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Sample records for salivary cotinine concentrations

  1. Smokeless Tobacco Use and Salivary Cotinine Concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Ferketich, Amy K.; WEE, Alvin G.; Shultz, Jennifer; Wewers, Mary Ellen

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to examine demographic, tobacco-related, and psychosocial factors associated with cotinine concentration in a group of 256 male smokeless tobacco (ST) users living in the Ohio Appalachian region. Participants completed a survey that included questions on: 1) current and past tobacco use behaviors; 2) demographics; 3) tobacco dependence; 4) decisional balance; 5) health behaviors; and 6) perceived stress and depressive symptoms. Saliva samples were obtain...

  2. Salivary cotinine concentrations in daily smokers in Barcelona, Spain: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Pascual José A; Martínez-Sánchez Jose M; Fernandez Esteve; Fu Marcela; Schiaffino Anna; Agudo Antoni; Ariza Carles; Borràs Josep M.; Samet Jonathan M.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Characterizing and comparing the determinant of cotinine concentrations in different populations should facilitate a better understanding of smoking patterns and addiction. This study describes and characterizes determinants of salivary cotinine concentration in a sample of Spanish adult daily smoker men and women. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out between March 2004 and December 2005 in a representative sample of 1245 people from the general population of Ba...

  3. Salivary cotinine concentration versus self-reported cigarette smoking: Three patterns of inconsistency in adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    KANDEL, DENISE B.; Schaffran, Christine; GRIESLER, PAMELA C.; HU, MEI-CHEN; Davies, Mark; Benowitz, Neal

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined the extent and sources of discrepancies between self-reported cigarette smoking and salivary cotinine concentration among adolescents. The data are from household interviews with a cohort of 1,024 adolescents from an urban school system. Histories of tobacco use in the last 7 days and saliva samples were obtained. Logistic regressions identified correlates of three inconsistent patterns: (a) Pattern 1—self-reported nonsmoking among adolescents with cotinine concen...

  4. Passive smoking, salivary cotinine concentrations, and middle ear effusion in 7 year old children.

    OpenAIRE

    Strachan, D. P.; Jarvis, M.J.; Feyerabend, C.

    1989-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the contribution of passive exposure to tobacco smoke to the development of middle ear underpressure and effusion. DESIGN--Cross sectional observational study. SETTING--One third of the primary schools in Edinburgh. SUBJECTS--892 Children aged 6 1/2 to 7 1/2 were examined, and satisfactory tympanograms were obtained in 872. Results of assay of salivary cotinine concentrations were available for 770 children, and satisfactory tympanograms were available for 736 of these. E...

  5. Determinants of salivary cotinine level: a population-based study in Brazil Determinantes dos níveis de cotinina salivar: um estudo de base populacional no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Valeska Carvalho Figueiredo; Moyses Szklo; André Salem Szklo; Neal Benowitz; José Azevedo Lozana; Leticia Casado; Elaine Masson; Jonathan Samet

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted to assess, in active smokers, the relationship of number of cigarettes smoked and other characteristics to salivary cotinine concentrations. METHODS: A random sample of active smokers aged 15 years or older was selected using a stepwise cluster sample strategy, in the year 2000 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The study included 401 subjects. Salivary cotinine concentration was determined using gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosph...

  6. Utility and Cutoff Value of Hair Nicotine as a Biomarker of Long-Term Tobacco Smoke Exposure, Compared to Salivary Cotinine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungroul Kim

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available While hair samples are easier to collect and less expensive to store and transport than biological fluids, and hair nicotine characterizes tobacco exposure over a longer time period than blood or urine cotinine, information on its utility, compared with salivary cotinine, is still limited. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 289 participants (107 active smokers, 105 passive smokers with self-reported secondhand smoke (SHS exposure, and 77 non-smokers with no SHS exposure in Baltimore (Maryland, USA. A subset of the study participants (n = 52 were followed longitudinally over a two-month interval.  Median baseline hair nicotine concentrations for active, passive and non-smokers were 16.2, 0.36, and 0.23 ng/mg, respectively, while those for salivary cotinine were 181.0, 0.27, and 0.27 ng/mL, respectively. Hair nicotine concentrations for 10% of passive or non-smokers were higher than the 25th percentile value for active smokers while all corresponding salivary cotinine concentrations for them were lower than the value for active smokers. This study showed that hair nicotine concentration values could be used to distinguish active or heavy passive adult smokers from non-SHS exposed non-smokers. Our results indicate that hair nicotine is a useful biomarker for the assessment of long-term exposure to tobacco smoke.

  7. Determinants of salivary cotinine level: a population-based study in Brazil / Determinantes dos níveis de cotinina salivar: um estudo de base populacional no Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Valeska Carvalho, Figueiredo; Moyses, Szklo; André Salem, Szklo; Neal, Benowitz; José Azevedo, Lozana; Leticia, Casado; Elaine, Masson; Jonathan, Samet.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Realizou-se um estudo transversal para analisar a relação entre número de cigarros fumados e outras características com a concentração de cotinina salivar entre fumantes. MÉTODOS: Fumantes ativos de 15 anos ou mais foram selecionados por meio de amostra probabilística em múltiplos estágios [...] no ano 2000, município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. O estudo incluiu 401 fumantes. A concentração de cotinina salivar foi determinada utilizando-se cromatografia gasosa com detector de nitrogênio/fósforo. Coletaram-se informações demográficas e sobre o comportamento tabágico utilizando-se questionário padronizado. A relação entre o número de cigarros fumados nas últimas 24h e o nível de cotinina foi analisada utilizando técnica não paramétrica baseada em regressões robustas locais ponderadas. RESULTADOS: O nível médio ajustado de cotinina foi significativamente (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted to assess, in active smokers, the relationship of number of cigarettes smoked and other characteristics to salivary cotinine concentrations. METHODS: A random sample of active smokers aged 15 years or older was selected using a stepwi [...] se cluster sample strategy, in the year 2000 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The study included 401 subjects. Salivary cotinine concentration was determined using gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detection. A standard questionnaire was used to collect demographic and smoking behavioral data. The relation between the number of cigarettes smoked in the last 24h and cotinine level was examined by means of a nonparametric fitting technique of robust locally weighted regression. RESULTS: Significantly (p40 ng/mL per cigarette were excluded. CONCLUSIONS: There was found a positive association between self-reporting smoking five minutes after waking up, and inhaling more than ½ the time are consistent and higher cotinine levels. These can be markers of dependence and higher nicotine intake. Salivary cotinine proved to be a useful biomarker of recent smoking and can be used in epidemiological studies and smoking cessation programs.

  8. Cotinine Concentration in Serum Correlates with Tobacco Smoke-Induced Emphysema in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    XU, XIN; Su, Yunchao; Fan, Z. Hugh

    2014-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) has been associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes in nonsmokers, including emphysema (a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). One way to detect SHS exposure is to measure the concentration of cotinine, the primary metabolite of nicotine, in bodily fluids. We have developed a method for cotinine analysis by combining micellar electrokinetic chromatography with enrichment techniques. We employed the method to measure cotinine concentrations in serum samples ...

  9. MEASURING NICOTINE INTAKE AMONG HIGHLY DEPENDENT ADOLESCENT SMOKERS: COMPARABILITY OF SALIVA AND PLASMA COTININE CONCENTRATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Parzynski, Craig S.; Jaszyna-Gasior, Maria; Franken, Frederick H.; Moolchan, Eric T.

    2007-01-01

    Cotinine is the most common biomarker used to assess nicotine exposure and abstinence. It can be measured in various matrices including saliva, plasma, and urine. Previous research with adults has shown high correlations between saliva and plasma cotinine concentrations. However, research has not examined this relationship in adolescents. Additionally, variability in saliva flow and metabolism across gender, ethnicity, and age may impact the relationship between saliva and plasma cotinine con...

  10. Cotinine Concentration in Serum Correlates with Tobacco Smoke-Induced Emphysema in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Su, Yunchao; Fan, Z. Hugh

    2014-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) has been associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes in nonsmokers, including emphysema (a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). One way to detect SHS exposure is to measure the concentration of cotinine, the primary metabolite of nicotine, in bodily fluids. We have developed a method for cotinine analysis by combining micellar electrokinetic chromatography with enrichment techniques. We employed the method to measure cotinine concentrations in serum samples of mice exposed to tobacco smoke for 12 or 24 weeks and found that it was 3.1-fold or 4.8-fold higher than those exposed to room air for the same period. Further, we investigated the morphological changes in lungs of mice and observed tobacco smoke induced emphysema. Our results indicate that the method can be used to measure cotinine and there is an association between the serum cotinine concentration and tobacco smoke-induced emphysema in mice.

  11. Utility and Cutoff Value of Hair Nicotine as a Biomarker of Long-Term Tobacco Smoke Exposure, Compared to Salivary Cotinine

    OpenAIRE

    Sungroul Kim; Apelberg, Benjamin J.; Erika Avila-Tang; Lisa Hepp; Dongmin Yun; Samet, Jonathan M.; Breysse, Patrick N.

    2014-01-01

    While hair samples are easier to collect and less expensive to store and transport than biological fluids, and hair nicotine characterizes tobacco exposure over a longer time period than blood or urine cotinine, information on its utility, compared with salivary cotinine, is still limited. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 289 participants (107 active smokers, 105 passive smokers with self-reported secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure, and 77 non-smokers with no SHS exposure) in Baltimore...

  12. Increased Saliva Cotinine Concentrations in Smokers during Rapid Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaura, Raymond; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined association between saliva cotinine levels and weight loss in nine obese female smokers during participation in protein-sparing modified fast. A significant weight loss was noted at three and six months, yet cotinine level increased significantly during this time. Results suggest that smoking-related health risks may increase during…

  13. Determinants of salivary cotinine level: a population-based study in Brazil Determinantes dos níveis de cotinina salivar: um estudo de base populacional no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeska Carvalho Figueiredo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted to assess, in active smokers, the relationship of number of cigarettes smoked and other characteristics to salivary cotinine concentrations. METHODS: A random sample of active smokers aged 15 years or older was selected using a stepwise cluster sample strategy, in the year 2000 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The study included 401 subjects. Salivary cotinine concentration was determined using gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detection. A standard questionnaire was used to collect demographic and smoking behavioral data. The relation between the number of cigarettes smoked in the last 24h and cotinine level was examined by means of a nonparametric fitting technique of robust locally weighted regression. RESULTS: Significantly (p40 ng/mL per cigarette were excluded. CONCLUSIONS: There was found a positive association between self-reporting smoking five minutes after waking up, and inhaling more than ½ the time are consistent and higher cotinine levels. These can be markers of dependence and higher nicotine intake. Salivary cotinine proved to be a useful biomarker of recent smoking and can be used in epidemiological studies and smoking cessation programs.OBJETIVO: Realizou-se um estudo transversal para analisar a relação entre número de cigarros fumados e outras características com a concentração de cotinina salivar entre fumantes. MÉTODOS: Fumantes ativos de 15 anos ou mais foram selecionados por meio de amostra probabilística em múltiplos estágios no ano 2000, município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. O estudo incluiu 401 fumantes. A concentração de cotinina salivar foi determinada utilizando-se cromatografia gasosa com detector de nitrogênio/fósforo. Coletaram-se informações demográficas e sobre o comportamento tabágico utilizando-se questionário padronizado. A relação entre o número de cigarros fumados nas últimas 24h e o nível de cotinina foi analisada utilizando técnica não paramétrica baseada em regressões robustas locais ponderadas. RESULTADOS: O nível médio ajustado de cotinina foi significativamente (p<0,05 mais elevado entre indivíduos que fumaram o primeiro cigarro até cinco minutos depois de acordar e entre os que fumaram de um a 20 cigarros nas últimas 24h e tragavam mais de metade das vezes. Considerando-se fumantes de um a 20 cigarros, a inclinação da curva de regressão foi significativamente maior entre os que, após acordar, esperam mais de cinco minutos para fumar e para os que consumiam cigarros "suaves", quando comparados a seus opostos. Essas heterogeneidades desaparecem ao se excluir indivíduos com cotinina inferior a 40 ng/ml/cigarro. CONCLUSÕES: Houve associação positiva entre referir fumar até cinco minutos depois de acordar e tragar mais da metade das vezes e níveis de cotinina salivar. Essas informações podem ser marcadores de dependência e maior absorção de nicotina entre fumantes. A cotinina salivar mostrou-se útil como biomarcador do uso recente de tabaco a ser usado em estudos epidemiológicos e programas de cessação de fumar.

  14. Punto de corte óptimo de la concentración de cotinina en saliva para discriminar entre fumadores y no fumadores en la población adulta de Barcelona Optimal cut-point of salivary cotinine concentration to discriminate smoking status in the adult population in Barcelona

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    Jose M. Martínez-Sánchez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar el punto de corte óptimo de la concentración de cotinina en saliva para discriminar el consumo de tabaco en la población adulta de Barcelona. Métodos: Estudio transversal de una muestra representativa (n=1117 de la población adulta (>16 años de la ciudad de Barcelona (2004-2005. El estudio recogió información sobre tabaquismo (activo y pasivo mediante cuestionario y una muestra de saliva para la determinación de cotinina. Se realizó un análisis de sensibilidad y especificidad estratificado por sexo, edad, tipo de consumo (diario y ocasional y exposición al humo ambiental del tabaco en el hogar. Se calcularon las curvas ROC y el área bajo la curva. Resultados: La prevalencia de fumadores (diarios y ocasionales fue del 27,8% (intervalo de confianza del 95%: 25,2-30,4%. El punto de corte óptimo que separa a los no fumadores de los fumadores es 9,2ng/ml (sensibilidad del 88,7% y especificidad del 89,0%. El área bajo la curva ROC fue 0,952. El punto de corte fue 12,2ng/ml para los hombres y 7,6 para las mujeres, y aumentaba en los grupos de edad con mayor prevalencia de tabaquismo. Los fumadores diarios tenían un punto de corte superior al de los fumadores ocasionales. Conclusiones: El punto de corte óptimo que discrimina fumadores de no fumadores en la población adulta es 9,2ng/ml, con sensibilidad y especificidad cercanas al 90%. El punto de corte es más alto en los hombres y en los grupos de menor edad, y aumenta cuanto mayor es la prevalencia de consumo diario.Objective: To assess the optimal cut-point for salivary cotinine concentration to identify smoking status in the adult population of Barcelona. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of a representative sample (n=1,117 of the adult population (>16 years in Barcelona (2004-2005. This study gathered information on active and passive smoking by means of a questionnaire and a saliva sample for cotinine determination. We analyzed sensitivity and specificity according to sex, age, smoking status (daily and occasional, and exposure to second-hand smoke at home. ROC curves and the area under the curve were calculated. Results: The prevalence of smokers (daily and occasional was 27.8% (95% CI: 25.2-30.4%. The optimal cut-point to discriminate smoking status was 9.2ng/ml (sensitivity=88.7% and specificity=89.0%. The area under the ROC curve was 0.952. The optimal cut-point was 12.2ng/ml in men and 7.6ng/ml in women. The optimal cut-point was higher at ages with a greater prevalence of smoking. Daily smokers had a higher cut-point than occasional smokers. Conclusions: The optimal cut-point to discriminate smoking status in the adult population is 9.2ng/ml, with sensitivities and specificities around 90%. The cut-point was higher in men and in younger people. The cut-point increases with higher prevalence of daily smokers.

  15. Punto de corte óptimo de la concentración de cotinina en saliva para discriminar entre fumadores y no fumadores en la población adulta de Barcelona / Optimal cut-point of salivary cotinine concentration to discriminate smoking status in the adult population in Barcelona

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jose M., Martínez-Sánchez; Marcela, Fu; Carles, Ariza; María J., López; Esteve, Saltó; José A., Pascual; Anna, Schiaffino; Josep M., Borràs; Mercè, Peris; Antonio, Agudo; Manel, Nebot; Esteve, Fernández.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar el punto de corte óptimo de la concentración de cotinina en saliva para discriminar el consumo de tabaco en la población adulta de Barcelona. Métodos: Estudio transversal de una muestra representativa (n=1117) de la población adulta (>16 años) de la ciudad de Barcelona (2004-2005). [...] El estudio recogió información sobre tabaquismo (activo y pasivo) mediante cuestionario y una muestra de saliva para la determinación de cotinina. Se realizó un análisis de sensibilidad y especificidad estratificado por sexo, edad, tipo de consumo (diario y ocasional) y exposición al humo ambiental del tabaco en el hogar. Se calcularon las curvas ROC y el área bajo la curva. Resultados: La prevalencia de fumadores (diarios y ocasionales) fue del 27,8% (intervalo de confianza del 95%: 25,2-30,4%). El punto de corte óptimo que separa a los no fumadores de los fumadores es 9,2ng/ml (sensibilidad del 88,7% y especificidad del 89,0%). El área bajo la curva ROC fue 0,952. El punto de corte fue 12,2ng/ml para los hombres y 7,6 para las mujeres, y aumentaba en los grupos de edad con mayor prevalencia de tabaquismo. Los fumadores diarios tenían un punto de corte superior al de los fumadores ocasionales. Conclusiones: El punto de corte óptimo que discrimina fumadores de no fumadores en la población adulta es 9,2ng/ml, con sensibilidad y especificidad cercanas al 90%. El punto de corte es más alto en los hombres y en los grupos de menor edad, y aumenta cuanto mayor es la prevalencia de consumo diario. Abstract in english Objective: To assess the optimal cut-point for salivary cotinine concentration to identify smoking status in the adult population of Barcelona. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of a representative sample (n=1,117) of the adult population (>16 years) in Barcelona (2004-2005). This study [...] gathered information on active and passive smoking by means of a questionnaire and a saliva sample for cotinine determination. We analyzed sensitivity and specificity according to sex, age, smoking status (daily and occasional), and exposure to second-hand smoke at home. ROC curves and the area under the curve were calculated. Results: The prevalence of smokers (daily and occasional) was 27.8% (95% CI: 25.2-30.4%). The optimal cut-point to discriminate smoking status was 9.2ng/ml (sensitivity=88.7% and specificity=89.0%). The area under the ROC curve was 0.952. The optimal cut-point was 12.2ng/ml in men and 7.6ng/ml in women. The optimal cut-point was higher at ages with a greater prevalence of smoking. Daily smokers had a higher cut-point than occasional smokers. Conclusions: The optimal cut-point to discriminate smoking status in the adult population is 9.2ng/ml, with sensitivities and specificities around 90%. The cut-point was higher in men and in younger people. The cut-point increases with higher prevalence of daily smokers.

  16. Passive smoking in the home: plasma cotinine concentrations in non-smokers with smoking partners

    OpenAIRE

    Jarvis, M.; Feyerabend, C.; Bryant, A.; HEDGES, B; Primatesta, P.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Risks of lung cancer and of heart disease attributable to passive smoking have been evaluated mainly in non-smokers married to smokers, but there has been little quantitative assessment of the extent of exposure in marriage partners as indicated by markers of inhaled smoke dose.?OBJECTIVE—To relate plasma cotinine concentrations in non-smoking English adults to the smoking behaviour of their partners and to demographic and other factors.?DATA—Population survey. Data from ...

  17. [Kindergartners' indoor exposition to tobacco smoke and its influence on cotinine concentration in children's urine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomo?ka, Ewa; Bielska, Dorota; Nazarko, Katarzyna; Bielska, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to study kindergarteners' exposition to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in houses. Social and economical factors were checked for the improper behavior of grown-up household. Material for the research were data collected from questionnaires filled by children's parents. 272 three years old children were studied (57.7% boys and 42.3% girls). Cotinine--marker of exposition to ETS was measured in the children's urine. In 32.4% houses at least one resident was a tobacco smoker. The most often it was father (22.3%) or mother (10.6%). Most of them (78.7%) affirmed tobacco smoking out of houses. Tobacco smoking correlated to parents education (mothers--college graduate and fathers--high-school graduate smoked tobacco the most often). Tobacco smoking by the parents correlated to low household income (less than 1000 zl), many house occupants (4-5 persons), small house area (less than 15 m2/person). A part of studied group of children (11%) was exposed to ETS out of house. Mean cotinine concentration in urine of children exposed and unexposed to ETS in house were not significantly different an were respectively: 25.60 and 21.22 ng/mg creatinine. Propagation of right behavior among people smoking tobacco in houses and education of small children parents is important. PMID:24501803

  18. Cotinine Concentrations in Follicular Fluid as a Measure of Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Women Undergoing In Vitro Fertilization: Inter-matrix Comparisons with Urine and Temporal Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Merle D.; Missmer, Stacey A.; Vitonis, Allison F.; Cramer, Daniel W.; Meeker, John D.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the relationship between cotinine measures in follicular fluid (FF) and urine to inform our exposure assessment strategy for an ongoing epidemiological study of secondhand tobacco smoke (STS) exposure and early pregnancy loss. Among subjects undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF), we compared cotinine levels in paired urine and FF samples from the same women and examined FF cotinine levels over time. We found a weak rank-order relationship (Spearman r <0.2) and poor agreement for classifying nonsmoking individuals as exposed to STS (sensitivity = 0.29–0.71; specificity = 0.35–0.72) between cotinine concentrations in FF and urine. We observed fair reliability (ICC = 0.42–0.52) in FF cotinine concentrations from women undergoing multiple IVF cycles. If available, FF cotinine concentrations may be desired as a biomarker of low-level tobacco smoke exposure over urinary cotinine in studies of early reproduction. Collection of multiple FF samples for cotinine analysis may be needed to accurately represent long-term STS exposure. PMID:21397293

  19. Relationship between Salivary Alkaline Phosphatase Enzyme Activity and The Concentrations of Salivary Calcium and Phosphate Ions

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    Mina Jazaeri

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although salivary alkaline phosphatase (ALP can balance de- and remineralization processes of enamel, there is no evidence regarding its effects on the concentrations of calcium and phosphate in saliva. The present study aims to determine the relationship between salivary ALP activity and the concentrations of calcium and phosphate in saliva. In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated salivary markers in 120 males, ages 19 to 44 years. All participants provided 5 mL of unstimulated whole saliva and the level of enzyme activity as well as calcium and phosphate concentrations were measured using a colorimetric method. Data were gathered and analyzed by statistical package for social sciences (SPSS 13.00 using Pearson correlation test. A p value of 0.05. According to the results of the present study, there was no significant relation between salivary ALP activity and calcium and phosphate concentrations in saliva. However, further research is highly recommended.

  20. COTININE CONCENTRATIONS IN SEMEN, URINE AND BLOOD OF SMOKERS AND NONSMOKERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The extent to which ambient exposures to environmental chemicals results in exposures to human genetic material is poorly understood. he purpose of the current study is to document the presence of cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine but not a known mutagen, in the semen of men exp...

  1. Passive exposure to tobacco smoke: saliva cotinine concentrations in a representative population sample of non-smoking schoolchildren.

    OpenAIRE

    Jarvis, M. J.; Russell, M. A.; Feyerabend, C.; Eiser, J. R.; Morgan, M.; Gammage, P.; Gray, E. M.

    1985-01-01

    Saliva cotinine concentrations in 569 non-smoking schoolchildren were strongly related to the smoking habits of their parents. When neither parent smoked the mean concentration was 0.44 ng/ml, rising to 3.38 ng/ml when both parents were cigarette smokers. Mothers' smoking had a stronger influence than did fathers' (p less than 0.01). In addition, there was a small independent effect of number of siblings who smoked (p less than 0.01). The dose of nicotine received from fathers' smoking was es...

  2. Biomonitoring of Urinary Cotinine Concentrations Associated with Plasma Levels of Nicotine Metabolites after Daily Cigarette Smoking in a Male Japanese Population

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    Hiroshi Yamazaki

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Human biomonitoring of plasma and urinary levels of nicotine, cotinine, and 3?-hydroxycotinine was conducted after daily cigarette smoking in a population of 92 male Japanese smokers with a mean age of 37 years who had smoked an average of 23 cigarettes per day for 16 years. Members of the population were genotyped for the nicotine-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6. The mean levels of nicotine, the levels of its metabolites cotinine and 3?-hydroxycotinine, and the sum of these three levels in subjects one hour after smoking the first cigarette on the sampling day were 20.1, 158, 27.7, and 198 ng/mL in plasma and 846, 1,020, 1,010, and 2,870 ng/mL in urine under daily smoking conditions. Plasma levels of 3'-hydroxycotinine and urinary levels of nicotine and 3?-hydroxycotinine were dependent on the CYP2A6 phenotype group, which was estimated from the CYP2A6 genotypes of the subjects, including those with whole gene deletion. Plasma cotinine levels were significantly correlated with the number of cigarettes smoked on the day before sampling (r = 0.71, the average number of cigarettes smoked daily (r = 0.58, and the Brinkman index (daily cigarettes × years, r = 0.48 under the present conditions. The sum of nicotine, cotinine, and 3?-hydroxycotinine concentrations in plasma showed a similar relationship to that of the plasma cotinine levels. Urinary concentrations of cotinine and the sum of nicotine metabolite concentrations also showed significant correlations with the plasma levels and the previous day’s and average cigarette consumption. The numbers of cigarettes smoked per day by two subjects with self-reported light smoking habits were predicted by measuring the urinary cotinine concentrations and using linear regression equations derived from above-mentioned data. These results indicate that biomonitoring of the urinary cotinine concentration is a good, easy-to-use marker for plasma levels of cotinine and the sum of nicotine metabolites in smokers independent of genetic polymorphism of CYP2A6.

  3. Salivary concentrations of pirmenol as a possible cause of unpleasant taste.

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, B. F.; Shekar, V.; Woodman, T; Canada, A. T.

    1986-01-01

    Salivary concentrations of the anti-arrhythmic, pirmenol, were compared with plasma concentrations in six patients. Group mean salivary values tended to be higher despite high plasma protein binding, suggesting the possibility of an active transport process. The observed salivary concentrations are reasonably close to those detectable in healthy volunteers as tasting unpleasant.

  4. Passive exposure to tobacco smoke: saliva cotinine concentrations in a representative population sample of non-smoking schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, M J; Russell, M A; Feyerabend, C; Eiser, J R; Morgan, M; Gammage, P; Gray, E M

    1985-10-01

    Saliva cotinine concentrations in 569 non-smoking schoolchildren were strongly related to the smoking habits of their parents. When neither parent smoked the mean concentration was 0.44 ng/ml, rising to 3.38 ng/ml when both parents were cigarette smokers. Mothers' smoking had a stronger influence than did fathers' (p less than 0.01). In addition, there was a small independent effect of number of siblings who smoked (p less than 0.01). The dose of nicotine received from fathers' smoking was estimated as equivalent to the active smoking of 30 cigarettes a year, that from mothers' smoking as equivalent to smoking 50 cigarettes a year, and that from both parents smoking as equivalent to smoking 80 cigarettes a year. This unsolicited burden may be prolonged throughout childhood and poses a definite risk to health. PMID:3929967

  5. Human Blood Concentrations of Cotinine, a Biomonitoring Marker for Tobacco Smoke, Extrapolated from Nicotine Metabolism in Rats and Humans and Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Kitajima

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study defined a simplified physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK model for nicotine and its primary metabolite cotinine in humans, based on metabolic parameters determined in vitro using relevant liver microsomes, coefficients derived in silico, physiological parameters derived from the literature, and an established rat PBPK model. The model consists of an absorption compartment, a metabolizing compartment, and a central compartment for nicotine and three equivalent compartments for cotinine. Evaluation of a rat model was performed by making comparisons with predicted concentrations in blood and in vivo experimental pharmacokinetic values obtained from rats after oral treatment with nicotine (1.0 mg/kg, a no-observed-adverse-effect level for 14 days. Elimination rates of nicotine in vitro were established from data from rat liver microsomes and from human pooled liver microsomes. Human biomonitoring data (17 ng nicotine and 150 ng cotinine per mL plasma 1 h after smoking from pooled five male Japanese smokers (daily intake of 43 mg nicotine by smoking revealed that these blood concentrations could be calculated using a human PBPK model. These results indicate that a simplified PBPK model for nicotine/cotinine is useful for a forward dosimetry approach in humans and for estimating blood concentrations of other related compounds resulting from exposure to low chemical doses.

  6. Seasonal Variation in Human Salivary Cortisol Concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Roger; Garde, Anne Helene

    2008-01-01

    Measurement of cortisol concentration can contribute important information about an individual's ability to adjust to various environmental demands of both physical and psychosocial origin. However, one uncertainty that affects the possibilities of correctly interpreting and designing field studies is the lack of observations of the impact of seasonal changes on cortisol excretion. For this reason, the month-to-month changes in diurnal cortisol concentration, the awakening cortisol response (ACR), maximum morning concentration, and fall during the day were studied in a group of 24 healthy men and women 32 to 61 yrs of age engaged in active work. On one workday for 12 consecutive months, participants collected saliva at four time points for determination of cortisol: at awakening, +30 min, +8 h, and at 21:00 h. Data were analyzed by a repeated measures design with month (12 levels) and time-of-day (4 levels) as categorical predictors. Cortisol concentrations were analyzed on a log scale. The diurnal pattern ofcortisol was similar across months (interaction between month and time of day: p>0.4). The main effects of month and time-of-day were statistically significant (p

  7. Effects of season, age, sex, and housing on salivary cortisol concentrations in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurich, J; Wulf, M; Ille, N; Erber, R; von Lewinski, M; Palme, R; Aurich, C

    2015-07-01

    Analysis of salivary cortisol is increasingly used to assess stress responses in horses. Because spontaneous or experimentally induced increases in cortisol concentrations are often relatively small for stress studies, proper controls are needed. This requires an understanding of the factors affecting salivary cortisol over longer times. In this study, we have analyzed salivary cortisol concentration for 6 mo in horses (n = 94) differing in age, sex, reproductive state, and housing. Salivary cortisol followed a diurnal rhythm with the highest concentrations in the morning and a decrease throughout the day (P horses and no consistent differences between horses of different age existed. Group housing and individual stabling did not affect salivary cortisol. In conclusion, salivary cortisol concentrations in horses follow a diurnal rhythm and are increased in active breeding sires. Time of the day and reproductive state of the horses are thus important for experiments that include analysis of cortisol in saliva. PMID:25700267

  8. Plasma and salivary amoxicillin concentrations and effect against oral microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglie, S; Del Ruenis, A P Bortolo; Motta, R H Lopes; Baglie, R C Catelli; Franco, G C Nobre; Franco, L M; Rosalen, P L; Silva, P; Groppo, F C

    2007-10-01

    Plasma and salivary amoxicillin (AMO) concentrations were quantified following a single oral dose (875 mg) of two formulations of AMO (Amoxicillin-EMS Sigma Pharma and Amoxil BD 875 mg). In addition, the effect of amoxicillin against oral microorganisms was accessed. The open, randomized, two-period crossover study was carried out in 20 volunteers. Saliva and blood samples were collected at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 h after drug administration, and quantified using HPLC-ESI-MS and HPLC, respectively. Streptococci counts, anaerobe counts and total microorganism counts were obtained. No differences were observed between formulations (p > 0.05) in the plasma and salivary AMO concentrations and the pharmacokinetic parameters (C(max), t(max), AUC(0-8), and AUC(0-infinity)) also showed no statistically significant differences between formulations (p > 0.05). Microorganism counts for the two formulations at all sampling times did not differ (p > 0.05) but all microorganism counts at 60 min post-dose showed a significant decrease (p Amoxicillin was effective in reducing oral microorganism levels up to 12 h post-dose. PMID:17966841

  9. Effect of Pilocarpine and Angiotensin II on Salivary Flow, Total Protein and Electrolyte Concentrations of Saliva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Abrao Saad

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Present studies have focused on the effect of intraperitonially i.p. injection of angiotensin II (ANG II and pilocarpine on the salivary secretion, salivary amylase, saliva total proteins, saliva calcium sodium and potassium. Rats were anesthetized with urethane (1.25 g kg < SUP>-1 < /SUP> b. wt.. The amount of saliva secretion was studied over a 5 min period. Male Holtzman rats (250-300 g were housed in individual metabolic cages, with free access to food pellets and tap water ad libitum. The basal salivary flow after i.p saline 0.15 M NaCl as control was 17?1 mg/5 min. Angiotensin II (120 ng/0.5 mL, increased the salivary flow. The previous application of losartan (AT < SUB>1 < /SUB> ANG II receptors antagonist blocked the sialogogue effect of ANG II. PD123319 (AT < SUB>2 < /SUB>ANG II receptors antagonist blocked with smaller intensity the effect of ANG II. Animals treated with ANG II showed no change in the concentration of total protein, salivary amylase and calcium. The same happened when treated with losartan or PD123319. ANG II increased the concentration of sodium and decreased the concentration of potassium. Losartan blocked the effect of ANG II on sodium and potassium concentration. Pilocarpine increased the salivary flow. Losartan and PD123319 produced no change in salivary flow stimulated by pilocarpine. Pilocarpine did not alter the total protein, salivary amylase and calcium. Previous application of losartan and PD123319 produced no change in this pilocarpine effect. Pilocarpine decreased sodium and potassium concentration. Losartan and PD123319 produced no change in these effects of pilocarpine. In conclusion the results of the present study showed the importance of ANG II and pilocarpine in the control of the mechanism of salivary secretion and in the sodium and potassium-saliva concentration.

  10. Luteal phase salivary progesterone concentrations in ovulation-induced cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan-Dawood, F S; Cai, H Y; Dawood, M Y

    1988-04-01

    Serial paired plasma and salivary progesterone (P) levels were determined in 21 ovulation-induced cycles of 13 women and in 162 luteal saliva samples of 21 normal cycling women. Mean +/- standard error of the mean (SEM) salivary P levels in all ovulation-induced cycles were similar to normal cycles and were 294 +/- 31.5 to 499 +/- 75 pg/ml, whereas the corresponding plasma P levels were 24.9 +/- 5.0 to 51.4 +/- 16.6 ng/ml. Paired plasma and salivary P levels correlated significantly in women induced with clomiphene citrate (r = 0.82), follicle-stimulating hormone (r = 0.80), human menopausal gonadotropins (r = 0.78), and in those who became pregnant (r = 0.95). Luteal phase salivary P levels were 1.0% to 1.3% of the corresponding plasma levels in ovulation-induced cycles. These findings indicate that salivary P may be a useful and convenient alternative to plasma P for assessing ovulation. PMID:3350156

  11. Cotinine Concentrations in Follicular Fluid as a Measure of Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Women Undergoing In Vitro Fertilization: Inter-matrix Comparisons with Urine and Temporal Variability

    OpenAIRE

    Benedict, Merle D.; Missmer, Stacey A; Vitonis, Allison F.; Cramer, Daniel W.; Meeker, John D.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the relationship between cotinine measures in follicular fluid (FF) and urine to inform our exposure assessment strategy for an ongoing epidemiological study of secondhand tobacco smoke (STS) exposure and early pregnancy loss. Among subjects undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF), we compared cotinine levels in paired urine and FF samples from the same women and examined FF cotinine levels over time. We found a weak rank-order relationship (Spearman r

  12. Salivary pH as a marker of plasma adiponectin concentrations in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tremblay Monique

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasma adiponectin is a significant correlate of the pro-inflammatory cardiometabolic risk profile associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Salivary pH is influenced by several cardiometabolic risk components such as inflammation, oxidation and numerous oral and systemic health modulators, including the menopausal status. This study aimed to assess the association between plasma adiponectin concentrations and salivary pH in women according to the menopausal status. Method Unstimulated saliva collection was performed in 151 Caucasian women of French-Canadian origin (53 premenopausal women (PMW and 98 menopausal women (MW. Student's t test, ANOVA and linear regression models were used to assess the association between plasma adiponectin concentrations and salivary pH. Results Plasma adiponectin levels increased as a function of salivary pH in the whole sample and among MW (r = 0.29 and r = 0.36, p 2 was 10.8% (p Conclusions These results suggest that salivary pH is a significant correlate of plasma adiponectin levels in women. With the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes and obesity, new technologies should be developed to more easily monitor health status, disease onset and progression. Salivary pH, a simple, inexpensive and non-invasive measure, could be a very promising avenue.

  13. Relation of passive smoking as assessed by salivary cotinine concentration and questionnaire to spirometric indices in children.

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, D.G.; Whincup, P.H.; Papacosta, O.; Strachan, D. P.; Jarvis, M.J.; Bryant, A.

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies of the effects of passive exposure to smoke on spirometric indices in children have largely relied on questionnaire measures of exposure. This may have resulted in underestimation of the true effect of passive smoking. Biochemical measures offer the opportunity to estimate recent exposure directly. METHODS: The relation between spirometric indices and passive exposure to tobacco smoke was examined in a large population sample of 5-7 year old children from 10 towns...

  14. Saliva cotinine and recent smoking--evidence for a nonlinear relationship.

    OpenAIRE

    Swan, G E; Habina, K; Means, B; Jobe, J B; Esposito, J L

    1993-01-01

    Cotinine concentration in various body fluids is considered to be among the most useful markers of nicotine exposure currently available. Despite the prevailing consensus concerning cotinine's usefulness, cotinine's large intrasubject variability has led some to question the value of a single-point measurement. Several individual differences (for example, age, race, sex, and so forth) may affect cotinine excretion, and a peculiar nonlinearity between the number of cigarettes smoked and cotini...

  15. Évaluation de la concentration de nicotine et de cotinine urinaires chez un groupe de fumeurs actifs et un groupe de “fumeurs passifs”, par chromatographie liquide haute performance (HPLC utilisant une méthode d’extraction en phase solide (SPE Evaluation of urinary levels of nicotine and cotinine, in active and passive groups of smokers, by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC using a solid phase extraction method (SPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzouz Mohamed

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectifs : Évaluation de la concentration de nicotine et de cotinine urinaires et le taux de carboxyhémoglobine (HbCO chez un groupe de fumeurs actifs (n = 22 et un groupe de « fumeurs passifs » (n = 22, afin d’apprécier l’intensité de l’imprégnation tabagique. Matériels et méthodes : Évaluation de la concentration de nicotine et de cotinine urinaires par chromatographie liquide haute performance (HPLC utilisant une méthode d’extraction en phase solide (SPE; évaluation du taux de la carboxyhémoglobine (HbCO par spectrophotométrie UV-VIS. Résultats : Les concentrations urinaires de nicotine varient de 0,48 à 7,59 ?g/mL (moyenne : 3,39  ±  2,06 ?g/mL chez les fumeurs actifs et de 0,31 à 1,27 ?g/mL (moyenne : 0,64  ±  0,31 ?g/mL chez les « fumeurs passifs ». Les concentrations urinaires de cotinine varient de 0,99 à 9,17 ?g/mL (moyenne : 4,14  ±  2,35 ?g/mL chez les fumeurs actifs et de 0,14 à 2,58 ?g/mL (moyenne : 1,25  ±  0,79 ?g/mL chez les « fumeurs passifs ». Le taux de l’ HbCO varie de 0,26 à 8,02 % (moyenne : 3  ±  0,021 % chez les fumeurs actifs, les « fumeurs passifs » et les témoins présentent des taux inférieurs à la limite de détection. Conclusion : La nicotine et la cotinine sont plus spécifiques de l’exposition tabagique que l’HbCO. Les concentrations de nicotine et de cotinine urinaires, retrouvés chez les « fumeurs passifs », soulignent la réalité et l’intensité de l’exposition de ces derniers, d’où la nécessité de prendre des mesures plus restrictives en matière de lutte contre le tabagisme. Objectives: This paper evaluates the urinary levels of nicotine and cotinine and the level of carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO in active (n = 22 and passive (n = 22 groups of smokers, in order to determine the severity of tobacco impregnation. Materials and methods: The levels of nicotine and cotinine in urine were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC using the solid phase extraction method (SPE; the level of carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO was measured by UV-VIS spectrophotometry. Results: The results indicate that the concentration of nicotine in urine is 0.48 to 7.59 ?g/mL (average of 3.39  ±  2.06 ?g/mL in active smokers and 0.31 to 1.27 ?g/mL (average of 0.64  ±  0.31 ?g/mL in passive smokers. The concentration of cotinine in urine is 0.99 to 9.17 ?g/mL (average of 4.14  ±  2.35 ?g/mL in active smokers and 0.14 to 2.58 ?g/mL (average of 1.25  ±  0.79 ?g/mL in passive smokers. The level of HbCO is 0.26 to 8.02% (average of 3  ±  0.021% in active smokers and could not be detected in the passive smokers. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that cotinine and nicotine are more suitable for assessing the intensity of tobacco exposure than HbCO. The measured levels of nicotine and cotinine in passive smokers reveal the fact that this group of people faces a high risk due to tobacco exposure; thus, restrictive measures need to be taken to protect this group.

  16. Biomonitoring of Urinary Cotinine Concentrations Associated with Plasma Levels of Nicotine Metabolites after Daily Cigarette Smoking in a Male Japanese Population

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroshi Yamazaki; Fumiaki Shono; Tetsuya Kamataki; Ryohji Takano; Norie Murayama; Taku Nagano; Makiko Shimizu; Kazuma Kiyotani

    2010-01-01

    Human biomonitoring of plasma and urinary levels of nicotine, cotinine, and 3?-hydroxycotinine was conducted after daily cigarette smoking in a population of 92 male Japanese smokers with a mean age of 37 years who had smoked an average of 23 cigarettes per day for 16 years. Members of the population were genotyped for the nicotine-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6). The mean levels of nicotine, the levels of its metabolites cotinine and 3?-hydroxycotinine, and the sum of th...

  17. Are cotinine assays of value in predicting adverse pregnancy outcome?

    OpenAIRE

    MATHEWS, F; Smith, R.; Yukdin, P; Neil, A.

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the utility of maternal cotinine concentration as a predictor of preterm and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) deliveries. Subjects were randomly selected from antenatal clinics, and their serum cotinine concentrations at approximately 16 weeks' gestation were compared with self-reports of smoking. The value of these measures in predicting preterm and SGA deliveries was examined, using likelihood ratios and logistic regression, for 845 women with singleton, live births. Smoking ...

  18. Estimating cotinine associations and a saliva cotinine level to identify active cigarette smoking in alaska native pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Julia J; Robinson, Renee F; Khan, Burhan A; Sosnoff, Connie S; Dillard, Denise A

    2014-01-01

    Studies indicate nicotine metabolism varies by race and can change during pregnancy. Given high rates of tobacco use and limited studies among Alaska Native (AN) women, we estimated associations of saliva cotinine levels with cigarette use and second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure and estimated a saliva cotinine cutoff to distinguish smoking from non-smoking pregnant AN women. Using questionnaire data and saliva cotinine, we utilized multi-variable linear regression (n = 370) to estimate cotinine associations with tobacco use, SHS exposure, demographic, and pregnancy-related factors. Additionally, we estimated an optimal saliva cotinine cutoff for indication of active cigarette use in AN pregnant women using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis (n = 377). Saliva cotinine significantly decreased with maternal age and significantly increased with cigarettes smoked per day, SHS exposure, and number of previous full term pregnancies. Using self-reported cigarette use in the past 7 days as indication of active smoking, the area under the ROC curve was 0.975 (95 % CI: 0.960-0.990). The point closest to 100 % specificity and sensitivity occurred with a cotinine concentration of 1.07 ng/mL, which corresponded to sensitivity of 94 % and specificity of 94 %. We recommend using a saliva cotinine cutoff of 1 ng/mL to distinguish active smoking in pregnant AN women. This cutoff is lower than used in other studies with pregnant women, most likely due to high prevalence of light or intermittent smoking in the AN population. Continued study of cotinine levels in diverse populations is needed. PMID:23423858

  19. Human Blood Concentrations of Cotinine, a Biomonitoring Marker for Tobacco Smoke, Extrapolated from Nicotine Metabolism in Rats and Humans and Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Masato Kitajima; Norie Murayama; Makiko Shimizu; Taku Nagano; Ryohji Takano; Kana Horiuchi; Hiroshi Yamazaki; Fumiaki Shono

    2010-01-01

    The present study defined a simplified physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for nicotine and its primary metabolite cotinine in humans, based on metabolic parameters determined in vitro using relevant liver microsomes, coefficients derived in silico, physiological parameters derived from the literature, and an established rat PBPK model. The model consists of an absorption compartment, a metabolizing compartment, and a central compartment for nicotine and three equivalent compar...

  20. A two-year follow-up study of salivary cortisol concentration and the risk of depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grynderup, Matias BrØdsgaard; Kolstad, Henrik A.

    2013-01-01

    Stress is a suspected cause of depression. High cortisol concentration, a biomarker of an activated stress response, has been found in depressed patients. The aim of this study was to determine if a high level of salivary cortisol is a risk factor of depression. In 2007, we enrolled 4467 public employees. Morning and evening salivary cortisol concentration were measured for each participant. Participants reporting high levels of depressive, burnout, or stress symptoms, assessed by questionnaires were assigned to a psychiatric interview. In this interview 98 participants were diagnosed with depression and subsequently excluded. Two years later in 2009, 2920 participants who had provided at least one valid saliva cortisol measurement at baseline participated at follow up. The psychiatric interviews were repeated and 62 cases of newly onset depression were diagnosed. Odds ratios of depression were estimated for every 1.0nmol/l increase in morning, evening, and daily mean cortisol concentration, as well as for the difference between morning and evening cortisol concentration. The risk of depression decreased by increasing daily mean cortisol concentration and by increasing difference between morning and evening concentrations, while morning and evening cortisol concentrations were not significantly associated with depression. The adjusted odds ratios for 1.0nmol/l increase in morning, evening, and daily mean cortisol concentration were 0.69 (95% CI: 0.45, 1.05), 0.87 (95% CI: 0.59, 1.28), and 0.53 (95% CI: 0.32, 0.90), respectively. The adjusted odds ratio for 1.0nmol/l increase in difference between morning and evening concentration were 0.64 (95% CI: 0.45, 0.90). This study did not support the hypothesis that high salivary cortisol concentration is a risk factor of depression, but indicate that low mean salivary cortisol concentration and a small difference between morning and evening cortisol concentration may be risk factors of depression.

  1. A surrogate method for comparison analysis of salivary concentrations of Xylitol-containing products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Lingmei

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Xylitol chewing gum has been shown to reduce Streptococcus mutans levels and decay. Two studies examined the presence and time course of salivary xylitol concentrations delivered via xylitol-containing pellet gum and compared them to other xylitol-containing products. Methods A within-subjects design was used for both studies. Study 1, adults (N = 15 received three xylitol-containing products (pellet gum (2.6 g, gummy bears (2.6 g, and commercially available stick gum (Koolerz, 3.0 g; Study 2, a second group of adults (N = 15 received three xylitol-containing products (pellet gum, gummy bears, and a 33% xylitol syrup (2.67 g. For both studies subjects consumed one xylitol product per visit with a 7-day washout between each product. A standardized protocol was followed for each product visit. Product order was randomly determined at the initial visit. Saliva samples (0.5 mL to 1.0 mL were collected at baseline and up to 10 time points (~16 min in length after product consumption initiated. Concentration of xylitol in saliva samples was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. Area under the curve (AUC for determining the average xylitol concentration in saliva over the total sampling period was calculated for each product. Results In both studies all three xylitol products (Study 1: pellet gum, gummy bears, and stick gum; Study 2: pellet gum, gummy bears, and syrup had similar time curves with two xylitol concentration peaks during the sampling period. Study 1 had its highest mean peaks at the 4 min sampling point while Study 2 had its highest mean peaks between 13 to 16 minutes. Salivary xylitol levels returned to baseline at about 18 minutes for all forms tested. Additionally, for both studies the total AUC for the xylitol products were similar compared to the pellet gum (Study 1: pellet gum – 51.3 ?g.min/mL, gummy bears – 59.6 ?g.min/mL, and stick gum – 46.4 ?g.min/mL; Study 2: pellet gum – 63.0 ?g.min/mL, gummy bears – 55.9 ?g.min/mL, and syrup – 59.0 ?g.min/mL. Conclusion The comparison method demonstrated high reliability and validity. In both studies other xylitol-containing products had time curves and mean xylitol concentration peaks similar to xylitol pellet gum suggesting this test may be a surrogate for longer studies comparing various products.

  2. Gas chromatographic analysis of nicotine and cotinine in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kintz, P

    1992-09-16

    Non-invasive validation of cigarette- or cigar-smoking behaviour is necessary for large population studies. Urine or saliva samples can be used for confirmation of recent nicotine intake by analysis of cotinine, the major metabolite of nicotine. However, this test is not suitable for validation of survey data, since the quantification of cotinine in saliva only reflects nicotine exposure during the preceding week. To validate information on tobacco use, we investigated hair samples for quantifying nicotine and cotinine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Hair (about 50-100 mg) was incubated in 1 M sodium hydroxide at 100 degrees C for 10 min. After cooling, samples were extracted by diethyl ether, using ketamine as an internal standard. Drugs were separated on a 12-m BP-5 capillary column, and detected using selected-ion monitoring (m/z 84, 98 and 180 for nicotine, cotinine and ketamine, respectively). Hair from non-smokers and smokers contained nicotine and cotinine. Although it is difficult to determine an absolute cut-off concentration, more than 2 ng of nicotine per milligram of hair can be used to differentiate smokers from non-smokers. Some applications of this technique are developed to determine the status of passive smokers, the gestational exposure in babies and the pattern of an individual's nicotine use by cutting strands of hair into sections of one-month intervals. PMID:1400830

  3. Fecal and Salivary Cortisol Concentrations in Woolly (Lagothrix ssp. and Spider Monkeys (Ateles spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly D. Ange-van Heugten

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Detrimental physiological effects due to stressors can contribute to the low captive success of primates. The objective of this research was to investigate the potential impact of diet composition on cortisol concentrations in feces and saliva in woolly (n=27 and spider monkeys (n=61. The research was conducted in three studies: the first investigated spider monkeys in the United States, the second investigated spider monkeys within Europe, and the third investigated woolly monkeys within Europe. Fecal cortisol in spider monkeys in US zoos varied (P=.07 from 30 to 66 ng/g. The zoo with the highest fecal cortisol also had the highest salivary cortisol (P?.05. For European zoos, fecal cortisol differed between zoos for both spider and woolly monkeys (P?.05. Spider monkeys had higher fecal cortisol than woolly monkeys (P?.05. Zoos with the highest dietary carbohydrates, sugars, glucose, and fruit had the highest cortisol. Cortisol was highest for zoos that did not meet crude protein requirements and fed the lowest percentage of complete feeds and crude fiber. Differences among zoos in housing and diets may increase animal stress. The lifespan and reproductive success of captive primates could improve if stressors are reduced and dietary nutrients optimized.

  4. A Comparative Analysis of the Influence of Human Salivary Enzymes on Odorant Concentration in Three Palm Wines

    OpenAIRE

    Ola Lasekan

    2013-01-01

    The influence of human salivary enzymes on palm wines’ odorant concentrations were investigated by the application of aroma extracts dilution analysis (AEDA) and by the calculation of odour activity values (OAVs), respectively. The odorants were quantified by means of stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA), and the degradation profiles of odorants by human saliva were also studied. Results revealed 46 odour-active compounds in the flavour dilution (FD) factor range of 4-256, and all were sub...

  5. Cotinine en pédiatrie et en santé au travail Cotinine in pediatry and at the workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoizey Guillaume

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available L'intérêt du suivi d'une exposition au tabac par la mesure de la concentration de la cotinine dans les milieux biologiques est connu depuis longtemps. Métabolite principal de la nicotine, avec une demi-vie d'élimination longue, le suivi de la cotinine permet l'évaluation de l'imprégnation tabagique dans les cas particuliers du tabagisme passif chez l'enfant et chez l'adulte, dans les lieux publics ou le milieu professionnel. Le suivi de ce marqueur s'avère également particulièrement intéressant en santé au travail pour la surveillance d'expositions à certains solvants organiques (benzène, toluène, éthylbenzéne, xylène, hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques... dont les concentrations ou celles de leurs métabolites sont influencées par la consommation de tabac. L'urine demeure la matrice biologique de choix pour évaluer le degré d'exposition. Un seuil de positivité mesuré à 6 ng/mL dans l'urine permet de distinguer une population pédiatrique exposée ou non. D'autres matrices comme les cheveux ou la salive apparaissent depuis plusieurs années comme utiles dans le cadre du dépistage de l'exposition au tabagisme environnemental. Le dosage de la cotinine dans les cheveux montre une nouvelle fois l'intérêt rétrospectif de l'utilisation de ce type de matrice. La salive, avec un intérêt moindre chez le nouveau né, a été utilisée dans plusieurs études pour distinguer des populations exposées et non exposées avec un seuil de positivité fixé à 1 ng/mL. Deux types de méthodes sont principalement utilisées pour le dosage de la cotinine : les méthodes chromatographiques HPLC-DAD, HPLC-MS, GC-MS et les méthodes immunologiques (RIA ou immunoenzymatiques par ELISA. Des études récentes montrent l'évolution des techniques ELISA. Elles peuvent par exemple être utilisées dans la salive avec un seuil de positivité de la cotinine à 1 ng/mL permettant de définir une population imprégnée. Actuellement, nombreuses sont les études qui utilisent avec succès les techniques immunologiques en pédiatrie et en santé au travail. Les avantages apparaissent alors multiples notamment en termes de coût et de rapidité. Elles sont suffisamment sensibles et peuvent être utilisées pour différents types de matrices biologiques. It is well known today that tobacco exposure can be assessed by the measurement of several markers in biological fluids. Cotinine, a nicotine metabolite with a longer biological half-life than nicotine, is probably the most reliable index that can be used to measure exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in adults in the context of an exposure at workplace, and also in children. Additionally, cotinine appears to be a very useful marker to investigate the exposure of workers to organic solvents (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons... given that their concentrations and/or those of their metabolites can be influenced by tobacco smoke. Urine remains an accurate biological specimen to assess the level of tobacco exposure of individuals. A urinary cotinine level of 6 ng/mL (cut-off is a precise and sensitive test in discerning exposed children to tobacco smoke from non-exposed children. Other alternative biological specimens such as hair or saliva can also be used for this purpose. Hair cotinine has proved to be a reliable tool for evaluating the level of environmental tobacco smoke in a pediatric population. Saliva has been successfully applied in several studies amongst primary school children or in workers with a cut-off value for cotinine of 1 ng/mL. Various assays are presently available for the measurement of cotinine in biological specimens. Most of them are based on chromatographic (HPLC-UV, HPLC-MS, GC-MS or immunoassay methods (RIA, EIA. Recent studies showed that ELISA can be used to measure cotinine in saliva at a level as low as 1 ng/mL, this concentration being the cut-off allowing to distinguish individuals exposed to environmental tobacco smoke from individuals not exposed. Currently, many studies dealing

  6. Effect of Pilocarpine and Angiotensin II on Salivary Flow, Total Protein and Electrolyte Concentrations of Saliva

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson Abrao Saad; Laura Izabel Gutierrez; Regina Celia Vendramini; Andre Henrique Freiria de Oliveira; Luiz Antonio de Arruda Camargo; Gustavo Garcia

    2005-01-01

    Present studies have focused on the effect of intraperitonially i.p. injection of angiotensin II (ANG II) and pilocarpine on the salivary secretion, salivary amylase, saliva total proteins, saliva calcium sodium and potassium. Rats were anesthetized with urethane (1.25 g kg < SUP>-1 < /SUP> b. wt.). The amount of saliva secretion was studied over a 5 min period. Male Holtzman rats (250-300 g) were housed in individual metabolic cages, with free access to food pellets and tap water...

  7. Cotinine Levels in Asthmatic Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Delpisheh

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Asthmatic children are more at risk to environmental tobacco smoke exposure (ETS due to impaired lower airway function. Objective: To investigate the association of low socio-economic status and ETS exposure in asthmatic children. Design: A cross-sectional study on 425 primary school children (aged 5-11years in Merseyside, using a parent completed questionnaire and childrens’ saliva samples. Results: 25.9 % of children had doctor diagnosed asthma and 12 % had a history of hospital admission for respiratory illnesses. The symptom triad of cough, wheeze and breathlessness were reported for 8.5% of children. Mean cotinine level was 2.1 ng/ml (±0.6 SD. 45.6% of children were ETS exposed (cotinine levels >1.0 ng/ml. Asthmatic children and those from disadvantaged households were more likely to be ETS exposed, compared to non-asthmatic and those from advantaged households [OR=1.7 (95%CI=1.1-2.4] and [OR=2.1(1.8-3.2 respectively]. A synergic effect of parental asthma, deprivation and high cotinine levels on childhood asthma was observed in multivariate analysis. Conclusions: A high cotinine level was significantly associated with an increased risk of asthma in children particularly amongst disadvantaged households. Interventions aimed at limiting ETS exposure particularly among disadvantaged groups with asthmatic children are needed.

  8. Validation of self reported smoking by serum cotinine measurement in a community-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Vartiainen, E.; Seppala, T; Lillsunde, P; Puska, P

    2002-01-01

    Study objective: The validity of self reported smoking in population surveys remains an important question. An associated question is what would be the value of measuring serum cotinine concentrations in such surveys to obtain validated smoking data.

  9. Simultaneous determination of nicotine and cotinine in various human tissues using capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urakawa, N; Nagata, T; Kudo, K; Kimura, K; Imamura, T

    1994-01-01

    A reliable and sensitive method for the simultaneous determination of nicotine and cotinine concentrations in various human tissues was developed using capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Nicotine and cotinine were extracted using a 3-step solvent extraction procedure and quinoline as an internal standard. Quantification was carried out by single ion monitoring using ions of m/z 133 for nicotine, m/z 176 for cotinine and m/z 129 for quinoline. The lower limit of detection was 5 ng/g for nicotine and 10 ng/g for cotinine, in each tissue sample. The calibration curves of various tissues were linear in the concentration range from 5-1,200 ng/g for nicotine and 10-1,500 ng/g for cotinine. The accuracy and precision of this method were examined using human tissues and the results were satisfactory. The distribution of nicotine and cotinine was measured in tissues from 10 human autopsies. Nicotine was detected in every tissue examined at a level seen in habitual smokers. The nicotine concentration was high in the liver, kidney, spleen and lung, and low in adipose tissue. The cotinine level was highest in the liver. The tissue/blood concentration ratios of nicotine and cotinine were most stable in skeletal muscle, where the level of these drugs was close to that in whole blood. Skeletal muscle is, therefore, considered to be the most suitable tissue sample for toxicological examination, when acquisition of blood samples is not feasible. PMID:8068568

  10. Salivary mucoceles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall incidence of salivary gland disease in dogs and cats is low. Salivary mucocele is the most frequently diagnosed disease of salivary glands. Mucoceles consist of collections of saliva in subcutaneous, sublingual, pharyngeal, or periorbital locations. Definitive therapy of salivary mucoceles consists of excision of the affected salivary gland and mucocele drainage

  11. Passive smoking and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke: prospective study with cotinine measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Whincup, PH; Gilg, JA; Emberson, JR; Jarvis, MJ; Feyerabend, C.; Bryant, A.; Walker, M; Cook, DG

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between a biomarker of overall passive exposure to tobacco smoke (serum cotinine concentration) and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. DESIGN: Prospective population based study in general practice (the British regional heart study). PARTICIPANTS: 4729 men in 18 towns who provided baseline blood samples (for cotinine assay) and a detailed smoking history in 1978-80. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Major coronary heart disease and stroke events (fatal and n...

  12. Determination of nicotine and cotinine in meconium from Greek neonates and correlation with birth weight and gestational age at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsinisizeli, Nikoleta; Sotiroudis, Georgios; Xenakis, Aristotelis; Lykeridou, Katerina E

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco exposure during pregnancy is a major factor of morbidity and mortality for both the pregnant woman and the fetus. Several studies in the past have detected and quantified tobacco smoke biomarkers in infant meconium samples. Aim of this study was to measure prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke by detecting nicotine and cotinine in meconium and to try to evaluate the extent of exposure to smoke through passive smoking as well as the relationship between tobacco biomarker meconium concentrations and neonatal outcomes. Tobacco smoke biomarkers nicotine and cotinine were detected and quantitated in meconium from tobacco exposed and non-exposed Greek neonates using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The study included 45 neonates from active, passive and non-smoking women during pregnancy. The results showed significant values of nicotine and cotinine concentration in neonates from both active and passive smokers which reached 125 ng g(-1) for nicotine and 98.5 ng g(-1) for cotinine and varied according to the type and level of exposure. In general nicotine and cotinine concentrations correlated with the degree of active smoking by the mother. Similarly, nicotine and cotinine were measured in the meconium of infants of passive smokers at concentrations comparable to those of infants whose mothers were moderate smokers. Our findings show that exposure of the fetus to tobacco biomarkers can be substantial even in passive maternal smoking and there is a statistically significant negative correlation between nicotine or cotinine concentrations in meconium and birth weight or gestational age at birth. PMID:25460762

  13. Salivary Oxytocin Concentrations in Seven Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder Received Massage from Their Mothers: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Shuji; Yuhi, Teruko; Furuhara, Kazumi; Ohta, Shogo; Shimizu, Yuto; Higashida, Haruhiro

    2015-01-01

    Seven male children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), aged 8–12?years, attending special education classrooms for ASD and disabled children, were assigned to receive touch therapy. Their mothers were instructed to provide gentle touch in the massage style of the International Liddle Kidz Association. The mothers gave massages to their child for 20?min every day over a period of 3?months, followed by no massage for 4?months. To assess the biological effects of such touch therapy, saliva was collected before and 20?min after a single session of massage for 20?min from the children and mothers every 3?weeks during the massage period and every 4?weeks during the non-massage period, when they visited a community meeting room. Salivary oxytocin levels were measured using an enzyme immunoassay kit. During the period of massage therapy, the children and mothers exhibited higher oxytocin concentrations compared to those during the non-massage period. The changes in oxytocin levels before and after a single massage session were not significantly changed in children and mothers. The results suggested that the ASD children (massage receivers) and their mothers (massage givers) show touch therapy-dependent changes in salivary oxytocin concentrations. PMID:25954210

  14. Salivary oxytocin concentrations in seven boys with autism spectrum disorder received massage from their mothers: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Shuji; Yuhi, Teruko; Furuhara, Kazumi; Ohta, Shogo; Shimizu, Yuto; Higashida, Haruhiro

    2015-01-01

    Seven male children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), aged 8-12?years, attending special education classrooms for ASD and disabled children, were assigned to receive touch therapy. Their mothers were instructed to provide gentle touch in the massage style of the International Liddle Kidz Association. The mothers gave massages to their child for 20?min every day over a period of 3?months, followed by no massage for 4?months. To assess the biological effects of such touch therapy, saliva was collected before and 20?min after a single session of massage for 20?min from the children and mothers every 3?weeks during the massage period and every 4?weeks during the non-massage period, when they visited a community meeting room. Salivary oxytocin levels were measured using an enzyme immunoassay kit. During the period of massage therapy, the children and mothers exhibited higher oxytocin concentrations compared to those during the non-massage period. The changes in oxytocin levels before and after a single massage session were not significantly changed in children and mothers. The results suggested that the ASD children (massage receivers) and their mothers (massage givers) show touch therapy-dependent changes in salivary oxytocin concentrations. PMID:25954210

  15. Ruminal and salivary concentration of some sulphonamides in cows and their effect on rumen flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atef, M; Salem, A A; Al-Samarrae, S A; Zafer, S A

    1979-07-01

    Sulphadiazine, sulphatiazole and sulphamerazine were shown to be excreted through the ruminal wall and salivary glands of cows. These sulphonamides had a slight inhibitory effect on cellulose digestion and on the activity of rumen infusoria. Acetylation of the sulphonamides occurred to a slight extent. Sulphatiazole was more acetylated (16.2 per cent) than sulphadiazine (7.0 per cent) or sulphamerazine (8.4 per cent). The rate of elimination of the three compounds, as indicated by their half lives, showed that sulphathiazole was the most rapidly excreted (2 h), whereas sulphadiazine and sulphamerazine were more slowly excreted, 5.4 and 7.1 h respectively. PMID:504811

  16. A simplified method for the analysis of urinary cotinine by GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos da Cunha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cotinine is the major metabolite of nicotine and, being very stable and having a long biological half-life, it can be used as a biomarker for tobacco exposure. The aim of this study was to develop an analytical GC-MS technique to measure levels of cotinine in the urine of active and passive smokers and to compare the results with reference values. The extraction of cotinine to generate the calibration curve was performed by mixing urine (250 µL with 50 µL of a cotinine standard, 50 µL of an internal standard of deuterated cotinine (15 µg?mL-1 and 50 µL of 10% NH4 OH solution. Next, 2 mL of a mixture of MTBE:dichloromethane:ethyl acetate (30:30:40 by volume was added and the whole was vortexed, then centrifuged at 3000 rpm. Finally, 1.6 mL of the organic layer was evaporated under a stream of dry air at 50 °C. The resulting extract was dissolved in methanol and injected into the GC-MS system. The LOQ and LOD for cotinine were 100 and 20 ng?mL-1, respectively. The curve was linear over the whole tested range of 100 - 5000 ng?mL-1 and the method achieved 50% recovery. The intra and inter-day precisions were 1.62 – 7.28% and 0.86 – 2.68%, respectively. Accuracy was determined at three concentrations (low, medium and high, with six replicates (95.24 – 97.67%. The validation of this cotinine assay by GC-MS showed that it exhibited satisfactory limits and the assay could be performed with a one-step liquid-liquid extraction. The technique presented here can thus be used for the quantitation of cotinine levels in the urine of passive and active smokers.

  17. Flujo y concentración de proteínas en saliva total humana / Salivary flow rate and protein concentration in human whole saliva

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    JOSÉ ANTONIO, BANDERAS-TARABAY; MIREYA, GONZÁLEZ-BEGNÉ; MARTHA, SÁNCHEZ-GARDUÑO; ELVA, MILLÁN-CORTÉZ; ARACELI, LÓPEZ-RODRÍGUEZ; ARACELI, VILCHIS-VELÁZQUEZ.

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar los promedios de flujo salival y la concentración de proteínas totales en una población joven del Estado de México. Material y métodos. Se seleccionaron 120 sujetos a quienes se les colectó saliva total humana (STH) no estimulada y estimulada, la cual se analizó por medio de gra [...] vimetría y espectrofotometría (LV/LU); se calcularon medidas de tendencia central y de dispersión; posteriormente, se correlacionaron estos datos con los índices CPOD y CPITN. Resultados. Los sujetos estudiados mostraron un promedio de flujo salival (ml/min ± DE) en STH no estimulada de 0.397±.26, y en STH estimulada, de 0.973±.53. El promedio en la concentración de proteínas (mg/ml ± DE) fue de 1.374±.45 en STH no estimulada y de 1.526±.44 en STH estimulada. Las mujeres presentaron un menor porcentaje de flujo salival y mayor concentración de proteínas. No se observaron correlaciones entre el flujo y la concentración de proteínas totales y el CPOD y CPITN; sin embargo, sí las hubo con otras variables. Conclusiones. Estos hallazgos podrían estar asociados con el grado de nutrición, las características genéticas y los niveles de salud bucal en nuestra población. El presente estudio representa la fase inicial de la creación de una base de datos en sialoquímica, cuya meta será identificar los parámetros que indiquen el riesgo de enfermedades sistémicas o bucodentales. Abstract in english Objective. To determine the average salivary flow rates and total protein concentrations in a population of the State of Mexico. Material and methods. A gravimetric and spectrophotometric analysis was applied to 120 subjects in total resting and stimulated whole saliva and results were correlated wi [...] th the DMFT and CPITN indexes. Results. Subjects allowed average salivary flow rate (ml/min ± SD) in non-stimulated human whole saliva (HWS) of 0.397±.26 and in stimulated HWS of 0.973±.53. Average protein concentration was (mg/ml ± SD) 1.374±.45 in non-stimulated HWS and 1.526±.44 in stimulated HWS. Females showed a lower percentage of salivary flow and greater protein concentrations. No correlations were observed between flow and total protein concentration, and DMFT and CPITN; however, correlations were present with other variables. Conclusions. These findings could be associated to degree of nutrition, genetic characteristics and level of oral disease in our population. Present results represent the first step to create a database in sialochemistry to identify risk indicators of specific oral and systemic diseases.

