASTx or tBLASTx hits (E?1.0E?6) to known proteins, whereas a high percentage (61.24%) of contigs had no apparent protein or nucleotide hits. Comparison of the F. occidentalis salivary gland transcriptome (sialotranscriptome) against a published F. occidentalis full body transcriptome assembled from Roche-454 reads revealed several contigs with putative annotations associated with salivary gland functions. KEGG pathway analysis of the sialotranscriptome revealed that the majority (18 out of the top 20 predicted KEGG pathways) of the salivary gland contig sequences match proteins involved in metabolism. We identified several genes likely to be involved in detoxification and inhibition of plant defense responses including aldehyde dehydrogenase, metalloprotease, glucose oxidase, glucose dehydrogenase, and regucalcin. We also identified several genes that may play a role in the extra-oral digestion of plant structural tissues including ?-glucosidase and pectin lyase; and the extra-oral digestion of sugars, including ?-amylase, maltase, sucrase, and ?-glucosidase. This is the first analysis of a sialotranscriptome for any Thysanopteran species and it provides a foundational tool to further our understanding of how thrips interact with their plant hosts and the viruses they transmit.

Stafford-Banks, Candice A.; Rotenberg, Dorith; Johnson, Brian R.; Whitfield, Anna E.; Ullman, Diane E.

2014-01-01

329

Analysis of the salivary gland transcriptome of Frankliniella occidentalis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Saliva is known to play a crucial role in insect feeding behavior and virus transmission. Currently, little is known about the salivary glands and saliva of thrips, despite the fact that Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (the western flower thrips) is a serious pest due to its destructive feeding, wide host range, and transmission of tospoviruses. As a first step towards characterizing thrips salivary gland functions, we sequenced the transcriptome of the primary salivary glands of F. occidentalis using short read sequencing (Illumina) technology. A de novo-assembled transcriptome revealed 31,392 high quality contigs with an average size of 605 bp. A total of 12,166 contigs had significant BLASTx or tBLASTx hits (E?1.0E-6) to known proteins, whereas a high percentage (61.24%) of contigs had no apparent protein or nucleotide hits. Comparison of the F. occidentalis salivary gland transcriptome (sialotranscriptome) against a published F. occidentalis full body transcriptome assembled from Roche-454 reads revealed several contigs with putative annotations associated with salivary gland functions. KEGG pathway analysis of the sialotranscriptome revealed that the majority (18 out of the top 20 predicted KEGG pathways) of the salivary gland contig sequences match proteins involved in metabolism. We identified several genes likely to be involved in detoxification and inhibition of plant defense responses including aldehyde dehydrogenase, metalloprotease, glucose oxidase, glucose dehydrogenase, and regucalcin. We also identified several genes that may play a role in the extra-oral digestion of plant structural tissues including ?-glucosidase and pectin lyase; and the extra-oral digestion of sugars, including ?-amylase, maltase, sucrase, and ?-glucosidase. This is the first analysis of a sialotranscriptome for any Thysanopteran species and it provides a foundational tool to further our understanding of how thrips interact with their plant hosts and the viruses they transmit. PMID:24736614

Stafford-Banks, Candice A; Rotenberg, Dorith; Johnson, Brian R; Whitfield, Anna E; Ullman, Diane E

2014-01-01

330

Malt lymphoma of the parotid salivary gland  

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Full Text Available Background. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma was described for the first time in 1983 by Isaacson and Wright. It was classified into extranodal non-Hodkin's lymphomas of B-cell lymphocytes of the marginal zone of reactive lymphe follicles. It is characterized by both hyperplasia and colonization of plasmocytic, centrocytoid and monocytoid cells, by the infiltration of interfollicular and parafollicular parts of interstitium, as well as by the invasion of clusters of neoplastic lymphoid cells of the glandular epithelium, forming the pathognomic lymphoepithelial MALT limphoma lesions. Case report. In this paper we presented the two female patients, 59 and 75 years of age, with MALT lymphomas, associated with Miculicz's and Sjögren's syndromes. The paper also underlined rather manymonth- long, indolent clinical course, evalution of both tumors, massive in size, as well as two-sided localization in the case of the Miculicz's syndrome. After the subtotal parotidectomy, using conservation of nerve facialis, the tissue blocks were fixed in 10% formaldehyde. The paraffine sections were stained by routine histochemical and an immunohistochemical method by using monoclonal antibodies for both B-cell and T-cell lymphomas, due to the verification of lymphoepithelial lesions. The MALT lymphoma diagnosis was based on the histological criteria and confirmed by an immunohistochemical method. After the surgical therapy accompanied by chemotherapy, the patients were controlled at regular intervals, and residual MALT lymphoma did not appear. Conclusion. MALT lymphoma is a rare tumor of the salivary glands, with the most frequent localization in the parotide gland. It had a slow clinical course, without metastases in both patients. The diagnosis was made pathohistologically and confirmed immunohistochemically. The surgical therapy was accompained by adjuvant chemotherapy.

Krasi? Dragan

2007-01-01

331

Salivary Immunoglobulin A in Patients with Recurrent Aphthous Ulceration  

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It was hypothesized that serum level of immunoglobulins may play a role in the pathogenesis of oral mucosal diseases but little is known about the role of salivary immunoglobulins in the pathogenesis of these diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible alterations in salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA-s) level in patients with oral aphthous ulcers and its relation with clinical parameters. Level of IgA was measured by "ELISA" test in the resting whole saliva of 24 patients wit...

Pakfetrat, A.; Falaki, F.; Sankian, M.; Abbaszadeh, H.

