WorldWideScience
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Smokeless Tobacco Use and Salivary Cotinine Concentration  

OpenAIRE

The objective of the current study was to examine demographic, tobacco-related, and psychosocial factors associated with cotinine concentration in a group of 256 male smokeless tobacco (ST) users living in the Ohio Appalachian region. Participants completed a survey that included questions on: 1) current and past tobacco use behaviors; 2) demographics; 3) tobacco dependence; 4) decisional balance; 5) health behaviors; and 6) perceived stress and depressive symptoms. Saliva samples were obtain...

Ferketich, Amy K.; Wee, Alvin G.; Shultz, Jennifer; Wewers, Mary Ellen

2007-01-01

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Salivary cotinine concentration versus self-reported cigarette smoking: Three patterns of inconsistency in adolescence  

OpenAIRE

The present study examined the extent and sources of discrepancies between self-reported cigarette smoking and salivary cotinine concentration among adolescents. The data are from household interviews with a cohort of 1,024 adolescents from an urban school system. Histories of tobacco use in the last 7 days and saliva samples were obtained. Logistic regressions identified correlates of three inconsistent patterns: (a) Pattern 1—self-reported nonsmoking among adolescents with cotinine concen...

Kandel, Denise B.; Schaffran, Christine; Griesler, Pamela C.; Hu, Mei-chen; Davies, Mark; Benowitz, Neal

2006-01-01

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Passive smoking, salivary cotinine concentrations, and middle ear effusion in 7 year old children.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE--To assess the contribution of passive exposure to tobacco smoke to the development of middle ear underpressure and effusion. DESIGN--Cross sectional observational study. SETTING--One third of the primary schools in Edinburgh. SUBJECTS--892 Children aged 6 1/2 to 7 1/2 were examined, and satisfactory tympanograms were obtained in 872. Results of assay of salivary cotinine concentrations were available for 770 children, and satisfactory tympanograms were available for 736 of these. E...

Strachan, D. P.; Jarvis, M. J.; Feyerabend, C.

1989-01-01

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Comparison of serum and salivary cotinine measurements by a sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method as an indicator of exposure to tobacco smoke among smokers and nonsmokers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exposure to tobacco smoke, both from active smoking and from passive exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, can be monitored by measuring cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine, in a variety of biological sources including blood, urine, and saliva. Previously, a sensitive atmospheric-pressure ionization, tandem mass spectrometric (LC-API-MS-MS) method for cotinine measurements in serum was developed in support of a large, recurrent national epidemiologic investigation. The current study examined the application of this LC-API-MS-MS method to both serum and saliva cotinine measurements in a group of 200 healthy adults, including both smokers and nonsmokers. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between serum and saliva cotinine concentrations to facilitate the linking of results from epidemiologic studies using salivary cotinine measurements to existing national data based on serum cotinine analyses. The results indicate that a simple, linear relationship can be developed to describe serum and saliva cotinine concentrations in an individual, and the expression describing this relationship can be used to estimate with reasonable accuracy (approximately +/- 10%) the serum cotinine concentration in an individual given his or her salivary cotinine result. It was further confirmed that saliva cotinine samples are generally quite stable during storage after collection, even at ambient temperatures, and this sample matrix appears to be well-suited to the requirements of many epidemiologic investigations. PMID:10926356

Bernert, J T; McGuffey, J E; Morrison, M A; Pirkle, J L

2000-01-01

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Utility and cutoff value of hair nicotine as a biomarker of long-term tobacco smoke exposure, compared to salivary cotinine.  

Science.gov (United States)

While hair samples are easier to collect and less expensive to store and transport than biological fluids, and hair nicotine characterizes tobacco exposure over a longer time period than blood or urine cotinine, information on its utility, compared with salivary cotinine, is still limited. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 289 participants (107 active smokers, 105 passive smokers with self-reported secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure, and 77 non-smokers with no SHS exposure) in Baltimore (Maryland, USA). A subset of the study participants (n = 52) were followed longitudinally over a two-month interval.  Median baseline hair nicotine concentrations for active, passive and non-smokers were 16.2, 0.36, and 0.23 ng/mg, respectively, while those for salivary cotinine were 181.0, 0.27, and 0.27 ng/mL, respectively. Hair nicotine concentrations for 10% of passive or non-smokers were higher than the 25th percentile value for active smokers while all corresponding salivary cotinine concentrations for them were lower than the value for active smokers. This study showed that hair nicotine concentration values could be used to distinguish active or heavy passive adult smokers from non-SHS exposed non-smokers. Our results indicate that hair nicotine is a useful biomarker for the assessment of long-term exposure to tobacco smoke. PMID:25153466

Kim, Sungroul; Apelberg, Benjamin J; Avila-Tang, Erika; Hepp, Lisa; Yun, Dongmin; Samet, Jonathan M; Breysse, Patrick N

2014-08-01

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Utility and Cutoff Value of Hair Nicotine as a Biomarker of Long-Term Tobacco Smoke Exposure, Compared to Salivary Cotinine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available While hair samples are easier to collect and less expensive to store and transport than biological fluids, and hair nicotine characterizes tobacco exposure over a longer time period than blood or urine cotinine, information on its utility, compared with salivary cotinine, is still limited. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 289 participants (107 active smokers, 105 passive smokers with self-reported secondhand smoke (SHS exposure, and 77 non-smokers with no SHS exposure in Baltimore (Maryland, USA. A subset of the study participants (n = 52 were followed longitudinally over a two-month interval.  Median baseline hair nicotine concentrations for active, passive and non-smokers were 16.2, 0.36, and 0.23 ng/mg, respectively, while those for salivary cotinine were 181.0, 0.27, and 0.27 ng/mL, respectively. Hair nicotine concentrations for 10% of passive or non-smokers were higher than the 25th percentile value for active smokers while all corresponding salivary cotinine concentrations for them were lower than the value for active smokers. This study showed that hair nicotine concentration values could be used to distinguish active or heavy passive adult smokers from non-SHS exposed non-smokers. Our results indicate that hair nicotine is a useful biomarker for the assessment of long-term exposure to tobacco smoke.

Sungroul Kim

2014-08-01

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MEASURING NICOTINE INTAKE AMONG HIGHLY DEPENDENT ADOLESCENT SMOKERS: COMPARABILITY OF SALIVA AND PLASMA COTININE CONCENTRATIONS  

OpenAIRE

Cotinine is the most common biomarker used to assess nicotine exposure and abstinence. It can be measured in various matrices including saliva, plasma, and urine. Previous research with adults has shown high correlations between saliva and plasma cotinine concentrations. However, research has not examined this relationship in adolescents. Additionally, variability in saliva flow and metabolism across gender, ethnicity, and age may impact the relationship between saliva and plasma cotinine con...

Parzynski, Craig S.; Jaszyna-gasior, Maria; Franken, Frederick H.; Moolchan, Eric T.

2007-01-01

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Utility and Cutoff Value of Hair Nicotine as a Biomarker of Long-Term Tobacco Smoke Exposure, Compared to Salivary Cotinine  

OpenAIRE

While hair samples are easier to collect and less expensive to store and transport than biological fluids, and hair nicotine characterizes tobacco exposure over a longer time period than blood or urine cotinine, information on its utility, compared with salivary cotinine, is still limited. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 289 participants (107 active smokers, 105 passive smokers with self-reported secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure, and 77 non-smokers with no SHS exposure) in Baltimore...

Sungroul Kim; Apelberg, Benjamin J.; Erika Avila-Tang; Lisa Hepp; Dongmin Yun; Samet, Jonathan M.; Breysse, Patrick N.

2014-01-01

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Hair nicotine/cotinine concentrations as a method of monitoring exposure to tobacco smoke among infants and adults.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this pilot study, we examined the validity and usefulness of hair nicotine-cotinine evaluation as a biomarker of monitoring exposure to tobacco. Head hair samples were collected from 22 infants (<2 years of age) and 44 adults with different exposures to tobacco (through either active or passive smoking) and analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for nicotine and cotinine. Hair samples were divided into three groups, infants, passive smoker adults and active smoker adults, and into eight subgroups according to the degree of exposure. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.1 ng/mg for nicotine and 0.05 ng/mg for cotinine. Mean recovery was 69.15% for nicotine and 72.08% for cotinine. The within- and between-day precision for cotinine and nicotine was calculated at different concentrations. Moreover, hair nicotine and cotinine concentrations were highly correlated among adult active smokers (R (2) = 0.710, p < 0.001), among adult nonsmokers exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS; R (2) = 0.729, p < 0.001) and among infants (R (2) = 0.538, p = 0.01). Among the infants exposed to SHS from both parents the noted correlations were even stronger (R (2) = 0.835, p = 0.02). The above results identify the use of hair samples as an effective method for assessing exposure to tobacco, with a high association between nicotine and cotinine especially among infants heavily exposed to SHS. PMID:22027507

Tzatzarakis, M N; Vardavas, C I; Terzi, I; Kavalakis, M; Kokkinakis, M; Liesivuori, J; Tsatsakis, A M

2012-03-01

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Secondhand smoke exposure and urine cotinine concentrations by occupation among Korean workers: results from the 2008 Korea National Survey for Environmental Pollutants in the Human Body.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to estimate the status of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure through urine cotinine analysis among nonsmoking workers in Korea and to analyze factors affecting urine cotinine concentrations. Data were based on "The 2008 Korea National Survey for Environmental Pollutants in the Human Body," a cross-sectional study of the National Institute of Environmental Research of Korea. We selected 1448 nonsmoking adult workers from 200 localities to participate in this survey. Urine cotinine concentrations were analyzed using a gas chromatograph-mass selective detector. We calculated separate covariate-adjusted geometric means for socio-demographic variables for males, females, and total subjects by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS version 18.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Ill.). The prevalence of self-reported exposure to SHS was 36.9%. The geometric mean (95% confidence interval) of urine cotinine concentrations among all participants was 16.50 (14.48-18.80) ?g/L. Gender, living area, education, and SHS exposure showed significant differences in urine cotinine concentrations. The urine cotinine concentrations of farmworkers and blue-collar workers such as skilled agricultural, forestry, and fishery workers, and elementary occupations were higher than those of white-collar workers such as clerical support workers, technicians, and associate professionals. Such a high proportion of the population having high urine cotinine levels indicates widespread exposure to SHS among nonsmoking workers in Korea. Furthermore, the urine cotinine levels among nonsmoking workers exposed to SHS varied by occupation. The measured urine cotinine concentration is suggested to be a valuable indication of SHS exposure in Korea. PMID:24219421

Lee, So Ryong; Lee, Chae Kwan; Im, Hosub; Yang, Wonho; Urm, Sang-Hwa; Yu, Seung-Do; Lee, Jin Heon; Suh, Chun Hui; Kim, Kun Hyung; Son, Byung Chul; Kim, Jeong Ho; Kim, Se Yeong; Lee, Soo Woong; Lee, Jong Tae

2014-01-01

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Passive exposure to tobacco smoke: saliva cotinine concentrations in a representative population sample of non-smoking schoolchildren.  

OpenAIRE

Saliva cotinine concentrations in 569 non-smoking schoolchildren were strongly related to the smoking habits of their parents. When neither parent smoked the mean concentration was 0.44 ng/ml, rising to 3.38 ng/ml when both parents were cigarette smokers. Mothers' smoking had a stronger influence than did fathers' (p less than 0.01). In addition, there was a small independent effect of number of siblings who smoked (p less than 0.01). The dose of nicotine received from fathers' smoking was es...

Jarvis, M. J.; Russell, M. A.; Feyerabend, C.; Eiser, J. R.; Morgan, M.; Gammage, P.; Gray, E. M.

1985-01-01

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Biomonitoring of Urinary Cotinine Concentrations Associated with Plasma Levels of Nicotine Metabolites after Daily Cigarette Smoking in a Male Japanese Population  

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Full Text Available Human biomonitoring of plasma and urinary levels of nicotine, cotinine, and 3?-hydroxycotinine was conducted after daily cigarette smoking in a population of 92 male Japanese smokers with a mean age of 37 years who had smoked an average of 23 cigarettes per day for 16 years. Members of the population were genotyped for the nicotine-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6. The mean levels of nicotine, the levels of its metabolites cotinine and 3?-hydroxycotinine, and the sum of these three levels in subjects one hour after smoking the first cigarette on the sampling day were 20.1, 158, 27.7, and 198 ng/mL in plasma and 846, 1,020, 1,010, and 2,870 ng/mL in urine under daily smoking conditions. Plasma levels of 3'-hydroxycotinine and urinary levels of nicotine and 3?-hydroxycotinine were dependent on the CYP2A6 phenotype group, which was estimated from the CYP2A6 genotypes of the subjects, including those with whole gene deletion. Plasma cotinine levels were significantly correlated with the number of cigarettes smoked on the day before sampling (r = 0.71, the average number of cigarettes smoked daily (r = 0.58, and the Brinkman index (daily cigarettes × years, r = 0.48 under the present conditions. The sum of nicotine, cotinine, and 3?-hydroxycotinine concentrations in plasma showed a similar relationship to that of the plasma cotinine levels. Urinary concentrations of cotinine and the sum of nicotine metabolite concentrations also showed significant correlations with the plasma levels and the previous day’s and average cigarette consumption. The numbers of cigarettes smoked per day by two subjects with self-reported light smoking habits were predicted by measuring the urinary cotinine concentrations and using linear regression equations derived from above-mentioned data. These results indicate that biomonitoring of the urinary cotinine concentration is a good, easy-to-use marker for plasma levels of cotinine and the sum of nicotine metabolites in smokers independent of genetic polymorphism of CYP2A6.

Hiroshi Yamazaki

2010-07-01

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Heart rate and salivary cortisol concentrations in foals at birth.  

Science.gov (United States)

Heart rate (HR), HR variability (HRV) and salivary cortisol concentrations were determined in foals (n?=?13) during the perinatal phase and until 5 months of age. In the fetus, HR decreased from 77?±?3 beats/min at 120?min before birth to 60?±?1 beats/min at 5?min before birth (P?beats/min (P?<0.01). Salivary cortisol concentrations immediately after birth were 11.9?±?3.6?ng/mL and within 2?h increased to a maximum of 52.5?±?12.3?ng/mL (P?<0.01). In conclusion, increases in HR and salivary cortisol concentrations in foals are not induced during parturition, but occur immediately after birth. PMID:25582796

Nagel, C; Erber, R; Ille, N; Wulf, M; Aurich, J; Möstl, E; Aurich, C

2015-02-01

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Comparison of Expired Carbon Monoxide and Plasma Cotinine as Markers of Cigarette Abstinence  

OpenAIRE

The clinical pharmacology of biochemical measures of nicotine exposure has been thoroughly reviewed with regard to usefulness and limitations in detecting abstinence from cigarette smoking. While plasma nicotine concentration measures only acute nicotine exposure, plasma, salivary, and urine cotinine concentrations reflect exposure over an extended period of time. Although, expired carbon monoxide (CO) is frequently used to confirm self reports, it has a relatively short half life, calling in...

Jatlow, Peter; Toll, Benjamin A.; Leary, Vanessa; Krishnan-sarin, Suchitra; O’malley, Stephanie S.

2008-01-01

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Human Blood Concentrations of Cotinine, a Biomonitoring Marker for Tobacco Smoke, Extrapolated from Nicotine Metabolism in Rats and Humans and Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling  

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Full Text Available The present study defined a simplified physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK model for nicotine and its primary metabolite cotinine in humans, based on metabolic parameters determined in vitro using relevant liver microsomes, coefficients derived in silico, physiological parameters derived from the literature, and an established rat PBPK model. The model consists of an absorption compartment, a metabolizing compartment, and a central compartment for nicotine and three equivalent compartments for cotinine. Evaluation of a rat model was performed by making comparisons with predicted concentrations in blood and in vivo experimental pharmacokinetic values obtained from rats after oral treatment with nicotine (1.0 mg/kg, a no-observed-adverse-effect level for 14 days. Elimination rates of nicotine in vitro were established from data from rat liver microsomes and from human pooled liver microsomes. Human biomonitoring data (17 ng nicotine and 150 ng cotinine per mL plasma 1 h after smoking from pooled five male Japanese smokers (daily intake of 43 mg nicotine by smoking revealed that these blood concentrations could be calculated using a human PBPK model. These results indicate that a simplified PBPK model for nicotine/cotinine is useful for a forward dosimetry approach in humans and for estimating blood concentrations of other related compounds resulting from exposure to low chemical doses.

Masato Kitajima

2010-09-01

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Estimation of Cutoff Values of Cotinine in Urine and Saliva for Pregnant Women in Poland  

Science.gov (United States)

Setting appropriate cutoff values and the use of a highly sensitive analytical method allow for correct classification of the smoking status. Urine-saliva pairs samples of pregnant women in the second and third trimester, and saliva only in the first trimester were collected. Offline SPE and LC-ESI-MS/MS method was developed in the broad concentration range (saliva 0.4–1000?ng/mL, urine 0.8–4000?ng/mL). The mean recoveries were 3.7 ± 7.6% for urine and 99.1 ± 2.6% for saliva. LOD for saliva was 0.12?ng/mL and for urine 0.05?ng/mL; LOQ was 0.4?ng/mL and 0.8?ng/mL, respectively. Intraday and interday precision equaled, respectively, 1.2% and 3.4% for urine, and 2.3% and 6.4% for saliva. There was a strong correlation between salivary cotinine and the uncorrected cotinine concentration in urine in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. The cutoff values were established for saliva 12.9?ng/mL and urine 42.3?ng/mL or 53.1??g/g creatinine with the ROC curve analysis. The developed analytical method was successfully applied to quantify cotinine, and a significant correlation between the urinary and salivary cotinine levels was found. The presented cut-off values for salivary and urinary cotinine ensure a categorization of the smoking status among pregnant women that is more accurate than self-reporting. PMID:24228246

Pola?ska, Kinga

2013-01-01

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Seasonal Variation in Human Salivary Cortisol Concentration  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Measurement of cortisol concentration can contribute important information about an individual's ability to adjust to various environmental demands of both physical and psychosocial origin. However, one uncertainty that affects the possibilities of correctly interpreting and designing field studies is the lack of observations of the impact of seasonal changes on cortisol excretion. For this reason, the month-to-month changes in diurnal cortisol concentration, the awakening cortisol response (ACR), maximum morning concentration, and fall during the day were studied in a group of 24 healthy men and women 32 to 61 yrs of age engaged in active work. On one workday for 12 consecutive months, participants collected saliva at four time points for determination of cortisol: at awakening, +30 min, +8 h, and at 21:00 h. Data were analyzed by a repeated measures design with month (12 levels) and time-of-day (4 levels) as categorical predictors. Cortisol concentrations were analyzed on a log scale. The diurnal pattern ofcortisol was similar across months (interaction between month and time of day: p>0.4). The main effects of month and time-of-day were statistically significant (p

Persson, Roger; Garde, Anne Helene

2008-01-01

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Salivary and serum hyaluronic acid concentrations in patients with Sjögren's syndrome  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE—To evaluate salivary hyaluronic acid (HA) concentration in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS).?METHODS—Salivary and serum HA concentrations were evaluated using a radiometric assay. Thirty nine patients with SS served as the study group and their results were compared with 19 patients having clinical symptoms and signs of dry mouth and with 10 normal controls.?RESULTS—Salivary HA concentrations were significantly increased (p 

Tishler, M.; Yaron, I.; Shirazi, I.; Yaron, M.

1998-01-01

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Technical note: comparison of salivary and serum cortisol concentrations after adrenocorticotropic hormone challenge in ewes.  

Science.gov (United States)

An ACTH challenge was conducted to determine if salivary cortisol concentration reflects serum cortisol concentration in ewes. Twelve yearling ewes (64.0 +/- 1.2 kg) were administered ACTH (100 IU, intravenously) or saline. Serum and salivary samples were collected at 30-min intervals for 2 h before ACTH administration, at 15-min intervals for 2 h after treatment, and at 30-min intervals for an additional 3 h, and cortisol concentration was determined by RIA. Although ewes responded to ACTH and saline, cortisol concentration was greater (P cortisol concentration was greater (P cortisol concentration (P = 0.126) and time to peak salivary cortisol concentration (P = 0.109), or between saliva and serum for time to peak cortisol concentration (P = 0.220) and return to baseline cortisol concentration (P = 0.341). The serum (P = 0.009) and salivary (P = 0.050) cortisol areas under the curve between 0 and 150 min were greater for ACTH-treated ewes than controls, and serum (P = 0.002) and salivary (P cortisol return to baseline concentration was longer for ACTH-treated ewes. The correlation coefficient between serum and salivary cortisol concentrations was 0.88 (P salivary cortisol concentration is closely related to serum cortisol concentration and that the former may represent a suitable noninvasive alternative to blood collection for measurement of cortisol in sheep. PMID:19854993

Yates, D T; Ross, T T; Hallford, D M; Yates, L J; Wesley, R L

2010-02-01

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Salivary Concentration of Progesterone and Cortisol Significantly Differs Across Individuals After Correcting for Blood Hormone Values  

OpenAIRE

Between-individual variation of salivary progesterone (P4) and cortisol levels does not always closely reflect blood hormone concentrations. This may be partly a function of individual differences in salivary hormone excretion. We tested whether time of day at sampling and ethnicity contributed to individual variation in salivary hormones after adjusting for blood hormone levels. Forty-three Caucasian and 15 Japanese women (18–34 years) collected four sets of matched dried blood spot (DBS) ...

Konishi, Shoko; Brindle, Eleanor; Guyton, Amanda; O’connor, Kathleen A.

2012-01-01

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Diurnal salivary cortisol concentrations in Parkinson’s disease: increased total secretion and morning cortisol concentrations  

OpenAIRE

Background:Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder. There is limited knowledge about the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in PD. The primary aim of this prospective study was to analyze diurnal salivary cortisol concentrations in patients with PD and correlate these with age, gender, body mass index (BMI), duration of PD, and pain. The secondary aim was to compare the results with a healthy reference group. Methods:Fifty-nine PD patients, 35 women...

Skogar, O?; Fall, Per-arne; Hallgren, G.; Lo?kk, J.; Bringer, B.; Carlsson, M.; Lennartsson, U.; Sandbjo?rk, H.; To?rnhage, C-j

2011-01-01

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Cotinine Concentrations in Follicular Fluid as a Measure of Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Women Undergoing In Vitro Fertilization: Inter-matrix Comparisons with Urine and Temporal Variability  

OpenAIRE

We examined the relationship between cotinine measures in follicular fluid (FF) and urine to inform our exposure assessment strategy for an ongoing epidemiological study of secondhand tobacco smoke (STS) exposure and early pregnancy loss. Among subjects undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF), we compared cotinine levels in paired urine and FF samples from the same women and examined FF cotinine levels over time. We found a weak rank-order relationship (Spearman r

Benedict, Merle D.; Missmer, Stacey A.; Vitonis, Allison F.; Cramer, Daniel W.; Meeker, John D.

2011-01-01

23

Relation of passive smoking as assessed by salivary cotinine concentration and questionnaire to spirometric indices in children.  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND: Previous studies of the effects of passive exposure to smoke on spirometric indices in children have largely relied on questionnaire measures of exposure. This may have resulted in underestimation of the true effect of passive smoking. Biochemical measures offer the opportunity to estimate recent exposure directly. METHODS: The relation between spirometric indices and passive exposure to tobacco smoke was examined in a large population sample of 5-7 year old children from 10 towns...

Cook, D. G.; Whincup, P. H.; Papacosta, O.; Strachan, D. P.; Jarvis, M. J.; Bryant, A.

1993-01-01

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Salivary concentration of the antimicrobial peptide LL-37 in patients with oral lichen planus  

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Full Text Available Background: The antimicrobial peptide LL-37 is a significant molecule of innate immunity and recent studies indicate that it plays an important role in maintaining oral health. Yet limited knowledge exists on its role in oral diseases and oral lichen planus (OLP in particular. Objective: The study aimed to examine: 1 the salivary concentration of LL-37 in patients with OLP and healthy subjects, 2 the relation between the type (reticular or erosive and size of OLP lesions and LL-37 concentration, and 3 the effect of the therapeutic modalities on LL-37 levels. Design: The salivary peptide concentration in samples from 20 patients and 30 healthy subjects at the same age range was determined by ELISA. Results: Despite the wide variation in peptide concentration found in both groups, the healthy subjects exhibited significantly lower levels than patients. Patients with the erosive form had significantly higher peptide concentrations than patients with the reticular form. Systemic treatment with corticosteroids resulted in a significant decrease of the salivary peptide concentration, while other treatment modalities, such as administration of vitamins A and E or local application of corticosteroids had no effect. Improved clinical appearance of the lesions was followed by a decrease in the salivary LL-37 level. Conclusions: Salivary concentration of LL-37 correlates to the manifestation of mucosa lesions in OLP patients, the highest levels being observed in the most severe cases. This increase in peptide levels may protect against lesion infection and promote a quick wound healing.

Sotiria Davidopoulou

2014-12-01

25

Diurnal salivary cortisol concentrations in Parkinson’s disease: increased total secretion and morning cortisol concentrations  

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Full Text Available Ö Skogar1,4, P-A Fall2, G Hallgren3, J Lökk4, B Bringer2, M Carlsson1, U Lennartsson3, H Sandbjork3, C-J Törnhage51Department of Geriatrics, Ryhov Hospital, Jonkoping, 2Department of Geriatrics, University Hospital, Linkoping, 3Department of Neurology, Skaraborg Hospital, Skovde, 4Institute of Neurobiology, Care Sciences, and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, 5Department of Pediatrics, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, SwedenBackground: Parkinson’s disease (PD is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder. There is limited knowledge about the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in PD. The primary aim of this prospective study was to analyze diurnal salivary cortisol concentrations in patients with PD and correlate these with age, gender, body mass index (BMI, duration of PD, and pain. The secondary aim was to compare the results with a healthy reference group.Methods: Fifty-nine PD patients, 35 women and 24 men, aged 50–79 years, were recruited. The reference group comprised healthy individuals matched for age, gender, BMI, and time point for sampling. Salivary cortisol was collected at 8 am, 1 pm, and 8 pm, and 8 am the next day using cotton-based Salivette® tubes and analyzed using Spectria® Cortisol I125. A visual analog scale was used for estimation of pain.Results: The median cortisol concentration was 16.0 (5.8–30.2 nmol/L at 8 am, 5.8 (3.0–16.4 at 1 pm, 2.8 (1.6–8.0 at 8 pm, and 14.0 (7.5–28.7 at 8 am the next day. Total secretion and rate of cortisol secretion during the day (8 am–8 pm and the concentration of cortisol on the next morning were lower (12.5 nmol/L in the reference group. No significant correlations with age, gender, BMI, duration of PD, Hoehn and Yahr score, Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale III score, gait, pain, or cortisol concentrations were found.Conclusion: The neurodegenerative changes in PD does not seem to interfere with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Salivary cortisol concentrations in PD patients were increased in the morning compared with the reference group, and were not influenced by motor dysfunction, duration of disease, or coexistence of chronic or acute pain.Keywords: cortisol, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, Parkinson's disease

Skogar Ö

2011-08-01

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Salivary concentrations of cortisol and testosterone and prediction of performance in a professional triathlon competition.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to examine salivary cortisol and testosterone concentrations in professional male athletes during a short triathlon competition using non-invasive methods, and to determine whether these hormone concentrations could be accurate predictors of performance. Eight adult male athletes (age, mean ± SEM: 27.8 ± 3.2 years; body mass index: 21.66 ± 0.42) in a professional triathlon team volunteered to participate in this study. Saliva samples were taken on the competition day and 7 days after competition on a rest day. The performance of the athletes was assessed by their rank order in the competition. Salivary cortisol concentrations were greater on the competition day than on the rest day in the early morning, immediately after waking up, 30 min later, immediately before the start of the competition, and later in the evening. Testosterone concentrations were greater on the competition day in the morning and in the evening. The diurnal rhythm of both cortisol and testosterone concentrations was maintained on both days and the testosterone/cortisol ratio (T/C ratio) was similar between days. The performance of the athletes was positively correlated with salivary cortisol concentration in the early morning of the competition day, but was not correlated with testosterone concentrations at any of the time points. In conclusion, early morning salivary cortisol concentration, but not T/C ratio, could be used to predict performance in athletes during a professional triathlon competition. PMID:22128832

Balthazar, Cláudio Heitor; Garcia, Marcia Carvalho; Spadari-Bratfisch, Regina Celia

2012-09-01

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Salivary glucose concentration exhibits threshold kinetics in normal-weight, overweight, and obese children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mor-Li Hartman,1 J Max Goodson,1 Roula Barake,2 Osama Alsmadi,3 Sabiha Al-Mutawa,4 Jitendra Ariga,4 Pramod Soparkar,1 Jawad Behbehani,5 Kazem Behbehani,6 Francine Welty7 1Department of Applied Oral Sciences, The Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, MA, USA; 2Department of Nutrition, The Dasman Diabetes Institute, Dasman, Kuwait; 3Genome Center, The Dasman Diabetes Institute, Dasman, Kuwait; 4Ministry of Health, Kuwait City, Kuwait; 5Faculty of Dentistry, Kuwait University, Kuwait City, Kuwait; 6The Dasman Diabetes Institute, Dasman, Kuwait; 7Division of Cardiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA Background: Metabolic syndrome in childhood predicts the development of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes (T2D in adulthood. Testing for features of metabolic syndrome, such as fasting plasma glucose concentration, requires blood sampling which can be difficult in children. Here we evaluated salivary glucose concentration as a surrogate measurement for plasma glucose concentration in 11-year-old US children. Methods: Children from Portland, Maine, and Cambridge, Massachusetts, with a mean age of 10.6±0.2 years provided 6-hour fasting samples of both blood and whole saliva. Salivary glucose levels were measured with a high-sensitivity assay (sensitivity =0.002 mg/dL. Plasma glucose levels were determined by a commercial clinical laboratory. Blood pressure, salivary flow rate, height, and weight were also measured. Results: Of the 65 children enrolled, there were two underweight children (3.1%, 30 normal-weight children (46.2%, 12 overweight children (18.4%, and 21 obese children (32.3%. The mean overall glucose concentrations were 0.11±0.02 mg/dL in saliva and 86.3±0.8 mg/dL in plasma, and these did not differ significantly by body–weight groups. By regression analysis, the plasma concentration equaled 13.5 times the saliva concentration, with a threshold level of 84.8 mg/dL. Salivary glucose values less than threshold plasma concentration were essentially zero. Diagnostic analysis indicated a positive predictive value of 50%, a negative predictive value of 90%, and a sensitivity and specificity both of approximately 75%. The salivary glucose concentration did not vary with saliva flow rate. Conclusion: Taking into account the threshold response characteristics of the salivary glucose concentration response, these results suggest that testing salivary glucose levels may be useful as a screening assay for high fasting plasma glucose levels. The low false positive value is important to assure a low fraction of missed diagnoses. Keywords: saliva, salivary glucose, plasma glucose, children

Hartman ML

2014-12-01

28

Biomonitoring of Urinary Cotinine Concentrations Associated with Plasma Levels of Nicotine Metabolites after Daily Cigarette Smoking in a Male Japanese Population  

OpenAIRE

Human biomonitoring of plasma and urinary levels of nicotine, cotinine, and 3?-hydroxycotinine was conducted after daily cigarette smoking in a population of 92 male Japanese smokers with a mean age of 37 years who had smoked an average of 23 cigarettes per day for 16 years. Members of the population were genotyped for the nicotine-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6). The mean levels of nicotine, the levels of its metabolites cotinine and 3?-hydroxycotinine, and the sum of th...

Hiroshi Yamazaki; Fumiaki Shono; Tetsuya Kamataki; Ryohji Takano; Norie Murayama; Taku Nagano; Makiko Shimizu; Kazuma Kiyotani

2010-01-01

29

Évaluation de la concentration de nicotine et de cotinine urinaires chez un groupe de fumeurs actifs et un groupe de “fumeurs passifs”, par chromatographie liquide haute performance (HPLC utilisant une méthode d’extraction en phase solide (SPE Evaluation of urinary levels of nicotine and cotinine, in active and passive groups of smokers, by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC using a solid phase extraction method (SPE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectifs : Évaluation de la concentration de nicotine et de cotinine urinaires et le taux de carboxyhémoglobine (HbCO chez un groupe de fumeurs actifs (n = 22 et un groupe de « fumeurs passifs » (n = 22, afin d’apprécier l’intensité de l’imprégnation tabagique. Matériels et méthodes : Évaluation de la concentration de nicotine et de cotinine urinaires par chromatographie liquide haute performance (HPLC utilisant une méthode d’extraction en phase solide (SPE; évaluation du taux de la carboxyhémoglobine (HbCO par spectrophotométrie UV-VIS. Résultats : Les concentrations urinaires de nicotine varient de 0,48 à 7,59 ?g/mL (moyenne : 3,39  ±  2,06 ?g/mL chez les fumeurs actifs et de 0,31 à 1,27 ?g/mL (moyenne : 0,64  ±  0,31 ?g/mL chez les « fumeurs passifs ». Les concentrations urinaires de cotinine varient de 0,99 à 9,17 ?g/mL (moyenne : 4,14  ±  2,35 ?g/mL chez les fumeurs actifs et de 0,14 à 2,58 ?g/mL (moyenne : 1,25  ±  0,79 ?g/mL chez les « fumeurs passifs ». Le taux de l’ HbCO varie de 0,26 à 8,02 % (moyenne : 3  ±  0,021 % chez les fumeurs actifs, les « fumeurs passifs » et les témoins présentent des taux inférieurs à la limite de détection. Conclusion : La nicotine et la cotinine sont plus spécifiques de l’exposition tabagique que l’HbCO. Les concentrations de nicotine et de cotinine urinaires, retrouvés chez les « fumeurs passifs », soulignent la réalité et l’intensité de l’exposition de ces derniers, d’où la nécessité de prendre des mesures plus restrictives en matière de lutte contre le tabagisme. Objectives: This paper evaluates the urinary levels of nicotine and cotinine and the level of carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO in active (n = 22 and passive (n = 22 groups of smokers, in order to determine the severity of tobacco impregnation. Materials and methods: The levels of nicotine and cotinine in urine were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC using the solid phase extraction method (SPE; the level of carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO was measured by UV-VIS spectrophotometry. Results: The results indicate that the concentration of nicotine in urine is 0.48 to 7.59 ?g/mL (average of 3.39  ±  2.06 ?g/mL in active smokers and 0.31 to 1.27 ?g/mL (average of 0.64  ±  0.31 ?g/mL in passive smokers. The concentration of cotinine in urine is 0.99 to 9.17 ?g/mL (average of 4.14  ±  2.35 ?g/mL in active smokers and 0.14 to 2.58 ?g/mL (average of 1.25  ±  0.79 ?g/mL in passive smokers. The level of HbCO is 0.26 to 8.02% (average of 3  ±  0.021% in active smokers and could not be detected in the passive smokers. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that cotinine and nicotine are more suitable for assessing the intensity of tobacco exposure than HbCO. The measured levels of nicotine and cotinine in passive smokers reveal the fact that this group of people faces a high risk due to tobacco exposure; thus, restrictive measures need to be taken to protect this group.

Azzouz Mohamed

2011-06-01

30

Blood alcohol concentration measurement using a salivary reagent stick: a reliable tool for emergency departments?  

OpenAIRE

Measurements of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) were made on patients who presented to an accident and emergency department with acute alcohol intoxication. A correlation of r = 0.418 was noted to exist between BAC as measured by sampling saliva and blood. Blood alcohol concentrations as measured by salivary reagent strip (ALCO-SCREEN, Chem Elec.) were significantly lower (p less than 0.0001) than those determined by gas chromatography of serum. Although such reagent strips offer a rapid me...

Phair, I. C.; Mardel, S.; Bodiwala, G. G.

1990-01-01

31

Salivary eicosanoid concentration in patients with Sjögren's syndrome.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE: To investigate eicosanoid concentrations in the saliva of patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS). METHODS: Whole mixed saliva of 36 subjects was assayed for eicosanoid concentrations using a radioimmunoassay. Patients with primary SS having positive lip biopsy served as the study group; their results were compared with data from patients with dry mouth and negative lip biopsy (dry mouth group), and with a group of normal healthy controls. RESULTS: Concentrations of thrombox...

Tishler, M.; Yaron, I.; Raz, A.; Meyer, F. A.; Yaron, M.

1996-01-01

32

A surrogate method for comparison analysis of salivary concentrations of Xylitol-containing products  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Xylitol chewing gum has been shown to reduce Streptococcus mutans levels and decay. Two studies examined the presence and time course of salivary xylitol concentrations delivered via xylitol-containing pellet gum and compared them to other xylitol-containing products. Methods A within-subjects design was used for both studies. Study 1, adults (N = 15) received three xylitol-containing products (pellet gum (2.6 g), gummy bears (2.6 g), and commercially available stick gum (...

Zhou Lingmei; Tolentino Ernie; Hagstrom Mary K; Mueller Gregory; Rothen Marilynn; Ly Kiet A; Milgrom Peter; Riedy Christine A; Roberts Marilyn C

2008-01-01

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Salivary cortisol concentrations and behavior in a population of healthy dogs hospitalized for elective procedures  

OpenAIRE

Identification of severe stress in hospitalized veterinary patients may improve treatment outcomes and welfare. To assess stress levels, in Study 1, we collected salivary cortisol samples and behavioral parameters in 28 healthy dogs hospitalized prior to elective procedures. Dogs were categorized into two groups; low cortisol (LC) and high cortisol (HC), based on the distribution of cortisol concentrations (< or ? 0.6 µg/dL). We constructed a stress research tool (SRT) based on three behav...

Hekman, Jessica P.; Karas, Alicia Z.; Dreschel, Nancy A.

2012-01-01

34

Human Blood Concentrations of Cotinine, a Biomonitoring Marker for Tobacco Smoke, Extrapolated from Nicotine Metabolism in Rats and Humans and Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling  

OpenAIRE

The present study defined a simplified physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for nicotine and its primary metabolite cotinine in humans, based on metabolic parameters determined in vitro using relevant liver microsomes, coefficients derived in silico, physiological parameters derived from the literature, and an established rat PBPK model. The model consists of an absorption compartment, a metabolizing compartment, and a central compartment for nicotine and three equivalent compar...

Masato Kitajima; Norie Murayama; Makiko Shimizu; Taku Nagano; Ryohji Takano; Kana Horiuchi; Hiroshi Yamazaki; Fumiaki Shono

2010-01-01

35

The relationship between salivary cortisol concentrations and anxiety in adolescent and non-adolescent pregnant women  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available The main purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between salivary cortisol concentrations and self-report anxiety in 50 adolescent and 178 non-adolescent women during the last month of pregnancy. The subjects were randomly selected from a previous study involving women who att [...] ended antenatal care from September 1997 to August 2000 at 17 health services in Southeast Brazil. Salivary cortisol was measured with an enzyme immunoassay kit, and anxiety was assessed by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventories (STAI) of Spielberger. After saliva collection, the participants completed the STAI. Mean concentrations of cortisol for both pregnant adolescents (14.17 ± 6.78 nmol/l) and non-adolescents (13.81 ± 8.51 nmol/l) were similar (P = 0.89). Forty-three percent of the pregnant adolescents and 30.5% of the non-adolescents felt anxious at the time of being questioned (State Anxiety Inventory (SAI) scores >40; P = 0.06). Cortisol concentrations in adolescents were negatively related to the SAI scores (r = -0.39; P = 0.01) which assess a temporary condition of anxiety. There was a statistically significant difference in mean cortisol concentrations between adolescents with low (40) SAI scores (P = 0.03, t-test), but no differences for non-adolescents. The negative relationship between salivary cortisol concentrations and anxiety scores in adolescents may be due to puberty-related hormone differences during this period of life. Pregnant adolescents may possess unique biological or psychological characteristics compared to adults and non-pregnant adolescents. Thus, we need to know more about the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis of pregnant adolescents.

P.H.C., Rondó; A.J., Vaz; F., Moraes; A., Tomkins.

1403-14-01

36

The relationship between salivary cortisol concentrations and anxiety in adolescent and non-adolescent pregnant women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between salivary cortisol concentrations and self-report anxiety in 50 adolescent and 178 non-adolescent women during the last month of pregnancy. The subjects were randomly selected from a previous study involving women who attended antenatal care from September 1997 to August 2000 at 17 health services in Southeast Brazil. Salivary cortisol was measured with an enzyme immunoassay kit, and anxiety was assessed by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventories (STAI of Spielberger. After saliva collection, the participants completed the STAI. Mean concentrations of cortisol for both pregnant adolescents (14.17 ± 6.78 nmol/l and non-adolescents (13.81 ± 8.51 nmol/l were similar (P = 0.89. Forty-three percent of the pregnant adolescents and 30.5% of the non-adolescents felt anxious at the time of being questioned (State Anxiety Inventory (SAI scores >40; P = 0.06. Cortisol concentrations in adolescents were negatively related to the SAI scores (r = -0.39; P = 0.01 which assess a temporary condition of anxiety. There was a statistically significant difference in mean cortisol concentrations between adolescents with low (40 SAI scores (P = 0.03, t-test, but no differences for non-adolescents. The negative relationship between salivary cortisol concentrations and anxiety scores in adolescents may be due to puberty-related hormone differences during this period of life. Pregnant adolescents may possess unique biological or psychological characteristics compared to adults and non-pregnant adolescents. Thus, we need to know more about the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis of pregnant adolescents.

Rondó P.H.C.

2004-01-01

37

ADHD medication reduces cotinine levels and withdrawal in smokers with ADHD.  

Science.gov (United States)

Individuals with ADHD may self-medicate with nicotine, the main psychoactive ingredient in tobacco smoke, in order to reduce symptoms and negative moods associated with ADHD. ADHD medication (e.g., methylphenidate and atomoxetine) may mimic some of the effects of nicotine and may aid smoking cessation in smokers with ADHD. The present study examined if ADHD medication reduces smoking and withdrawal in non-treatment seeking smokers with ADHD. Fifteen adult smokers with ADHD participated in the study, which consisted of an experimental phase and field monitoring phase to examine the acute and extended effects, respectively, of ADHD medication. During the experimental phase, smokers were asked to complete a Continuous Performance Task (CPT) and the Shiffman-Jarvik smoking withdrawal questionnaire during the following four conditions: (1) ADHD medication+cigarette smoking, (2) ADHD medication+overnight abstinence, (3) placebo+cigarette smoking, and (4) placebo+overnight abstinence. During the field monitoring phase, participants were asked to provide salivary cotinine samples and complete electronic diaries about smoking, smoking urge, ADHD symptoms, and stress in everyday life for two days on ADHD medication and for two days on placebo. Results of the experimental phase showed that ADHD medication improved task performance on the CPT and reduced withdrawal during overnight abstinence. During the field monitoring phase, ADHD medication reduced salivary cotinine levels compared to placebo. In addition, the electronic diary revealed that ADHD medication improved difficulty concentrating during no smoking events and stress. The findings of the present study suggest that, along with other strategies, ADHD medication may be used to aid smoking withdrawal and cessation in smokers with ADHD. PMID:21356232

Gehricke, Jean-G; Hong, Nuong; Wigal, Timothy L; Chan, Vivien; Doan, Ashley

2011-05-01

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Cotinine en pédiatrie et en santé au travail Cotinine in pediatry and at the workplace  

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Full Text Available L'intérêt du suivi d'une exposition au tabac par la mesure de la concentration de la cotinine dans les milieux biologiques est connu depuis longtemps. Métabolite principal de la nicotine, avec une demi-vie d'élimination longue, le suivi de la cotinine permet l'évaluation de l'imprégnation tabagique dans les cas particuliers du tabagisme passif chez l'enfant et chez l'adulte, dans les lieux publics ou le milieu professionnel. Le suivi de ce marqueur s'avère également particulièrement intéressant en santé au travail pour la surveillance d'expositions à certains solvants organiques (benzène, toluène, éthylbenzéne, xylène, hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques... dont les concentrations ou celles de leurs métabolites sont influencées par la consommation de tabac. L'urine demeure la matrice biologique de choix pour évaluer le degré d'exposition. Un seuil de positivité mesuré à 6 ng/mL dans l'urine permet de distinguer une population pédiatrique exposée ou non. D'autres matrices comme les cheveux ou la salive apparaissent depuis plusieurs années comme utiles dans le cadre du dépistage de l'exposition au tabagisme environnemental. Le dosage de la cotinine dans les cheveux montre une nouvelle fois l'intérêt rétrospectif de l'utilisation de ce type de matrice. La salive, avec un intérêt moindre chez le nouveau né, a été utilisée dans plusieurs études pour distinguer des populations exposées et non exposées avec un seuil de positivité fixé à 1 ng/mL. Deux types de méthodes sont principalement utilisées pour le dosage de la cotinine : les méthodes chromatographiques HPLC-DAD, HPLC-MS, GC-MS et les méthodes immunologiques (RIA ou immunoenzymatiques par ELISA. Des études récentes montrent l'évolution des techniques ELISA. Elles peuvent par exemple être utilisées dans la salive avec un seuil de positivité de la cotinine à 1 ng/mL permettant de définir une population imprégnée. Actuellement, nombreuses sont les études qui utilisent avec succès les techniques immunologiques en pédiatrie et en santé au travail. Les avantages apparaissent alors multiples notamment en termes de coût et de rapidité. Elles sont suffisamment sensibles et peuvent être utilisées pour différents types de matrices biologiques. It is well known today that tobacco exposure can be assessed by the measurement of several markers in biological fluids. Cotinine, a nicotine metabolite with a longer biological half-life than nicotine, is probably the most reliable index that can be used to measure exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in adults in the context of an exposure at workplace, and also in children. Additionally, cotinine appears to be a very useful marker to investigate the exposure of workers to organic solvents (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons... given that their concentrations and/or those of their metabolites can be influenced by tobacco smoke. Urine remains an accurate biological specimen to assess the level of tobacco exposure of individuals. A urinary cotinine level of 6 ng/mL (cut-off is a precise and sensitive test in discerning exposed children to tobacco smoke from non-exposed children. Other alternative biological specimens such as hair or saliva can also be used for this purpose. Hair cotinine has proved to be a reliable tool for evaluating the level of environmental tobacco smoke in a pediatric population. Saliva has been successfully applied in several studies amongst primary school children or in workers with a cut-off value for cotinine of 1 ng/mL. Various assays are presently available for the measurement of cotinine in biological specimens. Most of them are based on chromatographic (HPLC-UV, HPLC-MS, GC-MS or immunoassay methods (RIA, EIA. Recent studies showed that ELISA can be used to measure cotinine in saliva at a level as low as 1 ng/mL, this concentration being the cut-off allowing to distinguish individuals exposed to environmental tobacco smoke from individuals not exposed. Currently, many studies dealing

Hoizey Guillaume

2009-05-01

39

A two-year follow-up study of salivary cortisol concentration and the risk of depression  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Stress is a suspected cause of depression. High cortisol concentration, a biomarker of an activated stress response, has been found in depressed patients. The aim of this study was to determine if a high level of salivary cortisol is a risk factor of depression. In 2007, we enrolled 4467 public employees. Morning and evening salivary cortisol concentration were measured for each participant. Participants reporting high levels of depressive, burnout, or stress symptoms, assessed by questionnaires were assigned to a psychiatric interview. In this interview 98 participants were diagnosed with depression and subsequently excluded. Two years later in 2009, 2920 participants who had provided at least one valid saliva cortisol measurement at baseline participated at follow up. The psychiatric interviews were repeated and 62 cases of newly onset depression were diagnosed. Odds ratios of depression were estimated for every 1.0nmol/l increase in morning, evening, and daily mean cortisol concentration, as well as for the difference between morning and evening cortisol concentration. The risk of depression decreased by increasing daily mean cortisol concentration and by increasing difference between morning and evening concentrations, while morning and evening cortisol concentrations were not significantly associated with depression. The adjusted odds ratios for 1.0nmol/l increase in morning, evening, and daily mean cortisol concentration were 0.69 (95% CI: 0.45, 1.05), 0.87 (95% CI: 0.59, 1.28), and 0.53 (95% CI: 0.32, 0.90), respectively. The adjusted odds ratio for 1.0nmol/l increase in difference between morning and evening concentration were 0.64 (95% CI: 0.45, 0.90). This study did not support the hypothesis that high salivary cortisol concentration is a risk factor of depression, but indicate that low mean salivary cortisol concentration and a small difference between morning and evening cortisol concentration may be risk factors of depression.

Grynderup, Matias BrØdsgaard; Kolstad, Henrik A.

2013-01-01

40

Influence of water exercise and land stretching on salivary cortisol concentrations and anxiety in chronic low back pain patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Land stretching exercises are common exercise therapy for low back pain (LBP) patients. However, recently, water exercise became a popular rehabilitation for LBP patients, and many studies have reported the physical benefits of water exercise. This study compared the psychological and endocrinological effects of water exercise and land stretching by measuring salivary cortisol concentration and anxiety in chronic LBP patients. Seven volunteers (4 female and 3 male, mean age: 61.9 +/- 11.8 yrs) who suffered from chronic LBP (pain duration: 4.5 +/- 1.3 yrs) participated in the sessions of water exercise and land stretching programs (90 minutes) on different days. The land stretching program consisted mainly of stretching, and the water exercise program contained not only stretching, but also walking, jogging, muscle strengthening, swimming and relaxation. After both exercise programs, the subjective pain scores of the patients showed a significant decrease. Salivary cortisol concentrations were also significantly decreased during pre- to post-90 minute water exercise. (P < 0.05). With land stretching, salivary cortisol concentrations also decreased significantly (P < 0.05). State anxiety decreased significantly (P < 0.05) after both water exercise and land stretching compared with pre-exercise scores (P < 0.05), though no significant changes were found in the patients' trait anxiety scores. No significant correlation was found between salivary cortisol concentrations and state anxiety with water exercise and land stretching. The findings of the present study suggested both exercises showed similar tendencies, and had decreased salivary cortisol level and state anxiety. PMID:11037691

Sugano, A; Nomura, T

2000-07-01

41

Increase in concentration of waking salivary cortisol in recovered patients with depression.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE: Dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis with elevated plasma cortisol levels is characteristic of acute major depression. However, it is unclear whether HPA axis abnormalities are present in fully recovered patients. An increase in salivary cortisol levels after waking provides a simple, dynamic measure of HPA axis activity. The authors measured this increase in recovered depressed patients and in a healthy comparison group. METHOD: Salivary cortisol levels wer...

Bhagwagar, Z.; Hafizi, S.; Cowen, Pj

2003-01-01

42

Fecal and Salivary Cortisol Concentrations in Woolly (Lagothrix ssp. and Spider Monkeys (Ateles spp.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Detrimental physiological effects due to stressors can contribute to the low captive success of primates. The objective of this research was to investigate the potential impact of diet composition on cortisol concentrations in feces and saliva in woolly (n=27 and spider monkeys (n=61. The research was conducted in three studies: the first investigated spider monkeys in the United States, the second investigated spider monkeys within Europe, and the third investigated woolly monkeys within Europe. Fecal cortisol in spider monkeys in US zoos varied (P=.07 from 30 to 66 ng/g. The zoo with the highest fecal cortisol also had the highest salivary cortisol (P?.05. For European zoos, fecal cortisol differed between zoos for both spider and woolly monkeys (P?.05. Spider monkeys had higher fecal cortisol than woolly monkeys (P?.05. Zoos with the highest dietary carbohydrates, sugars, glucose, and fruit had the highest cortisol. Cortisol was highest for zoos that did not meet crude protein requirements and fed the lowest percentage of complete feeds and crude fiber. Differences among zoos in housing and diets may increase animal stress. The lifespan and reproductive success of captive primates could improve if stressors are reduced and dietary nutrients optimized.