  18. Flujo y concentración de proteínas en saliva total humana Salivary flow rate and protein concentration in human whole saliva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ ANTONIO BANDERAS-TARABAY

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar los promedios de flujo salival y la concentración de proteínas totales en una población joven del Estado de México. Material y métodos. Se seleccionaron 120 sujetos a quienes se les colectó saliva total humana (STH no estimulada y estimulada, la cual se analizó por medio de gravimetría y espectrofotometría (LV/LU; se calcularon medidas de tendencia central y de dispersión; posteriormente, se correlacionaron estos datos con los índices CPOD y CPITN. Resultados. Los sujetos estudiados mostraron un promedio de flujo salival (ml/min ± DE en STH no estimulada de 0.397±.26, y en STH estimulada, de 0.973±.53. El promedio en la concentración de proteínas (mg/ml ± DE fue de 1.374±.45 en STH no estimulada y de 1.526±.44 en STH estimulada. Las mujeres presentaron un menor porcentaje de flujo salival y mayor concentración de proteínas. No se observaron correlaciones entre el flujo y la concentración de proteínas totales y el CPOD y CPITN; sin embargo, sí las hubo con otras variables. Conclusiones. Estos hallazgos podrían estar asociados con el grado de nutrición, las características genéticas y los niveles de salud bucal en nuestra población. El presente estudio representa la fase inicial de la creación de una base de datos en sialoquímica, cuya meta será identificar los parámetros que indiquen el riesgo de enfermedades sistémicas o bucodentales.Objective. To determine the average salivary flow rates and total protein concentrations in a population of the State of Mexico. Material and methods. A gravimetric and spectrophotometric analysis was applied to 120 subjects in total resting and stimulated whole saliva and results were correlated with the DMFT and CPITN indexes. Results. Subjects allowed average salivary flow rate (ml/min ± SD in non-stimulated human whole saliva (HWS of 0.397±.26 and in stimulated HWS of 0.973±.53. Average protein concentration was (mg/ml ± SD 1.374±.45 in non-stimulated HWS and 1.526±.44 in stimulated HWS. Females showed a lower percentage of salivary flow and greater protein concentrations. No correlations were observed between flow and total protein concentration, and DMFT and CPITN; however, correlations were present with other variables. Conclusions. These findings could be associated to degree of nutrition, genetic characteristics and level of oral disease in our population. Present results represent the first step to create a database in sialochemistry to identify risk indicators of specific oral and systemic diseases.

  19. A comparative analysis of the influence of human salivary enzymes on odorant concentration in three palm wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasekan, Ola

    2013-01-01

    The influence of human salivary enzymes on palm wines' odorant concentrations were investigated by the application of aroma extracts dilution analysis (AEDA) and by the calculation of odour activity values (OAVs), respectively. The odorants were quantified by means of stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA), and the degradation profiles of odorants by human saliva were also studied. Results revealed 46 odour-active compounds in the flavour dilution (FD) factor range of 4-256, and all were subsequently identified. Of the 46 odorants, 41 were identified in the Elaeis guineensis wine, 36 in Raphia hookeri wine and 29 in Borassus flabellifer wine. Among the odorants, the highest FD-factors were obtained from acetoin, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine. Among the 13 potent odorants identified, five aroma compounds are reported here as important contributors to palm wine aroma, namely 3-isobutyl-2-methoxy-pyrazine, acetoin, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-methylbutylacetate and ethyl hexanoate. Meanwhile, salivary enzymic degradation of odorants was more pronounced among the aldehydes, esters and thiols. PMID:24071987

  20. A Comparative Analysis of the Influence of Human Salivary Enzymes on Odorant Concentration in Three Palm Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Lasekan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of human salivary enzymes on palm wines’ odorant concentrations were investigated by the application of aroma extracts dilution analysis (AEDA and by the calculation of odour activity values (OAVs, respectively. The odorants were quantified by means of stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA, and the degradation profiles of odorants by human saliva were also studied. Results revealed 46 odour-active compounds in the flavour dilution (FD factor range of 4-256, and all were subsequently identified. Of the 46 odorants, 41 were identified in the Elaeis guineensis wine, 36 in Raphia hookeri wine and 29 in Borassus flabellifer wine. Among the odorants, the highest FD-factors were obtained from acetoin, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine. Among the 13 potent odorants identified, five aroma compounds are reported here as important contributors to palm wine aroma, namely 3-isobutyl-2-methoxy-pyrazine, acetoin, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-methylbutylacetate and ethyl hexanoate. Meanwhile, salivary enzymic degradation of odorants was more pronounced among the aldehydes, esters and thiols.

  1. Use of Anti-Aedes aegypti Salivary Extract Antibody Concentration to Correlate Risk of Vector Exposure and Dengue Transmission Risk in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Londono-Renteria, Berlin; Cardenas, Jenny C.; Cardenas, Lucio D.; Christofferson, Rebecca C; Chisenhall, Daniel M; Wesson, Dawn M.; McCracken, Michael K.; Carvajal, Daisy; Mores, Christopher N

    2013-01-01

    Norte de Santander is a region in Colombia with a high incidence of dengue virus (DENV). In this study, we examined the serum concentration of anti-Aedes salivary gland extract (SGE) antibodies as a biomarker of DENV infection and transmission, and assessed the duration of anti-SGE antibody concentration after exposure to the vector ceased. We also determined whether SGE antibody concentration could differentiate between positive and negative DENV infected individuals and whether there are di...

  2. May Salivary Gland Secretory Proteins from Hematophagous Leeches (Hirudo verbana) Reach Pharmacologically Relevant Concentrations in the Vertebrate Host?

    OpenAIRE

    Lemke, Sarah; Mu?ller, Christian; Lipke, Elisabeth; Uhl, Gabriele; Hildebrandt, Jan-peter

    2013-01-01

    Saliva of hematophagous leeches (Hirudo sp.) contains bioactive proteins which allow the leech proper feeding and storage of ingested blood, but may also exert effects in the host. Leech therapy is used to treat many different ailments in humans, although only a small fraction of salivary proteins are characterized yet. Moreover, we do not know whether complete transfer of salivary proteins stored in the unicellular salivary glands in a leech to the host during feeding may generate concentrat...

  3. Concentración de ?-amilasa salival en niños con diferentes índices de caries / Salivary ?-Amylase Concentration in Children with Different Caries Indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Patricia Lamby Tovar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: La a-amilasa salival humana (AASH es la proteína más abundante en la saliva; tiene varias funciones que la hacen especial desde el punto de vista cariogénico, por lo cual puede estar relacionada con el índice de caries. Propósito: Determinar las diferencias en la concentración de AASH en niños con diferentes índices de caries. Métodos: Se obtuvieron muestras de saliva de 100 niños que se clasificaron dentro de cuatro de las siete categorías del Sistema Internacional de Valoración y Detección de Caries (ICDAS, con 25 individuos por grupo: sanos, opacidad blanca, microcavidad y cavidad extensa. Se determinó la cantidad total de proteína por el método de Bradford y la concentración AASH por medio de la técnica de Elisa indirecta. Los valores obtenidos de proteína total y AASH fueron analizados por medio del software Stata versión 9.2. Resultados: Al comparar las medias de la concentración de proteína total en los cuatro grupos de estudio, no hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas. Los promedios de la concentración de AASH en tres de los cuatro grupos: sanos, microcavidad y opacidad blanca, no presentaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas. En el grupo de cavidad extensa, este valor fue menor, diferencia que fue estadísticamente significativa con respecto a los otros tres grupos. Conclusión: La menor concentración de AASH en el grupo con cavidad extensa posiblemente indica que, dada la redundancia funcional de esta enzima, la protección de las superficies orales es de mayor importancia. Background: Human salivary a-amylase (HSAA is the most abundant protein in saliva, has several functions that make it of special interest from a cariogenic point of view, thus may be related to the caries indexes. Purpose: Determine the differences according to the quantified amounts of HSAA in the saliva of children with different caries indexes. Methods: Salivary samples were obtained via spontaneous salivation from a total of 100 children, who were assigned into four groups (n=25 each according to four categories of the International Caries Detection & Assessment System (ICDAS: sound, white opacity, microcavity and extensive cavity. The total quantity of protein present in each of the samples was determined through the Bradford Method and the concentration of HSAA was determined by an indirect ELISA technique. Non-parametric statistical was perform with Stata 9.2 software. Results: Non-significant statistical differences for variable total protein in the four groups were found. The concentration of HSAA showed statistically significant differences between groups of individuals with white opacity and extensive cavities, microcavity and extensive cavity, and sound and extensive cavity. Conclusions: The findings suggest that from the different functions identified for HSAA, protection of the tooth surfaces has a major relevance.

  4. Time to first cigarette after waking predicts cotinine levels

    OpenAIRE

    Muscat, Joshua E.; Stellman, Steven D; Caraballo, Ralph S.; Richie, John P.

    2009-01-01

    There is wide variability in cotinine levels per cigarette smoked. We hypothesized that in addition to smoking frequency, other behavioral measures of nicotine dependence such as the time to first cigarette after waking are associated with cotinine levels. To test this hypothesis, we measured plasma and urinary cotinine in a community-based study of 252 black and white daily cigarette smokers. Results: Among one pack per day smokers, plasma cotinine levels varied from 16 to 1180 (ng/ml), a 74...

  5. The effects of a formal exercise training programme on salivary hormone concentrations and body composition in previously sedentary aging men

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Lawrence D; Grace, Fergal M; Sculthorpe, Nick; Herbert, Peter; Ratcliffe, John WT; Kilduff, Liam P.; Julien S. Baker

    2013-01-01

    Alteration in body composition, physical function, and substrate metabolism occur with advancing age. These changes may be attenuated by exercise. This study examined whether twenty eight, previously sedentary males (62.5 ± 5.3 years of age; body mass of 89.7 ± 16.4 kg) adhering to the ACSM minimum guidelines for aerobic exercise for six weeks would improve exercise capabilities, body composition and salivary hormone profiles. After six weeks of adhering to the guidelines, salivary testoste...

  6. Variation of serum and urine cotinine in passive and active smokers and applicability in preconceptional smoking cessation counseling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study assessed the applicability of serum and urine cotinine as a biochemical marker of self-reported smoking habits for use in a preconception smoking cessation program. The variation of serum and urine cotinine over the course of the day was investigated in a sample of 21 smokers and 8 passive smokers who reported their smoking habits and exposure to smoke daily in a questionnaire for 10 consecutive days. Blood and urine samples were collected on two sampling days, 1 week apart. Both serum and urine cotinine assay could distinguish between passive and active smokers, but not between higher categories of smokers (1019 and ?20 cigarettes per ay) due to significant intersubject overlap. In serum, no significant differences were found between morning and afternoon cotinine concentrations in either day, in contrast to urine cotinine (with lower excretions observed n the morning). An overall coefficient of variation of 22- was observed for both specimens in smokers. Because serum cotinine is subject to lower variability over the course of the day, it is more practical for use in a clinical setting where appointments are scheduled throughout the day in order o confirm smoking status

  7. Determinants of serum cotinine and hair cotinine as biomarkers of childhood secondhand smoke exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Kalkbrenner, Amy E.; Hornung, Richard W.; BERNERT, JOHN T.; Hammond, S. Katherine; BRAUN, Joe M.; Lanphear, Bruce P.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the determinants of childhood secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is important in measuring and preventing exposure to this widespread environmental contaminant. We evaluated the ability of a broad set of factors to explain variability in serum cotinine, reflecting recent exposure, and hair cotinine, reflecting longer-term exposure. We included repeated measures from 223 elementary-school-age asthmatic children residing with a smoker. We used a manual model-building approach and lik...

  8. Salivary biomarkers in psychobiological medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Chiappelli, Francesco; Iribarren, Francisco Javier; Prolo, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    The value of salivary biomarkers for diagnostic and prognostic assessments has become increasingly well established in medicine, pharmacology, and dentistry. Certain salivary components mirror the neuro-endocrine status of the organism. Other saliva products are protein in nature, and can serve to reflect immune surveillance processes. The autonomic nervous system regulates the process of salivation, and the concentration of yet o...

  9. Effect of Non-surgical Periodontal Therapy on Serum and Salivary Concentrations of Visfatin in Patients with Chronic Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolfazli, Nader; Jabali, Sahar; Saleh Saber, Fariba; Babaloo, Zohreh; Shirmohammadi, Adileh

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Visfatin, mainly secreted by visceral adipose tissue, especially by macrophages, plays an important role in regulating the defense and immune functions, and functions as a growth factor, a cytokine, an enzyme and more importantly as a proinflammatory mediator. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of non-surgical periodontal treatment on serum and salivary levels of visfatin in patients with generalized moderate-to-severe chronic periodontitis. Materials and methods. Eighteen patients with generalized moderate-to-severe chronic periodontitis were selected based on periodontal parameters of gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL) and radiographic parameters. Serum and salivary samples were collected at baseline and one month following non-surgical periodontal therapy (scaling and root planing ([SRP]). Visfatin levels were measured using an ELISA kit. Data were analyzed by SPSS 15, using paired t-test and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results. Mean salivary and serum levels of visfatin significantly decreased after non-surgical periodontal treatment (P<0.05). Changes in salivary visfatin levels were more prominent. Conclusion. According to the findings of this study it seems that there is a direct relationship between periodontal tissue inflammation and disease activity with salivary and serum visfatin levels. PMID:25973148

  10. The effects of a formal exercise training programme on salivary hormone concentrations and body composition in previously sedentary aging men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Lawrence D; Grace, Fergal M; Sculthorpe, Nick; Herbert, Peter; Ratcliffe, John Wt; Kilduff, Liam P; Baker, Julien S

    2013-12-01

    Alteration in body composition, physical function, and substrate metabolism occur with advancing age. These changes may be attenuated by exercise. This study examined whether twenty eight, previously sedentary males (62.5 ± 5.3 years of age; body mass of 89.7 ± 16.4 kg) adhering to the ACSM minimum guidelines for aerobic exercise for six weeks would improve exercise capabilities, body composition and salivary hormone profiles. After six weeks of adhering to the guidelines, salivary testosterone and vo(2max) (absolute and relative) increased (p < 0.05), whilst body fat percentage and body mass decreased (p < 0.05). Peak power output, fat free mass and cortisol values were not significantly different. Interestingly, salivary testosterone correlated inversely with body fat percentage (R(2) = .285, p = 0.011). These results suggest that despite previous inactivity, older males can achieve improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition and anabolism by adhering to simple lifestyle changes. PMID:23396630

  11. Deuterium isotope effects in the in vivo metabolism of cotinine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an attempt to further understanding of the molecular mechanisms associated with the mammalian oxidative metabolism of foreign substances, the deuterium isotope effect involved in the in vivo metabolism of the tobacco alkaloid cotinine was investigated. Mixtures of cotinine-d0 and cotinine-3,3-d2 in varying ratios were administered to Rhesus monkeys. Unchanged drug and several of its oxidized metabolites including trans-3-hydroxycotinine were isolated from the 24-hr urine collection. The deuterium contents of these isolated compounds were found to be greater than that present in the administered cotinine except for trans-3-hydroxycotinine which showed a substantial decrease in the deuterium to proton ratio. On the basis of these determinations the deuterium isotope effect for the 3-hydroxylation of cotinine was calculated to be between 6 and 7, indicating that carbon--hydrogen bond cleavage is likely to be involved in the rate-determining step in this metabolic conversion. (U.S.)

  12. Providing Coaching and Cotinine Results to Preteens to Reduce Their Secondhand Smoke Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlgren, Dennis R.; Liles, Sandy; Jones, Jennifer A.; Hughes, Suzanne C.; Matt, Georg E.; Ji, Ming; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N.; Swan, Gary E.; Chatfield, Dale; Ding, Ding

    2011-01-01

    Background: Secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) poses health risks to children living with smokers. Most interventions to protect children from SHSe have coached adult smokers. This trial determined whether coaching and cotinine feedback provided to preteens can reduce their SHSe. Methods: Two hundred one predominantly low-income families with a resident smoker and a child aged 8 to 13 years who was exposed to two or more cigarettes per day or had a urine cotinine concentration ? 2.0 ng/mL were randomized to control or SHSe reduction coaching groups. During eight in-home sessions over 5 months, coaches presented to the child graphic charts of cotinine assay results as performance feedback and provided differential praise and incentives for cotinine reductions. Generalized estimating equations were used to determine the differential change in SHSe over time by group. Results: For the baseline to posttest period, the coaching group had a greater decrease in both urine cotinine concentration (P = .039) and reported child SHSe in the number of cigarettes exposed per day (child report, P = .003; parent report, P = .078). For posttest to month 12 follow-up, no group or group by time differences were obtained, and both groups returned toward baseline. Conclusions: Coaching preteens can reduce their SHSe, although reductions may not be sustained without ongoing counseling, feedback, and incentives. Unlike interventions that coach adults to reduce child SHSe, programs that increase child avoidance of SHSe have the potential to reduce SHSe in all settings in which the child is exposed, without requiring a change in adult smoking behavior. PMID:21474574

  13. Serum cotinine level as predictor of lung cancer risk.

    OpenAIRE

    P. Boffetta; Clark, S.; Shen, M; Gislefoss, R; Peto, R; Andersen, A

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: No prospective studies are available on serum cotinine level as a marker of lung cancer risk. METHODS: We analyzed serum cotinine level among 1,741 individuals enrolled since the 1970s in a prospective study of Norwegian volunteers who developed lung cancer during the follow-up and 1,741 matched controls free from lung cancer. Serum cotinine was measured with a competitive immunoassay. Regression dilution was corrected for based on repeated measures on samples from 747 subjects. R...

  14. Racial Differences in Serum Cotinine Levels of Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Signorello, Lisa B.; Qiuyin Cai; Tarone, Robert E; McLaughlin, Joseph K; Blot, William J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate black/white differences in cotinine levels for current smokers of both sexes, and to explore the potential contribution of mentholated cigarettes to these differences. Sera from 255 current smokers sampled from Southern Community Cohort Study participants (65 black men, 65 black women, 63 white men, 62 white women) were analyzed for cotinine, and linear regression was used to model the effect of race on cotinine level, adjusting for the number of ciga...

  15. Salivary stones: symptoms, aetiology, biochemical composition and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraaij, S; Karagozoglu, K H; Forouzanfar, T; Veerman, E C I; Brand, H S

    2014-12-01

    Salivary stones, also known as sialoliths, are calcified concrements in the salivary glands. Sialoliths are more frequently located in the submandibular gland (84%), than in the parotid gland (13%). The majority of the submandibular stones are located in Wharton's duct (90%), whereas parotid stones are more often located in the gland itself. Salivary stones consist of an amorphous mineralised nucleus, surrounded by concentric laminated layers of organic and inorganic substances. The organic components of salivary stones include collagen, glycoproteins, amino acids and carbohydrates. The major inorganic components are hydroxyapatite, carbonate apatite, whitlockite and brushite. The management of salivary stones is focused on removing the salivary stones and preservation of salivary gland function which depends on the size and location of the stone. Conservative management of salivary stones consists of salivary gland massage and the use of sialogogues. Other therapeutic options include removal of the stone or in some cases surgical removal of the whole salivary gland. PMID:25476659

  16. Combined analysis of the tobacco metabolites cotinine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol in human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotandeniya, Delshanee; Carmella, Steven G; Ming, Xun; Murphy, Sharon E; Hecht, Stephen S

    2015-02-01

    Two of the most widely measured compounds in the urine of people who use tobacco products are cotinine, a major metabolite of the addictive constituent nicotine, and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), a metabolite of the powerful lung carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). Thousands of analyses have been reported in the literature, carried out exclusively, to the best of our knowledge, by separate methods. In the study reported here, we have developed a sensitive, accurate, and precise liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry-selected reaction monitoring method for the combined analysis of total cotinine (the sum of cotinine and its glucuronide) and total NNAL (the sum of NNAL and its glucuronide). The new method quantifies naturally occurring [(13)C]cotinine to minimize problems associated with the vast differences in concentration of total cotinine and total NNAL in urine. This method should greatly facilitate future determinations of these important compounds. PMID:25544129

  17. Determination of a saliva cotinine cut-off to distinguish pregnant smokers from pregnant non-smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne

    2007-01-01

    Objective validation of smoking status is necessary. Earlier studies have used saliva cotinine concentrations between 14.2 and 30 ng/ml as cut-off values to distinguish pregnant smokers from non-smokers. However, these cut-offs derive from studies including men and non-pregnant women. This constitutes a problem, as recent studies have reported an accelerated metabolism in pregnant smokers. The aim of this study was to determine the optimum cut-off cotinine level distinguishing pregnant smokers from pregnant non-smokers.

  18. Use of Anti-Aedes aegypti Salivary Extract Antibody Concentration to Correlate Risk of Vector Exposure and Dengue Transmission Risk in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londono-Renteria, Berlin; Cardenas, Jenny C.; Cardenas, Lucio D.; Christofferson, Rebecca C.; Chisenhall, Daniel M.; Wesson, Dawn M.; McCracken, Michael K.; Carvajal, Daisy; Mores, Christopher N.

    2013-01-01

    Norte de Santander is a region in Colombia with a high incidence of dengue virus (DENV). In this study, we examined the serum concentration of anti-Aedes salivary gland extract (SGE) antibodies as a biomarker of DENV infection and transmission, and assessed the duration of anti-SGE antibody concentration after exposure to the vector ceased. We also determined whether SGE antibody concentration could differentiate between positive and negative DENV infected individuals and whether there are differences in exposure for each DENV serotype. We observed a significant decrease in the concentration of IgG antibodies at least 40 days after returning to an “Ae. aegypti-free” area. In addition, we found significantly higher anti-SGE IgG concentrations in DENV positive patients with some difference in exposure to mosquito bites among DENV serotypes. We conclude that the concentration of IgG antibodies against SGE is an accurate indicator of risk of dengue virus transmission and disease presence. PMID:24312537

  19. Salivary diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, D T W

    2012-01-01

    Saliva is a noninvasive and accessible biofluid that permits early detection of oral and systemic diseases. Recent scientific and technologic advances have uncovered specific salivary biomarkers for a number of clinical conditions, including cancers, autoimmune diseases, and cardiovascular disorders. The availability of highly sensitive and high-throughput assays such as microarray, mass spectrometry, reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and nano-scale sensors that can measure proteins and nucleic acids are poising saliva as an emerging biofluid for translational and clinical applications. This paper will discuss development of salivary biomarkers for the detection of oral and systemic diseases and the translational application of these markers for clinical applications. PMID:22788724

  20. Comparación de la concentración total de proteínas salivales de adultos y adultos mayores Comparison of total salivary protein concentration in adults and older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RJ Castro

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Entre las moléculas orgánicas que componen la saliva se han descrito un gran número de proteínas. No existe evidencia suficiente que permita especular sobre los cambios en el contenido proteico salival asociados al envejecimiento normal. El objetivo fue determinar si existen diferencias en la concentración total de proteínas en saliva de adultos y adultos mayores. Método: Se obtuvieron muestras de saliva estimulada y no estimulada de individuos pertenecientes a dos grupos etarios, adultos (A (n=30 (edad promedio: 25 años y adultos mayores (AM (n=30 (edad promedio: 68 años. Se excluyeron aquellos sujetos que presentaron alguna patología oral/sistémica o consumo de fármacos/sustancias relacionados con alteraciones del flujo o composición salival. Cada muestra fue centrifugada. A 10 µl del sobrenadante se agregaron 190 µl de solución de Bradford. Se realizó el recuento mediante lectura con espectrofotómetro (595 nm. La concentración de proteínas fue comparada entre los grupos en estudio utilizando la prueba t de Student (pObjective: A high number of proteins has been described in saliva. Scarce evidence allows to speculate about the variations on protein content associated with aging. The aim was to determine if there is a difference in total protein concentration between adults and older adults. Methods: Samples were collected from unstimulated and stimulated saliva of individuals from two age groups, adults (A (n=30 (mean age 25 years and older adults (OA (n=30(mean age: 68 years. Subjects with oral/systemic diseases or consuming medications that alter salivary flow were excluded from the study. Each sample was centrifuged and 10 ?l of the supernatant was added to 190 ?l of Bradford solution. Protein concentration was obtained by spectrophotometry (595 nm Protein concentration was compared between the groups using student’s t test (p<0.05. Results: Total protein concentration from unstimulated saliva was higher in OA (5.5±2.6 ug/ul than in A (3.2 ± 1.7 ug/ul (p<0.05. Total protein concentration of stimulated saliva was higher in OA (4.9±0.4 ug/ul than in A (4.0±0.3 ug/ul (p<0.05. Conclusion: Salivary protein concentration increases in older adults. Further studies are suggested to characterize these changes.

  1. Who is stressed? A pilot study of salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase concentrations in agoraphobic patients and their novice therapists undergoing in vivo exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Sarah; Gaudlitz, Katharina; Plag, Jens; Miller, Robert; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Fehm, Lydia; Fydrich, Thomas; Ströhle, Andreas

    2014-11-01

    In cognitive behavioural therapy of phobic anxiety, in vivo exposure is considered as an effective treatment strategy. Apparently, it involves the experience of stress and anxiety in patients. Given the therapist's role during exposure sessions, it is conceivable that the performance is also accompanied with the experience of stress in therapists, especially when unversed in conducting psychotherapy. Studies confirmed that cognitive behavioural therapists tend to avoid therapist-guided in vivo exposure. The objective of this study was the simultaneous investigation of therapist's and patient's stress response during in vivo exposure. Therefore, 23 agoraphobic patients and their 23 treating therapists in training provided five saliva samples during an in vivo exposure and five samples during an ordinary therapy session. Before and during exposure session, subjective evaluations of stress and anxiety were assessed. Results suggested that therapists reported similar levels of perceived stress as patients before exposure. Both groups displayed significantly elevated salivary cortisol (sC) levels during exposure compared to the control session and a trend for alterations in salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) activity was found. Therapists reached peak concentrations of sC before start of the intervention followed by a decline during exposure, while patients displayed peak levels of cortisol secretion after 60 min of exposure. In vivo exposure seems to be a demanding intervention not only for the patient, but also for therapists in training. However, it was also demonstrated that physiological and subjective stress rather decrease during the intervention and that both groups rated exposure to be substantially successful. Based on the presented results, another potential factor contributing to the under-usage of exposure treatment is conceivable and needs to be addressed in future research. PMID:25127086

  2. Relationship between Caregivers’ Smoking at Home and Urinary Levels of Cotinine in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the impact of different smoking behaviors of caregivers on environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure in children aged 5–6 years in Changsha, China. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, random digit-dial telephone survey of caregivers (n = 543 between August and October 2013. Caregivers’ smoking behaviors were collected by a questionnaire. Exposure assessment was based upon determination of urinary cotinine levels in children employing gas chromatography–triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS. Results: In children not living with a smoker, children living with one smoker, and children living with more than one smoker at home, median urinary cotinine concentrations (ng/mL were 0.72, 2.97, and 4.46, respectively. For children living with one smoker, median urinary cotinine levels of children exposed to ETS were associated with caregiver smoking behaviors, i.e., if a caregiver consumed more cigarettes (>20 compared with ?10; 7.73 versus 2.29 ng/mL, respectively. Conclusions: The magnitude of ETS exposure in children is correlated with the smoking behaviors of the caregiver. Counseling for smoking cessation and educational interventions are needed urgently for smoking caregivers to increase their awareness about ETS exposure and to encourage smoking cessation at home or to take precautions to protect children’s health.

  3. The influence of parental smoking and family type on saliva cotinine in UK ethnic minority children: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harding Seeromanie

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the United Kingdom, there has been an increase in cigarette smoking in ethnic minority adults since the 1970s; in some groups levels are now similar to that of White British people. We aimed to examine the determinants of exposure to secondhand smoke in ethnic minority children. We hypothesised that exposure to secondhand smoke in children will vary across ethnic groups, but that the correlates of exposure would be similar to that of Whites. Methods The Determinants of Adolescent Social well-being and Health sample comprises 3468 White United Kingdom and ethnic minority (Black Caribbean, Black African, Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi pupils aged 11-13 yrs. Outcome was saliva cotinine concentration. Explanatory variables collected by self-complete questionnaire included ethnicity, child reported household smoking and socio-economic circumstances. Data were analysed using linear regression models with a random intercept function. Results Ethnic minority children had lower saliva cotinine than Whites, partly explained by less smoking among parents. White and Black Caribbean children had higher cotinine levels if they lived in a household with a maternal smoker only, than with a paternal smoker only. Living in a lone compared to a dual parent household was associated with increased cotinine concentration of 45% (95%CI 5, 99% in Whites, 27% (95%CI 5,53% in Black Caribbeans and 21% (95%CI 1, 45% in Black Africans after adjusting for household smoking status. Material disadvantage was a significant correlate only for White children (40% (95%CI 1, 94% increase in cotinine in least compared to most advantaged group. Conclusions Ethnic minority children were less exposed to secondhand smoke than Whites, but the variations within groups were similarly patterned. These findings suggest that it is important not to be complacent about low smoking prevalence in some minority groups.

  4. In Vitro Inhibition of Human Sperm Creatine Kinase by Nicotine,Cotinine and Cadmium, as a Mechanism in Smoker Men Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Ghaffari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nicotine, cotinine and cadmium are harmful components of cigarettes that have aneffect on human reproductive function. Although the effects of cigarette smoke on male reproductivefunction is characterized in several articles its mechanism of action is still unknown.In the present study, we investigate the effect of nicotine, cotinine and cadmium on human spermcreatine kinase activity in vitro.Materials and Methods: Total creatine kinase activity is measured in sperm homogenates afterchromatography on a diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-32 column.Results: We show that creatine kinase activity is significantly inhibited by nicotine (44%, cotinine(39% and cadmium (65% at a concentration of 60 ?g/ml. Kinetic studies reveal that the inhibitoryeffect of nicotine, cotinine and cadmium are competitive in relation to creatine phosphate.Conclusion: Considering the importance of creatine kinase activity for normal sperm energymetabolism, our results suggest that inhibition of this enzyme by nicotine, cotinine and cadmium maybe an important mechanism in infertility amongst male smokers. However, further investigationsare needed to elucidate the exact mechanism of cigarette effect on male reproductive function atthe molecular level.

  5. Comparación de la concentración total de proteínas salivales de adultos y adultos mayores / Comparison of total salivary protein concentration in adults and older adults

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    RJ, Castro; G, Guzmán; RA, Giacaman.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Entre las moléculas orgánicas que componen la saliva se han descrito un gran número de proteínas. No existe evidencia suficiente que permita especular sobre los cambios en el contenido proteico salival asociados al envejecimiento normal. El objetivo fue determinar si existen diferencias en [...] la concentración total de proteínas en saliva de adultos y adultos mayores. Método: Se obtuvieron muestras de saliva estimulada y no estimulada de individuos pertenecientes a dos grupos etarios, adultos (A) (n=30) (edad promedio: 25 años) y adultos mayores (AM) (n=30) (edad promedio: 68 años). Se excluyeron aquellos sujetos que presentaron alguna patología oral/sistémica o consumo de fármacos/sustancias relacionados con alteraciones del flujo o composición salival. Cada muestra fue centrifugada. A 10 µl del sobrenadante se agregaron 190 µl de solución de Bradford. Se realizó el recuento mediante lectura con espectrofotómetro (595 nm). La concentración de proteínas fue comparada entre los grupos en estudio utilizando la prueba t de Student (p Abstract in english Objective: A high number of proteins has been described in saliva. Scarce evidence allows to speculate about the variations on protein content associated with aging. The aim was to determine if there is a difference in total protein concentration between adults and older adults. Methods: Samples wer [...] e collected from unstimulated and stimulated saliva of individuals from two age groups, adults (A) (n=30) (mean age 25 years) and older adults (OA) (n=30)(mean age: 68 years). Subjects with oral/systemic diseases or consuming medications that alter salivary flow were excluded from the study. Each sample was centrifuged and 10 ?l of the supernatant was added to 190 ?l of Bradford solution. Protein concentration was obtained by spectrophotometry (595 nm) Protein concentration was compared between the groups using student’s t test (p

  6. Prevalence of Smoking Assessed Biochemically in an Urban Public Hospital: A Rationale for Routine Cotinine Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Neal L. Benowitz; Schultz, Katherine E.; Haller, Christine A; Wu, Alan H.B.; Dains, Katherine M.; Jacob, Peyton

    2009-01-01

    Cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine, has been used to study tobacco smoke exposure in population studies, but the authors are unaware of its use to screen hospitalized patients. The authors measured serum cotinine levels in 948 patients admitted to an urban public hospital in San Francisco, California, between September 2005 and July 2006. On the basis of cotinine levels, they classified patients as active smokers (cotinine ? 14 ng/mL), recent smokers or significantly exposed to secondhand s...

  7. Effect of a kickboxing match on salivary cortisol and immunoglobulin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Alexandre; Arsati, Franco; Lima-Arsati, Ynara Bosco De Oliveira; Franchini, Emerson; De Araújo, Vera Cavalcanti

    2010-08-01

    The hypothesis that salivary cortisol would increase and salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) decrease after a kickboxing match was tested among 20 male athletes. Saliva samples collected before and after the match were analyzed. Salivary cortisol and salivary IgA concentrations (absolute concentration, salivary IgAabs) and the secretion rate of IgA (salivary IgArate) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A Wilcoxon test for paired samples showed significant increases in salivary cortisol from pre- to postmatch. No significant changes were observed in salivary IgAabs or secretory IgArate and saliva flow rate. This study indicates that a kickboxing match might increase salivary concentration and thereafter it could be considered a significant source of exercise-related stress. On the other hand, the effect of a kickboxing match on mucosal immunity seems not to be relevant. PMID:21058596

  8. Cotinine and trans 3'-Hydroxycotinine in Dried Blood Spots as Biomarkers of Tobacco Exposure and Nicotine Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Sharon E; Wickham, Katherine M.; Lindgren, Bruce R; Spector, Logan G; Joseph, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco use is the major preventable cause of premature death in the United States. Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure also contributes to a number of premature deaths as well as other negative health outcomes. An accurate assessment of tobacco smoke exposure is critical to understanding these disease processes. The plasma concentration of cotinine, the primary metabolite of nicotine, is widely accepted as a quantitative measure of tobacco and SHS exposure. However, it is not always feasible to ...

  9. Environmental tobacco smoke and canine urinary cotinine level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidemiologic studies of companion animals such as dogs have been established as models for the relationship between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and cancer risk in humans. While results from these studies are provocative, pet owner report of a dog's ETS exposure has not yet been validated. We have evaluated the relationship between dog owner's report of household smoking by questionnaire and dog's urinary cotinine level. Between January and October 2005, dog owners presenting their pet for non-emergency veterinary care at the Foster Hospital for Small Animals at Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, were asked to complete a 10-page questionnaire measuring exposure to household ETS in the previous 24 h and other factors. A free-catch urine sample was also collected from dogs. Urinary cotinine level was assayed for 63 dogs, including 30 whose owners reported household smoking and 33 unexposed dogs matched on age and month of enrollment. Urinary cotinine level was significantly higher in dogs exposed to household smoking in the 24 h before urine collection compared to unexposed dogs (14.6 ng/ml vs. 7.4 ng/ml; P=0.02). After adjustment for other factors, cotinine level increased linearly with number of cigarettes smoked by all household members (P=0.004). Other canine characteristics including age, body composition and nose length were also associated with cotinine level. Findings from our study suggest that household smoking levels ady suggest that household smoking levels as assessed by questionnaire are significantly associated with canine cotinine levels

  10. Detection by radioimmunoassay of nicotinamide nucleotide analogues in tissues of rabbits injected with nicotine and cotinine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The formation of the NAD and NADP analogues of nicotine and cotinine in vitro by the NAD glycohydrolase-catalyzed exchange reaction suggested that such compounds (and the related mononucleotides) might also be produced in animals receiving the alkaloid or its metabolite. Since only sensitive and specific analytical methods could detect small amounts of the nicotine and cotinine analogues in the presence of the naturally occurring and abundant NMN, NAD and NADP compounds, radioimmunoassays were developed and used for this purpose. In rabbits injected with cotinine, cotinine nucleotide analogues were found at pmole levels/g of wet tissue in extracts from liver, kidney and lung. In both liver and lung extracts, cotinine mononucleotide was identified as the major product. Cotinine nucleotides were also found in the tissues of rabbits injected with nicotine. The rapid metabolism of nicotine to cotinine in vivo probably contributes to the sparsity of the nicotine analogues in tissue extracts from these animals. (author)

  11. Menthol Attenuates Respiratory Irritation and Elevates Blood Cotinine in Cigarette Smoke Exposed Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Michael A.; Smith, Gregory J.; Cichocki, Joseph A.; Fan, Lu; Liu, Yi-Shiuan; Caceres, Ana I.; Jordt, Sven Eric; Morris, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Addition of menthol to cigarettes may be associated with increased initiation of smoking. The potential mechanisms underlying this association are not known. Menthol, likely due to its effects on cold-sensing peripheral sensory neurons, is known to inhibit the sensation of irritation elicited by respiratory irritants. However, it remains unclear whether menthol modulates cigarette smoke irritancy and nicotine absorption during initial exposures to cigarettes, thereby facilitating smoking initiation. Using plethysmography in a C57Bl/6J mouse model, we examined the effects of L-menthol, the menthol isomer added to cigarettes, on the respiratory sensory irritation response to primary smoke irritants (acrolein and cyclohexanone) and smoke of Kentucky reference 2R4 cigarettes. We also studied L-menthol’s effect on blood levels of the nicotine metabolite, cotinine, immediately after exposure to cigarette smoke. L-menthol suppressed the irritation response to acrolein with an apparent IC?? of 4 ppm. Suppression was observed even at acrolein levels well above those necessary to produce a maximal response. Cigarette smoke, at exposure levels of 10 mg/m³ or higher, caused an immediate and marked sensory irritation response in mice. This response was significantly suppressed by L-menthol even at smoke concentrations as high as 300 mg/m³. Counterirritation by L-menthol was abolished by treatment with a selective inhibitor of Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 8 (TRPM8), the neuronal cold/menthol receptor. Inclusion of menthol in the cigarette smoke resulted in roughly a 1.5-fold increase in plasma cotinine levels over those observed in mice exposed to smoke without added menthol. These findings document that, L-menthol, through TRPM8, is a strong suppressor of respiratory irritation responses, even during highly noxious exposures to cigarette smoke or smoke irritants, and increases blood cotinine. Therefore, L-menthol, as a cigarette additive, may promote smoking initiation and nicotine addiction. PMID:25679525

  12. Effects of administration of potassium- and sodiumchlorides on faecal excretions and salivary and alimentary concentrations of, Na, K, 134Cs, Ca, Mg and P in reindeer fed a lichen diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Staaland

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of the effects of administration of 350 mmol d-1 of KC1 or NaCl on faecal excretions, salivary concentrations and concentrations and pools of Na, K, 134Cs, Ca, Mg, P, and water in the alimentary tract of reindeer was carried out using three groups of three 10 months old reindeer fed a lichen diet. One group was used as a control group with no mineral supplementation. The level of K supplementation mimicked K intakes from summer pastures. NaCl was given at a rate which would mimic intake from salt licks by domestic ruminants of similar body size. Treatment with KC1 increased the salivary and alimentary concentrations and the alimentary pool sizes of K and faecal excretion of K increased. A decrease in l34Cs concentrations in all parts of the gastrointestinal tract indicated greater absorption of 134Cs during the KC1 treatment than in NaCl treated and control animals. Increased intake of Na or K had no significant effect on the digestibility of the lichen diet, but urine production increased. Little effects on pools or concentrations of Ca, Mg and P were observed. NaCl treatment increased urinary and faecal excretion of Na, but did not affect the metabolism of any of the other studied minerals.

  13. MALIGNANT SALIVARY GLAND TUMORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Trandafir

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Malignant salivary gland tumors make up 6% of all head and neck tumors. Several types of cancer can develop in these glands. Only malignant tumors of the salivary glands are discussed in this paper. The diagnosis and treatment of salivary gland malignancies remain complex, with challenging problems for maxillo-facial surgeon. Scientists have found few risk factors that make a person more likely to develop salivary gland cancer. Salivary gland cancer is uncommon, and there is no widely recommended screening schedule for this cancer. CT scanning or MRI is useful for determining the extent of large tumors, for evaluating extraglandular extension, for determining the actual depth of parotid tumors, and for discovering other tumors in one gland or in the controlateral gland. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB is a valuable diagnostic adjunct in evaluation of head and neck masses but its role in evaluation of salivary gland tumors is controversial. There are also discussed some histologic findings about mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, acinic cell carcinoma, carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenoma, squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma developed in salivary glands. Carefully planned and executed surgical excision is the primary treatment for all malignant tumors of the salivary glands. The principles of surgery vary with the site of origin. The extent of surgery is based on the size of the tumor, local extension and neck metastases. Staging of malignant salivary gland tumors is important for predicting prognosis and for accurate comparison of treatment results.

  14. Toward improved statistical methods for analyzing Cotinine-Biomarker health association data

    OpenAIRE

    Clark John D; Koru-Sengul Tulay; Fleming Lora E; Lee David J

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Serum cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine, is frequently used in research as a biomarker of recent tobacco smoke exposure. Historically, secondhand smoke (SHS) research uses suboptimal statistical methods due to censored serum cotinine values, meaning a measurement below the limit of detection (LOD). Methods We compared commonly used methods for analyzing censored serum cotinine data using parametric and non-parametric techniques employing data from the 1999-2004 National H...

  15. Active and passive exposure status to tobacco smoke of department store employees measured by cotinine ELISA

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshioka, Nobuo; Yonemasu, Kunio; Dohi, Yoshiko; Sakanashi, Teruko; Mizutani, Rika; Kurumatani, Norio; Zheng, Yan; Ohkado, Takashi

    1998-01-01

    Quantitation of urinary cotinine, a major metabolite of nicotine, by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), was performed in parallel with questionnaires containing items on smoking status, such as active and/or passive smokers, the number of cigarettes smoked, and the presence or absence of active smokers in the surroundings in a department store (517 employees). The cotinine values corrected by creatinine (cotinine-creatinine ratios, CCRs) approximately conformed to the extent of sel...

  16. Synthesis of [pyrrolidine-14C]-cotinine from 14C-nicotine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis and purification of 14C-cotinine is reported. 14C-nicotine is converted into 14C-dibromocotinine. Debromination of the latter results in 14C-cotinine which is purified by high performance liquid chromatography. The total radioactive yield of the synthesis is 44.8%. Starting from 500 ?Ci 14C-nicotine, 224 ?Ci 14C-cotinine is obtained with a specific activity of 0,23 mCi/mmol. (Author)

  17. Assessment of smoking status based on cotinine levels in nasal lavage fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Cowart Beverly J; McDermott Ryan; Yee Karen K; Ozdener Mehmet; Vainius Aldona A; Dalton Pamela; Rawson Nancy E

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Cotinine is a principal metabolite of nicotine with a substantially longer half-life, and cotinine levels in saliva, urine or serum are widely used to validate self-reported smoking status. The nasal cavity and olfactory system are directly exposed to tobacco smoke in smokers and in non-smokers who live with or work around smokers. However, despite the potential for a direct impact of tobacco smoke on the nasal epithelium and olfactory neurons, no prior studies have assessed cotinine...

  18. Genome-wide Linkage of Cotinine Pharmacokinetics Suggests Candidate Regions on Chromosomes 9 and 11

    OpenAIRE

    He, Yungang; Bergen, Andrew W.; Hops, Hyman; Andrews, Judy A.; Tildesley, Elizabeth; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N.; Webster, Cris; Benowitz, Neal; Swan, Gary E.

    2009-01-01

    Characterizing cotinine pharmacokinetics is a useful way to study nicotine metabolism because the same liver enzyme is primarily responsible for the metabolism of both, and the clearances of nicotine and cotinine are highly correlated. We conducted a whole-genome linkage analysis to search for candidate regions influencing quantitative variation in cotinine pharmacokinetics in a large-scale pharmacokinetic study with 61 families containing 224 healthy adult participants. The strongest linkage...

  19. Elevated salivary C-reactive protein levels are associated with active and passive smoking in healthy youth: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azar Rima

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined salivary C-reactive protein (CRP levels in the context of tobacco smoke exposure (TSE in healthy youth. We hypothesized that there would be a dose-response relationship between TSE status and salivary CRP levels. Methods This work is a pilot study (N = 45 for a larger investigation in which we aim to validate salivary CRP against serum CRP, the gold standard measurement of low-grade inflammation. Participants were healthy youth with no self-reported periodontal disease, no objectively measured obesity/adiposity, and no clinical depression, based on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II. We assessed tobacco smoking and confirmed smoking status (non-smoking, passive smoking, and active smoking with salivary cotinine measurement. We measured salivary CRP by the ELISA method. We controlled for several potential confounders. Results We found evidence for the existence of a dose-response relationship between the TSE status and salivary CRP levels. Conclusions Our preliminary findings indicate that salivary CRP seems to have a similar relation to TSE as its widely used serum (systemic inflammatory biomarker counterpart.

  20. Serum Cotinine Levels and Prehypertension in Never Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Omayma Alshaarawy; Jie Xiao; Andrew, Michael E; Cecil Burchfiel; Anoop Shankar

    2013-01-01

    Background. Few studies have shown that self-reported secondhand smoke exposure in never smokers is associated with high blood pressure. However, there are no studies investigating the relationship between secondhand smoke exposure, measured objectively by serum cotinine levels, and high blood pressure in never smokers. Methods. We examined never smokers (n = 2027) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2008. Our exposure of interest was the secondhand smoke expo...

  1. Environmental tobacco smoke and canine urinary cotinine level

    OpenAIRE

    Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R; Procter-Gray, Elizabeth; Gollenberg, Audra L; Bundga, Michele E.; Barber, Lisa G.

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of companion animals such as dogs have been established as models for the relationship between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and cancer risk in humans. While results from these studies are provocative, pet owner report of a dog’s ETS exposure has not yet been validated. We have evaluated the relationship between dog owner’s report of household smoking by questionnaire and dog’s urinary cotinine level. Between January and October, 2005, dog owners pr...

  2. The Relationship between Serum Cotinine Levels and Periodontal Status

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Bayaty, Fouad H.; Noor A. Baharuddin; Abdulla, Mahmood A

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Smoking plays a significant role in the development of periodontal disease. Quantitative relation between smoking and increased severity of periodontal disease, by means of biochemical marker has not been described in Malaysian population. The present study was designed to apply serum cotinine measurement as a quantitative method to evaluate smoking levels in Malaysian patients and to correlate these levels with the severity of periodontal disease. Approach: The study group...

  3. Breast feeding and smoking hygiene: major influences on cotinine in urine of smokers' infants.

    OpenAIRE

    Woodward, A.; Grgurinovich, N; Ryan, P.

    1986-01-01

    The determinants of urine cotinine levels were studied in a group of 101 infants aged 3 months, including 79 infants whose mothers were current smokers. At a pre-arranged home visit the infants' mothers completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire, and samples of maternal urine and breast milk and infants' urine were collected. Cotinine and nicotine levels were determined by gas-liquid chromatography. Infant urine cotinine levels ranged from 0 to 140 micrograms/l (0-1120 ng cotinine/mg...

  4. Salivary Gland Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Salivary gland cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. It is rare. It may not cause any ... pain in your face Doctors diagnose salivary gland cancer using a physical exam, imaging tests, and a ...

  5. Cotinine-conjugated aptamer/anti-cotinine antibody complexes as a novel affinity unit for use in biological assays

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sunyoung; Hwang, Dobin; Chung, Junho

    2012-01-01

    Aptamers are synthetic, relatively short (e.g., 20-80 bases) RNA or ssDNA oligonucleotides that can bind targets with high affinity and specificity, similar to antibodies, because they can fold into unique, three-dimensional shapes. For use in various assays and experiments, aptamers have been conjugated with biotin or digoxigenin to form complexes with avidin or anti-digoxigenin antibodies, respectively. In this study, we developed a method to label the 5' ends of aptamers with cotinine, whi...

  6. Gender differences in cadmium and cotinine levels in prepubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fucic, A; Plavec, D

    2015-01-01

    Susceptibility to environmental stressors has been described for fetal and early childhood development. However, the possible susceptibility of the prepubertal period, characterized by the orchestration of the organism towards sexual maturation and adulthood has been poorly investigated and exposure data are scarce. In the current study levels of cadmium (Cd), cotinine and creatinine in urine were analyzed in a subsample 216 children from 12 European countries within the DEMOCOPHES project. The children were divided into six age-sex groups: boys (6-8 years, 9-10 years and 11 years old), and girls (6-7 years, 8-9 years, 10-11 years). The number of subjects per group was between 23 and 53. The cut off values were set at 0.1µg/L for Cd, and 0.8µg/L for cotinine defined according to the highest limit of quantification. The levels of Cd and cotinine were adjusted for creatinine level. In the total subsample group, the median level of Cd was 0.180µg/L (range 0.10-0.69µg/L), and for cotinine the median wet weight value was 1.50µg/L (range 0.80-39.91µg/L). There was no significant difference in creatinine and cotinine levels between genders and age groups. There was a significant correlation between levels of cadmium and creatinine in all children of both genders. This shows that even at such low levels the possible effect of cadmium on kidney function was present and measurable. An increase in Cd levels was evident with age. Cadmium levels were significantly different between 6-7 year old girls, 11 year old boys and 10-11 year old girls. As there was a balanced distribution in the number of subjects from countries included in the study, bias due to data clustering was not probable. The impact of low Cd levels on kidney function and gender differences in Cd levels needs further investigation.

  7. Salivary phenytoin radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple, specific and rapid radioimmunoassay method for the assessment of non-protein bound ('free') phenytoin concentrations in mixed saliva using 125I-labelled phenytoin is described. Epileptic patients on maintenance phenytoin therapy have mixed saliva phenytoin concentrations similar to 'free' drug levels measured directly in serum or cerebrospinal fluid. Salivary phenytoin levels are approximately 10% of the total serum level in treated epileptic patients and in normal subjects after ingestion of a single oral dose. The half time of disappearance of phenytoin after 100 or 300 mg doses is 12.2 +- 3.0 h in serum and 12. 3 +- 3.2 h in saliva. This method of assessing the biologically active fraction of the drug may be particularly valuable in situations where serum protein binding is abnormal or in drug interactions. It is also non-invasive and requires small sample volumes (20?l) and may therefore be valuable in paediatric practice and in pharmacokinetic studies in which multiple venepunctures would otherwise be required. (orig./MG)

  8. A convenient synthesis of 14C-cotinine from 14C-nicotine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A convenient synthesis with analytical monitoring of 14C-cotinine is reported. 14C-Nicotine was converted into 14C-dibromocotinine hydrobromide perbromide. Debromination, achieved by using Zn dust/acetic acid, resulted in high yields (71%) of 14C-cotinine. (author)

  9. HOME AIR NICOTINE LEVELS AND URINE COTININE-CREATININE RATIOS IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Science.gov (United States)

    We studied urine cotinine excretion in 27 children who attended a research day care center to determine the extent of correlation between urine cotinine-creatinine ratios (CCR) and intensity of nicotine exposure in the home. verage nicotine levels in home air were determined by a...

  10. Electrochemical immunoassay of cotinine in serum based on nanoparticle probe and immunochromatographic strip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Using nanoparticle probe in immunochromatographic strip. ? Enhanced sensitivity by using nanoparticle label. ? Rapid and sensitive detection of cotinine in serum. - Abstract: A disposable sensor for the determination of cotinine in human serum was developed based on immunochromatographic test strip and quantum dot label. In this assay, cotinine linked with quantum dot competes with cotinine in sample to bind to anti-cotinine antibody in the test strip and the quantum dots serve as signal vehicles for electrochemical readout. Some parameters governing the performance of the sensor were optimized. The sensor shows a wide linear range from 1 ng mL?1 to 100 ng mL?1 cotinine with a detection limit of 1.0 ng mL?1. The sensor was validated with spiked human serum samples and it was found that this method was reliable in measuring cotinine in human serum. The results demonstrate that this sensor is rapid, accurate, and less expensive and has the potential for point of care (POC) detection of cotinine and fast screening of tobacco smoke exposure.

  11. Salivary Hsp72 does not track exercise stress and caffeine-stimulated plasma Hsp72 responses in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Fortes, Matthew B.; Whitham, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72) has been detected within saliva, and its presence may contribute to oral defence. It is currently unknown how physiological stress affects salivary Hsp72 or if salivary Hsp72 concentrations reflect plasma Hsp72 concentrations. We studied the effect of exercise upon salivary Hsp72 expression, and using caffeine administration, investigated the role of sympathetic stimulation upon salivary Hsp72 expression. Six healthy males performed two treadmill running exercise...

  12. Cotinine – metabolism, application as a biomarker and the effects on the organism 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Marcin Nowak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This review presents the current state of knowledge on cotinine, the major metabolite of nicotine. Special attention is paid to the formation of this compound in the organism, its metabolism, application in diagnostic procedures and evaluation of its in vitro and in vivo activities. For many years, cotinine has been used as a biomarker of exposure to tobacco smoke. Currently, this compound is applied in many other studies including the use of cotinine in the treatment of various diseases. Several years ago, Scott et al. patented therapeutic applications of cotinine in chronic and acute inflammation. Cotinine is an interesting compound with a well-known metabolism; therefore there are suggestions for its application in the diagnosis and treatment of certain diseases. 

  13. Salivary glands neoplasms

    OpenAIRE

    Heshiki, Rosana Emiko; Navarro, Paulo Lima; Ogawa, Allex Itar; Takemoto, Lucio Eidy

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Salivary glands neoplasms represent a rare and diverse group of tumors with different characteristics. To avoid complications and unnecessary procedures, the treatment depends on an accurate diagnosis. Objective: Review the literature emphasizing the latest advances in diagnosis and treatment. Method: An electronic research was performed on MEDLINE, OVID, PubMed and SciELO databases articles in a period between 1997 and 2007. Conclusion: The proper diagnosis of salivary glands n...

  14. Salivary mucoepidermoid carcinoma revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coca-Pelaz, Andrés; Rodrigo, Juan P; Triantafyllou, Asterios; Hunt, Jennifer L; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Strojan, Primož; Haigentz, Missak; Mendenhall, William M; Takes, Robert P; Vander Poorten, Vincent; Ferlito, Alfio

    2015-04-01

    Clinicopathological features, prognosis and therapeutic strategies for mucoepidermoid carcinoma originating in salivary and salivary-type glands of the head and neck are reviewed. We emphasise histopathological aspects, appraise the value of histochemistry, electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry and cytophotometry, and discuss histogenesis and characteristic gene translocations. We additionally consider possible diagnostic difficulties, problems related to histological grading and accuracy of existing literature, and areas of controversy or uncertainty which may benefit from further investigations. PMID:24771140

  15. Alternations in salivary glucose during ramadan fasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Erfani

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available During the holly month of Ramadan, Muslims fast every day from dawn to sunset. Although the effect of Ramadan fasting on general health has been widely studied, the impact of fasting on oral health and possible changes in salivary biochemicals, such as glucose, has not received much attentiom. The aim of our study was to evaluate the influence of fasting on the level of glucose in the saliva of healthy individuals. Salivary glucose was measured using an enzymatic method based on oxidation of glucose by glucoseoxidase followed by determination of resulting H2O2 in the presence of peroxidase. A reduction in mean concentration of glucose was observed in the saliva of all fasting subjects as compared to the control group. It was concluded that reduction in salivary glucose is mostly due to reduced food intake and may be beneficial to dental health.

  16. Estudo comparativo da concentração salivar do fator de crescimento epidérmico em indivíduos com laringite crônica por doença do refluxo gastroesofágica antes e após o tratamento: resultados preliminares / Salivary egf concentration in adults with reflux chronic laryngitis before and after treatment: preliminary results

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Claudia Alessandra, Eckley; Lilia da Silva, Rios; Luiz Vicente, Rizzo.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Os mecanismos fisiopatológicos do refluxo laringofaríngeo (RLF) são pouco conhecidos. O Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico (EGF) é a proteína de produção salivar com maior ação na regeneração do epitélio da orofaringe e tubo digestivo alto, tendo sido demonstradas deficiências em sua concentração saliv [...] ar em indivíduos com RLF. OBJETIVO: Comparar a concentração salivar de EGF em um mesmo indivíduo com RLF antes e após o tratamento. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Neste estudo prospectivo doze indivíduos com DRGE e RLF de moderada intensidade tiveram sua saliva espontânea coletada antes e após o tratamento e controle da doença. A concentração salivar de EGF foi estabelecida através de exame de ELISA (Quantikine ®). RESULTADOS: Onze pacientes eram do sexo feminino e um do sexo masculino, com idade média de 49 anos. A concentração salivar de EGF pré-tratamento foi de 2.867,6pg/mL e a pós-tratamento foi 1.588,5pg/mL, sendo esta diferença estatisticamente significante (p=0,015). DISCUSSÃO E CONCLUSÕES: Apesar de a concentração salivar de EGF ser maior nos indivíduos antes do tratamento, esta não consegue alcançar àquela de uma população normal (estabelecida previamente), o que sugere uma deficiência primária deste importante fator de defesa em indivíduos com RLF. Abstract in english The Laryngopharyngeal Reflux (LPR) physiopathology is still unknown. The Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) is a biologically active salivary protein that aids in the rapid regeneration of the oropharyngeal and upper digestive tract mucosas. Salivary deficiency of this protein in patients with LPR has be [...] en demonstrated in previous studies. AIM: To compare salivary EGF concentration in patients with LPR before and after treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective study twelve patients with GERD and moderate LPR were studied. Whole saliva samples were collected before and after treatment and salivary EGF concentration was determined using a commercially available ELISA kit (Quantikine ®). RESULTS: There were eleven females and one male among the patients, the mean age was 49 years. The mean pre-treatment salivary EGF concentration was 2,867.6 pg/mL and the mean post treatment EGF concentration was 1,588.5 pg/mL. This difference was statistically significant (p=0.015). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Although salivary EGF concentrations are higher before LPR treatment, the concentration is still much lower than the mean salivary EGF concentration in normal individuals without LPR, which suggests a primary disorder of this defense factor in individuals with LPR.

  17. Estudo comparativo da concentração salivar do fator de crescimento epidérmico em indivíduos com laringite crônica por doença do refluxo gastroesofágica antes e após o tratamento: resultados preliminares Salivary egf concentration in adults with reflux chronic laryngitis before and after treatment: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Alessandra Eckley

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Os mecanismos fisiopatológicos do refluxo laringofaríngeo (RLF são pouco conhecidos. O Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico (EGF é a proteína de produção salivar com maior ação na regeneração do epitélio da orofaringe e tubo digestivo alto, tendo sido demonstradas deficiências em sua concentração salivar em indivíduos com RLF. OBJETIVO: Comparar a concentração salivar de EGF em um mesmo indivíduo com RLF antes e após o tratamento. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Neste estudo prospectivo doze indivíduos com DRGE e RLF de moderada intensidade tiveram sua saliva espontânea coletada antes e após o tratamento e controle da doença. A concentração salivar de EGF foi estabelecida através de exame de ELISA (Quantikine ®. RESULTADOS: Onze pacientes eram do sexo feminino e um do sexo masculino, com idade média de 49 anos. A concentração salivar de EGF pré-tratamento foi de 2.867,6pg/mL e a pós-tratamento foi 1.588,5pg/mL, sendo esta diferença estatisticamente significante (p=0,015. DISCUSSÃO E CONCLUSÕES: Apesar de a concentração salivar de EGF ser maior nos indivíduos antes do tratamento, esta não consegue alcançar àquela de uma população normal (estabelecida previamente, o que sugere uma deficiência primária deste importante fator de defesa em indivíduos com RLF.The Laryngopharyngeal Reflux (LPR physiopathology is still unknown. The Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF is a biologically active salivary protein that aids in the rapid regeneration of the oropharyngeal and upper digestive tract mucosas. Salivary deficiency of this protein in patients with LPR has been demonstrated in previous studies. AIM: To compare salivary EGF concentration in patients with LPR before and after treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective study twelve patients with GERD and moderate LPR were studied. Whole saliva samples were collected before and after treatment and salivary EGF concentration was determined using a commercially available ELISA kit (Quantikine ®. RESULTS: There were eleven females and one male among the patients, the mean age was 49 years. The mean pre-treatment salivary EGF concentration was 2,867.6 pg/mL and the mean post treatment EGF concentration was 1,588.5 pg/mL. This difference was statistically significant (p=0.015. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Although salivary EGF concentrations are higher before LPR treatment, the concentration is still much lower than the mean salivary EGF concentration in normal individuals without LPR, which suggests a primary disorder of this defense factor in individuals with LPR.

  18. Determinación de cotinina y exposición a tabaco Cotinine detection and tobacco smoke exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Noemí Vacchino

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available La exposición a tabaco es una de las causas prevenibles de morbilidad y mortalidad prematura más importante. Se describe un método simple y rápido de detección de cotinina (principal metabolito de nicotina en orina humana. Se utilizó cromatografía gas-líquido (CGL con un detector de ionización de llama (FID. Se realizó una extracción líquido-líquido con cloroformo en medio alcalino; el extracto fue secado a 37 °C y redisuelto en 100 µL de solución alcohólica con estándar interno piridina. Se analizó la orina de personas que declararon ser fumadoras y no fumadoras. Mediante la construcción de dos curvas de calibración se cubrió un rango de linealidad de 3 a 5.000 ng/mL. Los fumadores presentaron una mediana y cuartiles (Q de concentración de cotinina: 255,4 ng/mL, 15,9 ng/mL (Q1 - 1.050,2 ng/mL (Q3, respectivamente, y los no fumadores 15,8 ng/mL, 4,1 ng/mL (Q1 - 38,4 ng/mL (Q3. Wilcoxon sumrank: z = 4,865 p Tobacco is one of the major preventable causes of morbidity and premature mortality in the world. A simple, rapid method for determination of cotinine, major metabolite of nicotine in urine, is described. The assay involves a fast liquid-liquid extraction with chloroform as a solvent in alkaline environment. The extract was dried at 37 °C and the residue was dissolved in 100 µL of standard internal of pyridine in methanol solution, and an aliquot was analyzed by gas-liquid chromatograph equipped with a flame -ionization detector. This technique was performed to test urine of a sample of smokers and non-smokers who were previously asked about their smoking habit. The limit of detection was 3.1 ng/mL, and using two calibration curves, a linearity range from 3 a 5.000 ng/mL was covered. The median and quartiles (Q of cotinine in smokers were 255.4 ng/mL, 15.9 ng/mL (Q1 -1050.2 ng/mL (Q3 ng/mL and in non-smokers 15.8 ng/mL, 4.1 ng/mL (Q1 - 38.4 ng/mL (Q3. Wilcoxon sumrank: z = 4.865 p < 0.01. There was a relationship between cotinine concentration in urine and number of smoked cigarettes. Spearman's rho = 0.5672 (p < 0.001. This technique could identify smokers, second hand smokers and non-smokers using cut-off of 10-15 ng/mL of cotinine in urine, usually adopted in epidemiological studies.

  19. Improved 125I radioimmunoassay for cotinine by selective removal of bridge antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe an 125I-based RIA for cotinine, the major metabolite of nicotine. The slope of the dose-response curve was quite shallow (6-8% change in binding per doubling dose), resulting in between-assay CVs of 15 to 20%. This effect occurred because the radioligand formed by linking a cotinine derivative to tyramine manifested greater affinity for the anti-cotinine antibodies than did cotinine itself. We absorbed the serum with a derivative of nicotine coupled to the carrier protein via a chemical bridge similar to that used to form the cotinine/carrier protein immunogen. An RIA in which we used such absorbed serum showed a significantly increased slope of the dose-response curve (11-13% change in binding per doubling dose), and between-assay CVS were only 6 to 8%. We suggest that this improvement results because absorption removes anti-bridge antibodies directed against the chemical-bond common to the cotinine/carrier-protein immunogen and to the cotinine/tyramine radioligand

  20. Cotinine level is associated with asthma severity in passive smoker children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzad, Maryam; Khalilzadeh, Soheila; Eslampanah Nobari, Shabnam; Bloursaz, Mohammadreza; Sharifi, Hooman; Mohajerani, Seyed Amir; Tashayoie Nejad, Sabereh; Velayati, Ali Akbar

    2015-02-01

    Asthma environmental triggers play important roles in severity of disease. Passive smoking could exacerbate asthma symptoms and enhance the decrease in lung function. Cotinine levels could be a reflection of passive exposure to the cigarette both in adults and pediatrics. The aim of this study was to determine degree of association of asthma severity and cotinine level as a marker of passive smoking. In a cross-sectional study, 100 pediatric patients (under 10 years old) with asthma were enrolled, 50 of whom, had been exposed to passive smoking and 50 others included as controls. A complete clinical history, lab exam, and spirometry were performed. A sample of urine, serum and saliva was collected from all attendant patients and controls in the study after confirmation of diagnosis and determination of severity of asthma. The results revealed that age, sex, age of onset of asthma, family history and allergic history were not significantly different between two groups of patients. According to GINA classification, percentage of patients with severe asthma was significantly higher in passive smoker group (p=0.001). Cotinine was significantly higher in passive smoker group compared to control group in serum (p=001), saliva (p=0.001), and urine (p=0.0014). In passive smoker group, cotinine levels were significantly higher in serum (p=0.001), urine (p=0.007), and saliva (p=0.01) of patients with severe asthma than moderate and mild asthma. Serum cotinine (OR: 1.81, 95% CI: 1.35-2.32, p=0.024), urine cotinine (OR: 3.56,95% CI = 1.29-5.53, p=0.01) and saliva cotinine (OR: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.23-1.98, p=0.031) were also significantly associated with higher risk of severe asthma. Cotinine levels were higher in passive smokers compared to non-passive smokers. Besides, cotinine was a predictive risk factor for severe asthma. PMID:25530141

  1. Nicotine and cotinine in infants dying from sudden infant death syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajanowski, T; Brinkmann, B; Mitchell, E A; Vennemann, M M; Leukel, H W; Larsch, K-P; Beike, J

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this component of the German Study on Sudden Infant Death was to determine (1) nicotine concentrations in hair (NCH), as a marker of long standing exposure to tobacco, (2) cotinine concentrations in pericardial fluid (CCP) and (3) cotinine concentrations in liquor cerebrospinalis (CCL), the latter measures being markers of recent exposure to tobacco in the last few hours of life. The results obtained were compared with data on parental smoking revealed from interviews. In 100 cases of sudden infant death syndrome, material was taken at autopsy to determine NCH. In 41 cases, NCH and CCP, and in 70 cases, NCH and CCL were determined. Infants of mothers who stated having smoked during pregnancy had higher NCH than infants of non-smoking mothers (p = 0.008). Furthermore, there was a weak but statistically significant relationship between NCH's and the daily cigarette consumption of the mother during pregnancy (n = 64, r = 0.24, p = 0.05). In 43% of infants, nicotine could be detected in their hair, although the mothers had said at the interview that they did not smoke during pregnancy. On the other hand, in 33% of infants whose mother stated they had smoked during pregnancy nicotine was not detectable in the infant's hair. CCP's were strongly correlated with CCL's (r = 0.62, p = 0.0027). For this reason, both parameters were treated as equivalent for the detection of tobacco smoke exposure in the last hours before death. The influence of breast-feeding was evaluated by comparison of the nicotine concentrations in breast fed and non-breast-fed infants from smokers and non-smokers. Fivefold higher nicotine concentrations were determined in non-breast-fed infants of parents who smoked as compared to all other groups. It can be concluded that nicotine intake by passive smoking is much more important than by breast-feeding. We conclude that both interview data and biochemical measures should be sought to understand the true exposure to tobacco smoke. PMID:17285322

  2. Comparison of salivary cortisol concentrations in Jaguars kept in captivity with differences in exposure to the public Comparação das concentrações de cortisol salivar em onças-pintadas criadas em cativeiro com diferenças de exposição ao público

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Montanha

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available For the most part, jaguars kept in captivity are used for educational and recreational purposes and it hasn't been determined the different impacts that public exposure would have on these animals. In this study, we compared the salivary cortisol, one of the stress indicator hormones, in seven captive jaguars exposed to the high and low public visitation. Saliva was collected using an absorbent material that was chewed by the animals and subsequently analyzed through an immunoenzymatic assay. Salivary cortisol concentrations were significantly higher in the jaguars with higher public exposure, which suggest a more hormonal stress response. These results indicated that jaguars, animals usually of solitary and secretive behavior, may have their welfare considerably diminished by increased public exposure. Additionally, design of the enclosures, without refuges and proximity of people, could predispose jaguars to psychological stress.Em geral, onças-pintadas criadas em cativeiro são usadas para fins educacionais e de recreação. No entanto, o impacto da exposição ao público sobre esses animais não tem sido avaliado. Neste estudo, foi comparado o impacto de dois diferentes níveis de exposição ao público em sete onças-pintadas, alojadas em dois criadouros, por meio da avaliação de um dos hormônios indicadores de estresse, o cortisol salivar. A saliva foi coletada usando um material absorvente que foi mastigado pelos animais e subsequentemente analisado por imunoenzimoensaio. As concentrações de cortisol salivar foram significativamente maiores em onças-pintadas com maior exposição ao público. Esses resultados sugerem que onças-pintadas, normalmente solitárias e esquivas na natureza, podem ter seu bem-estar consideravelmente diminuído pelo aumento de exposição ao público. Este estudo é o primeiro relato de mensuração de cortisol salivar em onças-pintadas.