2010-01-01

332

Comparative salivary gland transcriptomics of sandfly vectors of visceral leishmaniasis  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Immune responses to sandfly saliva have been shown to protect animals against Leishmania infection. Yet very little is known about the molecular characteristics of salivary proteins from different sandflies, particularly from vectors transmitting visceral leishmaniasis, the fatal form of the disease. Further knowledge of the repertoire of these salivary proteins will give us insights into the molecular evolution of these proteins and will help us select relevant antigens for the development of a vector based anti-Leishmania vaccine. Results Two salivary gland cDNA libraries from female sandflies Phlebotomus argentipes and P. perniciosus were constructed, sequenced and proteomic analysis of the salivary proteins was performed. The majority of the sequenced transcripts from the two cDNA libraries coded for secreted proteins. In this analysis we identified transcripts coding for protein families not previously described in sandflies. A comparative sandfly salivary transcriptome analysis was performed by using these two cDNA libraries and two other sandfly salivary gland cDNA libraries from P. ariasi and Lutzomyia longipalpis, also vectors of visceral leishmaniasis. Full-length secreted proteins from each sandfly library were compared using a stand-alone version of BLAST, creating formatted protein databases of each sandfly library. Related groups of proteins from each sandfly species were combined into defined families of proteins. With this comparison, we identified families of salivary proteins common among all of the sandflies studied, proteins to be genus specific and proteins that appear to be species specific. The common proteins included apyrase, yellow-related protein, antigen-5, PpSP15 and PpSP32-related protein, a 33-kDa protein, D7-related protein, a 39- and a 16.1- kDa protein and an endonuclease-like protein. Some of these families contained multiple members, including PPSP15-like, yellow proteins and D7-related proteins suggesting gene expansion in these proteins. Conclusion This comprehensive analysis allows us the identification of genus- specific proteins, species-specific proteins and, more importantly, proteins common among these different sandflies. These results give us insights into the repertoire of salivary proteins that are potential candidates for a vector-based vaccine.

Seitz Amy E

2006-03-01

333

Salivary immunoglobulin classes in Nigerian smokers with periodontitis  

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Full Text Available AIM: To determine the levels of salivary immunoglobulin classes in Nigerian smokers and non-smokers with periodontitis. METHODS: Sixty-nine individuals were recruited into this study after obtaining informed consent. They were subdivided into three groups that consisted of 20 (aged 46 ± 11 years cigarette smokers with periodontitis (S+P; 24 (40 ± 12 years smokers without periodontitis (S-P; and 25 (53 ± 11 years non-smokers with periodontitis (NS+P. An oral and maxillofacial surgeon used radiographs for periodontal probing for the diagnosis of periodontitis. The smokers included subjects who smoked at least six cigarettes per day and all the periodontitis patients were newly diagnosed. About 5 mL of unstimulated saliva was expectorated by each subject into plain sample bottles. Salivary immunoglobulin levels were estimated using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Student’s t test was used to determine significant differences between the means. Values of P < 0.05 were regarded as significant. RESULTS: No significant differences were observed in the mean salivary levels of the immunoglobulin classes (IgG, IgA, IgM and IgE when S+P was compared with S-P. Mean salivary levels of IgA (520.0 ± 155.1 ng/mL vs 670.0 ± 110 ng/mL, P = 0.000 and IgM (644.5 ± 160.0 ng/mL vs 791.4 ± 43.7 ng/mL, P = 0.000 were significantly lower in the S+P compared with NS+P group. Salivary IgA (570.4 ± 145.6 ng/mL vs 670.0 ± 110 ng/mL, P = 0.008 and IgM (703.1 ± 169.3 ng/mL vs 791.4 ± 43.7 ng/mL, P = 0.012 levels were significantly lower in the S-P compared with NS+P group. Only one (5% periodontal patient had detectable levels of salivary IgE (0.20 IU/mL. Similarly, only one smoker (4.17% had detectable levels of salivary IgE (0.04 IU/mL and two non-smokers (9.52% had detectable levels of IgE (0.24 IU/mL. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that reduced salivary IgA and IgM levels in smokers with periodontitis could enhance increased susceptibility to periodontitis.

Olatunde A Olayanju

2012-01-01

334

Treatment of malignant salivary gland tumors with fast neutrons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of fast neutron therapy for malignant tumors of the salivary glands are presented. Although of varied histology, salivary gland tumors can be treated with a single form of therapy because the site and geometric shape of the tumors enables them to be given an adequate and uniform dose of neutrons even from the inadequate machines which are available at present. The results of treatment of 40 patients with neutrons at Hammersmith Hospital are evaluated. Technical difficulties associated with neutron therapy today are discussed

1981-01-01

335

Lymphoid lesions of salivary glands: Malignant and Benign  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in english Lesions of salivary glands with a prominent lymphoid component are a heterogeneous group of diseases that include benign reactive lesions and malignant neoplasms. Occasionally, these pathologic entities present difficulties in the clinical and pathological diagnosis and prognosis. Lymphoepithelial s [...] ialadenitis, HIV-associated salivary gland disease, chronic sclerosing sialadenitis, Warthin tumor, and extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma are examples of this pathology that are sometimes problematic to differentiate from one another. In this paper the author reviewed the main clinical, pathological and prognostic features of these lesions.

Ellis, Gary L..

336

Asymmetric salivary gland uptake: Potential pitfall following radioiodide therapy  

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A 67-year old woman, with prior radioiodide (/sup 131/I) therapy for differentiated thyroid carcinoma, had a follow-up scan that revealed asymmetric accumulation in the left upper neck and cheek regions. This resembled functioning metastatic tissue. An immediate /sup 99m/Tc-pertechnetate image demonstrated accumulation in the same areas. This corresponded to activity in the left submandibular gland and parotid. Hence, asymmetric salivary gland uptake was mimicking functional thyroid metastases. Possible causes of the disparate salivary gland function were discussed.

Slavin, J.D. Jr.; Mack, J.M.; Spencer, R.P.

1987-10-01

337

Immunocytochemical detection of carcinoembryonic antigen in salivary gland tumors.  