Kimberly D. Ange-van Heugten

2009-01-01

43

Candida albicans Flu1-Mediated Efflux of Salivary Histatin 5 Reduces Its Cytosolic Concentration and Fungicidal Activity  

OpenAIRE

Histatin 5 (Hst 5) is a salivary human antimicrobial peptide that is toxic to the opportunistic yeast Candida albicans. Fungicidal activity of Hst 5 requires intracellular translocation and accumulation to a threshold concentration for it to disrupt cellular processes. Previously, we observed that total cytosolic levels of Hst 5 were gradually reduced from intact cells, suggesting that C. albicans possesses a transport mechanism for efflux of Hst 5. Since we identified C. albicans polyamine t...

Li, Rui; Kumar, Rohitashw; Tati, Swetha; Puri, Sumant; Edgerton, Mira

2013-01-01

44

Passive smoking and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke: prospective study with cotinine measurement.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between a biomarker of overall passive exposure to tobacco smoke (serum cotinine concentration) and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. DESIGN: Prospective population based study in general practice (the British regional heart study). PARTICIPANTS: 4729 men in 18 towns who provided baseline blood samples (for cotinine assay) and a detailed smoking history in 1978-80. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Major coronary heart disease and stroke events (fatal and n...

Whincup, Ph; Gilg, Ja; Emberson, Jr; Jarvis, Mj; Feyerabend, C.; Bryant, A.; Walker, M.; Cook, Dg

2004-01-01

45

Salivary mucoceles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The overall incidence of salivary gland disease in dogs and cats is low. Salivary mucocele is the most frequently diagnosed disease of salivary glands. Mucoceles consist of collections of saliva in subcutaneous, sublingual, pharyngeal, or periorbital locations. Definitive therapy of salivary mucoceles consists of excision of the affected salivary gland and mucocele drainage

46

A simplified method for the analysis of urinary cotinine by GC-MS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cotinine is the major metabolite of nicotine and, being very stable and having a long biological half-life, it can be used as a biomarker for tobacco exposure. The aim of this study was to develop an analytical GC-MS technique to measure levels of cotinine in the urine of active and passive smokers and to compare the results with reference values. The extraction of cotinine to generate the calibration curve was performed by mixing urine (250 µL with 50 µL of a cotinine standard, 50 µL of an internal standard of deuterated cotinine (15 µg?mL-1 and 50 µL of 10% NH4 OH solution. Next, 2 mL of a mixture of MTBE:dichloromethane:ethyl acetate (30:30:40 by volume was added and the whole was vortexed, then centrifuged at 3000 rpm. Finally, 1.6 mL of the organic layer was evaporated under a stream of dry air at 50 °C. The resulting extract was dissolved in methanol and injected into the GC-MS system. The LOQ and LOD for cotinine were 100 and 20 ng?mL-1, respectively. The curve was linear over the whole tested range of 100 - 5000 ng?mL-1 and the method achieved 50% recovery. The intra and inter-day precisions were 1.62 – 7.28% and 0.86 – 2.68%, respectively. Accuracy was determined at three concentrations (low, medium and high, with six replicates (95.24 – 97.67%. The validation of this cotinine assay by GC-MS showed that it exhibited satisfactory limits and the assay could be performed with a one-step liquid-liquid extraction. The technique presented here can thus be used for the quantitation of cotinine levels in the urine of passive and active smokers.

Luiz Carlos da Cunha

2013-04-01

47

Cotinine levels in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cotinine is a major metabolite of nicotine. This study was planned to investigate the relationship between bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid cotinine levels and serum cotinine levels in smokers and nonsmokers with various pulmonary diseases and to investigate whether these levels are affected by passive smoking. Serum and BAL fluid cotinine levels were measured in 27 patients. BAL cotinine levels were measured using a sensitive ELISA kit produced to measure cotinine in saliva. Plates were read by microuant (BioTek, USA) micro plate reader. All patient serum cotinine levels were detectable except for one nonsmoker patient. However, BAL fluid cotinine levels were measurable in only 6 patients (two of them were nonsmokers). A significant positive correlation was seen between serum and BAL fluid cotinine levels (r = 0.726; p = 0.000). Serum cotinine levels were significantly higher in present smokers than non-smokers (21.0 +/- 16.01; 5.35 +/- 7.65; p = 0.004). However, there were no significant differences in BAL fluid cotinine levels between smokers and nonsmokers. Passive smoking can increase nicotine metabolites in serum and other body fluids, including BAL fluid. Since BAL fluid and serum cotinine levels were well correlated, there is no need to use invasive procedures, such as bronchoscopy and expensive, time consuming BAL fluid analyses. Serum cotinine levels can give a rough idea of smoking status. BAL fluid cotinine meaurements should be done for only scientific reasons. PMID:21073047

Diken, Ozlem Erçen; Unculu, Serap; Karnak, Demet; Ca?layan, Osman; Göçmen, Julide Sedef; Kayacan, Oya

2010-09-01

48

The effect of storage conditions on salivary cortisol concentrations using an enzyme immunoassay.  

Science.gov (United States)

Saliva samples are easy to collect and are applicable for home-sampling, e.g. when studying HPA-axis dynamics to characterize diurnal cortisol profiles and the cortisol awakening response. However, the storing and transport conditions might be critical in the home-sampling approach. Here, we tested the stability of saliva cortisol in samples stored at different temperatures and after repeated thawing-freezing cycles when measured with an Enzyme Immuno Assay (EIA). Thirteen healthy volunteers, six women and seven men, mean age 31 (range 26-49) years collected saliva either in the morning hours (08:00-10:00 h) or before lunch (11:00-12:00 h). Storage at six different conditions were tested: Storage at - 18°C, - 4°C, 4°C and room temperature for 72 h. One condition tested was at - 18°C for 72 h and then kept in an envelope for 72 h with a freezing element in room temperature surroundings where after it was stored at - 80°C. The last tube was stored directly at - 80°C and served as the 'gold standard'. The saliva samples were assayed using Salivary Cortisol Diagnostic EIA. Differences in cortisol measurements between each of the five conditions and the 'gold standard' (- 80°C) were evaluated by one-sample t-test. No significant differences were observed. This indicates that an EIA method can be used reliably when measuring salivary cortisol samples obtained by home-sampling including a postal delivery. PMID:25510953

Nalla, Anjana A; Thomsen, Gerda; Knudsen, Gitte M; Frokjaer, Vibe G

2015-01-01

49

Associations of long-term shift work with waking salivary cortisol concentration and patterns among police officers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to evaluate whether long-term shift work is associated with both the total hormonal secretion after awakening and the pattern of the cortisol levels during the first hour following awakening, among 65 randomly selected police officers who represent a high stress occupation. Dominant shift (Day, Afternoon, or Midnight) was ascertained using daily payroll records of each participant's work activities during the 6-8 yrs prior to saliva sampling. Four salivary samples were collected at 15 min intervals upon first awakening. After accounting for potential confounders, salivary cortisol concentrations averaged across all four time points and total area under the curve differed significantly across shift with midnight shift workers showing suppressed awakening cortisol response relative to the afternoon and day shift. The percent of hours worked on midnight shift was inversely correlated with total awakening cortisol output. In contrast, the pattern of cortisol secretion during the first hour following waking appeared not to be affected as no significant interaction effect was found between time since awakening and shift work. The results show that long-term midnight shift work is associated with decreased absolute mean level and total volume of cortisol released over the waking period. PMID:23047078

Fekedulegn, Desta; Burchfiel, Cecil M; Violanti, John M; Hartley, Tara A; Charles, Luenda E; Andrew, Michael E; Miller, Diane B

2012-01-01

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R-(+) and S-(-) isomers of cotinine augment cholinergic responses in vitro and in vivo.  

Science.gov (United States)

The nicotine metabolite cotinine (1-methyl-5-[3-pyridynl]-2-pyrrolidinone), like its precursor, has been found to exhibit procognitive and neuroprotective effects in some model systems; however, the mechanism of these effects is unknown. In this study, both the R-(+) and S-(-) isomers of cotinine were initially evaluated in an extensive profiling screen and found to be relatively inactive across a wide range of potential pharmacologic targets. Electrophysiological studies on human ?4?2 and ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) expressed in Xenopus oocytes confirmed the absence of agonistic activity of cotinine at ?4?2 or ?7 nAChRs. However, a significant increase in the current evoked by a low concentration of acetylcholine was observed at ?7 nAChRs exposed to 1.0 ?M R-(+)- or S-(-)-cotinine. Based on these results, we used a spontaneous novel object recognition (NOR) procedure for rodents to test the hypothesis that R-(+)- or S-(-)-cotinine might improve recognition memory when administered alone or in combination with the Alzheimer's disease (AD) therapeutic agent donepezil. Although both isomers enhanced NOR performance when they were coadministered with donepezil, neither isomer was active alone. Moreover, the procognitive effects of the drug combinations were blocked by methyllycaconitine and dihydro-?-erythroidine, indicating that both ?7 and ?4?2 nAChRs contribute to the response. These results indicate that cotinine may sensitize ?7 nAChRs to low levels of acetylcholine (a previously uncharacterized mechanism), and that cotinine could be used as an adjunctive agent to improve the effective dose range of cholinergic compounds (e.g., donepezil) in the treatment of AD and other memory disorders. PMID:25503389

Terry, Alvin V; Callahan, Patrick M; Bertrand, Daniel

2015-02-01

51

Time to first cigarette after waking predicts cotinine levels  

OpenAIRE

There is wide variability in cotinine levels per cigarette smoked. We hypothesized that in addition to smoking frequency, other behavioral measures of nicotine dependence such as the time to first cigarette after waking are associated with cotinine levels. To test this hypothesis, we measured plasma and urinary cotinine in a community-based study of 252 black and white daily cigarette smokers. Results: Among one pack per day smokers, plasma cotinine levels varied from 16 to 1180 (ng/ml), a 74...

Muscat, Joshua E.; Stellman, Steven D.; Caraballo, Ralph S.; Richie, John P.

2009-01-01

52

Do whole-body vibration exercise and resistance exercise modify concentrations of salivary cortisol and immunoglobulin A?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available A single bout of resistance exercise (RE) induces hormonal and immune responses, playing an important role in a long-term adaptive process. Whole-body vibration (WBV) has also been shown to affect hormonal responses. Evidence suggests that combining WBV with RE may amplify hormonal and immune respon [...] ses due to the increased neuromuscular load. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate salivary cortisol (Scortisol) and salivary IgA (SIgA) concentrations following a RE session combined or not with WBV. Nine university students (22.9 ± 5.1 years, 175.8 ± 5.2 cm, and 69.2 ± 7.3 kg) performed five sets of squat exercise (70% one-repetition-maximum) combined (R+V30) or not (R) with WBV at 30 Hz. Saliva samples were obtained before and after exercise. Subjects also rated their effort according to the Borg CR-10 scale (RPE). Data were analyzed by a mixed model. RPE was higher after R+V30 (8.3 ± 0.7) compared to R (6.2 ± 0.7). However, Scortisol (pre: 10.6 ± 7.6 and 11.7 ± 7.6, post: 8.3 ± 6.3 and 10.2 ± 7.2 ng/mL for R and R+V30, respectively) and SIgA concentrations (pre: 98.3 ± 22.6 and 116.1 ± 51.2, post: 116.6 ± 64.7 and 143.6 ± 80.5 µg/mL for R and R+V30, respectively) were unaffected. No significant correlations were observed between Scortisol and RPE (r = 0.45, P = 0.22; r = 0.30, P = 0.42, for R and R+V30, respectively). On the basis of these data, neither protocol modified salivary cortisol or IgA, although RPE was higher after R+V30 than R.

H., Roschel; R., Barroso; M., Batista; C., Ugrinowitsch; V., Tricoli; F., Arsati; Y.B., Lima-Arsati; V.C., Araújo; A., Moreira.

2011-06-01

53

Salivary Glands  

Science.gov (United States)

... system attacks the salivary glands causing significant inflammation. Dry mouth or dry eyes are common. This may occur ... of a salivary gland does not produce a dry mouth, called xerostomia. However, radiation therapy to the mouth ...

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Concentración de ?-amilasa salival en niños con diferentes índices de caries / Salivary ?-Amylase Concentration in Children with Different Caries Indexes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Antecedentes: La a-amilasa salival humana (AASH es la proteína más abundante en la saliva; tiene varias funciones que la hacen especial desde el punto de vista cariogénico, por lo cual puede estar relacionada con el índice de caries. Propósito: Determinar las diferencias en la concentración de AASH en niños con diferentes índices de caries. Métodos: Se obtuvieron muestras de saliva de 100 niños que se clasificaron dentro de cuatro de las siete categorías del Sistema Internacional de Valoración y Detección de Caries (ICDAS, con 25 individuos por grupo: sanos, opacidad blanca, microcavidad y cavidad extensa. Se determinó la cantidad total de proteína por el método de Bradford y la concentración AASH por medio de la técnica de Elisa indirecta. Los valores obtenidos de proteína total y AASH fueron analizados por medio del software Stata versión 9.2. Resultados: Al comparar las medias de la concentración de proteína total en los cuatro grupos de estudio, no hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas. Los promedios de la concentración de AASH en tres de los cuatro grupos: sanos, microcavidad y opacidad blanca, no presentaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas. En el grupo de cavidad extensa, este valor fue menor, diferencia que fue estadísticamente significativa con respecto a los otros tres grupos. Conclusión: La menor concentración de AASH en el grupo con cavidad extensa posiblemente indica que, dada la redundancia funcional de esta enzima, la protección de las superficies orales es de mayor importancia. Background: Human salivary a-amylase (HSAA is the most abundant protein in saliva, has several functions that make it of special interest from a cariogenic point of view, thus may be related to the caries indexes. Purpose: Determine the differences according to the quantified amounts of HSAA in the saliva of children with different caries indexes. Methods: Salivary samples were obtained via spontaneous salivation from a total of 100 children, who were assigned into four groups (n=25 each according to four categories of the International Caries Detection & Assessment System (ICDAS: sound, white opacity, microcavity and extensive cavity. The total quantity of protein present in each of the samples was determined through the Bradford Method and the concentration of HSAA was determined by an indirect ELISA technique. Non-parametric statistical was perform with Stata 9.2 software. Results: Non-significant statistical differences for variable total protein in the four groups were found. The concentration of HSAA showed statistically significant differences between groups of individuals with white opacity and extensive cavities, microcavity and extensive cavity, and sound and extensive cavity. Conclusions: The findings suggest that from the different functions identified for HSAA, protection of the tooth surfaces has a major relevance.

Claudia Patricia Lamby Tovar

2013-09-01

55

Plasma and salivary concentrations of erythromycin after administration of three different formulations.  

OpenAIRE

In a 6-volunteer cross-over study the pharmacokinetics of 3 erythromycin preparations were compared. A single oral dose of 500 mg of each preparation was administered at each occasion and the levels measured in timed samples of plasma and saliva. Markedly higher blood concentrations of the estolate and propionate were obtained compared to the stearate. Comparison of serum and plasma concentration of the drugs from each split sample showed no significant differences. Plasma concentrations alwa...

Henry, J.; Turner, P.; Garland, M.; Esmieu, F.

1980-01-01

56

Deuterium isotope effects in the in vivo metabolism of cotinine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In an attempt to further understanding of the molecular mechanisms associated with the mammalian oxidative metabolism of foreign substances, the deuterium isotope effect involved in the in vivo metabolism of the tobacco alkaloid cotinine was investigated. Mixtures of cotinine-d0 and cotinine-3,3-d2 in varying ratios were administered to Rhesus monkeys. Unchanged drug and several of its oxidized metabolites including trans-3-hydroxycotinine were isolated from the 24-hr urine collection. The deuterium contents of these isolated compounds were found to be greater than that present in the administered cotinine except for trans-3-hydroxycotinine which showed a substantial decrease in the deuterium to proton ratio. On the basis of these determinations the deuterium isotope effect for the 3-hydroxylation of cotinine was calculated to be between 6 and 7, indicating that carbon--hydrogen bond cleavage is likely to be involved in the rate-determining step in this metabolic conversion. (U.S.)

57

Fecal and Salivary Cortisol Concentrations in Woolly (Lagothrix ssp.) and Spider Monkeys (Ateles spp.)  

OpenAIRE

Detrimental physiological effects due to stressors can contribute to the low captive success of primates. The objective of this research was to investigate the potential impact of diet composition on cortisol concentrations in feces and saliva in woolly (n=27) and spider monkeys (n=61). The research was conducted in three studies: the first investigated spider monkeys in the United States, the second investigated spider monkeys within Europe, and the third investigated woolly monkeys within E...

Ange-van Heugten, Kimberly D.; Eric van Heugten; Saskia Timmer; Guido Bosch; Abahor Elias; Scott Whisnant; Swarts, Hans J. M.; Peter Ferket; Verstegen, Martin W. A.

2009-01-01

58

Providing Coaching and Cotinine Results to Preteens to Reduce Their Secondhand Smoke Exposure  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) poses health risks to children living with smokers. Most interventions to protect children from SHSe have coached adult smokers. This trial determined whether coaching and cotinine feedback provided to preteens can reduce their SHSe. Methods: Two hundred one predominantly low-income families with a resident smoker and a child aged 8 to 13 years who was exposed to two or more cigarettes per day or had a urine cotinine concentration ? 2.0 ng/mL were randomized to control or SHSe reduction coaching groups. During eight in-home sessions over 5 months, coaches presented to the child graphic charts of cotinine assay results as performance feedback and provided differential praise and incentives for cotinine reductions. Generalized estimating equations were used to determine the differential change in SHSe over time by group. Results: For the baseline to posttest period, the coaching group had a greater decrease in both urine cotinine concentration (P = .039) and reported child SHSe in the number of cigarettes exposed per day (child report, P = .003; parent report, P = .078). For posttest to month 12 follow-up, no group or group by time differences were obtained, and both groups returned toward baseline. Conclusions: Coaching preteens can reduce their SHSe, although reductions may not be sustained without ongoing counseling, feedback, and incentives. Unlike interventions that coach adults to reduce child SHSe, programs that increase child avoidance of SHSe have the potential to reduce SHSe in all settings in which the child is exposed, without requiring a change in adult smoking behavior. PMID:21474574

Wahlgren, Dennis R.; Liles, Sandy; Jones, Jennifer A.; Hughes, Suzanne C.; Matt, Georg E.; Ji, Ming; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N.; Swan, Gary E.; Chatfield, Dale; Ding, Ding

2011-01-01

59

Salivary scintigraphy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Salivary gland scintigraphy with technetium 99m (99mTc) in the form pertechnetate ion is a relatively simple procedure, which can provide a unique and sensitive means for investigating salivary gland physiologic function and its derangements. However, salivary scintigraphy is poorly suited for the detection and characterization of masses in and around the salivary glands. Computed tomography (CT) has, therefore, largely supplanted scintigraphy for the evaluation of masses and is the method of choice because it can provide exquisite anatomic detail. Consequently, CT is more sensitive for mass detection and can also provide useful information as to whether a mass has arisen from within or from outside of a salivary gland or whether a mass is circumscribed or invasive. It also can disclose the relationship of the mass to the facial nerve and occasionally can provide histologic characterization of such masses as cysts, lipomas, and masseter muscle hypertrophy

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Candida albicans flu1-mediated efflux of salivary histatin 5 reduces its cytosolic concentration and fungicidal activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Histatin 5 (Hst 5) is a salivary human antimicrobial peptide that is toxic to the opportunistic yeast Candida albicans. Fungicidal activity of Hst 5 requires intracellular translocation and accumulation to a threshold concentration for it to disrupt cellular processes. Previously, we observed that total cytosolic levels of Hst 5 were gradually reduced from intact cells, suggesting that C. albicans possesses a transport mechanism for efflux of Hst 5. Since we identified C. albicans polyamine transporters responsible for Hst 5 uptake, we hypothesized that one or more polyamine efflux transporters may be involved in the efflux of Hst 5. C. albicans FLU1 and TPO2 were found to be the closest homologs of Saccharomyces cerevisiae TPO1, which encodes a major spermidine efflux transporter, indicating that the products of these two genes may be involved in efflux of Hst 5. We found that flu1?/? cells, but not tpo2?/? cells, had significant reductions in their rates of Hst 5 efflux and had significantly higher cytoplasmic Hst 5 and Hst 5 susceptibilities than did the wild type. We also found that flu1?/? cells had reduced biofilm formation compared to wild-type cells in the presence of Hst 5. Transcriptional levels of FLU1 were not altered over the course of treatment with Hst 5; therefore, Hst 5 is not likely to induce FLU1 gene overexpression as a potential mechanism of resistance. Thus, Flu1, but not Tpo2, mediates efflux of Hst 5 and is responsible for reduction of its toxicity in C. albicans. PMID:23380720

Li, Rui; Kumar, Rohitashw; Tati, Swetha; Puri, Sumant; Edgerton, Mira

2013-04-01

61

Quantification of Nicotine, Cotinine, trans-3’-Hydroxycotinine, Nornicotine and Norcotinine in Human Meconium by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry  

OpenAIRE

There are no analytical methods that simultaneously quantify nicotine, cotinine, trans-3’-hydroxycotinine, nornicotine and norcotinine in human meconium. Such a method could improve identification of in utero tobacco exposure, determine if maternal dose-meconium concentration relationships exist, and whether nicotine meconium concentrations predict neonatal outcomes. The first liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous qua...

Gray, Teresa R.; Shakleya, Diaa M.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

2008-01-01

62

Combined Analysis of the Tobacco Metabolites Cotinine and 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol in Human Urine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two of the most widely measured compounds in the urine of people who use tobacco products are cotinine, a major metabolite of the addictive constituent nicotine, and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), a metabolite of the powerful lung carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). Thousands of analyses have been reported in the literature, carried out exclusively, to the best of our knowledge, by separate methods. In the study reported here, we have developed a sensitive, accurate, and precise liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry-selected reaction monitoring method for the combined analysis of total cotinine (the sum of cotinine and its glucuronide) and total NNAL (the sum of NNAL and its glucuronide). The new method quantifies naturally occurring [(13)C]cotinine to minimize problems associated with the vast differences in concentration of total cotinine and total NNAL in urine. This method should greatly facilitate future determinations of these important compounds. PMID:25544129

Kotandeniya, Delshanee; Carmella, Steven G; Ming, Xun; Murphy, Sharon E; Hecht, Stephen S

2015-02-01

63

Single gas chromatography method with nitrogen phosphorus detector for urinary cotinine determination in passive and active smokers  

OpenAIRE

Nicotine is a major addictive compound in cigarettes and is rapidly and extensively metabolized to several metabolites in humans, including urinary cotinine, considered a biomarker due to its high concentration compared to other metabolites. The aim of this study was to develop a single method for determination of urinary cotinine, in active and passive smokers, by gas chromatography with a nitrogen phosphorus detector (GC-NPD). Urine (5.0 mL) was extracted with 1.0 mL of sodium hydroxide 5 m...

Lusiane Malafatti; Patrícia Penido Maia; Matheus Coutinho Gonçalves Martins; Maria Elisa Pereira Bastos de Siqueira; Isarita Martins

2010-01-01

64

Cotinine and trans 3'-hydroxycotinine in dried blood spots as biomarkers of tobacco exposure and nicotine metabolism.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tobacco use is the major preventable cause of premature death in the United States. Second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure also contributes to a number of premature deaths as well as other negative health outcomes. An accurate assessment of tobacco smoke exposure is critical to understanding these disease processes. The plasma concentration of cotinine, the primary metabolite of nicotine, is widely accepted as a quantitative measure of tobacco and SHS exposure. However, it is not always feasible to collect plasma. Dried blood spots (DBS), which are collected routinely from newborns and often from young children for lead screening, provide an alternative sampling method. We have developed a quantitative high throughput liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for the analysis of cotinine in DBS. The limit of quantitation was 0.3 ng/g (~ 0.2 ng/ml plasma). Cotinine levels in DBS from 83 smokers and 99 non-smokers exposed to SHS were determined. Plasma cotinine concentrations in these subjects ranged from exposure in children. PMID:23443235

Murphy, Sharon E; Wickham, Katherine M; Lindgren, Bruce R; Spector, Logan G; Joseph, Anne

2013-01-01

65

Relationship between Caregivers’ Smoking at Home and Urinary Levels of Cotinine in Children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To assess the impact of different smoking behaviors of caregivers on environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure in children aged 5–6 years in Changsha, China. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, random digit-dial telephone survey of caregivers (n = 543 between August and October 2013. Caregivers’ smoking behaviors were collected by a questionnaire. Exposure assessment was based upon determination of urinary cotinine levels in children employing gas chromatography–triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS. Results: In children not living with a smoker, children living with one smoker, and children living with more than one smoker at home, median urinary cotinine concentrations (ng/mL were 0.72, 2.97, and 4.46, respectively. For children living with one smoker, median urinary cotinine levels of children exposed to ETS were associated with caregiver smoking behaviors, i.e., if a caregiver consumed more cigarettes (>20 compared with ?10; 7.73 versus 2.29 ng/mL, respectively. Conclusions: The magnitude of ETS exposure in children is correlated with the smoking behaviors of the caregiver. Counseling for smoking cessation and educational interventions are needed urgently for smoking caregivers to increase their awareness about ETS exposure and to encourage smoking cessation at home or to take precautions to protect children’s health.

Yun Wang

2014-12-01

66

Radionuclide salivary gland imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific

67

Radionuclide salivary gland imaging  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

Mishkin, F.S.

1981-10-01

68

Use of anti-Aedes aegypti salivary extract antibody concentration to correlate risk of vector exposure and dengue transmission risk in Colombia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Norte de Santander is a region in Colombia with a high incidence of dengue virus (DENV). In this study, we examined the serum concentration of anti-Aedes salivary gland extract (SGE) antibodies as a biomarker of DENV infection and transmission, and assessed the duration of anti-SGE antibody concentration after exposure to the vector ceased. We also determined whether SGE antibody concentration could differentiate between positive and negative DENV infected individuals and whether there are differences in exposure for each DENV serotype. We observed a significant decrease in the concentration of IgG antibodies at least 40 days after returning to an "Ae. aegypti-free" area. In addition, we found significantly higher anti-SGE IgG concentrations in DENV positive patients with some difference in exposure to mosquito bites among DENV serotypes. We conclude that the concentration of IgG antibodies against SGE is an accurate indicator of risk of dengue virus transmission and disease presence. PMID:24312537

Londono-Renteria, Berlin; Cardenas, Jenny C; Cardenas, Lucio D; Christofferson, Rebecca C; Chisenhall, Daniel M; Wesson, Dawn M; McCracken, Michael K; Carvajal, Daisy; Mores, Christopher N

2013-01-01

69

Comparación de la concentración total de proteínas salivales de adultos y adultos mayores Comparison of total salivary protein concentration in adults and older adults  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivo: Entre las moléculas orgánicas que componen la saliva se han descrito un gran número de proteínas. No existe evidencia suficiente que permita especular sobre los cambios en el contenido proteico salival asociados al envejecimiento normal. El objetivo fue determinar si existen diferencias en la concentración total de proteínas en saliva de adultos y adultos mayores. Método: Se obtuvieron muestras de saliva estimulada y no estimulada de individuos pertenecientes a dos grupos etarios, adultos (A (n=30 (edad promedio: 25 años y adultos mayores (AM (n=30 (edad promedio: 68 años. Se excluyeron aquellos sujetos que presentaron alguna patología oral/sistémica o consumo de fármacos/sustancias relacionados con alteraciones del flujo o composición salival. Cada muestra fue centrifugada. A 10 µl del sobrenadante se agregaron 190 µl de solución de Bradford. Se realizó el recuento mediante lectura con espectrofotómetro (595 nm. La concentración de proteínas fue comparada entre los grupos en estudio utilizando la prueba t de Student (pObjective: A high number of proteins has been described in saliva. Scarce evidence allows to speculate about the variations on protein content associated with aging. The aim was to determine if there is a difference in total protein concentration between adults and older adults. Methods: Samples were collected from unstimulated and stimulated saliva of individuals from two age groups, adults (A (n=30 (mean age 25 years and older adults (OA (n=30(mean age: 68 years. Subjects with oral/systemic diseases or consuming medications that alter salivary flow were excluded from the study. Each sample was centrifuged and 10 ?l of the supernatant was added to 190 ?l of Bradford solution. Protein concentration was obtained by spectrophotometry (595 nm Protein concentration was compared between the groups using student’s t test (p<0.05. Results: Total protein concentration from unstimulated saliva was higher in OA (5.5±2.6 ug/ul than in A (3.2 ± 1.7 ug/ul (p<0.05. Total protein concentration of stimulated saliva was higher in OA (4.9±0.4 ug/ul than in A (4.0±0.3 ug/ul (p<0.05. Conclusion: Salivary protein concentration increases in older adults. Further studies are suggested to characterize these changes.

RJ Castro

2012-04-01

70

In Vitro Inhibition of Human Sperm Creatine Kinase by Nicotine,Cotinine and Cadmium, as a Mechanism in Smoker Men Infertility  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Nicotine, cotinine and cadmium are harmful components of cigarettes that have aneffect on human reproductive function. Although the effects of cigarette smoke on male reproductivefunction is characterized in several articles its mechanism of action is still unknown.In the present study, we investigate the effect of nicotine, cotinine and cadmium on human spermcreatine kinase activity in vitro.Materials and Methods: Total creatine kinase activity is measured in sperm homogenates afterchromatography on a diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-32 column.Results: We show that creatine kinase activity is significantly inhibited by nicotine (44%, cotinine(39% and cadmium (65% at a concentration of 60 ?g/ml. Kinetic studies reveal that the inhibitoryeffect of nicotine, cotinine and cadmium are competitive in relation to creatine phosphate.Conclusion: Considering the importance of creatine kinase activity for normal sperm energymetabolism, our results suggest that inhibition of this enzyme by nicotine, cotinine and cadmium maybe an important mechanism in infertility amongst male smokers. However, further investigationsare needed to elucidate the exact mechanism of cigarette effect on male reproductive function atthe molecular level.

Mohammad Ali Ghaffari

2009-01-01

71

Salivary Gland Secretion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes materials and procedures for an experiment utilizing a live dog to demonstrate: (1) physiology of the salivary gland; (2) parasympathetic control of the salivary gland; (3) influence of varying salivary flow rates on sodium and potassium ions, osmolarity and pH; and (4) salivary secretion as an active process. (DS)

Dorman, H. L.; And Others

1981-01-01

72

Environmental tobacco smoke and canine urinary cotinine level  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Epidemiologic studies of companion animals such as dogs have been established as models for the relationship between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and cancer risk in humans. While results from these studies are provocative, pet owner report of a dog's ETS exposure has not yet been validated. We have evaluated the relationship between dog owner's report of household smoking by questionnaire and dog's urinary cotinine level. Between January and October 2005, dog owners presenting their pet for non-emergency veterinary care at the Foster Hospital for Small Animals at Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, were asked to complete a 10-page questionnaire measuring exposure to household ETS in the previous 24 h and other factors. A free-catch urine sample was also collected from dogs. Urinary cotinine level was assayed for 63 dogs, including 30 whose owners reported household smoking and 33 unexposed dogs matched on age and month of enrollment. Urinary cotinine level was significantly higher in dogs exposed to household smoking in the 24 h before urine collection compared to unexposed dogs (14.6 ng/ml vs. 7.4 ng/ml; P=0.02). After adjustment for other factors, cotinine level increased linearly with number of cigarettes smoked by all household members (P=0.004). Other canine characteristics including age, body composition and nose length were also associated with cotinine level. Findings from our study suggest that household smoking levels ady suggest that household smoking levels as assessed by questionnaire are significantly associated with canine cotinine levels

73

Urinary cotinine and lung cancer risk in a female cohort.  

OpenAIRE

In a cohort of women aged 40-64 at entry, 12 h urine samples were obtained at the beginning of a follow-up period of up to 15 years in which incident cases of lung cancer were registered as well as deaths from lung cancer. In this cohort a nested case-control study (n = 397) was carried out by measuring urinary cotinine. The method for quantitation of cotinine was sensitive enough to study lung cancer risk not only in active smokers but also in passive smokers. The results seem to indicate th...

Waard, F.; Kemmeren, J. M.; Ginkel, L. A.; Stolker, A. A.

1995-01-01

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The influence of morphine on the absorption of paracetamol from various formulations in subjects in the supine position, as assessed by TDx measurement of salivary paracetamol concentrations.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to determine the influence of the type of paracetamol formulation on the rate of absorption when subjects are in the supine position, with or without taking concomitant morphine. Two groups of healthy volunteers were used, who were in the fasting state and remained in the supine position during the study. One group took 1,500 mg of paracetamol on three occasions as conventional tablets, dispersible tablets or a suspension in a randomized crossover design. Seventeen saliva samples per subject were obtained (time zero to 360 min post-dose), which were then centrifuged and kept at -20 degrees C prior to analysis. The second group repeated the study following four doses of morphine syrup (10 mg 4 hourly) in the 12 h preceding paracetamol ingestion. In this phase of the study, paracetamol absorption from suspension was not investigated. A TDx assay was used to determine salivary paracetamol concentrations. The tmax for conventional tablets when taken concomitantly with morphine was 160 (+/- 81) min compared to 51 (+/- 58) min for subjects not taking morphine. For dispersible tablets the tmax in the morphine group was 14 (+/- 9) min compared to 15 (+/- 12) min without morphine. The results suggest that patients who are confined to bed and taking morphine will have an unacceptably long delay between taking conventional paracetamol tablets and the paracetamol reaching therapeutic plasma concentrations. Conversely, there is little effect on the absorption of dispersible paracetamol under the same conditions. PMID:14607015

Kennedy, Julia M; Tyers, Nicola M; Davey, Andrew K

2003-10-01

75

Cotinine and trans 3'-Hydroxycotinine in Dried Blood Spots as Biomarkers of Tobacco Exposure and Nicotine Metabolism  

OpenAIRE

Tobacco use is the major preventable cause of premature death in the United States. Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure also contributes to a number of premature deaths as well as other negative health outcomes. An accurate assessment of tobacco smoke exposure is critical to understanding these disease processes. The plasma concentration of cotinine, the primary metabolite of nicotine, is widely accepted as a quantitative measure of tobacco and SHS exposure. However, it is not always feasible to ...

Murphy, Sharon E.; Wickham, Katherine M.; Lindgren, Bruce R.; Spector, Logan G.; Joseph, Anne

2013-01-01

76

Detection by radioimmunoassay of nicotinamide nucleotide analogues in tissues of rabbits injected with nicotine and cotinine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The formation of the NAD and NADP analogues of nicotine and cotinine in vitro by the NAD glycohydrolase-catalyzed exchange reaction suggested that such compounds (and the related mononucleotides) might also be produced in animals receiving the alkaloid or its metabolite. Since only sensitive and specific analytical methods could detect small amounts of the nicotine and cotinine analogues in the presence of the naturally occurring and abundant NMN, NAD and NADP compounds, radioimmunoassays were developed and used for this purpose. In rabbits injected with cotinine, cotinine nucleotide analogues were found at pmole levels/g of wet tissue in extracts from liver, kidney and lung. In both liver and lung extracts, cotinine mononucleotide was identified as the major product. Cotinine nucleotides were also found in the tissues of rabbits injected with nicotine. The rapid metabolism of nicotine to cotinine in vivo probably contributes to the sparsity of the nicotine analogues in tissue extracts from these animals. (author)

77

Menthol attenuates respiratory irritation and elevates blood cotinine in cigarette smoke exposed mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Addition of menthol to cigarettes may be associated with increased initiation of smoking. The potential mechanisms underlying this association are not known. Menthol, likely due to its effects on cold-sensing peripheral sensory neurons, is known to inhibit the sensation of irritation elicited by respiratory irritants. However, it remains unclear whether menthol modulates cigarette smoke irritancy and nicotine absorption during initial exposures to cigarettes, thereby facilitating smoking initiation. Using plethysmography in a C57Bl/6J mouse model, we examined the effects of L-menthol, the menthol isomer added to cigarettes, on the respiratory sensory irritation response to primary smoke irritants (acrolein and cyclohexanone) and smoke of Kentucky reference 2R4 cigarettes. We also studied L-menthol's effect on blood levels of the nicotine metabolite, cotinine, immediately after exposure to cigarette smoke. L-menthol suppressed the irritation response to acrolein with an apparent IC?? of 4 ppm. Suppression was observed even at acrolein levels well above those necessary to produce a maximal response. Cigarette smoke, at exposure levels of 10 mg/m³ or higher, caused an immediate and marked sensory irritation response in mice. This response was significantly suppressed by L-menthol even at smoke concentrations as high as 300 mg/m³. Counterirritation by L-menthol was abolished by treatment with a selective inhibitor of Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 8 (TRPM8), the neuronal cold/menthol receptor. Inclusion of menthol in the cigarette smoke resulted in roughly a 1.5-fold increase in plasma cotinine levels over those observed in mice exposed to smoke without added menthol. These findings document that, L-menthol, through TRPM8, is a strong suppressor of respiratory irritation responses, even during highly noxious exposures to cigarette smoke or smoke irritants, and increases blood cotinine. Therefore, L-menthol, as a cigarette additive, may promote smoking initiation and nicotine addiction. PMID:25679525

Ha, Michael A; Smith, Gregory J; Cichocki, Joseph A; Fan, Lu; Liu, Yi-Shiuan; Caceres, Ana I; Jordt, Sven Eric; Morris, John B

2015-01-01

78

Comparación de la concentración total de proteínas salivales de adultos y adultos mayores / Comparison of total salivary protein concentration in adults and older adults  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Entre las moléculas orgánicas que componen la saliva se han descrito un gran número de proteínas. No existe evidencia suficiente que permita especular sobre los cambios en el contenido proteico salival asociados al envejecimiento normal. El objetivo fue determinar si existen diferencias en [...] la concentración total de proteínas en saliva de adultos y adultos mayores. Método: Se obtuvieron muestras de saliva estimulada y no estimulada de individuos pertenecientes a dos grupos etarios, adultos (A) (n=30) (edad promedio: 25 años) y adultos mayores (AM) (n=30) (edad promedio: 68 años). Se excluyeron aquellos sujetos que presentaron alguna patología oral/sistémica o consumo de fármacos/sustancias relacionados con alteraciones del flujo o composición salival. Cada muestra fue centrifugada. A 10 µl del sobrenadante se agregaron 190 µl de solución de Bradford. Se realizó el recuento mediante lectura con espectrofotómetro (595 nm). La concentración de proteínas fue comparada entre los grupos en estudio utilizando la prueba t de Student (p Abstract in english Objective: A high number of proteins has been described in saliva. Scarce evidence allows to speculate about the variations on protein content associated with aging. The aim was to determine if there is a difference in total protein concentration between adults and older adults. Methods: Samples wer [...] e collected from unstimulated and stimulated saliva of individuals from two age groups, adults (A) (n=30) (mean age 25 years) and older adults (OA) (n=30)(mean age: 68 years). Subjects with oral/systemic diseases or consuming medications that alter salivary flow were excluded from the study. Each sample was centrifuged and 10 ?l of the supernatant was added to 190 ?l of Bradford solution. Protein concentration was obtained by spectrophotometry (595 nm) Protein concentration was compared between the groups using student’s t test (p

RJ, Castro; G, Guzmán; RA, Giacaman.

2012-04-01

79

Cotinine and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons levels in the amniotic fluid and fetal cord at birth and in the urine from pregnant smokers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cigarette smoking during pregnancy has several impacts on fetal development, including teratogenic effects. The objective of this study was to assess whether the toxic substances (cotinine and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) found in pregnant smokers are transmitted to their fetuses. The outcomes were analyzed measuring cotinine and 1-hydroxypyrene in the amniotic fluid and maternal urine, benzopyrene and cotinine in the umbilical cord blood. Through a controlled cross-sectional design, 125 pregnant women were selected and classified according to their smoking status: 37 current smokers, 25 passive smokers and 63 non-smokers (controls). We performed high-performance liquid chromatography to measure substances' concentrations. A post-hoc Tukey's test was used to analyze the differences between the groups. All variables were significantly different between controls and smokers. The mean ratios between the concentration of cotinine in smokers compared to controls were as follows: 5.9 [2.5-13.5], phydroxypyrene concentration between smokers and controls were 7.3 [1.6-29.6], p?=?0.003 in the urine and 1.3 [1.0-1.7], p?=?0.012 in the amniotic fluid, and of benzopyrene in umbilical cord blood was 2.9 [1.7-4.7], phydroxypyrene in the amniotic fluid and benzopyrene in umbilical cord blood by high-performance liquid chromatography when considering pregnant women in relation to smoking exposure only. PMID:25549364

Machado, Julia de Barros; Chatkin, José Miguel; Zimmer, Aline Rigon; Goulart, Ana Paula Szezepaniak; Thiesen, Flávia Valladão

2014-01-01

80

Salivary concentrations and plasma protein binding of carbamazepine and carbamazepine 10,11-epoxide in epileptic patients.  

OpenAIRE

1. The relationships between saliva, free and total plasma concentrations of carbamazepine (CBZ) and carbamazepine 10,11-epoxide (CBZ-EP) were studied in 24 chronically medicated epileptic patients. Four patients were taking CBZ alone, while 20 were taking one or more additional anticonvulsant drugs. 2. The free fraction of CBZ in plasma ranged from 0.19 to 0.33 (mean 0.24) while the saliva:plasma (S:P) concentration ratios ranged from 0.20 to 0.35 (mean 0.27). The free fraction of CBZ-EP in ...

Mackichan, J. J.; Duffner, P. K.; Cohen, M. E.

1981-01-01

81

Salivary Gland Disorders  

Science.gov (United States)

... of the salivary glands, dry eyes and a dry mouth. Sialadenosis. This condition typically causes painless swelling of ... symptom related to the salivary glands is a dry mouth. Options include: Medication to stimulate more saliva secretion, ...

82

Environmental tobacco smoke and canine urinary cotinine level  

OpenAIRE

Epidemiologic studies of companion animals such as dogs have been established as models for the relationship between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and cancer risk in humans. While results from these studies are provocative, pet owner report of a dog’s ETS exposure has not yet been validated. We have evaluated the relationship between dog owner’s report of household smoking by questionnaire and dog’s urinary cotinine level. Between January and October, 2005, dog owners pr...

Bertone-johnson, Elizabeth R.; Procter-gray, Elizabeth; Gollenberg, Audra L.; Bundga, Michele E.; Barber, Lisa G.

2007-01-01

83

Active and passive exposure status to tobacco smoke of department store employees measured by cotinine ELISA  

OpenAIRE

Quantitation of urinary cotinine, a major metabolite of nicotine, by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), was performed in parallel with questionnaires containing items on smoking status, such as active and/or passive smokers, the number of cigarettes smoked, and the presence or absence of active smokers in the surroundings in a department store (517 employees). The cotinine values corrected by creatinine (cotinine-creatinine ratios, CCRs) approximately conformed to the extent of sel...

Yoshioka, Nobuo; Yonemasu, Kunio; Dohi, Yoshiko; Sakanashi, Teruko; Mizutani, Rika; Kurumatani, Norio; Zheng, Yan; Ohkado, Takashi

1998-01-01

84

Breast feeding and smoking hygiene: major influences on cotinine in urine of smokers' infants.  

OpenAIRE

The determinants of urine cotinine levels were studied in a group of 101 infants aged 3 months, including 79 infants whose mothers were current smokers. At a pre-arranged home visit the infants' mothers completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire, and samples of maternal urine and breast milk and infants' urine were collected. Cotinine and nicotine levels were determined by gas-liquid chromatography. Infant urine cotinine levels ranged from 0 to 140 micrograms/l (0-1120 ng cotinine/mg...

Woodward, A.; Grgurinovich, N.; Ryan, P.

1986-01-01

85

Simultaneous determination of cotinine and trans-3-hydroxycotinine in urine by automated solid-phase extraction using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the simultaneous automated solid-phase extraction and quantification of cotinine and trans-3-hydroxycotinine in human urine. Good linearity was observed over the concentration ranges studied (R(2) > 0.99). The limit of quantification was 10?ng/mL for both analytes. The limits of detection were 0.06?ng/mL for cotinine (COT) and 0.02?ng/mL for trans-3-hydroxycotinine (OH-COT). Accuracy for COT ranged from 0.98 to 5.28% and the precision ranged from 1.24 to 8.78%. Accuracy for OH-COT ranged from -2.66 to 3.72% and the precision ranged from 3.15 to 7.07%. Mean recoveries for cotinine and trans-3-hydroxycotinine ranged from 77.7 to 89.1%, and from 75.4 to 90.2%, respectively. This analytical method for the simultaneous measurement of cotinine and trans-3-hydroxycotinine in urine will be used to monitor tobacco smoking in pregnant women and will permit the usefulness of trans-3-hydroxycotinine as a specific biomarker of tobacco exposure to be determined. PMID:24616054

Chiadmi, Fouad; Schlatter, Joël

2014-04-01

86

Effects of administration of potassium- and sodiumchlorides on faecal excretions and salivary and alimentary concentrations of, Na, K, 134Cs, Ca, Mg and P in reindeer fed a lichen diet  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A comparison of the effects of administration of 350 mmol d-1 of KC1 or NaCl on faecal excretions, salivary concentrations and concentrations and pools of Na, K, 134Cs, Ca, Mg, P, and water in the alimentary tract of reindeer was carried out using three groups of three 10 months old reindeer fed a lichen diet. One group was used as a control group with no mineral supplementation. The level of K supplementation mimicked K intakes from summer pastures. NaCl was given at a rate which would mimic intake from salt licks by domestic ruminants of similar body size. Treatment with KC1 increased the salivary and alimentary concentrations and the alimentary pool sizes of K and faecal excretion of K increased. A decrease in l34Cs concentrations in all parts of the gastrointestinal tract indicated greater absorption of 134Cs during the KC1 treatment than in NaCl treated and control animals. Increased intake of Na or K had no significant effect on the digestibility of the lichen diet, but urine production increased. Little effects on pools or concentrations of Ca, Mg and P were observed. NaCl treatment increased urinary and faecal excretion of Na, but did not affect the metabolism of any of the other studied minerals.

Hans Staaland

1998-02-01

87

Estudo da concentração salivar do fator de crescimento epidérmico em indivíduos com laringite crônica por refluxo laringofaríngeo / Salivary EGF concentration in adults with chronic laryngitis caused by laryngopharyngeal reflux  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A Doença do Refluxo Gastroesofágico (DRGE), chegando até a faringe e laringe, pode cursar com intensa inflamação local e rica sintomatologia (Refluxo Laringofaríngeo RLF). Os estudos atuais não foram capazes de provar que o ácido refluído é o causador das alterações visualizadas na larin [...] gite crônica. O Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico (EGF) é um polipeptídeo produzido pelas glândulas salivares, sendo implicado na indução do crescimento epitelial, na inibição da secreção gástrica e na aceleração da cicatrização. Deficiência salivar deste fator foi encontrada na esofagite de refluxo, mas não há relatos sobre a concentração salivar de EGF em indivíduos com RLF. OBJETIVO: Determinar a concentração salivar do EGF em indivíduos com RLF. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Caso controle. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODO: A concentração salivar de EGF de 39 indivíduos com RLF e 20 controles normais foi estudada pela técnica de ELISA. O RLF foi diagnosticado por história e exame videolaringoscópico característicos. Os 39 pacientes com RLF foram estratificados de acordo com os achados de endoscopia digestiva (com ou sem esofagite associada) e de acordo com a intensidade da laringite crônica. Foram, também, submetidos a manometria esofágica e pH-metria esofágica de 24 horas com dois canais. RESULTADOS: Constatou-se uma concentração de EGF significativamente menor nos indivíduos com RLF quando comparados aos controles normais (p=0,002). Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante na concentração salivar de EGF entre os indivíduos com RLF, nem em relação à presença de esofagite, nem quanto à intensidade da laringite. CONCLUSÕES: Este estudo sugere que uma deficiência na concentração salivar do Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico pode estar associada à patogenia da DRGE, e que este polipeptídeo poderia ser um co-fator na gênese do RLF. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) may cause intense inflammation and symptoms in the larynx and pharynx (Laryngopharyngeal Reflux LPR). Studies have not been able to establish a direct link between the refluxed acid and the typical laryngeal findings in LPR. The Epidermal Growth F [...] actor (EGF) is a polypeptide produced by the salivary glands and shown to induce epithelial development, inhibit gastric acid secretion and accelerate wound healing. This factor is decreased in the saliva of patients with reflux esophagitis, but there are no reports of its behavior in LPR. AIM: The objective of this study was to determine the salivary concentration of EGF in adults with LPR compared to normal controls. STUDY DESIGN: Control study. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The salivary EGF concentration of 39 patients with LPR and 20 healthy controls was determined using a commercially available ELISA kit. LPR was diagnosed based on history and typical laryngopharyngeal signs. The 39 patients with LPR were graded according to endoscopic (presence of associated esophagitis) and laryngoscopic criteria (severity of laryngitis). Patients with LPR were also submitted to esophageal manometry and 24-hour double probe pH-metry. RESULTS: Salivary EGF concentration was significantly lower in the LPR group when compared to controls (p= 0,002). No correlation between the severity of laryngeal findings or presence/absence of esophagitis and salivary EGF concentration could be determined. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that a decreased salivary concentration of Epidermal Growth Factor could be associated to the pathogenesis of GERD and that this same deficiency could also be related to LPR.

Claudia A., Eckley; Henrique O., Costa.

2003-10-01

88

Estudo da concentração salivar do fator de crescimento epidérmico em indivíduos com laringite crônica por refluxo laringofaríngeo Salivary EGF concentration in adults with chronic laryngitis caused by laryngopharyngeal reflux  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A Doença do Refluxo Gastroesofágico (DRGE, chegando até a faringe e laringe, pode cursar com intensa inflamação local e rica sintomatologia (Refluxo Laringofaríngeo RLF. Os estudos atuais não foram capazes de provar que o ácido refluído é o causador das alterações visualizadas na laringite crônica. O Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico (EGF é um polipeptídeo produzido pelas glândulas salivares, sendo implicado na indução do crescimento epitelial, na inibição da secreção gástrica e na aceleração da cicatrização. Deficiência salivar deste fator foi encontrada na esofagite de refluxo, mas não há relatos sobre a concentração salivar de EGF em indivíduos com RLF. OBJETIVO: Determinar a concentração salivar do EGF em indivíduos com RLF. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Caso controle. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODO: A concentração salivar de EGF de 39 indivíduos com RLF e 20 controles normais foi estudada pela técnica de ELISA. O RLF foi diagnosticado por história e exame videolaringoscópico característicos. Os 39 pacientes com RLF foram estratificados de acordo com os achados de endoscopia digestiva (com ou sem esofagite associada e de acordo com a intensidade da laringite crônica. Foram, também, submetidos a manometria esofágica e pH-metria esofágica de 24 horas com dois canais. RESULTADOS: Constatou-se uma concentração de EGF significativamente menor nos indivíduos com RLF quando comparados aos controles normais (p=0,002. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante na concentração salivar de EGF entre os indivíduos com RLF, nem em relação à presença de esofagite, nem quanto à intensidade da laringite. CONCLUSÕES: Este estudo sugere que uma deficiência na concentração salivar do Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico pode estar associada à patogenia da DRGE, e que este polipeptídeo poderia ser um co-fator na gênese do RLF.INTRODUCTION: Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD may cause intense inflammation and symptoms in the larynx and pharynx (Laryngopharyngeal Reflux LPR. Studies have not been able to establish a direct link between the refluxed acid and the typical laryngeal findings in LPR. The Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF is a polypeptide produced by the salivary glands and shown to induce epithelial development, inhibit gastric acid secretion and accelerate wound healing. This factor is decreased in the saliva of patients with reflux esophagitis, but there are no reports of its behavior in LPR. AIM: The objective of this study was to determine the salivary concentration of EGF in adults with LPR compared to normal controls. STUDY DESIGN: Control study. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The salivary EGF concentration of 39 patients with LPR and 20 healthy controls was determined using a commercially available ELISA kit. LPR was diagnosed based on history and typical laryngopharyngeal signs. The 39 patients with LPR were graded according to endoscopic (presence of associated esophagitis and laryngoscopic criteria (severity of laryngitis. Patients with LPR were also submitted to esophageal manometry and 24-hour double probe pH-metry. RESULTS: Salivary EGF concentration was significantly lower in the LPR group when compared to controls (p= 0,002. No correlation between the severity of laryngeal findings or presence/absence of esophagitis and salivary EGF concentration could be determined. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that a decreased salivary concentration of Epidermal Growth Factor could be associated to the pathogenesis of GERD and that this same deficiency could also be related to LPR.