  3. Comparison of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies to cotinine in nonisotopic and isotopic immunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monoclonal antibodies (McAb) were used to develop nonisotopic and radioimmunoassays (RIA) for quantitative determination of the major nicotine metabolite, cotinine, in physiological fluids. Cotinine levels in saliva, serum and plasma from smokers and non-smokers determined with McAb-based assays showed a strong correlation with values obtained by RIA using rabbit antisera or by gas chromatography. Properly selected McAb offer distinct advantages over conventional antisera in non-isotopic immunoassays and RIAs for cotinine as a biochemical marker of active or passive smoking. (Auth.)

  4. Undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbst, H.; Hamilton-Dutoit, S.

    2004-01-01

    Undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas may be divided into small cell and large cell types. Among large cell undifferentiated carcinomas, lymphoepithelial carcinomas have to be distinguished, the latter of which are endemic in the Arctic regions and southern China where virtually all cases of these tumors are associated with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Association with EBV may also be observed in sporadic cases, and detection of EBV gene products may aid their diagnosis. Immunohistology may be employed to resolve the differential diagnosis of undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas, comprising malignant lymphomas, amelanotic melanomas, Merkel cell carcinomas, and adenoid cystic carcinomas, in particular in small biopsy materials. Because of the rarity of undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas, the differential diagnosis should always include metastases of undifferentiated carcinomas arising at other primary sites, particularly when expressing the thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) Udgivelsesdato: 2004

  5. Evaluation of Salivary Albumin in Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PB Vaziri

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: The clinical symptoms of diabetes mellitus in oral cavity are xerostomia, pathological changes in periodontal tis­sues and caries. It has been suggested that the determination of salvia`s components in diabetic patients may be useful in de­scribing and further understanding the oral findings in this condition. The aim of this study was to detect differences be­tween the salivary albumin in diabetic patients and healthy people."nMethods: A case-control study was carried out using data from Hamadan researches diabetes center in 2008. We selected 40 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus aged 9-61 years, 40 patients with type2 aged 39-82 years and 40 healthy controls aged 20-67 years. Dental and oral status was assessed for all subjects. Completely unstimulated saliva samples were col­lected from diabetic patients and control subjects. Nephelometric method was used to determine salivary albumin con­centra­tion. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS."nResults: No significant difference in salivary albumin concentration was found between the control group and type1 dia­betic patients but salivary albumin was significantly higher in type2 diabetic patients in compare with control groups (P= 0.017, also no significant difference was found between type1 and type2 diabetic patients. In diabetic patients, complain of dry mouth and burning feeling in mouth was significantly higher, as well as, dental examinations showed higher DMFT mean values than the controls."nConclusion: Adults with type2 diabetes mellitus have higher concentration of salivary albumin that would play a helpful diagnos­tic role in oral findings of diabetic patients.

  6. Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Poorly Differentiated Carcinoma; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer

  7. Correlation between Cigarette Smoking and Urine Cotinine Level in Gastric Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Babhadiashar, Nima; Sotoudeh, Masoud; Azizi, Ebrahim; Bashiri, jafar; Didevar, Reza; MALEKZADEH, Reza; Ghahremani, Mohammad Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Various substances in cigarette smoke including nicotine have been shown to promote/induce cancer cell proliferation. Since cotinine has a longer half life and stability in the blood, it has become the preferred biomarker for cigarette smoking exposure.

  8. Salivary Antimicrobial Peptide Expression and Dental Caries Experience in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, Renchuan; Jurevic, Richard J.; Coulton, Kimberly K.; Tsutsui, Marjorie T.; Roberts, Marilyn C.; Kimball, Janet R.; Wells, Norma; Berndt, Jeffery; Dale, Beverly A.

    2005-01-01

    Dental caries is a major worldwide oral disease problem in children. Although caries are known to be influenced by dietary factors, the disease results from a bacterial infection; thus, caries susceptibility may be affected by host factors such as salivary antimicrobial peptides. This study aimed to determine a possible correlation between caries prevalence in children and salivary concentrations of the antimicrobial peptides human beta-defensin-3 (hBD-3), the cathelicidin LL37, and the alpha...

  9. Salivary secretion and connective tissue disease in man.

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, R. W.; Bhoola, K. D.; Rasker, J. J.; Jayson, M. I.

    1985-01-01

    Parotid and submandibular gland secretions collected from patients with rheumatoid arthritis or systemic sclerosis have been analysed and the results compared with those obtained from a matched group of healthy individuals. Flow rates were measured and the saliva samples assayed for amylase, kallikrein, protein, and salivary IgA concentration. The results showed that only patients with rheumatoid arthritis had a reduced salivary flow, especially parotid flow, with a significantly increased co...

  10. Plasma cotinine levels and pancreatic cancer in the EPIC cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leenders, Max; Chuang, Shu-Chun

    2012-01-01

    Smoking is an established risk factor for pancreatic cancer, previously investigated by the means of questionnaires. Using cotinine as a biomarker for tobacco exposure allows more accurate quantitative analyses to be performed. This study on pancreatic cancer, nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC cohort), included 146 cases and 146 matched controls. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, plasma cotinine levels were analyzed on average 8.0 years before cancer onset (5-95% range: 2.8-12.0 years). The relation between plasma cotinine levels and pancreatic cancer was analyzed with conditional logistic regression for different levels of cotinine in a population of never and current smokers. This was also done for the self-reported number of smoked cigarettes per day at baseline. Every increase of 350 nmol/L of plasma cotinine was found to significantly elevate risk of pancreatic cancer (odds ratio (OR): 1.33, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11-1.60). People with a cotinine level over 1187.8 nmol/L, a level comparable to smoking 17 cigarettes per day, have an elevated risk of pancreatic cancer, compared to people with cotinine levels below 55 nmol/L (OR: 3.66, 95% CI: 1.44-9.26). The results for self-reported smoking at baseline also show an increased risk of pancreatic cancer from cigarette smoking based on questionnaire information. People who smoke more than 30 cigarettes per day showed the highest risk compared to never smokers (OR: 4.15, 95% CI: 1.02-16.42). This study is the first to show that plasma cotinine levels are strongly related to pancreatic cancer. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Assessment of smoking status based on cotinine levels in nasal lavage fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cowart Beverly J

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cotinine is a principal metabolite of nicotine with a substantially longer half-life, and cotinine levels in saliva, urine or serum are widely used to validate self-reported smoking status. The nasal cavity and olfactory system are directly exposed to tobacco smoke in smokers and in non-smokers who live with or work around smokers. However, despite the potential for a direct impact of tobacco smoke on the nasal epithelium and olfactory neurons, no prior studies have assessed cotinine levels in nasal mucus. We sought to determine whether cotinine levels in nasal lavage fluid (NLF would provide a reasonable estimate of smoke exposure. We assayed cotinine using a competitive immunoassay in NLF from 23 smokers, 10 non-smokers exposed to tobacco smoke (ETS and 60 non-smokers who did not report smoke exposure. NLF cotinine levels were significantly higher in smokers than in non-smokers, regardless of their exposure to ambient tobacco smoke. Cotinine levels in this small group of exposed non-smokers were not significantly different than those of non-exposed non-smokers. A cutoff of 1 ng/ml provided a sensitivity of 91% and a specificity of 99% for smoking status in this sample. Data were consistent with self-reported smoking status, and a cutoff of 1.0 ng/ml NLF cotinine may be used to classify smoking status. While saliva is the most easily obtained body fluid, NLF can be used to provide an objective and precise indication of smoking status and more directly reflects smoke exposure in the nasal and olfactory mucosa.

  12. Plasma cotinine levels and pancreatic cancer in the EPIC cohort study.

    OpenAIRE

    Leenders, M; Chuang, SC; Dahm, CC; Overvad, K; Ueland, PM; Midttun, O; Vollset, SE; Tjønneland, A; Halkjaer, J; Jenab, M; Clavel-chapelon, F.; Boutron-Ruault, MC; Kaaks, R.; Canzian, F; Boeing, H.

    2012-01-01

    Smoking is an established risk factor for pancreatic cancer, previously investigated by the means of questionnaires. Using cotinine as a biomarker for tobacco exposure allows more accurate quantitative analyses to be performed. This study on pancreatic cancer, nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC cohort), included 146 cases and 146 matched controls. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, plasma cotinine levels were analyzed on average 8....

  13. Cotinine Selectively Activates a Subpopulation of ?3/?6?2* Nicotinic Receptors in Monkey Striatum

    OpenAIRE

    O’Leary, Kathryn; Parameswaran, Neeraja; Mcintosh, J Michael; Quik, Maryka

    2008-01-01

    The nicotine metabolite cotinine is an abundant long-lived bio-active compound that may contribute to the overall physiological effects of tobacco use. Although its mechanism of action in the central nervous system has not been extensively investigated, cotinine is known to evoke dopamine release in the nigrostriatal pathway through an interaction at nicotinic receptors (nAChRs). Because considerable evidence now demonstrates the presence of multiple nAChRs in the striatum, the present experi...

  14. Cotinine in Human Placenta Predicts Induction of Gene Expression in Fetal Tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Vyhlidal, Carrie A.; Riffel, Amanda K.; Haley, Kathleen J.; Sharma, Sunita; Dai, Hongying; Tantisira, Kelan G.; Weiss, Scott T.; Leeder, J. Steven

    2013-01-01

    Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of perinatal morbidity and mortality. However, the mechanisms underlying adverse birth outcomes following prenatal exposure to cigarette smoke remain unknown due, in part, to the absence or unreliability of information regarding maternal cigarette smoke exposure during pregnancy. Our goal was to determine if placental cotinine could be a reliable biomarker of fetal cigarette smoke exposure during pregnancy. Cotinine...

  15. Cotinine and interferon-gamma levels in pre-school children exposed to household tobacco smoke

    OpenAIRE

    Lina Kalalo; Diana Takumansang-Sondakh; Audrey Wahani

    2013-01-01

    Background Environmental tobacco smoke has been consistently linked to negative health outcomes, especially in children, including an increased susceptibility to infections. Cigarette smoking has a depressive effect on interferon-? (IFN-?). Serum cotinine is a marker of exposure to smoke. Objective To determine the association between serum cotinine and interferon-? (IFN-?) levels in children with household tobacco smoke exposure. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study at th...

  16. Cotinine: beyond that expected, more than a biomarker of tobacco consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ValentinaEcheverria Moran

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A greater incidence of tobacco consumption occurs among individuals with psychiatric conditions including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, bipolar disorder, major depression and schizophrenia, compared with the general population. Even when still controversial, it has been postulated that smoking is a form of self-medication that reduces psychiatric symptoms among individuals with these disorders. To better understand the component(s of tobacco-inducing smoking behavior, greater attention has been directed toward nicotine. However, in recent years, new evidence has shown that cotinine, the main metabolite of nicotine, exhibits beneficial effects over psychiatric symptoms and may therefore promote smoking within this population. Some of the behavioral effects of cotinine compared to nicotine are discussed here. Cotinine, which accumulates in the body as a result of tobacco exposure, crosses the blood-brain barrier and has different pharmacological properties compared with nicotine. Cotinine has a longer plasma half-life than nicotine and showed no addictive or cardiovascular effects in humans. In addition, at the preclinical level, cotinine facilitated the extinction of fear memory and anxiety after fear conditioning, improved working memory in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD and in a monkey model of schizophrenia. Altogether, the new evidence suggests that the pharmacological and behavioral effects of cotinine may play a key role in promoting tobacco smoking in individuals that suffer from psychiatric conditions and represents a new potential therapeutic agent against psychiatric conditions such as AD and PTSD.

  17. Salivary Diagnostics- Reloaded

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambil Sara Varghese

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As we approach the threshold of genomic medicine, the increasing use of salivary diagnostics will helpcatalyze a shift from disease diagnosis to health surveillance. With new techniques for detecting small quantities ofsalivary components, including proteins and messenger RNA (mRNA, the field of salivary diagnostics hasemerged as one of dentistry’s most promising areas of research. Because collecting saliva is noninvasive, it isbecoming the preferable way in bridging state-of-the-art saliva-based biosensors and disease-discriminatorysalivary biomarkers in diagnostic applications.The challenge to make salivary diagnostics a clinical reality is in establishing the scientific foundation and clinicalvalidations necessary to position it as a highly accurate and feasible technology, which can achieve definite pointof-care assessment of patient health and disease status.The field of salivary diagnostics is now becoming a broad,complex and crosscutting area of scientific research with enormous potential to impact the practicing dentist andhealth care in general.

  18. Diurnal variations in salivary protein carbonyl levels in normal and cognitively impaired human subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Haixiang; Gornitsky, Mervyn; Geng, Guoyan; Velly, Ana M.; Chertkow, Howard; Schipper, Hyman M.

    2008-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been documented in tissues and biofluids of subjects with sporadic Alzheimer disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The aim of this study was to determine whether (a) salivary protein carbonyls are elevated in AD and MCI subjects, (b) salivary protein carbonyl contents in these groups exhibit diurnal variation, and (c) apolipoprotein E ?4 (apoE ?4) carrier status impacts salivary carbonyl concentrations or rhythmicity in the AD and MCI cohorts. Unstimulated s...

  19. Decrease in salivary lactoferrin output in chronically intoxicated alcohol-dependent patients

    OpenAIRE

    Napoleon Waszkiewicz; Beata Zalewska-Szajda; Anna Zalewska; Magdalena Waszkiewicz; S?awomir Dariusz Szajda; Bernadeta Repka; Agata Szulc; Alina K?pka; Alina Minarowska; Sylwia Chojnowska; Beata Konarzewska; Jerzy Robert ?adny; Urszula Kowzan; Krzysztof Zwierz

    2012-01-01

    Salivary lactoferrin is a glycoprotein involved in the elimination of pathogens and the prevention of massive overgrowth of microorganisms that affect oral and general health. A high concentration of lactoferrin in saliva is often considered to be a marker of damage to the salivary glands, gingivitis, or leakage through inflamed or damaged oral mucosa, infiltrated particularly by neutrophils. We conducted a study to determine the effect of chronic alcohol intoxication on salivary lac...

  20. CYP2A6 Genotype but not Age Determines Cotinine Half-life in Infants and Children

    OpenAIRE

    Dempseyl, Delia A.; Sambol, Nancy C.; Jacob, Peyton; Hoffmann, E.; Rachel F. Tyndale; Fuentes-Afflick, Elena; Neal L. Benowitz

    2013-01-01

    The formation of cotinine, the main proximate metabolite and a biomarker of nicotine exposure, is mediated primarily by CYP2A6. Our aim was to determine if higher cotinine levels in young children exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) are a result of age-related differences in pharmacokinetics. Forty-nine participants, 2 to 84 months old, received oral deuterium-labeled cotinine, with daily urine samples for up to 10 days for cotinine half-life measurement. DNA from saliva was used for CYP2A6 gen...

  1. SALIVARY ANTIMICROBIAL PROTEIN RESPONSE TO PROLONGED RUNNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Schneider

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged exercise may compromise immunity through a reduction of salivary antimicrobial proteins (AMPs. Salivary IgA (IgA has been extensively studied, but little is known about the effect of acute, prolonged exercise on AMPs including lysozyme (Lys and lactoferrin (Lac. Objective: To determine the effect of a 50-km trail race on salivary cortisol (Cort, IgA, Lys, and Lac. Methods: 14 subjects: (6 females, 8 males completed a 50km ultramarathon. Saliva was collected pre, immediately after (post and 1.5 hrs post race ( 1.5. Results: Lac concentration was higher at 1.5 hrs post race compared to post exercise (p0.05. IgA concentration, secretion rate, and IgA/Osm were lower 1.5 hrs post compared to pre race (p<0.05. Cort concentration was higher at post compared to 1.5 (p<0.05, but was unaltered from pre race levels. Subjects finished in 7.81 ± 1.2 hrs. Saliva flow rate did not differ between time points. Saliva Osm increased at post (p<0.05 compared to pre race. Conclusions: The intensity could have been too low to alter Lys and Lac secretion rates and thus, may not be as sensitive as IgA to changes in response to prolonged running. Results expand our understanding of the mucosal immune system and may have implications for predicting illness after prolonged running.

  2. Diagnostics of salivary gland disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article several diagnostic techniques are described for the diagnosis of the salivary glands. Sialography can be used for chronic inflammations and obstructions. Scintiscanning is useful in the determination of function disorders and the simultaneous diagnosis of all big salivary glands. With echography it is possible to distinguish solid and cystoid tumors. Computer tomography locates space occupying processes. Still the clinical investigations and anamneses are the most important diagnostic means for disorders of the salivary glands. 34 refs.; 6 figs.; 1 table

  3. Malignant salivary gland tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, S.H. (University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dept. of Oral Pathology)

    1982-08-01

    The most frequent malignant salivary gland tumours are the mucoepidermoid tumour, adenoid cystic carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The major salivary glands and the minor glands of the mouth and upper respiratory tract may potentially develop any of these malignant lesions. Malignant lesions most frequently present as a palpable mass and tend to enlarge more rapidly than benign neoplasms. Pain, paresthesia, muscle paralysis and fixation to surrounding tissue are all ominous signs and symptoms. The only reliable means of differential diagnosis of these lesions is biopsy and histologic analysis. Therapy involves surgery or a combination of surgery and radiation therapy. The ultimate prognosis is governed by the intrinsic biologic behaviour of the neoplasms, the extent of disease and adequate clinical therapy.

  4. Malignant salivary gland tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most frequent malignant salivary gland tumours are the mucoepidermoid tumour, adenoid cystic carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The major salivary glands and the minor glands of the mouth and upper respiratory tract may potentially develop any of these malignant lesions. Malignant lesions most frequently present as a palpable mass and tend to enlarge more rapidly than benign neoplasms. Pain, paresthesia, muscle paralysis and fixation to surrounding tissue are all ominous signs and symptoms. The only reliable means of differential diagnosis of these lesions is biopsy and histologic analysis. Therapy involves surgery or a combination of surgery and radiation therapy. The ultimate prognosis is governed by the intrinsic biologic behaviour of the neoplasms, the extent of disease and adequate clinical therapy

  5. Efecto de la Cotinina en la Viabilidad de Fibroblastos / EFFECT OF COTININE ON THE VIABILITY OF FIBROBLASTS.

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aurora E., Traverso Martínez; Karina, Gonzales Silvério; Carlos, Rossa Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar "in vitro" el efecto de la cotinina en la viabilidad celular utilizando un linaje continuo de fibroblastos. Fueron formados grupos experimentales según las concentraciones de cotinina : 0 (control), 50ng, 100ng, 500ng, 1ug/ml. y tiempo de condicionamento (1, 24, 4 [...] 8 horas). Cada uno de los 12 orificios de una placa para cultivo celular recibió 1 mL de medio de Eagle y 1mL de cotinina en las diferentes concentraciones, inmediatamente fue acrescentado 1ml de medio de cultivo conteniendo 1x10(5) cels/mL. Después del condicionamento con la droga, en los 3 períodos ensayados, las células fueron teñidas con azul de tripan 0,4% y observadas en un microscopio invertido, por un examinador ciego para los grupos experimentales. Los experimentos fueron repetidos 5 vezes. Los resultados mostraron que las dos concentraciones mayores de cotinina presentaron los menores porcentajes de células viables, sin embargo, esta diferencia fue reducida. La viabilidad celular presentó una pequeña disminución con el aumento del tiempo de condicionamiento. Concluimos que la cotinina puede afectar la viabilidad celular solo en las dos mayores concentraciones ensayadas. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate, in vitro, the effect of cotinine on the viability of fibroblasts from a continuous lineage. Experimental groups were formed according to drug dosage: 0 (control), 50ng, 100ng, 500ng, 1ug/ml, and time of exposure: (1, 24, 48 horas).Twelve wells microplates were [...] used. Each well received 1ml of Eagle medium and 1ml of a solution containing 1x10(5) cells/ml. Cotinine at the tested concentrations was then added to the wells. After the incubation period, cells viability was assessed by using trypan blue 0,4%. Cell viabylity were assessed on a inverted micorscope, by the single examiner who was blend to the experimentals groups. The experiment was repeated 5 times. Results demostrated that the two greater concentrations presented the more non viable cells, but these diferences were minimal. The cells viability presented minimal decreased with the increased of time exposure. Cotinine affect fibroblasts for the high tested dose.

  6. Salivary acetylcholinesterase activity is increased in Parkinson's disease : a potential marker of parasympathetic dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedorova, Tatyana; Knudsen, Cindy Soendersoe

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Decreased salivary flow and xerostomia are frequent findings in Parkinson's disease (PD), possibly caused by alterations in the parasympathetic tonus. Here we explore salivary acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity as a potential biomarker in PD. Methods. We measured salivary flow, AChE activity, and total protein concentration in 30 PD patients and 49 healthy controls. We also performed exploratory correlation analyses with disease duration, motor symptom severity, autonomic complaints, and other nonmotor symptoms. Results. PD patients displayed significantly decreased salivary flow rate, significantly increased salivary AChE activity, and total protein concentration. Importantly, the AChE activity/total protein ratio was significantly increased in PD patients, suggesting that increased AChE activity cannot be explained solely by upconcentration of saliva. The Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS) score displayed significant correlation with total salivary protein (P = 0.002) and near-significant correlation with salivary flow (P = 0.07). Color vision test scores were also significantly correlated with AChE activity (P = 0.04) and total protein levels (P = 0.002). Conclusion. Salivary AChE activity is increased in PD patients compared to healthy controls. Future studies are needed to elucidate whether this parameter reflects the extent of neuronal damage and parasympathetic denervation in the salivary glands of PD patients.

  7. Anti-smoking legislation and its effects on urinary cotinine and cadmium levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, Jinny E; Bartolomé, Mónica; Cañas, Ana I; Huetos, Olga; Navarro, Carmen; Rodríguez, A Carolina; Arribas, Misericordia; Esteban, Marta; López, Ana; Castaño, Argelia

    2015-01-01

    Anti-smoking legislation has been associated with an improvement in health indicators. Since the cadmium (Cd) body burden in the general population is markedly increased by smoke exposure, we analyzed the impact of the more restrictive legislation that came into force in Spain in 2011 by measuring Cd and cotinine in first morning urine samples from 83 adults in Madrid (Spain) before (2010) and after (2011) introduction of this law. Individual pair-wise comparisons showed a reduction of creatinine corrected Cotinine and Cd levels for non-active smokers, i. e. those which urinary cotinine levels are below 50 ?g/L. After the application of the stricter law, cotinine levels in urine only decreased in non-active smokers who self-reported not to be exposed to second-hand smoke. The reduction in second hand smoke exposure was significantly higher in weekends (Friday to Sunday) than in working days (Monday to Thursday). The decrease in U-Cd was highly significant in non-active smokers and, in general, correlated with lower creatinine excretion. Therefore correction by creatinine could bias urinary Cd results, at least for cotinine levels higher than 500 ?g/L. The biochemical/toxicological benefits detected herein support the stricter application of anti-smoking legislation and emphasize the need to raise the awareness of the population as regards exposure at home. PMID:25460641

  8. Dasatinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Malignant Salivary Gland Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-02

    High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Low-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Anaplastic Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Malignant Mixed Cell Type Tumor; Salivary Gland Poorly Differentiated Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer

  9. Sialorrhea and Salivary Composition in Patients With Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bugra KOCA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the salivary composition and production in mild and severe Parkinson's Disease (PD patients.Materials and Methods: A total of 37 patients with PD and age matched 30 control subjects were participated in this study. The Hoehn and Yahr (HY disability scale was used to determine the severity of the disease. Salivary collection was performed according to a methodology described in the literature and salivary composition was determined. Between group comparisons were performed using the independent t test and chi-square.Results: Salivary production in patients of the Parkinson group was significantly lower than in controls (0.68±0.26 mg vs. 1.27±0.65 mg, respectively; p=0.009. But there was no significant difference in salivary production between mild and severe Parkinson patients (0.71±0.33 mg vs. 0.66±0.17 mg, respectively; p=0.62. Decrease in the production of saliva was not significantly correlated with levodopa/benserazide dose, HY scale and UPDRS score (r=0.283, p=0.09; r=-0.166, p=0.325; r=-0.208, p=0.217; respectively.In PD patients, salivary concentrations of sodium, potassium, chloride were higher but amylase was lower than in controls (p=0.02, p<0.001, p=0.003, p=0.04, respectively. When mild and severe PD patients were compared there were no significant difference between amylase, potassium, and chloride concentrations of the groups (p=0.07, p=0.32, p=0.16, respectively.Conclusions: PD is associated with decreased salivary production, abnormally high electrolyte and low amylase concentrations. Drooling of saliva is caused by concomitant swallowing difficulties. Thus, using botulinum toxin or anticolinergic drugs in treatment of drooling may cause xerostomia.

  10. N-acetyltransferase 1 polymorphism increases cotinine levels in Caucasian children exposed to secondhand smoke: the CCAAPS birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMasters, G K; Khurana Hershey, G K; Sivaprasad, U; Martin, L J; Pilipenko, V; Ericksen, M B; Burkle, J W; Lindsey, M A; Bernstein, D I; Lockey, J E; Gareri, J; Lubetsky, A; Koren, G; Biagini Myers, J M

    2015-04-01

    Cotinine is a proxy for secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure. Genetic variation along nicotine and cotinine metabolic pathways may alter the internal cotinine dose, leading to misinterpretations of exposure-health outcome associations. Caucasian children with available SHS exposure and hair cotinine data were genotyped for metabolism-related genes. SHS-exposed children had 2.4-fold higher hair cotinine (0.14±0.22?ng?mg(-1)) than unexposed children (0.06±0.05?ng?mg(-1), Pcotinine (0.18?ng?mg(-1) for heterozygotes and 0.17?ng?mg(-1) for homozygotes) compared with major allele homozygotes (0.09?ng?mg(-1), P=0.0009), even after adjustment for SHS dose. These findings support that NAT1 has a role in the metabolic pathway of nicotine/cotinine and/or their metabolites. The increased cotinine levels observed for those carrying the minor allele may lead to SHS exposure misclassification in studies utilizing cotinine as a biomarker. Additional studies are required to identify functional single-nucleotide polymorphism(s) (SNP(s)) in NAT1 and elucidate the biological consequences of the mutation(s). PMID:25156213

  11. Single gas chromatography method with nitrogen phosphorus detector for urinary cotinine determination in passive and active smokers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lusiane, Malafatti; Patrícia Penido, Maia; Matheus Coutinho Gonçalves, Martins; Maria Elisa Pereira Bastos de, Siqueira; Isarita, Martins.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A nicotina é uma substância presente no cigarro capaz de causar dependência, sendo biotransformada em vários metabólitos nos seres humanos, dentre eles a cotinina urinária, que é considerada um indicador biológico de exposição à nicotina, devido a suas altas concentrações, comparado a outras matrize [...] s. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um único método para determinação de cotinina urinária, em amostras de urina de fumantes ativos e passivos, através de cromatografia em fase gasosa com detector de nitrogênio- fósforo (CG-DNF). Para o preparo de amostras foram utilizados 5 mL de urina, 1 mL de hidróxido de sódio 5 mol L-1, 5 mL de clorofórmio, tendo como padrão interno a lidocaína. Na faixa de concentrações de 10-1000 ng mL-1 e 500- 6000 ng mL-1, o coeficiente de determinação foi 0,9986 e 0,9952, respectivamente e, o limite de quantificação foi 10 ng mL-1. A precisão intra- e interensaio apresentou desvio padrão relativo (%) menor que 14,2% e a inexatidão foi menor que +11,9%, com uma eficiência de extração de 88,5%. O método apresentou robustez, de acordo com o teste de Youden. As concentrações médias de cotinina observadas foram 2980 ng mL-1, para fumantes ativos e 132 ng mL-1, para fumantes passivos. Os resultados sugerem que o método é confiável, preciso, linear e apresentou robustez, na faixa avaliada, podendo ser aplicado na rotina para análises de amostras de fumantes ativos e passivos, pois é capaz de quantificar uma ampla faixa de concentrações de cotinina urinária. Abstract in english Nicotine is a major addictive compound in cigarettes and is rapidly and extensively metabolized to several metabolites in humans, including urinary cotinine, considered a biomarker due to its high concentration compared to other metabolites. The aim of this study was to develop a single method for d [...] etermination of urinary cotinine, in active and passive smokers, by gas chromatography with a nitrogen phosphorus detector (GC-NPD). Urine (5.0 mL) was extracted with 1.0 mL of sodium hydroxide 5 mol L-1, 5.0 mL of chloroform, and lidocaine used as the internal standard. Injection volume was 1 ?L in GC-NPD. Limit of quantification was 10 ng mL-1. Linearity was evaluated in the ranges 10-1000 ng mL-1 and 500-6000 ng mL-1, with determination coefficients of 0.9986 and 0.9952, respectively. Intra- and inter-assay standard relative deviations were lower than 14.2 %, while inaccuracy (bias) was less than +11.9%. The efficiency of extraction was greater than 88.5%. Ruggedness was verified, according to Youden's test. Means of cotinine concentrations observed were 2,980 ng mL-1 for active smokers and 132 ng mL-1, for passive smokers. The results revealed that satisfactory chromatographic separation between the analyte and interferents was obtained with a ZB-1 column. This method is reliable, precise, linear and presented ruggedness in the range evaluated. The results suggest that it can be applied in routine analysis for passive and active smokers, since it is able to quantify a wide range of cotinine concentrations in urine.

  12. Single gas chromatography method with nitrogen phosphorus detector for urinary cotinine determination in passive and active smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusiane Malafatti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Nicotine is a major addictive compound in cigarettes and is rapidly and extensively metabolized to several metabolites in humans, including urinary cotinine, considered a biomarker due to its high concentration compared to other metabolites. The aim of this study was to develop a single method for determination of urinary cotinine, in active and passive smokers, by gas chromatography with a nitrogen phosphorus detector (GC-NPD. Urine (5.0 mL was extracted with 1.0 mL of sodium hydroxide 5 mol L-1, 5.0 mL of chloroform, and lidocaine used as the internal standard. Injection volume was 1 ?L in GC-NPD. Limit of quantification was 10 ng mL-1. Linearity was evaluated in the ranges 10-1000 ng mL-1 and 500-6000 ng mL-1, with determination coefficients of 0.9986 and 0.9952, respectively. Intra- and inter-assay standard relative deviations were lower than 14.2 %, while inaccuracy (bias was less than +11.9%. The efficiency of extraction was greater than 88.5%. Ruggedness was verified, according to Youden's test. Means of cotinine concentrations observed were 2,980 ng mL-1 for active smokers and 132 ng mL-1, for passive smokers. The results revealed that satisfactory chromatographic separation between the analyte and interferents was obtained with a ZB-1 column. This method is reliable, precise, linear and presented ruggedness in the range evaluated. The results suggest that it can be applied in routine analysis for passive and active smokers, since it is able to quantify a wide range of cotinine concentrations in urine.A nicotina é uma substância presente no cigarro capaz de causar dependência, sendo biotransformada em vários metabólitos nos seres humanos, dentre eles a cotinina urinária, que é considerada um indicador biológico de exposição à nicotina, devido a suas altas concentrações, comparado a outras matrizes. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um único método para determinação de cotinina urinária, em amostras de urina de fumantes ativos e passivos, através de cromatografia em fase gasosa com detector de nitrogênio- fósforo (CG-DNF. Para o preparo de amostras foram utilizados 5 mL de urina, 1 mL de hidróxido de sódio 5 mol L-1, 5 mL de clorofórmio, tendo como padrão interno a lidocaína. Na faixa de concentrações de 10-1000 ng mL-1 e 500- 6000 ng mL-1, o coeficiente de determinação foi 0,9986 e 0,9952, respectivamente e, o limite de quantificação foi 10 ng mL-1. A precisão intra- e interensaio apresentou desvio padrão relativo (% menor que 14,2% e a inexatidão foi menor que +11,9%, com uma eficiência de extração de 88,5%. O método apresentou robustez, de acordo com o teste de Youden. As concentrações médias de cotinina observadas foram 2980 ng mL-1, para fumantes ativos e 132 ng mL-1, para fumantes passivos. Os resultados sugerem que o método é confiável, preciso, linear e apresentou robustez, na faixa avaliada, podendo ser aplicado na rotina para análises de amostras de fumantes ativos e passivos, pois é capaz de quantificar uma ampla faixa de concentrações de cotinina urinária.

  13. Responses of salivary cortisol and ?-amylase to official competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMMAD A. AZARBAYJANI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the relationship between salivary cortisol, ?-amylase and total protein response in the official football players during the course of a game. Nine young amateur football players agreed to participate in the study. Saliva samples were collected from each player 30 min and 5 min before the start of the competition, at half time, and then again 5 and 30 min after the end of competition. A significant increase in cortisol (p=0.04 in response to playing the competition was observed including a significantly higher concentration 30 min after match as compared to half time (p=0.016. In contrast, changes in salivary ?-amylase changes were irregular, but there was significant decline 5 min after end of match as compared to the 5 min before the beginning of match (p<0.019. No significant difference in total protein concentration was observed. Though salivary cortisol, ?-amylase and total protein changes were observed concomitantly, but there no significant relationship between them. We conclude that participation in competition has an accumulative effect on salivary cortisol concentration, but this was not related changes in salivary ?-amylase.

  14. The role of salivary progesterone in studies of infertile women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, S; Mustafa, A; Walker, R F; Riad-Fahmy, D

    1981-10-01

    Fifteen women with normal menstrual cycles, dated by accepted criteria, had salivary progesterone concentrations during the luteal phase of the cycle which were significantly higher than those in the follicular phase. Progesterone concentrations in matched samples of plasma and saliva showed excellent correlation in both normal and infertile women. Salivary progesterone profiles derived from daily sampling of 20 infertile patients not only allowed accurate assessment of ovarian dysfunction but also indicated more effectively than conventional techniques the change in hormonal status following ovulation induction therapy with clomiphene citrate or bromocriptine. PMID:7284279

  15. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke measured by cotinine 125I-radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a polyclonal-antiserum-based 125I-radioimmunoassay for cotinine that is suitable for measuring nonsmokers' passive exposure to tobacco smoke in the environment. The standard curve ranged from 0.25 to 12.0 micrograms/L, with an estimated lower limit of sensitivity of 0.2 microgram/L (95% B/Bo = 0.2 microgram/L; 50% B/Bo = 4.0 micrograms/L). The median within-assay CVs for patients' samples with cotinine values from 0.4 to 1.3, 1.4 to 2.4, 2.5 to 4.6, and 4.7 to 15.6 micrograms/L were 13.9%, 7.2%, 5.1%, and 5.7%, respectively. Between-assay CVs for two quality-control sera with average values of 1.53 and 3.68 micrograms/L were 14.3% and 7.8%, respectively. Analytical recoveries of cotinine from smokers' sera diluted in zero calibrant ranged from 91% to 116%. Cotinine values determined on 79 paired sera and urines from nonsmokers showed significant correlation with self-reported exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (r = 0.49, P less than 0.001 for sera; r = 0.57, P less than 0.001 for urine). The log of the values for serum and urine cotinine were also significantly correlated (r = 0.85, P less than 0.001). Evidently, polyclonal antiserum can be used to develop a cotinine assay for measuring exposure to environmental tobacco smoke that compares well with that described for monoclonal-based assays

  16. Radioimmunoassay of salivary steroid hormones for easy diagnosis of and adrenal functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The salivary levels of progesterone, estradiol and cortisol were determined by radioimmunoassay in fertile and infertile women. progesterone concentration was also determined in sera of both groups. Results have shown salivary progesterone to be promising in the assessment of ovarian function. Positive and significant correlation was obtained between serum and salivary progesterone for both considered groups. Although, concentrations of estradiol in saliva seems to be useful in predicting the time of ovulation onset however, further evaluations, are still needed. High levels of salivary cortisol were obtained reflecting stress during menses, ovulation and awaiting for the onset of the next cycle. Consequently, salivary cortisol is a good monitor for adrenal function. 6 figs., 5 tabs

  17. Immunochromatographic assay using gold nanoparticles for measuring salivary secretory IgA in dogs as a stress marker

    OpenAIRE

    Aki Takahashi, Shigeru Uchiyama, Yuya Kato, Teruko Yuhi, Hiromi Ushijima, Makoto Takezaki, Toshihiro Tominaga, Yoshiko Moriyama, Kunio Takeda, Toshiro Miyahara and Naoki Nagatani

    2009-01-01

    The concentration of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) is a well-known stress marker for humans. The concentration of salivary sIgA in dogs has also been reported as a useful stress marker. In addition, salivary sIgA in dogs has been used to determine the adaptive ability of dogs for further training. There are conventional procedures based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs. However, ELISA requires long assay time, complicated operations...

  18. Salivary and serum analysis in children diagnosed with pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein Kremer, Adi; Kuzminsky, Ela; Bentur, Lea; Nagler, Rafael M

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate specific markers for pneumonia by using a non-invasive assessment of inflammatory/oxidative biomarkers in saliva accompanying a routine serum analysis. No study evaluating saliva of children with pneumonia has been published previously. Salivary analysis was performed in 15 children diagnosed with lobar pneumonia and in a parallel group of 16 children matching in age and gender in whom there was no respiratory illness, and compared to the serum analysis obtained routinely in both groups of children. Salivary flow rate was lower in the patients' group as was uric acid concentration (by 60%). Increase in salivary concentrations of almost all parameters analyzed was found: Ca, P, and Mg concentrations were higher in the patients' group by 23%, 55%, and 33%, respectively, while LDH, total protein amylase and albumin concentrations were higher by 275%, 79%, and 42%, respectively. In the serum, white cell counts and neutrophils were significantly higher, and sodium level significantly lower in the patients' group. Compositional changes were in the range of 3-80% while the saliva alterations were more profound, in the range of 42-275%. The results demonstrated in the current study indicate salivary analysis as a potentially novel tool for children with pneumonia. Human salivary collection and analysis is a non-invasive tool that could provide additional information for diagnosis and follow-up of pneumonia, especially in children. This is especially beneficial for pediatric patients, as salivary collection is simple, non-invasive, and patient-friendly. PMID:23532916

  19. Circulating immune complexes, immunoglobulin G, salivary proteins and salivary immunoglobulin A in patients with Sjögren's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadži-Mihailovi? Miloš

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sjögren's syndrome (SS is a chronic autoimmune disorder, with its major clinical manifestations resulting from changes in exocrine glands. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate serum concentrations of circulating immune complexes (CIC and immunoglobulin G (IgG, and salivary proteins (SP and salivary immunoglobulin A (sIgA in 40 patients with SS, and to correlate these values among themselves, as well as with the unstimulated salivary flow rate (USFR and the duration of disease. Methods. The total of 40 patients were included in this research. CIC was determined using the solution of polyethylene glycol and IgG with the standard procedure of radial immunodiffusion. SP was investigated by the method of Lowry and sIgA was separated from the whole saliva using the method of immune chromatography. Results. The values of most of the studied parameters exceeded the normal range in a high degree: CIC 72.5%, IgG 70%, SP 80%. The concentrations of CIC were significantly higher in the patients with the duration of disease less than 10 years. With the decrease of USFR, the concentration of sIgA and IgG were increased with statistical significance. Conclusion The increased prevalence of abnormal values of CIC, IgG and SP indicate that the patients with SS have developed a higher level of immune reactivity. These results could be useful in diagnosis and disease activity monitoring.

  20. Postirradiation malignant salivary gland tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information concerning the relationship between salivary gland tumors and prior exposure to radiation for benign conditions or by accident is slowly being gathered. As yet, no statistical confidence can be established in this relationship. Very likely, this confidence will require studies akin to those done on the problem of thyroid cancer and irradiation. Including the case reported here, 50 tumors of the salivary glands have been reported to have followed prior radiation exposure. Twenty-three of these tumors have been malignant, with the mucoepidermoid carcinoma the most frequent histological type. The latent period in salivary tissues is 20 or more years

  1. Salivary Cortisol, Salivary Alpha Amylase, and the Dental Anxiety Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Sadi, Hana; Finkelman, Matthew; Rosenberg, Morton

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between dental anxiety, salivary cortisol, and salivary alpha amylase (sAA) levels. Furthermore, the aim was to look into individual differences such as age, race, gender, any existing pain, or traumatic dental experience and their effect on dental anxiety. This study followed a cross-sectional design and included a convenience sample of 46. Every patient was asked to complete the Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS) and a basic demographic/denta...

  2. ELIMINATION OF URINARY COTININE IN CHILDREN EXPOSED TO KNOWN LEVELS OF SIDE-STREAM CIGARETTE SMOKE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The establishment of a quantitative personal marker of side-stream smoke exposure in children is important in the study of potential health effects in the group. Cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine, has been shown to exhibit a dose-response relationship to side-stream smoke exposu...

  3. Direct radioimmunoassay (RIA) of salivary testosterone: correlation with free and total serium testosterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simple and sensitive direct RIA for determination of salivary testosterone was developed by using RSL NOSOLVEX TM (125 1) kit produced by Radioassay System Laboratories (Carcon, California). In addition, a relationship between salivary and serum free and total testosterone concentrations was studied in randomly selected 45 healthy subjects, 5 females on oral contraceptive pills and 28 hypertensive patients on various treatment regimens. The lowest weight of testosterone detectable by the modified method was equivalent to 1 pg/ml of saliva, taking into account analytical variability. Intra- and interassay coefficients of variation were 5.09 +/- 2.7% and 8.2 +/- 5.9% respectively. Statistically significant correlations were found between salivary and serum free testosterone (r = 0.97) and salivary and serum total testosterone concentrations (r = 0.70 - 0.87). The exception to this was a group of hypertensive females in which no correlation (r = 0.14) between salivary and total serum testosterone was found. It is also of interest that, while salivary testosterone was significantly increased in subjects taking oral contraceptives and most of the hypertensive patients, the total serum testosterone concentration was in normal range. These findings suggest that the determination of salivary testosterone is a reliable method to detect changes in the concentration of available biologically active hormone in the circulation. 21 references, 4 figures, 1 tablees, 4 figures, 1 table

  4. Salivary gland diseases in children

    OpenAIRE

    Iro, Heinrich; Zenk, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland diseases in children are rare, apart from viral-induced diseases. Nevertheless, it is essential for the otolaryngologist to recognize these uncommon findings in children and adolescents and to diagnose and initiate the proper treatment.

  5. Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Request Permissions Print to PDF Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 04/ ... menu on the side of your screen. A risk factor is anything that increases a person’s chance of ...

  6. The variability of urinary cotinine levels in young children: implications for measuring ETS exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt, Georg E; Hovell, Melbourne F; Quintana, Penelope J E; Zakarian, Joy; Liles, Sandy; Meltzer, Susan B; Benowitz, Neal L

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the within-subject variability of urinary cotinine levels in young children (aged = 0.6-7.2 years) of smoking parents to determine the number of urine samples needed to provide accurate estimates of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) for different time intervals. Secondary analyses were conducted of five independent studies (N = 376), in which multiple urinary cotinine measures had been collected over time periods up to 13 months. Over measurement periods of 4-15 days, the within-subject cotinine levels varied 3-5 times more than would be expected based on measurement error alone. Over 7-13 months, the within-subject variability was 10-20 times higher than would be expected based on the measurement error. Findings indicated that cotinine measures from single urine samples provided highly accurate estimates of only recent exposure (i.e., 2-3 days; rho = 0.99). To achieve similarly precise estimates of the mean cotinine level of an individual child over 4-15 days, up to nine urine samples may be necessary. Up to 12 urine samples may be required to achieve similarly precise estimates of ETS exposure over a 4- to 13-month period. Epidemiologic and clinical research on ETS exposure in children can benefit from multiple urine samples (a) to accurately measure average exposure at the level of the individual child, (b) to describe temporal patterns, (c) to detect incidences of peak exposure that would remain underrecognized if monitoring is limited to a single time point, and (d) to establish stable baseline levels and endpoints based on urine samples collected over clinically relevant time periods. PMID:17365739

  7. Cotinine and interferon-gamma levels in pre-school children exposed to household tobacco smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Kalalo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Environmental tobacco smoke has been consistently linked to negative health outcomes, especially in children, including an increased susceptibility to infections. Cigarette smoking has a depressive effect on interferon-? (IFN-?. Serum cotinine is a marker of exposure to smoke. Objective To determine the association between serum cotinine and interferon-? (IFN-? levels in children with household tobacco smoke exposure. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study at the Tumumpa and Singkil Districts of Manado, Indonesia, from February to May 2012. Subjects were collected by consecutively sampling of healthy children aged 1-3 years who came to the integrated health posts. Seventy-four children were recruited and consisted of two groups of 37 subjects each, the tobacco smoke exposure group and the non-tobacco smoke exposure group. Blood specimens were collected from all subjects for laboratory blood tests of cotinine and IFN-? levels. Results were analyzed by T-test and Pearson’s correlation analysis with a P<0.05 is considered as statistically significant. Results There was no significant correlation between serum cotinine and interferon-? levels in the tobacco smoke exposure group. However, the interferon-? level in the tobacco smoke exposure group was significantly lower than that of the non-tobacco smoke exposure group (P<0.0001. Conclusion Cotinine is not related to the interferon-? level in children exposed to tobacco smoke, however, the interferon-? level in children with tobacco smoke exposure is lower than in the non-tobacco smoke exposure group. [Paediatr Indones. 2013;53:287-90.].

  8. Adrenergic effects on secretion of amylase from the rat salivary glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier; NexØ, Ebba

    1988-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of adrenergic agents on secretion of amylase from the salivary glands in vivo. Saliva was collected from the distal oesophagus in conscious rats. Adrenaline increased the concentration of amylase in saliva and serum significantly. The result of infusion of alpha- and beta-adrenergic antagonists as well as noradrenaline and isoproterenol showed that secretion of salivary amylase is predominantly mediated by stimulation of beta-adrenergic receptors, especially of the beta 1-subtype. Investigation of the isoenzyme pattern in saliva, pancreatic juice and serum demonstrated that the major component in serum is salivary amylase. This study has shown that beta-adrenergic agents stimulate secretion of amylase from the salivary glands in rats. Though the secretion is mainly exocrine small amounts of amylase is found in serum, which seems to originate from the salivary glands.

  9. [Salivary hormones: a new aspect of oral physiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deville de Périère, D; Arancibia, S

    Aside from the digestive enzymes the submandibular salivary glands (SSG) synthetize other polypeptides, detected also in saliva, with varied biological activity; NGF and EGF are the knowest. However, over the last decade, steroids hormones have been also found out in the saliva at the same concentrations that the free plasma fraction. The origin of these hormones is largely discussed and certain authors have even proposed a local synthesis for them. This matter, is of clinical interest because gingiva and buccal tissues are knowingly sensitive to steroids. Besides, woman ovulation appears to be monitored through progesterone fluctuations in saliva. Another kind of salivary substances is formed by the neuropeptides of the gut-brain axis, mainly VIP and SRIF. The former likely of nervous origin seems to be involved in the atropine-resistant salivary secretion, whereas the latter-likely of SSG origin--appears as a factor associated with glycemia control. PMID:3078705

  10. Upregulation of salivary ?2 macroglobulin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, J K; Lu, Y F; Li, J; Qi, Y H; Yi, M L; Ma, D Y

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the expression of salivary ?2-macroglobulin (?2-MG) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) to investigate its value for predicting damage to the salivary glands. A total of 116 patients with T2DM and 60 patients with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) were included in this study. Sixty health volunteers were enrolled as a control group. Unstimulated saliva was collected at 8 a.m. prior to breakfast. Expression of ?2-MG was determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The correlation between salivary ?2-MG, serum ?2-MG, and concentration of fasting glucose was analyzed using Pearson correlation analysis. No significant difference was observed in the expression of serum ?2-MG in the T2DM group, IFG group, and control group (P > 0.05). Compared with the control group and IFG group, a statistical difference was observed in the salivary ?2-MG in the T2DM group (P 0.05). In the patients with T2DM, a close correlation was identified in the expression of serum ?2-MG and salivary ?2-MG (r = 0.52, P < 0.01). A poor correlation was identified between salivary ?2-MG and blood sugar level (r = -0.12, P = 0.199). The expression of salivary ?2-MG showed a remarkable increase in T2DM patients, which may be associated with functional disorders of the salivary gland. PMID:25867373

  11. What interactions drive the salivary mucosal pellicle formation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbins, Hannah L; Yakubov, Gleb E; Proctor, Gordon B; Wilson, Stephen; Carpenter, Guy H

    2014-08-01

    The bound salivary pellicle is essential for protection of both the enamel and mucosa in the oral cavity. The enamel pellicle formation is well characterised, however the mucosal pellicle proteins have only recently been clarified and what drives their formation is still unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the salivary pellicle on particles with different surface properties (hydrophobic or hydrophilic with a positive or negative charge), to determine a suitable model to mimic the mucosal pellicle. A secondary aim was to use the model to test how transglutaminase may alter pellicle formation. Particles were incubated with resting whole mouth saliva, parotid saliva and submandibular/sublingual saliva. Following incubation and two PBS and water washes bound salivary proteins were eluted with two concentrations of SDS, which were later analysed using SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. Experiments were repeated with purified transglutaminase to determine how this epithelial-derived enzyme may alter the bound pellicle. Protein pellicles varied according to the starting salivary composition and the particle chemistry. Amylase, the single most abundant protein in saliva, did not bind to any particle indicating specific protein binding. Most proteins bound through hydrophobic interactions and a few according to their charges. The hydrophobic surface most closely matched the known salivary mucosal pellicle by containing mucins, cystatin and statherin but an absence of amylase and proline-rich proteins. This surface was further used to examine the effect of added transglutaminase. At the concentrations used only statherin showed any evidence of crosslinking with itself or another saliva protein. In conclusion, the formation of the salivary mucosal pellicle is probably mediated, at least in part, by hydrophobic interactions to the epithelial cell surface. PMID:24921197

  12. Dynamic radioisotopic study of the salivary glands. Quantification test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantified dynamic radioisotopic exploration, a new and rational examination, should find its place in a thorough check-up of the salivary glands together with clinical, immunological, anatomopathological and sialographic investigations. The object of this work was to standardise the test procedure with a view to routine use on patients and to define certain quantified parameters representing objectively the different aspects of the salivary functions. Our procedure through reeding sophisticated equipment, is simple to perform and relies on use of: radiotechnetium employed at activities which allow repetitive exlorations whereby pathological changes may be followed; the gamma camera and its data processing system which records all radioactive information obtained on the patient's head. These results will supply the data needed to judge the salivary functions as a whole. The apparatus used provides a remarkable pictorial record made up not only of morphological and functional images at each stage of the examination but also of ciphered radioactivity versus time curves for each of the main salivary glands and for any other zone of interest. From these curves it is then possible to define quantified parameters, reproducible and expressing functional activity. This procedure, safe and painless, seems to suit the patients who lie still without complaint for 60 minutes, 45 minutes for the concentration study and 15 minutes for the post-stimulus excretion study. The dynamic radioisotopic examination of the salivary glands, by the comparison of concentration and excretion images and by the study of parameters, separately and as a whole, is thus a useful complement to other paraclinical examinations and contributes essential information in most salivary diseases

  13. The Danish contribution to the European DEMOCOPHES project: A description of cadmium, cotinine and mercury levels in Danish mother-child pairs and the perspectives of supplementary sampling and measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mørck, Thit A; Nielsen, Flemming; Nielsen, Jeanette K S; Jensen, Janne F; Hansen, Pernille W; Hansen, Anne K; Christoffersen, Lea N; Siersma, Volkert D; Larsen, Ida H; Hohlmann, Linette K; Skaanild, Mette T; Frederiksen, Hanne; Biot, Pierre; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Schwedler, Gerda; Castaño, Argelia; Angerer, Jürgen; Koch, Holger M; Esteban, Marta; Schoeters, Greet; Den Hond, Elly; Exley, Karen; Sepai, Ovnair; Bloemen, Louis; Joas, Reinhard; Joas, Anke; Fiddicke, Ulrike; Lopez, Ana; Cañas, Ana; Aerts, Dominique; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2014-10-14

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) is an important tool, increasingly used for measuring true levels of the body burdens of environmental chemicals in the general population. In Europe, a harmonized HBM program was needed to open the possibility to compare levels across borders. To explore the prospect of a harmonized European HBM project, DEMOCOPHES (DEMOnstration of a study to COordinate and Perform Human biomonitoring on a European Scale) was completed in 17 European countries. The basic measurements performed in all implemented countries of DEMOCOPHES included cadmium, cotinine and phthalate metabolites in urine and mercury in hair. In the Danish participants, significant correlations between mothers and children for mercury in hair and cotinine in urine were found. Mercury in hair was further significantly associated with intake of fish and area of residence. Cadmium was positively associated with BMI in mothers and an association between cadmium and cotinine was also found. As expected high cotinine levels were found in smoking mothers. For both mercury and cadmium significantly higher concentrations were found in the mothers compared to their children. In Denmark, the DEMOCOPHES project was co-financed by the Danish ministries of health, environment and food safety. The co-financing ministries agreed to finance a number of supplementary measurements of substances of current toxicological, public and regulatory interest. This also included blood sampling from the participants. The collected urine and blood samples were analyzed for a range of other persistent and non-persistent environmental chemicals as well as two biomarkers of effect. The variety of supplementary measurements gives the researchers further information on the exposure status of the participants and creates a basis for valuable knowledge on the pattern of exposure to various chemicals. PMID:25440293

  14. The Danish contribution to the European DEMOCOPHES project : A description of cadmium, cotinine and mercury levels in Danish mother-child pairs and the perspectives of supplementary sampling and measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MØrck, Thit A; Nielsen, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) is an important tool, increasingly used for measuring true levels of the body burdens of environmental chemicals in the general population. In Europe, a harmonized HBM program was needed to open the possibility to compare levels across borders. To explore the prospect of a harmonized European HBM project, DEMOCOPHES (DEMOnstration of a study to COordinate and Perform Human biomonitoring on a European Scale) was completed in 17 European countries. The basic measurements performed in all implemented countries of DEMOCOPHES included cadmium, cotinine and phthalate metabolites in urine and mercury in hair. In the Danish participants, significant correlations between mothers and children for mercury in hair and cotinine in urine were found. Mercury in hair was further significantly associated with intake of fish and area of residence. Cadmium was positively associated with BMI in mothers and an association between cadmium and cotinine was also found. As expected high cotinine levels were found in smoking mothers. For both mercury and cadmium significantly higher concentrations were found in the mothers compared to their children. In Denmark, the DEMOCOPHES project was co-financed by the Danish ministries of health, environment and food safety. The co-financing ministries agreed to finance a number of supplementary measurements of substances of current toxicological, public and regulatory interest. This also included blood sampling from the participants. The collected urine and blood samples were analyzed for a range of other persistent and non-persistent environmental chemicals as well as two biomarkers of effect. The variety of supplementary measurements gives the researchers further information on the exposure status of the participants and creates a basis for valuable knowledge on the pattern of exposure to various chemicals.

  15. An Evaluation of Cotinine as an Index of Exposure to Tabacco Smoke in Children with Recurrent Respiratory Tract Infections Using HPLC Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wioletta Grys

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The authors evaluated the frequency of exposure to tobacco smoke among children suffering from respiratory tract infections. The investigations comprised 141 children aged from 2 months to 6 years that were treated in the 2nd Department of Pediatric and Allergology of Polish Mother’s Memorial Hospital Research Institute in ?ód? (Poland. 69 of them were exposed to tobacco smoke in their home environment. The remaining 72 children came from non-smoking families. 26 (37.7% individuals among the passive smokers and 15 (20.83% among the children from non-smoking families suffered from recurrent respiratory tract infections. Cotinine concentrations were evaluated in the group of 69 children using the HPLC-UV method. The determined average cotinine/creatinine index expressed as median was higher in passive smokers with recurrent respiratory infections than among passive smokers with non-recurrent respiratory infections. Moreover, it was stated that the exposure to cigarette smoke was more often among children of younger and less well educated parents as well as living in poor housing conditions. These studies clearly indicate that there is a need for extensive education on the harmful effects of passive smoking and the recurrence of infections.

  16. Understanding Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Effects in Asthmatic Children through Determination of Urinary Cotinine and Targeted Metabolomics of Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Effects in Asthmatic Children through Determination of Urinary Cotinine and Targeted Metabolomics of Plasma Introduction Asthma is a complex disease with multiple triggers and causal factors, Exposure to environmental tob...

  17. Relationships of Cotinine and Self-Reported Cigarette Smoking With Hemoglobin \\(A_{1c}\\) in the U.S.

    OpenAIRE

    Clair, Carole; Bitton, Asaf; Meigs, James Benjamin; Rigotti, Nancy Ann

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Whether nicotine leads to a persistent increase in blood glucose levels is not clear. Our objective was to assess the relationship between cotinine, a nicotine metabolite, and glycated hemoglobin (Hb\\(A_{1c}\\)), an index of recent glycemia. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We used cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1999 to 2008. We limited our analysis to 17,287 adults without diabetes. We created three cotinine categories:

  18. Genetic polymorphisms in 15q25 and 19q13 loci, cotinine levels, and risk of lung cancer in EPIC.

    OpenAIRE

    Timofeeva, MN; McKay, JD; Smith, GD; Johansson, M.; Byrnes, GB; Chabrier, A.; Relton, C; Ueland, PM; Vollset, SE; Midttun, Ø.; Nygård, O; Slimani, N.; Romieu, I; Clavel-chapelon, F.; Boutron-Ruault, MC

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUNDS: Multiple polymorphisms affecting smoking behavior have been identified through genome-wide association studies. Circulating levels of the nicotine metabolite cotinine is a marker of recent smoking exposure. Hence, genetic variants influencing smoking behavior are expected to be associated with cotinine levels. METHODS: We conducted an analysis in a lung cancer case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. We inves...

  19. Genetic polymorphisms in 15q25 and 19q13 loci, cotinine levels, and risk of lung cancer in EPIC

    OpenAIRE

    Timofeeva, MN; McKay, JD; Smith, GD; Johansson, M.; Byrnes, GB; Chabrier, A.; Relton, C; Ueland, PM; Vollset, SE; Midttun, Ø.; Nygård, O; Slimani, N.; Romieu, I; Clavel-chapelon, F.; Boutron-Ruault, M-C

    2011-01-01

    Backgrounds: Multiple polymorphisms affecting smoking behavior have been identified through genomewide association studies. Circulating levels of the nicotine metabolite cotinine is a marker of recent smoking exposure. Hence, genetic variants influencing smoking behavior are expected to be associated with cotinine levels. Methods: We conducted an analysis in a lung cancer case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. We invest...

  20. The Development of Conductive Elements for the Selective Detection of Formaldehyde and Cotinine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antwi-Boampong, Sadik

    The development of new materials and techniques presents an opportunity to revisit old problems. Innovations in materials engineering revolutionize the status quo by expanding the tool kit needed to develop robust solutions to complex problems. Challenges that had hitherto been intractable become surmountable; previously established methods are significantly enhanced; fresh impetus is injected into the materials design engine. In one way or another, every scientist contributes to this dynamic creative process where ideas are incubated and developed through fundamental research that culminates in compelling findings applicable in various realms of science. The work presented herein embodies this ethos. Our investigations have applied the relatively nascent technology of molecular imprinting to develop sensing elements for detection of cotinine and formaldehyde. Additionally, we have used different polymer systems to address the inherent limitations of conventional materials using a simple, cost-effective and efficient materials approach. Specifically, in Part I, we investigate molecular imprinting of nylon-6, polyvinylphenol and ElvamideRTM, with cotinine. We examine the capacity of these materials as polymer hosts for molecular imprinting by studying the effect of cotinine imprinting on their nanomechanical properties. By monitoring variations in mechanical properties induced by cotinine templating, we determine the factors critical for effective imprinting and ultimately demonstrate that polyvinylphenol is the most suitable polymer host. Based on these results, we develop a cotinine-imprinted polyvinylphenol-single walled carbon nanotube sensor that readily detects cotinine. Using electrical, spectral and chromatographic characterization, we rigorously demonstrate the enhanced affinity programmed into the sensing layer via molecular imprinting. Part II is dedicated to a familiar problem: formaldehyde sensing. While this challenge has been a trope of the electrochemical sensor industry for years, there still remains a clear need for an affordable device with heightened sensitivity. We achieve this goal in two different ways. The first sensing system is a polyaniline-polyethylenimine composite film that exhibits a profound sensitivity to formaldehyde, but discriminates against a number of selected molecules. This transducing layer complements polyaniline's tunable conductivity with the formaldehyde-binding reactivity of polyethylenimine, to detect formaldehyde. The second approach still relies on the excellent electrical properties of polyaniline but, unlike the polyaniline-polyethylenimine system where the polymers are blended, two separate films in a bilayer assembly are applied for sensing. The top layer, fluoral-p reacts with formaldehyde to form a lutidine compound along with ammonia that tempers the conductivity of the sensor. We articulate the importance of molecular imprinting in optimizing analyte detection by showing that imprinting the underlying polyaniline layer in this bilayer system further enhances the sensor's sensitivity. Findings are summarized at the end of each chapter along with potential opportunities for future work based on the experimental results.

  1. Deep metaproteomic analysis of human salivary supernatant

    OpenAIRE

    Jagtap, Pratik; Mcgowan, Thomas; Bandhakavi, Sricharan; Tu, Zheng Jin; Seymour, Sean; Griffin, Timothy; Rudney, Joel

    2012-01-01

    The human salivary proteome is extremely complex, including proteins from salivary glands, serum, and oral microbes. Much has been learned about the host component, but little is known about the microbial component. Here we report a metaproteomic analysis of salivary supernatant pooled from 6 healthy subjects. For deep interrogation of the salivary proteome, we combined protein dynamic range compression, multidimensional peptide fractionation, and high mass accuracy MS/MS with a novel two-ste...

  2. Cotinine reduces depressive-like behavior and hippocampal vascular endothelial growth factor downregulation after forced swim stress in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grizzell, J Alex; Mullins, Michelle; Iarkov, Alexandre; Rohani, Adeeb; Charry, Laura C; Echeverria, Valentina

    2014-12-01

    Cotinine, the predominant metabolite of nicotine, appears to act as an antidepressant. We have previously shown that cotinine reduced immobile postures in Porsolt's forced swim (FS) and tail suspension tests while preserving the synaptic density in the hippocampus as well as prefrontal and entorhinal cortices of mice subjected to chronic restraint stress. In this study, we investigated the effect of daily oral cotinine (5 mg/kg) on depressive-like behavior induced by repeated, FS stress for 6 consecutive days in adult, male C57BL/6J mice. The results support our previous report that cotinine administration reduces depressive-like behavior in mice subjected or not to high salience stress. In addition, cotinine enhanced the expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the hippocampus of mice subjected to repetitive FS stress. Altogether, the results suggest that cotinine may be an effective antidepressant positively influencing mood through a mechanism involving the preservation of brain homeostasis and the expression of critical growth factors such as VEGF. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25314662

  3. Effects of cobalt 60 irradiation on rat salivary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A single irradiation of Co-60 was given to the head and neck region in male Sprague-Dawley rats. According to the time, dose and fractionation factor (TDF), the experimental animals were equally divided into the group of 11.36 Gy (TDF 50), the group of 17.82 Gy (TDF 100), and the group of 27.97 Gy (TDF 200). Parotid, submandibular, and sublingual salivary glands were examined by light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and biochemically one, 3, and 7 days after irradiation. Parotid saliva samples were also collected after stimulation with pilocarpine, and the flow rate, concentration of total salivary protein, and ?-amylase activity were assessed. The parotid gland showed the most significant decrease in ?-amylase activity at 3 days in all groups. ?-amylase activity in the submandibular and sublingual glands was much lower than in the parotid gland. Non-lysosome enzyme, acid p-nitrophenyl phosphatase activity in the salivary glands was increased. Similarly, a lysosomal enzyme, ?-D-glucuronidase in the salivary glands was increased. Alkaline phosphatase activity was increased in the parotid gland and decreased in the submandibular and sublingual glands. Salivary flow rate in the parotid gland was decreased one, 3, and 7 days after irradiation, markedly depending on irradiation doses. Light microscopy of the salivary glands revealed atrophy, vacuolization, and degranulation in acinar cells, especially in granular tubule cells. Electron microscopy revealedle cells. Electron microscopy revealed vacuolization and degeneration of mitochondria, secretory granules, and other organelles in the cytoplasm of acinar cells. Morphological changes of secretory granules were dose-dependent. Not only morphological but also biochemical changes in the parotid gland occurred synchronously. (N.K.) 56 refs

  4. The nicotine metabolite, cotinine, attenuates glutamate (NMDA) antagonist-related effects on the performance of the five choice serial reaction time task (5C-SRTT) in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Terry, Alvin V.; Jerry J Buccafusco; Schade, R. Foster; Vandenhuerk, Leah; Callahan, Patrick M; Beck, Wayne D.; Hutchings, Elizabeth J.; Chapman, James M.; Li, Pei; Bartlett, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Cotinine, the most predominant metabolite of nicotine in mammalian species, has a pharmacological half-life that greatly exceeds its precursor. However, until recently, relatively few studies had been conducted to systematically characterize the behavioral pharmacology of cotinine. Our previous work indicated that cotinine improves prepulse inhibition of the auditory startle response in rats in pharmacological impairment models and that it improves working memory in non-human primates. Here w...

  5. Multilocular developmental salivary gland defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developmental salivary gland defect is a bone depression on the lingual surface of the mandible containing salivary gland or fatty soft tissue. The most common location is within the submandibular gland fossa and often close to the inferior border of the mandible. This defect is asymptomatic and generally discovered only incidentally during radiographic examination of the area. This defect also appears as a well-defined, corticated, unilocular radiolucency below the mandibular canal. Although it is not uncommon for this defect to appear as a round or ovoid radiolucency, multilocular radiolucency of these defects is relatively rare. This report presents a case of a developmental salivary gland defect with multilocular radiolucency in a male patient.

