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Salivary Cotinine Concentrations and Prevalence of Periodontal Disease in Young Japanese Women: The Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background: We investigated the relationship between objectively assessed tobacco smoke exposure and periodontal disease. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 1103 women with a mean age of 31.5 years. Information on potential confounding factors was obtained through a self-administered questionnaire. Periodontal disease was defined as positive if a woman had at least one tooth with a probing depth of 3.5 mm or deeper. Exposure to tobacco smoke was determined based on salivary cotinine concentration. Adjustment was made for age, region of residence, household income, education, toothbrushing frequency, and use of an interdental brush. Results: The prevalence of periodontal disease was 11.3%. Salivary cotinine concentration was independently positively associated with the prevalence of periodontal disease: the adjusted OR for every 1-unit (ng/ml) increase in salivary cotinine was 1.004 (95% CI: 1.000 to 1.007). Conclusions: Salivary cotinine concentrations were positively associated with the prevalence of periodontal disease among young women.

Tanaka K; Matsuse R; Miyake Y; Hanioka T; Arakawa M

2013-01-01

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Determinants of salivary cotinine level: a population-based study in Brazil/ Determinantes dos níveis de cotinina salivar: um estudo de base populacional no Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Realizou-se um estudo transversal para analisar a relação entre número de cigarros fumados e outras características com a concentração de cotinina salivar entre fumantes. MÉTODOS: Fumantes ativos de 15 anos ou mais foram selecionados por meio de amostra probabilística em múltiplos estágios no ano 2000, município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. O estudo incluiu 401 fumantes. A concentração de cotinina salivar foi determinada utilizando-se cromatografia ga (more) sosa com detector de nitrogênio/fósforo. Coletaram-se informações demográficas e sobre o comportamento tabágico utilizando-se questionário padronizado. A relação entre o número de cigarros fumados nas últimas 24h e o nível de cotinina foi analisada utilizando técnica não paramétrica baseada em regressões robustas locais ponderadas. RESULTADOS: O nível médio ajustado de cotinina foi significativamente (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted to assess, in active smokers, the relationship of number of cigarettes smoked and other characteristics to salivary cotinine concentrations. METHODS: A random sample of active smokers aged 15 years or older was selected using a stepwise cluster sample strategy, in the year 2000 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The study included 401 subjects. Salivary cotinine concentration was determined using gas chromatography (more) with nitrogen-phosphorus detection. A standard questionnaire was used to collect demographic and smoking behavioral data. The relation between the number of cigarettes smoked in the last 24h and cotinine level was examined by means of a nonparametric fitting technique of robust locally weighted regression. RESULTS: Significantly (p40 ng/mL per cigarette were excluded. CONCLUSIONS: There was found a positive association between self-reporting smoking five minutes after waking up, and inhaling more than ½ the time are consistent and higher cotinine levels. These can be markers of dependence and higher nicotine intake. Salivary cotinine proved to be a useful biomarker of recent smoking and can be used in epidemiological studies and smoking cessation programs.

Figueiredo, Valeska Carvalho; Szklo, Moyses; Szklo, André Salem; Benowitz, Neal; Lozana, José Azevedo; Casado, Leticia; Masson, Elaine; Samet, Jonathan

2007-12-01

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Punto de corte óptimo de la concentración de cotinina en saliva para discriminar entre fumadores y no fumadores en la población adulta de Barcelona/ Optimal cut-point of salivary cotinine concentration to discriminate smoking status in the adult population in Barcelona  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Evaluar el punto de corte óptimo de la concentración de cotinina en saliva para discriminar el consumo de tabaco en la población adulta de Barcelona. Métodos: Estudio transversal de una muestra representativa (n=1117) de la población adulta (>16 años) de la ciudad de Barcelona (2004-2005). El estudio recogió información sobre tabaquismo (activo y pasivo) mediante cuestionario y una muestra de saliva para la determinación de cotinina. Se realizó un aná (more) lisis de sensibilidad y especificidad estratificado por sexo, edad, tipo de consumo (diario y ocasional) y exposición al humo ambiental del tabaco en el hogar. Se calcularon las curvas ROC y el área bajo la curva. Resultados: La prevalencia de fumadores (diarios y ocasionales) fue del 27,8% (intervalo de confianza del 95%: 25,2-30,4%). El punto de corte óptimo que separa a los no fumadores de los fumadores es 9,2ng/ml (sensibilidad del 88,7% y especificidad del 89,0%). El área bajo la curva ROC fue 0,952. El punto de corte fue 12,2ng/ml para los hombres y 7,6 para las mujeres, y aumentaba en los grupos de edad con mayor prevalencia de tabaquismo. Los fumadores diarios tenían un punto de corte superior al de los fumadores ocasionales. Conclusiones: El punto de corte óptimo que discrimina fumadores de no fumadores en la población adulta es 9,2ng/ml, con sensibilidad y especificidad cercanas al 90%. El punto de corte es más alto en los hombres y en los grupos de menor edad, y aumenta cuanto mayor es la prevalencia de consumo diario. Abstract in english Objective: To assess the optimal cut-point for salivary cotinine concentration to identify smoking status in the adult population of Barcelona. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of a representative sample (n=1,117) of the adult population (>16 years) in Barcelona (2004-2005). This study gathered information on active and passive smoking by means of a questionnaire and a saliva sample for cotinine determination. We analyzed sensitivity and specificity according (more) to sex, age, smoking status (daily and occasional), and exposure to second-hand smoke at home. ROC curves and the area under the curve were calculated. Results: The prevalence of smokers (daily and occasional) was 27.8% (95% CI: 25.2-30.4%). The optimal cut-point to discriminate smoking status was 9.2ng/ml (sensitivity=88.7% and specificity=89.0%). The area under the ROC curve was 0.952. The optimal cut-point was 12.2ng/ml in men and 7.6ng/ml in women. The optimal cut-point was higher at ages with a greater prevalence of smoking. Daily smokers had a higher cut-point than occasional smokers. Conclusions: The optimal cut-point to discriminate smoking status in the adult population is 9.2ng/ml, with sensitivities and specificities around 90%. The cut-point was higher in men and in younger people. The cut-point increases with higher prevalence of daily smokers.

Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M.; Fu, Marcela; Ariza, Carles; López, María J.; Saltó, Esteve; Pascual, José A.; Schiaffino, Anna; Borràs, Josep M.; Peris, Mercè; Agudo, Antonio; Nebot, Manel; Fernández, Esteve

2009-12-01

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Punto de corte óptimo de la concentración de cotinina en saliva para discriminar entre fumadores y no fumadores en la población adulta de Barcelona Optimal cut-point of salivary cotinine concentration to discriminate smoking status in the adult population in Barcelona  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar el punto de corte óptimo de la concentración de cotinina en saliva para discriminar el consumo de tabaco en la población adulta de Barcelona. Métodos: Estudio transversal de una muestra representativa (n=1117) de la población adulta (>16 años) de la ciudad de Barcelona (2004-2005). El estudio recogió información sobre tabaquismo (activo y pasivo) mediante cuestionario y una muestra de saliva para la determinación de cotinina. Se realizó un análisis de sensibilidad y especificidad estratificado por sexo, edad, tipo de consumo (diario y ocasional) y exposición al humo ambiental del tabaco en el hogar. Se calcularon las curvas ROC y el área bajo la curva. Resultados: La prevalencia de fumadores (diarios y ocasionales) fue del 27,8% (intervalo de confianza del 95%: 25,2-30,4%). El punto de corte óptimo que separa a los no fumadores de los fumadores es 9,2ng/ml (sensibilidad del 88,7% y especificidad del 89,0%). El área bajo la curva ROC fue 0,952. El punto de corte fue 12,2ng/ml para los hombres y 7,6 para las mujeres, y aumentaba en los grupos de edad con mayor prevalencia de tabaquismo. Los fumadores diarios tenían un punto de corte superior al de los fumadores ocasionales. Conclusiones: El punto de corte óptimo que discrimina fumadores de no fumadores en la población adulta es 9,2ng/ml, con sensibilidad y especificidad cercanas al 90%. El punto de corte es más alto en los hombres y en los grupos de menor edad, y aumenta cuanto mayor es la prevalencia de consumo diario.Objective: To assess the optimal cut-point for salivary cotinine concentration to identify smoking status in the adult population of Barcelona. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of a representative sample (n=1,117) of the adult population (>16 years) in Barcelona (2004-2005). This study gathered information on active and passive smoking by means of a questionnaire and a saliva sample for cotinine determination. We analyzed sensitivity and specificity according to sex, age, smoking status (daily and occasional), and exposure to second-hand smoke at home. ROC curves and the area under the curve were calculated. Results: The prevalence of smokers (daily and occasional) was 27.8% (95% CI: 25.2-30.4%). The optimal cut-point to discriminate smoking status was 9.2ng/ml (sensitivity=88.7% and specificity=89.0%). The area under the ROC curve was 0.952. The optimal cut-point was 12.2ng/ml in men and 7.6ng/ml in women. The optimal cut-point was higher at ages with a greater prevalence of smoking. Daily smokers had a higher cut-point than occasional smokers. Conclusions: The optimal cut-point to discriminate smoking status in the adult population is 9.2ng/ml, with sensitivities and specificities around 90%. The cut-point was higher in men and in younger people. The cut-point increases with higher prevalence of daily smokers.

Jose M. Martínez-Sánchez; Marcela Fu; Carles Ariza; María J. López; Esteve Saltó; José A. Pascual; Anna Schiaffino; Josep M. Borràs; Mercè Peris; Antonio Agudo; Manel Nebot; Esteve Fernández

2009-01-01

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Interlaboratory comparability of serum cotinine measurements at smoker and nonsmoker concentration levels: a round-robin study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Cotinine, the primary proximate metabolite of nicotine, is commonly measured as an index of exposure to tobacco in both active users of tobacco and nonsmokers with possible exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS). A number of laboratories have implemented analyses for measuring serum cotinine in recent years, but there have been few interlaboratory comparisons of the results. Among nonsmokers exposed to SHS, the concentration of cotinine in blood can be quite low, and extensive variability in these measurements has been reported in the past. METHODS: In this study, a group of seven laboratories, all experienced in serum cotinine analysis, measured eight coded serum pools with concentrations ranging from background levels of about 0.05 ng/ml to relatively high concentrations in the active smokers range. All laboratories used either gas-liquid chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detection or liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. RESULTS: All seven laboratories reliably measured the cotinine concentrations in samples that were within the range of their methods. In each case, the results for the pools were correctly ranked in order, and no significant interlaboratory bias was observed at the 5% level of significance for results from any of the pools. DISCUSSION: We conclude that present methods of chromatographic analysis of serum cotinine, as used by these experienced laboratories, are capable of providing accurate and precise results in both the smoker and the nonsmoker concentration range.

Bernert JT; Jacob P 3rd; Holiday DB; Benowitz NL; Sosnoff CS; Doig MV; Feyerabend C; Aldous KM; Sharifi M; Kellogg MD; Langman LJ

2009-12-01

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Effects of Nicotine Patch or Nasal Spray on Nicotine and Cotinine Concentrations in Pregnant Smokers  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective To examine the short-term effects of the nicotine patch or nasal spray on measures of nicotine exposure, withdrawal symptoms, and on maternal and fetal heart rates in pregnant smokers. Methods We measured nicotine/cotinine concentrations and maternal and fetal heart rates during an 8-hour monitoring session while smoking and again after 4 days of nicotine patch (15 mg/16 hours), nasal spray (recommended regimen of 24 doses per day), or placebo treatment. Nicotine withdrawal symptoms were assessed daily. Results Twenty-one subjects, who smoked an average of 17 cigarettes per day, completed both monitoring sessions. Nicotine concentrations decreased from baseline smoking concentrations in all groups (p = 0.002). Percent change in cotinine concentration differed across groups (reduction = 77% with placebo, 70% with nasal spray, and 48% with patch; p = 0.029). Maternal heart rate decreased in the placebo and nasal spray groups compared with the patch group (p = 0.021). The baseline fetal heart rate decreased in the placebo group throughout the second monitoring session, but increased slightly in the patch and nasal spray groups. The treatment by time interaction was marginally significant (p = 0.052). Daily cigarette craving decreased more in the patch versus the other groups (p = 0.025). Conclusions Nicotine patch and nasal spray reduce maternal nicotine exposure compared with smoking and may be effective for smoking cessation.

Oncken, Cheryl; Campbell, Winston; Chan, Grace; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Kranzler, Henry R.

2011-01-01

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Biomonitoring of Urinary Cotinine Concentrations Associated with Plasma Levels of Nicotine Metabolites after Daily Cigarette Smoking in a Male Japanese Population  

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Full Text Available Human biomonitoring of plasma and urinary levels of nicotine, cotinine, and 3?-hydroxycotinine was conducted after daily cigarette smoking in a population of 92 male Japanese smokers with a mean age of 37 years who had smoked an average of 23 cigarettes per day for 16 years. Members of the population were genotyped for the nicotine-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6). The mean levels of nicotine, the levels of its metabolites cotinine and 3?-hydroxycotinine, and the sum of these three levels in subjects one hour after smoking the first cigarette on the sampling day were 20.1, 158, 27.7, and 198 ng/mL in plasma and 846, 1,020, 1,010, and 2,870 ng/mL in urine under daily smoking conditions. Plasma levels of 3'-hydroxycotinine and urinary levels of nicotine and 3?-hydroxycotinine were dependent on the CYP2A6 phenotype group, which was estimated from the CYP2A6 genotypes of the subjects, including those with whole gene deletion. Plasma cotinine levels were significantly correlated with the number of cigarettes smoked on the day before sampling (r = 0.71), the average number of cigarettes smoked daily (r = 0.58), and the Brinkman index (daily cigarettes × years, r = 0.48) under the present conditions. The sum of nicotine, cotinine, and 3?-hydroxycotinine concentrations in plasma showed a similar relationship to that of the plasma cotinine levels. Urinary concentrations of cotinine and the sum of nicotine metabolite concentrations also showed significant correlations with the plasma levels and the previous day’s and average cigarette consumption. The numbers of cigarettes smoked per day by two subjects with self-reported light smoking habits were predicted by measuring the urinary cotinine concentrations and using linear regression equations derived from above-mentioned data. These results indicate that biomonitoring of the urinary cotinine concentration is a good, easy-to-use marker for plasma levels of cotinine and the sum of nicotine metabolites in smokers independent of genetic polymorphism of CYP2A6.

Taku Nagano; Makiko Shimizu; Kazuma Kiyotani; Tetsuya Kamataki; Ryohji Takano; Norie Murayama; Fumiaki Shono; Hiroshi Yamazaki

2010-01-01

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Good relationship between saliva cotinine kinetics and plasma cotinine kinetics after smoking one cigarette.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study investigated the relationship between plasma and saliva cotinine kinetics after smoking one cigarette and the relationship between cotinine kinetics and estimated nicotine intake, which was calculated as mouth level exposure (MLE) of nicotine, from smoking two test cigarettes with different nicotine yields. This study was conducted in sixteen healthy adult Japanese smokers, who did not have null nor reduced-activity alleles of CYP2A6, with a quasi-randomized crossover design of smoking a low-tar cigarette or a high-tar cigarette. Saliva cotinine showed similar concentration profiles to plasma cotinine, and all of the calculated pharmacokinetic parameters of cotinine showed the same values in plasma and saliva. The Cmax and AUC of cotinine showed almost the same dose-responsiveness to the estimated MLE of nicotine between plasma and saliva, but the tmax and t1/2 of cotinine were not affected by the estimated MLE of nicotine in either plasma or saliva. The results show that saliva cotinine kinetics reflects plasma cotinine kinetics, and measurement of saliva cotinine concentration gives the same information as plasma cotinine on the nicotine intake. Thus, saliva cotinine would be a good and less-invasive exposure marker of cigarette smoke, reflecting the plasma cotinine concentration and kinetics.

Yuki D; Kikuchi A; Miura N; Kakehi A; Onozawa M

2013-08-01

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Passive exposure to tobacco smoke: saliva cotinine concentrations in a representative population sample of non-smoking schoolchildren  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Saliva cotinine concentrations in 569 non-smoking schoolchildren were strongly related to the smoking habits of their parents. When neither parent smoked the mean concentration was 0.44 ng/ml, rising to 3.38 ng/ml when both parents were cigarette smokers. Mothers smoking had a stronger influence than did fathers (p less than 0.01). In addition, there was a small independent effect of number of siblings who smoked (p less than 0.01). The dose of nicotine received from fathers smoking was estimated as equivalent to the active smoking of 30 cigarettes a year, that from mothers smoking as equivalent to smoking 50 cigarettes a year, and that from both parents smoking as equivalent to smoking 80 cigarettes a year. This unsolicited burden may be prolonged throughout childhood and poses a definite risk to health.

Jarvis, M.J.; Russell, M.A.; Feyerabend, C.; Eiser, J.R.; Morgan, M.; Gammage, P.; Gray, E.M.

1985-10-05

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Human Blood Concentrations of Cotinine, a Biomonitoring Marker for Tobacco Smoke, Extrapolated from Nicotine Metabolism in Rats and Humans and Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling  

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Full Text Available The present study defined a simplified physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for nicotine and its primary metabolite cotinine in humans, based on metabolic parameters determined in vitro using relevant liver microsomes, coefficients derived in silico, physiological parameters derived from the literature, and an established rat PBPK model. The model consists of an absorption compartment, a metabolizing compartment, and a central compartment for nicotine and three equivalent compartments for cotinine. Evaluation of a rat model was performed by making comparisons with predicted concentrations in blood and in vivo experimental pharmacokinetic values obtained from rats after oral treatment with nicotine (1.0 mg/kg, a no-observed-adverse-effect level) for 14 days. Elimination rates of nicotine in vitro were established from data from rat liver microsomes and from human pooled liver microsomes. Human biomonitoring data (17 ng nicotine and 150 ng cotinine per mL plasma 1 h after smoking) from pooled five male Japanese smokers (daily intake of 43 mg nicotine by smoking) revealed that these blood concentrations could be calculated using a human PBPK model. These results indicate that a simplified PBPK model for nicotine/cotinine is useful for a forward dosimetry approach in humans and for estimating blood concentrations of other related compounds resulting from exposure to low chemical doses.

Hiroshi Yamazaki; Kana Horiuchi; Ryohji Takano; Taku Nagano; Makiko Shimizu; Masato Kitajima; Norie Murayama; Fumiaki Shono

2010-01-01

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Seasonal Variation in Human Salivary Cortisol Concentration  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Measurement of cortisol concentration can contribute important information about an individual's ability to adjust to various environmental demands of both physical and psychosocial origin. However, one uncertainty that affects the possibilities of correctly interpreting and designing field studies is the lack of observations of the impact of seasonal changes on cortisol excretion. For this reason, the month-to-month changes in diurnal cortisol concentration, the awakening cortisol response (ACR), maximum morning concentration, and fall during the day were studied in a group of 24 healthy men and women 32 to 61 yrs of age engaged in active work. On one workday for 12 consecutive months, participants collected saliva at four time points for determination of cortisol: at awakening, +30 min, +8 h, and at 21:00 h. Data were analyzed by a repeated measures design with month (12 levels) and time-of-day (4 levels) as categorical predictors. Cortisol concentrations were analyzed on a log scale. The diurnal pattern ofcortisol was similar across months (interaction between month and time of day: p>0.4). The main effects of month and time-of-day were statistically significant (p

Persson, Roger; Garde, Anne Helene

2008-01-01

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Monitoring the circadian rhythm of serum and salivary cortisol concentrations in the horse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Daily fluctuations of cortisol concentration in the blood or saliva have been repeatedly reported. However, several contradictions in the existing literature appear on this subject. The present study was performed to definitively establish options for testing adrenocortical function. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate parallel circadian rhythms in salivary and serum cortisol concentrations during a 24-h period. Twenty horses were examined under the same conditions. Blood and saliva samples were taken every 2 h for 24 h to determine the daily changes in cortisol concentrations of saliva and serum at rest and to determine the relationship between salivary and serum cortisol levels. Cosinor analysis of group mean data confirmed a significant circadian component for both serum and salivary cortisol concentrations (P < 0.001 in both cases). The serum cortisol circadian rhythm had an acrophase at 10:50 AM (95% CI, 10:00 AM-11:40 AM), a MESOR of 22.67 ng/mL, and an amplitude of 11.93 ng/mL. The salivary cortisol circadian rhythm had an acrophase at 10:00 AM (95% CI, 9:00 AM-11:00 AM), a MESOR of 0.52 ng/mL, and an amplitude of 0.12 ng/mL. We found a significant but weak association between salivary and serum cortisol concentrations; the Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.32 (P < 0.001). The use of salivary cortisol level as an indicator of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity may be warranted. However, the salivary cortisol levels are more likely to be correlated with free plasma cortisol than with the total plasma cortisol concentration.

Bohák Z; Szabó F; Beckers JF; Melo de Sousa N; Kutasi O; Nagy K; Szenci O

2013-07-01

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Diurnal salivary cortisol concentrations in Parkinson’s disease: increased total secretion and morning cortisol concentrations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ö Skogar1,4, P-A Fall2, G Hallgren3, J Lökk4, B Bringer2, M Carlsson1, U Lennartsson3, H Sandbjork3, C-J Törnhage51Department of Geriatrics, Ryhov Hospital, Jonkoping, 2Department of Geriatrics, University Hospital, Linkoping, 3Department of Neurology, Skaraborg Hospital, Skovde, 4Institute of Neurobiology, Care Sciences, and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, 5Department of Pediatrics, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, SwedenBackground: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder. There is limited knowledge about the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in PD. The primary aim of this prospective study was to analyze diurnal salivary cortisol concentrations in patients with PD and correlate these with age, gender, body mass index (BMI), duration of PD, and pain. The secondary aim was to compare the results with a healthy reference group.Methods: Fifty-nine PD patients, 35 women and 24 men, aged 50–79 years, were recruited. The reference group comprised healthy individuals matched for age, gender, BMI, and time point for sampling. Salivary cortisol was collected at 8 am, 1 pm, and 8 pm, and 8 am the next day using cotton-based Salivette® tubes and analyzed using Spectria® Cortisol I125. A visual analog scale was used for estimation of pain.Results: The median cortisol concentration was 16.0 (5.8–30.2) nmol/L at 8 am, 5.8 (3.0–16.4) at 1 pm, 2.8 (1.6–8.0) at 8 pm, and 14.0 (7.5–28.7) at 8 am the next day. Total secretion and rate of cortisol secretion during the day (8 am–8 pm) and the concentration of cortisol on the next morning were lower (12.5 nmol/L) in the reference group. No significant correlations with age, gender, BMI, duration of PD, Hoehn and Yahr score, Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale III score, gait, pain, or cortisol concentrations were found.Conclusion: The neurodegenerative changes in PD does not seem to interfere with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Salivary cortisol concentrations in PD patients were increased in the morning compared with the reference group, and were not influenced by motor dysfunction, duration of disease, or coexistence of chronic or acute pain.Keywords: cortisol, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, Parkinson's disease

Skogar Ö; Fall P-A; Hallgren G; Lökk J; Bringer B; Carlsson M; Lennartsson U; Sandbjork H; Törnhage C-J

2011-01-01

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Salivary concentrations of cortisol and testosterone and prediction of performance in a professional triathlon competition.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to examine salivary cortisol and testosterone concentrations in professional male athletes during a short triathlon competition using non-invasive methods, and to determine whether these hormone concentrations could be accurate predictors of performance. Eight adult male athletes (age, mean ± SEM: 27.8 ± 3.2 years; body mass index: 21.66 ± 0.42) in a professional triathlon team volunteered to participate in this study. Saliva samples were taken on the competition day and 7 days after competition on a rest day. The performance of the athletes was assessed by their rank order in the competition. Salivary cortisol concentrations were greater on the competition day than on the rest day in the early morning, immediately after waking up, 30 min later, immediately before the start of the competition, and later in the evening. Testosterone concentrations were greater on the competition day in the morning and in the evening. The diurnal rhythm of both cortisol and testosterone concentrations was maintained on both days and the testosterone/cortisol ratio (T/C ratio) was similar between days. The performance of the athletes was positively correlated with salivary cortisol concentration in the early morning of the competition day, but was not correlated with testosterone concentrations at any of the time points. In conclusion, early morning salivary cortisol concentration, but not T/C ratio, could be used to predict performance in athletes during a professional triathlon competition. PMID:22128832

Balthazar, Cláudio Heitor; Garcia, Marcia Carvalho; Spadari-Bratfisch, Regina Celia

2012-01-10

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Salivary concentrations of cortisol and testosterone and prediction of performance in a professional triathlon competition.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to examine salivary cortisol and testosterone concentrations in professional male athletes during a short triathlon competition using non-invasive methods, and to determine whether these hormone concentrations could be accurate predictors of performance. Eight adult male athletes (age, mean ± SEM: 27.8 ± 3.2 years; body mass index: 21.66 ± 0.42) in a professional triathlon team volunteered to participate in this study. Saliva samples were taken on the competition day and 7 days after competition on a rest day. The performance of the athletes was assessed by their rank order in the competition. Salivary cortisol concentrations were greater on the competition day than on the rest day in the early morning, immediately after waking up, 30 min later, immediately before the start of the competition, and later in the evening. Testosterone concentrations were greater on the competition day in the morning and in the evening. The diurnal rhythm of both cortisol and testosterone concentrations was maintained on both days and the testosterone/cortisol ratio (T/C ratio) was similar between days. The performance of the athletes was positively correlated with salivary cortisol concentration in the early morning of the competition day, but was not correlated with testosterone concentrations at any of the time points. In conclusion, early morning salivary cortisol concentration, but not T/C ratio, could be used to predict performance in athletes during a professional triathlon competition.

Balthazar CH; Garcia MC; Spadari-Bratfisch RC

2012-09-01

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Salivary VIP concentrations are elevated in humans after acute stress.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Salivary (s)-cortisol, s-amylase, s-DHEA are used extensively in stress research. Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) is also detectable in saliva using a standard RIA kit. VIP is a 28 amino acid neuropeptide that belongs to the secretin/glucagon family of peptides and acts as a neurotransmitter/neuromodulator. VIP has also been detected in the parasympathetic nerves enervating the salivary glands. Here we measured the level of s-cortisol, s-DHEA, s-amylase and s-VIP in three different stress exercises of different duration and intensity. The results indicate that a brief intense exercise lasting minutes elicited a stress response with significant increases in s-cortisol, s-DHEA, s-amylase and s-VIP. A less rigorous exercise did not elicit a stress response with no significant increases in s-cortisol, s-DHEA, s-amylase and s-VIP. A longer intense exercise lasting hours elicited a stress response with significant increases only in s-cortisol.

Ventre G; Colonna C; Smith J; Alfano D; Moldow R

2013-08-01

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Effects of smoking and gingival inflammation on salivary antioxidant capacity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: This study evaluated possible effects of smoking and gingival inflammation on salivary antioxidants in gingivitis patients. METHODS: Twenty otherwise healthy gingivitis patients (10 self-reported smokers) and 20 periodontally and systemically healthy volunteer subjects were enrolled in the study. Whole saliva samples and full-mouth clinical periodontal recordings were obtained at baseline and one month following initial phase of treatment in gingivitis patients. Salivary cotinine, glutathione and ascorbic acid concentrations, and total antioxidant capacity were determined, and the data generated were tested by non-parametric tests. RESULTS: Salivary cotinine measurements resulted in re-classification of three self-reported non-smokers as smokers. Smoker patients revealed significantly higher probing depths but lower bleeding values than non-smoker patients (p=0.044 and 0.001, respectively). Significant reductions in clinical recordings were obtained in non-smoker (all p<0.05) and smoker (all p<0.01) patients following periodontal treatment. Salivary total glutathione concentrations were reduced following therapy in gingivitis patients who smoke (p<0.01). Otherwise, no statistically significant differences were found between the groups in biochemical parameters at baseline or following treatment (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Within the limits of this study, neither smoking nor gingival inflammation compromised the antioxidant capacity of saliva in systemically healthy gingivitis patients.

Buduneli N; Karde?ler L; I?ik H; Willis CS 3rd; Hawkins SI; Kinane DF; Scott DA

2006-03-01

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Évaluation de la concentration de nicotine et de cotinine urinaires chez un groupe de fumeurs actifs et un groupe de “fumeurs passifs”, par chromatographie liquide haute performance (HPLC) utilisant une méthode d’extraction en phase solide (SPE) Evaluation of urinary levels of nicotine and cotinine, in active and passive groups of smokers, by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a solid phase extraction method (SPE)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectifs : Évaluation de la concentration de nicotine et de cotinine urinaires et le taux de carboxyhémoglobine (HbCO) chez un groupe de fumeurs actifs (n = 22) et un groupe de « fumeurs passifs » (n = 22), afin d’apprécier l’intensité de l’imprégnation tabagique. Matériels et méthodes : Évaluation de la concentration de nicotine et de cotinine urinaires par chromatographie liquide haute performance (HPLC) utilisant une méthode d’extraction en phase solide (SPE); évaluation du taux de la carboxyhémoglobine (HbCO) par spectrophotométrie UV-VIS. Résultats : Les concentrations urinaires de nicotine varient de 0,48 à 7,59 ?g/mL (moyenne : 3,39  ±  2,06 ?g/mL) chez les fumeurs actifs et de 0,31 à 1,27 ?g/mL (moyenne : 0,64  ±  0,31 ?g/mL) chez les « fumeurs passifs ». Les concentrations urinaires de cotinine varient de 0,99 à 9,17 ?g/mL (moyenne : 4,14  ±  2,35 ?g/mL) chez les fumeurs actifs et de 0,14 à 2,58 ?g/mL (moyenne : 1,25  ±  0,79 ?g/mL) chez les « fumeurs passifs ». Le taux de l’ HbCO varie de 0,26 à 8,02 % (moyenne : 3  ±  0,021 %) chez les fumeurs actifs, les « fumeurs passifs » et les témoins présentent des taux inférieurs à la limite de détection. Conclusion : La nicotine et la cotinine sont plus spécifiques de l’exposition tabagique que l’HbCO. Les concentrations de nicotine et de cotinine urinaires, retrouvés chez les « fumeurs passifs », soulignent la réalité et l’intensité de l’exposition de ces derniers, d’où la nécessité de prendre des mesures plus restrictives en matière de lutte contre le tabagisme. Objectives: This paper evaluates the urinary levels of nicotine and cotinine and the level of carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO) in active (n = 22) and passive (n = 22) groups of smokers, in order to determine the severity of tobacco impregnation. Materials and methods: The levels of nicotine and cotinine in urine were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using the solid phase extraction method (SPE); the level of carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO) was measured by UV-VIS spectrophotometry. Results: The results indicate that the concentration of nicotine in urine is 0.48 to 7.59 ?g/mL (average of 3.39  ±  2.06 ?g/mL) in active smokers and 0.31 to 1.27 ?g/mL (average of 0.64  ±  0.31 ?g/mL) in passive smokers. The concentration of cotinine in urine is 0.99 to 9.17 ?g/mL (average of 4.14  ±  2.35 ?g/mL) in active smokers and 0.14 to 2.58 ?g/mL (average of 1.25  ±  0.79 ?g/mL) in passive smokers. The level of HbCO is 0.26 to 8.02% (average of 3  ±  0.021%) in active smokers and could not be detected in the passive smokers. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that cotinine and nicotine are more suitable for assessing the intensity of tobacco exposure than HbCO. The measured levels of nicotine and cotinine in passive smokers reveal the fact that this group of people faces a high risk due to tobacco exposure; thus, restrictive measures need to be taken to protect this group.

Zouani Amina; Mekacher Lamine Redouane; Lehtihet Lila; Iziti Amel; Guermouche Hassen; Azzouz Mohamed; Reggabi Mohamed

2011-01-01

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Effects of smoking on salivary C-telopeptide pyridinoline cross-links of type I collagen and osteocalcin levels.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: This study was planned to investigate whether smoker patients with inflammatory periodontal disease exhibit different salivary concentrations of C-telopeptide pyridinoline cross-links of type I collagen (ICTP) and osteocalcin (OC) compared to the non-smoker and/or ex-smoker counterparts. METHODS: Whole saliva samples, full-mouth clinical periodontal recordings were obtained from 67 otherwise healthy patients with inflammatory periodontal disease. According to self-reports there were 34 smokers, 22 non-smokers and 11 ex-smokers. Salivary cotinine, ICTP and OC levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunoassays. RESULTS: Salivary cotinine measurements confirmed self-reports about smoking. Smoker patients revealed significantly higher plaque index values than non-smokers (p<0.05). Bleeding on probing values were significantly lower in smoker group than ex-smoker group (p<0.05). There was no significant difference between the study groups in salivary ICTP levels (p>0.05). OC levels in smoker group was significantly lower than the other groups (p<0.001). Salivary ICTP levels correlated negatively with number of teeth present (p<0.05), positively with bleeding on probing (p<0.01). Salivary OC levels correlated negatively with years smoked (p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Within the limits of this study, smoking seems to suppress salivary osteocalcin level but ICTP levels seem not to be affected by smoking status. This suppression in OC levels may be one mechanism of deteriorating effects of smoking on periodontal health.

Gürlek O; Lappin DF; Buduneli N

2009-12-01

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Estimating Cotinine Associations and a Saliva Cotinine Level to Identify Active Cigarette Smoking in Alaska Native Pregnant Women.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Studies indicate nicotine metabolism varies by race and can change during pregnancy. Given high rates of tobacco use and limited studies among Alaska Native (AN) women, we estimated associations of saliva cotinine levels with cigarette use and second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure and estimated a saliva cotinine cutoff to distinguish smoking from non-smoking pregnant AN women. Using questionnaire data and saliva cotinine, we utilized multi-variable linear regression (n = 370) to estimate cotinine associations with tobacco use, SHS exposure, demographic, and pregnancy-related factors. Additionally, we estimated an optimal saliva cotinine cutoff for indication of active cigarette use in AN pregnant women using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis (n = 377). Saliva cotinine significantly decreased with maternal age and significantly increased with cigarettes smoked per day, SHS exposure, and number of previous full term pregnancies. Using self-reported cigarette use in the past 7 days as indication of active smoking, the area under the ROC curve was 0.975 (95 % CI: 0.960-0.990). The point closest to 100 % specificity and sensitivity occurred with a cotinine concentration of 1.07 ng/mL, which corresponded to sensitivity of 94 % and specificity of 94 %. We recommend using a saliva cotinine cutoff of 1 ng/mL to distinguish active smoking in pregnant AN women. This cutoff is lower than used in other studies with pregnant women, most likely due to high prevalence of light or intermittent smoking in the AN population. Continued study of cotinine levels in diverse populations is needed.

Smith JJ; Robinson RF; Khan BA; Sosnoff CS; Dillard DA

2013-02-01

 
 
 
 
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Salivary concentration of free LL-37 in edentulism, chronic periodontitis and healthy periodontium.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The antimicrobial peptide LL-37, a component of innate immunity, has an important role in maintaining oral health. This study aimed to investigate the concentration of free LL-37 in whole saliva of periodontally healthy, edentulous and chronic periodontitis subjects. DESIGN: Unstimulated whole saliva was sampled from 154 subjects (76 periodontally healthy, 20 edentulous, and 58 subjects with chronic periodontitis). All participants were in good general health. The salivary LL-37 was determined by ELISA. RESULTS: The median salivary concentrations of free LL-37 were 30.5, 22.5, and 1.8ng/ml for the healthy, the chronic periodontitis and the edentulous group, respectively. The differences in concentration between the edentulous and the others were statistically significant (Mann-Whitney test, p<0.001). In the healthy subjects, women displayed significantly higher peptide concentrations compared to men (Mann-Whitney test, p<0.05). The intra-subject variation in LL-37 concentration was wider for the healthy (range 0.75-285ng/ml) and chronic periodontitis patients (range 1-207ng/ml) than for the edentulous subjects (range 0.15-4.4ng/ml). CONCLUSIONS: The present findings show that edentulism correlates with a substantial decrease in salivary levels of free LL-37, thus indicating the considerable contribution of the gingival tissues in the secretion of the peptide in the oral environment.

Davidopoulou S; Diza E; Sakellari D; Menexes G; Kalfas S

2013-08-01

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Salivary testosterone concentrations in pubertal ICSI boys compared with spontaneously conceived boys.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND To date, no data exist about Leydig cell function of pubertal boys born after ICSI. To evaluate a potential risk of gonadal dysfunction in children born from fathers with compromised fertility, testicular function was assessed by the measurement of salivary testosterone. METHODS Morning salivary testosterone levels at the age of 14 years were compared between 58 ICSI teenagers who are part of the oldest ICSI cohort, and 62 boys born after spontaneous conception (SC). RESULTS Salivary testosterone levels were comparable between ICSI (113 ± 42 pg/ml) and SC (123 ± 56 pg/ml) teenagers at the age of 14 years. In the ICSI group, testosterone levels in boys from fathers with severe oligozoospermia were not different from concentrations in boys from fathers without severe oligozoospermia (115.5 ± 43 and 109 ± 41 pg/ml, respectively). CONCLUSIONS At the age of 14 years, pubertal ICSI boys show testosterone levels comparable to their peers born after SC. ICSI adolescents fathered from men with severely compromised spermatogenesis show testosterone levels comparable to those from fathers with normal spermatogenesis. This notwithstanding, further follow-up of ICSI teenagers into adulthood is mandatory to confirm a normal gonadal function.

Belva F; Bonduelle M; Schiettecatte J; Tournaye H; Painter RC; Devroey P; De Schepper J

2011-02-01

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The relationship between salivary cortisol concentrations and anxiety in adolescent and non-adolescent pregnant women  

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Full Text Available The main purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between salivary cortisol concentrations and self-report anxiety in 50 adolescent and 178 non-adolescent women during the last month of pregnancy. The subjects were randomly selected from a previous study involving women who attended antenatal care from September 1997 to August 2000 at 17 health services in Southeast Brazil. Salivary cortisol was measured with an enzyme immunoassay kit, and anxiety was assessed by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventories (STAI) of Spielberger. After saliva collection, the participants completed the STAI. Mean concentrations of cortisol for both pregnant adolescents (14.17 ± 6.78 nmol/l) and non-adolescents (13.81 ± 8.51 nmol/l) were similar (P = 0.89). Forty-three percent of the pregnant adolescents and 30.5% of the non-adolescents felt anxious at the time of being questioned (State Anxiety Inventory (SAI) scores >40; P = 0.06). Cortisol concentrations in adolescents were negatively related to the SAI scores (r = -0.39; P = 0.01) which assess a temporary condition of anxiety. There was a statistically significant difference in mean cortisol concentrations between adolescents with low (40) SAI scores (P = 0.03, t-test), but no differences for non-adolescents. The negative relationship between salivary cortisol concentrations and anxiety scores in adolescents may be due to puberty-related hormone differences during this period of life. Pregnant adolescents may possess unique biological or psychological characteristics compared to adults and non-pregnant adolescents. Thus, we need to know more about the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis of pregnant adolescents.

P.H.C. Rondó; A.J. Vaz; F. Moraes; A. Tomkins

2004-01-01

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The relationship between salivary cortisol concentrations and anxiety in adolescent and non-adolescent pregnant women  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The main purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between salivary cortisol concentrations and self-report anxiety in 50 adolescent and 178 non-adolescent women during the last month of pregnancy. The subjects were randomly selected from a previous study involving women who attended antenatal care from September 1997 to August 2000 at 17 health services in Southeast Brazil. Salivary cortisol was measured with an enzyme immunoassay kit, and anxiety wa (more) s assessed by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventories (STAI) of Spielberger. After saliva collection, the participants completed the STAI. Mean concentrations of cortisol for both pregnant adolescents (14.17 ± 6.78 nmol/l) and non-adolescents (13.81 ± 8.51 nmol/l) were similar (P = 0.89). Forty-three percent of the pregnant adolescents and 30.5% of the non-adolescents felt anxious at the time of being questioned (State Anxiety Inventory (SAI) scores >40; P = 0.06). Cortisol concentrations in adolescents were negatively related to the SAI scores (r = -0.39; P = 0.01) which assess a temporary condition of anxiety. There was a statistically significant difference in mean cortisol concentrations between adolescents with low (40) SAI scores (P = 0.03, t-test), but no differences for non-adolescents. The negative relationship between salivary cortisol concentrations and anxiety scores in adolescents may be due to puberty-related hormone differences during this period of life. Pregnant adolescents may possess unique biological or psychological characteristics compared to adults and non-pregnant adolescents. Thus, we need to know more about the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis of pregnant adolescents.

Rondó, P.H.C.; Vaz, A.J.; Moraes, F.; Tomkins, A.

2004-09-01

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Influence of nicotine and cotinine on epithelial colonization by periodontopathogens.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Since smoking is an established risk factor for the development of periodontitis, the present study investigated whether nicotine and cotinine can make epithelial cells more prone to colonization by periodontopathogens. METHODS: Primary epithelial cell mono-layers were inoculated with nicotine and cotinine prior to adhesion experiments with Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis. The number of bacteria associated with cells inoculated or not with nicotine or cotinine were assessed by an indirect culture viability assay. The same experimental set-up was used for assessing HeLa cells exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE). RESULTS: Primary epithelial cells inoculated with concentrations of nicotine and cotinine, found in smokers and non smokers, did not show significant differences (P>0.05) in colonization susceptibility to A. actinomycetemcomitans. When these concentrations were increased to 1 mg/ml, a significant (P<0.05) and species-specific effect of the colonization susceptibility of epithelial cells was observed: It increased for A. actinomycetemcomitans, while it decreased for P. gingivalis. For both species the effects were more pronounced for nicotine, although this was not statistically significant. The change in colonization susceptibility did not result from alterations of the bacterial viability due to nicotine or cotinine. Treatment of HeLa cells with CSE also led to a species-specific variation in colonization tendency; i.e., increased for A. actinomycetemcomitans (P<0.05), but not for P. gingivalis. CONCLUSIONS: The susceptibility of epithelial cells to become colonized by either A. actinomycetemcomitans or P. gingivalis could be altered by nicotine, cotinine, or CSE in a time-dependent, species-specific manner. Whether these findings that support the hypothesis of an increased patient susceptibility for bacterial adhesion to epithelial cells in smokers are clinically relevant remains to be proven.

Teughels W; Van Eldere J; van Steenberghe D; Cassiman JJ; Fives-Taylor P; Quirynen M

2005-08-01

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Cotinine en pédiatrie et en santé au travail Cotinine in pediatry and at the workplace  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available L'intérêt du suivi d'une exposition au tabac par la mesure de la concentration de la cotinine dans les milieux biologiques est connu depuis longtemps. Métabolite principal de la nicotine, avec une demi-vie d'élimination longue, le suivi de la cotinine permet l'évaluation de l'imprégnation tabagique dans les cas particuliers du tabagisme passif chez l'enfant et chez l'adulte, dans les lieux publics ou le milieu professionnel. Le suivi de ce marqueur s'avère également particulièrement intéressant en santé au travail pour la surveillance d'expositions à certains solvants organiques (benzène, toluène, éthylbenzéne, xylène, hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques...) dont les concentrations ou celles de leurs métabolites sont influencées par la consommation de tabac. L'urine demeure la matrice biologique de choix pour évaluer le degré d'exposition. Un seuil de positivité mesuré à 6 ng/mL dans l'urine permet de distinguer une population pédiatrique exposée ou non. D'autres matrices comme les cheveux ou la salive apparaissent depuis plusieurs années comme utiles dans le cadre du dépistage de l'exposition au tabagisme environnemental. Le dosage de la cotinine dans les cheveux montre une nouvelle fois l'intérêt rétrospectif de l'utilisation de ce type de matrice. La salive, avec un intérêt moindre chez le nouveau né, a été utilisée dans plusieurs études pour distinguer des populations exposées et non exposées avec un seuil de positivité fixé à 1 ng/mL. Deux types de méthodes sont principalement utilisées pour le dosage de la cotinine : les méthodes chromatographiques HPLC-DAD, HPLC-MS, GC-MS et les méthodes immunologiques (RIA ou immunoenzymatiques par ELISA). Des études récentes montrent l'évolution des techniques ELISA. Elles peuvent par exemple être utilisées dans la salive avec un seuil de positivité de la cotinine à 1 ng/mL permettant de définir une population imprégnée. Actuellement, nombreuses sont les études qui utilisent avec succès les techniques immunologiques en pédiatrie et en santé au travail. Les avantages apparaissent alors multiples notamment en termes de coût et de rapidité. Elles sont suffisamment sensibles et peuvent être utilisées pour différents types de matrices biologiques. It is well known today that tobacco exposure can be assessed by the measurement of several markers in biological fluids. Cotinine, a nicotine metabolite with a longer biological half-life than nicotine, is probably the most reliable index that can be used to measure exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in adults in the context of an exposure at workplace, and also in children. Additionally, cotinine appears to be a very useful marker to investigate the exposure of workers to organic solvents (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons...) given that their concentrations and/or those of their metabolites can be influenced by tobacco smoke. Urine remains an accurate biological specimen to assess the level of tobacco exposure of individuals. A urinary cotinine level of 6 ng/mL (cut-off) is a precise and sensitive test in discerning exposed children to tobacco smoke from non-exposed children. Other alternative biological specimens such as hair or saliva can also be used for this purpose. Hair cotinine has proved to be a reliable tool for evaluating the level of environmental tobacco smoke in a pediatric population. Saliva has been successfully applied in several studies amongst primary school children or in workers with a cut-off value for cotinine of 1 ng/mL. Various assays are presently available for the measurement of cotinine in biological specimens. Most of them are based on chromatographic (HPLC-UV, HPLC-MS, GC-MS) or immunoassay methods (RIA, EIA). Recent studies showed that ELISA can be used to measure cotinine in saliva at a level as low as 1 ng/mL, this concentration being the cut-off allowing to distinguish individuals exposed to environmental tobacco smoke from individuals not exposed. Currently, many studies d

Hoizey Guillaume; Labat Laurence

2009-01-01

27

A two-year follow-up study of salivary cortisol concentration and the risk of depression  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Stress is a suspected cause of depression. High cortisol concentration, a biomarker of an activated stress response, has been found in depressed patients. The aim of this study was to determine if a high level of salivary cortisol is a risk factor of depression. In 2007, we enrolled 4467 public employees. Morning and evening salivary cortisol concentration were measured for each participant. Participants reporting high levels of depressive, burnout, or stress symptoms, assessed by questionnaires were assigned to a psychiatric interview. In this interview 98 participants were diagnosed with depression and subsequently excluded. Two years later in 2009, 2920 participants who had provided at least one valid saliva cortisol measurement at baseline participated at follow up. The psychiatric interviews were repeated and 62 cases of newly onset depression were diagnosed. Odds ratios of depression were estimated for every 1.0nmol/l increase in morning, evening, and daily mean cortisol concentration, as well as for the difference between morning and evening cortisol concentration. The risk of depression decreased by increasing daily mean cortisol concentration and by increasing difference between morning and evening concentrations, while morning and evening cortisol concentrations were not significantly associated with depression. The adjusted odds ratios for 1.0nmol/l increase in morning, evening, and daily mean cortisol concentration were 0.69 (95% CI: 0.45, 1.05), 0.87 (95% CI: 0.59, 1.28), and 0.53 (95% CI: 0.32, 0.90), respectively. The adjusted odds ratio for 1.0nmol/l increase in difference between morning and evening concentration were 0.64 (95% CI: 0.45, 0.90). This study did not support the hypothesis that high salivary cortisol concentration is a risk factor of depression, but indicate that low mean salivary cortisol concentration and a small difference between morning and evening cortisol concentration may be risk factors of depression.

Grynderup, Matias; Kolstad, Henrik Albert

2013-01-01

28

A two-year follow-up study of salivary cortisol concentration and the risk of depression.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Stress is a suspected cause of depression. High cortisol concentration, a biomarker of an activated stress response, has been found in depressed patients. The aim of this study was to determine if a high level of salivary cortisol is a risk factor of depression. In 2007, we enrolled 4467 public employees. Morning and evening salivary cortisol concentration were measured for each participant. Participants reporting high levels of depressive, burnout, or stress symptoms, assessed by questionnaires were assigned to a psychiatric interview. In this interview 98 participants were diagnosed with depression and subsequently excluded. Two years later in 2009, 2920 participants who had provided at least one valid saliva cortisol measurement at baseline participated at follow up. The psychiatric interviews were repeated and 62 cases of newly onset depression were diagnosed. Odds ratios of depression were estimated for every 1.0nmol/l increase in morning, evening, and daily mean cortisol concentration, as well as for the difference between morning and evening cortisol concentration. The risk of depression decreased by increasing daily mean cortisol concentration and by increasing difference between morning and evening concentrations, while morning and evening cortisol concentrations were not significantly associated with depression. The adjusted odds ratios for 1.0nmol/l increase in morning, evening, and daily mean cortisol concentration were 0.69 (95% CI: 0.45, 1.05), 0.87 (95% CI: 0.59, 1.28), and 0.53 (95% CI: 0.32, 0.90), respectively. The adjusted odds ratio for 1.0nmol/l increase in difference between morning and evening concentration were 0.64 (95% CI: 0.45, 0.90). This study did not support the hypothesis that high salivary cortisol concentration is a risk factor of depression, but indicate that low mean salivary cortisol concentration and a small difference between morning and evening cortisol concentration may be risk factors of depression.

Grynderup MB; Kolstad HA; Mikkelsen S; Andersen JH; Bonde JP; Buttenschøn HN; Kærgaard A; Kærlev L; Rugulies R; Thomsen JF; Vammen MA; Mors O; Hansen AM

2013-10-01

29

A two-year follow-up study of salivary cortisol concentration and the risk of depression.  

Science.gov (United States)

Stress is a suspected cause of depression. High cortisol concentration, a biomarker of an activated stress response, has been found in depressed patients. The aim of this study was to determine if a high level of salivary cortisol is a risk factor of depression. In 2007, we enrolled 4467 public employees. Morning and evening salivary cortisol concentration were measured for each participant. Participants reporting high levels of depressive, burnout, or stress symptoms, assessed by questionnaires were assigned to a psychiatric interview. In this interview 98 participants were diagnosed with depression and subsequently excluded. Two years later in 2009, 2920 participants who had provided at least one valid saliva cortisol measurement at baseline participated at follow up. The psychiatric interviews were repeated and 62 cases of newly onset depression were diagnosed. Odds ratios of depression were estimated for every 1.0nmol/l increase in morning, evening, and daily mean cortisol concentration, as well as for the difference between morning and evening cortisol concentration. The risk of depression decreased by increasing daily mean cortisol concentration and by increasing difference between morning and evening concentrations, while morning and evening cortisol concentrations were not significantly associated with depression. The adjusted odds ratios for 1.0nmol/l increase in morning, evening, and daily mean cortisol concentration were 0.69 (95% CI: 0.45, 1.05), 0.87 (95% CI: 0.59, 1.28), and 0.53 (95% CI: 0.32, 0.90), respectively. The adjusted odds ratio for 1.0nmol/l increase in difference between morning and evening concentration were 0.64 (95% CI: 0.45, 0.90). This study did not support the hypothesis that high salivary cortisol concentration is a risk factor of depression, but indicate that low mean salivary cortisol concentration and a small difference between morning and evening cortisol concentration may be risk factors of depression. PMID:23597874

Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard; Kolstad, Henrik Albert; Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Andersen, Johan Hviid; Bonde, Jens Peter; Buttenschøn, Henriette Nørmølle; Kærgaard, Anette; Kærlev, Linda; Rugulies, Reiner; Thomsen, Jane Frølund; Vammen, Marianne Agergaard; Mors, Ole; Hansen, Ase Marie

2013-04-15

30

A surrogate method for comparison analysis of salivary concentrations of Xylitol-containing products  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Xylitol chewing gum has been shown to reduce Streptococcus mutans levels and decay. Two studies examined the presence and time course of salivary xylitol concentrations delivered via xylitol-containing pellet gum and compared them to other xylitol-containing products. Methods A within-subjects design was used for both studies. Study 1, adults (N = 15) received three xylitol-containing products (pellet gum (2.6 g), gummy bears (2.6 g), and commercially available stick gum (Koolerz, 3.0 g)); Study 2, a second group of adults (N = 15) received three xylitol-containing products (pellet gum, gummy bears, and a 33% xylitol syrup (2.67 g). For both studies subjects consumed one xylitol product per visit with a 7-day washout between each product. A standardized protocol was followed for each product visit. Product order was randomly determined at the initial visit. Saliva samples (0.5 mL to 1.0 mL) were collected at baseline and up to 10 time points (~16 min in length) after product consumption initiated. Concentration of xylitol in saliva samples was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. Area under the curve (AUC) for determining the average xylitol concentration in saliva over the total sampling period was calculated for each product. Results In both studies all three xylitol products (Study 1: pellet gum, gummy bears, and stick gum; Study 2: pellet gum, gummy bears, and syrup) had similar time curves with two xylitol concentration peaks during the sampling period. Study 1 had its highest mean peaks at the 4 min sampling point while Study 2 had its highest mean peaks between 13 to 16 minutes. Salivary xylitol levels returned to baseline at about 18 minutes for all forms tested. Additionally, for both studies the total AUC for the xylitol products were similar compared to the pellet gum (Study 1: pellet gum – 51.3 ?g.min/mL, gummy bears – 59.6 ?g.min/mL, and stick gum – 46.4 ?g.min/mL; Study 2: pellet gum – 63.0 ?g.min/mL, gummy bears – 55.9 ?g.min/mL, and syrup – 59.0 ?g.min/mL). Conclusion The comparison method demonstrated high reliability and validity. In both studies other xylitol-containing products had time curves and mean xylitol concentration peaks similar to xylitol pellet gum suggesting this test may be a surrogate for longer studies comparing various products.

Riedy Christine A; Milgrom Peter; Ly Kiet A; Rothen Marilynn; Mueller Gregory; Hagstrom Mary K; Tolentino Ernie; Zhou Lingmei; Roberts Marilyn C

2008-01-01

31

A surrogate method for comparison analysis of salivary concentrations of Xylitol-containing products.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Xylitol chewing gum has been shown to reduce Streptococcus mutans levels and decay. Two studies examined the presence and time course of salivary xylitol concentrations delivered via xylitol-containing pellet gum and compared them to other xylitol-containing products. METHODS: A within-subjects design was used for both studies. Study 1, adults (N = 15) received three xylitol-containing products (pellet gum (2.6 g), gummy bears (2.6 g), and commercially available stick gum (Koolerz, 3.0 g)); Study 2, a second group of adults (N = 15) received three xylitol-containing products (pellet gum, gummy bears, and a 33% xylitol syrup (2.67 g). For both studies subjects consumed one xylitol product per visit with a 7-day washout between each product. A standardized protocol was followed for each product visit. Product order was randomly determined at the initial visit. Saliva samples (0.5 mL to 1.0 mL) were collected at baseline and up to 10 time points (approximately 16 min in length) after product consumption initiated. Concentration of xylitol in saliva samples was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. Area under the curve (AUC) for determining the average xylitol concentration in saliva over the total sampling period was calculated for each product. RESULTS: In both studies all three xylitol products (Study 1: pellet gum, gummy bears, and stick gum; Study 2: pellet gum, gummy bears, and syrup) had similar time curves with two xylitol concentration peaks during the sampling period. Study 1 had its highest mean peaks at the 4 min sampling point while Study 2 had its highest mean peaks between 13 to 16 minutes. Salivary xylitol levels returned to baseline at about 18 minutes for all forms tested. Additionally, for both studies the total AUC for the xylitol products were similar compared to the pellet gum (Study 1: pellet gum - 51.3 microg x min/mL, gummy bears - 59.6 microg x min/mL, and stick gum - 46.4 microg x min/mL; Study 2: pellet gum - 63.0 microg x min/mL, gummy bears - 55.9 microg x min/mL, and syrup - 59.0 microg x min/mL). CONCLUSION: The comparison method demonstrated high reliability and validity. In both studies other xylitol-containing products had time curves and mean xylitol concentration peaks similar to xylitol pellet gum suggesting this test may be a surrogate for longer studies comparing various products.