Science.gov (United States)

The immunoperoxidase method was applied for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) detection in biopsy specimens of salivary gland tumors. 9 out of 10 adenoidcystic carcinomas revealed a strong and abundant reaction in tumoral glands. 10 other specimens of pleomorphic adenomas showed weak staining in the areas of epithelial proliferation. Normal glands adjacent to the tumor mass revealed a weak but constant reaction on the luminal border. As in other types of gland tumor, the quantitative estimation of CEA production by salivary gland tumors may be useful in the monitoring of recurrencies. PMID:6198301

Itoiz, M E; Lanfranchi, H E; Cabrini, R L; Dominguez, F V

1983-10-01

338

Salivary gland functions after radioiodotherapy of thyroid cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using the method of sialoscintigraphy with 99mTc-pertechnetate 66 patients with thyroid cancer who received 131I perorally were examined. The investigation results are given in the form of sialoscintigrams and activity-time curves, which reflect the dynamics of accumulation and removal of indicator in salivary glands. It is ascertained that administration of radioactive iodine with medical aim results in malfunctioning of period and submandibular glands. Special attention should be paid to the decrease of radiation burdens on salivary glands to prevent from complications due to their malfunctioning in the process of radioiodotherapy

1989-01-01

339

A study on salivary cortisol level in patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis during both ulceration and ulcer free periods  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis (RAS is one of the most common oral mucosal disorders. RAS patients show a decline in oral tolerance which leads to epithelial damage. Cortisol secretion in such patients may not be enough to suppress cytotoxic reactions against oral epithelium. The aim of this study was to measure salivary cortisol level during both ulceration and ulcer free phases of the disease. Materials and Methods: In this analytic-descriptive study, a total of 20 patients having minor oral aphthi with a history of at least three times oral ulceration in one year were included.Saliva samples were collected through spitting. The salivary concentration level of cortisol was measured on the first and 7th days from the appearance of aphthous ulcers, every patient was considered as both case and control. Sampling was repeated when ulcers were completely healed. The saliva samples were collected between 9 and 10 am and were analyzed via Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. The collected data were statistically analyzed on a computer through repeated measurement ANOVA and paired t-tests using SPSS software.(? = 0.05Results: The mean concentration of salivary cortisol on the first day of aphthous appearance was 2.72 . However after complete healing of the ulcers, it rose to 3.37 . The difference these values were shown to be statistically significant (p value=0.002. The mean concentration level of salivary cortisol on the 7th day from aphthous appearance (2.6 was also significantly different from the aphthous Free State. (p value = 0.001. Mean cortisol concentration level on the first and 7th days from the appearance of aphthous ulcer did not show a significant difference (p value = 0.304.Conclusion: The results showed that the mean salivary cortisol level at the beginning of the disease as well as during its active ulcerative period (acute phase were significantly lower than in aphthous free periods. It seems that cortisol plays a key role in reducing aphthous ulcer inflammation. Impaired cortisol secretion in RAS patients may cause an increased rate of incidence and severity of aphthous ulcers. Key words: Recurrent aphthous ulcer, Saliva, Hydrocortisone

Parichehr Ghaliani

2010-01-01

340

Chronic Sclerosing Sialadenitis in the Minor Salivary Glands: A Case Report  

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Full Text Available Chronic sclerosing sialadenitis(also known as Kuttner tumor is a chronic inflammatory condition of the salivary glands and one of the salivary gland enlargment that was first described by Kuttner in 1896. Unilateral or bilateral involment of the submandibular gland occurs more commonly than any other salivary glands. Few cases of chronic sclerosing sialadenitis in minor salivary glands have been reported. This article presented a case of chronic sclerosing sialadenitis in minor salivary gland of the floor of the mouth.

N Gholami

2012-08-01

 
 
 
 
341

High Endogenous Salivary Amylase Activity Is Associated with Improved Glycemic Homeostasis following Starch Ingestion in Adults123  

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In the current study, we determined whether increased digestion of starch by high salivary amylase concentrations predicted postprandial blood glucose following starch ingestion. Healthy, nonobese individuals were prescreened for salivary amylase activity and classified as high (HA) or low amylase (LA) if their activity levels per minute fell 1 SD higher or lower than the group mean, respectively. Fasting HA (n = 7) and LA (n = 7) individuals participated in 2 sessions during which they ingested either a starch (experimental) or glucose solution (control) on separate days. Blood samples were collected before, during, and after the participants drank each solution. The samples were analyzed for plasma glucose and insulin concentrations as well as diploid AMY1 gene copy number. HA individuals had significantly more AMY1 gene copies within their genomes than did the LA individuals. We found that following starch ingestion, HA individuals had significantly lower postprandial blood glucose concentrations at 45, 60, and 75 min, as well as significantly lower AUC and peak blood glucose concentrations than the LA individuals. Plasma insulin concentrations in the HA group were significantly higher than baseline early in the testing session, whereas insulin concentrations in the LA group did not increase at this time. Following ingestion of the glucose solution, however, blood glucose and insulin concentrations did not differ between the groups. These observations are interpreted to suggest that HA individuals may be better adapted to ingest starches, whereas LA individuals may be at greater risk for insulin resistance and diabetes if chronically ingesting starch-rich diets.

Mandel, Abigail L.

2012-01-01

342

Breast Cancer Exosome-like Microvesicles and Salivary Gland Cells Interplay Alters Salivary Gland Cell-Derived Exosome-like Microvesicles In Vitro  

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Saliva is a useful biofluid for the early detection of disease, but how distal tumors communicate with the oral cavity and create disease-specific salivary biomarkers remains unclear. Using an in vitro breast cancer model, we demonstrated that breast cancer-derived exosome-like microvesicles are capable of interacting with salivary gland cells, altering the composition of their secreted exosome-like microvesicles. We found that the salivary gland cells secreted exosome-like microvesicles enca...

Lau, Chang S.; Wong, David T. W.

2012-01-01

343

Plasma amylase activity as a biochemical indicator of radiation injury to salivary glands  

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Irradiation of the salivary glands produces a rapid increase of salivary amylase in serum, released by the highly radiation sensitive serous cells of the glands. Serial assays of salivary amylase in serum were performed in patients treated by radiation to the upper neck region. The changes observed were compared with the amount of salivary gland mass irradiated and with the dose fractionation modality used. The irradiated volume included either the entire salivary gland mass or less than 50 per cent of the gland. Two fractionation modalities were used: a conventional fractionation of 2 Gy per day, 5 times a week, or a multiple daily fractionation of 2 Gy, 3 times a day in two series of 4 days with a 4-day interval. Both parameters (salivary gland mass irradiated and fractionation modality used) significantly influenced the shape of the amylase curve in the serum. Serum amylase may therefore be considered a reliable biologic indicator of early injury to the salivary glands. (Auth.)