  6. Sleep and Salivary Cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Anne Helene; Karlson, Bernt

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present chapter was to analyze whether measures of cortisol in saliva were associated with measures of sleep and to explore if divergent results were related to underlying differences in theoretic assumptions and methods. Measures of sleep quality included sleep duration, overall sleep quality, difficulty falling asleep, disturbed sleep, and sleep deprivation. Twenty-three papers were found to fulfill the inclusion criteria. Cortisol measures were grouped into single time points at different times during the day, deviations at different time periods during the day, reactivity and recovery after a standardized laboratory test, area under the curve and response to dexamethasone test. A large proportion of the studies included showed non-significant findings, which, in several cases, may be a result of low power. The most consistent results were a positive association between sleep duration and single measures of salivary cortisol at awakening, which was observed in 3 studies. In these studies, sleep duration was also associated with low evening cortisol levels, steep diurnal deviation of cortisol and/or high area under the curve. Together these findings suggest that longer sleep duration is related to a more dynamic cortisol secretion. Two of the 6 studies on disturbed or restless sleep showed relations to flat diurnal deviation and low laboratory stress test reactivity. This to some extent corroborates the findings on sleep duration. However, the many non-significant findings as well as the theoretical and methodological differences (e.g., heterogeneity in measures) complicate comparisons. Conflicting results may be at least partially due to differences in methods and underlying assumptions.

  7. Synthesis of optically pure deuterium-labelled nicotine, nornicotine and cotinine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe methods for the synthesis of enantiomerically pure (S)-nicotine-3',3'-d2, (S)-nornicotine-3',3-d2, and (S)-cotinine-4',4'-d2. The key intermediate was 5-bromomyosmine, which underwent base catalyzed exchange with deuterium oxide to give 5-bromomyosmine-3',3'- d2 with >99% incorporation of label. This intermediate was reduced to (±)-5-bromo-nornicotine-3',3'-d2 with sodium borohydride, resolved, and converted to (S)-nornicotine-3',3'-d(sub)2 by reductive debromination with hydrogen and a palladium catalyst. Reductive alkylation with formaldehyde and sodium borohydride provided (S)-nicotine-3',3'-d2, which was converted to (S)-cotinine-4',4'-d2 by reaction with bromine followed by zinc reduction. The deuterium label is located at positions that are not attacked in the major routes of mammalian metabolism of these alkaloids. Syntheses of tetradeuterated analogs of nicotine and cotinine and a pentadeuterated analog of nicotine, in which additional deuterium atoms are incorporated in the methyl groups, are also reported. (author)

  8. Influence of menstrual cycle and salivary ß-estradiol on volatile sulfur compound

    OpenAIRE

    Shahla Kakoei DDS, MSc; Fahimeh Barkhori DDS; Ali Mirzazadeh MD, MPH, PhD; Mohammad Mohammadi DDS, MSc; Ahmad Gholamhoseinian PhD

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: ß -estradiol is a steroid sex hormone that plays important role in oral physiology. The aim of this studywas to determin the association of the menstrual cycle and salivary ß-estradiol with the production of volatile sulfurcompounds (VSC).METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, twenty female dental students in good oral and general health were recruited forevaluation of VSC, salivary flow, ß-estradiol concentration, oral dryness feeling and dysmenorrhea. Data were analyzedby ma...

  9. Detection of Heparin in the Salivary Gland and Midgut of Aedes togoi

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Young-Ran; Oh, So-Ra; Seo, Eun-Seok; Kim, Bo-Heum; Lee, Dong-Kyu; Lee, Sang-Joon

    2014-01-01

    Mosquitoes secrete saliva that contains biological substances, including anticoagulants that counteract a host's hemostatic response and prevent blood clotting during blood feeding. This study aimed to detect heparin, an anticoagulant in Aedes togoi using an immunohistochemical detection method, in the salivary canal, salivary gland, and midgut of male and female mosquitoes. Comparisons showed that female mosquitoes contained higher concentrations of heparin than male mosquitoes. On average, ...

  10. Simple, rapid and sensitive assay method for simultaneous quantification of urinary nicotine and cotinine using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Che Nin; Gam, Lay-Harn; Ismail, Syazwani; Lajis, Razak; Awang, Rahmat

    2006-12-01

    Nicotine is a major addictive compound in cigarette. Its smoke is rapidly and extensively metabolized to several metabolites in human. Cotinine as a major metabolite of nicotine is commonly used as a biomarker to determine active and passive smokers. Cotinine has a longer half-life ( approximately 20 h) compared to nicotine ( approximately 2h). A simple, sensitive, rapid and high throughput GC-MS method was developed for simultaneous quantification of urinary nicotine and cotinine in passive and active smokers. In the sample preparation method, the analytes and internal standard were first basified and followed by liquid-liquid extraction. Upon completion, anhydrous sodium sulphate was added to the solvent mixture to trap moistures. The clear extract obtained was directly injected into GC-MS, operating under selective ion monitoring (SIM) mode. Calibration curves in the range of 0.5-5000 ng/mL of the analytes in urine matrix were established with linear correlation coefficients (r(2)) greater than 0.997. The limit of detection for both nicotine and cotinine were 0.20 ng/mL. The mean recoveries for nicotine and cotinine were 93.0 and 100.4%, respectively. The within- and between-assay accuracies were between 2.1 and 7.9% for nicotine and between 0.7 and 11.1% for cotinine. Within- and between-assay precisions of 3.3-9.5% for nicotine and 3.4-9.8% for cotinine were also achieved. The method can be used in routine assessment and monitoring of active smoking and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. The applicability of the assay was demonstrated in a small-scale comparison study between smokers and non-smokers. PMID:16908224

  11. Caries correlates strongly to salivary levels of matrix metalloproteinase-8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedenbjörk-Lager, Anders; BjØrndal, Lars

    2015-01-01

    The caries process in dentin involves the degradation of both mineral and organic matrix. The demineralization has been demonstrated to be caused by bacterial acids. However, the collagen degradation is considered to be initiated by endogenous proteolytic enzymes, mainly collagenolytic matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). This paper aims to relate salivary MMP-8 (or salivary collagenase-2) and tissue inhibitor of MMP (TIMP-1) levels to manifest caries in a large number of subjects. A random sample of 451 adults (aged 18-87 years) living in the south of Sweden was included in this study. Standard clinical examinations were performed, and stimulated saliva was collected and analyzed for concentrations of MMP-8, TIMP-1 and total protein, using an immunofluorometric assay, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the Bradford assay, respectively. Salivary numbers of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli were determined using a chair-side kit. Subjects with manifest caries lesions presented with elevated levels of MMP-8 (p < 0.001) as well as total protein, MMP-8/TIMP-1 ratio, bleeding on probing and plaque index (p = 0.05) compared with subjects without manifest caries. Multiple linear regression analysis with caries as the dependent variable revealed MMP-8 as the only significant explanatory variable (p < 0.001). TIMP-1 was not significant in any case. Using MMP-8 as the dependent variable revealed total protein concentration, caries lesions (p ? 0.001) and salivary secretion rate (p = 0.05) as explanatory variables. In conclusion, our data reveal that subjects with manifest caries lesions have elevated levels of salivary MMP-8 relative to subjects with no caries lesions.

  12. Salivary steroid assays for assessing variation in endocrine activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riad-Fahmy, D; Read, G F; Walker, R F

    1983-07-01

    Salivary sampling regimens are non-invasive, and therefore facilitate dynamic tests of hormone function and assessment of biological rhythms. Concentrations of neutral steroids in saliva are independent of flow rate and appear to reflect the non-protein-bound, 'free' fraction. Comparison of replicate determinations of quality control pools with determinations of samples collected at 2 min intervals allows the significance of short-term fluctuations in cortisol and testosterone secretory activity to be estimated. Samples collected at 15 min intervals provide a convenient way to estimate circadian rhythms, particularly in young children. Determination of salivary progesterone concentrations in samples collected by women daily, over extended periods of time, provides a valuable means of assessing ovarian function. Such assays may be used to monitor ovulation-induction therapy. PMID:6887863

  13. Dynamic uptake of radioactive substance in rat salivary gland following 3H-melatonin administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamics of radioactive accumulation in rat greater salivary gland following systemic administration of 3H-melatonin was studied to determine a possible action of the hormone in the gland. Progressive decline of 3H-melatonin concentrations was found in the serum, lung, skeletal muscle, liver, kidney, and salivary gland during 60 min following the administration. On the contrary, there was a progressive accumulation of radioactive substance other than 3H-melatonin in the salivary gland but not in other tissues mentioned. The radioactivity was also progressively and preferentially localized in the nuclear fraction of the gland cells. These results suggest a possible direct action of melatonin derivative in rat salivary gland

  14. Salivary paracetamol elimination kinetics during the menstrual cycle.

    OpenAIRE

    Somaja, L; Thangam, J

    1987-01-01

    Studies were done to examine the influence of the menstrual cycle on the elimination kinetics of paracetamol. Salivary concentrations of paracetamol were determined after oral administration of 1 g of paracetamol on day 3, 10, 14, 20 and 25 of the menstrual cycle in normal healthy women volunteers with regular menstrual cycles. There was no significant difference in elimination half-life (t 1/2) or metabolic clearance rate (CL) between the various days of the menstrual cycle. The result sugge...

  15. Salivary secretion during meals in lactating dairy cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Beauchemin, K.A.; Eriksen, L.; Nørgaard, Peder; Rode, L.M.

    2008-01-01

    Four multiparous Holstein cows in midlactation were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square to evaluate whether source of forage influenced salivary secretion during eating in lactating dairy cows. The forages were allocated separately from the pelleted concentrates. Cows were offered 1 of 4 forages each period: barley silage, alfalfa silage, long-stemmed alfalfa hay, or chopped barley straw. Saliva secretion was measured during the morning meal by collecting masticates through the rumen cannula at the ...

  16. Ratios of plasma and salivary testosterone throughout puberty: production versus bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rilling, J K; Worthman, C M; Campbell, B C; Stallings, J F; Mbizva, M

    1996-06-01

    Because diffusion of testosterone (T) into the salivary gland is thought to be largely limited to the free, biologically active fraction, salivary testosterone is expected to provide a better measure of testosterone bioavailability in the body than is plasma testosterone. Matched saliva and blood spot samples were collected from 218 Zimbabwean males (age 11-23) who were at different stages of puberty, as assessed by self-reported Tanner genital stage ratings. Testosterone concentrations in these matched samples were highly correlated (r = 0.83). Both salivary and plasma testosterone (converted from blood spot value) showed expected significant increases across puberty. However, plasma testosterone distinguished among subjects at different stages of genital development more effectively than did salivary testosterone, suggesting the former to be a better marker of testosterone bioavailability. Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels were also measured in a subgroup of 93 of these subjects. After controlling for plasma T concentrations, we found a small but significant inverse correlation between blood spot SHBG levels and the proportion of plasma testosterone recovered in salvia, supporting the hypothesis that SHBG-related changes in T bioavailability are detectable in saliva. We conclude that salivary testosterone accurately reflects testicular production of testosterone, but that neither salivary testosterone nor plasma testosterone is clearly superior to the other as a measure of testosterone bioavailability. PMID:8776800

  17. Quantitative evaluation of Streptococcus mutans and Candida sp and salivary factors in the oral cavity of patients submitted to radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to quantify the microorganisms Streptococcus mutans and Candida sp in the oral cavity of patients with oropharynx carcinoma, before, during and after radiotherapy, and to correlate the results with salivary factors such as pH, buffer capacity and flow rate. Saliva samples were collected, diluted and inoculated in SB-20 agar and in Sabouraud agar, for Streptococcus mutans and Candida sp, respectively. Previously to dilution, the concentrated saliva was analyzed, and the salivary factors were determined. After the growth of colonies, the number of microorganisms was determined in CFU/ml. The analysis of the results allowed to conclude that the salivary factors are related to the presence of microorganisms, and that the number of CFU/ml increased as salivary flow rate decreased. The effects of radiation compromised salivary homeostasis and favored the increase of infection by yeasts and bacteria. (author)

  18. Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of Sublingual Salivary Gland Obstructing the Submandibular Salivary Gland Duct

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Venkata suneel; Prathi, Venkata Sarath; Manne, Rakesh Kumar; Beeraka, Swapna; Natarajan, Kannan

    2013-01-01

    Sublingual salivary gland malignancies are extremely rare and account for only 0.3-1% of all epithelial salivary gland tumors. Here, we report a case of adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the sublingual salivary gland that presented as a swelling in the right anterior floor of the mouth obstructing the submandibular duct. Sublingual salivary gland ACC obstructing the submandibular duct is rare and only three cases have been reported in the literature until date. We discuss the different patter...

  19. Protective effects of Chinese herbal medicine Huqi extractum on salivary glands against radiation in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-li Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the protective effects of Huqi extractum, a compound Chinese herbal medicine, on salivary glands against radiation in Wistar rats. Methods: One hundred Wistar rats were randomly divided into sham-exposure group, untreated group, and low-, medium- and high-dose Huqi groups. Local irradiation of 60Co gamma-rays with a single dose of 15 Gy was applied to the salivary glands of the Wistar rats except the sham-exposure group. After 3- and 40-day treatment, saliva was collected. Colorimetric method, iodine-amylase colorimetric method and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to detect concentrations of sodium (Na+, potassium (K+ and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA and activity of salivary amylase. Pathological changes of salivary gland tissues were observed by hematoxylin-eosin straining. Results: After 3-day administration, radiation-induced salivary gland injuries were obvious and prevalent in irradiated rats. Comparing with the sham-exposure group, saliva concentration of sIgA and body weight were reduced in other irradiated groups, except those in the high-dose Huqi group, while salivary amylase level was increased. At 3-day phase, pathologic changes of the salivary glands were featured as swelling acinus plasm and vacuolation. At 40-day phase, atrophy of gland cells was dominant. After 40-day administration, there were no significant differences between the high-dose Huqi group and sham-exposure group in sIgA and amylase levels and body weight, and according to the histological examination, no significant difference was revealed under the optical microscope.Conclusion: Chinese herbal medicine is helpful for the recovery of the salivary glands from the radiation injury, morphologically and functionally in rats.

  20. Sensitive salivary estradiol assay for monitoring ovarian function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthman, C M; Stallings, J F; Hofman, L F

    1990-10-01

    Measurement of steroids in saliva has excited interest because of the numerous potential clinical applications; noninvasive, convenient sampling; and apparently accurate reflection of the concentrations of physiologically active unbound steroid in the circulation. Although assays of saliva for several steroid hormones are available and widely used, assays for salivary estradiol are not, primarily because of methodological limitations. By modifying a commercially available kit for serum estradiol, our laboratory has developed a procedure that is sensitive, highly specific, and reliable for measuring salivary estradiol. Assay sensitivity is 0.5 fmol (0.14 pg; sample concentration 1.3 pmol/L) with a mean interassay CV of 10.8% at low concentrations. Clinical studies showed that values for serum and saliva are highly correlated (P less than 0.001), and demonstrated reliable detection of estradiol peaks during normal ovulatory cycles in serial samples from 15 women. Salivary estradiol peaked at 5.4 (SD 1.9) pmol/L on cycle day 14.4 (SD 3.2), 1.2 (SD 0.8) days before ovulation detected by ultrasound. This assay may be particularly helpful in investigating ovarian function and free estradiol in women at various stages of the reproductive cycle. PMID:2208652

  1. Exposure to second-hand smoke air pollution assessed from bar patrons' urinary cotinine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repace, James; Hughes, Elizabeth; Benowitz, Neal

    2006-10-01

    We used physical and pharmacokinetic modeling to estimate personal exposures to respirable particle (RSP) and carcinogenic particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PPAH) air pollution from second-hand smoke (SHS) from the increase in urinary cotinine of eight patrons of three bars in Bismarck, North Dakota. We compared SHS-RSP levels to the U.S. Air Quality Index (AQI), used to forecast outdoor air pollution conditions. We measured smoker density and air exchange rates to generalize our results. Urinary cotinine increased by an average of 4.28 ng/ml to 6.88 ng/ml to 9.55 ng/ml above preexposure background from 6-hr exposures in the three bars. Corresponding estimated SHS-RSP levels were, respectively, 246 microg/m3, 396 microg/m3, and 549 microg/m3, comparable to those measured in 6 Wilmington, Delaware, bars and in 14 western New York bars. Estimated personal SHS-RSP air pollution exposures for the eight subjects, when converted to the 24-hr averaging time of the AQI, were "code red" (unhealthy). Measured outdoor air quality RSP levels for the same period were 1%-3% of the indoor RSP levels in the three bars, and were AQI "code green" (healthy). Estimated SHS-PPAH levels were comparable to peak 3-hr PPAH levels reported at a highway tollbooth. Bismarck cotinine-estimated SHS-RSP varied with smoker density, as did measured SHS-RSP levels in smoking bars in Delaware and New York. Our results show that smoking in bars produces levels of personal air pollution for bar patrons that merit air pollution alerts when sustained in the outdoor air. PMID:17008197

  2. Salivary characteristics of diabetic children

    OpenAIRE

    López María Elena; Colloca María Eugenia; Páez Rafael Gustavo; Schallmach Judit Nora; Koss Myriam Adriana; Chervonagura Amalia

    2003-01-01

    Salivary components may suffer variations that can be detected by chemical determinations. The aim of this work was to determine physical and biochemical characteristics of the saliva of a group of diabetic children compared to those of a control group. Relation to oral health indices was also determined. Twenty diabetic children (3-15-years-old) and 21 control children (5-12-years-old) were included in this study. Total proteins, sugars and calcium were determined by colorimetric methods, an...

  3. Biological Markers and Salivary Cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Gunnarsson, Lars-Gunnar

    2011-01-01

    This chapter focuses on salivary cortisol in relation to biological markers. Specifically, associations with conventional cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic abnormalities (body mass index, waist circumference, waist/hip ratio, lipid status, glucose, blood pressure, heart rate and heart rate variability), markers related to inflammation (C-reactive protein, cytokines and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) and other stress hormones (adrenaline and noradrenaline) were studied. The focus was on healthy adult populations; studies on patient populations and pregnant women were excluded. Studies on genome variations and pharmacological interventions were also excluded. After meeting all exclusion criteria, 42 papers remained. In total, 273 associations between salivary cortisol and any of the markers mentioned were studied, comprising 241 associations on metabolic abnormalities, 30 on inflammation, and 2 on stress hormones. Of the salivary cortisol measures reported for evaluations of all markers tested were 136 (49%) single time points, 100 (37%) deviations, 36 (13%) AUC, and 1 (1%) dexamethasone test. Of these, 72 (26%) were statistically significant, and 201 (74%) indicated non-significant findings. Several of the markers tested showed low or no association with any of the measurements of salivary cortisol. The number of studies exploring the association between cortisol in saliva and markers for inflammation is low, which limits the possibility of interpretation. The number of studies on adrenaline and noradrenaline is also low. To sum up, the proportion of non-significant findings was considerable. This may be due to a large number of studies with relatively small study populations. This is true for metabolic abnormalities, markers related to inflammation as well as other stress hormones. Further studies on inflammatory markers and approaches designed to study variability in other systems in relation to cortisol variability are required.

  4. Salivary Diagnostics: A Brief Review

    OpenAIRE

    Narasimhan Malathi; Sabesan Mythili; Vasanthi, Hannah R.

    2014-01-01

    Early detection of disease plays a crucial role for treatment planning and prognosis. Saliva has great potential as a diagnostic fluid and offers advantage over serum and other biological fluids by an economic and noninvasive collection method for monitoring of systemic health and disease progression. The plethora of components in this fluid can act as biomarkers for diagnosis of various systemic and local diseases. In this review paper, we have emphasized the role of salivary biomarkers as d...

  5. Salivary diagnostics: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malathi, Narasimhan; Mythili, Sabesan; Vasanthi, Hannah R

    2014-01-01

    Early detection of disease plays a crucial role for treatment planning and prognosis. Saliva has great potential as a diagnostic fluid and offers advantage over serum and other biological fluids by an economic and noninvasive collection method for monitoring of systemic health and disease progression. The plethora of components in this fluid can act as biomarkers for diagnosis of various systemic and local diseases. In this review paper, we have emphasized the role of salivary biomarkers as diagnostic tools. PMID:24616813

  6. Recent Advances In Salivary Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Majumdar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Saliva has been the most efficient diagnostic tool since ages, its progress frombeing a lie detector in the times of the ancient Greeks to the present evolution into amaster tool in the much talked about metabonomics. This review article attempts toshow the way how saliva has reached its potential to serve the status of a potentialdiagnostic aid. This article also focuses on the developments made in the past and alsothe futuristic plans in the field of salivary diagnostics.

  7. DFT-Aided Vibrational Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy Study of (-)-S-cotinine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Ortega, Pilar G; Montejo, Manuel; Márquez, Fernando; López González, Juan J

    2015-05-18

    The implementation of a strategy comprising the use of vibrational circular dichroism spectroscopy and DFT calculations allows determination of the solution-state conformational distribution in (-)-S-cotinine, giving further proof of the extra conformer-discriminating potential of this experimental technique, which may offer unique molecular fingerprints of subtly dissimilar molecular conformers of chiral samples. Natural bond orbital electronic structure calculations of the rotational barrier height between the two main conformers of the species indicate that hyperconjugative effects are the key force governing the conformational equilibrium. The negligible effect of the solvent's polarity over both structure and conformational energy profile supports this result. PMID:25802067

  8. Biotransformation of caffeine, cotinine, and nicotine in stream sediments: Implications for use as wastewater indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, P.M.; Barber, L.B.; Kolpin, D.W.; McMahon, P.B.; Chapelle, F.H.

    2007-01-01

    Microbially catalyzed cleavage of the imadazole ring of caffeine was observed in stream sediments collected upstream and downstream of municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in three geographically separate stream systems. Microbial demethylation of the N-methyl component of cotinine and its metabolic precursor, nicotine, also was observed in these sediments. These findings indicate that stream sediment microorganisms are able to substantially alter the chemical structure and thus the analytical signatures of these candidate waste indicator compounds. The potential for in situ biotransformation must be considered if these compounds are employed as markers to identify the sources and track the fate of wastewater compounds in surface-water systems. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  9. Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    This is the NCTM Android app of their familiar on line Illuminations game, "Concentration" ( cataloged separately ) which challenges a user to match whole numbers, shapes, fractions, or multiplication facts to equivalent representations. This game can be played by one or two players taking turns and can be played in clear pane mode, or for added challenge, with the windows closed.

  10. Salivary characteristics of diabetic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López María Elena

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Salivary components may suffer variations that can be detected by chemical determinations. The aim of this work was to determine physical and biochemical characteristics of the saliva of a group of diabetic children compared to those of a control group. Relation to oral health indices was also determined. Twenty diabetic children (3-15-years-old and 21 control children (5-12-years-old were included in this study. Total proteins, sugars and calcium were determined by colorimetric methods, and glucose, urea, alpha-amylase and acid phosphatase by enzymatic methods. Our results demonstrated that acidic pH, diminished salivary flow rate and excess foam are usually present in saliva of diabetic children. Total sugars, glucose, urea and total proteins were greater in diabetic patients than controls, while calcium values were decreased. These differences were confirmed by the discrimination test. Diabetic children have higher DMFT-dmft-deft and DMFS-dmfs-defs values compared to those of the control children despite their lower sugar intake. Some salivary components in addition to the diminished flow rate could be involved in the characterization of the oral health state of diabetic children.

  11. Utilisation de la cotinine contenue dans les cheveux comme marqueur d'une exposition à la fumée de tabac. Méta-analyse d'études internationales Benchmarking hair cotinine as a marker of tobacco smoke exposure. Meta-analysis of international studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florescu Ana

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Au cours des 12 dernières années, nous avons établi et validé l'utilisation de la cotinine contenue dans les cheveux comme marqueur de l'exposition à la fumée de tabac. Cette méta-analyse, réalisée à partir de toutes les études disponibles de notre laboratoire et d'autres centres, est destinée à établir des valeurs de cotinine dans les cheveux, dans le contexte de l'exposition f à la fumée de tabac environnante. Les valeurs ci-dessous ont été mesurées sur plus de 1000 patients :?Femmes non enceintes : Fumeuses actives $ightarrow$ cotinine (ng/mg = 2.72 et [95% IC] = 2.32-3.13 Fumeuses passives $ightarrow$ cotinine (ng/mg = 0.62 et [95% IC] = 0.51-0.74 Non exposées $ightarrow$ cotinine (ng/mg = 0.29 et [95% IC] = 0.23-0.36 ?Femmes enceintes : Fumeuses actives $ightarrow$ cotinine (ng/mg = 1. 7 et [95% IC] = 1.46-1.94 Fumeuses passives $ightarrow$ cotinine (ng/mg = 0.07 et [95% IC] = 0-0.09 Non exposées $ightarrow$ cotinine (ng/mg = 0.08 et [95% IC] = 0-0.09 ?Enfants : Passifs $ightarrow$ cotinine (ng/mg = 0.96 et [95% IC] = 0.86-1.07 Non exposés $ightarrow$ cotinine (ng/mg = 0.33 et [95% IC] = 0.25-0.4 ?Nouveau-nés : Exposés in utéro $ightarrow$ cotinine (ng/mg = 1.42 et [95% IC] = 1.18-1.65 ? ? La séparation entre les différents états d'exposition avec un intervalle de confiance à 95% devrait pouvoir faciliter les recherches, ainsi que les cas cliniques où une exposition passive peut être dangereuse (par exemple des enfants avec de l'asthme vivant dans une maison de fumeurs et aider l'assurance maladie. Over the last 12 years we established and validated the use of hair cotinine as a biomarker of exposure to tobacco smoke. This meta analysis of all available studies from our laboratory and other centers, aimed at establishing values of hair cotinine in the context offetal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. The following are the values arrived at with over 1000 patients:?Non pregnant women: active smokers $ightarrow$ cotinine (ng/mg = 2.72 et [95% IC] = 2.32-3.13 passive smokers $ightarrow$ cotinine (ng/mg = 0.62 et [95% IC] = 0.51-0.74 unexposed $ightarrow$ cotinine (ng/mg = 0.29 et [95% IC] = 0.23-0.36 ?Pregnant women:active smokers $ightarrow$ cotinine (ng/mg = 1. 7 et [95% IC] = 1.46-1.94 passive smokers $ightarrow$ cotinine (ng/mg = 0.07 et [95% IC] = 0-0.09 unexposed $ightarrow$ cotinine (ng/mg = 0.08 et [95% IC] = 0-0.09 ?Children: Passive $ightarrow$ cotinine (ng/mg = 0.96 et [95% IC] = 0.86-1.07 unexposed $ightarrow$ cotinine (ng/mg = 0.33 et [95% IC] = 0.25-0.4 ?Neonates: Exposed in utero $ightarrow$ cotinine (ng/mg = 1.42 et [95% IC] = 1.18-1.65 ? The clear 95% confidence interval separation between the different states of exposure mayfacilitate research, as well as clinical cases where passive exposure can be life threatening (eg children with asthma in homes of smokers, and in health insurance.

  12. Estimation of salivary nitric oxide in oral precancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metgud, R; Anandani, C; Singh, K

    2015-05-01

    The role of nitric oxide (NO) in the initiation, promotion and progression of cancer has been the subject of speculation and conflicting reports in the literature. The high incidence of oral cancer and precancer has been linked to tobacco chewing and smoking habits; NO is considered an indicator of tobacco-related diseases. We compared salivary NO levels in oral precancer and normal patients. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from 15 patients with oral precancer (group 1) and 15 healthy age and sex matched subjects (group 2). Salivary nitrite levels were estimated using a colorimetric method and a spectrophotometer. The salivary nitrite concentration of group 2 (median = 4.21 ?g/ml) was significantly less than for group 1 (median = 12.91 ?g/ml). We have added evidence concerning involvement of NO in the pathogenesis of oral cancer, but whether it is a potentially carcinogenic agent at the concentration at which it is present in oral precancer patients requires further evaluation. PMID:25831210

  13. Expression and localization of cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase in major salivary glands of male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shengnan; Liu, Ying; Ma, Qiwang; Cui, Sheng; Liu, Jiali

    2015-04-01

    Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is the most abundant free amino acid in mammalian cells. It plays a significant role in cell development, nutrition, and survival, such as in the regulation of ion transport and osmoregulation. Cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase (CSD) is the rate-limiting biosynthetic enzyme of taurine. Recently, the synthesis of taurine has been observed in the central nervous system, kidney, liver, and muscle. However, the synthesis of taurine in the salivary glands has still not been described in detail. We have detected CSD expression in the major salivary glands of adult male mice by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blot, and immunofluorescence. In addition, we determined the content of taurine by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results show that taurine is present in high concentrations in the major salivary glands of male mice. CSD messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein are expressed in the major salivary glands of male mice. The relative levels of CSD mRNA increase from the submandibular gland (SMG) to the sublingual gland (SLG) and parotid gland (PG), but the levels of the CSD protein are the opposite. The immunofluorescence results indicate that CSD is mainly located in the excretory ducts (EDs) and interlobular duct (IL) of SMG and ED in SLG, respectively. These results suggest that the major salivary glands of male mice produce taurine through the CSD pathway, and the synthesis of taurine might be related to sodium reabsorption in the salivary glands. PMID:25645459

  14. Lapatinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent and/or Metastatic Adenoid Cystic Cancer or Other Salivary Gland Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-10

    High-grade Salivary Gland Carcinoma; High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Low-grade Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Low-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Malignant Mixed Cell Type Tumor

  15. The effect of dietary nitrate on salivary, plasma, and urinary nitrate metabolism in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannala, Ananth S; Mani, Ali R; Spencer, Jeremy P E; Skinner, Vernon; Bruckdorfer, K Richard; Moore, Kevin P; Rice-Evans, Catherine A

    2003-03-01

    Dietary nitrate is metabolized to nitrite by bacterial flora on the posterior surface of the tongue leading to increased salivary nitrite concentrations. In the acidic environment of the stomach, nitrite forms nitrous acid, a potent nitrating/nitrosating agent. The aim of this study was to examine the pharmacokinetics of dietary nitrate in relation to the formation of salivary, plasma, and urinary nitrite and nitrate in healthy subjects. A secondary aim was to determine whether dietary nitrate increases the formation of protein-bound 3-nitrotyrosine in plasma, and if dietary nitrate improves platelet function. The pharmacokinetic profile of urinary nitrate excretion indicates total clearance of consumed nitrate in a 24 h period. While urinary, salivary, and plasma nitrate concentrations increased between 4- and 7-fold, a significant increase in nitrite was only detected in saliva (7-fold). High dietary nitrate consumption does not cause a significant acute change in plasma concentrations of 3-nitrotyrosine or in platelet function. PMID:12614846

  16. Evaluation of Salivary Glucose, IgA and Flow Rate in Diabetic Patients: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bakianian Vaziri

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: An association between diabetes mellitus and alterations in the oral cavity has been noted. In this study, we evaluated differences between salivary IgA, glucose and flow rate in diabetic patients compared with healthy controls.Materials and Methods: Forty patients with type 1 diabetes, 40 patients with type 2 diabetes and 40 healthy controls were selected. Whole unstimulated saliva samples were collected by the standard method and the salivary flow rate was determined. Nephelometricand Pars method were used to measure salivary IgA and salivary glucose concentrations,respectively. Statistical analysis was performed by Chi-square and t test.Results: There were no significant differences in salivary IgA and glucose concentrations between type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients and their matched control subjects (P>0.05.Salivary flow rate was significantly lower in diabetic patients (P<0.05. In addition,DMFT was higher in diabetic patients than the controls.Conclusion: Determination of salivary constituents may be useful in the description and management of oral findings in diabetic patients.

  17. Immunochromatographic assay using gold nanoparticles for measuring salivary secretory IgA in dogs as a stress marker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Aki; Uchiyama, Shigeru; Kato, Yuya; Yuhi, Teruko; Ushijima, Hiromi; Takezaki, Makoto; Tominaga, Toshihiro; Moriyama, Yoshiko; Takeda, Kunio; Miyahara, Toshiro; Nagatani, Naoki

    2009-06-01

    The concentration of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) is a well-known stress marker for humans. The concentration of salivary sIgA in dogs has also been reported as a useful stress marker. In addition, salivary sIgA in dogs has been used to determine the adaptive ability of dogs for further training. There are conventional procedures based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs. However, ELISA requires long assay time, complicated operations and is costly. In the present study, we developed an immunochromatographic assay for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs using a dilution buffer containing a non-ionic surfactant. We determined 2500-fold dilution as the optimum condition for dog saliva using a phosphate buffer (50 mM, pH 7.2) containing non-ionic surfactant (3 wt% Tween 20). The results obtained from the saliva samples of three dogs using immunochromatographic assay were compared with those obtained from ELISA. It was found that the immunochromatographic assay is applicable to judge the change in salivary sIgA in each dog. The immunochromatographic assay for salivary sIgA in dogs is a promising tool, which should soon become commercially available for predicting a dog's psychological condition and estimating adaptive ability for training as guide or police dogs.

  18. Immunochromatographic assay using gold nanoparticles for measuring salivary secretory IgA in dogs as a stress marker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) is a well-known stress marker for humans. The concentration of salivary sIgA in dogs has also been reported as a useful stress marker. In addition, salivary sIgA in dogs has been used to determine the adaptive ability of dogs for further training. There are conventional procedures based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs. However, ELISA requires long assay time, complicated operations and is costly. In the present study, we developed an immunochromatographic assay for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs using a dilution buffer containing a non-ionic surfactant. We determined 2500-fold dilution as the optimum condition for dog saliva using a phosphate buffer (50 mM, pH 7.2) containing non-ionic surfactant (3 wt% Tween 20). The results obtained from the saliva samples of three dogs using immunochromatographic assay were compared with those obtained from ELISA. It was found that the immunochromatographic assay is applicable to judge the change in salivary sIgA in each dog. The immunochromatographic assay for salivary sIgA in dogs is a promising tool, which should soon become commercially available for predicting a dog's psychological condition and estimating adaptive ability for training as guide or police dogs.

  19. Immunochromatographic assay using gold nanoparticles for measuring salivary secretory IgA in dogs as a stress marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aki Takahashi, Shigeru Uchiyama, Yuya Kato, Teruko Yuhi, Hiromi Ushijima, Makoto Takezaki, Toshihiro Tominaga, Yoshiko Moriyama, Kunio Takeda, Toshiro Miyahara and Naoki Nagatani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA is a well-known stress marker for humans. The concentration of salivary sIgA in dogs has also been reported as a useful stress marker. In addition, salivary sIgA in dogs has been used to determine the adaptive ability of dogs for further training. There are conventional procedures based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs. However, ELISA requires long assay time, complicated operations and is costly. In the present study, we developed an immunochromatographic assay for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs using a dilution buffer containing a non-ionic surfactant. We determined 2500-fold dilution as the optimum condition for dog saliva using a phosphate buffer (50 mM, pH 7.2 containing non-ionic surfactant (3 wt% Tween 20. The results obtained from the saliva samples of three dogs using immunochromatographic assay were compared with those obtained from ELISA. It was found that the immunochromatographic assay is applicable to judge the change in salivary sIgA in each dog. The immunochromatographic assay for salivary sIgA in dogs is a promising tool, which should soon become commercially available for predicting a dog's psychological condition and estimating adaptive ability for training as guide or police dogs.

  20. Immunochromatographic assay using gold nanoparticles for measuring salivary secretory IgA in dogs as a stress marker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Aki; Kato, Yuya; Takezaki, Makoto; Tominaga, Toshihiro; Moriyama, Yoshiko; Takeda, Kunio; Miyahara, Toshiro; Nagatani, Naoki [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Okayama University of Science, 1-1 Ridai-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-0005 (Japan); Uchiyama, Shigeru [Okayama University of Science Specialized Training College, 8-3 Handa-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-0003 (Japan); Yuhi, Teruko; Ushijima, Hiromi, E-mail: nagatani@dac.ous.ac.j [Biodevicetechnology Ltd. 2-13 Asahidai, Nomi-City, Ishikawa 923-1211 (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    The concentration of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) is a well-known stress marker for humans. The concentration of salivary sIgA in dogs has also been reported as a useful stress marker. In addition, salivary sIgA in dogs has been used to determine the adaptive ability of dogs for further training. There are conventional procedures based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs. However, ELISA requires long assay time, complicated operations and is costly. In the present study, we developed an immunochromatographic assay for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs using a dilution buffer containing a non-ionic surfactant. We determined 2500-fold dilution as the optimum condition for dog saliva using a phosphate buffer (50 mM, pH 7.2) containing non-ionic surfactant (3 wt% Tween 20). The results obtained from the saliva samples of three dogs using immunochromatographic assay were compared with those obtained from ELISA. It was found that the immunochromatographic assay is applicable to judge the change in salivary sIgA in each dog. The immunochromatographic assay for salivary sIgA in dogs is a promising tool, which should soon become commercially available for predicting a dog's psychological condition and estimating adaptive ability for training as guide or police dogs.

  1. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of human salivary NEFA with gas-chromatography and mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BhushanVKulkarni

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Salivary NEFA are proposed to play a role in oral health, oral fat detection, and they may hold diagnostic and prognostic potential. Yet, little is known about the array and concentrations of NEFA in saliva. The aim of the study was to conduct qualitative and quantitative analysis of salivary NEFA in healthy humans and to present a new, efficient protocol to perform such analyses. Resting saliva samples from fifteen participants were collected. The salivary lipids were extracted using a modified Folch extraction. The NEFA in the extracted lipids were selectively subjected to pentafluorobenzyl bromide derivatization and qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. A total 16 NEFA were identified in resting saliva. The four major NEFA were palmitic, linoleic, oleic and stearic acids. Their concentrations ranged from 2-9 micromolar. This is the first study to characterize individual human salivary NEFA and their respective concentrations. The method used in the study is sensitive, precise, and accurate. It is specific to fatty acids in non-esterified form and hence enables analysis of NEFA without their separation from other lipid classes. Thus, it saves time, reagents and prevents loss of sample. These properties make it suitable for large scale analysis of salivary NEFA.

  2. Osteopontin expression in salivary gland carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    BjØrndal, Kristine; Larsen, Stine R

    2011-01-01

    J Oral Pathol Med (2010) Background:? In several cancer types, osteopontin (OPN) expression has been correlated with tumor progression and prognosis. Two earlier studies have examined OPN expression in salivary gland carcinomas with contradictory results. Methods:? One hundred and seventy-five patients with a primary salivary gland carcinoma diagnosed from January 1, 1990 to December 31, 2005 were identified in the local pathology register, Odense University Hospital. Criteria as documented by Allred et al. were used to assess OPN immunostaining that was performed on surgical specimens. Results:? Osteopontin was expressed in all salivary gland carcinomas. Adenoid cystic carcinomas had the highest mean sum score (7.3) and a significantly higher proportion of carcinomas with high OPN sum score than both mucoepidermoid carcinoma and acinic cell carcinoma. Correlation of OPN expression with known prognostic factors in salivary gland carcinomas was insignificant. Conclusions:? Salivary gland carcinomas express OPN. The expression does not correlate with known prognostic factors.

  3. Does cotinine act upon reactive oxygen species and peroxidases? / A cotinina age sobre espécies reativas do oxigênio e peroxidases?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J.C.R., Vellosa; N.M., Khalil; L.M., Fonseca; I.L., Brunetti; O.M.M.F., Oliveira.

    Full Text Available A nicotina, um agente oxidante, é certamente um dos alcalóides mais amplamente utilizados no mundo. Juntamente com seu principal metabolito, a cotinina, a nicotina é responsável pela tabaco-dependência. O uso de tabaco está intimamente associado a doenças pulmonares, modificações morfológicas em leu [...] cócitos e a geração de espécies oxidantes. O principal objetivo deste estudo foi identificar uma possível relação entre cotinina, geração de espécies reativas do oxigênio e processos oxidativos. Após o estudo da ação da cotinina em diferentes modelos químicos e em cinéticas enzimáticas com peroxidases (mieloperoxidase e peroxidase de raiz forte), conclui-se que a cotinina não age diretamente sobre H2O2, HOCl, taurine cloramina, peroxidase de raiz forte ou mieloperoxidase. Abstract in english Nicotine, an oxidizing agent, is certainly one of the most widely used alkaloids in the world. It is, together with its main metabolite, cotinine, responsible for tobacco-dependence. The use of tobacco is closely associated with lung disease, morphological leukocyte modification and generation of ox [...] idant species. The aim of this study was to look for a possible relationship between cotinine, oxidant species generation and oxidative processes. After studying the action of cotinine in some chemical oxidation models and on the enzymatic kinetics of peroxidases (myeloperoxidase and horseradish peroxidase), we concluded that cotinine does not act directly upon H2O2, HOCl, taurine chloramines, horseradish peroxidase or myeloperoxidase.

  4. Cotinine inhibits the pro-inflammatory response initiated by multiple cell surface Toll-like receptors in monocytic THP cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagaitkar Juhi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The primary, stable metabolite of nicotine [(S-3-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl pyridine] in humans is cotinine [(S-1-methyl-5-(3-pyridinyl-2-pyrrolidinone]. We have previously shown that cotinine exposure induces convergence and amplification of the GSK3?-dependent PI3 kinase and cholinergic anti-inflammatory systems. The consequence is reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion by human monocytes responding to bacteria or LPS, a TLR4 agonist. Findings Here we show that cotinine-induced inflammatory suppression may not be restricted to individual Toll-like receptors (TLRs. Indeed, in monocytic cells, cotinine suppresses the cytokine production that is normally resultant upon agonist-specific engagement of all of the major surface exposed TLRs (TLR 2/1; 2/6; 4 and 5, although the degree of suppression varies by TLR. Conclusions These results provide further mechanistic insight into the increased susceptibility to multiple bacterial infections known to occur in smokers. They also establish THP-1 cells as a potentially suitable model with which to study the influence of tobacco components and metabolites on TLR-initiated inflammatory events.

  5. Salivary gland dysfunction and xerostomia in Sjögren's syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Siri Beier; Vissink, Arjan

    2014-01-01

    In this article, salivary gland dysfunction and xerostomia in Sjögren's syndrome (SS) are discussed, with a focus on the pathophysiology of salivary dysfunction in SS, the clinical presentation of dry mouth in SS, how to assess salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia in SS, and the impact of salivary gland dysfunction on quality of life in patients with SS

  6. Serum Level of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 in Patients with Salivary Gland Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Mardani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the Problem: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs have been implicated in the pathogenesis of certain diseases and cancers via tissue destruction and can be secreted into the blood stream. MMP9 expression in the salivary gland tissue was evaluated but their serum level in the salivary gland tumors was not studied. Purpose: The aim of our study was to determine the concentration of serum MMP-9 in healthy participants and in patients with salivary gland tumor. Materials and Method: Using an ELISA kit, the circulating levels of MMP-9 in sera from 58 patients with salivary gland tumor (31 pleomorphic adenoma, 17 adenoid cystic carcinoma and 10 mucoepidermoid carcinoma and 30 healthy controls was assessed. Results: The serum MMP9 level in patients with salivary gland tumors (380.0±301.3 pg/ml also patients with benign tumors (354.3±218.7 pg/ml (354.3±218.7 pg/ml were significantly lower than that in the healthy group (727.4±624.6 pg/ml (Respectively p= 0.02 and p= 0.01. Mean serum MMP9 concentration in malignant tumors was (402.3±441.8pg/ml higher than benign tumors (354.3±218.7 pg/ml but the difference was not significant (p= 0.9. Conclusion: Our results showed that serum level of MMP9 decreased in patients with salivary gland tumors which suggest that MMP9 may not have a potential role in development and pathogenesis of salivary gland tumor.

  7. Who Is Exposed to Secondhand Smoke? Self-Reported and Serum Cotinine Measured Exposure in the U.S., 1999-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanling Shi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents self-reported and serum cotinine measures of exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS for nonsmoking children, adolescents, and adults. Estimates are disaggregated by time periods and sociodemographic characteristics based on analyses of the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Self-reported exposure rates are found to be highest for children, followed by adolescents and adults. Important differences in exposure are found by socioeconomic characteristics. Using serum cotinine to measure exposure yields much higher prevalence rates than self-reports. Rates of SHS exposure remain high, but cotinine levels are declining for most groups.

  8. Salivary thyroxine as an estimate of free thyroxine: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To test the hypothesis that the levels of salivary thyroxine (T4) reflect those of circulating free T4, we developed a radioimmunoassay (RIA) sensitive to low levels of T4. Concurrent saliva and serum samples were obtained from 32 euthyroid volunteers, ages 19 to 64. Salivary and serum T4 and cortisol levels were measured by RIA. Salivary albumin was measured by nephelometry. Salivary T4 levels were higher than predicted. No correlation was found between salivary T4 and serum levels of free T4 and total T4 but there was a significant correlation between salivary T4 and albumin (r = 0.82). Salivary cortisol levels agreed with reported results and showed no correlation with salivary albumin. We conclude that salivary levels of drugs and hormones may be strongly affected by protein binding, and caution must be exercised in using salivary levels as an estimate of circulating free levels

  9. Salivary Bisphenol-A Levels due to Dental Sealant/Resin: A Case-Control Study in Korean Children

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Dong-hun; Kim, Min-ji; Jun, Eun-joo; Kim, Jin-bom

    2012-01-01

    Dental sealants and composite filling materials containing bisphenol-A (BPA) derivatives are increasingly used in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between salivary BPA and the number of tooth surfaces filled with dental sealant, and to determine a cutoff BPA level. Salivary BPA concentration and the number of tooth surfaces filled with dental sealant/resin were determined in 124 age and gender matched children: 62 controls had no dental sealant/resin on their to...

  10. Effect of sensory stimulation on salivary IgA secretion rate in karate players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Baralic

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Secretory IgA is predominant immunoglobulin in secretions of the mucosal immune system. Low concentration of salivary IgA is associated with a higher risk of respiratory tract infections episodes in athletes during the training season. The purpose of this study was to determine whether orange-flavored whey based drink has beneficial effect on level of IgA in saliva after the training. Methods: Twenty healthy, young karate players participated in this study. They were divided into two groups. One group rinsed a mouth with 20 ml of liquid whey, two times in 30-min period: 15 and 30 min after training. Second group rinsed a mouth with 20 ml of whey based orange flavored soft drink, at the same time. Saliva was collected before the training, just after the training and after application of fluids. Results: We observed decrease in salivary flow after physical activity. The salivary flow was higher after the application of flavored drink compared to salivary flow after the application of whey. The absolute concentration of sIgA and sIgA secretion rate decreased just after exercise compared to pre exercise values. Application of whey elevated sIgA levels on day 1, while application of flavored drink caused increasing in sIgA levels on day 3. In all other cases sIgA level was decreasing even after applied stimuli. Conclusions: The exercise induces decreasing in salivary flow, sIgA absolute concentration and sIgA secretion rate. Application of fluid whey and flavored whey-based drink elevated salivary flow, but had little effect on absolute concentration of sIgA and sIgA secretion rate in young karate players.

  11. Urinary concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Israeli adults: demographic and life-style predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Hagai; Berman, Tamar; Goldsmith, Rebecca; Göen, Thomas; Spungen, Judith; Novack, Lena; Amitai, Yona; Shohat, Tamar; Grotto, Itamar

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants associated with adverse health outcomes, including cancer, asthma, and reduced fertility. Because data on exposure to these contaminants in Israel and the Middle East are very limited this study was conducted to measure urinary levels of PAHs in the general adult population in Israel and to identify demographic and life-style predictors of exposure. We measured concentrations of five PAH metabolites: 1-hydroxypyrene (1OH_pyrene) and four different hydroxyphenanthrenes (1-hydroxyphenanthrene, 2-hydroxyphenanthrene, 3-hydroxyphenanthrene, 4-hydroxyphenanthrene), as well as cotinine in urine samples collected from 243 Israeli adults from the general population. We interviewed participants using structured questionnaires to collect detailed demographic, smoking and dietary data. For over 99% of the study participants, urinary concentration of at least one of the PAHs was above both the limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ). All PAHs were significantly correlated (rho=0.67-0.92). Urinary concentration of hydroxyphenanthrenes, but not 1OH_pyrene, was significantly higher among Arabs and Druze study participants (N=56) compared to Jewish participants (N=183). For 4-hydroxyphenanthrene, concentration in Arabs and Druze was 1.95 (95% CI 1.50-2.52) that of Jews, after controlling for creatinine, age and cotinine levels. Urinary concentrations of all PAHs were significantly higher among current smokers or participants with higher cotinine levels and increased significantly with smoking frequency. While PAHs concentrations were not associated with cotinine concentrations in nonsmokers in the overall study population, PAHs concentration was significantly higher among nonsmoking Jews with cotinine ?LOQ (1?g/L), which represents exposure to environmental tobacco smoking, compared to nonsmoking Jews with cotinine concentrations concentrations were found for those consuming grilled food once a month or more. For 3-hydroxyphenanthrene, concentration in those consuming grilled food once a month or more was 2.72 (95% CI 1.01-4.98) times that of those consuming grilled food less than once a month or not at all, after controlling for creatinine, age and cotinine levels. In conclusion, we found that the general adult population in Israel is widely exposed to PAHs. Exposure differed by ethnic sub-groups both in magnitude and sources of exposure. The finding of higher exposure among Arabs and Druze highlights disparities in environmental exposures across subpopulations and suggests that further research and preventive measure are warranted to reduce PAHs exposure and associated health outcomes, especially in the Arab population in the Middle East. PMID:25456148

  12. Determination of nicotine and its major metabolite cotinine in plasma or serum by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using ion-trap detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cognard, Emmanuelle; Staub, Christian

    2003-12-01

    A specific method has been developed for the quantitative determination of nicotine and its major metabolite cotinine in plasma or serum of active and passive smokers. Deuterium-labelled nicotine and cotinine were used as internal standards. The amounts of nicotine and cotinine present in a sample of plasma or serum were extracted with a simple extraction procedure (liquid-liquid or solid-phase extraction). The extracts were analysed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry using ion-trap detection. The analysis was done in positive chemical ionisation with methanol as the liquid reagent. The method has been demonstrated to be linear up to 1000 microg/l. Limits of quantification for nicotine and cotinine are 10 and 5 microg/l, respectively with liquid-liquid extraction, and 1 microg/l for each of the compounds with solid-phase extraction. The present method has been applied to several real cases. PMID:14708884

  13. Gene expression in salivary glands: effects of diet and mouse chromosome 17 locus regulating macronutrient intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Jacob; DiCarlo, Lisa M; Kruger, Claudia; Johnson, William D; Kappen, Claudia; Richards, Brenda K

    2015-02-01

    Dcpp2, Prrt1, and Has1 are plausible candidate genes for the Mnic1 (macronutrient intake-carbohydrate) locus on mouse chromosome 17, based on their map positions and sequence variants, documented expression in salivary glands, and the important role of saliva in oral food processing and taste. We investigated the effects of genotype and diet on gene expression in salivary glands (parotid, submandibular, sublingual) of carbohydrate-preferring, C57BL6J.CAST/EiJ-17.1 subcongenic mice compared to fat-preferring wild-type C57BL/6J. To achieve accurate normalization of real-time quantitative RT-PCR data, we evaluated multiple reference genes to identify the most stably expressed control genes in salivary gland tissues, and then used geometric averaging to produce a reliable normalization factor. Gene expression was measured in mice fed different diets: (1) rodent chow, (2) macronutrient selection diets, (3) high-fat diet, and (4) low-fat diet. In addition, we measured salivary hyaluronan concentrations. All three genes showed strain differences in expression, in at least one major salivary gland, and diet effects were observed in two glands. Dcpp2 expression was limited primarily to sublingual gland, and strongly decreased in B6.CAST-17.1 subcongenic mice compared to wild-type B6, regardless of diet. In contrast, both genotype and diet affected Prrt1 and Has1 expression, in a gland-specific manner, for example, Prrt1 expression in the parotid gland alone was strongly reduced in both mouse strains when fed macronutrient selection diet compared to chow. Notably, we discovered an association between diet composition and salivary hyaluronan content. These results demonstrate robust effects of genetic background and diet composition on candidate gene expression in mouse salivary glands. PMID:25713331

  14. Salivary characteristics of diabetic children

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María Elena, López; María Eugenia, Colloca; Rafael Gustavo, Páez; Judit Nora, Schallmach; Myriam Adriana, Koss; Amalia, Chervonagura.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Os componentes salivares podem sofrer variações que podem ser detectadas por análise química. O objetivo desse trabalho foi determinar as características físicas e bioquímicas da saliva de um grupo de crianças diabéticas comparadas a um grupo controle. A relação com a saúde oral também foi determina [...] da. Vinte crianças diabéticas (3-15 anos) e 21 crianças do grupo controle (5-12 anos) foram incluídas nesse estudo. Quantidade total de proteínas, açúcares e cálcio foram determinadas por métodos colorimétricos e glicose, uréia, a-amilase e ácido fosfórico por métodos enzimáticos. Nossos resultados demonstraram que o pH ácido diminuiu o fluxo salivar e o excesso de espuma são normalmente encontrados na saliva de crianças diabéticas. O total de açúcares, glucose, uréia e proteínas foram maiores em pacientes diabéticos do que no controle enquanto o cálcio diminuiu. Essas diferenças foram confirmadas pelo teste de discriminação. As crianças diabéticas têm maiores valores de DMFT-dmft-deft and DMFS-dmfs-defs quando comparadas àquelas do grupo controle apesar do menor consumo de açúcar. Alguns componentes salivares e a diminuição do fluxo salivar podem estar envolvidos na caracterização da saúde oral das crianças diabéticas. Abstract in english Salivary components may suffer variations that can be detected by chemical determinations. The aim of this work was to determine physical and biochemical characteristics of the saliva of a group of diabetic children compared to those of a control group. Relation to oral health indices was also deter [...] mined. Twenty diabetic children (3-15-years-old) and 21 control children (5-12-years-old) were included in this study. Total proteins, sugars and calcium were determined by colorimetric methods, and glucose, urea, alpha-amylase and acid phosphatase by enzymatic methods. Our results demonstrated that acidic pH, diminished salivary flow rate and excess foam are usually present in saliva of diabetic children. Total sugars, glucose, urea and total proteins were greater in diabetic patients than controls, while calcium values were decreased. These differences were confirmed by the discrimination test. Diabetic children have higher DMFT-dmft-deft and DMFS-dmfs-defs values compared to those of the control children despite their lower sugar intake. Some salivary components in addition to the diminished flow rate could be involved in the characterization of the oral health state of diabetic children.

  15. Levels of Cotinine in Dried Blood Specimens from Newborns as a Biomarker of Maternal Smoking Close to the Time of Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Juan; Pearl, Michelle; Jacob, Peyton; DeLorenze, Gerald N.; Neal L. Benowitz; Yu, Lisa; Havel, Christopher; Kharrazi, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The precise quantitation of smoking during pregnancy is difficult in retrospective studies. Routinely collected blood specimens from newborns, stored as dried blood spots, may provide a low-cost method to objectively measure maternal smoking close to the time of delivery. This article compares cotinine levels in dried blood spots to those in umbilical cord blood to assess cotinine in dried blood spots as a biomarker of maternal smoking close to the time of delivery. The California Genetic Dis...

  16. Cotinine halts the advance of Alzheimer’s disease-like pathology and associated depressive-like behavior in Tg6799 mice

    OpenAIRE

    Valentina Echeverria Moran; J Alex Grizzell; Takashi Mori

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is associated with cognitive and non-cognitive symptoms for which there are currently no effective therapies. We have previously reported that cotinine, a natural product obtained from tobacco leaves, prevented memory loss and diminished amyloid-? (A?) plaque pathology in the transgenic 6799 mice (Tg6799 mice) when treated prior to the development of the pathology. We have also shown that cotinine reduces depressive-like behavior in normal and chronically stress...

  17. In Vitro Inhibition of Human Sperm Creatine Kinase by Nicotine,Cotinine and Cadmium, as a Mechanism in Smoker Men Infertility

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Ali Ghaffari; Mohammad Abromand; Behrooz Motlagh

    2009-01-01

    Background: Nicotine, cotinine and cadmium are harmful components of cigarettes that have aneffect on human reproductive function. Although the effects of cigarette smoke on male reproductivefunction is characterized in several articles its mechanism of action is still unknown.In the present study, we investigate the effect of nicotine, cotinine and cadmium on human spermcreatine kinase activity in vitro.Materials and Methods: Total creatine kinase activity is measured in sperm homogenates af...

  18. Salivary secretion during meals in lactating dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beauchemin, K.A.; Eriksen, L.

    2008-01-01

    Four multiparous Holstein cows in midlactation were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square to evaluate whether source of forage influenced salivary secretion during eating in lactating dairy cows. The forages were allocated separately from the pelleted concentrates. Cows were offered 1 of 4 forages each period: barley silage, alfalfa silage, long-stemmed alfalfa hay, or chopped barley straw. Saliva secretion was measured during the morning meal by collecting masticates through the rumen cannula at the cardia of each cow. Rate of salication (213 g/min) was not affected by forage source. However, the forage sources differed in eating rate (g og DM/min), which led to differences in ensalivation of forages (g of saliva/g of DM and g of saliva/g of NDF). On the basis of DM, ensalivation (g of saliva/g of DM) was greatest for straw (7.23) and similar for barley sialge, alfalfa silage, and alfalfa hay (4.15, 3.40, and 4.34 g/g of DM, respectively). Higher ensalivation of straw could be accounted for by its higher neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content; ensalivation of NDF (g of saliva/g of NDF) was actually greatest for long-stemmed alfalfa hay (12.4) and similar for the other chopped forages (8.9). Cows consumed concentrate about 3 to 12 times faster than the various forages (DM basis), and ensalivation of concentrate was much lower (1.12 g of saliva/g of DM) than for forages. Feed characteristics such as particle size, DM, and NDF content affect salivary output during eating by affecting the eating rate. Slower eating rate and greater time spent eating may help prevent ruminal acidosis by increasing the total daily salivary secretion in dairy cows.

  19. Salivary Surrogates of Plasma Nitrite and Catecholamines during a 21-Week Training Season in Swimmers

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Gómez, Miguel Mauricio; Bocanegra Jaramillo, Olga Lucia; Teixeira, Renata Roland; Espindola, Foued Salmen

    2013-01-01

    The collection of samples of saliva is noninvasive and straightforward, which turns saliva into an ideal fluid for monitoring the adaptive response to training. Here, we investigated the response of the salivary proteins alpha-amylase (sAA), chromogranin A (sCgA), and the concentration of total protein (sTP) as well as salivary nitrite (sNO2) in relation to plasma catecholamines and plasma nitrite (pNO2), respectively. The variation in these markers was compared to the intensity and load of t...

  20. Radioisotopic and biochemical determination of salivary secretion after long term psychotropic therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of prolonged psychotropic therapy (neuroleptics and antidepressants) over 5 yr on salivary secretion. The flow rate in the parotid and submandibular glands were measured separately by scintigraphy. Flow rates, total protein concentration and total IgA level were determined in the unstimulated saliva in 30 control subjects and 73 patients treated with psychotropic drugs. As evidence by measurement of flow rates and scintigraphy, psychotropic therapy reduced the unstimulated salivary secretion from parotid glands and to a lesser extent from submandibular gland. The scintigraphic study showed a lower response to stimulation in patients than controls. (author)

  1. PrPSc in Salivary Glands of Scrapie-Affected Sheep?

    OpenAIRE

    Vascellari, Marta; Nonno, Romolo; Mutinelli, Franco; Bigolaro, Michela; Di Bari, Michele Angelo; Melchiotti, Erica; Marcon, Stefano; D Agostino, Claudia; Vaccari, Gabriele; Conte, Michela; Grossi, Luigi; Rosone, Francesca; Giordani, Francesco; Agrimi, Umberto

    2007-01-01

    The salivary glands of scrapie-affected sheep and healthy controls were investigated for the presence of the pathological prion protein (PrPSc). PrPSc was detected in major (parotid and mandibular) and minor (buccal, labial, and palatine) salivary glands of naturally and experimentally infected sheep. Using Western blotting, the PrPSc concentration in glands was estimated to be 0.02 to 0.005% of that in brain. Immunohistochemistry revealed intracellular depositions of PrPSc in ductal and acin...

  2. DIETARY TRYPTOPHAN EFFECTS ON PLASMA AND SALIVARY CORTISOL AND MEAT QUALITY IN PIGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four experiments were conducted to determine the effects of supplemental Trp on meat quality, plasma and salivary cortisol, and plasma lactate. Experiment 1 was a preliminary study to measure plasma cortisol concentrations in four barrows (50 kg BW) that were snared for 30 s at time 0 min. Pigs we...

  3. Gene amplification in Rhynchosciara salivary gland chromosomes.

    OpenAIRE

    Glover, D M; A. Zaha; Stocker, A J; Santelli, R V; Pueyo, M T; De Toledo, S M; Lara, F J

    1982-01-01

    Late in the fourth larval instar, several regions of the Rhynchosciara americana salivary gland chromosomes undergo "DNA puffing." We have constructed a library of cloned cDNAs synthesized from poly(A)+RNA isolated from salivary glands during the period of development when the DNA puffs are active. From this library we have studied clones representative of three genes active during this period but not active at earlier developmental periods of the gland. One of these genes is not amplified du...

  4. Salivary Immunoglobulins and Prevalent Coronary Artery Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Janket, S.; Meurman, J. H.; Baird, A. E.; Qvarnstro?m, M.; Nuutinen, P.; Ackerson, L. K.; Hong, J.; Muthukrishnan, P.; Dyke, T. E.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies examined the serum immunoglobulin levels in relation to coronary artery disease (CAD). We hypothesized that the salivary immunoglobulins might better estimate oral infections in this relationship. Multivariate logistic regression analyses utilizing the data from 256 angiographically confirmed CAD patients and 250 non-CAD individuals that controlled for age, sex, smoking, diabetes, total/HDL cholesterol ratio, hypertension, and education revealed the trends that salivary IgA w...

  5. Comparative Human Salivary and Plasma Proteomes

    OpenAIRE

    Loo, J A; Yan, W.(Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China); P. Ramachandran; Wong, D.T.

    2010-01-01

    The protein compositions, or the proteomes, found in human salivary and plasma fluids are compared. From recent experimental work by many laboratories, a catalogue of 2290 proteins found in whole saliva has been compiled. This list of salivary proteins is compared with the 2698 proteins found in plasma. Approximately 27% of the whole-saliva proteins are found in plasma. However, despite this apparent low degree of overlap, the distribution found across Gene Ontological categories, such as mol...

  6. Alternations in salivary glucose during ramadan fasting

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Erfani; Reyhaneh Sariri; Abdolali Varasteh

    2010-01-01

    During the holly month of Ramadan, Muslims fast every day from dawn to sunset. Although the effect of Ramadan fasting on general health has been widely studied, the impact of fasting on oral health and possible changes in salivary biochemicals, such as glucose, has not received much attentiom. The aim of our study was to evaluate the influence of fasting on the level of glucose in the saliva of healthy individuals. Salivary glucose was measured using an enzymatic method based on oxidation of ...

  7. Global diversity in the human salivary microbiome

    OpenAIRE

    Nasidze, Ivan; Li, Jing; Quinque, Dominique; Tang, Kun; Stoneking, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The human salivary microbiome may play a role in diseases of the oral cavity and interact with microbiomes from other parts of the human body (in particular, the intestinal tract), but little is known about normal variation in the salivary microbiome. We analyzed 14,115 partial (?500 bp) 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequences from saliva samples from 120 healthy individuals (10 individuals from each of 12 worldwide locations). These sequences could be assigned to 101 known bacterial genera, of ...

  8. Primary salivary type lung tumor: Mucoepidermoid carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Chopra, Amit; Shim, Chang; Sharma, Nirmal; Gordon, David; Tibb, Amit

    2013-01-01

    Primary salivary type lung cancer are extremely rare intrathoracic malignancies. Mucoepidermoid tumor is one of the salivary gland tumor which originates from submucosal glands of tracheobronchial tree. These are very slow growing low grade malignant tumors. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment and rarely requires adjuvant therapy. In this case report, we describe a case of a young male who presented with cough and hemoptysis. On further investigation he was found to have mucoepidermoid tumor...

  9. A stacking flow immunoassay for the detection of dengue-specific immunoglobulins in salivary fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Bai, Jianhao; Ying, Jackie Y

    2015-03-21

    Paper-based immunoassays, usually in the form of lateral flow tests, are currently the standard platform for home diagnostics. However, conventional lateral tests are often complicated by severe non-specific adsorption of detector particles when applied to test samples containing salivary fluid. It is believed that a high concentration of proteinaceous substances in salivary fluid causes particle aggregation and adhesion. In this study, we developed a stacking flow platform for single-step detection of a target antibody in salivary fluid. Stacking flow circumvents the need for separate sample pre-treatments, such as filtration or centrifugation, which are often required prior to testing saliva samples using paper-based immunoassays. This is achieved by guiding the samples and reagents to the test strip through different paths. By doing so, salivary substances that interfere with the particle-based sensing system are removed before they come into contact with the detection reagents, which greatly reduces the background. In addition, the stacking flow configuration enables uniform flow with a unique flow regulator, which leads to even test lines with good quantification capability, enabling the detection of ~20 ng mL(-1) ?-fetoprotein in the serum. We have successfully applied the stacking flow device to detect dengue-specific immunoglobulins that are present in salivary fluid. PMID:25608951

  10. Diazepam and N-desmethyldiazepam concentrations in saliva, plasma and CSF.

    OpenAIRE

    Hallstrom, C.; Lader, M. H.

    1980-01-01

    1 Salivary and plasma diazepam and nordiazepam concentrations were measured in 51 paired samples from four experimental situations. In seven of the patients CSF samples were estimated. 2 Correlation of 0.89 (P less than 0.001) was observed between salivary and plasma diazepam and 0.81 (P less than 0.001) between salivary and plasma nordiazepam. 3 Mean salivary diazepam was 1.6% (+/- 0.3%) of the plasma diazepam. It was found to vary markedly in an acute dosage study. Mean salivary nordiazepam...

  11. Differential Radiodiagnosis of Salivary Gland Masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?.?. Egorova

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to evaluate the possibilities of radiological methods in differential diagnostics of salivary gland masses. Materials and Methods. 76 patients with tumors and tumor-like salivary gland masses were examined. We analyzed the findings of their physical examination, and performed operative interventions compared to the data of histological verification, multiplanar reconstruction sialography and ultrasound investigation. Results. At clinical examination the symptoms were non-specific. 97.5% of patients presented with a constant mass in the affected salivary gland. in 14.5% of patients the mass grew during the last 3–4 months; and in 2.5% of patients it was an incidental finding and had no manifestations. The mostly involved glands (96% of cases were parotid and submaxillary salivary glands. Tumor-like masses were found in 16 patients (21%, benign tumors — in 57 (75.0%, malignancies and locally destructive tumors — in 3 (4.0%. Conclusion. High resolution ultrasound is the primary diagnostic technique of neoplastic masses of major salivary glands, and allows a reliable evaluation of the mass localization, shape, size, structure, borders, and vascularisation. Multiplanar reconstruction sialography enables to assess more precisely anatomical localisation of tumors and tumor-like masses of salivary glands with duct system, adjacent bone and soft tissue structures.