Riedy CA; Milgrom P; Ly KA; Rothen M; Mueller G; Hagstrom MK; Tolentino E; Zhou L; Roberts MC

2008-01-01

32

Relationships between salivary testosterone and cortisol concentrations and training performance in Olympic weightlifters.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: This study examined the relationships between salivary testosterone (Sal-T) and cortisol (Sal-C) concentrations and training performance in Olympic weightlifters. METHODS: Four male and four female Olympic weightlifters each provided saliva samples before and after four workouts during a four-week training period. Training involved the same three exercises; snatch, clean and jerk, and front squat with the one repetition maximum (1RM) calculated for each exercise during each workout. RESULTS: Significant (P < 0.05-0.01) training improvements in 1RM performance (4.0-5.2%) were noted during the snatch and clean and jerk exercises, along with the Olympic total lift. For male participants only, the pre-workout concentrations of Sal T were significantly (P < 0.05-0.01) correlated with the snatch (r = 0.70) and clean and jerk 1RM (r = 0.62), and the Olympic total lift (r = 0.66). CONCLUSION: A short period of training improved the 1RM performance of Olympic weightlifters in two exercises (snatch and clean and jerk) and the Olympic total. For male participants, their Sal-T concentrations before each workout was also related to 1RM performance during these exercises, thereby highlighting one possible short-term causative mechanism. Limitations of this study include the short duration of hormonal monitoring, the limited number of workouts assessed and the small number of participants recruited. Also, correlations between the outcome variables still only reflect casual associations.

Crewther BT; Christian C

2010-09-01

33

Monitoring salivary melatonin concentrations in children with sleep disorders using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Melatonin is synthesized in the pineal gland and is an important circadian phase marker, especially in the determination of sleep patterns. Both temporary and permanent abnormal sleep patterns occur in children; therefore, it is desirable to have methods for monitoring melatonin in biological fluids in the diagnosis and treatment of such disorders. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study is to develop a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of melatonin in saliva and to apply it to monitoring salivary concentrations in children with sleep disorders. METHODS: A deuterated internal standard (d7-melatonin) was added to a diluted saliva sample (20 µL) in an autosampler vial insert, and 50 µL were injected. Plasticware was strictly avoided, and all glassware was scrupulously cleaned and then baked at 120°C for at least 48 hours to obtain satisfactory performance. Reverse-phase chromatography was performed on a C8 column using a linear gradient elution profile comprising mobile phases A (0.1% aqueous formic acid) and B (15% methanol in acetonitrile containing 0.1% formic acid), pumped at a total flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. The run time was 8 minutes. After atmospheric pressure chemical ionization, mass spectrometric detection was in positive ion mode. Mass detection was by selected reaction monitoring mode with the following mass transitions used for quantification: melatonin, m/z 233.0 ? 173.8 and d7-melatonin, m/z 240.0 ? 178.3. RESULTS: Linearity (r > 0.999) was established from 3.9 to 1000 pg/mL. Imprecision (coefficient of variation percent) was less than 11%, and accuracy was 100-105% (7.0-900 pg/mL). The method was selective, and the mean (range) ratio of the slopes of calibrations in water to those in daytime saliva samples collected from 10 healthy adult subjects was 0.989 (0.982-0.997), indicating negligible matrix effects. The application of the assay was demonstrated in healthy adults and in children being clinically investigated for sleep disturbances. CONCLUSIONS: A validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method suitable for monitoring salivary melatonin in children with circadian rhythm sleep disorders is reported. The method also has potential application to pediatric population pharmacokinetic studies using sparse sampling of saliva as the biological sample matrix.

Khan SA; George R; Charles BG; Taylor PJ; Heussler HS; Cooper DM; McGuire TM; Pache D; Norris RL

2013-06-01

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Fecal and Salivary Cortisol Concentrations in Woolly (Lagothrix ssp.) and Spider Monkeys (Ateles spp.)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Detrimental physiological effects due to stressors can contribute to the low captive success of primates. The objective of this research was to investigate the potential impact of diet composition on cortisol concentrations in feces and saliva in woolly (n=27) and spider monkeys (n=61). The research was conducted in three studies: the first investigated spider monkeys in the United States, the second investigated spider monkeys within Europe, and the third investigated woolly monkeys within Europe. Fecal cortisol in spider monkeys in US zoos varied (P=.07) from 30 to 66 ng/g. The zoo with the highest fecal cortisol also had the highest salivary cortisol (P?.05). For European zoos, fecal cortisol differed between zoos for both spider and woolly monkeys (P?.05). Spider monkeys had higher fecal cortisol than woolly monkeys (P?.05). Zoos with the highest dietary carbohydrates, sugars, glucose, and fruit had the highest cortisol. Cortisol was highest for zoos that did not meet crude protein requirements and fed the lowest percentage of complete feeds and crude fiber. Differences among zoos in housing and diets may increase animal stress. The lifespan and reproductive success of captive primates could improve if stressors are reduced and dietary nutrients optimized.

Kimberly D. Ange-van Heugten; Eric van Heugten; Saskia Timmer; Guido Bosch; Abahor Elias; Scott Whisnant; Hans J. M. Swarts; Peter Ferket; Martin W. A. Verstegen

2009-01-01

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Transformation techniques for cross-sectional and longitudinal endocrine data: application to salivary cortisol concentrations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Endocrine time series often lack normality and homoscedasticity most likely due to the non-linear dynamics of their natural determinants and the immanent characteristics of the biochemical analysis tools, respectively. As a consequence, data transformation (e.g., log-transformation) is frequently applied to enable general linear model-based analyses. However, to date, data transformation techniques substantially vary across studies and the question of which is the optimum power transformation remains to be addressed. The present report aims to provide a common solution for the analysis of endocrine time series by systematically comparing different power transformations with regard to their impact on data normality and homoscedasticity. For this, a variety of power transformations of the Box-Cox family were applied to salivary cortisol data of 309 healthy participants sampled in temporal proximity to a psychosocial stressor (the Trier Social Stress Test). Whereas our analyses show that un- as well as log-transformed data are inferior in terms of meeting normality and homoscedasticity, they also provide optimum transformations for both, cross-sectional cortisol samples reflecting the distributional concentration equilibrium and longitudinal cortisol time series comprising systematically altered hormone distributions that result from simultaneously elicited pulsatile change and continuous elimination processes. Considering these dynamics of endocrine oscillations, data transformation prior to testing GLMs seems mandatory to minimize biased results.

Miller R; Plessow F

2013-06-01

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A comparative analysis of the influence of human salivary enzymes on odorant concentration in three palm wines.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The influence of human salivary enzymes on palm wines' odorant concentrations were investigated by the application of aroma extracts dilution analysis (AEDA) and by the calculation of odour activity values (OAVs), respectively. The odorants were quantified by means of stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA), and the degradation profiles of odorants by human saliva were also studied. Results revealed 46 odour-active compounds in the flavour dilution (FD) factor range of 4-256, and all were subsequently identified. Of the 46 odorants, 41 were identified in the Elaeis guineensis wine, 36 in Raphia hookeri wine and 29 in Borassus flabellifer wine. Among the odorants, the highest FD-factors were obtained from acetoin, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine. Among the 13 potent odorants identified, five aroma compounds are reported here as important contributors to palm wine aroma, namely 3-isobutyl-2-methoxy-pyrazine, acetoin, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-methylbutylacetate and ethyl hexanoate. Meanwhile, salivary enzymic degradation of odorants was more pronounced among the aldehydes, esters and thiols.

Lasekan O

2013-01-01

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Flujo y concentración de proteínas en saliva total humana/ Salivary flow rate and protein concentration in human whole saliva  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Objetivo. Determinar los promedios de flujo salival y la concentración de proteínas totales en una población joven del Estado de México. Material y métodos. Se seleccionaron 120 sujetos a quienes se les colectó saliva total humana (STH) no estimulada y estimulada, la cual se analizó por medio de gravimetría y espectrofotometría (LV/LU); se calcularon medidas de tendencia central y de dispersión; posteriormente, se correlacionaron estos datos con los índices CPO (more) D y CPITN. Resultados. Los sujetos estudiados mostraron un promedio de flujo salival (ml/min ± DE) en STH no estimulada de 0.397±.26, y en STH estimulada, de 0.973±.53. El promedio en la concentración de proteínas (mg/ml ± DE) fue de 1.374±.45 en STH no estimulada y de 1.526±.44 en STH estimulada. Las mujeres presentaron un menor porcentaje de flujo salival y mayor concentración de proteínas. No se observaron correlaciones entre el flujo y la concentración de proteínas totales y el CPOD y CPITN; sin embargo, sí las hubo con otras variables. Conclusiones. Estos hallazgos podrían estar asociados con el grado de nutrición, las características genéticas y los niveles de salud bucal en nuestra población. El presente estudio representa la fase inicial de la creación de una base de datos en sialoquímica, cuya meta será identificar los parámetros que indiquen el riesgo de enfermedades sistémicas o bucodentales. Abstract in english Objective. To determine the average salivary flow rates and total protein concentrations in a population of the State of Mexico. Material and methods. A gravimetric and spectrophotometric analysis was applied to 120 subjects in total resting and stimulated whole saliva and results were correlated with the DMFT and CPITN indexes. Results. Subjects allowed average salivary flow rate (ml/min ± SD) in non-stimulated human whole saliva (HWS) of 0.397±.26 and in stimulated HW (more) S of 0.973±.53. Average protein concentration was (mg/ml ± SD) 1.374±.45 in non-stimulated HWS and 1.526±.44 in stimulated HWS. Females showed a lower percentage of salivary flow and greater protein concentrations. No correlations were observed between flow and total protein concentration, and DMFT and CPITN; however, correlations were present with other variables. Conclusions. These findings could be associated to degree of nutrition, genetic characteristics and level of oral disease in our population. Present results represent the first step to create a database in sialochemistry to identify risk indicators of specific oral and systemic diseases.

BANDERAS-TARABAY, JOSÉ ANTONIO; GONZÁLEZ-BEGNÉ, MIREYA; SÁNCHEZ-GARDUÑO, MARTHA; MILLÁN-CORTÉZ, ELVA; LÓPEZ-RODRÍGUEZ, ARACELI; VILCHIS-VELÁZQUEZ, ARACELI

1997-09-01

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Flujo y concentración de proteínas en saliva total humana Salivary flow rate and protein concentration in human whole saliva  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar los promedios de flujo salival y la concentración de proteínas totales en una población joven del Estado de México. Material y métodos. Se seleccionaron 120 sujetos a quienes se les colectó saliva total humana (STH) no estimulada y estimulada, la cual se analizó por medio de gravimetría y espectrofotometría (LV/LU); se calcularon medidas de tendencia central y de dispersión; posteriormente, se correlacionaron estos datos con los índices CPOD y CPITN. Resultados. Los sujetos estudiados mostraron un promedio de flujo salival (ml/min ± DE) en STH no estimulada de 0.397±.26, y en STH estimulada, de 0.973±.53. El promedio en la concentración de proteínas (mg/ml ± DE) fue de 1.374±.45 en STH no estimulada y de 1.526±.44 en STH estimulada. Las mujeres presentaron un menor porcentaje de flujo salival y mayor concentración de proteínas. No se observaron correlaciones entre el flujo y la concentración de proteínas totales y el CPOD y CPITN; sin embargo, sí las hubo con otras variables. Conclusiones. Estos hallazgos podrían estar asociados con el grado de nutrición, las características genéticas y los niveles de salud bucal en nuestra población. El presente estudio representa la fase inicial de la creación de una base de datos en sialoquímica, cuya meta será identificar los parámetros que indiquen el riesgo de enfermedades sistémicas o bucodentales.Objective. To determine the average salivary flow rates and total protein concentrations in a population of the State of Mexico. Material and methods. A gravimetric and spectrophotometric analysis was applied to 120 subjects in total resting and stimulated whole saliva and results were correlated with the DMFT and CPITN indexes. Results. Subjects allowed average salivary flow rate (ml/min ± SD) in non-stimulated human whole saliva (HWS) of 0.397±.26 and in stimulated HWS of 0.973±.53. Average protein concentration was (mg/ml ± SD) 1.374±.45 in non-stimulated HWS and 1.526±.44 in stimulated HWS. Females showed a lower percentage of salivary flow and greater protein concentrations. No correlations were observed between flow and total protein concentration, and DMFT and CPITN; however, correlations were present with other variables. Conclusions. These findings could be associated to degree of nutrition, genetic characteristics and level of oral disease in our population. Present results represent the first step to create a database in sialochemistry to identify risk indicators of specific oral and systemic diseases.

JOSÉ ANTONIO BANDERAS-TARABAY; MIREYA GONZÁLEZ-BEGNÉ; MARTHA SÁNCHEZ-GARDUÑO; ELVA MILLÁN-CORTÉZ; ARACELI LÓPEZ-RODRÍGUEZ; ARACELI VILCHIS-VELÁZQUEZ

1997-01-01

39

Salivary flow rate, pH, and concentrations of calcium, phosphate, and sIgA in Brazilian pregnant and non-pregnant women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on salivary variables and pregnancy in Latin America are scarce. This study aimed to compare salivary flow rate, pH, and concentrations of calcium, phosphate, and sIgA of unstimulated whole saliva in pregnant and non-pregnant Brazilians. Methods Cross-sectional study. Sample was composed by 22 pregnant and 22 non-pregnant women attending the Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics, São Lucas Hospital, in Porto Alegre city, South region of Brazil. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected to determine salivary flow rate, pH, and biochemical composition. Data were analyzed by Student t test and ANCOVA (two-tailed ? = 0.05). Results No difference was found for salivary flow rates and concentrations of total calcium and phosphate between pregnant and non-pregnant women (p > 0.05). Pregnant women had lower pH (6.7) than non-pregnant women (7.5) (p Conclusion Some of the tested variables of unstimulated whole saliva were different between pregnant and non-pregnant Brazilians in this sample. Overall, the values of the tested salivary parameters were within the range of international references of normality.

Rockenbach Maria I; Marinho Sandra A; Veeck Elaine B; Lindemann Laura; Shinkai Rosemary S

2006-01-01

40

Simultaneous determination of nicotine and cotinine in serum using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorometric detection and postcolumn UV-photoirradiation system.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A simple and rapid method for the simultaneous determination of serum nicotine and cotinine using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-fluorometric detection with a postcolumn ultraviolet-photoirradiation system was developed. Analytes were extracted from alkalinized human serum via liquid-liquid extraction using chloroform. The organic phase was back-extracted with the acidified aqueous phase, and the analytes were directly injected into an ion-pair reversed-phase HPLC system. 6-Aminoquinoline was used as an internal standard. Nicotine, cotinine, and 6-aminoquinoline were separated within 14min. The extraction efficiency of nicotine and cotinine was greater than 91%. The linear range was 0.30-1000ng for nicotine and 0.06-1000ng for cotinine. In serum samples from smokers, the concentrations of nicotine and cotinine were 8-15ng/mL and 156-372ng/mL, respectively.

Yasuda M; Ota T; Morikawa A; Mawatari K; Fukuuchi T; Yamaoka N; Kaneko K; Nakagomi K

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
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Simultaneous determination of nicotine and cotinine in serum using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorometric detection and postcolumn UV-photoirradiation system.  

Science.gov (United States)

A simple and rapid method for the simultaneous determination of serum nicotine and cotinine using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-fluorometric detection with a postcolumn ultraviolet-photoirradiation system was developed. Analytes were extracted from alkalinized human serum via liquid-liquid extraction using chloroform. The organic phase was back-extracted with the acidified aqueous phase, and the analytes were directly injected into an ion-pair reversed-phase HPLC system. 6-Aminoquinoline was used as an internal standard. Nicotine, cotinine, and 6-aminoquinoline were separated within 14min. The extraction efficiency of nicotine and cotinine was greater than 91%. The linear range was 0.30-1000ng for nicotine and 0.06-1000ng for cotinine. In serum samples from smokers, the concentrations of nicotine and cotinine were 8-15ng/mL and 156-372ng/mL, respectively. PMID:23896428

Yasuda, Makoto; Ota, Tatsuhiro; Morikawa, Atsushi; Mawatari, Ken-ichi; Fukuuchi, Tomoko; Yamaoka, Noriko; Kaneko, Kiyoko; Nakagomi, Kazuya

2013-07-03

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Secondhand smoke exposure among Canadians: cotinine and self-report measures from the Canadian Health Measures Survey 2007-2009.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is associated with numerous adverse health effects, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, asthma, respiratory infections, and decreased pulmonary function. This study provides population estimates of SHS exposure among the Canadian nonsmoking population based on self-report and urinary cotinine concentrations. METHODS: The 2007-2009 Canadian Health Measures Survey, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey, collected data from Canadians aged 6-79 years, and it includes self-report and urinary cotinine measures of tobacco smoke exposure (n = 4,455). RESULTS: An estimated 22% of nonsmokers reported being exposed to SHS every day or almost every day. Of those, 70% of children (6-11 years) and 48% of adolescents (12-19 years) had detectable cotinine levels compared with 23% of adults (20-79 years). An estimated 77% of nonsmokers exposed to SHS only in the home had detectable cotinine levels compared with 11% of nonsmokers exposed to SHS only outside the home. Of those exposed to SHS only in the home, a higher percentage of children (5.1%) had detectable cotinine levels compared with adults (3.1%). CONCLUSIONS: Despite well-known health risks associated with exposure to tobacco smoke, a substantial proportion of the Canadian population continues to be exposed to SHS. Higher percentages of certain subpopulations had detectable cotinine concentrations, including children, adolescents, and those exposed to SHS in the home.

Wong SL; Malaison E; Hammond D; Leatherdale ST

2013-03-01

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Do whole-body vibration exercise and resistance exercise modify concentrations of salivary cortisol and immunoglobulin A?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english A single bout of resistance exercise (RE) induces hormonal and immune responses, playing an important role in a long-term adaptive process. Whole-body vibration (WBV) has also been shown to affect hormonal responses. Evidence suggests that combining WBV with RE may amplify hormonal and immune responses due to the increased neuromuscular load. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate salivary cortisol (Scortisol) and salivary IgA (SIgA) concentrations following a R (more) E session combined or not with WBV. Nine university students (22.9 ± 5.1 years, 175.8 ± 5.2 cm, and 69.2 ± 7.3 kg) performed five sets of squat exercise (70% one-repetition-maximum) combined (R+V30) or not (R) with WBV at 30 Hz. Saliva samples were obtained before and after exercise. Subjects also rated their effort according to the Borg CR-10 scale (RPE). Data were analyzed by a mixed model. RPE was higher after R+V30 (8.3 ± 0.7) compared to R (6.2 ± 0.7). However, Scortisol (pre: 10.6 ± 7.6 and 11.7 ± 7.6, post: 8.3 ± 6.3 and 10.2 ± 7.2 ng/mL for R and R+V30, respectively) and SIgA concentrations (pre: 98.3 ± 22.6 and 116.1 ± 51.2, post: 116.6 ± 64.7 and 143.6 ± 80.5 µg/mL for R and R+V30, respectively) were unaffected. No significant correlations were observed between Scortisol and RPE (r = 0.45, P = 0.22; r = 0.30, P = 0.42, for R and R+V30, respectively). On the basis of these data, neither protocol modified salivary cortisol or IgA, although RPE was higher after R+V30 than R.

Roschel, H.; Barroso, R.; Batista, M.; Ugrinowitsch, C.; Tricoli, V.; Arsati, F.; Lima-Arsati, Y.B.; Araújo, V.C.; Moreira, A.

2011-06-01

44

Do whole-body vibration exercise and resistance exercise modify concentrations of salivary cortisol and immunoglobulin A?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A single bout of resistance exercise (RE) induces hormonal and immune responses, playing an important role in a long-term adaptive process. Whole-body vibration (WBV) has also been shown to affect hormonal responses. Evidence suggests that combining WBV with RE may amplify hormonal and immune responses due to the increased neuromuscular load. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate salivary cortisol (Scortisol) and salivary IgA (SIgA) concentrations following a RE session combined or not with WBV. Nine university students (22.9 ± 5.1 years, 175.8 ± 5.2 cm, and 69.2 ± 7.3 kg) performed five sets of squat exercise (70% one-repetition-maximum) combined (R+V30) or not (R) with WBV at 30 Hz. Saliva samples were obtained before and after exercise. Subjects also rated their effort according to the Borg CR-10 scale (RPE). Data were analyzed by a mixed model. RPE was higher after R+V30 (8.3 ± 0.7) compared to R (6.2 ± 0.7). However, Scortisol (pre: 10.6 ± 7.6 and 11.7 ± 7.6, post: 8.3 ± 6.3 and 10.2 ± 7.2 ng/mL for R and R+V30, respectively) and SIgA concentrations (pre: 98.3 ± 22.6 and 116.1 ± 51.2, post: 116.6 ± 64.7 and 143.6 ± 80.5 µg/mL for R and R+V30, respectively) were unaffected. No significant correlations were observed between Scortisol and RPE (r = 0.45, P = 0.22; r = 0.30, P = 0.42, for R and R+V30, respectively). On the basis of these data, neither protocol modified salivary cortisol or IgA, although RPE was higher after R+V30 than R.

H. Roschel; R. Barroso; M. Batista; C. Ugrinowitsch; V. Tricoli; F. Arsati; Y.B. Lima-Arsati; V.C. Araújo; A. Moreira

2011-01-01

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Variation of serum and urine cotinine in passive and active smokers and applicability in preconceptional smoking cessation counseling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This study assessed the applicability of serum and urine cotinine as a biochemical marker of self-reported smoking habits for use in a preconception smoking cessation program. The variation of serum and urine cotinine over the course of the day was investigated in a sample of 21 smokers and 8 passive smokers who reported their smoking habits and exposure to smoke daily in a questionnaire for 10 consecutive days. Blood and urine samples were collected on two sampling days, 1 week apart. Both serum and urine cotinine assay could distinguish between passive and active smokers, but not between higher categories of smokers (1019 and ?20 cigarettes per ay) due to significant intersubject overlap. In serum, no significant differences were found between morning and afternoon cotinine concentrations in either day, in contrast to urine cotinine (with lower excretions observed n the morning). An overall coefficient of variation of 22- was observed for both specimens in smokers. Because serum cotinine is subject to lower variability over the course of the day, it is more practical for use in a clinical setting where appointments are scheduled throughout the day in order o confirm smoking status

2002-01-01

46

Psychological stress and its influence on salivary flow rate, total protein concentration and IgA, IgG and IgM titers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and sympathetic-adrenomedullary axes are the main systems activated in response to stress. Alterations in salivary components and flow rate have been associated with oral health problems and psychological stress. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of psychological stress on salivary flow, total protein concentration and IgG, IgM and IgA concentrations. METHODS: Thirty-eight medical students, average age of 21.4 +/- 2.1 years and enrolled in the 2nd to 5th years of their course, took part voluntarily in the study which involved two different periods: the first after vacations and the second during the final exams (a gap of 4 months). An Oral Health Questionnaire and the Lipp Inventory of Stress Symptoms for Adults (ISSL) were applied during both these periods. The flow rate, total protein concentration and immunoglobulin titers of saliva samples, collected after stimulation and stored in a container with protease inhibitor, were measured. RESULTS: Analysis of the ISSL showed that 42.1% (n = 16) of the students had stress during the post-vacation period, and 44.7% (n = 17) during the final exams. The students' salivary flow rate was significantly lower during the latter period than during the post-vacation period (p < 0.0001), regardless of the presence or absence of psychological stress as measured by the ISSL. There was a reduction in salivary flow rate and a consequent reduction in total protein concentration during the exam period (p = 0.0058). However, during both periods of the study there was no significant difference in total salivary protein concentration between the groups of students with or without psychological stress according to the ISSL (p > 0.05). IgG predominated over IgA and IgM (p < 0.001) during both study periods, regardless of the presence or absence of psychological stress. The study period and the presence of stress influenced the secretion of salivary immunoglobulins. IgM titers during the post-vacation period (p = 0.0044), and IgA (p = 0.028), IgG (p = 0.022) and IgM (p = 0.0075) titers during the final exams were higher in students with symptoms of psychological stress. CONCLUSIONS: Although the immunoglobulin titers were high, there was a reduction in the students' salivary flow rates and a consequent reduction in total protein concentrations.

Matos-Gomes N; Katsurayama M; Makimoto FH; Santana LL; Paredes-Garcia E; Becker MA; Dos-Santos MC

2010-01-01

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Cotinine and trans 3'-hydroxycotinine in dried blood spots as biomarkers of tobacco exposure and nicotine metabolism.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Tobacco use is the major preventable cause of premature death in the United States. Second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure also contributes to a number of premature deaths as well as other negative health outcomes. An accurate assessment of tobacco smoke exposure is critical to understanding these disease processes. The plasma concentration of cotinine, the primary metabolite of nicotine, is widely accepted as a quantitative measure of tobacco and SHS exposure. However, it is not always feasible to collect plasma. Dried blood spots (DBS), which are collected routinely from newborns and often from young children for lead screening, provide an alternative sampling method. We have developed a quantitative high throughput liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for the analysis of cotinine in DBS. The limit of quantitation was 0.3 ng/g (~ 0.2 ng/ml plasma). Cotinine levels in DBS from 83 smokers and 99 non-smokers exposed to SHS were determined. Plasma cotinine concentrations in these subjects ranged from <0.02 to 443 ng/ml. Cotinine was detected in DBS from 157 subjects, and the correlation between cotinine in plasma and DBS was excellent, 0.992 (P<0.001). We also determined the ratio of trans 3'-hydroxycotinine to cotinine, a measure of nicotine metabolism, in DBS from smokers. This ratio in DBS was well correlated with the ratio in plasma, 0.94 (P<0.001). In a small study, we confirmed the feasibility of using extant DBS collected for lead screening to assess SHS exposure in children.

Murphy SE; Wickham KM; Lindgren BR; Spector LG; Joseph A

2013-09-01

48

Cotinine and trans 3'-hydroxycotinine in dried blood spots as biomarkers of tobacco exposure and nicotine metabolism.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tobacco use is the major preventable cause of premature death in the United States. Second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure also contributes to a number of premature deaths as well as other negative health outcomes. An accurate assessment of tobacco smoke exposure is critical to understanding these disease processes. The plasma concentration of cotinine, the primary metabolite of nicotine, is widely accepted as a quantitative measure of tobacco and SHS exposure. However, it is not always feasible to collect plasma. Dried blood spots (DBS), which are collected routinely from newborns and often from young children for lead screening, provide an alternative sampling method. We have developed a quantitative high throughput liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for the analysis of cotinine in DBS. The limit of quantitation was 0.3 ng/g (~ 0.2 ng/ml plasma). Cotinine levels in DBS from 83 smokers and 99 non-smokers exposed to SHS were determined. Plasma cotinine concentrations in these subjects ranged from <0.02 to 443 ng/ml. Cotinine was detected in DBS from 157 subjects, and the correlation between cotinine in plasma and DBS was excellent, 0.992 (P<0.001). We also determined the ratio of trans 3'-hydroxycotinine to cotinine, a measure of nicotine metabolism, in DBS from smokers. This ratio in DBS was well correlated with the ratio in plasma, 0.94 (P<0.001). In a small study, we confirmed the feasibility of using extant DBS collected for lead screening to assess SHS exposure in children. PMID:23443235

Murphy, Sharon E; Wickham, Katherine M; Lindgren, Bruce R; Spector, Logan G; Joseph, Anne

2013-02-27

49

Providing coaching and cotinine results to preteens to reduce their secondhand smoke exposure: a randomized trial.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) poses health risks to children living with smokers. Most interventions to protect children from SHSe have coached adult smokers. This trial determined whether coaching and cotinine feedback provided to preteens can reduce their SHSe. METHODS: Two hundred one predominantly low-income families with a resident smoker and a child aged 8 to 13 years who was exposed to two or more cigarettes per day or had a urine cotinine concentration ? 2.0 ng/mL were randomized to control or SHSe reduction coaching groups. During eight in-home sessions over 5 months, coaches presented to the child graphic charts of cotinine assay results as performance feedback and provided differential praise and incentives for cotinine reductions. Generalized estimating equations were used to determine the differential change in SHSe over time by group. RESULTS: For the baseline to posttest period, the coaching group had a greater decrease in both urine cotinine concentration (P = .039) and reported child SHSe in the number of cigarettes exposed per day (child report, P = .003; parent report, P = .078). For posttest to month 12 follow-up, no group or group by time differences were obtained, and both groups returned toward baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Coaching preteens can reduce their SHSe, although reductions may not be sustained without ongoing counseling, feedback, and incentives. Unlike interventions that coach adults to reduce child SHSe, programs that increase child avoidance of SHSe have the potential to reduce SHSe in all settings in which the child is exposed, without requiring a change in adult smoking behavior.

Hovell MF; Wahlgren DR; Liles S; Jones JA; Hughes SC; Matt GE; Ji M; Lessov-Schlaggar CN; Swan GE; Chatfield D; Ding D

2011-09-01

50

Providing Coaching and Cotinine Results to Preteens to Reduce Their Secondhand Smoke Exposure  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) poses health risks to children living with smokers. Most interventions to protect children from SHSe have coached adult smokers. This trial determined whether coaching and cotinine feedback provided to preteens can reduce their SHSe. Methods: Two hundred one predominantly low-income families with a resident smoker and a child aged 8 to 13 years who was exposed to two or more cigarettes per day or had a urine cotinine concentration ? 2.0 ng/mL were randomized to control or SHSe reduction coaching groups. During eight in-home sessions over 5 months, coaches presented to the child graphic charts of cotinine assay results as performance feedback and provided differential praise and incentives for cotinine reductions. Generalized estimating equations were used to determine the differential change in SHSe over time by group. Results: For the baseline to posttest period, the coaching group had a greater decrease in both urine cotinine concentration (P = .039) and reported child SHSe in the number of cigarettes exposed per day (child report, P = .003; parent report, P = .078). For posttest to month 12 follow-up, no group or group by time differences were obtained, and both groups returned toward baseline. Conclusions: Coaching preteens can reduce their SHSe, although reductions may not be sustained without ongoing counseling, feedback, and incentives. Unlike interventions that coach adults to reduce child SHSe, programs that increase child avoidance of SHSe have the potential to reduce SHSe in all settings in which the child is exposed, without requiring a change in adult smoking behavior.

Wahlgren, Dennis R.; Liles, Sandy; Jones, Jennifer A.; Hughes, Suzanne C.; Matt, Georg E.; Ji, Ming; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N.; Swan, Gary E.; Chatfield, Dale; Ding, Ding

2011-01-01

51

The effects of a formal exercise training programme on salivary hormone concentrations and body composition in previously sedentary aging men.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Alteration in body composition, physical function, and substrate metabolism occur with advancing age. These changes may be attenuated by exercise. This study examined whether twenty eight, previously sedentary males (62.5 ± 5.3 years of age; body mass of 89.7 ± 16.4 kg) adhering to the ACSM minimum guidelines for aerobic exercise for six weeks would improve exercise capabilities, body composition and salivary hormone profiles. After six weeks of adhering to the guidelines, salivary testosterone and vo(2max) (absolute and relative) increased (p < 0.05), whilst body fat percentage and body mass decreased (p < 0.05). Peak power output, fat free mass and cortisol values were not significantly different. Interestingly, salivary testosterone correlated inversely with body fat percentage (R(2) = .285, p = 0.011). These results suggest that despite previous inactivity, older males can achieve improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition and anabolism by adhering to simple lifestyle changes.

Hayes LD; Grace FM; Sculthorpe N; Herbert P; Ratcliffe JW; Kilduff LP; Baker JS

2013-12-01

52

The effects of a formal exercise training programme on salivary hormone concentrations and body composition in previously sedentary aging men.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alteration in body composition, physical function, and substrate metabolism occur with advancing age. These changes may be attenuated by exercise. This study examined whether twenty eight, previously sedentary males (62.5 ± 5.3 years of age; body mass of 89.7 ± 16.4 kg) adhering to the ACSM minimum guidelines for aerobic exercise for six weeks would improve exercise capabilities, body composition and salivary hormone profiles. After six weeks of adhering to the guidelines, salivary testosterone and vo(2max) (absolute and relative) increased (p < 0.05), whilst body fat percentage and body mass decreased (p < 0.05). Peak power output, fat free mass and cortisol values were not significantly different. Interestingly, salivary testosterone correlated inversely with body fat percentage (R(2) = .285, p = 0.011). These results suggest that despite previous inactivity, older males can achieve improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition and anabolism by adhering to simple lifestyle changes. PMID:23396630

Hayes, Lawrence D; Grace, Fergal M; Sculthorpe, Nick; Herbert, Peter; Ratcliffe, John Wt; Kilduff, Liam P; Baker, Julien S

2013-01-22

53

Candida albicans flu1-mediated efflux of salivary histatin 5 reduces its cytosolic concentration and fungicidal activity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Histatin 5 (Hst 5) is a salivary human antimicrobial peptide that is toxic to the opportunistic yeast Candida albicans. Fungicidal activity of Hst 5 requires intracellular translocation and accumulation to a threshold concentration for it to disrupt cellular processes. Previously, we observed that total cytosolic levels of Hst 5 were gradually reduced from intact cells, suggesting that C. albicans possesses a transport mechanism for efflux of Hst 5. Since we identified C. albicans polyamine transporters responsible for Hst 5 uptake, we hypothesized that one or more polyamine efflux transporters may be involved in the efflux of Hst 5. C. albicans FLU1 and TPO2 were found to be the closest homologs of Saccharomyces cerevisiae TPO1, which encodes a major spermidine efflux transporter, indicating that the products of these two genes may be involved in efflux of Hst 5. We found that flu1?/? cells, but not tpo2?/? cells, had significant reductions in their rates of Hst 5 efflux and had significantly higher cytoplasmic Hst 5 and Hst 5 susceptibilities than did the wild type. We also found that flu1?/? cells had reduced biofilm formation compared to wild-type cells in the presence of Hst 5. Transcriptional levels of FLU1 were not altered over the course of treatment with Hst 5; therefore, Hst 5 is not likely to induce FLU1 gene overexpression as a potential mechanism of resistance. Thus, Flu1, but not Tpo2, mediates efflux of Hst 5 and is responsible for reduction of its toxicity in C. albicans.

Li R; Kumar R; Tati S; Puri S; Edgerton M

2013-04-01

54

Cotinine levels among betel quid users and cigarette smokers in cambodia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Smokeless tobacco use in the form of the betel quid is common in the Western Pacific Region, and yet few studies have determined the nicotine delivery of this habit. During a validation substudy, we randomly sampled 201 adults from a rural province of Cambodia and determined nonparametric (bootstrapped) confidence intervals (CIs) for salivary cotinine levels in tobacco users. We found that cotinine levels for daily betel quid use among women (95% CI = 218.6-350.0 ng/mL) were (1) similar to the levels for daily cigarette smoking in men (95% CI = 240.2-317.1 ng/mL) and (2) significantly higher than the levels for daily cigarette smoking in women (95% CI = 71.8-202.7 ng/mL). The 95% confidence range for these habits exceeded the threshold for addiction. Our findings from rural Cambodia indicate that the typical betel quid habit among women supports the same level of nicotine addiction as the typical cigarette habit in men. PMID:24092815

Singh, Pramil N; Natto, Zuhair; Saxena, Rituraj; Banerjee, Hiya; Yel, Daravuth; Khieng, Sothy; Job, Jayakaran S

2013-09-01

55

Cotinine levels among betel quid users and cigarette smokers in cambodia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Smokeless tobacco use in the form of the betel quid is common in the Western Pacific Region, and yet few studies have determined the nicotine delivery of this habit. During a validation substudy, we randomly sampled 201 adults from a rural province of Cambodia and determined nonparametric (bootstrapped) confidence intervals (CIs) for salivary cotinine levels in tobacco users. We found that cotinine levels for daily betel quid use among women (95% CI = 218.6-350.0 ng/mL) were (1) similar to the levels for daily cigarette smoking in men (95% CI = 240.2-317.1 ng/mL) and (2) significantly higher than the levels for daily cigarette smoking in women (95% CI = 71.8-202.7 ng/mL). The 95% confidence range for these habits exceeded the threshold for addiction. Our findings from rural Cambodia indicate that the typical betel quid habit among women supports the same level of nicotine addiction as the typical cigarette habit in men.

Singh PN; Natto Z; Saxena R; Banerjee H; Yel D; Khieng S; Job JS

2013-09-01

56

Blunted serum and enhanced salivary free cortisol concentrations in the chronic phase after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage--is stress the culprit?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Spontaneous aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) is a cause of stroke, which constitutes a severe trauma to the brain and may lead to serious long-term medical, psychosocial and endocrinological sequelae. Adrenocorticotrophic hormone deficiency, which is considered to occur in up to 20% of all survivors, is a possible consequence of bleeding. Moreover, preliminary data suggest that a poor psychosocial outcome in SAH survivors is linked to alterations in cortisol secretion. Despite these findings, investigation of diurnal cortisol profiles and the cortisol awakening response (CAR) in chronic SAH patients has not been done so far. In this study, basal serum cortisol and salivary cortisol concentration profiles were investigated in 31 SAH patients more than 1 year after the acute event and in 25 healthy controls. Additionally, low-dose dexamethasone (DEX) suppression tests were conducted, and sensitivity to stress was measured with a psychometric questionnaire (Neuropattern(TM)). Although significantly higher salivary cortisol concentrations were observed on waking in SAH patients (p = 0.013, ANOVA), without a CAR change, total serum cortisol concentrations were blunted, but only in patients with high levels of perceived stress (SAH high stress: 337 nmol/l, SAH low stress: 442 nmol/l, controls: 467 nmol/l; Controls vs. SAH high stress p = 0.018). DEX suppression of cortisol secretion was not significantly different between patients and controls. The results indicate that total (serum) and free (salivary) cortisol concentrations give different information about cortisol availability in patients after aneurysmal SAH. Enhanced free cortisol concentrations may reflect a meaningful biological coping mechanism in SAH patients.

Poll EM; Gilsbach JM; Hans FJ; Kreitschmann-Andermahr I

2013-03-01

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Association of Maternal Smoking With Child Cotinine Levels.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Our aim was to understand the strength of association between parental smoking and child environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure, in order to inform the development of future tobacco control policies. ETS was measured using child cotinine levels below the active smoking threshold. METHODS: Participants were drawn from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, and included 3,128 participants at 7 years and 1,868 participants at 15 years. The primary outcome was cotinine levels of nonsmoking children, to investigate the relationship between maternal smoking and child cotinine levels. The secondary outcome was cotinine levels of all individuals to investigate the relationship between child smoking and child cotinine levels. Maternal and child smoking behavior was assessed by self-report questionnaire. We adjusted for several sociodemographic variables. RESULTS: We found an association between maternal smoking and child cotinine at age 7 years (mean cotinine = 1.16ng/ml serum, ratio of geometric means = 3.94, 95% CI = 2.86-5.42) and 15 years (mean cotinine = 0.94ng/ml serum, ratio of geometric means = 5.26, 95% CI = 3.06-9.03), after adjustment for potential confounders. CONCLUSIONS: The magnitude of this association for children with heavy smoking mothers was comparable with the quantity of half the levels of cotinine observed among children who were irregular (i.e., nonweekly) active smokers, and greater than five times higher than that seen in nonsmoking children whose mothers didn't smoke. This provides further evidence for the importance of public health interventions to reduce smoking exposure in the home.

Stiby AI; Macleod J; Hickman M; Yip VL; Timpson NJ; Munafò MR

2013-07-01

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The workout responses of salivary-free testosterone and cortisol concentrations and their association with the subsequent competition outcomes in professional rugby league.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study assessed the responses of salivary-free testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) concentrations across selected training workouts and their association with the subsequent competition outcomes in professional rugby league. Thirteen rugby league players were assessed for salivary-free T and C concentrations across 5 training workouts performed 3-4 days before a competitive game. The game outcomes included wins and losses and game-ranked performance (1-5) based on the number of points scored, the points differential, and a coach rating. Data were pooled across the winning (n = 3) and losing (n = 2) outcomes. Pooled free T concentrations (absolute and relative changes) were significantly (p < 0.01) elevated across those workouts that preceded winning games, but not the losses, and the relative (percent) T changes were significantly (p < 0.05) higher before winning (30.9%) than before losing (3.4%). Both outcomes were associated with workout decreases in pooled free C concentrations and the relative C changes were not significantly different between wins (-22.9%) and losses (-25.6%). In conclusion, the free T responses to selected training workouts showed some association with subsequent winning (being elevated) and losing (no change) during a limited number of competitive games in professional rugby league. Speculatively, the free T responses to a midweek workout might provide an early sign of team readiness to compete or to recovery state, thereby providing a novel format for implementing training or management strategies to improve the competition outcomes.

Crewther BT; Sanctuary CE; Kilduff LP; Carruthers JS; Gaviglio CM; Cook CJ

2013-02-01

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The workout responses of salivary-free testosterone and cortisol concentrations and their association with the subsequent competition outcomes in professional rugby league.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study assessed the responses of salivary-free testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) concentrations across selected training workouts and their association with the subsequent competition outcomes in professional rugby league. Thirteen rugby league players were assessed for salivary-free T and C concentrations across 5 training workouts performed 3-4 days before a competitive game. The game outcomes included wins and losses and game-ranked performance (1-5) based on the number of points scored, the points differential, and a coach rating. Data were pooled across the winning (n = 3) and losing (n = 2) outcomes. Pooled free T concentrations (absolute and relative changes) were significantly (p workouts that preceded winning games, but not the losses, and the relative (percent) T changes were significantly (p workouts showed some association with subsequent winning (being elevated) and losing (no change) during a limited number of competitive games in professional rugby league. Speculatively, the free T responses to a midweek workout might provide an early sign of team readiness to compete or to recovery state, thereby providing a novel format for implementing training or management strategies to improve the competition outcomes. PMID:22505132

Crewther, Blair T; Sanctuary, Colin E; Kilduff, Liam P; Carruthers, Jamie S; Gaviglio, Chris M; Cook, Christian J

2013-02-01

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The Relationship between Serum Cotinine Levels and Periodontal Status  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Smoking plays a significant role in the development of periodontal disease. Quantitative relation between smoking and increased severity of periodontal disease, by means of biochemical marker has not been described in Malaysian population. The present study was designed to apply serum cotinine measurement as a quantitative method to evaluate smoking levels in Malaysian patients and to correlate these levels with the severity of periodontal disease. Approach: The study group consisted of 80 healthy individuals (20-64) year, Current Smokers 26, Non Smokers 27 and Former Smokers 27. The subjects were then asked to complete a questionnaire including the demographic, socioeconomic status, medical history and history of cigarette smoking. The periodontal variables recorded were amount of Visible Plaque score, gingival bleeding Index and community periodontal index. Samples of blood ?10 mL? were obtained in vacutainer tubes containing EDTA for quantitative analysis of serum levels of cotinine. The serum samples were analyzed for cotinine content by means of a competitive-inhibition ELISA technique. Results: Current smokers represent the highest mean cotinine serum level, 95.5 ng mL-1, compared to former smokers, 35.5 ng mL-1 and non smokers, 22.9 ng mL-1. The mean serum cotinine level in periodontally healthy patient showed the highest cotinine level (84 ng mL-1) followed by the gingivitis patients (68 ng mL-1) and (50 ng mL-1) for periodontitis patients. Conclusion: The present observations clearly indicate an association between smoking, periodontal disease clinical parameters ?plaque, gingival bleeding scores? and cotinine serum levels in current smokers. Cotinine serum levels doesn?t affected by the existence or the severity of periodontal disease.

Fouad H. AL-Bayaty; Noor A. Baharuddin; Mahmood A. Abdulla

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Serum cotinine levels and prehypertension in never smokers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background. Few studies have shown that self-reported secondhand smoke exposure in never smokers is associated with high blood pressure. However, there are no studies investigating the relationship between secondhand smoke exposure, measured objectively by serum cotinine levels, and high blood pressure in never smokers. Methods. We examined never smokers (n = 2027) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2008. Our exposure of interest was the secondhand smoke exposure estimated by serum cotinine level and our outcome was prehypertension (n = 734), defined as a systolic blood pressure of 120-139?mmHg or diastolic blood pressure of 80-89?mmHg. Results. We found that, in never smokers, serum cotinine levels were positively associated with prehypertension. Compared to those with cotinine levels in the lowest quartile (?0.024?ng/mL), the multivariable odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of prehypertension among those with cotinine levels in the highest quartile (?0.224?ng/mL) was 1.45(1.00, 2.11); P trend = 0.0451. In subsequent subgroup analyses, the positive association was found to be stronger among men, non-Whites, and non-obese subjects. Conclusion. Higher secondhand smoke exposure measured objectively by serum cotinine levels was found to be associated with prehypertension in certain subgroups of a representative sample of the US population.

Alshaarawy O; Xiao J; Andrew ME; Burchfiel C; Shankar A

2013-01-01

62

Radionuclide salivary gland imaging  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

Mishkin, F.S.

1981-10-01

63

Radionuclide salivary gland imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific

1981-01-01

64

Intracerebellar behavioral interactions between nicotine, cotinine and ethanol in mice  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Using ethanol-induced motor incoordination as the test response as evaluated by rotorod, possible behavioral interactions between ethanol and (-)-nicotine in the cerebellum, one of the key motor area, were investigated. (-)-Nicotine, 5, 1.25, 0.625 ng/100nL intracerebellarly significantly attenuated motor incoordination due to ethanol in a dose-dependent manner. Similarly, (-)-cotinine, a major metabolite of nicotine, 5, 2.5, and 1.25 ng/100nL, significantly but less marked compared to (-)-nicotine attenuated ethanol-induced motor incoordination. The highest, 5 ng/100nL, dose of (-)-nicotine or (-)-cotinine followed by saline instead of ethanol did not alter normal motor coordination. The attenuation of ethanol-induced motor incoordination by (-)-nicotine and (-)- cotinine was blocked by intracerebellar hexamethonium 1 ug/100nL, a purported nicotinic cholinergic antagonist. The data obtained strongly suggest participation of cerebellar nicotinic cholinergic receptor in the ethanol-induced motor incoordination.

Dar, M.S.; Li, C. (East Carolina Univ., Greenville, NC (United States))

1992-02-26

65

Highly sensitive immuno-assays for the determination of cotinine in serum and saliva. Comparison between RIA and an avidin-biotin ELISA.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two immuno-assay methods (RIA and ELISA) have been developed for the accurate and sensitive measurement of cotinine in human body fluids (serum, saliva). RIA uses [3H]cotinine as antigen and charcoal/dextran for separating cotinine-bound antibodies from the free derivative. Another technique (ELISA) was developed to avoid the use of radio-labelled compounds and to determine cotinine in large populations, including passive or non-smokers who usually present very low concentrations. The two techniques were analytically validated. The detection limit was similar (0.1 micrograms/l) and the precision was better than 10% for both techniques. Non-smoker values ranged from 0.1 to 17 micrograms/l by ELISA and 0.1 to 27.5 micrograms/l by RIA, whereas smoker values ranged from 50 to 1000 micrograms/l (ELISA) and from 70 to 800 micrograms/l (RIA). The comparative analysis of cotinine in 96 human sera revealed a good correlation between the two methods (r = 0.97) and a reliable discrimination between the populations of non-smokers and smokers. As usual, the ELISA is more rapid (4 h 30 min) than the RIA (longer than 48 h). ELISA is proposed for use in the epidemiological investigation of the human tobacco risk.

Benkirane S; Nicolas A; Galteau MM; Siest G

1991-06-01

66

Association between urine cotinine levels, continuous performance test variables, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and learning disability symptoms in school-aged children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: We examined the cross-sectional relationship between environmental tobacco smoke exposure, continuous performance test (CPT) measures, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or learning disability symptoms in school-aged children. METHOD: In total, 989 children (526 boys, mean age 9.1 ± 0.7 years), recruited from five South Korean cities participated in this study. We used urine cotinine as a biomarker for environmental tobacco smoke exposure, and obtained the children's scores on a CPT. Parents completed the Korean versions of the ADHD rating scale-IV (ADHD-RS) and learning disability evaluation scale (LDES). Using generalized linear mixed model (GLMM), we assessed the associations between urine cotinine concentrations, neuropsychological variables, and symptoms of ADHD and learning disabilities. Additionally, we conducted structural equation models to explore the effects' pathways. RESULTS: After adjusting for a range of relevant covariates, GLMM showed urinary cotinine levels were significantly and positively associated with CPT scores on omission errors, commission errors, response time, and response time variability, and with parent- and teacher-rated ADHD-RS scores. In addition, urine cotinine levels were negatively associated with LDES scores on spelling and mathematical calculations. The structural equation model revealed that CPT variables mediated the association between urine cotinine levels and parental reports of symptoms of ADHD and learning disabilities. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that environmental exposure to tobacco smoke is associated with ADHD and learning disabilities in children, and that impairments in attention and inhibitory control probably mediate the effect.

Cho SC; Hong YC; Kim JW; Park S; Park MH; Hur J; Park EJ; Hong SB; Lee JH; Shin MS; Kim BN; Yoo HJ; Cho IH; Bhang SY; Hahn S; Han SK

2013-01-01

67

In Vitro Inhibition of Human Sperm Creatine Kinase by Nicotine,Cotinine and Cadmium, as a Mechanism in Smoker Men Infertility  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Nicotine, cotinine and cadmium are harmful components of cigarettes that have aneffect on human reproductive function. Although the effects of cigarette smoke on male reproductivefunction is characterized in several articles its mechanism of action is still unknown.In the present study, we investigate the effect of nicotine, cotinine and cadmium on human spermcreatine kinase activity in vitro.Materials and Methods: Total creatine kinase activity is measured in sperm homogenates afterchromatography on a diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-32) column.Results: We show that creatine kinase activity is significantly inhibited by nicotine (44%), cotinine(39%) and cadmium (65%) at a concentration of 60 ?g/ml. Kinetic studies reveal that the inhibitoryeffect of nicotine, cotinine and cadmium are competitive in relation to creatine phosphate.Conclusion: Considering the importance of creatine kinase activity for normal sperm energymetabolism, our results suggest that inhibition of this enzyme by nicotine, cotinine and cadmium maybe an important mechanism in infertility amongst male smokers. However, further investigationsare needed to elucidate the exact mechanism of cigarette effect on male reproductive function atthe molecular level.

Mohammad Ali Ghaffari; Mohammad Abromand; Behrooz Motlagh

2009-01-01

68

Salivary gland tumors  

Science.gov (United States)

Salivary gland tumors are abnormal cells growing in the ducts that drain the salivary glands. ... The salivary glands are located around the mouth. They produce saliva, which moistens food to help with chewing and swallowing. Saliva ...

69

Nicotine and cotinine stimulate secretion of basic fibroblast growth factor and affect expression of matrix metalloproteinases in cultured human smooth muscle cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: We have recently shown that nicotine and its metabolite cotinine are mitogenic for smooth muscle cells in vitro. In the present study, we examined the effect of nicotine and cotinine on the production of growth factors and the expression of matrix metallo-proteinases in smooth muscle cells. METHODS: Smooth muscle cells were harvested from human arteries and grown in culture. Subconfluent cultures were incubated for 24 hours in M199 containing 0.1% fetal bovine serum with or without nicotine or cotinine at concentrations ranging from 10(-9) mol/L to 10(-6) mol/L. The supernatants and cell lysates were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), platelet-derived growth factor AB (PDGF-AB), and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta). Matrix metalloproteinase expression was determined in subconfluent cultures incubated in albumin with or without nicotine or cotinine at 10(-8) mol/L and 10(-7) mol/L for 6, 12, 18, 24 and 36 hours. Northern blot analyses were performed with human cDNA probes for collagenase-1, stromelysin-1, gelatinase A, gelatinase B, and triose phosphate isomerase. Blots were quantified by phosphor-imaging techniques. RESULTS: Both nicotine and cotinine stimulated the production and secretion of bFGF in a dose-dependent manner. PDGF, TNF-alpha, and TGF-beta secretions were not significantly affected by nicotine or cotinine. Collagenase was up-regulated by nicotine at 18 and 24 hours (4.5-fold to 5.8-fold) and by cotinine at 18 hours (from 5.0-fold to 29-fold). Stromelysin-1 was up-regulated by nicotine and cotinine at 12 and 18 hours (1.5-fold to 7.0-fold). Gelatinase A generally peaked at 12 hours and was up-regulated by both agents (2.0-fold to 6.5-fold). CONCLUSION: Nicotine and cotinine enhanced the production of bFGF, a major mitogen for smooth muscle cells, and up-regulated the expression of several matrix metalloproteinases that are critical in cell migration. These data demonstrate mechanisms by which smoking may contribute to the development of intimal hyperplasia, atherosclerosis, and aneurysms.

Carty CS; Soloway PD; Kayastha S; Bauer J; Marsan B; Ricotta JJ; Dryjski M

1996-12-01

70

Salivary biomarkers in psychobiological medicine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The value of salivary biomarkers for diagnostic and prognostic assessments has become increasingly well established in medicine, pharmacology, and dentistry. Certain salivary components mirror the neuro-endocrine status of the organism. Other saliva products are protein in nature, and can serve to reflect immune surveillance processes. The autonomic nervous system regulates the process of salivation, and the concentration of yet other salivary components, such as ?-amylase, which provide a reliable outcome measure of the sympathetic response. Here, we discuss molecular technologies that have permitted giant steps in the utilization of salivary samples and micro-fluidics for the benefit of diagnostic medicine and dentistry, and their putative role in springing forward research in psychobiology.

Francesco Chiappelli; Francisco Javier Iribarren; Paolo Prolo

2006-01-01

71

Detection by radioimmunoassay of nicotinamide nucleotide analogues in tissues of rabbits injected with nicotine and cotinine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The formation of the NAD and NADP analogues of nicotine and cotinine in vitro by the NAD glycohydrolase-catalyzed exchange reaction suggested that such compounds (and the related mononucleotides) might also be produced in animals receiving the alkaloid or its metabolite. Since only sensitive and specific analytical methods could detect small amounts of the nicotine and cotinine analogues in the presence of the naturally occurring and abundant NMN, NAD and NADP compounds, radioimmunoassays were developed and used for this purpose. In rabbits injected with cotinine, cotinine nucleotide analogues were found at pmole levels/g of wet tissue in extracts from liver, kidney and lung. In both liver and lung extracts, cotinine mononucleotide was identified as the major product. Cotinine nucleotides were also found in the tissues of rabbits injected with nicotine. The rapid metabolism of nicotine to cotinine in vivo probably contributes to the sparsity of the nicotine analogues in tissue extracts from these animals. (author)

1977-01-01

72

Nitric oxide modulates levels of salivary Lactobacilli.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Objective. Nitric Oxide (NO) is one of the most powerful antibacterial compounds. The aim of this study was to determine the association between salivary NO, dental caries and cariogenic bacteria. Materials and methods. The salivary NO concentration of 257 Korean children was analyzed by the Griess colorimetric reaction method. Salivary mutans streptococci (MS) and Lactobacilli (LB) were counted using the Dentocult MS and Dentocult LB kit, respectively. Dental caries status was examined using the WHO criteria. Confounders were age, gender, salivary flow rate and salivary buffer capacity. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to evaluate the association among NO, salivary MS level, salivary LB level and dental caries status after adjusting for the effects of confounders. Results. A significant decrease was found in salivary NO levels as the salivary LB count increased after controlling for confounders (p = 0.049). However, the MS level, caries experience and active caries status showed no significant association. Conclusion. This result indicates that NO production might be a host defense mechanism against the growth of cariogenic bacteria. PMID:23351217

Han, Dong-Hun; Kim, Min-Ji; Jun, Eun-Joo; Kim, Jin-Bom

2013-01-28

73

Nitric oxide modulates levels of salivary Lactobacilli.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract Objective. Nitric Oxide (NO) is one of the most powerful antibacterial compounds. The aim of this study was to determine the association between salivary NO, dental caries and cariogenic bacteria. Materials and methods. The salivary NO concentration of 257 Korean children was analyzed by the Griess colorimetric reaction method. Salivary mutans streptococci (MS) and Lactobacilli (LB) were counted using the Dentocult MS and Dentocult LB kit, respectively. Dental caries status was examined using the WHO criteria. Confounders were age, gender, salivary flow rate and salivary buffer capacity. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to evaluate the association among NO, salivary MS level, salivary LB level and dental caries status after adjusting for the effects of confounders. Results. A significant decrease was found in salivary NO levels as the salivary LB count increased after controlling for confounders (p = 0.049). However, the MS level, caries experience and active caries status showed no significant association. Conclusion. This result indicates that NO production might be a host defense mechanism against the growth of cariogenic bacteria.