1984-01-01

344

Studies of the effects of radiation or surgery on the salivary amylase activity and the isoamylase composition in salivary gland tumours  

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The total amylase activity and the isoamylase composition of saliva were studied in patients with salivary gland tumours before and after treatment to evaluate the efficiency of treatment in terms of its ability to restore normal or nearly normal salivary function. The material for the study comprised 35 normal subjects, one case of mumps and eight cases of histologically proved salivary gland tumours, three of which received radiation treatment and one was subjected to total parotidectomy. It is observed that there is a marked deviation from normal in the total salivary amylase activity and the isoamylase pattern in mumps and untreated salivary gland tumours and some increase in amylase activity is noticeable after treatment of these tumours, the increase being more marked after surgery. The salivary isoamylase pattern restored to normal in case of mumps after recovery and in salivary gland tumour after surgery but not after irradiation. These findings suggest that in view of the deleterious effects of radiaton on salivary gland function, surgery is preferable to radiation as the treatment of choice. Further studies are underway to assess the utility of the heat labile salivary amylase fraction obseved in these cases in detecting recurrences. (author)

1983-01-01

345

Periodontal conditions, oral Candida albicans and salivary proteins in type 2 diabetic subjects with emphasis on gender  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between periodontal conditions, oral yeast colonisation and salivary proteins in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D is not yet documented. The present study aimed to assess the relationship between these variables in type 2 diabetic subjects with reference to gender. Methods Fifty-eight type 2 diabetic subjects (23 males and 35 females with random blood glucose level ? 11.1 mmol/L were investigated. Periodontal conditions (plaque index [PI], bleeding on probing [BOP], probing pocket depth [PD] (4 to 6 mm and ? 6 mm, oral yeasts, salivary immunoglobulin (Ig A, IgG and total protein concentrations, and number of present teeth were determined. Results Periodontal conditions (PI [p p p p p Candida albicans (C. albicans colonisation compared to males in the same group. Type 2 diabetic females with C. albicans colonisation had more teeth compared to males in the same group (p Conclusion Clinical and salivary parameters of periodontal inflammation (BOP and IgG (?g/mg protein were higher in type 2 diabetic females with oral C. albicans colonisation compared to males in the same group. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the association of gender with these variables in subjects with T2D.

Altamash Mohammad

2009-05-01

346

Influence of the glycosylation of human salivary proline-rich proteins on their interactions with condensed tannins.  

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Binding of condensed tannins to salivary proteins is supposed to be involved in their astringency. First, complexes arising from the interaction of saliva from two individuals and tannins were studied. Then interaction mixture models containing purified saliva proteins were developed. The highest polymerized tannins predominantly precipitated together with the salivary proteins. Electrophoresis of proteins in combination with thiolysis analysis of tannins indicated proline-rich protein (PRP)-polyphenol complexes in precipitated fractions and also in the soluble ones with individual differences. Individual salivas exhibiting different protein patterns were discriminated with regard to their ability to interact with tannins. From binding studies with purified classes of salivary proteins, interactions were shown to depend on the nature of the protein, in particular on their glycosylation state. For low concentrations of tannins, glycosylated PRP-tannin interactions led to complexes that remained soluble, whereas those arising from nonglycosylated PRP-tannin interactions were precipitated. This finding could indicate that under physiological conditions, complexes involving glycosylated proteins maintain part of the lubrication of the oral cavity, whereas tannin trapping leads to a lower astringency perception. PMID:18808139

Sarni-Manchado, Pascale; Canals-Bosch, Joan-Miguel; Mazerolles, Gérard; Cheynier, Véronique

2008-10-22

347

Comparison of three strip-type tests and two laboratory methods for salivary buffering analysis.  

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This study evaluated the correlation between three strip-type, colorimetric tests and two laboratory methods with respect to the analysis of salivary buffering. The strip-type tests were saliva-check buffer, Dentobuff strip and CRT(®) Buffer test. The laboratory methods included Ericsson's laboratory method and a monotone acid/base titration to create a reference scale for the salivary titratable acidity. Additionally, defined buffer solutions were prepared and tested to simulate the carbonate, phosphate and protein buffer systems of saliva. The correlation between the methods was analysed by the Spearman's rank test. Disagreement was detected between buffering capacity values obtained with three strip-type tests that was more pronounced in case of saliva samples with medium and low buffering capacities. All strip-type tests were able to assign the hydrogencarbonate, di-hydrogenphosphate and 0.1% protein buffer solutions to the correct buffer categories. However, at 0.6% total protein concentrations, none of the test systems worked accurately. Improvements are necessary for strip-type tests because of certain disagreement with the Ericsson's laboratory method and dependence on the protein content of saliva. PMID:21556727

Cheaib, Zeinab; Ganss, Carolina; Lamanda, Andreas; Turgut, Melek Dilek; Lussi, Adrian

2012-01-01

348

Pouteria ramiflora extract inhibits salivary amylolytic activity and decreases glycemic level in mice.  