  12. Pathogenesis of salivary gland disease and xerostomia. The conception of Mikulicz's disease based on new knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review focuses on two topics of salivary gland diseases regarding xerostomia. First, the pathogenesis and treatment of xerostomia after radiotherapy against head and neck cancer is discussed. It is well known that the extent of radiation-induced salivary dysfunction and mucositis depends on the radiation dose and field. Moreover, the balance in the defense system of oropharyngeal cavity alters after radiotherapy. This altered balance may impair the ability to maintain the stable immunological control mechanism. Second, the newly established concept about Mikulicz's disease is discussed. Recently, elevated IgG4 concentration in serum and prominent infiltrating by plasmacytes expressing IgG4 in the salivary glands in Mikulicz's disease were revealed. Mikulicz's disease is different from Sjoegren's syndrome, and may be a systemic IgG4-related plasmacytic disease. (author)

  13. Effect of fluoride preparations on the activity of human salivary cathepsin C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowska, E; Letko, M; Roszkowska-Jakimiec, W; Letko, R; Jamio?kowski, J

    2005-01-01

    Preparations containing organic and inorganic fluorine compounds are used for oral hygiene. Fluoride ions contained in these preparations display high bioactivity and can alter the environment of the mouth. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of preparations containing aminofluorides, commonly used in oral hygiene, on the activity of salivary cathepsin C (EC 3.4.14.1). The research material included mixed saliva, collected at rest before and after the application of the following preparations: Elmex gelee, Elmex red fluid, Elmex green fluid, Fluormex rinse. The salivary pH, concentration of fluoride ions and activity of cathepsin C were determined. Fluoride preparations inhibit the activity of cathepsin C and cause changes in human salivary pH. Saliva can serve as a diagnostic material in the examination of the environmental exposure to fluorides. PMID:16119654

  14. Inducible HSP70 Protects Radiation-Induced Salivary Gland Damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation (IR) delivered to the head and neck is a common treatment for malignancies. Salivary glands in the irradiation field are severely damaged, and consequently this resulted in marked salivary hypofunction. While the exact mechanism of salivary gland damage remains enigmatic, fluid secreting acinar cells are lost, and saliva output is dramatically reduced. Previously we have reported that inducible heat shock protein 70 (HSP70i) induced radioresistance in vitro. Moreover, HSP70i localized to salivary glands by gene transfer has great potential for the treatment of salivary gland. Herein, we investigated whether HSP70 can use as radio protective molecules for radiation-induced salivary gland damage in vivo

  15. Cord serum cotinine as a biomarker of fetal exposure to cigarette smoke at the end of pregnancy.

    OpenAIRE

    Pichini, S; Basagaña, X B; Pacifici, R; Garcia, O; PUIG, C.; Vall, O.; Harris, J.; Zuccaro, P; Segura, J.; SUNYER, J

    2000-01-01

    This study investigated the association between biomarkers of fetal exposure to cigarette smoke at the end of pregnancy, cotinine in cord serum and in maternal and newborn urine samples, and quantitative measurement of smoking intake and exposure evaluated by maternal self-reported questionnaire. Study subjects were 429 mothers and their newborns from a hospital in Barcelona, Spain. A questionnaire including smoking habits was completed in the third trimester of pregnancy and on the day of de...

  16. The Effects of Electronic Cigarette Emissions on Systemic Cotinine Levels, Weight and Postnatal Lung Growth in Neonatal Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath-Morrow, Sharon A.; Hayashi, Madoka; Aherrera, Angela; Lopez, Armando; Malinina, Alla; Collaco, Joseph M.; Neptune, Enid; Klein, Jonathan D.; Winickoff, Jonathan P.; Breysse, Patrick; Lazarus, Philip; Chen, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objective Electronic cigarette (E-cigarettes) emissions present a potentially new hazard to neonates through inhalation, dermal and oral contact. Exposure to nicotine containing E-cigarettes may cause significant systemic absorption in neonates due to the potential for multi-route exposure. Systemic absorption of nicotine and constituents of E-cigarette emissions may adversely impact weight and lung development in the neonate. To address these questions we exposed neonatal mice to E-cigarette emissions and measured systemic cotinine levels and alveolar lung growth. Methods/Main Results Neonatal mice were exposed to E-cigarettes for the first 10 days of life. E-cigarette cartridges contained either 1.8% nicotine in propylene glycol (PG) or PG vehicle alone. Daily weights, plasma and urine cotinine levels and lung growth using the alveolar mean linear intercept (MLI) method were measured at 10 days of life and compared to room air controls. Mice exposed to 1.8% nicotine/PG had a 13.3% decrease in total body weight compared to room air controls. Plasma cotinine levels were found to be elevated in neonatal mice exposed to 1.8% nicotine/PG E-cigarettes (mean 62.34± 3.3 ng/ml). After adjusting for sex and weight, the nicotine exposed mice were found to have modestly impaired lung growth by MLI compared to room air control mice (p<.054 trial 1; p<.006 trial 2). These studies indicate that exposure to E-cigarette emissions during the neonatal period can adversely impact weight gain. In addition exposure to nicotine containing E-cigarettes can cause detectable levels of systemic cotinine, diminished alveolar cell proliferation and a modest impairment in postnatal lung growth. PMID:25706869

  17. Comparisons of salivary proteins from five aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) saliva, when injected into host plants during feeding, causes physiological changes in hosts that facilitate aphid feeding and cause injury to plants. Comparing salivary constituents among aphid species could help identify which salivary products are universally importan...

  18. Cotinine halts the advance of Alzheimer’s disease-like pathology and associated depressive-like behavior in Tg6799 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Echeverria Moran

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is associated with cognitive and non-cognitive symptoms for which there are currently no effective therapies. We have previously reported that cotinine, a natural product obtained from tobacco leaves, prevented memory loss and diminished amyloid-? (A? plaque pathology in the transgenic 6799 mice (Tg6799 mice when treated prior to the development of the pathology. We have also shown that cotinine reduces depressive-like behavior in normal and chronically stressed C57BL/6 mice. Here, we extend our previous studies by investigating the effects of cotinine on the progression of AD-like pathology, depressive-like behavior, and the mechanisms underlying its beneficial effects in the Tg6799 mice when left untreated until after a more advanced stage of the disease’s development. The results show that vehicle-treated Tg6799 mice displayed an accentuated loss of working memory and an abundant A? plaque pathology that were accompanied by higher levels of depressive-like behavior as compared to control littermates. By contrast, prolonged daily cotinine treatment, withheld until after a mid-level progression of AD-like pathology, reduced A? levels, A? plaques, and depressive-like behavior as well as dramatically improved working memory in Tg6799 mice to levels no different from control littermates. The beneficial effects of cotinine were accompanied by an increase in the expression of the active form of protein kinase B (Akt and the postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95 in the hippocampi and frontal cortices of Tg6799 mice. This suggests that cotinine halts the progression of AD-like pathology while reducing depressive-like behavior by stimulating signaling pathways supporting synaptic plasticity in Tg6799 mice. The potential use of cotinine to treat cognitive and non-cognitive symptoms of AD is discussed.

  19. Determinación de cotinina y exposición a tabaco / Cotinine detection and tobacco smoke exposure

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marta Noemí, Vacchino; Susana María, Velurtas; Guillermo Pablo, Salinas; Héctor Hugo, Garcialoredo.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available La exposición a tabaco es una de las causas prevenibles de morbilidad y mortalidad prematura más importante. Se describe un método simple y rápido de detección de cotinina (principal metabolito de nicotina) en orina humana. Se utilizó cromatografía gas-líquido (CGL) con un detector de ionización de [...] llama (FID). Se realizó una extracción líquido-líquido con cloroformo en medio alcalino; el extracto fue secado a 37 °C y redisuelto en 100 µL de solución alcohólica con estándar interno piridina. Se analizó la orina de personas que declararon ser fumadoras y no fumadoras. Mediante la construcción de dos curvas de calibración se cubrió un rango de linealidad de 3 a 5.000 ng/mL. Los fumadores presentaron una mediana y cuartiles (Q) de concentración de cotinina: 255,4 ng/mL, 15,9 ng/mL (Q1) - 1.050,2 ng/mL (Q3), respectivamente, y los no fumadores 15,8 ng/mL, 4,1 ng/mL (Q1) - 38,4 ng/mL (Q3). Wilcoxon sumrank: z = 4,865 p Abstract in english Tobacco is one of the major preventable causes of morbidity and premature mortality in the world. A simple, rapid method for determination of cotinine, major metabolite of nicotine in urine, is described. The assay involves a fast liquid-liquid extraction with chloroform as a solvent in alkaline env [...] ironment. The extract was dried at 37 °C and the residue was dissolved in 100 µL of standard internal of pyridine in methanol solution, and an aliquot was analyzed by gas-liquid chromatograph equipped with a flame -ionization detector. This technique was performed to test urine of a sample of smokers and non-smokers who were previously asked about their smoking habit. The limit of detection was 3.1 ng/mL, and using two calibration curves, a linearity range from 3 a 5.000 ng/mL was covered. The median and quartiles (Q) of cotinine in smokers were 255.4 ng/mL, 15.9 ng/mL (Q1) -1050.2 ng/mL (Q3) ng/mL and in non-smokers 15.8 ng/mL, 4.1 ng/mL (Q1) - 38.4 ng/mL (Q3). Wilcoxon sumrank: z = 4.865 p

  20. Mercuric dichloride induces DNA damage in human salivary gland tissue cells and lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Katharina; Kroemer, Susanne [University of Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany); Sassen, Andrea [University of Regensburg, Department of Pathology, Regensburg (Germany); Staudenmaier, Rainer [Technical University of Munich, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Munich (Germany); Reichl, Franz-Xaver [University of Munich, Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Munich (Germany); Harreus, Ulrich [University of Munich, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Munich (Germany); Hagen, Rudolf; Kleinsasser, Norbert [University of Wuerzburg, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2007-11-15

    Amalgam is still one of the most frequently used dental filling materials. However, the possible adverse effects especially that of the mercuric component have led to continued controversy. Considering that mercury may be released from amalgam fillings into the oral cavity and also reach the circulating blood after absorption and resorption, it eventually may contribute to tumorigenesis in a variety of target cells. The present investigation focuses on genotoxic effects below a cytotoxic dose level of mercuric dichloride (HgCl{sub 2}) in human samples of salivary glands and lymphocytes to elucidate a possible role in tumor initiation. DNA migration due to single strand breaks, alkali labile sites and incomplete excision repair was quantified with the aid of the single cell microgel electrophoresis (Comet) assay. The concepts of Olive Tail Moment, percentage of DNA in the Tail and Tail Length were used as measures of DNA damage. To control for cytotoxic effects, the trypan blue exclusion test was applied. Human samples of the parotid salivary gland and lymphocytes of ten donors were exposed to HgCl{sub 2} concentrations from 1 to 50 {mu}M. N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) served as controls. Increasing dose-dependent DNA migration could be demonstrated after exposure to HgCl{sub 2} in cells of the salivary glands and lymphocytes. In both cell types a significant increase in DNA migration could be shown starting from HgCl{sub 2} concentrations of 5 {mu}M in comparison to the negative control. The viability of the cell systems was not affected except at the highest concentration (50 {mu}M) tested. These data indicate genotoxic effects of mercuric dichloride in human salivary glands and lymphocytes at concentrations not leading to cytotoxic effects or cell death. Consequently, a contributory role in oral salivary gland tumor initiation warrants further investigation. (orig.)

  1. Anopheles salivary gland proteomes from major malaria vectors

    OpenAIRE

    Fontaine, Albin; Fusai?, Thierry; Briolant, Se?bastien; Buffet, Sylvain; Villard, Claude; Baudelet, Emilie; Pophillat, Mathieu; Granjeaud, Samuel; Rogier, Christophe; Almeras, Lionel

    2012-01-01

    BackgroundAntibody responses against Anopheles salivary proteins can indicate individual exposure to bites of malaria vectors. The extent to which these salivary proteins are species-specific is not entirely resolved. Thus, a better knowledge of the diversity among salivary protein repertoires from various malaria vector species is necessary to select relevant genus-, subgenus- and/or species-specific salivary antigens. Such antigens could be used for quantitative (mosquito density) and quali...

  2. Nicotine, cotinine, and myosmine determination using polymer films of tailor-designed zinc porphyrins as recognition units for piezoelectric microgravimetry chemosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noworyta, Krzysztof; Kutner, Wlodzimierz; Wijesinghe, Channa A; Srour, Serge G; D'Souza, Francis

    2012-03-01

    Two electropolymerizable zinc porphyrins with receptor sites tailor-designed for selective recognition of the nicotine, cotinine, or myosmine alkaloids were synthesized. These were 5-(2-phenoxyacetamide)-10,15,20-tris(triphenylamino)porphyrinato zinc(II) 1 and 5-(2,5-phenylene-bis(oxy)diacetamide)-10,15,20-tris(triphenylamino)porphyrinato zinc(II) 2 featuring one and two pendant amide side "pincers", respectively, and three triphenylamine substituents at the meso positions of the porphyrin macrocycles capable of electrochemical polymerization. Thin polymerfilms of these porphyrins served for recognition and the piezoelectric microgravimetry (PM) for analytical signal transduction of a new chemical sensor devised for determination of these alkaloids. The films were deposited by potentiodynamic electropolymerization on the 10 MHz quartz resonators of the electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) without affecting the electronic structure of the porphyrin macrocycles. Under favorable flow injection analysis (FIA) conditions, the alkaloid analytes were determined at the concentration level of 0.1 mM with high sensitivity and selectivity. Affinity toward the analytes of the polymer of 2 was higher than that of 1 due to the higher binding ability offered by two pendant pincers of the former. Because of the selective receptors and PM applied under FIA conditions, the developed procedure offered an alternative to the time-consuming and relatively expensive high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), capillary electrophoresis (CE), and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methods of detection and quantification of these alkaloids. PMID:22394091

  3. Salivary proteomics in biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Aihua; Sun, Hui; Wang, Ping; Wang, Xijun

    2013-01-16

    Proteins that are important indicators of physiological or pathological states, can provide information for the identification of early and differential markers for disease. Saliva, contains an abundance of proteins, offers an easy, inexpensive, safe, and non-invasive approach for disease detection, and possesses a high potential to revolutionize the diagnostics. Discovery of salivary biomarkers could be used to scrutinize health and disease surveillance. The impact of human saliva proteome analysis in the search for clinically relevant disease biomarkers will be realized through advances made using proteomic technologies. The advancements of emerging proteomic techniques have benefited biomarker research to the point where saliva is now recognized as an excellent diagnostic medium for the detection of disease. This review presents an overview of the value of saliva as a credible diagnostic tool and we aim to summarize the proteomic technologies currently used for global analysis of saliva proteins and to elaborate on the application of saliva proteomics to the discovery of disease biomarkers, and discuss some of the critical challenges and perspectives in this field. PMID:23146870

  4. Effects of radiation on parotid salivary function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postoperative electron beam irradiation of patients with parotid cancer has been used regularly at the Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology to spare the opposite parotid and to preserve salivary function. Only anecdotal reports of amount of radiation required to ablate salivary function exist. To establish a dose-response curve for the human parotid, selective measurements of right and left parotid salivary flow were done for 15 age-matched control patients whose parotids were not irradiated, 17 patients who had both parotids irradiated, and 12 whose parotids were irradiated by unilateral electron beam technique. Point calculations of absorbed dose 1 cm below the surface were done for all 88 parotids and correlated with stimulated parotid salivary flow, pH, and secretory IgA (SIgA). Increasing doses of radiation resulted in progressive reduction of parotid salivary flow, pH, and SIgA. The technique, dosimetry, and clinical application of unilateral electron beam irradiation to spare the opposite parotid will be discussed

  5. Chlorella intake attenuates reduced salivary SIgA secretion in kendo training camp participants

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    Otsuki Takeshi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The green alga Chlorella contains high levels of proteins, vitamins, and minerals. We previously reported that a chlorella-derived multicomponent supplement increased the secretion rate of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA in humans. Here, we investigated whether intake of this chlorella-derived supplement attenuated the reduced salivary SIgA secretion rate during a kendo training camp. Methods Ten female kendo athletes participated in inter-university 6-day spring and 4-day summer camps. They were randomized into two groups; one took placebo tablets during the spring camp and chlorella tablets during the summer camp, while the other took chlorella tablets during the spring camp and placebo tablets during the summer camp. Subjects took these tablets starting 4 weeks before the camp until post-camp saliva sampling. Salivary SIgA concentrations were measured by ELISA. Results All subjects participated in nearly all training programs, and body-mass changes and subjective physical well-being scores during the camps were comparable between the groups. However, salivary SIgA secretion rate changes were different between these groups. Salivary SIgA secretion rates decreased during the camp in the placebo group (before vs. second, middle, and final day of camp, and after the camp: 146 ± 89 vs. 87 ± 56, 70 ± 45, 94 ± 58, and 116 ± 71 ?g/min, whereas no such decreases were observed in the chlorella group (121 ± 53 vs. 113 ± 68, 98 ± 69,115 ± 80, and 128 ± 59 ?g/min. Conclusion Our results suggest that a use of a chlorella-derived dietary supplement attenuates reduced salivary SIgA secretion during a training camp for a competitive sport.

  6. Immunolocalization and distribution of functional temperature-sensitive TRP channels in salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhan, Ubaidus; Sato, Masaki; Shinomiya, Takashi; Okubo, Migiwa; Tsumura, Maki; Muramatsu, Takashi; Kawaguchi, Mitsuru; Tazaki, Masakazu; Shibukawa, Yoshiyuki

    2013-11-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channels are unique cellular sensors involved in multiple cellular functions. Their role in salivary secretion remains to be elucidated. The expression and localization of temperature-sensitive TRP channels in salivary (submandibular, sublingual and parotid) glands were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time reverse transcription plus the polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The effects of various TRP channel agonists on carbachol (CCh)-induced salivary secretion in the submandibular gland and on the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in a submandibular epithelial cell line were also investigated. Immunohistochemistry revealed the expression of TRP-melastatin subfamily member 8 (TRPM8) and TRP-ankyrin subfamily member 1 (TRPA1) in myoepithelial, acinar and ductal cells in the sublingual, submandibular and parotid glands. In addition, TRP-vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1), TRPV3 and TRPV4 were also expressed in myoepithelial, acinar and ductal cells in all three types of gland. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR results demonstrated the mRNA expression of TRPV1, TRPV3, TRPV4, TRPM8 and TRPA1 in acinar and ductal cells in these salivary glands. Perfusion of the entire submandibular gland with the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin (1 ?M) via the submandibular artery significantly increased CCh-induced salivation, whereas perfusion with TRPM8 and TRPA1 agonists (0.5 ?M WS12 and 100 ?M allyl isothiocyanate) decreased it. Application of agonists for each of the thermosensitive TRP channels increased [Ca(2+)]i in a submandibular epithelial cell line. These results indicate that temperature-sensitive TRP channels are localized and distributed in acinar, ductal and myoepithelial cells in salivary glands and that they play a functional role in the regulation and/or modulation of salivary secretion. PMID:23942896

  7. Salivary proteins of Russian wheat aphid (Hempitera: Aphididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salivary secretions play critical roles in aphid – host plant interactions and are responsible for damage associated with aphid feeding. The objectives of this study were to evaluate aspects of salivation and the salivary constituents of Diuraphis noxia (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Salivary proteins we...

  8. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the submandibular salivary gland

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, G. Mallikarjuna; Ranga Reddy, S. V.; Janaki, M.; Reddy, K. Lakshmi

    2004-01-01

    Malignant tumors of the submandibular salivary glands are rare in occurrence, among which primary squamous cell carcinoma of the submandibular salivary gland is unusual and the documented evidence is 2 to 5% among malignant tumors A case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of submandibular salivary gland is being presented for its rarity

  9. Salivary Defense Proteins: Their Network and Role in Innate and Acquired Oral Immunity

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    Gábor Fábián

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous defense proteins present in the saliva. Although some of these molecules are present in rather low concentrations, their effects are additive and/or synergistic, resulting in an efficient molecular defense network of the oral cavity. Moreover, local concentrations of these proteins near the mucosal surfaces (mucosal transudate, periodontal sulcus (gingival crevicular fluid and oral wounds and ulcers (transudate may be much greater, and in many cases reinforced by immune and/or inflammatory reactions of the oral mucosa. Some defense proteins, like salivary immunoglobulins and salivary chaperokine HSP70/HSPAs (70 kDa heat shock proteins, are involved in both innate and acquired immunity. Cationic peptides and other defense proteins like lysozyme, bactericidal/permeability increasing protein (BPI, BPI-like proteins, PLUNC (palate lung and nasal epithelial clone proteins, salivary amylase, cystatins, prolin-rich proteins, mucins, peroxidases, statherin and others are primarily responsible for innate immunity. In this paper, this complex system and function of the salivary defense proteins will be reviewed.

  10. The incorporation of radio-labelled nucleic acid precursors by Theileria parva in bovine blood and salivary glands of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uptake of radio-labelled nucleic acid precursors by blood and tick salivary gland forms of Theileria parva was studied. Piroplasms took up tritiated purines, particularly hypoxanthine, but not pyrimidines. Similar uptake was recorded by T. parva, both in tick saliva and in salivary glands maintained in vitro. Intermediate parasite stages were those most readily labelled in glands; this reflected active nucleic acid synthesis associated with rapid parasite division. Radio-labelling of T. parva in tick salivary glands could be of value in procedures used for concentrating and purifying theilerial sporozoites. (author)

  11. Incorporation of radio-labelled nucleic acid precursors by Theileria parva in bovine blood and salivary glands of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irvin, A.D.; Boarer, C.D.H.; Kurtti, T.J.; Ocama, J.G.R. (International Lab. for Research on Animal Diseases, Nairobi (Kenya))

    1981-12-01

    The uptake of radio-labelled nucleic acid precursors by blood and tick salivary gland forms of Theileria parva was studied. Piroplasms took up tritiated purines, particularly hypoxanthine, but not pyrimidines. Similar uptake was recorded by T. parva, both in tick saliva and in salivary glands maintained in vitro. Intermediate parasite stages were those most readily labelled in glands; this reflected active nucleic acid synthesis associated with rapid parasite division. Radio-labelling of T. parva in tick salivary glands could be of value in procedures used for concentrating and purifying theilerial sporozoites.

  12. On the mechanism of salivary gland radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To contribute to the understanding of the enigmatic radiosensitivity of the salivary glands by analysis of appropriate literature, especially with respect to mechanisms of action of early radiation damage, and to supply information on the possibilities of amelioration of radiation damage to the salivary glands after radiotherapy of head-and-neck cancer. Methods and Materials: Selected published data on the mechanism of salivary gland radiosensitivity and radioprotection were studied and analyzed. Results: From a classical point of view, the salivary glands should not respond as rapidly to radiation as they appear to do. Next to the suggestion of massive apoptosis, the leakage of granules and subsequent lysis of acinar cells was suggested to be responsible for the acute radiation-induced function loss of the salivary glands. The main problem with these hypotheses is that recently performed assays show no cell loss during the first days after irradiation, while saliva flow is dramatically diminished. The water secretion is selectively hampered during the first days after single-dose irradiation. Literature is discussed that shows that the compromised cells suffer selective radiation damage to the plasma membrane, disturbing signal transduction primarily affecting watery secretion. Although the cellular composition of the submandibular gland and the parotid gland are different, the damage response is very alike. The acute radiation-induced function loss in both e radiation-induced function loss in both salivary glands can be ameliorated by prophylactic treatment with specific receptor agonists. Conclusions: The most probable mechanism of action, explaining the enigmatic high radiosensitivity for early effects, is selective radiation damage to the plasma membrane of the secretory cells, disturbing muscarinic receptor stimulated watery secretion. Later damage is mainly due to classical mitotic cell death of progenitor cells, leading to a hampered replacement capacity of the gland for secretory cells, but is also caused by damage to the extracellular environment, preventing proper cell functioning

  13. Salivary glands and human selection: a hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, E D; Mann, R W

    1996-01-01

    Stafne static bone defect (SSBD) of the mandible is the only described destructive bone lesion that is highly localized, nonprogressive, but nonhealing. This common defect in male is found in the region of the major salivary glands that produce a cornucopia of biologically active factors. We describe rare phenocopies caused by mandibular immobility that hold the gland in a constant position thus implicating a localized chronic "leak" of an osteoclast induction factor from the major salivary glands as the pathologic agent. This finding suggests that increased salivary gland size could simulate immobility by apposing the gland to bone, thus allowing the "leaked" factor's gradient to have an effect. In one step, the putative genetic enlargement of a critical gland that produces many factors important for survival, a broad biological vista would be available to the massive potential for both positive and negative selection. Positive selection was identified by observing a correlation between the prevalence of enhanced androgen-induced enlarge salivary glands (SSBD) as a marker, with a great preponderance of males) and the conjectured resulting increased production of immunoreactive factors, with pole-to-equator isotherm and broad ranged infection clines. Negative selection was observed among the slave ancestors of African Americans for a potential embryonic homeotic mutation causing larger salivary glands in both sexes (decreased prevalence of SSBD, with an equal sex ratio). The decreased production of saliva and electrolytes diminished the salt and water depletive effects of severe diarrhea and vomiting induced by enteric diseases, which killed many slaves. Data presented suggests that SSBD is a polymorphism and a marker of selection processes that cause variation in size, or structure, of the major salivary glands. PMID:8773904

  14. Salivary Output in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

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    T. Radhika

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes Mellitus (DM is a common but complex metabolic disorder affecting various systems in the body. Oral cavity is no exception as this chronic condition exerts a huge impact on oral health. Salivary dysfunction has been reported to be a frequent oral complication in Type 2 diabetics which in turn leads to an array of oral complications because oral health is to a greater extent dependent on the quality and quantity of saliva. Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the salivary flow rate and prevalence of subjective symptoms of xerostomia in diabetics and non-diabetics. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 100 type 2 diabetic patients and 50 non-diabetic subjects. Random non-fasting plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels were used to determine the diabetic status of the individuals. Unstimulated saliva was collected using “Spit technique”. Stimulated saliva was collected using 2% citric acid. Unstimulated and Stimulated Salivary Flow Rate (USFR and SSFR was calculated for every patient and expressed as ml/min. Xerostomia was evaluated using a multi-item inventory comprising 19 questions. Results: In our study, both whole unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rates were decreased in diabetics compared to non-diabetics and this difference was statistically significant (p = 0.000. A greater percentage of diabetic patients perceived xerostomia symptoms compared to non-diabetics. Conclusion: Type 2 diabetics have higher prevalence of xerostomia and significantly reduced salivary flow rate compared to non-diabetics. Alterations in salivary flow create an imbalance in the homeostasis of oral environment leading to spectrum of oral ailments in these individuals

  15. Salivary diagnostics: moving to the next level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, Ole; Spielmann, Nadine; Wong, David T W

    2012-06-01

    The evolution of salivary diagnostics has reached a new level toward the goal of using saliva as a powerful fluid for early detection and the first line of diagnosis for life-threatening diseases such as cancer, metabolic disorders, infections, and inflammatory diseases. Newly developed tools such as the novel saliva-based POCT and the SKB are helping to realize the goal of making salivary diagnostics available to clinicians worldwide. This is a unique moment where dentistry may be paving a new path for primary healthcare. PMID:22746063

  16. Caries Experience and Salivary Parameters among Overweight Children and Adolescents

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    Michele B. Diniz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a chronic disease characterized by excess body fat, which can lead to other health problems, including insulin resistance, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, polycystic ovary syndrome, hypertension, dyslipidemia, sleep apnea, asthma, heart attack, stroke, atherosclerosis and metabolic syndrome. Currently, obesity and dental caries are major public health concerns and dietary habits are a very important common component of their etiological factors, showing some correlation with the sociodemographic characteristics of individuals presenting these diseases. In relation to caries experience, the literature suggests a correlation between obesity and dental caries in children and adolescents, in primary and/or permanent dentition, though divergent results exist regarding assessment based on the method recommended by the WHO (1997, i.e., restricted to carious lesions with cavitation. Some studies indicate greater prevalence of proximal carious lesions in obese adolescents compared with those with normal weight. Salivary changes, such as the concentrations of phosphate, sialic acid, proteins and immunoglobulins and in peroxidase activity could explain the increased probability of obese children presenting greater risk of dental caries. Thus, it is important to consider the contribution of salivary parameters in caries experience of overweight children and adolescents and the implementation of preventive measures in this population.

  17. Simple and rapid assay method for simultaneous quantification of urinary nicotine and cotinine using micro-extraction by packed sorbent and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Masae; Ogawa, Tadashi; Hattori, Hideki; Zaitsu, Kei; Ishii, Akira; Suzuki, Osamu; Seno, Hiroshi

    2013-08-01

    A simple and rapid method for determination of nicotine and cotinine levels in urine was developed using samples prepared by micro-extraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) and subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. This method provided good reproducibility, as well as good linearity of calibration curves in the range of 1-100 and 50-1000 ng/mL for quality control samples spiked with nicotine and cotinine, respectively. The detection limit of nicotine and cotinine was as low as 0.25 and 20 ng/mL, respectively. An evaporation procedure is not suitable for nicotine determination, thus an advantage of the present MEPS assay method is direct testing with GC-MS without the need for evaporation to a dry solvent. Our findings show that it may be useful for determining nicotine levels in various types of research studies. PMID:24640182

  18. Simple and Rapid Assay Method for Simultaneous Quantification of Urinary Nicotine and Cotinine using Micro-Extraction by Packed Sorbent and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HIROSHI SENO

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A simple and rapid method for determination of nicotine and cotinine levels in urine was developed using samples prepared by micro-extraction by packed sorbent (MEPS and subjected to gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis. This method provided good reproducibility, as well as good linearity of calibration curves in the range of 1–100 and 50–1000 ng/mL for quality control samples spiked with nicotine and cotinine, respectively. The detection limit of nicotine and cotinine was as low as 0.25 and 20 ng/mL, respectively. An evaporation procedure is not suitable for nicotine determination, thus an advantage of the present MEPS assay method is direct testing with GC-MS without the need for evaporation to a dry solvent. Our findings show that it may be useful for determining nicotine levels in various types of research studies.

  19. The prevalence of self-reported smoking and validation with urinary cotinine among commercial drivers in major parks in Lagos, Nigeria

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    Obianuju B. Ozoh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The validity of self-reported smoking is questionable because smokers are inclined to deny smoking. We aimed to determine the prevalence of self-reported smoking among intra-city commercial drivers in Lagos, and assess its validity based on urinary cotinine assessment. This study was conducted at three major motor parks in Lagos, Nigeria. Information on smoking status and habits was obtained from 500 consecutive male drivers using a structured questionnaire during a face-to-face interview. Eighty-one self-reported smokers and non-smokers were selected by systematic random sampling for urinary cotinine assessment using cotinine strips. The prevalence of self-reported smoking was compared to the prevalence of smoking based on urinary cotinine and the specificity and positive predictive values of self-reported smoking was determined. Prevalence of self-reported current smoking was 32% and 17.9% of nonsmokers were passive smokers. Among 81 drivers in whom urinary cotinine assessment was performed, the prevalence of smoking based on self-report was 34 (42% compared to 41 (50.6% when based on urinary cotinine, (X2=38.56, P<0.001. The rate of misclassification among self-reported non-smokers as smokers was 21.3% and misclassification rate for self-reported smokers as non-smokers was 8.8%. The sensitivity of self-reported smoking in accurately classifying smoking status was 91.2% and the specificity was 78.7%. The prevalence of self-reported cigarette smoking among commercial drivers in Lagos is high and a significant proportion of self-reported non-smokers are passive smokers. Self-reported smoking status obtained during face-to-face interview appears unreliable in obtaining accurate smoking data in our locality.

  20. Measuring environmental tobacco smoke exposure in infants and young children through urine cotinine and memory-based parental reports: empirical findings and discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt, G.; Wahlgren, D.; Hovell, M.; Zakarian, J.; Bernert, J.; Meltzer, S.; Pirkle, J.; Caudill, S.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—This study examined the reliability and potential biases of two urine collection methods from which cotinine measures were obtained and the validity of memory-based parental reports of their children's exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS).?DESIGN—Structured interviews were conducted with mothers of infants and young children to obtain memory-based estimates of recent ETS exposure. Urine samples were collected through standard and cotton roll collection methods for cotinine analysis.?SETTING—All interviews took place at an off-campus research facility. Urine samples were collected at the study office or the subjects' homes.?PARTICIPANTS—Mothers were recruited from San Diego county sites of the Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Supplemental Food and Nutrition Program. Sample 1 (infants) consisted of eight boys and eight girls aged 1-44 months (mean = 12.6 months). Sample 2 (children) included 10 boys and 10 girls aged 3-8 years (mean = 61.2 months).?MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Urine cotinine and memory-based parent reports of ETS exposure from structured interviews.?RESULTS—There was overall high reliability for urine cotinine measures and no effect of collection method on urine cotinine levels. Memory-based reports obtained from smoking mothers showed moderately strong and consistent linear relationships with urine cotinine measures of their infants and children (r = 0.50 to r = 0.63), but not for reports obtained from non-smoking mothers.?CONCLUSIONS—Memory-based parental reports of short-term ETS exposure can play an important role in quantifying ETS exposure in infants and children.???Keywords: environmental tobacco smoke; parental smoking; passive smoking PMID:10599573

  1. Salivary testosterone and immunoglobulin A were increased by resistance training in adults with Down syndrome

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    G., Fornieles; M.A., Rosety; S., Elosegui; J.M., Rosety; J.R., Alvero-Cruz; N., Garcia; M., Rosety; T., Rodriguez-Pareja; R., Toro; M., Rosety-Rodriguez; F.J., Ordonez; I., Rosety.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to assess the influence of resistance training on salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels and hormone profile in sedentary adults with Down syndrome (DS). A total of 40 male adults with DS were recruited for the trial through different community support groups for people with [...] intellectual disabilities. All participants had medical approval for participation in physical activity. Twenty-four adults were randomly assigned to perform resistance training in a circuit with six stations, 3 days per week for 12 weeks. Training intensity was based on functioning in the eight-repetition maximum (8RM) test for each exercise. The control group included 16 age-, gender-, and BMI-matched adults with DS. Salivary IgA, testosterone, and cortisol levels were measured by ELISA. Work task performance was assessed using the repetitive weighted-box-stacking test. Resistance training significantly increased salivary IgA concentration (P=0.0120; d=0.94) and testosterone levels (P=0.0088; d=1.57) in the exercising group. Furthermore, it also improved work task performance. No changes were seen in the controls who had not exercised. In conclusion, a short-term resistance training protocol improved mucosal immunity response as well as salivary testosterone levels in sedentary adults with DS.

  2. Prostaglandins as biochemical markers of radiation injury to the salivary glands after iodine-131 therapy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because salivary glands, as well as thyroid tissue, are able to concentrate radioiodine, the treatment of thyroid diseases with iodine-131 may have secondary effects on salivary gland function which seriously impair the quality of life. Such effects include sialoadenitis and xerostomia. Salivary secretion is stimulated by prostaglandins (PGs). In this study we evaluate whether 131I therapy influences the levels of PGs in saliva. Patients who had previously received 131I for treatment of hyperthyroidism or differentiated thyroid cancer and healthy volunters were studied. Levels of PGs [6-oxo-PGF1?, bicyclo-PGEm, thromboxane B2 (TXB2), PGF2?], in unstimulated saliva were measured using enzyme immunoassay. Significantly lower levels of 6-oxo-PGF1 ?, bicyclo-PGEm and PGF2? and higher levels of TXB2 were found in the group of patients in comparison with the controls. Differences between patients and controls were more pronounced in smokers. This study demonstrates that salivary gland uptake of 131I significantly affects PG levels in saliva. (orig.)

  3. Comparison of Salivary Biochemical Composition between End Stage Renal Disease and Healthy Subjects

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    Mahin Bakhshi

    Full Text Available Introduction: Following the renal disease involvement, some variations may occur in the flow, pH and biochemical components of the saliva; therefore, saliva possibly would be a useful tool for diagnosis and monitoring of the renal disease through evaluation of the components. The aim of the present study was to analyse the biochemical composition of the saliva in patients undergone haemodialysis for the end-stage renal disease (ESRD in Imam Khomeini Hospital. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 64 haemodialysis patients and 67 healthy individuals were selected and their salivary samples were obtained by spitting method. Salivary biochemical factors were determined by serum kits and auto-analyzer while the samples’ pH was determined by an automatic pH meter. Then, Creatinine, Ca, Mg, urea, ?-amylase parameters as well as the salivary flow rate were measured. The saliva biochemical compositions were analyzed using Student t test. Results: The mean (± standard deviation of the salivary flow rate was statistically lower in ESRD patients than healthy ones (0.34±0.22 ml/min vs. 0.57±0.29 ml/min: P<0.001. Salivary pH (7.87±0.72 vs. 6.99±0.4: P<0.001 and concentrations of urea (134.4±40.8 vs. 40.8±15.1 mg/dl: P<0.001; Cr (1.1±0.9 vs. 0.4±0.1 mg/dl: P<0.001 and ?-amylase (1107.4±788.4 vs. 568.3±437.0 mg/dl: P<0.001 were statistically higher in ESRD patients than healthy controls. Ca was significantly lower in ESRD patients than healthy ones (2.8±2.8 vs. 3.6±2.0 mg/dl: P<0.05.. No significant differences were noted between both groups regarding salivary Mg. The mean (± standard deviation age was statistically higher in ESRD patients than healthy ones (63.2±15.4 years vs. 48.2±15.3 years: P<0.001. No significant differences were noted between both groups regarding weight and gender. Conclusion: Due to the significant alternations of the salivary biochemical concentrations in ESRD patients; saliva can be used as a diagnostic tool for monitoning the involvement of the renal diseases.

  4. Molecular structure of cotinine studied by gas electron diffraction combined with theoretical calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshima, Tsuguhide; Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Egawa, Toru; Konaka, Shigehiro

    2007-09-01

    The molecular structure of cotinine (( S)-1-methyl-5-(3-pyridinyl)-2-pyrrolidinone), the major metabolite of nicotine, has been determined at about 182 °C by gas electron diffraction combined with MP2 and DFT calculations. The diffraction data are consistent with the existence of the (ax, sc), (ax, ap), (eq, sp) and (eq, ap) conformers, where ax and eq indicate the configuration of the pyrrolidinone ring by means of the position (axial and equatorial) of the pyridine ring, and sc, sp and ap distinguish the isomers arising from the internal rotation around the bond connecting the two rings. The (CH 3)NCCC(N) dihedral angles, ?, of the (ax, sc) and (eq, sp) conformers were determined independently to be 158(12)° and 129(13)°, respectively, where the numbers in parentheses are three times the standard errors, 3 ?. According to the MP2 calculations, the corresponding dihedral angles for the (ax, ap) and (eq, ap) conformers were assumed to differ by 180° from their syn counterparts. The ratios x(ax, sc)/ x(ax, ap) and x(eq, sp)/ x(eq, ap) were taken from the theoretically estimated free energy differences, ? G, where x is the abundance of the conformer. The resultant abundances of (ax, sc), (ax, ap), (eq, sp) and (eq, ap) conformers are 34(6)%, 21% (d.p.), 28% (d.p.), and 17% (d.p.), respectively, where d.p. represents dependent parameters. The determined structural parameters ( rg (Å) and ? ? (°)) of the most abundant conformer, (ax, sc), are as follows: r(N sbnd C) pyrrol = 1.463(5); r(N sbnd C methyl) = 1.457(?); r(N sbnd C( dbnd O)) = 1.384(12); r(C dbnd O) = 1.219(5); = 1.541(3); r(C pyrrolsbnd C pyrid) = 1.521(?); = 1.396(2); = 1.343(?); ?(CNC) pyrrol = 113.9(11); ?CCC pyrrol(-C pyrid) = 103.6(?); ?NCO = 124.1(13); ?NC pyrrolC pyrid = 113.1(12); ?C pyrrolC pyrrolC pyrid = 113.3(?); ?(CNC) pyrid = 117.1(2); = 124.4(?); ?C methylNC( dbnd O) = ?C methylNC(-C pyrid) = 122.8(d.p.); ?NC( dbnd O)C = 107.1(d.p.); ?NC pyrrol(-C pyrid)C pyrrol = 103.0(d.p.) and ?CCC( dbnd O) = 105.2(d.p.), where ? in the parentheses means that the parameter is bound to the preceding one and denote average values. The puckering angle, ?, of the pyrrolidinone ring is 26(3)°. The N⋯N distances of the (ax, sc) and (eq, sp) conformers, which are 4.844(5) and 4.740(5) Å, respectively, are close to that of the most stable conformer of nicotine, 4.885(6) Å and the corresponding one of arecoline, 4.832(13) Å. It is concluded that the weak nicotinic activity of cotinine cannot be ascribed to such a small difference in the N⋯N distances.

  5. Cotinine versus questionnaire: early-life environmental tobacco smoke exposure and incident asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlsten Chris

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of biomarkers has expanded considerably, as an alternative to questionnaire-based metrics of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS; few studies have assessed the affect of such alternative metrics on diverse respiratory outcomes in children, and we aimed to do so. Methods We evaluated various measures of birth-year ETS, in association with multiple respiratory endpoints early years of life, in the novel context of a birth cohort at high risk for asthma. We administered questionnaires to parents, both at the end of pregnancy and at one year of life, and measured cotinine in cord blood (CCot; in 275 children and in urine (UCot; obtained at 12 months in 365 children, each by radioimmunoassay. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess the association of the various metrics with recurrent wheeze at age 2 and with bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR and asthma at age 7. Results Self-reported 3rd trimester maternal smoking was associated with significantly increased risk for recurrent wheeze at age 2 (odds ratio 3.5 [95% confidence interval = 1.2,10.7]; the risks associated with CCot and 3rd trimester smoking in any family member were similar (OR 2.9 [1.2,7.0] and 2.6 [1.0,6.5], respectively. No metric of maternal smoking at 12 months appeared to significantly influence the risk of recurrent wheeze at age 2, and no metric of ETS at any time appeared to significantly influence risk of asthma or BHR at age 7. Conclusions Biomarker- and questionnaire-based assessment of ETS in early life lead to similar estimates of ETS-associated risk of recurrent wheeze and asthma.

  6. Association of serum cotinine level with a cluster of three nicotinic acetylcholine receptor genes (CHRNA3/CHRNA5/CHRNB4) on chromosome 15

    OpenAIRE

    Keskitalo, Kaisu; Broms, Ulla; Heliövaara, Markku; Ripatti, Samuli; Surakka, Ida; Perola, Markus; Pitkäniemi, Janne; Peltonen, Leena; Aromaa, Arpo; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2009-01-01

    A cluster of three nicotinic acetylcholine receptor genes on chromosome 15 (CHRNA5/CHRNA3/CHRNB4) has been shown to be associated with nicotine dependence and smoking quantity. The aim of this study was to clarify whether the variation at this locus regulates nicotine intake among smokers by using the level of a metabolite of nicotine, cotinine, as an outcome. The number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) and immune-reactive serum cotinine level were determined in 516 daily smokers (age 30–...

  7. The Ratio of a Urinary Tobacco-Specific Lung Carcinogen Metabolite to Cotinine is Significantly Higher in Passive than in Active Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Vogel, Rachel Isaksson; Carmella, Steven G.; Stepanov, Irina; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Hecht, Stephen S.

    2011-01-01

    4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol plus its glucuronides (total NNAL), metabolites of the lung carcinogen NNK, and total cotinine, metabolites of nicotine, are biomarkers of active and passive cigarette smoking. We calculated the total NNAL: total cotinine (× 103) ratio in 408 passive (infants, children, adults) and 1088 active smokers. The weighted averages were 0.73 (95% CI 0.71, 0.76) for passive smokers and 0.07 (0.06, 0.08) for active smokers (p

  8. The activity of selected glycosidases in salivary gland tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Chojnowska

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of the patients after salivary gland tumors surgery is an important clinical issue. Still imperfect diagnostic procedures also remain a challenge for searching new sensitive and specific biomarkers of neoplastic processes in salivary glands. The aim of the presented study was an the assessment of the activity of HEX, with its isoforms HEX-A and HEX-B, GLU, GAL, MAN and FUC in salivary gland tumor tissues in comparison to a healthy salivary gland tissues taken during autopsy. A group of 42 patients with benign and malignant salivary gland tumors, aged 25-65 were examined. Fragments of salivary gland tumor tissue, fragments of healthy tissue removed during autopsy, blood serum and saliva were collected from patients with salivary gland tumors and healthy volunteers. In salivary gland tumor tissue the activity of HEX, HEX-A, HEX-B, GAL, FUC was considerably higher than in comparison to healthy salivary gland tissue and ascending trend of activity of GLU, MAN was also noticed. The activity of all lysosomal exoglycosidases in blood serum in patients with salivary gland tumors was considerably higher in comparison to healthy volunteers blood serum. The considerably higher activity of HEX, HEX-A, GLU, GAL, MAN, FUC and descending trend of activity of HEX-B were noticed in saliva of patients with salivary gland tumors in comparison to healthy volunteers. The assessment of HEX in blood serum and saliva of patients with salivary gland tumor can be possibly used in diagnostics and monitoring of salivary glands tumors.

  9. Reduced salivary flow and colonization by mutans streptococci in children with Down syndrome

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cristina, Areias; Benedita, Sampaio-Maia; Maria de Lurdes, Pereira; Alvaro, Azevedo; Paulo, Melo; Casimiro, Andrade; Crispian, Scully.

    1007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Although individuals with Down syndrome have considerable oral disease, the prevalence of dental caries in this group is low. The present study aimed to compare known risk factors for dental caries development in children with Down syndrome and a matched population (siblings). In both po [...] pulations, the number of acidogenic microorganisms, such as mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and Candida species, and the paraffin-stimulated pH, flow rate and IgA concentration in whole saliva were evaluated and compared. METHOD: Saliva was collected, and the caries index was evaluated in 45 sibling pairs aged between 6 and 18 years old. The salivary IgA concentration was determined by immunoturbidimetry. Salivary mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and Candida species were quantified on mitis salivarius agar containing bacitracin and 20% sucrose, rogosa agar supplemented with glacial acetic acid and sabouraud agar supplemented with chloramphenicol, respectively. RESULTS: Down syndrome children had a higher caries-free rate (p

  10. [Salivary glands secretory activity in patients with terminal chronic renal insufficiency on programmed dialysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanas'ev, V V; Vavilova, T P; Osokin, M V; Pushkina, A V

    2006-01-01

    Saliva secretion speed and some biochemical mixed saliva characteristics were studied in patients with a terminal stage of chronic renal insufficiency. There was reduction of salivary function by more than 2 times and an increase of urea and creatinine concentrations in mixed saliva before the dialysis start. In case of higher urea content in saliva the speed of salivation was the highest that could evidence for an adequate response of the salivary glands to toxic action of nitrogen metabolism end products. The function restoration after hemodialysis took place not in all the patients. Amino acid catabolism product concentration in mixed saliva fell after hemodialysis and correlated directly with the amount of urea and creatinine in blood plasma. It took place also in "urea ricochet" when its content in blood increased sharply 1 hour after hemodialysis due to urea washout from the tissues. PMID:17159840

  11. Central Nifedipine-induced Alterations in Salivary Flow and Compounds: Role of Nitric Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Abrao Saad

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the role of nifedipine and Nitric Oxide (NO on salivary flow and compounds (salivary amylase, saliva total proteins, saliva calcium, sodium and potassium. Male Holtzman rats weighting 200-250 g were anesthetized with zoletil 50 mg kg-1 (tiletamine chloridrate 125.0 mg and zolazepan chloridrate 125.0 mg into quadriceps muscle and stainless steel cannulas were implanted into their lateral ventricle of the brain (LV. Animals in divided group were injected with nifedipine (50 ?g ?L-1 alone and in combination with 7-nitroindazol (7-NIT (40 ?g ?L-1, neuronal NO Sinthase Inhibitor (nNOSI and Sodium Nitroprussate (SNP (30 ?g ?L-1 NO donor agent. As a secretory stimuli, pilocarpine dissolved in isotonic was administered intraperitoneally (ip at a dosage of 10 mg kg-1 body weight. Saliva was collected for 7 min with four cotton balls weighing approximately 20 mg each, two of which were placed on either side of the oral cavity, with the other two placed under the tongue. Nifedipine treatment induced a reduction in saliva secretion rate and concentration of amylase, total protein and calcium without changes in sodium and potassium concentration in comparison with controls. Co-treatment of animals with nifedipine and SNP retained flow rate and concentration of amylase, total protein and calcium in normal levels. Co-treatment of animals with nifedipine and 7-NIT potentiated the effect of nifedipine on the reduction of saliva secretion and concentrations of amylase, total protein and calcium. Nifedipine (dihydroperidine calcium-channel blocker widely in use is associated with salivary dysfunction acting in the central nervous system structures. NO might be the mechanism for protective effect against the nifedipine-induce salivary dysfunction, acting in the CNS.

  12. Effect of sensory stimulation on salivary IgA secretion rate in karate players

    OpenAIRE

    Baralic, I; I Miletic; Djordjevic, B.; T. Terzic; S Radojevic-Skodric; Nikolic, G

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Secretory IgA is predominant immunoglobulin in secretions of the mucosal immune system. Low concentration of salivary IgA is associated with a higher risk of respiratory tract infections episodes in athletes during the training season. The purpose of this study was to determine whether orange-flavored whey based drink has beneficial effect on level of IgA in saliva after the training. Methods: Twenty healthy, young karate players participated in this study. They were divided into ...

  13. Salivary ?-amylase and cortisol after exercise in menopause: influence of long-term HRT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patacchioli, F R; Ghiciuc, C M; Bernardi, M; Dima-Cozma, L C; Fattorini, L; Squeo, M R; Galoppi, P; Brunelli, R; Ferrante, F; Pasquali, V; Perrone, G

    2015-08-01

    Objectives This observational prospective study analyzed the effect of an incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) on the secretion of salivary biomarkers of the adrenergic nervous system and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity by measuring salivary ?-amylase and cortisol diurnal trajectories in the setting of long-term hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Methods Fifteen healthy sedentary postmenopausal women who were current HRT users and 15 women who had never used HRT were consecutively recruited. ?-Amylase and cortisol were measured in salivary samples collected on the CPET day and on a rest day. Cardiovascular and respiratory fitness parameters were recorded during the CPET challenge. Results The participants had very homogeneous somatic characteristics, and they were all in generally good health. The postmenopausal never-HRT users presented an abnormal diurnal pattern of ?-amylase at baseline and a flattened response to CPET. In contrast, women on HRT had a physiological ?-amylase diurnal pattern and increased salivary ?-amylase production during the CPET-induced challenge. The CPET challenge physiologically activated the HPA axis activity, as shown by the increase in the concentration of salivary cortisol during the effort test. HPA axis activity was not affected by long-term HRT. Postmenopausal women using HRT exhibited a cardiorespiratory functional capacity that was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than that of non-users. Conclusions Our findings show that healthy postmenopausal women present an asymmetry between adrenergic nervous system and HPA axis activities under both basal and stress conditions. HRT was able to modify the abnormal adrenergic nervous system activity, most likely by reducing the sympathetic hyperactivity that characterizes menopause. PMID:25602168

  14. Immunohistochemical and quantitative changes in salivary EGF, amylase and haptocorrin following radiotherapy for oral cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, M E; Hansen, H S

    1996-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF), amylase and haptocorrin are molecules produced in the salivary glands. The aim of the present study was to determine immunohistochemical and quantitative alterations in EGF as compared with haptocorrin and amylase following radiotherapy for oral cancer. Changes in the salivary secretion of EGF are of interest because of the importance of EGF in mucosal regeneration. Immunohistochemical studies on normal tissue from parotid and submandibular glands have demonstrated EGF in the serous acini with a tendency to single cell expression in the parotid gland. Amylase has been found in the serous acini of both the submandibular and parotid glands. Haptocorrin was localized in the duct system of both glands. In the submandibular glands with radiotherapy induced sialoadenitis only very few acini with weak or no staining for EGF and amylase were demonstrated, while no changes were observed in the staining for haptocorrin. Analysis on stimulated whole saliva samples collected from 20 healthyindividuals and from 20 patients prior to, and 1, 2 and 3 weeks following radiotherapy showed significant reduction in salivary contents of EGF and amylase after treatment as expressed per g protein (p <0.0002). The salivary content of haptocorrin increased significantly after treatment (p <0.002). These alterations may be explained by the different cellular sites of the molecules studied, the serous acini being more sensitive to ionising radiation than the duct system. The concentration of EGF in saliva before treatment was significantly higher in patients than in the control group (p <0.02), which may indicate that the tumors induce increased secretion of salivary EGF, or alternatively that the oral tumors contribute with EGF to the saliva. In conclusion we have demonstrated a reduction in the mitogenic peptide EGF both immunohistochemically and quantitatively following irradiation for oral cancer, results which may contribute to the understanding of the clinical signs of mucositis.

  15. Oxidative DNA damage and repair in children exposed to low levels of arsenic in utero and during early childhood: Application of salivary and urinary biomarkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinhumpatch, Pantip; Navasumrit, Panida [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, Chulabhorn Research Institute, Laksi, Bangkok (Thailand); Chulabhorn Graduate Institute, Laksi, Bangkok (Thailand); Center of Excellence on Environmental Health and Toxicology, CHE, Ministry of Education (Thailand); Chaisatra, Krittinee; Promvijit, Jeerawan [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, Chulabhorn Research Institute, Laksi, Bangkok (Thailand); Mahidol, Chulabhorn [Laboratory of Chemical Carcinogenesis, Chulabhorn Research Institute, Laksi, Bangkok (Thailand); Ruchirawat, Mathuros, E-mail: mathuros@cri.or.th [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, Chulabhorn Research Institute, Laksi, Bangkok (Thailand); Chulabhorn Graduate Institute, Laksi, Bangkok (Thailand); Center of Excellence on Environmental Health and Toxicology, CHE, Ministry of Education (Thailand); Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Phayathai, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2013-12-15

    The present study aimed to assess arsenic exposure and its effect on oxidative DNA damage and repair in young children exposed in utero and continued to live in arsenic-contaminated areas. To address the need for biological specimens that can be acquired with minimal discomfort to children, we used non-invasive urinary and salivary-based assays for assessing arsenic exposure and early biological effects that have potentially serious health implications. Levels of arsenic in nails showed the greatest magnitude of difference between exposed and control groups, followed by arsenic concentrations in saliva and urine. Arsenic levels in saliva showed significant positive correlations with other biomarkers of arsenic exposure, including arsenic accumulation in nails (r = 0.56, P < 0.001) and arsenic concentration in urine (r = 0.50, P < 0.05). Exposed children had a significant reduction in arsenic methylation capacity indicated by decreased primary methylation index and secondary methylation index in both urine and saliva samples. Levels of salivary 8-OHdG in exposed children were significantly higher (? 4-fold, P < 0.01), whereas levels of urinary 8-OHdG excretion and salivary hOGG1 expression were significantly lower in exposed children (? 3-fold, P < 0.05), suggesting a defect in hOGG1 that resulted in ineffective cleavage of 8-OHdG. Multiple regression analysis results showed that levels of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in saliva and urine had a significant positive association with salivary 8-OHdG and a significant negative association with salivary hOGG1 expression. - Highlights: • The effects of arsenic exposure in utero and through early childhood were studied. • Arsenic-exposed children had a reduction in arsenic methylation capacity. • Exposed children had more DNA damage, observed as elevated salivary 8-OHdG. • Lower salivary hOGG1 in exposed children indicated impairment of 8-OHdG repair. • Salivary and urinary 8-OHdG levels were discordant.

  16. Oxidative DNA damage and repair in children exposed to low levels of arsenic in utero and during early childhood: Application of salivary and urinary biomarkers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study aimed to assess arsenic exposure and its effect on oxidative DNA damage and repair in young children exposed in utero and continued to live in arsenic-contaminated areas. To address the need for biological specimens that can be acquired with minimal discomfort to children, we used non-invasive urinary and salivary-based assays for assessing arsenic exposure and early biological effects that have potentially serious health implications. Levels of arsenic in nails showed the greatest magnitude of difference between exposed and control groups, followed by arsenic concentrations in saliva and urine. Arsenic levels in saliva showed significant positive correlations with other biomarkers of arsenic exposure, including arsenic accumulation in nails (r = 0.56, P < 0.001) and arsenic concentration in urine (r = 0.50, P < 0.05). Exposed children had a significant reduction in arsenic methylation capacity indicated by decreased primary methylation index and secondary methylation index in both urine and saliva samples. Levels of salivary 8-OHdG in exposed children were significantly higher (? 4-fold, P < 0.01), whereas levels of urinary 8-OHdG excretion and salivary hOGG1 expression were significantly lower in exposed children (? 3-fold, P < 0.05), suggesting a defect in hOGG1 that resulted in ineffective cleavage of 8-OHdG. Multiple regression analysis results showed that levels of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in saliva and urine had a significant positive association with salivary 8-OHdG and a significant negative association with salivary hOGG1 expression. - Highlights: • The effects of arsenic exposure in utero and through early childhood were studied. • Arsenic-exposed children had a reduction in arsenic methylation capacity. • Exposed children had more DNA damage, observed as elevated salivary 8-OHdG. • Lower salivary hOGG1 in exposed children indicated impairment of 8-OHdG repair. • Salivary and urinary 8-OHdG levels were discordant

  17. Decrease in salivary lactoferrin output in chronically intoxicated alcohol-dependent patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napoleon Waszkiewicz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Salivary lactoferrin is a glycoprotein involved in the elimination of pathogens and the prevention of massive overgrowth of microorganisms that affect oral and general health. A high concentration of lactoferrin in saliva is often considered to be a marker of damage to the salivary glands, gingivitis, or leakage through inflamed or damaged oral mucosa, infiltrated particularly by neutrophils. We conducted a study to determine the effect of chronic alcohol intoxication on salivary lactoferrin concentration and output. The study included 30 volunteers consisting of ten non-smoking male patients after chronic alcohol intoxication (group A, and 20 control nonsmoking male social drinkers (group C with no history of alcohol abuse. Resting whole saliva was collected 24 to 48 hours after a chronic alcohol intoxication period. Lactoferrin was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. For all participants, the DMFT index (decayed, missing, or filled teeth, gingival index (GI and papilla bleeding index (PBI were assessed. The differences between groups were evaluated using the Mann–Whitney U test. We noticed significantly decreased salivary flow (SF in alcohol dependent patients after chronic alcohol intoxication (A, compared to the control group (C. Although there was no significant difference in salivary lactoferrin concentration between the alcohol dependent group A and the control group C, we found significantly decreased lactoferrin output in group A compared to group C. We found a significant correlation between the amount of daily alcohol use and a decrease in lactoferrin output. There was a significant increase in GI and a tendency of PBI to increase in group A compared to group C. We demonstrated that chronic alcohol intoxication decreases SF and lactoferrin output. The decreased lactoferrin output in persons chronically intoxicated by alcohol may be the result of lactoferrin exhaustion during drinking (due to its alcohol-related lower biosynthesis or higher catabolism or to decreased function of neutrophils affected by the ethanol. The poorer periodontal state in alcohol dependent persons compared to controls may be a result of lower salivary flow and decreased protection of the oral cavity by lactoferrin.

  18. [Salivary LH as an ovulation indicator: comparison between salivary LH, serum LH and ultrasonic findings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewit, K; Huber, J; Ortlieb, A; Kraft, H G; Widhalm, R; Wolfram, G

    1987-11-01

    A radioimmunological method of salivary LH determination has been developed as a new non invasive approach to hormonal ovulation detection. In this study salivary LH patterns have been compared to serum LH peak and daily sonographic assessment of follicle maturation in 15 spontaneous cycles of 9 women experienced in self-observation of their cycles (NFP). The day where the mature follicle was no longer visible sonographically was labelled day 0. Serum LH peaks occurred in 11 out of 15 cycles on day -1, two times on days -2 and 0 and preceded salivary LH peaks in 8 out of 15 cycles. The latter coincided in 7 cycles with day 0 in two cycles each with days -1 and +1 and in 4 cycles with day -2. Thus 13/15 serum- and 11/15 salivary-LH peaks occurred within +/- one day of the disappearance of the mature follicle. A time lag of up to six hours between the sampling of saliva and serum might explain the difference in the respective peak days, however, more studies into the kinetics of LH transport and its circadian rhythmicity seem necessary. Nevertheless, in principle also the salivary LH peak is considered a suitable indicator of ovulation. PMID:3319762

  19. A new gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for simultaneous determination of total and free trans-3'-hydroxycotinine and cotinine in the urine of subjects receiving transdermal nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, A J; Lawson, G M; Anderson, R; Dale, L C; Croghan, I T; Hurt, R D

    1999-01-01

    trans-3'-Hydroxycotinine (THOC) has been recognized as the most abundant metabolite of nicotine. In an attempt to assess THOC and cotinine (COT) concentrations during nicotine transdermal therapy, we developed a new quantitative gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for simultaneous determination of total and free THOC and COT in human urine. The method utilizes the following: (a) hydrolysis of conjugated THOC and COT by beta-glucuronidase; (b) basic extraction of THOC and COT with mixed dichloromethane and n-butyl acetate; (c) derivatization of THOC with bis(trimethylflurosilyl)acetamide; and (d) separation and identification by GC-MS with selective ion monitoring. Lower limits of quantification for the assay were 50 and 20 microg/L for THOC and COT, respectively. The intra- and interassay CVs were 4.4% and 11% for THOC, and 3.9% and 10% for COT at 1000 microg/L. The results from six consecutive 24-h urine collections in 71 subjects administered daily transdermal nicotine doses of 11, 22, and 44 mg showed that, on average, free THOC was 76% of total THOC and free COT was 48% of total COT in all subjects. THOC is the major metabolite of nicotine and constitutes 20% of total nicotine intake at steady state, whereas urinary nicotine and COT excretion were 8% and 17%, respectively. The method is useful for simultaneous determination of free and total THOCand COT and can be used to assess the urinary excretion of these metabolites during transdermal nicotine therapy. PMID:9895342

  20. pH Salival, Capacidad Buffer, Proteínas Totales y Flujo Salival en Pacientes Hipertensos Controlados Usuarios de Diuréticos / Salivary pH, Buffer Capacity, Total Proteins and Salivary Flow in Controlled Hypertensive Patients Diuretic Users

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Samuel, Muñoz L; Carmen Gloria, Narváez.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available La hipertensión arterial (HTA) es una enfermedad cardiovascular que padece gran parte de la población mundial y nacional, alcanzando en Chile un 26,9% en el año 2010. El objetivo fue determinar pH salival, capacidad buffer, proteínas totales y flujo salival, en pacientes hipertensos controlados usua [...] rios de diuréticos. Se analizaron 14 muestras de saliva no estimulada de pacientes hipertensos controlados con diuréticos y 10 muestras de saliva no estimulada de personas que no padecían enfermedades sistémicas y no tomaban medicamentos, los valores obtenidos de pH salival, capacidad buffer, flujo salival y proteínas totales fueron determinados en ambos grupos. La mediana obtenida en las muestras de hipertensos controlados con diuréticos, para el pH salival fue de 6,83; para la capacidad buffer fue 4,86; para el flujo salival fue 0,55 ml/min y para las proteínas totales salivales fue de 1,09 g/dL. Para el grupo de pacientes sanos la mediana fue de 6,88 para el pH; 4,25 para la capacidad buffer; 1,8 ml/min para el flujo salival y 0,29 g/dL para las proteínas totales salivales. Además, no se encontró asociación entre el flujo salival (rs = 0,425), capacidad buffer (rs = 0,283) y concentración de proteínas (rs = 0,245) con la dosis del diurético (p > 0,05) . Se encontró que existieron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en el flujo salival y la concentración de proteínas salivales entre el grupo de pacientes hipertensos y de pacientes sanos (U Mann-Wthitney P 0,005). Los pacientes que sufren HTA y están siendo controlados con diuréticos tienen una disminución del flujo salival y un aumento de la concentración de proteínas, no viéndose afectadas las variables de pH y capacidad buffer. Abstract in english Introduction: Hypertension (HT) is a cardiovascular disease with a high prevalence around the world. In Chile at year 2010 it reached 26.9% of the population. Objective: To determine salivary pH, buffering capacity, total proteins and salivary flow in controlled hypertensive diuretic users and a gro [...] up without systemic diseases. Methods: 14 samples of unstimulated saliva of patients with hypertension treated with diuretics and 10 samples of unstimulated saliva of people without systemic diseases and not taking medication were analyzed. pH, salivary buffering, salivary flow and total protein were determined in both groups. Results: The figures for the treated HT patients were as follows: pH: 6.83, buffer capacity: 4.86, salivary flow: 0.55 ml / min and total salivary proteins: 1.09 g / dL. For those without systemic diseases the results were: pH: 6,88, buffer capacity: 4,25, saliva flow: 1.8 ml / min and total salivary protein: 0.29 g / dL. No association was found between salivary flow (rs = 0.425), buffering capacity (rs = 0.283) and protein concentration (rs = 0.245) with the diuretic dose (p > 0.05). Statistically significant differences were found in salivary flow and total salivary protein concentration between the group with hypertension and without. (U Mann-Wthitney P > 0.005). No statistically significant differences in salivary pH and buffering capacity were found among the study groups (U Mann-Wthitney > 0.005). Conclusion: Patients with hypertension and treated with diuretics have a decreased salivary flow and an increased total protein concentration while ph and buffer capacity remained normal.

  1. Lifestyle, mental health status and salivary secretion rates

    OpenAIRE

    Toda, Masahiro; Morimoto, Kanehisa; Fukuda, Sanae; Hayakawa, Kazuo

    2002-01-01

    The relations between salivary variables, lifestyle and mental health status were investigated for 61 healthy female university students. The salivary secretion rates were significantly higher in the good lifestyle groups compared with the poor lifestyle groups. Among the 8 lifestyle items tested. “eating breakfast” and “mental stress” were significantly related to the salivary secretion rates. The present findings suggest that the acquisition of a good lifestyle is also very importan...

  2. Sialorrhea and Salivary Composition in Patients With Parkinson's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Bugra KOCA; Hayri DEMIRBAS; Koken, Tulay; Ozge Yilmaz KUSBECI

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the salivary composition and production in mild and severe Parkinson's Disease (PD) patients.Materials and Methods: A total of 37 patients with PD and age matched 30 control subjects were participated in this study. The Hoehn and Yahr (HY) disability scale was used to determine the severity of the disease. Salivary collection was performed according to a methodology described in the literature and salivary composition was determined. Between group comparisons were perfo...

  3. Analysis of the Salivary Gland Transcriptome of Frankliniella occidentalis

    OpenAIRE

    Stafford-Banks, Candice A.; Rotenberg, Dorith; Johnson, Brian R; Whitfield, Anna E.; Ullman, Diane E.

    2014-01-01

    Saliva is known to play a crucial role in insect feeding behavior and virus transmission. Currently, little is known about the salivary glands and saliva of thrips, despite the fact that Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (the western flower thrips) is a serious pest due to its destructive feeding, wide host range, and transmission of tospoviruses. As a first step towards characterizing thrips salivary gland functions, we sequenced the transcriptome of the primary salivary glands of F. occ...

  4. Human Kallikrein 8 Expression in Salivary Gland Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Darling, Mark R.; Tsai, Sam; Jackson-boeters, Linda; Daley, Thomas D.; Diamandis, Eleftherios P.

    2008-01-01

    The human kallikrein 8 protein (KLK8) is expressed in many normal tissues including esophagus, skin, testis, tonsil, kidney, breast, and salivary gland, and is found in biological fluids including breast milk, amniotic fluid, seminal fluid and serum. It has also been shown to be a biomarker and prognostic factor for breast cancer. The aim of this study was to determine whether KLK8 is expressed in salivary gland tissues and salivary gland tumors (both benign and malignant), in order to compar...

  5. Distribution of Tight Junction Proteins in Adult Human Salivary Glands

    OpenAIRE

    Maria, Ola M.; Kim, Jung-wan Martin; Gerstenhaber, Jonathan A.; Baum, Bruce J.; Tran, Simon D.

    2008-01-01

    Tight junctions (TJs) are an essential structure of fluid-secreting cells, such as those in salivary glands. Three major families of integral membrane proteins have been identified as components of the TJ: claudins, occludin, and junctional adhesion molecules (JAMs), plus the cytosolic protein zonula occludens (ZO). We have been working to develop an orally implantable artificial salivary gland that would be suitable for treating patients lacking salivary parenchymal tissue. To date, little i...

  6. Salivary epithelial cells: an unassuming target site for gene therapeutics

    OpenAIRE

    Perez, Paola; Rowzee, Anne M.; Zheng, Changyu; Adriaansen, Janik; Baum, Bruce J.