Han DH; Kim MJ; Jun EJ; Kim JB

2013-09-01

74

The relationship between venue indoor air quality and urinary cotinine levels among semiopen-air cafe employees: what factors determine the level of exposure?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) is increasingly recognized as an occupational hazard to workers in the service industry. In areas of the world with moderate climates, open windows and doors are assumed to provide a work environment with only marginally increased exposures to SHS. METHODS: We measured indoor fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in 50 semiopen air venues in Greece during the summer. Cotinine levels from a nonsmoking employee of each of these venues were measured from a postshift urine sample. RESULTS: In these semiopen-air venues, the mean level of indoor PM 2.5 levels were 113.5?±?72.3??g/m(3). The mean postshift urinary cotinine levels of nonworking workers in these venues was 15?ng/mL. PM2.5 levels were strongly correlated with urinary cotinine concentrations (Spearman's r?=?0.914). Linear regression analyses indicated that when taking into account the time of the measurement, the day of the week, for each 1 cigarette/100?m(3) the indoor PM2.5 concentrations increased by 26.6??g/m(3) [95% confidence interval (CI): 7.6-45.7??g/m(3), p?=?0.007) and urinary cotinine levels of nonsmoking workers increased by 5.0?ng/mL (95% CI: 0.4 to 9.6, p?=?0.034). CONCLUSIONS: In a sample of bars and restaurants with windows and doors open, indoor PM2.5 concentrations were elevated and increased proportionately to the density of smoking. Cotinine levels of nonsmoking employees increased with indoor PM2.5 concentrations, and also with the density of smoking. Open windows and doors do not protect workers from exposure to second-hand smoke.

Karabela M; Vardavas CI; Tzatzarakis M; Tsatsakis A; Dockery D; Connolly GN; Behrakis P

2011-02-01

75

An high performance liquid chromatographic method for the quantification of cotinine in the urine of preschool children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Tobacco smoke exposure is an important and preventable cause of morbidity among children. Enviromental tobacco smoke (ETS) increases respiratory symptoms and disease and also decreases lung function in children who live in a household with at least one smoker. We have developed a simple and reliable HPLC method with diode array dedection to determine the urine concentrations of cotinine in children aged 3 to 6 years, exposed to ETS. The assay involved a liquid-liquid extraction with chloroform. The HPLC method utilized a Chromasil C18 column (150 mm x 4.6 mm i.d.) and an isocratic mobile phase of phosphate buffer: acetonitrile (83:17 v/v, 0.02 M containing 0.1% triethylamine, adjusted to pH 6.72 with orthophosphoric acid), at a flow rate of 0.7 ml min(-1). The detection was performed at 260 nm and the total analysis time of analysis was less than 15 min. Linearity ranged from 0 to 80 microg L(-1); correlation coefficients (r2) for calibration curves were greater than 0.99. With 2 mL of urine for extraction, the limit of detection was 0.1 microg L(-1). The mean extraction ratio of cotinine was 88.78%. This analytical method is suitable for the determination of cotinine levels in a large number of urine samples.

Oruç EE; Koçyi?it-Kaymakçio?lu B; Yilmaz-Demircan F; Gürbüz Y; Kalaça S; Küçkgüzel SG; Ulgen M; Rollas S

2006-10-01

76

Disposition kinetics of nicotine and cotinine enantiomers in rabbits and beagle dogs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The disposition kinetics of nicotine and cotinine enantiomers was determined in rabbits. The clearance of (R)-nicotine was similar to that of (S)-nicotine, but clearance of (R)-cotinine was twice that of (S)-cotinine. Fractional conversions of both enantiomers of nicotine to cotinine were approximately 50%. These results suggest that in rabbits the biotransformation pathways of cotinine, but not nicotine, are influenced by stereochemistry. The disposition kinetics of nicotine enantiomers in beagle dogs was also studied. In dogs, the clearance of (R)-nicotine was slightly greater than the clearance of (S)-nicotine. Methods for the synthesis of (R)-nicotine and (R)-cotinine of high enantiomeric purity and a gas chromatographic method for determination of nicotine enantiomeric purity are described. PMID:3411460

Jacob, P; Benowitz, N L; Copeland, J R; Risner, M E; Cone, E J

1988-05-01

77

Disposition kinetics of nicotine and cotinine enantiomers in rabbits and beagle dogs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The disposition kinetics of nicotine and cotinine enantiomers was determined in rabbits. The clearance of (R)-nicotine was similar to that of (S)-nicotine, but clearance of (R)-cotinine was twice that of (S)-cotinine. Fractional conversions of both enantiomers of nicotine to cotinine were approximately 50%. These results suggest that in rabbits the biotransformation pathways of cotinine, but not nicotine, are influenced by stereochemistry. The disposition kinetics of nicotine enantiomers in beagle dogs was also studied. In dogs, the clearance of (R)-nicotine was slightly greater than the clearance of (S)-nicotine. Methods for the synthesis of (R)-nicotine and (R)-cotinine of high enantiomeric purity and a gas chromatographic method for determination of nicotine enantiomeric purity are described.

Jacob P 3rd; Benowitz NL; Copeland JR; Risner ME; Cone EJ

1988-05-01

78

Synthesis of [pyrrolidine-14C]-cotinine from 14C-nicotine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The synthesis and purification of 14C-cotinine is reported. 14C-nicotine is converted into 14C-dibromocotinine. Debromination of the latter results in 14C-cotinine which is purified by high performance liquid chromatography. The total radioactive yield of the synthesis is 44.8%. Starting from 500 ?Ci 14C-nicotine, 224 ?Ci 14C-cotinine is obtained with a specific activity of 0,23 mCi/mmol. (Author)

1989-01-01

79

Salivary Gland Disorders  

Science.gov (United States)

Your salivary glands make saliva - sometimes called spit - and empty it into your mouth through openings called ducts. Saliva makes your ... antibodies that can kill germs. Problems with salivary glands can cause the glands to become irritated and ...

80

Salivary Gland Cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

Your salivary glands make saliva - sometimes called spit - and empty it into your mouth through openings called ducts. Saliva makes your ... and contains antibodies that can kill germs. Salivary gland cancer is a rare disease in which cancer ...

 
 
 
 
81

A convenient synthesis of 14C-cotinine from 14C-nicotine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A convenient synthesis with analytical monitoring of 14C-cotinine is reported. 14C-Nicotine was converted into 14C-dibromocotinine hydrobromide perbromide. Debromination, achieved by using Zn dust/acetic acid, resulted in high yields (71%) of 14C-cotinine. (author)

1991-01-01

82

A convenient synthesis of sup 14 C-cotinine from sup 14 C-nicotine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A convenient synthesis with analytical monitoring of {sup 14}C-cotinine is reported. {sup 14}C-Nicotine was converted into {sup 14}C-dibromocotinine hydrobromide perbromide. Debromination, achieved by using Zn dust/acetic acid, resulted in high yields (71%) of {sup 14}C-cotinine. (author).

Desai, D.H.; Djordjevic, M.V.; Amin, S. (American Health Foundation, Valhalla, NY (USA). Naylor Dana Inst. for Disease Prevention)

1991-03-01

83

HOME AIR NICOTINE LEVELS AND URINE COTININE-CREATININE RATIOS IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN  

Science.gov (United States)

We studied urine cotinine excretion in 27 children who attended a research day care center to determine the extent of correlation between urine cotinine-creatinine ratios (CCR) and intensity of nicotine exposure in the home. verage nicotine levels in home air were determined by a...

84

Determination of Cotinine by LC-MS-MS with Automated Solid-Phase Extraction.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cotinine is the primary metabolite of nicotine and the preferred biomarker for assessing cigarette smoke exposure. Several liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) methods have been described for measuring cotinine in biological fluids. Sample preparation typically involves manual solvent evaporation and reconstitution steps. This study describes a novel LC-MS-MS method for the quantification of cotinine by using electrospray ionization with multiple reaction monitoring and cotinine-d3 as internal standard, coupled with an automated solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure. The assay was linear over the analytical range of 0.5-1,000 ng/mL. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.13 and 0.20 ng/mL, respectively. Intra-assay and inter-assay imprecision of cotinine in all samples was <5 and <10% (coefficient of variation), respectively. The analytical recovery of cotinine spiked into plasma was >95-100%. Matrix effects in serum and plasma were <10%.A rapid, sensitive and specific LC-MS-MS method was developed and validated for the determination of cotinine in human plasma, using a straightforward automated SPE protocol. The application of this method to an epidemiological study has demonstrated its utility for batch analyses of a large sample set (>500 samples).

Dunlop AJ; Clunie I; Stephen DW; Allison JJ

2013-04-01

85

Cotinine – metabolism, application as a biomarker and the effects on the organism   

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This review presents the current state of knowledge on cotinine, the major metabolite of nicotine. Special attention is paid to the formation of this compound in the organism, its metabolism, application in diagnostic procedures and evaluation of its in vitro and in vivo activities. For many years, cotinine has been used as a biomarker of exposure to tobacco smoke. Currently, this compound is applied in many other studies including the use of cotinine in the treatment of various diseases. Several years ago, Scott et al. patented therapeutic applications of cotinine in chronic and acute inflammation. Cotinine is an interesting compound with a well-known metabolism; therefore there are suggestions for its application in the diagnosis and treatment of certain diseases. 

Jakub Marcin Nowak; Agnieszka ?ury?; Alina Grzanka

2012-01-01

86

Salivary changes and dental caries as potential oral markers of autoimmune salivary gland dysfunction in primary Sjögren's syndrome  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background the classification criteria for primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) include a number of oral components. In this study we evaluated if salivary flow and composition as well as dental caries are oral markers of disease severity in pSS. Methods in 20 patients fulfilling the American-European Consensus criteria for pSS and 20 age-matched healthy controls whole and parotid saliva flow rates and composition, measures of oral dryness, scores of decayed, missing and filled tooth surfaces (DMFS), periodontal indices, oral hygiene, and dietary habits were examined. Results in pSS, salivary flow rates, pH, and buffer capacities were lower, and DMFS, salivary sodium and chloride concentrations higher than in the healthy controls. DMFS also correlated inversely to salivary flow rates and positively to oral dryness. Apart from slightly increased gingival index, and more frequent dental visits in pSS, the periodontal condition, oral hygiene or sugar intake did not differ between these two groups. In pSS, findings were correlated to labial salivary gland focus score (FS) and presence of serum-autoantibodies to SSA/SSB (AB). The patients having both presence of AB and the highest FS (>2) also had the highest salivary sodium and chloride concentrations, the lowest salivary phosphate concentrations, lowest salivary flow rates, and highest DMFS compared to those with normal salivary concentrations of sodium and chloride at a given flow rate. Conclusion the salivary changes observed in some pSS patients reflect impaired ductal salt reabsorption, but unaffected acinar transport mechanisms, despite low salivary secretion. Our results suggest that changes in salivary flow and composition as well as dental caries may serve as potential markers of the extent of autoimmune-mediated salivary gland dysfunction in pSS. The study also indicates that the ductal epithelium is functionally affected in some pSS patients, which calls for future pathophysiological studies on the mechanisms underlying this impaired salt reabsorption.

Pedersen Anne; Bardow Allan; Nauntofte Birgitte

2005-01-01

87

Simultaneous and Sensitive Measurement of Nicotine, Cotinine, trans-3'-Hydroxycotinine and Norcotinine in Human Plasma by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry  

Science.gov (United States)

An LCMSMS method for the simultaneous quantification of nicotine, cotinine, trans-3’-hydroxycotinine and norcotinine in human plasma was developed and fully validated. Potential endogenous and exogenous interferences were extensively evaluated and limits of quantification were determined by decreasing analyte concentration. Analytical ranges were 1–500 ng/mL for nicotine and cotinine, 5–500 ng/mL for trans-3’-hydroxycotinine and norcotinine. Mean intra- and inter-assay analytical recovery were between 101.9 and 116.8%, and intra- and inter-assay imprecision were less than 11% RSD for all analytes: parameters were evaluated at three different concentrations across the linear range of the assay. Extraction efficiency was ? 70% for all analytes. This validated method is useful for determination of nicotine and metabolites in human plasma to support research on the role of nicotine biomarkers on neuronal systems mediating cognitive and affective processes and to differentiate active, passive and environmental exposure.

Shakleya, Diaa M.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

2009-01-01

88

Determinación de cotinina y exposición a tabaco Cotinine detection and tobacco smoke exposure  

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Full Text Available La exposición a tabaco es una de las causas prevenibles de morbilidad y mortalidad prematura más importante. Se describe un método simple y rápido de detección de cotinina (principal metabolito de nicotina) en orina humana. Se utilizó cromatografía gas-líquido (CGL) con un detector de ionización de llama (FID). Se realizó una extracción líquido-líquido con cloroformo en medio alcalino; el extracto fue secado a 37 °C y redisuelto en 100 µL de solución alcohólica con estándar interno piridina. Se analizó la orina de personas que declararon ser fumadoras y no fumadoras. Mediante la construcción de dos curvas de calibración se cubrió un rango de linealidad de 3 a 5.000 ng/mL. Los fumadores presentaron una mediana y cuartiles (Q) de concentración de cotinina: 255,4 ng/mL, 15,9 ng/mL (Q1) - 1.050,2 ng/mL (Q3), respectivamente, y los no fumadores 15,8 ng/mL, 4,1 ng/mL (Q1) - 38,4 ng/mL (Q3). Wilcoxon sumrank: z = 4,865 p Tobacco is one of the major preventable causes of morbidity and premature mortality in the world. A simple, rapid method for determination of cotinine, major metabolite of nicotine in urine, is described. The assay involves a fast liquid-liquid extraction with chloroform as a solvent in alkaline environment. The extract was dried at 37 °C and the residue was dissolved in 100 µL of standard internal of pyridine in methanol solution, and an aliquot was analyzed by gas-liquid chromatograph equipped with a flame -ionization detector. This technique was performed to test urine of a sample of smokers and non-smokers who were previously asked about their smoking habit. The limit of detection was 3.1 ng/mL, and using two calibration curves, a linearity range from 3 a 5.000 ng/mL was covered. The median and quartiles (Q) of cotinine in smokers were 255.4 ng/mL, 15.9 ng/mL (Q1) -1050.2 ng/mL (Q3) ng/mL and in non-smokers 15.8 ng/mL, 4.1 ng/mL (Q1) - 38.4 ng/mL (Q3). Wilcoxon sumrank: z = 4.865 p < 0.01. There was a relationship between cotinine concentration in urine and number of smoked cigarettes. Spearman's rho = 0.5672 (p < 0.001). This technique could identify smokers, second hand smokers and non-smokers using cut-off of 10-15 ng/mL of cotinine in urine, usually adopted in epidemiological studies.

Marta Noemí Vacchino; Susana María Velurtas; Guillermo Pablo Salinas; Héctor Hugo Garcialoredo

2006-01-01

89

Improved /sup 125/I radioimmunoassay for cotinine by selective removal of bridge antibodies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We describe an /sup 125/I-based RIA for cotinine, the major metabolite of nicotine. The slope of the dose-response curve was quite shallow (6-8% change in binding per doubling dose), resulting in between-assay CVs of 15 to 20%. This effect occurred because the radioligand formed by linking a cotinine derivative to tyramine manifested greater affinity for the anti-cotinine antibodies than did cotinine itself. We absorbed the serum with a derivative of nicotine coupled to the carrier protein via a chemical bridge similar to that used to form the cotinine/carrier protein immunogen. An RIA in which we used such absorbed serum showed a significantly increased slope of the dose-response curve (11-13% change in binding per doubling dose), and between-assay CVS were only 6 to 8%. We suggest that this improvement results because absorption removes anti-bridge antibodies directed against the chemical-bond common to the cotinine/carrier-protein immunogen and to the cotinine/tyramine radioligand.

Knight, G.J.; Wylie, P.; Holman, M.S.; Haddow, J.E.

1985-01-01

90

Improved 125I radioimmunoassay for cotinine by selective removal of bridge antibodies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We describe an 125I-based RIA for cotinine, the major metabolite of nicotine. The slope of the dose-response curve was quite shallow (6-8% change in binding per doubling dose), resulting in between-assay CVs of 15 to 20%. This effect occurred because the radioligand formed by linking a cotinine derivative to tyramine manifested greater affinity for the anti-cotinine antibodies than did cotinine itself. We absorbed the serum with a derivative of nicotine coupled to the carrier protein via a chemical bridge similar to that used to form the cotinine/carrier protein immunogen. An RIA in which we used such absorbed serum showed a significantly increased slope of the dose-response curve (11-13% change in binding per doubling dose), and between-assay CVS were only 6 to 8%. We suggest that this improvement results because absorption removes anti-bridge antibodies directed against the chemical-bond common to the cotinine/carrier-protein immunogen and to the cotinine/tyramine radioligand

1985-01-01

91

Salivary mental stress proteins.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Of the major diagnostic specimen types, saliva is one of the most easily collected. Many studies have focused on the evaluation of salivary proteins secreted by healthy people and patients with various diseases during responses to acute mental stress. In particular, such studies have focused on cortisol, ?-amylase, chromogranin A (CgA), and immunoglobulin A (IgA) as salivary stress markers. Each of these salivary stress markers has its own strengths and weaknesses as well as data gaps related to many factors including collection technique. In this review, we summarize the critical knowledge of the positive and negative attributes and data gaps pertaining to each salivary stress marker.

Obayashi K

2013-08-01

92

Elevated salivary C-reactive protein levels are associated with active and passive smoking in healthy youth: A pilot study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined salivary C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in the context of tobacco smoke exposure (TSE) in healthy youth. We hypothesized that there would be a dose-response relationship between TSE status and salivary CRP levels. Methods This work is a pilot study (N = 45) for a larger investigation in which we aim to validate salivary CRP against serum CRP, the gold standard measurement of low-grade inflammation. Participants were healthy youth with no self-reported periodontal disease, no objectively measured obesity/adiposity, and no clinical depression, based on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II). We assessed tobacco smoking and confirmed smoking status (non-smoking, passive smoking, and active smoking) with salivary cotinine measurement. We measured salivary CRP by the ELISA method. We controlled for several potential confounders. Results We found evidence for the existence of a dose-response relationship between the TSE status and salivary CRP levels. Conclusions Our preliminary findings indicate that salivary CRP seems to have a similar relation to TSE as its widely used serum (systemic inflammatory) biomarker counterpart.

Azar Rima; Richard Annie

2011-01-01

93

Neuroactive effects of cotinine on the hippocampus: behavioral and biochemical parameters.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present work evaluated the effects of nicotine (NIC), cotinine (COT), mecamylamine (MEC), methyllycaconitine (MLA) and dihydro-beta-eritroidine (DH?E) on memory extinction and the following biochemical parameters of the hippocampus: lipid peroxidation (LPO), antioxidant capacity (AC) and the phosphorylation of Extracellular-Signal-Regulated Kinase (ERK 1/2). Young male rats that were implanted bilaterally with cannulae were submitted to memory extinction tests sessions, and their hippocampi were dissected for biochemical assays. The extinction of fear memory was significantly improved by both nicotine and its metabolite. Cotinine significantly increased LPO, while nicotine significantly decreased it. Antioxidant capacity was increased by all treatments. Our results showed that cotinine, unlike nicotine, may increase oxidative stress in the hippocampus, but this increase depends upon the dose used and happens without causing corresponding impairments in cognitive function. Cotinine also increased the phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 in a similar fashion as nicotine. Considering these results, it is plausible to wonder to what extent nicotine-attributed effects are really due to the actions of this alkaloid and whether they could be due instead to cotinine or to cotinine-nicotine interactions within the brain.

Aguiar RB; Parfitt GM; Jaboinski J; Barros DM

2013-08-01

94

Salivary gland emergencies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Salivary gland disorders are uncommon in the emergency department setting. Given the vast differential that spans infectious, autoimmune, neoplastic, and metabolic processes, they can pose a diagnostic challenge even to skilled clinicians. There is a paucity of evidence-based data regarding the management of these disorders with frequent incongruence between specific sources. Although by no means exhaustive or absolute, this article reconciles existing literature and serves as a concise and informative guide to salivary gland disorders encountered by the emergency care practitioner.

Armstrong MA; Turturro MA

2013-05-01

95

The influence of radioiodine therapy on ocular changes and their relation to urine cotinine level in patients with Graves' Ophthalmopathy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Radioiodine therapy (RIT) is frequently used as the definitive treatment in patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism when remission is not achieved with anti-thyroid drugs (ATDs). In this observational study, we intended to examine whether the use of high doses of radioiodine (RAI) [22 mCi (814 MBq)] with prophylaxis of oral glucocorticoids (oGCS) does not exacerbate Graves ophthalmopathy (GO) in smokers and non-smokers, especially regards to the urine level cotinine and ocular changes before and after RIT. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The studied group consisted of 26 smokers, aged 28-61 years and 25 non-smoker patients, aged 21-54 years, respectively. The patients were enrolled to RAI after one-year of ineffective ATDs treatment. Criterion for inclusion in the study were patients with mild GO with hyperthyroidism at diagnosis based on the severity (NOSPECTS) and activity (CAS) scale. All the patients were subjected to RIT with oGCS prophylaxis and evaluated prospectively during a one-year follow-up. The ophthalmological examination was performed at various stages of RIT: initial pre-radioiodine administration, at the time of treatment 6, and 12 months after RAI. The present study is unique, because the urine cotinine measurement was employed to detect nicotine exposure, also in regard to smoking intensity. RESULTS: In smokers, the values of serum TPO-Abs were statistically significant in the second and six month (p<0.05) and in the second and after one year (p<0.005). The TSHR-Abs concentration was significantly higher in smokers (p<0.05), rising from 22.9±1.2 IU/L before therapy to 29.6±5.3 IU/L - 2 months, 32.6±8.6 IU/L - 6 months, and slightly decreased 28.9±10.6 IU/L - 12 months. These observed changes were statistically different between groups at baseline (p<0.05) and after one-year of follow-up (p<0.005). Mean urine cotinine were considerably higher in smokers comparing to non smokers in each point of observation [903.4±770.0 and 5.2±1.7 ng/mL at baseline (p<0.001), 412.8±277.3 and 3.0±0.6 ng/mL after 2 months (p<0.001), 452.0±245 and 6.6±3.6 after 6 months (p<0.001), 379.4±236.8 and 1.0±1.2 after one year (p<0.001)]. The CAS values in the smoking group before RIT increased statistically from 2.8±0.2 points at baseline to 4.3±0.3 after 6 months, and 4.0±0.5 (12 months), while in the non-smoking patients it was 1.4±0.2, 2.8±0.3 and 2.2±0.2, respectively. The level of urine cotinine correlated positively with CAS and TSHR-Ab in the smoking group (r=0.41; p<0.05) at baseline and during follow-up (2 months: r=0.46; p<0.001, 6 months: r=0.47, p<0.005; 12 months: r=0.46; p<0.005). In the NOSPECS classification, the symptoms changed from mild to moderate, mostly in smoking patients. CONCLUSIONS: 1) ablative RIT dose with prophylactic oral prednisone is a safe treatment in both smokers and non-smokers with mild GO; 2) The post hoc analysis showed that urinary level of cotinine can be very helpful in the assessment of exacerbation of ophthalmological clinical symptoms before and after RIT particularly in smokers.

Czarnywojtek A; Zgorzalewicz-Stachowiak M; Budny B; Wasko R; Florek E; Szczepanek E; Komar-Rychlicka K; Waligorska-Stachura J; Kurdybacha P; Miechowicz I; Ruchala M

2013-01-01

96

Cotinine in human placenta predicts induction of gene expression in fetal tissues.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of perinatal morbidity and mortality. However, the mechanisms underlying adverse birth outcomes following prenatal exposure to cigarette smoke remain unknown due, in part, to the absence or unreliability of information regarding maternal cigarette smoke exposure during pregnancy. Our goal was to determine if placental cotinine could be a reliable biomarker of fetal cigarette smoke exposure during pregnancy. Cotinine levels were determined in placentas from 47 women who reported smoking during pregnancy and from 10 women who denied cigarette smoke exposure. Cotinine levels were significantly higher in placentas from women reporting cigarette smoking (median = 27.2 ng/g) versus women who reported no smoke exposure (2.3 ng/g, P < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis identified an optimal cut point of 7.5 ng/g (sensitivity = 78.7%, specificity = 100%) to classify placenta samples from mothers who smoked versus those from mothers who did not. Among 415 placentas for which maternal cigarette smoking status was unavailable, 167 had cotinine levels > 7.5 ng/g and would be considered positive for cigarette smoke exposure. Data from quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses demonstrated that in utero cigarette smoke exposure predicted by cotinine in placenta is associated with changes in the expression of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in fetal tissues. CYP1A1 mRNA in fetal lung and liver tissue and CYP1B1 mRNA in fetal lung tissue were significantly induced when cotinine was detected in placenta. These findings indicate that cotinine in placenta is a reliable biomarker for fetal exposure and response to maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy.

Vyhlidal CA; Riffel AK; Haley KJ; Sharma S; Dai H; Tantisira KG; Weiss ST; Leeder JS

2013-02-01

97

Alternations in salivary glucose during ramadan fasting  

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Full Text Available During the holly month of Ramadan, Muslims fast every day from dawn to sunset. Although the effect of Ramadan fasting on general health has been widely studied, the impact of fasting on oral health and possible changes in salivary biochemicals, such as glucose, has not received much attentiom. The aim of our study was to evaluate the influence of fasting on the level of glucose in the saliva of healthy individuals. Salivary glucose was measured using an enzymatic method based on oxidation of glucose by glucoseoxidase followed by determination of resulting H2O2 in the presence of peroxidase. A reduction in mean concentration of glucose was observed in the saliva of all fasting subjects as compared to the control group. It was concluded that reduction in salivary glucose is mostly due to reduced food intake and may be beneficial to dental health.

Reyhaneh Sariri; Abdolali Varasteh; Ali Erfani

2010-01-01

98

Contingency management for smoking cessation: enhancing feasibility through use of immunoassay test strips measuring cotinine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Contingency management (CM) is a powerful behavioral intervention shown to reduce the use of a variety of substances including tobacco. Use of CM techniques for smoking cessation has been restricted by the use of multiple daily measurements of breath CO as the objective indicator to reinforce abstinence. Cotinine, with its longer half-life, may be a better marker. We evaluated the use of urinary cotinine (determined using once-daily semiquantitative immunoassay test strips and verified using quantitative GC/HPLC techniques) as an abstinence indicator in treatment-seeking adult and adolescent smokers participating in a CM-based intervention program. Both techniques of determining urinary cotinine were highly sensitive and moderately specific at detecting abstinence, and they were highly concordant. However, specificity was somewhat lower during the first few days of a quit attempt and improved over time. The results were similar in adults and adolescent smokers, and suggest that during the first few days of a quit attempt it would be advisable to continue to use daily multiple CO measurements to verify abstinence. However, once abstinence is achieved, once-daily immunoassay test strips could be used for continued monitoring of urinary cotinine levels. Immunoassay testing can identify individuals who relapse to smoking, though this study cannot evaluate whether the strips can identify resumption of abstinence. These results suggest that the use of cotinine as an abstinence indicator, by reducing the number of daily appointments, could significantly enhance the feasibility and utility of CM-based interventions for smoking cessation.

Schepis TS; Duhig AM; Liss T; McFetridge A; Wu R; Cavallo DA; Dahl T; Jatlow P; Krishnan-Sarin S

2008-09-01

99

Efecto de la Cotinina en la Viabilidad de Fibroblastos EFFECT OF COTININE ON THE VIABILITY OF FIBROBLASTS.  

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Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar "in vitro" el efecto de la cotinina en la viabilidad celular utilizando un linaje continuo de fibroblastos. Fueron formados grupos experimentales según las concentraciones de cotinina : 0 (control), 50ng, 100ng, 500ng, 1ug/ml. y tiempo de condicionamento (1, 24, 48 horas). Cada uno de los 12 orificios de una placa para cultivo celular recibió 1 mL de medio de Eagle y 1mL de cotinina en las diferentes concentraciones, inmediatamente fue acrescentado 1ml de medio de cultivo conteniendo 1x10(5) cels/mL. Después del condicionamento con la droga, en los 3 períodos ensayados, las células fueron teñidas con azul de tripan 0,4% y observadas en un microscopio invertido, por un examinador ciego para los grupos experimentales. Los experimentos fueron repetidos 5 vezes. Los resultados mostraron que las dos concentraciones mayores de cotinina presentaron los menores porcentajes de células viables, sin embargo, esta diferencia fue reducida. La viabilidad celular presentó una pequeña disminución con el aumento del tiempo de condicionamiento. Concluimos que la cotinina puede afectar la viabilidad celular solo en las dos mayores concentraciones ensayadas.The aim of this study was to evaluate, in vitro, the effect of cotinine on the viability of fibroblasts from a continuous lineage. Experimental groups were formed according to drug dosage: 0 (control), 50ng, 100ng, 500ng, 1ug/ml, and time of exposure: (1, 24, 48 horas).Twelve wells microplates were used. Each well received 1ml of Eagle medium and 1ml of a solution containing 1x10(5) cells/ml. Cotinine at the tested concentrations was then added to the wells. After the incubation period, cells viability was assessed by using trypan blue 0,4%. Cell viabylity were assessed on a inverted micorscope, by the single examiner who was blend to the experimentals groups. The experiment was repeated 5 times. Results demostrated that the two greater concentrations presented the more non viable cells, but these diferences were minimal. The cells viability presented minimal decreased with the increased of time exposure. Cotinine affect fibroblasts for the high tested dose.

Aurora E. Traverso Martínez; Karina Gonzales Silvério; Carlos Rossa Jr

2004-01-01

100

Efecto de la Cotinina en la Viabilidad de Fibroblastos/ EFFECT OF COTININE ON THE VIABILITY OF FIBROBLASTS.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar "in vitro" el efecto de la cotinina en la viabilidad celular utilizando un linaje continuo de fibroblastos. Fueron formados grupos experimentales según las concentraciones de cotinina : 0 (control), 50ng, 100ng, 500ng, 1ug/ml. y tiempo de condicionamento (1, 24, 48 horas). Cada uno de los 12 orificios de una placa para cultivo celular recibió 1 mL de medio de Eagle y 1mL de cotinina en las diferentes concentraciones, inmediatamente fu (more) e acrescentado 1ml de medio de cultivo conteniendo 1x10(5) cels/mL. Después del condicionamento con la droga, en los 3 períodos ensayados, las células fueron teñidas con azul de tripan 0,4% y observadas en un microscopio invertido, por un examinador ciego para los grupos experimentales. Los experimentos fueron repetidos 5 vezes. Los resultados mostraron que las dos concentraciones mayores de cotinina presentaron los menores porcentajes de células viables, sin embargo, esta diferencia fue reducida. La viabilidad celular presentó una pequeña disminución con el aumento del tiempo de condicionamiento. Concluimos que la cotinina puede afectar la viabilidad celular solo en las dos mayores concentraciones ensayadas. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate, in vitro, the effect of cotinine on the viability of fibroblasts from a continuous lineage. Experimental groups were formed according to drug dosage: 0 (control), 50ng, 100ng, 500ng, 1ug/ml, and time of exposure: (1, 24, 48 horas).Twelve wells microplates were used. Each well received 1ml of Eagle medium and 1ml of a solution containing 1x10(5) cells/ml. Cotinine at the tested concentrations was then added to the wells. After the inc (more) ubation period, cells viability was assessed by using trypan blue 0,4%. Cell viabylity were assessed on a inverted micorscope, by the single examiner who was blend to the experimentals groups. The experiment was repeated 5 times. Results demostrated that the two greater concentrations presented the more non viable cells, but these diferences were minimal. The cells viability presented minimal decreased with the increased of time exposure. Cotinine affect fibroblasts for the high tested dose.

Traverso Martínez, Aurora E.; Gonzales Silvério, Karina; Rossa Jr, Carlos

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Salivary uric acid as a noninvasive biomarker of metabolic syndrome  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Elevated serum uric acid is associated with obesity, hypertension and metabolic syndrome. Because a linear relationship exists between serum and salivary uric acid (SUA) concentration, saliva testing may be a useful noninvasive approach for monitoring cardiometab...

Soukup Maria; Biesiada Izabela; Henderson Aaron; Idowu Benmichael; Rodeback Derek; Ridpath Lance; Bridges Edward G

102

Comparison of salivary cortisol concentrations in Jaguars kept in captivity with differences in exposure to the public/ Comparação das concentrações de cortisol salivar em onças-pintadas criadas em cativeiro com diferenças de exposição ao público  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Em geral, onças-pintadas criadas em cativeiro são usadas para fins educacionais e de recreação. No entanto, o impacto da exposição ao público sobre esses animais não tem sido avaliado. Neste estudo, foi comparado o impacto de dois diferentes níveis de exposição ao público em sete onças-pintadas, alojadas em dois criadouros, por meio da avaliação de um dos hormônios indicadores de estresse, o cortisol salivar. A saliva foi coletada usando um material absorv (more) ente que foi mastigado pelos animais e subsequentemente analisado por imunoenzimoensaio. As concentrações de cortisol salivar foram significativamente maiores em onças-pintadas com maior exposição ao público. Esses resultados sugerem que onças-pintadas, normalmente solitárias e esquivas na natureza, podem ter seu bem-estar consideravelmente diminuído pelo aumento de exposição ao público. Este estudo é o primeiro relato de mensuração de cortisol salivar em onças-pintadas. Abstract in english For the most part, jaguars kept in captivity are used for educational and recreational purposes and it hasn't been determined the different impacts that public exposure would have on these animals. In this study, we compared the salivary cortisol, one of the stress indicator hormones, in seven captive jaguars exposed to the high and low public visitation. Saliva was collected using an absorbent material that was chewed by the animals and subsequently analyzed through an i (more) mmunoenzymatic assay. Salivary cortisol concentrations were significantly higher in the jaguars with higher public exposure, which suggest a more hormonal stress response. These results indicated that jaguars, animals usually of solitary and secretive behavior, may have their welfare considerably diminished by increased public exposure. Additionally, design of the enclosures, without refuges and proximity of people, could predispose jaguars to psychological stress.

Montanha, Julio César; Silva, Sérgio Leme; Boere, Vanner

2009-09-01

103

Comparison of salivary cortisol concentrations in Jaguars kept in captivity with differences in exposure to the public Comparação das concentrações de cortisol salivar em onças-pintadas criadas em cativeiro com diferenças de exposição ao público  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For the most part, jaguars kept in captivity are used for educational and recreational purposes and it hasn't been determined the different impacts that public exposure would have on these animals. In this study, we compared the salivary cortisol, one of the stress indicator hormones, in seven captive jaguars exposed to the high and low public visitation. Saliva was collected using an absorbent material that was chewed by the animals and subsequently analyzed through an immunoenzymatic assay. Salivary cortisol concentrations were significantly higher in the jaguars with higher public exposure, which suggest a more hormonal stress response. These results indicated that jaguars, animals usually of solitary and secretive behavior, may have their welfare considerably diminished by increased public exposure. Additionally, design of the enclosures, without refuges and proximity of people, could predispose jaguars to psychological stress.Em geral, onças-pintadas criadas em cativeiro são usadas para fins educacionais e de recreação. No entanto, o impacto da exposição ao público sobre esses animais não tem sido avaliado. Neste estudo, foi comparado o impacto de dois diferentes níveis de exposição ao público em sete onças-pintadas, alojadas em dois criadouros, por meio da avaliação de um dos hormônios indicadores de estresse, o cortisol salivar. A saliva foi coletada usando um material absorvente que foi mastigado pelos animais e subsequentemente analisado por imunoenzimoensaio. As concentrações de cortisol salivar foram significativamente maiores em onças-pintadas com maior exposição ao público. Esses resultados sugerem que onças-pintadas, normalmente solitárias e esquivas na natureza, podem ter seu bem-estar consideravelmente diminuído pelo aumento de exposição ao público. Este estudo é o primeiro relato de mensuração de cortisol salivar em onças-pintadas.

Julio César Montanha; Sérgio Leme Silva; Vanner Boere

2009-01-01

104

Toward improved statistical methods for analyzing Cotinine-Biomarker health association data  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Serum cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine, is frequently used in research as a biomarker of recent tobacco smoke exposure. Historically, secondhand smoke (SHS) research uses suboptimal statistical methods due to censored serum cotinine values, meaning a measurement below the limit of detection (LOD). Methods We compared commonly used methods for analyzing censored serum cotinine data using parametric and non-parametric techniques employing data from the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). To illustrate the differences in associations obtained by various analytic methods, we compared parameter estimates for the association between cotinine and the inflammatory marker homocysteine using complete case analysis, single and multiple imputation, "reverse" Kaplan-Meier, and logistic regression models. Results Parameter estimates and statistical significance varied according to the statistical method used with censored serum cotinine values. Single imputation of censored values with either 0, LOD or LOD/?2 yielded similar estimates and significance; multiple imputation method yielded smaller estimates than the other methods and without statistical significance. Multiple regression modelling using the "reverse" Kaplan-Meier method yielded statistically significant estimates that were larger than those from parametric methods. Conclusions Analyses of serum cotinine data with values below the LOD require special attention. "Reverse" Kaplan-Meier was the only method inherently able to deal with censored data with multiple LODs, and may be the most accurate since it avoids data manipulation needed for use with other commonly used statistical methods. Additional research is needed into the identification of optimal statistical methods for analysis of SHS biomarkers subject to a LOD.

Koru-Sengul Tulay; Clark John D; Fleming Lora E; Lee David J

2011-01-01

105

Single gas chromatography method with nitrogen phosphorus detector for urinary cotinine determination in passive and active smokers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nicotine is a major addictive compound in cigarettes and is rapidly and extensively metabolized to several metabolites in humans, including urinary cotinine, considered a biomarker due to its high concentration compared to other metabolites. The aim of this study was to develop a single method for determination of urinary cotinine, in active and passive smokers, by gas chromatography with a nitrogen phosphorus detector (GC-NPD). Urine (5.0 mL) was extracted with 1.0 mL of sodium hydroxide 5 mol L-1, 5.0 mL of chloroform, and lidocaine used as the internal standard. Injection volume was 1 ?L in GC-NPD. Limit of quantification was 10 ng mL-1. Linearity was evaluated in the ranges 10-1000 ng mL-1 and 500-6000 ng mL-1, with determination coefficients of 0.9986 and 0.9952, respectively. Intra- and inter-assay standard relative deviations were lower than 14.2 %, while inaccuracy (bias) was less than +11.9%. The efficiency of extraction was greater than 88.5%. Ruggedness was verified, according to Youden's test. Means of cotinine concentrations observed were 2,980 ng mL-1 for active smokers and 132 ng mL-1, for passive smokers. The results revealed that satisfactory chromatographic separation between the analyte and interferents was obtained with a ZB-1 column. This method is reliable, precise, linear and presented ruggedness in the range evaluated. The results suggest that it can be applied in routine analysis for passive and active smokers, since it is able to quantify a wide range of cotinine concentrations in urine.A nicotina é uma substância presente no cigarro capaz de causar dependência, sendo biotransformada em vários metabólitos nos seres humanos, dentre eles a cotinina urinária, que é considerada um indicador biológico de exposição à nicotina, devido a suas altas concentrações, comparado a outras matrizes. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um único método para determinação de cotinina urinária, em amostras de urina de fumantes ativos e passivos, através de cromatografia em fase gasosa com detector de nitrogênio- fósforo (CG-DNF). Para o preparo de amostras foram utilizados 5 mL de urina, 1 mL de hidróxido de sódio 5 mol L-1, 5 mL de clorofórmio, tendo como padrão interno a lidocaína. Na faixa de concentrações de 10-1000 ng mL-1 e 500- 6000 ng mL-1, o coeficiente de determinação foi 0,9986 e 0,9952, respectivamente e, o limite de quantificação foi 10 ng mL-1. A precisão intra- e interensaio apresentou desvio padrão relativo (%) menor que 14,2% e a inexatidão foi menor que +11,9%, com uma eficiência de extração de 88,5%. O método apresentou robustez, de acordo com o teste de Youden. As concentrações médias de cotinina observadas foram 2980 ng mL-1, para fumantes ativos e 132 ng mL-1, para fumantes passivos. Os resultados sugerem que o método é confiável, preciso, linear e apresentou robustez, na faixa avaliada, podendo ser aplicado na rotina para análises de amostras de fumantes ativos e passivos, pois é capaz de quantificar uma ampla faixa de concentrações de cotinina urinária.

Lusiane Malafatti; Patrícia Penido Maia; Matheus Coutinho Gonçalves Martins; Maria Elisa Pereira Bastos de Siqueira; Isarita Martins

2010-01-01

106

Single gas chromatography method with nitrogen phosphorus detector for urinary cotinine determination in passive and active smokers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A nicotina é uma substância presente no cigarro capaz de causar dependência, sendo biotransformada em vários metabólitos nos seres humanos, dentre eles a cotinina urinária, que é considerada um indicador biológico de exposição à nicotina, devido a suas altas concentrações, comparado a outras matrizes. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um único método para determinação de cotinina urinária, em amostras de urina de fumantes ativos e passivos, (more) através de cromatografia em fase gasosa com detector de nitrogênio- fósforo (CG-DNF). Para o preparo de amostras foram utilizados 5 mL de urina, 1 mL de hidróxido de sódio 5 mol L-1, 5 mL de clorofórmio, tendo como padrão interno a lidocaína. Na faixa de concentrações de 10-1000 ng mL-1 e 500- 6000 ng mL-1, o coeficiente de determinação foi 0,9986 e 0,9952, respectivamente e, o limite de quantificação foi 10 ng mL-1. A precisão intra- e interensaio apresentou desvio padrão relativo (%) menor que 14,2% e a inexatidão foi menor que +11,9%, com uma eficiência de extração de 88,5%. O método apresentou robustez, de acordo com o teste de Youden. As concentrações médias de cotinina observadas foram 2980 ng mL-1, para fumantes ativos e 132 ng mL-1, para fumantes passivos. Os resultados sugerem que o método é confiável, preciso, linear e apresentou robustez, na faixa avaliada, podendo ser aplicado na rotina para análises de amostras de fumantes ativos e passivos, pois é capaz de quantificar uma ampla faixa de concentrações de cotinina urinária. Abstract in english Nicotine is a major addictive compound in cigarettes and is rapidly and extensively metabolized to several metabolites in humans, including urinary cotinine, considered a biomarker due to its high concentration compared to other metabolites. The aim of this study was to develop a single method for determination of urinary cotinine, in active and passive smokers, by gas chromatography with a nitrogen phosphorus detector (GC-NPD). Urine (5.0 mL) was extracted with 1.0 mL of (more) sodium hydroxide 5 mol L-1, 5.0 mL of chloroform, and lidocaine used as the internal standard. Injection volume was 1 ?L in GC-NPD. Limit of quantification was 10 ng mL-1. Linearity was evaluated in the ranges 10-1000 ng mL-1 and 500-6000 ng mL-1, with determination coefficients of 0.9986 and 0.9952, respectively. Intra- and inter-assay standard relative deviations were lower than 14.2 %, while inaccuracy (bias) was less than +11.9%. The efficiency of extraction was greater than 88.5%. Ruggedness was verified, according to Youden's test. Means of cotinine concentrations observed were 2,980 ng mL-1 for active smokers and 132 ng mL-1, for passive smokers. The results revealed that satisfactory chromatographic separation between the analyte and interferents was obtained with a ZB-1 column. This method is reliable, precise, linear and presented ruggedness in the range evaluated. The results suggest that it can be applied in routine analysis for passive and active smokers, since it is able to quantify a wide range of cotinine concentrations in urine.

Malafatti, Lusiane; Maia, Patrícia Penido; Martins, Matheus Coutinho Gonçalves; Siqueira, Maria Elisa Pereira Bastos de; Martins, Isarita

2010-12-01

107

Undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas may be divided into small cell and large cell types. Among large cell undifferentiated carcinomas, lymphoepithelial carcinomas have to be distinguished, the latter of which are endemic in the Arctic regions and southern China where virtually all cases of these tumors are associated with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Association with EBV may also be observed in sporadic cases, and detection of EBV gene products may aid their diagnosis. Immunohistology may be employed to resolve the differential diagnosis of undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas, comprising malignant lymphomas, amelanotic melanomas, Merkel cell carcinomas, and adenoid cystic carcinomas, in particular in small biopsy materials. Because of the rarity of undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas, the differential diagnosis should always include metastases of undifferentiated carcinomas arising at other primary sites, particularly when expressing the thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) Udgivelsesdato: 2004

Herbst, H.; Hamilton-Dutoit, S.

2004-01-01

108

Tissue engineering of human salivary gland organoids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Radiation therapy for malignant head and neck tumours is mainly responsible for inadvertent damage of the salivary glands. Xerostomia is the major symptom of this condition, with consequent mucositis, dental caries, dysphagia and nutritional deficits. At present there is no routine treatment for radiation-induced salivary dysfunction. Based on the principles of tissue engineering, this study presents a new experimental concept for reconstituting salivary gland function after radiation therapy for head and neck cancer. Human parotid cells were cultured with two different types of commercially available microcarriers-Cytodex 3 and Cytopore 1-for up to 3 weeks in vitro. Cultures were controlled daily by means of inverted microscopy. Medium samples were tested for alpha-amylase, tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA) and S100 in order to control parotid cell function in vitro. The vitality of the cells was investigated by in vitro staining with erythrosine. Immunocytochemical analysis for amylase and cytokeratin was performed in order to confirm epithelial character and maintain acinar cell type. Parotid gland cells could be cultured in a differentiated and vital state on both types of microcarriers for up to 3 weeks. Almost all of the cultured cells exhibited immunoreactivity for cytokeratin. High concentrations of TPA, a specific marker for salivary duct epithelium, indicated persistent differentiation of this cell type in vitro. Positivity for amylase was detectable in 20-45%, of cells growing on the microcarriers, and especially on Cytodex 3. Decreasing amylase levels in the culture medium indicated functional deficiencies of the remaining acinar cells. Tissue engineering of human salivary gland organoids on microcarriers is a new approach for potential causative treatment of radiation-induced xerostomia. Before clinical application can be considered significant improvements in the in vitro cultivation of salivary gland tissue and scaffold design have to be realized. PMID:12206266

Bücheler, M; Wirz, C; Schütz, A; Bootz, F

2002-07-01

109

Salivary cytokines in healthy adolescent girls: Intercorrelations, stability, and associations with serum cytokines, age, and pubertal stage.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Theoretically, the measurement of cytokines in saliva may have utility for studies of brain, behavior, and immunity in youth. Cytokines in saliva and serum were analyzed across three annual assessments in healthy adolescent girls (N?=?114, 11-17 years at enrollment). Samples were assayed for GM-CSF, IFN?, IL-1?, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, TNF?, adiponectin, and cotinine. Results revealed: (1) cytokine levels, except IFN? and IL-10, were detectable in saliva, and salivary levels, except IL-8 and IL-1?, were lower than serum levels; (2) salivary cytokine levels were lower in older girls and positively associated with adiponectin; (3) compared to serum levels, the correlations between salivary cytokines were higher, but salivary cytokines were less stable across years; and (4) except for IL-1?, there were no significant serum-saliva associations. Variation in basal salivary cytokine levels in healthy adolescent girls reflect compartmentalized activity of the oral mucosal immune system, rather than systemic cytokine activity. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 9999: 1-15, 2013.

Riis JL; Out D; Dorn LD; Beal SJ; Denson LA; Pabst S; Jaedicke K; Granger DA

2013-07-01

110

Salivary glands neoplasms  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Salivary glands neoplasms represent a rare and diverse group of tumors with different characteristics. To avoid complications and unnecessary procedures, the treatment depends on an accurate diagnosis. Objective: Review the literature emphasizing the latest advances in diagnosis and treatment. Method: An electronic research was performed on MEDLINE, OVID, PubMed and SciELO databases articles in a period between 1997 and 2007. Conclusion: The proper diagnosis of salivary glands neoplasms is complex, and the otorhinolaryngologist/head and neck surgeon needs to investigate the histological subtype to ensure ideal treatment. Frequently, diagnostic exams conflict, and careful case by case evaluation is required.

Ogawa, Allex Itar; Takemoto, Lucio Eidy; Navarro, Paulo de Lima; Heshiki, Rosana Emiko

2008-01-01

111

Radioisotope study of salivary glands  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The book discusses the use of radioisotope methods in the diagnosis of salivary gland diseases. Anatomical and physiological features of the salivary gland are summarized and radiotracer deposition processes are described. Clinical applications of scintigraphy are detailed. The degree of functional impairment due to various inflammatory diseases is contrasted by means of semiquantitative computerized methods with follow-up therapeutic results. Post-irradiatory involvement and possible functional recovery of salivary glands are also considered. The contents discussed are: Salivary Gland Physiology and Radioisotope Uptake. Radioisotope Study of Salivary Glands. Radioisotope Studies Under Normal Conditions. Survey of Radiographic Methods. Dosimetric Assessment. Conclusions and Index.

De Rossi, G.

1987-01-01

112

Evaluation of Salivary Albumin in Diabetic Patients  

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Full Text Available "nBackground: The clinical symptoms of diabetes mellitus in oral cavity are xerostomia, pathological changes in periodontal tis­sues and caries. It has been suggested that the determination of salvia`s components in diabetic patients may be useful in de­scribing and further understanding the oral findings in this condition. The aim of this study was to detect differences be­tween the salivary albumin in diabetic patients and healthy people."nMethods: A case-control study was carried out using data from Hamadan researches diabetes center in 2008. We selected 40 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus aged 9-61 years, 40 patients with type2 aged 39-82 years and 40 healthy controls aged 20-67 years. Dental and oral status was assessed for all subjects. Completely unstimulated saliva samples were col­lected from diabetic patients and control subjects. Nephelometric method was used to determine salivary albumin con­centra­tion. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS."nResults: No significant difference in salivary albumin concentration was found between the control group and type1 dia­betic patients but salivary albumin was significantly higher in type2 diabetic patients in compare with control groups (P= 0.017), also no significant difference was found between type1 and type2 diabetic patients. In diabetic patients, complain of dry mouth and burning feeling in mouth was significantly higher, as well as, dental examinations showed higher DMFT mean values than the controls."nConclusion: Adults with type2 diabetes mellitus have higher concentration of salivary albumin that would play a helpful diagnos­tic role in oral findings of diabetic patients.

PB Vaziri; M Vahedi; SH Abdollahzadeh; HR Abdolsamadi; M Hajilooi; SH Kasraee

2009-01-01

113

Salivary Diagnostics- Reloaded  

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Full Text Available As we approach the threshold of genomic medicine, the increasing use of salivary diagnostics will helpcatalyze a shift from disease diagnosis to health surveillance. With new techniques for detecting small quantities ofsalivary components, including proteins and messenger RNA (mRNA), the field of salivary diagnostics hasemerged as one of dentistry’s most promising areas of research. Because collecting saliva is noninvasive, it isbecoming the preferable way in bridging state-of-the-art saliva-based biosensors and disease-discriminatorysalivary biomarkers in diagnostic applications.The challenge to make salivary diagnostics a clinical reality is in establishing the scientific foundation and clinicalvalidations necessary to position it as a highly accurate and feasible technology, which can achieve definite pointof-care assessment of patient health and disease status.The field of salivary diagnostics is now becoming a broad,complex and crosscutting area of scientific research with enormous potential to impact the practicing dentist andhealth care in general.

Tharun Varghese Jacob; Ambil Sara Varghese

2011-01-01

114

The novel assay method for nicotine metabolism to cotinine using high performance liquid chromatography.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nicotine is the primary psychoactive component in tobacco. It is taken into the body by tobacco smoking, and mainly metabolized to cotinine in the hepatic cytochrme P450 (CYP) 2A6. The objective of this study was to develop a sensitive method for the determination of nicotine metabolism to cotinine using HPLC. The internal standard, trans-4'-carboxycotinine methyl ester was synthesized with a simple method. The nicotine and cotinine were separated completely and detected by C(18) 5-µm analytical column (L-column Octa decyl silyl (ODS), 150 mm × 4.6 mm i.d.) equipped with a C(18) 5-µm guard column (L-column ODS, 10 mm × 4.6 mm i.d.) and ultraviolet detection at 260 nm. The detection limit of the assay was 0.05 µM for cotinine (n=5, R.S.D) and 0.1 µM for nicotine. Thus the present results provided a sensitive and useful method for the determination of nicotine metabolism catalyzed by CYP2A6.

Miyazawa M; Kawauchi Y; Okuno Y; Oda Y

2011-01-01

115

Determination of cotinine in human urine with gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry  

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OBJECTIVE: To establish the method of gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for the determination of the cotinine (COT) in human urine. METHODS: The conjugated trans-3'-hydroxycotinine (THOC) and COT were hydrolyzed in human urine with beta-glucuronidase. The composition of COT was extracted w...

Cao, M; Zhang, YL; Jiang, CQ; Lam, TH; Cheng, KK; Zhang, WS

116

Neonatal urinary cotinine correlates with behavioral alterations in newborns prenatally exposed to tobacco smoke.  

Science.gov (United States)

Altered behavior due to prenatal smoke exposure was examined in 25 neonates born from smoking mothers who consumed at least 5 cigarettes/d during the entire gestation. Data were compared with 25 matched neonates born from nonsmoking mothers. Neonatal behavior was evaluated using the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (BNBAS). Antenatal exposure to tobacco smoke at the end of the pregnancy was determined by measurement of urinary cotinine. Newborns from smoking mothers showed significant lower scores in various BNBAS items compared with neonates from nonsmoking mothers. A strong correlation was observed between infant irritability and urinary cotinine in newborns from smoker and nonsmoking mothers and with number of daily smoked cigarettes and maternal nicotine daily intake of infants exposed to active maternal smoking. Linear regression analysis showed that urinary cotinine was the best predictor of infant irritability (r(2) = 0.727). The latter was also associated to the neonate's low level of attention and poor response to inanimate auditory stimuli. Among infants from nonsmoking mothers, paternal smoking significantly correlated with infant urinary cotinine and infant irritability, being also the best predictor of irritability (r(2) = 0.364). Neonatal behavior can be significantly altered in a dose-dependent manner even after modest prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke. PMID:17237732

Mansi, Giuseppina; Raimondi, Francesco; Pichini, Simona; Capasso, Letizia; Sarno, Micaela; Zuccaro, Piergiorgio; Pacifici, Roberta; Garcia-Algar, Oscar; Romano, Alfonso; Paludetto, Roberto

2007-02-01

117

Cotinine-assessed second-hand smoke exposure and risk of cardiovascular disease in older adults.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To examine whether second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure measured by serum cotinine is associated with increased coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke risk among contemporary older British adults. DESIGN: Prospective population-based study with self-reported medical history and health behaviours. Fasting blood samples were analysed for serum cotinine and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk markers. SETTING: Primary care centres in 25 British towns in 1998-2001. PATIENTS: 8512 60-79-year-old men and women selected from primary care registers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI; n=445) and stroke (n=386) during median 7.8-year follow-up. MAIN EXPOSURE: Observational study of serum cotinine assayed from fasting blood sample using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method, and self-reported smoking history. RESULTS: Among 5374 non-smokers without pre-existing CVD, geometric mean cotinine was 0.15 ng/ml (IQR 0.05-0.30). Compared with non-smokers with cotinine < or =0.05 ng/ml, higher cotinine levels (0.06-0.19, 0.2-0.7 and 0.71-15.0 ng/ml) showed little association with MI; adjusted HRs were 0.92 (95% CI 0.63 to 1.35), 1.07 (0.73 to 1.55) and 1.09 (0.69 to 1.72), p(trend)=0.69. Equivalent HRs for stroke were 0.82 (0.55 to 1.23), 0.74 (0.48 to 1.13) and 0.69 (0.41 to 1.17), p(trend)=0.065. The adjustment for sociodemographic, behavioural and CVD risk factors had little effect on the results. The HR of MI for smokers (1-9 cigarettes/day) compared with non-smokers with cotinine < or =0.05 ng/ml was 2.14 (1.39 to 3.52) and 1.03 (0.52 to 2.04) for stroke. CONCLUSIONS: In contemporary older men and women, SHS exposure (predominantly at low levels) was not related to CHD or stroke risks, but we cannot rule out the possibility of modest effects at higher exposure levels.

Jefferis BJ; Lawlor DA; Ebrahim S; Wannamethee SG; Feyerabend C; Doig M; McMeekin L; Cook DG; Whincup PH

2010-06-01

118

Salivary Ceruloplasmin Ferroxidase & Oxidase Activities in Celiac Patients  

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Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to evaluate salivary ferroxidase ceruloplasmin activities in celiac patients with different histopathological severity. This study included 75 celiac patients with different mean age (18.68 ± 11.13) year, who had positive screen for celiac antibodies, and who had gastrointestinal symptoms. In order to simplify the comparison with the healthy control group, celiac patients were divided into two groups according to their histopathological severity: severe (marsh IIIa, b, c) & less severe (marsh 0, I). All these patients have been evaluating for salivary ceruloplasmin (Cp) concentration and Cp ferroxidase activities. To confirm the presence of the enzymatic activity of this protein, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was carried out and then stained for Cp ferroxidase, as well as for Cp oxidase activity. Furthermore, the concentrations of salivary total protein, albumin, and globulin were measured in the studied groups. A significant increase (p<0.05) in salivary concentration of ceruloplasmin was found in all above mentioned patients groups in comparison to that of the control group, except for total villous atrophy (marsh IIIc) patients subgroup. Salivary Cp ferroxidase activity revealed statistically significant decrease among the patient groups as well as between them and the control group. The result of salivary total protein and globulin showed presence a significant increase (p<0.05) in comparison to that of the control group. Meanwhile albumin levels was found to increase non-significantly (p=0.186).