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In this study, extracts of plant species from the Cerrado biome were assessed in order to find potential inhibitors of human salivary alpha-amylase. The plants were collected and extracts were obtained from leaves, bark, and roots. We performed a preliminary phytochemical analysis and a screening for salivar alpha-amylase inhibitory activity. Only three botanical families (Sapotaceae, Sapindaceae and Flacourtiaceae) and 16 extracts showed a substantial inhibition (>75%) of alpha-amylase. The ethanolic extracts of Pouteria ramiflora obtained from stem barks and root barks decreased amylolytic activity above 95% at a final concentration of 20 µg/mL. Thus, adult male Swiss mice were treated orally with P. ramiflora in acute toxicity and glycemic control studies. Daily administration with 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg of aqueous extract of P. ramiflora for eight days can reduce significantly body weight and blood glucose level in mice. These data suggest that the crude polar extract of P. ramiflora decreases salivary amylolytic activity while lowering the blood levels of glucose. PMID:24068095

De Gouveia, Neire M; De Albuquerque, Cibele L; Espindola, Laila S; Espindola, Foued S

2013-09-01

349

INFLUENCE OF MUSIC TYPE LISTENING ON ANAEROBIC PERFORMANCE AND SALIVARY CORTISOL IN MALES ATHLETES  

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Full Text Available Music has been widely recommended as a technique to enhance the psychophysical state of participants in sport and exercise. However, there is scant scientific evidence to clarify its proposed benefits. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of fast and slow rhythm of music on anaerobic performance and salivary cortisol concentration in trained men. Thirty male physical education college students (ages: 25.66±3.89 yr, height: 176.65 ± 7.66 cm, body mass: 78.45±16.20 kg voluntary participated in this study and divided to three groups: fast music, slow music, and no music(control. All subjects performed the coninghum test following a 20% grate and 14.3km/h speed on the treadmill. For measuring of cortisol, not stimulated samples of saliva collected, 15 minutes befor and immediately 5 and 30 minute after the exercise. No significant differences were found in anaerobic performance among the three groups in pretest indicating homogeneity of the groups. However, salivary cortisol no significant in anaerobic performance 5 and 30 minute after exercise as well. Summarily, Music doed not have a positive effect on performance, this study provided some support for the hypothesis that listening fast and slow music not significantly impacted during supramaximal exercise.

Mohammad Ghaderi.

2012-12-01

350

Proposals for standardized operation protocols: salivary glands and liver  

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Scintigraphy of salivary glands: three bilateral pairs of salivary glands exist, which have ducts into the mouth: glandula parotidea, glandula submandibularis and glandula sublingualis. The glandula parotidea secrets serous saliva and the glandula sublingualis mucous saliva. Stimulation by Cebion trademark produces a thin watery saliva. Similar to the uptake of iodine, pertechnetat is taken up from the blood by the salivary glands via the duct epithelium and released with the saliva. This mechanism allows the visualisation of the salivary glands and the examination of their function. Liver-bloodpool-scintigraphy: the bloodpool scintigraphy allows a visualization of the intrahepatic bloodpool. It is used to confirm or exclude the presence of liver haemangioma. Haemangiomas are normally asymptomatic and therefore often detected by chance. Often it is difficult to distinguish a haemangioma from a malignant liver lesion. Over 90% of haemangioma have a diameter less then 4 cm, are solitary and don't need therapy. Larger haemangioma may cause complications and may need treatment. Liver-function-scintigraphy: in the dynamic liver function scintigraphy, a radio-labelled bile-acid is injected and the secretion is visualized. Using this technique, the uptake of the radiotracer from the blood into the hepatocytes, the biliary secretion, the accumulation in the gallbladder and the release into the duodenum (e.g. after a fatty meal) can be visualized. This allows the diagnosis of global and regional liver dysfunctions. (orig.)

2004-03-01

351

Plexiform Neurofibroma: A Rare Tumor of Submandibular Salivary Gland  

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A 15-year-old boy presented with swelling in the submandibular region. X-ray of the swollen part showed faint radio opaque shadow. A provisional diagnosis of sialadenitis with sialolithiasis was made. Excised mass was reported histopathologically as plexiform neurofibroma of submandibular salivary gland.

2010-01-01

352

The antibacterial effect of toothpastes on the salivary flora.  

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Both past and presently available toothpastes contain potential antimicrobial agents which could have a beneficial effect in the prevention of plaque and gingivitis. If these preparations were to be effective clinically, some effect on salivary bacteria would also be expected. This cross-over study measured salivary bacterial counts and the presence or absence of residual antibacterial activity in saliva following tooth brushing with 7 commercially available toothpastes, and moreover, compared their effect with that produced by a chlorhexidine gel. Generally, all toothpaste products produced a reduction in aerobic, anaerobic and streptococcal counts with a hexetidine containing toothpaste producing the largest and longest lasting reduction. In contrast, an enzyme containing toothpaste and an amine fluoride toothpaste, had little effect on bacterial counts. The chlorhexidine gel produced the largest reduction in salivary counts, which was evident for at least 5 h following brushing. Residual antibacterial activity in saliva was only evident immediately following brushing with the hexetidine toothpaste, but for the chlorhexidine gel, was present up to 90 min following brushing. The findings of this study have illustrated the limited antibacterial activity of presently available toothpastes on the salivary flora compared to chlorhexidine, and as such, would tend to question the relative benefit of toothpaste in preventing periodontal disease through an antimicrobial effect. PMID:2895124

Moran, J; Addy, M; Newcombe, R

1988-03-01

353

Salivary gland composition of some Old World vector sand fly.  

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The saliva of blood feeding arthropods has a variety of substances that are responsible for blood meal success. The composition and the influence of sand fly saliva vary considerably between species and even between populations of different geographical origin. In Old-World sand flies (Phlebotomus sp.) differences in protein components of the salivary gland homogenate were demonstrated between species and between colonies of the same species. We compared protein components in the salivary glands of sand flies vectors from different species and origins. The salivary gland homogenate (SGH) of laboratory reared Egyptian phlebotomine sand flies, P. papatasi, P. sergenti and P. langeroni Sinai and El-Agamy strains respectively were compared with Spanish naturally caught P. perniciosus and P. ariasi, which were collected from a farm 20 km southwest of Barcelona. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) (SDS-PAGE) was done for compareson. The electrophoresis profiles of SGH differed between all tested species. From 8-14 prominent proteins bands with molecular masses ranging from 8-70 kDa were visualized by Commassie blue gel code staining in each SGH. So, saliva composition varied between species and sub-species, and increased between different sub-genera and geographical areas. The data are important for the characterization of salivary proteins. PMID:16605118

Wahba, Mahmoud; Riera, Cristina

2006-04-01

354

The role of salivary proteins in the mechanism of astringency.  