    2010-01-01

    Salivary glands are classical exocrine glands whose external secretions result in the production of saliva. However, in addition to the secretion of exocrine proteins, salivary epithelial cells are also capable of secreting proteins internally, into the bloodstream. This brief review examines the potential for using salivary epithelial cells as a target site for in situ gene transfer, with an ultimate goal of producing therapeutic proteins for treating both systemic and upper gastrointestinal...

  7. GATA3 Immunohistochemical Expression in Salivary Gland Neoplasms

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, Lauren E.; Begum, Shahnaz; Westra, William H.; Bishop, Justin A.

    2013-01-01

    GATA3 is a zinc finger transcription factor that regulates the normal development of many tissues and cell types. Recent studies have shown that immunohistochemical nuclear staining for GATA3 among tumors is highly restricted to carcinomas of breast and urothelial origin; however salivary gland tumors have not been tested. Given that breast and salivary gland tissues are very similar with respect to embryologic development and structure, we performed GATA3 staining on a spectrum of salivary g...

  8. Analysis of Candida albicans adhesion to salivary mucin.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffman, M. P.; Haidaris, C. G.

    1993-01-01

    Clearance of Candida albicans from the oral cavity is thought to be mediated via specific receptor-ligand interactions between salivary constituents and the fungus. Since surfaces in the oral cavity are normally coated with a saliva-derived pellicle, specific interactions between salivary constituents and C. albicans may also contribute to adhesion of C. albicans to the oral mucosa and dental prostheses. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify salivary constituents to which C. al...

  9. Tissue tropism of the Musca domestica salivary gland hypertrophy virus

    OpenAIRE

    Lietze, Verena-ulrike; Salem, Tamer Z.; Prompiboon, Pannipa; Boucias, Drion G.

    2010-01-01

    The tissue tropism of Musca domestica salivary gland hypertrophy virus (MdSGHV) infecting adult house flies was examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and quantitative real-time PCR. TEM demonstrated that characteristic MdSGHV-induced nuclear and cellular hypertrophy was restricted to the salivary glands. Both nucleocapsids and enveloped virions were present in salivary gland cells. In contrast, thin sections of midguts, ovaries, abdominal fat body, crops, air sacs and brains show...

  10. Salivary gland doses from dental radiographic exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salivary gland doses incurred during dental radiography were measured by phantom dosimetry, and these dose data and data obtained during a two-week survey of Hiroshima and Nagasaki dental hospitals and clinics were used to estimate the respective doses to members of the populations of the two cities. The results obtained were used to supplement previously determined doses to the thyroid gland, lens, and pituitary gland from dental radiography. No significant differences in doses were observed by age, sex or city. Doses to the salivary glands during dental radiography are probably not sufficiently large to cause bias in assessments of atomic bomb survivors for late radiation effects. However, the steadily increasing use of dental radiography underscores the need for continued monitoring of dental radiography doses in the interests of these assessments. (author)

  11. Salivary duct carcinoma of parotid gland- An incidental finding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparna Suvernakar V, Shubha Deshpande A, Prabha Mulay S

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Salivary duct carcinoma, a recently added separate entity of salivary gland tumor is a rare tumour with its aggressive behaviour. Due to morphological similarities with ductal carcinoma of breast the name salivary duct carcinoma is given. It is more common in male than in female. But our case is of 45yr female with mass in the parotid region. The diagnosis on USG and CT was organized collection. But on excision the diagnosis turned to be salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland

  12. Galanin: hydrokinetic action on salivary glands in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, F E; Ghatei, M A; Zintel, A; Bloom, S R

    1989-12-01

    Galanin was infused intravenously into eight healthy volunteers at a dose of 40 pmol kg-1 min-1 for 1 h to investigate the pharmacological effects of this peptide on the postprandial sialagogical response in man. Galanin significantly increased the salivary volume and the saliva output of sodium, chloride and bicarbonate compared to control saline infusion, but had no effect on the output of potassium and alpha-amylase. An increase in salivary pH was also observed. The increase in salivary volume may indicate a physiological role of galanin in the control of salivary secretion. PMID:2485092

  13. Salivary Biomarkers for Detection of Systemic Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Rathnayake, Nilminie

    2013-01-01

    Human saliva is a fluid with many biological functions, and essential for the maintenance of oral health. Several studies report local and systemic biomarkers appearing in saliva, including electrolytes, blood products, enzymes and tissue destruction molecules, inflammatory markers as well as proteins putatively associated with different diseases. However, the clinical utility of salivary diagnostics for the assessment of oral and systemic disease remains elusive. The general aim of this proj...

  14. Evaluation of Salivary Albumin in Diabetic Patients

    OpenAIRE

    PB Vaziri; Vahedi, M.; SH Abdollahzadeh; Abdolsamadi HR.; M Hajilooi; SH Kasraee

    2009-01-01

    "nBackground: The clinical symptoms of diabetes mellitus in oral cavity are xerostomia, pathological changes in periodontal tis­sues and caries. It has been suggested that the determination of salvia`s components in diabetic patients may be useful in de­scribing and further understanding the oral findings in this condition. The aim of this study was to detect differences be­tween the salivary albumin in diabetic patients and healthy people."nMethods: A case-c...

  15. Salivary cortisol and psychosocial hazards at work

    OpenAIRE

    MAINA, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    Background Experimental and clinical evidence suggest that stress can lead to ill-health through the disregulation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis. Studies to date have produced equivocal results likely due to different methodologies and failure to account for confounding factors. This investigation aimed to assess the relation between self-reported work-related stressors and salivary cortisol and to clarify the role of the potential confounders. Methods Thirty-six cal...

  16. Electrochemical Measurements of Salivary Amylase Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Höckerdal, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Stress constitutes a more and more common cause for many health disorders inmodern society. Salivary -amylase (AA), the most abundant enzyme in humanwhole saliva, has in recent years been found to be a good surrogate biomarker formonitoring stress levels in individuals. This work aims to form the foundation ofa novel approach for measuring the activity of the enzyme in saliva samples bymeans of electrochemistry. The idea is to implement several enzymes along witha starch substrate and an elec...

  17. Salivary protein adsorption and oral streptococcal adhesion

    OpenAIRE

    Pratt-terpstra, Jellina Henderika

    1990-01-01

    The aims of this investigation were: 1. to investigate whether oral streptococcal adhesion to artificial solid substrata and human enamel can be described by a thermodynamic model under conditions of moderate shear as encountered in the human oral caviry. 2. to determine the influence of salivary protein adsorption on oral streptococcal adhesion. 3. to elucidate some of the mechanisms by which adsorbed protein layers transfer substratum properties to the interface with adhering microorganisms...

  18. Salivary Mucocele in a Laboratory Beagle

    OpenAIRE

    Yasuno, Hironobu; Nagai, Hirofumi; Ishimura, Yoshimasa; WATANABE, TAKESHI; Yamasaki, Hideki; Anayama, Hisashi; Takai, Yuichi; Yamauchi, Hirofumi; Hara, Yoko; Murai, Fumi; Kandori, Hitoshi

    2011-01-01

    The histologic characteristics of a salivary mucocele in a beagle used in a toxicity study are described in this report. A pale yellowish cyst under the mandibular skin containing frothy mucus was observed at necropsy. Microscopically, numerous villous projections arose from the internal surface of the cyst and were lined by stratified epithelial-like macrophages, which were immunopositive for macrophage scavenger receptor A. A ...

  19. Salivary expression of soluble HER2 in breast cancer patients with positive and negative HER2 status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidi, Fatna; Bouziane, Amal; Lakhdar, Amina; Khabouze, Samira; Rhrab, Brahim; Zaoui, Fatima

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between salivary concentration of the soluble fragment of the HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor) protein and its status in mammary tissues. Methods This case-control study was done in 27 breast cancer patients with no visible metastatic disease treated at the gynecology service, Maternity Souissi Hospital, Rabat, Morocco. Two groups were selected, ie, patients with positive and negative HER2 status in mammary tissue. The salivary HER2 protein concentration was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The salivary HER2 concentration was compared between the HER2-positive and HER2-negative groups using the Mann-Whitney U test. A P-value 0.05), except for the progesterone hormone receptor which was statistically significant in both the case and control groups (P=0.047). Conclusion According to our data, salivary expression of the HER2 receptor may not be a reliable alternative to tissue assessment. PMID:25053886

  20. S-100 protein antibodies do not label normal salivary gland myoepithelium. Histogenetic implications for salivary gland tumors.

    OpenAIRE

    Dardick, I.; Stratis, M.; Parks, W. R.; Denardi, F. G.; Kahn, H. J.

    1991-01-01

    Neoplastically modified myoepithelial cells have a key role in developing the histologic characteristics of some salivary gland tumors. S-100 protein expressed in certain of these tumors is suggested to support this role, as the principal component in the human salivary gland reported to be S-100 protein-positive is myoepithelium. Confirmation of such an important aspect is required. Immunoperoxidase staining of parotid salivary gland shows considerably different patterns obtained with antibo...

  1. endoProteoFASP: a novel FASP approach to profile salivary peptidome and disclose salivary proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, Fábio; Amado, Francisco; Gomes, Pedro S; Vitorino, Rui

    2015-01-01

    The salivary peptidome, which can represent up to 20% of total secreted proteins in human saliva, is highly influenced by proteolytic events. However, the development of strategies to understand the dynamics underlying the generation of salivary peptides has been a challenging task. In order to disclose in more detail the proteolytic events taking place in saliva, we aimed to characterize salivary peptidome and predict salivary proteases by applying, for the first time, a filter-aided sample preparation (FASP) approach to saliva. Thus, as a proof-of-concept of this application, harvested saliva samples from healthy individuals were incubated in 30 kDa cut-off spin filters for 18 or 115 h, at 37 °C, to promote saliva autolysis and the attained peptidome was characterized and compared with the naturally occurring one. In ex vivo conditions, proline-rich proteins, P-B peptide, histatin 1 and statherin were found to be the most susceptible salivary proteins to proteolysis. Peptide fragments were mainly attributed to the activity of cathepsin L1 and K at 18 h, whereas at 115 h, the attained peptide fragments were attributed to the activity of cathepsins K and L1, and MEP1A. Overall, the described endoProteoFASP approach makes the most of saliva?s own protease pool and avoids the use of synthetic peptides and exogenous proteases to understand the proteolytic events occurring in the oral fluid. Hence, it could be very helpful in future studies targeting the characterization of salivary proteases and peptidome from different pathophysiological conditions. PMID:25476335

  2. Determination of nicotine and cotinine in human plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, A S; Peng, L L; Havel, J A; Petersen, M E; Fiene, J A; Hulse, J D

    1996-07-12

    Here we report a sensitive liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS-MS) method capable of quantifying nicotine down to 1 ng/ml and cotinine to 10 ng/ml from 1.0 ml of human plasma. The method was validated over linear ranges of 1.0-50.0 ng/ml for nicotine and 10.0-500.0 ng/ml for cotinine, using deuterated internal standards. Compounds were simply extracted from alkalinized human heparinized plasma with methylene chloride, reconstituted into a solution of acetonitrile, methanol and 10 mM ammonium acetate (53:32:15, v/v) after the organic phase was dried down, and analyzed on the LC-MS-MS, which is a PE Sciex API III system equipped with a Keystone BDS Hypersil CI8 column and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) interface. The between-run precision and accuracy of the calibration standards were < or = 6.42% relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) and < or = 11.8% relative error (R.E.) for both nicotine and cotinine. The between-run and within-run precision and accuracy of quality controls, (2.5, 15.0, 37.5 ng/ml for nicotine and 25.0, 150.0, 375.0 ng/ml for cotinine), were < or = 6.34% R.S.D. and < or = 7.62% R.E. for both analytes. Sample stabilities in chromatography, in processing and in biological matrix were also investigated. This method has been applied to pharmacokinetic analysis of nicotine and cotinine in human plasma. PMID:8844417

  3. Investigation on laser induced salivary stone fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroka, Ronald; Pongratz, Thomas; Eder, Matthias; Domes, Mona; Vogeser, Michael; Johnson, Thorsten; Siedeck, Vanessa; Schroetzlmair, Florian; Zengel, Pamela

    2014-03-01

    Objective: It was the objective of this in-vitro study to investigate photon-based techniques for identifying the composition and fragmentation of salivary stones using a Ho:YAG laser. Materials and Method: Salivary stones (n=47) extracted from patients with clinical symptoms of sialolithiasis were examined in-vitro. After extraction, the stones were kept in Ringers solution until size and volume measurements could be performed. Thereafter, dual-energy CT scans (DECT) were performed to classify the composition of the stones. Subsequently, fluorescence measurements were performed by taking images under blue light excitation as well as by fluorescence spectroscopy, measuring excitation-emission-matrixes (EEM). Further investigation to identify the exact composition of the stone was performed by Raman spectroscopy and FTIR spectroscopy of stone fragments and debris. Fragmentation was performed in an aquarium set-up equipped with a mesh (hole: 1.5mm) using a Ho:YAG-laser to deliver laser pulses of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5J/pulse at a frequency of 3Hz through a 200?m-fibre to the stone surface. The collected data were analyzed and fragmentation rates were calculated. Finally, correlation between stone composition and fragmentation was performed. Results: Blue light fluorescence excitation resulted in either fluorescence in the green spectral region or in a combination of green and red fluorescence emission. EEM-measurement showed the corresponding spectra. Raman spectroscopy showed a mixture of carbonate apatite and keratin. DECT results in evidence of calcium containing components. FTIR-spectroscopy results showed that carbonate apatite is the main component. Fragmentation experiment showed a dependency on the energy per pulse applied if the evaluation implies the ratio of fragmented weight to pulse, while the ratio fragmented weight to energy remains about constant for the three laser parameter used. Conclusion: The composition of salivary stones could be determined using different photonic techniques. Attempts to correlate salivary stone composition to fragmentation rates resulted in no correlation. Thus it could be concluded that each salivary stone could be easily destroyed using Ho:YAG-laser light by means of a 200?m bare fibre at lowest energy per pulse.

  4. Determinación de los niveles de cortisol salival en una muestra de sujetos de Santiago de Chile Salivary cortisol among subjects with and without Cushing syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MACARENA LÉPEZ

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Salivary cortisol measurement is recommended as a screening mea-sure when a Cushing Syndrome is suspected. Theproposed cut-offpointfor aprobable diagnosis is 0.16 ug/dL. Aim: To determine salivary cortisol concentrations during the day inpatients with and without Cushing syndrome and with depression. Material and Methods: Salivary cortisol was measured by competitive enzyme immuno assay (EIA, in samples obtained at 8:00,15:00 and 23:00 h in 78 patients without Cushing syndrome, aged 40 ± 15years (28 males, 30 patients with depression aged 40 ± 12years (nine males and four jemales with Cushing syndrome aged 42 ± 17 years. Results: Salivary cortisol was higher among patients with Cushing syndrome than the rest of patients. A salivary cortisol over the cut-off value of O.16 ug/dL was found in 42% of subjects without Cushing syndrome and in 33% of patients with depression. Median values among patients without Cushing syndrome, depression and with Cushing syndrome were 0.21 (range < 0.1-1.42, 0.2 (range 0,12-0.9 and 0.58 (range 0.37-1.1 ug/dL, respectively Conclusions: Salivary cortisol measured by EIA method was higher among patients with Cushing syndrome but there was a great overlap with values obtained in subjects without the syndrome.

  5. A functional test of the salivary gland using sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The function of the parotid glands were studied in 45 patients with parotid gland diseases, with the salivary glands affection systemic diseases, and with radiation injury of the parotid glands. As a control, the studies were done on 13 patients with no history of salivary gland disease. The method is consisted of sequential scientigraphy using a gamma scintillation camera and simultaneous recordings of the time-activity curves for the regions over the parotid glands and Stensen's orifices. The examination was commenced immediately after intravenous injection of sup(99m)Tc, and was continued up to 30 minutes. Salivation was stimulated with oral administration of tartaric acid at 20 minutes after injection. According to whether the uptake, concentration and excretion of sup(99m)Tc were diminished or increased, the time-activity curves could be grouped four different patterns. Using this method, a clinician can determine the exact stage of glandular dysfunction. (author)

  6. Evaluation of anxiety and salivary chromogranin a secretion in women receiving breast conserving surgery followed by radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We conducted a prospective study to assess the anxiety and salivary Chromogranin A (CgA), which is considered to be a biomarker of the stress response, in outpatients receiving breast conserving surgery followed by radiation therapy (RT) to the whole breast. Fifty consecutive patients who received whole-breast RT were enrolled in this study. The anxiety levels were measured by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) at the beginning of RT (baseline), 30 Gy, completion of RT, and 1 and 3 months after RT. Salivary CgA levels were also measured at the same time. The mean state anxiety score for all patients was 46.16 with a standard error (SE) of 1.57 at the beginning of RT (baseline) which continued to decline during and after RT. It reached its lowest score with 36.34±1.56 at 3 months after RT (p<0.0001). The mean trait anxiety score for all patients was 43.10±1.54 at baseline and remained constant during RT but began to decline after completion of RT and reached a low level at 3 months after RT (p=0.0021). The mean salivary CgA concentration for all patients demonstrated no consistent trends over time, but at 30 Gy the concentration showed a significant decreasing pattern (p=0.0473). Salivary CgA concentrations and state anxiety and trait anxiety scores at all time points showed no correlation. The mean anxiety scores measured by State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) showed no positive correlation with salivary CgA concentration for breast cancer patients undergoingon for breast cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy following breast conserving surgery. (author)

  7. Identifying sources and estimating glandular output of salivary TIMP-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten-Andersen, L; Beier Jensen, S

    2008-01-01

    Objective. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1) has been identified as a potential biomarker in diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Since TIMP-1 resides in most tissues and bodily fluids, we evaluated the potential of using saliva to obtain reproducible TIMP-1 measurements in a non-invasive manner. Material and methods. Samples of unstimulated and stimulated whole saliva and saliva collected from individual glands were analysed for TIMP-1 content. A TIMP-1 ELISA was validated for use in saliva testing and the most optimal sampling and handling procedures for reproducible measurements identified. Western blotting and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry were used for confirmatory analyses. Results. The TIMP-1 ELISA was found suitable for saliva measurements. All saliva secretions contained TIMP-1, but in different concentrations ranging from 2.81 ng/mL in submandibular/sublingual saliva to 173.88 ng/mL in parotid saliva. TIMP-1 concentrations were influenced to a varying degree by fluctuations in flow. We found the lowest output in submandibular/sublingual saliva stimulated with 0.5 % citric acid (3.56 ng/min) and highest output in chewing-stimulated whole saliva (267.01 ng/min). Conclusion. This study shows that saliva contains authentic TIMP-1, the concentration of which was found to depend on gland type and salivary flow. Stimulated whole saliva is suggested as a reliable and easily accessible source for TIMP-1 determinations in bodily fluids.

  8. Direct salivary cortisol radio-immunoassay determination. Clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salivary cortisol levels reflect the biologically active free fraction of blood cortisol. The authors describe the results obtained with the aim of a radio-immunoassay commercial serum cortisol kit, without prealable extraction in different physiological and pathological situations. Salivary cortisol determination appears performant both in nycthemeral studies and in stimulation or freination tests

  9. Secretion of salivary statherin is compromised in uncontrolled diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Izumi

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions and general significance: The results show that synthesis and secretion of statherin is reduced in diabetics and this reduction is salivary gland specific. As compromised salivary statherin secretion leads to increased oral health risk, this study indicates that routine oral health assessment of these patients is warranted.

  10. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the soft palate salivary gland.

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Zaifullah SYED HAMZAH; Mohd Razif MOHAMAD YUNUS

    2012-01-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma is a malignant epithelial tumour of glandular tissue, usually of the major salivary glands. However it can present in the minor salivary glands, especially in the soft palate. We report the case of a 72-year-old Malay female after presentation with sore throat, fever and odynophagia, was diagnosed with mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the soft palate.

  11. The effect of chronic treatment with fluoride on salivary activity, tooth, and bone in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picco, Daniele C R; Delbem, Alberto C B; Sassaki, Kikue T; Sumida, Doris H; Antoniali, Cristina

    2014-04-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of chronic treatment with sodium fluoride on salivary activity, tooth, and bone in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). The treatment was made with a 20-ppm NaF solution added to the drinking water for 30 days. Systolic blood pressure values were obtained by plethysmography; fluoride concentration was determined by an ion-selective electrode; calcium concentration and amylase activity were determined by commercial kits; and enamel microhardness was verified by longitudinal section. Systolic blood pressure values and animals' weight were not changed by treatment. However, the salivary flow rate-which was lowered in SHR at baseline when compared to Wistar rats-was found to be increased with the treatment with NaF. The fluoride concentration was increased in the plasma of the treated groups, even though it remained lower for the treated SHR in relation to the treated Wistar rats. Calcium concentration was decreased in the saliva and plasma of SHR treated with NaF. A reduction in the plasmatic total protein concentration was observed in SHR treated with NaF. The fluoride concentration on bone surface was found to be increased in Wistar or SHR treated with NaF. In treated SHR's femurs, it was observed a significant reduction in fluoride concentrations. Enamel microhardness of the incisor teeth was not changed by the treatment with NaF in both groups. The distribution of fluoride to the salivary glands in SHR is poor, and treatment with NaF causes a decrease in the concentration of important biochemical parameters to the salivary physiology in SHR. PMID:24390229

  12. Salivary Secretory Immunoglobulin a secretion increases after 4-weeks ingestion of chlorella-derived multicomponent supplement in humans: a randomized cross over study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iemitsu Motoyuki

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlorella, a unicellular green alga that grows in fresh water, contains high levels of proteins, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fibers. Some studies have reported favorable immune function-related effects on biological secretions such as blood and breast milk in humans who have ingested a chlorella-derived multicomponent supplement. However, the effects of chlorella-derived supplement on mucosal immune functions remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether chlorella ingestion increases the salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA secretion in humans using a blind, randomized, crossover study design. Methods Fifteen men took 30 placebo and 30 chlorella tablets per day for 4 weeks separated by a 12-week washout period. Before and after each trial, saliva samples were collected from a sterile cotton ball that was chewed after overnight fasting. Salivary SIgA concentrations were measured using ELISA. Results Compliance rates for placebo and chlorella ingestions were 97.0 ± 1.0% and 95.3 ± 1.6%, respectively. No difference was observed in salivary SIgA concentrations before and after placebo ingestion (P = 0.38. However, salivary SIgA concentrations were significantly elevated after chlorella ingestion compared to baseline (P P = 0.36, it significantly increased after 4-week chlorella ingestion than before intake (P Conclusions These results suggest 4-week ingestion of a chlorella-derived multicomponent supplement increases salivary SIgA secretion and possibly improves mucosal immune function in humans.

  13. Analysis on the time/activity curve of salivary gland scintigraphy in salivary gland diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salivary gland scintigraphy with 99mTcO4- is a simple method to evaluate salivary gland function and has been available as a technique using a time/activity curve for a number of years. But, there were few reports on the relationship between the various patterns of the time/activity curves and the salivary flow rate from the gland. This presents correlation between the time/activity curve pattern and the salivary flow rate from the parotid gland. Sixty-five patients complaining of xerostomia were examined. Sixty-two were female and 3 male (average age 45.6 years, range 17-69 years). Their diagnosis were 26 Sjoegren Syndrome, 28 suspicion of Sjoegren Syndrome and 11 parotiditis. The salivary flow rate from parotid gland was measured by stimulation with 10% citric acid using modified Carlson crittenden cup every 10 seconds for 5 min. 185 MBq 99mTcO4- was injected intravenously and sequential scintigraphy was performed. Time/activity curves were recorded on film. Six kinds of basic patterns were as follows: normal pattern, median pattern, flat pattern and sloped pattern (Mita et al 1981), reaccumulation flat pattern and poor secretion (Stimulant secretory ratio: less than 70%) pattern by us. The amount of saliva was as follows: normal pattern (n=31), 5.4+0.4 ml; reaccumulation flat pattern (n=3), 4.2+0.6 ml; poor secretion pattern (n=18), 4.1+0.5 ml; median pattern (n=20), 3.5+0.5 ml; flat pattern (n=11), (n=20), 3.5+0.5 ml; flat pattern (n=11), 2.6+0.5 ml and sloped pattern (n=1), 1.5 ml. Normal pattern versus poor secretion pattern, median pattern and flat pattern in the salivary flow rate were statistically significant as determined by Students' t-test. We assessed the correlation between the pattern of time/activity curve in the salivary gland scintigraphy and the amount of saliva. (author)

  14. HSP25 Protects Radiation-Induced Salivary Gland Damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation (IR) is a central treatment modality administered for head and neck malignancies. A significant consequence of this IR treatment is irreversible damage to salivary gland in the IR field. While the exact mechanism of salivary gland damage remains enigmatic, fluid secreting acinar cells are lost, and saliva output is dramatically reduced. Previously we have reported that heat shock protein 25 (HSP25) induced radioresistance in vitro. HSP25 interferes negatively with apoptosis through several pathways which involve its direct interaction with cytochrome c, protein kinase c delta or Akt. And localized gene transfer to salivary glands has great potential for the treatment of salivary gland. Herein, we investigated whether HSP25 can use as radio protective molecules for radiation-induced salivary gland damage in vivo

  15. Solid blue dot tumour: minor salivary gland acinic cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavle, Radhika M; Makarla, Soumya; Nadaf, Afreen; Narasimhamurthy, Srinath

    2014-01-01

    Acinic cell adenocarcinoma (ACC) is a low-grade malignant salivary neoplasm that constitutes approximately 17% of all primary salivary gland malignancies. In the head and neck region, the parotid gland is the predominant site of origin and ACC is usually more frequent in women than men. Previous radiation exposure and familial predisposition are some of the risk factors for ACC. ACCs rarely involve minor salivary glands constituting only 13-17% of all minor salivary gland tumours. Generally, a slowly enlarging mass lesion in the tail of the parotid gland is the most frequent presentation. ACC has a significant tendency to recur, metastasise and may have an aggressive evolution. Therefore, a long-term follow-up is mandatory after treatment. Here we report the case of a woman in her 60s with an ACC in association with the labial minor salivary gland, presenting in the post-treatment period of squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. PMID:24928927

  16. Pulsed dye laser lithotripsy of submandibular gland salivary calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, H; Baba, S

    1996-10-01

    An in vivo study was performed to evaluate the use of pulsed-dye laser beam for the fragmentation of salivary calculus. In accordance with the absorption and reflection spectra of sections of salivary stones, optimal fragmentation was achieved with a pulsed-dye laser with a pulse width of 1.4 microns and tuned to a wavelength of 504 nm. Further studies on particle size were conducted, and a new "sialoendoscope" technique was developed. Fifteen patients with sialolithiasis of the submandibular gland were treated. Under continuous endoscopic monitoring laser-induced shock wave lithotripsy was performed. In six patients complete fragmentation and removal of the salivary stones was achieved and in another patient 50 per cent fragmentation was sufficient to restore salivary flow. Laser lithotripsy of salivary stones with endoscopic monitoring permits treatment on an outpatient basis with little inconvenience to the patient, and this is a breakthrough in otolaryngology. PMID:8977858

  17. Assessment of salivary gland dysfunction following chemoradiotherapy using quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose:To assess chemoradiotherapy-induced salivary gland dysfunction using quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy (QSGS), and whether QSGS is capable of predicting the grade of persistent salivary dysfunction after chemoradiotherapy. Methods: From a time-activity curve using a stimulation test, the washout rate (WR) calculated was assessed. All glands (n = 155) were classified into four groups: a no-therapy group (n = 18), a chemotherapy alone group (n = 31), a radiotherapy alone group (n = 50), and a chemoradiotherapy group (n = 56). Subjective descriptions of xerostomia were recorded 1 year after the completion of the treatment period, and the 32 glands subjected to irradiation with or without chemotherapy were assessed. Results: The WR values were significantly lower in glands that received chemoradiotherapy than in glands treated with radiotherapy alone (mean: 0.75 x 10-3, n = 40 vs. 0.22, n = 36, p < 0.015), but there was no significant difference in the WR values between the no-therapy group and the chemotherapy alone group. The mean values of WR were lower in the chemoradiotherapy glands than in the radiotherapy alone glands in each of cumulative dose ranges of 1-20, 21-30, and 31-60 Gy. With regard to recovery from xerostomia, the WR values at a cumulative dose range of 20 to 40 Gy were significantly lower in the not improved group (-0.418, n = 16) than in the improved group (0.245, n = 16) (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Chemotherapy per se has no or Conclusion: Chemotherapy per se has no or little adverse effect on salivary function, but combination chemotherapy can deteriorate radiation-induced injury of the salivary glands. QSGS appears useful in predicting the grade of persistent xerostomia following chemoradiotherapy

  18. The role of salivary gland scintigraphy in detection of salivary gland dysfunction in type 2 diabetic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the salivary gland dysfunction in a patient with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes using salivary gland scintigraphy. patients included in the study were 32 uncontrolled type 2 diabetic and 30 normal healthy individuals. Patients having any other systemic(or) nervous illness(or) taking medications that could affect the normal functioning of the salivary gland were excluded from the study. The salivary gland scintigraphy was performed, with radioactivity measured at 1st, 20th, and 40th minutes. Twenty minutes after the injection, vitamin C chewable tablet was given to stimulate the secretion and continued until the end of the study period (40min). The data were replayed and regions of interest were chosen over four salivary glands to obtain the uptake ratio (UR) and excretory ratio(ER) of the salivary glands. Result: The scintigraphic total URand ER in diabetic and control groups was compared. The values in these two categories showed decrease in both UR and ER in diabetic patients, when compared to control patients. The result of this study suggests that salivary gland scintigraphy plays a significant role in the evaluation of salivary gland dysfunction in type 2 diabetic patients

  19. Cancer of the thyroid and salivary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1960, A-bomb radiation related thyroid cancer has been studied with the Adult Health Study (AHS) sample at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commision-Radiation Effects Research Foundation (ABCC-RERF). The number of A-bomb survivors developing thyroid cancer has increased with time. The observations have led to the conclusion that the incidence of thyroid cancer is high among A-bomb survivors, especially those exposed within 1,500 m from ground zero. Similar findings were observed among patients from the Hiroshima University School of Medicine and from the national health insurance program. Ezaki has studied the incidence of clinical and occult thyroid cancer in Hiroshima during 1958 - 79 using the ABCC-RERF Life Span Study sample consisting of 75,493 subjects. The incidence of clinical cancer was higher with increasing radiation doses, especially in females under the age of 20 when exposed. The incidence of occult cancer was significantly higher in survivors with 50+ rad than in the control group. Studies for cancer of the salivary glands have been commenced in the 1970s. Takeichi et al. and Belsky et al. have reported a high incidence of salivary gland cancer among A-bomb survivors. The subsequent study with the AHS sample has revealed that the overall incidence of benign and malignant salivary gland tumors and the incidence of malignant tumors were 9.3 times and 21.8 times higher, respectively, in the group with 300+ rad than in the control group. (Namekawa, K.)in the control group. (Namekawa, K.)

  20. TP53 mutations in salivary gland neoplasms

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciana Fasanella, Matizonkas-Antonio; Ricardo Alves de, Mesquita; Suzana C. Orsini Machado de, Souza; Fabio Daumas, Nunes.

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Vários estudos mostram que a perda da função do gene TP53 desempenha um importante papel na gênese de diversas neoplasias, incluindo as neoplasias de glândula salivar. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a presença de mutações no gene TP53 em neoplasias de glândula salivar. Para isso, DNA gen [...] ômico foi extraído de casos de adenoma pleomórfico (AP), carcinoma em adenoma pleomórfico (CAP), carcinoma mucoepidermóide (CME), carcinoma adenóide cístico (CAC) e adenocarcinoma polimorfo de baixo grau de malignidade (APBG) emblocados em parafina. Foi realizada amplificação pela técnica da PCR dos exons 5 a 8 e em seguida a SSCP (análise de conformação de fita simples). Foi observada alteração na mobilidade das bandas em 9 das 18 neoplasias estudadas, principalmente nos exons 5 e 8. Esses achados sugerem que mutações no gene TP53 estão relacionadas à patogênese das neoplasias de glândula salivar e que os exons 5 e 8 estão mais freqüentemente envolvidos. Abstract in english Many studies have demonstrated that loss of TP53 gene function has an important role in the genesis of many neoplasms, including salivary gland neoplasms. The purpose of this study was to examine the mutation profile of the TP53 gene in salivary gland neoplasms. Genomic DNA was extracted from paraff [...] in-embedded tissues of pleomorphic adenoma, carcinoma in pleomorphic adenoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma and polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma. Exons 5 to 8 of the TP53 gene were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to perform single-stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. Band shifting was observed in exons 5, 6 and 8 in 9 out of 18 neoplasms. The results of this study suggest that mutations in TP53 gene are related to salivary gland neoplasms pathogenesis and that exons 5 and 8 are most frequently involved.

  1. The emerging landscape of salivary diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Sun, Jie; Lin, Chien-Chung; Abemayor, Elliot; Wang, Marilene B; Wong, David T W

    2014-06-01

    Saliva as a diagnostic tool provides a noninvasive, simple and low-cost method for disease detection and screening. Saliva collection is more practical and comfortable compared with other invasive methods, and saliva can be a desirable body fluid for biomarker detection in clinical applications. The integration of omics methods has allowed accurate detection and quantification of transcripts found in saliva and a group of biomarkers has been discovered and validated in a series of studies. Here we review recent developments in salivary diagnostics that have been accomplished using salivaomics, the mechanisms of saliva diagnostics, as well as the translational and clinical application of saliva biomarkers. PMID:24984623

  2. Imunoglobulina A secretora, proteínas totais e fluxo de saliva nas ulcerações aftosas recorrentes Secretory A immunoglobulin, total proteins and salivary flow in Recurrent Aphthous Ulceration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kennedy de Oliveira Martinez

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available De etiologia discutível, as ulcerações aftosas recorrentes (UAR são, na maioria das vezes, consideradas em um quadro de deficiência imunológica. OBJETIVOS: Este trabalho baseia-se na revisão de literatura e em investigações clínico-laboratoriais dos títulos salivares de imunoglobulina A secretora (IgA-s, proteínas totais e fluxo de saliva (em repouso de pacientes nos períodos de atividade e quiescência das Ulcerações aftosas recorrentes. Forma de Estudo: Estudo clínico e experimental. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Empregou-se a Nefelometria na quantificação das IgA-s salivares, o vermelho de Pirogalol para as proteínas totais salivares e a análise gravimétrica para a determinação do fluxo de saliva. RESULTADOS: Os resultados demonstraram aumento estatisticamente significativo das IgA-s salivares nos períodos de lesão ativa em relação aos de quiescência. Não houve diferença estatística nas concentrações de proteínas totais e no fluxo de saliva. CONCLUSÃO: Sugere-se que a IgA-s pode ser usada como parâmetro do status imune da mucosa oral.Clinical and experimental study. Introduction. Of debatable etiology, Recurrent Aphthous Ulcerations (R.A.U, is most of the time considered an immunological deficiency. AIM: The aim of this paper is to review the literature and clinical investigations regarding IgA-s, total proteins salivary concentration and basal salivary flow of patients with R.A.U. during activity and quiescence. METHODOLOGY: Nephelometry was used to measure salivary IgA-s; Pyrogallol red was used for total salivary proteins and the gravimetrical analysis for salivary flow measurement. RESULTS: Results demonstrated a significant increase in salivary IgA-s in active lesions in relation to quiescence. On the other hand, protein concentration rates were similar in both periods. CONCLUSION: Salivary IgA-s can be used as a parameter to study the immune status of the oral mucosa.

  3. The Comparison of Salivary IgA and IgE Levels in Children with Breast- and Formula- Feeding During Infancy Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jafarzadeh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral local immune factors may play a protective role against oral diseases and defend against microbial agents. Salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA is a major factor for the local host defence against caries and periodontal disease. The aims of this study were to determine the concentrations of salivary IgA and IgE levels in breast-fed and formula-fed children in infancy period.Methods and Materials: Totally, 80 healthy 5 years old children were included in the study. According to type of feeding in infancy period, the children divided into two groups: 50 breast-fed and 30 formula-fed. One milliliter of saliva was collected from each participant, centrifuged, and stored at -70 C. The salivary IgA and IgE concentrations were measured, using ELISA technique.Results: In breast-fed children, the salivary IgA level (39.6 mg/l ± 17.3 was significantly higher than that in formula-fed children (26.9 mg/l ± 14 (P=0.0001. However, the salivary IgE level was significantly lower in breast-fed children, comparing with formula fed ones (5.01 IU/ml ± 19.70 vs. 11.74 IU/ml ± 39.40 (P=0.047.Discussion: These results suggest that breast feeding enhances salivary IgA level in the early period of life which may contribute in oral cavity immunity. Higher salivary IgE level observed in formula-fed subjects may have a potential role in development of allergic or inflammatory reactions.

  4. Influence of menstrual cycle and salivary ß-estradiol on volatile sulfur compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahla Kakoei DDS, MSc

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: ß -estradiol is a steroid sex hormone that plays important role in oral physiology. The aim of this studywas to determin the association of the menstrual cycle and salivary ß-estradiol with the production of volatile sulfurcompounds (VSC.METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, twenty female dental students in good oral and general health were recruited forevaluation of VSC, salivary flow, ß-estradiol concentration, oral dryness feeling and dysmenorrhea. Data were analyzedby marginal homogeneity test and xtgee model.RESULTS: The only covariates that significantly related to VSC were being at the follicular phase (B = -0.21, P = 0.02,being at the pre-menstrual phase (B = -0.25, P = 0.01, stressfulness (B = 0.02, P = 0.01 and oral dryness feeling(B = 0.34, P = 0.02. Salivary ß-estradiol was at the level of 59.7 ? 31.2 in those having halitosis (VSC ? 75 while inthe others (VSC < 75 it was about 40.8 ? 18.0 (P < 0.009. This difference was not statistically significant in multivariateanalysis.CONCLUSIONS: The menstrual cycle, stress and oral dryness were the most important determinants of halitosis. Thesalivary ß-estradiol level could not explain such relationship as its effect was eliminated considering the other factors.

  5. The role of secretory granules in radiation-induced dysfunction of rat salivary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the possible role of secretory granules in radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction, rats were pretreated with isoproterenol (5 mg/kg intraperitoneally) to degranulate salivary gland acini. At maximal depletion, salivary glands were locally irradiated with a single dose of 15 Gy of X rays. Parotid and submandibular/sublingual saliva samples were collected before and 1-10 days after irradiation. The lag phase, flow rate, concentrations of potassium and sodium, and amylase secretion were determined. Sham-treated, isoproterenol-treated and irradiated animals provided reference data. In the parotid gland, but not in the submandibular gland, protection against radiation-induced changes in flow rate and composition of saliva occurred after pretreatment with isoproterenol. Combining morphological data from a previous study with data from the current study, it is suggested that improvement of parotid gland function is attributed predominantly to a proliferative stimulus on acinar cells by isoproterenol and not to its degranulation effect. After pretreatment with isoproterenol, an earlier expression of radiation-induced acinar cell damage leading to death was observed, followed by a faster tissue recovery. Thus the proliferative stimulus on acinar cells may accelerate the unmasking of latent lethal damage, resulting in the earlier replacement of dead cells by new, functionally intact cells. 33 refs., 2 figs

  6. Cognitive Function and Salivary DHEA Levels in Physically Active Elderly African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallien, Gabrielle J.; Moody, Kaitlyn M.; LeBlanc, Nina R.; Smoak, Peter R.; Bellar, David

    2015-01-01

    Serum and plasma dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) concentration has been associated with several health parameters associated with aging including cognitive function, bone mineral density, and muscular strength. However, the effectiveness of salivary DHEA for the prediction of cognitive function, bone mineral density, and muscular strength in older adults is currently unknown. Thirty elderly African American females provided early morning salivary samples and DHEA levels were determined using a commercially available immunoassay. Participants completed testing for psychomotor and executive function via Trail Making Tests (TMT) A and B, respectively. Bone ultrasound attenuation (BUA) was used to bone density and an isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP) was used to determine isometric strength. Age significantly correlated with time on TMT A (r=0.328) and B (r=0.615) but was not related to DHEA, BUA, or IMTP outcomes. Elevated DHEA was associated with longer time to completion for TMT A (?2 = 5.14) but not to TMT B. DHEA levels were not associated with BUA or IMTP outcomes. While elevated levels of DHEA were correlated with impaired psychomotor function, salivary DHEA is not associated with executive function, bone mineral density, or isometric strength in elderly African American women.

  7. Cognitive Function and Salivary DHEA Levels in Physically Active Elderly African American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Greggory R; Gallien, Gabrielle J; Moody, Kaitlyn M; LeBlanc, Nina R; Smoak, Peter R; Bellar, David

    2015-01-01

    Serum and plasma dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) concentration has been associated with several health parameters associated with aging including cognitive function, bone mineral density, and muscular strength. However, the effectiveness of salivary DHEA for the prediction of cognitive function, bone mineral density, and muscular strength in older adults is currently unknown. Thirty elderly African American females provided early morning salivary samples and DHEA levels were determined using a commercially available immunoassay. Participants completed testing for psychomotor and executive function via Trail Making Tests (TMT) A and B, respectively. Bone ultrasound attenuation (BUA) was used to bone density and an isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP) was used to determine isometric strength. Age significantly correlated with time on TMT A (r=0.328) and B (r=0.615) but was not related to DHEA, BUA, or IMTP outcomes. Elevated DHEA was associated with longer time to completion for TMT A (? (2) = 5.14) but not to TMT B. DHEA levels were not associated with BUA or IMTP outcomes. While elevated levels of DHEA were correlated with impaired psychomotor function, salivary DHEA is not associated with executive function, bone mineral density, or isometric strength in elderly African American women. PMID:26064106

  8. Ageing exacerbates damage of systemic and salivary neutrophils from patients presenting Candida-related denture stomatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porto Vinicius

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ageing leads to a decline in the function of the immune system, increasing the body's susceptibility to infections through the impairment of T-cells, macrophages, neutrophils and dendritic cells Denture stomatitis is a primary oral disease affecting elderly denture wearers. The major etiologic factor involved in this pathology is the infection by Candida albicans, an opportunistic pathogen that causes local and disseminated diseases in immunosuppressed humans. Neutrophils play a critical role in the immune response against C. albicans and are continually present in the salivary fluid and in the blood. The aim of this study was to determine ageing-related changes in salivary and blood neutrophils and their potential implications in Candida-related denture stomatitis. Results Our results showed a lower number of neutrophils in the saliva from patients presenting Candida-related denture stomatitis in comparison to their matched controls. Furthermore, fewer neutrophils were isolated from the saliva of aged control individuals in comparison to matched younger subjects. CXCR1, CD62L and CD11b expression were significantly greater on systemic neutrophils from younger control individuals. Elderly individuals showed more apoptotic salivary neutrophils and lower GM-CSF levels than younger ones, regardless of the occurrence of Candida infection. On the other hand, CXCL-8 concentrations were higher in the saliva from elderly individuals. Besides, TNF-? was detected at elevated levels in the saliva from infected elderly subjects. Salivary neutrophils from elderly and young patients presented impaired phagocytic activity against C. albicans. However, just systemic neutrophils from elderly showed decreased phagocytosis when compared to the younger ones, regardless of the occurrence of infection. In addition, neutrophils from aged individuals and young patients presented low fungicidal activity. Conclusion The data suggests that the Candida related-denture stomatitis is associated to neutrophils function deficiency, and ageing drastically appears to alter important characteristics of such cells, facilitating the establishment of this infection.

  9. Estimation of Absorbed Dose of Salivary Glands in Radioiodine Therapy and Its Reduction Using Pilocarpine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryoush Shahbazi-Gahrouei

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:  The use of radioactive iodine (131I has become an important adjunct to the treatment of thyroid cancer and hyperthyroidism. Salivary gland has the ability to concentrate radioactive iodine under normal circumstances. Salivary gland dysfunction and dry mouth are the common side effects of high-dose radioiodine therapy. The purpose of this study was to determine the absorbed dose of salivary glands. Methods: Twenty patients who were divided into two groups of 10 were studied (A group without pilocarpine and the B group received pilocarpine during treatment. The absorbed dose of parotid glands and the submandibular glands of patients was measured using thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD at three different times (24 hours, 8 days and 3 months after treatment. The attenuation coefficient of patients and the effects of pilocarpine were also determined. Results: In group A total attenuation coefficient was 0.335, 0.323, and 0.357 for parotid glands and the right and left submandibular glands, respectively. In group B total attenuation coefficient was 0.462, 0.482, and 0.514 for parotid glands and the right and left submandibular glands, respectively. The results also showed the dose decreases to 1 cGy after 3 and 2 half life for A and B group, respectively. Conclusion: The findings showed that the dose decreases to 1 cGy after 3 half life of Iodine therapy. The exponential coefficient attenuation of salivary glands varied 3% to 4%.  Pilocarpine appears to be effective in increasing excretion of radioactive iodine and enhancing coefficient attenuation (up to 1.5 to 2 times.

  10. 0268?Is perceived stress related to an increase in salivary cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, Samuel; Peter Bonde, Jens

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Perceived Stress is a suspected cause of many psychological and physical illnesses. However it remains to be discovered what physiological measures are involved. While it is widely known that acute stress leads to an increase in cortisol levels, the findings in prolonged stress research have not been consistent. This study explores the association between Perceived Stress and salivary cortisol levels using the largest population ever used in this field. METHOD: 4467 public employees in the PRISME cohort in 2007. 3217 of those did a similar follow up study in 2009. A 4-item Danish version of the PSS-scale was used to measure perceived stress and operationalized as the average score. Salivary cortisol samples were taken at 30 min post awakening and at 8 pm. A mean value of cortisol was calculated. In our analysis we applied logarithmic transformation to the concentrations. RESULTS: Linear regression analysis done for the association between PSS-score and salivary cortisol levels showed no significant association between the two. For cortisol mean the regression resulted in ?=-0.005(Cl: -0.036-0.026) in 2007 and -0.010(Cl: -0.047-0.028) in 2009. Cortisol morning analysis resulted in ?= -0.013(Cl: -0.050-0.023) in 2007 and ?= -0.003(Cl: -0.048-0.042) in 2009. Cortisol evening analysis resulted in in ?= -0.000(Cl: -0.042-0.042) in 2007 and ?= -0.007(Cl: -0.047-0.061) in 2009. CONCLUSIONS: Overall this study does not provide any evidence that perceived stress is associated with salivary cortisol.

  11. Calcium, amylase, glucose, total protein concentrations, flow rate, pH and buffering capacity of saliva in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hellen Soares, Teixeira; Stella Maris Oliveira, Kaulfuss; Jucienne Salgado, Ribeiro; Betina do Rosário, Pereira; João Armando, Brancher; Elisa Souza, Camargo.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate qualitative and quantitative changes in the saliva of individuals undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. METHODS: Salivary samples were collected from 50 individuals divided in two groups: Experimental Group - patients with fixed orthodontic appliances (n=25); [...] and Control Group - subjects with no orthodontic appliances (n=25). Salivary flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, amylase activity, concentrations of total proteins, calcium and glucose were measured in all salivary samples. RESULTS: There was a reduction in salivary pH and buffering capacity and an increase in the concentration of calcium ions in the experimental group (p

  12. Damage to salivary glands by radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Functional scintiscans of 113 thyroidectomized patients have been investigated. 37 patients had not received radioiodine, 76 patients at least 170 mCi I-131. Criteria of damage employed in the study were, on the one hand, a lack of Tc-99m-pertechnetate secretion in the glands and, on the other hand, non-measurable activity excretion after stimulation with lemon juice. Damage of at least one salivary gland increased from 5% of all cases before radioiodine administration to 28% after radioiodine administration. The parotid glands were more frequently affected than the submandibular glands, mainly with regard to impaired secretion. For a longitudinal study of dose dependence, course control by functional scintiscanning was carried out in 20 thyroidectomized patients. The patients were examined before and after 170 mCi I-131; 12 patients were re-examined after 270 mCi I-131. A continuous deterioration of the secretion and excretion characteristics of the salivary glands was found which was easy to quantify. (orig./MG)

  13. Optimization and validation of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous quantification of nicotine, cotinine, trans-3?-hydroxycotinine and norcotinine in human oral fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Shakleya, Diaa M.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2009-01-01

    An analytical procedure was developed and validated for the simultaneous identification and quantification of nicotine, cotinine, trans-3?-hydroxycotinine, and norcotinine in 0.5 mL of human oral fluid collected with the Quantisal™ oral fluid collection device. Solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with multiple reaction monitoring were utilized. Endogenous and exogenous interferences were extensively evaluated. Limits of quantification were empirically...

  14. Measuring environmental tobacco smoke exposure in infants and young children through urine cotinine and memory-based parental reports: empirical findings and discussion

    OpenAIRE

    Matt, G.; WAHLGREN, D.; Hovell, M.; Zakarian, J.; Bernert, J.; Meltzer, S.; Pirkle, J.; Caudill, S.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—This study examined the reliability and potential biases of two urine collection methods from which cotinine measures were obtained and the validity of memory-based parental reports of their children's exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS).?DESIGN—Structured interviews were conducted with mothers of infants and young children to obtain memory-based estimates of recent ETS exposure. Urine samples were collected through standard and cotton roll collection methods for cot...

  15. Analysis of [3?,3?-d2]-nicotine and [3?,3?-d2]-cotinine by capillary liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Sharon E; Villalta, Peter; Ho, Sing-Wei; von Weymarn, Linda B.

    2007-01-01

    A selective and sensitive LC/MS/MS assay was developed for the quantification of d2-nicotine and d2-cotinine in plasma of current and past smokers administered d2-nicotine. After solid phase extraction and liquid liquid extraction, HPLC separation was achieved on a capillary hydrophilic interaction chromatography phase column. The analytes were monitored by tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray positive ionization. Linear calibration curves were generated for d2-nicotine (0.03 to 6.0 ng/...

  16. The prevalence of self-reported smoking and validation with urinary cotinine among commercial drivers in major parks in Lagos, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ozoh, Obianuju B.; Michelle G. Dania; Elvis M Irusen

    2014-01-01

    The validity of self-reported smoking is questionable because smokers are inclined to deny smoking. We aimed to determine the prevalence of self-reported smoking among intra-city commercial drivers in Lagos, and assess its validity based on urinary cotinine assessment. This study was conducted at three major motor parks in Lagos, Nigeria. Information on smoking status and habits was obtained from 500 consecutive male drivers using a structured questionnaire during a face-to-face interview. Ei...

  17. Who Is Exposed to Secondhand Smoke? Self-Reported and Serum Cotinine Measured Exposure in the U.S., 1999-2006

    OpenAIRE

    Yanling Shi; Hai-Yen Sung; Wendy Max

    2009-01-01

    This study presents self-reported and serum cotinine measures of exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) for nonsmoking children, adolescents, and adults. Estimates are disaggregated by time periods and sociodemographic characteristics based on analyses of the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Self-reported exposure rates are found to be highest for children, followed by adolescents and adults. Important differences in exposure are found by socioeconomic characteristics. ...

  18. Imunoglobulina A secretora, proteínas totais e fluxo de saliva nas ulcerações aftosas recorrentes / Secretory A immunoglobulin, total proteins and salivary flow in Recurrent Aphthous Ulceration

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Kennedy de Oliveira, Martinez; Lauro Lúcio, Mendes; José Bento, Alves.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available De etiologia discutível, as ulcerações aftosas recorrentes (UAR) são, na maioria das vezes, consideradas em um quadro de deficiência imunológica. OBJETIVOS: Este trabalho baseia-se na revisão de literatura e em investigações clínico-laboratoriais dos títulos salivares de imunoglobulina A secretora ( [...] IgA-s), proteínas totais e fluxo de saliva (em repouso) de pacientes nos períodos de atividade e quiescência das Ulcerações aftosas recorrentes. Forma de Estudo: Estudo clínico e experimental. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Empregou-se a Nefelometria na quantificação das IgA-s salivares, o vermelho de Pirogalol para as proteínas totais salivares e a análise gravimétrica para a determinação do fluxo de saliva. RESULTADOS: Os resultados demonstraram aumento estatisticamente significativo das IgA-s salivares nos períodos de lesão ativa em relação aos de quiescência. Não houve diferença estatística nas concentrações de proteínas totais e no fluxo de saliva. CONCLUSÃO: Sugere-se que a IgA-s pode ser usada como parâmetro do status imune da mucosa oral. Abstract in english Clinical and experimental study. Introduction. Of debatable etiology, Recurrent Aphthous Ulcerations (R.A.U), is most of the time considered an immunological deficiency. AIM: The aim of this paper is to review the literature and clinical investigations regarding IgA-s, total proteins salivary concen [...] tration and basal salivary flow of patients with R.A.U. during activity and quiescence. METHODOLOGY: Nephelometry was used to measure salivary IgA-s; Pyrogallol red was used for total salivary proteins and the gravimetrical analysis for salivary flow measurement. RESULTS: Results demonstrated a significant increase in salivary IgA-s in active lesions in relation to quiescence. On the other hand, protein concentration rates were similar in both periods. CONCLUSION: Salivary IgA-s can be used as a parameter to study the immune status of the oral mucosa.

  19. Changes in salivary and plasma cortisol levels in Purebred Arabian horses during race training session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K?dzierski, Witold; Cywi?ska, Anna; Strzelec, Katarzyna; Kowalik, Sylwester

    2014-03-01

    Physical activity and stress both cause an increase in cortisol release ratio. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of saliva samples for the determination of cortisol concentrations indicating the work-load level in horses during race training. Twelve Purebred Arabian horses aged 3-5 years were studied during the routine training session. After the warm-up, the horses galloped on the 800?m sand track at a speed of 12.8?m/s. Three saliva samples, and three blood samples were collected from each horse. Both types of samples were taken at rest, immediately after return from the track and after 30?min restitution. The concentrations of blood lactic acid (LA), and cortisol in saliva and plasma samples were measured and analyzed. Blood LA, plasma and salivary cortisol levels increased significantly after exercise (P?Salivary cortisol concentration determined 30?min after the exercise correlated significantly with plasma cortisol level obtained immediately after exercise (P?concentration in saliva samples taken from racehorses 30?min after the end of exercise can be recommended to use in field conditions to estimate the work-load in racehorses. PMID:24261657

  20. Salivary cortisol levels in athletes and nonathletes: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevada, T; Vasques, P E; Moraes, H; Deslandes, A

    2014-12-01

    High performance athletes are constantly facing different situations involving stress. Salivary cortisol has been used as a physiological measure to verify high performance athlete and mental health, in spite of research that has shown that comparisons between cortisol levels in athletes and nonathletes are inconclusive. The purpose of this study was to review articles that investigated salivary cortisol levels at rest in high performance athletes in comparison to physically active or sedentary nonathlete individuals. PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, SciELO, LILACS, and Scopus databases were searched for studies on salivary cortisol in athletes and the size effect was calculated. Although 3 articles reported higher salivary cortisol levels in female athletes compared to a control group, the results showed homogeneity among baseline groups or groups in resting conditions, suggesting a lack of discriminative capacity. These results should be interpreted with caution, due to the presence of substantial methodological bias. PMID:25230328

  1. Irradiation of salivary glands in the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The irradiation of salivary glands in the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is efficient. A dose about 20 Gy in five seances delivered by electrons seems a correct compromise between efficiency and toxicity. (N.C.)

  2. What's New in Salivary Gland Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... side effects. Studies have identified changes in several proteins in salivary gland cancer cells that help these cancers grow and spread. Some of these changes affect proteins that can be blocked by targeted therapies that ...

  3. In vitro hydroxyapatite adsorbed salivary proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In spite of the present knowledge about saliva components and their respective functions, the mechanism(s) of pellicle and dental plaque formation have hitherto remained obscure. This has prompted recent efforts on in vitro studies using hydroxyapatite (HA) as an enamel model. In the present study salivary proteins adsorbed to HA were extracted with TFA and EDTA and resolved by 2D electrophoresis over a pH range between 3 and 10, digested, and then analysed by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry. Nineteen different proteins were identified using automated MS and MS/MS data acquisition. Among them, cystatins, amylase, carbonic anhydrase, and calgranulin B, were identified

  4. Salivary gland scintigraphy in sjögren syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betancourt-Piñeres Aiken Felipe

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Sjögren syndrome is a systemic autoimmune disease that mainly affects exocrineglands, such as the salivary and lacrimal glands, causing a decline in their secretions.This disease is also known as Sicca Syndrome. It is reported a clinical case of a womanwho fulfill all diagnostic criteria of European-American Consensus of Sjogren Syndrome2002.RESUMEN:El Síndrome de Sjögren es una enfermedad sistémica autoinmune que afectaprincipalmente las glándulas exocrinas del organismo, como las salivales y las lacrimalesprovocando una disminución de sus secreciones, por lo que también se denominasíndrome seco. Se presenta caso clínico de una paciente de sexo femenino la cualcumple todos los criterios clasificatorios del Consenso Europeo Americano 2002 para elSíndrome de Sjogren.

  5. Sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma of minor salivary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohiya, Pooja G; Chaudhary, Minal S; Patil, Swati; Agrawal, Swati A

    2014-10-01

    Sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma (SMEC) is extremely rare variant of the mucoepidermoid carcinoma, which is the most common primary malignancy of the salivary glands. As its name suggests, SMEC is characterized by an intense central sclerosis that occupies the entirety of an otherwise typical tumor, frequently with an inflammatory infiltrate of plasma cells, eosinophils, and/or lymphocytes at its peripheral regions, but its uncompanionship with inflammatory cell infiltration might explain its progressive stage of the sclerosis. The sclerosis associated with these tumors may obscure their typical morphologic features and result in diagnostic difficulties. Tumor infarction and extravasation of mucin eventuating in reactive fibrosis are two mechanisms of formation that have been suggested as underlying this morphologic variant. Morphologic evidence in support of the mucin extravasation hypothesis was identified, as small pools of mucin were present throughout the tumor. PMID:25395782

  6. Effect of two mouthwashes on salivary ph

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paola A, Belardinelli; Rosana A, Morelatto; Tomás E, Benavidez; Ana M, Baruzzi; Silvia A, López de Blanc.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Se diseno un estudio clinico cruzado fase IV, con tres grupos etarios de adultos voluntarios sanos, para analizar el efecto de dos colutorios sobre el pH salival y relacionarlo con la edad la capacidad buffer y el flujo salival. Se utilizaron dos marcas comerciales de colutorios (MW), ListerineCoolM [...] intR (MWa) y PeriobacterR (MWb). Primero se caracterizo la saliva sin estimular de cada individuo, se le midio el volumen minuto, el pH y la capacidad buffer. El pH salival se evaluo antes del buche con cada MW, inmediatamente despues del enjuague bucal, 5 minutos despues y luego cada 10 minutos (a los 15, 25, 35 min) hasta que el pH inicial se recupero. Para el analisis estadistico de los datos se utilizaron: ANOVA en bloque, test t apareado y el test de correlacion de Pearson. Al caracterizar la saliva, se obtuvieron los siguientes valores promedio: 0.63 mL/min, 7.06 y 0.87 de volumen minuto,pH, y capacidad buffer. Luego del enjuague se observo un incremento inmediato y significativo del pH salival alcanzando valores de 7.24 (MWb) y 7.30 (MWa) para descender a un valor estable luego de 15 minutos. El importante incremento del pH salival luego del uso del colutorio, muestra que la saliva es un sistema dinamico y que el organismo es capaz de responder a estimulos con cambios en su composicion. Se hace evidente que el pH del agente externo, no es un buen indicador de su potencial erosivo sobre los elementos dentarios ya que los sistemas biologicos tienden a neutralizarlo. Los presentes resultados ponen de manifiesto la importancia de las mediciones en vivo y refuerzan el concepto de la funcion protectora de la saliva. Abstract in english To analyze the effect of two mouthwashes on salivary pH and correlate it with age, buffer capacity and saliva flow rate in healthy volunteers, a crossover phase IV clinical study involving three age-based groups was designed. Two commercial mouthwashes (MW), Cool Mint ListerineR (MWa) and Periobacte [...] r R (MWb) were used. The unstimulated saliva of each individual was first characterized by measuring flow rate, pH, and buffer capacity. Salivary pH was evaluated before rinsing with a given MW, immediately after rinsing, 5 minutes later, and then every 10 min (at 15, 25, 35 min) until the baseline pH was recovered. Paired t-test, ANOVA with a randomized block design, and Pearson correlation tests were used. Averages were 0.63 mL/min, 7.06, and 0.87 for flow rate, pH, and buffer capacity, respectively. An immediate significant increase in salivary pH was observed after rinsing, reaching average values of 7.24 (MWb) and 7.30 (MWa), which declined to an almost stable value 15 minutes. The great increase in salivary pH, after MW use shows that saliva is a dynamic system, and that the organism is capable of responding to a stimulus with changes in its composition. It is thus evident that pH of the external agent alone is not a good indicator for its erosive potential because biological systems tend to neutralize it. The results of this study enhance the importance of in vivo measurements and reinforce the concept of the protective action of saliva.

  7. Salivary uric acid as a noninvasive biomarker of metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soukup Maria

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated serum uric acid is associated with obesity, hypertension and metabolic syndrome. Because a linear relationship exists between serum and salivary uric acid (SUA concentration, saliva testing may be a useful noninvasive approach for monitoring cardiometabolic risk. The goal of this pilot study was to determine if SUA is increased in patients with metabolic syndrome and to investigate correlations between SUA and individual cardiometabolic risk factors. Findings Volunteers between the ages of 18 and 65 without conditions known to affect serum uric acid levels were recruited. Height, weight, blood pressure and waist circumference were measured and a full lipid panel along with fasting blood glucose was obtained. Saliva samples were collected and uric acid levels were determined. 78 volunteers, 35% of whom had metabolic syndrome, completed the study. SUA was significantly elevated in patients with metabolic syndrome (p=.002. The incidence of metabolic syndrome in the 4th quartile for SUA was 67% compared to 25% in quartiles1-3 combined. Significant correlations were seen between SUA and systolic blood pressure (r=.440, p=.000, diastolic blood pressure ( r=.304, p=.007, waist circumference (r=.332, p=.003, BMI ( r=.269, p=.018, fasting blood glucose ( r=.341, p=.002, triglycerides (r=.410, p=.000, HDL ( r=.237, p=.036 and the number of cardiometabolic risk factors present (r=0.257, p=.023. Conclusions These results suggest that SUA may be a useful biomarker for noninvasive monitoring of cardiometabolic risk. Larger studies are needed to validate this approach.

  8. Salivary cortisol and sleep problems among civil servants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ase Marie; Thomsen, Jane FrØlund

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The present study used information from a field study conducted among 4489 civil servants (70% women) in Denmark in 2007. The purpose was to examine the association between sleep problems and salivary cortisol by using a cross-sectional design with repeated measures in a subsample three-month later. METHODS: Sleep problems during the past night and the past 4 weeks were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire on overall sleep quality, disturbed sleep, sleep length and awakening problems. Saliva samples were collected in a single day, using cotton tubes, 30min after awakening and again at 2000h. A subsample of 387 participants collected saliva samples three-month later at awakening, +20min and +40min after awakening and at 2000h. We adjusted for confounders related to sampling time, life style and personal characteristics, socioeconomic status and work aspects. RESULTS: Sleep problems during the past four weeks were associated with low morning and evening saliva cortisol concentrations: [-3.1%per score of disturbed sleep (p=.009); and -4.7% per score of awakening problems (p

  9. Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of Minor Salivary Glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinoco, Paulo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Mucoepidermoid Carcinomas (MEC represent about 5% of all tumors in the salivary glands. It is an aggressive lesion and must be considered as a diagnosis hypothesis in the oral mucosa proliferative lesions. The early diagnosis and the correct management of this neoplasm are key factors for the prognosis. Wide local resection and eventually postoperative radiotherapy is the choice treatment. Objective: To report the case of a patient with mucoepidermoid carcinoma of oral cavity, exteriorizing through the mouth and being submitted to surgical exeresis and radiotherapy that evolved to death on the fourth month from beginning of the treatment. Case Report: CT, 47 years old, white woman was forwarded to the ORL service of the HSJA after a critical bleeding episode in oral cavity. She reported the appearing of a mass with fast and expansive growth in a topography of canine fossa for +/- 06 months, associated to the loss of 10 kg. Patient dehydrated, pale with pediculated tumoration of +/- 06 cm, firm consistency, painless upon palpation and bleeding. Chronic alcoholic and smoker. Non-palpable cervical lymph nodes. Faced with the case we opted for a surgical resection of the tumor and the performance of histopathological exam that confirmed mucoepidermoid carcinoma of minor salivary glands. The patient was sent to the radiotherapy service; but she abandoned the treatment and evolved with death 4 months after. Final Comments: In this case, the fast and aggressive growth of the lesion, the size of the tumor and the abandonment of the proposed treatment was determinant for the patient's prognosis.

  10. Fatigue biomarker index: an objective salivary measure of fatigue level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Darren J; Daugherty, Sheena; Santos, Adrienne; Ruby, Brent C; Kalns, John E

    2012-03-01

    Fatigue changed the composition of the small-molecular weight (sMW) proteome of saliva during a 10h session of moderate (70% of maximum ventilatory threshold) physical exertion. Saliva samples were collected from nine recreationally trained cyclists participating in a cross-over study designed to simulate prolonged manual labor, a military operation or wildfire-suppression work. During each hour of the study, participants performed an exercise program that included upper and lower body exercises separated by short periods of recovery. Over the course of the study, fatigue level increased as suggested by a significant increase in the participants' relative perceived exertion. The composition of the sMW proteome was investigated using reversed-phase liquid chromatography with mass-spectrometric detection. Isotopes of acetic anhydride were used for mass-specific labeling of samples and subsequent identification of ions with significant changes in intensity. Cluster analysis was used to identify a pair of peptides with concentrations that changed in opposite directions with fatigue level, i.e. concentration of one peptide increased while concentration of the other decreased. The sequences of the two peptides were determined by high-resolution mass spectrometry. The ratio of the ion intensities of these two peptides, referred to as the fatigue biomarker index, was calculated for subjects throughout the study. The FBI values from the start of the study likely arose from a different distribution than the FBI values measured at the end of the study (Mann-Whitney test, P<.05). While this study is restricted to a small population of recreationally trained cyclists performing exercise under controlled conditions, it holds promise for the development of an objective salivary measurement of fatigue that is applicable to a much broader population performing in uncontrolled environments. PMID:22239935

  11. Diseases of the salivary glands in infants and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Laskawi Rainer; Ellies Maik

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Diseases of the salivary glands are rare in infants and children (with the exception of diseases such as parotitis epidemica and cytomegaly) and the therapeutic regimen differs from that in adults. It is therefore all the more important to gain exact and extensive insight into general and special aspects of pathological changes of the salivary glands in these age groups. Etiology and pathogenesis of these entities is still not yet fully known for the age group in question ...

  12. Botulinum toxin A inhibits salivary secretion of rabbit submandibular gland

    OpenAIRE

    Shan, Xiao-Feng; Xu, Hui; Cai, Zhi-Gang; Wu, Li-Ling; Yu, Guang-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Botulinum toxin A (BTXA) has been used in several clinical trials to treat excessive glandular secretion; however, the precise mechanism of its action on the secretory function of salivary gland has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of BTXA on secretion of submandibular gland in rabbits and to identify its mechanism of action on the secretory function of salivary gland. At 12 weeks after injection with 5 units of BTXA, we found a significant decrease...

  13. Mucocele: An unusual presentation of the minor salivary gland lesion

    OpenAIRE

    Senthilkumar, B.; Mahabob, M. Nazargi

    2012-01-01

    A mucocele is a benign, mucus-containing cystic lesion of the minor salivary gland. This type of lesion is most commonly referred to as mucocele. The more common is a mucus extravasation cyst; the other is a mucus retention cyst. Other three clinical variants are: Superficial mucocele that is located directly under the mucosa, classic variant located in the upper submucosa, and deep mucocele located in the lower cornium. Mucocele occurs either due to rupture of salivary gland duct or by block...