Hathama R. Hasan; Zahraa I. Abudal Kadhum; Jasim M. Ghadhban

2012-01-01

119

Sialography And Salivary Scan Study Of Salivary Diseases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this study was to established the characteristic radiographic features in salivary gland diseases by means of sialography and scintigraphy. Sialograms and scintigrams with diseases of salivary gland were examined. In this group were 5 salivary stones, 14 sialadenitis, 17 Sjogren's syndromes and 8 benign tumors. The obtained results were as follows;1. In the configuration of the shape of main duct, those revealed that modified curvilinear and curvilinear types were predominant in Sjogren's syndromes but reverse sigmoid and angular types were in sialolithiasis and sialadenitis combined with sialodochitis. 2. In the configuration of the course of main duct, those revealed that smooth types were predominant in sialadenitis and irregular types were predominant in Sjogren's syndromes and benign tumors and irregular types were seen in all salivary stones and sialadenitis combined with sialodochitis. 3. In the type of intraglandular pattern, those revealed that destructive changes of salivary duct system and parenchyma were severe in sialadenitis and salivary stones and predominantly severe in Sjogren's syndromes. 4. The function of salivary gland was decreased severely in Sjogren's syndrome. and also decrease in salivary stone and sialadenitis. In benign tumor, the uptake of radioisotope was not seen in lesion and the function of salivary gland decreased in its remaining normal parenchyma.

Park, Yun Kyung; Lee, Sang Rae; Hwang, Eui Hwan [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1999-02-15

120

Measurement of salivary adiponectin levels.  

Science.gov (United States)

We designed a method for measuring salivary adiponectin. In 188 healthy males, salivary adiponectin levels were measured using a commercial enzyme immunoassay kit for plasma with minor modifications. Intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation for salivary adiponectin ranged from 0.6 to 4.9 and 1.1 to 9.8%, respectively. Salivary adiponectin levels ranged from 0.37 to 6.42 ng/ml, exceeding the kit's detection limit. For the over-43 age group, there was a significant correlation between plasma and salivary adiponectin levels (p<0.000001). These findings suggest the possibilities of salivary adiponectin as a marker of increased risk of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or cardiovascular disease. PMID:17357881

Toda, M; Tsukinoki, R; Morimoto, K

2007-03-01

 
 
 
 
121

Measurement of salivary adiponectin levels.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We designed a method for measuring salivary adiponectin. In 188 healthy males, salivary adiponectin levels were measured using a commercial enzyme immunoassay kit for plasma with minor modifications. Intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation for salivary adiponectin ranged from 0.6 to 4.9 and 1.1 to 9.8%, respectively. Salivary adiponectin levels ranged from 0.37 to 6.42 ng/ml, exceeding the kit's detection limit. For the over-43 age group, there was a significant correlation between plasma and salivary adiponectin levels (p<0.000001). These findings suggest the possibilities of salivary adiponectin as a marker of increased risk of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or cardiovascular disease.

Toda M; Tsukinoki R; Morimoto K

2007-03-01

122

SALIVARY ANTIMICROBIAL PROTEIN RESPONSE TO PROLONGED RUNNING  

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Full Text Available Prolonged exercise may compromise immunity through a reduction of salivary antimicrobial proteins (AMPs). Salivary IgA (IgA) has been extensively studied, but little is known about the effect of acute, prolonged exercise on AMPs including lysozyme (Lys) and lactoferrin (Lac). Objective: To determine the effect of a 50-km trail race on salivary cortisol (Cort), IgA, Lys, and Lac. Methods: 14 subjects: (6 females, 8 males) completed a 50km ultramarathon. Saliva was collected pre, immediately after (post) and 1.5 hrs post race ( 1.5). Results: Lac concentration was higher at 1.5 hrs post race compared to post exercise (p0.05). IgA concentration, secretion rate, and IgA/Osm were lower 1.5 hrs post compared to pre race (p<0.05). Cort concentration was higher at post compared to 1.5 (p<0.05), but was unaltered from pre race levels. Subjects finished in 7.81 ± 1.2 hrs. Saliva flow rate did not differ between time points. Saliva Osm increased at post (p<0.05) compared to pre race. Conclusions: The intensity could have been too low to alter Lys and Lac secretion rates and thus, may not be as sensitive as IgA to changes in response to prolonged running. Results expand our understanding of the mucosal immune system and may have implications for predicting illness after prolonged running.

Trevor L Gillum; Matthew Kuennen; Cheryl Gourley; Karol Dokladny; Suzanne Schneider

2013-01-01

123

Levels of Cotinine in Dried Blood Specimens from Newborns as a Biomarker of Maternal Smoking Close to the Time of Delivery.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The precise quantitation of smoking during pregnancy is difficult in retrospective studies. Routinely collected blood specimens from newborns, stored as dried blood spots, may provide a low-cost method to objectively measure maternal smoking close to the time of delivery. This article compares cotinine levels in dried blood spots to those in umbilical cord blood to assess cotinine in dried blood spots as a biomarker of maternal smoking close to the time of delivery. The California Genetic Disease Screening Program provided dried blood spots from 428 newborns delivered in 2001-2003 with known umbilical cord blood cotinine levels. Cotinine in dried blood spots was measured in 6.35--mm punches by using liquid chromatography--tandem mass spectrometry (quantitation limit, 3.1 ng/mL). Repeated measures of cotinine in dried blood spots were highly correlated (R(2) = 0.99, P < 0.001) among 100 dried blood spots with cotinine quantitated in 2 separate punches. Linear regression revealed that cotinine levels in dried blood spots were slightly lower than those in umbilical cord blood and predicted umbilical cord blood cotinine levels well (? = 0.95, R(2) = 0.80, and P < 0.001 for both cotinine levels in log10 scale). When defining active smoking as a cotinine level of 10 ng/mL or more and using umbilical cord blood cotinine as the criterion standard, we found that measurements of cotinine in dried blood spots had high sensitivity (92.3%) and specificity (99.7%) in the prediction of maternal active smoking. Cotinine levels in dried blood spots are an accurate biomarker of maternal smoking close to the time of delivery.

Yang J; Pearl M; Jacob P 3rd; Delorenze GN; Benowitz NL; Yu L; Havel C; Kharrazi M

2013-09-01

124

Effects of stress on circulating nicotine and cotinine levels and in vitro nicotine metabolism in the rat.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effects of physical and psychological stress on circulating nicotine levels and conversion of nicotine to cotinine were examined in the rat. Animals received one of three dosages of nicotine (0, 6, and 12 mg/kg) via miniosmotic pumps. On day 14 of drug infusion, animals from each drug condition were randomly assigned to one of three stress conditions (noise, rubber ligature, or no stress). After 2.5 h of stress exposure, animals were killed and plasma nicotine and cotinine were measured in vivo and hepatic conversion of nicotine to cotinine was determined in vitro. Stress lowered blood nicotine levels. However, this difference was statistically significant only among animals receiving 12 mg/kg per day nicotine. In contrast, stress had no consistent effect on either measure of conversion of nicotine to cotinine in rats. Taken together, these results suggest that stress lowers circulating nicotine levels. However, the mechanism by which this occurs remains unclear.

Winders SE; Grunberg NE; Benowitz NL; Alvares AP

1998-06-01

125

Effects of stress on circulating nicotine and cotinine levels and in vitro nicotine metabolism in the rat.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of physical and psychological stress on circulating nicotine levels and conversion of nicotine to cotinine were examined in the rat. Animals received one of three dosages of nicotine (0, 6, and 12 mg/kg) via miniosmotic pumps. On day 14 of drug infusion, animals from each drug condition were randomly assigned to one of three stress conditions (noise, rubber ligature, or no stress). After 2.5 h of stress exposure, animals were killed and plasma nicotine and cotinine were measured in vivo and hepatic conversion of nicotine to cotinine was determined in vitro. Stress lowered blood nicotine levels. However, this difference was statistically significant only among animals receiving 12 mg/kg per day nicotine. In contrast, stress had no consistent effect on either measure of conversion of nicotine to cotinine in rats. Taken together, these results suggest that stress lowers circulating nicotine levels. However, the mechanism by which this occurs remains unclear. PMID:9676899

Winders, S E; Grunberg, N E; Benowitz, N L; Alvares, A P

1998-06-01

126

Plasma and salivary androstenedione and dihydrotestosterone in women with hyperandrogenism.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sensitive radioimmunoassays (RIA) have been developed to measure salivary and plasma androstenedione and dihydrotestosterone levels in normal women, women with polycystic ovaries (PCO) and idiopathic hirsutism, and patients on antiandrogen therapy. There was a highly significant correlation (r = 0.92, P less than 0.001) between the concentration of androstenedione in saliva and the unbound concentration in plasma. The unbound plasma androstenedione was measured in the dialysate by RIA and ranged from 6.0-10.4% of the total concentration. Salivary and plasma androstenedione levels in patients with PCO (185 +/- 72 pg/ml (n = 11) and 3262 +/- 814 pg/ml (n = 12) respectively) and in those with hirsutism (151 +/- 110 pg/ml (n = 25) and 2177 +/- 1096 pg/ml (n = 25) were significantly higher than levels in normal women (78 +/- 30 pg/ml (n = 18) and 787 +/- 355 pg/ml (n = 18). A good correlation (r = 0.82, P less than 0.001) was also found between salivary and unbound plasma dihydrotestosterone concentrations. Salivary and plasma dihydrotestosterone levels in patients with PCO (8.2 +/- 3.3 pg/ml (n = 9) and 167 +/- 45 pg/ml (n = 11) respectively and hirsutism (6.0 +/- 2.1 pg/ml (n = 14) and 176 +/- 69 pg/ml (n = 17) were significantly higher than levels in normal women (4.5 +/- 1.3 pg/ml (n = 17) and 90 +/- 44 pg/ml (n = 16), although there was a large overlap between groups. A similar decrease was observed in salivary and plasma androstenedione levels after treatment with cyproterone acetate (CA) and ethinyl oestradiol (EE) for 3 months. Plasma dihydrotestosterone levels remained elevated in 47% of treated women whereas only 21% of cases had raised salivary dihydrotestosterone levels. It is concluded that, as with testosterone salivary androstenedione and dihydrotestosterone measurements give a good reflection of their biologically active levels in normal, hyperandrogenic and CA + EE treated women.

Baxendale PM; Jacobs HS; James VH

1983-05-01

127

An Evaluation of Cotinine as an Index of Exposure to Tabacco Smoke in Children with Recurrent Respiratory Tract Infections Using HPLC Method  

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Full Text Available The authors evaluated the frequency of exposure to tobacco smoke among children suffering from respiratory tract infections. The investigations comprised 141 children aged from 2 months to 6 years that were treated in the 2nd Department of Pediatric and Allergology of Polish Mother’s Memorial Hospital Research Institute in ?ód? (Poland). 69 of them were exposed to tobacco smoke in their home environment. The remaining 72 children came from non-smoking families. 26 (37.7%) individuals among the passive smokers and 15 (20.83%) among the children from non-smoking families suffered from recurrent respiratory tract infections. Cotinine concentrations were evaluated in the group of 69 children using the HPLC-UV method. The determined average cotinine/creatinine index expressed as median was higher in passive smokers with recurrent respiratory infections than among passive smokers with non-recurrent respiratory infections. Moreover, it was stated that the exposure to cigarette smoke was more often among children of younger and less well educated parents as well as living in poor housing conditions. These studies clearly indicate that there is a need for extensive education on the harmful effects of passive smoking and the recurrence of infections.

Barbara Kamer; Renata Pasowska; Anna Matczak-Rynkowska; Anna Socha-Banasiak; Joanna Ka?u?na-Czapli?ska; Wioletta Grys; Jacek Rynkowski

2013-01-01

128

Dasatinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Malignant Salivary Gland Tumors  

Science.gov (United States)

High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Low-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Anaplastic Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Malignant Mixed Cell Type Tumor; Salivary Gland Poorly Differentiated Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer

2013-09-04

129

[Salivary cortisol among subjects with and without Cushing syndrome].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Salivary cortisol measurement is recommended as a screening mea-sure when a Cushing Syndrome is suspected. The proposed cut-off point for a probably diagnosis is 0.16 ug/dL. AIM: To determine salivary cortisol concentrations during the day inpatients with and without Cushing syndrome and with depression. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Salivary cortisol was measured by competitive enzyme immuno assay (EIA), in samples obtained at 8:00,15:00 and 23:00 h in 78 patients without Cushing syndrome, aged 40 +/- 15 years (28 males), 30 patients with depression aged 40 +/- 12 years (nine males) and four females with Cushing syndrome aged 42 +/- 17 years. Results: Salivary cortisol was higher among patients with Cushing syndrome than the rest of patients. A salivary cortisol over the cut-off value of O.16 ug/dL was found in 42% of subjects without Cushing syndrome and in 33% of patients with depression. Median values among patients without Cushing syndrome, depression and with Cushing syndrome were 0.21 (range < 0.1-1.42), 0.2 (range 0,12-0.9) and 0.58 (range 0.37-1.1) ug/dL, respectively CONCLUSIONS: Salivary cortisol measured by EIA method was higher among patients with Cushing syndrome but there was a great overlap with values obtained in subjects without the syndrome.

Lépez M; Caamaño E; Romero C; Fiedler J; Araya V

2010-02-01

130

Sialorrhea and Salivary Composition in Patients With Parkinson's Disease  

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Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the salivary composition and production in mild and severe Parkinson's Disease (PD) patients.Materials and Methods: A total of 37 patients with PD and age matched 30 control subjects were participated in this study. The Hoehn and Yahr (HY) disability scale was used to determine the severity of the disease. Salivary collection was performed according to a methodology described in the literature and salivary composition was determined. Between group comparisons were performed using the independent t test and chi-square.Results: Salivary production in patients of the Parkinson group was significantly lower than in controls (0.68±0.26 mg vs. 1.27±0.65 mg, respectively; p=0.009). But there was no significant difference in salivary production between mild and severe Parkinson patients (0.71±0.33 mg vs. 0.66±0.17 mg, respectively; p=0.62). Decrease in the production of saliva was not significantly correlated with levodopa/benserazide dose, HY scale and UPDRS score (r=0.283, p=0.09; r=-0.166, p=0.325; r=-0.208, p=0.217; respectively).In PD patients, salivary concentrations of sodium, potassium, chloride were higher but amylase was lower than in controls (p=0.02, p<0.001, p=0.003, p=0.04, respectively). When mild and severe PD patients were compared there were no significant difference between amylase, potassium, and chloride concentrations of the groups (p=0.07, p=0.32, p=0.16, respectively).Conclusions: PD is associated with decreased salivary production, abnormally high electrolyte and low amylase concentrations. Drooling of saliva is caused by concomitant swallowing difficulties. Thus, using botulinum toxin or anticolinergic drugs in treatment of drooling may cause xerostomia.

Ozge Yilmaz KUSBECI; Tulay KOKEN; Hayri DEMIRBAS; Bugra KOCA

2009-01-01

131

Cotinine as a biomarker of tobacco exposure: development of a HPLC method and comparison of matrices.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Tobacco dependence reaches one-third of the world population, and is the second leading cause of death around the world. Cotinine, a major metabolite of nicotine, is the most appropriate parameter to evaluate tobacco exposure and smoking status due to its higher stability and half-life when compared to nicotine. The procedure involves liquid-liquid extraction, separation on a RP column (Zorbax XDB C(8)), isocratic pump (0.5 mL/min of water-methanol-sodium acetate (0.1 M)-ACN (50:15:25:10, v/v/v/v), 1.0 mL of citric acid (0.034 M) and 5.0 mL of triethylamine for each liter) and HPLC-UV detection (261 nm). The analytical procedure proved to be sensitive, selective, precise, accurate and linear (r>0.99) in the range of 5-500.0 ng/mL for cotinine. 2-Phenylimidazole was used as the internal standard. The LOD was 0.18 ng/mL and the LOQ was 5.0 ng/mL. All samples from smoking volunteers were collected simultaneously to establish a comparison between serum, plasma, and urine. The urinary cotinine levels were normalized by the creatinine and urine density. A significant correlation was found (p<0.01) between all matrices. Results indicate that the urine normalization by creatinine or density is unnecessary. This method is considered reliable for determining cotinine in serum and plasma of smokers and in environmental tobacco smoke exposure.

Petersen GO; Leite CE; Chatkin JM; Thiesen FV

2010-03-01

132

Synthesis of optically pure deuterium-labelled nicotine, nornicotine and cotinine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We describe methods for the synthesis of enantiomerically pure (S)-nicotine-3',3'-d2, (S)-nornicotine-3',3-d2, and (S)-cotinine-4',4'-d2. The key intermediate was 5-bromomyosmine, which underwent base catalyzed exchange with deuterium oxide to give 5-bromomyosmine-3',3'- d2 with >99% incorporation of label. This intermediate was reduced to (±)-5-bromo-nornicotine-3',3'-d2 with sodium borohydride, resolved, and converted to (S)-nornicotine-3',3'-d(sub)2 by reductive debromination with hydrogen and a palladium catalyst. Reductive alkylation with formaldehyde and sodium borohydride provided (S)-nicotine-3',3'-d2, which was converted to (S)-cotinine-4',4'-d2 by reaction with bromine followed by zinc reduction. The deuterium label is located at positions that are not attacked in the major routes of mammalian metabolism of these alkaloids. Syntheses of tetradeuterated analogs of nicotine and cotinine and a pentadeuterated analog of nicotine, in which additional deuterium atoms are incorporated in the methyl groups, are also reported. (author)

1988-01-01

133

Abuse potential of non-nicotine tobacco smoke components: acetaldehyde, nornicotine, cotinine, and anabasine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: This review identified published animal studies evaluating the possible abuse potential of acetaldehyde, nornicotine, cotinine, and anabasine based on five commonly used paradigms. These include their effects on midbrain dopamine (DA) levels, drug discrimination and substitution for known drugs of abuse, place conditioning, self-administration behavior, and somatic withdrawal symptoms. RESULTS: Acetaldehyde had mixed effects on midbrain DA levels and drug discrimination; however, it consistently produced a conditioned place preference and supported self-administration. The single available study on withdrawal found that cessation of acetaldehyde administration resulted in a somatic withdrawal syndrome. Nornicotine increased DA in the midbrain, especially in the nucleus accumbens. Although there are no data on place conditioning, it substituted for nicotine in drug discrimination testing, partially substituted for cocaine and amphetamine, and, though only a single study, supported self-administration. Anabasine increased midbrain DA levels and that it partially substituted for nicotine in drug discrimination testing. Cotinine increased midbrain DA levels and substituted for nicotine. CONCLUSIONS: The existing literature suggests that acetaldehyde and nornicotine likely possess abuse potential, with anabasine having possible abuse potential. Although some cotinine data were available, it was insufficient to draw conclusions about possible abuse potential. Further research is needed to determine the role of minor alkaloids on tobacco dependence.

Hoffman AC; Evans SE

2013-03-01

134

Responses of salivary cortisol and ?-amylase to official competition  

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Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the relationship between salivary cortisol, ?-amylase and total protein response in the official football players during the course of a game. Nine young amateur football players agreed to participate in the study. Saliva samples were collected from each player 30 min and 5 min before the start of the competition, at half time, and then again 5 and 30 min after the end of competition. A significant increase in cortisol (p=0.04) in response to playing the competition was observed including a significantly higher concentration 30 min after match as compared to half time (p=0.016). In contrast, changes in salivary ?-amylase changes were irregular, but there was significant decline 5 min after end of match as compared to the 5 min before the beginning of match (p<0.019). No significant difference in total protein concentration was observed. Though salivary cortisol, ?-amylase and total protein changes were observed concomitantly, but there no significant relationship between them. We conclude that participation in competition has an accumulative effect on salivary cortisol concentration, but this was not related changes in salivary ?-amylase.

MOHAMMAD A. AZARBAYJANI; HOSEYN DALVAND; HOSEYN FATOLAHI; SEYED A. HOSEINI; PARVIN FARZANEGI; STEFAN R. STANNARD

2011-01-01

135

Salivary Duct Cyst: Histo-pathologic Correlation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Non-neoplastic cysts of the salivary glands are uncommon and represent 2-5% of all salivary gland lesions. They are mainly mucoceles or salivary duct cysts. Unlike a mucocele, which is surrounded by granulation tissue, the salivary duct cyst is lined by epithelium. Salivary duct cysts are more common in the oral minor salivary glands and rarely occur in the major salivary glands, show a marked predilection for the superficial lobe of the parotid, and represent 10% of all salivary gland cysts. Neoplastic differentiation of the lining of the salivary duct cyst has been reported. We report a case of a salivary duct cyst of the left parotid gland, with a review of radiographic and histopathologic features.

Vinayachandran D; Sankarapandian S

2013-01-01

136

Salivary gland cancer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Malignant salivary gland tumors make up a small proportion of malignancies worldwide, yet vary widely in terms of histology, patterns of spread, and recurrence. A better understanding of this variability will guide appropriate treatment recommendations and lead to improved outcomes. Recent molecular genetic studies have uncovered a translocation-generated gene fusion network in salivary gland carcinomas that can be used for diagnosis, treatment decisions, and development of specific targeted therapies. The gene fusions encode novel fusion oncoproteins that function as transcriptional coactivators, tyrosine kinase receptors, and transcription factors involved in growth-factor signaling and cell-cycle regulation. While surgery currently is the primary therapy for operable tumors, radiation plays an important role in the postoperative setting, as well as in the definitive setting for inoperable lesions. An awareness of the risk factors for tumor recurrence and spread is important for both adjuvant therapy referrals and for radiation treatment planning purposes. Additionally, chemotherapy is being used increasingly in both the concurrent setting as a radiosensitizer, as well as in the palliative setting for metastatic tumors. Future trials investigating concurrent chemotherapy and radiation, as well as the use of targeted agents based on evolving molecular discoveries, will elucidate optimal personalized approaches for this challenging disease.

Carlson J; Licitra L; Locati L; Raben D; Persson F; Stenman G

2013-01-01

137

Effects of red wine intake on human salivary antiradical capacity and total polyphenol content.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The protective effects of grape polyphenols have been reported on oral health, though unreasonable alcohol consumption represents a risk factor for developing oral cancer. The possible effects of red wine consumption on salivary antiradical activity were investigated in healthy volunteers for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. Time-course (from 0 min to 240 min) changes of salivary radical-scavenging capacity were measured by the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS(+)) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays, in twelve healthy volunteers, after the intake of red wine (125 mL), a capsule of red wine extract (300 mg) or water (125 mL). Furthermore, time-course of salivary total polyphenol levels, detected by the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method, was also determined. Both ABTS and DPPH tests showed that red wine consumption did not increase salivary antiradical activity in volunteers. Conversely, red wine extract administration caused a marked rise in salivary ABTS radical-scavenging capacity within 30 min, followed by a plateau up to 240 min. The same treatment also raised salivary DPPH radical-scavenging activity at any time point, though to a minor extent. The highest salivary polyphenol concentration was reached 30 min after wine drinking, followed by a steady decrease up to 240 min. Wine drinking was not associated to a reduced salivary antiradical capacity. However, wine extract greatly improved the salivary antioxidant status.

Varoni EM; Vitalini S; Contino D; Lodi G; Simonetti P; Gardana C; Sardella A; Carrassi A; Iriti M

2013-08-01

138

CT diagnosis of the salivary glands  

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The salivary glands consist of the major salivary glands (parotid glands, submandibular glands, and sublingual glands) and small salivary glands (labial glands, staphyline glands, buccal glands, molar glands, and lingual glands). Only the major salivary glands are considered to raise problems in reading CT images. CT was considered to be particularly of value for the parotid glands. Anatomy and CT diagnosis of the major salivary glands, especially the parotid glands, were explained.

Inoue, Akio; Kato, Takakuni; Kawanishi, Nobukatsu; Noguchi, Akihiko; Kamata, Nobuetsu; Uchida, Masaoki (Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo. Hospital)

1982-10-01

139

Herpes oncolytic therapy of salivary gland carcinomas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oncolytic herpes simplex viruses (HSV) have demonstrated potent antitumoral effects against a variety of human malignancies in preclinical studies and are in early clinical trials. We explored the activity of an attenuated, replication-competent, oncolytic HSV (NV1023) for the treatment of human salivary gland carcinomas. NV1023 was able to successfully enter into 4 mucoepidermoid carcinoma (H292, H3118, HTB-41, UT-MUC-1) and 2 adenocarcinoma (HSY, HSG) cell lines, as measured by lacZ assays after exposure to 5 viral particles per cell (MOI 5). Viral plaque assays showed variation of viral replication within these cell lines, ranging from a 268-fold increase (H292) to a 3-fold increase (HSG) in viral titer. At MOI 5, all cell lines showed >95% cytotoxicity from NV1023 by Day 7, except for HSY (73%). At MOI 0.1, H3118 and UT-MUC-1 remained highly sensitive to NV1023, both showing >95% cytotoxicity by Day 7. The mucoepidermoid carcinomas were more sensitive to NV1023 at low viral concentrations compared with the adenocarcinomas. Flank tumors of H3118, HTB-41 and HSY in nude mice showed significant tumor volume reductions after a single intratumoral injection of NV1023 (2 x 10(7) plaque-forming units). These data suggest that oncolytic herpes viruses have significant efficacy entering, replicating within, and lysing human salivary gland carcinomas. These promising biologic agents should be further investigated as novel therapy for patients with salivary carcinomas failing conventional treatment. PMID:17764117

Reid, Vincent; Yu, Zhenkun; Schuman, Theodore; Li, Sen; Singh, Paramjeet; Fong, Yuman; Wong, Richard J

2008-01-01

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Salivary gland neoplasms in children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Salivary gland neoplasms in pediatric population are extremely rare. The aim of the present study was to determine the clinicopathologic characteristics of salivary gland neoplasms in patients younger than 19 years at our institution. METHODS: During a 38-year period, a total of 119 pediatric patients met the diagnosis of epithelial salivary gland neoplasms. Clinicopathologic parameters were reviewed. RESULTS: There were 87 (73.1%) benign and 32 (26.9%) malignant neoplasms. The mean age of pediatric patients was 15.1 years. The male-to-female ratio was 1:1.25. One hundred thirteen cases occurred among patients not younger than 10 years. The highest frequency of epithelial salivary gland neoplasms was pleomorphic adenoma (70.6%). Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (16 cases) was the most common malignant tumor in the salivary gland, occupying 50.0% of the malignancies and 13.4% of all salivary gland neoplasms. CONCLUSIONS: Salivary gland neoplasms in Chinese pediatric patients are rare. There is a female predominance. Most of the tumors occur among patients not younger than 10 years. The most common benign tumor is pleomorphic adenomas, and the most common malignant tumor is mucoepidermoid carcinomas.

Deng R; Huang X; Hao J; Ding J; Hu Q

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
141

Effect of pilocarpine mouthwash on salivary flow  

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Full Text Available Pilocarpine is a cholinergic agonist that increases salivary flow and has been used to treat xerostomia. Oral intake is the most frequent route of administration. Adverse effects are dose-dependent and include sudoresis, facial blushing and increased urinary frequency. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of topical pilocarpine solutions as mouthwashes on salivary flow and their adverse effects on healthy subjects. Forty volunteers received 10 ml 0.5, 1 and 2% pilocarpine solutions or 0.9% saline in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled manner. Salivation was measured before and 45, 60 and 75 min after mouth rinsing for 1 min with 10 ml of saline or pilocarpine solutions. Vital signs were measured and ocular, gastrointestinal and cardiovascular symptoms, anxiety and flushing were estimated using visual analog scales. There was a dose-dependent increase in salivation. Salivation measured after 1 and 2% pilocarpine (1.4 ± 0.36 and 2.22 ± 0.42 g, respectively) was significantly (P<0.001) higher than before (0.70 ± 0.15 and 0.64 ± 0.1 g), with a plateau between 45 and 75 min. Cardiovascular, visual, gastrointestinal and behavioral symptoms and signs were not changed by topical pilocarpine. Mouth rinsing with pilocarpine solutions at concentrations of 1 to 2% induced a significant objective and subjective dose-dependent increase in salivary flow, similar to the results reported by others studying the effect of oral 5 mg pilocarpine. The present study revealed the efficacy of pilocarpine mouthwash solutions in increasing salivary flow in healthy volunteers, with no adverse effects. Additional studies on patients with xerostomia are needed.

Bernardi R.; Perin C.; Becker F.L.; Ramos G.Z.; Gheno G.Z.; Lopes L.R.; Pires M.; Barros H.M.T.

2002-01-01

142

[Effect of methylcobalamine on the processes of posttraumatic regeneration of the salivary glands  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Experiments on rats were made to study membrane potentials (MP) of secretory cells of the salivary glands, the content of biogenic amines and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isozymes of the salivary gland tissue in trauma after pretreatment with methylcobalamine. Twenty-four hours after trauma the salivary gland showed a decrease in the content of LDH aerobic fractions, the lowering of noradrenaline concentration with no changes in the MP of glandular cells outside the zone of injury. Administration of cobalamine did not cause any changes in the parameters under study. There was an increase in the polarization level of acinar and duct cells, normalization of noradrenaline content, and a rise of adrenalin concentration with persistent reduction in aerobic fractions of LDH in salivary gland trauma after pretreatment with methylcobalamine. It is concluded that methylcobalamine administration may have a therapeutic effect in salivary gland trauma.

Mikha?lov VV; Rusanova AG; Chikina NA; Avakumov VM

1984-07-01

143

[Effect of methylcobalamine on the processes of posttraumatic regeneration of the salivary glands].  

Science.gov (United States)

Experiments on rats were made to study membrane potentials (MP) of secretory cells of the salivary glands, the content of biogenic amines and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isozymes of the salivary gland tissue in trauma after pretreatment with methylcobalamine. Twenty-four hours after trauma the salivary gland showed a decrease in the content of LDH aerobic fractions, the lowering of noradrenaline concentration with no changes in the MP of glandular cells outside the zone of injury. Administration of cobalamine did not cause any changes in the parameters under study. There was an increase in the polarization level of acinar and duct cells, normalization of noradrenaline content, and a rise of adrenalin concentration with persistent reduction in aerobic fractions of LDH in salivary gland trauma after pretreatment with methylcobalamine. It is concluded that methylcobalamine administration may have a therapeutic effect in salivary gland trauma. PMID:6466842

Mikha?lov, V V; Rusanova, A G; Chikina, N A; Avakumov, V M

1984-07-01

144

Radioimmunoassay of salivary steroid hormones for easy diagnosis of and adrenal functions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The salivary levels of progesterone, estradiol and cortisol were determined by radioimmunoassay in fertile and infertile women. progesterone concentration was also determined in sera of both groups. Results have shown salivary progesterone to be promising in the assessment of ovarian function. Positive and significant correlation was obtained between serum and salivary progesterone for both considered groups. Although, concentrations of estradiol in saliva seems to be useful in predicting the time of ovulation onset however, further evaluations, are still needed. High levels of salivary cortisol were obtained reflecting stress during menses, ovulation and awaiting for the onset of the next cycle. Consequently, salivary cortisol is a good monitor for adrenal function. 6 figs., 5 tabs.

1996-01-01

145

Effects of cations and anions as aggregating agents on SERS detection of cotinine (COT) and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine (3HC).  

Science.gov (United States)

The sensitivity of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) highly depends on experimental factors including aggregating agents and pH. Using silver nanoparticles as the substrate, the effect of five cationic (K(+), Na(+), Mg(2+), Li(+), Ca(2+)) and three anionic (Cl(-), Br(-), I(-)) aggregating agents was examined on the SERS detection of tobacco-related biomarkers, namely cotinine (COT) and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine (3HC). The optimal concentrations of the aggregating agents with respect to highest SERS intensity varied widely (from 1.5mM for MgCl2 to 150mM for LiCl). Both cations and anions strongly influenced the SERS enhancement. When Cl(-) was used as the anion, Mg(2+) and Na(+) exhibited the highest SERS intensities for COT and 3HC, respectively. When Mg(2+) was used as the cation, Cl(-) and Br(-) generated the highest SERS enhancement for COT and 3HC, respectively. Clearly, SERS enhancement also depended on the target molecule. Among the 11 aggregating agent combinations tested, the highest SERS enhancement is obtained using 1.5mM MgCl2 for COT at pH 7.0 and 50mM NaBr for 3HC at pH 3.0. PMID:23998370

Han, Sungyub; Hong, Seongmin; Li, Xiao

2013-08-14

146

Salivary and serum analysis in children diagnosed with pneumonia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of the current study was to evaluate specific markers for pneumonia by using a non-invasive assessment of inflammatory/oxidative biomarkers in saliva accompanying a routine serum analysis. No study evaluating saliva of children with pneumonia has been published previously. Salivary analysis was performed in 15 children diagnosed with lobar pneumonia and in a parallel group of 16 children matching in age and gender in whom there was no respiratory illness, and compared to the serum analysis obtained routinely in both groups of children. Salivary flow rate was lower in the patients' group as was uric acid concentration (by 60%). Increase in salivary concentrations of almost all parameters analyzed was found: Ca, P, and Mg concentrations were higher in the patients' group by 23%, 55%, and 33%, respectively, while LDH, total protein amylase and albumin concentrations were higher by 275%, 79%, and 42%, respectively. In the serum, white cell counts and neutrophils were significantly higher, and sodium level significantly lower in the patients' group. Compositional changes were in the range of 3-80% while the saliva alterations were more profound, in the range of 42-275%. The results demonstrated in the current study indicate salivary analysis as a potentially novel tool for children with pneumonia. Human salivary collection and analysis is a non-invasive tool that could provide additional information for diagnosis and follow-up of pneumonia, especially in children. This is especially beneficial for pediatric patients, as salivary collection is simple, non-invasive, and patient-friendly. Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Klein Kremer A; Kuzminsky E; Bentur L; Nagler RM

2013-03-01

147

Salivary Hsp72 does not track exercise stress and caffeine-stimulated plasma Hsp72 responses in humans  

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Heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72) has been detected within saliva, and its presence may contribute to oral defence. It is currently unknown how physiological stress affects salivary Hsp72 or if salivary Hsp72 concentrations reflect plasma Hsp72 concentrations. We studied the effect of exercise upon sali...

Fortes, Matthew B.; Whitham, Martin

148

The effects of saliva collection, handling and storage on salivary testosterone measurement.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Several endocrine parameters commonly measured in plasma, such as steroid hormones, can be measured in the oral fluid. However, there are several technical aspects of saliva sampling and processing that can potentially bias the validity of salivary testosterone measurement. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects caused by repeated sampling; 5min centrifugation (at 2000g, 6000g or 10,000g); the stimulation of saliva flow by a cotton swab soaked in 2% citric acid touching the tongue; different storage times and conditions and the impact of blood contamination on salivary testosterone concentration measured by commercially available ELISA kit. Fresh, unprocessed, unstimulated saliva samples served as a control. Salivary testosterone concentrations were influenced neither by repeated sampling nor by stimulation of salivary flow. Testosterone levels determined in samples stored in various laboratory conditions for time periods up to 1month did not differ in comparison with controls. For both genders, salivary testosterone levels were substantially reduced after centrifugation (men F=29.1; women F=56.17, p<0.0001). Blood contamination decreased salivary testosterone levels in a dose-dependent manner (men F=6.54, p<0.01, F=5.01, p<0.05). Salivary testosterone can be considered the robust and stable marker. However, saliva processing and blood leakage can introduce unsystematic variance into results measured by ELISA. Our observations and recommendations should be considered in design of studies focusing on salivary testosterone.

Durdiaková J; Fábryová H; Ostatníková D; Celec P

2013-09-01

149

Salivary exoglycosidases in gestational diabetes   

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Full Text Available Introduction: As exoglycosidases have been described as potential markers of salivary gland pathology, we decided to check the possibility of the use of these enzymes in the detection of salivary gland involvement in gestational diabetes.Materials and methods: For this purpose diabetic pregnant women were compared to pregnant and non-pregnant healthy women. The activities of total HEX as well as GLU in the saliva were determined in duplicate according to Marciniak et al. The activities of GAL, FUC, and MAN in the saliva were determined in duplicate according to Zwierz et al.Results: It was found that the specific activities of exoglycosidases in the saliva of diabetic pregnant women significantly increased in comparison to healthy pregnant and non-pregnant women.Conclusion: Increased specific activity of exoglycosidases suggests that gestational diabetes provokes structural/functional alterations in salivary glands and changes in the salivary glycoconjugates metabolism.

Anna Zalewska; Ma?gorzata Kna?; Grzegorz Gumi??ny; Marek Niczyporuk; Danuta Waszkiel; Adrian Wojciech Przystupa; Wies?aw Zarzycki

2013-01-01

150

Salivary exoglycosidases in gestational diabetes .  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: As exoglycosidases have been described as potential markers of salivary gland pathology, we decided to check the possibility of the use of these enzymes in the detection of salivary gland involvement in gestational diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For this purpose diabetic pregnant women were compared to pregnant and non-pregnant healthy women. The activities of total HEX as well as GLU in the saliva were determined in duplicate according to Marciniak et al. The activities of GAL, FUC, and MAN in the saliva were determined in duplicate according to Zwierz et al. RESULTS: It was found that the specific activities of exoglycosidases in the saliva of diabetic pregnant women significantly increased in comparison to healthy pregnant and non-pregnant women. CONCLUSION: Increased specific activity of exoglycosidases suggests that gestational diabetes provokes structural/functional alterations in salivary glands and changes in the salivary glycoconjugates metabolism.

Zalewska A; Kna? M; Gumi??ny G; Niczyporuk M; Waszkiel D; Przystupa AW; Zarzycki W

2013-01-01

151

Salivary gland cancer stem cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Emerging evidence suggests the existence of a tumorigenic population of cancer cells that demonstrate stem cell-like properties such as self-renewal and multipotency. These cells, termed cancer stem cells (CSC), are able to both initiate and maintain tumor formation and progression. Studies have shown that CSC are resistant to traditional chemotherapy treatments preventing complete eradication of the tumor cell population. Following treatment, CSC are able to re-initiate tumor growth leading to patient relapse. Salivary gland cancers are relatively rare but constitute a highly significant public health issue due to the lack of effective treatments. In particular, patients with mucoepidermoid carcinoma or adenoid cystic carcinoma, the two most common salivary malignancies, have low long-term survival rates due to the lack of response to current therapies. Considering the role of CSC in resistance to therapy in other tumor types, it is possible that this unique sub-population of cells is involved in resistance of salivary gland tumors to treatment. Characterization of CSC can lead to better understanding of the pathobiology of salivary gland malignancies as well as to the development of more effective therapies. Here, we make a brief overview of the state-of-the-science in salivary gland cancer, and discuss possible implications of the cancer stem cell hypothesis to the treatment of salivary gland malignancies. PMID:23810400

Adams, April; Warner, Kristy; Nör, Jacques E

2013-06-28

152

Salivary gland cancer stem cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Emerging evidence suggests the existence of a tumorigenic population of cancer cells that demonstrate stem cell-like properties such as self-renewal and multipotency. These cells, termed cancer stem cells (CSC), are able to both initiate and maintain tumor formation and progression. Studies have shown that CSC are resistant to traditional chemotherapy treatments preventing complete eradication of the tumor cell population. Following treatment, CSC are able to re-initiate tumor growth leading to patient relapse. Salivary gland cancers are relatively rare but constitute a highly significant public health issue due to the lack of effective treatments. In particular, patients with mucoepidermoid carcinoma or adenoid cystic carcinoma, the two most common salivary malignancies, have low long-term survival rates due to the lack of response to current therapies. Considering the role of CSC in resistance to therapy in other tumor types, it is possible that this unique sub-population of cells is involved in resistance of salivary gland tumors to treatment. Characterization of CSC can lead to better understanding of the pathobiology of salivary gland malignancies as well as to the development of more effective therapies. Here, we make a brief overview of the state-of-the-science in salivary gland cancer, and discuss possible implications of the cancer stem cell hypothesis to the treatment of salivary gland malignancies.

Adams A; Warner K; Nör JE

2013-09-01

153

Standard addition method applied to the urinary quantification of nicotine in the presence of cotinine and anabasine using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate curve resolution.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this work, urinary nicotine was determined in the presence of the metabolite cotinine and the alkaloid anabasine using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy and colloidal gold as substrate. Spectra were decomposed using the multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares method, and pure contributions were recovered. The standard addition method was applied by spiking urine samples with known amounts of the analyte and relative responses from curve resolution were employed to build the analytical curves. The use of multivariate curve resolution in conjunction with standard addition method showed to be an effective strategy that minimized the need for reagent and time-consuming procedures. The determination of the alkaloid nicotine was successfully accomplished at concentrations 0.10, 0.20 and 0.30 ?g mL(-1) and total error values less than 10% were obtained.

Mamián-López MB; Poppi RJ

2013-01-01

154

Direct radioimmunoassay (RIA) of salivary testosterone: correlation with free and total serium testosterone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Simple and sensitive direct RIA for determination of salivary testosterone was developed by using RSL NOSOLVEX TM (125 1) kit produced by Radioassay System Laboratories (Carcon, California). In addition, a relationship between salivary and serum free and total testosterone concentrations was studied in randomly selected 45 healthy subjects, 5 females on oral contraceptive pills and 28 hypertensive patients on various treatment regimens. The lowest weight of testosterone detectable by the modified method was equivalent to 1 pg/ml of saliva, taking into account analytical variability. Intra- and interassay coefficients of variation were 5.09 +/- 2.7% and 8.2 +/- 5.9% respectively. Statistically significant correlations were found between salivary and serum free testosterone (r = 0.97) and salivary and serum total testosterone concentrations (r = 0.70 - 0.87). The exception to this was a group of hypertensive females in which no correlation (r = 0.14) between salivary and total serum testosterone was found. It is also of interest that, while salivary testosterone was significantly increased in subjects taking oral contraceptives and most of the hypertensive patients, the total serum testosterone concentration was in normal range. These findings suggest that the determination of salivary testosterone is a reliable method to detect changes in the concentration of available biologically active hormone in the circulation. 21 references, 4 figures, 1 table

1985-08-26

155

[Mazindol effects on the salivary and gastric acid secretory mechanisms].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effects of mazindol on the salivary secretion of dogs was investigated. Mazindol (2 mg/kg, i.v.) decreased the volume and pressure of salivary secretion induced by either chemical (carpronium) stimulation or electrical nerve stimulation. It also reduced spontaneous salivary secretion. Secretion velocity in the mazindol treated group was significantly less than in the physiological saline administered control group at 4 to 6 min after injection. Saline and mazindol produced no significance differences in Na+, Cl- or K+ concentrations in the saliva or serum. Thus mazindol inhibition of salivary secretion was not caused by ion transport. The existence of some other inhibitory mechanism is suggested. The effects of mazindol on the peripheral and central control of gastric acid secretion was also investigated in rats. Gastric acid secretion induced by direct application of cholinergic agents on oxyntic cells was not affected by mazindol. Gastric acid secretion induced by insulin and/or 2-DG, on the other hand, was markedly inhibited by intra-hypothalamic injection or systemic (i.v.) injections of mazindol. Electro-osmotic mazindol mimicked the effects of glucose in the lateral (inhibition) and ventromedial (excitation) hypothalamus. The results suggest that the inhibitory effects of mazindol on salivary secretion may be through the hypothalamic feeding control centers. Mazindol also directly affected gastric acid secretory neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. It might thus be expected to be effective in the treatment of obesity.

Shiraishi T

1984-02-01

156

Acute impact of active and passive electronic cigarette smoking on serum cotinine and lung function.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONTEXT: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are becoming increasingly popular yet their effects on health remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: To conduct the first comprehensive and standardized assessment of the acute impact of active and passive e-cigarette smoking on serum cotinine and lung function, as compared to active and passive tobacco cigarette smoking. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen smokers (?15 cigarettes/day; seven females; eight males) and 15 never-smokers (seven females; eight males) completed this repeated-measures controlled study. Smokers underwent a control session, an active tobacco cigarette (their favorite brand) smoking session and an active e-cigarette smoking session. Never-smokers underwent a control session, a passive tobacco cigarette smoking session and a passive e-cigarette smoking session. Serum cotinine, lung function, exhaled carbon monoxide and nitric oxide were assessed. The level of significance was set at p???0.001 to adjust for multiple comparisons. RESULTS: e-Cigarettes and tobacco cigarettes generated similar (p?>?0.001) effects on serum cotinine levels after active (60.6?±?34.3 versus 61.3?±?36.6?ng/ml) and passive (2.4?±?0.9 versus 2.6?±?0.6?ng/ml) smoking. Neither a brief session of active e-cigarette smoking (indicative: 3% reduction in FEV1/FVC) nor a 1?h passive e-cigarette smoking (indicative: 2.3% reduction in FEV1/FVC) significantly affected the lung function (p?>?0.001). In contrast, active (indicative: 7.2% reduction in FEV1/FVC; p?

Flouris AD; Chorti MS; Poulianiti KP; Jamurtas AZ; Kostikas K; Tzatzarakis MN; Wallace Hayes A; Tsatsaki AM; Koutedakis Y

2013-02-01

157

Simultaneous quantification of nicotine, cotinine, trans-3'-hydroxycotinine, norcotinine and mecamylamine in human urine by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Mecamylamine is a nicotine antagonist under investigation in combination with nicotine replacement for smoking treatment. METHODS: A simple, rapid and reliable liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMSMS) method was developed and validated for quantifying nicotine, cotinine, trans-3'-hydroxycotinine, norcotinine and mecamylamine in human urine. Chromatography was performed on a Synergi PolarRP column with a gradient of 0.1% formic acid and 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile at 0.25 ml/min with an 8-min total runtime. Analytes were monitored by positive mode electrospray ionization and multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Linear dynamic ranges were 1-500 ng/ml for nicotine and norcotinine, 0.5-500 ng/ml for trans-3'-hydroxycotinine, 0.2-500 ng/ml for cotinine, and 0.1-100 ng/ml for mecamylamine; correlation coefficients were consistently greater than 0.99, and all calibrator concentrations were within 20% of target. Extensive endogenous and exogenous interferences were evaluated. At 3 concentrations spanning the linear dynamic range of the assay, mean extraction efficiencies from urine were 55.1-109.1% with analytical recovery (bias) 82.0-118.7% and total imprecision of 0.7-9.1%. Analytes were stable for 24h at room temperature, 72 h at 4 °C, 72 h in autosampler at 15 °C and after three freeze/thaw cycles. CONCLUSION: This method is useful for monitoring mecamylamine, nicotine and nicotine metabolites in smoking cessation and other clinical nicotine research.

Scheidweiler KB; Shakleya DM; Huestis MA

2012-06-01

158

Simultaneous Quantification of Nicotine, Cotinine, trans-3?-Hydroxycotinine, Norcotinine and Mecamylamine in Human Urine by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Mecamylamine is a nicotine antagonist under investigation in combination with nicotine replacement for smoking treatment. Methods A simple, rapid and reliable liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMSMS) method was developed and validated for quantifying nicotine, cotinine, trans-3?-hydroxycotinine, norcotinine and mecamylamine in human urine. Chromatography was performed on a Synergi PolarRP column with a gradient of 0.1% formic acid and 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile at 0.25 ml/min with an 8-min total runtime. Analytes were monitored by positive mode electrospray ionization and multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry. Results Linear dynamic ranges were 1–500 ng/ml for nicotine and norcotinine, 0.5–500 ng/ml for trans-3?-hydroxycotinine, 0.2–500 ng/ml for cotinine, and 0.1–100 ng/ml for mecamylamine; correlation coefficients were consistently greater than 0.99, and all calibrator concentrations were within 20% of target Extensive endogenous and exogenous interferences were evaluated. At 3 concentrations spanning the linear dynamic range of the assay, mean extraction efficiencies from urine were 55.1–109.1% with analytical recovery (bias) 82.0–118.7% and total imprecision of 0.7–9.1%. Analytes were stable for 24 h at room temperature, 72h at 4°C, 72h in autosampler at 15°C and after three freeze/thaw cycles. Conclusion This method is useful for monitoring mecamylamine, nicotine and nicotine metabolites in smoking cessation and other clinical nicotine research.

Scheidweiler, Karl B.; Shakleya, Diaa M.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

2012-01-01

159

Salivary vasopressin increases following intranasal oxytocin administration.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Extant research has documented the effects of intranasal administration of oxytocin (OT), and to a lesser degree Arginine Vasopressin (AVP) - two structurally-related neuropeptides - on brain and behaviour, yet the effects of exogenous manipulation of one on circulating levels of the other remain unknown. Studies have shown that OT administration impacts the peripheral levels of numerous hormones; however, whether OT administration also increases AVP concentrations has not been explored. Utilizing a double-blind placebo-controlled within-subject design, ten male and female subjects provided ten saliva samples over four consecutive hours: at baseline and nine times following OT administration. Results indicate that salivary AVP increased in the first hour following OT manipulation (OT condition: mean AVP=2.17 pg/ml, SE=28, placebo condition: mean AVP=1.42 pg/ml, SE=.18) but returned to baseline levels at the next assessment (80 min) and remained low for the remaining period. Similar to OT, AVP showed high degree of individual stability and baseline levels of AVP correlated with AVP concentrations at the first and second post-administration hours regardless of drug condition (Pearson r=.85-.93). Validity of salivary AVP ELISA measurement was verified by demonstrating individual stability of salivary AVP over a six-month period (r=.70, p<.000) as well correlation with plasma levels over the same period (r=.32, p=.037) in a sample of 45 young adults who did not participate in the current study. Overall, findings suggest a potential crosstalk between OT and AVP and indicate that baseline levels of the two neuropeptides may shape the degree to which these systems respond to exogenous manipulation.

Weisman O; Schneiderman I; Zagoory-Sharon O; Feldman R

2013-02-01

160

Salivary vasopressin increases following intranasal oxytocin administration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Extant research has documented the effects of intranasal administration of oxytocin (OT), and to a lesser degree Arginine Vasopressin (AVP) - two structurally-related neuropeptides - on brain and behaviour, yet the effects of exogenous manipulation of one on circulating levels of the other remain unknown. Studies have shown that OT administration impacts the peripheral levels of numerous hormones; however, whether OT administration also increases AVP concentrations has not been explored. Utilizing a double-blind placebo-controlled within-subject design, ten male and female subjects provided ten saliva samples over four consecutive hours: at baseline and nine times following OT administration. Results indicate that salivary AVP increased in the first hour following OT manipulation (OT condition: mean AVP=2.17 pg/ml, SE=28, placebo condition: mean AVP=1.42 pg/ml, SE=.18) but returned to baseline levels at the next assessment (80 min) and remained low for the remaining period. Similar to OT, AVP showed high degree of individual stability and baseline levels of AVP correlated with AVP concentrations at the first and second post-administration hours regardless of drug condition (Pearson r=.85-.93). Validity of salivary AVP ELISA measurement was verified by demonstrating individual stability of salivary AVP over a six-month period (r=.70, p<.000) as well correlation with plasma levels over the same period (r=.32, p=.037) in a sample of 45 young adults who did not participate in the current study. Overall, findings suggest a potential crosstalk between OT and AVP and indicate that baseline levels of the two neuropeptides may shape the degree to which these systems respond to exogenous manipulation. PMID:23246527

Weisman, Omri; Schneiderman, Inna; Zagoory-Sharon, Orna; Feldman, Ruth

2012-12-13

 
 
 
 
161

Dynamic radioisotopic study of the salivary glands. Quantification test  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Quantified dynamic radioisotopic exploration, a new and rational examination, should find its place in a thorough check-up of the salivary glands together with clinical, immunological, anatomopathological and sialographic investigations. The object of this work was to standardise the test procedure with a view to routine use on patients and to define certain quantified parameters representing objectively the different aspects of the salivary functions. Our procedure through reeding sophisticated equipment, is simple to perform and relies on use of: radiotechnetium employed at activities which allow repetitive exlorations whereby pathological changes may be followed; the gamma camera and its data processing system which records all radioactive information obtained on the patient's head. These results will supply the data needed to judge the salivary functions as a whole. The apparatus used provides a remarkable pictorial record made up not only of morphological and functional images at each stage of the examination but also of ciphered radioactivity versus time curves for each of the main salivary glands and for any other zone of interest. From these curves it is then possible to define quantified parameters, reproducible and expressing functional activity. This procedure, safe and painless, seems to suit the patients who lie still without complaint for 60 minutes, 45 minutes for the concentration study and 15 minutes for the post-stimulus excretion study. The dynamic radioisotopic examination of the salivary glands, by the comparison of concentration and excretion images and by the study of parameters, separately and as a whole, is thus a useful complement to other paraclinical examinations and contributes essential information in most salivary diseases

1976-01-01

162

Recurrent malignant salivary gland neoplasms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recurrent salivary gland malignancies present difficult therapeutic decisions and poor prognosis in many instances, and treatment becomes of a palliative nature only. As many of the salivary gland malignancies we see are of the recurrent type, the following study was done to determine the efficacy of a vigorous attempt at retreatment. During the period January 1, 1960, through December 31, 1984, 352 patients with major and minor salivary gland tumors were evaluated at our institution. There were 149 benign lesions and 203 patients with malignant tumors. Of these, 99 patients had recurrent and metastatic tumors that had been treated initially elsewhere. Thirty-three of these patients were able to be treated with curative intent: surgery, 21; surgery plus radiation, 9; radiation therapy alone, 2; and radiation plus chemotherapy, 1. The 5 year survival with no evidence of disease was achieved in three patients with surgery alone and two patients with surgery plus radiation therapy. The group of five patients was comprised of two patients with adenoid cystic carcinomas of the parotid, one with intermediate grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the parotid, one, sebaceous cell carcinoma of the parotid, and one, adenoid cystic carcinoma of an accessory salivary gland. The results of this study serve to re-emphasize the relative poor yield of attempts at retreatment of loco-regional recurrence of salivary gland tumors.

Rodriguez-Bigas MA; Sako K; Razack MS; Shedd DP; Bakamjian VY; Castillo NB; Rao U

1989-10-01

163

Recurrent malignant salivary gland neoplasms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recurrent salivary gland malignancies present difficult therapeutic decisions and poor prognosis in many instances, and treatment becomes of a palliative nature only. As many of the salivary gland malignancies we see are of the recurrent type, the following study was done to determine the efficacy of a vigorous attempt at retreatment. During the period January 1, 1960, through December 31, 1984, 352 patients with major and minor salivary gland tumors were evaluated at our institution. There were 149 benign lesions and 203 patients with malignant tumors. Of these, 99 patients had recurrent and metastatic tumors that had been treated initially elsewhere. Thirty-three of these patients were able to be treated with curative intent: surgery, 21; surgery plus radiation, 9; radiation therapy alone, 2; and radiation plus chemotherapy, 1. The 5 year survival with no evidence of disease was achieved in three patients with surgery alone and two patients with surgery plus radiation therapy. The group of five patients was comprised of two patients with adenoid cystic carcinomas of the parotid, one with intermediate grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the parotid, one, sebaceous cell carcinoma of the parotid, and one, adenoid cystic carcinoma of an accessory salivary gland. The results of this study serve to re-emphasize the relative poor yield of attempts at retreatment of loco-regional recurrence of salivary gland tumors. PMID:2796352

Rodriguez-Bigas, M A; Sako, K; Razack, M S; Shedd, D P; Bakamjian, V Y; Castillo, N B; Rao, U

1989-10-01

164

Plasma cotinine indicates an increased risk of preeclampsia in previous and passive smokers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Self-reported tobacco smoking in pregnancy has been consistently associated with a decreased risk of developing preeclampsia, but the evidence has been limited and inconsistent for previous and passive smokers. Misclassifications and inaccuracies of self-reported tobacco exposure may disguise the true relationship. This study aimed to assess the association of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia with maternal smoking status as ascertained by plasma cotinine. STUDY DESIGN: This was a prospective study of 605 pregnant women without chronic hypertension. Maternal smoking status at 24-26 weeks' gestation was defined by plasma cotinine: >3.0 ng/mL "current smokers," 0.20-3.00 ng/mL "previous and passive smokers," and <0.20 ng/mL "nonsmokers." RESULTS: Compared to nonsmokers, the risk of developing preeclampsia did not change significantly for current smokers, but increased significantly (adjusted odds ratio, 6.06; 95% confidence interval, 2.32-15.85; P < .001) for previous and passive smokers. There were no significant differences in the risk of developing gestational hypertension only. CONCLUSION: Previous and passive smoking may increase the risk of preeclampsia. Avoidance of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in pregnancy may decrease the risk of preeclampsia.