Claudia A. Eckley

2003-10-01

89

MALIGNANT SALIVARY GLAND TUMORS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Malignant salivary gland tumors make up 6% of all head and neck tumors. Several types of cancer can develop in these glands. Only malignant tumors of the salivary glands are discussed in this paper. The diagnosis and treatment of salivary gland malignancies remain complex, with challenging problems for maxillo-facial surgeon. Scientists have found few risk factors that make a person more likely to develop salivary gland cancer. Salivary gland cancer is uncommon, and there is no widely recommended screening schedule for this cancer. CT scanning or MRI is useful for determining the extent of large tumors, for evaluating extraglandular extension, for determining the actual depth of parotid tumors, and for discovering other tumors in one gland or in the controlateral gland. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB is a valuable diagnostic adjunct in evaluation of head and neck masses but its role in evaluation of salivary gland tumors is controversial. There are also discussed some histologic findings about mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, acinic cell carcinoma, carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenoma, squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma developed in salivary glands. Carefully planned and executed surgical excision is the primary treatment for all malignant tumors of the salivary glands. The principles of surgery vary with the site of origin. The extent of surgery is based on the size of the tumor, local extension and neck metastases. Staging of malignant salivary gland tumors is important for predicting prognosis and for accurate comparison of treatment results.

Violeta Trandafir

2010-05-01

90

Salivary mental stress proteins.  

Science.gov (United States)

Of the major diagnostic specimen types, saliva is one of the most easily collected. Many studies have focused on the evaluation of salivary proteins secreted by healthy people and patients with various diseases during responses to acute mental stress. In particular, such studies have focused on cortisol, ?-amylase, chromogranin A (CgA), and immunoglobulin A (IgA) as salivary stress markers. Each of these salivary stress markers has its own strengths and weaknesses as well as data gaps related to many factors including collection technique. In this review, we summarize the critical knowledge of the positive and negative attributes and data gaps pertaining to each salivary stress marker. PMID:23939251

Obayashi, Konen

2013-10-21

91

HOME AIR NICOTINE LEVELS AND URINE COTININE-CREATININE RATIOS IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN  

Science.gov (United States)

We studied urine cotinine excretion in 27 children who attended a research day care center to determine the extent of correlation between urine cotinine-creatinine ratios (CCR) and intensity of nicotine exposure in the home. verage nicotine levels in home air were determined by a...

92

Electrochemical Immunoassay of Cotinine in Serum Based on Nanoparticle Probe and Immunochromatographic Strip  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A disposable sensor for the determination of cotinine in human serum was developed based on immunochromatographic test strip and quantum dot label. In this assay, cotinine modified on quantum dot competes with cotinine in sample to bind to anti-cotinine antibody in the test strip and the quantum dots serve as signal vehicles for electrochemical readout. Some parameters governing the performance of the sensor were optimized. The sensor shows a wide linear range from 1 ng mL-1 to 100 ng mL-1 cotinine with a detection limit of 1.0 ng mL-1. The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) of the sensor was less than 2% for cotinine. The sensor was validated with spiked human serum samples and it was found that this method was reliable in measuring cotinine in human serum with average recovery of 100.99%. The results demonstrate that this sensor is a rapid, clinically accurate, and less expensive and has the potential for point of care (POC) detection of cotinine and fast screening of tobacco smoke exposure.

Nian, Hung-Chi; Wang, Jun; Wu, Hong J.; Lo, Jiunn-Guang; Chiu, Kong-Hwa; Pounds, Joel G.; Lin, Yuehe

2012-02-03

93

Electrochemical immunoassay of cotinine in serum based on nanoparticle probe and immunochromatographic strip  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Using nanoparticle probe in immunochromatographic strip. ? Enhanced sensitivity by using nanoparticle label. ? Rapid and sensitive detection of cotinine in serum. - Abstract: A disposable sensor for the determination of cotinine in human serum was developed based on immunochromatographic test strip and quantum dot label. In this assay, cotinine linked with quantum dot competes with cotinine in sample to bind to anti-cotinine antibody in the test strip and the quantum dots serve as signal vehicles for electrochemical readout. Some parameters governing the performance of the sensor were optimized. The sensor shows a wide linear range from 1 ng mL?1 to 100 ng mL?1 cotinine with a detection limit of 1.0 ng mL?1. The sensor was validated with spiked human serum samples and it was found that this method was reliable in measuring cotinine in human serum. The results demonstrate that this sensor is rapid, accurate, and less expensive and has the potential for point of care (POC) detection of cotinine and fast screening of tobacco smoke exposure.

94

Electrochemical immunoassay of cotinine in serum based on nanoparticle probe and immunochromatographic strip  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using nanoparticle probe in immunochromatographic strip. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enhanced sensitivity by using nanoparticle label. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rapid and sensitive detection of cotinine in serum. - Abstract: A disposable sensor for the determination of cotinine in human serum was developed based on immunochromatographic test strip and quantum dot label. In this assay, cotinine linked with quantum dot competes with cotinine in sample to bind to anti-cotinine antibody in the test strip and the quantum dots serve as signal vehicles for electrochemical readout. Some parameters governing the performance of the sensor were optimized. The sensor shows a wide linear range from 1 ng mL{sup -1} to 100 ng mL{sup -1} cotinine with a detection limit of 1.0 ng mL{sup -1}. The sensor was validated with spiked human serum samples and it was found that this method was reliable in measuring cotinine in human serum. The results demonstrate that this sensor is rapid, accurate, and less expensive and has the potential for point of care (POC) detection of cotinine and fast screening of tobacco smoke exposure.

Nian Hungchi [Pacific Norwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, 30013, Taiwan (China); Wang Jun; Wu Hong [Pacific Norwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Lo, Jiunn-Guang [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, 30013, Taiwan (China); Chiu, Kong-Hwa [Department of Applied Science, National DongHwa University, Hualien, 970, 30013, Taiwan (China); Pounds, Joel G. [Pacific Norwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Lin Yuehe, E-mail: yuehe.lin@pnnl.gov [Pacific Norwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

2012-02-03

95

Short- and long-term effects of tactile massage on salivary cortisol concentrations in Parkinsons disease : a randomised controlled pilot study  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder with limited knowledge about the normal function and effects of non-pharmacological therapies on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The aim of the study was to analyse the basal diurnal and total secretion of salivary cortisol in short- and long-term aspects of tactile massage (TM). METHODS: Design: Prospective, Controlled and Randomised Multicentre Trial.Setting and interventions: Forty-five women and me...

To?rnhage, Carl-johan; Skogar, O?rjan; Borg, Astrid; Larsson, Birgitta; Robertsson, Laila; Andersson, Lena; Backstro?m, Paulina; Fall, Per-arne; Hallgren, Gunnar; Bringer, Birgitta; Carlsson, Miriam; Lennartsson, Ulla Birgitta; Sandbjo?rk, Ha?kan; Lo?kk, Johan

2013-01-01

96

Elevated salivary C-reactive protein levels are associated with active and passive smoking in healthy youth: A pilot study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined salivary C-reactive protein (CRP levels in the context of tobacco smoke exposure (TSE in healthy youth. We hypothesized that there would be a dose-response relationship between TSE status and salivary CRP levels. Methods This work is a pilot study (N = 45 for a larger investigation in which we aim to validate salivary CRP against serum CRP, the gold standard measurement of low-grade inflammation. Participants were healthy youth with no self-reported periodontal disease, no objectively measured obesity/adiposity, and no clinical depression, based on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II. We assessed tobacco smoking and confirmed smoking status (non-smoking, passive smoking, and active smoking with salivary cotinine measurement. We measured salivary CRP by the ELISA method. We controlled for several potential confounders. Results We found evidence for the existence of a dose-response relationship between the TSE status and salivary CRP levels. Conclusions Our preliminary findings indicate that salivary CRP seems to have a similar relation to TSE as its widely used serum (systemic inflammatory biomarker counterpart.

Azar Rima

2011-12-01

97

Salivary Gland Cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Salivary gland cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. It is rare. It may not cause any ... pain in your face Doctors diagnose salivary gland cancer using a physical exam, imaging tests, and a ...

98

N-acetyltransferase 1 polymorphism increases cotinine levels in Caucasian children exposed to secondhand smoke: the CCAAPS birth cohort.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cotinine is a proxy for secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure. Genetic variation along nicotine and cotinine metabolic pathways may alter the internal cotinine dose, leading to misinterpretations of exposure-health outcome associations. Caucasian children with available SHS exposure and hair cotinine data were genotyped for metabolism-related genes. SHS-exposed children had 2.4-fold higher hair cotinine (0.14±0.22?ng?mg(-1)) than unexposed children (0.06±0.05?ng?mg(-1), Psingle-nucleotide polymorphism(s) (SNP(s)) in NAT1 and elucidate the biological consequences of the mutation(s). PMID:25156213

LeMasters, G K; Khurana Hershey, G K; Sivaprasad, U; Martin, L J; Pilipenko, V; Ericksen, M B; Burkle, J W; Lindsey, M A; Bernstein, D I; Lockey, J E; Gareri, J; Lubetsky, A; Koren, G; Biagini Myers, J M

2015-04-01

99

Determinación de cotinina y exposición a tabaco Cotinine detection and tobacco smoke exposure  

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Full Text Available La exposición a tabaco es una de las causas prevenibles de morbilidad y mortalidad prematura más importante. Se describe un método simple y rápido de detección de cotinina (principal metabolito de nicotina en orina humana. Se utilizó cromatografía gas-líquido (CGL con un detector de ionización de llama (FID. Se realizó una extracción líquido-líquido con cloroformo en medio alcalino; el extracto fue secado a 37 °C y redisuelto en 100 µL de solución alcohólica con estándar interno piridina. Se analizó la orina de personas que declararon ser fumadoras y no fumadoras. Mediante la construcción de dos curvas de calibración se cubrió un rango de linealidad de 3 a 5.000 ng/mL. Los fumadores presentaron una mediana y cuartiles (Q de concentración de cotinina: 255,4 ng/mL, 15,9 ng/mL (Q1 - 1.050,2 ng/mL (Q3, respectivamente, y los no fumadores 15,8 ng/mL, 4,1 ng/mL (Q1 - 38,4 ng/mL (Q3. Wilcoxon sumrank: z = 4,865 p Tobacco is one of the major preventable causes of morbidity and premature mortality in the world. A simple, rapid method for determination of cotinine, major metabolite of nicotine in urine, is described. The assay involves a fast liquid-liquid extraction with chloroform as a solvent in alkaline environment. The extract was dried at 37 °C and the residue was dissolved in 100 µL of standard internal of pyridine in methanol solution, and an aliquot was analyzed by gas-liquid chromatograph equipped with a flame -ionization detector. This technique was performed to test urine of a sample of smokers and non-smokers who were previously asked about their smoking habit. The limit of detection was 3.1 ng/mL, and using two calibration curves, a linearity range from 3 a 5.000 ng/mL was covered. The median and quartiles (Q of cotinine in smokers were 255.4 ng/mL, 15.9 ng/mL (Q1 -1050.2 ng/mL (Q3 ng/mL and in non-smokers 15.8 ng/mL, 4.1 ng/mL (Q1 - 38.4 ng/mL (Q3. Wilcoxon sumrank: z = 4.865 p < 0.01. There was a relationship between cotinine concentration in urine and number of smoked cigarettes. Spearman's rho = 0.5672 (p < 0.001. This technique could identify smokers, second hand smokers and non-smokers using cut-off of 10-15 ng/mL of cotinine in urine, usually adopted in epidemiological studies.

Marta Noemí Vacchino

2006-06-01

100

Cotinine level is associated with asthma severity in passive smoker children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Asthma environmental triggers play important roles in severity of disease. Passive smoking could exacerbate asthma symptoms and enhance the decrease in lung function. Cotinine levels could be a reflection of passive exposure to the cigarette both in adults and pediatrics. The aim of this study was to determine degree of association of asthma severity and cotinine level as a marker of passive smoking. In a cross-sectional study, 100 pediatric patients (under 10 years old) with asthma were enrolled, 50 of whom, had been exposed to passive smoking and 50 others included as controls. A complete clinical history, lab exam, and spirometry were performed. A sample of urine, serum and saliva was collected from all attendant patients and controls in the study after confirmation of diagnosis and determination of severity of asthma. The results revealed that age, sex, age of onset of asthma, family history and allergic history were not significantly different between two groups of patients. According to GINA classification, percentage of patients with severe asthma was significantly higher in passive smoker group (p=0.001). Cotinine was significantly higher in passive smoker group compared to control group in serum (p=001), saliva (p=0.001), and urine (p=0.0014). In passive smoker group, cotinine levels were significantly higher in serum (p=0.001), urine (p=0.007), and saliva (p=0.01) of patients with severe asthma than moderate and mild asthma. Serum cotinine (OR: 1.81, 95% CI: 1.35-2.32, p=0.024), urine cotinine (OR: 3.56,95% CI = 1.29-5.53, p=0.01) and saliva cotinine (OR: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.23-1.98, p=0.031) were also significantly associated with higher risk of severe asthma. Cotinine levels were higher in passive smokers compared to non-passive smokers. Besides, cotinine was a predictive risk factor for severe asthma. PMID:25530141

Hassanzad, Maryam; Khalilzadeh, Soheila; Eslampanah Nobari, Shabnam; Bloursaz, Mohammadreza; Sharifi, Hooman; Mohajerani, Seyed Amir; Tashayoie Nejad, Sabereh; Velayati, Ali Akbar

2015-02-01

101

Serum cotinine levels in pipe smokers: evidence against nicotine as cause of coronary heart disease.  

OpenAIRE

Serum levels of cotinine (a principal metabolite of nicotine) were studied in men who did not smoke (28), and in men who smoked cigarettes only (150), cigars only (70), and pipes only (56). The mean cotinine level for pipe smokers was 389 ng/ml, significantly higher than the mean level for cigarette and cigar smokers (306 and 121 ng/ml, respectively); no cotinine was detected in the serum from any of the non-smokers. Large prospective studies have shown that pipe smokers have no material exce...

Wald, Nj; Idle, M.; Boreham, J.; Bailey, A.

1981-01-01

102

Cotinine and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Levels in the Amniotic Fluid and Fetal Cord at Birth and in the Urine from Pregnant Smokers  

Science.gov (United States)

Cigarette smoking during pregnancy has several impacts on fetal development, including teratogenic effects. The objective of this study was to assess whether the toxic substances (cotinine and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) found in pregnant smokers are transmitted to their fetuses. The outcomes were analyzed measuring cotinine and 1-hydroxypyrene in the amniotic fluid and maternal urine, benzopyrene and cotinine in the umbilical cord blood. Through a controlled cross-sectional design, 125 pregnant women were selected and classified according to their smoking status: 37 current smokers, 25 passive smokers and 63 non-smokers (controls). We performed high-performance liquid chromatography to measure substances’ concentrations. A post-hoc Tukey’s test was used to analyze the differences between the groups. All variables were significantly different between controls and smokers. The mean ratios between the concentration of cotinine in smokers compared to controls were as follows: 5.9 [2.5–13.5], purine; 25 [11.9–52.9], purine and 1.3 [1.0–1.7], p?=?0.012 in the amniotic fluid, and of benzopyrene in umbilical cord blood was 2.9 [1.7–4.7], p<0.001. There were no significant differences between controls and passive smokers. When comparing the three groups together, there were statistical differences between all variables. Thus, the fetuses of pregnant smokers are exposed to toxic and carcinogens substances. To our knowledge, this is the first study to measure 1-hydroxypyrene in the amniotic fluid and benzopyrene in umbilical cord blood by high-performance liquid chromatography when considering pregnant women in relation to smoking exposure only. PMID:25549364

Machado, Julia de Barros; Chatkin, José Miguel; Zimmer, Aline Rigon; Goulart, Ana Paula Szezepaniak; Thiesen, Flávia Valladão

2014-01-01

103

Pediatric salivary gland imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A variety of lesions occur in the pediatric salivary glands. With modern imaging techniques such as Doppler sonography, helical CT, and MRI, identification of a specific etiology is often possible. Knowledge of clinical information, normal anatomy, and imaging characteristics of salivary gland pathology are essential for appropriate radiologic evaluation. This review illustrates the various congenital, neoplastic, and inflammatory entities that can occur within the parotid, submandibular, and sublingual spaces. (orig.)

104

Correlation between Cigarette Smoking and Urine Cotinine Level in Gastric Cancer Patients  

OpenAIRE

Various substances in cigarette smoke including nicotine have been shown to promote/induce cancer cell proliferation. Since cotinine has a longer half life and stability in the blood, it has become the preferred biomarker for cigarette smoking exposure.

Babhadiashar, Nima; Sotoudeh, Masoud; Azizi, Ebrahim; Bashiri, Jafar; Didevar, Reza; Malekzadeh, Reza; Ghahremani, Mohammad Hossein

2014-01-01

105

Plasma cotinine levels and pancreatic cancer in the EPIC cohort study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Smoking is an established risk factor for pancreatic cancer, previously investigated by the means of questionnaires. Using cotinine as a biomarker for tobacco exposure allows more accurate quantitative analyses to be performed. This study on pancreatic cancer, nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC cohort), included 146 cases and 146 matched controls. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, plasma cotinine levels were analyzed on average 8.0 years before cancer onset (5-95% range: 2.8-12.0 years). The relation between plasma cotinine levels and pancreatic cancer was analyzed with conditional logistic regression for different levels of cotinine in a population of never and current smokers. This was also done for the self-reported number of smoked cigarettes per day at baseline. Every increase of 350 nmol/L of plasma cotinine was found to significantly elevate risk of pancreatic cancer (odds ratio (OR): 1.33, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11-1.60). People with a cotinine level over 1187.8 nmol/L, a level comparable to smoking 17 cigarettes per day, have an elevated risk of pancreatic cancer, compared to people with cotinine levels below 55 nmol/L (OR: 3.66, 95% CI: 1.44-9.26). The results for self-reported smoking at baseline also show an increased risk of pancreatic cancer from cigarette smoking based on questionnaire information. People who smoke more than 30 cigarettes per day showed the highest risk compared to never smokers (OR: 4.15, 95% CI: 1.02-16.42). This study is the first to show that plasma cotinine levels are strongly related to pancreatic cancer. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Leenders, Max; Chuang, Shu-Chun

2012-01-01

106

Assessment of smoking status based on cotinine levels in nasal lavage fluid  

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Full Text Available Abstract Cotinine is a principal metabolite of nicotine with a substantially longer half-life, and cotinine levels in saliva, urine or serum are widely used to validate self-reported smoking status. The nasal cavity and olfactory system are directly exposed to tobacco smoke in smokers and in non-smokers who live with or work around smokers. However, despite the potential for a direct impact of tobacco smoke on the nasal epithelium and olfactory neurons, no prior studies have assessed cotinine levels in nasal mucus. We sought to determine whether cotinine levels in nasal lavage fluid (NLF would provide a reasonable estimate of smoke exposure. We assayed cotinine using a competitive immunoassay in NLF from 23 smokers, 10 non-smokers exposed to tobacco smoke (ETS and 60 non-smokers who did not report smoke exposure. NLF cotinine levels were significantly higher in smokers than in non-smokers, regardless of their exposure to ambient tobacco smoke. Cotinine levels in this small group of exposed non-smokers were not significantly different than those of non-exposed non-smokers. A cutoff of 1 ng/ml provided a sensitivity of 91% and a specificity of 99% for smoking status in this sample. Data were consistent with self-reported smoking status, and a cutoff of 1.0 ng/ml NLF cotinine may be used to classify smoking status. While saliva is the most easily obtained body fluid, NLF can be used to provide an objective and precise indication of smoking status and more directly reflects smoke exposure in the nasal and olfactory mucosa.

Cowart Beverly J

2009-07-01

107

Contingency Management for Smoking Cessation: Enhancing Feasibility through Use of Immunoassay Test Strips Measuring Cotinine  

OpenAIRE

Contingency management (CM) is a powerful behavioral intervention that has been shown to reduce the use of a wide variety of substances including tobacco. Use of CM techniques for smoking cessation has been restricted by the use of multiple daily measurements of breath CO as the objective indicator to reinforce abstinence. Cotinine, with its longer half-life, may be a better marker. We evaluated the use of urine cotinine (determined using once-daily semiquantitative Immunoassay Test Strips an...

Schepis, Ty S.; Duhig, Amy M.; Liss, Thomas; Mcfetridge, Amanda; Wu, Ran; Cavallo, Dana A.; Dahl, Tricia; Jatlow, Peter; Krishnan-sarin, Suchitra

2008-01-01

108

Cotinine: beyond that expected, more than a biomarker of tobacco consumption  

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Full Text Available A greater incidence of tobacco consumption occurs among individuals with psychiatric conditions including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, bipolar disorder, major depression and schizophrenia, compared with the general population. Even when still controversial, it has been postulated that smoking is a form of self-medication that reduces psychiatric symptoms among individuals with these disorders. To better understand the component(s of tobacco-inducing smoking behavior, greater attention has been directed toward nicotine. However, in recent years, new evidence has shown that cotinine, the main metabolite of nicotine, exhibits beneficial effects over psychiatric symptoms and may therefore promote smoking within this population. Some of the behavioral effects of cotinine compared to nicotine are discussed here. Cotinine, which accumulates in the body as a result of tobacco exposure, crosses the blood-brain barrier and has different pharmacological properties compared with nicotine. Cotinine has a longer plasma half-life than nicotine and showed no addictive or cardiovascular effects in humans. In addition, at the preclinical level, cotinine facilitated the extinction of fear memory and anxiety after fear conditioning, improved working memory in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD and in a monkey model of schizophrenia. Altogether, the new evidence suggests that the pharmacological and behavioral effects of cotinine may play a key role in promoting tobacco smoking in individuals that suffer from psychiatric conditions and represents a new potential therapeutic agent against psychiatric conditions such as AD and PTSD.

ValentinaEcheverria Moran

2012-10-01

109

Estudo comparativo da concentração salivar do fator de crescimento epidérmico em indivíduos com laringite crônica por doença do refluxo gastroesofágica antes e após o tratamento: resultados preliminares / Salivary egf concentration in adults with reflux chronic laryngitis before and after treatment: preliminary results  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Os mecanismos fisiopatológicos do refluxo laringofaríngeo (RLF) são pouco conhecidos. O Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico (EGF) é a proteína de produção salivar com maior ação na regeneração do epitélio da orofaringe e tubo digestivo alto, tendo sido demonstradas deficiências em sua concentração saliv [...] ar em indivíduos com RLF. OBJETIVO: Comparar a concentração salivar de EGF em um mesmo indivíduo com RLF antes e após o tratamento. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Neste estudo prospectivo doze indivíduos com DRGE e RLF de moderada intensidade tiveram sua saliva espontânea coletada antes e após o tratamento e controle da doença. A concentração salivar de EGF foi estabelecida através de exame de ELISA (Quantikine ®). RESULTADOS: Onze pacientes eram do sexo feminino e um do sexo masculino, com idade média de 49 anos. A concentração salivar de EGF pré-tratamento foi de 2.867,6pg/mL e a pós-tratamento foi 1.588,5pg/mL, sendo esta diferença estatisticamente significante (p=0,015). DISCUSSÃO E CONCLUSÕES: Apesar de a concentração salivar de EGF ser maior nos indivíduos antes do tratamento, esta não consegue alcançar àquela de uma população normal (estabelecida previamente), o que sugere uma deficiência primária deste importante fator de defesa em indivíduos com RLF. Abstract in english The Laryngopharyngeal Reflux (LPR) physiopathology is still unknown. The Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) is a biologically active salivary protein that aids in the rapid regeneration of the oropharyngeal and upper digestive tract mucosas. Salivary deficiency of this protein in patients with LPR has be [...] en demonstrated in previous studies. AIM: To compare salivary EGF concentration in patients with LPR before and after treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective study twelve patients with GERD and moderate LPR were studied. Whole saliva samples were collected before and after treatment and salivary EGF concentration was determined using a commercially available ELISA kit (Quantikine ®). RESULTS: There were eleven females and one male among the patients, the mean age was 49 years. The mean pre-treatment salivary EGF concentration was 2,867.6 pg/mL and the mean post treatment EGF concentration was 1,588.5 pg/mL. This difference was statistically significant (p=0.015). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Although salivary EGF concentrations are higher before LPR treatment, the concentration is still much lower than the mean salivary EGF concentration in normal individuals without LPR, which suggests a primary disorder of this defense factor in individuals with LPR.

Claudia Alessandra, Eckley; Lilia da Silva, Rios; Luiz Vicente, Rizzo.

2007-04-01

110

Estudo comparativo da concentração salivar do fator de crescimento epidérmico em indivíduos com laringite crônica por doença do refluxo gastroesofágica antes e após o tratamento: resultados preliminares Salivary egf concentration in adults with reflux chronic laryngitis before and after treatment: preliminary results  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Os mecanismos fisiopatológicos do refluxo laringofaríngeo (RLF são pouco conhecidos. O Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico (EGF é a proteína de produção salivar com maior ação na regeneração do epitélio da orofaringe e tubo digestivo alto, tendo sido demonstradas deficiências em sua concentração salivar em indivíduos com RLF. OBJETIVO: Comparar a concentração salivar de EGF em um mesmo indivíduo com RLF antes e após o tratamento. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Neste estudo prospectivo doze indivíduos com DRGE e RLF de moderada intensidade tiveram sua saliva espontânea coletada antes e após o tratamento e controle da doença. A concentração salivar de EGF foi estabelecida através de exame de ELISA (Quantikine ®. RESULTADOS: Onze pacientes eram do sexo feminino e um do sexo masculino, com idade média de 49 anos. A concentração salivar de EGF pré-tratamento foi de 2.867,6pg/mL e a pós-tratamento foi 1.588,5pg/mL, sendo esta diferença estatisticamente significante (p=0,015. DISCUSSÃO E CONCLUSÕES: Apesar de a concentração salivar de EGF ser maior nos indivíduos antes do tratamento, esta não consegue alcançar àquela de uma população normal (estabelecida previamente, o que sugere uma deficiência primária deste importante fator de defesa em indivíduos com RLF.The Laryngopharyngeal Reflux (LPR physiopathology is still unknown. The Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF is a biologically active salivary protein that aids in the rapid regeneration of the oropharyngeal and upper digestive tract mucosas. Salivary deficiency of this protein in patients with LPR has been demonstrated in previous studies. AIM: To compare salivary EGF concentration in patients with LPR before and after treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective study twelve patients with GERD and moderate LPR were studied. Whole saliva samples were collected before and after treatment and salivary EGF concentration was determined using a commercially available ELISA kit (Quantikine ®. RESULTS: There were eleven females and one male among the patients, the mean age was 49 years. The mean pre-treatment salivary EGF concentration was 2,867.6 pg/mL and the mean post treatment EGF concentration was 1,588.5 pg/mL. This difference was statistically significant (p=0.015. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Although salivary EGF concentrations are higher before LPR treatment, the concentration is still much lower than the mean salivary EGF concentration in normal individuals without LPR, which suggests a primary disorder of this defense factor in individuals with LPR.

Claudia Alessandra Eckley

2007-04-01

111

CYP2A6 Genotype but not Age Determines Cotinine Half-life in Infants and Children  

OpenAIRE

The formation of cotinine, the main proximate metabolite and a biomarker of nicotine exposure, is mediated primarily by CYP2A6. Our aim was to determine if higher cotinine levels in young children exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) are a result of age-related differences in pharmacokinetics. Forty-nine participants, 2 to 84 months old, received oral deuterium-labeled cotinine, with daily urine samples for up to 10 days for cotinine half-life measurement. DNA from saliva was used for CYP2A6 gen...

Dempseyl, Delia A.; Sambol, Nancy C.; Jacob, Peyton; Hoffmann, E.; Tyndale, Rachel F.; Fuentes-afflick, Elena; Benowitz, Neal L.

2013-01-01

112

Comparison of salivary cortisol concentrations in Jaguars kept in captivity with differences in exposure to the public / Comparação das concentrações de cortisol salivar em onças-pintadas criadas em cativeiro com diferenças de exposição ao público  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Em geral, onças-pintadas criadas em cativeiro são usadas para fins educacionais e de recreação. No entanto, o impacto da exposição ao público sobre esses animais não tem sido avaliado. Neste estudo, foi comparado o impacto de dois diferentes níveis de exposição ao público em sete onças-pintadas, alo [...] jadas em dois criadouros, por meio da avaliação de um dos hormônios indicadores de estresse, o cortisol salivar. A saliva foi coletada usando um material absorvente que foi mastigado pelos animais e subsequentemente analisado por imunoenzimoensaio. As concentrações de cortisol salivar foram significativamente maiores em onças-pintadas com maior exposição ao público. Esses resultados sugerem que onças-pintadas, normalmente solitárias e esquivas na natureza, podem ter seu bem-estar consideravelmente diminuído pelo aumento de exposição ao público. Este estudo é o primeiro relato de mensuração de cortisol salivar em onças-pintadas. Abstract in english For the most part, jaguars kept in captivity are used for educational and recreational purposes and it hasn't been determined the different impacts that public exposure would have on these animals. In this study, we compared the salivary cortisol, one of the stress indicator hormones, in seven capti [...] ve jaguars exposed to the high and low public visitation. Saliva was collected using an absorbent material that was chewed by the animals and subsequently analyzed through an immunoenzymatic assay. Salivary cortisol concentrations were significantly higher in the jaguars with higher public exposure, which suggest a more hormonal stress response. These results indicated that jaguars, animals usually of solitary and secretive behavior, may have their welfare considerably diminished by increased public exposure. Additionally, design of the enclosures, without refuges and proximity of people, could predispose jaguars to psychological stress.

Julio César, Montanha; Sérgio Leme, Silva; Vanner, Boere.

1745-17-01

113

Comparison of salivary cortisol concentrations in Jaguars kept in captivity with differences in exposure to the public Comparação das concentrações de cortisol salivar em onças-pintadas criadas em cativeiro com diferenças de exposição ao público  

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Full Text Available For the most part, jaguars kept in captivity are used for educational and recreational purposes and it hasn't been determined the different impacts that public exposure would have on these animals. In this study, we compared the salivary cortisol, one of the stress indicator hormones, in seven captive jaguars exposed to the high and low public visitation. Saliva was collected using an absorbent material that was chewed by the animals and subsequently analyzed through an immunoenzymatic assay. Salivary cortisol concentrations were significantly higher in the jaguars with higher public exposure, which suggest a more hormonal stress response. These results indicated that jaguars, animals usually of solitary and secretive behavior, may have their welfare considerably diminished by increased public exposure. Additionally, design of the enclosures, without refuges and proximity of people, could predispose jaguars to psychological stress.Em geral, onças-pintadas criadas em cativeiro são usadas para fins educacionais e de recreação. No entanto, o impacto da exposição ao público sobre esses animais não tem sido avaliado. Neste estudo, foi comparado o impacto de dois diferentes níveis de exposição ao público em sete onças-pintadas, alojadas em dois criadouros, por meio da avaliação de um dos hormônios indicadores de estresse, o cortisol salivar. A saliva foi coletada usando um material absorvente que foi mastigado pelos animais e subsequentemente analisado por imunoenzimoensaio. As concentrações de cortisol salivar foram significativamente maiores em onças-pintadas com maior exposição ao público. Esses resultados sugerem que onças-pintadas, normalmente solitárias e esquivas na natureza, podem ter seu bem-estar consideravelmente diminuído pelo aumento de exposição ao público. Este estudo é o primeiro relato de mensuração de cortisol salivar em onças-pintadas.

Julio César Montanha

2009-09-01

114

Undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas may be divided into small cell and large cell types. Among large cell undifferentiated carcinomas, lymphoepithelial carcinomas have to be distinguished, the latter of which are endemic in the Arctic regions and southern China where virtually all cases of these tumors are associated with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Association with EBV may also be observed in sporadic cases, and detection of EBV gene products may aid their diagnosis. Immunohistology may be employed to resolve the differential diagnosis of undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas, comprising malignant lymphomas, amelanotic melanomas, Merkel cell carcinomas, and adenoid cystic carcinomas, in particular in small biopsy materials. Because of the rarity of undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas, the differential diagnosis should always include metastases of undifferentiated carcinomas arising at other primary sites, particularly when expressing the thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) Udgivelsesdato: 2004

Herbst, H.; Hamilton-Dutoit, S.

2004-01-01

115

Evaluation of Salivary Albumin in Diabetic Patients  

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Full Text Available "nBackground: The clinical symptoms of diabetes mellitus in oral cavity are xerostomia, pathological changes in periodontal tis­sues and caries. It has been suggested that the determination of salvia`s components in diabetic patients may be useful in de­scribing and further understanding the oral findings in this condition. The aim of this study was to detect differences be­tween the salivary albumin in diabetic patients and healthy people."nMethods: A case-control study was carried out using data from Hamadan researches diabetes center in 2008. We selected 40 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus aged 9-61 years, 40 patients with type2 aged 39-82 years and 40 healthy controls aged 20-67 years. Dental and oral status was assessed for all subjects. Completely unstimulated saliva samples were col­lected from diabetic patients and control subjects. Nephelometric method was used to determine salivary albumin con­centra­tion. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS."nResults: No significant difference in salivary albumin concentration was found between the control group and type1 dia­betic patients but salivary albumin was significantly higher in type2 diabetic patients in compare with control groups (P= 0.017, also no significant difference was found between type1 and type2 diabetic patients. In diabetic patients, complain of dry mouth and burning feeling in mouth was significantly higher, as well as, dental examinations showed higher DMFT mean values than the controls."nConclusion: Adults with type2 diabetes mellitus have higher concentration of salivary albumin that would play a helpful diagnos­tic role in oral findings of diabetic patients.

PB Vaziri

2009-09-01

116

Anti-smoking legislation and its effects on urinary cotinine and cadmium levels.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anti-smoking legislation has been associated with an improvement in health indicators. Since the cadmium (Cd) body burden in the general population is markedly increased by smoke exposure, we analyzed the impact of the more restrictive legislation that came into force in Spain in 2011 by measuring Cd and cotinine in first morning urine samples from 83 adults in Madrid (Spain) before (2010) and after (2011) introduction of this law. Individual pair-wise comparisons showed a reduction of creatinine corrected Cotinine and Cd levels for non-active smokers, i. e. those which urinary cotinine levels are below 50 ?g/L. After the application of the stricter law, cotinine levels in urine only decreased in non-active smokers who self-reported not to be exposed to second-hand smoke. The reduction in second hand smoke exposure was significantly higher in weekends (Friday to Sunday) than in working days (Monday to Thursday). The decrease in U-Cd was highly significant in non-active smokers and, in general, correlated with lower creatinine excretion. Therefore correction by creatinine could bias urinary Cd results, at least for cotinine levels higher than 500 ?g/L. The biochemical/toxicological benefits detected herein support the stricter application of anti-smoking legislation and emphasize the need to raise the awareness of the population as regards exposure at home. PMID:25460641

Sánchez-Rodríguez, Jinny E; Bartolomé, Mónica; Cañas, Ana I; Huetos, Olga; Navarro, Carmen; Rodríguez, A Carolina; Arribas, Misericordia; Esteban, Marta; López, Ana; Castaño, Argelia

2015-01-01

117

Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Poorly Differentiated Carcinoma; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer

2013-02-27

118

Salivary Diagnostics- Reloaded  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As we approach the threshold of genomic medicine, the increasing use of salivary diagnostics will helpcatalyze a shift from disease diagnosis to health surveillance. With new techniques for detecting small quantities ofsalivary components, including proteins and messenger RNA (mRNA, the field of salivary diagnostics hasemerged as one of dentistry’s most promising areas of research. Because collecting saliva is noninvasive, it isbecoming the preferable way in bridging state-of-the-art saliva-based biosensors and disease-discriminatorysalivary biomarkers in diagnostic applications.The challenge to make salivary diagnostics a clinical reality is in establishing the scientific foundation and clinicalvalidations necessary to position it as a highly accurate and feasible technology, which can achieve definite pointof-care assessment of patient health and disease status.The field of salivary diagnostics is now becoming a broad,complex and crosscutting area of scientific research with enormous potential to impact the practicing dentist andhealth care in general.

Ambil Sara Varghese

2011-01-01

119

Analysis of nicotine and cotinine in the hair of hospitality workers exposed to environmental tobacco smoke.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to determine if hair nicotine and cotinine levels reflect relative exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in subjects who worked in the hospitality industry, where public smoking was permitted. Hair samples from 26 subjects were analyzed by gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry techniques for nicotine and cotinine. An exposure gradient was shown for nicotine but not cotinine. Among nonsmokers, those working in bars where there are no public smoking restrictions had the highest hair nicotine levels, which were close to levels found in smokers. Nicotine measured in hair is useful as a biological marker for exposure to ETS from multiple sources. Bar workers in particular are exposed to high levels of ETS, which may adversely affect the health of nonsmokers. PMID:9343759

Dimich-Ward, H; Gee, H; Brauer, M; Leung, V

1997-10-01

120

Single gas chromatography method with nitrogen phosphorus detector for urinary cotinine determination in passive and active smokers  

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Full Text Available Nicotine is a major addictive compound in cigarettes and is rapidly and extensively metabolized to several metabolites in humans, including urinary cotinine, considered a biomarker due to its high concentration compared to other metabolites. The aim of this study was to develop a single method for determination of urinary cotinine, in active and passive smokers, by gas chromatography with a nitrogen phosphorus detector (GC-NPD. Urine (5.0 mL was extracted with 1.0 mL of sodium hydroxide 5 mol L-1, 5.0 mL of chloroform, and lidocaine used as the internal standard. Injection volume was 1 ?L in GC-NPD. Limit of quantification was 10 ng mL-1. Linearity was evaluated in the ranges 10-1000 ng mL-1 and 500-6000 ng mL-1, with determination coefficients of 0.9986 and 0.9952, respectively. Intra- and inter-assay standard relative deviations were lower than 14.2 %, while inaccuracy (bias was less than +11.9%. The efficiency of extraction was greater than 88.5%. Ruggedness was verified, according to Youden's test. Means of cotinine concentrations observed were 2,980 ng mL-1 for active smokers and 132 ng mL-1, for passive smokers. The results revealed that satisfactory chromatographic separation between the analyte and interferents was obtained with a ZB-1 column. This method is reliable, precise, linear and presented ruggedness in the range evaluated. The results suggest that it can be applied in routine analysis for passive and active smokers, since it is able to quantify a wide range of cotinine concentrations in urine.A nicotina é uma substância presente no cigarro capaz de causar dependência, sendo biotransformada em vários metabólitos nos seres humanos, dentre eles a cotinina urinária, que é considerada um indicador biológico de exposição à nicotina, devido a suas altas concentrações, comparado a outras matrizes. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um único método para determinação de cotinina urinária, em amostras de urina de fumantes ativos e passivos, através de cromatografia em fase gasosa com detector de nitrogênio- fósforo (CG-DNF. Para o preparo de amostras foram utilizados 5 mL de urina, 1 mL de hidróxido de sódio 5 mol L-1, 5 mL de clorofórmio, tendo como padrão interno a lidocaína. Na faixa de concentrações de 10-1000 ng mL-1 e 500- 6000 ng mL-1, o coeficiente de determinação foi 0,9986 e 0,9952, respectivamente e, o limite de quantificação foi 10 ng mL-1. A precisão intra- e interensaio apresentou desvio padrão relativo (% menor que 14,2% e a inexatidão foi menor que +11,9%, com uma eficiência de extração de 88,5%. O método apresentou robustez, de acordo com o teste de Youden. As concentrações médias de cotinina observadas foram 2980 ng mL-1, para fumantes ativos e 132 ng mL-1, para fumantes passivos. Os resultados sugerem que o método é confiável, preciso, linear e apresentou robustez, na faixa avaliada, podendo ser aplicado na rotina para análises de amostras de fumantes ativos e passivos, pois é capaz de quantificar uma ampla faixa de concentrações de cotinina urinária.

Lusiane Malafatti

2010-12-01

121

Single gas chromatography method with nitrogen phosphorus detector for urinary cotinine determination in passive and active smokers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A nicotina é uma substância presente no cigarro capaz de causar dependência, sendo biotransformada em vários metabólitos nos seres humanos, dentre eles a cotinina urinária, que é considerada um indicador biológico de exposição à nicotina, devido a suas altas concentrações, comparado a outras matrize [...] s. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um único método para determinação de cotinina urinária, em amostras de urina de fumantes ativos e passivos, através de cromatografia em fase gasosa com detector de nitrogênio- fósforo (CG-DNF). Para o preparo de amostras foram utilizados 5 mL de urina, 1 mL de hidróxido de sódio 5 mol L-1, 5 mL de clorofórmio, tendo como padrão interno a lidocaína. Na faixa de concentrações de 10-1000 ng mL-1 e 500- 6000 ng mL-1, o coeficiente de determinação foi 0,9986 e 0,9952, respectivamente e, o limite de quantificação foi 10 ng mL-1. A precisão intra- e interensaio apresentou desvio padrão relativo (%) menor que 14,2% e a inexatidão foi menor que +11,9%, com uma eficiência de extração de 88,5%. O método apresentou robustez, de acordo com o teste de Youden. As concentrações médias de cotinina observadas foram 2980 ng mL-1, para fumantes ativos e 132 ng mL-1, para fumantes passivos. Os resultados sugerem que o método é confiável, preciso, linear e apresentou robustez, na faixa avaliada, podendo ser aplicado na rotina para análises de amostras de fumantes ativos e passivos, pois é capaz de quantificar uma ampla faixa de concentrações de cotinina urinária. Abstract in english Nicotine is a major addictive compound in cigarettes and is rapidly and extensively metabolized to several metabolites in humans, including urinary cotinine, considered a biomarker due to its high concentration compared to other metabolites. The aim of this study was to develop a single method for d [...] etermination of urinary cotinine, in active and passive smokers, by gas chromatography with a nitrogen phosphorus detector (GC-NPD). Urine (5.0 mL) was extracted with 1.0 mL of sodium hydroxide 5 mol L-1, 5.0 mL of chloroform, and lidocaine used as the internal standard. Injection volume was 1 ?L in GC-NPD. Limit of quantification was 10 ng mL-1. Linearity was evaluated in the ranges 10-1000 ng mL-1 and 500-6000 ng mL-1, with determination coefficients of 0.9986 and 0.9952, respectively. Intra- and inter-assay standard relative deviations were lower than 14.2 %, while inaccuracy (bias) was less than +11.9%. The efficiency of extraction was greater than 88.5%. Ruggedness was verified, according to Youden's test. Means of cotinine concentrations observed were 2,980 ng mL-1 for active smokers and 132 ng mL-1, for passive smokers. The results revealed that satisfactory chromatographic separation between the analyte and interferents was obtained with a ZB-1 column. This method is reliable, precise, linear and presented ruggedness in the range evaluated. The results suggest that it can be applied in routine analysis for passive and active smokers, since it is able to quantify a wide range of cotinine concentrations in urine.

Lusiane, Malafatti; Patrícia Penido, Maia; Matheus Coutinho Gonçalves, Martins; Maria Elisa Pereira Bastos de, Siqueira; Isarita, Martins.

2010-12-01

122

Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke measured by cotinine 125I-radioimmunoassay  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We describe a polyclonal-antiserum-based 125I-radioimmunoassay for cotinine that is suitable for measuring nonsmokers' passive exposure to tobacco smoke in the environment. The standard curve ranged from 0.25 to 12.0 micrograms/L, with an estimated lower limit of sensitivity of 0.2 microgram/L (95% B/Bo = 0.2 microgram/L; 50% B/Bo = 4.0 micrograms/L). The median within-assay CVs for patients' samples with cotinine values from 0.4 to 1.3, 1.4 to 2.4, 2.5 to 4.6, and 4.7 to 15.6 micrograms/L were 13.9%, 7.2%, 5.1%, and 5.7%, respectively. Between-assay CVs for two quality-control sera with average values of 1.53 and 3.68 micrograms/L were 14.3% and 7.8%, respectively. Analytical recoveries of cotinine from smokers' sera diluted in zero calibrant ranged from 91% to 116%. Cotinine values determined on 79 paired sera and urines from nonsmokers showed significant correlation with self-reported exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (r = 0.49, P less than 0.001 for sera; r = 0.57, P less than 0.001 for urine). The log of the values for serum and urine cotinine were also significantly correlated (r = 0.85, P less than 0.001). Evidently, polyclonal antiserum can be used to develop a cotinine assay for measuring exposure to environmental tobacco smoke that compares well with that described for monoclonal-based assays

123

Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke measured by cotinine sup 125 I-radioimmunoassay  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We describe a polyclonal-antiserum-based {sup 125}I-radioimmunoassay for cotinine that is suitable for measuring nonsmokers' passive exposure to tobacco smoke in the environment. The standard curve ranged from 0.25 to 12.0 micrograms/L, with an estimated lower limit of sensitivity of 0.2 microgram/L (95% B/Bo = 0.2 microgram/L; 50% B/Bo = 4.0 micrograms/L). The median within-assay CVs for patients' samples with cotinine values from 0.4 to 1.3, 1.4 to 2.4, 2.5 to 4.6, and 4.7 to 15.6 micrograms/L were 13.9%, 7.2%, 5.1%, and 5.7%, respectively. Between-assay CVs for two quality-control sera with average values of 1.53 and 3.68 micrograms/L were 14.3% and 7.8%, respectively. Analytical recoveries of cotinine from smokers' sera diluted in zero calibrant ranged from 91% to 116%. Cotinine values determined on 79 paired sera and urines from nonsmokers showed significant correlation with self-reported exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (r = 0.49, P less than 0.001 for sera; r = 0.57, P less than 0.001 for urine). The log of the values for serum and urine cotinine were also significantly correlated (r = 0.85, P less than 0.001). Evidently, polyclonal antiserum can be used to develop a cotinine assay for measuring exposure to environmental tobacco smoke that compares well with that described for monoclonal-based assays.

Knight, G.J.; Palomaki, G.E.; Lea, D.H.; Haddow, J.E. (Foundation for Blood Research, Scarborough, ME (USA))

1989-06-01

124

Decrease in salivary lactoferrin output in chronically intoxicated alcohol-dependent patients  

OpenAIRE

Salivary lactoferrin is a glycoprotein involved in the elimination of pathogens and the prevention of massive overgrowth of microorganisms that affect oral and general health. A high concentration of lactoferrin in saliva is often considered to be a marker of damage to the salivary glands, gingivitis, or leakage through inflamed or damaged oral mucosa, infiltrated particularly by neutrophils. We conducted a study to determine the effect of chronic alcohol intoxication on salivary lac...

Napoleon Waszkiewicz; Beata Zalewska-Szajda; Anna Zalewska; Magdalena Waszkiewicz; S?awomir Dariusz Szajda; Bernadeta Repka; Agata Szulc; Alina K?pka; Alina Minarowska; Sylwia Chojnowska; Beata Konarzewska; Jerzy Robert ?adny; Urszula Kowzan; Krzysztof Zwierz

2012-01-01

125

SALIVARY ANTIMICROBIAL PROTEIN RESPONSE TO PROLONGED RUNNING  

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Full Text Available Prolonged exercise may compromise immunity through a reduction of salivary antimicrobial proteins (AMPs. Salivary IgA (IgA has been extensively studied, but little is known about the effect of acute, prolonged exercise on AMPs including lysozyme (Lys and lactoferrin (Lac. Objective: To determine the effect of a 50-km trail race on salivary cortisol (Cort, IgA, Lys, and Lac. Methods: 14 subjects: (6 females, 8 males completed a 50km ultramarathon. Saliva was collected pre, immediately after (post and 1.5 hrs post race ( 1.5. Results: Lac concentration was higher at 1.5 hrs post race compared to post exercise (p0.05. IgA concentration, secretion rate, and IgA/Osm were lower 1.5 hrs post compared to pre race (p<0.05. Cort concentration was higher at post compared to 1.5 (p<0.05, but was unaltered from pre race levels. Subjects finished in 7.81 ± 1.2 hrs. Saliva flow rate did not differ between time points. Saliva Osm increased at post (p<0.05 compared to pre race. Conclusions: The intensity could have been too low to alter Lys and Lac secretion rates and thus, may not be as sensitive as IgA to changes in response to prolonged running. Results expand our understanding of the mucosal immune system and may have implications for predicting illness after prolonged running.

Suzanne Schneider

2013-01-01

126

Cytotoxic properties of salivary oxidants.  

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Salivary peroxidase and to a lesser extent myeloperoxidase are present in significant concentrations in saliva and catalyze the oxidation of thiocyanate anion (SCN-) by H2O2 to yield the potent oxidants hypothiocyanous acid (HOSCN) and its conjugate base hypothiocyanite anion (OSCN-). The objective of this study was to characterize the cytotoxic potential of peroxidase-generated HOSCN/OSCN- toward human erythrocytes. We found that HOSCN/OSCN- (0.25 mM) generated by the peroxidase-H2O2-SCN- system caused significant hemolysis at pH 6.0 but not at pH 6.5, 7.0, or 7.4. Erythrocyte hemoglobin (OxyHb) was oxidized to methemoglobin (MetHb) at all pH values tested; however, the rate of MetHb formation was dramatically increased at low pH and was not affected by inosine hexaphosphate, suggesting that hemoglobin was oxidized primarily by HOSCN. Concurrent with oxidation of hemoglobin (Hb), there was a pH-dependent consumption of HOSCN/OSCN- with more of the oxidant consumed at pH 6.0 compared with pH 6.5, 7.0, or 7.4. The enhanced oxidation of Hb at acidic pH was not due simply to increased membrane permeability by the uncharged species (HOSCN), since both erythrocyte lysate Hb and purified Hb were oxidized to the same extent at low pH as were intact erythrocytes. It is concluded that both OSCN- and HOSCN enter human erythrocytes where the protonated oxidant (HOSCN) mediates hemolysis and oxidizes OxyHb to MetHb, whereas both HOSCN and OSCN- oxidize glutathione (GSH). These data suggest that the extracellular pH may play an important role in modulating the cytotoxic properties of salivary oxidants. PMID:2154109

Grisham, M B; Ryan, E M

1990-01-01

127

Dasatinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Malignant Salivary Gland Tumors  

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High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Low-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Anaplastic Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Malignant Mixed Cell Type Tumor; Salivary Gland Poorly Differentiated Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer

2015-04-02

128

Yohimbine increases human salivary secretion.  