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Understanding astringency has focused on the interaction of tannins with the salivary proline-rich proteins (PRPs), although it remains unclear if other astringents precipitate the PRPs or how this interaction relates to sensory perceptions of astringency. We used 2 approaches to compare how distinct classes of astringent compounds interacted with the salivary PRPs and mucins. Using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, we evaluated protein patterns and characterized the salivary proteins present in the supernatants and pellets of pooled saliva assayed with tannin, alum, and hydrochloric acid solutions. Tannins and alum precipitated many of the PRPs, but acid did not. Mucins were precipitated by both the acid and alum, but not by the tannins. From our research, it appears that the precipitation of salivary proteins may be involved in the mechanism of astringency, but the precipitation of PRPs is not requisite for the development of astringency. We also measured mucin and deoxyribonucleic acid content of expectorated solutions of astringents that panelists swished in their mouths to determine if astringency was associated with a loss of oral lubricating films. PMID:22515235

Lee, Catherine A; Ismail, Baraem; Vickers, Zata M

2012-04-01

355

Reactivity of human salivary proteins families toward food polyphenols.  

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Tannins are well-known food polyphenols that interact with proteins, namely, salivary proteins. This interaction is an important factor in relation to their bioavailability and is considered the basis of several important properties of tannins, namely, the development of astringency. It has been generally accepted that astringency is due to the tannin-induced complexation and/or precipitation of salivary proline-rich proteins (PRPs) in the oral cavity. However, this complexation is thought to provide protection against dietary tannins. Neverthless, there is no concrete evidence and agreement about which PRP families (acidic, basic, and glycosylated) are responsible for the interaction with condensed tannins. In the present work, human saliva was isolated, and the proteins existing in saliva were characterized by chromatographic and proteomic approaches (HPLC-DAD, ESI-MS, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and MALDI-TOF). These approaches were also adapted to study the affinity of the different families of salivary proteins to condensed tannins by the interaction of saliva with grape seed procyanidins. The results obtained when all the main families of salivary proteins are present in a competitive assay, like in the oral cavity, demonstrate that condensed tannins interact first with acidic PRPs and statherin and thereafter with histatins, glycosylated PRPs, and bPRPs. PMID:21417408

Soares, Susana; Vitorino, Rui; Osório, Hugo; Fernandes, Ana; Venâncio, Armando; Mateus, Nuno; Amado, Francisco; de Freitas, Victor

2011-05-25

356

[An artificial salivary gland. Indications. Technical note concerning installation].  

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Idiopathic or iatrogenic aptyalism is responsible for disabling odontostomatological symptoms and constitutes a predisposing factor for bucco-dental complications. Drug treatment designed to stimulate the salivary parenchyma is doomed to failure in cases of severe, irreversible alteration of the glandular acini. The only available treatment is palliative consisting of buccal artificial salivation. Two modalities of endobuccal administration of artificial saliva have been developed: prosthesis-reservoir and "artificial salivary gland". The "artificial salivary gland" consists of a system connecting an external reservoir to the buccal cavity via a catheter implanted over part of its path. The artificial saliva stored in the reservoir is advanced mechanically as far as the mouth where it is released according to an adjustable flow rate. The insertion of a medical silicone catheter is an outpatient procedure with a simple postoperative course. Under normal conditions, one millilitre of saliva solution per hour is sufficient to ensure satisfactory humidification of the buccal mucosa. Dysfunction of the system is generally due to a mechanical problem and any consequent alterations are treated as required. The indications for "artificial salivary gland" must be reserved to semi-urgent cases with severe aptyalism and as a therapeutic relay in the context of global management of the aptyalic patient. This new modality of administration could be extended to other diseases requiring endobuccal drip treatment. PMID:2619226

Smatt, V; Brière, M; Brunet, M

1989-01-01

357

An unfrequent cause for minor salivary gland tumour : Adenomatoid hyperplasia  

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Full Text Available Salivary glands may be affected by numerous neoplastic and non-neoplastic conditions. Tumour-like conditions should be clearly distinguished one from another and from true neoplasms since their treatment, prognosis and follow-up may differ. Adenomatoid hyperplasia of minor salivary gland is a rare entity, with very few documented reports in the literature since its first description, whose etiology remains unclear. Due to its asymptomatic behaviour, it is commonly encountered during a dental treatment, an oral exploration or accidentally by the patient himself . Its clinical diagnosis is not always an easy task . It may resemble other conditions such as salivary gland adenoma or adenocarcinoma, and different histological features may be observed one case from another. Total surgical excision should be performed for diagnosis and is considered curative. Follow-up may be recommended to exclude future recurrencies or malignant degeneration, being these facts quite uncommon. A case of adenomatoid hyperplasia of minor salivary gland in soft palate, a rare site for this condition, is reported.

Coscarón-Blanco E, Martín Garrido EP, Zamora-Martínez T

2012-09-01

358

Mena, a new available marker in tumors of salivary glands?  

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Full Text Available Mena (mammalian Ena is an actin regulatory protein involved in cell motility and adhesion. Based on its potential role in malignant transformation revealed in other organs, we analyzed the Mena expression in normal salivary glands (SG and salivary tumors. Mena expression was determined in normal SG (n=10 and also benign (n=20 and malignant (n=35 lesions of SG. For the immunohistochemical staining we used the anti-Mena antibody. All normal SG and the benign lesions (10 pleomorphic adenomas, 10 Warthin’s tumors were Mena negative. Salivary duct carcinomas (n=5, carcinomas in pleomorphic adenoma (n=5, acinic cell carcinomas (n=5, squamous cell carcinomas (n=10 and high-grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas (n=2 were positive. The lymphomas (n=5 and low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas (n=1 were Mena negative. In one case the lymphoblastic cells stained positive for Mena. Some of the endothelial cells, in the peritumoral vessels, were Mena positive. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in the literature about Mena expression in salivary tumors. Our study suggests that Mena protein seems to play a role in malignant transformation and its intensity is correlated with the type and grade of tumor and also with vascular invasion. Its positivity in endothelial cells may suggest its potential role in tumor angiogenesis.