Luo ZC; Julien P; Wei SQ; Audibert F; Smith GN; Fraser WD

2013-10-01

165

Correlation between urinary nicotine, cotinine and self-reported smoking status among educated young adults.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to correlate, differentiate and validate the self-reported smoking status of educated young adults with urinary biomarkers (i.e. nicotine and cotinine). Freshmen students were recruited on voluntary basis. They filled-up self-administered questionnaire and their urine samples were collected for analysis. The urinary nicotine (UN) and cotinine (UC) were measured by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry. Smokers, non-smokers and ex-smokers were found to be both significantly correlated and different in their UN and UC levels. UC level of 25ng/ml was the optimal cut-off to differentiate smokers from non-smokers. Using this cut-off value, the prevalence of smoking among the students was found to be higher (15.4%) than the self-reported data (14.3%). UC is useful in validating individual recent smoking history and the cut-off could serve as a marker for assessing the clinical impact of smoking and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure on human health. PMID:21783987

Man, Che Nin; Fathelrahman, Ahmed Ibrahim; Harn, Gam Lay; Lajis, Razak; Samin, Ahmad Shalihin Mohd; Omar, Maizurah; Awang, Rahmat; Bayanuddin, Nurulain Abdullah

2009-03-17

166

Smoking prevalence in early pregnancy: comparison of self-report and anonymous urine cotinine testing  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective Societal pressures against smoking during pregnancy may lead to a reduction in disclosure of smoking status. The objective of this study was to compare prevalence of smoking at prenatal intake by self-report with anonymous biochemical validation. Methods Women receiving care at the Duke Obstetrics Clinic from February 2005 through January 2006 were eligible for evaluation. Self-reported smoking and urine samples were obtained anonymously at prenatal intake. The NicCheck™ I semi-quantitative dipstick was used to detect urinary nicotine, cotinine, and 3-hydroxycotinine. The difference, with 95% confidence interval, between the proportions of smokers by self-report and urine testing was calculated for (1) high-positive vs. low-positive and negative results combined and (2) any positive vs. negative results. Results Among 297 subjects, self-reported smoking was 18.2 vs. 14.8% for low-positive and negative results combined with an absolute difference of 3.4%, [?2.9%, 9.6%]. When comparing self-report with any positive result (43.1%), the absolute difference was 24.9%, [17.4%, 32.1%]. Conclusions Our findings suggest that most pregnant women disclose their smoking and many nonsmokers may have significant second-hand exposure. Universal urinary cotinine screening of pregnant women could aid in appropriately counseling women about second-hand exposure as well as monitoring women at high risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes.

SWAMY, GEETA K.; REDDICK, KEISHA L. B.; BROUWER, REBECCA J. N.; POLLAK, KATHRYN I.; MYERS, EVAN R.

2013-01-01

167

Effect of topical application of melatonin to the gingiva on salivary osteoprotegerin, RANKL and melatonin levels in patients with diabetes and periodontal disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This cross-section study was designed to assess the effect of topical application of melatonin to the gingiva on salivary RANKL, osteoprotegrin (OPG) and melatonin levels as well as plasma melatonin in 30 patients with diabetes and periodontal disease and in a control group of 30 healthy subjects. Salivary RANKL and OPG were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and salivary and plasma melatonin by radioimmunoassay using commercial kits. Periodontograms were performed using the Florida Probe(®). Diabetic patients were treated with topical application of melatonin (1 % orabase cream formula) once daily for 20 days. Patients with diabetes showed significantly higher mean levels of salivary RANKL than healthy subjects as well as significantly lower values of salivary OPG and salivary and plasma melatonin. After treatment with melatonin, there was a statistically significant decrease of the gingival index, pocket depth and salivary levels of RANKL, and a significant rise in salivary values of OPG. Changes of salivary OPG levels before and after topical melatonin treatment correlated significantly with changes in the gingival index and pocket depth. Treatment with topical melatonin was associated with an improvement in the gingival index and pocket depth, a reduction in salivary concentrations of RANKL and increase in salivary concentrations of OPG, which indicates that melatonin has a favorable effect in slowing osteoclastogenesis, improving the quality of alveolar bone and preventing the progression of periodontal disease.

Cutando A; López-Valverde A; de Diego RG; de Vicente J; Reiter R; Herrero Fernández M; Ferrera MJ

2013-08-01

168

Salivary duct carcinoma of the palate  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Salivary duct carcinoma is a rare high-grade neoplasm that more frequently affects the parotid gland. Though neoplasms of this type are infrequent in minor salivary glands, they are less aggressive and may lead to early diagnosis before distant metastases could occur. Salivary duct carcinoma is also...

Ponniah I; Murali G; SureshKumar P; Kumaran M; Shaheen A

169

Defining adrenal status with salivary cortisol by gold-standard insulin hypoglycemia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Insulin-induced hypoglycemia (IHT) is considered the gold standard test for evaluating the HPA axis. Serum free cortisol or its surrogate, salivary cortisol as opposed to total cortisol concentrations, offers a better reflection of the activation of HPA axis. Our study aimed to derive reference ranges for the normal salivary cortisol levels in healthy patients and patients with adrenal insufficiency. DESIGN AND METHODS: Serum cortisol concentrations, using the gold standard of IHT, and salivary cortisol were obtained. 36 patients referred to our outpatient endocrine testing unit for evaluation of adrenal function were included in the study. Most subjects had a history of suspected hypothalamic/pituitary disease causing adrenal insufficiency. RESULTS: We found a strong linear correlation between the serum and salivary cortisol concentrations in simultaneously collected samples (r=0.81, 95% CI 0.74-0.86, p<0.0001). The corresponding salivary cortisol equivalent to a serum cortisol of 500nmol/L, using a linear-regression equation, was 16.7nmol/L (95% CI 13.3-20.1nmol/L, p=0.0001). A salivary cortisol of 13.3nmol/L has a specificity of 89.3% to detect abnormal HPA function. Using the upper 95% CI result of salivary cortisol 20.1 yields a sensitivity of 87.5%. CONCLUSION: With the present assay, adrenal insufficiency may be diagnosed with reasonable confidence if a random salivary cortisol is lower than 13.3nmol/L and excluded if a random salivary cortisol is higher than 20.1nmol/L. Future studies should correlate these thresholds with clinical outcomes.

Karpman MS; Neculau M; Dias VC; Kline GA

2013-10-01

170

Salivary innate defense system in type 1 diabetes mellitus in children with mixed and permanent dentition.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract Objective. It should be expected that type 1 diabetes mellitus may disturb innate and acquired immunity. There are no data on type 1 diabetes mellitus-related changes in the salivary flow and the protein output responsible for the innate immunity of saliva depending on the quality of dentition reflecting the age of child. The aim of this work was the evaluation of parameters responsible for the innate immunity of saliva in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Materials and methods. In diabetic children, adolescent and healthy volunteers, the salivary flow, the output and the concentration of the activity of peroxidase (colorimetry), lysozyme (radial immunodiffusion) and lactoferrin (ELISA) were determined. Results. In children with mixed and permanent dentition, type 1 diabetes mellitus significantly decreases (as compared with the appropriate controls) the unstimulated salivary flow, the output, concentration of peroxidase and the output of the lysozyme and lactoferrin. Conclusion. In conclusion, it may be stated that type 1 diabetes mellitus causes functional changes in the salivary glands, resulting in a decrease of the salivary flow and weakening of the salivary innate defense system, thus creating a threat to the oral and general health of type 1 diabetes mellitus children. The results showed that the salivary glands of younger children, when compared to adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus, are more susceptible to the injurious effects of the disease.

Zalewska A; Kna? M; Ku?miuk A; Waszkiewicz N; Niczyporuk M; Waszkiel D; Zwierz K

2013-02-01

171

Sleep and Salivary Cortisol  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of the present chapter was to analyze whether measures of cortisol in saliva were associated with measures of sleep and to explore if divergent results were related to underlying differences in theoretic assumptions and methods. Measures of sleep quality included sleep duration, overall sleep quality, difficulty falling asleep, disturbed sleep, and sleep deprivation. Twenty-three papers were found to fulfill the inclusion criteria. Cortisol measures were grouped into single time points at different times during the day, deviations at different time periods during the day, reactivity and recovery after a standardized laboratory test, area under the curve and response to dexamethasone test. A large proportion of the studies included showed non-significant findings, which, in several cases, may be a result of low power. The most consistent results were a positive association between sleep duration and single measures of salivary cortisol at awakening, which was observed in 3 studies. In these studies, sleep duration was also associated with low evening cortisol levels, steep diurnal deviation of cortisol and/or high area under the curve. Together these findings suggest that longer sleep duration is related to a more dynamic cortisol secretion. Two of the 6 studies on disturbed or restless sleep showed relations to flat diurnal deviation and low laboratory stress test reactivity. This to some extent corroborates the findings on sleep duration. However, the many non-significant findings as well as the theoretical and methodological differences (e.g., heterogeneity in measures) complicate comparisons. Conflicting results may be at least partially due to differences in methods and underlying assumptions.

Garde, Anne Helene; Karlson, Bernt

2011-01-01

172

Expression of adrenomedullin and its receptors in human salivary tissue.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adrenomedullin is a multifunctional peptide produced by a wide range of different cells and tissues. This study was designed to investigate whether adrenomedullin is present in human saliva and in salivary glands. It was expected that saliva may contain high concentrations of adrenomedullin, which has antimicrobial activity in vitro, which may have functional implications in the oral cavity. Saliva from the submandibular and parotid glands contained higher concentrations of adrenomedullin than did the circulation, but lower concentrations than in whole saliva. This suggests that oral epithelium may contribute the majority of the adrenomedullin peptide found in saliva. Specific adrenomedullin receptors were found in cell lines from the submandibular (HSG) and parotid (HSY) salivary glands. These findings suggest a paracrine/autocrine role for adrenomedullin in these tissues; however, the concentration of adrenomedullin in saliva was insufficient to suggest a significant antimicrobial action in the healthy oral cavity. PMID:15044509

Kapas, S; Pahal, K; Cruchley, A T; Hagi-Pavli, E; Hinson, J P

2004-04-01

173

Expression of adrenomedullin and its receptors in human salivary tissue.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Adrenomedullin is a multifunctional peptide produced by a wide range of different cells and tissues. This study was designed to investigate whether adrenomedullin is present in human saliva and in salivary glands. It was expected that saliva may contain high concentrations of adrenomedullin, which has antimicrobial activity in vitro, which may have functional implications in the oral cavity. Saliva from the submandibular and parotid glands contained higher concentrations of adrenomedullin than did the circulation, but lower concentrations than in whole saliva. This suggests that oral epithelium may contribute the majority of the adrenomedullin peptide found in saliva. Specific adrenomedullin receptors were found in cell lines from the submandibular (HSG) and parotid (HSY) salivary glands. These findings suggest a paracrine/autocrine role for adrenomedullin in these tissues; however, the concentration of adrenomedullin in saliva was insufficient to suggest a significant antimicrobial action in the healthy oral cavity.

Kapas S; Pahal K; Cruchley AT; Hagi-Pavli E; Hinson JP

2004-04-01

174

Intrasellar symptomatic salivary gland rest.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ectopic salivary gland tissue in sellar turcica is frequently observed in microscopic examination at autopsy. This tissue is considered clinically silent. Only 2 symptomatic cases have been previously reported. Here we report a 28-year-old woman presenting with galactorrhea and hyperprolactinemia. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 6 x 5-mm nodule in the posterior aspect of the pituitary gland. This nodule showed isointensity on T1- and T2-weighted images and less enhancement on post-contrast T1-weighted images. Transsphenoidal exploration revealed a cystic lesion within the pituitary gland, which consisted of a grayish gelatinous content. The pathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of salivary gland rest. PMID:17525000

Chen, Chih-Hao; Hsu, Shu-Shong; Lai, Ping-Hong; Lo, Yu-Shing

2007-05-01

175

Cotinine inhibits the pro-inflammatory response initiated by multiple cell surface Toll-like receptors in monocytic THP cells  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The primary, stable metabolite of nicotine [(S)-3-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl) pyridine] in humans is cotinine [(S)-1-methyl-5-(3-pyridinyl)-2-pyrrolidinone]. We have previously shown that cotinine exposure induces convergence and amplification of the GSK3?-dependent PI3 kinase and cholinergic anti-inflammatory systems. The consequence is reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion by human monocytes responding to bacteria or LPS, a TLR4 agonist. Findings Here we show that cotinine-induced inflammatory suppression may not be restricted to individual Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Indeed, in monocytic cells, cotinine suppresses the cytokine production that is normally resultant upon agonist-specific engagement of all of the major surface exposed TLRs (TLR 2/1; 2/6; 4 and 5), although the degree of suppression varies by TLR. Conclusions These results provide further mechanistic insight into the increased susceptibility to multiple bacterial infections known to occur in smokers. They also establish THP-1 cells as a potentially suitable model with which to study the influence of tobacco components and metabolites on TLR-initiated inflammatory events.

Bagaitkar Juhi; Zeller Iris; Renaud Diane E; Scott David A

2012-01-01

176

Immunosensor with fluid control mechanism for salivary cortisol analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this research is to demonstrate a new design for a cortisol immunosensor for the noninvasive and quantitative analysis of salivary cortisol. We propose a cortisol immunosensor with a fluid control mechanism which has both a vertical flow and a lateral flow. The detected current resulting from a competitive reaction between the sample cortisol and a glucose oxidase (GOD)-labeled cortisol conjugate was found to be inversely related to the concentration of cortisol in the sample solution. A calibration curve using the relative detected current showed a R(2)=0.98 and CV=14% for a range of standard cortisol solutions corresponding to the concentrations of native salivary cortisol (0.1-10 ng/ml). The measurement could be accomplished within 35 min and the cortisol immunosensor could be reused. These results show promise for realizing an on-site and easy-to-use biosensor for cortisol. Used for evaluation of human salivary cortisol levels, the cortisol immunosensor measurement corresponded closely with commercially available ELISA method (R(2)=0.92). Our results indicate the promise of the new cortisol immunosensor for noninvasive, point of care measurement of human salivary cortisol levels.

Yamaguchi M; Matsuda Y; Sasaki S; Sasaki M; Kadoma Y; Imai Y; Niwa D; Shetty V

2013-03-01

177

On-line solid-phase extraction with ultra performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry for the detection of nicotine, cotinine and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine in urine to strengthen human biomonitoring and smoking cessation studies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

At the time of writing, this work appears to be the first published report on the coupling of on-line solid phase extraction (SPE) with ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) for the simultaneous detection of nicotine, cotinine and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine in human urine. The advantages of both on-line SPE (speed, automation, less labor intensive) coupled with UPLC-MS/MS (speed, sensitivity) offer a viable option for efficient and economical biomonitoring studies for the assessment of active and passive exposure to tobacco smoke and clinical studies focusing on smoke cessation techniques. In a first approach, a 1:100 dilution of the urine was applied to screen for both passive and active exposure. Intra- and inter-batch reproducibility of this fast method (10min) was assessed for three concentration levels and were found to be less than 8% for each analyte while the accuracy was between 89 and 113%. To further improve the sensitivity of this approach when focusing only on passive smokers, the performance of a 1:10 dilution with the on-line SPE UPLC-MS/MS system was also tested. Results indeed show better sensitivity (LOQ's 1.0, 1.0 and 5.0?g/l for respectively cotinine, nicotine and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine) and good analytical performance for all other analytical parameters on the low levels tested here. Both methods were applied to measure the concentration of nicotine, cotinine and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine in the urine of 53 volunteers (smokers and non-smokers) recruited via an internal call at the Scientific Institute of Public Health. For non-smokers and smokers, cotinine levels e.g. were respectively between 1.0-470?g/l and 97-2381?g/l. Both these on-line SPE UPLC-MS/MS methods showed their potential for dedicated future large biomonitoring projects as they made it possible to analyze large series of samples in a fast, sensitive, robust and cost-efficient manner.

De Cremer K; Van Overmeire I; Van Loco J

2013-03-01

178

Protein dissimilation by human salivary-sediment bacteria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Proteins of known composition and structural characteristics were incubated (1.0 mg/mL) with re-suspended salivary sediment (2.5% v/v) in a lactate-salt medium with an initial pH of 5.2 for two hr at 37 degrees C. Hydrolysis of the proteins was monitored by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Hydrogen ion, amines, and ammonia were measured by use of a combined pH electrode, high-performance liquid chromatography, and glutamate dehydrogenase, respectively. Of the proteins studied, the caseins alpha s1, beta, and kappa and the histones H1 and H3 were extensively hydrolyzed by the salivary-sediment bacteria. The hydrolysis of these proteins was attributed to their relative lack of tertiary (folded) structure. The only amine detected was the polyamine putrescine arising from the catabolism of arginine following the hydrolysis of the arginine-rich histone H3. None of the other proteins extensively hydrolyzed by salivary sediment, although containing arginyl and lysyl residues, served as substrates for putrescine or cadaverine production. Pre-hydrolysis of the arginine-rich histone H3 and poly-L-arginine with trypsin resulted in a marked increase in putrescine produced, suggesting that the salivary-sediment proteolytic activity was not "trypsin-like". Incubation of salivary-sediment bacteria with the caseins and the histone H3 resulted in an increase in ammonium ion concentration and an associated decrease in hydrogen ion concentration. The increase in ammonium ion concentration not attributed to arginine hydrolysis was correlated with the content of glutaminyl plus asparaginyl residues of the proteins.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Reynolds EC; Riley PF

1989-02-01

179

Protein dissimilation by human salivary-sediment bacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Proteins of known composition and structural characteristics were incubated (1.0 mg/mL) with re-suspended salivary sediment (2.5% v/v) in a lactate-salt medium with an initial pH of 5.2 for two hr at 37 degrees C. Hydrolysis of the proteins was monitored by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Hydrogen ion, amines, and ammonia were measured by use of a combined pH electrode, high-performance liquid chromatography, and glutamate dehydrogenase, respectively. Of the proteins studied, the caseins alpha s1, beta, and kappa and the histones H1 and H3 were extensively hydrolyzed by the salivary-sediment bacteria. The hydrolysis of these proteins was attributed to their relative lack of tertiary (folded) structure. The only amine detected was the polyamine putrescine arising from the catabolism of arginine following the hydrolysis of the arginine-rich histone H3. None of the other proteins extensively hydrolyzed by salivary sediment, although containing arginyl and lysyl residues, served as substrates for putrescine or cadaverine production. Pre-hydrolysis of the arginine-rich histone H3 and poly-L-arginine with trypsin resulted in a marked increase in putrescine produced, suggesting that the salivary-sediment proteolytic activity was not "trypsin-like". Incubation of salivary-sediment bacteria with the caseins and the histone H3 resulted in an increase in ammonium ion concentration and an associated decrease in hydrogen ion concentration. The increase in ammonium ion concentration not attributed to arginine hydrolysis was correlated with the content of glutaminyl plus asparaginyl residues of the proteins.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2918133

Reynolds, E C; Riley, P F

1989-02-01

180

Who Is Exposed to Secondhand Smoke? Self-Reported and Serum Cotinine Measured Exposure in the U.S., 1999-2006  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study presents self-reported and serum cotinine measures of exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) for nonsmoking children, adolescents, and adults. Estimates are disaggregated by time periods and sociodemographic characteristics based on analyses of the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Self-reported exposure rates are found to be highest for children, followed by adolescents and adults. Important differences in exposure are found by socioeconomic characteristics. Using serum cotinine to measure exposure yields much higher prevalence rates than self-reports. Rates of SHS exposure remain high, but cotinine levels are declining for most groups.

Wendy Max; Hai-Yen Sung; Yanling Shi

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Gross morphology and ultrastructure of salivary glands of the mute cicada Karenia caelatata Distant (Hemiptera: Cicadoidea).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Salivary glands of the cicada Karenia caelatata Distant were investigated using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The salivary glands are paired structures and consist of principal glands and accessory glands. The principal gland is subdivided into anterior lobe and posterior lobe; the former contains about 34-39 long digitate lobules, while the latter contains approximately 30-33 long digitate lobules and 13-22 short digitate lobules. These short digitate lobules, about one fifth or sixth as long as the long digitate lobules, locate at the base of the long digitate lobules of posterior lobe. All of these digitate lobules vary in size, disposition, length and shape. The anterior lobe and the posterior lobe are connected by an anterior-posterior duct. Two efferent salivary ducts, which connect with the posterior lobe, fuse to form a common duct. The accessory gland is composed of three parts: a greatly tortuous and folded accessory salivary tube, a circlet of gular gland constituting of several acini of the same size, and a non-collapsible accessory salivary duct. The digitate lobules and gular glands possess secretory cells containing abundant secretory granules vary in size, shape, and electron density, as might indicate different materials are synthesized in different secretory regions. The anterior-posterior duct lines with a player of cuticular lining, and cells beneath the cuticular lining lack of basal infoldings, as suggests the duct serves just to transport secretions. The accessory salivary duct is lined with cuticular lining; cells of the duct have well developed basal infoldings associated with abundant mitochondria, as probably suggests the duct is a reabsorptive region of ions. The cells of the accessory salivary tube possess deep basal infoldings and well developed apical dense microvilli, indicating the cells of the tube are secretory in function. Concentric lamellar structures and a peculiar structure with abundant membrane-bound vesicles and secretory granules are observed for the first time, but their derivation and function remain unclear. The morphology and ultrastructure differences observed in the principal glands and accessory gland of the salivary glands of K. caelatata indicate that the sheath saliva was secreted by the principal glands, and the watery saliva was secreted by the accessory salivary glands. Rod-shaped microorganisms are found in the salivary glands (i.e., accessory salivary duct, gular gland, and long digitate lobule of salivary glands) for the first time, and their identity, function, and relationship to microorganisms residing in the salivary glands and/or other parts of alimentary canal of other cicadas need to be investigated further.

Zhong HY; Wei C; Zhang YL

2013-02-01

182

Validation of self-reported smoking status by simultaneous measurement of carbon monoxide and salivary thiocyanate.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the validity of tobacco questionnaires when using as gold standard either a single biomarker or a combination of two biomarkers. METHODS: The methods were self-reported smoking compared with salivary thiocyanate and expired carbon monoxide in a 1996, population-based, Swiss survey of 552 men and 565 women. RESULTS: Sensitivity of self-reported smoking relative to salivary thiocynate or carbon monoxide alone was low (38.2% for salivary thiocyanate > or = 100 mg/L, 56.4% for salivary thiocyanate > or = 150 mg/L and 62.6% for carbon monoxide > or = 9 ppm). When defining true positive smokers as people with high concentration of both salivary thiocyanate and carbon monoxide, overall, sensitivity was 88.6% and specificity was 87.2%. In women, sensitivity increased from 85 to 89% when removing subjects exposed to passive smoking. When excluding heavy smokers, sensitivity decreased to 63% in men and to 71% in women. Older women had tendency to misreport smoking. CONCLUSIONS: This comparison of questionnaire data with the simultaneous measurement of salivary thiocyanate and expired carbon monoxide indicates that valid responses can be obtained for self-reported, current smoking in population-based surveys. However, the validity of questionnaires can be underestimated if the gold standard (of exposure to tobacco smoke) is either high levels of carbon monoxide or high levels of salivary thiocyanate.

Morabia A; Bernstein MS; Curtin F; Berode M

2001-01-01

183

Protein binding effects of salivary excretion of phenobarbital in dogs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The salivary excretion of phenobarbital was investigated by collecting parotid saliva (Pr) and mandibular-sublingual saliva (MS) separately after intravenous administration in beagle dogs. (1) The alterations in the proportions of saliva secreted by the different glands were produced by salivation stimulants such as citric acid, ascorbic acid, sodium chloride and sodium glutamate. (2) The phenobarbital concentrations in both Pr amd MS were lower than those in plasma. The drug concentrations in MS were significantly lower than in Pr with stimulus of 10% citric acid of 15% sodium chloride (p less than 0.05). There was a significant correlation between phenobarbital concentration in each saliva and plasma specimen ( p less than 0.05). (3) The stimulation with 10% citric acid produced higher saliva /plasma drug concentration ratios (S/P ratios: 0.923 +/- 0.175 for Pr, 0.633 +/- 0.073 for MS) than that with 15% sodium chloride (S/P ratios: 0.597 +/- 0.071 for Pr, 0.509 +/- 0.067 or MS). (4) The S/P ratios were hardly influenced by salivary flow rates, at least under the experimental conditions examined in this study. (5) The increased S/P ratios were observed with higher salivary pH and then the equation of Matin et al. 3) seemed to hold for the average values of salivary pH and S/P ratio. (6) The stimulation with 10% citric acid produced higher protein concentration in saliva and higher S/P ratio than that with 15% sodium chloride following alternate stimulations in the same dog.

Watanabe J; Nakase Y; Urasaki Y; Hayashi Y; Iwamoto K; Ozeki S

1981-12-01

184

Salivary duct carcinoma: immunohistochemical profile of an aggressive salivary gland tumour  

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Background: Salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) is considered to be a distinct malignancy of the major salivary glands, because of its highly aggressive behaviour, and the high rate of recurrence, metastasis, and disease related death.

Etges, A; Pinto, D S; Kowalski, L P; Soares, F A; Araújo, V C

185

Salivary cortisol, salivary alpha amylase, and the dental anxiety scale.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between dental anxiety, salivary cortisol, and salivary alpha amylase (sAA) levels. Furthermore, the aim was to look into individual differences such as age, race, gender, any existing pain, or traumatic dental experience and their effect on dental anxiety. This study followed a cross-sectional design and included a convenience sample of 46. Every patient was asked to complete the Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS) and a basic demographic/dental history questionnaire. A saliva sample, utilizing the method of passive drooling, was then collected in 2-mL cryovials. Samples were analyzed for salivary cortisol and sAA levels by Salimetrics. Significant associations were observed between DAS scores and presence of pain and history of traumatic dental experience. However, no significant correlations were observed between DAS, cortisol, and sAA levels. Our study reconfirms that dental anxiety is associated with presence of pain and a history of traumatic dental experience. On the other hand, our study was the first to our knowledge to test the correlation between the DAS and sAA; nevertheless, our results failed to show any significant correlation between dental anxiety, cortisol, and sAA levels.

Sadi H; Finkelman M; Rosenberg M

2013-01-01

186

Salivary cortisone is a potential biomarker for serum free cortisol.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONTEXT: Salivary cortisol measurement is used as a practical surrogate for serum free cortisol. However, parotid tissue harbors 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11?-HSD2) activity converting cortisol to cortisone. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to assess the impact of parotid 11?-HSD2 activity on the measurement of salivary cortisol. PATIENTS, DESIGN, AND OUTCOME MEASURES: Study participants with changes in circulating corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) (±oral contraceptive, functionally CBG null) and controls were studied during adrenal stimulation by ACTH and postoral and iv hydrocortisone administration. Simultaneous serum and saliva samples were collected for the measurement of total serum cortisol (SerF) by immunoassay, and unbound cortisol and cortisone in serum (FreeF and FreeE) and saliva (SalF and SalE) by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS: ACTH stimulation increased SerF, FreeF, SalF, SalE, but not FreeE in all individuals. SerF significantly decreased after stopping oral contraceptive administration, but FreeF, SalF and SalE remained unchanged. In the hydrocortisone administration study, individual FreeF and SalE curves were nearly identical and SalE closely reflected FreeF in all participants, irrespective of CBG changes. The highest correlation in all (n = 537) matched serum-saliva samples was between SalE and FreeF (r = 0.95, P < 0.0001), and there was no evidence of 11?-HSD2 saturation. CONCLUSION: Salivary cortisol is a useful surrogate for circulating free cortisol, but its concentration is determined both by serum free cortisol and parotid metabolism to cortisone. We have shown that salivary cortisone closely reflects free serum cortisol after adrenal stimulation and hydrocortisone administration and is unaffected by CBG changes. Salivary cortisone has potential as a useful surrogate for serum free cortisol in research and clinical assessment, and further research in states of chronic glucocorticoid excess is now needed.

Perogamvros I; Keevil BG; Ray DW; Trainer PJ

2010-11-01

187

Dynamic uptake of radioactive substance in rat salivary gland following /sup 3/H-melatonin administration  

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Dynamics of radioactive accumulation in rat greater salivary gland following systemic administration of /sup 3/H-melatonin was studied to determine a possible action of the hormone in the gland. Progressive decline of /sup 3/H-melatonin concentrations was found in the serum, lung, skeletal muscle, liver, kidney, and salivary gland during 60 min following the administration. On the contrary, there was a progressive accumulation of radioactive substance other than /sup 3/H-melatonin in the salivary gland but not in other tissues mentioned. The radioactivity was also progressively and preferentially localized in the nuclear fraction of the gland cells. These results suggest a possible direct action of melatonin derivative in rat salivary gland.

Withyachumnarnkul, B.; Wongprapairot, P.; Trakulrungsi, W.

1987-01-01

188

Carbonic anhydrase in minor salivary glands of quail: histochemistry versus immunohistochemistry.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract Studies on the mechanisms of saliva secretion have indicated that carbonic anhydrase (CA) is expressed in mammalian salivary glands. The enzyme is present in the saliva as the only known secretory isoenzyme, CAVI; its activity has been related to the modulation of taste and caries development. Unlike mammals, in birds, saliva is produced by the so-called minor salivary glands, mostly concentrated in the tongue. The involvement of CA has never been explored in avian salivary secretion. Thus, we aimed here to ascertain the enzyme occurrence in the quail lingual glands by a parallel investigation of the distributional patterns of CA activity sites, as visualized by histochemistry, and the immunohistochemical patterns of cytosolic CAII and secretory CAVI. The comparative evaluation of our findings does not rule out that some CA isoforms, associated to basolateral borders of the secretory cells and antigenically different from cytosolic CAII and secretory CAVI, may be involved in the salivary secretion in the quail lingual glands.

Gabrielli MG; Tomassoni D

2013-01-01

189

Salivary duct carcinoma of the palate.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Salivary duct carcinoma is a rare high-grade neoplasm that more frequently affects the parotid gland. Though neoplasms of this type are infrequent in minor salivary glands, they are less aggressive and may lead to early diagnosis before distant metastases could occur. Salivary duct carcinoma is also the most frequent epithelial component of carcinosarcoma. The present article reports a case of SDC of the palate in a 26-year-old male and discusses SDC as a malignant epithelial component in carcinosarcoma.

Ponniah I; Murali GM; SureshKumar P; Kumaran MG; Shaheen A

2005-10-01

190

Salivary Gland Choristoma (Heterotopic Salivary Gland Tissue) on the Anterior Chest Wall of a Newborn.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Salivary gland choristoma (heterotopic salivary gland tissue) is a rare condition typically seen in the newborn period. This developmental heterotopia is generally nonprogressive, with little risk of malignant transformation. We present the second known reported case of a salivary gland choristoma located on the anterior chest wall. Knowledge of this rare entity will allow for accurate diagnosis and management of this benign anatomic variant.

Aby JL; Patel M; Sundram U; Benjamin LT

2013-05-01

191

Salivary characteristics of diabetic children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Salivary components may suffer variations that can be detected by chemical determinations. The aim of this work was to determine physical and biochemical characteristics of the saliva of a group of diabetic children compared to those of a control group. Relation to oral health indices was also determined. Twenty diabetic children (3-15-years-old) and 21 control children (5-12-years-old) were included in this study. Total proteins, sugars and calcium were determined by colorimetric methods, and glucose, urea, alpha-amylase and acid phosphatase by enzymatic methods. Our results demonstrated that acidic pH, diminished salivary flow rate and excess foam are usually present in saliva of diabetic children. Total sugars, glucose, urea and total proteins were greater in diabetic patients than controls, while calcium values were decreased. These differences were confirmed by the discrimination test. Diabetic children have higher DMFT-dmft-deft and DMFS-dmfs-defs values compared to those of the control children despite their lower sugar intake. Some salivary components in addition to the diminished flow rate could be involved in the characterization of the oral health state of diabetic children.

López María Elena; Colloca María Eugenia; Páez Rafael Gustavo; Schallmach Judit Nora; Koss Myriam Adriana; Chervonagura Amalia

2003-01-01

192

Quantitative evaluation of Streptococcus mutans and Candida sp and salivary factors in the oral cavity of patients submitted to radiotherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to quantify the microorganisms Streptococcus mutans and Candida sp in the oral cavity of patients with oropharynx carcinoma, before, during and after radiotherapy, and to correlate the results with salivary factors such as pH, buffer capacity and flow rate. Saliva samples were collected, diluted and inoculated in SB-20 agar and in Sabouraud agar, for Streptococcus mutans and Candida sp, respectively. Previously to dilution, the concentrated saliva was analyzed, and the salivary factors were determined. After the growth of colonies, the number of microorganisms was determined in CFU/ml. The analysis of the results allowed to conclude that the salivary factors are related to the presence of microorganisms, and that the number of CFU/ml increased as salivary flow rate decreased. The effects of radiation compromised salivary homeostasis and favored the increase of infection by yeasts and bacteria. (author)

2001-01-01

193

Protective effects of Chinese herbal medicine Huqi extractum on salivary glands against radiation in Wistar rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To explore the protective effects of Huqi extractum, a compound Chinese herbal medicine, on salivary glands against radiation in Wistar rats. Methods: One hundred Wistar rats were randomly divided into sham-exposure group, untreated group, and low-, medium- and high-dose Huqi groups. Local irradiation of 60Co gamma-rays with a single dose of 15 Gy was applied to the salivary glands of the Wistar rats except the sham-exposure group. After 3- and 40-day treatment, saliva was collected. Colorimetric method, iodine-amylase colorimetric method and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to detect concentrations of sodium (Na+), potassium (K+) and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) and activity of salivary amylase. Pathological changes of salivary gland tissues were observed by hematoxylin-eosin straining. Results: After 3-day administration, radiation-induced salivary gland injuries were obvious and prevalent in irradiated rats. Comparing with the sham-exposure group, saliva concentration of sIgA and body weight were reduced in other irradiated groups, except those in the high-dose Huqi group, while salivary amylase level was increased. At 3-day phase, pathologic changes of the salivary glands were featured as swelling acinus plasm and vacuolation. At 40-day phase, atrophy of gland cells was dominant. After 40-day administration, there were no significant differences between the high-dose Huqi group and sham-exposure group in sIgA and amylase levels and body weight, and according to the histological examination, no significant difference was revealed under the optical microscope.Conclusion: Chinese herbal medicine is helpful for the recovery of the salivary glands from the radiation injury, morphologically and functionally in rats.

Yan-li Zhang; Bai Li

2011-01-01

194

A Laboratory Exercise to Illustrate Increased Salivary Cortisol in Response to Three Stressful Conditions Using Competitive ELISA  

Science.gov (United States)

Here, we outline a laboratory exercise that uses a competitive ELISA kit to illustrate the response of salivary cortisol concentrations to three stressful conditions: presentation stress, fasting stress, and competition stress

Mark F. Haussmann (Iowa State University Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Organismal Biology); Carol M. Vleck (Iowa State University Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Organismal Biology); Eugenia S. Farrar (Iowa State University Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Organismal Biology)

2007-03-01

195

Association of time-location patterns with urinary cotinine among asthmatic children under household environmental tobacco smoke exposure.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is a hazardous component of indoor air, and may increase the risk of respiratory diseases, atherosclerosis and otitis media in children. In this study, we explored the relationship between time inside the house, ETS exposure and urinary cotinine level, and also determined the association of time inside the house on asthma phenotypes when children exposed to ETS. METHODS: A total of 222 asthmatic children and 205 non-asthmatic controls were recruited in the Genetic and Biomarker study for Childhood Asthma (GBCA). Structured questionnaires and time-location pattern questionnaires were administered by face-to-face interview. Urinary cotinine was measured by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The level of household ETS exposure was assessed using the cotinine/creatinine ratio (CCR). RESULTS: In general, urinary cotinine and CCR were higher in subjects exposed to household ETS than those who never had ETS at home. A significant positive relationship was found between average time inside the house and urinary CCR in asthmatic children with current ETS at home (?=0.278, p=0.02). After adjustment for age and gender, average time inside the house was positively related to severe wheeze in asthmatic children with household ETS within 1 month (OR: 1.26, 95%: 1.02-1.64). CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that the major source of ETS exposure for children is due to longer period of exposures among children living with adult smokers at home. Home-smoking restrictions that effectively prevent children from being exposed to ETS would be worthwhile.

Tung KY; Wu KY; Tsai CH; Su MW; Chen CH; Lin MH; Chen YC; Wu WC; Lee YL

2013-07-01

196

Brief Intervention to Preteens and Adolescents to Create Smoke-Free Homes and Cotinine Results: A Randomized Trial.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background: Little research has focused on brief and practical strategies for addressing environmental tobacco smoke exposure through interventions focused explicitly on creating a smoke-free home.Methods: We used a two-group (intervention and control groups) repeated-measures randomized controlled trial design. Families were randomized to the intervention (n = 176) or control (n = 176) condition after the baseline interview, with outcome assessments for reported and urine cotinine measures at 2 (post-intervention), 6 (follow-up) and 12 (follow-up) months.Results: Baseline urinary cotinine levels of both groups were not statistically significantly different (P > 0.05); however, post-intervention urinary cotinine levels were significantly different at 2, 6 and 12 months after start of the study (P < 0.001).Conclusion: As a physician-based brief intervention, our intervention was effective. Clinical providers might offer feedback and brief interventions to preteens and adolescents. Because of the ease of intervention on delivery, this intervention has the potential to have significant impact if widely disseminated.

Yilmaz G; Caylan N; Karacan CD

2013-05-01

197

Radiosialometry, a New Test of Salivary Gland Function  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The value of salivary gland scanning is limited as the variations between scintigrams of normal individuals are large, the time of measuring is quite long and the results are not quantitative. The background radiation of the skull and the amount of absorbing tissues varies and thus the results are difficult to evaluate. A varying rate of salivation causes a varying scanning picture. A new method called radiosialometry is described and gives a quantitative and fairly fast measuring of the accumulation of 99mTc-pertechnetate in the parotid glands. The patients are pretreated with 1.0 mg Atropine intravenously immediately before the intravenous administration of 99mTc and the mouth is filled with gauze. The varying salivary flow to the mouth is prevented in this way and the measuring conditions are stabilized. A specially designed collimator is used and the variation of skull-background-radiation can, by special means, be calculated. The increase of the activity in the parotid glands during a certain period can be calculated and the values obtained can be corrected for differences in the plasma concentration of the isotope between different individuals. The final values obtained in this way are comparable between different individuals and at different times. This is possible because we have determined the mean plasma concentration curve of 99mTc in atropinized individuals after intravenous administration of the isotope. The radiosialometry values of eight persons without signs of illness of the salivary glands are presented. The side differences are quite small. As a comparison two other cases are presented: one case with a chronic parotitis with a very poor concentration ability in the parotid glands and one case with an adenocarcinoma of one parotid gland with an exceptionally high side difference. The method is expected to become important in the study of disturbances of the function of the parotid glands, and seems to be a more reliable test of the parotid gland function than salivary gland scanning. (author)

1970-09-04

198

Determinación de cotinina y exposición a tabaco/ Cotinine detection and tobacco smoke exposure  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La exposición a tabaco es una de las causas prevenibles de morbilidad y mortalidad prematura más importante. Se describe un método simple y rápido de detección de cotinina (principal metabolito de nicotina) en orina humana. Se utilizó cromatografía gas-líquido (CGL) con un detector de ionización de llama (FID). Se realizó una extracción líquido-líquido con cloroformo en medio alcalino; el extracto fue secado a 37 °C y redisuelto en 100 µL de solución alcoh (more) ólica con estándar interno piridina. Se analizó la orina de personas que declararon ser fumadoras y no fumadoras. Mediante la construcción de dos curvas de calibración se cubrió un rango de linealidad de 3 a 5.000 ng/mL. Los fumadores presentaron una mediana y cuartiles (Q) de concentración de cotinina: 255,4 ng/mL, 15,9 ng/mL (Q1) - 1.050,2 ng/mL (Q3), respectivamente, y los no fumadores 15,8 ng/mL, 4,1 ng/mL (Q1) - 38,4 ng/mL (Q3). Wilcoxon sumrank: z = 4,865 p Abstract in english Tobacco is one of the major preventable causes of morbidity and premature mortality in the world. A simple, rapid method for determination of cotinine, major metabolite of nicotine in urine, is described. The assay involves a fast liquid-liquid extraction with chloroform as a solvent in alkaline environment. The extract was dried at 37 °C and the residue was dissolved in 100 µL of standard internal of pyridine in methanol solution, and an aliquot was analyzed by gas-liq (more) uid chromatograph equipped with a flame -ionization detector. This technique was performed to test urine of a sample of smokers and non-smokers who were previously asked about their smoking habit. The limit of detection was 3.1 ng/mL, and using two calibration curves, a linearity range from 3 a 5.000 ng/mL was covered. The median and quartiles (Q) of cotinine in smokers were 255.4 ng/mL, 15.9 ng/mL (Q1) -1050.2 ng/mL (Q3) ng/mL and in non-smokers 15.8 ng/mL, 4.1 ng/mL (Q1) - 38.4 ng/mL (Q3). Wilcoxon sumrank: z = 4.865 p

Vacchino, Marta Noemí; Velurtas, Susana María; Salinas, Guillermo Pablo; Garcialoredo, Héctor Hugo

2006-06-01

199

Lapatinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent and/or Metastatic Adenoid Cystic Cancer or Other Salivary Gland Cancers  

Science.gov (United States)

High-grade Salivary Gland Carcinoma; High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Low-grade Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Low-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Malignant Mixed Cell Type Tumor

2013-05-07

200

A quantitative analysis of electrolyte exchange in the salivary duct.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A healthy salivary gland secretes saliva in two stages. First, acinar cells generate primary saliva, a plasma-like, isotonic fluid high in Na(+) and Cl(-). In the second stage, the ducts exchange Na(+) and Cl(-) for K(+) and HCO(3)(-), producing a hypotonic final saliva with no apparent loss in volume. We have developed a tool that aims to understand how the ducts achieve this electrolyte exchange while maintaining the same volume. This tool is part of a larger multiscale model of the salivary gland and can be used at the duct or gland level to investigate the effects of genetic and chemical alterations. In this study, we construct a radially symmetric mathematical model of the mouse salivary gland duct, representing the lumen, the cell, and the interstitium. For a given flow and primary saliva composition, we predict the potential differences and the luminal and cytosolic concentrations along a duct. Our model accounts well for experimental data obtained in wild-type animals as well as knockouts and chemical inhibitors. Additionally, the luminal membrane potential of the duct cells is predicted to be very depolarized compared with acinar cells. We investigate the effects of an electrogenic vs. electroneutral anion exchanger in the luminal membrane on concentration and the potential difference across the luminal membrane as well as how impairing the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator channel affects other ion transporting mechanisms. Our model suggests the electrogenicity of the anion exchanger has little effect in the submandibular duct.

Patterson K; Catalán MA; Melvin JE; Yule DI; Crampin EJ; Sneyd J

2012-11-01

 
 
 
 
201

Salivary duct carcinoma of parotid gland.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A 40-year old male presented with rapidly growing swelling in the right parotid region. Based on the fine needle aspiration cytology report of adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified, superficial parotidectomy was performed, which showed the features of salivary duct carcinoma by histopathological examination. The smears were reviewed to identify the potential pitfalls in the cytological diagnosis of salivary duct carcinoma.

Kinnera VS; Mandyam KR; Chowhan AK; Nandyala R; Bobbidi VP; Vutukuru VR

2009-07-01

202

Salivary duct carcinoma of parotid gland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 40-year old male presented with rapidly growing swelling in the right parotid region. Based on the fine needle aspiration cytology report of adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified, superficial parotidectomy was performed, which showed the features of salivary duct carcinoma by histopathological examination. The smears were reviewed to identify the potential pitfalls in the cytological diagnosis of salivary duct carcinoma.

Kinnera Vijay Sreedhar; Mandyam Kumaraswamy; Chowhan Amit; Nandyala Rukmangadha; Bobbidi Venkata; Vutukuru Venkatarami

2009-01-01

203

Salivary duct carcinoma of parotid gland.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 40-year old male presented with rapidly growing swelling in the right parotid region. Based on the fine needle aspiration cytology report of adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified, superficial parotidectomy was performed, which showed the features of salivary duct carcinoma by histopathological examination. The smears were reviewed to identify the potential pitfalls in the cytological diagnosis of salivary duct carcinoma. PMID:21887008

Kinnera, Vijay Sreedhar Babu; Mandyam, Kumaraswamy Reddy; Chowhan, Amit Kumar; Nandyala, Rukmangadha; Bobbidi, Venkata Phaneendra; Vutukuru, Venkatarami Reddy

2009-07-01

204

Intra-oral minor salivary duct carcinoma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) is a recently described highly malignant tumor, seen most commonly in the parotid gland & occurs in the 6th and 7th decade of life. Rarely, it occurs in the minor salivary glands. The case is presented because of its rare occurrence and unusually presenting as a swellin...

Sen, Rajeev; Purwar, Prashant; Rekhi, Bharat; Singh, Sunita; Arora, B.; Sen, Jyotsna; Sachdeva, O. P.

205

Development of simple HPLC/UV with a column-switching method for the determination of nicotine and cotinine in hair samples  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nicotine and cotinine in hair are good biomarkers for assessing long-term exposure to smoking. However, analytical devices such as GC/MS are associated with high cost and are not widely used. HPLC/UV is used widely in laboratories, but is unsuitable for measurement of minor constituents, except when using the column-switching method. Thus, we aimed to establish a simple, inexpensive and sensitive method based on HPLC/UV with column switching for measuring nicotine and cotinine in hair. First, we compared the presence and absence of a column selection unit. We then measured amounts of nicotine and cotinine in hair samples collected from the general population, and compared both the corresponding levels and the detection limits with those in previous studies. Finally, initial and running costs of HPLC/UV were compared with other analytical methods. As one of the results, the areas of nicotine and cotinine measured by HPLC/UV with column-switching method were 12.9 and 16.9 times greater, respectively, than those without the column-switching method. The amount of nicotine and cotinine in hair was significantly correlated to number of cigarettes smoked per day (r = 0.228, p = 0.040). In addition, the HPLC/UV method showed similar sensitivity and detection limit (nicotine, 0.10 ng/mg; cotinine, 0.08 ng/mg) as reported in previous studies. The cost of the HPLC/UV method is lower than that of other analytical methods. We were able to establish a low-cost method with good sensitivity for measuring nicotine and cotinine in hair. The HPLC/UV with a column-switching method will be useful as a first step in screening surveys in order to better understand the effects of smoking exposure.

Masayoshi Tsuji; Yayoi Mori; Hideyuki Kanda; Teruna Ito; Tomoo Hidaka; Takeyasu Kakamu; Tomohiro Kumagai; Takehito Hayakawa; Yoneatsu Osaki; Tetsuhito Fukushima

2013-01-01

206

Osteopontin expression in salivary gland carcinomas  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

J Oral Pathol Med (2010) Background:? In several cancer types, osteopontin (OPN) expression has been correlated with tumor progression and prognosis. Two earlier studies have examined OPN expression in salivary gland carcinomas with contradictory results. Methods:? One hundred and seventy-five patients with a primary salivary gland carcinoma diagnosed from January 1, 1990 to December 31, 2005 were identified in the local pathology register, Odense University Hospital. Criteria as documented by Allred et al. were used to assess OPN immunostaining that was performed on surgical specimens. Results:? Osteopontin was expressed in all salivary gland carcinomas. Adenoid cystic carcinomas had the highest mean sum score (7.3) and a significantly higher proportion of carcinomas with high OPN sum score than both mucoepidermoid carcinoma and acinic cell carcinoma. Correlation of OPN expression with known prognostic factors in salivary gland carcinomas was insignificant. Conclusions:? Salivary gland carcinomas express OPN. The expression does not correlate with known prognostic factors.

BjØrndal, Kristine; Larsen, Stine R

2011-01-01

207

Immunochromatographic assay using gold nanoparticles for measuring salivary secretory IgA in dogs as a stress marker  

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The concentration of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) is a well-known stress marker for humans. The concentration of salivary sIgA in dogs has also been reported as a useful stress marker. In addition, salivary sIgA in dogs has been used to determine the adaptive ability of dogs for further training. There are conventional procedures based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs. However, ELISA requires long assay time, complicated operations and is costly. In the present study, we developed an immunochromatographic assay for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs using a dilution buffer containing a non-ionic surfactant. We determined 2500-fold dilution as the optimum condition for dog saliva using a phosphate buffer (50 mM, pH 7.2) containing non-ionic surfactant (3 wt% Tween 20). The results obtained from the saliva samples of three dogs using immunochromatographic assay were compared with those obtained from ELISA. It was found that the immunochromatographic assay is applicable to judge the change in salivary sIgA in each dog. The immunochromatographic assay for salivary sIgA in dogs is a promising tool, which should soon become commercially available for predicting a dog's psychological condition and estimating adaptive ability for training as guide or police dogs.

Takahashi, Aki; Kato, Yuya; Takezaki, Makoto; Tominaga, Toshihiro; Moriyama, Yoshiko; Takeda, Kunio; Miyahara, Toshiro; Nagatani, Naoki [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Okayama University of Science, 1-1 Ridai-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-0005 (Japan); Uchiyama, Shigeru [Okayama University of Science Specialized Training College, 8-3 Handa-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-0003 (Japan); Yuhi, Teruko; Ushijima, Hiromi, E-mail: nagatani@dac.ous.ac.j [Biodevicetechnology Ltd. 2-13 Asahidai, Nomi-City, Ishikawa 923-1211 (Japan)

2009-06-15

208

Immunochromatographic assay using gold nanoparticles for measuring salivary secretory IgA in dogs as a stress marker  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The concentration of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) is a well-known stress marker for humans. The concentration of salivary sIgA in dogs has also been reported as a useful stress marker. In addition, salivary sIgA in dogs has been used to determine the adaptive ability of dogs for further training. There are conventional procedures based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs. However, ELISA requires long assay time, complicated operations and is costly. In the present study, we developed an immunochromatographic assay for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs using a dilution buffer containing a non-ionic surfactant. We determined 2500-fold dilution as the optimum condition for dog saliva using a phosphate buffer (50 mM, pH 7.2) containing non-ionic surfactant (3 wt% Tween 20). The results obtained from the saliva samples of three dogs using immunochromatographic assay were compared with those obtained from ELISA. It was found that the immunochromatographic assay is applicable to judge the change in salivary sIgA in each dog. The immunochromatographic assay for salivary sIgA in dogs is a promising tool, which should soon become commercially available for predicting a dog's psychological condition and estimating adaptive ability for training as guide or police dogs.

Aki Takahashi, Shigeru Uchiyama, Yuya Kato, Teruko Yuhi, Hiromi Ushijima, Makoto Takezaki, Toshihiro Tominaga, Yoshiko Moriyama, Kunio Takeda, Toshiro Miyahara and Naoki Nagatani

2009-01-01

209

Immunochromatographic assay using gold nanoparticles for measuring salivary secretory IgA in dogs as a stress marker  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concentration of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) is a well-known stress marker for humans. The concentration of salivary sIgA in dogs has also been reported as a useful stress marker. In addition, salivary sIgA in dogs has been used to determine the adaptive ability of dogs for further training. There are conventional procedures based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs. However, ELISA requires long assay time, complicated operations and is costly. In the present study, we developed an immunochromatographic assay for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs using a dilution buffer containing a non-ionic surfactant. We determined 2500-fold dilution as the optimum condition for dog saliva using a phosphate buffer (50 mM, pH 7.2) containing non-ionic surfactant (3 wt% Tween 20). The results obtained from the saliva samples of three dogs using immunochromatographic assay were compared with those obtained from ELISA. It was found that the immunochromatographic assay is applicable to judge the change in salivary sIgA in each dog. The immunochromatographic assay for salivary sIgA in dogs is a promising tool, which should soon become commercially available for predicting a dog's psychological condition and estimating adaptive ability for training as guide or police dogs.

2009-01-01

210

Immunochromatographic assay using gold nanoparticles for measuring salivary secretory IgA in dogs as a stress marker  

Science.gov (United States)

The concentration of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) is a well-known stress marker for humans. The concentration of salivary sIgA in dogs has also been reported as a useful stress marker. In addition, salivary sIgA in dogs has been used to determine the adaptive ability of dogs for further training. There are conventional procedures based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs. However, ELISA requires long assay time, complicated operations and is costly. In the present study, we developed an immunochromatographic assay for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs using a dilution buffer containing a non-ionic surfactant. We determined 2500-fold dilution as the optimum condition for dog saliva using a phosphate buffer (50 mM, pH 7.2) containing non-ionic surfactant (3 wt% Tween 20). The results obtained from the saliva samples of three dogs using immunochromatographic assay were compared with those obtained from ELISA. It was found that the immunochromatographic assay is applicable to judge the change in salivary sIgA in each dog. The immunochromatographic assay for salivary sIgA in dogs is a promising tool, which should soon become commercially available for predicting a dog's psychological condition and estimating adaptive ability for training as guide or police dogs.

Takahashi, Aki; Uchiyama, Shigeru; Kato, Yuya; Yuhi, Teruko; Ushijima, Hiromi; Takezaki, Makoto; Tominaga, Toshihiro; Moriyama, Yoshiko; Takeda, Kunio; Miyahara, Toshiro; Nagatani, Naoki

2009-06-01

211

Associations of periodontal microorganisms with salivary proteins and MMP-8 in gingival crevicular fluid.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: We investigated in subjects with and without periodontitis, the levels of certain salivary proteins and matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), in relation to the presence of specific periodontal pathogens. METHODS: Clinical parameters were recorded at baseline, in 1985 and in 2009 from 99 subjects; 56 with and 43 without periodontitis (mean age 59.2 ± SD 2.9). Saliva samples collected in 2009 were analysed for salivary albumin, total protein and immunoglobulins A, G and M. GCF was collected for analysis of MMP-8 levels and for the PCR-analysis of the microorganisms Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Treponema denticola and Tannerella forsythia. RESULTS: Periodontitis patients were more often infected by P. gingivalis (p < 0.05), P. intermedia and T. denticola (p = 0.01) than controls. Salivary albumin and protein concentrations were significantly higher in subjects with T. denticola (p < 0.05). MMP-8 levels were significantly higher in subjects with T. denticola (p < 0.001) and T. forsythia (p < 0.01). No corresponding results were found in salivary immunoglobulin concentrations. CONCLUSION: The presence of T. denticola seemed to increase salivary albumin and total protein concentrations, and GCF levels of MMP-8. Both T. denticola and T. forsythia seemed to induce a cascade of host response with increased MMP-8 in GCF.

Yakob M; Kari K; Tervahartiala T; Sorsa T; Söder PÖ; Meurman JH; Söder B

2012-03-01

212

Quantitative and qualitative analyses of human salivary NEFA with gas-chromatography and mass spectrometry.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Salivary non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) are proposed to play a role in oral health, oral fat detection, and they may hold diagnostic and prognostic potential. Yet, little is known about the array and concentrations of NEFA in saliva. The aim of the study was to conduct qualitative and quantitative analyses of salivary NEFA in healthy humans and to present a new, efficient protocol to perform such analyses. Resting saliva samples from fifteen participants were collected. The salivary lipids were extracted using a modified Folch extraction. The NEFA in the extracted lipids were selectively subjected to pentafluorobenzyl bromide (PFB) derivatization and qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 16 NEFA were identified in resting saliva. The four major NEFA were palmitic, linoleic, oleic, and stearic acids. Their concentrations ranged from 2 to 9 ?M. This is the first study to characterize individual human salivary NEFA and their respective concentrations. The method used in the study is sensitive, precise, and accurate. It is specific to fatty acids in non-esterified form and hence enables analysis of NEFA without their separation from other lipid classes. Thus, it saves time, reagents and prevents loss of sample. These properties make it suitable for large scale analysis of salivary NEFA.

Kulkarni BV; Wood KV; Mattes RD

2012-01-01

213

Salivary thyroxine as an estimate of free thyroxine: concise communication  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To test the hypothesis that the levels of salivary thyroxine (T4) reflect those of circulating free T4, we developed a radioimmunoassay (RIA) sensitive to low levels of T4. Concurrent saliva and serum samples were obtained from 32 euthyroid volunteers, ages 19 to 64. Salivary and serum T4 and cortisol levels were measured by RIA. Salivary albumin was measured by nephelometry. Salivary T4 levels were higher than predicted. No correlation was found between salivary T4 and serum levels of free T4 and total T4 but there was a significant correlation between salivary T4 and albumin (r = 0.82). Salivary cortisol levels agreed with reported results and showed no correlation with salivary albumin. We conclude that salivary levels of drugs and hormones may be strongly affected by protein binding, and caution must be exercised in using salivary levels as an estimate of circulating free levels.