OpenAIRE

The effect of oral yohimbine (14 mg) on salivary secretion was evaluated in healthy volunteers. Yohimbine significantly increased salivary secretion when compared with placebo. This effect was significant from 60 min until 180 min after administration under our experimental conditions. Yohimbine (or alpha 2-adrenoceptor blocking agents) could have a potential interest in the treatment of dry mouths.

Chatelut, E.; Rispail, Y.; Berlan, M.; Montastruc, J. L.

1989-01-01

129

Cotinine and interferon-gamma levels in pre-school children exposed to household tobacco smoke  

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Full Text Available Background Environmental tobacco smoke has been consistently linked to negative health outcomes, especially in children, including an increased susceptibility to infections. Cigarette smoking has a depressive effect on interferon-? (IFN-?. Serum cotinine is a marker of exposure to smoke. Objective To determine the association between serum cotinine and interferon-? (IFN-? levels in children with household tobacco smoke exposure. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study at the Tumumpa and Singkil Districts of Manado, Indonesia, from February to May 2012. Subjects were collected by consecutively sampling of healthy children aged 1-3 years who came to the integrated health posts. Seventy-four children were recruited and consisted of two groups of 37 subjects each, the tobacco smoke exposure group and the non-tobacco smoke exposure group. Blood specimens were collected from all subjects for laboratory blood tests of cotinine and IFN-? levels. Results were analyzed by T-test and Pearson’s correlation analysis with a P<0.05 is considered as statistically significant. Results There was no significant correlation between serum cotinine and interferon-? levels in the tobacco smoke exposure group. However, the interferon-? level in the tobacco smoke exposure group was significantly lower than that of the non-tobacco smoke exposure group (P<0.0001. Conclusion Cotinine is not related to the interferon-? level in children exposed to tobacco smoke, however, the interferon-? level in children with tobacco smoke exposure is lower than in the non-tobacco smoke exposure group. [Paediatr Indones. 2013;53:287-90.].

Lina Kalalo

2013-09-01

130

The variability of urinary cotinine levels in young children: implications for measuring ETS exposure.  

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This study examined the within-subject variability of urinary cotinine levels in young children (aged = 0.6-7.2 years) of smoking parents to determine the number of urine samples needed to provide accurate estimates of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) for different time intervals. Secondary analyses were conducted of five independent studies (N = 376), in which multiple urinary cotinine measures had been collected over time periods up to 13 months. Over measurement periods of 4-15 days, the within-subject cotinine levels varied 3-5 times more than would be expected based on measurement error alone. Over 7-13 months, the within-subject variability was 10-20 times higher than would be expected based on the measurement error. Findings indicated that cotinine measures from single urine samples provided highly accurate estimates of only recent exposure (i.e., 2-3 days; rho = 0.99). To achieve similarly precise estimates of the mean cotinine level of an individual child over 4-15 days, up to nine urine samples may be necessary. Up to 12 urine samples may be required to achieve similarly precise estimates of ETS exposure over a 4- to 13-month period. Epidemiologic and clinical research on ETS exposure in children can benefit from multiple urine samples (a) to accurately measure average exposure at the level of the individual child, (b) to describe temporal patterns, (c) to detect incidences of peak exposure that would remain underrecognized if monitoring is limited to a single time point, and (d) to establish stable baseline levels and endpoints based on urine samples collected over clinically relevant time periods. PMID:17365739

Matt, Georg E; Hovell, Melbourne F; Quintana, Penelope J E; Zakarian, Joy; Liles, Sandy; Meltzer, Susan B; Benowitz, Neal L

2007-01-01

131

Assessment of local tobacco consumption by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry sewage analysis of nicotine and its metabolites, cotinine and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine, after enzymatic deconjugation.  

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Cotinine (COT), trans-3'-hydroxycotinine (OH-COT), cotinine-N-?-glucuronide (COT-GLUC), and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine-O-?-glucuronide (OH-COT-GLUC) are excreted in urine following the intake of nicotine (NIC), and, as such, they have been detected in sewage. Thus, they also constitute convenient biomarkers for NIC tracing through the sewage epidemiology approach at the local scale. Such estimation requires granting a good stability of the target biomarkers in sewage. However, it was found that glucuronides are not stable, particularly in the case of OH-COT-GLUC, which could render variable concentrations of COT, OH-COT, and their glucuronides, depending on sampling and storage time or temperature. Thus, an enzymatic deconjugation with ?-glucuronidase was optimized. With the optimized method, after enzymatic deglucuronization, the limits of quantification obtained were in the range of 0.2-1 ?g L(-1), relative standard deviations were <10%, and the trueness in terms of recovery was in the 95%-112% range. The application of the method to composite sewage samples collected during 1 week in three different years in Santiago de Compostela (Galicia, Spain) showed COT and OH-COT concentrations of 0.3-1.9 ?g L(-1) and 1.0-3.3 ?g L(-1), respectively. Thereby, the average NIC consumption derived was in the 1.7-1.9 mg per day and person range, being comparable to those derived from tobacco sales statistics. PMID:25263812

Rodríguez-Álvarez, Tania; Rodil, Rosario; Rico, María; Cela, Rafael; Quintana, José Benito

2014-10-21

132

Salivary gland sparing radiotherapy  

OpenAIRE

Dry mouth or xerostomia is the most frequently observed side-effect of radiotherapy (RT) in the head-and-neck region and is caused by salivary gland damage. The aim of this thesis was to determine the RT dose-response relationships for the parotid and submandibular glands and to investigate the effect of their sparing on patient-reported xerostomia after RT for tumors of the oropharynx. The mean parotid gland dose can be used to estimate the risk of significant functional decline (flow re...

Dijkema, T.

2013-01-01

133

TRPV1 in Salivary Gland Epithelial Cells Is Not Involved in Salivary Secretion via Transcellular Pathway  

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Transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) was originally found in sensory neurons. Recently, it has been reported that TRPV1 is expressed in salivary gland epithelial cells (SGEC). However, the physiological role of TRPV1 in salivary secretion remains to be elucidated. We found that TRPV1 is expressed in mouse and human submandibular glands (SMG) and HSG cells, originated from human submandibular gland ducts at both mRNA and protein levels. However, capsaicin (CAP), TRPV1 agonist, had little effect on intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in these cells, although carbachol consistently increased [Ca2+]i. Exposure of cells to high temperature (>43?) or acidic bath solution (pH5.4) did not increase [Ca2+]i, either. We further examined the role of TRPV1 in salivary secretion using TRPV1 knock-out mice. There was no significant difference in the pilocarpine (PILO)-induced salivary flow rate between wild-type and TRPV1 knock-out mice. Saliva flow rate also showed insignificant change in the mice treated with PILO plus CAP compared with that in mice treated with PILO alone. Taken together, our results suggest that although TRPV1 is expressed in SGEC, it appears not to play any direct roles in saliva secretion via transcellular pathway. PMID:25598668

Choi, Seulki; Shin, Yong-Hwan; Namkoong, Eun; Hwang, Sung-Min; Cong, Xin; Yu, Guangyan

2014-01-01

134

Responses of salivary cortisol and ?-amylase to official competition  

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Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the relationship between salivary cortisol, ?-amylase and total protein response in the official football players during the course of a game. Nine young amateur football players agreed to participate in the study. Saliva samples were collected from each player 30 min and 5 min before the start of the competition, at half time, and then again 5 and 30 min after the end of competition. A significant increase in cortisol (p=0.04 in response to playing the competition was observed including a significantly higher concentration 30 min after match as compared to half time (p=0.016. In contrast, changes in salivary ?-amylase changes were irregular, but there was significant decline 5 min after end of match as compared to the 5 min before the beginning of match (p<0.019. No significant difference in total protein concentration was observed. Though salivary cortisol, ?-amylase and total protein changes were observed concomitantly, but there no significant relationship between them. We conclude that participation in competition has an accumulative effect on salivary cortisol concentration, but this was not related changes in salivary ?-amylase.

MOHAMMAD A. AZARBAYJANI

2011-06-01

135

Effects of red wine intake on human salivary antiradical capacity and total polyphenol content.  

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The protective effects of grape polyphenols have been reported on oral health, though unreasonable alcohol consumption represents a risk factor for developing oral cancer. The possible effects of red wine consumption on salivary antiradical activity were investigated in healthy volunteers for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. Time-course (from 0 min to 240 min) changes of salivary radical-scavenging capacity were measured by the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS(+)) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays, in twelve healthy volunteers, after the intake of red wine (125 mL), a capsule of red wine extract (300 mg) or water (125 mL). Furthermore, time-course of salivary total polyphenol levels, detected by the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method, was also determined. Both ABTS and DPPH tests showed that red wine consumption did not increase salivary antiradical activity in volunteers. Conversely, red wine extract administration caused a marked rise in salivary ABTS radical-scavenging capacity within 30 min, followed by a plateau up to 240 min. The same treatment also raised salivary DPPH radical-scavenging activity at any time point, though to a minor extent. The highest salivary polyphenol concentration was reached 30 min after wine drinking, followed by a steady decrease up to 240 min. Wine drinking was not associated to a reduced salivary antiradical capacity. However, wine extract greatly improved the salivary antioxidant status. PMID:23643701

Varoni, Elena Maria; Vitalini, Sara; Contino, Daniele; Lodi, Giovanni; Simonetti, Paolo; Gardana, Claudio; Sardella, Andrea; Carrassi, Antonio; Iriti, Marcello

2013-08-01

136

Understanding Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Effects in Asthmatic Children through Determination of Urinary Cotinine and Targeted Metabolomics of Plasma  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Effects in Asthmatic Children through Determination of Urinary Cotinine and Targeted Metabolomics of Plasma Introduction Asthma is a complex disease with multiple triggers and causal factors, Exposure to environmental tob...

137

CT diagnosis of the salivary glands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The salivary glands consist of the major salivary glands (parotid glands, submandibular glands, and sublingual glands) and small salivary glands (labial glands, staphyline glands, buccal glands, molar glands, and lingual glands). Only the major salivary glands are considered to raise problems in reading CT images. CT was considered to be particularly of value for the parotid glands. Anatomy and CT diagnosis of the major salivary glands, especially the parotid glands, were explained. (Ueda, J.)

138

CT diagnosis of the salivary glands  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The salivary glands consist of the major salivary glands (parotid glands, submandibular glands, and sublingual glands) and small salivary glands (labial glands, staphyline glands, buccal glands, molar glands, and lingual glands). Only the major salivary glands are considered to raise problems in reading CT images. CT was considered to be particularly of value for the parotid glands. Anatomy and CT diagnosis of the major salivary glands, especially the parotid glands, were explained.

Inoue, Akio; Kato, Takakuni; Kawanishi, Nobukatsu; Noguchi, Akihiko; Kamata, Nobuetsu; Uchida, Masaoki (Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo. Hospital)

1982-10-01

139

Menthol smoking in relation to time to first cigarette and cotinine: Results from a community-based study  

OpenAIRE

Smokers who have their first cigarette shortly after waking, an indicator of nicotine dependence, have substantially higher cotinine levels. There is controversy regarding the role of menthol in nicotine dependence. We hypothesized that menthol smokers have a shorter time to first cigarette (TTFC), and tested whether any statistical association actually reflects increased dependence by measuring nicotine uptake (e.g. cotinine) in the same group of smokers. A cross-sectional community-based st...

Muscat, Joshua E.; Liu, Hsiao-pin; Stellman, Steven D.; Richie, John P.

2012-01-01

140

Self-reported Smoking and Urinary Cotinine Levels among Pregnant Women in Korea and Factors Associated with Smoking during Pregnancy  

OpenAIRE

This study examined urinary cotinine levels and self-reported smoking among pregnant women in Korea and the factors associated with smoking during pregnancy. The subjects were selected from pregnant women who visited 30 randomly sampled obstetric clinics and prenatal care hospitals in Korea in 2006. Smoking status was determined by self-reporting and urinary cotinine measurement. A total of 1,090 self-administered questionnaires and 1,057 urine samples were analyzed. The percentage of smoking...

Jhun, Hyung-joon; Seo, Hong-gwan; Lee, Do-hoon; Sung, Moon-woo; Kang, Yoon-dan; Syn, Hee Chul; Jun, Jong Kwan

2010-01-01

141

Radioimmunoassay of salivary steroid hormones for easy diagnosis of and adrenal functions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The salivary levels of progesterone, estradiol and cortisol were determined by radioimmunoassay in fertile and infertile women. progesterone concentration was also determined in sera of both groups. Results have shown salivary progesterone to be promising in the assessment of ovarian function. Positive and significant correlation was obtained between serum and salivary progesterone for both considered groups. Although, concentrations of estradiol in saliva seems to be useful in predicting the time of ovulation onset however, further evaluations, are still needed. High levels of salivary cortisol were obtained reflecting stress during menses, ovulation and awaiting for the onset of the next cycle. Consequently, salivary cortisol is a good monitor for adrenal function. 6 figs., 5 tabs

142

An Evaluation of Cotinine as an Index of Exposure to Tabacco Smoke in Children with Recurrent Respiratory Tract Infections Using HPLC Method  

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Full Text Available The authors evaluated the frequency of exposure to tobacco smoke among children suffering from respiratory tract infections. The investigations comprised 141 children aged from 2 months to 6 years that were treated in the 2nd Department of Pediatric and Allergology of Polish Mother’s Memorial Hospital Research Institute in ?ód? (Poland. 69 of them were exposed to tobacco smoke in their home environment. The remaining 72 children came from non-smoking families. 26 (37.7% individuals among the passive smokers and 15 (20.83% among the children from non-smoking families suffered from recurrent respiratory tract infections. Cotinine concentrations were evaluated in the group of 69 children using the HPLC-UV method. The determined average cotinine/creatinine index expressed as median was higher in passive smokers with recurrent respiratory infections than among passive smokers with non-recurrent respiratory infections. Moreover, it was stated that the exposure to cigarette smoke was more often among children of younger and less well educated parents as well as living in poor housing conditions. These studies clearly indicate that there is a need for extensive education on the harmful effects of passive smoking and the recurrence of infections.

Wioletta Grys

2013-07-01

143

The Danish contribution to the European DEMOCOPHES project: A description of cadmium, cotinine and mercury levels in Danish mother-child pairs and the perspectives of supplementary sampling and measurements.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human biomonitoring (HBM) is an important tool, increasingly used for measuring true levels of the body burdens of environmental chemicals in the general population. In Europe, a harmonized HBM program was needed to open the possibility to compare levels across borders. To explore the prospect of a harmonized European HBM project, DEMOCOPHES (DEMOnstration of a study to COordinate and Perform Human biomonitoring on a European Scale) was completed in 17 European countries. The basic measurements performed in all implemented countries of DEMOCOPHES included cadmium, cotinine and phthalate metabolites in urine and mercury in hair. In the Danish participants, significant correlations between mothers and children for mercury in hair and cotinine in urine were found. Mercury in hair was further significantly associated with intake of fish and area of residence. Cadmium was positively associated with BMI in mothers and an association between cadmium and cotinine was also found. As expected high cotinine levels were found in smoking mothers. For both mercury and cadmium significantly higher concentrations were found in the mothers compared to their children. In Denmark, the DEMOCOPHES project was co-financed by the Danish ministries of health, environment and food safety. The co-financing ministries agreed to finance a number of supplementary measurements of substances of current toxicological, public and regulatory interest. This also included blood sampling from the participants. The collected urine and blood samples were analyzed for a range of other persistent and non-persistent environmental chemicals as well as two biomarkers of effect. The variety of supplementary measurements gives the researchers further information on the exposure status of the participants and creates a basis for valuable knowledge on the pattern of exposure to various chemicals. PMID:25440293

Mørck, Thit A; Nielsen, Flemming; Nielsen, Jeanette K S; Jensen, Janne F; Hansen, Pernille W; Hansen, Anne K; Christoffersen, Lea N; Siersma, Volkert D; Larsen, Ida H; Hohlmann, Linette K; Skaanild, Mette T; Frederiksen, Hanne; Biot, Pierre; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Schwedler, Gerda; Castaño, Argelia; Angerer, Jürgen; Koch, Holger M; Esteban, Marta; Schoeters, Greet; Den Hond, Elly; Exley, Karen; Sepai, Ovnair; Bloemen, Louis; Joas, Reinhard; Joas, Anke; Fiddicke, Ulrike; Lopez, Ana; Cañas, Ana; Aerts, Dominique; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

2014-10-14

144

The Danish contribution to the European DEMOCOPHES project : A description of cadmium, cotinine and mercury levels in Danish mother-child pairs and the perspectives of supplementary sampling and measurements  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Human biomonitoring (HBM) is an important tool, increasingly used for measuring true levels of the body burdens of environmental chemicals in the general population. In Europe, a harmonized HBM program was needed to open the possibility to compare levels across borders. To explore the prospect of a harmonized European HBM project, DEMOCOPHES (DEMOnstration of a study to COordinate and Perform Human biomonitoring on a European Scale) was completed in 17 European countries. The basic measurements performed in all implemented countries of DEMOCOPHES included cadmium, cotinine and phthalate metabolites in urine and mercury in hair. In the Danish participants, significant correlations between mothers and children for mercury in hair and cotinine in urine were found. Mercury in hair was further significantly associated with intake of fish and area of residence. Cadmium was positively associated with BMI in mothers and an association between cadmium and cotinine was also found. As expected high cotinine levels were found in smoking mothers. For both mercury and cadmium significantly higher concentrations were found in the mothers compared to their children. In Denmark, the DEMOCOPHES project was co-financed by the Danish ministries of health, environment and food safety. The co-financing ministries agreed to finance a number of supplementary measurements of substances of current toxicological, public and regulatory interest. This also included blood sampling from the participants. The collected urine and blood samples were analyzed for a range of other persistent and non-persistent environmental chemicals as well as two biomarkers of effect. The variety of supplementary measurements gives the researchers further information on the exposure status of the participants and creates a basis for valuable knowledge on the pattern of exposure to various chemicals.

MØrck, Thit A; Nielsen, Flemming

2014-01-01

145

Salivary Cortisol, Salivary Alpha Amylase, and the Dental Anxiety Scale  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between dental anxiety, salivary cortisol, and salivary alpha amylase (sAA) levels. Furthermore, the aim was to look into individual differences such as age, race, gender, any existing pain, or traumatic dental experience and their effect on dental anxiety. This study followed a cross-sectional design and included a convenience sample of 46. Every patient was asked to complete the Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS) and a basic demographic/denta...

Sadi, Hana; Finkelman, Matthew; Rosenberg, Morton

2013-01-01

146

Immunochromatographic assay using gold nanoparticles for measuring salivary secretory IgA in dogs as a stress marker  

OpenAIRE

The concentration of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) is a well-known stress marker for humans. The concentration of salivary sIgA in dogs has also been reported as a useful stress marker. In addition, salivary sIgA in dogs has been used to determine the adaptive ability of dogs for further training. There are conventional procedures based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs. However, ELISA requires long assay time, complicated operations...

Aki Takahashi, Shigeru Uchiyama

2009-01-01

147

Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors  

Science.gov (United States)

... Request Permissions Print to PDF Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 04/ ... menu on the side of your screen. A risk factor is anything that increases a person’s chance of ...

148

Smoking, secondhand smoke, and cotinine levels in a subset of EPIC cohort.  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND: Several countries are discussing new legislation regarding the ban on smoking in public places, based on the growing evidence of the hazards of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure. The objective of the present study is to quantitatively assess the relationship between smoking, SHS, and serum cotinine levels in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. METHODS: From a study on lung cancer in the EPIC cohort, questionnaire information on smoking was...

Baltar, Vt; Xun, Ww; Chuang, Sc; Relton, C; Ueland, Pm; Vollset, Se; Midttun, Ø.; Johansson, M.; Slimani, N.; Jenab, M.; Clavel-chapelon, F.; Boutron-ruault, Mc; Fagherazzi, G.; Kaaks, R.; Rohrmann, S.

2011-01-01

149

Cotinine and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Levels in the Amniotic Fluid and Fetal Cord at Birth and in the Urine from Pregnant Smokers  

OpenAIRE

Cigarette smoking during pregnancy has several impacts on fetal development, including teratogenic effects. The objective of this study was to assess whether the toxic substances (cotinine and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) found in pregnant smokers are transmitted to their fetuses. The outcomes were analyzed measuring cotinine and 1-hydroxypyrene in the amniotic fluid and maternal urine, benzopyrene and cotinine in the umbilical cord blood. Through a controlled cross-sectional design, 125...

Machado, Julia Barros; Chatkin, Jose? Miguel; Zimmer, Aline Rigon; Goulart, Ana Paula Szezepaniak; Thiesen, Fla?via Vallada?o

2014-01-01

150

Simple and Rapid Assay Method for Simultaneous Quantification of Urinary Nicotine and Cotinine using Micro-Extraction by Packed Sorbent and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry  

OpenAIRE

A simple and rapid method for determination of nicotine and cotinine levels in urine was developed using samples prepared by micro-extraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) and subjected to gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. This method provided good reproducibility, as well as good linearity of calibration curves in the range of 1–100 and 50–1000 ng/mL for quality control samples spiked with nicotine and cotinine, respectively. The detection limit of nicotine and cotinine ...

HIROSHI SENO; OSAMU SUZUKI; AKIRA ISHII; KEI ZAITSU; HIDEKI HATTORI; TADASHI OGAWA; MASAE IWAI

2013-01-01

151

Arti fi cial Salivary Glands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Head and neck cancer is the fi fth most common malignancy and accounts for 3% of all new cancer cases each year. Treat- ment for most patients with head and neck cancers includes ionizing radiation. A consequence of this treatment is irreversible damage to salivary glands which is accompanied by a loss of fl uid-secreting acinar-cells and a considerable decrease of saliva output. Despite recent improvements in treating xerostomia (e.g. saliva stimulants, saliva substitutes, and gene therapy, there is a need of more scienti fi c advancements that can be clinically applied toward restoration of compromised salivary gland func- tion. Here we provide a summary of the current salivary cell models that have been used to advance restorative treatments via development of an arti fi cial salivary gland. Although these models are not fully characterized, their improvement may lead to the construction of an arti fi cial salivary gland that is in high demand for improving the quality of life of many patients suffe- ring from salivary secretory dysfunction

Rezwana Begum Mohammed

2014-07-01

152

Salivary gland cancer stem cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Emerging evidence suggests the existence of a tumorigenic population of cancer cells that demonstrate stem cell-like properties such as self-renewal and multipotency. These cells, termed cancer stem cells (CSC), are able to both initiate and maintain tumor formation and progression. Studies have shown that CSC are resistant to traditional chemotherapy treatments preventing complete eradication of the tumor cell population. Following treatment, CSC are able to re-initiate tumor growth leading to patient relapse. Salivary gland cancers are relatively rare but constitute a highly significant public health issue due to the lack of effective treatments. In particular, patients with mucoepidermoid carcinoma or adenoid cystic carcinoma, the two most common salivary malignancies, have low long-term survival rates due to the lack of response to current therapies. Considering the role of CSC in resistance to therapy in other tumor types, it is possible that this unique sub-population of cells is involved in resistance of salivary gland tumors to treatment. Characterization of CSC can lead to better understanding of the pathobiology of salivary gland malignancies as well as to the development of more effective therapies. Here, we make a brief overview of the state-of-the-science in salivary gland cancer, and discuss possible implications of the cancer stem cell hypothesis to the treatment of salivary gland malignancies. PMID:23810400

Adams, April; Warner, Kristy; Nör, Jacques E

2013-09-01

153

Development and comparison of two competitive ELISAs for estimation of cotinine in human exposed to environmental tobacco smoke.  

Science.gov (United States)

We simultaneously set up two competitive (direct and indirect) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based on the same antibody for estimation of cotinine (COT) in pregnant women especially and population generally exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. The results show that the limits of detection (LODs) for direct competitive ELISA and indirect competitive ELISA were 0.04 ?gL(-1) and 0.1 ?gL(-1), respectively. Direct competitive ELISA was found to be more sensitive than indirect competitive ELISA. Thereafter, we applied our direct competitive ELISA for the detection of COT from urinary samples taken from 450 volunteers from the Zhejiang Province of China. COT was detected in 100% of participants with concentration ranging from LOD to 5358.0 ?gL(-1). The GM and 95th percentile concentration of COT in pregnant women were 6.3 ?gL(-1) and 57.2 ?gL(-1), respectively. Males had statistically higher COT concentrations than females (P < 0.0001), active smokers had statistically higher COT concentrations than non-smokers (P < 0.0001), whereas, non-pregnant women were found to have higher COT concentration than pregnant women. We conclude that our developed direct competitive ELISA is useful for detecting the COT in urinary concentration of human. The human urinary data obtained in this study indicated that common people generally and pregnant women especially were highly exposed to COT. Further studies are needed to focus on the sources of exposure, potential health effects and risk assessment of exposure to COT. PMID:24470075

Lei, Yajing; Zhang, Qian; Fang, Lizheng; Akash, Muhammad Sajid Hamid; Rehman, Kanwal; Liu, Zhiming; Shi, Weixing; Chen, Shuqing

2014-10-01

154

Direct radioimmunoassay (RIA) of salivary testosterone: correlation with free and total serium testosterone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Simple and sensitive direct RIA for determination of salivary testosterone was developed by using RSL NOSOLVEX TM (125 1) kit produced by Radioassay System Laboratories (Carcon, California). In addition, a relationship between salivary and serum free and total testosterone concentrations was studied in randomly selected 45 healthy subjects, 5 females on oral contraceptive pills and 28 hypertensive patients on various treatment regimens. The lowest weight of testosterone detectable by the modified method was equivalent to 1 pg/ml of saliva, taking into account analytical variability. Intra- and interassay coefficients of variation were 5.09 +/- 2.7% and 8.2 +/- 5.9% respectively. Statistically significant correlations were found between salivary and serum free testosterone (r = 0.97) and salivary and serum total testosterone concentrations (r = 0.70 - 0.87). The exception to this was a group of hypertensive females in which no correlation (r = 0.14) between salivary and total serum testosterone was found. It is also of interest that, while salivary testosterone was significantly increased in subjects taking oral contraceptives and most of the hypertensive patients, the total serum testosterone concentration was in normal range. These findings suggest that the determination of salivary testosterone is a reliable method to detect changes in the concentration of available biologically active hormone in the circulation. 21 references, 4 figures, 1 tablees, 4 figures, 1 table

155

Biokinetics and dose estimation of 65Zn in the salivary gland and male reproductive organs.  

Science.gov (United States)

ICRP is revising its recommendations for radiological protection and has added salivary and secretory glands as new target organs. However, little information is available on the distributions of radionuclides in the salivary gland, secretory glands and male reproductive organs. This study deals with the distribution of 65Zn in the salivary gland and male reproductive organs as a function of time after a single intravenous and oral administration. For the study, 64 Wistar strain male rats, eight weeks of age were used. The rats were periodically sacrificed, the liver, kidney, spleen, pancreas, thymus, salivary gland, testis, epididymitis and prostate gland sampled and the radioactivity of these organs measured with an NaI scintillation counter. The relative concentration of 65Zn was highest in the prostate gland. We estimated the radiation dose in humans using rat data for the salivary and secretory glands as well as reproductive organs after intake of 65Zn. PMID:17627954

Matsumoto, M; Homma-Takeda, S; Nishimura, Y

2007-01-01

156

Adrenergic effects on secretion of amylase from the rat salivary glands  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of adrenergic agents on secretion of amylase from the salivary glands in vivo. Saliva was collected from the distal oesophagus in conscious rats. Adrenaline increased the concentration of amylase in saliva and serum significantly. The result of infusion of alpha- and beta-adrenergic antagonists as well as noradrenaline and isoproterenol showed that secretion of salivary amylase is predominantly mediated by stimulation of beta-adrenergic receptors, especially of the beta 1-subtype. Investigation of the isoenzyme pattern in saliva, pancreatic juice and serum demonstrated that the major component in serum is salivary amylase. This study has shown that beta-adrenergic agents stimulate secretion of amylase from the salivary glands in rats. Though the secretion is mainly exocrine small amounts of amylase is found in serum, which seems to originate from the salivary glands.

Poulsen, Steen Seier; NexØ, Ebba

1988-01-01

157

Salivary gland damage in radioiodine therapy. Dosimetry results and their implications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioiodine therapy plays a key role in the management of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. However, radioiodine is concentrated not only in the target tissues but also by other tissue expressing sodium/iodine symporters - in particular the submandibular and parotid salivary glands. As a consequence, high-activity radioiodine therapy may be associated with unwanted radiogenic salivary gland damages. As a consequence, the most frequently observed adverse short- and long-term side effects of radioiodine therapy include sialoadenitis and some degree of xerostomia, both with a potentially negative impact on quality of life. In this review, we highlight the function and importance of salivary glands and discuss the current results of dosimetry studies of the salivary glands in patients, who undergo radioiodine therapy. Based on the dosimetry findings, the commonly applied radioprotective procedure to diminish damage to the salivary glands are discussed critically. (orig.)

158

Dynamic radioisotopic study of the salivary glands. Quantification test  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Quantified dynamic radioisotopic exploration, a new and rational examination, should find its place in a thorough check-up of the salivary glands together with clinical, immunological, anatomopathological and sialographic investigations. The object of this work was to standardise the test procedure with a view to routine use on patients and to define certain quantified parameters representing objectively the different aspects of the salivary functions. Our procedure through reeding sophisticated equipment, is simple to perform and relies on use of: radiotechnetium employed at activities which allow repetitive exlorations whereby pathological changes may be followed; the gamma camera and its data processing system which records all radioactive information obtained on the patient's head. These results will supply the data needed to judge the salivary functions as a whole. The apparatus used provides a remarkable pictorial record made up not only of morphological and functional images at each stage of the examination but also of ciphered radioactivity versus time curves for each of the main salivary glands and for any other zone of interest. From these curves it is then possible to define quantified parameters, reproducible and expressing functional activity. This procedure, safe and painless, seems to suit the patients who lie still without complaint for 60 minutes, 45 minutes for the concentration study and 15 minutes for the post-stimulus excretion study. The dynamic radioisotopic examination of the salivary glands, by the comparison of concentration and excretion images and by the study of parameters, separately and as a whole, is thus a useful complement to other paraclinical examinations and contributes essential information in most salivary diseases

159

Imaging of salivary gland tumours  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Salivary gland neoplasms account for <3% of all tumors. Most of them are benign and parotid gland is the commonest site. As a general rule, the smaller the involved salivary gland, the higher is the possibility of the tumor being malignant. The role of imaging in assessment of salivary gland tumour is to define intra-glandular vs. extra-glandular location, detect malignant features, assess local extension and invasion, detect nodal metastases and systemic involvement. Image guided fine needle aspiration cytology provides a safe means to obtain cytological confirmation. For lesions in the superficial parotid and submandibular gland, ultrasound is an ideal tool for initial assessment. These are superficial structures accessible by high resolution ultrasound and FNAC which provides excellent resolution and tissue characterization without a radiation hazard. Nodal involvement can also be assessed. If deep tissue extension is suspected or malignancy confirmed on cytology, an MRI or CT is mandatory to evaluate tumour extent, local invasion and perineural spread. For all tumours in the sublingual gland, MRI should be performed as the risk of malignancy is high. For lesions of the deep lobe of parotid gland and the minor salivary glands, MRI and CT are the modalities of choice. Ultrasound has limited visualization of the deep lobe of parotid gland which is obscured by the mandible. Minor salivary gland lesions in the mucosa of oral cavity, pharynx and tracheo-bronchial tree, are also not accessible by conventional ultrasound. Recent study suggests that MR spectroscopy may differentiate malignant and benign salivary gland tumours as well as distinguishing Warthin's tumor from pleomorphic adenoma. However, its role in clinical practice is not well established. Similarly, the role of nuclear medicine and PET scan, in imaging of parotid masses is limited. Sialography is used to delineate the salivary ductal system and has limited role in assessment of tumour extent.

Lee, Y.Y.P.; Wong, K.T.; King, A.D. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin NT, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Ahuja, A.T. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin NT, Hong Kong (Hong Kong)], E-mail: aniltahuja@cuhk.edu.hk

2008-06-15

160

Measurement of late-night salivary cortisol with an automated immunoassay system  

OpenAIRE

Background: Measurement of late-night salivary cortisol concentrations is increasingly used as a screening test in suspected Cushing's syndrome. Cortisol concentrations are typically extremely low in late-night samples and discordant assay-specific reference ranges have been reported. Therefore, the aim of our study was to assess the analytical performance of the first automated cortisol immunoassay specified for salivary measurements and to establish late-night sampling reference-range data ...

Vogeser, Michael; Durner, Ju?rgen; Seliger, Ewald; Auernhammer, Christoph

2006-01-01

161

Treatment Option Overview (Salivary Gland Cancer)  

Science.gov (United States)

... may be needed. There are different types of treatment for patients with salivary gland cancer. Different types ... Patients with salivary gland cancer should have their treatment planned by a team of doctors who are ...

162

Salivary gland calculi - contemporary methods of imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sialolithiasis is the most common disorder of major salivary glands. The main site of salivary stones formation is submandibular gland, followed by parotid and sublingual gland. The aim of this article was to present current diagnostic imaging modalities carried out in patients suspected with salivary stones on the basis of own material and review of literature. Current diagnostic imaging tools used in the imaging of salivary stones were described and illustrated in this paper. These are: conventional radiography, sialography, ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance sialography and sialoendoscopy. Digital subtraction sialography and ultrasonography are the methods of choice in the imaging of salivary gland calculi. Although sialography is a very old diagnostic method, still it is the best diagnostic tool in the imaging of subtle anatomy of salivary gland duct system. Digital subtraction sialography can show the exact location of salivary stone and enables imaging of salivary ducts pathology (e.g. stenoses), which is especially important when sialoendoscopy is planned. Sialography is also used as the treatment method, i.e. interventional sialography. Non enhanced computed tomography is recommended when multiple and tiny salivary stones are suspected. Magnetic resonance imaging is the evolving alternative diagnostic method. In this diagnostic modality there is no need for salivary ducts cannulation and administration of contrast material. Thus magnetic ation of contrast material. Thus magnetic resonance sialography can also be carried out in the acute sialoadenitis. In the future, sialoendoscopy may become one of the main diagnostic and treatment procedures for salivary duct disorders, especially in salivary stone cases. (authors)

163

[Salivary gland tumors in children].  

Science.gov (United States)

Salivary gland tumors in children are rare: they correspond to 8-10% of head and neck pediatric tumors. Clinicians of all disciplines should be aware of this diagnosis in front of non-inflammatory mass of the parotid or in the territory of other salivary glands. In children, 50% of salivary gland tumors are malignant which contrasts with a 10-25% risk in adults. Epithelial tumors are the most common, mucoepidermoïd carcinomas of the parotid in particular. Surgery is the treatment of choice in epithelial tumors. Adjuvant radiotherapy may be indicated in case of unfavorable prognostic factors but must be balanced with the risk of radiation-induced growth defects and secondary cancer. The role of chemotherapy is limited in these tumors, but should be discussed in case of an inoperable or metastatic lesion. PMID:21690035

Thariat, Juliette; Vedrine, Pierre-Olivier; Orbach, Daniel; Marcy, Pierre-Yves; Badoual, Cécile; Butori, Catherine; Teissier, Natacha; Toussaint, Bruno; Castillo, Laurent

2011-07-01

164

Sleep and Salivary Cortisol  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of the present chapter was to analyze whether measures of cortisol in saliva were associated with measures of sleep and to explore if divergent results were related to underlying differences in theoretic assumptions and methods. Measures of sleep quality included sleep duration, overall sleep quality, difficulty falling asleep, disturbed sleep, and sleep deprivation. Twenty-three papers were found to fulfill the inclusion criteria. Cortisol measures were grouped into single time points at different times during the day, deviations at different time periods during the day, reactivity and recovery after a standardized laboratory test, area under the curve and response to dexamethasone test. A large proportion of the studies included showed non-significant findings, which, in several cases, may be a result of low power. The most consistent results were a positive association between sleep duration and single measures of salivary cortisol at awakening, which was observed in 3 studies. In these studies, sleep duration was also associated with low evening cortisol levels, steep diurnal deviation of cortisol and/or high area under the curve. Together these findings suggest that longer sleep duration is related to a more dynamic cortisol secretion. Two of the 6 studies on disturbed or restless sleep showed relations to flat diurnal deviation and low laboratory stress test reactivity. This to some extent corroborates the findings on sleep duration. However, the many non-significant findings as well as the theoretical and methodological differences (e.g., heterogeneity in measures) complicate comparisons. Conflicting results may be at least partially due to differences in methods and underlying assumptions.

Garde, Anne Helene; Karlson, Bernt

2011-01-01

165

Irradiation induced salivary gland neoplasia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Twenty-six patients with a prior history of irradiation for benign conditions of the head and neck and salivary gland abnormalities are reported. All the patients had preoperative physical findings suggestive of tumor, not glandular infection. Forty-six per cent of the patients had one carcinoma and 11% had two carcinomas within the irradiated field. Eight of the 11 malignant tumors in these 26 patients were in the parotid gland. The nonmalignant salivary changes were similar to those previously reported in glands receiving therapeutic irradiation for carcinoma

166

Biotransformation of caffeine, cotinine, and nicotine in stream sediments: Implications for use as wastewater indicators  

Science.gov (United States)

Microbially catalyzed cleavage of the imadazole ring of caffeine was observed in stream sediments collected upstream and downstream of municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in three geographically separate stream systems. Microbial demethylation of the N-methyl component of cotinine and its metabolic precursor, nicotine, also was observed in these sediments. These findings indicate that stream sediment microorganisms are able to substantially alter the chemical structure and thus the analytical signatures of these candidate waste indicator compounds. The potential for in situ biotransformation must be considered if these compounds are employed as markers to identify the sources and track the fate of wastewater compounds in surface-water systems. ?? 2007 SETAC.

Bradley, P.M.; Barber, L.B.; Kolpin, D.W.; McMahon, P.B.; Chapelle, F.H.

2007-01-01

167

Development of a simple and rapid elisa of urinary cotinine for epidemiological application  

OpenAIRE

Highly stereospecific polyclonal antibodies (anti-CN) to cotinine (CN), a major metabolite of nicotine, were prepared from rabbit antisera to CN-linked keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) by removing the antibodies to KLH and to its binding regions of CN. This was achieved by using immunoadsorbents consisting of insolubilized KLH onto CNBr-activated-Sepharose 4B. A new simple and rapid enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) of urinary CN was developed using the anti-CN. A brief outline of the ...

Yoshioka, Nobuo; Dohi, Yoshiko; Yonemasu, Kunio

1998-01-01

168

Novel method for the isolation and quantitative analysis of nicotine and cotinine in biological fluids  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A rapid quantitative method has been developed for the estimation of nicotine and cotinine in blood and urine. Isolation is accomplished by adsorption of the alkaloids on Amberlite XAD-2 resin and subsequent elution with chloroform/methanol. No solvent extraction or further purification is required. The final determination is made by high performance liquid chromatography using uv detection. Absolute recovery of nicotine was at least 80% in all samples. The accuracy of the method is estimated to be +-5% on standard addition measurements. Detection limits of 2 ng/ml urine may be routinely obtained.

Maskarinec, M.P.; Harvey, R.W.; Caton, J.E.

1978-07-01

169

What Is Salivary Gland Cancer?  

Science.gov (United States)

... here. Most of these tumors are benign (not cancer), but the parotid glands still are where most malignant (cancerous) salivary ... gland adenocarcinomas. Acinic cell carcinoma: Most acinic cell carcinomas start in the parotid gland. They tend to be slow growing and ...

170

Influence of menstrual cycle and salivary ß-estradiol on volatile sulfur compound  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND: ß -estradiol is a steroid sex hormone that plays important role in oral physiology. The aim of this studywas to determin the association of the menstrual cycle and salivary ß-estradiol with the production of volatile sulfurcompounds (VSC).METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, twenty female dental students in good oral and general health were recruited forevaluation of VSC, salivary flow, ß-estradiol concentration, oral dryness feeling and dysmenorrhea. Data were analyzedby ma...

Shahla Kakoei Dds, Msc; Dds, Fahimeh Barkhori; Ali Mirzazadeh Md, Mph; Mohammad Mohammadi Dds, Msc; Ahmad Gholamhoseinian PhD

2012-01-01

171

Acute citalopram administration produces correlated increases in plasma and salivary cortisol.  

OpenAIRE

RATIONALE: Intravenous administration of the selective serotonin (5-HT) re-uptake inhibitor, citalopram, increases plasma cortisol. This would be expected to produce a parallel increase in salivary cortisol concentration. OBJECTIVE: To find out whether IV citalopram produces correlated increases in plasma and salivary cortisol levels. METHODS: Twelve healthy volunteers were tested on two occasions receiving either citalopram (10 mg IV) or saline in a double-blind, randomised, cross-over desig...

Bhagwagar, Z.; Hafizi, S.; Cowen, Pj

2002-01-01

172

Green tea consumption after intense taekwondo training enhances salivary defense factors and antibacterial capacity.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to investigate the short-term effects of green tea consumption on selected salivary defense proteins, antibacterial capacity and anti-oxidation activity in taekwondo (TKD) athletes, following intensive training. Twenty-two TKD athletes performed a 2-hr TKD training session. After training, participants ingested green tea (T, caffeine 6 mg/kg and catechins 22 mg/kg) or an equal volume of water (W). Saliva samples were collected at three time points: before training (BT-T; BT-W), immediately after training (AT-T; AT-W), and 30 min after drinking green tea or water (Rec-T; Rec-W). Salivary total protein, immunoglobulin A (SIgA), lactoferrin, ?-amylase activity, free radical scavenger activity (FRSA) and antibacterial capacity were measured. Salivary total protein, lactoferrin, SIgA concentrations and ?-amylase activity increased significantly immediately after intensive TKD training. After tea drinking and 30 min rest, ?-amylase activity and the ratio of ?-amylase to total protein were significantly higher than before and after training. In addition, salivary antibacterial capacity was not affected by intense training, but green tea consumption after training enhanced salivary antibacterial capacity. Additionally, we observed that salivary FRSA was markedly suppressed immediately after training and quickly returned to pre-exercise values, regardless of which fluid was consumed. Our results show that green tea consumption significantly enhances the activity of ?-amylase and salivary antibacterial capacity. PMID:24498143

Lin, Shiuan-Pey; Li, Chia-Yang; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Chang, Chen-Kang; Chou, Kuei-Ming; Fang, Shih-Hua

2014-01-01

173

Caries correlates strongly to salivary levels of matrix metalloproteinase-8  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The caries process in dentin involves the degradation of both mineral and organic matrix. The demineralization has been demonstrated to be caused by bacterial acids. However, the collagen degradation is considered to be initiated by endogenous proteolytic enzymes, mainly collagenolytic matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). This paper aims to relate salivary MMP-8 (or salivary collagenase-2) and tissue inhibitor of MMP (TIMP-1) levels to manifest caries in a large number of subjects. A random sample of 451 adults (aged 18-87 years) living in the south of Sweden was included in this study. Standard clinical examinations were performed, and stimulated saliva was collected and analyzed for concentrations of MMP-8, TIMP-1 and total protein, using an immunofluorometric assay, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the Bradford assay, respectively. Salivary numbers of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli were determined using a chair-side kit. Subjects with manifest caries lesions presented with elevated levels of MMP-8 (p < 0.001) as well as total protein, MMP-8/TIMP-1 ratio, bleeding on probing and plaque index (p = 0.05) compared with subjects without manifest caries. Multiple linear regression analysis with caries as the dependent variable revealed MMP-8 as the only significant explanatory variable (p < 0.001). TIMP-1 was not significant in any case. Using MMP-8 as the dependent variable revealed total protein concentration, caries lesions (p ? 0.001) and salivary secretion rate (p = 0.05) as explanatory variables. In conclusion, our data reveal that subjects with manifest caries lesions have elevated levels of salivary MMP-8 relative to subjects with no caries lesions.

Hedenbjörk-Lager, Anders; BjØrndal, Lars

2015-01-01

174

Does cotinine act upon reactive oxygen species and peroxidases? / A cotinina age sobre espécies reativas do oxigênio e peroxidases?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available A nicotina, um agente oxidante, é certamente um dos alcalóides mais amplamente utilizados no mundo. Juntamente com seu principal metabolito, a cotinina, a nicotina é responsável pela tabaco-dependência. O uso de tabaco está intimamente associado a doenças pulmonares, modificações morfológicas em leu [...] cócitos e a geração de espécies oxidantes. O principal objetivo deste estudo foi identificar uma possível relação entre cotinina, geração de espécies reativas do oxigênio e processos oxidativos. Após o estudo da ação da cotinina em diferentes modelos químicos e em cinéticas enzimáticas com peroxidases (mieloperoxidase e peroxidase de raiz forte), conclui-se que a cotinina não age diretamente sobre H2O2, HOCl, taurine cloramina, peroxidase de raiz forte ou mieloperoxidase. Abstract in english Nicotine, an oxidizing agent, is certainly one of the most widely used alkaloids in the world. It is, together with its main metabolite, cotinine, responsible for tobacco-dependence. The use of tobacco is closely associated with lung disease, morphological leukocyte modification and generation of ox [...] idant species. The aim of this study was to look for a possible relationship between cotinine, oxidant species generation and oxidative processes. After studying the action of cotinine in some chemical oxidation models and on the enzymatic kinetics of peroxidases (myeloperoxidase and horseradish peroxidase), we concluded that cotinine does not act directly upon H2O2, HOCl, taurine chloramines, horseradish peroxidase or myeloperoxidase.

J.C.R., Vellosa; N.M., Khalil; L.M., Fonseca; I.L., Brunetti; O.M.M.F., Oliveira.

175

Salivary cortisol, salivary alpha amylase, and the dental anxiety scale.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between dental anxiety, salivary cortisol, and salivary alpha amylase (sAA) levels. Furthermore, the aim was to look into individual differences such as age, race, gender, any existing pain, or traumatic dental experience and their effect on dental anxiety. This study followed a cross-sectional design and included a convenience sample of 46. Every patient was asked to complete the Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS) and a basic demographic/dental history questionnaire. A saliva sample, utilizing the method of passive drooling, was then collected in 2-mL cryovials. Samples were analyzed for salivary cortisol and sAA levels by Salimetrics. Significant associations were observed between DAS scores and presence of pain and history of traumatic dental experience. However, no significant correlations were observed between DAS, cortisol, and sAA levels. Our study reconfirms that dental anxiety is associated with presence of pain and a history of traumatic dental experience. On the other hand, our study was the first to our knowledge to test the correlation between the DAS and sAA; nevertheless, our results failed to show any significant correlation between dental anxiety, cortisol, and sAA levels. PMID:23763559

Sadi, Hana; Finkelman, Matthew; Rosenberg, Morton

2013-01-01

176

What Are the Key Statistics about Salivary Gland Cancer?  

Science.gov (United States)

... for salivary gland cancer? What are the key statistics about salivary gland cancer? Salivary gland cancers are ... be better or worse than this.) For more statistics related to survival, see the section “ Survival rates ...

177

Salivary secretion during meals in lactating dairy cattle  

OpenAIRE

Four multiparous Holstein cows in midlactation were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square to evaluate whether source of forage influenced salivary secretion during eating in lactating dairy cows. The forages were allocated separately from the pelleted concentrates. Cows were offered 1 of 4 forages each period: barley silage, alfalfa silage, long-stemmed alfalfa hay, or chopped barley straw. Saliva secretion was measured during the morning meal by collecting masticates through the rumen cannula at the ...

Beauchemin, K. A.; Eriksen, L.; Nørgaard, Peder; Rode, L. M.

2008-01-01

178

Salivary paracetamol elimination kinetics during the menstrual cycle.  

OpenAIRE

Studies were done to examine the influence of the menstrual cycle on the elimination kinetics of paracetamol. Salivary concentrations of paracetamol were determined after oral administration of 1 g of paracetamol on day 3, 10, 14, 20 and 25 of the menstrual cycle in normal healthy women volunteers with regular menstrual cycles. There was no significant difference in elimination half-life (t 1/2) or metabolic clearance rate (CL) between the various days of the menstrual cycle. The result sugge...

Somaja, L.; Thangam, J.

1987-01-01

179

Immunosensor with Fluid Control Mechanism for Salivary Cortisol Analysis  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this research is to demonstrate a new design for a cortisol immunosensor for the noninvasive and quantitative analysis of salivary cortisol. We propose a cortisol immunosensor with a fluid control mechanism which has both a vertical flow and a lateral flow. The detected current resulting from a competitive reaction between the sample cortisol and a glucose oxidase (GOD)-labeled cortisol conjugate was found to be inversely related to the concentration of cortisol in the sample s...

Yamaguchi, Masaki; Matsuda, Yohei; Sasaki, Shohei; Sasaki, Makoto; Kadoma, Yoshihiro; Imai, Yoshikatsu; Niwa, Daisuke; Shetty, Vivek

2012-01-01

180

[The value of ultrasonography in salivary pathology].  

Science.gov (United States)

Ultrasound has been increasingly used in recent years and thanks to high performance, easy to use apparatus, it can now be used for exploration of the salivary glands. This non invasive, painless and relatively inexpensive examination provides rapid visualisation of the salivary glands and is a useful adjunct to radio-xero-sialographic examination, particularly in tumour pathology. Following a review of normal appearances, the author briefly describes the various salivary gland lesions. PMID:2130478

Katz, P

1990-01-01

181

SALIVARY ANTIMICROBIAL PROTEIN RESPONSE TO PROLONGED RUNNING  

OpenAIRE

Prolonged exercise may compromise immunity through a reduction of salivary antimicrobial proteins (AMPs). Salivary IgA (IgA) has been extensively studied, but little is known about the effect of acute, prolonged exercise on AMPs including lysozyme (Lys) and lactoferrin (Lac). Objective: To determine the effect of a 50-km trail race on salivary cortisol (Cort), IgA, Lys, and Lac. Methods: 14 subjects: (6 females, 8 males) completed a 50km ultramarathon. Saliva was collected pre, immediatel...

Suzanne Schneider; Karol Dokladny; Cheryl Gourley; Matthew Kuennen; Gillum, Trevor L.

2013-01-01

182

Quantitative evaluation of Streptococcus mutans and Candida sp and salivary factors in the oral cavity of patients submitted to radiotherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to quantify the microorganisms Streptococcus mutans and Candida sp in the oral cavity of patients with oropharynx carcinoma, before, during and after radiotherapy, and to correlate the results with salivary factors such as pH, buffer capacity and flow rate. Saliva samples were collected, diluted and inoculated in SB-20 agar and in Sabouraud agar, for Streptococcus mutans and Candida sp, respectively. Previously to dilution, the concentrated saliva was analyzed, and the salivary factors were determined. After the growth of colonies, the number of microorganisms was determined in CFU/ml. The analysis of the results allowed to conclude that the salivary factors are related to the presence of microorganisms, and that the number of CFU/ml increased as salivary flow rate decreased. The effects of radiation compromised salivary homeostasis and favored the increase of infection by yeasts and bacteria. (author)

183

Salivary Gland Development: A Template for Regeneration  

Science.gov (United States)

The mammalian salivary gland develops as a highly branched structure designed to produce and secrete saliva. This review will focus on research on mouse submandibular gland development and the translation of this basic research towards therapy for patients suffering from salivary hypofunction. Here we review the most recent literature that has enabled a better understanding of the mechanisms of salivary gland development. Additionally, we discuss approaches proposed to restore salivary function using gene and cell-based therapy. Increasing our understanding of the developmental mechanisms involved during development is critical to design effective therapies for regeneration and repair of damaged glands. PMID:24333774

Patel, Vaishali N.; Hoffman, Matthew P.