  14. Comparative salivary gland transcriptomics of sandfly vectors of visceral leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    Seitz Amy E; Reynoso David; Mans Ben J; Kamhawi Shaden; Oliveira Fabiano; Anderson Jennifer M; Lawyer Phillip; Garfield Mark; Pham MyVan; Valenzuela Jesus G

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Immune responses to sandfly saliva have been shown to protect animals against Leishmania infection. Yet very little is known about the molecular characteristics of salivary proteins from different sandflies, particularly from vectors transmitting visceral leishmaniasis, the fatal form of the disease. Further knowledge of the repertoire of these salivary proteins will give us insights into the molecular evolution of these proteins and will help us select relevant antigens f...

  15. Implications of salivary protein binding to commensal and pathogenic bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Heo, Seok-mo; Ruhl, Stefan; Scannapieco, Frank A.

    2013-01-01

    An important function of salivary proteins is to interact with microorganisms that enter the oral cavity. For some microbes, these interactions promote microbial colonization. For others, these interactions are deleterious and result in the elimination of the microbe from the mouth, This paper reviews recent studies of the interaction of salivary proteins with two model bacteria; the commensal species Streptococcus gordonii, and the facultative pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. These organisms ...

  16. Clock Genes Show Circadian Rhythms in Salivary Glands

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, L.; Seon, Y. J.; Mchugh, J.; Papagerakis, S.; Papagerakis, P.

    2012-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are endogenous self-sustained oscillations with 24-hour periods that regulate diverse physiological and metabolic processes through complex gene regulation by “clock” transcription factors. The oral cavity is bathed by saliva, and its amount and content are modified within regular daily intervals. The clock mechanisms that control salivary production remain unclear. Our objective was to evaluate the expression and periodicity of clock genes in salivary glands. Real-time ...

  17. Papillary cystoadenoma lymphomatosum (Warthin-like) of minor salivary glands

    OpenAIRE

    Párraga Linares, Laura; Aguirre Urízar, José María; Berini Aytés, Leonardo; Gay Escoda, Cosme

    2009-01-01

    Papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum is a benign salivary gland tumor most frequently located in the parotid gland (Warthin"s tumor). Its presentation in other major, or in minor, salivary glands is rare. Clinically, it manifests as a slow growing tumor, fluctuant on palpation due to its cystic morphology. The treatment of choice is complete excision with wide tumor-free margins. We present a 73-year-old female patient with an asymptomatic tumor of 8 years evolution in the right posterior area...

  18. Characterization of salivary alpha-amylase binding to Streptococcus sanguis.

    OpenAIRE

    Scannapieco, F.A.; Bergey, E J; Reddy, M. S.; LeVine, M.J.(Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, 11973, USA)

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the major salivary components which interact with oral bacteria and to determine the mechanism(s) responsible for their binding to the bacterial surface. Strains of Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, and Actinomyces viscosus were incubated for 2 h in freshly collected human submandibular-sublingual saliva (HSMSL) or parotid saliva (HPS), and bound salivary components were eluted with 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate. By sodium ...

  19. Interaction of Helicobacter pylori with glycosylated salivary proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Walz, Anke

    2006-01-01

    Since the discovery of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in 1983 enormous progress has been made in determining the pathogenesis of this microbe in gastric disease. While the way of transmission is still under dispute, it is generally accepted that H. pylori must reach the stomach via the oral cavity. During this passage it comes into contact with salivary components. However, there are only few studies about interactions of H. pylori with salivary components and no study about the influence of...

  20. Saliva-microbe interactions and salivary gland dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, O J; Edgerton, M; Kramer, J M; Ruhl, S

    2014-05-01

    Adequate salivary secretion is crucial to both oral and general health, since it provides a complex milieu for support of the microbial populations of the mouth, while at the same time containing antimicrobial products that help control these microbial populations. This paper summarizes several aspects of salivary component function, gland secretion mechanisms, and immunopathogenesis as related to oral health and disease. Salivary components mediate microbial attachment to oral surfaces, and also interact with planktonic microbial surfaces to facilitate agglutination and elimination of pathogens from the oral cavity. Adhesive interactions are often mediated by lectin-like bacterial proteins that bind to glycan motifs on salivary glycoproteins. An important salivary antimicrobial protein is histatin 5 (Hst 5), which shows potent and selective antifungal activity and also susceptibility to proteolytic degradation. Coupling of Hst 5 with the carrier molecule spermidine significantly enhanced killing of C. albicans and resistance to proteolytic degradation, compared with the parent peptide. Loss of salivary secretion may be caused by disorders such as Sjögren's syndrome (SS) or ectodermal dysplasia, or may be a side-effect of radiation therapy. Two new approaches to the treatment of salivary gland dysfunction include the use of resolvins and the creation of differentiated acinar structures to construct an artificial salivary gland. B-cells contribute to the pathogenesis of SS by releasing cytokines and autoantibodies and by influencing T-cell differentiation. CXCL13, a potent B-cell chemokine associated with autoimmune diseases, is elevated locally and systemically in SS and may represent a novel biomarker or therapeutic target in the management and treatment of SS. PMID:24736699

  1. Early morning salivary cortisol is not associated with extraversion

    OpenAIRE

    Munafo, MR; Lee, L.; Ayres, R.; Flint, J.; Goodwin, G.; Harmer, Cj

    2006-01-01

    An association between salivary cortisol levels and neuroticism has recently been reported, but it is unclear whether this association is unique to neuroticism or extends to other personality measures. The present study investigated early morning salivary cortisol levels in individuals selected for high and low extraversion. Thirty-three healthy volunteers were selected on the basis of their score on the extraversion sub-scale of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, and provided fasting sal...

  2. The relationship between pulp calcifications and salivary gland calcifications

    OpenAIRE

    Kaswan, Sumita; Patil, Santosh; Maheshwari, Sneha; Rahman, Farzan; Khandelwal, Suneet

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Pulp stones are discrete calcified bodies found in the dental pulp. Sialolithasis is the most common salivary gland disease. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between the pulp stones and salivary gland stones. Material and Methods: 196 patients were randomly selected from the out patient department for the study. The periapical radiographs for all patients were evaluated for the presence or absence of the narrowing of dental pulp chambers and pulp canals. ...

  3. Absence of salivary CCL28 in primary Sjögren's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Molina, Gabriela; Burkhardt, Amanda M; Lima, Guadalupe; Zlotnik, Albert; Betanzos, Jose L; Bahena, Susana; Llorente, Luis

    2015-08-01

    CCL28 is a mucosa-associated epithelial-cell-produced chemokine involved in oral defense. We assessed the level of CCL28 in saliva of primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) patients in comparison with healthy controls and correlated it with IgA salivary levels. We included 30 non-smoker pSS patients and 30 non-smoker healthy controls paired by age (±5 years). Saliva samples were collected during the morning and kept frozen at -86 °C until the analysis. Fifty microliters of saliva was diluted 3:1 with water and analyzed for CCL28 salivary levels by ELISA method. The samples were tested in triplicate. IgA salivary levels were tested by ELISA method. We used descriptive statistics, Mann-Whitney U test and Kendall's tau correlation coefficients. pSS patients were mostly females (93.3 %), mean age 54.5 ± 13.3 years and median disease duration of 7.6 years (0.5-33). Patients with pSS had lower levels of salivary CCL28 when compared with controls [0 (0-1,272 pg/ml) vs. 94.4 (0-5,810) pg/ml, p disease duration, salivary flow, serum immunoglobulins or dental loss. CCL28 was absent in saliva of pSS patients; however, this finding did not correlate with salivary IgA levels. PMID:25567740

  4. Immunohistochemical analysis of CD34 expression in salivary gland tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadam, Saede Atarbashi; Abadi, Ayda Mohammad; Mokhtari, Sepideh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Tumor growth depends on angiogenesis which is assessed by measuring the tumor microvessel density (MVD) through CD34 immunostaining. The present study was performed to evaluate the situation of angiogenic activity in salivary gland neoplasms. The possible role of CD34 in progression and invasion of salivary gland tumors is also investigated. Materials and Methods: Tissue specimens of 15 pleomorphic adenoma (PA) and 15 malignant salivary gland tumors including mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC), adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC) and salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) were immunostained for CD34 protein. The most vascularized areas at low power magnification (hotspots) were selected for vessel counting at ×400 magnification. Then, the mean number of microvessels in three fields within the tumor mass was calculated. Results: MVD in PA and malignant salivary gland tumors were 10.93 ± 5.95 and 26.46 ± 7.32, respectively. Tumor angiogenesis in PA was much lower than other lesions (P 0.05). Conclusion: Salivary gland carcinomas demonstrated higher vascular density than benign PA despite of cell types and architecture. The reason for this higher angiogenic activity could be related to metabolic characteristics of malignant cells.

  5. On the origin and diagnostic use of salivary RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fábryová, H; Celec, P

    2014-03-01

    Saliva as a diagnostic fluid enables non-invasive sampling, which can be performed even by an untrained person. Saliva is, thus, particularly useful for large population screenings, for children, elderly and whenever repeated samplings are needed. Saliva is a plasma filtrate actively modified by the salivary glands. Saliva could replace some routine blood tests in the future. The sources of salivary RNA include oral epithelial cells and oral micro-organisms. Recent developments suggest that using known salivary RNA markers, it is possible to diagnose diseases such as oral carcinoma and other diseases will be added soon. Salivary RNA can be used to identify oral bacteria and to determine the expression of specific genes. On a systemic level, it provides information about the whole oral transcriptome and microbiome. Despite the small amount of salivary RNA, the issues with its isolation have been overcome. Saliva, thus, contains RNA of sufficient quality and quantity for sensitive and specific analyses. Salivary RNA can provide medically relevant information about oral microbiome, oral carcinoma, but also breast and pancreatic cancer and is, thus, a promising tool for future research and clinical diagnostics. PMID:23517132

  6. Ixodes scapularis salivary gland protein P11 facilitates migration of Anaplasma phagocytophilum from the tick gut to salivary glands

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Lei; Narasimhan, Sukanya; Dai, Jianfeng; Zhang, Lili; Cheng, Gong; Fikrig, Erol

    2011-01-01

    Here it is shown that the human pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum uses a secreted tick protein to infect haemocytes—the blood cells of the deer tick—and that infection of the haemocytes is a prerequisite for salivary gland infection.

  7. Efficacy of Scopolamine patch on the Secretory Function of salivary Glands by TC-99m Pertechnetate Salivary Scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seok, Ju Won; Son, Bong Hyung; Kim, In Ju; Kim, Yong Ki; Wang, Soo Geun [College of Medicine, Univ. of Busan National, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate quantitatively the reducing effect of the anticholinergics (scopolamine patch) on the salivary glands by dynamic salivary scintigraphy. Eleven normal volunteers were studied by salivary gland scintigraphy. After injection of 370 MBq Tc-99m pertechnetate, dynamic salivary scintigraphy with citric acid stimulation was performed for 30 minutes. After 5 days, they were administrated the scopolamine patch. The salivary scintigraphy were performed by same method after 2 days. Functional parameters for the parotid and submandibular glands, that is uptake radio(UR), Tmax, Tmin, maximum accumulation(MA), and maximum secretion(MS), were calculated. In submandibular glands, there was no statistical significance in UR, Tmax, Tmin and MA between before and after the scopolamine patch(p>0.05). The MS of submandibular gland after the scopolamine patch was significantly higher than before patch(p>0.05). In parotid glands, there was no statistical significance in UR, Tmax, Tmin, MA, and MS between before and after patch(p>0.05). It seems that is not satisfied the reducing effect of the scopolamine patch on the secretory function of salivary glands.

  8. Efficacy of Scopolamine patch on the Secretory Function of salivary Glands by TC-99m Pertechnetate Salivary Scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate quantitatively the reducing effect of the anticholinergics (scopolamine patch) on the salivary glands by dynamic salivary scintigraphy. Eleven normal volunteers were studied by salivary gland scintigraphy. After injection of 370 MBq Tc-99m pertechnetate, dynamic salivary scintigraphy with citric acid stimulation was performed for 30 minutes. After 5 days, they were administrated the scopolamine patch. The salivary scintigraphy were performed by same method after 2 days. Functional parameters for the parotid and submandibular glands, that is uptake radio(UR), Tmax, Tmin, maximum accumulation(MA), and maximum secretion(MS), were calculated. In submandibular glands, there was no statistical significance in UR, Tmax, Tmin and MA between before and after the scopolamine patch(p>0.05). The MS of submandibular gland after the scopolamine patch was significantly higher than before patch(p>0.05). In parotid glands, there was no statistical significance in UR, Tmax, Tmin, MA, and MS between before and after patch(p>0.05). It seems that is not satisfied the reducing effect of the scopolamine patch on the secretory function of salivary glands

  9. Unstimulated salivary flow rate, pH and buffer capacity of saliva in healthy volunteers / Débito basal, pH y capacidad tampón de la secreción salivar en sujetos sanos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C., Fenoll-Palomares; J. V., Muñoz-Montagud; V., Sanchiz; B., Herreros; V., Hernández; M., Mínguez; A., Benages.

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: conocer el débito, pH y capacidad tampón de la saliva en sujetos sanos y sus relaciones con edad, sexo, obesidad y hábitos tabáquico y alcohólico, así como establecer la definición de hiposialia. Métodos: estudio observacional prospectivo en 159 voluntarios sanos (> 18 años, sin factores [...] conocidos que disminuyan la secreción salivar). Se ha recogido la saliva total, sin estímulo, durante 10 minutos, determinando su débito (ml/min), pH y capacidad tampón (concentración de bicarbonato en mmol/l) mediante autoanalizador Radiometer ABL 520. Se han calculado los límites inferiores del débito salivar y concentración de bicarbonato por el percentil 5. Resultados: la mediana del débito salivar es 0,48 ml/min (rango 0,1-2). La mayor edad condiciona una disminución del débito salivar; los sujetos con edad Abstract in english Objectives: to assess the salivary flow rate, pH, and buffer capacity of healthy volunteers, and their relationships with age, gender, obesity, smoking, and alcohol consumption, and to establish the lower-end value of normal salivary flow (oligosialia). Methods: a prospective study was conducted in [...] 159 healthy volunteers (age > 18 years, absence of medical conditions that could decrease salivary flow). Unstimulated whole saliva was collected during ten minutes, and salivary flow rate (ml/min), pH, and bicarbonate concentration (mmol/l) were measured using a Radiometer ABL 520. The 5 percentile of salivary flow rate and bicarbonate concentration was considered the lower limit of normality. Results: median salivary flow rate was 0.48 ml/min (range: 0.1-2 ml/min). Age younger than 44 years was associated with higher flow rates (OR 2.10). Compared with women, men presented a higher flow rate (OR 3.19) and buffer capacity (OR 2.81). Bicarbonate concentration correlated with salivary flow rate. The lower-end values of normal flow rate and bicarbonate concentration were 0.15 ml/min and 1.800 mmol/l, respectively. The presence of obesity, smoking, and alcohol consumption did not influence salivary parameters. Conclusions: in healthy volunteers, salivary flow rate depends on age and gender, and correlates with buffer capacity. Obesity, smoking, and alcohol use do not influence salivary secretion.

  10. Salivary Alpha-Amylase Activity and Salivary Flow Rate in Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Arhakis, Aristidis; Karagiannis, Vasilis; Kalfas, Sotirios

    2013-01-01

    The secretion of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) is more associated with psychoneuroendocrinological response to stress than with the flow rate and age. The aim of this cross sectional study is to build an explanatory model based on patterns of relationship between age 20-39 in resting and stimulated saliva under no stressful condition in healthy volunteers. Both resting and stimulated saliva were collected from 40 subjects. The sAA values were log-transformed, the normality assumption was verif...

  11. Biomacromolecule conjugated nanofiber scaffold for salivary gland tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayarathanam, Kavitha

    Xerostomia or dry mouth, resulting from loss of salivary gland secretion can be alleviated by tissue engineering approaches to restore glandular cell function. Engineering an artificial salivary gland structure requires closely mimicking the natural environment, both physically and functionally, to promote epithelial cell proliferation, monolayer formation and apico-basal polarization. While the physical structure of the salivary gland extracellular matrix (ECM) can be reconstructed using biocompatible nanofiber scaffolds, the chemical signals from ECM macromolecules are equally involved in the gland morphogenesis. In these glands, Hyaluronic acid (HA), a biomacromolecule that is a major component of the ECM, plays a crucial role in recruiting growth factors to improve cell viability and growth in these glands. Another molecule of interest that improved salivary epithelial cell viability and apico-basal differentiation is laminin, a major protein found in the basement membrane. We hypothesize that these biomacromolecules, when conjugated nanofiber scaffolds, will provide the essential chemical signals that promote cell viability, proliferation, polarity in the salivary cell line of interest. These morphological changes will in turn promote the secretory function (salivary production). The nanofiber scaffold consisting of poly(lactic-co-glycolic)acid is conjugated with HA using a polyethylene glycol (PEG) diamine crosslinker. This conjugation was confirmed using fluorescence spectrometry, water contact angle test and immunocytochemistry analysis using confocal microscopy. The effect of HA in promoting cell survival in-vitro was established with MTT assay using SIMS (mouse submandibular immortalized ductal SIMS cells) cells. The effect of HA in improving the apico - basal polarity of SIMS cells will be assessed. Chemical modification of synthetic nanopolymeric scaffolds with ECM molecules e.g., HA, laminin are the next step towards developing "smart scaffolds", that can be used to specifically induce proper salivary gland function. These scaffolds can potentially be used to provide a viable approach for creating future artificial tissue engineered glands.

  12. Clinical implication of CD166 expression in salivary gland tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andisheh-Tadbir, Azadeh; Ashraf, Mohammad Javad; Khademi, Bijan; Ahmadi, Shahab

    2015-04-01

    CD166 is a glycoprotein of immunoglobulin superfamily of adhesion molecules which is overexpressed in many tumors. However, no published literature was found concerning CD166 expression in salivary gland tumor. The purpose of this study was to examine the CD166 expression in the salivary gland tumor by an immunohistochemical approach, to examine the clinical implication of this marker in the prognosis and diagnosis of the salivary gland tumor. In this study, 45 samples of salivary tumors from Khalili Hospital archive including 15 cases of pleomorphic adenoma, 16 cases of mucoepidermoid carcinoma, 14 cases of adenoid cystic carcinoma, and 15 normal salivary glands were selected for immunohistochemistry (IHC) method staining for CD166. CD166 immunoreactivity in malignant tumors (adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) and mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC)) (56.7?±?14.05) was significantly higher than that of pleomorphic adenoma (PA) (34.3?±?17.07) (P?salivary gland (13.2?±?12.1) (P?=?0.001). CD166 expression was significantly higher in the high-grade tumors (90.3?±?11.07) compared to low-grade (65.11?±?27.08) malignant tumors (P?=?0.002). CD166 expression showed a significant association with tumor size and the clinical stage (P?salivary gland tumors and its expression in the malignant tumor was associated with the aggressive behavior and tumor progression. For this reason, CD166 may be one of the potential biomarkers for predicting tumor behavior in the prognosis of this disease. PMID:25472586

  13. Knowledge of dental caries and salivary factors related to the disease: influence of the teaching-learning process

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Naiara de Paula, FERREIRA-NÓBILO; Cínthia Pereira Machado, TABCHOURY; Maria da Luz Rosário de, SOUSA; Jaime Aparecido, CURY.

    Full Text Available Knowledge of factors related to caries and the possible consequences in controlling the disease may show the use of education as a relevant tool for achieving success in terms of dental health maintenance. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between acquired k [...] nowledge and salivary factors related to dental caries for freshmen students (n = 44) and trainees (n = 32) of the Piracicaba Dental School. Knowledge about dental caries was evaluated by a discursive questionnaire analyzed by the content analysis technique. Salivary flow and pH, buffer capacity, salivary sucrase activity, microbiological counts (total microorganisms, mutans, and lactobacilli) and inorganic concentration of calcium, phosphorus, and fluoride in saliva were evaluated and compared between groups using the Mann–Whitney test, with a significance of 5%. Trainees demonstrated knowledge of the disease, whereas freshmen showed unspecific and confusing concepts. Among the factors analyzed, statistically significant differences were observed for pH, buffer capacity, sucrase activity, total microorganisms, and calcium and fluoride concentrations in saliva. Knowledge about the disease increases and improves over time during the undergraduate program (highest among trainees); although the students from the final year of the program consume more sugar than those from the previous one, they try to balance this activity with greater exposure to fluorides.

  14. Short-term salivary acetaldehyde increase due to direct exposure to alcoholic beverages as an additional cancer risk factor beyond ethanol metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monakhova Yulia B

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasing body of evidence now implicates acetaldehyde as a major underlying factor for the carcinogenicity of alcoholic beverages and especially for oesophageal and oral cancer. Acetaldehyde associated with alcohol consumption is regarded as 'carcinogenic to humans' (IARC Group 1, with sufficient evidence available for the oesophagus, head and neck as sites of carcinogenicity. At present, research into the mechanistic aspects of acetaldehyde-related oral cancer has been focused on salivary acetaldehyde that is formed either from ethanol metabolism in the epithelia or from microbial oxidation of ethanol by the oral microflora. This study was conducted to evaluate the role of the acetaldehyde that is found as a component of alcoholic beverages as an additional factor in the aetiology of oral cancer. Methods Salivary acetaldehyde levels were determined in the context of sensory analysis of different alcoholic beverages (beer, cider, wine, sherry, vodka, calvados, grape marc spirit, tequila, cherry spirit, without swallowing, to exclude systemic ethanol metabolism. Results The rinsing of the mouth for 30 seconds with an alcoholic beverage is able to increase salivary acetaldehyde above levels previously judged to be carcinogenic in vitro, with levels up to 1000 ?M in cases of beverages with extreme acetaldehyde content. In general, the highest salivary acetaldehyde concentration was found in all cases in the saliva 30 sec after using the beverages (average 353 ?M. The average concentration then decreased at the 2-min (156 ?M, 5-min (76 ?M and 10-min (40 ?M sampling points. The salivary acetaldehyde concentration depends primarily on the direct ingestion of acetaldehyde contained in the beverages at the 30-sec sampling, while the influence of the metabolic formation from ethanol becomes the major factor at the 2-min sampling point. Conclusions This study offers a plausible mechanism to explain the increased risk for oral cancer associated with high acetaldehyde concentrations in certain beverages.

  15. Age-related changes in salivary antibodies to commensal oral and gut biota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percival, R S; Marsh, P D; Challacombe, S J

    1997-02-01

    The prevalence of mucosally derived infections appears to increase with age, suggesting dysfunction at the mucosal surfaces. The present investigation was undertaken to examine any age-related changes in secretion rates and concentrations of secretory antibodies in whole and parotid saliva in a healthy adult population. A total of 116 subjects were subdivided into the following age groups: 20-39 years, 40-59 years, 60-79 years and 80 years and over. Specific immunoglobulin A (IgA), IgG and IgM antibodies in whole and parotid saliva to Streptococcus mutans (serotype c), Actinomyces viscosus NCTC 10951, and Escherichia coli NCTC 10418 were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. IgA antibodies to all three organisms examined increased with age in both whole and parotid saliva, whereas IgG antibody levels to S. mutans in whole saliva were significantly decreased with age. IgG antibodies to E. coli in parotid saliva were reduced in older age groups. IgM antibody levels to S. mutans were reduced with age in both secretions, whereas IgM antibodies to A. viscosus were greatest in the oldest age groups. No significant changes with age were observed in salivary IgM antibody levels to E. coli. No significant reduction in the secretion rates of IgA antibodies were observed in parotid or whole saliva, whereas IgG and IgM antibody secretion rates to all three microorganisms were reduced in most age groups in both whole and parotid saliva. The results of this investigation have demonstrated age-related changes with salivary antibodies, but, whereas salivary IgG and IgM antibodies showed decreases, salivary IgA levels generally increased with age. This suggests that the ability to form IgA antibody responses is not impaired with increased age, and that secretion rates and functional properties of antibodies may be as important as concentrations in protection against mucosal infective diseases. PMID:9151645

  16. Measurement of salivary cortisol--effects of replacing polyester with cotton and switching antibody

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ase Marie; Garde, Anne Helene

    2008-01-01

    Stable performance between-runs are essential in longitudinal studies and when different studies are being compared. However, changes in analytical kits and laboratory material occur and have the potential to threaten analytical stability. In the present case, we examined how salivary cortisol measurements in our laboratory were affected by: 1) changes in the tampon material and 2) changes in the antibody of the analytical kit. In study 1, saliva from healthy subjects (n = 19) was split and spiked to Salivette polyester and cotton tampons, respectively, and treated as ordinary samples before being analysed for cortisol using a Spectria RIA kit for cortisol. In study 2, 68 anonymous saliva samples were analysed with the Spectria Cortisol RIA kit both before and after the manufacturer changed the antibody. The change from polyester to cotton tampons reduced the measured concentration of salivary cortisol by 62 %. A difference of 12 % between the two runs with different antibodies could not be attributed to differences in storage or in thawing and freezing of samples. To conclude, both a change in the material of the Salivette used for collecting saliva samples as well as a change of antibody in a kit can have a major impact on measurements, as illustrated here for concentrations of cortisol in saliva. It is therefore recommended always to check that the analysis stays in statistical control in one's own laboratory when changes are made, even if the manufacturer reports that the changes should have no effects.

  17. A paper strip based non-invasive glucose biosensor for salivary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Anuradha; Jha, Sandeep Kumar

    2015-05-15

    In our present study, we developed an optical biosensor for direct determination of salivary glucose by using immobilized glucose oxidase enzyme on filter paper strip (specific activity 1.4 U/strip) and then reacting it with synthetic glucose samples in presence of co-immobilized color pH indicator. The filter paper changed color based on concentration of glucose in reaction media and hence, by scanning this color change (using RGB profiling) through an office scanner and open source image processing software (GIMP) the concentration of glucose in the reaction medium could be deduced. Once the biosensor was standardized, the synthetic glucose sample was replaced with human saliva from donors. The individual's blood glucose level at the time of obtaining saliva was also measured using an Accuchek(™) active glucometer (Roche Inc.). In this preliminary study, a correlation of nearly 0.64 was found between glucose levels in saliva and blood of healthy individuals and in diabetic patients it was nearly in the order of 0.95, thereby validating the importance of salivary analysis. The RGB profiling method obtained a detection range of 9-1350 mg/dL glucose at a response time of 45 s and LOD of 22.2 mg/dL. PMID:25282078

  18. Effects of sucrose on salivary flow and composition: differences between real and sham intake

    OpenAIRE

    Harthoorn, L.F.; Brattinga, C.R.; Kekem, C., van; Neyraud, E.; Dransfield, E.

    2009-01-01

    Human saliva contains numerous salivary components that are fundamental for a healthy oral environment and the oral processing of foods. To study a possible differential influence of orosensory stimulation and metabolic activation on salivary composition, human parotid salivary flow, pH, A280, and agr-amylase activity were measured before, during and after real or sham (sip-and-spit) sucrose intakes. Variations in these salivary characteristics were related to perceived satiety. Sucrose, as e...

  19. Anopheles salivary gland proteomes from major malaria vectors

    OpenAIRE

    Fontaine Albin; Fusaï Thierry; Briolant Sébastien; Buffet Sylvain; Villard Claude; Baudelet Emilie; Pophillat Mathieu; Granjeaud Samuel; Rogier Christophe; Almeras Lionel

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Antibody responses against Anopheles salivary proteins can indicate individual exposure to bites of malaria vectors. The extent to which these salivary proteins are species-specific is not entirely resolved. Thus, a better knowledge of the diversity among salivary protein repertoires from various malaria vector species is necessary to select relevant genus-, subgenus- and/or species-specific salivary antigens. Such antigens could be used for quantitative (mosquito density)...

  20. Effects of Repeated Administration of Pilocarpine and Isoproterenol on Aquaporin-5 Expression in Rat Salivary Glands

    OpenAIRE

    Susa, Taketo; Sawai, Nobuhiko; Aoki, Takeo; Iizuka-kogo, Akiko; Kogo, Hiroshi; Negishi, Akihide; Yokoo, Satoshi; Takata, Kuniaki; Matsuzaki, Toshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    Aquaporins are water channel proteins which enable rapid water movement across the plasma membrane. Aquaporin-5 (AQP5) is the major aquaporin and is expressed on the apical membrane of salivary gland acinar cells. We examined the effects of repeated administration of pilocarpine, a clinically useful stimulant for salivary fluid secretion, and isoproterenol (IPR), a stimulant for salivary protein secretion, on the abundance of AQP5 protein in rat salivary glands by immunofluorescence microscop...

  1. An Immunohistochemical Panel for Reliable Differentiation of Salivary Duct Carcinoma and Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Randall T.; Spector, Matthew E.; Thomas, Dafydd; McDaniel, Andrew S.; McHugh, Jonathan B.

    2013-01-01

    Salivary duct carcinoma is a highly aggressive salivary gland malignancy that may be misdiagnosed as high-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma. We utilized tissue microarrays with 78 examples of mucoepidermoid carcinoma and 47 salivary duct carcinomas to evaluate the utility of an immunohistochemical panel consisting of androgen receptor, Her2/neu, p63, and cytokeratin 5/6 in distinguishing these entities. Among all cases in the cohorts, androgen receptor was highly specific for salivary duct carci...

  2. Urinary cotinine levels and environmental tobacco smoke in mothers and children of Romania, Portugal and Poland within the European human biomonitoring pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lupsa, Ioana-Rodica; Nunes, Baltazar

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore data from the DEMOCOPHES study population for Romania, Portugal and Poland, in order to assess smoking patterns and the extent of ETS exposure and compare the national study samples with reference to the respective anti-smoking laws. The subset of the DEMOCOPHES study sample consisted of 360 children and their mothers (120 in each of the three countries - Romania (RO), Portugal (PT) and Poland (PL). Smoking was assessed using a detailed questionnaire for the participants, which addresses both active and passive smoking. This assessment uses exposure-relevant questionnaire data, in particular on the home environment and residence, socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle such as nutrition, smoking behavior, other exposure-relevant behavior and occupational history, as well as urinary cotinine and creatinine measurements. We performed general statistical analysis and innovative receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses. Smoking prevalence as evaluated by thequestionnaire was generally high, and higher than official statistics, which suggests some under-reporting in the countries, particularly in Romania. Urinary cotinine levels provided biochemical confirmation of the high and similar smoking prevalence for the three countries. Concerning ETS exposure, Romania presented significantly higher levels, for children as well as for non-smoking mothers, with Portugal showing significantly lower levels. Compared to non-smoking mothers, the children showed relatively higher ETS exposure levels in all three countries. The established country-specific optimal cut-off values in urinary cotinine to distinguish smokers from non-smokers vary more than those to discriminate ETS exposure extent in non-smoking mothers and children. Although different between countries, these values are a valuable output to monitor effectiveness of both national antismoking laws and educational programs in the three countries. The findings of this study point to the urgent need for stronger, moreeffective and well enforced smoke-free legislation in the three countries.

  3. Asociación de la severidad de la periodontitis con niveles de cotinina y Porphyromonas gingivalis / Association between the severity of periodontitis with cotinine levels and Porphyromonas gingivalis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos Martín, Ardila Medina; Isabel Cristina, Guzmán Zuluaga; Maria Adelaida, Vélez Echeverri.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: la cotinina aumenta los efectos de las toxinas producidas por los periodontopatógenos y se ha observado que el hábito de fumar altera la respuesta humoral e incrementa la infectividad de la Porphyromonas gingivalis. Objetivo: investigar la asociación entre los niveles de cotinina, la sev [...] eridad y la extensión de la periodontitis, entre los niveles de cotinina y presencia de P. gingivalis. Método: en el presente estudio de corte transversal, el universo estuvo constituido por 108 sujetos. Los parámetros periodontales se midieron en seis sitios por diente en todos los dientes, se excluyó el tercer molar. Se tomaron muestras de P. gingivalis en las bolsas periodontales. Resultados: al comparar fumadores y no fumadores se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en la profundidad de sondaje y en el nivel de inserción clínica, con peores condiciones periodontales en los fumadores (p Abstract in english Background: cotinine increases the effects of the toxins produced by periodontopathogens and it has been observed that the smoking habit alters the humoral response and decreases the effectiveness of Porphyromonas gingivalis. Objective: to investigate the association between the cotinine levels and [...] the severity and extent of periodontitis; as well as between the cotinine levels and the presence of Porphyromonas gingivalis. Method: in the present cross-sectional study, the universe was composed of 108 individuals. The periodontal parameters were measured in six sites per tooth in all the teeth; the third molar was excluded. Some samples of Porphyromonas gingivalis in the periodontal pocket were taken. Results: when comparing smokers and non-smokers, differences statistically significant in the probing depth and in the clinical attachment level were observed with worse periodontal conditions in smokers (p

  4. Quantification of salivary gland Scintigraphy by means of factor analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Knoll

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In this study the automatic separation of oral and salivary gland activity and spontaneous secretion by means of factor analysis for quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy is introduced. Methods: After intravenous administration of 99mTc sodium pertechnetate, dynamis scintigraphy was performed using a128x128 matrix, acquisition time 30 min, 2 frame/min. 20 minutes after tracer application 2 ml of lemon juice was delivered to stimulate the glands. Applying elliptical regions of interest (ROIs for oral cavity and four major salivary gland and factor analysis of  medical image sequences results in factor image and factor curves, which are used for quantification of the pre- and post-stimulatory oral activity index, and for the four major glands and the sublingual gland, the maximum accumulation (MA, the maximum secretion (MS and the secretion velocity (SV. Results: With FAMIS it is possible to fully separate automatic separate the three superimposed processes we have in salivary gland scintigraphy: glandular and oral activity and spontaneous secretion. Comparing our quantitative results obtained by FAMIS with ROI analysis we found significant different values that are due to the fact that the spontaneous secretion in the oral cavity superimposes the true oral and glandular activity curves. Conclusion: The application of factor analysis improves the results of salivary gland scintigraphy by separation of superimposed dynamic processes of oral and glandular activity and spontaneous secretion

  5. Maspin and MCM2 immunoprofiling in salivary gland carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmy Iman M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathogenesis of salivary gland carcinomas is very complex and prognostic markers are difficult to find in these carcinomas of which the different subtypes have varying malignant potential. The study was conducted to examine the cellular distribution of maspin and MCM2 in salivary gland carcinomas and their value to predict lymph node metastasis. Materials and methods Fifty three paraffin blocks of different lesions (15 muco-epidermoid carcinoma, 14 adenoid cystic carcinoma, 3 epi-myoepithelial carcinoma, 5 salivary duct carcinoma, 5 malignant pleomorphic adenoma, 6 polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma and 5 acinic cell carcinoma were prepared for immunohistochemical staining with maspin and MCM2 antibodies. ANOVA and Pearson correlation tests were used for the statistical analysis of the results. Results All salivary gland carcinomas express maspin and MCM2 with variable cellular localization. There was a significant difference in the expression of each antibody between mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma and polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma. No association was found between examined markers and lymph node metastasis. Conclusions Salivary gland carcinomas express maspin and MCM2 with variable levels and cellular localization, consisting important markers of biological behavior in these tumors. The level of MCM2 expression can be used in the differential diagnosis of adenoid cystic carcinoma and polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma. Further study with large sample size is recommended to assess their value in prediction of lymph node metastasis.

  6. Contribution and advantages of scintigraphy in salivary pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent technical improvements, especially the use of the scintillation camera, enable kinetic studies to be carried out by isotopic exploration and salivary scintigraphy has become an easy, fast and painless method of functional investigation of the main salivary glands. This work outlines the results obtained by Tc 99m scintigraphy with a scintillation camera, relative to the most important salivary gland diseases. After an account of the anatomy and general pathology of the parotid glands and submaxillaries the chief characteristics of the tracer, the detection techniques and the method employed here are described briefly. The elementary scintigraphic aspects found in the different observations are reported, then discussed in connection with results already published. The conclusion drawn from this work is that it is possible in the vast majority of cases, by comparing and combining the morphological and kinetic study of the salivary glands by technetium 99m scintigraphy with the clinical context, to obtain very valuable information which no other complementary examination has so far been able to supply satisfactorily. Now that scintigraphy has become a method of functional and not only morphological exploration it occupies a vital place in the study of the salivary glands

  7. Applications of and limitations to salivary gland scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salivary gland functional imaging is a simple, non-invasive procedure which requires little in terms of time and money to clarify disorders of saliva production and elimination. With relatively low levels of radiation exposure, there is no reason to expect side effects to the patient, provided that a physiological taste stimulant such as lemon juice is used to stimulate saliva production. From a dynamic study we derived functional curves for the parotides and the submandibular glands using the ROI-technique. Typical curves allow to differentiate between inflammatory, degenerative and obstructive diseases of the salivary glands. In cases of salivary gland tumours, additional information of pre- or posttherapeutic relevance may be expected e.g. concerning the saliva flow patterns. However, for primary diagnosis, other imaging procedures are more useful. In combination with sonography, swellings and pain of the salivary glands may be reliably clarified. Except for time activity curves for the salivary glands, quantitative analysis of pertechnetate uptake is only of secondary importance. This is due to methodological problems (e.g. definition of ROI) on the one hand and to a considerable inter- and intra-individual variability of the secretory gland outputs of the parotides and submandibular glands on the other hand. (orig.)

  8. A study on salivary cortisol level in patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis during both ulceration and ulcer free periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parichehr Ghaliani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis (RAS is one of the most common oral mucosal disorders. RAS patients show a decline in oral tolerance which leads to epithelial damage. Cortisol secretion in such patients may not be enough to suppress cytotoxic reactions against oral epithelium. The aim of this study was to measure salivary cortisol level during both ulceration and ulcer free phases of the disease. Materials and Methods: In this analytic-descriptive study, a total of 20 patients having minor oral aphthi with a history of at least three times oral ulceration in one year were included.Saliva samples were collected through spitting. The salivary concentration level of cortisol was measured on the first and 7th days from the appearance of aphthous ulcers, every patient was considered as both case and control. Sampling was repeated when ulcers were completely healed. The saliva samples were collected between 9 and 10 am and were analyzed via Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. The collected data were statistically analyzed on a computer through repeated measurement ANOVA and paired t-tests using SPSS software.(? = 0.05Results: The mean concentration of salivary cortisol on the first day of aphthous appearance was 2.72 . However after complete healing of the ulcers, it rose to 3.37 . The difference these values were shown to be statistically significant (p value=0.002. The mean concentration level of salivary cortisol on the 7th day from aphthous appearance (2.6 was also significantly different from the aphthous Free State. (p value = 0.001. Mean cortisol concentration level on the first and 7th days from the appearance of aphthous ulcer did not show a significant difference (p value = 0.304.Conclusion: The results showed that the mean salivary cortisol level at the beginning of the disease as well as during its active ulcerative period (acute phase were significantly lower than in aphthous free periods. It seems that cortisol plays a key role in reducing aphthous ulcer inflammation. Impaired cortisol secretion in RAS patients may cause an increased rate of incidence and severity of aphthous ulcers. Key words: Recurrent aphthous ulcer, Saliva, Hydrocortisone

  9. Repeated bouts of eccentrically biased endurance exercise stimulate salivary IgA secretion rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKune, Aj; Starzak, D; Semple, Sj

    2015-03-01

    To determine the salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) response to repeated bouts of unaccustomed, downhill running (eccentrically biased) and examine potential protective immunological adaption from a repeated bout effect. Eleven active but untrained males (age: 19.7±0.4 years; VO2peak: 47.8± 3.6 ml · kg(-1) · min (-1)) performed two 60 min bouts (Run 1 and Run 2) of downhill running (-13.5% gradient), separated by 14 days, at a speed eliciting 75% of their VO2peak on a level grade. Saliva samples were collected before (baseline), immediately post exercise (IPE), and every hour for 12 h and every 24 h for 6 days after each run. Salivary sIgA concentration was measured and sIgA secretion rate was calculated. Results were analysed using repeated measures ANOVA (12 h period: 2x14; 24 h intervals: 2x7; p ? 0.05) with Tukey post-hoc tests where appropriate. Results are reported as means ± SE. There was a significant (p < 0.0001) interaction effect for sIgA secretion rate, IPE, with higher values after Run 2, as well as a significant (p < 0.01) time effect with elevated levels IPE and between 24 h and 144 h. There was a run effect (p < 0.0001), with the sIgA secretion rate significantly higher after Run 2. Repeated bouts of unaccustomed, eccentrically biased exercise induced alterations in the salivary sIgA secretion rate. This may serve as a protective mucosal adaptation to exercise-induced tissue damage. PMID:25729146

  10. The relationship between psychological distress with salivary ?-amylase and stress related symptoms among breast cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. W. Yong

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: This study examined the stress levels, the stressors and biomarker such as Alpha (?-Amylase enzyme which is secreted under distress conditions. The aim was to determine the relationship between these three variables. Methods: The study respondents were made up of cancer outpatients from 3 hospitals namely the Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Seberang Jaya and Johor Baru, Pantai Ipoh and Putrajaya. The Personal Stress Inventory (PSI questionnaire was used to identify stressors, while the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS were used to determine the psychological distress levels. The Salimentary Oral Swab (SOS Technique was used to collect the saliva and then the Salivary ?-Amylase Assay Kit was used to analyse for ? amylase. Results: The majority of respondents were stressed due to their sensitive emotion and nervousness in their daily lives (68.7%, they had poor memory and short attention spans of carrying out job tasks (67.3% as well as they were emotionally depressed (65.3%. Their poor memory and short attention span (p = 0.037, heavy work load and poor task delivery (p = 0.008 were predictors for distress using HADS. The salivary ?-amylase concentration was significantly related to the stress levels (p = 0.002. Conclusion: Breast cancer respondents with musculoskeletal system related symptoms, with heavy work load and poor task delivery, as well as had poor memory and short attention span were at higher risk of experiencing psychological distress. The salivary ?-amylase which had significant relationships with psychological distress was therefore, a potential biological indicator for distress, while the musculoskeletal system related symptoms from the PSI questionnaire were predictors for distress.

  11. Elevada concentración de metabolitos de cotinina en hijos de padres fumadores / High levels of cotinine metabolite in smoker's parents children

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo, Lazcano-Ponce; Luisa María, Sánchez-Zamorano; Neil, Benowitz; Larissa, Barbosa-Sánchez; Mauricio, Hernández-Ávila.

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: La exposición al humo de tabaco de segunda mano (HTSM) en niños y adultos puede ser común en oficinas gubernamentales, lugares de trabajo, vehículos y espacios públicos, pero es de particular importancia en el hogar. Los grados de exposición elevados en niños pueden constituirse como l [...] a principal justificación para restringir el tabaquismo dentro del hogar. El objetivo fue determinar los valores de HTSM mediante biomarcadores séricos en binomios padres- hijos menores de cinco años, en México, participantes de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud 2000. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se seleccionaron 76 binomios padres-hijos de hogares con adultos no fumadores y 83 binomios similares pero con adultos fumadores en el hogar. La selección se restringió a hogares donde hubiera presencia de niños menores de cinco años de edad. Las muestras séricas se analizaron por cromatografía líquida. Se construyeron modelos de correlación de exposición entre los binomios padres-hijos estratificados por el antecedente de tabaquismo en los padres. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de individuos con más de 15 ng/mL de cotinina en suero en los fumadores fue de 100%; la cuantificación mínima fue 18.50 y la máxima de 221.5 ng/mL. En los adultos, los valores séricos de cotinina fueron 50 veces mayores en los fumadores (107.4 ng/mL) que en los no fumadores (1.99 ng/mL); similar observación a la referida tuvo la exposición a 3’-hidroxicotinina (0.69 en no fumadores vs. 33.59 ng/mL en adultos fumadores). Hubo una diferencia significativa tres veces mayor de valores de cotinina (0.19 vs. 0.60 ng/mL) y de 3’-hidroxicotinina (0.06 vs. 0.19 ng/mL) en los hijos de fumadores. CONCLUSIONES: A pesar de que existe diferencia significativa de HTSM en niños de padres fumadores, la exposición observada de HTSM en niños menores de cinco años de padres no fumadores también es relevante. En México se documenta por primera vez una elevada exposición al HTSM en niños, no sólo de padres fumadores sino también de padres no fumadores. Esto pone de relevancia que la exposición al HTSM no es sólo un problema de salud pública que se presenta en hogares de padres fumadores, sino que la exposición en niños mexicanos es frecuente en diversos lugares públicos. Es necesario implementar estudios adicionales en México para evaluar el impacto de intervenciones que garanticen hogares y espacios libres de humo de tabaco. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Children and adult exposure to SecondHand Smoke (SHS) may occur in government offices, work and public places as well as in vehicles. Nevertheless, SHS is particularly important at home. High exposure levels in children may be the main reason to prevent parents and other family members [...] from smoking at home. This study aims at establishing SHS levels by measuring biomakers in serum in pairs of parents and their younger than five years old children in Mexico, included in the 2000 National Health Survey. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventy-six parents-children pairs were taken from households with non smokers adults, as well as 83 pairs with adult smokers at home. Selection was limited to the adult population in households with children under five years old. Serum samples were analyzed through liquid chromatographic. Correlation exposure models between parents-children pairs were built and stratified according to parents’ background concerning smoking. RESULTS: In the smokers group, people with more than 15ng/mL of cotinine metabolites in serum showed prevalence of 100%. Minimum quantification was 18.50 and maximum 221.5ng/mL. In adults, cotinine metabolite levels in serun were 50 times higher in smokers (107.4ng/mL), than in non smokers (1.99 ng/mL). Concerning 3-hydroxycotinine, something similar was observed (0.60 in non smokers vs. 33.50 ng/mL in smokers). A significant difference three times higher in cotinine levels (0.10 vs. 0.60ng/mL) and 3-hydroxycotinine (0.06 vs. 0.19ng/mL) was found in those children with, at least, one of both parents who smoked. CONCLUSIO

  12. Elevada concentración de metabolitos de cotinina en hijos de padres fumadores High levels of cotinine metabolite in smoker's parents children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Lazcano-Ponce

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: La exposición al humo de tabaco de segunda mano (HTSM en niños y adultos puede ser común en oficinas gubernamentales, lugares de trabajo, vehículos y espacios públicos, pero es de particular importancia en el hogar. Los grados de exposición elevados en niños pueden constituirse como la principal justificación para restringir el tabaquismo dentro del hogar. El objetivo fue determinar los valores de HTSM mediante biomarcadores séricos en binomios padres- hijos menores de cinco años, en México, participantes de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud 2000. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se seleccionaron 76 binomios padres-hijos de hogares con adultos no fumadores y 83 binomios similares pero con adultos fumadores en el hogar. La selección se restringió a hogares donde hubiera presencia de niños menores de cinco años de edad. Las muestras séricas se analizaron por cromatografía líquida. Se construyeron modelos de correlación de exposición entre los binomios padres-hijos estratificados por el antecedente de tabaquismo en los padres. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de individuos con más de 15 ng/mL de cotinina en suero en los fumadores fue de 100%; la cuantificación mínima fue 18.50 y la máxima de 221.5 ng/mL. En los adultos, los valores séricos de cotinina fueron 50 veces mayores en los fumadores (107.4 ng/mL que en los no fumadores (1.99 ng/mL; similar observación a la referida tuvo la exposición a 3’-hidroxicotinina (0.69 en no fumadores vs. 33.59 ng/mL en adultos fumadores. Hubo una diferencia significativa tres veces mayor de valores de cotinina (0.19 vs. 0.60 ng/mL y de 3’-hidroxicotinina (0.06 vs. 0.19 ng/mL en los hijos de fumadores. CONCLUSIONES: A pesar de que existe diferencia significativa de HTSM en niños de padres fumadores, la exposición observada de HTSM en niños menores de cinco años de padres no fumadores también es relevante. En México se documenta por primera vez una elevada exposición al HTSM en niños, no sólo de padres fumadores sino también de padres no fumadores. Esto pone de relevancia que la exposición al HTSM no es sólo un problema de salud pública que se presenta en hogares de padres fumadores, sino que la exposición en niños mexicanos es frecuente en diversos lugares públicos. Es necesario implementar estudios adicionales en México para evaluar el impacto de intervenciones que garanticen hogares y espacios libres de humo de tabaco.INTRODUCTION: Children and adult exposure to SecondHand Smoke (SHS may occur in government offices, work and public places as well as in vehicles. Nevertheless, SHS is particularly important at home. High exposure levels in children may be the main reason to prevent parents and other family members from smoking at home. This study aims at establishing SHS levels by measuring biomakers in serum in pairs of parents and their younger than five years old children in Mexico, included in the 2000 National Health Survey. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventy-six parents-children pairs were taken from households with non smokers adults, as well as 83 pairs with adult smokers at home. Selection was limited to the adult population in households with children under five years old. Serum samples were analyzed through liquid chromatographic. Correlation exposure models between parents-children pairs were built and stratified according to parents’ background concerning smoking. RESULTS: In the smokers group, people with more than 15ng/mL of cotinine metabolites in serum showed prevalence of 100%. Minimum quantification was 18.50 and maximum 221.5ng/mL. In adults, cotinine metabolite levels in serun were 50 times higher in smokers (107.4ng/mL, than in non smokers (1.99 ng/mL. Concerning 3-hydroxycotinine, something similar was observed (0.60 in non smokers vs. 33.50 ng/mL in smokers. A significant difference three times higher in cotinine levels (0.10 vs. 0.60ng/mL and 3-hydroxycotinine (0.06 vs. 0.19ng/mL was found in those children with, at least, one of both parents who smoked. CONCLUSIONS: It is worthwhile noting that although ther

  13. Estimation of Cutoff Values of Cotinine in Urine and Saliva for Pregnant Women in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Stragierowicz; Karolina Miko?ajewska; Marta Zawadzka-Stolarz; Kinga Pola?ska; Danuta Ligocka

    2013-01-01

    Setting appropriate cutoff values and the use of a highly sensitive analytical method allow for correct classification of the smoking status. Urine-saliva pairs samples of pregnant women in the second and third trimester, and saliva only in the first trimester were collected. Offline SPE and LC-ESI-MS/MS method was developed in the broad concentration range (saliva 0.4–1000?ng/mL, urine 0.8–4000?ng/mL). The mean recoveries were 3.7 ± 7.6% for urine and 99.1 ± 2.6% for saliva. LOD fo...

  14. Pleomorphic adenoma of minor salivary gland: hard palate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pleomorphic adenoma or mixed tumor occurs in 4 to 14% of the accessory glands salivary. Different localizations exist: AEC, nasal block, lips, maxillary sinus, nasopharynx or in any other localization where salivate tissue exists, but the palate constitutes the most frequent localization, because it gathers more than 50% of minor salivary glands. In the palate, it can be developed a wide variety of tumors coming from the connective and epithelial tissue, 44% arise in the minor salivary glands. In 49 to 65% of them are benign tumors, principally pleomorphic adenomas, located preferably in the hard palate, nearby or in the union with the soft palate as in our case. We present a 42 year old patient with at pleomorphic adenoma of hard palate. (The author)

  15. Serum ?-amylase and radioinduced changes in the parotid salivary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the inhibitory chromogenic method of O'Donel et al. the authors determined ?-amylase and salivary isoenzyme activities in 30 patients with oncologic diseases (19 men and 11 women), 14 to 71 years of age, with localized tumors in the epipharynx, tonsils, hypopharynx, maxillary sinuses, lingual base, in whom the two parotid salivary glands had come within the range of the external beam gamma-therapy at different involvement degree. Measurements were performed within the 30-40 Gy interval, and the results were compared with those in a control group of normal subjects. There was increase in total amylase and salivary isomerase activities, mostly when 100% of the parotid glands had been involved. This is a sound reason for clinical search of radioinduced changes in the glands

  16. HIV-associated salivary gland enlargement: a clinical review

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S, Ebrahim; B, Singh; SS, Ramklass.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Salivary gland disease is well established as an important HIV associated oral lesion. It manifests as salivary gland swelling involving one or both parotid glands with or without xerostomia. In the context of HIV, the swelling may be due to a wide spectrum of pathological conditions that include re [...] active or inflammatory disorders, acute and chronic infections, and neoplasms. This paper reviews the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, aspects of diagnosis and management of HIV associated salivary gland enlargement, in particular parotid gland enlargement, due to benign lymphoepithelial cysts (BLEC). Parotid gland enlargement is typically an early manifestation in the HIV-positive patient and should alert healthcare professionals to the likelihood of HIV infection. FNAC of the parotid gland is required to confirm the diagnosis and instituting HAART forms an important part of the management. There is a shift away from surgery in the treatment of this essentially ‘benign’ condition.

  17. Lubrication of selected salivary molecules and artificial salivas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, A; Mendoza, B; Reddy, M S; Scannapieco, F A; Levine, M J; Hatton, M N

    1989-01-01

    The lubrication regime displayed by human salivas (parotid and submandibular-sublingual), purified salivary molecules (the mucins MG1 and MG2 and alpha-amylases), and selected artificial salivas (Oracare D, Saliva Substitute, and Orthana) was assessed in vitro using a friction-testing device. Thin-film (boundary) lubrication was observed for all of the salivary samples and two of the artificial salivas examined. Oracare D, a glycerol-based artificial saliva, was the exception since it lubricated by a thick-film (hydrodynamic) regime. On a molar basis, the best lubricants of the purified salivary molecules were MG1 greater than MG2 approximately nonglycosylated alpha-amylases approximately glycosylated alpha-amylases. PMID:2484182

  18. An insight into salivary markers in oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Prasad, Ramnarayan Belur; Sharma, Akhilesh; Babu, Harsha Mysore

    2013-05-01

    Salivary diagnostics has fascinated many researcheres and has been tested as a valuable tool in the diagnosis of many systemic conditions and for drug monitoring. Advances in the field of molecular biology, salivary genomics and proteomics have led to the discovery of new molecular markers for oral cancer diagnosis, therapeutics and prognosis. Oral cancer is a potentially fatal disease and the outcome of the treatment and prognosis largely depends on early diagnosis. Abnormal cellular products elucidated from malignant cells can be detected and measured in various body fluids including saliva and constitute tumor markers. This article discusses the various salivary tumor markers and their role in oral pre-cancer and cancer. PMID:24019794

  19. Effect of adsorption time on the adhesion strength between salivary pellicle and human tooth enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y F; Zheng, J; Zheng, L; Zhou, Z R

    2015-02-01

    Salivary pellicle is a biofilm that is formed by the selective adsorption of salivary proteins. Almost all the functions of the salivary pellicle (lubricating properties, anti-caries properties, etc.) are closely associated with its adhesion strength to tooth surface. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of adsorption time on the adhesion strength between salivary pellicle and human tooth enamel, aiming to understand what act as the determinant of the interfacial adhesion. In this study, human tooth enamel samples were immersed in human whole saliva in vitro to obtain a salivary pellicle on the surface of enamel. Immersion treatments lasting up to 1, 3, 10 and 60 min were conducted, respectively. Nano-scratch tests were conducted on the surface of enamel after different adsorption times. The wettability of enamel surface was measured through water contact angle. Results showed that the shear energy between salivary pellicle and enamel surface increased exponentially with the adsorption time. The adhesion force between salivary pellicle and bare enamel surface was more than twice that between salivary pellicle and salivary pellicle. It was found that both the wettability and zeta potential of enamel increased obviously after 1 min saliva-adsorption treatment, and then they almost kept stable as the adsorption time further increased. In summary, the adhesion strength between initial salivary pellicle and enamel surface was much higher than that between initial salivary pellicle and outer salivary pellicle. It seemed that electrostatic interaction contributed to the adhesion between the initial salivary pellicle and enamel surface, but not to the adhesion between the initial and outer salivary pellicle. The results would be helpful to extend the understanding of the adhesion mechanism of salivary pellicle and then to develop new artificial saliva and dental restorative materials. PMID:25498298

  20. A kinetic compartment model for evaluating salivary gland scintigraphies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzelius, Pia; Fuglsang, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: The semi-quantitative analysis of salivary gland scintigraphy with (99m) Tc-pertechnetate has been used to evaluate salivary gland function. However, no objective parameters distinguishing abnormal from normal functions have been established thus far. We propose using a simple kinetic model applied to the four major salivary glands. This kinetic model is based on a two-compartment model and the assumption of first-order kinetics to characterize normal salivary gland function and other selected parameters to evaluate the normal function of salivary glands. METHODS: Thirty patients referred for (99m) Tc-pertechnetate thyroid scintigraphy were studied. Dynamic imaging of the head in a fixed anterior projection was performed after an intravenous bolus injection of 150 MBq (99m) Tc-pertechnetate using a gamma scintillation camera. After 30 min, lemon juice was orally administered through a syringe. Time activity curves were generated for each of the four major salivary glands (i.e. the right and left submandibular and right and left parotid glands). Excretion fractions (the fraction of mobilizable radioactivity after administering lemon juice) and the gland activity-to-thyroid activity ratio were calculated. The data were fitted to both a one- and two-phase uptake model. RESULTS: The median uptake slope and maximal activity were significantly higher in the parotid glands than the submandibular glands (P<0·0001). The gland-to-thyroid ratio was higher in the parotid glands than the submandibular glands (P<0·0001), and the ejection fractions were higher in the parotid glands (P<0·0001). No difference was found in functional contributions of the parotid and submandibular glands. CONCLUSIONS: Tracer accumulation can be represented by a one-phase simple uptake model. The background regions that have been previously recommended in the literature are acceptable.

  1. Studies On Quantitative Analysis Of Salivary Gland Using Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to calculate the size and CT number of both normal parotid and submandibular gland, and evaluate its relation to sex, age and obesity using computed tomography. The computed tomography was performed parallel to the Frankfurt plane in 46 subjects with healthy salivary gland. The subjects were divided into the three groups (young, middle, old) according to their ages. The size of salivary gland was determined as maximum cross-sectional area and the CT number of salivary gland was determined as the mean CT number of three ROI's. The body mass index was calculated from weight and height. The mean maximum cross-sectional area was 7.79 (+/-1.26) cm2 on parotid gland and 4.12 (+/-0.83) cm2 on submandibular gland. The mean CT number was -4.43 (+/-23.87) HU on parotid gland and 50.01 (+/-15.63) HU on submandibular gland. There were decreasing pattern of the maximum cross-sectional area of submandibular gland and the CT number of both parotid and submandibular gland according to age (p<0.05). As the body mass index increased, the maximum cross-sectional area of parotid gland increased and CT number of both parotid and submandibular gland decreased (p<0.05). The maximum cross-sectional area of submandibular gland in male was larger than that in female (p<0.05). As the maximum cross-sectional area and CT number of left salivary gland increased, those of right gland increased (p<0.05). Intra-individual differences in salivary glatra-individual differences in salivary gland size and CT number is considered in the age and individual obesity.

  2. Salivary proteins of plant-feeding hemipteroids - implication in phytophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, A; Khan, A N; Subrahmanyam, S; Raman, A; Taylor, G S; Fletcher, M J

    2014-04-01

    Many hemipteroids are major pests and vectors of microbial pathogens, infecting crops. Saliva of the hemipteroids is critical in enabling them to be voracious feeders on plants, including the economically important ones. A plethora of hemipteroid salivary enzymes is known to inflict stress in plants, either by degrading the plant tissue or by affecting their normal metabolism. Hemipteroids utilize one of the following three strategies of feeding behaviour: salivary sheath feeding, osmotic-pump feeding and cell-rupture feeding. The last strategy also includes several different tactics such as lacerate-and-flush, lacerate-and-sip and macerate-and-flush. Understanding hemipteroid feeding mechanisms is critical, since feeding behaviour directs salivary composition. Saliva of the Heteroptera that are specialized as fruit and seed feeders, includes cell-degrading enzymes, auchenorrhynchan salivary composition also predominantly consists of cell-degrading enzymes such as amylase and protease, whereas that of the Sternorhyncha includes a variety of allelochemical-detoxifying enzymes. Little is known about the salivary composition of the Thysanoptera. Cell-degrading proteins such as amylase, pectinase, cellulase and pectinesterase enable stylet entry into the plant tissue. In contrast, enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase, laccase and trehalase detoxify plant chemicals, enabling the circumvention of plant-defence mechanisms. Salivary enzymes such as M1-zinc metalloprotease and CLIP-domain serine protease as in Acyrthosiphon pisum (Aphididae), and non-enzymatic proteins such as apolipophorin, ficolin-3-like protein and 'lava-lamp' protein as in Diuraphis noxia (Aphididae) have the capacity to alter host-plant-defence mechanisms. A majority of the hemipteroids feed on phloem, hence Ca++-binding proteins such as C002 protein, calreticulin-like isoform 1 and calmodulin (critical for preventing sieve-plate occlusion) are increasingly being recognized in hemipteroid-plant interactions. Determination of a staggering variety of proteins shows the complexity of hemipteroid saliva: effector proteins localized in hemipteran saliva suggest a similarity to the physiology of pathogen-plant interactions. PMID:24280006

  3. Expression of resolvin D1 biosynthetic pathways in salivary epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, N J; Nelson, J W; Mellas, R E; Aguirre, A; Baker, O J

    2014-03-01

    Resolvins are potent anti-inflammatory mediators derived from ?-3 fatty acids. Results from our previous studies indicated that resolvin D1 (RvD1) blocks pro-inflammatory responses in salivary glands. Furthermore, RvD1 enhances salivary epithelial integrity, demonstrating its potential use for the restoration of salivary gland function in Sjögren's syndrome (SS). We investigated whether the RvD1 biosynthetic machinery (e.g., cytosolic phospholipase A2, calcium-independent phospholipase A2, 12/15 and 5-lipoxygenase) is expressed in mouse submandibular glands (mSMG), using qPCR and Western blot analyses. Additionally, we determined the localization of RvD1 biosynthetic machinery in mSMG and human minor salivary glands (hMSG), with and without SS, using confocal microscopy. Finally, we measured RvD1 levels in cell supernatants from mSMG cell cultures and freshly isolated mSMG cells, with and without SS, using ELISA. Our results indicate that: (1) RvD1 machinery is expressed in mouse and human salivary glands; (2) polar distribution of RvD1 biosynthetic machinery is lost in hMSG with SS; (3) RvD1 levels in mSMG cell culture supernatants increased with time; and (4) RvD1 levels in mSMG cell supernatants, with and without SS, were similar. These studies demonstrate that the RvD1 biosynthesis machinery is expressed and functional in salivary glands with and without SS. PMID:24389810

  4. Lymphoid lesions of salivary glands: Malignant and Benign

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gary L., Ellis.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Lesions of salivary glands with a prominent lymphoid component are a heterogeneous group of diseases that include benign reactive lesions and malignant neoplasms. Occasionally, these pathologic entities present difficulties in the clinical and pathological diagnosis and prognosis. Lymphoepithelial s [...] ialadenitis, HIV-associated salivary gland disease, chronic sclerosing sialadenitis, Warthin tumor, and extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma are examples of this pathology that are sometimes problematic to differentiate from one another. In this paper the author reviewed the main clinical, pathological and prognostic features of these lesions.

  5. Congenital salivary gland anlage tumor - in utero and postnatal imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhakrishnan, Rupa; Calvo-Garcia, Maria A.; Koch, Bernadette L. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Lim, Foong-Yen [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Pediatric Surgery, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Elluru, Ravindhra G. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Pediatric Otolaryngology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2015-03-01

    We present a case of an infant with congenital salivary gland anlage tumor, with fetal and postnatal imaging. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case describing the in utero imaging findings of salivary gland anlage tumor. A fetal MRI was performed secondary to the clinical finding of polyhydramnios, which identified a nasopharyngeal mass. Because findings were concerning for airway obstruction, the fetus was delivered by ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) to airway procedure. A postnatal CT confirmed the findings of the fetal MRI. The lesion was resected when the baby was 4 days old and recovery was uneventful. (orig.)

  6. Regeneration of irradiated salivary glands by stem cell therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Lombaert, Isabelle Madeleine Armand,

    2008-01-01

    Yearly, worldwide more than 500.000 new head and neck cancer patients are treated with radiotherapy. Co-irradiation of salivary glands may lead to xerostomia (=dry mouth syndrome), resulting in permanent loss of saliva production. This loss of gland function after radiation is thought to be due to a loss of stem cells that are no longer able to replenish saliva-producing acinar cells. Therefore, stem cell therapy could be utilized to prevent radiation-induced damage to the salivary gland. ...

  7. Raman spectroscopic investigation of urinary calculi and salivary stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The capabilities and limitations of determining the composition of urinary calculi (34 patients) and salivary stones (27 patients) by Raman spectroscopy have been investigated by analysing Raman spectra obtained with 1064 nm laser excitation, and comparing them with Raman spectra both from specific reference substances and from a commercial Raman database. The composition results were also compared with those obtained by other analytical methods e.g. powder diffraction. Raman spectroscopy proves to be an analytical method which provides reliable results on the composition of urinary calculi and salivary stones quickly, non-destructively and without any need of sample preparation. (author)

  8. Minor salivary gland tumors of the upper aerodigestive tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper compares the outcome of minor salivary gland tumors of the upper aerodigestive tract according to treatment modalities. One hundred fourteen patients with minor salivary gland tumors were treated between 1961 and 1986. The median follow-up was 38 months (24-225 months). There were 35 paranasal sinus tumors (31%), 62 oral cavity tumors (54%), and 17 tumors of other sites (15%). Adenoid cystic carcinoma was the most common histologic type, accounting for 70 lesions (61%), followed by mucoepidermoid carcinoma, n = 28 (25%); adenocarcinoma, 15 (13%); and malignant mixed tumor, n = 1 (1%)

  9. Emerging horizons of salivary diagnostics for periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, L; Yakob, M; Wong, D T W

    2014-11-01

    The field of salivary diagnostics to allow risk determination for periodontal diseases is advancing. New technologies in proteomics, genomics and nanotechnologies have continued the discovery of discriminatory periodontal disease biomarkers. This review briefly overviews biomarker studies that have been completed in saliva for the detection of periodontal disease since 2010. Disease specific biomarkers could be used in risk determination, treatment planning and disease progression. Currently, diagnostic tests are commercially available, and the development of point-of-care tests is expanding. Even though challenges remain, salivary diagnostics for periodontal disease is promising and could facilitate the diagnostics and treatment in a clinical practice by dental practitioners. PMID:25415010

  10. Molecular characterization of apocrine salivary duct carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiosea, Simion I; Williams, Lindsay; Griffith, Christopher C; Thompson, Lester D R; Weinreb, Ilan; Bauman, Julie E; Luvison, Alyssa; Roy, Somak; Seethala, Raja R; Nikiforova, Marina N

    2015-06-01

    Contemporary classification and treatment of salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) require its thorough molecular characterization. Thirty apocrine SDCs were analyzed by the Ion Ampliseq Cancer HotSpot panel v2 for mutations in 50 cancer-related genes. Mutational findings were corroborated by immunohistochemistry (eg, TP53, BRAF, ?-catenin, estrogen, and androgen receptors) or Sanger sequencing/SNaPshot polymerase chain reaction. ERBB2 (HER2), PTEN, FGFR1, CDKN2A/P16, CMET, EGFR, MDM2, and PIK3CA copy number changes were studied by fluorescence in situ hybridization. TP53 mutations (15/27, 56%), PTEN loss (11/29, 38%, including 2 cases with PTEN mutation), PIK3CA hotspot mutations (10/30, 33%), HRAS hotspot mutations (10/29; 34%), and ERBB2 amplification (9/29, 31%, including 1 case with mutation) represented the 5 most common abnormalities. There was no correlation between genetic changes and clinicopathologic parameters. There was substantial overlap between genetic changes: 8 of 9 cases with ERBB2 amplification also harbored a PIK3CA, HRAS, and TP53 mutation and/or PTEN loss. Six of 10 cases with PIK3CA mutation also had an HRAS mutation. These findings provide a molecular rationale for dual targeting of mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathways in SDC. FGFR1 amplification (3/29, 10%) represents a new potential target. On the basis of studies of breast carcinomas, the efficacy of anti-ERBB2 therapy will likely be decreased in SDC with ERBB2 amplification co-occurring with PIK3CA mutation or PTEN loss. Therefore, isolated ERBB2 testing is insufficient for theranostic stratification of apocrine SDC. On the basis of the prevalence and type of genetic changes, apocrine SDC appears to resemble one subtype of breast carcinoma-"luminal androgen receptor positive/molecular apocrine." PMID:25723113

  11. Immunopathological study on salivary gland, B-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immunopathological and histochemical examinations were made of the parotid glands irradiated with betatron electron beam. In the histochemical examination, although no substance corresponding to acidic mucopolysaccharides was observed, the reaction to neutral mucopolysaccharides was positive. In Group I (21 rabbits) given single irradiation of 3,500 rad, secretorytype IgA (SIgA) decreased remarkably compared with the normal, but the secretory component (SC) showed a smaller decrease than that of the SIgA. Group II (5 rabbits), given a total dose of 7,000 rad in two irradiation, showed a greater decrease of SIgA than that of Group I, hardly observed in some regions. Their SC also showed a greater decrease than that of Group I. SIgA and SC showed no remarkable changes in either group on the first, 3rd, 5th, 7th, 15th, or 30th day. The fact that in spite of a transient increase of plasma cells containing IgA, SIgA remained to be decreased suggests that the transfer of IgA into acinar cells was greatly disturbed and that there were decrease of SC production and functional disturbances such as binding of SC with IgA in acinar cells. The increase of IgG and its persistence in Group I and II were attributed enhanced permeability due to injury of the vessels highly sensitive to radiation. It was observed that irradiation of betatron electron beam induced long-term decreases of SIgA and SC in the salivary gland; it should be examined in the future since it is a very important n the future since it is a very important problem in view of oral local immunity. (Chiba, M.)