I. Jung

2012-01-01

359

Metabolic Disease Risk in Children by Salivary Biomarker Analysis  

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Objective The study of obesity-related metabolic syndrome or Type 2 diabetes (T2D) in children is particularly difficult because of fear of needles. We tested a non-invasive approach to study inflammatory parameters in an at-risk population of children to provide proof-of-principle for future investigations of vulnerable subjects. Design and Methods We evaluated metabolic differences in 744, 11-year old children selected from underweight, normal healthy weight, overweight and obese categories by analyzing fasting saliva samples for 20 biomarkers. Saliva supernatants were obtained following centrifugation and used for analyses. Results Salivary C-reactive protein (CRP) was 6 times higher, salivary insulin and leptin were 3 times higher, and adiponectin was 30% lower in obese children compared to healthy normal weight children (all P<0.0001). Categorical analysis suggested that there might be three types of obesity in children. Distinctly inflammatory characteristics appeared in 76% of obese children while in 13%, salivary insulin was high but not associated with inflammatory mediators. The remaining 11% of obese children had high insulin and reduced adiponectin. Forty percent of the non-obese children were found in groups which, based on biomarker characteristics, may be at risk for becoming obese. Conclusions Significantly altered levels of salivary biomarkers in obese children from a high-risk population, suggest the potential for developing non-invasive screening procedures to identify T2D-vulnerable individuals and a means to test preventative strategies.

Goodson, J. Max; Kantarci, Alpdogan; Hartman, Mor-Li; Denis, Gerald V.; Stephens, Danielle; Hasturk, Hatice; Yaskell, Tina; Vargas, Jorel; Wang, Xiaoshan; Cugini, Maryann; Barake, Roula; Alsmadi, Osama; Al-Mutawa, Sabiha; Ariga, Jitendra; Soparkar, Pramod; Behbehani, Jawad; Behbehani, Kazem; Welty, Francine

2014-01-01

360

Radioimmunoassay method suitable for analysis of salivary cortisol in patients with breast cancer in treatment by teletherapy - a preliminary study  

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Determination of salivary cortisol using radioimmunoassay and the relationship between stress levels were investigated before and after of the psychological intervention of 21 patients during teletherapy treatment of breast cancer. The benefits of psychological intervention during cancer treatment has been observed in some studies and evidence show that the patient's emotional state directly influences adherence to treatment, good prognosis and under stress. Thus, in present study 21 patients aged 50-70 years, females in the treatment of breast cancer at the Radiotherapy Service of Santa Casa de Misericordia in Belo Horizonte, were divided randomly into two groups: control (without psychological intervention) and Group TCC (with psychological intervention). Salivary cortisol concentrations are reportedly about 5.10% of those in serum, the levels has been used as an objective marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and avoided the confounding effects of venepuncture stress on cortisol levels. The assessment of cortisol in saliva has proven a valid and reliable measure of unbound steroid in the circulation. The salivary cortisol measured by radioimmunoassay in control patients and TCC showed no significant differences. The radioimmunoassay method show be suitable for analysis of salivary cortisol because allows measure low detection limits and have high sensibility. The values of TCC group and Control group were higher than reference values, except for one patient of the control group. At the beginning of treatment, both groups were homogeneous for Teletherapy. Both the TCC group as the control group had . 80% of participants in phase with stress. It was observed in the TCC group after radiotherapy showing a reversal 60% of participants without stress. The data show that cognitive-behavioral therapy has benefits for the control of psychological stress and enhance relevance of the psychologist to provide reduction or stress control during radiation treatment without interfering with the integrity of the participants. (author)

Souza, Kellen Verena S. [Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear. Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Pampulha, MG (Brazil); Santos, Jane Lima dos [Departamento de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilheus, BA (Brazil)

2011-07-01

 
 
 
 
361

Salivary ?-amylase exhibits antiproliferative effects in primary cell cultures of rat mammary epithelial cells and human breast cancer cells  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is one of the most diagnosed cancers in females, frequently with fatal outcome, so that new strategies for modulating cell proliferation in the mammary tissue are urgently needed. There is some, as yet inconclusive evidence that ?-amylase may constitute a novel candidate for affecting cellular growth. Methods The present investigation aimed to examine if salivary ?-amylase, an enzyme well known for the metabolism of starch and recently introduced as a stress marker, is able to exert antiproliferative effects on the growth of mammary gland epithelial cells. For this purpose, primary epithelial cultures of breast tissue from two different inbred rat strains, Fischer 344 (F344 and Lewis, as well as breast tumor cells of human origin were used. Treatment with human salivary ?-amylase was performed once daily for 2 days followed by cell counting (trypan blue assay to determine alterations in cell numbers. Cell senescence after ?-amylase treatment was assessed by ?-galactosidase assay. Endogenous ?-amylase was detected in cells from F344 and Lewis by immunofluorescence. Results Salivary ?-amylase treatment in vitro significantly decreased the proliferation of primary cells from F344 and Lewis rats in a concentration-dependent manner. Noticeably, the sensitivity towards ?-amylase was significantly higher in Lewis cells with stronger impact on cell growth after 5 and 50 U/ml compared to F344 cells. An antiproliferative effect of ?-amylase was also determined in mammary tumor cells of human origin, but this effect varied depending on the donor, age, and type of the cells. Conclusions The results presented here indicate for the first time that salivary ?-amylase affects cell growth in rat mammary epithelial cells and in breast tumor cells of human origin. Thus, ?-amylase may be considered a novel, promising target for balancing cellular growth, which may provide an interesting tool for tumor prophylaxis and treatment.