2014-01-01

184

[Ultrasound of the salivary glands].  

Science.gov (United States)

In acute inflammatory diseases sonography can differentiate between obstructive or non-obstructive sialoadenitis. Abscess formations may be detected and the maturation of the colliquation may be controlled. Abscesses may be punctured under US guidance. In Sjögren's syndrome the sonographic changes correlate with the histological destruction, in acute forms hypervascularisation is found in color Doppler. In fibrotic cases the stimulation-induced hyperemia is impaired. In sialoadenosis inflammatory and tumorous lesions can be ruled out by sonography. Tumors of the salivary glands can be visualized with high sensitivity. Like other imaging methods the specificity in assessment of the histology of a tumor is low. Multilocular lesions as sarcoidosis, lymphoma, metastases or cystadenolymphoma are discussed. In deep located, malignant tumors or when the tumor cannot be delineated completely, MR or CT are obligatory to delineate the tumor. Sonography enables the diagnosis of cysts or ranulae. The accuracy of sonography in assessment of sialolithiasis is about 90 %. Non-opaque stones can be visualized, too. However, small stones of less than 2 mm are difficult to detect since the posterior shadow may be missing. The concrements can be differentiated into intraductal or intraglandular stones. Indirect signs like ductal dilatations or inflammatory changes may be found. Pseudotumorous lesions as hypertrophy of the masseter muscle, tuberculosis, sarcoidosis or lymphoepithelial lesions in AIDS are discussed. In children the main differential diagnosis of salivary gland pathologies are addressed. In many diseases sonography is the first line imaging modality in assessment of salivary glands. PMID:19148852

Gritzmann, N

2009-01-01

185

A Laboratory Exercise to Illustrate Increased Salivary Cortisol in Response to Three Stressful Conditions Using Competitive ELISA  

Science.gov (United States)

Here, we outline a laboratory exercise that uses a competitive ELISA kit to illustrate the response of salivary cortisol concentrations to three stressful conditions: presentation stress, fasting stress, and competition stress

Mark F. Haussmann (Iowa State University Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Organismal Biology)

2007-03-01

186

Salivary and serum interleukin 1 beta, interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha in patients with leukoplakia and oral cancer  

OpenAIRE

Objectives: The aim of study was to compare salivary and serum concentrations of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1?), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) in patients with oral leukoplakia, oral cancer and healthy controls. Study design: Eighty eight patients (28 with oral cancer, 29 leukoplakia, and 31 healthy controls) were included in this study. Cytokine concentrations were measured by commercial enzyme linked immunoassay. Results: Salivary IL-1? and IL-6 were sign...

Brailo, Vlaho; Vucicevic-boras, Vanja; Lukac, Josip; Biocina-lukenda, Dolores; Zilic-alajbeg, Iva; Milenovic, Aleksandar; Balija, Melita

2011-01-01

187

Salivary defense factors in herpes simplex virus infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Saliva may contribute to a lowering of the infectious herpes simplex virus (HSV) dose during transmission and consequently abrogate infection or lead to decreased reactivation. To test this hypothesis, we assayed saliva for innate defense factors, immunoglobulin content, and the capacity to interfere with HSV infection. Serum or salivary anti-HSV IgG levels did not correlate with control of recurrent labial herpes (RLH) and were significantly higher in subjects with RLH compared with asymptomatic seropositive subjects. Although no differences in levels or output rate of innate defense factors between the groups were observed, the salivary neutralizing activity correlated with lactoferrin and hypothiocyanite concentrations in the asymptomatic seropositive group. Our results suggest that saliva contains factors, in addition to anti-HSV immunoglobulins, that neutralize HSV and may indirectly contribute to the control of RLH. PMID:12097435

Välimaa, H; Waris, M; Hukkanen, V; Blankenvoorde, M F J; Nieuw Amerongen, A V; Tenovuo, J

2002-06-01

188

Salivary duct carcinoma of parotid gland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 40-year old male presented with rapidly growing swelling in the right parotid region. Based on the fine needle aspiration cytology report of adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified, superficial parotidectomy was performed, which showed the features of salivary duct carcinoma by histopathological examination. The smears were reviewed to identify the potential pitfalls in the cytological diagnosis of salivary duct carcinoma.

Kinnera Vijay Sreedhar

2009-01-01

189

General Information about Salivary Gland Cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

... of the salivary glands. The salivary glands make saliva and release it into the mouth. Saliva has enzymes that help digest food and antibodies ... called nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI). CT scan (CAT scan) : A procedure that makes a series of ...

190

Salivary cortisol in ambulatory assessment--some dos, some don'ts, and some open questions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of stress on health and disease is an important research topic in psychosomatic medicine. Because research on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation under controlled laboratory studies lacks ecological validity, it needs to be complemented by a research program that includes momentary ambulatory assessment. The measurement of salivary cortisol offers the possibility to trace the free steroid hormone concentrations in ambulant settings. Therefore, in this article, we first discuss the role of salivary cortisol in ambulatory monitoring. We start with a brief description of HPA axis regulation, and we then consider cortisol assessments in other organic materials, followed by a presentation of common salivary markers of HPA axis regulation suitable for ambulatory assessment. We further provide an overview on assessment designs and sources of variability within and between subjects (intervening variables), acknowledge the issue of (non)compliance, and address statistical aspects. We further give an overview of associations with psychosocial and health-related variables relevant for ambulatory assessment. Finally, we deal with preanalytical aspects of laboratory salivary cortisol analysis. The relative simplicity of salivary cortisol assessment protocols may lead to an overoptimistic view of the robustness of this method. We thus discuss several important issues related to the collection and storage of saliva samples and present empirical data on the stability of salivary cortisol measurements over time. PMID:22582339

Kudielka, Brigitte M; Gierens, Andrea; Hellhammer, Dirk H; Wüst, Stefan; Schlotz, Wolff

2012-05-01

191

Expression and localization of cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase in major salivary glands of male mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is the most abundant free amino acid in mammalian cells. It plays a significant role in cell development, nutrition, and survival, such as in the regulation of ion transport and osmoregulation. Cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase (CSD) is the rate-limiting biosynthetic enzyme of taurine. Recently, the synthesis of taurine has been observed in the central nervous system, kidney, liver, and muscle. However, the synthesis of taurine in the salivary glands has still not been described in detail. We have detected CSD expression in the major salivary glands of adult male mice by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blot, and immunofluorescence. In addition, we determined the content of taurine by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results show that taurine is present in high concentrations in the major salivary glands of male mice. CSD messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein are expressed in the major salivary glands of male mice. The relative levels of CSD mRNA increase from the submandibular gland (SMG) to the sublingual gland (SLG) and parotid gland (PG), but the levels of the CSD protein are the opposite. The immunofluorescence results indicate that CSD is mainly located in the excretory ducts (EDs) and interlobular duct (IL) of SMG and ED in SLG, respectively. These results suggest that the major salivary glands of male mice produce taurine through the CSD pathway, and the synthesis of taurine might be related to sodium reabsorption in the salivary glands. PMID:25645459

Liu, Shengnan; Liu, Ying; Ma, Qiwang; Cui, Sheng; Liu, Jiali

2015-04-01

192

Gelsolin is a potential cellular target for cotinine to regulate the migration and apoptosis of A549 and T24 cancer cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present work, we have investigated the effect of cotinine, the major metabolite of nicotine on the A549 and T24 cell lines in the context of structural and quantitative changes of F-actin, gelsolin and vimentin. The chosen cell lines constitute the established experimental models for lung and bladder cancers, respectively, in the case of which, smoking cigarettes is one of the key factor increasing their incidence rate significantly. In order to evaluate the impact of cotinine on the viability and proliferation of A549 and T24 cells, the MTT assay was performed. The organization and distribution of F-actin, gelsolin and vimentin were examined using conventional and confocal fluorescence microscopy. The levels of F-actin and gelsolin as well as the percentages of apoptotic and dead cells were assessed using the image-based cytometer. The ultrastructural changes of cotinine-treated A549 and T24 cells were visualized under the transmission electron microscopy. We have shown here that cotinine enhances the survival and proliferation rate of A549 and T24 cells. We have also found that in A549 cells, but not in T24 cell line, cotinine acted stimulating on the vimentin filament network. Furthermore, the increase in the fluorescence intensity of gelsolin upon the addition of cotinine to the T24 cells was found to be correlated with the lack of apoptosis induction as well as the increase of migration potential of these cells. On the other hand, the cotinine-induced decrease in the fluorescence intensity of gelsolin was associated with the increase in the percentages of apoptotic A549 cells and the decreased migratory ability of these cells. Based on the obtained results, we propose that the gelsolin is an important cellular target for cotinine, through which this compound influences on the basic processes involved in neoplastic transformation and metastasis, such as migration and apoptosis. PMID:25544037

Nowak, Jakub Marcin; Klimaszewska-Wi?niewska, Anna; Izdebska, Magdalena; Gagat, Maciej; Grzanka, Alina

2015-02-01

193

Osteopontin expression in salivary gland carcinomas  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

J Oral Pathol Med (2010) Background:? In several cancer types, osteopontin (OPN) expression has been correlated with tumor progression and prognosis. Two earlier studies have examined OPN expression in salivary gland carcinomas with contradictory results. Methods:? One hundred and seventy-five patients with a primary salivary gland carcinoma diagnosed from January 1, 1990 to December 31, 2005 were identified in the local pathology register, Odense University Hospital. Criteria as documented by Allred et al. were used to assess OPN immunostaining that was performed on surgical specimens. Results:? Osteopontin was expressed in all salivary gland carcinomas. Adenoid cystic carcinomas had the highest mean sum score (7.3) and a significantly higher proportion of carcinomas with high OPN sum score than both mucoepidermoid carcinoma and acinic cell carcinoma. Correlation of OPN expression with known prognostic factors in salivary gland carcinomas was insignificant. Conclusions:? Salivary gland carcinomas express OPN. The expression does not correlate with known prognostic factors.

BjØrndal, Kristine; Larsen, Stine R

2011-01-01

194

Sonography of the salivary glands.  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to their superficial position, the parotid, the submandibular, and the sublingual glands can be imaged with high-resolution transducers. In acute inflammatory diseases sonography can differentiate between obstructive or non-obstructive sialoadenitis. Abscess formations may be detected and the maturation of the colliquation may be controlled. Abscesses may be punctured under US guidance. In Sjögren's syndrome the sonographic changes correlate with the histological destruction, and in acute forms hypervascularization is found in color Doppler. In fibrotic cases the stimulation-induced hyperemia is impaired. In sialoadenosis inflammatory and tumorous lesions can be ruled out by sonography. Tumors of the salivary glands can be visualized with high sensitivity. Like other imaging methods the specificity in assessment of the histology of a tumor is low. Multilocular lesions, such as sarcoidosis, lymphoma, metastases, or cystadenolymphoma, are discussed. In deep located, malignant tumors or when the tumor cannot be delineated completely, MR or CT are obligatory to delineate the tumor. Sonography enables the diagnosis of cysts or ranulae. The accuracy of sonography in assessment of sialolithiasis is approximately 90%. Non-opaque stones can be visualized, too; however, small stones of less than 2 mm are difficult to detect since the posterior shadow may be missing. The concrements can be differentiated into intraductal or intraglandular stones. Indirect signs, such as ductal dilatations or inflammatory changes, may be found. Pseudotumorous lesions, such as hypertrophy of the masseter muscle, tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, or lymphoepithelial lesions in AIDS, are discussed. In children the main differential diagnosis of salivary gland pathologies are addressed. In many diseases sonography is the first-line imaging modality in assessment of salivary glands. PMID:12695816

Gritzmann, N; Rettenbacher, T; Hollerweger, A; Macheiner, P; Hübner, E

2003-05-01

195

[Determination of urinary cotinine of children exposed to passive smoking by stable isotope dilution gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry].  

Science.gov (United States)

An analytical method for the determination of urinary cotinine of children exposed to passive smoking was established based on stable isotope dilution by gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The samples were extracted and purified with chloroform. The extracts were determined by GC-MS/MS in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The cotinine-d3 as an isotope internal standard was applied to quantify and confirm the urinary cotinine of children exposed to passive smoking. The method had a good linearity from 0.1 microg/L to 10 microg/L with the correlation coefficient (r) > 0.998. The recoveries of the cotinine in blank urine were from 79.2% to 112.8% at spiked levels of 0.1, 1.0 and 10 microg/ L, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) from 2.1% to 5. 8%. The limit of quantification ( LOQ) of the method was 0.1 microg/L. The developed method is accurate, sensitive, rapid and can be applied to detect urinary cotinine of children exposed to passive smoking at home. PMID:25269267

Wang, Yun; Huang, Zhiqiang; Ye, Ying; Zhang, Ying; Xiao, Shuiyuan

2014-06-01

196

Immunochromatographic assay using gold nanoparticles for measuring salivary secretory IgA in dogs as a stress marker  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The concentration of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) is a well-known stress marker for humans. The concentration of salivary sIgA in dogs has also been reported as a useful stress marker. In addition, salivary sIgA in dogs has been used to determine the adaptive ability of dogs for further training. There are conventional procedures based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs. However, ELISA requires long assay time, complicated operations and is costly. In the present study, we developed an immunochromatographic assay for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs using a dilution buffer containing a non-ionic surfactant. We determined 2500-fold dilution as the optimum condition for dog saliva using a phosphate buffer (50 mM, pH 7.2) containing non-ionic surfactant (3 wt% Tween 20). The results obtained from the saliva samples of three dogs using immunochromatographic assay were compared with those obtained from ELISA. It was found that the immunochromatographic assay is applicable to judge the change in salivary sIgA in each dog. The immunochromatographic assay for salivary sIgA in dogs is a promising tool, which should soon become commercially available for predicting a dog's psychological condition and estimating adaptive ability for training as guide or police dogs.

Takahashi, Aki; Kato, Yuya; Takezaki, Makoto; Tominaga, Toshihiro; Moriyama, Yoshiko; Takeda, Kunio; Miyahara, Toshiro; Nagatani, Naoki [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Okayama University of Science, 1-1 Ridai-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-0005 (Japan); Uchiyama, Shigeru [Okayama University of Science Specialized Training College, 8-3 Handa-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-0003 (Japan); Yuhi, Teruko; Ushijima, Hiromi, E-mail: nagatani@dac.ous.ac.j [Biodevicetechnology Ltd. 2-13 Asahidai, Nomi-City, Ishikawa 923-1211 (Japan)

2009-06-15

197

Immunochromatographic assay using gold nanoparticles for measuring salivary secretory IgA in dogs as a stress marker  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The concentration of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA is a well-known stress marker for humans. The concentration of salivary sIgA in dogs has also been reported as a useful stress marker. In addition, salivary sIgA in dogs has been used to determine the adaptive ability of dogs for further training. There are conventional procedures based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs. However, ELISA requires long assay time, complicated operations and is costly. In the present study, we developed an immunochromatographic assay for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs using a dilution buffer containing a non-ionic surfactant. We determined 2500-fold dilution as the optimum condition for dog saliva using a phosphate buffer (50 mM, pH 7.2 containing non-ionic surfactant (3 wt% Tween 20. The results obtained from the saliva samples of three dogs using immunochromatographic assay were compared with those obtained from ELISA. It was found that the immunochromatographic assay is applicable to judge the change in salivary sIgA in each dog. The immunochromatographic assay for salivary sIgA in dogs is a promising tool, which should soon become commercially available for predicting a dog's psychological condition and estimating adaptive ability for training as guide or police dogs.

Aki Takahashi, Shigeru Uchiyama, Yuya Kato, Teruko Yuhi, Hiromi Ushijima, Makoto Takezaki, Toshihiro Tominaga, Yoshiko Moriyama, Kunio Takeda, Toshiro Miyahara and Naoki Nagatani

2009-01-01

198

Immunochromatographic assay using gold nanoparticles for measuring salivary secretory IgA in dogs as a stress marker  

Science.gov (United States)

The concentration of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) is a well-known stress marker for humans. The concentration of salivary sIgA in dogs has also been reported as a useful stress marker. In addition, salivary sIgA in dogs has been used to determine the adaptive ability of dogs for further training. There are conventional procedures based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs. However, ELISA requires long assay time, complicated operations and is costly. In the present study, we developed an immunochromatographic assay for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs using a dilution buffer containing a non-ionic surfactant. We determined 2500-fold dilution as the optimum condition for dog saliva using a phosphate buffer (50 mM, pH 7.2) containing non-ionic surfactant (3 wt% Tween 20). The results obtained from the saliva samples of three dogs using immunochromatographic assay were compared with those obtained from ELISA. It was found that the immunochromatographic assay is applicable to judge the change in salivary sIgA in each dog. The immunochromatographic assay for salivary sIgA in dogs is a promising tool, which should soon become commercially available for predicting a dog's psychological condition and estimating adaptive ability for training as guide or police dogs.

Takahashi, Aki; Uchiyama, Shigeru; Kato, Yuya; Yuhi, Teruko; Ushijima, Hiromi; Takezaki, Makoto; Tominaga, Toshihiro; Moriyama, Yoshiko; Takeda, Kunio; Miyahara, Toshiro; Nagatani, Naoki

2009-06-01

199

Immunochromatographic assay using gold nanoparticles for measuring salivary secretory IgA in dogs as a stress marker  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concentration of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) is a well-known stress marker for humans. The concentration of salivary sIgA in dogs has also been reported as a useful stress marker. In addition, salivary sIgA in dogs has been used to determine the adaptive ability of dogs for further training. There are conventional procedures based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs. However, ELISA requires long assay time, complicated operations and is costly. In the present study, we developed an immunochromatographic assay for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs using a dilution buffer containing a non-ionic surfactant. We determined 2500-fold dilution as the optimum condition for dog saliva using a phosphate buffer (50 mM, pH 7.2) containing non-ionic surfactant (3 wt% Tween 20). The results obtained from the saliva samples of three dogs using immunochromatographic assay were compared with those obtained from ELISA. It was found that the immunochromatographic assay is applicable to judge the change in salivary sIgA in each dog. The immunochromatographic assay for salivary sIgA in dogs is a promising tool, which should soon become commercially available for predicting a dog's psychological condition and estimating adaptive ability for training as guide or police dogs.

200

Salivary gland dysfunction and xerostomia in Sjögren's syndrome  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this article, salivary gland dysfunction and xerostomia in Sjögren's syndrome (SS) are discussed, with a focus on the pathophysiology of salivary dysfunction in SS, the clinical presentation of dry mouth in SS, how to assess salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia in SS, and the impact of salivary gland dysfunction on quality of life in patients with SS

Jensen, Siri Beier; Vissink, Arjan

2014-01-01

201

Cord serum cotinine as a biomarker of fetal exposure to cigarette smoke at the end of pregnancy.  

OpenAIRE

This study investigated the association between biomarkers of fetal exposure to cigarette smoke at the end of pregnancy, cotinine in cord serum and in maternal and newborn urine samples, and quantitative measurement of smoking intake and exposure evaluated by maternal self-reported questionnaire. Study subjects were 429 mothers and their newborns from a hospital in Barcelona, Spain. A questionnaire including smoking habits was completed in the third trimester of pregnancy and on the day of de...

Pichini, S.; Basagan?a, X. B.; Pacifici, R.; Garcia, O.; Puig, C.; Vall, O.; Harris, J.; Zuccaro, P.; Segura, J.; Sunyer, J.

2000-01-01

202

The Effects of Electronic Cigarette Emissions on Systemic Cotinine Levels, Weight and Postnatal Lung Growth in Neonatal Mice  

Science.gov (United States)

Background/Objective Electronic cigarette (E-cigarettes) emissions present a potentially new hazard to neonates through inhalation, dermal and oral contact. Exposure to nicotine containing E-cigarettes may cause significant systemic absorption in neonates due to the potential for multi-route exposure. Systemic absorption of nicotine and constituents of E-cigarette emissions may adversely impact weight and lung development in the neonate. To address these questions we exposed neonatal mice to E-cigarette emissions and measured systemic cotinine levels and alveolar lung growth. Methods/Main Results Neonatal mice were exposed to E-cigarettes for the first 10 days of life. E-cigarette cartridges contained either 1.8% nicotine in propylene glycol (PG) or PG vehicle alone. Daily weights, plasma and urine cotinine levels and lung growth using the alveolar mean linear intercept (MLI) method were measured at 10 days of life and compared to room air controls. Mice exposed to 1.8% nicotine/PG had a 13.3% decrease in total body weight compared to room air controls. Plasma cotinine levels were found to be elevated in neonatal mice exposed to 1.8% nicotine/PG E-cigarettes (mean 62.34± 3.3 ng/ml). After adjusting for sex and weight, the nicotine exposed mice were found to have modestly impaired lung growth by MLI compared to room air control mice (pE-cigarette emissions during the neonatal period can adversely impact weight gain. In addition exposure to nicotine containing E-cigarettes can cause detectable levels of systemic cotinine, diminished alveolar cell proliferation and a modest impairment in postnatal lung growth. PMID:25706869

McGrath-Morrow, Sharon A.; Hayashi, Madoka; Aherrera, Angela; Lopez, Armando; Malinina, Alla; Collaco, Joseph M.; Neptune, Enid; Klein, Jonathan D.; Winickoff, Jonathan P.; Breysse, Patrick; Lazarus, Philip; Chen, Gang

2015-01-01

203

Credibility of a smoking questionnaire based on urine cotinine level for patients with bladder cancer – a preliminary report  

OpenAIRE

An analysis of the reliability of a questionnaire on smoking in 96 patients with transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder. The credibility of the questionnaire was evaluated based on the detection of cotinine, an objective marker of tobacco smoke exposure, in urine. It was confirmed that approximately 18% of smokers did not admit to smoking, did not comply with recommendations to stop smoking, and about 4% of non-smokers were exposed to tobacco smoke unknowingly.

Leszniewski, Jaros?aw; Pufal, Ewa; Wolski, Zbigniew

2011-01-01

204

Cotinine and N-(2-hydroxyethyl)valine as markers of passive exposure to tobacco smoke in children  

OpenAIRE

Large segments of populations, including children, are exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), a risk factor for lung cancer and heart, circulatory and respiratory diseases. Recently, ETS was classified as a class A carcinogen by USEPA, as carcinogenic to humans by IARC (group 1) and by the National Toxicology Program of the US National Institutes of Health. Cotinine, a product of the metabolism of nicotine, is measurable in urine and, correlates strictly and directly to ETS exposure...

Gilli, Giorgio; Scursatone, Vincenzo; Pignata, Cristina; Vincenti, Marco; Bono, Roberto; Traversi, Deborah; Schiliro, Tiziana

2005-01-01

205

Salivary thyroxine as an estimate of free thyroxine: concise communication  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To test the hypothesis that the levels of salivary thyroxine (T4) reflect those of circulating free T4, we developed a radioimmunoassay (RIA) sensitive to low levels of T4. Concurrent saliva and serum samples were obtained from 32 euthyroid volunteers, ages 19 to 64. Salivary and serum T4 and cortisol levels were measured by RIA. Salivary albumin was measured by nephelometry. Salivary T4 levels were higher than predicted. No correlation was found between salivary T4 and serum levels of free T4 and total T4 but there was a significant correlation between salivary T4 and albumin (r = 0.82). Salivary cortisol levels agreed with reported results and showed no correlation with salivary albumin. We conclude that salivary levels of drugs and hormones may be strongly affected by protein binding, and caution must be exercised in using salivary levels as an estimate of circulating free levels

206

MRI of salivary gland tumors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

MRI findings of 13 patients with proven salivary gland tumors, including 7 cases of parotid gland tumors, 2 cases of submandibular gland tumors, and 4 cases of minor salivary gland tumors, were reviewed. All examinations were carried out on a 1.5-T MRI system (General Electric, SIGNA Performance plus and SIMAZU, SMT-150X) with spin echo sequence. T1 and T2 weighted images and Gd-DTPA enhanced T1 weighted images were obtained. The results were as follows: All tumors demonstrated low to intermediate signal intensity on T1 weighted images and intermediate to high signal intensity on T2 weighted images. The differences between malignant and benign tumors were not detected by means of the signal intensity of the tumors. Tumor margins were clear except for 2 cases, including inflamed pleomorphic adenoma of the submandibular gland and adenoid cystic carcinoma of the parotid gland. Except for the case of adenolymphoma, internal structures of the tumor are inhomogenous, especially on T2 weighted images. Although the intraparotid facial nerve is not detected directly, whether the tumor is located on superficial or deep lobe could be detected by drawing a line between the lateral surface of the posterior belly of the digastric muscle and the lateral posterior border of the mandible except for one case and using the retromandibular vein except for two cases. (author).

Ariyoshi, Yasunori; Shimahara, Masashi; Senda, Jyunko; Sakinaka, Isao [Osaka Medical Coll., Takatsuki (Japan); Nakano, Yoshinobu

1996-04-01

207

Serum Level of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 in Patients with Salivary Gland Tumor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Statement of the Problem: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs have been implicated in the pathogenesis of certain diseases and cancers via tissue destruction and can be secreted into the blood stream. MMP9 expression in the salivary gland tissue was evaluated but their serum level in the salivary gland tumors was not studied. Purpose: The aim of our study was to determine the concentration of serum MMP-9 in healthy participants and in patients with salivary gland tumor. Materials and Method: Using an ELISA kit, the circulating levels of MMP-9 in sera from 58 patients with salivary gland tumor (31 pleomorphic adenoma, 17 adenoid cystic carcinoma and 10 mucoepidermoid carcinoma and 30 healthy controls was assessed. Results: The serum MMP9 level in patients with salivary gland tumors (380.0±301.3 pg/ml also patients with benign tumors (354.3±218.7 pg/ml (354.3±218.7 pg/ml were significantly lower than that in the healthy group (727.4±624.6 pg/ml (Respectively p= 0.02 and p= 0.01. Mean serum MMP9 concentration in malignant tumors was (402.3±441.8pg/ml higher than benign tumors (354.3±218.7 pg/ml but the difference was not significant (p= 0.9. Conclusion: Our results showed that serum level of MMP9 decreased in patients with salivary gland tumors which suggest that MMP9 may not have a potential role in development and pathogenesis of salivary gland tumor.

Maryam Mardani

2014-12-01

208

Serum Level of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 in Patients with Salivary Gland Tumor  

Science.gov (United States)

Statement of the Problem: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of certain diseases and cancers via tissue destruction and can be secreted into the blood stream. MMP9 expression in the salivary gland tissue was evaluated but their serum level in the salivary gland tumors was not studied. Purpose: The aim of our study was to determine the concentration of serum MMP-9 in healthy participants and in patients with salivary gland tumor. Materials and Method: Using an ELISA kit, the circulating levels of MMP-9 in sera from 58 patients with salivary gland tumor (31 pleomorphic adenoma, 17 adenoid cystic carcinoma and 10 mucoepidermoid carcinoma) and 30 healthy controls was assessed. Results: The serum MMP9 level in patients with salivary gland tumors (380.0±301.3 pg/ml) also patients with benign tumors (354.3±218.7 pg/ml) (354.3±218.7 pg/ml) were significantly lower than that in the healthy group (727.4±624.6 pg/ml) (Respectively p= 0.02 and p= 0.01). Mean serum MMP9 concentration in malignant tumors was (402.3±441.8pg/ml) higher than benign tumors (354.3±218.7 pg/ml) but the difference was not significant (p= 0.9). Conclusion: Our results showed that serum level of MMP9 decreased in patients with salivary gland tumors which suggest that MMP9 may not have a potential role in development and pathogenesis of salivary gland tumor. PMID:25469360

Mardani, Maryam; Andisheh-Tadbir, Azadeh; Khademi, Bijan; Biparva, Peyman; Malekzadeh, Mahyar

2014-01-01

209

High-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection cotinine method adapted for the assessment of tobacco smoke exposure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Smoking is considered to be one of the main risk factors for cancer and other diseases and is the second leading cause of death worldwide. As the anti-tobacco legislation implemented in Europe has reduced secondhand smoke exposure levels, analytical methods must be adapted to these new levels. Recent research has demonstrated that cotinine is the best overall discriminator when biomarkers are used to determine whether a person has ongoing exposure to tobacco smoke. This work proposes a sensitive, simple and low-cost method based on solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography with diode array detection for the assessment of tobacco smoke exposure by cotinine determination in urine. The analytical procedure is simple and fast (20 min) when compared to other similar methods existing in the literature, and it is cheaper than the mass spectrometry techniques usually used to quantify levels in nonsmokers. We obtained a quantification limit of 12.30 ?g/L and a recovery of over 90%. The linearity ranges used were 12-250 and 250-4000 ?g/L. The method was successfully used to determine cotinine in urine samples collected from different volunteers and is clearly an alternative routine method that allows active and passive smokers to be distinguished. PMID:24668723

Bartolomé, Mónica; Gallego-Picó, Alejandrina; Huetos, Olga; Castaño, Argelia

2014-06-01

210

Nizatidine and cisapride increase salivary secretion in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Saliva is a neurally induced solution with buffering capacity against acidic solutions. Salivation therefore plays an important role in defending the esophageal mucosa against refluxed gastric acid and is evoked by cholinergic stimulation. Both nizatidine and cisapride are reported to increase acetylcholine concentrations in the postganglionic cholinergic synapses. We performed this study to clarify the effect of administration of nizatidine and cisapride on salivary secretion. Eight-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were used for the experiments. Histamine-stimulated gastric acid secretion was measured after intraduodenal administration of nizatidine or famotidine to determine the equipotent acid-suppressing doses. Salivary secretion was then measured for 3 hr after intraduodenal administration of nizatidine (30 mg/kg), famotidine (3 mg/kg), or cisapride (1 mg/kg). Both nizatidine and famotidine dose-dependently inhibited histamine-stimulated gastric acid secretion. Total salivary secretion was significantly increased by nizatidine (P = 0.02) and cisapride (P = 0.02) but not by famotidine (P = 0.50) compared with controls. PMID:15139487

Adachi, Kyoichi; Furuta, Kenji; Katsube, Tomoko; Fujisawa, Tomoo; Azumi, Takane; Fujishiro, Hirofumi; Ishihara, Shunji; Amano, Yuji; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu

2004-03-01

211

Clinical evaluation of Sjoegren's syndrome by salivary gland scintigraphy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 20 cases of Sjo7gren's syndrome which was diagnosed according to the criteria directed by Ministry of Health Welfare, salivary scintigraphy revealed decreased RI uptake of the major salivary glands (the parotid gland, submandibular gland) (75%), difference between right and left RI uptakes (80%), residual image after salivation (94%), suggesting remarkable decrease in salivary secretory function. The results of salivary scintigraphy correlated with those of sialography in advanced cases. There was a correlation between histopathological findings and salivary scintigram. (Ueda, J.)

212

Salivary Duct Carcinoma of the Minor Salivary Gland: A Rare Case Report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Salivary duct carcinoma is a rare invasive malignancy arising in the ductal epithelium of the salivary glands. Nearly 85% of the cases occur in the parotid gland followed by submandibular gland. Rarely is it described in the hard palate. Salivary duct carcinomas affecting the minor salivary glands have been reported in only 4% of the SDC cases and constitute 2% of all the salivary gland malignant neoplasms. It is characterized by aggressive behavior with early metastasis, local recurrence and significant mortality. The tumor has predilection for older men in the 6th to 7th decades of life. In this article; we report a case of a salivary gland carcinoma which was present in the right posterior region of the maxilla of a 50 year old female patient. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2013; 1(4.000: 222-226

Shalini Gupta

2013-08-01

213

Determinación de cotinina y exposición a tabaco / Cotinine detection and tobacco smoke exposure  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La exposición a tabaco es una de las causas prevenibles de morbilidad y mortalidad prematura más importante. Se describe un método simple y rápido de detección de cotinina (principal metabolito de nicotina) en orina humana. Se utilizó cromatografía gas-líquido (CGL) con un detector de ionización de [...] llama (FID). Se realizó una extracción líquido-líquido con cloroformo en medio alcalino; el extracto fue secado a 37 °C y redisuelto en 100 µL de solución alcohólica con estándar interno piridina. Se analizó la orina de personas que declararon ser fumadoras y no fumadoras. Mediante la construcción de dos curvas de calibración se cubrió un rango de linealidad de 3 a 5.000 ng/mL. Los fumadores presentaron una mediana y cuartiles (Q) de concentración de cotinina: 255,4 ng/mL, 15,9 ng/mL (Q1) - 1.050,2 ng/mL (Q3), respectivamente, y los no fumadores 15,8 ng/mL, 4,1 ng/mL (Q1) - 38,4 ng/mL (Q3). Wilcoxon sumrank: z = 4,865 p Abstract in english Tobacco is one of the major preventable causes of morbidity and premature mortality in the world. A simple, rapid method for determination of cotinine, major metabolite of nicotine in urine, is described. The assay involves a fast liquid-liquid extraction with chloroform as a solvent in alkaline env [...] ironment. The extract was dried at 37 °C and the residue was dissolved in 100 µL of standard internal of pyridine in methanol solution, and an aliquot was analyzed by gas-liquid chromatograph equipped with a flame -ionization detector. This technique was performed to test urine of a sample of smokers and non-smokers who were previously asked about their smoking habit. The limit of detection was 3.1 ng/mL, and using two calibration curves, a linearity range from 3 a 5.000 ng/mL was covered. The median and quartiles (Q) of cotinine in smokers were 255.4 ng/mL, 15.9 ng/mL (Q1) -1050.2 ng/mL (Q3) ng/mL and in non-smokers 15.8 ng/mL, 4.1 ng/mL (Q1) - 38.4 ng/mL (Q3). Wilcoxon sumrank: z = 4.865 p

Marta Noemí, Vacchino; Susana María, Velurtas; Guillermo Pablo, Salinas; Héctor Hugo, Garcialoredo.

2006-06-01

214

Salivary duct carcinoma of the palate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Salivary duct carcinoma is a rare high-grade neoplasm that more frequently affects the parotid gland. Though neoplasms of this type are infrequent in minor salivary glands, they are less aggressive and may lead to early diagnosis before distant metastases could occur. Salivary duct carcinoma is also the most frequent epithelial component of carcinosarcoma. The present article reports a case of SDC of the palate in a 26-year-old male and discusses SDC as a malignant epithelial component in carcinosarcoma.

Ponniah I

2005-01-01

215

Pharmacokinetic study of yohimbine and its pharmacodynamic effects on salivary secretion in patients treated with tricyclic antidepressants.  

OpenAIRE

The pharmacokinetic parameters and the time course of the effect after acute oral administration of yohimbine on salivary secretion in patients treated with tricyclic antidepressants were investigated. Yohimbine (10 mg) increased both salivary outflow and plasma noradrenaline levels for 4 h. Pharmacokinetic parameters (t1/2, tmax, Cmax and AUCexp) and plasma concentrations of noradrenaline were higher in patients treated with tricyclic antidepressants than in controls. At this dose, yohimbine...

Bagheri, H.; Picault, P.; Schmitt, L.; Houin, G.; Berlan, M.; Montastruc, J. L.

1994-01-01

216

Receptors for the neuropeptides, myoinhibitory peptide and SIFamide, in control of the salivary glands of the blacklegged tick Ixodes scapularis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tick salivary glands are important organs that enable the hematophagous feeding of the tick. We previously described the innervation of the salivary gland acini types II and III by a pair of protocerebral salivary gland neurons that produce both myoinhibitory peptide (MIP) and SIFamide (Šimo et al., 2009b). In this study we identified authentic receptors expressed in the salivary glands for these neuropeptides. Homology-based searches for these receptors in the Ixodes scapularis genome sequence were followed by gene cloning and functional expression of the receptors. Both receptors were activated by low nanomolar concentrations of their respective ligands. The temporal expression patterns of the two ligands and their respective receptors suggest that the SIFamide signaling system pre-exists in unfed salivary glands, while the MIP system is activated upon initiation of feeding. Immunoreactivity for the SIFamide receptor in the salivary gland was detected in acini types II and III, surrounding the acinar valve and extending to the basal region of the acinar lumen. The location of the SIFamide receptor in the salivary glands suggests three potential target cell types and their probable functions: myoepithelial cell that may function in the contraction of the acini and/or the control of the valve; large, basally located dopaminergic granular cells for regulation of paracrine dopamine; and neck cells that may be involved in the control of the acinar duct and its valve. PMID:23357681

Simo, Ladislav; Ko?i, Juraj; Park, Yoonseong

2013-04-01

217

Effect of sensory stimulation on salivary IgA secretion rate in karate players  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: Secretory IgA is predominant immunoglobulin in secretions of the mucosal immune system. Low concentration of salivary IgA is associated with a higher risk of respiratory tract infections episodes in athletes during the training season. The purpose of this study was to determine whether orange-flavored whey based drink has beneficial effect on level of IgA in saliva after the training. Methods: Twenty healthy, young karate players participated in this study. They were divided into two groups. One group rinsed a mouth with 20 ml of liquid whey, two times in 30-min period: 15 and 30 min after training. Second group rinsed a mouth with 20 ml of whey based orange flavored soft drink, at the same time. Saliva was collected before the training, just after the training and after application of fluids. Results: We observed decrease in salivary flow after physical activity. The salivary flow was higher after the application of flavored drink compared to salivary flow after the application of whey. The absolute concentration of sIgA and sIgA secretion rate decreased just after exercise compared to pre exercise values. Application of whey elevated sIgA levels on day 1, while application of flavored drink caused increasing in sIgA levels on day 3. In all other cases sIgA level was decreasing even after applied stimuli. Conclusions: The exercise induces decreasing in salivary flow, sIgA absolute concentration and sIgA secretion rate. Application of fluid whey and flavored whey-based drink elevated salivary flow, but had little effect on absolute concentration of sIgA and sIgA secretion rate in young karate players.

I Baralic

2010-12-01

218

Cotinine halts the advance of Alzheimer’s disease-like pathology and associated depressive-like behavior in Tg6799 mice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is associated with cognitive and non-cognitive symptoms for which there are currently no effective therapies. We have previously reported that cotinine, a natural product obtained from tobacco leaves, prevented memory loss and diminished amyloid-? (A? plaque pathology in the transgenic 6799 mice (Tg6799 mice when treated prior to the development of the pathology. We have also shown that cotinine reduces depressive-like behavior in normal and chronically stressed C57BL/6 mice. Here, we extend our previous studies by investigating the effects of cotinine on the progression of AD-like pathology, depressive-like behavior, and the mechanisms underlying its beneficial effects in the Tg6799 mice when left untreated until after a more advanced stage of the disease’s development. The results show that vehicle-treated Tg6799 mice displayed an accentuated loss of working memory and an abundant A? plaque pathology that were accompanied by higher levels of depressive-like behavior as compared to control littermates. By contrast, prolonged daily cotinine treatment, withheld until after a mid-level progression of AD-like pathology, reduced A? levels, A? plaques, and depressive-like behavior as well as dramatically improved working memory in Tg6799 mice to levels no different from control littermates. The beneficial effects of cotinine were accompanied by an increase in the expression of the active form of protein kinase B (Akt and the postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95 in the hippocampi and frontal cortices of Tg6799 mice. This suggests that cotinine halts the progression of AD-like pathology while reducing depressive-like behavior by stimulating signaling pathways supporting synaptic plasticity in Tg6799 mice. The potential use of cotinine to treat cognitive and non-cognitive symptoms of AD is discussed.

Valentina Echeverria Moran

2014-07-01

219

Urinary concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Israeli adults: demographic and life-style predictors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants associated with adverse health outcomes, including cancer, asthma, and reduced fertility. Because data on exposure to these contaminants in Israel and the Middle East are very limited this study was conducted to measure urinary levels of PAHs in the general adult population in Israel and to identify demographic and life-style predictors of exposure. We measured concentrations of five PAH metabolites: 1-hydroxypyrene (1OH_pyrene) and four different hydroxyphenanthrenes (1-hydroxyphenanthrene, 2-hydroxyphenanthrene, 3-hydroxyphenanthrene, 4-hydroxyphenanthrene), as well as cotinine in urine samples collected from 243 Israeli adults from the general population. We interviewed participants using structured questionnaires to collect detailed demographic, smoking and dietary data. For over 99% of the study participants, urinary concentration of at least one of the PAHs was above both the limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ). All PAHs were significantly correlated (rho=0.67-0.92). Urinary concentration of hydroxyphenanthrenes, but not 1OH_pyrene, was significantly higher among Arabs and Druze study participants (N=56) compared to Jewish participants (N=183). For 4-hydroxyphenanthrene, concentration in Arabs and Druze was 1.95 (95% CI 1.50-2.52) that of Jews, after controlling for creatinine, age and cotinine levels. Urinary concentrations of all PAHs were significantly higher among current smokers or participants with higher cotinine levels and increased significantly with smoking frequency. While PAHs concentrations were not associated with cotinine concentrations in nonsmokers in the overall study population, PAHs concentration was significantly higher among nonsmoking Jews with cotinine ?LOQ (1?g/L), which represents exposure to environmental tobacco smoking, compared to nonsmoking Jews with cotinine concentrations concentrations were found for those consuming grilled food once a month or more. For 3-hydroxyphenanthrene, concentration in those consuming grilled food once a month or more was 2.72 (95% CI 1.01-4.98) times that of those consuming grilled food less than once a month or not at all, after controlling for creatinine, age and cotinine levels. In conclusion, we found that the general adult population in Israel is widely exposed to PAHs. Exposure differed by ethnic sub-groups both in magnitude and sources of exposure. The finding of higher exposure among Arabs and Druze highlights disparities in environmental exposures across subpopulations and suggests that further research and preventive measure are warranted to reduce PAHs exposure and associated health outcomes, especially in the Arab population in the Middle East. PMID:25456148

Levine, Hagai; Berman, Tamar; Goldsmith, Rebecca; Göen, Thomas; Spungen, Judith; Novack, Lena; Amitai, Yona; Shohat, Tamar; Grotto, Itamar

2015-01-01

220

Sublingual salivary gland sialolithiasis in a dog.  

Science.gov (United States)

A case of sialolithiasis of the sublingual/mandibular salivary gland and duct complex in a dog was reported. Sialoadenectomy of the ipsilateral glands successfully treated the associated sialocele. PMID:18373538

Ryan, T; Welsh, E; McGorum, I; Yool, D

2008-05-01

221

Restoring the function of salivary glands.  

Science.gov (United States)

Salivary gland destruction occurs as a result of various pathological conditions such as radiation therapy for head and neck cancer and Sjögren's syndrome. As saliva possesses self-cleaning and antibacterial capability, hyposalivation is known to deteriorate dental caries and periodontal disease. Furthermore, hyposalivation causes mastication and swallowing problems, burning sensation of the mouth and dysgeusia. Currently available treatments for dry mouth are prescription for artificial saliva, moisturizers and medications which induce salivation from the residual tissue. Unfortunately, these treatments cannot restore the acini functions. This review focuses on various efforts to restore the function of damaged salivary gland. First, the possibility of salivary gland regeneration and tissue engineering is discussed with reference to stem cells, growth factors and scaffold materials. Second, the current status of gene transfer to salivary glands is discussed. PMID:18173444

Kagami, H; Wang, S; Hai, B

2008-01-01

222

Toward salivary gland stem cell regeneration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Head and neck cancer is the sixth most common cancer worldwide, resulting in ~ 640,000 cases. Most of these patients have irreversible damage to their salivary glands due to irradiation therapy, which typically leads to significant decrease in quality of life. In the last 2 decades, several strategies have been suggested to overcome this problem; however, no biologically based treatments are available. In the past few years, the authors of the present article and other researchers have focused on a new strategy of re-implantation of autologous salivary gland cells into the residual irradiated salivary glands. This article reviews the current prospective of the irradiation-induced salivary gland impairment mechanisms and the envisioned therapeutic modalities based on stem cell therapy. PMID:24568246

Stiubea-Cohen, Raluca; David, Ran; Neumann, Yoav; Palmon, Aaron; Aframian, Doron

2013-07-01

223

Imaging of the major salivary glands.  

Science.gov (United States)

The major salivary glands, submandibular, parotid and sublingual glands play an important role in preserving the oral cavity and dental health. Patients with problems of the major salivary glands may present with symptoms such as dry mouth, dysphagia and obstruction of duct, inflammation, severe dental caries or swelling. Imaging plays an important role in visualization of morphology and function, to establish a diagnosis, for treatment, and for surgical planning. There are several options for diagnostic imaging: plain radiography, sialography, ultrasound (US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), salivary gland scintigraphy and (18) F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET). We present an overview of the modalities in relation to common salivary gland disease. PMID:25319072

Afzelius, Pia; Nielsen, Ming-Yuan; Ewertsen, Caroline; Bloch, Klaus Poulsen

2014-10-16

224

[Value of echography in salivary pathology].  

Science.gov (United States)

Major advances in echography techniques over the past few years include the development of simple high performance units adapted to investigating the salivary glands. This non-traumatic, painless and inexpensive technique offers a means of rapid examination and is fully complementary to X-ray and xero and sialographic imagery, particularly in tumor pathology. The author gives a review of normal images then presents different lesions of the salivary gland. PMID:1880766

Katz, P

1991-05-01

225

Enhanced early morning salivary cortisol in neuroticism.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE: Neuroticism is a predisposing factor for major depression. The increase in salivary cortisol that follows waking provides a reliable measure of adrenocortical activity, and this response is increased in recovered depressed patients. This study compared waking cortisol levels in healthy subjects with high and low levels of neuroticism without a previous history of depression. METHOD: Salivary cortisol levels were measured upon waking and at 15-minute intervals for the next hour in v...

Portella, Mj; Harmer, Cj; Flint, J.; Cowen, P.; Goodwin, Gm

2005-01-01

226

Global diversity in the human salivary microbiome  

OpenAIRE

The human salivary microbiome may play a role in diseases of the oral cavity and interact with microbiomes from other parts of the human body (in particular, the intestinal tract), but little is known about normal variation in the salivary microbiome. We analyzed 14,115 partial (?500 bp) 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequences from saliva samples from 120 healthy individuals (10 individuals from each of 12 worldwide locations). These sequences could be assigned to 101 known bacterial genera, of ...

Nasidze, Ivan; Li, Jing; Quinque, Dominique; Tang, Kun; Stoneking, Mark

2009-01-01

227

Increased salivary cortisol after waking in depression.  

OpenAIRE

RATIONALE: Cortisol hypersecretion is regarded as important in the pathophysiology of major depression. However, recent studies in community-based samples have been inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether acutely depressed, medication-free subjects show an exaggerated release of cortisol in saliva in relation to awakening. METHODS: We studied the pattern of waking salivary cortisol in 20 unmedicated acutely depressed subjects and 40 healthy controls. RESULTS: In both groups, salivary co...

Bhagwagar, Z.; Hafizi, S.; Cowen, Pj

2005-01-01

228

Relationship of the human salivary peroxidase system to oral health.  

Science.gov (United States)

The human salivary peroxidase system (SPS) contributes in several ways to the maintenance of good oral health. The SPS is one of the non-immunoglobulin defense factors which regulate the quantity and species distribution of oral micro-organisms. The SPS also prevents toxic accumulations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and it inactivates many carcinogenic and mutagenic compounds. The salivary glands secrete a peroxidase enzyme (salivary peroxidase) as well as the thiocyanate ion (SCN-, derived from diet). The enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of SCN- by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The H2O2 is excreted by oral bacteria and by host cells in amounts which vary with the state of cellular metabolism, the diet and other factors. Oxidized forms of SCN- temporarily inhibit the growth, respiration and metabolism of most species of oral bacteria. The major oxidized form generated in the mouth is the hypothiocyanite ion (OSCN-) which must reach a minimum threshold concentration before bacterial inhibition occurs. This threshold concentration varies from species to species. The concentration of OSCN- in the mouth rises and falls with the availability of H2O2. This natural rise and fall, together with bacterial variation in sensitivity to OSCN- inhibition, suggests a role for the SPS in the regulation of the oral microflora. As a result of the rapid consumption of H2O2 by the SPS, host cells are protected from a toxic build up of this potent oxidizing agent. The major product of the reaction, OSCN-, does not harm human cells. Many carcinogenic and mutagenic compounds may serve as substrates for the SPS and be oxidized to less harmful compounds. PMID:6097657

Tenovuo, J; Pruitt, K M

1984-12-01

229

Salivary secretion during meals in lactating dairy cattle  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Four multiparous Holstein cows in midlactation were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square to evaluate whether source of forage influenced salivary secretion during eating in lactating dairy cows. The forages were allocated separately from the pelleted concentrates. Cows were offered 1 of 4 forages each period: barley silage, alfalfa silage, long-stemmed alfalfa hay, or chopped barley straw. Saliva secretion was measured during the morning meal by collecting masticates through the rumen cannula at the cardia of each cow. Rate of salication (213 g/min) was not affected by forage source. However, the forage sources differed in eating rate (g og DM/min), which led to differences in ensalivation of forages (g of saliva/g of DM and g of saliva/g of NDF). On the basis of DM, ensalivation (g of saliva/g of DM) was greatest for straw (7.23) and similar for barley sialge, alfalfa silage, and alfalfa hay (4.15, 3.40, and 4.34 g/g of DM, respectively). Higher ensalivation of straw could be accounted for by its higher neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content; ensalivation of NDF (g of saliva/g of NDF) was actually greatest for long-stemmed alfalfa hay (12.4) and similar for the other chopped forages (8.9). Cows consumed concentrate about 3 to 12 times faster than the various forages (DM basis), and ensalivation of concentrate was much lower (1.12 g of saliva/g of DM) than for forages. Feed characteristics such as particle size, DM, and NDF content affect salivary output during eating by affecting the eating rate. Slower eating rate and greater time spent eating may help prevent ruminal acidosis by increasing the total daily salivary secretion in dairy cows.

Beauchemin, K.A.; Eriksen, L.

2008-01-01

230

Circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus): a factor to consider during welfare assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Elevated glucocorticoid levels during an extended time period might be a stress indicator in nonhuman animals. Therefore, knowledge of the circadian pattern of cortisol secretion is very important to correctly interpret data obtained for welfare assessment of animals in captivity through salivary cortisol. In order to define the circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol secretion in the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus), morning and evening saliva samples of 3 Asian elephants were collected and analyzed by radioimmunoassay. Significantly higher salivary cortisol concentrations were found in the morning than in the evening in all individuals. These results show that salivary cortisol of Asian elephants follows a diurnal pattern of secretion, which could be taken into account when using this methodology to assess welfare in captive Asian elephants. PMID:23009627

Menargues, Asunción; Urios, Vicente; Limiñana, Ruben; Mauri, Montserrat

2012-01-01

231

Salivary cortisol assessment in the evaluation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A simple, short and sensitive direct radio-immunoassay technique for the determination of salivary cortisol concentration was employed to assess saliva as a medium for evaluating cortisol response during endocrine testing in 9 controls and 40 patients. Results in controls suggested that an adequate salivary cortisol response to insulin hypoglycaemia was an increase of 150% above the basal value with a minimum peak of 15 nmol/l. Thirty-three patients were classified as being either good or poor responders to insulin hypoglycaemia on the basis of criteria for plasma cortisol levels. When the defined salivary cortisol response was used for assessment, all 33 patients were correctly categorized into the same response groups. The salivary cortisol response to intramuscular tetracosactin in 3 patients and an intravenous dexamethasone infusion in 4 patients confirmed the value of saliva as an assay medium. These studies show that the salivary cortisol response parallels that of total plasma cortisol in all cases. However, with sampling at short intervals a lag in secretion of the free fraction from the plasma into the saliva becomes apparent. The relative change in cortisol levels from the basal value is greater in saliva than in plasma

232

Salivary cortisol assessment in the evaluation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A simple, short and sensitive direct radio-immunoassay technique for the determination of salivary cortisol concentration was employed to assess saliva as a medium for evaluating cortisol response during endocrine testing in 9 controls and 40 patients. Results in controls suggested that an adequate salivary cortisol response to insulin hypoglycaemia was an increase of 150% above the basal value with a minimum peak of 15 nmol/l. Thirty-three patients were classified as being either good or poor responders to insulin hypoglycaemia on the basis of criteria for plasma cortisol levels. When the defined salivary cortisol response was used for assessment, all 33 patients were correctly categorized into the same response groups. The salivary cortisol response to intramuscular tetracosactin in 3 patients and an intravenous dexamethasone infusion in 4 patients confirmed the value of saliva as an assay medium. These studies show that the salivary cortisol response parallels that of total plasma cortisol in all cases. However, with sampling at short intervals a lag in secretion of the free fraction from the plasma into the saliva becomes apparent. The relative change in cortisol levels from the basal value is greater in saliva than in plasma.