1983-01-01

214

Salivary ?-amylase response to endotoxin administration in humans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Salivary ?-amylase (sAA) is a digestive enzyme that plays also an important role in mucosal immunity. Secretion of the sAA is largely under the control of the autonomic nervous system and increases in sAA activity have repeatedly been observed in response to various stressors. The present study aimed at investigating whether and to what extent sAA activity levels are affected during systemic inflammation. Fourteen healthy male volunteers received intravenous injections of either bacterial endotoxin or placebo at two different occasions in a randomized and double-blinded manner. sAA activity was monitored over a period of 6h together with inflammatory markers, plasma norepinephrine (NE) and salivary cortisol levels, vital parameters, and state anxiety. Endotoxin administration elicited a transient inflammatory response reflected by increases in body temperature, whole blood cell counts, and circulating levels of interleukin (IL)-6. The immune changes were accompanied by a transient increase in sAA activity, elevations in salivary cortisol and plasma NE concentrations, as well as increases in heart rate and state anxiety. Although sAA and plasma NE responses showed distinct time courses, a significant positive correlation over the total observation period was found. Whether the observed sAA response is driven by an increase in sympathetic activity or more generally reflects inflammation induced changes in sympathetic-parasympathetic balance remains to be elucidated. PMID:23394872

Grigoleit, Jan-Sebastian; Kullmann, Jennifer S; Oberbeck, Reiner; Schedlowski, Manfred; Engler, Harald

2013-02-08

215

Salivary ?-amylase response to endotoxin administration in humans.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Salivary ?-amylase (sAA) is a digestive enzyme that plays also an important role in mucosal immunity. Secretion of the sAA is largely under the control of the autonomic nervous system and increases in sAA activity have repeatedly been observed in response to various stressors. The present study aimed at investigating whether and to what extent sAA activity levels are affected during systemic inflammation. Fourteen healthy male volunteers received intravenous injections of either bacterial endotoxin or placebo at two different occasions in a randomized and double-blinded manner. sAA activity was monitored over a period of 6h together with inflammatory markers, plasma norepinephrine (NE) and salivary cortisol levels, vital parameters, and state anxiety. Endotoxin administration elicited a transient inflammatory response reflected by increases in body temperature, whole blood cell counts, and circulating levels of interleukin (IL)-6. The immune changes were accompanied by a transient increase in sAA activity, elevations in salivary cortisol and plasma NE concentrations, as well as increases in heart rate and state anxiety. Although sAA and plasma NE responses showed distinct time courses, a significant positive correlation over the total observation period was found. Whether the observed sAA response is driven by an increase in sympathetic activity or more generally reflects inflammation induced changes in sympathetic-parasympathetic balance remains to be elucidated.

Grigoleit JS; Kullmann JS; Oberbeck R; Schedlowski M; Engler H

2013-09-01

216

Awakening salivary cortisol levels of children with sleep bruxism.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: The study of factors potentially associated with sleep bruxism (SB) may contribute to a better understanding of its nature and etiology. OBJECTIVES: In this way, this cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the association between SB and salivary cortisol levels, heart rate, and other parafunctional habits. DESIGN AND METHODS: Data were collected in 100 healthy caries-free children of both genders, aged 7.23 ± 0.60 years, with (n=27) and without (n=73) signs and symptoms of SB by interview with the parents and clinical and physical examination. Salivary cortisol was measured immediately after waking up and 30min after awakening for the determination of the area under the response curve (AURC). Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, normality test, and Spearman correlation test; a stepwise logistic regression model was used to verify the association between SB, as the dependent variable, and age, gender, body mass index (BMI), heart rate, presence of sucking habit, nail biting, enuresis, and AURC (?=0.05). RESULTS: AURC did not correlate with BMI and heart rate. Only AURC showed a significant negative association with SB, while age, gender, BMI, heart rate and other parafunctional habits did not associate with SB. CONCLUSION: In the studied sample, children with SB were more likely to present low concentrations of awakening salivary cortisol.

Castelo PM; Barbosa Tde S; Pereira LJ; Fonseca FL; Gavião MB

2012-06-01

217

Salivary Duct Carcinoma of the Minor Salivary Gland: A Rare Case Report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Salivary duct carcinoma is a rare invasive malignancy arising in the ductal epithelium of the salivary glands. Nearly 85% of the cases occur in the parotid gland followed by submandibular gland. Rarely is it described in the hard palate. Salivary duct carcinomas affecting the minor salivary glands have been reported in only 4% of the SDC cases and constitute 2% of all the salivary gland malignant neoplasms. It is characterized by aggressive behavior with early metastasis, local recurrence and significant mortality. The tumor has predilection for older men in the 6th to 7th decades of life. In this article; we report a case of a salivary gland carcinoma which was present in the right posterior region of the maxilla of a 50 year old female patient. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2013; 1(4.000): 222-226

Shalini Gupta; Khushboo Gupta; Hari Ram; Om Prakash Gupta

2013-01-01

218

Salivary duct carcinoma of the palate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Salivary duct carcinoma is a rare high-grade neoplasm that more frequently affects the parotid gland. Though neoplasms of this type are infrequent in minor salivary glands, they are less aggressive and may lead to early diagnosis before distant metastases could occur. Salivary duct carcinoma is also the most frequent epithelial component of carcinosarcoma. The present article reports a case of SDC of the palate in a 26-year-old male and discusses SDC as a malignant epithelial component in carcinosarcoma.

Ponniah I; Murali G; SureshKumar P; Kumaran M; Shaheen A

2005-01-01

219

Molecular structure of cotinine studied by gas electron diffraction combined with theoretical calculations  

Science.gov (United States)

The molecular structure of cotinine ((S)-1-methyl-5-(3-pyridinyl)-2-pyrrolidinone), the major metabolite of nicotine, has been determined at about 182 °C by gas electron diffraction combined with MP2 and DFT calculations. The diffraction data are consistent with the existence of the (ax, sc), (ax, ap), (eq, sp) and (eq, ap) conformers, where ax and eq indicate the configuration of the pyrrolidinone ring by means of the position (axial and equatorial) of the pyridine ring, and sc, sp and ap distinguish the isomers arising from the internal rotation around the bond connecting the two rings. The (CH3)NCCC(N) dihedral angles, ?, of the (ax, sc) and (eq, sp) conformers were determined independently to be 158(12)° and 129(13)°, respectively, where the numbers in parentheses are three times the standard errors, 3?. According to the MP2 calculations, the corresponding dihedral angles for the (ax, ap) and (eq, ap) conformers were assumed to differ by 180° from their syn counterparts. The ratios x(ax, sc)/x(ax, ap) and x(eq, sp)/x(eq, ap) were taken from the theoretically estimated free energy differences, ?G, where x is the abundance of the conformer. The resultant abundances of (ax, sc), (ax, ap), (eq, sp) and (eq, ap) conformers are 34(6)%, 21% (d.p.), 28% (d.p.), and 17% (d.p.), respectively, where d.p. represents dependent parameters. The determined structural parameters (rg (Å) and ?? (°)) of the most abundant conformer, (ax, sc), are as follows: r(NC)pyrrol = 1.463(5); r(NCmethyl) = 1.457(?); r(NC(O)) = 1.384(12); r(CO) = 1.219(5); = 1.541(3); r(CpyrrolCpyrid) = 1.521(?); = 1.396(2); = 1.343(?); ?(CNC)pyrrol = 113.9(11); ?CCCpyrrol(-Cpyrid) = 103.6(?); ?NCO = 124.1(13); ?NCpyrrolCpyrid = 113.1(12); ?CpyrrolCpyrrolCpyrid = 113.3(?); ?(CNC)pyrid = 117.1(2); = 124.4(?); ?CmethylNC(O) = ?CmethylNC(-Cpyrid) = 122.8(d.p.); ?NC(O)C = 107.1(d.p.); ?NCpyrrol(-Cpyrid)Cpyrrol = 103.0(d.p.) and ?CCC(O) = 105.2(d.p.), where ? in the parentheses means that the parameter is bound to the preceding one and denote average values. The puckering angle, ?, of the pyrrolidinone ring is 26(3)°. The N?N distances of the (ax, sc) and (eq, sp) conformers, which are 4.844(5) and 4.740(5) Å, respectively, are close to that of the most stable conformer of nicotine, 4.885(6) Å and the corresponding one of arecoline, 4.832(13) Å. It is concluded that the weak nicotinic activity of cotinine cannot be ascribed to such a small difference in the N?N distances.

Takeshima, Tsuguhide; Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Egawa, Toru; Konaka, Shigehiro

2007-09-01

220

Reassessing the reliability of the salivary cortisol assay for the diagnosis of Cushing syndrome.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The cortisol concentration in saliva is 10-fold lower than total serum cortisol and accurately reflects the serum concentration, both levels being lowest around midnight. The salivary cortisol assay measures free cortisol and is unaffected by confounding factors. This study analysed published data on the sensitivity and specificity of salivary cortisol levels in the diagnosis of Cushing syndrome. METHODS: Data from studies on the use of different salivary cortisol assay techniques in the diagnosis of Cushing syndrome, published between 1998 and 2012 and retrieved using Ovid MEDLINE®, were analysed for variance and correlation. RESULTS: For the 11 studies analysed, mean sensitivity and specificity of the salivary cortisol assay were both >90%. Repeated measurements were easily made with this assay, enabling improved diagnostic accuracy in comparison with total serum cortisol measurements. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis confirms the reliability of the saliva cortisol assay as pragmatic tool for the accurate diagnosis of Cushing syndrome. With many countries reporting a rising prevalence of metabolic syndrome, diabetes and obesity - in which there is often a high circulating cortisol level - salivary cortisol measurement will help distinguish these states from Cushing syndrome.

Zhang Q; Dou J; Gu W; Yang G; Lu J

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
221

Reassessing the reliability of the salivary cortisol assay for the diagnosis of Cushing syndrome.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The cortisol concentration in saliva is 10-fold lower than total serum cortisol and accurately reflects the serum concentration, both levels being lowest around midnight. The salivary cortisol assay measures free cortisol and is unaffected by confounding factors. This study analysed published data on the sensitivity and specificity of salivary cortisol levels in the diagnosis of Cushing syndrome. METHODS: Data from studies on the use of different salivary cortisol assay techniques in the diagnosis of Cushing syndrome, published between 1998 and 2012 and retrieved using Ovid MEDLINE®, were analysed for variance and correlation. RESULTS: For the 11 studies analysed, mean sensitivity and specificity of the salivary cortisol assay were both >90%. Repeated measurements were easily made with this assay, enabling improved diagnostic accuracy in comparison with total serum cortisol measurements. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis confirms the reliability of the saliva cortisol assay as pragmatic tool for the accurate diagnosis of Cushing syndrome. With many countries reporting a rising prevalence of metabolic syndrome, diabetes and obesity - in which there is often a high circulating cortisol level - salivary cortisol measurement will help distinguish these states from Cushing syndrome.

Zhang Q; Dou J; Gu W; Yang G; Lu J

2013-10-01

222

Cotinine versus questionnaire: early-life environmental tobacco smoke exposure and incident asthma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of biomarkers has expanded considerably, as an alternative to questionnaire-based metrics of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS); few studies have assessed the affect of such alternative metrics on diverse respiratory outcomes in children, and we aimed to do so. Methods We evaluated various measures of birth-year ETS, in association with multiple respiratory endpoints early years of life, in the novel context of a birth cohort at high risk for asthma. We administered questionnaires to parents, both at the end of pregnancy and at one year of life, and measured cotinine in cord blood (CCot; in 275 children) and in urine (UCot; obtained at 12 months in 365 children), each by radioimmunoassay. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess the association of the various metrics with recurrent wheeze at age 2 and with bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and asthma at age 7. Results Self-reported 3rd trimester maternal smoking was associated with significantly increased risk for recurrent wheeze at age 2 (odds ratio 3.5 [95% confidence interval = 1.2,10.7]); the risks associated with CCot and 3rd trimester smoking in any family member were similar (OR 2.9 [1.2,7.0] and 2.6 [1.0,6.5], respectively). No metric of maternal smoking at 12 months appeared to significantly influence the risk of recurrent wheeze at age 2, and no metric of ETS at any time appeared to significantly influence risk of asthma or BHR at age 7. Conclusions Biomarker- and questionnaire-based assessment of ETS in early life lead to similar estimates of ETS-associated risk of recurrent wheeze and asthma.

Carlsten Chris; Dimich-Ward Helen; DyBuncio Anne; Becker Allan B; Chan-Yeung Moira

2012-01-01

223

Simple and Rapid Assay Method for Simultaneous Quantification of Urinary Nicotine and Cotinine using Micro-Extraction by Packed Sorbent and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry  

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Full Text Available A simple and rapid method for determination of nicotine and cotinine levels in urine was developed using samples prepared by micro-extraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) and subjected to gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. This method provided good reproducibility, as well as good linearity of calibration curves in the range of 1–100 and 50–1000 ng/mL for quality control samples spiked with nicotine and cotinine, respectively. The detection limit of nicotine and cotinine was as low as 0.25 and 20 ng/mL, respectively. An evaporation procedure is not suitable for nicotine determination, thus an advantage of the present MEPS assay method is direct testing with GC-MS without the need for evaporation to a dry solvent. Our findings show that it may be useful for determining nicotine levels in various types of research studies.

MASAE IWAI; TADASHI OGAWA; HIDEKI HATTORI; KEI ZAITSU; AKIRA ISHII; OSAMU SUZUKI; HIROSHI SENO

2013-01-01

224

Effect of sensory stimulation on salivary IgA secretion rate in karate players  

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Full Text Available Objectives: Secretory IgA is predominant immunoglobulin in secretions of the mucosal immune system. Low concentration of salivary IgA is associated with a higher risk of respiratory tract infections episodes in athletes during the training season. The purpose of this study was to determine whether orange-flavored whey based drink has beneficial effect on level of IgA in saliva after the training. Methods: Twenty healthy, young karate players participated in this study. They were divided into two groups. One group rinsed a mouth with 20 ml of liquid whey, two times in 30-min period: 15 and 30 min after training. Second group rinsed a mouth with 20 ml of whey based orange flavored soft drink, at the same time. Saliva was collected before the training, just after the training and after application of fluids. Results: We observed decrease in salivary flow after physical activity. The salivary flow was higher after the application of flavored drink compared to salivary flow after the application of whey. The absolute concentration of sIgA and sIgA secretion rate decreased just after exercise compared to pre exercise values. Application of whey elevated sIgA levels on day 1, while application of flavored drink caused increasing in sIgA levels on day 3. In all other cases sIgA level was decreasing even after applied stimuli. Conclusions: The exercise induces decreasing in salivary flow, sIgA absolute concentration and sIgA secretion rate. Application of fluid whey and flavored whey-based drink elevated salivary flow, but had little effect on absolute concentration of sIgA and sIgA secretion rate in young karate players.

I Baralic; I Miletic; B Djordjevic; T Terzic; S Radojevic-Skodric; G Nikolic

2010-01-01

225

Method for removing hypopharyngeal salivary bypass tubes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To describe a novel method for the removal of the salivary bypass tube (SBT) that precludes the need for extraction under general anesthesia. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS/TECHNIQUE: Patients who had undergone laryngectomy/laryngopharyngectomy with subsequent development of pharyngocutaneous fistula and intraoperative placement of a salivary bypass tube were included in this series. The tubes were removed at the bedside or in clinic utilizing a Fogarty-type method over a Foley catheter. RESULTS: Three patients underwent removal of hypopharyngeal salivary bypass tubes 1 to 2 weeks after placement. Inflation of the Foley catheter within the lumen of the salivary bypass tube facilitated successful removal without the need for additional procedures. All three patients required only topical anesthetic and tolerated the procedure with minimal discomfort. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to current methods, this technique is cost-effective and time-efficient while not compromising patient safety or comfort.

Kejner AE; Rosenthal EL

2011-07-01

226

Biological therapy of salivary duct carcinoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The incidence of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positivity in salivary duct carcinoma ranges from 25 to 100 per cent and is associated with a poor outcome. Salivary duct carcinoma has significant pathological similarities to ductal carcinoma of the breast. METHODS AND RESULTS: A 49-year-old man developed lung and liver metastasis a few months after surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy for salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland. There was no response to palliative chemotherapy with doxorubicin. We followed the biological model of breast cancer, whereby two-thirds of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive patients respond to a combination of docetaxel and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 blocker (trastuzumab). A durable, complete response was achieved with this combination. A rationalised treatment approach targeting the biological characteristics of salivary duct carcinoma had proven successful.

Nashed M; Casasola RJ

2009-02-01

227

Aquaporins in salivary glands and pancreas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Salivary glands and pancreas are involved in saliva secretion, pancreatic fluid secretion and insulin secretion. These functions are essential for proper oral, pancreatic and glucose homeostasis. Aquaporins are water-permeable transmembrane protein involved in the physiology of these secretory gland functions. SCOPE OF REVIEW: This review gives an overview of the morphology of salivary glands and pancreas, the expression and localization of aquaporins, the secretion roles and mechanisms, the physiological roles of aquaporins, and the role of aquaporins in pathophysiological conditions. MAJOR CONCLUSIONS: Several aquaporins are expressed in salivary glands and pancreas, and some play important physiological roles. Modulation of aquaporin expression and/or trafficking may contribute to the pathogenesis of diseases affecting salivary glands and pancreas glands such as xerostomic conditions, pancreatic insufficiencies and diabetes. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: Aquaporins are involved in physiological and pathophysiological processes in salivary glands and pancreas. They could represent therapeutic targets for the treatment of diseases affecting the salivary glands and pancreas. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Aquaporins.

Delporte C

2013-08-01

228

Interactions between developing nerves and salivary glands.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Our aim is to provide a summary of the field of salivary gland development and regeneration from the perspective of what is known about the function of nerves during these processes. The primary function of adult salivary glands is to produce and secrete saliva. Neuronal control of adult salivary gland function has been a focus of research ever since Pavlov's seminal experiments on salivation in dogs. Less is known about salivary gland innervation during development and how the developing nerves influence gland organogenesis and regeneration. Here, we will review what is known about the communication between the autonomic nervous system and the epithelium of the salivary glands during organogenesis. An important emerging theme is the instructive role of the nervous system on the epithelial stem/progenitor cells during development as well as regeneration after damage. We will provide a brief overview of the neuroanatomy of the salivary glands and discuss recent literature that begins to integrate neurobiology with epithelial organogenesis, which may provide paradigms for exploring these interactions in other organ systems.

Ferreira JN; Hoffman MP

2013-06-01

229

Integrin expression in developing human salivary glands.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The development and complete differentiation of salivary glands is a complex process that involves a large number of co-ordinated events. Little is known about the molecular basis for salivary gland development. However, we have reported previously that integrins appear to play a role. Integrins are heterodimeric transmembrane receptors consisting of one alpha and one beta subunit that play a pivotal role in the interaction of cells with the extracellular matrix. Such interactions regulate the organisation of cells of tissues and organs during development as well as cell proliferation and differentiation. Using immunohistochemistry and Western and Northern blot analysis, we mapped the localisation and expression of integrins beta1, beta3 and beta4 in human salivary glands obtained from foetuses ranging from weeks 4-24 of gestation and compared it with adult salivary glands. Integrin beta1 first appeared during the canalisation stage and during the differentiation stage. A message first appeared at week 6 of development. The expression of beta4 integrin protein and message was observed only in the late stage of differentiation. Integrin beta3 was not detected in the developing glands; however, integrins beta1, beta3 and beta4 were all expressed in adult salivary gland tissues. The data suggest that integrins, particularly beta1, have a role to play in salivary gland development and differentiation.

Lourenço SV; Kapas S

2005-11-01

230

Integrin expression in developing human salivary glands.  

Science.gov (United States)

The development and complete differentiation of salivary glands is a complex process that involves a large number of co-ordinated events. Little is known about the molecular basis for salivary gland development. However, we have reported previously that integrins appear to play a role. Integrins are heterodimeric transmembrane receptors consisting of one alpha and one beta subunit that play a pivotal role in the interaction of cells with the extracellular matrix. Such interactions regulate the organisation of cells of tissues and organs during development as well as cell proliferation and differentiation. Using immunohistochemistry and Western and Northern blot analysis, we mapped the localisation and expression of integrins beta1, beta3 and beta4 in human salivary glands obtained from foetuses ranging from weeks 4-24 of gestation and compared it with adult salivary glands. Integrin beta1 first appeared during the canalisation stage and during the differentiation stage. A message first appeared at week 6 of development. The expression of beta4 integrin protein and message was observed only in the late stage of differentiation. Integrin beta3 was not detected in the developing glands; however, integrins beta1, beta3 and beta4 were all expressed in adult salivary gland tissues. The data suggest that integrins, particularly beta1, have a role to play in salivary gland development and differentiation. PMID:15942749

Lourenço, Silvia Vanessa; Kapas, Supriya

2005-11-03

231

Salivary electrolytes in psoriasis: A preliminary study  

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Full Text Available Background: There have been few isolated studies on alteration of salivary electrolytes in psoriasis but this subject has not been pursued extensively. Purpose: The present study was conducted to assess any alteration in the levels of salivary electrolytes in psoriasis and to correlate the same with type and severity of the disease. Materials and Methods: Fifteen patients of uncomplicated psoriasis and 12 age and sex matched controls attending the outpatient department of R.L.J.H. and S.N.R. Hospitals, Kolar, India were included for analysis of salivary electrolytes. PASI scoring was used to assess the severity of the disease. Student?s t-test ( P < 0.05; significant) was utilized for statistical evaluation of results. Results: Salivary sodium levels were significantly elevated in psoriasis ( P value 0.002), whereas there was no significant rise in levels of salivary potassium. However, potassium levels correlated significantly with severity of the disease ( P value 0.043). Conclusion: There was elevation of salivary sodium levels in patients of psoriasis and potassium levels correlated with severity of the disease. Limitation: Unicentre hospital based study with small sample size; hence the results cannot be generalized.

Singh Gurcharan; Rajashekar T; Krishnamurthy; Haneef Nayeem Sadath

2006-01-01

232

Salivary secretion during meals in lactating dairy cattle  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Four multiparous Holstein cows in midlactation were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square to evaluate whether source of forage influenced salivary secretion during eating in lactating dairy cows. The forages were allocated separately from the pelleted concentrates. Cows were offered 1 of 4 forages each period: barley silage, alfalfa silage, long-stemmed alfalfa hay, or chopped barley straw. Saliva secretion was measured during the morning meal by collecting masticates through the rumen cannula at the cardia of each cow. Rate of salication (213 g/min) was not affected by forage source. However, the forage sources differed in eating rate (g og DM/min), which led to differences in ensalivation of forages (g of saliva/g of DM and g of saliva/g of NDF). On the basis of DM, ensalivation (g of saliva/g of DM) was greatest for straw (7.23) and similar for barley sialge, alfalfa silage, and alfalfa hay (4.15, 3.40, and 4.34 g/g of DM, respectively). Higher ensalivation of straw could be accounted for by its higher neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content; ensalivation of NDF (g of saliva/g of NDF) was actually greatest for long-stemmed alfalfa hay (12.4) and similar for the other chopped forages (8.9). Cows consumed concentrate about 3 to 12 times faster than the various forages (DM basis), and ensalivation of concentrate was much lower (1.12 g of saliva/g of DM) than for forages. Feed characteristics such as particle size, DM, and NDF content affect salivary output during eating by affecting the eating rate. Slower eating rate and greater time spent eating may help prevent ruminal acidosis by increasing the total daily salivary secretion in dairy cows.

Beauchemin, K.A.; Eriksen, L.

2008-01-01

233

Age-related decline in salivary dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and associated health risks among African Americans.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) declines with age and low endogenous DHEAS concentrations have been associated with obesity. In addition, DHEAS has been studied for its role in mood and wellbeing. However, limited data are available on salivary DHEAS concentrations in African Americans. Thus, we examined age-related changes in morning salivary DHEAS and the association between DHEAS and obesity risk factors among African Americans. DESIGN: Salivary DHEAS samples (n=170) were obtained from men and women divided into three age groups: 18 to 30 (young), 31 to 45 (middle) and 46 to 60 (older) years. Anthropometric, blood glucose, high sensitivity c-reactive protein (hsCRP), and blood pressure measures were obtained. Participants completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CESD), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Daily Hassles Scale (DHS), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) scales to assess depression, daily hassles, stress and quality of sleep, respectively. RESULTS: Mean salivary DHEAS concentrations decreased significantly with increasing age: mean values were 25.8 +/- 2.4, 21.9 +/- 1.9, and 14.4 +/- .9 nmol/L for young, middle, and older groups, respectively. Like DHEAS, PSQI, DHS, CESD, MAP, WC, BMI, systolic and diastolic BP and fasting blood glucose values differed significantly in the older compared to the young and middle groups. Women had significantly lower salivary DHEAS than men (P< or =.05). CONCLUSION: The age-related decline in salivary DHEAS in African Americans is associated with cardiovascular risk factors, sleep quality, hassles and mood. Whether supplementing DHEAS levels in aging African Americans will improve health remains to be determined.

Abraham PA; Kazman JB; Zeno SA; Poth M; Deuster PA

2013-01-01

234

Inducible HSP70 Protects Radiation-Induced Salivary Gland Damage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Irradiation (IR) delivered to the head and neck is a common treatment for malignancies. Salivary glands in the irradiation field are severely damaged, and consequently this resulted in marked salivary hypofunction. While the exact mechanism of salivary gland damage remains enigmatic, fluid secreting acinar cells are lost, and saliva output is dramatically reduced. Previously we have reported that inducible heat shock protein 70 (HSP70i) induced radioresistance in vitro. Moreover, HSP70i localized to salivary glands by gene transfer has great potential for the treatment of salivary gland. Herein, we investigated whether HSP70 can use as radio protective molecules for radiation-induced salivary gland damage in vivo.

Lee, Hae-June; Lee, Yoon-Jin; Kwon, Hee-Choong; Lee, Su-Jae; Bae, Sang-Woo; Lee, Yun-Sil [Korea Institute of Radiological Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung-Ho [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

2006-07-01

235

Salivary cortisol assessment in the evaluation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A simple, short and sensitive direct radio-immunoassay technique for the determination of salivary cortisol concentration was employed to assess saliva as a medium for evaluating cortisol response during endocrine testing in 9 controls and 40 patients. Results in controls suggested that an adequate salivary cortisol response to insulin hypoglycaemia was an increase of 150% above the basal value with a minimum peak of 15 nmol/l. Thirty-three patients were classified as being either good or poor responders to insulin hypoglycaemia on the basis of criteria for plasma cortisol levels. When the defined salivary cortisol response was used for assessment, all 33 patients were correctly categorized into the same response groups. The salivary cortisol response to intramuscular tetracosactin in 3 patients and an intravenous dexamethasone infusion in 4 patients confirmed the value of saliva as an assay medium. These studies show that the salivary cortisol response parallels that of total plasma cortisol in all cases. However, with sampling at short intervals a lag in secretion of the free fraction from the plasma into the saliva becomes apparent. The relative change in cortisol levels from the basal value is greater in saliva than in plasma.

Kahn, S.E.; Maxwell, J.U.; Barron, J.L. (Cape Town Univ. (South Africa))

1984-05-26

236

Salivary cortisol assessment in the evaluation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A simple, short and sensitive direct radio-immunoassay technique for the determination of salivary cortisol concentration was employed to assess saliva as a medium for evaluating cortisol response during endocrine testing in 9 controls and 40 patients. Results in controls suggested that an adequate salivary cortisol response to insulin hypoglycaemia was an increase of 150% above the basal value with a minimum peak of 15 nmol/l. Thirty-three patients were classified as being either good or poor responders to insulin hypoglycaemia on the basis of criteria for plasma cortisol levels. When the defined salivary cortisol response was used for assessment, all 33 patients were correctly categorized into the same response groups. The salivary cortisol response to intramuscular tetracosactin in 3 patients and an intravenous dexamethasone infusion in 4 patients confirmed the value of saliva as an assay medium. These studies show that the salivary cortisol response parallels that of total plasma cortisol in all cases. However, with sampling at short intervals a lag in secretion of the free fraction from the plasma into the saliva becomes apparent. The relative change in cortisol levels from the basal value is greater in saliva than in plasma.

1984-01-01

237

Sarcomatoid salivary duct carcinoma of minor salivary gland: a rare case.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 35-year-old female presented with swelling in the soft palate. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) revealed pleomorphic adenoma, and on histopathological examination, it was diagnosed as carcinosarcoma/salivary duct carcinoma in the minor salivary gland, which was confirmed by immunohistochemical stains. We report this case for its rarity. PMID:21045425

Thamilselvi, R; Subramaniam, P M; Shivarudrappa, A S; Venugeethan, A; Sinha, Pammy

238

Sarcomatoid salivary duct carcinoma of minor salivary gland: a rare case.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A 35-year-old female presented with swelling in the soft palate. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) revealed pleomorphic adenoma, and on histopathological examination, it was diagnosed as carcinosarcoma/salivary duct carcinoma in the minor salivary gland, which was confirmed by immunohistochemical stains. We report this case for its rarity.

Thamilselvi R; Subramaniam PM; Shivarudrappa AS; Venugeethan A; Sinha P

2010-10-01

239

Sarcomatoid salivary duct carcinoma of minor salivary gland: A rare case  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A 35-year-old female presented with swelling in the soft palate. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) revealed pleomorphic adenoma, and on histopathological examination, it was diagnosed as carcinosarcoma/salivary duct carcinoma in the minor salivary gland, which was confirmed by immunohistochemic...

Thamilselvi R; Subramaniam P; Shivarudrappa A; Venugeethan A; Sinha Pammy

240

Sarcomatoid salivary duct carcinoma of minor salivary gland: A rare case  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 35-year-old female presented with swelling in the soft palate. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) revealed pleomorphic adenoma, and on histopathological examination, it was diagnosed as carcinosarcoma/salivary duct carcinoma in the minor salivary gland, which was confirmed by immunohistochemical stains. We report this case for its rarity.

Thamilselvi R; Subramaniam P; Shivarudrappa A; Venugeethan A; Sinha Pammy

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Salivary up-regulation of human polymorphonuclear leucocyte chemotaxis and adhesion-molecule expression.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chemotaxis and adhesion molecules were investigated in peripheral blood neutrophils incubated with saliva collected from healthy donors. A salivary concentration of 20% increased chemotactic responses and CD11a/CD18 and CD11b/CD18 expression, but had no effect on formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine receptors. PMID:7695504

Pettini, F; Pettini, P; Laforgia, A; Coluccia, M; De Rinaldis, P; Fumarulo, R

1994-11-01

242

Salivary up-regulation of human polymorphonuclear leucocyte chemotaxis and adhesion-molecule expression.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Chemotaxis and adhesion molecules were investigated in peripheral blood neutrophils incubated with saliva collected from healthy donors. A salivary concentration of 20% increased chemotactic responses and CD11a/CD18 and CD11b/CD18 expression, but had no effect on formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine receptors.

Pettini F; Pettini P; Laforgia A; Coluccia M; De Rinaldis P; Fumarulo R

1994-11-01

243

DIETARY TRYPTOPHAN EFFECTS ON PLASMA AND SALIVARY CORTISOL AND MEAT QUALITY IN PIGS  

Science.gov (United States)

Four experiments were conducted to determine the effects of supplemental Trp on meat quality, plasma and salivary cortisol, and plasma lactate. Experiment 1 was a preliminary study to measure plasma cortisol concentrations in four barrows (50 kg BW) that were snared for 30 s at time 0 min. Pigs we...

244

Quantitative and qualitative analyses of human salivary NEFA with gas-chromatography and mass spectrometry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Salivary non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) are proposed to play a role in oral health, oral fat detection, and they may hold diagnostic and prognostic potential. Yet, little is known about the array and concentrations of NEFA in saliva. The aim of the study was to conduct qualitative and quantitativ...

Kulkarni, Bhushan V.; Wood, Karl V.; Mattes, Richard D.

245

Assessment of salivary gland function in Sjogren's syndrome: the role of salivary gland scintigraphy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Salivary gland scintigraphy (SGS) is a non invasive method of salivary gland function assessment. This technique is easy to perform, reproducible and well tolerated by patients. Additionally, an abnormal salivary gland scintigraphy result is accepted by the American-European consensus group as a criterion for the diagnosis of Sjögren's syndrome. Scintigraphic evaluation of salivary gland function also plays an important role in therapeutic decision and patient follow-up. Schall's categorical classification is usually considered the standard method for salivary scintigraphy interpretation, though subjective and with limited capacity to discriminate borderline results. In order to improve the diagnostic accuracy of SGS, there has been an increasing interest in the quantification of glandular function. However, the debate on the most reliable and suitable parameters for the diagnosis of SS persists.

Vinagre F; Santos MJ; Prata A; da Silva JC; Santos AI

2009-07-01

246

Ultradian rhythmicity and induced changes in salivary testosterone.  

Science.gov (United States)

Testosterone and cortisol respond to exercise stimuli and modulate adaptation. Episodic basal secretion of these hormones may modify the responsiveness of these hormones. We sought to identify episodic steroid secretion via frequent salivary sampling and investigate any interaction between ultradian rhythmicity and induced changes in testosterone. Salivary testosterone and cortisol concentrations of seven males (age 20-40 years) were measured every 10 min between 0800 and 1600 h on three consecutive days. On either the second or third day, three interventions designed to elicit a hormonal response were randomly assigned: sprint exercise (two 30-s maximal efforts on a cycle ergometer); boxing (two 30-s maximal punching efforts); and a violent video game (10 min of player vs. player combat). On the other days subjects were inactive. Testosterone data on non-intervention days suggested pulsatile secretion with a pulse interval of 47 +/- 9 min (mean +/- SD). The sprint intervention substantially affected hormones: it elicited a small transient elevation in testosterone (by a factor of 1.21; factor 90% confidence limits x/ divided by 1.21) 10 min after exercise, and a moderate elevation in cortisol peaking 50 min post-exercise (factor 2.3; x/ divided by 2.6). The testosterone response correlated with the change in testosterone concentration in the 10 min prior to the sprint (r = 0.78; 90% CL 0.22-0.95) and with a measure of randomness in testosterone fluctuations (r = 0.83; 0.35-0.96). Thus, the salivary testosterone response to exercise may be dependent on the underlying ultradian rhythm and aspects of its regulation. This interaction may have important implications for adaptation to exercise. PMID:20512500

Beaven, C Martyn; Ingram, John R; Gill, Nicholas D; Hopkins, Will G

2010-05-29

247

Who Is Exposed to Secondhand Smoke? Self-Reported and Serum Cotinine Measured Exposure in the U.S., 1999-2006  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study presents self-reported and serum cotinine measures of exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) for nonsmoking children, adolescents, and adults. Estimates are disaggregated by time periods and sociodemographic characteristics based on analyses of the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Exam...

Wendy Max; Hai-Yen Sung; Yanling Shi

248

Salivary proteomics in biomedical research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Proteins that are important indicators of physiological or pathological states, can provide information for the identification of early and differential markers for disease. Saliva, contains an abundance of proteins, offers an easy, inexpensive, safe, and non-invasive approach for disease detection, and possesses a high potential to revolutionize the diagnostics. Discovery of salivary biomarkers could be used to scrutinize health and disease surveillance. The impact of human saliva proteome analysis in the search for clinically relevant disease biomarkers will be realized through advances made using proteomic technologies. The advancements of emerging proteomic techniques have benefited biomarker research to the point where saliva is now recognized as an excellent diagnostic medium for the detection of disease. This review presents an overview of the value of saliva as a credible diagnostic tool and we aim to summarize the proteomic technologies currently used for global analysis of saliva proteins and to elaborate on the application of saliva proteomics to the discovery of disease biomarkers, and discuss some of the critical challenges and perspectives in this field.

Zhang A; Sun H; Wang P; Wang X

2013-01-01

249

Salivary surrogates of plasma nitrite and catecholamines during a 21-week training season in swimmers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The collection of samples of saliva is noninvasive and straightforward, which turns saliva into an ideal fluid for monitoring the adaptive response to training. Here, we investigated the response of the salivary proteins alpha-amylase (sAA), chromogranin A (sCgA), and the concentration of total protein (sTP) as well as salivary nitrite (sNO2) in relation to plasma catecholamines and plasma nitrite (pNO2), respectively. The variation in these markers was compared to the intensity and load of training during a 21-week training season in 12 elite swimmers. Overall, the salivary proteins tracked the concentration of plasma adrenaline and were inversely correlated with the training outcomes. No correlations were observed between sNO2 and pNO2. However, sNO2 correlated positively with the intensity and load of training. We argue that the decrease in sympathetic activity is responsible for the decrease in the concentration of proteins throughout the training season. Furthermore, the increase in nitrite is likely to reflect changes in hemodynamics and regulation of vascular tone. The association of the salivary markers with the training outcomes underlines their potential as noninvasive markers of training status in professional athletes.

Díaz Gómez MM; Bocanegra Jaramillo OL; Teixeira RR; Espindola FS

2013-01-01

250

Effect of competitional stress on salivary dehydroepiandrosterone, cortisol in female handballists  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Hormonal responses to competitions and their relationships have been extensively examined in male athletes, but there are few studies in women. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of competition stress on salivary dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and cortisol in female handballists. Materials and Method: Ten female handballists of Islamic Azad University (Sari Branch) (age 21.5±2.5 years) participated in this study. Salivary samples were collected 30 min and 5 min before competition, between two half times and immediately after four competitions. The salivary DHEA and cortisol concentrations were measured by ELISA method. Results: The results of one-way ANOVA with repeated measures have shown a significant (p=0.001) increases for DHEA concentration after four competitions, however, cortisol and DHEA/cortisol ratio did not show any changes after four competition (p>0.05). Conclusion: These results indicate that salivary DHEA is more sensitive to competition situations than cortisol concentration. We suggested that androgens maybe more affected by competition

Parvin Farzanegi; Mohammad A. Azarbayjani; Zeinab Ebrahimpour

2010-01-01

251

Salivary Surrogates of Plasma Nitrite and Catecholamines during a 21-Week Training Season in Swimmers  

Science.gov (United States)

The collection of samples of saliva is noninvasive and straightforward, which turns saliva into an ideal fluid for monitoring the adaptive response to training. Here, we investigated the response of the salivary proteins alpha-amylase (sAA), chromogranin A (sCgA), and the concentration of total protein (sTP) as well as salivary nitrite (sNO2) in relation to plasma catecholamines and plasma nitrite (pNO2), respectively. The variation in these markers was compared to the intensity and load of training during a 21-week training season in 12 elite swimmers. Overall, the salivary proteins tracked the concentration of plasma adrenaline and were inversely correlated with the training outcomes. No correlations were observed between sNO2 and pNO2. However, sNO2 correlated positively with the intensity and load of training. We argue that the decrease in sympathetic activity is responsible for the decrease in the concentration of proteins throughout the training season. Furthermore, the increase in nitrite is likely to reflect changes in hemodynamics and regulation of vascular tone. The association of the salivary markers with the training outcomes underlines their potential as noninvasive markers of training status in professional athletes.

Diaz Gomez, Miguel Mauricio; Bocanegra Jaramillo, Olga Lucia; Teixeira, Renata Roland; Espindola, Foued Salmen

2013-01-01

252

Effects of radiation on parotid salivary function  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Postoperative electron beam irradiation of patients with parotid cancer has been used regularly at the Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology to spare the opposite parotid and to preserve salivary function. Only anecdotal reports of amount of radiation required to ablate salivary function exist. To establish a dose-response curve for the human parotid, selective measurements of right and left parotid salivary flow were done for 15 age-matched control patients whose parotids were not irradiated, 17 patients who had both parotids irradiated, and 12 whose parotids were irradiated by unilateral electron beam technique. Point calculations of absorbed dose 1 cm below the surface were done for all 88 parotids and correlated with stimulated parotid salivary flow, pH, and secretory IgA (SIgA). Increasing doses of radiation resulted in progressive reduction of parotid salivary flow, pH, and SIgA. The technique, dosimetry, and clinical application of unilateral electron beam irradiation to spare the opposite parotid will be discussed.

Marks, J.E.; Davis, C.C.; Gottsman, V.L.

1981-08-01

253

Salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland.  

Science.gov (United States)

Salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland is an uncommon tumor, highly aggressive. About 200 cases have been reported in the English literature. Pathomorphologically, these tumors showed great similarities to ductal carcinoma of the female breast, which is why they described this tumor as "salivary duct carcinoma." The authors describe a new case of salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland. We present the case of a 50-year-old patient with progressive facial paralysis. The MRI examination of the head showed two ill-defined formations. A malignant tumor was strongly suspected, so that a total left parotidectomy with excision of the adjacent facial nerve and left lymph node dissection was performed. Microscopic examination concluded to a salivary duct carcinoma of the left parotid gland negative with Her2/neu antibody with lymph node metastasis. There were no recurrences or metastases within 3 years of follow-up. Salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland is a rare tumor with an aggressive behavior. This is due to its propensity to infiltrate distant organs. The diagnosis is based on microscopic examination. Treatment modalities are non-consensual, but some authors advocate the necessity of aggressive approach, especially in tumors negative with Heur2/neu antibody. This is due to the fact that the overexpression of this antigen was reported to be associated with a poor prognosis. PMID:22434951

Mlika, Mona; Kourda, Nadia; Zidi, Ysh; Aloui, Raoudha; Zneidi, Nadia; Rammeh, Soumaya; Zermani, Rachida; Jilani, Sarah Ben

2012-01-01

254

Salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland is an uncommon tumor, highly aggressive. About 200 cases have been reported in the English literature. Pathomorphologically, these tumors showed great similarities to ductal carcinoma of the female breast, which is why they described this tumor as "salivary duct carcinoma." The authors describe a new case of salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland. We present the case of a 50-year-old patient with progressive facial paralysis. The MRI examination of the head showed two ill-defined formations. A malignant tumor was strongly suspected, so that a total left parotidectomy with excision of the adjacent facial nerve and left lymph node dissection was performed. Microscopic examination concluded to a salivary duct carcinoma of the left parotid gland negative with Her2/neu antibody with lymph node metastasis. There were no recurrences or metastases within 3 years of follow-up. Salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland is a rare tumor with an aggressive behavior. This is due to its propensity to infiltrate distant organs. The diagnosis is based on microscopic examination. Treatment modalities are non-consensual, but some authors advocate the necessity of aggressive approach, especially in tumors negative with Heur2/neu antibody. This is due to the fact that the overexpression of this antigen was reported to be associated with a poor prognosis.

Mlika M; Kourda N; Zidi Y; Aloui R; Zneidi N; Rammeh S; Zermani R; Jilani SB

2012-01-01

255

Optimum Cutoff Value of Urinary Cotinine Distinguishing South Korean Adult Smokers From Nonsmokers Using Data From the KNHANES (2008-2010).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Cutoff values for distinguishing smokers from nonsmokers have generally been derived from studies in White populations. Even though recent population-based studies have demonstrated that cutoff values can differ by race and ethnicity, few studies have explored cutoff values among Asian populations. We established the cutoff values for urinary cotinine and cotinine:creatinine ratio (CCR) using a nationally representative South Korean adult population sample. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008-2010 with pooled sampling weights. Adult participants (n = 11,629) aged ?19 were included. Optimal cutoff values were determined by performing receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. RESULTS: The optimum cutoff values for urinary cotinine and CCR for Korean adults were found to be 164ng/mL and 1122ng/mg, respectively. The application of these urinary cotinine and CCR cutoff values for the female subpopulations aged 19-34, 35-54, and ?55 years provided sensitivities ranging from 87.1% to 93.8% and from 82.9% to 94.9%, respectively, while maintaining specificity of ?92%. For the 3 male age-based subpopulations, we obtained sensitivities and specificities for cotinine ranging from 93.1% to 94.5% and from 92.8% to 97.0%, respectively, and for CCR ranging from 90.0% to 96.9% and from 92.2% to 96.8%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our cutoff values should allow researchers conducting environmental epidemiological or clinical studies in South Korea to distinguish adult smokers from nonsmokers effectively. However, different values may be applicable for subpopulations with different smoking prevalence rates or higher exposure levels to secondhand smoke.

Kim S; Jung A

2013-09-01

256

Establishment of Immortal Multipotent Rat Salivary Progenitor Cell Line Toward Salivary Gland Regeneration.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Adult salivary gland stem cells are promising candidates for cell therapy and tissue regeneration in cases of irreversible damage to salivary glands in head and neck cancer patients undergoing irradiation therapy. At present, the major restriction in handling such cells is their relatively limited life span during in vitro cultivation, resulting in an inadequate experimental platform to explore the salivary gland-originated stem cells as candidates for future clinical application in therapy. We established a spontaneous immortal integrin ?6?1-expressing cell line of adult salivary progenitor cells from rats (rat salivary clone [RSC]) and investigated their ability to sustain cellular properties. This line was able to propagate for more than 400 doublings without loss of differentiation potential. RSC could differentiate in vitro to both acinar- and ductal-like structures and could be further manipulated upon culturing on a 3D scaffolds with different media supplements. Moreover, RSC expressed salivary-specific mRNAs and proteins as well as epithelial stem cell markers, and upon differentiation process their expression was changed. These results suggest RSC as a good model for further studies exploring cellular senescence, differentiation, and in vitro tissue engineering features as a crucial step toward reengineering irradiation-impaired salivary glands.

Yaniv A; Neumann Y; David R; Stiubea-Cohen R; Orbach Y; Lang S; Rotter N; Dvir-Ginzberg M; Aframian DJ; Palmon A

2010-09-01

257

Anopheles salivary gland proteomes from major malaria vectors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BackgroundAntibody responses against Anopheles salivary proteins can indicate individual exposure to bites of malaria vectors. The extent to which these salivary proteins are species-specific is not entirely resolved. Thus, a better knowledge of the diversity among salivary protein repertoires...

Fontaine, Albin; Fusaï, Thierry; Briolant, Sébastien; Buffet, Sylvain; Villard, Claude; Baudelet, Emilie; Pophillat, Mathieu

258

Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the submandibular salivary gland  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Malignant tumors of the submandibular salivary glands are rare in occurrence, among which primary squamous cell carcinoma of the submandibular salivary gland is unusual and the documented evidence is 2 to 5% among malignant tumors A case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of submandibular salivary g...

Rao, G. Mallikarjuna; Ranga Reddy, S. V.; Janaki, M.; Reddy, K. Lakshmi

259

Salivary excretion of mexiletine after bolus intravenous administration in rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Salivary excretion of mexiletine was investigated following bolus intravenous administration (10 mg kg-1) in rats. Parotid and mandibular saliva was collected separately by stimulating salivation with constant rate infusion of pilocarpine (3 mg kg-1 h-1). The mexiletine levels in blood plasma and parotid and mandibular saliva declined biexponentially with time in almost parallel fashion. Although the mexiletine levels in both types of saliva were lower than that in plasma, the drug level in parotid saliva was always higher than that in mandibular saliva. Significant correlations were observed when all data relating mexiletine concentration in plasma and saliva were included (P less than 0.001). The saliva/plasma drug concentration ratios (S/P ratios) did not vary to a large extent (0.56 +/- 0.10 for parotid saliva, 0.21 +/- 0.06 for mandibular saliva), but there was a consistent tendency for the higher plasma drug levels in the distribution phase to produce relatively high S/P ratios for both parotid and mandibular saliva. Moreover, the plasma mexiletine levels calculated by the equation of Matin et al (1974) employing the observed values for the saliva drug level, saliva pH and free fraction of mexiletine in plasma were significantly higher than the observed drug levels. Therefore, it is suggested that the salivary excretion of mexiletine could not be explained quantitatively by simple, passive secretion based on pH-partition theory.

Nagasako S; Hayashibara M; Katagiri Y; Iwamoto K

1992-01-01

260

Catabolism of salivary glycoconjugates in acute ethanol intoxication.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The aim was to study the effects of a single large dose of ethanol (approximately 2.0 g/kg of body weight, as 40% vodka) on the specific activities of alpha-mannosidase, alpha-fucosidase, beta-glucuronidase, and beta-galactosidase as well as on the total protein concentration in saliva in eight healthy young volunteers. MATERIAL/METHODS: Resting whole saliva samples were collected 12 hours prior to and 36 and 108 hours after alcohol consumption. Exoglycosidase activities were assayed in the supernatants by the colorimetric method. Protein content was determined by the Lowry method. RESULTS: Thirty-six hours after alcohol consumption the specific activities of alpha-fucosidase and beta-glucuronidase were significantly higher than before drinking. The specific activity of beta-galactosidase showed a greater tendency to increase than alpha-mannosidase after the drinking session. The total protein concentration was significantly lower after alcohol consumption than at baseline, even at 108 hr. Significant inverse correlations between total protein content and the specific activities of the exoglycosidases in saliva were found after the drinking session. CONCLUSIONS: Acute ingestion of a large dose of ethanol increased the activity of salivary exoglycosidases, which might be followed by subsequent degradation of proteins in saliva. The observed changes might contribute to salivary defense system malfunction as well as to oral malodor production.

Waszkiewicz N; Szajda SD; Jankowska A; Waszkiewicz M; Kepka A; Konarzewska B; Szulc A; Snarska J; Zwierz K

2009-08-01

 
 
 
 
261

Salivary bisphenol-A levels due to dental sealant/resin: a case-control study in Korean children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dental sealants and composite filling materials containing bisphenol-A (BPA) derivatives are increasingly used in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between salivary BPA and the number of tooth surfaces filled with dental sealant, and to determine a cutoff BPA level. Salivary BPA concentration and the number of tooth surfaces filled with dental sealant/resin were determined in 124 age and gender matched children: 62 controls had no dental sealant/resin on their tooth surfaces and 62 cases had more than 4 tooth surfaces with dental sealant/resin. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and conditional logistic regression were performed after controlling for age, gender, salivary flow rate, salivary buffer capacity, frequency of snacking, and frequency of tooth brushing. Salivary BPA levels were 0.002 to 8.305 µg/L. The BPA level of control (0.40 µg/L) was significantly lower than that of case (0.92 µg/L) after controlling for confounders (P = 0.026). Although the 90th BPA percentile had an adjusted OR of 4.58 (95% CI 1.04-20.26, P = 0.045), the significance disappeared in the conditional logistic model. There may be a relationship between salivary BPA level and dental sealant/resin. PMID:22969259

Han, Dong-Hun; Kim, Min-Ji; Jun, Eun-Joo; Kim, Jin-Bom

2012-08-22

262

Salivary bisphenol-A levels due to dental sealant/resin: a case-control study in Korean children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Dental sealants and composite filling materials containing bisphenol-A (BPA) derivatives are increasingly used in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between salivary BPA and the number of tooth surfaces filled with dental sealant, and to determine a cutoff BPA level. Salivary BPA concentration and the number of tooth surfaces filled with dental sealant/resin were determined in 124 age and gender matched children: 62 controls had no dental sealant/resin on their tooth surfaces and 62 cases had more than 4 tooth surfaces with dental sealant/resin. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and conditional logistic regression were performed after controlling for age, gender, salivary flow rate, salivary buffer capacity, frequency of snacking, and frequency of tooth brushing. Salivary BPA levels were 0.002 to 8.305 µg/L. The BPA level of control (0.40 µg/L) was significantly lower than that of case (0.92 µg/L) after controlling for confounders (P = 0.026). Although the 90th BPA percentile had an adjusted OR of 4.58 (95% CI 1.04-20.26, P = 0.045), the significance disappeared in the conditional logistic model. There may be a relationship between salivary BPA level and dental sealant/resin.

Han DH; Kim MJ; Jun EJ; Kim JB

2012-09-01

263

Experimental microsurgery of salivary ducts in dogs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The results achieved by experimental microsurgical suturing of salivary ducts in dogs are presented. Nine partial lesions and one complete transection of the ducts were made on parotid and submandibular ducts. Four to seven interrupted microsutures were used for each lesion. The operations were successful in seven out of 10 cases, as observed by sialography. Histologically, granulation tissue compressing the ducts was observed after suturing the lesions. Four venous graft transplantations were performed and none were successful. After venous graft transplantation, the transplant was not apparent histologically, raising doubt as to the potential success of this technique. The use of stenting is discussed based on a summary of the published literature. Those reports indicate that long-term stenting can benefit the outcome of salivary duct repair. The use of dogs as a model for experimental salivary duct operations has been shown to be valuable in assessing various surgical techniques.

Dumpis J; Feldmane L

2001-02-01

264

Aphasia severity and salivary cortisol over time.  

Science.gov (United States)

The current study explored the complicated interplay between aphasia and the stress biomarker, cortisol, in left-hemisphere (LH) and right-hemisphere (RH) stroke patients. Nineteen LH patients and 12 RH patients began the study between one to six months post stroke and were followed for three months. During this time, language skills were assessed monthly while afternoon salivary cortisol samples were collected biweekly. The LH and RH groups showed improvements in language test scores over the course of three months; however, only naming skills in the RH group appeared to be associated with afternoon salivary cortisol levels. Furthermore, contradicting previous reports regarding laterality and cortisol regulation in humans, the current study found that both LH patients and RH patients exhibited similar afternoon salivary cortisol levels across all time points. PMID:22352852

Laures-Gore, Jacqueline S

2012-02-22

265

Aphasia severity and salivary cortisol over time.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The current study explored the complicated interplay between aphasia and the stress biomarker, cortisol, in left-hemisphere (LH) and right-hemisphere (RH) stroke patients. Nineteen LH patients and 12 RH patients began the study between one to six months post stroke and were followed for three months. During this time, language skills were assessed monthly while afternoon salivary cortisol samples were collected biweekly. The LH and RH groups showed improvements in language test scores over the course of three months; however, only naming skills in the RH group appeared to be associated with afternoon salivary cortisol levels. Furthermore, contradicting previous reports regarding laterality and cortisol regulation in humans, the current study found that both LH patients and RH patients exhibited similar afternoon salivary cortisol levels across all time points.

Laures-Gore JS

2012-01-01

266

Evaluation of radioprotective effect of vitamin E in salivary dysfunction in irradiated rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the radioprotective effect of vitamin E in salivary gland function, as well as analyse the total protein concentration. For this purpose 90 male rats were used and randomly divided into five experimental groups: control (I), in which animals received olive oil solution but were not irradiated; irradiated-olive oil (II), in which animals received olive oil solution and were irradiated with a single exposure dose of 15 Gy of gamma rays to the head and neck region; irradiated (III), in which animals were only irradiated with a single exposure dose of 15 Gy of gamma rays; vitamin E (IV), in which animals received alpha tocopherol acetate solution but were not irradiated; irradiated-vitamin E (V), in which animals received alpha tocopherol acetate solution before irradiation with a single exposure dose of 15 Gy gamma rays. The animals were sacrificed 4, 8 h and 30 days after the irradiation procedure. No differences were observed in salivary volumes between the groups at 4 and 8 h. At 30 days, the salivary volume in the animals pertaining to the irradiated-olive oil group was significantly reduced in relation to the control group. The only irradiated group (III) presented significantly diminished salivary volume. In the salivary composition, no significant differences were observed in the total protein content between the groups studied. It was concluded that radiation had no effect on the total protein content and that vitamin E protected the salivary function 30 days after irradiation. Thus, vitamin E can be considered as a potential radioprotective substance. PMID:16087151

Ramos, Flávia Maria de Moraes; Pontual, Maria Luiza Dos Anjos; de Almeida, Solange Maria; Bóscolo, Frab Norberto; Tabchoury, Cinthia Pereira Machado; Novaes, Pedro Duarte

2005-08-08

267

Chlorella intake attenuates reduced salivary SIgA secretion in kendo training camp participants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The green alga Chlorella contains high levels of proteins, vitamins, and minerals. We previously reported that a chlorella-derived multicomponent supplement increased the secretion rate of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) in humans. Here, we investigated whether intake of this chlorella-derived supplement attenuated the reduced salivary SIgA secretion rate during a kendo training camp. METHODS: Ten female kendo athletes participated in inter-university 6-day spring and 4-day summer camps. They were randomized into two groups; one took placebo tablets during the spring camp and chlorella tablets during the summer camp, while the other took chlorella tablets during the spring camp and placebo tablets during the summer camp. Subjects took these tablets starting 4 weeks before the camp until post-camp saliva sampling. Salivary SIgA concentrations were measured by ELISA. RESULTS: All subjects participated in nearly all training programs, and body-mass changes and subjective physical well-being scores during the camps were comparable between the groups. However, salivary SIgA secretion rate changes were different between these groups. Salivary SIgA secretion rates decreased during the camp in the placebo group (before vs. second, middle, and final day of camp, and after the camp: 146 ± 89 vs. 87 ± 56, 70 ± 45, 94 ± 58, and 116 ± 71 ?g/min), whereas no such decreases were observed in the chlorella group (121 ± 53 vs. 113 ± 68, 98 ± 69,115 ± 80, and 128 ± 59 ?g/min). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that a use of a chlorella-derived dietary supplement attenuates reduced salivary SIgA secretion during a training camp for a competitive sport.