Bertram Catharina

2011-10-01

362

Radioimmunoassay method suitable for analysis of salivary cortisol in patients with breast cancer in treatment by teletherapy - a preliminary study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Determination of salivary cortisol using radioimmunoassay and the relationship between stress levels were investigated before and after of the psychological intervention of 21 patients during teletherapy treatment of breast cancer. The benefits of psychological intervention during cancer treatment has been observed in some studies and evidence show that the patient's emotional state directly influences adherence to treatment, good prognosis and under stress. Thus, in present study 21 patients aged 50-70 years, females in the treatment of breast cancer at the Radiotherapy Service of Santa Casa de Misericordia in Belo Horizonte, were divided randomly into two groups: control (without psychological intervention) and Group TCC (with psychological intervention). Salivary cortisol concentrations are reportedly about 5.10% of those in serum, the levels has been used as an objective marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and avoided the confounding effects of venepuncture stress on cortisol levels. The assessment of cortisol in saliva has proven a valid and reliable measure of unbound steroid in the circulation. The salivary cortisol measured by radioimmunoassay in control patients and TCC showed no significant differences. The radioimmunoassay method show be suitable for analysis of salivary cortisol because allows measure low detection limits and have high sensibility. The values of TCC group and Control group were higher than reference values, except for one patient of the control group. At the beginning of treatment, both groups were homogeneous for Teletherapy. Both the TCC group as the control group had . 80% of participants in phase with stress. It was observed in the TCC group after radiotherapy showing a reversal 60% of participants without stress. The data show that cognitive-behavioral therapy has benefits for the control of psychological stress and enhance relevance of the psychologist to provide reduction or stress control during radiation treatment without interfering with the integrity of the participants. (author)

2011-10-24

363

Evaluation of serum and salivary lipid profile: A correlative study  

Science.gov (United States)

Context: The correlation of serum and salivary lipid profile has been poorly characterized. The most commonly used laboratory diagnostic procedures for lipid profile involve analysis of cellular and chemical constituents of blood/plasma. As a diagnostic aid, saliva offers many advantages over serum. Aims: To evaluate and compare the serum and salivary lipid profile levels in healthy individuals and to validate the role of saliva as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for assessing lipid profile. Settings and Design: The present study was a prospective study. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 healthy study subjects who had no complaint or any major illness in recent past were selected. The parameters assessed included serum and salivary: total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDLC), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDLC), very low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDLC) and triglycerides (TGL). Statistical Analysis Used: Evaluation of results and statistical analysis was carried out using descriptive, correlation and regression analysis. Results: There was a moderate level of correlation between serum and salivary TC, TGL, HDLC and VLDLC and there was a low and quite small correlation between serum and salivary LDLC. For all the five parameters assessed as a part of lipid profile, the correlation coefficients were highly significant statistically and also, with an increase in the serum mean values, corresponding increase in the saliva mean values for all the five parameters was noted. Conclusions: From the present study we conclude that saliva can be used as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for assessing lipid profile.

Singh, Simranjit; Ramesh, Venkatapathy; Oza, Nirima; Balamurali, Pennagaram Dhanasekaran; Prashad, Karthikshree Vishnu; Balakrishnan, Premalatha

2014-01-01

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Correlation between cytology and histopathology of the salivary gland  

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Full Text Available BackgroundSalivary gland swellings can result from tumours, aninflammatory process, or cysts. It can sometimes be difficultto establish whether pathology arises from the salivarygland itself or adjacent structures. Fine needle aspirationcytology (FNAC is a simple, rapid and safe method todiagnose salivary gland swelling. FNAC has high sensitivity,specificity and accuracy. The aims of this study are tocorrelate FNAC diagnoses with histopathology and toestablish the sensitivity and specificity of FNAC in diagnosisof salivary gland swellings in our institution.MethodThe study was conducted in the department of pathology,Sri Venkateshwara Medical college Hospital and researchCentre, Pondicherry, India. Data was collectedretrospectively for the time period 2007-2008 andprospectively for that obtained between January 2009 andJune 2010. Results of cytologicial assessment werecompared with histopathological data where possible toestablish sensitivity and specificity of FNAC.ResultsDuring the study period, 1309 FNAC were undertaken ofwhich 96 FNAC were of salivary gland swellings. Correlationof cytology from FNAC with histopathology tissue waspossible in 56 cases. Of the 96 cases for which FNAC datawas available, 38.56% were from male and 61.45% werefrom female patients. The age of the patients ranged from 8to 69 years. 48.95% cases were benign swellings, 13.54%were malignant, 6.25% were cysts and 31.25% had aninflammatory aetiology. Comparison of FNAC findings withhistopathology specimens was available for 56 (58.33%cases, following which the sensitivity and specificity ofcytology were found to be 76.9% and 97.1% respectively.ConclusionFNAC is highly sensitive and specific technique for diagnosisof most of the salivary gland swelling. FNAC can be usedpreoperatively to avoid unnecessary surgery and discomfortassociated with open biopsy.

Singh A

2011-02-01

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Studies On Quantitative Analysis Of Salivary Gland Using Computed Tomography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to calculate the size and CT number of both normal parotid and submandibular gland, and evaluate its relation to sex, age and obesity using computed tomography. The computed tomography was performed parallel to the Frankfurt plane in 46 subjects with healthy salivary gland. The subjects were divided into the three groups (young, middle, old) according to their ages. The size of salivary gland was determined as maximum cross-sectional area and the CT number of salivary gland was determined as the mean CT number of three ROI's. The body mass index was calculated from weight and height. The mean maximum cross-sectional area was 7.79 (+/-1.26) cm2 on parotid gland and 4.12 (+/-0.83) cm2 on submandibular gland. The mean CT number was -4.43 (+/-23.87) HU on parotid gland and 50.01 (+/-15.63) HU on submandibular gland. There were decreasing pattern of the maximum cross-sectional area of submandibular gland and the CT number of both parotid and submandibular gland according to age (p<0.05). As the body mass index increased, the maximum cross-sectional area of parotid gland increased and CT number of both parotid and submandibular gland decreased (p<0.05). The maximum cross-sectional area of submandibular gland in male was larger than that in female (p<0.05). As the maximum cross-sectional area and CT number of left salivary gland increased, those of right gl