Kahn, S.E.; Maxwell, J.U.; Barron, J.L. (Cape Town Univ. (South Africa))

1984-05-26

233

A stacking flow immunoassay for the detection of dengue-specific immunoglobulins in salivary fluid.  

Science.gov (United States)

Paper-based immunoassays, usually in the form of lateral flow tests, are currently the standard platform for home diagnostics. However, conventional lateral tests are often complicated by severe non-specific adsorption of detector particles when applied to test samples containing salivary fluid. It is believed that a high concentration of proteinaceous substances in salivary fluid causes particle aggregation and adhesion. In this study, we developed a stacking flow platform for single-step detection of a target antibody in salivary fluid. Stacking flow circumvents the need for separate sample pre-treatments, such as filtration or centrifugation, which are often required prior to testing saliva samples using paper-based immunoassays. This is achieved by guiding the samples and reagents to the test strip through different paths. By doing so, salivary substances that interfere with the particle-based sensing system are removed before they come into contact with the detection reagents, which greatly reduces the background. In addition, the stacking flow configuration enables uniform flow with a unique flow regulator, which leads to even test lines with good quantification capability, enabling the detection of ~20 ng mL(-1) ?-fetoprotein in the serum. We have successfully applied the stacking flow device to detect dengue-specific immunoglobulins that are present in salivary fluid. PMID:25608951

Zhang, Yi; Bai, Jianhao; Ying, Jackie Y

2015-03-01

234

[Stress among nurses: an examination of salivary cortisol levels on work and day off].  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study evaluates the use of salivary cortisol concentration as a physiological index of the stress level among nurses on their work day and day off and correlates it with the questionnaire used to measure occupational stress in nurses (Inventário de Estresse em Enfermeiros - IEE). This is a comparative, cross-sectional descriptive study in which sociodemographic data, IEE results and salivary cortisol levels were used. Fifty-seven nurses participated in the study (80.7% females and a mean age of 37.1 years old). The IEE average score was 124.5. The average cortisol level was 564.1 ng/m on work day and 354.1 ng/mL on day off. Nurses who had double workdays presented high values of salivary cortisol during the work day (638.1 ng/mL). In conclusion, salivary cortisol identified the nurses' stress level, and differences were found between a work day and day off. On the nurses' day off, their salivary cortisol levels and stress scores were lower. PMID:24346461

Pires da Rocha, Maria Cecília; Figueiredo de Martino, Milva Maria; Grassi-Kassisse, Dora Maria; Luiz de Souza, Aglécio

2013-10-01

235

Sarcomatoid salivary duct carcinoma of minor salivary gland: A rare case  

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Full Text Available A 35-year-old female presented with swelling in the soft palate. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC revealed pleomorphic adenoma, and on histopathological examination, it was diagnosed as carcinosarcoma/salivary duct carcinoma in the minor salivary gland, which was confirmed by immunohistochemical stains. We report this case for its rarity.

Thamilselvi R

2010-10-01

236

DIETARY TRYPTOPHAN EFFECTS ON PLASMA AND SALIVARY CORTISOL AND MEAT QUALITY IN PIGS  

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Four experiments were conducted to determine the effects of supplemental Trp on meat quality, plasma and salivary cortisol, and plasma lactate. Experiment 1 was a preliminary study to measure plasma cortisol concentrations in four barrows (50 kg BW) that were snared for 30 s at time 0 min. Pigs we...

237

Pathogenesis of salivary gland disease and xerostomia. The conception of Mikulicz's disease based on new knowledge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This review focuses on two topics of salivary gland diseases regarding xerostomia. First, the pathogenesis and treatment of xerostomia after radiotherapy against head and neck cancer is discussed. It is well known that the extent of radiation-induced salivary dysfunction and mucositis depends on the radiation dose and field. Moreover, the balance in the defense system of oropharyngeal cavity alters after radiotherapy. This altered balance may impair the ability to maintain the stable immunological control mechanism. Second, the newly established concept about Mikulicz's disease is discussed. Recently, elevated IgG4 concentration in serum and prominent infiltrating by plasmacytes expressing IgG4 in the salivary glands in Mikulicz's disease were revealed. Mikulicz's disease is different from Sjoegren's syndrome, and may be a systemic IgG4-related plasmacytic disease. (author)

238

Ultradian rhythmicity and induced changes in salivary testosterone.  

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Testosterone and cortisol respond to exercise stimuli and modulate adaptation. Episodic basal secretion of these hormones may modify the responsiveness of these hormones. We sought to identify episodic steroid secretion via frequent salivary sampling and investigate any interaction between ultradian rhythmicity and induced changes in testosterone. Salivary testosterone and cortisol concentrations of seven males (age 20-40 years) were measured every 10 min between 0800 and 1600 h on three consecutive days. On either the second or third day, three interventions designed to elicit a hormonal response were randomly assigned: sprint exercise (two 30-s maximal efforts on a cycle ergometer); boxing (two 30-s maximal punching efforts); and a violent video game (10 min of player vs. player combat). On the other days subjects were inactive. Testosterone data on non-intervention days suggested pulsatile secretion with a pulse interval of 47 +/- 9 min (mean +/- SD). The sprint intervention substantially affected hormones: it elicited a small transient elevation in testosterone (by a factor of 1.21; factor 90% confidence limits x/ divided by 1.21) 10 min after exercise, and a moderate elevation in cortisol peaking 50 min post-exercise (factor 2.3; x/ divided by 2.6). The testosterone response correlated with the change in testosterone concentration in the 10 min prior to the sprint (r = 0.78; 90% CL 0.22-0.95) and with a measure of randomness in testosterone fluctuations (r = 0.83; 0.35-0.96). Thus, the salivary testosterone response to exercise may be dependent on the underlying ultradian rhythm and aspects of its regulation. This interaction may have important implications for adaptation to exercise. PMID:20512500

Beaven, C Martyn; Ingram, John R; Gill, Nicholas D; Hopkins, Will G

2010-09-01

239

Cotinine versus questionnaire: early-life environmental tobacco smoke exposure and incident asthma  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of biomarkers has expanded considerably, as an alternative to questionnaire-based metrics of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS; few studies have assessed the affect of such alternative metrics on diverse respiratory outcomes in children, and we aimed to do so. Methods We evaluated various measures of birth-year ETS, in association with multiple respiratory endpoints early years of life, in the novel context of a birth cohort at high risk for asthma. We administered questionnaires to parents, both at the end of pregnancy and at one year of life, and measured cotinine in cord blood (CCot; in 275 children and in urine (UCot; obtained at 12 months in 365 children, each by radioimmunoassay. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess the association of the various metrics with recurrent wheeze at age 2 and with bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR and asthma at age 7. Results Self-reported 3rd trimester maternal smoking was associated with significantly increased risk for recurrent wheeze at age 2 (odds ratio 3.5 [95% confidence interval = 1.2,10.7]; the risks associated with CCot and 3rd trimester smoking in any family member were similar (OR 2.9 [1.2,7.0] and 2.6 [1.0,6.5], respectively. No metric of maternal smoking at 12 months appeared to significantly influence the risk of recurrent wheeze at age 2, and no metric of ETS at any time appeared to significantly influence risk of asthma or BHR at age 7. Conclusions Biomarker- and questionnaire-based assessment of ETS in early life lead to similar estimates of ETS-associated risk of recurrent wheeze and asthma.

Carlsten Chris

2012-12-01

240

Simple and Rapid Assay Method for Simultaneous Quantification of Urinary Nicotine and Cotinine using Micro-Extraction by Packed Sorbent and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry  

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Full Text Available A simple and rapid method for determination of nicotine and cotinine levels in urine was developed using samples prepared by micro-extraction by packed sorbent (MEPS and subjected to gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis. This method provided good reproducibility, as well as good linearity of calibration curves in the range of 1–100 and 50–1000 ng/mL for quality control samples spiked with nicotine and cotinine, respectively. The detection limit of nicotine and cotinine was as low as 0.25 and 20 ng/mL, respectively. An evaporation procedure is not suitable for nicotine determination, thus an advantage of the present MEPS assay method is direct testing with GC-MS without the need for evaporation to a dry solvent. Our findings show that it may be useful for determining nicotine levels in various types of research studies.

HIROSHI SENO

2013-08-01

241

Diazepam and N-desmethyldiazepam concentrations in saliva, plasma and CSF.  

OpenAIRE

1 Salivary and plasma diazepam and nordiazepam concentrations were measured in 51 paired samples from four experimental situations. In seven of the patients CSF samples were estimated. 2 Correlation of 0.89 (P less than 0.001) was observed between salivary and plasma diazepam and 0.81 (P less than 0.001) between salivary and plasma nordiazepam. 3 Mean salivary diazepam was 1.6% (+/- 0.3%) of the plasma diazepam. It was found to vary markedly in an acute dosage study. Mean salivary nordiazepam...

Hallstrom, C.; Lader, M. H.

1980-01-01

242

The prevalence of self-reported smoking and validation with urinary cotinine among commercial drivers in major parks in Lagos, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The validity of self-reported smoking is questionable because smokers are inclined to deny smoking. We aimed to determine the prevalence of self-reported smoking among intra-city commercial drivers in Lagos, and assess its validity based on urinary cotinine assessment. This study was conducted at three major motor parks in Lagos, Nigeria. Information on smoking status and habits was obtained from 500 consecutive male drivers using a structured questionnaire during a face-to-face interview. Eighty-one self-reported smokers and non-smokers were selected by systematic random sampling for urinary cotinine assessment using cotinine strips. The prevalence of self-reported smoking was compared to the prevalence of smoking based on urinary cotinine and the specificity and positive predictive values of self-reported smoking was determined. Prevalence of self-reported current smoking was 32% and 17.9% of nonsmokers were passive smokers. Among 81 drivers in whom urinary cotinine assessment was performed, the prevalence of smoking based on self-report was 34 (42% compared to 41 (50.6% when based on urinary cotinine, (X2=38.56, P<0.001. The rate of misclassification among self-reported non-smokers as smokers was 21.3% and misclassification rate for self-reported smokers as non-smokers was 8.8%. The sensitivity of self-reported smoking in accurately classifying smoking status was 91.2% and the specificity was 78.7%. The prevalence of self-reported cigarette smoking among commercial drivers in Lagos is high and a significant proportion of self-reported non-smokers are passive smokers. Self-reported smoking status obtained during face-to-face interview appears unreliable in obtaining accurate smoking data in our locality.

Obianuju B. Ozoh

2014-02-01

243

Measuring environmental tobacco smoke exposure in infants and young children through urine cotinine and memory-based parental reports: empirical findings and discussion  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVE—This study examined the reliability and potential biases of two urine collection methods from which cotinine measures were obtained and the validity of memory-based parental reports of their children's exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS).?DESIGN—Structured interviews were conducted with mothers of infants and young children to obtain memory-based estimates of recent ETS exposure. Urine samples were collected through standard and cotton roll collection methods for cotinine analysis.?SETTING—All interviews took place at an off-campus research facility. Urine samples were collected at the study office or the subjects' homes.?PARTICIPANTS—Mothers were recruited from San Diego county sites of the Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Supplemental Food and Nutrition Program. Sample 1 (infants) consisted of eight boys and eight girls aged 1-44 months (mean = 12.6 months). Sample 2 (children) included 10 boys and 10 girls aged 3-8 years (mean = 61.2 months).?MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Urine cotinine and memory-based parent reports of ETS exposure from structured interviews.?RESULTS—There was overall high reliability for urine cotinine measures and no effect of collection method on urine cotinine levels. Memory-based reports obtained from smoking mothers showed moderately strong and consistent linear relationships with urine cotinine measures of their infants and children (r = 0.50 to r = 0.63), but not for reports obtained from non-smoking mothers.?CONCLUSIONS—Memory-based parental reports of short-term ETS exposure can play an important role in quantifying ETS exposure in infants and children.???Keywords: environmental tobacco smoke; parental smoking; passive smoking PMID:10599573

Matt, G.; Wahlgren, D.; Hovell, M.; Zakarian, J.; Bernert, J.; Meltzer, S.; Pirkle, J.; Caudill, S.

1999-01-01

244

Effect of competitional stress on salivary dehydroepiandrosterone, cortisol in female handballists  

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Full Text Available Background: Hormonal responses to competitions and their relationships have been extensively examined in male athletes, but there are few studies in women. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of competition stress on salivary dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA and cortisol in female handballists. Materials and Method: Ten female handballists of Islamic Azad University (Sari Branch (age 21.5±2.5 years participated in this study. Salivary samples were collected 30 min and 5 min before competition, between two half times and immediately after four competitions. The salivary DHEA and cortisol concentrations were measured by ELISA method. Results: The results of one-way ANOVA with repeated measures have shown a significant (p=0.001 increases for DHEA concentration after four competitions, however, cortisol and DHEA/cortisol ratio did not show any changes after four competition (p>0.05. Conclusion: These results indicate that salivary DHEA is more sensitive to competition situations than cortisol concentration. We suggested that androgens maybe more affected by competition

Parvin Farzanegi

2010-11-01

245

Salivary Surrogates of Plasma Nitrite and Catecholamines during a 21-Week Training Season in Swimmers  

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The collection of samples of saliva is noninvasive and straightforward, which turns saliva into an ideal fluid for monitoring the adaptive response to training. Here, we investigated the response of the salivary proteins alpha-amylase (sAA), chromogranin A (sCgA), and the concentration of total protein (sTP) as well as salivary nitrite (sNO2) in relation to plasma catecholamines and plasma nitrite (pNO2), respectively. The variation in these markers was compared to the intensity and load of training during a 21-week training season in 12 elite swimmers. Overall, the salivary proteins tracked the concentration of plasma adrenaline and were inversely correlated with the training outcomes. No correlations were observed between sNO2 and pNO2. However, sNO2 correlated positively with the intensity and load of training. We argue that the decrease in sympathetic activity is responsible for the decrease in the concentration of proteins throughout the training season. Furthermore, the increase in nitrite is likely to reflect changes in hemodynamics and regulation of vascular tone. The association of the salivary markers with the training outcomes underlines their potential as noninvasive markers of training status in professional athletes. PMID:23700456

Díaz Gómez, Miguel Mauricio; Bocanegra Jaramillo, Olga Lucia; Teixeira, Renata Roland; Espindola, Foued Salmen

2013-01-01

246

Quantitation of Cotinine and its Metabolites in Rat Plasma and Brain Tissue by Hydrophilic Interaction Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS)  

OpenAIRE

In this work, we developed a sensitive method to quantify cotinine (COT), norcotinine (NCOT), trans-3?-hydroxycotinine (OHCOT) and cotinine-N-oxide (COTNO) in rat plasma and brain tissue, using solid phase extraction (SPE), hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The linear range was 1–100 ng/ml for each analyte in rat plasma and brain homogenate (3–300 ng/g brain tissue). The method was validated with precision within 15% relative sta...

Li, Pei; Beck, Wayne D.; Callahan, Patrick M.; Terry, Alvin V.; Bartlett, Michael G.

2012-01-01

247

The Ratio of a Urinary Tobacco-Specific Lung Carcinogen Metabolite to Cotinine is Significantly Higher in Passive than in Active Smokers  

OpenAIRE

4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol plus its glucuronides (total NNAL), metabolites of the lung carcinogen NNK, and total cotinine, metabolites of nicotine, are biomarkers of active and passive cigarette smoking. We calculated the total NNAL: total cotinine (× 103) ratio in 408 passive (infants, children, adults) and 1088 active smokers. The weighted averages were 0.73 (95% CI 0.71, 0.76) for passive smokers and 0.07 (0.06, 0.08) for active smokers (p

Vogel, Rachel Isaksson; Carmella, Steven G.; Stepanov, Irina; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Hecht, Stephen S.

2011-01-01

248

Deep metaproteomic analysis of human salivary supernatant.  

Science.gov (United States)

The human salivary proteome is extremely complex, including proteins from salivary glands, serum, and oral microbes. Much has been learned about the host component, but little is known about the microbial component. Here we report a metaproteomic analysis of salivary supernatant pooled from six healthy subjects. For deep interrogation of the salivary proteome, we combined protein dynamic range compression (DRC), multidimensional peptide fractionation, and high-mass accuracy MS/MS with a novel two-step peptide identification method using a database of human proteins plus those translated from oral microbe genomes. Peptides were identified from 124 microbial species as well as uncultured phylotypes such as TM7. Streptococcus, Rothia, Actinomyces, Prevotella, Neisseria, Veilonella, Lactobacillus, Selenomonas, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, and Campylobacter were abundant among the 65 genera from 12 phyla represented. Taxonomic diversity in our study was broadly consistent with metagenomic studies of saliva. Proteins mapped to 20 KEGG pathways, with carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid metabolism, energy metabolism, translation, membrane transport, and signal transduction most represented. The communities sampled appear to be actively engaged in glycolysis and protein synthesis. This first deep metaproteomic catalog from human salivary supernatant provides a baseline for future studies of shifts in microbial diversity and protein activities potentially associated with oral disease. PMID:22522805

Jagtap, Pratik; McGowan, Thomas; Bandhakavi, Sricharan; Tu, Zheng Jin; Seymour, Sean; Griffin, Timothy J; Rudney, Joel D

2012-04-01

249

Establishment of immortal multipotent rat salivary progenitor cell line toward salivary gland regeneration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adult salivary gland stem cells are promising candidates for cell therapy and tissue regeneration in cases of irreversible damage to salivary glands in head and neck cancer patients undergoing irradiation therapy. At present, the major restriction in handling such cells is their relatively limited life span during in vitro cultivation, resulting in an inadequate experimental platform to explore the salivary gland-originated stem cells as candidates for future clinical application in therapy. We established a spontaneous immortal integrin ?6?1-expressing cell line of adult salivary progenitor cells from rats (rat salivary clone [RSC]) and investigated their ability to sustain cellular properties. This line was able to propagate for more than 400 doublings without loss of differentiation potential. RSC could differentiate in vitro to both acinar- and ductal-like structures and could be further manipulated upon culturing on a 3D scaffolds with different media supplements. Moreover, RSC expressed salivary-specific mRNAs and proteins as well as epithelial stem cell markers, and upon differentiation process their expression was changed. These results suggest RSC as a good model for further studies exploring cellular senescence, differentiation, and in vitro tissue engineering features as a crucial step toward reengineering irradiation-impaired salivary glands. PMID:20673137

Yaniv, Adi; Neumann, Yoav; David, Ran; Stiubea-Cohen, Raluca; Orbach, Yoav; Lang, Stephan; Rotter, Nicole; Dvir-Ginzberg, Mona; Aframian, Doron J; Palmon, Aaron

2011-01-01

250

Establishment of functional acinar-like cultures from human salivary glands.  

Science.gov (United States)

Disorders of human salivary glands resulting from therapeutic radiation treatment for head and neck cancers or from the autoimmune disease Sjögren syndrome (SS) frequently result in the reduction or complete loss of saliva secretion. Such irreversible dysfunction of the salivary glands is due to the impairment of acinar cells, the major glandular cells of protein, salt secretion, and fluid movement. Availability of primary epithelial cells from human salivary gland tissue is critical for studying the underlying mechanisms of these irreversible disorders. We applied 2 culture system techniques on human minor salivary gland epithelial cells (phmSG) and optimized the growth conditions to achieve the maintenance of phmSG in an acinar-like phenotype. These phmSG cells exhibited progenitor cell markers (keratin 5 and nanog) as well as acinar-specific markers-namely, ?-amylase, cystatin C, TMEM16A, and NKCC1. Importantly, with an increase of the calcium concentration in the growth medium, these phmSG cells were further promoted to acinar-like cells in vitro, as indicated by an increase in AQP5 expression. In addition, these phmSG cells also demonstrated functional calcium mobilization, formation of epithelial monolayer with high transepithelial electrical resistance (TER), and polarized secretion of ?-amylase secretion after ?-adrenergic receptor stimulation. Taken together, suitable growth conditions have been established to isolate and support culture of acinar-like cells from the human salivary gland. These primary epithelial cells can be useful for study of molecular mechanisms involved in regulating the function of acinar cells and in the loss of salivary gland function in patients. PMID:25416669

Jang, S I; Ong, H L; Gallo, A; Liu, X; Illei, G; Alevizos, I

2015-02-01

251

Chlorella intake attenuates reduced salivary SIgA secretion in kendo training camp participants  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The green alga Chlorella contains high levels of proteins, vitamins, and minerals. We previously reported that a chlorella-derived multicomponent supplement increased the secretion rate of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA in humans. Here, we investigated whether intake of this chlorella-derived supplement attenuated the reduced salivary SIgA secretion rate during a kendo training camp. Methods Ten female kendo athletes participated in inter-university 6-day spring and 4-day summer camps. They were randomized into two groups; one took placebo tablets during the spring camp and chlorella tablets during the summer camp, while the other took chlorella tablets during the spring camp and placebo tablets during the summer camp. Subjects took these tablets starting 4 weeks before the camp until post-camp saliva sampling. Salivary SIgA concentrations were measured by ELISA. Results All subjects participated in nearly all training programs, and body-mass changes and subjective physical well-being scores during the camps were comparable between the groups. However, salivary SIgA secretion rate changes were different between these groups. Salivary SIgA secretion rates decreased during the camp in the placebo group (before vs. second, middle, and final day of camp, and after the camp: 146 ± 89 vs. 87 ± 56, 70 ± 45, 94 ± 58, and 116 ± 71 ?g/min, whereas no such decreases were observed in the chlorella group (121 ± 53 vs. 113 ± 68, 98 ± 69,115 ± 80, and 128 ± 59 ?g/min. Conclusion Our results suggest that a use of a chlorella-derived dietary supplement attenuates reduced salivary SIgA secretion during a training camp for a competitive sport.

Otsuki Takeshi

2012-12-01

252

Stress and salivary cortisol during pregnancy.  

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The purpose of this study was to determine whether exposure to stressful life events was associated with changes in levels of circulating cortisol during pregnancy in a population of 603 pregnant women. The participating pregnant women filled out a questionnaire and collected a morning and evening sample of saliva in early pregnancy (median 14th gestational week) and in late pregnancy (median and 30th gestational week). They were asked to report the number of life events experienced during first and second trimester, respectively, and were asked to rate the intensity of the experienced events. Complications related to the pregnancy such as vaginal bleeding and suspected growth retardation were registered and the women were asked about concerns about their pregnancy. The salivary samples were analyzed for cortisol and the levels were higher in late than in early pregnancy. In late pregnancy women exposed to more than one life event or were concerned about pregnancy complications during second trimester had a higher evening cortisol level, whereas morning values were unaffected. After adjustment for smoking women who experienced more than one very stressful life event had 27% higher evening cortisol concentrations (95% confidence intervals: 1-59%). Women with worries about pregnancy complications had 27% (95% confidence intervals: 2-57%) higher levels. In early pregnancy women reporting stressful life events did not have higher evening cortisol levels, but tended to have a blunted morning HPA response. In conclusion, we found differences in the associations between chronic stress in early and late pregnancy and cortisol levels indicating that the response to chronic stress is dependent on the stage of the pregnancy. PMID:15854781

Obel, C; Hedegaard, M; Henriksen, T B; Secher, N J; Olsen, J; Levine, S

2005-08-01

253

Stress and salivary cortisol during pregnancy  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The purpose of this study was to determine whether exposure to stressful life events was associated with changes in levels of circulating cortisol during pregnancy in a population of 603 pregnant women. The participating pregnant women filled out a questionnaire and collected a morning and evening sample of saliva in early pregnancy (median 14th gestational week) and in late pregnancy (median and 30th gestational week). They were asked to report the number of life events experienced during first and second trimester, respectively, and were asked to rate the intensity of the experienced events. Complications related to the pregnancy such as vaginal bleeding and suspected growth retardation were registered and the women were asked about concerns about their pregnancy. The salivary samples were analyzed for cortisol and the levels were higher in late than in early pregnancy. In late pregnancy women exposed to more than one life event or were concerned about pregnancy complications during second trimester had a higher evening cortisol level, whereas morning values were unaffected. After adjustment for smoking women who experienced more than one very stressful life event had 27% higher evening cortisol concentrations (95% confidence intervals: 1-59%). Women with worries about pregnancy complications had 27% (95% confidence intervals: 2-57%) higher levels. In early pregnancy women reporting stressful life events did not have higher evening cortisol levels, but tended to have a blunted morning HPA response. In conclusion, we found differences in the associations between chronic stress in early and late pregnancy and cortisol levels indicating that the response to chronic stress is dependent on the stage of the pregnancy.

Obel, Carsten; Hedegaard, M

2005-01-01

254

Histopathological audit of salivary gland neoplasms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Salivary gland neoplasms are uncommon but important presentation to general surgeons. Objective: To analyze the relative frequency and distribution of Salivary gland neoplasms in our division. Setting: Department of surgery and pathology, Peoples Medical University hospital and GMMMC hospital Sukkur. Study design: Descriptive (case series) Subjects and methods: A total of 40 patients registered for salivary gland tumors from oct 2008 to 0ct 2013 were included in the study. A thorough history, clinical examination, routine haematological and biochemical studies were done in all patients. FNAC was done in all cases. All patients were subjected to surgical intervention on standard rules. Each resected specimen was sent for histopathology. Information about age, gender and tumor location was obtained from clinical record and frequency of different neoplasms was studied from histopathological report. All data was collected on especially designed proforma. Data analysis was done using spss version 17. Results: A total of 40 patients were registered for salivary gland neoplasms. 28 patients (70%) had parotid lesions, 10 patients (25%) had submandibular gland involvement and 2 patients ( 5%) had minor salivary gland tumors. Patients were between 15 - 80 years of age( mean age =34.7 years) 24 patients(60%) were male and 16 (40%) were female,with male to female ratio of 1.5:1.32 . 22 (80%) had benign lesions and 8 patients (20%) had malignant lesions. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common benign tumor affecting the parotid gland. Adenocarcinoma represented as the most prevelant parotid malignancy. Benign neoplasms occurred in third and fourth decades of life and malignant neoplasms were diagnosed in sixth and seventh decades of life. Conclusion:Salivary gland neoplasms are uncommon but they have occasioned much interest and debate because of broad histological spectrum. The data presented in this study is corroborated with most of the studied literature worldwide. (author)

255

Molecular cues for development and regeneration of salivary glands.  

Science.gov (United States)

The hypofunction of salivary glands caused by Sjögren's Syndrome or radiotherapy for head and neck cancer significantly compromises the quality of life of millions patients. Currently no curative treatment is available for the irreversible hyposalivation, whereas regenerative strategies targeting salivary stem/progenitor cells are promising. However, the success of these strategies is constrained by the lack of insights on the molecular cues of salivary gland regeneration. Recent advances in the molecular controls of salivary gland morphogenesis provided valuable clues for identifying potential regenerative cues. A complicated network of signaling molecules between epithelia, mesenchyme, endothelia, extracellular matrix and innervating nerves orchestrate the salivary gland organogenesis. Here we discuss the roles of several cross-talking intercellular signaling pathways, i.e., FGF, Wnt, Hedgehog, Eda, Notch, Chrm1/HB-EGF and Laminin/Integrin pathways, in the development of salivary glands and their potentials to promote salivary regeneration. PMID:24189993

Liu, Fei; Wang, Songlin

2014-03-01

256

Human salivary gland stem cells ameliorate hyposalivation of radiation-damaged rat salivary glands  

OpenAIRE

Salivary function in mammals may be defective for various reasons, such as aging, Sjogren's syndrome or radiation therapy in head and neck cancer patients. Recently, tissue-specific stem cell therapy has attracted public attention as a next-generation therapeutic reagent. In the present study, we isolated tissue-specific stem cells from the human submandibular salivary gland (hSGSCs). To efficiently isolate and amplify hSGSCs in large amounts, we developed a culture system (lasting 4–5 week...

Jeong, Jaemin; Baek, Hyunjung; Kim, Yoon-ju; Choi, Youngwook; Lee, Heekyung; Lee, Eunju; Kim, Eun Sook; Hah, Jeong Hun; Kwon, Tack-kyun; Choi, Ik Joon; Kwon, Heechung

2013-01-01

257

Saliva versus plasma pharmacokinetics: theory and application of a salivary excretion classification system.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aims of this work were to study pharmacokinetics of randomly selected drugs in plasma and saliva samples in healthy human volunteers, and to introduce a Salivary Excretion Classification System. Saliva and plasma samples were collected for 3-5 half-life values of sitagliptin, cinacalcet, metformin, montelukast, tolterodine, hydrochlorothiazide (HCT), lornoxicam, azithromycin, diacerhein, rosuvastatin, cloxacillin, losartan and tamsulosin after oral dosing. Saliva and plasma pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by noncompartmental analysis using the Kinetica program. Effective intestinal permeability (Peff) values were estimated by the Nelder-Mead algorithm of the Parameter Estimation module using the SimCYP program. Peff values were optimized to predict the actual average plasma profile of each drug. All other physicochemical factors were kept constant during the minimization processes. Sitagliptin, cinacalcet, metformin, tolterodine, HCT, azithromycin, rosuvastatin and cloxacillin had salivary excretion with correlation coefficients of 0.59-0.99 between saliva and plasma concentrations. On the other hand, montelukast, lornoxicam, diacerhein, losartan and tamsulosin showed no salivary excretion. Estimated Peff ranged 0.16-44.16 × 10(-4) cm/s, while reported fraction unbound to plasma proteins (fu) ranged 0.01-0.99 for the drugs under investigation. Saliva/plasma concentrations ratios ranged 0.11-13.4, in agreement with drug protein binding and permeability. A Salivary Excretion Classification System (SECS) was suggested based on drug high (H)/low (L) permeability and high (H)/low (L) fraction unbound to plasma proteins, which classifies drugs into 4 classes. Drugs that fall into class I (H/H), II (L/H) or III (H/L) are subjected to salivary excretion, while those falling into class IV (L/L) are not. Additional data from literature was also analyzed, and all results were in agreement with the suggested SECS. Moreover, a polynomial relationship with correlation coefficient of 0.99 is obtained between S* and C*, where S* and C* are saliva and concentration dimensionless numbers respectively. The proposed Salivary Excretion Classification System (SECS) can be used as a guide for drug salivary excretion. Future work is planned to test these initial findings, and demonstrate SECS robustness across a range of carefully selected (based on physicochemical properties) drugs that fall into classes I, II or III. PMID:22784220

Idkaidek, Nasir; Arafat, Tawfiq

2012-08-01

258

Salivary hormonal values from high-speed resistive exercise workouts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our study purpose examined salivary hormonal responses to high-speed resistive exercise. Healthy subjects (n = 45) performed 2 elbow flexor workouts on a novel (inertial kinetic exercise; Oconomowoc, WI, USA) strength training device. Our methods included saliva sample collection at both preexercise and immediately postexercise; workouts entailed two 60-second sets separated by a 90-second rest period. The samples were analyzed in duplicate for their testosterone and cortisol concentrations ([T], [C]). Average and maximum elbow flexor torque were measured from each exercise bout; they were later analyzed with a 2(gender) × 2(workout) analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures for workout. The [T] and [C] each underwent a 2(gender) × 2(time) ANOVA with repeated measures for time. A within-subject design was used to limit error variance. Average and maximum torque each had gender (men > women; p salivary assays may be a viable alternative to blood draws from athletes, yet coaches and others who may administer this treatment should know that our results may have produced greater pre-post hormonal changes if postexercise sample collection had occurred at a later time point. PMID:22310520

Caruso, John F; Lutz, Brant M; Davidson, Mark E; Wilson, Kyle; Crane, Chris S; Craig, Chrsity E; Nissen, Tim E; Mason, Melissa L; Coday, Michael A; Sheaff, Robert J; Potter, William T

2012-03-01

259

Caries Experience and Salivary Parameters among Overweight Children and Adolescents  

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Full Text Available Obesity is a chronic disease characterized by excess body fat, which can lead to other health problems, including insulin resistance, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, polycystic ovary syndrome, hypertension, dyslipidemia, sleep apnea, asthma, heart attack, stroke, atherosclerosis and metabolic syndrome. Currently, obesity and dental caries are major public health concerns and dietary habits are a very important common component of their etiological factors, showing some correlation with the sociodemographic characteristics of individuals presenting these diseases. In relation to caries experience, the literature suggests a correlation between obesity and dental caries in children and adolescents, in primary and/or permanent dentition, though divergent results exist regarding assessment based on the method recommended by the WHO (1997, i.e., restricted to carious lesions with cavitation. Some studies indicate greater prevalence of proximal carious lesions in obese adolescents compared with those with normal weight. Salivary changes, such as the concentrations of phosphate, sialic acid, proteins and immunoglobulins and in peroxidase activity could explain the increased probability of obese children presenting greater risk of dental caries. Thus, it is important to consider the contribution of salivary parameters in caries experience of overweight children and adolescents and the implementation of preventive measures in this population.

Michele B. Diniz

2013-11-01

260

Adrenoceptor-activated nitric oxide synthesis in salivary acinar cells  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We investigated the cellular regulation of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in isolated acinar cells from rat parotid and human labial salivary glands, using the newly developed fluorescent nitric oxide (NO) indicator, DAF-2. We found that sympathetic stimulation with norepinephrine (NE) caused a strong increase in NO synthesis that was not seen after parasympathetic stimulation with acetylcholine. In rat parotid acinar cells, we furthermore investigated to which extent the NOS activity was dependent on the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) by simultaneously measuring NO synthesis and [Ca2+]i. It was found that a simple correlation between the rise in [Ca2+]i and the rate of NO production following NE stimulation does not exist, and studies in which [Ca2+]i was elevated by means of the Ca 2+ ionophore, ionomycin, further established that even a very large rise in [Ca2+]i did not cause significant NO synthesis. We furthermore found that activating adrenoceptors with NE causes synthesis of cGMP by activating a guanylyl cyclase, and that an enhanced [cGMP] evoked by use of caged cGMP causes Ca2+ release from internal stores. Thus, upon sympathetic stimulation, salivary gland acini synthesize NO that, in addition to playing a role in controlling intracellular [Ca2+] i' also might play a role in retrograde signaling processes to the surrounding tissue.

Looms, Dagnia; Dissing, Steen

2000-01-01

261

Excretory function of salivary gland during static salivary scintigraphy using technetium-99m pertechnetate: a correlation study with salivary flow rate in sjogrens syndrome  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Salivary scintigraphy is useful in the evaluation of xerostomia. To identify the relevant and clinically applicable parameter for the evaluation of xerostomia, we performed static salivary scintigraphy using Tc-99m and compared it with salivary flow rate in patients with xerostomia. Twenty-three female patients (age 51.2{+-}10.4 years) who suffered from xerostomia were investigated. Nine patients were classified as Sjogrens syndrome (SS) by clinical criteria, and 14 patients were classified as non-Sjogrens syndrome. Un-stimulated salivary flow rate and simulated salivary flow rate were checked. Salivary scintigraphy was performed with injection of 25 mCi Tc-99m pertechnetate after injection anterior static image was obtained over face as basal uptake. ROIs were drawn over each salivary gland with background subtraction by square ROI drawn over skull. We used the mean data of right and left salivary glands for analysis. Percent excretion of salivary gland was calculated. Un-stimulated salivary flow rates(SFR) were different between groups (p<0.05): 0.58{+-}0.49 ml/15 min in SS, and 1.40{+-}1.14 ml/m in non-SS. However, SFR were not different between groups (p>0.05): 5.88{+-}4.07 ml/15 min in SS, and 10.31{+-}6.49 ml/15 min in non-SS. The uptake value in submandibular gland revealed significant difference between the groups. The percent excretion of submandibular gland had positive correlation with un-stimulated salivary flow rate (r=0.534, p=0.009), and that of parotid gland was also positive correlation (r=0.437, p=0.037). The result of multiple regression analysis revealed only percent excretion of submandibular gland was single determinant of unstimulated SFR. Percent excretion of submandibular gland had positive correlation with un-stimulated SFR. Thus, excretory function of submandibular gland assessed by salivary scintigraphy appears more related with xerostomia than parotid gland.

Jang, S. J.; Lee, W. W.; Lee, Y. J.; So, Y.; Jeong, J. G.; Lee, M. C.; Kim, S. E. [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2005-07-01

262

Salivary gland choristoma of the middle ear.  

Science.gov (United States)

Choristoma of the middle ear is a rare condition characterized by the presence of normal salivary gland tissue in the middle ear space. Salivary gland choristomas are benign lesions that are frequently associated with ossicular chain and facial nerve anomalies. Total surgical excision is indicated when there is no risk of damaging the facial nerve. We describe a new case of salivary gland choristoma of the middle ear, and we discuss the etiology, histologic features, and management of such lesions. Our patient was a 22-year-old woman in whom we surgically removed a whitish retrotympanic mass. Intraoperatively, we also detected an ossicular chain malformation. Histologic examination of the choristoma revealed the presence of salivary gland tissue. Furthermore, the lesion contained an extensive and previously undescribed component: a well-defined pseudostratified respiratory-type epithelium, similar to that of a normal eustachian tube. Ten months after removal of the choristoma, we surgically repaired the ossicular chain anomalies. No recurrence was noted on follow-up. PMID:25397377

Fois, Paolo; Giannuzzi, Anna Lisa; Paties, Carlo Terenzio; Falcioni, Maurizio

2014-01-01

263

Reduced salivary flow and colonization by mutans streptococci in children with Down syndrome  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Although individuals with Down syndrome have considerable oral disease, the prevalence of dental caries in this group is low. The present study aimed to compare known risk factors for dental caries development in children with Down syndrome and a matched population (siblings. In both populations, the number of acidogenic microorganisms, such as mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and Candida species, and the paraffin-stimulated pH, flow rate and IgA concentration in whole saliva were evaluated and compared. METHOD: Saliva was collected, and the caries index was evaluated in 45 sibling pairs aged between 6 and 18 years old. The salivary IgA concentration was determined by immunoturbidimetry. Salivary mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and Candida species were quantified on mitis salivarius agar containing bacitracin and 20% sucrose, rogosa agar supplemented with glacial acetic acid and sabouraud agar supplemented with chloramphenicol, respectively. RESULTS: Down syndrome children had a higher caries-free rate (p<0.05 and lower salivary mutans streptococci counts (p<0.03 compared to their siblings. Similar numbers of lactobacilli and Candida species were found in both groups. Salivary flow rates were 36% lower in Down syndrome children compared to their siblings (p<0.05. The salivary pH did not differ between Down syndrome children and controls. The Down syndrome children had an IgA secretion rate 29% lower than that of their siblings, but this difference was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the lower number of mutans streptococci in the saliva may be one of the factors contributing to the lower caries rate observed in Down syndrome children, despite evidence of hyposalivation.

Cristina Areias

2012-09-01

264

Isolation and characterization of salivary antigens from the female tick, Dermacentor andersoni.  

Science.gov (United States)

The salivary glands of ixodid ticks are complex organs which are known to contain the antigens responsible for tick resistance in animals. We have identified a large number of proteins from salivary gland extracts (SGE), at least some of which are immunologically recognized by tick resistant animals and which are therefore presumed to be secreted salivary components. During the 6 to 10 day feeding process, a number of these antigens alter in concentration according to individual kinetics, and some of these changes correlate with the kinetics of skin test reactivity of SGE obtained at different times throughout the feeding period. By use of immunoaffinity chromatography we have isolated large quantities of many of the salivary antigens (SGA) contained in SGE, and found that they contain several esterase activities. SGA stimulates both immediate and delayed skin reactions in tick resistant guinea-pigs, and these reactions are about 200-fold more intense, per unit protein, than those elicited by SGE. The skin reactions to SGA are basophil-mediated and have many features in common with the cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity reactions of tick resistant animals. The demonstrated antigenic complexity of the glands may have profound implications for attempts to develop anti-tick vaccines, as it may eventually be found that candidate vaccines will have to incorporate more than one tick antigen in order to be effective. PMID:3299226

Gordon, J R; Allen, J R

1987-05-01

265

Salivary testosterone and immunoglobulin A were increased by resistance training in adults with Down syndrome  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available This study was designed to assess the influence of resistance training on salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels and hormone profile in sedentary adults with Down syndrome (DS). A total of 40 male adults with DS were recruited for the trial through different community support groups for people with [...] intellectual disabilities. All participants had medical approval for participation in physical activity. Twenty-four adults were randomly assigned to perform resistance training in a circuit with six stations, 3 days per week for 12 weeks. Training intensity was based on functioning in the eight-repetition maximum (8RM) test for each exercise. The control group included 16 age-, gender-, and BMI-matched adults with DS. Salivary IgA, testosterone, and cortisol levels were measured by ELISA. Work task performance was assessed using the repetitive weighted-box-stacking test. Resistance training significantly increased salivary IgA concentration (P=0.0120; d=0.94) and testosterone levels (P=0.0088; d=1.57) in the exercising group. Furthermore, it also improved work task performance. No changes were seen in the controls who had not exercised. In conclusion, a short-term resistance training protocol improved mucosal immunity response as well as salivary testosterone levels in sedentary adults with DS.

G., Fornieles; M.A., Rosety; S., Elosegui; J.M., Rosety; J.R., Alvero-Cruz; N., Garcia; M., Rosety; T., Rodriguez-Pareja; R., Toro; M., Rosety-Rodriguez; F.J., Ordonez; I., Rosety.

2014-04-01

266

Salivary thyroxine as an estimate of free thyroxine: concise communication  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To test the hypothesis that the levels of salivary thyroxine (T/sub 4/) reflect those of circulating free T/sub 4/, we developed a radioimmunoassay (RIA) sensitive to low levels of T/sub 4/. Concurrent saliva and serum samples were obtained from 32 euthyroid volunteers, ages 19 to 64. Salivary and serum T/sub 4/ and cortisol levels were measured by RIA. Salivary albumin was measured by nephelometry. Salivary T/sub 4/ levels were higher than predicted. No correlation was found between salivary T/sub 4/ and serum levels of free T/sub 4/ and total T/sub 4/ but there was a significant correlation between salivary T/sub 4/ and albumin (r = 0.82). Salivary cortisol levels agreed with reported results and showed no correlation with salivary albumin. We conclude that salivary levels of drugs and hormones may be strongly affected by protein binding, and caution must be exercised in using salivary levels as an estimate of circulating free levels.

Elson, M.K.; Morley, J.E.; Shafer, R.B.

1983-08-01

267

Anopheles salivary gland proteomes from major malaria vectors  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibody responses against Anopheles salivary proteins can indicate individual exposure to bites of malaria vectors. The extent to which these salivary proteins are species-specific is not entirely resolved. Thus, a better knowledge of the diversity among salivary protein repertoires from various malaria vector species is necessary to select relevant genus-, subgenus- and/or species-specific salivary antigens. Such antigens could be used for quantitative (mosquito density and qualitative (mosquito species immunological evaluation of malaria vectors/host contact. In this study, salivary gland protein repertoires (sialomes from several Anopheles species were compared using in silico analysis and proteomics. The antigenic diversity of salivary gland proteins among different Anopheles species was also examined. Results In silico analysis of secreted salivary gland protein sequences retrieved from an NCBInr database of six Anopheles species belonging to the Cellia subgenus (An. gambiae, An. arabiensis, An. stephensi and An. funestus and Nyssorhynchus subgenus (An. albimanus and An. darlingi displayed a higher degree of similarity compared to salivary proteins from closely related Anopheles species. Additionally, computational hierarchical clustering allowed identification of genus-, subgenus- and species-specific salivary proteins. Proteomic and immunoblot analyses performed on salivary gland extracts from four Anopheles species (An. gambiae, An. arabiensis, An. stephensi and An. albimanus indicated that heterogeneity of the salivary proteome and antigenic proteins was lower among closely related anopheline species and increased with phylogenetic distance. Conclusion This is the first report on the diversity of the salivary protein repertoire among species from the Anopheles genus at the protein level. This work demonstrates that a molecular diversity is exhibited among salivary proteins from closely related species despite their common pharmacological activities. The involvement of these proteins as antigenic candidates for genus-, subgenus- or species-specific immunological evaluation of individual exposure to Anopheles bites is discussed.

Fontaine Albin

2012-11-01

268

Simultaneous determination of chromium, cadmium, and lead and evaluation of the correlation between chromium and cotinine in Chinese smokers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Heavy metals in tobacco caused wide public concern. To study the impact of heavy metals in smokers, 193 smokers and 58 nonsmokers were surveyed, and their urinary levels of chromium (UCr), lead (UPb), and cadmium (UCd) were assayed. In this study, UCr, UPb, and UCd in smokers (33.41 ± 14.99, 3.21 ± 1.34, 0.38 ± 0.64 ?g/24 h, respectively) and nonsmokers (27.45 ± 10.49, 3.02 ± 0.88, 0.20 ± 0.16 ?g/24 h, respectively) were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results showed that the content of UCr, UPb, and UCd in smokers were higher than in nonsmokers. Further analyses of correlations between the levels of urinary chromium and cotinine revealed positive relationship (correlation coefficient r = 0.51). PMID:24526319

Tian, Yongfeng; Hou, Hongwei; Zhu, Fengpeng; Wang, An; Liu, Yong; Hu, Qingyuan

2014-04-01

269

THE EFFECT OF SPORT COMPETITION ON SALIVARY STEROIDS IN AMATEUR FEMALE KARATE ATHLETES  

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Full Text Available The purpose of present study was to investigate the impact of repeated competition on salivary cortisol and DHEA-S in amateur women karate athletes. We recruited 20 young elite female karate fighters [height 158 ± 7 cm (mean ± S.D., weight 59.5 ± 10.9 kg, age 21.1 ± 3.0 years], who were placed first till fourth in the Iranian championship tournament. Five ml of unstimulated whole saliva was collected 30-min before and 5 - min after first and last match in competition and analyzed for cortisol and DHEA-S concentrations. The results showed that participation in competition resulted in significantly increased saliva cortisol level (p 0.05. Significant differences insalivary steroids were not different between winners and losers (p > 0.05. The results of present study show that salivary cortisol concentration is a suitable index for showing competing stress.

Mohammad Ali Azarbayjani

2010-06-01

270

CHANGES IN SOME BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN THE SALIVARY GLANDS OF TWO IXODID TICKS  

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Full Text Available Extracts of salivary glands of the two types of ticks namely, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and a Rhipocephalus sanguineus sanguineus , were subjected to the test of some biochemical parameters . The total protein intensity has been estimated in salivary glands extracts in the two types, high percentage was found in H.anatolicum compared with R.sanguineus forms, (104.12±4.93 and (91.33±3.04 microgram/Cm3 respectively. The intensity of carbohydrates in salivary gland extracts was high in H.anatolicum (0.640±0.009, after comparing with a lower intensity for R.sanguineuss (0.360 ±0.004 microgram/Cm3. The lipid intensity in salivary glands was high in R.sanguineus (245.37±8.76 compared with concentrations in H.anatolicum (244.80±9.27microgram/Cm3.The total isolation of protein amount in the salivary glands in both types of tick, electrophoresis technique with Poly acrylamid gel with SDS has been implied to trace the most important separated proteins. The results denotes the existence of the four protein bands in H.anatolicum, and three protein bands in R.sanguineus, and their molecular weights were recognized. The Molecular weights for the four bands were; 76.190, 53.616, 38.168, and 16.614 kDa, respectively, while the molecular weight for the three protein bands were 73.569, 51.760, and 32.779 kDa, respectively.

Iman Daham H. Al-Mola

2012-06-01

271

Central Nifedipine-induced Alterations in Salivary Flow and Compounds: Role of Nitric Oxide  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the role of nifedipine and Nitric Oxide (NO on salivary flow and compounds (salivary amylase, saliva total proteins, saliva calcium, sodium and potassium. Male Holtzman rats weighting 200-250 g were anesthetized with zoletil 50 mg kg-1 (tiletamine chloridrate 125.0 mg and zolazepan chloridrate 125.0 mg into quadriceps muscle and stainless steel cannulas were implanted into their lateral ventricle of the brain (LV. Animals in divided group were injected with nifedipine (50 ?g ?L-1 alone and in combination with 7-nitroindazol (7-NIT (40 ?g ?L-1, neuronal NO Sinthase Inhibitor (nNOSI and Sodium Nitroprussate (SNP (30 ?g ?L-1 NO donor agent. As a secretory stimuli, pilocarpine dissolved in isotonic was administered intraperitoneally (ip at a dosage of 10 mg kg-1 body weight. Saliva was collected for 7 min with four cotton balls weighing approximately 20 mg each, two of which were placed on either side of the oral cavity, with the other two placed under the tongue. Nifedipine treatment induced a reduction in saliva secretion rate and concentration of amylase, total protein and calcium without changes in sodium and potassium concentration in comparison with controls. Co-treatment of animals with nifedipine and SNP retained flow rate and concentration of amylase, total protein and calcium in normal levels. Co-treatment of animals with nifedipine and 7-NIT potentiated the effect of nifedipine on the reduction of saliva secretion and concentrations of amylase, total protein and calcium. Nifedipine (dihydroperidine calcium-channel blocker widely in use is associated with salivary dysfunction acting in the central nervous system structures. NO might be the mechanism for protective effect against the nifedipine-induce salivary dysfunction, acting in the CNS.

Wilson Abrao Saad

2006-01-01

272

Localization of lysozyme mRNA in the labial salivary glands by in situ hybridization in Sjoegren's syndrome  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, lysozyme mRNA in labial salivary glands has been localized with in situ hybridization technique using 35S-labeled hen lysozyme cDNA (cDNALZM) as a hybridization probe in normals and in patients with Sjoegren's syndrome. 35S-DNALZM:mRNA hybrids were detected only in acinar serous cells, although lysozyme was identified in ductal cells using immunohistochemical techniques. Our results suggest that the serous acinar cells are the only site of lysozyme synthesis in small salivary glands. The presence of lysozyme in ductal cells may be a result of reabsorption from the saliva or concentration from the blood or surrounding tissues. (author)

273

Salivary cortisol hypersecretion in juvenile depression.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirty depressed inpatients aged 7-16 yrs were compared for salivary hypercortisolism with a control group of 16 inpatients of mixed diagnosis matched for age and sex. Four cortisol samples were taken over a 48 hr period: 8 a.m. and 11 p.m. on the first day; then, with 1 mg of dexamethasone given immediately after the second sample, at 4 p.m. and 11 p.m. on the second day. All except the 8 a.m. value were significantly greater (P less than 0.03) in the depressed group. A 4 nmol/l cutoff for the 4 p.m. sample gave 48% sensitivity and 91% specificity for discriminating depressed cases (P = 0.03). The results indicate that the salivary method for estimating cortisol levels in children and adolescents with depression warrants further study. PMID:3417807

Foreman, D M; Goodyer, I M

1988-05-01

274

Submandibular swelling: tooth or salivary stone?  