Otsuki T; Shimizu K; Iemitsu M; Kono I

2012-01-01

268

On the mechanism of salivary gland radiosensitivity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To contribute to the understanding of the enigmatic radiosensitivity of the salivary glands by analysis of appropriate literature, especially with respect to mechanisms of action of early radiation damage, and to supply information on the possibilities of amelioration of radiation damage to the salivary glands after radiotherapy of head-and-neck cancer. Methods and Materials: Selected published data on the mechanism of salivary gland radiosensitivity and radioprotection were studied and analyzed. Results: From a classical point of view, the salivary glands should not respond as rapidly to radiation as they appear to do. Next to the suggestion of massive apoptosis, the leakage of granules and subsequent lysis of acinar cells was suggested to be responsible for the acute radiation-induced function loss of the salivary glands. The main problem with these hypotheses is that recently performed assays show no cell loss during the first days after irradiation, while saliva flow is dramatically diminished. The water secretion is selectively hampered during the first days after single-dose irradiation. Literature is discussed that shows that the compromised cells suffer selective radiation damage to the plasma membrane, disturbing signal transduction primarily affecting watery secretion. Although the cellular composition of the submandibular gland and the parotid gland are different, the damage response is very alike. The acute radiation-induced function loss in both salivary glands can be ameliorated by prophylactic treatment with specific receptor agonists. Conclusions: The most probable mechanism of action, explaining the enigmatic high radiosensitivity for early effects, is selective radiation damage to the plasma membrane of the secretory cells, disturbing muscarinic receptor stimulated watery secretion. Later damage is mainly due to classical mitotic cell death of progenitor cells, leading to a hampered replacement capacity of the gland for secretory cells, but is also caused by damage to the extracellular environment, preventing proper cell functioning.

2005-07-15

269

Stress and salivary cortisol during pregnancy  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The purpose of this study was to determine whether exposure to stressful life events was associated with changes in levels of circulating cortisol during pregnancy in a population of 603 pregnant women. The participating pregnant women filled out a questionnaire and collected a morning and evening sample of saliva in early pregnancy (median 14th gestational week) and in late pregnancy (median and 30th gestational week). They were asked to report the number of life events experienced during first and second trimester, respectively, and were asked to rate the intensity of the experienced events. Complications related to the pregnancy such as vaginal bleeding and suspected growth retardation were registered and the women were asked about concerns about their pregnancy. The salivary samples were analyzed for cortisol and the levels were higher in late than in early pregnancy. In late pregnancy women exposed to more than one life event or were concerned about pregnancy complications during second trimester had a higher evening cortisol level, whereas morning values were unaffected. After adjustment for smoking women who experienced more than one very stressful life event had 27% higher evening cortisol concentrations (95% confidence intervals: 1-59%). Women with worries about pregnancy complications had 27% (95% confidence intervals: 2-57%) higher levels. In early pregnancy women reporting stressful life events did not have higher evening cortisol levels, but tended to have a blunted morning HPA response. In conclusion, we found differences in the associations between chronic stress in early and late pregnancy and cortisol levels indicating that the response to chronic stress is dependent on the stage of the pregnancy.

Obel, C; Hedegaard, M

2005-01-01

270

[Adenomatoid hyperplasia of minor salivary glands  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Adenomatoid hyperplasia of minor salivary glands in an uncommon clinicopathologic entity, first reported, in 1971, by Giansanti and cols. The condition mimics a neoplasm because of its swelling, but the histologic picture agrees with that of normal appearing salivary gland tissue. The interest of this entity is that although benign pseudotumoral lesion, it can be clinically confused with benign or malignant tumors and even, through fine needle aspiration cytology, with low grade mucoepidermoid tumors. We present one case of this condition arising in the soft palate in a patient with unilateral serous otitis media. A review of the published literature on the subject is done.

Guallart Doménech F; Molina Mira A; González Martínez MA; Pons Rocher F; Mompó Romero L; Serrano Badía E

1994-01-01

271

Industrial noise exposure and salivary cortisol in blue collar industrial workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Measuring non-auditory effects of noise such as stress-inducing ones have become of interest recently. Salivary cortisol has become a popular measure in stress research. So, assessing noise-induced stress via saliva cortisol evaluation can present a bright future in non-invasive exposure assessment methods. This study had 3 goals: (1) Assess and compare saliva cortisol concentrations in the morning and evening in normal work day and leisure day in industrial workers, (2) assess the relationship between industrial noise exposure and salivary cortisol concentrations, and (3) assess the possibility of using salivary cortisol as a possible marker of noise-induced stress. This study included 80 male participants working in 4 different parts (painting, assembling lines, casting, and packaging) of a household manufacturing company. Morning and evening saliva samples were collected at 7.00 am and 4.00 pm, respectively. Noise exposure levels were assessed by sound level meter and noise dosimeter. All measurements occurred in two days: One in leisure day and other in working day. Descriptive statistics, paired sample t-test, and regression analysis were used as statistical tools of this study with P 80 dBA. Our study revealed that industrial noise, with levels > 80 dBA, has a significant effect on salivary cortisol elevation. PMID:22918149

Fouladi, D Behzad; Nassiri, Parvin; Monazzam, E Mohammadreza; Farahani, Saeed; Hassanzadeh, Gholamreza; Hoseini, Mostafa

272

Salivary defense proteins: their network and role in innate and acquired oral immunity.  

Science.gov (United States)

There are numerous defense proteins present in the saliva. Although some of these molecules are present in rather low concentrations, their effects are additive and/or synergistic, resulting in an efficient molecular defense network of the oral cavity. Moreover, local concentrations of these proteins near the mucosal surfaces (mucosal transudate), periodontal sulcus (gingival crevicular fluid) and oral wounds and ulcers (transudate) may be much greater, and in many cases reinforced by immune and/or inflammatory reactions of the oral mucosa. Some defense proteins, like salivary immunoglobulins and salivary chaperokine HSP70/HSPAs (70 kDa heat shock proteins), are involved in both innate and acquired immunity. Cationic peptides and other defense proteins like lysozyme, bactericidal/permeability increasing protein (BPI), BPI-like proteins, PLUNC (palate lung and nasal epithelial clone) proteins, salivary amylase, cystatins, prolin-rich proteins, mucins, peroxidases, statherin and others are primarily responsible for innate immunity. In this paper, this complex system and function of the salivary defense proteins will be reviewed. PMID:22605979

Fábián, Tibor Károly; Hermann, Péter; Beck, Anita; Fejérdy, Pál; Fábián, Gábor

2012-04-02

273

Salivary defense proteins: their network and role in innate and acquired oral immunity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There are numerous defense proteins present in the saliva. Although some of these molecules are present in rather low concentrations, their effects are additive and/or synergistic, resulting in an efficient molecular defense network of the oral cavity. Moreover, local concentrations of these proteins near the mucosal surfaces (mucosal transudate), periodontal sulcus (gingival crevicular fluid) and oral wounds and ulcers (transudate) may be much greater, and in many cases reinforced by immune and/or inflammatory reactions of the oral mucosa. Some defense proteins, like salivary immunoglobulins and salivary chaperokine HSP70/HSPAs (70 kDa heat shock proteins), are involved in both innate and acquired immunity. Cationic peptides and other defense proteins like lysozyme, bactericidal/permeability increasing protein (BPI), BPI-like proteins, PLUNC (palate lung and nasal epithelial clone) proteins, salivary amylase, cystatins, prolin-rich proteins, mucins, peroxidases, statherin and others are primarily responsible for innate immunity. In this paper, this complex system and function of the salivary defense proteins will be reviewed.

Fábián TK; Hermann P; Beck A; Fejérdy P; Fábián G

2012-01-01

274

Salivary testosterone: relationship to unbound plasma testosterone in normal and hyperandrogenic women.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) was used to measure salivary testosterone levels in normal women, in patients with polycystic ovaries (PCO), and in women with hirsutism. There was a highly significant correlation (r = 0.79, P less than 0.001) between the concentration of testosterone in saliva [12.3 +/- 7.8 (SD) pg/ml] and the concentration of unbound testosterone in plasma (5.2 +/- 3.1 pg/ml) in matched samples collected from 56 women including normals, patients with clinical signs of hyperandrogenism, and women treated with a combination of cyproterone acetate (CA) and ethinyl oestradiol (EE). The unbound plasma testosterone was measured in the dialysate directly using a sensitive RIA. Salivary and plasma testosterone levels in patients with PCO (20.6 +/- 8.5 and 626 +/- 187 pg/ml respectively, n = 14) and in those with hirsutism (13.9 +/- 5.6 and 421 +/- 170 pg/ml, n = 30) were significantly higher (P less than 0.001) than levels in normal women (7.7 +/- 2.6 and 196 +/- 68 pg/ml, n = 36). Treatment for 3 months with CA and EE resulted in a decrease (mean 68%) in salivary testosterone levels in all patients studied (n = 15), but the suppression of plasma testosterone (mean 34%) was not observed in all cases. It is concluded that measurement of salivary testosterone gives a useful indication of levels of biologically available androgen in hyperandrogenic women, before and during CA/EE therapy.

Baxendale PM; Jacobs HS; James VH

1982-06-01

275

Effect of plaque accumulation and salivary factors on enamel demineralization and plaque composition in situ  

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Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of some plaque and salivary factors on caries progression in situ. The salivary secretion rate, buffering capacity and mutans streptococci counts from 13 volunteers were determined. For three distinct periods of time, 4, 7 and 10 days, each of them wore a palatal appliance containing 4 bovine enamel blocks. They used a non-fluoridated dentifrice during the experiment and a 20% sucrose solution was dripped onto the blocks 10 times a day. Mutans streptococci (MS), calcium (Ca), and insoluble polysaccharide (IP) were quantified in the dental plaque formed on the enamel blocks, after each period. Enamel demineralization was assessed by surface microhardness, and the percentage of surface microhardness change (%SMC) in relation to the baseline values was calculated. Enamel demineralization occurred after each period of plaque accumulation (p < 0.05), and the %SMC increased with time (from 13.8 to 48.3%). The concentrations of Ca and IP in plaque were not statistically different among the experimental times, but significant correlations were found between these concentrations and %SMC. Neither the salivary factors assessed initially nor mutans streptococci in plaque presented statistically significant correlations to %SMC. The results suggest that enamel demineralization is time-dependent and is more related to the composition of the biofilm formed than to the salivary factors studied.

Tenuta Livia Maria Andaló; Lima José Eduardo de Oliveira; Cardoso Celso Luiz; Tabchoury Cínthia Pereira Machado; Cury Jaime Aparecido

2003-01-01

276

A kinetic compartment model for evaluating salivary gland scintigraphies  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The semi-quantitative analysis of salivary gland scintigraphy with (99m) Tc-pertechnetate has been used to evaluate salivary gland function. However, no objective parameters distinguishing abnormal from normal functions have been established thus far. We propose using a simple kinetic model applied to the four major salivary glands. This kinetic model is based on a two-compartment model and the assumption of first-order kinetics to characterize normal salivary gland function and other selected parameters to evaluate the normal function of salivary glands.

Afzelius, Pia; Fuglsang, Stefan

2013-01-01

277

The incorporation of radio-labelled nucleic acid precursors by Theileria parva in bovine blood and salivary glands of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The uptake of radio-labelled nucleic acid precursors by blood and tick salivary gland forms of Theileria parva was studied. Piroplasms took up tritiated purines, particularly hypoxanthine, but not pyrimidines. Similar uptake was recorded by T. parva, both in tick saliva and in salivary glands maintained in vitro. Intermediate parasite stages were those most readily labelled in glands; this reflected active nucleic acid synthesis associated with rapid parasite division. Radio-labelling of T. parva in tick salivary glands could be of value in procedures used for concentrating and purifying theilerial sporozoites. (author)

1981-01-01

278

Incorporation of radio-labelled nucleic acid precursors by Theileria parva in bovine blood and salivary glands of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The uptake of radio-labelled nucleic acid precursors by blood and tick salivary gland forms of Theileria parva was studied. Piroplasms took up tritiated purines, particularly hypoxanthine, but not pyrimidines. Similar uptake was recorded by T. parva, both in tick saliva and in salivary glands maintained in vitro. Intermediate parasite stages were those most readily labelled in glands; this reflected active nucleic acid synthesis associated with rapid parasite division. Radio-labelling of T. parva in tick salivary glands could be of value in procedures used for concentrating and purifying theilerial sporozoites.

Irvin, A.D.; Boarer, C.D.H.; Kurtti, T.J.; Ocama, J.G.R. (International Lab. for Research on Animal Diseases, Nairobi (Kenya))

1981-12-01

279

[Sialendoscopy for obstructive disorders of the salivary glands].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Obstructive disorders of the salivary glands usually manifest as a swelling which is associated with meals ('mealtime syndrome') as well as inflammation of the gland. Obstruction of the salivary ducts of the parotid and submandibular glands is usually caused by a salivary stone, mucous plug or by a stenosis. Until recently, the options for diagnosis and treating these conditions were limited. Ultimately, the decision to remove the salivary gland was often made. Sialendoscopy is a recently developed semi-rigid optical technique that can be used to detect and usually treat obstructions in the salivary ductal system. This new, minimally invasive technique has resulted in the reduction of morbidity related to salivary gland obstruction. In many patients, surgical removal of the salivary gland can be avoided by using this technique.

van der Meij EH; Pijpe J; van Ingen JM; de Visscher JG

2013-01-01

280

Association between low bone mineral density and increased ?-defensin in salivary fluid among postmenopausal women.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the concentration of ?-defensin human neutrophil peptide-1 (HNP-1; a peptide released by neutrophils) in salivary fluid among postmenopausal women and to compare bone mineral density among postmenopausal women with different concentrations of this peptide. METHODS: We consecutively enrolled 61 postmenopausal women. Bone density was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and ?-defensin HNP-1 was identified by proteomic analysis of salivary fluid specimen. RESULTS: We found a significant difference in bone mineral density among postmenopausal women with different concentrations of ?-defensin HNP-1 in salivary fluid. In particular, women with higher ?-defensin concentrations had the lowest bone density in comparison with those with a lower concentration of defensin (P = 0.03 between groups). Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses showed a significative inverse relationship between bone mineral density and age (r = -0.58, ? = -0.56) and peak of ?-defensin (r = -0.26, ? = -0.21). CONCLUSIONS: Low bone mineral density is found in postmenopausal women with high ?-defensin HNP-1 concentrations. Therefore, ?-defensin HNP-1 could be a novel biomarker for osteoporosis.

Terracciano R; Migliaccio V; Savino R; Pujia A; Montalcini T

2013-08-01

 
 
 
 
281

Overestimation of salivary 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 level when using stimulated saliva with gum-chewing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The measurement of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] in whole saliva can be a noninvasive tool for assessing vitamin D status. Gum-chewing increases salivation and is often used to collect an adequate sample volume of saliva within a shorter time. The aim of this study was to clarify whether the concentration of 25(OH)D3 in whole saliva is influenced by gum-chewing. METHODS: Stimulated saliva was collected from healthy volunteers chewing a tasteless and flavorless chewing gum after unstimulated saliva was collected without gum-chewing. The salivary 25(OH)D3 and albumin concentrations were measured. RESULTS: The salivary 25(OH)D3 concentration was reproducibly measured when saliva was collected without gum-chewing, whereas the concentration was significantly increased by gum-chewing (p<0.05, paired t-test). One of the causes for the gum-chewing-induced increase in the 25(OH)D3 concentration may be the increased amount of protein-bound 25(OH)D3 in whole saliva. CONCLUSION: Stimulated saliva by gum-chewing should be used with caution in the measurement of 25(OH)D3. The protein binding rate in plasma is a significant consideration when predicting whether the salivary concentration of a compound is varied by gum-chewing.

Higashi T; Hijikuro M; Yamagata K; Ogawa S

2013-09-01

282

Adrenoceptor-activated nitric oxide synthesis in salivary acinar cells  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We investigated the cellular regulation of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in isolated acinar cells from rat parotid and human labial salivary glands, using the newly developed fluorescent nitric oxide (NO) indicator, DAF-2. We found that sympathetic stimulation with norepinephrine (NE) caused a strong increase in NO synthesis that was not seen after parasympathetic stimulation with acetylcholine. In rat parotid acinar cells, we furthermore investigated to which extent the NOS activity was dependent on the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) by simultaneously measuring NO synthesis and [Ca2+]i. It was found that a simple correlation between the rise in [Ca2+]i and the rate of NO production following NE stimulation does not exist, and studies in which [Ca2+]i was elevated by means of the Ca 2+ ionophore, ionomycin, further established that even a very large rise in [Ca2+]i did not cause significant NO synthesis. We furthermore found that activating adrenoceptors with NE causes synthesis of cGMP by activating a guanylyl cyclase, and that an enhanced [cGMP] evoked by use of caged cGMP causes Ca2+ release from internal stores. Thus, upon sympathetic stimulation, salivary gland acini synthesize NO that, in addition to playing a role in controlling intracellular [Ca2+] i' also might play a role in retrograde signaling processes to the surrounding tissue.

Looms, Dagnia; Dissing, Steen

2000-01-01

283

Salivary hormonal values from high-speed resistive exercise workouts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our study purpose examined salivary hormonal responses to high-speed resistive exercise. Healthy subjects (n = 45) performed 2 elbow flexor workouts on a novel (inertial kinetic exercise; Oconomowoc, WI, USA) strength training device. Our methods included saliva sample collection at both preexercise and immediately postexercise; workouts entailed two 60-second sets separated by a 90-second rest period. The samples were analyzed in duplicate for their testosterone and cortisol concentrations ([T], [C]). Average and maximum elbow flexor torque were measured from each exercise bout; they were later analyzed with a 2(gender) × 2(workout) analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures for workout. The [T] and [C] each underwent a 2(gender) × 2(time) ANOVA with repeated measures for time. A within-subject design was used to limit error variance. Average and maximum torque each had gender (men > women; p workouts and the rather modest volume of muscle mass engaged. Practical applications imply that salivary assays may be a viable alternative to blood draws from athletes, yet coaches and others who may administer this treatment should know that our results may have produced greater pre-post hormonal changes if postexercise sample collection had occurred at a later time point. PMID:22310520

Caruso, John F; Lutz, Brant M; Davidson, Mark E; Wilson, Kyle; Crane, Chris S; Craig, Chrsity E; Nissen, Tim E; Mason, Melissa L; Coday, Michael A; Sheaff, Robert J; Potter, William T

2012-03-01

284

Enhanced early morning salivary cortisol in neuroticism.  

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Neuroticism is a predisposing factor for major depression. The increase in salivary cortisol that follows waking provides a reliable measure of adrenocortical activity, and this response is increased in recovered depressed patients. This study compared waking cortisol levels in healthy subjects with...

Portella, MJ; Harmer, CJ; Flint, J; Cowen, P; Goodwin, GM

285

Salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland  

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Salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland is an uncommon tumor, highly aggressive. About 200 cases have been reported in the English literature. Pathomorphologically, these tumors showed great similarities to ductal carcinoma of the female breast, which is why they described this tumor as “saliva...

Mlika, Mona; Kourda, Nadia; Zidi, YSH; Aloui, Raoudha; Zneidi, Nadia; Rammeh, Soumaya; Zermani, Rachida; Jilani, Sarah Ben

286

Predictors of salivary fistula after total laryngectomy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence of pharyngocutaneous fistula after total laryngectomy and try to identify its predictors. METHODS: From May 2005 to April 2010, 93 patients underwent total laryngectomy. We evaluated complications during and after surgery and compared them with the following variables: gender, nutritional status, previous tracheotomy, tumor location, type of surgery, TNM staging, prior treatment with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy, use of flaps for reconstruction and surgical margin. All patients presented with advanced neoplastic disease according to TNM. RESULTS: 14 (15.1%) patients developed postoperative salivary fistula. The mean time to onset of salivary fistula was 3.5 days, with a standard deviation of 13.7 days. Comparing salivary fistula with TNM variables, type of operation and neck dissection, prior tracheotomy, use of flap, preoperative radio and chemotherapy and surgical margin, there was no statistically significant difference (p> 0,05). CONCLUSION: The incidence of salivary fistula was 15.1% and no predictive factor for its formation was found.

Sousa Ade A; Porcaro-Salles JM; Soares JM; de Moraes GM; Carvalho JR; Silva GS; Savassi-Rocha PR

2013-03-01

287

Salivary duct carcinoma of parotid gland  

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A 40-year old male presented with rapidly growing swelling in the right parotid region. Based on the fine needle aspiration cytology report of adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified, superficial parotidectomy was performed, which showed the features of salivary duct carcinoma by histopathological ex...

Kinnera, Vijay Sreedhar Babu; Mandyam, Kumaraswamy Reddy; Chowhan, Amit Kumar; Nandyala, Rukmangadha; Bobbidi, Venkata Phaneendra

288

Use of salivary osmolality to assess dehydration.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the ability of salivary osmolality to assess dehydration while subjects perform alternating work/rest cycles in personal protective equipment (PPE). METHODS: Eight healthy men (mean ± standard deviation age: 23.5 ± 4.9 years; body fat: 17.8% ± 5.0%; maximum volume of oxygen consumption [VO(2max)]: 57.2 ± 5.5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) performed two exercise trials: one while wearing shorts and a T-shirt (EX) and one while wearing firefighting PPE (EX+PPE). Saliva samples were taken before exercise, at minutes 40, 80, and 120 of the exercise trial, and during recovery. RESULTS: Percent body mass loss (BML) was significantly greater while the subjects were wearing PPE (2.18% ± 0.54% vs. control 0.81% ± 0.30%). Salivary osmolality increased significantly in both trials (73.4 ± 12.4 to 125.1 ± 30.3 mOsm·kg(-1) and 70.1 ± 12.5 to 83.6 ± 17.7 mOsm·kg(-1)); however, the increase in the EX+PPE trial was significantly greater than the increase in the EX trial. Plasma osmolality did not change significantly in either trial, whereas urinary osmolality increased significantly in both trials. Changes in salivary osmolality were strongly correlated with percent BML (r = 0.80; p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Salivary osmolality may be a sensitive indicator of moderate dehydration under carefully controlled conditions.

Smith DL; Shalmiyeva I; Deblois J; Winke M

2012-01-01

289

Salivary PYY: a putative bypass to satiety.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Peptide YY(3-36) is a satiation hormone released postprandially into the bloodstream from L-endocrine cells in the gut epithelia. In the current report, we demonstrate PYY(3-36) is also present in murine as well as in human saliva. In mice, salivary PYY(3-36) derives from plasma and is also synthesized in the taste cells in taste buds of the tongue. Moreover, the cognate receptor Y2R is abundantly expressed in the basal layer of the progenitor cells of the tongue epithelia and von Ebner's gland. The acute augmentation of salivary PYY(3-36) induced stronger satiation as demonstrated in feeding behavioral studies. The effect is mediated through the activation of the specific Y2 receptor expressed in the lingual epithelial cells. In a long-term study involving diet-induced obese (DIO) mice, a sustained increase in PYY(3-36) was achieved using viral vector-mediated gene delivery targeting salivary glands. The chronic increase in salivary PYY(3-36) resulted in a significant long-term reduction in food intake (FI) and body weight (BW). Thus this study provides evidence for new functions of the previously characterized gut peptide PYY(3-36) suggesting a potential simple and efficient alternative therapeutic approach for the treatment of obesity.

Acosta A; Hurtado MD; Gorbatyuk O; La Sala M; Duncan D; Aslanidi G; Campbell-Thompson M; Zhang L; Herzog H; Voutetakis A; Baum BJ; Zolotukhin S

2011-01-01

290

Osteopontin expression in salivary gland carcinomas  

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J Oral Pathol Med (2010) Background:? In several cancer types, osteopontin (OPN) expression has been correlated with tumor progression and prognosis. Two earlier studies have examined OPN expression in salivary gland carcinomas with contradictory results. Methods:? One hundred and seventy-five patie...

Bjørndal, Kristine; Larsen, Stine R; Godballe, Christian; Krogdahl, Annelise

291

INTRA-ORAL MINOR SALIVARY GLANDS NEOPLASMS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To determine the relative frequency and distribution of various types of intra-oral minor salivary gland tumours andtheir treatment modalities. Design: Retrospective descriptive study. Setting: Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH), TANZANIA; at thedepartment of Oral Surgery and Oral pathology Period: From 1993 to 2008. (16 years). Data source: Hospital based data Methodology: Theinformation was retrieved from files and included; age, gender as well as their location, histological types and treatment modalities. Microscopic slides of all cases were reviewed and where necessary paraffin sections were re-cut and subsequently stained by haematoxylin and Eosin. Special stained such as Periodic acid Schiff and/or mucicarmine were also performed in controversial cases. Tumours were classified according to the World Health Organization’s Histological Typing of salivary gland tumours. Data were entered in the computer and analysed by SPSS. Statistical analysis was performed by student’s t-test, and the difference were considered at 0.05 significance level. Results: A total of 33 cases of intra-oral minor salivary gland tumours were studied. Out of these, 13 cases were benign and 20 were malignant. The male to female ratio for both benign and malignant tumours was 1:1.7. The age range for those with benign tumours was 16-78 years while for malignant ones was 17-76 years. Females were more affected than males in both benign and malignant neoplasms. There was a statistically significant difference in the mean age of occurrence of intra-oral minor salivary gland tumours in female compared to males (P= 0.003). With regard to the location of minor salivary gland tumours, the palate was the most affected site (51.5%). Pleomorphic adenoma was the most frequent tumour located on the palate (52.9%).Similarly, the majority of malignant tumours were located on the palate (38%) followed by the Cheek (23.8%) and included adenocarcinoma, adenoidcystic carcinoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Most malignant tumours were treated by adjuvant radiation therapy. Pleomorphic adenoma located on the palate was treated by excision with 1cm clinical margins at its periphery and including the overlying epithelium and periosteum. However, pleomorphic adenoma located on other mucosa sites was treated by peripheral excision with 1cm margin. With regard to monomorphic adenoma, conservative surgical excision including a rim or margin of normal uninvolved tissue was done. Conclusion: Palate was the common site for intraoral minor salivary gland tumours and that the percentage of the palatal caseswere higher in benign than in malignant tumours. The mean age of occurrence of minor intraoral salivary gland tumours was higher in female patients than that of male patients.

JEREMIAH MOSHY; HENRY MWAKYOMA; SIRA OWIBINGIRE

2010-01-01

292

Characteristics of salivary secretion in normal-weight, overweight and obese children: a preliminary study : Salivary composition and excessive fat tissue.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Information on salivary characteristics of young subjects with different body composition is scarce. Thus, the aim of this pilot study was to assess salivary characteristics of normal-weight, overweight and obese children. This is a basic research design in which 68 children (5-12 years) were recruited and anthropometric measurements consisted of body mass index (BMI = Kg/m(2)), body perimeters (waist/arm circumferences) and subcutaneous fat tissue (triceps/subscapular thicknesses). Stimulated (SS) and unstimulated morning saliva (US) were collected to determine flow rate, pH and triglycerides, urea, alpha-amylase, total protein, phosphate and calcium concentrations. Data were analyzed using normality tests, t test/Wilcoxon, one-way ANOVA/Kruskal-Wallis and Pearson's/Spearman's correlation tests, where appropriate. Results: Age, household income, parents' education, saliva flow and pH did not differ among groups. Waist circumference and subscapular skinfold differed significantly between normal-weight and obese groups; only waist circumference showed significant correlation with BMI in all groups. pH increased significantly from US to SS in all groups; but flow rate increased from US to SS only in normal-weight and overweight groups. Total protein, amylase, urea, phosphate, triglyceride and calcium concentrations did not differ among groups. However, urea, phosphate and calcium concentrations differed significantly between US and SS in the normal-weight and overweight groups, with the lowest values for SS. In the overweight group, total protein also differed between saliva samples and obese group showed no difference in biochemical parameters between US and SS. Finally, some salivary characteristics may vary among normal-weight, overweight and obese children; thus, future studies in a larger sample are needed to fully understand salivary secretion and composition of these subjects.

de Campos MM; Kobayashi FY; Barbosa TD; Costa SD; Lucas BD; Castelo PM

2013-02-01

293

Reduced salivary flow and colonization by mutans streptococci in children with Down syndrome.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Although individuals with Down syndrome have considerable oral disease, the prevalence of dental caries in this group is low. The present study aimed to compare known risk factors for dental caries development in children with Down syndrome and a matched population (siblings). In both populations, the number of acidogenic microorganisms, such as mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and Candida species, and the paraffin-stimulated pH, flow rate and IgA concentration in whole saliva were evaluated and compared. METHOD: Saliva was collected, and the caries index was evaluated in 45 sibling pairs aged between 6 and 18 years old. The salivary IgA concentration was determined by immunoturbidimetry. Salivary mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and Candida species were quantified on mitis salivarius agar containing bacitracin and 20% sucrose, rogosa agar supplemented with glacial acetic acid and sabouraud agar supplemented with chloramphenicol, respectively. RESULTS: Down syndrome children had a higher caries-free rate (p<0.05) and lower salivary mutans streptococci counts (p<0.03) compared to their siblings. Similar numbers of lactobacilli and Candida species were found in both groups. Salivary flow rates were 36% lower in Down syndrome children compared to their siblings (p<0.05). The salivary pH did not differ between Down syndrome children and controls. The Down syndrome children had an IgA secretion rate 29% lower than that of their siblings, but this difference was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the lower number of mutans streptococci in the saliva may be one of the factors contributing to the lower caries rate observed in Down syndrome children, despite evidence of hyposalivation.

Areias C; Sampaio-Maia B; Pereira Mde L; Azevedo A; Melo P; Andrade C; Scully C

2012-09-01

294

Reduced salivary flow and colonization by mutans streptococci in children with Down syndrome  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Although individuals with Down syndrome have considerable oral disease, the prevalence of dental caries in this group is low. The present study aimed to compare known risk factors for dental caries development in children with Down syndrome and a matched population (siblings). In both populations, the number of acidogenic microorganisms, such as mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and Candida species, and the paraffin-stimulated pH, flow rate and IgA concentration in whole saliva were evaluated and compared. METHOD: Saliva was collected, and the caries index was evaluated in 45 sibling pairs aged between 6 and 18 years old. The salivary IgA concentration was determined by immunoturbidimetry. Salivary mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and Candida species were quantified on mitis salivarius agar containing bacitracin and 20% sucrose, rogosa agar supplemented with glacial acetic acid and sabouraud agar supplemented with chloramphenicol, respectively. RESULTS: Down syndrome children had a higher caries-free rate (p<0.05) and lower salivary mutans streptococci counts (p<0.03) compared to their siblings. Similar numbers of lactobacilli and Candida species were found in both groups. Salivary flow rates were 36% lower in Down syndrome children compared to their siblings (p<0.05). The salivary pH did not differ between Down syndrome children and controls. The Down syndrome children had an IgA secretion rate 29% lower than that of their siblings, but this difference was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the lower number of mutans streptococci in the saliva may be one of the factors contributing to the lower caries rate observed in Down syndrome children, despite evidence of hyposalivation.

Cristina Areias; Benedita Sampaio-Maia; Maria de Lurdes Pereira; Alvaro Azevedo; Paulo Melo; Casimiro Andrade; Crispian Scully

2012-01-01

295

Radioimmunoassay of salivary oestriol: Application to the assessment of foetal well-being  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A simple, rapid radioimmunoassay for salivary oestriol has been developed based upon a radioiodinated tracer and a Sepharose-coupled antiserum with high specificity for oestriol and oestriol-3-conjugates. The standard curve covers the range 0.75 to 17.5 nmol/L, and assay sensitivity and precision are adequate for determination of third trimester oestriol concentrations. This assay, with a short incubation time (15 min) and a high tracer activity, has proved suitable for automation using a continuous-flow system based upon the 'Southmead System' described by Ismail and co-workers. Preliminary ether extraction is unnecessary since salivary oestriol is predominantly in the unconjugated form. Measurements of unconjugated oestriol in matched samples of plasma and saliva show an excellent correlation (r=0.95). A preliminary study has been carried out to assess the feasibility of constructing individual daily salivary oestriol profiles throughout the third trimester. Data have now been collected on normal, diabetic and other high-risk patients, and these indicate that salivary oestriol measurements provide a practical alternative to the determination of plasma unconjugated oestriol. (author)

1982-01-01

296

Salivary cortisol is not a valid marker of stress-related exhaustion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Salivary cortisol has frequently been used as a biomarker of chronic stress. The results have differed considerably between studies, which could to some extent be explained by the various definitions of chronic stress cases, ranging from patients with a clinically diagnosed condition to working individuals scoring high on burnout questionnaires. Thus, it is not possible to generalize findings in the literature to stress-related conditions encountered in the clinic and it is difficult to apply the knowledge in diagnosis and treatment. The aim of this study was to elucidate the usefulness of basal salivary cortisol as a marker of chronic stress in a clinical population with stress-related exhaustion.We have measured salivary cortisol concentrations in two different samples of patients with a clinically diagnosed exhaustion disorder (ED). ED is defined as physical and mental exhaustion experienced for at least two weeks, caused by exposure to one or more stressors for a minimum of six months. In the first study, 162 patients (64% females) collected saliva samples at awakening and 15 minutes thereafter to assess the cortisol awakening response. This patient group was compared with 79 healthy controls (49% females). The patients repeated the saliva sampling at follow-up assessments after 3, 6, 12, and 18 months of treatment. The second study of 68 patients (79% females) included saliva samples taken at awakening, 30 minutes thereafter and at bedtime on two consecutive days to assess the diurnal profile, and follow-up assessments after 6 and 12 months. This study included 98 healthy controls (56% females). Age, sex, BMI, antidepressant use, and physical activity were considered as potential confounders.No significant differences were found between patients and controls in salivary cortisol awakening response (first study) or diurnal profiles (second study). Furthermore, follow-up measurements in patients indicated that salivary cortisol concentrations did not change significantly during treatment.Salivary cortisol levels, at least as measured in this study, apparently provide a rather poor reflection of the long-term stress exposure experienced by the patients in this study. Thus, basal salivary cortisol measurements are not recommended as a biomarker of stress-related exhaustion.

Ingibjörg H. Jonsdottir; Kristina Glise; Gunnar Ahlborg; Anna Sjörs

2012-01-01

297

Salivary thyroxine as an estimate of free thyroxine: concise communication  

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To test the hypothesis that the levels of salivary thyroxine (T/sub 4/) reflect those of circulating free T/sub 4/, we developed a radioimmunoassay (RIA) sensitive to low levels of T/sub 4/. Concurrent saliva and serum samples were obtained from 32 euthyroid volunteers, ages 19 to 64. Salivary and serum T/sub 4/ and cortisol levels were measured by RIA. Salivary albumin was measured by nephelometry. Salivary T/sub 4/ levels were higher than predicted. No correlation was found between salivary T/sub 4/ and serum levels of free T/sub 4/ and total T/sub 4/ but there was a significant correlation between salivary T/sub 4/ and albumin (r = 0.82). Salivary cortisol levels agreed with reported results and showed no correlation with salivary albumin. We conclude that salivary levels of drugs and hormones may be strongly affected by protein binding, and caution must be exercised in using salivary levels as an estimate of circulating free levels.

Elson, M.K.; Morley, J.E.; Shafer, R.B.

1983-08-01

298

GATA3 Immunohistochemical Expression in Salivary Gland Neoplasms.  

Science.gov (United States)

GATA3 is a zinc finger transcription factor that regulates the normal development of many tissues and cell types. Recent studies have shown that immunohistochemical nuclear staining for GATA3 among tumors is highly restricted to carcinomas of breast and urothelial origin; however salivary gland tumors have not been tested. Given that breast and salivary gland tissues are very similar with respect to embryologic development and structure, we performed GATA3 staining on a spectrum of salivary gland neoplasms. GATA3 immunohistochemistry was performed on a diverse collection of 180 benign and malignant salivary gland neoplasms including 10 acinic cell carcinomas, 2 adenocarcinomas not otherwise specified, 41 adenoid cystic carcinomas, 2 epithelial-myoepithelial carcinomas, 1 low grade cribriform cystadenocarcinoma, 15 mammary analogue secretory carcinomas, 7 metastatic squamous cell carcinomas, 27 mucoepidermoid carcinomas, 2 oncocytic carcinomas, 5 oncocytomas, 34 pleomorphic adenomas, 4 polymorphous low grade adenocarcinomas, 25 salivary duct carcinomas, and 5 Warthin tumors. Staining for GATA3 was observed in 92/180 (51 %) of salivary gland tumors. GATA3 staining was observed in most of the tumor types, but diffuse immunolabeling was consistently seen in salivary duct carcinoma (25 of 25) and mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (15 of 15)-the two tumor types that most closely resemble breast neoplasia. Background benign salivary gland tissue was also usually weakly positive in both acini and ducts. GATA3 immunostaining is not restricted to tumors of breast and urothelial origin. Rather, it is expressed across many different types of salivary gland neoplasms. As a result, salivary gland origin should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a GATA3-positive carcinoma, particularly in the head and neck. Although GATA3 immunohistochemistry is not helpful in resolving the differential diagnosis between a primary salivary gland neoplasm and metastatic breast cancer, it may have some utility in subtyping salivary gland tumors, particularly salivary duct carcinoma and mammary analogue secretory carcinoma. PMID:23604756

Schwartz, Lauren E; Begum, Shahnaz; Westra, William H; Bishop, Justin A

2013-04-20

299

GATA3 Immunohistochemical Expression in Salivary Gland Neoplasms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

GATA3 is a zinc finger transcription factor that regulates the normal development of many tissues and cell types. Recent studies have shown that immunohistochemical nuclear staining for GATA3 among tumors is highly restricted to carcinomas of breast and urothelial origin; however salivary gland tumors have not been tested. Given that breast and salivary gland tissues are very similar with respect to embryologic development and structure, we performed GATA3 staining on a spectrum of salivary gland neoplasms. GATA3 immunohistochemistry was performed on a diverse collection of 180 benign and malignant salivary gland neoplasms including 10 acinic cell carcinomas, 2 adenocarcinomas not otherwise specified, 41 adenoid cystic carcinomas, 2 epithelial-myoepithelial carcinomas, 1 low grade cribriform cystadenocarcinoma, 15 mammary analogue secretory carcinomas, 7 metastatic squamous cell carcinomas, 27 mucoepidermoid carcinomas, 2 oncocytic carcinomas, 5 oncocytomas, 34 pleomorphic adenomas, 4 polymorphous low grade adenocarcinomas, 25 salivary duct carcinomas, and 5 Warthin tumors. Staining for GATA3 was observed in 92/180 (51 %) of salivary gland tumors. GATA3 staining was observed in most of the tumor types, but diffuse immunolabeling was consistently seen in salivary duct carcinoma (25 of 25) and mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (15 of 15)-the two tumor types that most closely resemble breast neoplasia. Background benign salivary gland tissue was also usually weakly positive in both acini and ducts. GATA3 immunostaining is not restricted to tumors of breast and urothelial origin. Rather, it is expressed across many different types of salivary gland neoplasms. As a result, salivary gland origin should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a GATA3-positive carcinoma, particularly in the head and neck. Although GATA3 immunohistochemistry is not helpful in resolving the differential diagnosis between a primary salivary gland neoplasm and metastatic breast cancer, it may have some utility in subtyping salivary gland tumors, particularly salivary duct carcinoma and mammary analogue secretory carcinoma.

Schwartz LE; Begum S; Westra WH; Bishop JA

2013-04-01

300

Effects of yoga exercise on salivary beta-defensin 2.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Yoga stretching can be done comfortably and easily by beginners and older adults to compensate for lack of exercise or poor health maintenance. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of yoga stretching on mucosal immune functions, primarily human ?-defensin 2 (HBD-2) in saliva. METHODS: Fifteen healthy adults (age, 60.4 ± 8.0 years) participated in the study. Participants rested for 90 min on the first day and performed yoga for 90 min on the second day. Measurements were carried out before and after rest or yoga. Saliva samples were collected by chewing a sterile cotton at a frequency of 60 cycles per min. Salivary HBD-2 concentration was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: HBD-2 concentration after yoga stretching (165.4 ± 127.1 pg/mL) was significantly higher than that before yoga stretching (84.1 ± 63.4 pg/mL; p < 0.01). HBD-2 expression rate after yoga stretching (232.8 ± 192.9 pg/min) was significantly higher than that before yoga stretching (110.7 ± 96.8 pg/min; p < 0.01). HBD-2 concentration (p < 0.05) and HBD-2 expression rate (p < 0.01) at post on the second day (yoga) was significantly higher than that on the first day (rest). POMS score of anger-hostility was lower after yoga than before. CONCLUSIONS: Yoga stretching for 90 min can increase salivary HBD-2 expression in older adults. Therefore, yoga stretching might be useful for older adults and athletes to maintain their health.

Eda N; Shimizu K; Suzuki S; Tanabe Y; Lee E; Akama T

2013-10-01

 
 
 
 
301

Time-related changes in salivary levels of the osteotropic factors sRANKL and OPG through orthodontic tooth movement.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: In this study, we aimed to determine whether the variations in salivary concentrations of soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (sRANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG), and their ratios, might be linked with the different phases of orthodontic tooth movement. METHODS: Twenty healthy subjects who required fixed appliance therapy not involving tooth extractions or surgical procedures were selected. Unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected from each patient before fitting the orthodontic appliances, and at 24 to 48 hours, 2 weeks, 5 weeks, and 8 weeks after the activation. Salivary sRANKL and OPG concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The data were analyzed by using nonparametric statistics. RESULTS: Overall, median values of sRANKL showed significant increases, median OPG salivary values showed a significant downward trend, and the sRANKL/OPG ratio tended to increase significantly over time after the activation visit. However, clear fluctuations in the immunoenzymatic findings were noted at the different sampling times, indicating nonlinear trends in the levels of the biomarkers through time. Post-hoc pairwise comparisons showed significant differences between (1) all sRANKL values relative to those of the 8-week sampling time; (2) baseline/8-week OPG salivary levels; and (3) baseline, 24 to 48 hours, and 2-week sRANKL/OPG ratios compared with those of the 8-week test. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate that variations in salivary concentrations of sRANKL and OPG and their ratios might be linked to the different phases of orthodontic tooth movement. Hence, these analytes might serve in a panel of salivary functional biomarkers that could assist in the screening of orthodontic treatment in clinical practice.

Flórez-Moreno GA; Isaza-Guzmán DM; Tobón-Arroyave SI

2013-01-01

302

THE EFFECT OF SPORT COMPETITION ON SALIVARY STEROIDS IN AMATEUR FEMALE KARATE ATHLETES  

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Full Text Available The purpose of present study was to investigate the impact of repeated competition on salivary cortisol and DHEA-S in amateur women karate athletes. We recruited 20 young elite female karate fighters [height 158 ± 7 cm (mean ± S.D.), weight 59.5 ± 10.9 kg, age 21.1 ± 3.0 years], who were placed first till fourth in the Iranian championship tournament. Five ml of unstimulated whole saliva was collected 30-min before and 5 - min after first and last match in competition and analyzed for cortisol and DHEA-S concentrations. The results showed that participation in competition resulted in significantly increased saliva cortisol level (p 0.05). Significant differences insalivary steroids were not different between winners and losers (p > 0.05). The results of present study show that salivary cortisol concentration is a suitable index for showing competing stress.

Mohammad Ali Azarbayjani; Maria Rahmani; Mohammad Javad Rasaee; Farshad Tojari; Parisa Pournemat; Sergej M Ostojic; Stephan Robert Stannard

2010-01-01

303

Congenital absence of salivary glands in Down syndrome.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Children with Down syndrome have different saliva composition compared to normal children. The presence or absence of the salivary glands has not been previously reported. OBJECTIVE: To examine the presence or absence of the salivary glands in children with Down syndrome. METHODS: 15 children with Down syndrome underwent an ultrasound examination of the salivary glands. The control group consisted of 31 healthy children. The areas of the parotid and submandibular glands on both sides were scanned in an attempt to demonstrate all four glands. The result was reported as 'present' or 'absent'. RESULTS: In four children out of 15 with Down syndrome, one or more salivary glands were absent (26.7%), while in the controls all salivary glands were present. The difference between the groups was statistically significant (p=0.008). There was no significant difference between the groups regarding age and sex. CONCLUSIONS: At least one salivary gland is undetected by ultrasound in some children with Down syndrome.

Odeh M; Hershkovits M; Bornstein J; Loberant N; Blumenthal M; Ophir E

2013-08-01

304

CHANGES IN SOME BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN THE SALIVARY GLANDS OF TWO IXODID TICKS  

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Full Text Available Extracts of salivary glands of the two types of ticks namely, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and a Rhipocephalus sanguineus sanguineus , were subjected to the test of some biochemical parameters . The total protein intensity has been estimated in salivary glands extracts in the two types, high percentage was found in H.anatolicum compared with R.sanguineus forms, (104.12±4.93) and (91.33±3.04) microgram/Cm3 respectively. The intensity of carbohydrates in salivary gland extracts was high in H.anatolicum (0.640±0.009), after comparing with a lower intensity for R.sanguineuss (0.360 ±0.004) microgram/Cm3. The lipid intensity in salivary glands was high in R.sanguineus (245.37±8.76) compared with concentrations in H.anatolicum (244.80±9.27)microgram/Cm3.The total isolation of protein amount in the salivary glands in both types of tick, electrophoresis technique with Poly acrylamid gel with SDS has been implied to trace the most important separated proteins. The results denotes the existence of the four protein bands in H.anatolicum, and three protein bands in R.sanguineus, and their molecular weights were recognized. The Molecular weights for the four bands were; 76.190, 53.616, 38.168, and 16.614 kDa, respectively, while the molecular weight for the three protein bands were 73.569, 51.760, and 32.779 kDa, respectively.

Iman Daham H. Al-Mola; Zohair I.F.Rahemo

2012-01-01

305

Salivary duct carcinoma metastasizing to the small bowel.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We report a case of salivary duct carcinoma in a 47-year-old woman. The patient presented with symptoms simulating acute appendicitis. Surgery revealed metastatic tumor in the wall of the small bowel. Two months later, a tumor of the right parotid gland was resected, and histologic analysis revealed a salivary duct carcinoma. To our knowledge, this is the first case of salivary duct carcinoma metastasizing to the small bowel with manifestations of metastatic disease as the prominent symptom.

Kruslin B; Scukanec-Spoljar M; Separovi? V; Manojlovi? S; Jankovi? D; Danilovi? Z

1996-09-01

306

Plexiform Neurofibroma: A Rare Tumor of Submandibular Salivary Gland  

Science.gov (United States)

A 15-year-old boy presented with swelling in the submandibular region. X-ray of the swollen part showed faint radio opaque shadow. A provisional diagnosis of sialadenitis with sialolithiasis was made. Excised mass was reported histopathologically as plexiform neurofibroma of submandibular salivary gland. Plexiform neurofibroma of the salivary gland is a rare benign tumor often present in the parotid gland. It is very rare in submandibular salivary gland. It is a slow growing, locally infiltrating tumor.

Shekar, T. Y.; Gole, Gautam; Prabhala, Shailaja; Gole, Sheetal

2010-01-01

307

Plexiform neurofibroma: a rare tumor of submandibular salivary gland.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A 15-year-old boy presented with swelling in the submandibular region. X-ray of the swollen part showed faint radio opaque shadow. A provisional diagnosis of sialadenitis with sialolithiasis was made. Excised mass was reported histopathologically as plexiform neurofibroma of submandibular salivary gland.Plexiform neurofibroma of the salivary gland is a rare benign tumor often present in the parotid gland. It is very rare in submandibular salivary gland. It is a slow growing, locally infiltrating tumor.

Shekar TY; Gole G; Prabhala S; Gole S

2010-07-01

308

Salivary gland doses from dental radiographic exposures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Salivary gland doses incurred during dental radiography were measured by phantom dosimetry, and these dose data and data obtained during a two-week survey of Hiroshima and Nagasaki dental hospitals and clinics were used to estimate the respective doses to members of the populations of the two cities. The results obtained were used to supplement previously determined doses to the thyroid gland, lens, and pituitary gland from dental radiography. No significant differences in doses were observed by age, sex or city. Doses to the salivary glands during dental radiography are probably not sufficiently large to cause bias in assessments of atomic bomb survivors for late radiation effects. However, the steadily increasing use of dental radiography underscores the need for continued monitoring of dental radiography doses in the interests of these assessments. (author).

1989-01-01

309

Minimally invasive options for salivary calculi.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to review the advantages, limitations, and international interdisciplinary expert perspectives and contrasts of salivary gland endoscopy and transoral techniques in the diagnosis and management of salivary gland calculi and their adaptation in North America. The transition from transcervical approaches to strictly sialendoscopic approaches is a broad chasm and often not feasible. Sialendoscopy, sialendoscopy-assisted, intraoral, and transcervical approaches all have surgical value. Diagnostic sialendoscopy, interventional sialendoscopy, sialendoscopy-assisted, and transoral techniques have been a major step forward, not only in providing an accurate means of diagnosing and locating intraductal obstructions, but also in permitting minimally invasive surgical treatment that can successfully manage blockages precluding sialoadenectomy in most cases. A flexible methodology is required. Multiple or combined measured may prove effective. PMID:22460664

Witt, Robert L; Iro, Heinrich; Koch, Michael; McGurk, Mark; Nahlieli, Oded; Zenk, Johannes

2012-03-27

310

Minimally invasive options for salivary calculi.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to review the advantages, limitations, and international interdisciplinary expert perspectives and contrasts of salivary gland endoscopy and transoral techniques in the diagnosis and management of salivary gland calculi and their adaptation in North America. The transition from transcervical approaches to strictly sialendoscopic approaches is a broad chasm and often not feasible. Sialendoscopy, sialendoscopy-assisted, intraoral, and transcervical approaches all have surgical value. Diagnostic sialendoscopy, interventional sialendoscopy, sialendoscopy-assisted, and transoral techniques have been a major step forward, not only in providing an accurate means of diagnosing and locating intraductal obstructions, but also in permitting minimally invasive surgical treatment that can successfully manage blockages precluding sialoadenectomy in most cases. A flexible methodology is required. Multiple or combined measured may prove effective.

Witt RL; Iro H; Koch M; McGurk M; Nahlieli O; Zenk J

2012-06-01

311

Comparative analysis of salivary zinc level in recurrent herpes labialis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Recurrent Herpes Labialis (RHL) is one of most common infective vesiculoulcerative lesions. According to some studies administration of topical and/or systemic zinc compositions has been effective in treatment and prevention. This article aims to comparison of zinc level in healthy subjects and RHL patients in acute and convalescent phases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective case - control study, carried on 80 individuals (40 normal and 40 RHL patients) mean age=34.5 and 34.4, respectively. Saliva samples were taken in patients in acute phase once and after healing of lesions in convalescent phase (averagely 21 days later) and in normal individuals. Salivary zinc level concentration was measured by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer by dry digestion method. The results were statistically analyzed with SPSS software by t-test (?=0.05). RESULTS: Results showed that salivary zinc level in case group in acute and convalescent phases were 160.8 (ngr)/(ml)and 205.7 (ngr)/(ml) respectivly and significant differences between them were existed (P <0.05). Also significant differences were existed between zinc concentration in healthy subjects and patient groups (in both phases) (P=.001 and .002 for acute and convalescent phases respectively). CONCLUSION: According to the results, zinc level is significantly lower in acute phase than in convalescent phase and significantly lower in both phases compared to healthy individuals,so determination of serum zinc level and prescribing zinc complement in low serum status has both treatmental and preventive effects in RHL patients.

Khozeimeh F; Jafari N; Attar AM; Jafari S; Ataie M

2012-01-01

312

Salivary cortisol and testosterone responses to high-intensity cycling before and after an 11-day intensified training period.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract This study examined salivary cortisol and testosterone responses to two, different high-intensity, ?30-min cycles separated by 2 h rest before and after an 11-day intensified training period. Twelve recreationally active, healthy males completed the study. Saliva samples were collected before, immediately after and 30 min after both bouts with salivary cortisol and testosterone concentrations assessed. Compared with pre-training blunted exercise-induced salivary cortisol, testosterone and cortisol/testosterone responses to both bouts post-training were observed (P < 0.05 for all). Comparing pre- with post-training the absolute exercise-induced salivary cortisol, testosterone and cortisol/testosterone decreased from 11.1 to 3.1 and 7.0 to 4.4 nmol · L(-1) (cortisol), from 407 to 258 and from 473 to 274 pmol · L(-1) (testosterone) and from 12 to 4 and 7 to 5 (cortisol/testosterone) for the first and second bouts, respectively (P < 0.05). No differences in the pre- and post-training rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and heart rate (HR) responses during the cycles or times to fatigue were found (P > 0.05). Fatigue and Burnout scores were higher post- compared with pre-training (P < 0.05). These high-intensity exercise bouts can detect altered hormonal responses following intensified training. This test could assess an athlete's current hormonal status, reductions in salivary cortisol and testosterone responses suggestive of increased fatigue.

Hough J; Corney R; Kouris A; Gleeson M

2013-10-01

313

Salivary cortisol and testosterone responses to high-intensity cycling before and after an 11-day intensified training period.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract This study examined salivary cortisol and testosterone responses to two, different high-intensity, ?30-min cycles separated by 2 h rest before and after an 11-day intensified training period. Twelve recreationally active, healthy males completed the study. Saliva samples were collected before, immediately after and 30 min after both bouts with salivary cortisol and testosterone concentrations assessed. Compared with pre-training blunted exercise-induced salivary cortisol, testosterone and cortisol/testosterone responses to both bouts post-training were observed (P < 0.05 for all). Comparing pre- with post-training the absolute exercise-induced salivary cortisol, testosterone and cortisol/testosterone decreased from 11.1 to 3.1 and 7.0 to 4.4 nmol · L(-1) (cortisol), from 407 to 258 and from 473 to 274 pmol · L(-1) (testosterone) and from 12 to 4 and 7 to 5 (cortisol/testosterone) for the first and second bouts, respectively (P < 0.05). No differences in the pre- and post-training rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and heart rate (HR) responses during the cycles or times to fatigue were found (P > 0.05). Fatigue and Burnout scores were higher post- compared with pre-training (P < 0.05). These high-intensity exercise bouts can detect altered hormonal responses following intensified training. This test could assess an athlete's current hormonal status, reductions in salivary cortisol and testosterone responses suggestive of increased fatigue.

Hough J; Corney R; Kouris A; Gleeson M

2013-05-01

314

Central Nifedipine-induced Alterations in Salivary Flow and Compounds: Role of Nitric Oxide  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the role of nifedipine and Nitric Oxide (NO) on salivary flow and compounds (salivary amylase, saliva total proteins, saliva calcium, sodium and potassium). Male Holtzman rats weighting 200-250 g were anesthetized with zoletil 50 mg kg-1 (tiletamine chloridrate 125.0 mg and zolazepan chloridrate 125.0 mg) into quadriceps muscle and stainless steel cannulas were implanted into their lateral ventricle of the brain (LV). Animals in divided group were injected with nifedipine (50 ?g ?L-1) alone and in combination with 7-nitroindazol (7-NIT) (40 ?g ?L-1), neuronal NO Sinthase Inhibitor (nNOSI) and Sodium Nitroprussate (SNP) (30 ?g ?L-1) NO donor agent. As a secretory stimuli, pilocarpine dissolved in isotonic was administered intraperitoneally (ip) at a dosage of 10 mg kg-1 body weight. Saliva was collected for 7 min with four cotton balls weighing approximately 20 mg each, two of which were placed on either side of the oral cavity, with the other two placed under the tongue. Nifedipine treatment induced a reduction in saliva secretion rate and concentration of amylase, total protein and calcium without changes in sodium and potassium concentration in comparison with controls. Co-treatment of animals with nifedipine and SNP retained flow rate and concentration of amylase, total protein and calcium in normal levels. Co-treatment of animals with nifedipine and 7-NIT potentiated the effect of nifedipine on the reduction of saliva secretion and concentrations of amylase, total protein and calcium. Nifedipine (dihydroperidine) calcium-channel blocker widely in use is associated with salivary dysfunction acting in the central nervous system structures. NO might be the mechanism for protective effect against the nifedipine-induce salivary dysfunction, acting in the CNS.