  12. A simple, direct radioimmunoassay for salivary progesterone determination during the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourque, J; Sulon, J; Demey-Ponsart, E; Sodoyez, J C; Gaspard, U

    1986-06-01

    We describe a direct radioimmunoassay for progesterone in saliva. Results for extracted and unextracted samples agree well, showing that extraction with petroleum ether is unnecessary. The direct assay is specific and accurate, and detects as little as 2 pg of progesterone per tube (12 pmol/L). Intra- and inter-assay CVs are less than 10%. The correlation between concentrations of progesterone in saliva and plasma is good during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle (r = 0.78, p less than 0.001, n = 76) but not during the follicular phase. We present mean concentrations of progesterone in saliva and plasma for the whole cycle in 14 normal women. Although citric acid is an effective salivary-flow stimulant, its deleterious effect on the direct radioimmunoassay precludes its use with this assay for monitoring ovulation. PMID:3708818

  13. Breast Cancer Exosome-like Microvesicles and Salivary Gland Cells Interplay Alters Salivary Gland Cell-Derived Exosome-like Microvesicles In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Chang S.; Wong, David T. W.

    2012-01-01

    Saliva is a useful biofluid for the early detection of disease, but how distal tumors communicate with the oral cavity and create disease-specific salivary biomarkers remains unclear. Using an in vitro breast cancer model, we demonstrated that breast cancer-derived exosome-like microvesicles are capable of interacting with salivary gland cells, altering the composition of their secreted exosome-like microvesicles. We found that the salivary gland cells secreted exosome-like microvesicles enca...

  14. Periodontal conditions, oral Candida albicans and salivary proteins in type 2 diabetic subjects with emphasis on gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altamash Mohammad

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between periodontal conditions, oral yeast colonisation and salivary proteins in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D is not yet documented. The present study aimed to assess the relationship between these variables in type 2 diabetic subjects with reference to gender. Methods Fifty-eight type 2 diabetic subjects (23 males and 35 females with random blood glucose level ? 11.1 mmol/L were investigated. Periodontal conditions (plaque index [PI], bleeding on probing [BOP], probing pocket depth [PD] (4 to 6 mm and ? 6 mm, oral yeasts, salivary immunoglobulin (Ig A, IgG and total protein concentrations, and number of present teeth were determined. Results Periodontal conditions (PI [p p p p p Candida albicans (C. albicans colonisation compared to males in the same group. Type 2 diabetic females with C. albicans colonisation had more teeth compared to males in the same group (p Conclusion Clinical and salivary parameters of periodontal inflammation (BOP and IgG (?g/mg protein were higher in type 2 diabetic females with oral C. albicans colonisation compared to males in the same group. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the association of gender with these variables in subjects with T2D.

  15. INFLUENCE OF MUSIC TYPE LISTENING ON ANAEROBIC PERFORMANCE AND SALIVARY CORTISOL IN MALES ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ghaderi.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Music has been widely recommended as a technique to enhance the psychophysical state of participants in sport and exercise. However, there is scant scientific evidence to clarify its proposed benefits. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of fast and slow rhythm of music on anaerobic performance and salivary cortisol concentration in trained men. Thirty male physical education college students (ages: 25.66±3.89 yr, height: 176.65 ± 7.66 cm, body mass: 78.45±16.20 kg voluntary participated in this study and divided to three groups: fast music, slow music, and no music(control. All subjects performed the coninghum test following a 20% grate and 14.3km/h speed on the treadmill. For measuring of cortisol, not stimulated samples of saliva collected, 15 minutes befor and immediately 5 and 30 minute after the exercise. No significant differences were found in anaerobic performance among the three groups in pretest indicating homogeneity of the groups. However, salivary cortisol no significant in anaerobic performance 5 and 30 minute after exercise as well. Summarily, Music doed not have a positive effect on performance, this study provided some support for the hypothesis that listening fast and slow music not significantly impacted during supramaximal exercise.

  16. Plasma amylase activity as a biochemical indicator of radiation injury to salivary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation of the salivary glands produces a rapid increase of salivary amylase in serum, released by the highly radiation sensitive serous cells of the glands. Serial assays of salivary amylase in serum were performed in patients treated by radiation to the upper neck region. The changes observed were compared with the amount of salivary gland mass irradiated and with the dose fractionation modality used. The irradiated volume included either the entire salivary gland mass or less than 50 per cent of the gland. Two fractionation modalities were used: a conventional fractionation of 2 Gy per day, 5 times a week, or a multiple daily fractionation of 2 Gy, 3 times a day in two series of 4 days with a 4-day interval. Both parameters (salivary gland mass irradiated and fractionation modality used) significantly influenced the shape of the amylase curve in the serum. Serum amylase may therefore be considered a reliable biologic indicator of early injury to the salivary glands. (Auth.)

  17. Rate of Salivary flow and secretion of immunoglobulin A, in cancer patients subjected to radiotherapy treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rate of salivary flow and salivary secretion of immunoglobulin A were studied in forty human male subjects, divided into two groups : The first consists of twenty male healthy volunteers. Whereas the second consists of twenty male patients suffering from squamous cell carcinoma affecting the head and neck region without direct involvement of the major salivary glands. patients of this group received radiotherapy as the sole line of treatment where the field of gamma irradiation involved the major salivary glands. The results revealed higher rate of salivary flow and salivary IgA in the cancer patients group as compared with the control group. A progressive decrease of both salivary flow rate and IgA was observed with increasing doses of gamma irradiation. 4 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Studies of the effects of radiation or surgery on the salivary amylase activity and the isoamylase composition in salivary gland tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The total amylase activity and the isoamylase composition of saliva were studied in patients with salivary gland tumours before and after treatment to evaluate the efficiency of treatment in terms of its ability to restore normal or nearly normal salivary function. The material for the study comprised 35 normal subjects, one case of mumps and eight cases of histologically proved salivary gland tumours, three of which received radiation treatment and one was subjected to total parotidectomy. It is observed that there is a marked deviation from normal in the total salivary amylase activity and the isoamylase pattern in mumps and untreated salivary gland tumours and some increase in amylase activity is noticeable after treatment of these tumours, the increase being more marked after surgery. The salivary isoamylase pattern restored to normal in case of mumps after recovery and in salivary gland tumour after surgery but not after irradiation. These findings suggest that in view of the deleterious effects of radiaton on salivary gland function, surgery is preferable to radiation as the treatment of choice. Further studies are underway to assess the utility of the heat labile salivary amylase fraction obseved in these cases in detecting recurrences. (author)

  19. Radioimmunoassay method suitable for analysis of salivary cortisol in patients with breast cancer in treatment by teletherapy - a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determination of salivary cortisol using radioimmunoassay and the relationship between stress levels were investigated before and after of the psychological intervention of 21 patients during teletherapy treatment of breast cancer. The benefits of psychological intervention during cancer treatment has been observed in some studies and evidence show that the patient's emotional state directly influences adherence to treatment, good prognosis and under stress. Thus, in present study 21 patients aged 50-70 years, females in the treatment of breast cancer at the Radiotherapy Service of Santa Casa de Misericordia in Belo Horizonte, were divided randomly into two groups: control (without psychological intervention) and Group TCC (with psychological intervention). Salivary cortisol concentrations are reportedly about 5.10% of those in serum, the levels has been used as an objective marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and avoided the confounding effects of venepuncture stress on cortisol levels. The assessment of cortisol in saliva has proven a valid and reliable measure of unbound steroid in the circulation. The salivary cortisol measured by radioimmunoassay in control patients and TCC showed no significant differences. The radioimmunoassay method show be suitable for analysis of salivary cortisol because allows measure low detection limits and have high sensibility. The values of TCC group and Control group were higher than reference values, except for one patient of the control group. At the beginning of treatment, both groups were homogeneous for Teletherapy. Both the TCC group as the control group had . 80% of participants in phase with stress. It was observed in the TCC group after radiotherapy showing a reversal 60% of participants without stress. The data show that cognitive-behavioral therapy has benefits for the control of psychological stress and enhance relevance of the psychologist to provide reduction or stress control during radiation treatment without interfering with the integrity of the participants. (author)

  20. Radioimmunoassay method suitable for analysis of salivary cortisol in patients with breast cancer in treatment by teletherapy - a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Kellen Verena S. [Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear. Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Pampulha, MG (Brazil); Santos, Jane Lima dos [Departamento de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilheus, BA (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Determination of salivary cortisol using radioimmunoassay and the relationship between stress levels were investigated before and after of the psychological intervention of 21 patients during teletherapy treatment of breast cancer. The benefits of psychological intervention during cancer treatment has been observed in some studies and evidence show that the patient's emotional state directly influences adherence to treatment, good prognosis and under stress. Thus, in present study 21 patients aged 50-70 years, females in the treatment of breast cancer at the Radiotherapy Service of Santa Casa de Misericordia in Belo Horizonte, were divided randomly into two groups: control (without psychological intervention) and Group TCC (with psychological intervention). Salivary cortisol concentrations are reportedly about 5.10% of those in serum, the levels has been used as an objective marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and avoided the confounding effects of venepuncture stress on cortisol levels. The assessment of cortisol in saliva has proven a valid and reliable measure of unbound steroid in the circulation. The salivary cortisol measured by radioimmunoassay in control patients and TCC showed no significant differences. The radioimmunoassay method show be suitable for analysis of salivary cortisol because allows measure low detection limits and have high sensibility. The values of TCC group and Control group were higher than reference values, except for one patient of the control group. At the beginning of treatment, both groups were homogeneous for Teletherapy. Both the TCC group as the control group had . 80% of participants in phase with stress. It was observed in the TCC group after radiotherapy showing a reversal 60% of participants without stress. The data show that cognitive-behavioral therapy has benefits for the control of psychological stress and enhance relevance of the psychologist to provide reduction or stress control during radiation treatment without interfering with the integrity of the participants. (author)

  1. (S)- and (R)-[11C]nicotine and the metabolite (R/S)-[11C]cotinine. Preparation, metabolite studies and in vivo distribution in the human brain using PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate [11C]nicotine binding and metabolism in the living human brain by PET, routine protocols were developed for the preparation and purification of (S)-and (R)-[11C]nicotine and the metabolite (R/S)-[11C]cotinine. (S)- and (R)-[11C]nicotine were prepared by N-methylation with [11C]methyl iodide of the appropriate secondary amine, which was liberated in situ by 2,2,6,6,-tetramethylpiperidine (TMP) from its corresponding biscamsylate-salt. (R/S)-[11C]Cotinine was prepared by N-methylation of the amide precursor using tetrabutylammonium hydroxide as a phase transfer catalyst. Straight-phase semipreparative HPLC was in all purifications found to be superior to reversed-phase since the contamination by the norcompounds was eliminated. Reaction in acetonitrile for both (S)- and (R)-[11C]nicotine and (R/S)-[11C]cotinine with subsequent straight-phase HPLC purification resulted in 35-45% radiochemical yield with a total synthesis time of 30-35 min, a specific radioactivity of 1000-1500 Ci/mmol (37-55 GBq/?mol, EOS) and a radiochemical purity >99%. The uptake and distribution of these tracers in the human brain was studied in healthy volunteers by PET. The metabolite (R/S)-[11C]cotinine did not cross the blood-brain barrier to any significant degree. (author)

  2. What interactions drive the salivary mucosal pellicle formation?

    OpenAIRE

    Gibbins, Hannah L.; Yakubov, Gleb E.; Proctor, Gordon B.; Wilson, Stephen; Carpenter, Guy H.

    2014-01-01

    •Largely protein showed the ability to bind through hydrophobic interactions, yet some also bind according to their charges.•The hydrophobic surfaces showed the closest match to the known bound mucosal pellicle.•Salivary protein binding to particles was improved in some samples when incubated with transglutaminase.

  3. Approaches to salivary cortisol collection and analysis in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryphonopoulos, Panagiota D; Letourneau, Nicole; Azar, Rima

    2014-10-01

    Salivary cortisol is becoming more commonly utilized as a biologic marker of stress in observational studies and intervention research. However, its use with infants (12 months of age or younger) is less widespread and poses some special challenges to researchers. In order to decide on the most suitable collection procedure for salivary cortisol in infants, a number of criteria should be considered. This article will aid investigators interested in integrating salivary cortisol measurement into their research studies by presenting (1) an overview of the patterns of cortisol secretion in infancy including the development of diurnal rhythm and response to stress; (2) a comparison of the most commonly used approaches for collecting salivary cortisol samples in infants including cotton rope, syringe aspiration technique, filter paper, hydrocellulose microsponge, and the Salimetrics children's swab; (3) a discussion of the factors contributing to heightened cortisol variability in infancy and how these can be limited; (4) analytical issues associated with cortisol measurement; and (5) examples of criteria to consider when choosing a saliva sampling method and lab for conducting assays. PMID:24136995

  4. Measuring Salivary Cortisol in the Behavioral Neuroscience Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian A. Kalman, Ruth E. Grahn (Conneticut College; )

    2004-05-07

    This article descibes an ethical experimental module of human biological parameters. The enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kit measures human salivary cortisol levels, which can rise due to circadian and environmental changes. This easy to use sampling kit is described as an ideal procedure for students in behavioral neurobiology or physiological psychology laboratory class to examine cortisol levels.

  5. Mena, a new available marker in tumors of salivary glands?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gurzu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Mena (mammalian Ena is an actin regulatory protein involved in cell motility and adhesion. Based on its potential role in malignant transformation revealed in other organs, we analyzed the Mena expression in normal salivary glands (SG and salivary tumors. Mena expression was determined in normal SG (n=10 and also benign (n=20 and malignant (n=35 lesions of SG. For the immunohistochemical staining we used the anti-Mena antibody. All normal SG and the benign lesions (10 pleomorphic adenomas, 10 Warthin’s tumors were Mena negative. Salivary duct carcinomas (n=5, carcinomas in pleomorphic adenoma (n=5, acinic cell carcinomas (n=5, squamous cell carcinomas (n=10 and high-grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas (n=2 were positive. The lymphomas (n=5 and low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas (n=1 were Mena negative. In one case the lymphoblastic cells stained positive for Mena. Some of the endothelial cells, in the peritumoral vessels, were Mena positive. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in the literature about Mena expression in salivary tumors. Our study suggests that Mena protein seems to play a role in malignant transformation and its intensity is correlated with the type and grade of tumor and also with vascular invasion. Its positivity in endothelial cells may suggest its potential role in tumor angiogenesis.

  6. High-resolution electron microscopic study of salivary calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohda, H; Yamakura, K; Yanagisawa, T

    1995-10-01

    The present study was performed to examine crystals in salivary calculus by high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM) and electron diffraction analyses. Microradiography (MR) showed that the calculus had three nuclei and showed complex shapes and mineralization. Hydroxyapatite (HA), in a variety of sizes and distributions, and the intermingling of HA and whitlockite (WH) at well-calcified areas, were observed. PMID:8568452

  7. Distribution of Dendritic Cells in Normal Human Salivary Glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dendritic cells (DC) are believed to contribute to development of autoimmune sialadenitis, but little is known about their distribution in normal salivary glands. In this study, DC were identified and their distribution was determined in normal human parotid and submandibular glands. For light microscopy, salivary gland sections were stained with H&E or immunocytochemically using antibodies to DC markers. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to evaluate the ultrastructural characteristics of DC. In H&E sections, elongated, irregularly shaped nuclei were occasionally seen in the striated and excretory duct epithelium. Immunolabeling with anti-HLA-DR, anti-CD11c and anti-S100 revealed DC with numerous processes extending between ductal epithelial cells, often close to the lumen. Morphometric analyses indicated that HLA-DR-positive DC occupied approximately 4–11% of the duct wall volume. Similar reactive cells were present in acini, intercalated ducts and interstitial tissues. TEM observations revealed cells with indented nuclei containing dense chromatin, pale cytoplasm with few organelles, and lacking junctional attachments to adjacent cells. These results indicate that DC are abundant constituents of normal human salivary glands. Their location within ductal and acinar epithelium suggests a role in responding to foreign antigens and/or maintaining immunological tolerance to salivary proteins

  8. Proposals for standardized operation protocols: salivary glands and liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scintigraphy of salivary glands: three bilateral pairs of salivary glands exist, which have ducts into the mouth: glandula parotidea, glandula submandibularis and glandula sublingualis. The glandula parotidea secrets serous saliva and the glandula sublingualis mucous saliva. Stimulation by Cebion trademark produces a thin watery saliva. Similar to the uptake of iodine, pertechnetat is taken up from the blood by the salivary glands via the duct epithelium and released with the saliva. This mechanism allows the visualisation of the salivary glands and the examination of their function. Liver-bloodpool-scintigraphy: the bloodpool scintigraphy allows a visualization of the intrahepatic bloodpool. It is used to confirm or exclude the presence of liver haemangioma. Haemangiomas are normally asymptomatic and therefore often detected by chance. Often it is difficult to distinguish a haemangioma from a malignant liver lesion. Over 90% of haemangioma have a diameter less then 4 cm, are solitary and don't need therapy. Larger haemangioma may cause complications and may need treatment. Liver-function-scintigraphy: in the dynamic liver function scintigraphy, a radio-labelled bile-acid is injected and the secretion is visualized. Using this technique, the uptake of the radiotracer from the blood into the hepatocytes, the biliary secretion, the accumulation in the gallbladder and the release into the duodenum (e.g. after a fatty meal) can be visualized. This allows the dieal) can be visualized. This allows the diagnosis of global and regional liver dysfunctions. (orig.)

  9. Accumulation of radioactivity in rat brain and peripheral tissues including salivary gland after intravenous administration of 14C-D-aspartic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the intravenous administration of 14C-D-aspartic acid (Asp) into Sprague-Dawley rats (male, 7-week-old), the distribution and elimination of radioactivity was investigated by the whole body autoradiography. High radioactivities were detected in pineal gland, pituitary gland and salivary gland at 30 min after administration. The other tissues detected were liver, lung, adrenal gland, pancreas and spleen where D-Asp was reported to occur naturally. After 24 hr, the radioactivities were still detected at high levels in the pineal, pituitary and salivary glands. The data suggested the natural occurrence of D-Asp in salivary gland. After careful examination utilizing fluorescent derivatization and chiral separation by high-performance liquid chromatography, the presence of D-Asp was, for the first time, demonstrated in salivary gland in situ, the concentration of which was 7.85 ± 1.0 nmol/g. The administration of 14C-L-Asp was also carried out. The data suggested that D-Asp in the circulating blood is one of the sources of the tissue D-Asp. (author)

  10. Studies on irradiation effects on rat salivary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following 60Co ? irradiation (17.82 Gy) given as a single dose, time, dose and fractionation factor (TDF) 100, to the head and neck area of rats, the major salivary glands were examined at 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 49 days for evidence of microscopic and ultrastructural damage as well as for changes in various enzymes. In addition, parotid salivary function assessed in terms of flow rate, total salivary protein, and secretion of ?-amylase activity was also determined. In the early stage after 60Co ?-irradiation 17.82 Gy (TDF 100), systemic effects, body weight loss, and dehydration were observed, and the animals tended to recover from these effects within 1 or 2 weeks. Regarding the irradiation effect on the salivary glands, the parotid gland was showed severe damage; the submandibular, moderate; and the sublingual, slight. Also the effects remained longer in the parotid. Proliferation of granular convoluted tubule cells was retarded by irradiation. The total protein in the parotid gland was decreased after irradiation, whereas the submandibular and sublingual were showed slight or no change. The amount of activity of ?-amylase and of alkaline phosphatase activity in the parotid gland, and that of acid phosphatase and ?-D-glucuronidase in all glands, was dependent on the degree of morphological damage observed following irradiation. The salivary flow rate in the parotid gland was depressed 7 days after irradiation to approximately 1/7 ofr irradiation to approximately 1/7 of normal, and recovery was noted by 49 days post irradiation. The total protein and ?-amylase activity in the parotid saliva were decreased within several days after irradiation, but had recovered to normal levels. (author)

  11. Studies On Quantitative Analysis Of Salivary Gland Using Computed Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Chul; Lee, Sam Sun; Heo, Min Suk; Choi, Soon Chul; Park, Tae Won; You, Dong Soo [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Dental Research Institute, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to calculate the size and CT number of both normal parotid and submandibular gland, and evaluate its relation to sex, age and obesity using computed tomography. The computed tomography was performed parallel to the Frankfurt plane in 46 subjects with healthy salivary gland. The subjects were divided into the three groups (young, middle, old) according to their ages. The size of salivary gland was determined as maximum cross-sectional area and the CT number of salivary gland was determined as the mean CT number of three ROI's. The body mass index was calculated from weight and height. The mean maximum cross-sectional area was 7.79 (+/-1.26) cm{sup 2} on parotid gland and 4.12 (+/-0.83) cm{sup 2} on submandibular gland. The mean CT number was -4.43 (+/-23.87) HU on parotid gland and 50.01 (+/-15.63) HU on submandibular gland. There were decreasing pattern of the maximum cross-sectional area of submandibular gland and the CT number of both parotid and submandibular gland according to age (p<0.05). As the body mass index increased, the maximum cross-sectional area of parotid gland increased and CT number of both parotid and submandibular gland decreased (p<0.05). The maximum cross-sectional area of submandibular gland in male was larger than that in female (p<0.05). As the maximum cross-sectional area and CT number of left salivary gland increased, those of right gland increased (p<0.05). Intra-individual differences in salivary gland size and CT number is considered in the age and individual obesity.

  12. Analysis of the salivary microbiome using culture-independent techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarevic Vladimir

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The salivary microbiota is a potential diagnostic indicator of several diseases. Culture-independent techniques are required to study the salivary microbial community since many of its members have not been cultivated. Methods We explored the bacterial community composition in the saliva sample using metagenomic whole genome shotgun (WGS sequencing, the extraction of 16S rRNA gene fragments from metagenomic sequences (16S-WGS and high-throughput sequencing of PCR-amplified bacterial 16S rDNA gene (16S-HTS regions V1 and V3. Results The hierarchical clustering of data based on the relative abundance of bacterial genera revealed that distances between 16S-HTS datasets for V1 and V3 regions were greater than those obtained for the same V region with different numbers of PCR cycles. Datasets generated by 16S-HTS and 16S-WGS were even more distant. Finally, comparison of WGS and 16S-based datasets revealed the highest dissimilarity. The analysis of the 16S-HTS, WGS and 16S-WGS datasets revealed 206, 56 and 39 bacterial genera, respectively, 124 of which have not been previously identified in salivary microbiomes. A large fraction of DNA extracted from saliva corresponded to human DNA. Based on sequence similarity search against completely sequenced genomes, bacterial and viral sequences represented 0.73% and 0.0036% of the salivary metagenome, respectively. Several sequence reads were identified as parts of the human herpesvirus 7. Conclusions Analysis of the salivary metagenome may have implications in diagnostics e.g. in detection of microorganisms and viruses without designing specific tests for each pathogen.

  13. Alteration of oral salivary pharmacokinetics of paracetamol by an investigational anti-malarial phytomedicine, in healthy human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obodozie, O; Mustapha, K; Inyang, U

    2004-01-01

    Effect of an investigational anti-malarial phytomedicine (AM1) on the salivary pharmacokinetics of paracetamol (PCM), in healthy human volunteers was examined. The drug salivary level of paracetamol was determined using spectrophotometric method. Lower concentrations of PCM was observed in concomitant administration of 1000mg PCM tablets with 250mg AM1 capsule compared with administration of 1000mg paracetamol tablets alone (control). The area under the curve (AUC), time for maximum concentration (t(max)), maximum concentration (Cmax) were generated using the GRAPHPAD PRISM software version 2.0. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated from the semi-logarithmic plots of concentration-time data for PCM. The absorption kinetics parameters kab, lag-time, t1/2ab for both test (0.03min(-1), 9min, 18min.) and control (0.03min(-1), 9min, 22.8min.) were identical. There were statistically significant reductions in the bioavailability parameters AUC, Cmax, between control (1856microg/ml/min, 8.08microg/ml) and test (847.87microg/ml/min, 4.59microg/ml/) experiments. There were also insignificant but definite alterations in the elimination phase kinetic parameters kel, t1/2el, between control (0.1172min(-1), 69min.) and test (0.01027min(-1), 75min). The study shows that the botanical anti-malarial remedy (AM1) reduced the systemic availability of PCM when used concomitantly. PMID:15537171

  14. Salivary duct carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the palate: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourell, Lauren G; Chan, King Chong; Hirsch, David L

    2015-02-01

    Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma is a rare malignancy of the head and neck, particularly in the minor salivary glands. Most cases arise in the major salivary glands, most commonly in the parotid gland, followed by the submandibular gland. The malignant component of the tumor varies, but can be salivary duct carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, or adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified. Primary salivary duct carcinoma is also a rare malignancy of the head and neck. Similar to carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma, it is more common in the major salivary glands, with the parotid gland accounting for 88% and the submandibular gland for 10% of cases. To date, only 25 known cases of primary salivary duct carcinoma arising in the minor salivary glands have been documented, with most arising in the palate. Salivary duct carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the minor salivary glands appears to be even rarer. Our case of salivary duct carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the palate is the first complete report, to our knowledge, in the English-language scientific literature. PMID:25579019

  15. High affinity histamine-binding and antihistaminic activity of the salivary nitric oxide-carrying heme protein (nitrophorin) of Rhodnius prolixus

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    The salivary glands of Rhodnius prolixus contain a nitrosyl-heme protein, named nitrophorin, that releases the vasodilatory and antiplatelet compound nitric oxide (NO). Because imidazole compounds such as histamine can interact with Fe(III) heme proteins, we investigated whether such substances could interact with Rhodnius nitrophorins. Both imidazole and histamine, but not histidine can produce full of the difference spectra of the Soret band in the 1-3 microM concentration range (at a heme ...

  16. Effects of split-dose X irradiation on rat salivary gland function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of a single local dose of 15 Gy on salivary gland function in male Albino Wistar rats was compared with the effect of two doses of 7.5 Gy. The intervals chosen were 0-24 h and 1 week. Before and 1-30 days after the last radiation dose, samples of parotid and submandibular saliva were collected simultaneously after stimulation of the glands with pilocarpine. Irradiation with the single dose resulted in an increased lag phase and potassium concentration, and a decreased flow rate and sodium concentration. The rate of secretion of amylase was decreased during Days 1-6, increased at Day 10, and was decreased again at Day 30. With two dose fractions, substantial dose-sparing effects on lag phase, flow rate, and secretion of amylase were observed for both the very early (0-6 days postirradiation) and later (6-30 days postirradiation) effects. These effects were maximal when the interval between the fractions was 6 h. A significant dose-sparing effect on electrolytes was observed for the later effects only, again with a maximum for the 6-h interval. The dose-sparing observed for the very early effects cannot be explained satisfactorily by repair of sublethal damage (SLD), redistribution of cells over the cell cycle, or repopulation of salivary gland tissue between the doses. In contrast to the earlier dose-sparing effects, the split-dose recovery seen for later damage may be attributed, in part, to SLD repair in providing for greater reproductive survival of interfor greater reproductive survival of intercalated ductal cells and enhanced tissue regeneration

  17. Astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) is a marker for aggressive salivary gland carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Liao Wen-Ting; Guo Ling; Zhong Yi; Wu Yan-Heng; Li Jun; Song Li-Bing

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) is associated with tumorigenesis and progression in diverse human cancers. The present study was aimed to investigate the clinical and prognostic significance of AEG-1 in salivary gland carcinomas (SGC). Methods Real-time PCR and western blot analyses were employed to examine AEG-1 expression in two normal salivary gland tissues, eight SGC tissues of various clinical stages, and five pairs of primary SGC and adjacent salivary gland tissues...

  18. THE SALIVARY TRANSCRIPTOME OF Anopheles gambiae (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) LARVAE: A MICROARRAY-BASED ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Neira Oviedo, M.; Ribeiro, J. M. C.; Heyland, A.; Vanekeris, L.; Moroz, T.; Linser, P. J.

    2009-01-01

    In spite of the many recent developments in the field of vector sialomics, the salivary glands of larval mosquitoes have been largely unexplored. We used whole-transcriptome microarray analysis to create a gene-expression profile of the salivary gland tissue of fourth-instar Anopheles gambiae larvae, and compare it to the gene-expression profile of a matching group of whole larvae. We identified a total of 221 probes with expression values that were (a) significantly enriched in the salivary ...

  19. Immunological relationship between anionic antimicrobial proteins from caries-free individuals and known salivary antimicrobial factors.

    OpenAIRE

    Obenauf, S. D.; Fisher, R. H.; Cowman, R. A.; Fitzgerald, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    We examined whether the anionic inhibitory proteins identified in mixed saliva from certain caries-free individuals are fragments or degradation products of recognized salivary antimicrobial factors. In the experiments reported here, the anionic inhibitory proteins did not produce precipitin reactions with antisera to any of the established salivary antimicrobial factors examined. Additionally, native, heat-treated, or urea-denatured known salivary antimicrobial factors did not react with the...

  20. MDM2 Is Required for Suppression of Apoptosis by Activated Akt1 in Salivary Acinar Cells?

    OpenAIRE

    Limesand, Kirsten H.; Schwertfeger, Kathryn L.; Anderson, Steven M.

    2006-01-01

    Chronic damage to the salivary glands is a common side effect following head and neck irradiation. It is hypothesized that irreversible damage to the salivary glands occurs immediately after radiation; however, previous studies with rat models have not shown a causal role for apoptosis in radiation-induced injury. We report that etoposide and gamma irradiation induce apoptosis of salivary acinar cells from FVB control mice in vitro and in vivo; however, apoptosis is reduced in transgenic mice...

  1. Perlecan Domain IV Peptide Stimulates Salivary Gland Cell Assembly In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Pradhan, Swati; Zhang, Chu; Jia, Xinqiao; Carson, Daniel D.; Witt, Robert; Farach-carson, Mary C.

    2009-01-01

    Treatment of xerostomia would benefit from development of a functional implantable artificial salivary gland. Salivary gland tissue from surgical patients was assessed by histology and immunohistochemistry to establish the phenotype of normal salivary gland cells including the native basement membranes. Ductal and acinar cells were identified in tissue and cultured cells from dispersed tissue. High levels of laminin and perlecan/HSPG2 (heparan sulfate proteoglycan 2) were noted in basement me...

  2. Myoepithelioma of a minor salivary gland of the cheek: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Ferri, E.; Pavon, I.; Armato, E.; Cavaleri, S.; Capuzzo, P.; Ianniello, F.

    2006-01-01

    Myoepithelioma is a rare neoplasm of the salivary glands, generally occurring in the parotid gland and less often in the minor accessory salivary gland of the oral cavity. The histological appearance includes solid, myxoid and reticular growth patterns. Vimentin and S-100 protein are very sensitive but non-specific immunohistochemical markers of neoplastic myoepithelium. Conservative surgery is the treatment of choice. A case of myoepithelioma of the minor salivary gland of the cheek with low...

  3. Evaluation of Therapeutic Effects of Astaxanthin on Impairments in Salivary Secretion

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada, Takashi; Ryo, Koufuchi; Tai, Yoshinori; Tamaki, Yoh; Inoue, Hiroko; Mishima, Kenji; Tsubota, Kazuo; Saito, Ichiro

    2010-01-01

    The involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the pathophysiology of Sjögren’s syndrome (SS), an autoimmune disorder, and irradiation-induced impairments in salivary secretion has been reported. Meanwhile, the strong antioxidant astaxanthin (Ast) has been suggested to have therapeutic effects on various diseases. In the present study, we examined the ROS scavenging capacity of Ast using a human salivary gland epithelial cell line (HSY) and investigated the effects of Ast on salivary sec...

  4. Comparative Cytokeratin Expression in the Different Cell Types of Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Azevedo, Rebeca Souza; de Almeida, Oslei Paes; Kowalski, Luiz Paulo; Pires, Fábio Ramôa

    2008-01-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma is the most common malignant salivary gland tumor, composed of several different cell types, with controversial histogenesis. The aim of this study was to assess the expression of cytokeratins in mucoepidermoid carcinoma, comparing to cytokeratin expression in normal salivary glands, in order to establish a possible correlation between tumor cells immunostaining and mucoepidermoid carcinoma histogenesis and differentiation. Eighty cases of salivary gland mucoepidermoi...

  5. Anopheles gambiae Circumsporozoite Protein–Binding Protein Facilitates Plasmodium Infection of Mosquito Salivary Glands

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jiuling; Zhang, Yue; Zhao, Yang O.; Li, Michelle W. M.; Zhang, Lili; Dragovic, Srdjan; Abraham, Nabil M.; Fikrig, Erol

    2013-01-01

    Malaria, a mosquito-borne disease caused by Plasmodium species, causes substantial morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Plasmodium sporozoites mature in oocysts formed in the mosquito gut wall and then invade the salivary glands, where they remain until transmitted to the vertebrate host during a mosquito bite. The Plasmodium circumsporozoite protein (CSP) binds to salivary glands and plays a role in the invasion of this organ by sporozoites. We identified an Anopheles salivary gland...

  6. Salivary type alpha-amylase activity in serum and in urine of patients with lung adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total alpha-amylase activity in sera and urine of 30 patients with lung adenocarcinoma has been tested. The results were compared with control group of 30 healthy voluntaries. The activity of pancreatic type was differentiated from salivary alpha amylase. Salivary type was inhibited selectively by Triticum aestivum. Higher levels of total and salivary type amylase were noted in patients with lung adenocarcinoma in comparison to healthy control. The increase was significant (p<0.005). Correlation was observed between the activity of salivary type amylase and the stage of adenocarcinoma. (author)

  7. Labial salivary gland biopsy assessment in rheumatoid vasculitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Flipo, R M; Janin, A.; Hachulla, E.; Houvenagel, E; Foulet, A; Cardon, T; Desbonnet, A; Grardel, B; Duquesnoy, B.; Delcambre, B.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To assess the vascular involvement in labial salivary gland (LSG) from patients with rheumatoid vasculitis (RV). METHODS--Forty seven patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) took part in a prospective study. Among them, 12 had proven RV. LSG biopsy was performed after local anaesthesia. RESULTS--Histological appearance of inflammatory vascular damage was observed in all but one patient with proven RV (92%). Inflammatory vascular involvement was also identified in LSG biopsy of sev...

  8. Salivary Cortisol Response to Different Dental Treatments in Kermanian Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Chamani, G.; Gholamhoseinian, A.; Hedayat, A.

    2006-01-01

    The physiological stress of different dental procedures (dental examination, dental prophylaxise, endodontics, restoration and tooth extraction) were determined in 62 healthy, non-smoking, non-pregnant kermanian patients with normal sleep pattern, age between 18 and 55 years (mean 32) with a salivary cortisol assay using radioimmunoassay technique. Expectorated saliva was collected at 4 time points: 10 min before the start of the procedure (stage A), 10 min after the patient was seated (stage...

  9. Human herpes virus 6 and endogenous biotin in salivary glands.

    OpenAIRE

    Green, M.; Sviland, L; Taylor, C. E.; Peiris, M; McCarthy, A. L.; Pearson, A D; Malcolm, A J

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: To detect the presence of human herpes virus 6 (HHV6) and endogenous biotin in paraffin wax embedded and frozen salivary glands. METHODS: Two stage indirect and streptavidin-biotin immunoperoxidase techniques were used to visualise the antigens. RESULTS: HHV6 could not be shown in any of the tissues. However, considerable endogenous biotin antigenicity was detected in the glandular elements of the paraffin wax embedded material. CONCLUSIONS: Results obtained with avidin-biotin detection...

  10. Salivary Ceruloplasmin Ferroxidase & Oxidase Activities in Celiac Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Hathama R.; Ghadhban, Jasim M.; Abudal Kadhum, Zahraa I.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate salivary ferroxidase ceruloplasmin activities in celiac patients with different histopathological severity. This study included 75 celiac patients with different mean age (18.68 ± 11.13) year, who had positive screen for celiac antibodies, and who had gastrointestinal symptoms. In order to simplify the comparison with the healthy control group, celiac patients were divided into two groups according to their histopathological severity: severe (mars...

  11. Salivary function in patients with chronic renal failure undergoing hemodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in salivary gland function in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) undergoing hemodialysis. The group consisted of 23 patients with CRF (13 female, 10 male; mean age: 40±13 yr) and 14 healthy control subjects (mean age: 40±13 yr). All underwent dynamic salivary gland scintigraphy with gustatory stimulation. After intravenous administration of 99mTc pertechnetate, first, perfusion images at 2 seconds per frame were acquired for 1 minute, then dynamic images at 1 minute per frame were acquired for 45 minutes. At 30 minutes after injection , 10 ml lemon juice was given for 15 minutes as a gustatory stimulus. We obtained time-activity curves derived from regions of interest centered over the four major salivary glands. The following functional indices were calculated for each gland: the time of maximum radioactivity (Tmax) for the prestimulated period, the time of minimum radioactivity (Tmin), as an indicator of velocity of secretion after stimulation, and the Lem E5% value as an indicator of the secretion function. When the patients with CRF undergoing hemodialysis were compared to the controls, there were statistically significant differences in Tmax, Tmin and Lem E5% values for bilateral parotid glands, and Tmin values for bilateral submandibular glands (pmaxlly significant differences in Tmax and Lem E5% values for bilateral submandibular glands. There were also significant differences in Tmax and Lem E5% values for bilateral parotid glands between mild oral problems and severe oral problems in patients with CRF (undergoing hemodialysis). In this study, prolonged Tmax and Tmin values, and decreased Lem E5% values for parotid glands and prolonged Tmin values for submandibular glands on salivary scintigraphy pointed out decreased parenchymatous and excretory function in patients with CRF undergoing hemodialysis. (author)

  12. Clinical management of salivary deficiency: A review article

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physical, chemical and antibacterial properties of saliva provide protection to human dentition against dental diseases, Therefore, salivary deficiency has to be managed carefully. The causes of saliva deficiency are many and varied. It is worth mentioning that saliva flow rate is normally affected by physiologic condition, such as eating, resting, sleeping, cold or hot season etc. In this paper the protective role of saliva, etiologiy of saliva deficiency and its clinical management are discussed. (author

  13. Tick salivary secretion as a source of antihemostatics.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chmela?, Jind?ich; Calvo, E.; Pedra, J. H. F.; Francischetti, I.M.B.; Kotsyfakis, Michalis

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 75, ?. 13 (2012), s. 3842-3854. ISSN 1874-3919 R&D Projects: GA ?R GAP502/12/2409 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Tick * Salivary gland * Hemostasis * Coagulation * Platelet aggregation * Thrombin Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.088, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S187439191200245X

  14. DETERMINATION OF SALIVARY CORTISOL IN HEALTHY CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Safarzadeh, E.; Mostafavi, F.; Haghi Ashtiani, M. T.

    2005-01-01

    Recognized as a reliable tool for assessing the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, measurement of salivary cortisol plays an important role in both the clinical and research settings. To establish a normative data, which forms the basis for the usage of this valuable parameter, we gathered 8:00 h saliva samples from 94 healthy individuals aged 6-14 years. Cortisol levels were measured by radioimmunoassay technique, using Orion Diagnostica's coated tube technology. Based on mean±...

  15. Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma in a Minor Salivary Gland in a Child

    OpenAIRE

    Sera Simsek; Fatih Sengul; Binali Cakur

    2013-01-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC), one of the most common salivary gland malignancies, is rare in children. MEC mainly occurs in the parotid gland, along with minor glands being the second common site, particularly in palate. Clinical, histological, and radiological findings of palatal MEC in a 12-year-old girl are presented with three-year follow-up. Pathologic lesions must be considered in differential diagnoses of intraoral asymptomatic lesions, and their detailed inspection should be taken i...

  16. Influence of mirtazapine on salivary cortisol in depressed patients

    OpenAIRE

    Laakmann, G.; Hennig, J.; Baghai, Thomas C.; Schule, C.

    2003-01-01

    Unlike other antidepressants, mirtazapine does not inhibit the reuptake of norepinephrine or serotonin but acts as an antagonist at presynaptic alpha(2)-receptors, at postsynaptic 5-HT2 and 5-HT3 receptors, and at histaminergic H1 receptors. Furthermore, mirtazapine has been shown to acutely inhibit cortisol secretion in healthy subjects. In the present study, the impact of mirtazapine treatment on salivary cortisol secretion was investigated in 12 patients (4 men, 8 women) suffering from maj...

  17. Roles of Salivary Components in Streptococcus mutans Colonization in a New Animal Model Using NOD/SCID.e2f1?/? Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Tatsuro; Maeda, Takahide; Senpuku, Hidenobu

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans plays an important role in biofilm formation on the tooth surface and is the primary causative agent of dental caries. The binding of S. mutans to the salivary pellicle is of considerable etiologic significance and is important in biofilm development. Recently, we produced NOD/SCID.e2f1?/? mice that show hyposalivation, lower salivary antibody, and an extended life span compared to the parent strain: NOD.e2f1?/?. In this study we used NOD/SCID.e2f1?/? 4 or 6 mice to determine the roles of several salivary components in S. mutans colonization in vivo. S. mutans colonization in NOD/SCID.e2f1?/? mice was significantly increased when mice were pre-treated with human saliva or commercial salivary components. Interestingly, pre-treatment with secretory IgA (sIgA) at physiological concentrations promoted significant colonization of S. mutans compared with sIgA at higher concentrations, or with human saliva or other components. Our data suggest the principal effects of specific sIgA on S. mutans occur during S. mutans colonization, where the appropriate concentration of specific sIgA may serve as an anti-microbial agent, agglutinin, or an adherence receptor to surface antigens. Further, specific sIgA supported biofilm formation when the mice were supplied 1% sucrose water and a non-sucrose diet. The data suggests that there are multiple effects exerted by sIgA in S. mutans colonization, with synergistic effects evident under the condition of sIgA and limited nutrients on colonization in NOD/SCID.e2f1?/? mice. This is a new animal model that can be used to assess prevention methods for dental biofilm-dependent diseases such as dental caries. PMID:22363797

  18. Characterization of salivary alpha-amylase binding to Streptococcus sanguis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to identify the major salivary components which interact with oral bacteria and to determine the mechanism(s) responsible for their binding to the bacterial surface. Strains of Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, and Actinomyces viscosus were incubated for 2 h in freshly collected human submandibular-sublingual saliva (HSMSL) or parotid saliva (HPS), and bound salivary components were eluted with 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate. By sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western transfer, alpha-amylase was the prominent salivary component eluted from S. sanguis. Studies with 125I-labeled HSMSL or 125I-labeled HPS also demonstrated a component with an electrophoretic mobility identical to that of alpha-amylase which bound to S. sanguis. Purified alpha-amylase from human parotid saliva was radiolabeled and found to bind to strains of S. sanguis genotypes 1 and 3 and S. mitis genotype 2, but not to strains of other species of oral bacteria. Binding of [125I]alpha-amylase to streptococci was saturable, calcium independent, and inhibitable by excess unlabeled alpha-amylases from a variety of sources, but not by secretory immunoglobulin A and the proline-rich glycoprotein from HPS. Reduced and alkylated alpha-amylase lost enzymatic and bacterial binding activities. Binding was inhibited by incubation with maltotriose, maltooligosaccharides, limit dextrins, and starchigosaccharides, limit dextrins, and starch

  19. Prognostic significance of Ki-67 in salivary gland carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Stine Rosenkilde; BjØrndal, Kristine

    2012-01-01

    J Oral Pathol Med (2012) Background:? Salivary gland carcinomas are a heterogeneous group of tumors with varying malignant potential. In this study, we evaluated the proliferative marker Ki-67 in salivary gland carcinomas and related the Ki-67 index to clinical data. Methods:? A total of 176 salivary gland carcinomas of 13 different subtypes were stained immunohistochemically for Ki-67. The number of Ki-67 positive cells was counted and the Ki-67 index was calculated as the percentage of positive tumor cells. Results:? The Ki-67 median value was 26 (range 1-99). The median follow-up time was 6.9?years (range 0-19?years). The 5- and 10-year crude survival was 70% and 59%, respectively. In univariate analysis, Ki-67 index, stage, vascular invasion and tumor grade were significantly related to crude survival, but in multivariate analysis only Ki-67 index, age, and stage were independent prognostic factors. Conclusion:? We showed that irrespective of subtyping, grading or morphological appearance of tumor, the Ki-67 index is an important and independent prognosticator. Clinical and histo-pathological data must be considered, when planning the treatment of the individual patient. We have shown that besides stage and age of the patient, Ki-67 is a strong, independent prognostic factor.

  20. Differential expression of salivary glycoproteins in aggressive and chronic periodontitis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daniela de Morais, Rocha; Elton Gonçalves, Zenóbio; Thomas, Van Dyke; Karine Simões, Silva; Fernando Oliveira, Costa; Rodrigo Villamarim, Soares.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES:The aim of this study was to compare the pattern of secretion and the expression of mucin glycoprotein-2 (MG2) and lactoferrin in individuals with or without periodontitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five individuals with aggressive periodontitis (APG), 5 with generalized chronic periodontitis [...] (CPG) and 5 without periodontitis (CG) were enrolled after informed consent. Non-stimulated and stimulated submandibular and sublingual saliva was collected and samples analyzed by Western blot probed with specific antibodies. RESULTS: Stimulated and non-stimulated salivary flow rates did not differ among groups. Western blot analysis revealed that stimulation led to: an increase in MG2 expression in all groups, and to lactoferrin expression in APG and CPG. In non-stimulated saliva, CG exhibited the highest expression of both glycoproteins. In stimulated saliva, CG exhibited the highest expression of MG2, whereas APG the highest of lactoferrin. CONCLUSIONS: The pattern of secretion of MG2 and lactoferrin in health and disease is complex. Although the present study analyzed samples from a limited number of participants, the reduced expression of MG2 and lactoferrin in APG and CPG under non-stimulated condition, the predominant circumstance of salivary secretion during the day, suggests that these salivary constituents may play a role in the etiopathogenesis of these diseases.

  1. Characterization of salivary alpha-amylase binding to Streptococcus sanguis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scannapieco, F A; Bergey, E J; Reddy, M S; Levine, M J

    1989-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the major salivary components which interact with oral bacteria and to determine the mechanism(s) responsible for their binding to the bacterial surface. Strains of Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, and Actinomyces viscosus were incubated for 2 h in freshly collected human submandibular-sublingual saliva (HSMSL) or parotid saliva (HPS), and bound salivary components were eluted with 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate. By sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western transfer, alpha-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1) was the prominent salivary component eluted from S. sanguis. Studies with 125I-labeled HSMSL or 125I-labeled HPS also demonstrated a component with an electrophoretic mobility identical to that of alpha-amylase which bound to S. sanguis. Purified alpha-amylase from human parotid saliva was radiolabeled and found to bind to strains of S. sanguis genotypes 1 and 3 and S. mitis genotype 2, but not to strains of other species of oral bacteria. Binding of [125I]alpha-amylase to streptococci was saturable, calcium independent, and inhibitable by excess unlabeled alpha-amylases from a variety of sources, but not by secretory immunoglobulin A and the proline-rich glycoprotein from HPS. Reduced and alkylated alpha-amylase lost enzymatic and bacterial binding activities. Binding was inhibited by incubation with maltotriose, maltooligosaccharides, limit dextrins, and starch. PMID:2788139

  2. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE FACIAL ARTERY AND SUB MANDIBULAR SALIVARY GLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V.Venugopal,

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of relationship between the facial artery and submandibular salivary gland is essential for the surgeon operating in the submandibular region. This study has been under taken to have the knowledge of this relationship. Submandibular region has been dissected on 20 male cadavers in the Department of Anatomy, Sree Narayana Institute of Medical Sciences, Kerala. The course of the facial artery and its relationship to submandibular salivary gland has been followed carefully. The standard description of ascent of the facial artery along the entire length of posterior border of the submandibular salivary gland was seen in 15 out of the 20 sides studied. In 4 out of 20 sides dissected the facial artery reached only the upper part of the posterior border of the gland. The facial artery arose high on the external carotid artery near the angle of the mandible in one specimen. It reached the gland only at its postero-superior angle, pierced through the gland and emerged on the upper part of the lateral surface of the gland. Our study shows that only 1/5 of instances facial artery courses along the posterior border of the gland. In 4/5 of instances it reaches only the upper part of the posterior border.

  3. Salivary extracellular noncoding RNA: emerging biomarkers for molecular diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, David T W

    2015-03-01

    Saliva is a complex body fluid that comprises secretions from the major and minor salivary glands, nourished by body's vasculature. Although many circulatory molecules (DNA, RNA, and proteins) can also be present in saliva, saliva harbors unique molecular constituents that can be discriminatory for oral and systemic disease screening and detection. Many studies have reported that salivary constituents can discriminate oral diseases (oral cancer and Sjögren's syndrome) and also systemic diseases (lung cancer, breast cancer, pancreatic cancer, and ovarian cancer). Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) are emerging new regulators of diverse biological functions, playing important roles in oncogenesis and tumor progression. Indeed, the short size of these molecules makes them stable in different body fluids such as urine, blood, and saliva, being not as susceptible as mRNAs to degradation by RNases. Here, the current status and clinical implications of the ncRNAs present in human saliva are reviewed for translational applications and basic biological research. The development of noninvasive salivary test (based on ncRNAs profiles) for disease detection could have effective applications into the clinical context with a translational significance as emerging molecular biomarkers for non-invasively disease detection, not only by reducing the cost to the health care system but also by benefitting patients. PMID:25795433

  4. Salivary a-amylase protects enamel surface against acid induced softening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazovic, Maja Bruvo; Moe, Dennis

    Objectives: Recently we have demonstrated individual differences in protection against acid-induced enamel softening offered by experimentally developed saliva pellicles. Although ethnicity seemed to be related to protection level, the saliva proteins responsible for the differences were not identified. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to identify the proteins responsible. Methods: Sour taste stimulated parotid saliva was collected from 20 subjects (23±1 years) comprising ten Scandinavians (Sc) and ten non-Scandinavians (NSc) including two Arabs, two Persians, four Pakistanis, one Indian, and one Chinese. After collection, saliva was dialysed and lyophilised and re-dissolved at 0.5% in Type I water. Next, four polished bovine enamel specimens were immersed into each sample under gentle and constant shaking for 12 hours. Last, specimens were exposed to an erosive challenge of pH 2.3 for 4 min along with measurements of surface microhardness (SMH). Changes in SMH from before to after exposure were used tocalculate the protective effect of each saliva sample. Quantification and identification of salivary proteins was performed by dual wavelength HPLC at various conditions and MALDI-TOF mass fingerprinting following trypsin digestion. Each persistent peak in the HPLC chromatograms was related to the protective effect against acid-induced enamel softening obtained by the corresponding saliva sample by multiple regression analysis. Results: One peak identified as a-amylase had an explanatory power of 39% in the analysis with high concentrations being most protective (p<0.001). In addition, a smaller peak retrieved later in the chromatograms also had a strong protective effect. Inclusion of this peak in the analysis increased the explanatory power of amylase on protective effect to 65% (p<0.001). However, due to shortness of sample the second peak was not identified. Conclusion: Protective effects of experimentally developed salivary pellicles can be related to their protein composition, although, not all proteins could be identified in this study.

  5. Radiolabeled meta-iodobenzylguanidine and the adrenergic neurons of salivary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The handling of radiolabeled meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) by salivary glands was evaluated. In the submaxillary glands of rats, the uptake of 125I-MIBG was decreased after 1) nerve injury induced by 6-hydroxydopamine, 2) inhibition of the uptake-1 pathway by desmethylimipramine, and 3) surgical denervation. However, the reduction in 125I-MIGB uptake was less than that of 3H-norepinephrine (3H-NE) and of the endogenous content of NE in the glands. Yet, the sympathomimetic phenylpropanolamine displaced about the same fraction of 125I-MIBG as 3H-NE. These results suggest that 40% or more of 125I-MIBG resides in extraneuronal sites but that at least 30% and possibly more lies in the adrenergic nerve terminals. Fasting and feeding rats produced changes in the rates of disappearance of 125I-MIBG and 3H-NE from the submaxillary gland that were different, and the rates of loss of 125I-MIBG cannot be used as an index of adrenergic nerve activity. In man, the concentrations of 123I-MIBG in the salivary glands, particularly the parotid gland, are readily visible and measureable. Imipramine reduced the uptake of 123I-MIBG into parotid glands little or not at all; some of the 123I-MIBG may enter neurons via an imipramine-insensitive pathway, but a substantial fraction probably arrives in intraneuronal locations. Thus, phenylpropanolamine displaced over 50% of the parotid pool of 123I-MIBG. However, in only the most severe case of generalized autonomic neuropathy was the uptake lized autonomic neuropathy was the uptake of 123I-MIBG reduced

  6. Sialome of a Generalist Lepidopteran Herbivore: Identification of Transcripts and Proteins from Helicoverpa armigera Labial Salivary Glands

    OpenAIRE

    Celorio-mancera, Maria La Paz; Courtiade, Juliette; Muck, Alexander; Heckel, David G.; Musser, Richard O.; Vogel, Heiko

    2011-01-01

    Although the importance of insect saliva in insect-host plant interactions has been acknowledged, there is very limited information on the nature and complexity of the salivary proteome in lepidopteran herbivores. We inspected the labial salivary transcriptome and proteome of Helicoverpa armigera, an important polyphagous pest species. To identify the majority of the salivary proteins we have randomly sequenced 19,389 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from a normalized cDNA library of salivary g...

  7. Calcium, amylase, glucose, total protein concentrations, flow rate, pH and buffering capacity of saliva in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellen Soares Teixeira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate qualitative and quantitative changes in the saliva of individuals undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. METHODS: Salivary samples were collected from 50 individuals divided in two groups: Experimental Group - patients with fixed orthodontic appliances (n=25; and Control Group - subjects with no orthodontic appliances (n=25. Salivary flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, amylase activity, concentrations of total proteins, calcium and glucose were measured in all salivary samples. RESULTS: There was a reduction in salivary pH and buffering capacity and an increase in the concentration of calcium ions in the experimental group (p<0.05; there was also an increase in glucose, amylase and protein concentrations in the saliva of the Experimental Group, but the differences were insignificant. There was insignificant correlation between calcium ion concentration and salivary flow or between buffering capacity and salivary flow. CONCLUSION: The saliva of individuals with fixed orthodontic appliances had lower pH, buffering capacity and calcium concentration than that of individuals without any type of orthodontic appliance. These oral changes are enough to cause tooth demineralization. Patients with orthodontic appliances should adopt additional oral hygiene procedures.

  8. A survey of schoolchildren's exposure to secondhand smoke in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turner Stephen W

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a lack of data describing the exposure of Malaysian schoolchildren to Secondhand Smoke (SHS. The aim of this study is to identify factors influencing schoolchildren's exposures to SHS in Malaysia. Method This cross-sectional study was carried out to measure salivary cotinine concentrations among 1064 schoolchildren (10-11 years attending 24 schools in Malaysia following recent partial smoke-free restrictions. Parents completed questionnaires and schoolchildren provided saliva samples for cotinine assay. Results The geometric mean (GM salivary cotinine concentrations for 947 non-smoking schoolchildren stratified by household residents' smoking behaviour were: for children living with non-smoking parents 0.32 ng/ml (95% CI 0.28-0.37 (n = 446; for children living with a smoker father 0.65 ng/ml (95% CI 0.57-0.72 (n = 432; for children living with two smoking parents 1.12 ng/ml (95% CI 0.29-4.40 (n = 3; for children who live with an extended family member who smokes 0.62 ng/ml (95% CI 0.42-0.89 (n = 33 and for children living with two smokers (father and extended family member 0.71 ng/ml (95% CI 0.40-0.97 (n = 44. Parental-reported SHS exposures showed poor agreement with children's self-reported SHS exposures. Multiple linear regression demonstrated that cotinine levels were positively associated with living with one or more smokers, urban residence, occupation of father (Armed forces, parental-reported exposure to SHS and education of the father (Diploma/Technical certificate. Conclusions This is the first study to characterise exposures to SHS using salivary cotinine concentrations among schoolchildren in Malaysia and also the first study documenting SHS exposure using salivary cotinine as a biomarker in a South-East Asian population of schoolchildren. Compared to other populations of similarly aged schoolchildren, Malaysian children have higher salivary cotinine concentrations. The partial nature of smoke-free restrictions in Malaysia is likely to contribute to these findings. Enforcement of existing legislation to reduce exposure in public place settings and interventions to reduce exposure at home, especially to implement effective home smoking restriction practices are required.

  9. Daytime Secretion of Salivary Cortisol and Alpha-Amylase in Preschool-Aged Children with Autism and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Sharon A.; Corbett, Blythe A.; Granger, Douglas A.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Anders, Thomas F.; Tager, Ira B.

    2012-01-01

    We examined daytime salivary cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) secretion levels and variability in preschool-aged children with autism (AUT) and typically developing children (TYP). Fifty-two subjects (26 AUT and 26 TYP) were enrolled. Salivary samples were obtained at waking, midday, and bedtime on two consecutive days at three phases…

  10. Comparison of salivary cortisol as measured by different immunoassays and tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert; Plessow, Franziska; Rauh, Manfred; Gröschl, Michael; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2013-01-01

    Assessing the amount of bioavailable cortisol in saliva with immunoassays and thus sampling an endocrine marker of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity is of major interest in both research and clinical practice. However, absolute cortisol concentrations obtained with different immunoassays (IAs) are barely comparable precluding direct comparison between studies or individuals whenever cortisol analyses were not based on the same IA. The present technical report aims to solve this problem by evaluating the validity of, as well as agreement between the most commonly used immunoassays in psychoneuroendocrinological research (i.e., IBL, DRG, Salimetrics, DSL, and DELFIA) and a reference method (LC-MS/MS) in a sample of 195 saliva specimen covering the whole range of cortisol concentrations in adults. A structural equation modelling framework is applied to decompose systematic assay variance and estimate cortisol reference values, which are adjusted for measurement error and interference of salivary cortisone. Our findings reveal nonlinear relations between IAs and LC-MS/MS, which are discussed in terms of IA cross-reactivity with saliva matrix components. Finally guidelines for converting cortisol concentrations being obtained by these immunoassays into comparable reference values are proposed by providing conversion functions, a conversion table, and an online conversion tool. PMID:22641005

  11. Sex Differences in Salivary Cortisol, Alpha-Amylase, and Psychological Functioning Following Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigil, Jacob M.; Geary, David C.; Granger, Douglas A.; Flinn, Mark V.

    2010-01-01

    The study examines group and individual differences in psychological functioning and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity among adolescents displaced by Hurricane Katrina and living in a U.S. government relocation camp (n = 62, ages 12-19 years) 2 months postdisaster. Levels of salivary cortisol, salivary

  12. Complete Genome Sequence of Pathogenic Guinea Pig Cytomegalovirus from Salivary Gland Homogenates of Infected Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Dongmei; Tamburro, Kristen; Dittmer, Dirk; Cui, Xiaohong; Mcvoy, Michael A.; Hernandez-alvarado, Nelmary; Schleiss, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    The sequence of guinea pig cytomegalovirus (GPCMV) was determined by direct sequencing of salivary gland homogenates obtained following sustained, serial in vivo passage of pathogenic virus in guinea pigs. The 233,501-nucleotide salivary gland (SG) genome was noted to have 11 differences compared to the tissue culture-passaged virus, although no variations were noted in putative protein coding sequences.

  13. Salivary Biomarkers May Be Useful to Assess Stress State in Patients with Lung Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiko Kitajima

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: As it is important for medical staff to understand the stress state of patients with cancer, this study investigated the stress state in patients with lung cancer undergoing chemotherapy using salivary biomarkers and questionnaires. Materials and Methods: The subjects included 19 men and 9 women, with a mean age of 66.1 ± 7.1 years who received chemotherapy for lung cancer. Salivary samples of the participants were collected before and the 7 day after chemotherapy. Simultaneously, they completed the POMS (profile of mood states and QOL (quality of life questionnaires. The salivary cortisol and secretory IgA as stress markers were measured by enzyme immunoassay. Results: The salivary secretory IgA level was significantly higher at the 7th day after chemotherapy than before chemotherapy (p < 0.05, although the salivary cortisol level did not change. The tension-anxiety score, which is one of POMS subclasses, and total mood disturbance score were lower at day 7 of chemotherapy than before chemotherapy (p < 0.05, although no correlations were observed between POMS scores and salivary markers. However, a negative correlation was observed between the salivary cortisol level and the QOL full score (r= -0.411, p < 0.05. Conclusion: Measurement of salivary stress markers is noninvasive and may be useful for assessing the stress state of the patients.

  14. Radiation-Induced Salivary Gland Dysfunction Results From p53-Dependent Apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer causes adverse secondary side effects in the salivary glands and results in diminished quality of life for the patient. A previous in vivo study in parotid salivary glands demonstrated that targeted head-and-neck irradiation resulted in marked increases in phosphorylated p53 (serine18) and apoptosis, which was suppressed in transgenic mice expressing a constitutively active mutant of Akt1 (myr-Akt1). Methods and Materials: Transgenic and knockout mouse models were exposed to irradiation, and p53-mediated transcription, apoptosis, and salivary gland dysfunction were analyzed. Results: The proapoptotic p53 target genes PUMA and Bax were induced in parotid salivary glands of mice at early time points after therapeutic radiation. This dose-dependent induction requires expression of p53 because no radiation-induced expression of PUMA and Bax was observed in p53-/- mice. Radiation also induced apoptosis in the parotid gland in a dose-dependent manner, which was p53 dependent. Furthermore, expression of p53 was required for the acute and chronic loss of salivary function after irradiation. In contrast, apoptosis was not induced in p53-/- mice, and their salivary function was preserved after radiation exposure. Conclusions: Apoptosis in the salivary glands after therapeutic head-and-neck irradiation is mediated by p53 and corresponds to salivary gland dysfunction in vivo

  15. Clinical Performance of a Salivary Amylase Activity Monitor During Hemodialysis Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru Shimazaki

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The hemodialysis procedure is thought to be a physical stressor in the majority of hemodialyzed patients. Previous studies suggest that elevated salivary amylase level may correlate with increased plasma norepinephrine level under psychological and physical stress conditions. In this study, we investigated biological stress reactivity during hemodialysis treatment using salivary amylase activity as a biomarker. Seven patients (male/female = 5/2, age:67.7+ /? 5.9 years who had been receiving regular 4 h hemodialysis were recruited. Salivary amylase activity was measured using a portable analyzer every hour during the hemodialysis session. Salivary amylase activity was shown to be relatively stable and constant throughout hemodialysis, whereas there were significant changes in systolic blood pressure and pulse rate associated with blood volume reduction. Our results show that hemodialysis treatment per se dose not affect salivary amylase activity.

  16. Sarcomatoid salivary duct carcinoma of the palate: a rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomihara, Kei; Hamashima, Takeru; Nagao, Toshitaka; Nakamori, Kenji; Sasahara, Masakiyo; Noguchi, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) is an uncommon neoplasm that most commonly occurs in major salivary glands, mainly the parotid gland. SDC is rarely found in the minor salivary glands of the oral cavity. This report presents an extremely rare case of sarcomatoid SDC originating in a minor salivary gland of the palate. The tumor was histologically characterized by the presence of both carcinomatous and sarcomatoid components. The patient presented with a painless mass in the right palate, which slowly increased in size over 20 years. The clinical course of the present case suggests that the tumor most probably developed as a result of malignant transformation of a preexisting benign tumor of the palatal salivary gland. This report describes the clinical and histologic features of this extremely rare case of sarcomatoid SDC with reference to the relevant literature. PMID:25443810

  17. Detection of saliva-range glucose concentrations using organic thin-film transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkington, D.; Belcher, W. J.; Dastoor, P. C.; Zhou, X. J. [Centre for Organic Electronics, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales 2308 (Australia)

    2014-07-28

    We describe the development of a glucose sensor through direct incorporation of an enzyme (glucose oxidase) into the gate of an organic thin film transistor (OTFT). We show that glucose diffusion is the key determinant of the device response time and present a mechanism of glucose sensing in these devices that involves protonic doping of the transistor channel via enzymatic oxidation of glucose. The integrated OTFT sensor is sensitive across 4 decades of glucose concentration; a range that encompasses both the blood and salivary glucose concentration levels. As such, this work acts as a proof-of-concept for low-cost printed biosensors for salivary glucose.

  18. Detection of saliva-range glucose concentrations using organic thin-film transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the development of a glucose sensor through direct incorporation of an enzyme (glucose oxidase) into the gate of an organic thin film transistor (OTFT). We show that glucose diffusion is the key determinant of the device response time and present a mechanism of glucose sensing in these devices that involves protonic doping of the transistor channel via enzymatic oxidation of glucose. The integrated OTFT sensor is sensitive across 4 decades of glucose concentration; a range that encompasses both the blood and salivary glucose concentration levels. As such, this work acts as a proof-of-concept for low-cost printed biosensors for salivary glucose.

  19. Prospective study on 12 patients of salivary glands radiotherapy as treatment of salivary stasis in patients suffering from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report a study which aimed at assessing the efficiency and tolerance of salivary gland radiotherapy in patients suffering from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Twelve patients have been treated by conformational irradiation after a planning scanography with support mask. Results are discussed in terms of salivary discomfort (almost immediate disappearance in 11 cases), and other minor effects. Although a greater number of patients is still needed, the treatment gives promising results. Short communication

  20. Expression of S-100 protein and glial fibrillary acidic protein in cultured submandibular gland epithelial cells and salivary gland tissues. Histogenetic implication for salivary gland tumors.

    OpenAIRE

    Okura, M.; Hiranuma, T.; Tominaga, G.; Yoshioka, H.; Aikawa, T.; Shirasuna, K.; Matsuya, T.

    1996-01-01

    S-100 protein and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were studied in human salivary gland tissues and human cultured submandibular gland epithelial cells. Immunohistochemically, ductal cells in normal salivary gland tissues were positive for S-100 protein and GFAP, but myoepithelial cells were uniformly negative. Immunocytochemically, cultured submandibular gland ductal cells were positive for S-100 protein and GFAP. By immunoblotting analysis of the cultured cell lysates, a 6.5-kd S-100 ...