Science.gov (United States)

Submandibular swelling is a common clinical disorder of the maxillo-facial region that may be one of the manifestation of several pathologic disorders including sialolithiasis. A 38-year-old woman experienced a recurrent painful swelling in the right submandibular region for seven years. The symptoms, not always meal-related, gradually became chronic and associated with dysphagia, odynophagia and fever. Ultrasonography of the salivary glands revealed a retained glandular structure and no ductal obstruction or dilatation, and orthopantomography showed the presence of a structure compatible with tooth, but these findings did not correlate with clinical scenario. Only CT dental scan identified the radiological image as a salivary stone. Sialolithiasis should always be considered in the diagnostic iter of painful submandibular swelling. A careful evaluation of recurrence and characteristics of signs and symptoms associated to the swelling can help in making the correct diagnosis and planning a proper therapeutic strategy. PMID:24025889

Capaccio, Pasquale; Marciante, Giulia Anna; Gaffuri, Michele; Spadari, Francesco

2013-01-01

275

Salivary gland doses from dental radiographic exposures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Salivary gland doses incurred during dental radiography were measured by phantom dosimetry, and these dose data and data obtained during a two-week survey of Hiroshima and Nagasaki dental hospitals and clinics were used to estimate the respective doses to members of the populations of the two cities. The results obtained were used to supplement previously determined doses to the thyroid gland, lens, and pituitary gland from dental radiography. No significant differences in doses were observed by age, sex or city. Doses to the salivary glands during dental radiography are probably not sufficiently large to cause bias in assessments of atomic bomb survivors for late radiation effects. However, the steadily increasing use of dental radiography underscores the need for continued monitoring of dental radiography doses in the interests of these assessments. (author)

276

Pleomorphic adenoma of minor salivary gland in the parapharyngeal space  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Majority of tumours occurring in minor salivary gland are malignant. Pleomorphic adenoma is of rare occurrence in parapharangeal space. Case presentation A rare case of a minor salivary gland pleomorphic adenoma of the parapharyngeal space is reported. Review of literature, clinical features, pathology, radiological findings and treatment of these tumours are discussed. Conclusions Parapharangeal salivary tumours presents as a painless progressive swelling with majority of...

Abraham Elizabeth K; Sebastian Paul; Varghese Bipin T; Mathews Anitha

2003-01-01

277

Lifestyle, mental health status and salivary secretion rates  

OpenAIRE

The relations between salivary variables, lifestyle and mental health status were investigated for 61 healthy female university students. The salivary secretion rates were significantly higher in the good lifestyle groups compared with the poor lifestyle groups. Among the 8 lifestyle items tested. “eating breakfast” and “mental stress” were significantly related to the salivary secretion rates. The present findings suggest that the acquisition of a good lifestyle is also very importan...

Toda, Masahiro; Morimoto, Kanehisa; Fukuda, Sanae; Hayakawa, Kazuo

2002-01-01

278

Hemangioma in minor salivary glands: real or illusion  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Hemangioma is a common soft tissue lesion in the head and neck region. Hemangioma in the context of minor salivary glands is rarely encountered in surgical pathology practice, and for this reason most pathologist are often unfamiliar with its histomorphological features. We report a rare histological finding of salivary gland structures within a cavernous hemangioma, which may or may not have originated in the minor salivary gland.

Kumaran Mayelam G; Shankar Kolappan A; Karunakaran Kaliappan; SureshKumar Palani; Ponniah Irulandy; Preeti Lakshmi

2006-01-01

279

Determination of the Nicotine Metabolites Cotinine and Trans-3?-Hydroxycotinine in Biologic fluids of Smokers and Non-Smokers using Liquid Chromatography - Tandem Mass Spectrometry: Biomarkers for Tobacco Smoke Exposure and for Phenotyping Cytochrome P450 2A6 Activity  

OpenAIRE

The nicotine metabolite cotinine is widely used to assess the extent of tobacco use in smokers, and secondhand smoke exposure in non-smokers. The ratio of another nicotine metabolite, trans-3?-hydroxycotinine, to cotinine in biofluids is highly correlated with the rate of nicotine metabolism, which is catalyzed mainly by Cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6). Consequently, this nicotine metabolite ratio is being used to phenotype individuals for CYP2A6 activity and to individualize pharmacotherapies...

Jacob, Peyton; Yu, Lisa; Duan, Minjiang; Ramos, Lita; Yturralde, Olivia; Benowitz, Neal L.

2010-01-01

280

Validation of a cortisol enzyme immunoassay and characterization of salivary cortisol circadian rhythm in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).  

Science.gov (United States)

Monitoring concentrations of stress hormones is an important tool for behavioral research and conservation for animals both in the wild and captivity. Glucocorticoids can be measured in mammals as an indicator of stress by analyzing blood, feces, urine, hair, feathers, or saliva. The advantages of using saliva for measuring cortisol concentrations are three-fold: it is minimally invasive, multiple samples can be collected from the same individual in a short timeframe, and cortisol has a relatively short response time in saliva as compared with other materials. The purpose of this study was to: (1) conduct an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge as a physiological validation for an enzyme immunoassay to measure salivary cortisol in chimpanzees and (2) characterize the circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol in chimpanzees. We determined that salivary cortisol concentrations peaked 45 min following the ACTH challenge, which is similar to humans. Also, salivary cortisol concentrations peaked early in the morning and decreased throughout the day. We recommend that saliva collection may be the most effective method of measuring stress reactivity and has the potential to complement behavioral, cognitive, physiological, and welfare studies. PMID:21538448

Heintz, Matthew R; Santymire, Rachel M; Parr, Lisa A; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V

2011-09-01

281

Social Closeness Increases Salivary Progesterone in Humans  

OpenAIRE

We examined whether interpersonal closeness increases salivary progesterone. One hundred and sixty female college students (80 dyads) were randomly assigned to participate in either a closeness task with a partner versus a neutral task with a partner. Those exposed to the closeness induction had higher levels of progesterone relative to those exposed to the neutral task. Across conditions, progesterone increase one week later predicted the willingness to sacrifice for the partner. These resul...

Brown, Stephanie L.; Fredrickson, Barbara L.; Wirth, Michelle M.; Poulin, Michael J.; Meier, Elizabeth A.; Heaphy, Emily D.; Cohen, Michael D.; Schultheiss, Oliver C.

2009-01-01

282

Salivary cortisol and psychosocial hazards at work  

OpenAIRE

Background Experimental and clinical evidence suggest that stress can lead to ill-health through the disregulation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis. Studies to date have produced equivocal results likely due to different methodologies and failure to account for confounding factors. This investigation aimed to assess the relation between self-reported work-related stressors and salivary cortisol and to clarify the role of the potential confounders. Methods Thirty-six cal...

Maina, Giovanni

2009-01-01

283

Salivary Cortisol Lower in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder  

OpenAIRE

Altered cortisol has been demonstrated to be lower in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in most studies. This cross-sectional study evaluated salivary cortisol at waking, 30 minutes after, and bedtime in 51 combat veterans with PTSD compared to 20 veterans without PTSD. It also examined the relationship of cortisol to PTSD symptoms using two classifications: DSM-IV and the more recent four-factor classification proposed for DSM-V. The PTSD group had lower cortisol values than the control g...

Wahbeh, Helane?; Oken, Barry S.

2013-01-01

284

Aphasia Severity and Salivary Cortisol over Time  

OpenAIRE

The current study explored the complicated interplay between aphasia and the stress biomarker, cortisol, in left hemisphere (LH) and right hemisphere (RH) stroke patients. Nineteen LH patients and 12 RH patients began the study between one to six months post-stroke and were followed for three months. During this time, language skills were assessed monthly while afternoon salivary cortisol samples were collected biweekly. The LH and RH groups showed improvements in language test scores over th...

Laures-gore, Jacqueline S.

2012-01-01

285

Salivary duct carcinoma of parotid gland- An incidental finding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Salivary duct carcinoma, a recently added separate entity of salivary gland tumor is a rare tumour with its aggressive behaviour. Due to morphological similarities with ductal carcinoma of breast the name salivary duct carcinoma is given. It is more common in male than in female. But our case is of 45yr female with mass in the parotid region. The diagnosis on USG and CT was organized collection. But on excision the diagnosis turned to be salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland

Suparna Suvernakar V, Shubha Deshpande A, Prabha Mulay S

2014-07-01

286

Oxidative DNA damage and repair in children exposed to low levels of arsenic in utero and during early childhood: Application of salivary and urinary biomarkers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study aimed to assess arsenic exposure and its effect on oxidative DNA damage and repair in young children exposed in utero and continued to live in arsenic-contaminated areas. To address the need for biological specimens that can be acquired with minimal discomfort to children, we used non-invasive urinary and salivary-based assays for assessing arsenic exposure and early biological effects that have potentially serious health implications. Levels of arsenic in nails showed the greatest magnitude of difference between exposed and control groups, followed by arsenic concentrations in saliva and urine. Arsenic levels in saliva showed significant positive correlations with other biomarkers of arsenic exposure, including arsenic accumulation in nails (r = 0.56, P < 0.001) and arsenic concentration in urine (r = 0.50, P < 0.05). Exposed children had a significant reduction in arsenic methylation capacity indicated by decreased primary methylation index and secondary methylation index in both urine and saliva samples. Levels of salivary 8-OHdG in exposed children were significantly higher (? 4-fold, P < 0.01), whereas levels of urinary 8-OHdG excretion and salivary hOGG1 expression were significantly lower in exposed children (? 3-fold, P < 0.05), suggesting a defect in hOGG1 that resulted in ineffective cleavage of 8-OHdG. Multiple regression analysis results showed that levels of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in saliva and urine had a significant positive association with salivary 8-OHdG and a significant negative association with salivary hOGG1 expression. - Highlights: • The effects of arsenic exposure in utero and through early childhood were studied. • Arsenic-exposed children had a reduction in arsenic methylation capacity. • Exposed children had more DNA damage, observed as elevated salivary 8-OHdG. • Lower salivary hOGG1 in exposed children indicated impairment of 8-OHdG repair. • Salivary and urinary 8-OHdG levels were discordant

287

pH Salival, Capacidad Buffer, Proteínas Totales y Flujo Salival en Pacientes Hipertensos Controlados Usuarios de Diuréticos / Salivary pH, Buffer Capacity, Total Proteins and Salivary Flow in Controlled Hypertensive Patients Diuretic Users  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available La hipertensión arterial (HTA) es una enfermedad cardiovascular que padece gran parte de la población mundial y nacional, alcanzando en Chile un 26,9% en el año 2010. El objetivo fue determinar pH salival, capacidad buffer, proteínas totales y flujo salival, en pacientes hipertensos controlados usua [...] rios de diuréticos. Se analizaron 14 muestras de saliva no estimulada de pacientes hipertensos controlados con diuréticos y 10 muestras de saliva no estimulada de personas que no padecían enfermedades sistémicas y no tomaban medicamentos, los valores obtenidos de pH salival, capacidad buffer, flujo salival y proteínas totales fueron determinados en ambos grupos. La mediana obtenida en las muestras de hipertensos controlados con diuréticos, para el pH salival fue de 6,83; para la capacidad buffer fue 4,86; para el flujo salival fue 0,55 ml/min y para las proteínas totales salivales fue de 1,09 g/dL. Para el grupo de pacientes sanos la mediana fue de 6,88 para el pH; 4,25 para la capacidad buffer; 1,8 ml/min para el flujo salival y 0,29 g/dL para las proteínas totales salivales. Además, no se encontró asociación entre el flujo salival (rs = 0,425), capacidad buffer (rs = 0,283) y concentración de proteínas (rs = 0,245) con la dosis del diurético (p > 0,05) . Se encontró que existieron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en el flujo salival y la concentración de proteínas salivales entre el grupo de pacientes hipertensos y de pacientes sanos (U Mann-Wthitney P 0,005). Los pacientes que sufren HTA y están siendo controlados con diuréticos tienen una disminución del flujo salival y un aumento de la concentración de proteínas, no viéndose afectadas las variables de pH y capacidad buffer. Abstract in english Introduction: Hypertension (HT) is a cardiovascular disease with a high prevalence around the world. In Chile at year 2010 it reached 26.9% of the population. Objective: To determine salivary pH, buffering capacity, total proteins and salivary flow in controlled hypertensive diuretic users and a gro [...] up without systemic diseases. Methods: 14 samples of unstimulated saliva of patients with hypertension treated with diuretics and 10 samples of unstimulated saliva of people without systemic diseases and not taking medication were analyzed. pH, salivary buffering, salivary flow and total protein were determined in both groups. Results: The figures for the treated HT patients were as follows: pH: 6.83, buffer capacity: 4.86, salivary flow: 0.55 ml / min and total salivary proteins: 1.09 g / dL. For those without systemic diseases the results were: pH: 6,88, buffer capacity: 4,25, saliva flow: 1.8 ml / min and total salivary protein: 0.29 g / dL. No association was found between salivary flow (rs = 0.425), buffering capacity (rs = 0.283) and protein concentration (rs = 0.245) with the diuretic dose (p > 0.05). Statistically significant differences were found in salivary flow and total salivary protein concentration between the group with hypertension and without. (U Mann-Wthitney P > 0.005). No statistically significant differences in salivary pH and buffering capacity were found among the study groups (U Mann-Wthitney > 0.005). Conclusion: Patients with hypertension and treated with diuretics have a decreased salivary flow and an increased total protein concentration while ph and buffer capacity remained normal.

Samuel, Muñoz L; Carmen Gloria, Narváez.

2012-04-01

288

S-100 protein antibodies do not label normal salivary gland myoepithelium. Histogenetic implications for salivary gland tumors.  

OpenAIRE

Neoplastically modified myoepithelial cells have a key role in developing the histologic characteristics of some salivary gland tumors. S-100 protein expressed in certain of these tumors is suggested to support this role, as the principal component in the human salivary gland reported to be S-100 protein-positive is myoepithelium. Confirmation of such an important aspect is required. Immunoperoxidase staining of parotid salivary gland shows considerably different patterns obtained with antibo...

Dardick, I.; Stratis, M.; Parks, W. R.; Denardi, F. G.; Kahn, H. J.

1991-01-01

289

Weight Control Methods Related to Cotinine-Verified Smoking among Korean Adult Women: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2011  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Korean women are known to have a very low smoking rate. However, the actual smoking rate among Korean women is higher than 10% and may continue to increase gradually. In addition, some Korean women use extreme weight control methods that have potentially harmful effects. This study was conducted to elucidate weight control methods related to cotinine-verified smoking among Korean adult women. Methods This cross-sectional study involved 4,189 women aged ?19 years who had attempted weight control during the past 1 year from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2011. Smoking status was assessed using both self-report questionnaires and assays of urinary cotinine, and weight control methods were investigated using self-report questionnaires. Results The smoking rate based on the measurement of urinary cotinine was 12.4% ± 0.8% among Korean women. Cotinine-verified smokers were more likely to attempt fasting (odds ratio, 2.19; 95% confidence intervals, 1.03 to 4.67), taking prescription diet-pills (odds ratio, 2.37; 95% confidence intervals, 1.47 to 3.82), and taking nonprescription diet-pills (odds ratio, 3.46; 95% confidence intervals, 1.71 to 6.98), and were less likely to attempt eating less food or modifying dietary patterns (odds ratio, 0.71; 95% confidence intervals, 0.51 to 0.99) compared to non-smokers. Conclusion Korean adult women's smoking is independently related to a high likelihood of using weight control methods with potentially harmful effects, such as fasting and taking diet-pills, and a low likelihood of choosing weight control methods, including dietary modification, that require constant effort for a prolonged time. PMID:25802688

Kim, Young Kyun; Kang, Jae Heon; Park, Hyun Ah; Kim, Kyoung Woo; Hur, Yang Im; Yoo, Yeon Gak; An, Jiyoung

2015-01-01

290

Measuring environmental tobacco smoke exposure in infants and young children through urine cotinine and memory-based parental reports: empirical findings and discussion  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE—This study examined the reliability and potential biases of two urine collection methods from which cotinine measures were obtained and the validity of memory-based parental reports of their children's exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS).?DESIGN—Structured interviews were conducted with mothers of infants and young children to obtain memory-based estimates of recent ETS exposure. Urine samples were collected through standard and cotton roll collection methods for cot...

Matt, G.; Wahlgren, D.; Hovell, M.; Zakarian, J.; Bernert, J.; Meltzer, S.; Pirkle, J.; Caudill, S.

1999-01-01

291

Salivary expression of soluble HER2 in breast cancer patients with positive and negative HER2 status  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between salivary concentration of the soluble fragment of the HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor) protein and its status in mammary tissues. Methods This case-control study was done in 27 breast cancer patients with no visible metastatic disease treated at the gynecology service, Maternity Souissi Hospital, Rabat, Morocco. Two groups were selected, ie, patients with positive and negative HER2 status in mammary tissue. The salivary HER2 protein concentration was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The salivary HER2 concentration was compared between the HER2-positive and HER2-negative groups using the Mann-Whitney U test. A P-value 0.05), except for the progesterone hormone receptor which was statistically significant in both the case and control groups (P=0.047). Conclusion According to our data, salivary expression of the HER2 receptor may not be a reliable alternative to tissue assessment. PMID:25053886

Laidi, Fatna; Bouziane, Amal; Lakhdar, Amina; Khabouze, Samira; Rhrab, Brahim; Zaoui, Fatima

2014-01-01

292

Measuring salivary analytes from free-ranging monkeys.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies of large free-ranging mammals have been revolutionized by non-invasive methods for assessing physiology, which usually involve the measurement of fecal or urinary biomarkers. However, such techniques are limited by numerous factors. To expand the range of physiological variables measurable non-invasively from free-ranging primates, we developed techniques for sampling monkey saliva by offering monkeys ropes with oral swabs sewn on the ends. We evaluated different attractants for encouraging individuals to offer samples, and proportions of individuals in different age/sex categories willing to give samples. We tested the saliva samples we obtained in three commercially available assays: cortisol, salivary alpha amylase, and secretory immunoglobulin A. We show that habituated free-ranging rhesus macaques will give saliva samples voluntarily without training, with 100% of infants, and over 50% of adults willing to chew on collection devices. Our field methods are robust even for analytes that show poor recovery from cotton, and/or that have concentrations dependent on salivary flow rate. We validated the cortisol and SAA assays for use in rhesus macaques by showing aspects of analytical validation, such as that samples dilute linearly and in parallel to assay standards. We also found that values measured correlated with biologically meaningful characteristics of sampled individuals (age and dominance rank). The SIgA assay tested did not react to samples. Given the wide range of analytes measurable in saliva but not in feces or urine, our methods considerably improve our ability to study physiological aspects of the behavior and ecology of free-ranging primates, and are also potentially adaptable to other mammalian taxa. PMID:20837036

Higham, James P; Vitale, Alison B; Rivera, Adaris Mas; Ayala, James E; Maestripieri, Dario

2010-12-01

293

Cotinine exposure increases Fallopian tube PROKR1 expression via nicotinic AChRalpha-7: a potential mechanism explaining the link between smoking and tubal ectopic pregnancy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tubal ectopic pregnancy (EP) is the most common cause of maternal mortality in the first trimester of pregnancy; however, its etiology is uncertain. In EP, embryo retention within the Fallopian tube (FT) is thought to be due to impaired smooth muscle contractility (SMC) and alterations in the tubal microenvironment. Smoking is a major risk factor for EP. FTs from women with EP exhibit altered prokineticin receptor-1 (PROKR1) expression, the receptor for prokineticins (PROK). PROK1 is angiogenic, regulates SMC, and is involved in intrauterine implantation. We hypothesized that smoking predisposes women to EP by altering tubal PROKR1 expression. Sera/FT were collected at hysterectomy (n=21). Serum levels of the smoking metabolite, cotinine, were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. FTs were analyzed by q-RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and Western blotting for expression of PROKR1 and the predicted cotinine receptor, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ?-7 (AChR?-7). FT explants (n=4) and oviductal epithelial cells (cell line OE-E6/E7) were treated with cotinine and an nAChR?-7 antagonist. PROKR1 transcription was higher in FTs from smokers (PE6/E7 cells increased PROKR1 expression (P<0.05), which was negated by cotreatment with nAChR?-7 antagonist. Smoking targets human FTs via nAChR?-7 to increase tubal PROKR1, leading to alterations in the tubal microenvironment that could predispose to EP. PMID:20864676

Shaw, Julie L V; Oliver, Elizabeth; Lee, Kai-Fai; Entrican, Gary; Jabbour, Henry N; Critchley, Hilary O D; Horne, Andrew W

2010-11-01

294

Postnatal salivary cortisol and sense of coherence (SOC) in Eritrean mothers.  

Science.gov (United States)

This pilot study explores possible physiological correlates of maternal sense of coherence (SOC) by looking at salivary cortisol levels in Eritrean mothers during the immediate pre- and postnatal period. Samples of pre- and postnatal resting whole saliva were obtained from 19 mothers and from 31 controls in Ghinda. Radioimmunoassay results revealed no differences between prenatal and control concentrations of salivary cortisol, but postnatal levels were significantly lower (P < 0.014). Mothers who delivered in hospital had significantly higher SOC scores compared to those who opted for home birth (P < 0.045). This difference was particularly pronounced in the comprehensibility subscale of the SOC scores (P < 0.037). Moreover, mothers with higher comprehensibility scores showed significantly lower postnatal cortisol levels (P < 0.017). No associations were found between cortisol and age or parity. The implications of these findings for maternity health service policy and practice in Eritrea are considered. PMID:15849703

Almedom, Astier M; Teclemichael, Tesfaldet; Romero, L Michael; Alemu, Zemui

2005-01-01

295

Human salivary gland stem cells ameliorate hyposalivation of radiation-damaged rat salivary glands.  

Science.gov (United States)

Salivary function in mammals may be defective for various reasons, such as aging, Sjogren's syndrome or radiation therapy in head and neck cancer patients. Recently, tissue-specific stem cell therapy has attracted public attention as a next-generation therapeutic reagent. In the present study, we isolated tissue-specific stem cells from the human submandibular salivary gland (hSGSCs). To efficiently isolate and amplify hSGSCs in large amounts, we developed a culture system (lasting 4-5 weeks) without any selection. After five passages, we obtained adherent cells that expressed mesenchymal stem cell surface antigen markers, such as CD44, CD49f, CD90 and CD105, but not the hematopoietic stem cell markers, CD34 and CD45, and that were able to undergo adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. In addition, hSGSCs were differentiated into amylase-expressing cells by using a two-step differentiation method. Transplantation of hSGSCs to radiation-damaged rat salivary glands rescued hyposalivation and body weight loss, restored acinar and duct cell structure, and decreased the amount of apoptotic cells. These data suggest that the isolated hSGSCs, which may have characteristics of mesenchymal-like stem cells, could be used as a cell therapy agent for the damaged salivary gland. PMID:24232257

Jeong, Jaemin; Baek, Hyunjung; Kim, Yoon-Ju; Choi, Youngwook; Lee, Heekyung; Lee, Eunju; Kim, Eun Sook; Hah, Jeong Hun; Kwon, Tack-Kyun; Choi, Ik Joon; Kwon, Heechung

2013-01-01

296

Genetic regulation of salivary gland development in Drosophila melanogaster.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies of salivary gland development in the Drosophila embryo have revealed the morphogenic events by which the salivary gland tubes are formed, and identified the genes and genetic networks that regulate these events. Invagination of the salivary gland primordium occurs by an apical constriction mechanism regulated by the tyrosine kinase, Tec29, the transcription factors, Fork head and Huckebein, and Rho GTPase-mediated actomyosin contraction. After invagination is complete, transcriptional control of the apical membrane protein, Crumbs, by the transcription factors, Hairy, Hkb and Ribbon, and downregulation of Moesin-dependent apical stiffness promotes elongation of the salivary gland lumen. Integrin-mediated adhesion between the gland and surrounding mesoderm, coupled with Rho GTPase-mediated contraction of the proximal gland cells and downregulation of E-cadherin-based cell-cell adhesion by the Rac GTPases, allow turning and posterior migration of the salivary gland. Further posterior migration of the salivary gland is dependent on axon guidance cues, such as Robo and Slit, and close association with surrounding tissues. Many of the genes identified as regulators of salivary gland invagination and migration also control invagination of other epithelial tissues and migration of diverse cell types. Thus, studies of Drosophila salivary gland morphogenesis continue to illuminate the conserved mechanisms by which cells give rise to three-dimensional tissues and organs during embryogenesis. PMID:20428010

Pirraglia, Carolyn; Myat, Monn Monn

2010-01-01

297

Direct salivary cortisol radio-immunoassay determination. Clinical applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Salivary cortisol levels reflect the biologically active free fraction of blood cortisol. The authors describe the results obtained with the aim of a radio-immunoassay commercial serum cortisol kit, without prealable extraction in different physiological and pathological situations. Salivary cortisol determination appears performant both in nycthemeral studies and in stimulation or freination tests

298

Direct salivary cortisol radio-immunoassay determination. Clinical applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Salivary cortisol levels reflect the biologically active free fraction of blood cortisol. The authors describe the results obtained with the aim of a radio-immunoassay commercial serum cortisol kit, without prealable extraction in different physiological and pathological situations. Salivary cortisol determination appears performant both in nycthemeral studies and in stimulation or freination tests.

Simon, C.; Cherfan, J.; Kurtz, F.; Vignon, F.; Schlienger, J.L.; Chabrier, G.; Sapin, R.

1987-04-01

299

Intimate Partner Violence Exposure, Salivary Cortisol, and Childhood Asthma  

Science.gov (United States)

Parents were given supplies to collect 3 child salivary cortisol samples (awakening, 30-min after awakening, bedtime) at home on a typical day, and return them via mail. Medical records also were abstracted. Results: Fifty-three percent (n = 29) returned child salivary samples. Families who returned samples typically returned them within 2 weeks,…

Bair-Merritt, Megan H.; Johnson, Sara B.; Okelo, Sande; Page, Gayle

2012-01-01

300

Determinación de los niveles de cortisol salival en una muestra de sujetos de Santiago de Chile Salivary cortisol among subjects with and without Cushing syndrome  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Salivary cortisol measurement is recommended as a screening mea-sure when a Cushing Syndrome is suspected. Theproposed cut-offpointfor aprobable diagnosis is 0.16 ug/dL. Aim: To determine salivary cortisol concentrations during the day inpatients with and without Cushing syndrome and with depression. Material and Methods: Salivary cortisol was measured by competitive enzyme immuno assay (EIA, in samples obtained at 8:00,15:00 and 23:00 h in 78 patients without Cushing syndrome, aged 40 ± 15years (28 males, 30 patients with depression aged 40 ± 12years (nine males and four jemales with Cushing syndrome aged 42 ± 17 years. Results: Salivary cortisol was higher among patients with Cushing syndrome than the rest of patients. A salivary cortisol over the cut-off value of O.16 ug/dL was found in 42% of subjects without Cushing syndrome and in 33% of patients with depression. Median values among patients without Cushing syndrome, depression and with Cushing syndrome were 0.21 (range < 0.1-1.42, 0.2 (range 0,12-0.9 and 0.58 (range 0.37-1.1 ug/dL, respectively Conclusions: Salivary cortisol measured by EIA method was higher among patients with Cushing syndrome but there was a great overlap with values obtained in subjects without the syndrome.

MACARENA LÉPEZ

2010-02-01

301

Evaluation of anxiety and salivary chromogranin a secretion in women receiving breast conserving surgery followed by radiation therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We conducted a prospective study to assess the anxiety and salivary Chromogranin A (CgA), which is considered to be a biomarker of the stress response, in outpatients receiving breast conserving surgery followed by radiation therapy (RT) to the whole breast. Fifty consecutive patients who received whole-breast RT were enrolled in this study. The anxiety levels were measured by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) at the beginning of RT (baseline), 30 Gy, completion of RT, and 1 and 3 months after RT. Salivary CgA levels were also measured at the same time. The mean state anxiety score for all patients was 46.16 with a standard error (SE) of 1.57 at the beginning of RT (baseline) which continued to decline during and after RT. It reached its lowest score with 36.34±1.56 at 3 months after RT (p<0.0001). The mean trait anxiety score for all patients was 43.10±1.54 at baseline and remained constant during RT but began to decline after completion of RT and reached a low level at 3 months after RT (p=0.0021). The mean salivary CgA concentration for all patients demonstrated no consistent trends over time, but at 30 Gy the concentration showed a significant decreasing pattern (p=0.0473). Salivary CgA concentrations and state anxiety and trait anxiety scores at all time points showed no correlation. The mean anxiety scores measured by State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) showed no positive correlation with salivary CgA concentration for breast cancer patients undergoingon for breast cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy following breast conserving surgery. (author)

302

Identifying sources and estimating glandular output of salivary TIMP-1  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Objective. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1) has been identified as a potential biomarker in diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Since TIMP-1 resides in most tissues and bodily fluids, we evaluated the potential of using saliva to obtain reproducible TIMP-1 measurements in a non-invasive manner. Material and methods. Samples of unstimulated and stimulated whole saliva and saliva collected from individual glands were analysed for TIMP-1 content. A TIMP-1 ELISA was validated for use in saliva testing and the most optimal sampling and handling procedures for reproducible measurements identified. Western blotting and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry were used for confirmatory analyses. Results. The TIMP-1 ELISA was found suitable for saliva measurements. All saliva secretions contained TIMP-1, but in different concentrations ranging from 2.81 ng/mL in submandibular/sublingual saliva to 173.88 ng/mL in parotid saliva. TIMP-1 concentrations were influenced to a varying degree by fluctuations in flow. We found the lowest output in submandibular/sublingual saliva stimulated with 0.5 % citric acid (3.56 ng/min) and highest output in chewing-stimulated whole saliva (267.01 ng/min). Conclusion. This study shows that saliva contains authentic TIMP-1, the concentration of which was found to depend on gland type and salivary flow. Stimulated whole saliva is suggested as a reliable and easily accessible source for TIMP-1 determinations in bodily fluids.

Holten-Andersen, L; Beier Jensen, S

2008-01-01

303

Can we rescue salivary gland function after irradiation?  

Science.gov (United States)

Hyposalivation induced by exposure of the salivary gland to radiation while treating head and neck cancer patients, can result in xerostomia (dry mouth syndrome), which burdens the patient with oral dryness or pain, dental caries, reduced taste and smell, increased risk for oral infections, hampered speech, and problems with food mastication. Stem cell therapy may be an option to reduce radiation-induced damage to the salivary glands permanently. This Directions in Science article reviews a recent study (Lombaert et al, 2008) using tissue stem cells to regenerate the salivary glands from cells that originate from putative stem cells residing in the ductal compartment. Lombaert et al showed restoration of function of irreversibly damaged mouse submandibular glands after intraglandular injection of an in vitro cultured c-Kit+ cell population containing salivary gland stem cells. The findings raise the prospect of clinical autologous salivary gland stem cell transplantation after radiotherapy. PMID:18836667

Feng, Jielin; Coppes, Robert P

2008-01-01

304

Evaluation of the Effects of Quercetin on Damaged Salivary Secretion  

Science.gov (United States)

With the aim of discovering an effective method to treat dry mouth, we analyzed the effects of quercetin on salivary secretion and its mechanism of action. We created a mouse model with impaired salivary secretion by exposure to radiation and found that impaired secretion is suppressed by quercetin intake. Moreover, secretion levels were enhanced in quercetin-fed normal mice. To elucidate the mechanisms of these effects on salivary secretion, we conducted an analysis using mouse submandibular gland tissues, a human salivary gland epithelial cell line (HSY), and mouse aortic endothelial cells (MAECs). The results showed that quercetin augments aquaporin 5 (AQP5) expression and calcium uptake, and suppresses oxidative stress and inflammatory responses induced by radiation exposure, suggesting that quercetin intake may be an effective method to treat impaired salivary secretion. PMID:25629520

Takahashi, Ayako; Inoue, Hiroko; Mishima, Kenji; Ide, Fumio; Nakayama, Ryoko; Hasaka, Ayaka; Ryo, Koufuchi; Ito, Yumi; Sakurai, Takashi; Hasegawa, Yoshinori; Saito, Ichiro

2015-01-01

305

Evaluation of the effects of quercetin on damaged salivary secretion.  

Science.gov (United States)

With the aim of discovering an effective method to treat dry mouth, we analyzed the effects of quercetin on salivary secretion and its mechanism of action. We created a mouse model with impaired salivary secretion by exposure to radiation and found that impaired secretion is suppressed by quercetin intake. Moreover, secretion levels were enhanced in quercetin-fed normal mice. To elucidate the mechanisms of these effects on salivary secretion, we conducted an analysis using mouse submandibular gland tissues, a human salivary gland epithelial cell line (HSY), and mouse aortic endothelial cells (MAECs). The results showed that quercetin augments aquaporin 5 (AQP5) expression and calcium uptake, and suppresses oxidative stress and inflammatory responses induced by radiation exposure, suggesting that quercetin intake may be an effective method to treat impaired salivary secretion. PMID:25629520

Takahashi, Ayako; Inoue, Hiroko; Mishima, Kenji; Ide, Fumio; Nakayama, Ryoko; Hasaka, Ayaka; Ryo, Koufuchi; Ito, Yumi; Sakurai, Takashi; Hasegawa, Yoshinori; Saito, Ichiro

2015-01-01

306

Assessment of salivary gland dysfunction following chemoradiotherapy using quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose:To assess chemoradiotherapy-induced salivary gland dysfunction using quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy (QSGS), and whether QSGS is capable of predicting the grade of persistent salivary dysfunction after chemoradiotherapy. Methods: From a time-activity curve using a stimulation test, the washout rate (WR) calculated was assessed. All glands (n = 155) were classified into four groups: a no-therapy group (n = 18), a chemotherapy alone group (n = 31), a radiotherapy alone group (n = 50), and a chemoradiotherapy group (n = 56). Subjective descriptions of xerostomia were recorded 1 year after the completion of the treatment period, and the 32 glands subjected to irradiation with or without chemotherapy were assessed. Results: The WR values were significantly lower in glands that received chemoradiotherapy than in glands treated with radiotherapy alone (mean: 0.75 x 10-3, n = 40 vs. 0.22, n = 36, p < 0.015), but there was no significant difference in the WR values between the no-therapy group and the chemotherapy alone group. The mean values of WR were lower in the chemoradiotherapy glands than in the radiotherapy alone glands in each of cumulative dose ranges of 1-20, 21-30, and 31-60 Gy. With regard to recovery from xerostomia, the WR values at a cumulative dose range of 20 to 40 Gy were significantly lower in the not improved group (-0.418, n = 16) than in the improved group (0.245, n = 16) (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Chemotherapy per se has no or Conclusion: Chemotherapy per se has no or little adverse effect on salivary function, but combination chemotherapy can deteriorate radiation-induced injury of the salivary glands. QSGS appears useful in predicting the grade of persistent xerostomia following chemoradiotherapy

307

TP53 mutations in salivary gland neoplasms  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Vários estudos mostram que a perda da função do gene TP53 desempenha um importante papel na gênese de diversas neoplasias, incluindo as neoplasias de glândula salivar. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a presença de mutações no gene TP53 em neoplasias de glândula salivar. Para isso, DNA gen [...] ômico foi extraído de casos de adenoma pleomórfico (AP), carcinoma em adenoma pleomórfico (CAP), carcinoma mucoepidermóide (CME), carcinoma adenóide cístico (CAC) e adenocarcinoma polimorfo de baixo grau de malignidade (APBG) emblocados em parafina. Foi realizada amplificação pela técnica da PCR dos exons 5 a 8 e em seguida a SSCP (análise de conformação de fita simples). Foi observada alteração na mobilidade das bandas em 9 das 18 neoplasias estudadas, principalmente nos exons 5 e 8. Esses achados sugerem que mutações no gene TP53 estão relacionadas à patogênese das neoplasias de glândula salivar e que os exons 5 e 8 estão mais freqüentemente envolvidos. Abstract in english Many studies have demonstrated that loss of TP53 gene function has an important role in the genesis of many neoplasms, including salivary gland neoplasms. The purpose of this study was to examine the mutation profile of the TP53 gene in salivary gland neoplasms. Genomic DNA was extracted from paraff [...] in-embedded tissues of pleomorphic adenoma, carcinoma in pleomorphic adenoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma and polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma. Exons 5 to 8 of the TP53 gene were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to perform single-stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. Band shifting was observed in exons 5, 6 and 8 in 9 out of 18 neoplasms. The results of this study suggest that mutations in TP53 gene are related to salivary gland neoplasms pathogenesis and that exons 5 and 8 are most frequently involved.

Luciana Fasanella, Matizonkas-Antonio; Ricardo Alves de, Mesquita; Suzana C. Orsini Machado de, Souza; Fabio Daumas, Nunes.

2005-08-01

308

Assessment of salivary gland function in patients after successful kidney transplantation using (99m)Tc-pertechnetate salivary gland scintigraphy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic renal failure and its treatment can induce oral health problems and salivary glands dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to assess salivary glands function in patients with kidney transplantation using technetium-99m pertechnetate ((99m)Tc-P) salivary glands scintigraphy. We prospectively studied 34 patients with kidney transplantation (30 males and 4 females,mean age 39.76±11.6 years) and 28 healthy controls (12 males and 16 females, mean age 36.1±9.5 years). Salivary gland scintigraphy was performed nearly 4.4±2.9 years after successful kidney transplantation. Dynamic salivary glands scintigraphy was performed during 25min after the intravenous administration of 185MBq of (99m)Tc-P. Time-activity curves and glands functional parameters were calculated for the parotid and submandibular salivary glands: uptake ratio, maximum accumulation of the radionuclide, and excretion fraction. Statistical analysis of the functional parameters showed no significant differences between patients with kidney transplantation and healthy controls (P>0.05). In conclusion, this study showed that using (99m)Tc-P salivary gland scintigraphy, salivary glands function of patients with successful kidney transplantation do not differ statistically from those in healthy controls. PMID:23865083

Orsal, Ebru; Seven, Bedri; Keles, Mustafa; Ayan, Arif Kursad; Cankaya, Erdem; Ozkan, Ozalkan

2013-01-01

309

Salivary Secretory Immunoglobulin a secretion increases after 4-weeks ingestion of chlorella-derived multicomponent supplement in humans: a randomized cross over study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlorella, a unicellular green alga that grows in fresh water, contains high levels of proteins, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fibers. Some studies have reported favorable immune function-related effects on biological secretions such as blood and breast milk in humans who have ingested a chlorella-derived multicomponent supplement. However, the effects of chlorella-derived supplement on mucosal immune functions remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether chlorella ingestion increases the salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA secretion in humans using a blind, randomized, crossover study design. Methods Fifteen men took 30 placebo and 30 chlorella tablets per day for 4 weeks separated by a 12-week washout period. Before and after each trial, saliva samples were collected from a sterile cotton ball that was chewed after overnight fasting. Salivary SIgA concentrations were measured using ELISA. Results Compliance rates for placebo and chlorella ingestions were 97.0 ± 1.0% and 95.3 ± 1.6%, respectively. No difference was observed in salivary SIgA concentrations before and after placebo ingestion (P = 0.38. However, salivary SIgA concentrations were significantly elevated after chlorella ingestion compared to baseline (P P = 0.36, it significantly increased after 4-week chlorella ingestion than before intake (P Conclusions These results suggest 4-week ingestion of a chlorella-derived multicomponent supplement increases salivary SIgA secretion and possibly improves mucosal immune function in humans.

Iemitsu Motoyuki

2011-09-01

310

Salivary expression of soluble HER2 in breast cancer patients with positive and negative HER2 status  

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Full Text Available Fatna Laidi,1 Amal Bouziane,2 Amina Lakhdar,3 Samira Khabouze,3 Brahim Rhrab,3 Fatima Zaoui1 1Oral Biomechanics and Biotechnology Research Unit, Faculty of Dental Medicine, 2Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Biostatistical, Clinical and Epidemiological Research Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ibn Sina University Hospital, Rabat, Morocco Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between salivary concentration of the soluble fragment of the HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor protein and its status in mammary tissues. Methods: This case-control study was done in 27 breast cancer patients with no visible metastatic disease treated at the gynecology service, Maternity Souissi Hospital, Rabat, Morocco. Two groups were selected, ie, patients with positive and negative HER2 status in mammary tissue. The salivary HER2 protein concentration was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The salivary HER2 concentration was compared between the HER2-positive and HER2-negative groups using the Mann-Whitney U test. A P-value <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: No statistically significant difference in salivary HER2 protein expression was found between the case and control groups. There was also no significant difference in clinical characteristics according to positive and negative HER2 status (P>0.05, except for the progesterone hormone receptor which was statistically significant in both the case and control groups (P=0.047. Conclusion: According to our data, salivary expression of the HER2 receptor may not be a reliable alternative to tissue assessment. Keywords: breast cancer, HER2, saliva, diagnosis

Laidi F

2014-07-01

311

Salivary gland function after concurrent chemoradiotherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Concurrent chemoradiotherapy for cancer of head and neck is becoming more and more prevalent. In fact, it is considered to better maintain quality of life (QOL) of patients than operative treatment in terms of preserving the functions, organs, and structures, but recently I seems that it does not maintain the QOL of patients better than operative treatment because its complications after therapy disturb daily life. We previously conducted a questionnaire survey that investigated the complications experienced by patients who received concurrent chemoradiotherapy, and reported that xerostomia was markedly reduced QOL in these patients. In this study, we divided patients who were exposed to radiation in both major salivary glands into two groups: 20 patients who received a 36 Gy dose of radiation (36 Gy group) and 15 patients who underwent radiation therapy alone at a dose of 40 Gy (radiotherapy (RT) group). The gum test was conducted with the following results (mean volume of saliva): 11.2 ml in the 36 Gy group, 6.0 ml in the RT group. There was no significant difference between the 36 Gy group and RT group. Our findings suggest that there is no significant difference in the extent of salivary gland dysfunction even after chemotherapy is carried out concurrently with radiotherapy. (author)

312

The Comparison of Salivary IgA and IgE Levels in Children with Breast- and Formula- Feeding During Infancy Period  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Oral local immune factors may play a protective role against oral diseases and defend against microbial agents. Salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA is a major factor for the local host defence against caries and periodontal disease. The aims of this study were to determine the concentrations of salivary IgA and IgE levels in breast-fed and formula-fed children in infancy period.Methods and Materials: Totally, 80 healthy 5 years old children were included in the study. According to type of feeding in infancy period, the children divided into two groups: 50 breast-fed and 30 formula-fed. One milliliter of saliva was collected from each participant, centrifuged, and stored at -70 C. The salivary IgA and IgE concentrations were measured, using ELISA technique.Results: In breast-fed children, the salivary IgA level (39.6 mg/l ± 17.3 was significantly higher than that in formula-fed children (26.9 mg/l ± 14 (P=0.0001. However, the salivary IgE level was significantly lower in breast-fed children, comparing with formula fed ones (5.01 IU/ml ± 19.70 vs. 11.74 IU/ml ± 39.40 (P=0.047.Discussion: These results suggest that breast feeding enhances salivary IgA level in the early period of life which may contribute in oral cavity immunity. Higher salivary IgE level observed in formula-fed subjects may have a potential role in development of allergic or inflammatory reactions.

A. Jafarzadeh

2007-01-01

313

Modeling neuroendocrine stress reactivity in salivary cortisol: adjusting for peak latency variability.  

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In this report, we present growth curve modeling (GCM) with landmark registration as an alternative statistical approach for the analysis of time series cortisol data. This approach addresses an often-ignored but critical source of variability in salivary cortisol analyses: individual and group differences in the time latency of post-stress peak concentrations. It allows for the simultaneous examination of cortisol changes before and after the peak while controlling for timing differences, and thus provides additional information that can help elucidate group differences in the underlying biological processes (e.g., intensity of response, regulatory capacity). We tested whether GCM with landmark registration is more sensitive than traditional statistical approaches (e.g., repeated measures ANOVA--rANOVA) in identifying sex differences in salivary cortisol responses to a psychosocial stressor (Trier Social Stress Test--TSST) in healthy adults (mean age 23). We used plasma ACTH measures as our "standard" and show that the new approach confirms in salivary cortisol the ACTH finding that males had longer peak latencies, higher post-stress peaks but a more intense post-peak decline. This finding would have been missed if only saliva cortisol was available and only more traditional analytic methods were used. This new approach may provide neuroendocrine researchers with a highly sensitive complementary tool to examine the dynamics of the cortisol response in a way that reduces risk of false negative findings when blood samples are not feasible. PMID:24754834

Lopez-Duran, Nestor L; Mayer, Stefanie E; Abelson, James L

2014-07-01

314

Influence of menstrual cycle and salivary ß-estradiol on volatile sulfur compound  

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Full Text Available BACKGROUND: ß -estradiol is a steroid sex hormone that plays important role in oral physiology. The aim of this studywas to determin the association of the menstrual cycle and salivary ß-estradiol with the production of volatile sulfurcompounds (VSC.METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, twenty female dental students in good oral and general health were recruited forevaluation of VSC, salivary flow, ß-estradiol concentration, oral dryness feeling and dysmenorrhea. Data were analyzedby marginal homogeneity test and xtgee model.RESULTS: The only covariates that significantly related to VSC were being at the follicular phase (B = -0.21, P = 0.02,being at the pre-menstrual phase (B = -0.25, P = 0.01, stressfulness (B = 0.02, P = 0.01 and oral dryness feeling(B = 0.34, P = 0.02. Salivary ß-estradiol was at the level of 59.7 ? 31.2 in those having halitosis (VSC ? 75 while inthe others (VSC < 75 it was about 40.8 ? 18.0 (P < 0.009. This difference was not statistically significant in multivariateanalysis.CONCLUSIONS: The menstrual cycle, stress and oral dryness were the most important determinants of halitosis. Thesalivary ß-estradiol level could not explain such relationship as its effect was eliminated considering the other factors.

Shahla Kakoei DDS, MSc

2012-04-01

315

Update on late-night salivary cortisol for the diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome: methodological considerations.  

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Late-night salivary cortisol (LNSC) is now considered the best approach to screen patients suspected of having endogenous hypercortisolism (Cushing's syndrome). As the use of LNSC increases, new preanalytic and analytic issues have arisen. The routine immunoassay for salivary cortisol seems to have better diagnostic performance than liquid chromatograph/tandem mass spectrometry, although measurement of normal salivary cortisone concentrations with the latter technique is very useful in identifying samples contaminated with topical hydrocortisone. LNSC is very useful in screening for Cushing's syndrome in women with increased corticosteroid-binding globulin resulting from estrogen therapy or pregnancy. Two LNSCs from each patient is recommended for routine screening, although one adequate saliva sample seems to perform well. The overnight dexamethasone suppression test remains superior to LNSC in the evaluation of potential subclinical hypercortisolism in patients with adrenal incidentalomas. Periodic assessment of LNSC is extremely useful in monitoring patients for recurrence of Cushing's disease after pituitary surgery. With the large increase in the number LNSCs being ordered around the world, it is likely that more preanalytic and analytic issues will arise, which laboratorians and clinical chemists will need to resolve. PMID:23839587

Raff, Hershel

2013-10-01

316

Lack of correlation between salivary Streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli counts and caries in IDDM children.  

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In a previous clinical study regarding the incidence of caries and the periodontal health, a group of young patients with various levels of glyco-metabolic control was studied and the results showed that the decayed-missing-filled teeth (DMFT) index was higher in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) type 1 patients with a poor glyco-metabolic balance than in a control group or in IDDM patients with sufficient glyco-metabolic balance. In light of these results, the purpose of this study was to find an explanation for these clinical observations by searching at a microbiological level. The results indicate that salivary counts of Streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli were higher in patients with active caries whether or not they be diabetic, than in people with no active caries, but the count of S. mutans was not directly correlated to the DMFT index. No significant alterations were found in salivary flow, pH, buffer capacity and glucose concentration in all the groups in this study. We conclude that the salivary count of S. mutans is not sufficient alone to account for the higher susceptibility to active caries of young IDDM patients with poor glyco-metabolic control. PMID:7739481

Canepari, P; Zerman, N; Cavalleri, G

1994-11-01

317

Evolution of the salivary apyrases of blood-feeding arthropods.  

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Phylogenetic analyses of three families of arthropod apyrases were used to reconstruct the evolutionary relationships of salivary-expressed apyrases, which have an anti-coagulant function in blood-feeding arthropods. Members of the 5'nucleotidase family were recruited for salivary expression in blood-feeding species at least five separate times in the history of arthropods, while members of the Cimex-type apyrase family have been recruited at least twice. In spite of these independent events of recruitment for salivary function, neither of these families showed evidence of convergent amino acid sequence evolution in salivary-expressed members. On the contrary, in the 5'-nucleotide family, salivary-expressed proteins conserved ancestral amino acid residues to a significantly greater extent than related proteins without salivary function, implying parallel evolution by conservation of ancestral characters. This unusual pattern of sequence evolution suggests the hypothesis that purifying selection favoring conservation of ancestral residues is particularly strong in salivary-expressed members of the 5'-nucleotidase family of arthropods because of constraints arising from expression within the vertebrate host. PMID:23791653

Hughes, Austin L

2013-09-15

318

Estimation of Absorbed Dose of Salivary Glands in Radioiodine Therapy and Its Reduction Using Pilocarpine  

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Full Text Available Introduction:  The use of radioactive iodine (131I has become an important adjunct to the treatment of thyroid cancer and hyperthyroidism. Salivary gland has the ability to concentrate radioactive iodine under normal circumstances. Salivary gland dysfunction and dry mouth are the common side effects of high-dose radioiodine therapy. The purpose of this study was to determine the absorbed dose of salivary glands. Methods: Twenty patients who were divided into two groups of 10 were studied (A group without pilocarpine and the B group received pilocarpine during treatment. The absorbed dose of parotid glands and the submandibular glands of patients was measured using thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD at three different times (24 hours, 8 days and 3 months after treatment. The attenuation coefficient of patients and the effects of pilocarpine were also determined. Results: In group A total attenuation coefficient was 0.335, 0.323, and 0.357 for parotid glands and the right and left submandibular glands, respectively. In group B total attenuation coefficient was 0.462, 0.482, and 0.514 for parotid glands and the right and left submandibular glands, respectively. The results also showed the dose decreases to 1 cGy after 3 and 2 half life for A and B group, respectively. Conclusion: The findings showed that the dose decreases to 1 cGy after 3 half life of Iodine therapy. The exponential coefficient attenuation of salivary glands varied 3% to 4%.  Pilocarpine appears to be effective in increasing excretion of radioactive iodine and enhancing coefficient attenuation (up to 1.5 to 2 times.

Daryoush Shahbazi-Gahrouei

2007-09-01

319

Pleomorphic adenoma of minor salivary gland in the parapharyngeal space  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Majority of tumours occurring in minor salivary gland are malignant. Pleomorphic adenoma is of rare occurrence in parapharangeal space. Case presentation A rare case of a minor salivary gland pleomorphic adenoma of the parapharyngeal space is reported. Review of literature, clinical features, pathology, radiological findings and treatment of these tumours are discussed. Conclusions Parapharangeal salivary tumours presents as a painless progressive swelling with majority of these being malignant. Pleomorphic adenoma in parapharangeal space is of rare occurrence. Complete surgical excision is the treatment of choice.