Wilson Abrao Saad; Ismael Francisco Motta Siqueira Guarda; Luiz Antonio de Arruda Camargo; Talmir Augusto Faria Brizola dos Santos; Sylvio Simoes; William Abrao Saad

2006-01-01

315

[Ultrasonic diagnosis of the salivary glands  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sonography of the salivary glands is a valuable diagnostic tool in acute and chronic sialadenitis, sialadenoses, lymphadenopathies and tumours lesions. A new examination technique is presented: ultrasound-guided fine needle biopsy. We report on our experience in 308 patients with parotid and in 47 patients with submaxillary gland diseases examined between 1982 and 1987. The diagnostic accuracy and limitations of sonography are discussed compared with sialography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.

Mann W; Wachter W

1988-05-01

316

Lacrimal and salivary immunoglobulins in Sjögren's syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

The diagnosis of Sjögren's syndrome is sometimes difficult. We have previously demonstrated the diagnostic value of salivary immunoglobulins IgG and IgM in Sjögren's syndrome. In the present study, we assessed both lacrimal immunoglobulins (1 Ig) and salivary Ig (s Ig) in Sjögren's syndrome. We studied 112 patients: 71 had rheumatoid arthritis (57 sero positive), 19 had connective tissue diseases or vasculitis (six Sjögren's syndrome alone, six systemic sclerosis, three mixed connective tissue diseases, three polyarteritis, one relapsing polychondritis), and 22 patients had other inflammatory, metabolic or degenerative joint diseases. Lacrimal Ig and salivary Ig were assessed by double immunodiffusion with antisera specific for IgG, IgM and IgA. Each Ig class was scored on a scale ranging from 0 to 3 plus without knowledge of the patient's diagnosis. The results of factorial analysis demonstrated a strong relationship between xerophtalmia, positive Schirmer's test, s IgG, s IgM, 1 IgG, and 1 IgM in patients with seropositive rheumatoid arthritis or other connective tissue diseases. Analysis of individual parameters showed a significant relationship between 1 IgG and ocular complaints (P less than 0.01), positive Schirmer's test (P less than 0.05), positive rose bengal dye test (P less than 0.05), 1 IgM (P less than 0.01), s IgG (P less than 0.01) and s IgM (P less than 0.05). A significant relationship was also found between s IgG and ocular complaints (P less than 0.02), positive rose bengal dye test (P less than 0.01), positive minor salivary gland biopsy (P less than 0.05), s IgM (P less than 0.01), and 1 IgM (P less than 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2789652

Amor, B; Kahan, A

1989-08-01

317

Lacrimal and salivary immunoglobulins in Sjogren's syndrome.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The diagnosis of Sjögren's syndrome is sometimes difficult. We have previously demonstrated the diagnostic value of salivary immunoglobulins IgG and IgM in Sjögren's syndrome. In the present study, we assessed both lacrimal immunoglobulins (1 Ig) and salivary Ig (s Ig) in Sjögren's syndrome. We studied 112 patients: 71 had rheumatoid arthritis (57 sero positive), 19 had connective tissue diseases or vasculitis (six Sjögren's syndrome alone, six systemic sclerosis, three mixed connective tissue diseases, three polyarteritis, one relapsing polychondritis), and 22 patients had other inflammatory, metabolic or degenerative joint diseases. Lacrimal Ig and salivary Ig were assessed by double immunodiffusion with antisera specific for IgG, IgM and IgA. Each Ig class was scored on a scale ranging from 0 to 3 plus without knowledge of the patient's diagnosis. The results of factorial analysis demonstrated a strong relationship between xerophtalmia, positive Schirmer's test, s IgG, s IgM, 1 IgG, and 1 IgM in patients with seropositive rheumatoid arthritis or other connective tissue diseases. Analysis of individual parameters showed a significant relationship between 1 IgG and ocular complaints (P less than 0.01), positive Schirmer's test (P less than 0.05), positive rose bengal dye test (P less than 0.05), 1 IgM (P less than 0.01), s IgG (P less than 0.01) and s IgM (P less than 0.05). A significant relationship was also found between s IgG and ocular complaints (P less than 0.02), positive rose bengal dye test (P less than 0.01), positive minor salivary gland biopsy (P less than 0.05), s IgM (P less than 0.01), and 1 IgM (P less than 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Amor B; Kahan A

1989-08-01

318

Measurement of salivary cortisol as a marker of stress in newborns in a neonatal intensive care unit.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: The study was designed to evaluate the newborn (NB) stress response during the inpatient time in the neonatal intensive care unit. METHODS: A quantitative, prospective, observational study was conducted with two NB groups. The first group consisted of 12 NB patients in the neonatal intensive care unit as the experimental group (EG), and the second included 43 NBs who were sent to their own homes and were considered the control group (CG). The EG's salivary cortisol concentration was measured on the 2nd day (D2) and 9th day (D9) of life. The CG's salivary cortisol concentration was measured on the 14th day of life at the child's own home. RESULTS: The salivary cortisol concentration levels for the EG on D2 and D9 and for the CG were 4.3151 ± 2.6492, 1.826 ± 1.2252, and 1.0166 ± 0.8300 ng/dl, respectively. These findings indicated the presence of an adrenal response to stress during the first inpatient days. CONCLUSIONS: The salivary cortisol concentration is an accurate method to indicate neonatal stress. The glucocorticoids frequently used in the prenatal period suppress the adrenal glands and interfere with the stress response.

Cabral DM; Antonini SR; Custódio RJ; Martinelli CE Jr; da Silva CA

2013-01-01

319

Non-surgical periodontal therapy influences salivary melatonin levels.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Melatonin is a hormone, which is involved in the control of the circadian rhythm, but also acts as an antioxidant and immune modulator. Previous studies reported decreased salivary and serum melatonin levels in periodontitis. This prospective cohort trial assessed the effect of non-surgical periodontal therapy on melatonin levels. METHODS: Salivary and serum samples of 60 participants (30 patients suffering from a severe generalized form of periodontitis, 30 healthy controls) were collected at baseline and 19 samples of periodontitis patients after treatment. Salivary and serum melatonin levels were determined by a commercially available ELISA kit and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) by a routine laboratory test. RESULTS: At baseline, periodontitis patients showed significantly increased serum CRP values and significantly decreased salivary melatonin levels compared to the control group. Clinical periodontal parameters significantly correlated with salivary melatonin levels and serum CRP. Periodontal therapy resulted in a recovery of the decreased salivary melatonin levels and a negative correlation was detected for the changes of salivary melatonin and the inflammatory parameter bleeding on probing. Serum melatonin levels showed no significant differences. CONCLUSIONS: Salivary melatonin levels recovered after periodontal therapy and correlated with a decrease of local periodontal inflammation. This may imply the local involvement of melatonin in the pathogenesis of periodontitis due to its antioxidant abilities. However, the exact role of melatonin in periodontal disease remains to be investigated in future trials. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The present results suggest salivary melatonin as a risk indicator for the severity of periodontal disease.

Bertl K; Schoiber A; Haririan H; Laky M; Steiner I; Rausch WD; Andrukhov O; Rausch-Fan X

2013-05-01

320

Expression of N-cadherin in salivary gland tumors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To detect immunohistochemically the N-cadherin expression in different types of benign and malignant salivary gland tumors in an attempt to note any possible correlation to their development, stage and invasive properties. MATERIALS AND METHODS: N-cadherin expression was examined in tissue specimens from 49 salivary gland tumors including: pleomorphic adenomas (4), Warthin's tumors (10), and myoepitheliomas (4) (benign tumors), as well as adenoid cystic carcinomas (14), mucoepidermoid carcinomas (4), polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinomas (6), and adenocarcinomas not otherwise specified (5) (malignant tumors). Twelve specimens of normal salivary glands were used as control. The perineural invasion and stage of malignant salivary gland tumors were evaluated. Immunohistochemical procedure was performed automatically using the Bond Polymer Refine Detection Kit. RESULTS: N-cadherin expression was not found in normal salivary glands. In benign salivary gland tumors, N-cadherin along membranes of neoplastic cells as well as in centrocytes of lymphoid germinal centers was seen in 1 and 4 cases of Warthin's tumors, respectively. Varied degree of N-cadherin expression was found in 13 (45%) cases of malignant salivary gland tumors. N-cadherin expression was significantly correlated with perineural invasion (?(2) = 11.7, p < 0.0001), but not with stage of malignant salivary gland tumors. CONCLUSION: N-cadherin expression was observed in malignant salivary gland tumors and could be an indicator of potentially aggressive behavior. N-cadherin expression by tumor cells could be attributed to perineural invasion.

Kehagias N; Epivatianos A; Sakas L; Andreadis D; Markopoulos A; Antoniades K

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Sialendoscopy-based diagnosis and treatment of salivary ductal obstructions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Salivary gland ductal obstruction is traditionally treated by sialoadenectomy when conservative measures fail. During the last decade, sialendoscopy has become the preferred approach in the management of salivary ductal obstructions. Sialendoscopy can provide direct, accurate and reliable visualisation of the salivary duct lumen and ductal pathologies, and can eliminate pathologies with miniaturised instrumentation. Now, sialendoscopic surgery is a promising option for patients who can be offered a satisfactory clinical outcome while avoiding sialoadenectomy. The present article briefly outlines sialendoscopy-based diagnosis and treatment of salivary ductal obstructions.

Liao GQ; Su YX; Zheng GS; Liang LZ

2010-01-01

322

MANAGEMENT OF PLEOMORPHIC ADENOMA OF SALIVARY GLANDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available By far the most common benign neoplasm of salivary origin is the pleomorphic adenoma. It is often poorlycapsulated and has bosselated surface hence more chances of recurrence after excision. OBJECTIVES: Tofind out the recurrence rate after superficial or total conservative parotidectomy and in case of minor salivarytumours, wide surgical excision. DESIGN OF STUDY: Prospective study. SETTING: Department of ENTAllied/DHQ Hospital Faisalabad. PERIOD: Apr 1994 to Dec 1998. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 25cases of benign salivary swellings (22 male and 3 females) were selected after confirming FNAC report tobe pleomorphic adenoma. These patients were subjected to surgical excision of the tumour by superficial/totalconservative parotidectomy or excision with healthy cuff of tissue. RESULTS: Only one patient having tumourspillage during excision has recurrence in scar incision during five years follow up. CONCLUSIONS: Itseems reasonable to advocate superficial parotidectomy for benign pleomorphic adenoma of parotid and excisionwith a wide cuff of healthy tissue in case of minor salivary gland adenoma and to avoid capsular rupture atall costs.

Ayub ur Rehman

2000-01-01

323

Update on selected salivary gland neoplasms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONTEXT: Malignancies of the salivary gland are uncommon and account for 0.3% of all malignancies. In addition to their rarity, diagnosing these tumors can be challenging given the histologic overlap among various subtypes, their morphologic heterogeneity, and the recent recognition of new entities. OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of 4 salivary gland malignancies that we often see in consultation, with a focus on essential diagnostic features and the importance of reporting pertinent diagnostic information to ensure appropriate clinical management. DATA SOURCES: Review of the literature, supplemented by the personal experience of the authors, which is based on their respective institutional experiences and consultation services. CONCLUSIONS: When diagnosing carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma, pathologists must report several important pieces of information to allow for optimal clinical management. In addition to histologic subtype, the degree of differentiation as well as the degree of invasion, if any, must be reported because all have prognostic relevance. Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma can be a challenging diagnosis on biopsy specimens. Evaluation of the tumor periphery and nuclear features should lead to the correct diagnosis in most cases. Salivary duct carcinoma is an aggressive malignancy characterized by histologic resemblance to breast carcinoma, high-grade cytologic features, and expression of androgen receptor. Benign and malignant myoepithelial neoplasms have a broad morphologic spectrum, and immunohistochemistry is important in reaching the correct diagnosis.

McHugh JB; Visscher DW; Barnes EL

2009-11-01

324

Salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Salivary duct carcinoma is one of the rarest and most aggressive forms of parotid tumor. We report two cases. CASES: Case 1: a 78-year-old man was referred for a salivary duct carcinoma of the left parotid gland. Treatment was surgical (parotidectomy with ipsilateral selective neck dissection), without capsule rupture, and with healthy margins. At seven years' follow-up, the patient was alive and disease-free. Case 2: a 41-year-old man was referred for a salivary duct carcinoma of the left parotid gland. Parotidectomy with ipsilateral selective neck dissection left healthy but insufficient margins (<1 cm), and postoperative radiation therapy (70 Gy) was undertaken. At eight years' follow-up, the patient was alive and free of recurrence. DISCUSSION: Mean patient age in the literature is 60 years, with a male-to-female ratio of 2:1. Mean five-years' recurrence-free survival was 34%. CONCLUSION: Surgery is the main form of treatment in this indication. Postoperative radiation therapy is indicated in case of extraparotid extension, pathological resection margins, cervical lymph node metastasis, lymphatic embolus and/or neurologic invasion. Chemotherapy is generally reserved for metastatic forms of the disease.

Pons Y; Alves A; Clément P; Conessa C

2011-09-01

325

Lymphoid proliferations of the salivary glands.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Lymphoid proliferations of the salivary glands can be either reactive or neoplastic. Reactive lesions include cystic lymphoid hyperplasia--a multicystic ductal proliferation with reactive germinal centers, seen most often in intravenous drug users infected with HIV--and the lymphoepithelial sialadenitis of Sjögren's syndrome (so-called benign lymphoepithelial lesion [BLEL] or myoepithelial sialadenitis [MESA]). This lymphoid proliferation involves infiltration of ductal epithelium by lymphocytes of marginal zone or monocytoid B-cell type, forming lymphoepithelial lesions (epimyoepithelial islands). Patients with lymphoepithelial sialadenitis have a 44-fold increased risk of developing salivary gland or extrasalivary lymphoma, of which 80% are marginal zone/MALT type. Broad strands of marginal zone or monocytoid B cells around lymphoepithelial lesions and monotypic immunoglobulin detection by immunohistochemistry are considered diagnostic of MALT lymphoma. B-cell clones are detected in over 50% of cases of MESA by molecular genetic methods, but this does not correlate with overlymphoma. "Nodal" type B-cell lymphomas of the salivary glands are either follicular lymphoma (35%), which may arise in intrasalivary gland lymph nodes and behave similarly to follicular lymphoma in other sites, or diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (30%), which may arise de novo or secondary to either MALT or follicular lymphomas.

Harris NL

1999-01-01

326

Lymphoid proliferations of the salivary glands.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lymphoid proliferations of the salivary glands can be either reactive or neoplastic. Reactive lesions include cystic lymphoid hyperplasia--a multicystic ductal proliferation with reactive germinal centers, seen most often in intravenous drug users infected with HIV--and the lymphoepithelial sialadenitis of Sjögren's syndrome (so-called benign lymphoepithelial lesion [BLEL] or myoepithelial sialadenitis [MESA]). This lymphoid proliferation involves infiltration of ductal epithelium by lymphocytes of marginal zone or monocytoid B-cell type, forming lymphoepithelial lesions (epimyoepithelial islands). Patients with lymphoepithelial sialadenitis have a 44-fold increased risk of developing salivary gland or extrasalivary lymphoma, of which 80% are marginal zone/MALT type. Broad strands of marginal zone or monocytoid B cells around lymphoepithelial lesions and monotypic immunoglobulin detection by immunohistochemistry are considered diagnostic of MALT lymphoma. B-cell clones are detected in over 50% of cases of MESA by molecular genetic methods, but this does not correlate with overlymphoma. "Nodal" type B-cell lymphomas of the salivary glands are either follicular lymphoma (35%), which may arise in intrasalivary gland lymph nodes and behave similarly to follicular lymphoma in other sites, or diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (30%), which may arise de novo or secondary to either MALT or follicular lymphomas. PMID:9894474

Harris, N L

1999-01-01

327

Assessment of salivary gland dysfunction following chemoradiotherapy using quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose:To assess chemoradiotherapy-induced salivary gland dysfunction using quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy (QSGS), and whether QSGS is capable of predicting the grade of persistent salivary dysfunction after chemoradiotherapy. Methods: From a time-activity curve using a stimulation test, the washout rate (WR) calculated was assessed. All glands (n = 155) were classified into four groups: a no-therapy group (n = 18), a chemotherapy alone group (n = 31), a radiotherapy alone group (n = 50), and a chemoradiotherapy group (n = 56). Subjective descriptions of xerostomia were recorded 1 year after the completion of the treatment period, and the 32 glands subjected to irradiation with or without chemotherapy were assessed. Results: The WR values were significantly lower in glands that received chemoradiotherapy than in glands treated with radiotherapy alone (mean: 0.75 x 10-3, n = 40 vs. 0.22, n = 36, p

1999-09-01

328

Industrial noise exposure and salivary cortisol in blue collar industrial workers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Measuring non-auditory effects of noise such as stress-inducing ones have become of interest recently. Salivary cortisol has become a popular measure in stress research. So, assessing noise-induced stress via saliva cortisol evaluation can present a bright future in non-invasive exposure assessment methods. This study had 3 goals: (1) Assess and compare saliva cortisol concentrations in the morning and evening in normal work day and leisure day in industrial workers, (2) assess the relationship between industrial noise exposure and salivary cortisol concentrations, and (3) assess the possibility of using salivary cortisol as a possible marker of noise-induced stress. This study included 80 male participants working in 4 different parts (painting, assembling lines, casting, and packaging) of a household manufacturing company. Morning and evening saliva samples were collected at 7.00 am and 4.00 pm, respectively. Noise exposure levels were assessed by sound level meter and noise dosimeter. All measurements occurred in two days: One in leisure day and other in working day. Descriptive statistics, paired sample t-test, and regression analysis were used as statistical tools of this study with P < 0.05. On the leisure day, morning salivary cortisol (geometric mean [GM], 15.0; 95% CI, 12.0 to 19.0 nmol/L) was significantly higher than evening cortisol (GM, 5.2; 95% CI, 4.2 to 6.3 nmol/L) (P < 0.05). Also, on the working day, morning salivary cortisol (GM, 14.0; 95% CI, 11.25 to 18.0 nmol/L) was significantly higher than evening cortisol (GM, 8.0; 95% CI, 6.5 to 10.0 nmol/L) (P < 0.05). No significant difference was obtained for morning cortisol levels between leisure day and working day samples (P = 0.117). But, for evening cortisol concentrations, a strong significant difference was noted leisure day and working day (P < 0.001). The evening cortisol in the working day correlated significantly with noise exposure > 80 dBA. Our study revealed that industrial noise, with levels > 80 dBA, has a significant effect on salivary cortisol elevation.

Fouladi DB; Nassiri P; Monazzam EM; Farahani S; Hassanzadeh G; Hoseini M

2012-07-01

329

Decrease in salivary lactoferrin output in chronically intoxicated alcohol-dependent patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Salivary lactoferrin is a glycoprotein involved in the elimination of pathogens and the prevention of massive overgrowth of microorganisms that affect oral and general health. A high concentration of lactoferrin in saliva is often considered to be a marker of damage to the salivary glands, gingivitis, or leakage through inflamed or damaged oral mucosa, infiltrated particularly by neutrophils. We conducted a study to determine the effect of chronic alcohol intoxication on salivary lactoferrin concentration and output. The study included 30 volunteers consisting of ten non-smoking male patients after chronic alcohol intoxication (group A), and 20 control nonsmoking male social drinkers (group C) with no history of alcohol abuse. Resting whole saliva was collected 24 to 48 hours after a chronic alcohol intoxication period. Lactoferrin was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. For all participants, the DMFT index (decayed, missing, or filled teeth), gingival index (GI) and papilla bleeding index (PBI) were assessed. The differences between groups were evaluated using the Mann–Whitney U test. We noticed significantly decreased salivary flow (SF) in alcohol dependent patients after chronic alcohol intoxication (A), compared to the control group (C). Although there was no significant difference in salivary lactoferrin concentration between the alcohol dependent group A and the control group C, we found significantly decreased lactoferrin output in group A compared to group C. We found a significant correlation between the amount of daily alcohol use and a decrease in lactoferrin output. There was a significant increase in GI and a tendency of PBI to increase in group A compared to group C. We demonstrated that chronic alcohol intoxication decreases SF and lactoferrin output. The decreased lactoferrin output in persons chronically intoxicated by alcohol may be the result of lactoferrin exhaustion during drinking (due to its alcohol-related lower biosynthesis or higher catabolism) or to decreased function of neutrophils affected by the ethanol. The poorer periodontal state in alcohol dependent persons compared to controls may be a result of lower salivary flow and decreased protection of the oral cavity by lactoferrin.

Napoleon Waszkiewicz; Beata Zalewska-Szajda; Anna Zalewska; Magdalena Waszkiewicz; S?awomir Dariusz Szajda; Bernadeta Repka; Agata Szulc; Alina K?pka; Alina Minarowska; Sylwia Chojnowska; Beata Konarzewska; Jerzy Robert ?adny; Urszula Kowzan; Krzysztof Zwierz

2012-01-01

330

pH Salival, Capacidad Buffer, Proteínas Totales y Flujo Salival en Pacientes Hipertensos Controlados Usuarios de Diuréticos/ Salivary pH, Buffer Capacity, Total Proteins and Salivary Flow in Controlled Hypertensive Patients Diuretic Users  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La hipertensión arterial (HTA) es una enfermedad cardiovascular que padece gran parte de la población mundial y nacional, alcanzando en Chile un 26,9% en el año 2010. El objetivo fue determinar pH salival, capacidad buffer, proteínas totales y flujo salival, en pacientes hipertensos controlados usuarios de diuréticos. Se analizaron 14 muestras de saliva no estimulada de pacientes hipertensos controlados con diuréticos y 10 muestras de saliva no estimulada de persona (more) s que no padecían enfermedades sistémicas y no tomaban medicamentos, los valores obtenidos de pH salival, capacidad buffer, flujo salival y proteínas totales fueron determinados en ambos grupos. La mediana obtenida en las muestras de hipertensos controlados con diuréticos, para el pH salival fue de 6,83; para la capacidad buffer fue 4,86; para el flujo salival fue 0,55 ml/min y para las proteínas totales salivales fue de 1,09 g/dL. Para el grupo de pacientes sanos la mediana fue de 6,88 para el pH; 4,25 para la capacidad buffer; 1,8 ml/min para el flujo salival y 0,29 g/dL para las proteínas totales salivales. Además, no se encontró asociación entre el flujo salival (rs = 0,425), capacidad buffer (rs = 0,283) y concentración de proteínas (rs = 0,245) con la dosis del diurético (p > 0,05) . Se encontró que existieron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en el flujo salival y la concentración de proteínas salivales entre el grupo de pacientes hipertensos y de pacientes sanos (U Mann-Wthitney P Abstract in english Introduction: Hypertension (HT) is a cardiovascular disease with a high prevalence around the world. In Chile at year 2010 it reached 26.9% of the population. Objective: To determine salivary pH, buffering capacity, total proteins and salivary flow in controlled hypertensive diuretic users and a group without systemic diseases. Methods: 14 samples of unstimulated saliva of patients with hypertension treated with diuretics and 10 samples of unstimulated saliva of people wi (more) thout systemic diseases and not taking medication were analyzed. pH, salivary buffering, salivary flow and total protein were determined in both groups. Results: The figures for the treated HT patients were as follows: pH: 6.83, buffer capacity: 4.86, salivary flow: 0.55 ml / min and total salivary proteins: 1.09 g / dL. For those without systemic diseases the results were: pH: 6,88, buffer capacity: 4,25, saliva flow: 1.8 ml / min and total salivary protein: 0.29 g / dL. No association was found between salivary flow (rs = 0.425), buffering capacity (rs = 0.283) and protein concentration (rs = 0.245) with the diuretic dose (p > 0.05). Statistically significant differences were found in salivary flow and total salivary protein concentration between the group with hypertension and without. (U Mann-Wthitney P > 0.005). No statistically significant differences in salivary pH and buffering capacity were found among the study groups (U Mann-Wthitney > 0.005). Conclusion: Patients with hypertension and treated with diuretics have a decreased salivary flow and an increased total protein concentration while ph and buffer capacity remained normal.

Muñoz L, Samuel; Narváez, Carmen Gloria

2012-04-01

331

Screening for salivary levels of deoxypyridinoline and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase during orthodontic tooth movement: a pilot study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Deoxypyridinoline (DPD) and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) have been regarded as systemic determinants of bone remodelling. Owing this fact, this study aimed to determine whether the variations in the salivary concentration of these two biomarkers as detected through a longitudinal follow-up with four consecutive visits may be linked with the different phases of orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). Twenty-two healthy subjects who required fixed appliance therapy not involving tooth extractions/surgical procedures were selected. Unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected from each patient prior to fitting the orthodontic appliances and 24-48 hours, 2 weeks, and 5 weeks after the activation. Salivary DPD and BAP concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The data were analysed using non-parametric statistics. There were no statistically significant differences in salivary levels of biomarkers regarding demographic and clinical parameters. Overall, although DPD values revealed an increasing nature after force application and BAP values showed a descending trend, only the former showed statistically significant changes over time. Furthermore, p ost hoc comparisons for DPD salivary levels revealed significant differences between every paired sampling times, except for the pair baseline test/24-48 hours test. Synchronously, a moderate positive significant correlation between both salivary biomarkers was observed at 2 weeks test. The findings indicate that although salivary levels of DPD and BAP may act as indicators of increased bone remodelling, it appears that DPD dominates the earlier phases of OTM, whereas BAP might serve as indicator of bone formation as soon as the tooth movement stops.

Flórez-Moreno GA; Marín-Restrepo LM; Isaza-Guzmán DM; Tobón-Arroyave SI

2013-06-01

332

[Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 705 salivary glands neoplasms].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: The epidemiological data concerning the rare group of tumors derived from salivary glands recorded in the National Cancer Registry is insufficient because it records only malignant salivary glands tumors. AIMS OF THE STUDY: The epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 699 patients with salivary glands tumors (n=705). MATERIAL: The data were retrieved from ENT Department District Hospital in Kielce (01.09.1989-28.02.2001) and from Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery Holy Cross Cancer Centre in Kielce (01.03.2001-31.12.2008). RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: In the analyzed group of 699 patients with 705 salivary glands tumors women predominated, consisting 54,2% of all group. The average age in group of malignant tumors was higher than in nonmalignant group. The risk of malignant neoplasms development increased with patient age. In the analyzed group of 705 salivary glands tumors the nonmalignant neoplasms dominated-78,3%. Out of all cases, 547 (77,6%) were localized in the parotid gland, 80 (11,3%) in submandibular gland and 78 (11,1%) in minor salivary glands. Nonmalignant tumors were more frequent in the parotid gland (82,8%) and submandibular gland (71,3%), whereas in minor salivary glands nonmalignant and malignant neoplasms the occurrence was nearly the same. In general-the smaller the salivary gland, the risk of development malignant tumors was higher. In group of nonmalignant salivary gland tumors two histopathological types dominated - pleomorphic adenoma and Warthin's tumor, which comprised 91,8% of the whole group. In the group of 153 malignant salivary gland tumors the most common histopathology were - adenoid cystic carcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. In the analyzed period of 20 years' time, the incidence of salivary glands tumors increased with high siginificance, both for nonmalignant, as well malignant tumors.

Zió?kowska M; Bie? S; Ok?a S; Zy?ka S

2013-05-01

333

Factors of salivary gland tumor influence on salivary gland function. Studies on salivary scintigraphy using 99mTcO4-  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to show clearly what factors such as tumor size, duration of illness, location, and tumor invasion in salivary gland tumor affect salivary gland function. The study cases were 42 salivary gland tumor patients who underwent computed tomography (CT) and sialoscintigraphy. Salivary gland tumor was confirmed histopathologically. The patients were 24 males and 18 females, aged from 16 to 82 years old (mean age: 52.8 years old). There were 23 patients with parotid gland tumors and 19 patients with submandibular gland tumors (27 benign tumors, 15 malignant tumors). By using 99mTcO4- sialoscintigraphy, the salivary gland function was classified into three different types according to stimulatory selection ratio which was expressed as the ratio of pre- to post-stimulation counts on the salivary gland, namely, normal, lower functional, and no functional types. Then the normal type was judged abnormal function, and the lower and no functional types were judged as abnormal function. The results were as follows: There was a significant difference between malignant tumor and benign tumor in salivary gland function (P

2000-01-01

334

Simultaneous determination of the tobacco smoke uptake parameters nicotine, cotinine and thiocyanate in urine, saliva and hair, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for characterisation of smoking status of recently exposed subjects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A method using gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS) for the simultaneous determination of the smoke uptake parameters thiocyanate, nicotine and cotinine in human tissues is reported. Nicotine, cotinine and thiocyanate, in combination with a phase-transfer catalyst, were extracted from urine, saliva and hair into dichloromethane (DCM). Thiocyanate was alkylated in the DCM-layer to form a pentafluorobenzyl derivative. The biochemical markers in DCM were directly injected into the GC system and separated on a DB-1MS column using a 9.4 min temperature program. The method was validated in urine and saliva between the limits of quantitation (1.0-15 microg ml(-1) thiocyanate, 0.010-3.0 microg ml(-1) nicotine and cotinine in urine, 0.010-1.0 microg ml(-1) nicotine and cotinine in saliva). The calibration curves were found to be linear (r > 0.996), the within- and between-day accuracy's were 83-120%, the repeatability coefficients of variation were 3-20% and the limits of detection were 0.060 ng ml(-1) thiocyanate and 0.60 ng ml(-1) nicotine and cotinine. The results of the analysis of the biomarkers in the urine of 44 volunteers were used to develop a predictive model for smoking status, using discriminant analysis. The classification model correctly classified 93.2% of cross-validated grouped cases. Saliva samples were used to confirm the results of the classification method.

Toraño JS; van Kan HJ

2003-07-01

335

Salivary cortisol and sleep problems among civil servants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The present study used information from a field study conducted among 4489 civil servants (70% women) in Denmark in 2007. The purpose was to examine the association between sleep problems and salivary cortisol by using a cross-sectional design with repeated measures in a subsample three-month later. METHODS: Sleep problems during the past night and the past 4 weeks were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire on overall sleep quality, disturbed sleep, sleep length and awakening problems. Saliva samples were collected in a single day, using cotton tubes, 30 min after awakening and again at 2000 h. A subsample of 387 participants collected saliva samples three-month later at awakening, +20 min and +40 min after awakening and at 2000 h. We adjusted for confounders related to sampling time, life style and personal characteristics, socioeconomic status and work aspects. RESULTS: Sleep problems during the past four weeks were associated with low morning and evening saliva cortisol concentrations: [-3.1% per score of disturbed sleep (p=.009); and -4.7% per score of awakening problems (p<.001)]. Whereas sleep problems were not related with slope (the morning to evening change in cortisol levels). Awakening problems predicted lower cortisol (-7.51% per score; p=.003) three-month later. Cortisol awakening response (CAR) and slope three-month later were significantly associated with disturbed sleep (-7.84% and -8.24%) and awakening problems (-6.93). Area under the curve (AUC(morning)) increased with disturbed sleep (3.77%). CONCLUSION: Surprisingly, low morning cortisol was associated with increased sleep problems during a four-week period prior to sampling among 4066 Danish civil servants. At follow-up three-month later, those with sleep problems had a flattened cortisol profile. Those with awakening problems also had low salivary cortisol in general.

Hansen AM; Thomsen JF; Kaergaard A; Kolstad HA; Kaerlev L; Mors O; Rugulies R; Bonde JP; Andersen JH; Mikkelsen S

2012-07-01

336

Digit ratio (2D:4D), salivary testosterone, and handedness.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The length of the index finger relative to that of the ring finger, the 2D:4D ratio, has been taken to be a marker of the amount of testosterone (T) that was present in the foetal environment (Manning, Scutt, Wilson, & Lewis-Jones, 1998). It has also been suggested (Geschwind & Galaburda, 1987) that elevated levels of foetal T are associated with left-handedness and that adult levels of circulating T might relate to foetal levels (Jamison, Meier, & Campbell, 1993). We used multiple regression analyses to investigate whether there is any relationship between either left or right hand 2D:4D ratio and handedness. We also examined whether adult levels of salivary T (or cortisol, used as a control hormone) predict digit ratio and/or handedness. Although the 2D:4D ratio of neither the left nor the right hand was related to handedness, the difference between the digit ratios of the right and left hands, D(R-L), was a significant predictor of handedness and of the performance difference between the hands on a peg-moving task, supporting previous findings (Manning & Peters, 2009; Manning et al., 1998; Manning, Trivers, Thornhill, & Singh, 2000; Stoyanov, Marinov, & Pashalieva, 2009). Adult circulating T levels did not predict the digit ratio of the left or right hand; nor was there a significant relationship between concentrations of salivary T (or cortisol) and either hand preference or asymmetry in manual skill. We suggest that the association between D(R-L) and hand preference arises because D(R-L) is a correlate of sensitivity to T in the developing foetus.

Beaton AA; Rudling N; Kissling C; Taurines R; Thome J

2011-03-01

337

Digit ratio (2D:4D), salivary testosterone, and handedness.  

Science.gov (United States)

The length of the index finger relative to that of the ring finger, the 2D:4D ratio, has been taken to be a marker of the amount of testosterone (T) that was present in the foetal environment (Manning, Scutt, Wilson, & Lewis-Jones, 1998). It has also been suggested (Geschwind & Galaburda, 1987) that elevated levels of foetal T are associated with left-handedness and that adult levels of circulating T might relate to foetal levels (Jamison, Meier, & Campbell, 1993). We used multiple regression analyses to investigate whether there is any relationship between either left or right hand 2D:4D ratio and handedness. We also examined whether adult levels of salivary T (or cortisol, used as a control hormone) predict digit ratio and/or handedness. Although the 2D:4D ratio of neither the left nor the right hand was related to handedness, the difference between the digit ratios of the right and left hands, D(R-L), was a significant predictor of handedness and of the performance difference between the hands on a peg-moving task, supporting previous findings (Manning & Peters, 2009; Manning et al., 1998; Manning, Trivers, Thornhill, & Singh, 2000; Stoyanov, Marinov, & Pashalieva, 2009). Adult circulating T levels did not predict the digit ratio of the left or right hand; nor was there a significant relationship between concentrations of salivary T (or cortisol) and either hand preference or asymmetry in manual skill. We suggest that the association between D(R-L) and hand preference arises because D(R-L) is a correlate of sensitivity to T in the developing foetus. PMID:20094940

Beaton, Alan A; Rudling, Nick; Kissling, Christian; Taurines, Regine; Thome, Johannes

2010-01-20

338

Salivary hormonal values from high-speed resistive exercise workouts.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Our study purpose examined salivary hormonal responses to high-speed resistive exercise. Healthy subjects (n = 45) performed 2 elbow flexor workouts on a novel (inertial kinetic exercise; Oconomowoc, WI, USA) strength training device. Our methods included saliva sample collection at both preexercise and immediately postexercise; workouts entailed two 60-second sets separated by a 90-second rest period. The samples were analyzed in duplicate for their testosterone and cortisol concentrations ([T], [C]). Average and maximum elbow flexor torque were measured from each exercise bout; they were later analyzed with a 2(gender) × 2(workout) analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures for workout. The [T] and [C] each underwent a 2(gender) × 2(time) ANOVA with repeated measures for time. A within-subject design was used to limit error variance. Average and maximum torque each had gender (men > women; p < 0.05) effects. The [T] elicited a 2-way interaction (p < 0.05), as men incurred a significant 14% increase over time, but women's values were unchanged. Yet multivariate regression revealed that 3 predictor variables (body mass and average and maximum torques) did not account for a significant amount of variance associated with the rise in male [T]. Changes in [C] were not significant. In conclusion, changes in [T] concur with the results from other studies that showed significant elevations in male [T], despite the brevity of current workouts and the rather modest volume of muscle mass engaged. Practical applications imply that salivary assays may be a viable alternative to blood draws from athletes, yet coaches and others who may administer this treatment should know that our results may have produced greater pre-post hormonal changes if postexercise sample collection had occurred at a later time point.

Caruso JF; Lutz BM; Davidson ME; Wilson K; Crane CS; Craig CE; Nissen TE; Mason ML; Coday MA; Sheaff RJ; Potter WT

2012-03-01

339

Abnormal gallium scan patterns of the salivary gland in pulmonary sarcoidosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The findings of gallium imaging suggest that parotid abnormalities in sarcoidosis are common. Correlation with lung and mediastinal uptake suggests that this represents an early disease state and that it responds to steroid administration. That the findings after therapy do not simply represent suppression of the uptake mechanism for gallium is supported by objective improvement in pulmonary function as well as symptomatic relief. Salivary gland accumulation of gallium citrate occurred in one third of our control group patients--in those who had collagen disease and presumably either were alcoholic or had infectious parotitis. This may also be seen in lymphoma and after radiation therapy. Although the combination of salivary gland, pulmonary, and hilar concentration of gallium is not specific, in the appropriate clinical setting the pattern may be helpful in suggesting the correct diagnosis

1978-01-01

340

Sarcoidosis and Sjogren's syndrome: clinical and salivary evaluation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Sarcoidosis and Sjögren's syndrome are two different diseases; however, when affecting the salivary glands, both diseases exhibit similar clinical signs and symptoms, which often complicates the diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of using salivary electrophoresis to differentiate between the two diseases. METHODS: Saliva was collected from patients with sarcoidosis and patients with Sjögren's syndrome. Salivary flow rate, total protein, and electrophoretic profiles were examined. RESULTS: Mean salivary flow rate was 0.41 ± 0.07 ml/min/gland vs. 0.43 ± 0.07 ml/min/gland; total salivary protein was 130.0 ± 29.2 mg% vs. 104.0 ± 8.8 mg% for sarcoidosis vs. Sjögren's syndrome, respectively. No differences were observed in salivary flow rate, total salivary protein, or electrophoretic profile between patients with sarcoidosis and patients with Sjögren's syndrome (P = 0.768, 0.718, and 1.000, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Salivary protein electrophoresis does not appear to be useful to differentiate between sarcoidosis and Sjögren's syndrome.

Mansour MJ; He C; Al-Farra ST; Khuder SA; Wright JM; Kessler HP; Hinton RJ; Al-Hashimi I

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
341

Clinical and ultrasonographic characteristics of salivary mucoceles in 13 dogs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Salivary mucocele is one of the causes of submandibular swelling in dogs and is due to a collection of mucoid saliva that has leaked from a damaged salivary gland. The purpose of this case series report was to describe the clinical and ultrasonographic characteristics of confirmed salivary mucoceles in 13 dogs admitted to the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine at Cairo University. The final diagnosis of salivary mucocele was based on aspirate cytology for all dogs and additional surgical excision for seven dogs. For dogs admitted from 2 weeks to 1 month from the onset of clinical signs, the cervical mucocele appeared as a round echogenic structure with a large volume of central anechoic content. The wall was a clearly identified hyperechoic structure surrounding the gland. For dogs admitted between 1 to 2 months from the onset of clinical signs, the volume of anechoic material appeared less than that seen in the acute cases. The overall appearance of the salivary mucocele was heterogenous. For dogs admitted after 2 months from the onset of clinical signs, the salivary mucocele appeared grainy or mottled, with a heterogenous appearance and a further decrease in anechoic content. For one dog that presented after 3 months from the onset of clinical signs, the salivary mucocele was hard on palpation and appeared hyperechoic with distal acoustic shadowing. Findings from this study indicated that ultrasonographic characteristics of salivary mucoceles in dogs vary depending on the chronological stage of the disease.

Torad FA; Hassan EA

2013-05-01

342

Direct salivary cortisol radio-immunoassay determination. Clinical applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Salivary cortisol levels reflect the biologically active free fraction of blood cortisol. The authors describe the results obtained with the aim of a radio-immunoassay commercial serum cortisol kit, without prealable extraction in different physiological and pathological situations. Salivary cortisol determination appears performant both in nycthemeral studies and in stimulation or freination tests.

1987-01-01

343

Intimate Partner Violence Exposure, Salivary Cortisol, and Childhood Asthma  

Science.gov (United States)

Parents were given supplies to collect 3 child salivary cortisol samples (awakening, 30-min after awakening, bedtime) at home on a typical day, and return them via mail. Medical records also were abstracted. Results: Fifty-three percent (n = 29) returned child salivary samples. Families who returned samples typically returned them within 2 weeks,…

Bair-Merritt, Megan H.; Johnson, Sara B.; Okelo, Sande; Page, Gayle

2012-01-01

344

Direct salivary cortisol radio-immunoassay determination. Clinical applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Salivary cortisol levels reflect the biologically active free fraction of blood cortisol. The authors describe the results obtained with the aim of a radio-immunoassay commercial serum cortisol kit, without prealable extraction in different physiological and pathological situations. Salivary cortisol determination appears performant both in nycthemeral studies and in stimulation or freination tests.

Simon, C.; Cherfan, J.; Kurtz, F.; Vignon, F.; Schlienger, J.L.; Chabrier, G.; Sapin, R.

1987-04-01

345

Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the soft palate salivary gland.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mucoepidermoid carcinoma is a malignant epithelial tumour of glandular tissue, usually of the major salivary glands. However it can present in the minor salivary glands, especially in the soft palate. We report the case of a 72-year-old Malay female after presentation with sore throat, fever and odynophagia, was diagnosed with mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the soft palate.

Syed Zaifullah SYED HAMZAH; Mohd Razif MOHAMAD YUNUS

2012-01-01

346

Determinación de los niveles de cortisol salival en una muestra de sujetos de Santiago de Chile Salivary cortisol among subjects with and without Cushing syndrome  

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Full Text Available Background: Salivary cortisol measurement is recommended as a screening mea-sure when a Cushing Syndrome is suspected. Theproposed cut-offpointfor aprobable diagnosis is 0.16 ug/dL. Aim: To determine salivary cortisol concentrations during the day inpatients with and without Cushing syndrome and with depression. Material and Methods: Salivary cortisol was measured by competitive enzyme immuno assay (EIA), in samples obtained at 8:00,15:00 and 23:00 h in 78 patients without Cushing syndrome, aged 40 ± 15years (28 males), 30 patients with depression aged 40 ± 12years (nine males) and four jemales with Cushing syndrome aged 42 ± 17 years. Results: Salivary cortisol was higher among patients with Cushing syndrome than the rest of patients. A salivary cortisol over the cut-off value of O.16 ug/dL was found in 42% of subjects without Cushing syndrome and in 33% of patients with depression. Median values among patients without Cushing syndrome, depression and with Cushing syndrome were 0.21 (range < 0.1-1.42), 0.2 (range 0,12-0.9) and 0.58 (range 0.37-1.1) ug/dL, respectively Conclusions: Salivary cortisol measured by EIA method was higher among patients with Cushing syndrome but there was a great overlap with values obtained in subjects without the syndrome.

MACARENA LÉPEZ; EGARDO CAAMAÑO; CARMEN ROMERO; JENNY FIEDLER; VERÓNICA ARAYA

2010-01-01

347

Salivary gland neoplasms: an analysis of 74 cases.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Between 2006 and 2009, 74 cases of salivary gland neoplasms were analyzed retrospectively, of which 44 (60%) were benign and 30 (40%) malignant. 61 % percent of neoplasms were in the parotid gland, 22% in the minor salivary glands including sublingual salivary glands, and 17% in the submandibular glands. The most common benign neoplasm was pleomorphic adenoma (64%), and the most common malignant neoplasm were adenoid cystic carcinoma (17%) and mucoepidermoid carcinoma (23%). We analyze the incidence and distribution of all types of salivary gland neoplasms in our series, and provide data for comparison with other epidemiological studies from different geographical sites and races. Demographic data from these studies help us to a better understanding of the biological and clinical characteristics of the disease. Further epidemiological surveys should be encouraged for better understanding of the disease and to provide early and better treatment of salivary gland neoplasms.

Sirohi D; Sharma R; Sinha R; Suresh Menon P

2009-06-01

348

The relationship between dioxins and salivary steroid hormones in Vietnamese primiparae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Nearly 40 years after Agent Orange was last sprayed, we conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate the impact of dioxin exposure on salivary hormones in Vietnamese primiparae. Our previous studies found higher levels of salivary cortisol and cortisone in one of the most highly dioxin-contaminated areas, known as a "hot-spot", than in a non-exposed area. As a result, we suggested that further research with a larger number of participants would be needed to confirm whether dioxin affects steroid hormone levels in Vietnamese primiparae. METHODS: The concentration of steroid hormones in saliva was determined by liquid chromatography (electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry), whereas the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in breast milk were determined by gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry, for a sample of the population from a "hot-spot" (n = 16) and a non-exposed area (n = 10). All subjects were aged between 20 and 30 years and had children aged between 4 and 16 weeks. RESULTS: The mean toxic equivalence of PCDDs, PCDFs and PCDDs + PCDFs in breast milk in the hot-spot area was found to be significantly higher than in the non-exposed area (p < 0.001). Likewise, salivary cortisol, cortisone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels were significantly higher in the hotspot area than in the non-exposed area (p < 0.05). As a result, herein we report, for the first time, that salivary DHEA levels in primiparae are higher in a hot-spot than in a non-exposed area, and that this may be the result of dioxin exposure. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight the long-term effects of Agent Orange/dioxin on steroid hormones in Vietnamese primiparae in the post-war period.

Manh HD; Kido T; Okamoto R; Xianliang S; Viet NH; Nakano M; Tai PT; Maruzeni S; Nishijo M; Nakagawa H; Suzuki H; Honma S; Van Tung D; Nhu DD; Hung NN; Son le K

2013-05-01

349

Salivary cortisol, stress and mood in healthy older adults: the Zenith study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between salivary cortisol, stress and mood and to look at the circadian rhythms of positive (PA) and negative (NA) mood in older adults. The participants were 41 healthy adults aged 55-69 years, recruited in Northern Ireland as part of the European Commission-funded Zenith project. Salivary cortisol samples were obtained twice a day (2.30 p.m. and 10.30 p.m.) for 7 consecutive days in conjunction with momentary measures of positive (PA) and negative mood (NA), using PANAS and a trait measure of perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale). Salivary cortisol levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunoassay kit. Higher perceived stress levels were associated with lower afternoon PA (r=-0.46, p=0.003) and higher afternoon (r=0.43, p=0.007) and evening (r=0.45, p=0.004) NA. Lower afternoon PA was correlated with higher evening cortisol concentrations (r=-0.47, p=0.002). Greater afternoon PA variability was associated with higher evening cortisol concentrations (r=0.38, p=0.015). A high intra-class correlation between cortisol and positive mood was found (r=0.67, p=0.009). Previously established rhythms for positive and negative mood were confirmed. Interestingly, there was no association between salivary cortisol levels and perceived stress in these healthy older adults. Further, more extensive research is required to better understand the apparent interplay between these variables and ageing. PMID:18243482

Simpson, Ellen E A; McConville, Chris; Rae, Gordon; O'Connor, Jacqueline M; Stewart-Knox, Barbara J; Coudray, Charles; Strain, J J

2007-12-15

350

Assessment of salivary gland dysfunction following chemoradiotherapy using quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To assess chemoradiotherapy-induced salivary gland dysfunction using quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy (QSGS), and whether QSGS is capable of predicting the grade of persistent salivary dysfunction after chemoradiotherapy. METHODS: From a time-activity curve using a stimulation test, the washout rate (WR) calculated was assessed. All glands (n = 155) were classified into four groups: a no-therapy group (n = 18), a chemotherapy alone group (n = 31), a radiotherapy alone group (n = 50), and a chemoradiotherapy group (n = 56). Subjective descriptions of xerostomia were recorded 1 year after the completion of the treatment period, and the 32 glands subjected to irradiation with or without chemotherapy were assessed. RESULTS: The WR values were significantly lower in glands that received chemoradiotherapy than in glands treated with radiotherapy alone (mean: 0.75 x 10(-3), n = 40 vs. 0.22, n = 36, p < 0.015), but there was no significant difference in the WR values between the no-therapy group and the chemotherapy alone group. The mean values of WR were lower in the chemoradiotherapy glands than in the radiotherapy alone glands in each of cumulative dose ranges of 1-20, 21-30, and 31-60 Gy. With regard to recovery from xerostomia, the WR values at a cumulative dose range of 20 to 40 Gy were significantly lower in the not improved group (-0.418, n = 16) than in the improved group (0.245, n = 16) (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Chemotherapy per se has no or little adverse effect on salivary function, but combination chemotherapy can deteriorate radiation-induced injury of the salivary glands. QSGS appears useful in predicting the grade of persistent xerostomia following chemoradiotherapy.

Kosuda S; Satoh M; Yamamoto F; Uematsu M; Kusano S

1999-09-01

351

Diagnostic performance of salivary cortisol and serum osteocalcin measurements in patients with overt and subclinical Cushing's syndrome.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The cut-off value for salivary cortisol measurement for the diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome (CS) may depend both on the severity of the disease and the composition of control group. Therefore, we examined the utility of midnight salivary cortisol measurements in patients who were evaluated for signs and symptoms of CS or because they had adrenal incidentalomas. Because serum osteocalcin (OC) is considered as a sensitive marker of hypercortisolism, we also investigated whether OC could have a role in the diagnosis of CS. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Each of the 151 patients was included into one of the following groups: (A) overt CS (n=23), (B) subclinical CS (n=18), (C) inactive adrenal adenomas (n=40), (D) patients without HPA disturbances (n=70). Patients (C+D) were used as controls. Serum, salivary and urinary cortisol, and OC were measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. RESULTS: Group A had suppressed OC as compared to both group B and group (C+D). Serum and salivary cortisol concentrations showed strong negative correlations with OC in patients with overt CS. The areas under the curves of salivary and serum cortisol at 24:00 h (0.9790 and 0.9940, respectively) serum cortisol after low dose dexamethasone test (0.9930) and OC (0.9220) obtained from ROC analysis for the diagnosis of overt CS were not statistically different. CONCLUSION: This study confirms the usefulness of midnight salivary cortisol measurements in the diagnosis of overt CS in the everyday endocrinological praxis. Our results suggest that OC may have a role in the diagnosis of overt CS.

Sereg M; Toke J; Patócs A; Varga I; Igaz P; Szücs N; Horányi J; Pusztai P; Czirják S; Gláz E; Rácz K; Tóth M

2011-01-01

352

Assessment of salivary gland function in patients after successful kidney transplantation using (99m)Tc-pertechnetate salivary gland scintigraphy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Chronic renal failure and its treatment can induce oral health problems and salivary glands dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to assess salivary glands function in patients with kidney transplantation using technetium-99m pertechnetate ((99m)Tc-P) salivary glands scintigraphy. We prospectively studied 34 patients with kidney transplantation (30 males and 4 females,mean age 39.76±11.6 years) and 28 healthy controls (12 males and 16 females, mean age 36.1±9.5 years). Salivary gland scintigraphy was performed nearly 4.4±2.9 years after successful kidney transplantation. Dynamic salivary glands scintigraphy was performed during 25min after the intravenous administration of 185MBq of (99m)Tc-P. Time-activity curves and glands functional parameters were calculated for the parotid and submandibular salivary glands: uptake ratio, maximum accumulation of the radionuclide, and excretion fraction. Statistical analysis of the functional parameters showed no significant differences between patients with kidney transplantation and healthy controls (P>0.05). In conclusion, this study showed that using (99m)Tc-P salivary gland scintigraphy, salivary glands function of patients with successful kidney transplantation do not differ statistically from those in healthy controls.

Orsal E; Seven B; Keles M; Ayan AK; Cankaya E; Ozkan O

2013-05-01

353

Treatment of salivary stones by extracorporeal lithotripsy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of extracorporeal lithotripsy (ECL) in the treatment of salivary stones. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In a prospective study, an additional 15 patients suffering from sialolithiasis were treated by applying extracorporeally generated shock waves. No patients needed general anaesthesia, sedatives, or analgesics. RESULTS: Treatment was effective in 80% of the 15 patients in this series (5 total efficacy and 7 partial efficacy). Only minor complications were observed. CONCLUSION: Lithotripsy is a promising nonsurgical therapy for the treatment of sialolithiasis.

Aïdan P; De Kerviler E; LeDuc A; Monteil JP

1996-07-01

354

Complete agenesis of major salivary glands.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 4 year-old female patient was treated for persistent right-sided dacryocystitis and xerostomia. MRI was performed to screen for a dry syndrome; which resulted in the diagnosis of agenesis of the parotid and submandibular glands as well as lacrimal duct malformation. An MRI of each parent was normal. The mother's history revealed 4 days of pyrexia during the 8th week of amenorrhea. This was an isolated case, with no family history, characterized by a febrile episode during pregnancy at the period of main salivary gland genesis. Epigenetic mechanisms could be implicated. PMID:23993206

Berta, E; Bettega, G; Jouk, P S; Billy, G; Nugues, F; Morand, B

2013-08-28

355

Complete agenesis of major salivary glands.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A 4 year-old female patient was treated for persistent right-sided dacryocystitis and xerostomia. MRI was performed to screen for a dry syndrome; which resulted in the diagnosis of agenesis of the parotid and submandibular glands as well as lacrimal duct malformation. An MRI of each parent was normal. The mother's history revealed 4 days of pyrexia during the 8th week of amenorrhea. This was an isolated case, with no family history, characterized by a febrile episode during pregnancy at the period of main salivary gland genesis. Epigenetic mechanisms could be implicated.

Berta E; Bettega G; Jouk PS; Billy G; Nugues F; Morand B

2013-10-01

356

[Integrated instrumental diagnosis in salivary gland pathology].  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of instrumental practice, especially using pictures, in the diagnosis of salivary gland conditions has been examined. A number of remarks arise out of the evaluation of possibilities and limitations of the various techniques. In general, the aid these offer when clinical medicine alone fails to achieve accurate diagnosis; then need to proceed from the simpler, more innocuous techniques to other more complex, invasive ones only when the limitations of the former prevent a complete classification of the features of the lesion. Used rationally, integrated instrumental diagnosis represents an extra tool available to the clinician. PMID:2195314

Fina, A; Chiaravalle, G; Pettini, P L; Laforgia, A; Racanelli, A

1990-03-01

357

[Integrated instrumental diagnosis in salivary gland pathology  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The role of instrumental practice, especially using pictures, in the diagnosis of salivary gland conditions has been examined. A number of remarks arise out of the evaluation of possibilities and limitations of the various techniques. In general, the aid these offer when clinical medicine alone fails to achieve accurate diagnosis; then need to proceed from the simpler, more innocuous techniques to other more complex, invasive ones only when the limitations of the former prevent a complete classification of the features of the lesion. Used rationally, integrated instrumental diagnosis represents an extra tool available to the clinician.

Fina A; Chiaravalle G; Pettini PL; Laforgia A; Racanelli A

1990-03-01

358

Salivary neuron specific enolase: an indicator for neuronal damage in patients with ischemic stroke and stroke-prone patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The blood-brain barrier is compromised in patients with stroke. The release of neuro-biochemical protein markers, such as neuron specific enolase (NSE) into the circulation may allow the pathophysiology and prognosis of patients with cerebrovascular diseases to be evaluated further. The present study was designed to measure the marker of neuronal damage, NSE, in saliva and serum of patients with acute ischemic stroke and patients with stroke related diseases as a diagnostic and/or monitoring tool for early prediction of ischemic stroke. METHODS: Salivary and serum NSE concentrations were measured in 150 individuals. Fifty were patients recently diagnosed as having ischemic stroke, 75 were gender and age-matched risk-group patients (patients with hypertension, type 2 diabetes and ischemic heart disease). Another 25 were gender and age-matched healthy controls. RESULTS: Salivary and serum NSE concentrations were significantly higher than that of healthy controls. The cut-off threshold for salivary NSE of 3.7 microg/L was optimum, showing 80% accuracy for differentiation of ischemic stroke from normal individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Salivary NSE (alone or in combination with serum) can be used as a valuable diagnostic and possibly prognostic tool for measurement of neuronal damage in patients with stroke and stroke-related diseases.

Al-Rawi NH; Atiyah KM

2009-01-01

359

Malignant mixed tumor of the salivary gland with bone metastasis : a case report and literature review.  

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Full Text Available Malignant mixed salivary tumors are rare, accounting for 2%-10% of all mixed salivary tumors. Rarer still are metastasis from a malignant mixed salivary tumor. A case of malignant mixed salivary tumor occurring in the parotid gland and presenting as a parapharyngeal mass; with asymptomatic multiple bony metastasis is presented with a brief review of literature.

Parikh H; Parikh D

1991-01-01

360

Minor salivary gland neoplasm in children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this article, we present a review of the literature, and we focus on 2 particular cases of cancer of the salivary glands accessory in pe