Abraham Elizabeth K

2003-02-01

320

Simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens in major salivary glands  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens Tn, sialosyl-Tn and T are often markers of neoplastic transformation and have very limited expression in normal tissues. We performed an immunohistological study of simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens, including H and A variants, with well-defined monoclonal antibodies (MAb) on frozen and paraffin-embedded normal salivary gland tissue from 22 parotid, 14 submandibular, six sublingual, and 13 labial glands to elucidate the simple mucin-type glycosylation pattern in relation to cyto- and histodifferentiation. The investigated carbohydrate structures were predominantly observed in the cell cytoplasm, most often in the supranuclear area, suggesting localization to the Golgi region, whereas ductal contents were unstained. Mucous acinar cells expressed Tn, sialosyl-Tn, and H and A antigens, regardless of glandular location. Serous acinar cells, on the other hand, expressed A, H, and inconstantly sialosyl-T, Tn, and sialosyl-Tn antigens in major salivary glands, whereas serous cells of minor (labial) salivary glands expressed H exclusively, Tn and sialosyl-T antigens inconstantly, but never sialosyl-Tn and A antigens. The difference may be related to a more simple cytodifferentiation of serous cells of minor (labial) salivary glands as compared with major salivary glands. Duct cells in major salivary glands expressed A, H, and inconstantly T, sialosyl-T, and Tn antigens, whereas minor (labial) salivary glands ducts exclusively expressed H, T and sialosyl-T antigens, differences that may be related to dissimilarities in the duct system. Myoepithelial cells and basal cells exclusively expressed T and sialosyl-T antigens, which may prove useful in studies of salivary gland tumors, since these cells are known to play a key role in the histological characteristics of some salivary gland tumors. The results indicate a similar glycosylation pattern in the different major salivary glands, whereas minor (labial) salivary gland differ slightly in serous and duct cells. The limited and exclusive intracellular expression of the immature Tn, sialosyl-Tn, and T antigens indicates that these structures may be of value as markers of salivary gland tumors.

Therkildsen, M H; Mandel, U

1994-01-01

321

Mucocele: An unusual presentation of the minor salivary gland lesion.  

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A mucocele is a benign, mucus-containing cystic lesion of the minor salivary gland. This type of lesion is most commonly referred to as mucocele. The more common is a mucus extravasation cyst; the other is a mucus retention cyst. Other three clinical variants are: Superficial mucocele that is located directly under the mucosa, classic variant located in the upper submucosa, and deep mucocele located in the lower cornium. Mucocele occurs either due to rupture of salivary gland duct or by blockade of salivary gland duct. The common site of occurrence of mucocele is lower lip followed by tongue, floor of mouth (ranula), and the buccal mucosa. PMID:23066247

Senthilkumar, B; Mahabob, M Nazargi

2012-08-01

322

Current concepts in diagnosis of unusual salivary gland tumors  

OpenAIRE

Salivary gland tumors are relatively uncommon and account for approximately 3-6% of all neoplasms of the head and neck. Tumors mostly involve the major salivary glands, 42.9-90% of which occur in the parotid glands and 8-19.5% in the sub-mandibular glands; tumors in the sub-lingual glands being uncommon. Despite the plethora of different malignant salivary gland tumor presented to pathologists for diagnosis, there is consensus on a limited number of pathologic observations that determine trea...

Bansal, Ajay Kumar; Bindal, Ruchi; Kapoor, Charu; Vaidya, Sharad; Singh, Harkanwal Preet

2012-01-01

323

Significant correlation between salivary and serum Ca 15-3 in healthy women and breast cancer patients.  

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The tumor marker CA 15-3 is one of the most import reliable for metastatic breast cancer monitoring. While it is generally assessed in serum of patients, blood sampling is an invasive method compared to saliva sampling which is simple and could be an alternative to blood according to many studies. The aim of this investigation was to assess the relationship between serum and salivary concentrations of the protein CA 15-3 in patients with breast cancer and healthy asymptomatic volunteers. A case-control study was conducted with 60 women: 29 breast cancer patients from the Maternity Hospital Souissi Rabat (Morocco) and 31 healthy asymptomatic women. The CA 15-3 concentrations in saliva and serum samples were assessed using an enzyme immune assay (EIA kits) and comparison between cases and controls was made by the Mann-Whitney test. The correlation between serum and saliva CA 15-3 concentration was tested using Pearson correlation. The comparison result of CA15-3 concentration in saliva and serum level in cases and controls was not statistically significant (p>0.05). However, the correlation between salivary and serum CA 15-3 concentration was positive and statistically significant (r=0.27, p=0.03). In conclusion, the positive correlation between salivary and serum expression found in our study suggests that saliva could be an alternative to blood sampling to help breast cancer monitoring. PMID:24969900

Laidi, Fatna; Bouziane, Amal; Lakhdar, Amina; Khabouze, Samira; Amrani, Mariam; Rhrab, Brahim; Zaoui, Fatima

2014-01-01

324

Effect of two mouthwashes on salivary ph  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se diseno un estudio clinico cruzado fase IV, con tres grupos etarios de adultos voluntarios sanos, para analizar el efecto de dos colutorios sobre el pH salival y relacionarlo con la edad la capacidad buffer y el flujo salival. Se utilizaron dos marcas comerciales de colutorios (MW), ListerineCoolM [...] intR (MWa) y PeriobacterR (MWb). Primero se caracterizo la saliva sin estimular de cada individuo, se le midio el volumen minuto, el pH y la capacidad buffer. El pH salival se evaluo antes del buche con cada MW, inmediatamente despues del enjuague bucal, 5 minutos despues y luego cada 10 minutos (a los 15, 25, 35 min) hasta que el pH inicial se recupero. Para el analisis estadistico de los datos se utilizaron: ANOVA en bloque, test t apareado y el test de correlacion de Pearson. Al caracterizar la saliva, se obtuvieron los siguientes valores promedio: 0.63 mL/min, 7.06 y 0.87 de volumen minuto,pH, y capacidad buffer. Luego del enjuague se observo un incremento inmediato y significativo del pH salival alcanzando valores de 7.24 (MWb) y 7.30 (MWa) para descender a un valor estable luego de 15 minutos. El importante incremento del pH salival luego del uso del colutorio, muestra que la saliva es un sistema dinamico y que el organismo es capaz de responder a estimulos con cambios en su composicion. Se hace evidente que el pH del agente externo, no es un buen indicador de su potencial erosivo sobre los elementos dentarios ya que los sistemas biologicos tienden a neutralizarlo. Los presentes resultados ponen de manifiesto la importancia de las mediciones en vivo y refuerzan el concepto de la funcion protectora de la saliva. Abstract in english To analyze the effect of two mouthwashes on salivary pH and correlate it with age, buffer capacity and saliva flow rate in healthy volunteers, a crossover phase IV clinical study involving three age-based groups was designed. Two commercial mouthwashes (MW), Cool Mint ListerineR (MWa) and Periobacte [...] r R (MWb) were used. The unstimulated saliva of each individual was first characterized by measuring flow rate, pH, and buffer capacity. Salivary pH was evaluated before rinsing with a given MW, immediately after rinsing, 5 minutes later, and then every 10 min (at 15, 25, 35 min) until the baseline pH was recovered. Paired t-test, ANOVA with a randomized block design, and Pearson correlation tests were used. Averages were 0.63 mL/min, 7.06, and 0.87 for flow rate, pH, and buffer capacity, respectively. An immediate significant increase in salivary pH was observed after rinsing, reaching average values of 7.24 (MWb) and 7.30 (MWa), which declined to an almost stable value 15 minutes. The great increase in salivary pH, after MW use shows that saliva is a dynamic system, and that the organism is capable of responding to a stimulus with changes in its composition. It is thus evident that pH of the external agent alone is not a good indicator for its erosive potential because biological systems tend to neutralize it. The results of this study enhance the importance of in vivo measurements and reinforce the concept of the protective action of saliva.

Paola A, Belardinelli; Rosana A, Morelatto; Tomás E, Benavidez; Ana M, Baruzzi; Silvia A, López de Blanc.

2014-09-01

325

In vitro hydroxyapatite adsorbed salivary proteins  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In spite of the present knowledge about saliva components and their respective functions, the mechanism(s) of pellicle and dental plaque formation have hitherto remained obscure. This has prompted recent efforts on in vitro studies using hydroxyapatite (HA) as an enamel model. In the present study salivary proteins adsorbed to HA were extracted with TFA and EDTA and resolved by 2D electrophoresis over a pH range between 3 and 10, digested, and then analysed by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry. Nineteen different proteins were identified using automated MS and MS/MS data acquisition. Among them, cystatins, amylase, carbonic anhydrase, and calgranulin B, were identified

326

Salivary gland scintigraphy in sjögren syndrome  

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Full Text Available Sjögren syndrome is a systemic autoimmune disease that mainly affects exocrineglands, such as the salivary and lacrimal glands, causing a decline in their secretions.This disease is also known as Sicca Syndrome. It is reported a clinical case of a womanwho fulfill all diagnostic criteria of European-American Consensus of Sjogren Syndrome2002.RESUMEN:El Síndrome de Sjögren es una enfermedad sistémica autoinmune que afectaprincipalmente las glándulas exocrinas del organismo, como las salivales y las lacrimalesprovocando una disminución de sus secreciones, por lo que también se denominasíndrome seco. Se presenta caso clínico de una paciente de sexo femenino la cualcumple todos los criterios clasificatorios del Consenso Europeo Americano 2002 para elSíndrome de Sjogren.

Betancourt-Piñeres Aiken Felipe

2011-06-01

327

Salivary duct carcinoma in the mandible.  

Science.gov (United States)

We reported 1 case of salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) in the mandible. The patient complained of pain and a growing mass in the right submandibular area for approximately 2 months. On clinical examination, there was a mass under the right angle of the mandible with a size of approximately 3 × 3 cm, a smooth surface, a poor activity, and a hard texture. Panoramic radiograph revealed poorly circumscribed area. Computed tomography presented mandible central destruction. Biopsy examination showed a malignant tumor that originated in the central epithelium of the mandible. An operation of unilateral selective neck dissection and mandible subtotal ectomy was performed. Postoperative pathology reported SDC. The patient received postoperative radiation and stayed alive at last follow-up without disease recurrence. Ablative resection and postoperative radiotherapy were the standard treatment stratagem for SDC, but trastuzumab therapy might play a key role in treating the disease in future. PMID:25377985

Shi, Shuang; Fang, Qi-Gen; Sun, Changfu

2014-11-01

328

Urinary cotinine levels and environmental tobacco smoke in mothers and children of Romania, Portugal and Poland within the European human biomonitoring pilot study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this study was to explore data from the DEMOCOPHES study population for Romania, Portugal and Poland, in order to assess smoking patterns and the extent of ETS exposure and compare the national study samples with reference to the respective anti-smoking laws. The subset of the DEMOCOPHES study sample consisted of 360 children and their mothers (120 in each of the three countries - Romania (RO), Portugal (PT) and Poland (PL). Smoking was assessed using a detailed questionnaire for the participants, which addresses both active and passive smoking. This assessment uses exposure-relevant questionnaire data, in particular on the home environment and residence, socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle such as nutrition, smoking behavior, other exposure-relevant behavior and occupational history, as well as urinary cotinine and creatinine measurements. We performed general statistical analysis and innovative receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses. Smoking prevalence as evaluated by thequestionnaire was generally high, and higher than official statistics, which suggests some under-reporting in the countries, particularly in Romania. Urinary cotinine levels provided biochemical confirmation of the high and similar smoking prevalence for the three countries. Concerning ETS exposure, Romania presented significantly higher levels, for children as well as for non-smoking mothers, with Portugal showing significantly lower levels. Compared to non-smoking mothers, the children showed relatively higher ETS exposure levels in all three countries. The established country-specific optimal cut-off values in urinary cotinine to distinguish smokers from non-smokers vary more than those to discriminate ETS exposure extent in non-smoking mothers and children. Although different between countries, these values are a valuable output to monitor effectiveness of both national antismoking laws and educational programs in the three countries. The findings of this study point to the urgent need for stronger, moreeffective and well enforced smoke-free legislation in the three countries.

Lupsa, Ioana-Rodica; Nunes, Baltazar

2015-01-01

329

Calcium, amylase, glucose, total protein concentrations, flow rate, pH and buffering capacity of saliva in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate qualitative and quantitative changes in the saliva of individuals undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. METHODS: Salivary samples were collected from 50 individuals divided in two groups: Experimental Group - patients with fixed orthodontic appliances (n=25); [...] and Control Group - subjects with no orthodontic appliances (n=25). Salivary flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, amylase activity, concentrations of total proteins, calcium and glucose were measured in all salivary samples. RESULTS: There was a reduction in salivary pH and buffering capacity and an increase in the concentration of calcium ions in the experimental group (p

Hellen Soares, Teixeira; Stella Maris Oliveira, Kaulfuss; Jucienne Salgado, Ribeiro; Betina do Rosário, Pereira; João Armando, Brancher; Elisa Souza, Camargo.

2012-04-01

330

Elevada concentración de metabolitos de cotinina en hijos de padres fumadores High levels of cotinine metabolite in smoker's parents children  

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Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: La exposición al humo de tabaco de segunda mano (HTSM en niños y adultos puede ser común en oficinas gubernamentales, lugares de trabajo, vehículos y espacios públicos, pero es de particular importancia en el hogar. Los grados de exposición elevados en niños pueden constituirse como la principal justificación para restringir el tabaquismo dentro del hogar. El objetivo fue determinar los valores de HTSM mediante biomarcadores séricos en binomios padres- hijos menores de cinco años, en México, participantes de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud 2000. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se seleccionaron 76 binomios padres-hijos de hogares con adultos no fumadores y 83 binomios similares pero con adultos fumadores en el hogar. La selección se restringió a hogares donde hubiera presencia de niños menores de cinco años de edad. Las muestras séricas se analizaron por cromatografía líquida. Se construyeron modelos de correlación de exposición entre los binomios padres-hijos estratificados por el antecedente de tabaquismo en los padres. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de individuos con más de 15 ng/mL de cotinina en suero en los fumadores fue de 100%; la cuantificación mínima fue 18.50 y la máxima de 221.5 ng/mL. En los adultos, los valores séricos de cotinina fueron 50 veces mayores en los fumadores (107.4 ng/mL que en los no fumadores (1.99 ng/mL; similar observación a la referida tuvo la exposición a 3’-hidroxicotinina (0.69 en no fumadores vs. 33.59 ng/mL en adultos fumadores. Hubo una diferencia significativa tres veces mayor de valores de cotinina (0.19 vs. 0.60 ng/mL y de 3’-hidroxicotinina (0.06 vs. 0.19 ng/mL en los hijos de fumadores. CONCLUSIONES: A pesar de que existe diferencia significativa de HTSM en niños de padres fumadores, la exposición observada de HTSM en niños menores de cinco años de padres no fumadores también es relevante. En México se documenta por primera vez una elevada exposición al HTSM en niños, no sólo de padres fumadores sino también de padres no fumadores. Esto pone de relevancia que la exposición al HTSM no es sólo un problema de salud pública que se presenta en hogares de padres fumadores, sino que la exposición en niños mexicanos es frecuente en diversos lugares públicos. Es necesario implementar estudios adicionales en México para evaluar el impacto de intervenciones que garanticen hogares y espacios libres de humo de tabaco.INTRODUCTION: Children and adult exposure to SecondHand Smoke (SHS may occur in government offices, work and public places as well as in vehicles. Nevertheless, SHS is particularly important at home. High exposure levels in children may be the main reason to prevent parents and other family members from smoking at home. This study aims at establishing SHS levels by measuring biomakers in serum in pairs of parents and their younger than five years old children in Mexico, included in the 2000 National Health Survey. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventy-six parents-children pairs were taken from households with non smokers adults, as well as 83 pairs with adult smokers at home. Selection was limited to the adult population in households with children under five years old. Serum samples were analyzed through liquid chromatographic. Correlation exposure models between parents-children pairs were built and stratified according to parents’ background concerning smoking. RESULTS: In the smokers group, people with more than 15ng/mL of cotinine metabolites in serum showed prevalence of 100%. Minimum quantification was 18.50 and maximum 221.5ng/mL. In adults, cotinine metabolite levels in serun were 50 times higher in smokers (107.4ng/mL, than in non smokers (1.99 ng/mL. Concerning 3-hydroxycotinine, something similar was observed (0.60 in non smokers vs. 33.50 ng/mL in smokers. A significant difference three times higher in cotinine levels (0.10 vs. 0.60ng/mL and 3-hydroxycotinine (0.06 vs. 0.19ng/mL was found in those children with, at least, one of both parents who smoked. CONCLUSIONS: It is worthwhile noting that although ther

Eduardo Lazcano-Ponce

2007-01-01

331

First screening of Aedes albopictus immunogenic salivary proteins.  

Science.gov (United States)

Study of the human antibody (Ab) response to Aedes salivary proteins can provide new biomarkers to evaluate human exposure to vector bites. The identification of genus- and/or species-specific proteins is necessary to improve the accuracy of biomarkers. We analysed Aedes albopictus immunogenic salivary proteins by 2D immunoproteomic technology and compared the profiles according to human individual exposure to Ae. albopictus or Ae. aegypti bites. Strong antigenicity to Ae.?albopictus salivary proteins was detected in all individuals whatever the nature of Aedes exposure. Amongst these antigenic proteins, 68% are involved in blood feeding, including D7 protein family, adenosine deaminase, serpin and apyrase. This study provides an insight into the repertoire of Ae.?albopictus immunogenic salivary proteins for the first time. PMID:23714164

Doucoure, S; Cornelie, S; Patramool, S; Mouchet, F; Demettre, E; Seveno, M; Dehecq, J S; Rutee, H; Herve, J P; Favier, F; Missé, D; Gasque, P; Remoue, F

2013-08-01

332

Estimation of Cutoff Values of Cotinine in Urine and Saliva for Pregnant Women in Poland  

OpenAIRE

Setting appropriate cutoff values and the use of a highly sensitive analytical method allow for correct classification of the smoking status. Urine-saliva pairs samples of pregnant women in the second and third trimester, and saliva only in the first trimester were collected. Offline SPE and LC-ESI-MS/MS method was developed in the broad concentration range (saliva 0.4–1000?ng/mL, urine 0.8–4000?ng/mL). The mean recoveries were 3.7 ± 7.6% for urine and 99.1 ± 2.6% for saliva. LOD fo...

Joanna Stragierowicz; Ajewska, Karolina Miko Amp X.; Marta Zawadzka-Stolarz; Ska, Kinga Pola Amp X.; Danuta Ligocka

2013-01-01

333

Characterization of salivary alpha-amylase binding to Streptococcus sanguis.  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this study was to identify the major salivary components which interact with oral bacteria and to determine the mechanism(s) responsible for their binding to the bacterial surface. Strains of Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, and Actinomyces viscosus were incubated for 2 h in freshly collected human submandibular-sublingual saliva (HSMSL) or parotid saliva (HPS), and bound salivary components were eluted with 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate. By sodium ...

Scannapieco, F. A.; Bergey, E. J.; Reddy, M. S.; Levine, M. J.

1989-01-01

334

Salivary Microbiota and Metabolome Associated with Celiac Disease  

OpenAIRE

This study aimed to investigate the salivary microbiota and metabolome of 13 children with celiac disease (CD) under a gluten-free diet (treated celiac disease [T-CD]). The same number of healthy children (HC) was used as controls. The salivary microbiota was analyzed by an integrated approach using culture-dependent and -independent methods. Metabolome analysis was carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry–solid-phase microextraction. Compared to HC, the number of some cultivable...

Francavilla, Ruggiero; Ercolini, Danilo; Piccolo, Maria; Vannini, Lucia; Siragusa, Sonya; Filippis, Francesca; Pasquale, Ilaria; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Di Toma, Michele; Gozzi, Giorgia; Serrazanetti, Diana I.; Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco

2014-01-01

335

Minor salivary gland tumors in a south American population  

OpenAIRE

Background: Salivary gland tumors are uncommon. This study aimed to investigate both clinical and epidemiological aspects of minor salivary gland tumors in a Brazilian population. Methods: From 1976 to 2007, data obtained from clinical records and histological diagnoses were reviewed according to the WHO. Results: A total of 217 MSGTs were identified. Pleomorphic adenomas (83%) and adenoid cystic carcinomas (28.8%) were the most frequent ones. The mean age of patients with benign and ma...

Conceição Barros Adna; Gurgel Silva Araújo Clarissa; Gomes Caymmi Mário; Agra Gonçalves Marcelo Ivan; Kruschewsky de Souza Leonardo; Dos Santos Nunes Jean

2010-01-01

336

Acute reboxetine administration increases plasma and salivary cortisol.  

OpenAIRE

We investigated the effect of a single oral dose of the selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, reboxetine (4 mg), on plasma and salivary cortisol in 24 healthy volunteers in a randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group design. Reboxetine significantly increased both plasma and salivary cortisol, although the correlation between the responses in plasma and saliva was modest. Our results are consistent with previous neuroendocrine challenge studies showing that potentiation of brain no...

Hill, Sa; Taylor, Mj; Harmer, Cj; Cowen, Pj

2003-01-01

337

Neurotrophic factor GDNF promotes survival of salivary stem cells  

OpenAIRE

Stem cell–based regenerative therapy is a promising treatment for head and neck cancer patients that suffer from chronic dry mouth (xerostomia) due to salivary gland injury from radiation therapy. Current xerostomia therapies only provide temporary symptom relief, while permanent restoration of salivary function is not currently feasible. Here, we identified and characterized a stem cell population from adult murine submandibular glands. Of the different cells isolated from the submandibula...

Xiao, Nan; Lin, Yuan; Cao, Hongbin; Sirjani, Davud; Giaccia, Amato J.; Koong, Albert C.; Kong, Christina S.; Diehn, Maximilian; Le, Quynh-thu

2014-01-01

338

Mucocele: An unusual presentation of the minor salivary gland lesion  

OpenAIRE

A mucocele is a benign, mucus-containing cystic lesion of the minor salivary gland. This type of lesion is most commonly referred to as mucocele. The more common is a mucus extravasation cyst; the other is a mucus retention cyst. Other three clinical variants are: Superficial mucocele that is located directly under the mucosa, classic variant located in the upper submucosa, and deep mucocele located in the lower cornium. Mucocele occurs either due to rupture of salivary gland duct or by block...

Senthilkumar, B.; Mahabob, M. Nazargi

2012-01-01

339

Early morning salivary cortisol is not associated with extraversion  

OpenAIRE

An association between salivary cortisol levels and neuroticism has recently been reported, but it is unclear whether this association is unique to neuroticism or extends to other personality measures. The present study investigated early morning salivary cortisol levels in individuals selected for high and low extraversion. Thirty-three healthy volunteers were selected on the basis of their score on the extraversion sub-scale of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, and provided fasting sal...

Munafo, MR; Lee, L.; Ayres, R.; Flint, J.; Goodwin, G.; Harmer, Cj

2006-01-01

340

Neural control of salivary glands in ixodid ticks  

OpenAIRE

Studies of tick salivary glands (SGs) and their components have produced a number of interesting discoveries over the last four decades. However, the precise neural and physiological mechanisms controlling SG secretion remain enigmatic. Major studies of SG control have identified and characterized many pharmacological and biological compounds that activate salivary secretion, including dopamine (DA), octopamine, ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA), ergot alkaloids, pilocarpine (PC), and their pharmac...

S?imo, Ladislav; Z?itn?an, Dus?an; Park, Yoonseong

2011-01-01

341

Salivary uric acid as a noninvasive biomarker of metabolic syndrome  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated serum uric acid is associated with obesity, hypertension and metabolic syndrome. Because a linear relationship exists between serum and salivary uric acid (SUA concentration, saliva testing may be a useful noninvasive approach for monitoring cardiometabolic risk. The goal of this pilot study was to determine if SUA is increased in patients with metabolic syndrome and to investigate correlations between SUA and individual cardiometabolic risk factors. Findings Volunteers between the ages of 18 and 65 without conditions known to affect serum uric acid levels were recruited. Height, weight, blood pressure and waist circumference were measured and a full lipid panel along with fasting blood glucose was obtained. Saliva samples were collected and uric acid levels were determined. 78 volunteers, 35% of whom had metabolic syndrome, completed the study. SUA was significantly elevated in patients with metabolic syndrome (p=.002. The incidence of metabolic syndrome in the 4th quartile for SUA was 67% compared to 25% in quartiles1-3 combined. Significant correlations were seen between SUA and systolic blood pressure (r=.440, p=.000, diastolic blood pressure ( r=.304, p=.007, waist circumference (r=.332, p=.003, BMI ( r=.269, p=.018, fasting blood glucose ( r=.341, p=.002, triglycerides (r=.410, p=.000, HDL ( r=.237, p=.036 and the number of cardiometabolic risk factors present (r=0.257, p=.023. Conclusions These results suggest that SUA may be a useful biomarker for noninvasive monitoring of cardiometabolic risk. Larger studies are needed to validate this approach.

Soukup Maria

2012-04-01

342

Response of salivary markers of autonomic activity to elite competition.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the response of salivary total protein (TP), alpha-amylase (sAA) and chromogranin A (CgA) to sporting competition and their relation with positive and negative affect. 11 professional swimmers were examined during the first day of a national contest and on a recreated event that matched time-of-the-day and day-of-the-week assessments 2 weeks later. Total protein was determined by the Bradford method and sAA and CgA by Western blotting upon awakening, 30 and 60 min post awakening, immediately before warming up for competition and 5, 20 and 60 min after competition. Psychometric instruments included the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule-X. The concentrations of TP, sAA and CgA differed from controls only prior to and 5 min after the event. We observed positive correlations between higher negative affect scores with higher levels of TP, sAA and CgA prior to the event on the competition day. All 3 markers showed a similar reactivity to sporting competition, which may be attributed to the mechanisms responsible for protein secretion into saliva when collection is performed with no exogenous stimulation. TP is an attractive marker in sports psychology since its determination is faster and cheaper than traditional kinetic or immune assays. PMID:22581684

Diaz, M M; Bocanegra, O L; Teixeira, R R; Soares, S S; Espindola, F S

2012-09-01

343

Salivary cortisol and sleep problems among civil servants  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVE: The present study used information from a field study conducted among 4489 civil servants (70% women) in Denmark in 2007. The purpose was to examine the association between sleep problems and salivary cortisol by using a cross-sectional design with repeated measures in a subsample three-month later. METHODS: Sleep problems during the past night and the past 4 weeks were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire on overall sleep quality, disturbed sleep, sleep length and awakening problems. Saliva samples were collected in a single day, using cotton tubes, 30min after awakening and again at 2000h. A subsample of 387 participants collected saliva samples three-month later at awakening, +20min and +40min after awakening and at 2000h. We adjusted for confounders related to sampling time, life style and personal characteristics, socioeconomic status and work aspects. RESULTS: Sleep problems during the past four weeks were associated with low morning and evening saliva cortisol concentrations: [-3.1%per score of disturbed sleep (p=.009); and -4.7% per score of awakening problems (p

Hansen, Ase Marie; Thomsen, Jane FrØlund

2012-01-01

344

Salivary hypofunction: an update on aetiology, diagnosis and therapeutics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Saliva is of paramount importance for the maintenance of oral and general homeostasis. Salivary hypofunction predispose patients to disorders such as dysgeusia, pain and burning mouth, caries and other oral infectious diseases, dysphagia and dysphonia. The aim of this study was to provide an update on the aetiology, diagnostic methods and therapeutic strategies for the management of hyposalivation and xerostomia. The present paper describes subjective and objective methods for the diagnosis of salivary dysfunctions; moreover a number of drugs, and systemic disorders associated with decreased salivary flow rate are listed. We also focused on the underlying mechanisms to radiotherapy-induced salivary damage. Therapeutics for hyposalivation and xerostomia were discussed and classified as preventive, symptomatic, topical and systemic stimulants, disease-modifying agents, and regenerative. New therapeutic modalities have been studied and involve stem cells transplantation, with special attention to regeneration of damage caused by ionizing radiation to the salivary glands. More studies in this area are needed to provide new perspectives in the treatment of patients with salivary dysfunctions. PMID:25463902

Saleh, Jamil; Figueiredo, Maria Antonia Zancanaro; Cherubini, Karen; Salum, Fernanda Gonçalves

2015-02-01

345

Detection of Salivary Interleukin 2 and Interleukin 6 in Patients With Burning Mouth Syndrome  

OpenAIRE

The etiology of BMS remains unknown. Role of various cytokines has been implicated in the development of BMS. The aim of this study was to evaluate levels of salivary IL-2 and IL-6 in patients with BMS, compared with age-matched healthy volunteers (control group). Whole saliva from 30 patients with BMS, age range 55–65, was tested for the presence of IL-6 and IL-2 by enzyme immunoassay. Control group consisted of 30 healthy participants, aged 55–65 years. Saliva IL-2 concentrations in ...

Jelena Horvat; Gordana Brumini; Amp, Renata Gr Amp I.; Sonja Pezelj-Ribari?; Amp, Daria Sim Amp I.; Miranda Muhvi?-Urek

2006-01-01

346

Inverted-U function between salivary cortisol and retrieval of verbal memory after hydrocortisone treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study investigated the effect of a single oral dose of hydrocortisone (cortisol) on retrieval of verbal and nonverbal declarative memory. Fifty-nine healthy participants were randomly assigned to either receive 25 mg cortisol or a placebo 45 min before retrieval in a standardized memory test procedure. There was no global effect of cortisol on either verbal or nonverbal memory. However, a specific negative effect on free recall of associative verbal material appeared. In addition, high responders (salivary cortisol concentration>68.25 nmol/L) exhibited impaired verbal memory compared with low responders (cortisol on declarative memory retrieval, which appear to be more pronounced for verbal material. PMID:15839797

Domes, Gregor; Rothfischer, Julia; Reichwald, Ursula; Hautzinger, Martin

2005-04-01

347

Characterization of the in vitro kinetic interaction of chlorpyrifos-oxon with rat salivary cholinesterase: a potential biomonitoring matrix.  

Science.gov (United States)

The primary mechanism of action for organophosphorus (OP) insecticides such as chlorpyrifos (CPF) involves the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by their active oxon metabolites resulting in a wide range of neurotoxic effects. These oxons also inhibit other cholinesterases (ChE) such as butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), which represents a detoxification mechanism and a potential biomarker for OP insecticide exposure/response. Salivary biomonitoring has recently been explored as a practical method for examination of chemical exposure, however, there are few studies exploring the use of saliva for OP insecticides. To evaluate the use of salivary ChE as a biological monitor for OP insecticide exposure, a modified Ellman assay in conjunction with a pharmacodynamic model was used to characterize salivary ChE in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Comparison of rat saliva, brain, and plasma ChE activity in the presence of selective inhibitors of AChE and BuChE (BW284C51 and iso-OMPA, respectively) with different ChE substrates indicated that rat salivary ChE activity is primarily associated with BuChE (>95%). Further characterization of rat salivary BuChE kinetics yielded an average total BuChE active site concentration of 1.20+/-0.13 fmol ml(-1) saliva, an average reactivation rate constant (Kr) of 0.070+/-0.008 h(-1), and an inhibitory rate constant (Ki) of approximately 9 nM(-1) h(-1). The pharmacodynamic model successfully described the in vitro BuChE activity profile as well as the kinetic parameters. These results support the potential utility of saliva as a biomonitoring matrix for evaluating occupational and environmental exposure to CPF and other OP insecticides. PMID:12767693

Kousba, A A; Poet, T S; Timchalk, Charles

2003-06-30

348

The Salivary Secretome of the Tsetse Fly Glossina pallidipes (Diptera: Glossinidae) Infected by Salivary Gland Hypertrophy Virus  

OpenAIRE

Background The competence of the tsetse fly Glossina pallidipes (Diptera; Glossinidae) to acquire salivary gland hypertrophy virus (SGHV), to support virus replication and successfully transmit the virus depends on complex interactions between Glossina and SGHV macromolecules. Critical requisites to SGHV transmission are its replication and secretion of mature virions into the fly's salivary gland (SG) lumen. However, secretion of host proteins is of equal importance for successful transmiss...

Kariithi, H. M.; Ince, I. A.; Boeren, S.; Abd-alla, A. M. M.; Parker, A. G.; Aksoy, S.; Vlak, J. M.; Oers, M. M.

2011-01-01

349

Salivary Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor Is Associated with Reduced Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 through Breast Milk  

OpenAIRE

Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), a protein found in saliva, breast milk, and genital secretions, is capable of inhibiting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 in vitro. The aim of this study was to determine whether SLPI in infant saliva provides protection against mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission. In total, 602 saliva specimens were collected from 188 infants at birth and at ages 1, 3, and 6 months. Infants’ median salivary SLPI concentrations were higher at birth than...

Farquhar, Carey; Vancott, Thomas C.; Mbori-ngacha, Dorothy A.; Horani, Lena; Bosire, Rose K.; Kreiss, Joan K.; Richardson, Barbra A.; John-stewart, Grace C.

2002-01-01

350

Determinación de los niveles de cortisol salival en una muestra de sujetos de Santiago de Chile / Salivary cortisol among subjects with and without Cushing syndrome  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Background: Salivary cortisol measurement is recommended as a screening mea-sure when a Cushing Syndrome is suspected. Theproposed cut-offpointfor aprobable diagnosis is 0.16 ug/dL. Aim: To determine salivary cortisol concentrations during the day inpatients with and without Cushing syndrome and wit [...] h depression. Material and Methods: Salivary cortisol was measured by competitive enzyme immuno assay (EIA), in samples obtained at 8:00,15:00 and 23:00 h in 78 patients without Cushing syndrome, aged 40 ± 15years (28 males), 30 patients with depression aged 40 ± 12years (nine males) and four jemales with Cushing syndrome aged 42 ± 17 years. Results: Salivary cortisol was higher among patients with Cushing syndrome than the rest of patients. A salivary cortisol over the cut-off value of O.16 ug/dL was found in 42% of subjects without Cushing syndrome and in 33% of patients with depression. Median values among patients without Cushing syndrome, depression and with Cushing syndrome were 0.21 (range

MACARENA, LÉPEZ; EGARDO, CAAMAÑO; CARMEN, ROMERO; JENNY, FIEDLER; VERÓNICA, ARAYA.

2010-02-01

351

Efficacy of Scopolamine patch on the Secretory Function of salivary Glands by TC-99m Pertechnetate Salivary Scintigraphy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of this study was to evaluate quantitatively the reducing effect of the anticholinergics (scopolamine patch) on the salivary glands by dynamic salivary scintigraphy. Eleven normal volunteers were studied by salivary gland scintigraphy. After injection of 370 MBq Tc-99m pertechnetate, dynamic salivary scintigraphy with citric acid stimulation was performed for 30 minutes. After 5 days, they were administrated the scopolamine patch. The salivary scintigraphy were performed by same method after 2 days. Functional parameters for the parotid and submandibular glands, that is uptake radio(UR), Tmax, Tmin, maximum accumulation(MA), and maximum secretion(MS), were calculated. In submandibular glands, there was no statistical significance in UR, Tmax, Tmin and MA between before and after the scopolamine patch(p>0.05). The MS of submandibular gland after the scopolamine patch was significantly higher than before patch(p>0.05). In parotid glands, there was no statistical significance in UR, Tmax, Tmin, MA, and MS between before and after patch(p>0.05). It seems that is not satisfied the reducing effect of the scopolamine patch on the secretory function of salivary glands.

Seok, Ju Won; Son, Bong Hyung; Kim, In Ju; Kim, Yong Ki; Wang, Soo Geun [College of Medicine, Univ. of Busan National, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

2003-07-01

352

Efficacy of Scopolamine patch on the Secretory Function of salivary Glands by TC-99m Pertechnetate Salivary Scintigraphy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to evaluate quantitatively the reducing effect of the anticholinergics (scopolamine patch) on the salivary glands by dynamic salivary scintigraphy. Eleven normal volunteers were studied by salivary gland scintigraphy. After injection of 370 MBq Tc-99m pertechnetate, dynamic salivary scintigraphy with citric acid stimulation was performed for 30 minutes. After 5 days, they were administrated the scopolamine patch. The salivary scintigraphy were performed by same method after 2 days. Functional parameters for the parotid and submandibular glands, that is uptake radio(UR), Tmax, Tmin, maximum accumulation(MA), and maximum secretion(MS), were calculated. In submandibular glands, there was no statistical significance in UR, Tmax, Tmin and MA between before and after the scopolamine patch(p>0.05). The MS of submandibular gland after the scopolamine patch was significantly higher than before patch(p>0.05). In parotid glands, there was no statistical significance in UR, Tmax, Tmin, MA, and MS between before and after patch(p>0.05). It seems that is not satisfied the reducing effect of the scopolamine patch on the secretory function of salivary glands

353

Salivary nitric oxide and alpha-amylase as indexes of training intensity and load.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the variation in salivary nitric oxide (NO), alpha-amylase (sAA) and serum markers of muscle injury during 21 weeks of training in elite swimmers. Samples of saliva and blood were collected once a month during 5 months from 11 male professional athletes during their regular training season. The variation in each marker throughout the 21 weeks was compared with the dynamics of training volume, intensity and load. Unstimulated whole saliva was assessed for NO and sAA whereas venous blood was assessed for lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and ?-glutamyltransferase. Nitric oxide and sAA showed a proportional response to the intensity of training. However, whereas the concentration of NO increased across the 21 weeks, the activity of sAA decreased. Similar variations in the concentration of NO and the markers of muscle injury were also observed. The higher concentration of NO might be attributed to changes in haemodynamics and muscle regenerative processes. On the other hand, autonomic regulation towards parasympathetic predominance might have been responsible for the decrease in sAA activity. These findings provide appealing evidence for the utilization of salivary constituents in sports medicine to monitor training programmes. PMID:22960992

Diaz, M M; Bocanegra, O L; Teixeira, R R; Soares, S S; Espindola, F S

2013-01-01

354

The binding of calcium to a salivary phosphoprotein, protein C, and comparison with calcium binding to protein A, a related salivary phosphoprotein.  

Science.gov (United States)

The binding of Ca2+ to a salivary phosphoprotein, protein C, was studied by equilibrium dialysis. In 5mM-Tris/HCl buffer, pH 7.5, protein C bound 190 nmol of Ca2+/mg of protein. The apparent dissociation constant, K, was determined to be 1.9 x 10(-4)M and the binding of Ca2+ to the protein was non-co-operative. The binding of Ca2+ to protein C apparently depends on groups which ionize above pH 5.0. Ca2+ binding decreased with increased concentration of the dialysis buffer and on addition of SrCL2, MgCl2 and MnCl2 to the dialysis buffer. Digestion of protein C with trypsin or collagenase or heating of the protein to 60 degrees or 100 degrees C had little or no effect on the Ca2+ binding. Digestion of protein C with alkaline phosphatase caused a decrease in the amount of protein-bound Ca2+. This was also found for another salivary phosphoprotein, protein A. In the absence of Ca2+ the S020,w for protein C was 1.29 S and in the presence of Ca2+ it was 1.46S. Ca2+ may cause a conformational change in the protein or an aggregation of the protein molecules. No conformational changes of protein C in the presence of Ca2+ could be detected by circular dichroism or nuclear magnetic resonance. PMID:17396

Bennick, A

1977-05-01

355

Relationship of salivary cortisol and anxiety in recurrent aphthous stomatitis  

Science.gov (United States)

Background and Objectives: Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is one of the most frequently encountered oral mucosal disorders. Despite extensive amount of research, the etiology of RAS remains unclear. Psychological-emotional factors were considered as one of the major predisposing factors. The aim of the study was to assess the levels of anxiety and salivary cortisol levels in patients with RAS and also to determine the association and relationship of salivary cortisol levels to variations of stress. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 patients suffering with RAS, along with the same number of age and sex matched healthy controls were included in the study. Saliva was collected from all the subjects at 9.00 am to avoid diurnal variations of cortisol levels. Salivary cortisol levels were measured by competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Anxiety levels of both groups were measured by using Hamilton's anxiety scale. Student's t-test was used to compare the anxiety and salivary cortisol levels between both groups. Results: The mean salivary cortisol level of the RAS group showed a very highly significant difference (P = 0.000) from the controls. The mean anxiety scores of the RAS group showed a very highly significant difference (P = 0.000) from the controls. The values of Pearson correlation coefficient between anxiety and salivary cortisol was 0.980 and one with a P value of 0.000 showing that there is a highly positive correlation between anxiety and salivary cortisol. Conclusion: Results suggest that anxiety may be involved in the pathogenesis of RAS. Thus besides traditional treatment of RAS patients, our findings suggest that psychological support is also needed. PMID:25593827

Nadendla, Lakshmi Kavitha; Meduri, Venkateswarlu; Paramkusam, Geetha; Pachava, Koteswara Rao

2015-01-01

356

Biomacromolecule conjugated nanofiber scaffold for salivary gland tissue engineering  

Science.gov (United States)

Xerostomia or dry mouth, resulting from loss of salivary gland secretion can be alleviated by tissue engineering approaches to restore glandular cell function. Engineering an artificial salivary gland structure requires closely mimicking the natural environment, both physically and functionally, to promote epithelial cell proliferation, monolayer formation and apico-basal polarization. While the physical structure of the salivary gland extracellular matrix (ECM) can be reconstructed using biocompatible nanofiber scaffolds, the chemical signals from ECM macromolecules are equally involved in the gland morphogenesis. In these glands, Hyaluronic acid (HA), a biomacromolecule that is a major component of the ECM, plays a crucial role in recruiting growth factors to improve cell viability and growth in these glands. Another molecule of interest that improved salivary epithelial cell viability and apico-basal differentiation is laminin, a major protein found in the basement membrane. We hypothesize that these biomacromolecules, when conjugated nanofiber scaffolds, will provide the essential chemical signals that promote cell viability, proliferation, polarity in the salivary cell line of interest. These morphological changes will in turn promote the secretory function (salivary production). The nanofiber scaffold consisting of poly(lactic-co-glycolic)acid is conjugated with HA using a polyethylene glycol (PEG) diamine crosslinker. This conjugation was confirmed using fluorescence spectrometry, water contact angle test and immunocytochemistry analysis using confocal microscopy. The effect of HA in promoting cell survival in-vitro was established with MTT assay using SIMS (mouse submandibular immortalized ductal SIMS cells) cells. The effect of HA in improving the apico - basal polarity of SIMS cells will be assessed. Chemical modification of synthetic nanopolymeric scaffolds with ECM molecules e.g., HA, laminin are the next step towards developing "smart scaffolds", that can be used to specifically induce proper salivary gland function. These scaffolds can potentially be used to provide a viable approach for creating future artificial tissue engineered glands.

Jayarathanam, Kavitha

357

Unstimulated salivary flow rate, pH and buffer capacity of saliva in healthy volunteers / Débito basal, pH y capacidad tampón de la secreción salivar en sujetos sanos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in spanish Objetivos: conocer el débito, pH y capacidad tampón de la saliva en sujetos sanos y sus relaciones con edad, sexo, obesidad y hábitos tabáquico y alcohólico, así como establecer la definición de hiposialia. Métodos: estudio observacional prospectivo en 159 voluntarios sanos (> 18 años, sin factores [...] conocidos que disminuyan la secreción salivar). Se ha recogido la saliva total, sin estímulo, durante 10 minutos, determinando su débito (ml/min), pH y capacidad tampón (concentración de bicarbonato en mmol/l) mediante autoanalizador Radiometer ABL 520. Se han calculado los límites inferiores del débito salivar y concentración de bicarbonato por el percentil 5. Resultados: la mediana del débito salivar es 0,48 ml/min (rango 0,1-2). La mayor edad condiciona una disminución del débito salivar; los sujetos con edad Abstract in english Objectives: to assess the salivary flow rate, pH, and buffer capacity of healthy volunteers, and their relationships with age, gender, obesity, smoking, and alcohol consumption, and to establish the lower-end value of normal salivary flow (oligosialia). Methods: a prospective study was conducted in [...] 159 healthy volunteers (age > 18 years, absence of medical conditions that could decrease salivary flow). Unstimulated whole saliva was collected during ten minutes, and salivary flow rate (ml/min), pH, and bicarbonate concentration (mmol/l) were measured using a Radiometer ABL 520. The 5 percentile of salivary flow rate and bicarbonate concentration was considered the lower limit of normality. Results: median salivary flow rate was 0.48 ml/min (range: 0.1-2 ml/min). Age younger than 44 years was associated with higher flow rates (OR 2.10). Compared with women, men presented a higher flow rate (OR 3.19) and buffer capacity (OR 2.81). Bicarbonate concentration correlated with salivary flow rate. The lower-end values of normal flow rate and bicarbonate concentration were 0.15 ml/min and 1.800 mmol/l, respectively. The presence of obesity, smoking, and alcohol consumption did not influence salivary parameters. Conclusions: in healthy volunteers, salivary flow rate depends on age and gender, and correlates with buffer capacity. Obesity, smoking, and alcohol use do not influence salivary secretion.

C., Fenoll-Palomares; J. V., Muñoz-Montagud; V., Sanchiz; B., Herreros; V., Hernández; M., Mínguez; A., Benages.

2004-11-01

358

Use of Salivary Cortisol Measurements in Young Infants: A Note of Caution.  

Science.gov (United States)

Findings indicate that high cortisol levels and interfering substances in formula and breast milk could contaminate salivary cortisol measurements in young infants. To insure accurate results, appropriate controls should be taken for salivary cortisol measurements of young infants. (RH)

Magnano, Catherine L.; And Others

1989-01-01

359

(S)- and (R)-[11C]nicotine and the metabolite (R/S)-[11C]cotinine. Preparation, metabolite studies and in vivo distribution in the human brain using PET  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to investigate [11C]nicotine binding and metabolism in the living human brain by PET, routine protocols were developed for the preparation and purification of (S)-and (R)-[11C]nicotine and the metabolite (R/S)-[11C]cotinine. (S)- and (R)-[11C]nicotine were prepared by N-methylation with [11C]methyl iodide of the appropriate secondary amine, which was liberated in situ by 2,2,6,6,-tetramethylpiperidine (TMP) from its corresponding biscamsylate-salt. (R/S)-[11C]Cotinine was prepared by N-methylation of the amide precursor using tetrabutylammonium hydroxide as a phase transfer catalyst. Straight-phase semipreparative HPLC was in all purifications found to be superior to reversed-phase since the contamination by the norcompounds was eliminated. Reaction in acetonitrile for both (S)- and (R)-[11C]nicotine and (R/S)-[11C]cotinine with subsequent straight-phase HPLC purification resulted in 35-45% radiochemical yield with a total synthesis time of 30-35 min, a specific radioactivity of 1000-1500 Ci/mmol (37-55 GBq/?mol, EOS) and a radiochemical purity >99%. The uptake and distribution of these tracers in the human brain was studied in healthy volunteers by PET. The metabolite (R/S)-[11C]cotinine did not cross the blood-brain barrier to any significant degree. (author)

360

Low salivary testosterone levels in patients with breast cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Correlation between circulating sex steroid levels and breast cancer has been controversial, with measurement of free, or bioavailable hormone rarely available. Salivary hormone levels represent the bioavailable fraction. To further elucidate the role of endogenous hormones in breast cancer, we aimed to assess correlation between salivary sex steroid levels and breast cancer prevalence. Methods Salivary hormone levels of testosterone (T, Estradiol (E2, Progesterone (P, Estriol (E3, Estrone (E1, DHEAS and Cortisol (C were measured by Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA in 357 women with histologically verified breast cancer and 184 age-matched control women. Results Salivary T and DHEAS levels were significantly lower in breast cancer cases vs. controls (27.2+13.9 vs. 32.2+17.5 pg/ml, p Conclusions Salivary T levels, representing the bioavailable hormone, are significantly lower in women with breast cancer compared to age-matched control women. These findings support the protective role of biovailable testosterone in counteracting the proliferative effects of estrogens on mammary tissue.

Tsigginou Alexandra

2010-10-01

361

Maspin and MCM2 immunoprofiling in salivary gland carcinomas  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathogenesis of salivary gland carcinomas is very complex and prognostic markers are difficult to find in these carcinomas of which the different subtypes have varying malignant potential. The study was conducted to examine the cellular distribution of maspin and MCM2 in salivary gland carcinomas and their value to predict lymph node metastasis. Materials and methods Fifty three paraffin blocks of different lesions (15 muco-epidermoid carcinoma, 14 adenoid cystic carcinoma, 3 epi-myoepithelial carcinoma, 5 salivary duct carcinoma, 5 malignant pleomorphic adenoma, 6 polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma and 5 acinic cell carcinoma were prepared for immunohistochemical staining with maspin and MCM2 antibodies. ANOVA and Pearson correlation tests were used for the statistical analysis of the results. Results All salivary gland carcinomas express maspin and MCM2 with variable cellular localization. There was a significant difference in the expression of each antibody between mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma and polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma. No association was found between examined markers and lymph node metastasis. Conclusions Salivary gland carcinomas express maspin and MCM2 with variable levels and cellular localization, consisting important markers of biological behavior in these tumors. The level of MCM2 expression can be used in the differential diagnosis of adenoid cystic carcinoma and polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma. Further study with large sample size is recommended to assess their value in prediction of lymph node metastasis.

Helmy Iman M

2011-09-01

362

Quantification of salivary gland Scintigraphy by means of factor analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: In this study the automatic separation of oral and salivary gland activity and spontaneous secretion by means of factor analysis for quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy is introduced. Methods: After intravenous administration of 99mTc sodium pertechnetate, dynamis scintigraphy was performed using a128x128 matrix, acquisition time 30 min, 2 frame/min. 20 minutes after tracer application 2 ml of lemon juice was delivered to stimulate the glands. Applying elliptical regions of interest (ROIs for oral cavity and four major salivary gland and factor analysis of  medical image sequences results in factor image and factor curves, which are used for quantification of the pre- and post-stimulatory oral activity index, and for the four major glands and the sublingual gland, the maximum accumulation (MA, the maximum secretion (MS and the secretion velocity (SV. Results: With FAMIS it is possible to fully separate automatic separate the three superimposed processes we have in salivary gland scintigraphy: glandular and oral activity and spontaneous secretion. Comparing our quantitative results obtained by FAMIS with ROI analysis we found significant different values that are due to the fact that the spontaneous secretion in the oral cavity superimposes the true oral and glandular activity curves. Conclusion: The application of factor analysis improves the results of salivary gland scintigraphy by separation of superimposed dynamic processes of oral and glandular activity and spontaneous secretion

Peter Knoll

2010-10-01

363

Acute Short-Term Mental Stress Does Not Influence Salivary Flow Rate Dynamics  

OpenAIRE

Background: Results of studies that address the influence of stress on salivary flow rate and composition are controversial. The aim of this study was to reveal the influence of stress vulnerability and different phases of stress reactivity on the unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rate. We examined that acute mental stress does not change the salivary flow rate. In addition, we also examined the salivary cortisol and protein level in relation to acute mental stress stimuli. Methods: S...

Naumova, Ella A.; Sandulescu, Tudor; Al Khatib, Philipp; Thie, Michael; Lee, Wing-kee; Zimmer, Stefan; Arnold, Wolfgang H.

2012-01-01

364

Anopheles salivary gland proteomes from major malaria vectors  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Antibody responses against Anopheles salivary proteins can indicate individual exposure to bites of malaria vectors. The extent to which these salivary proteins are species-specific is not entirely resolved. Thus, a better knowledge of the diversity among salivary protein repertoires from various malaria vector species is necessary to select relevant genus-, subgenus- and/or species-specific salivary antigens. Such antigens could be used for quantitative (mosquito density)...

Fontaine Albin; Fusaï Thierry; Briolant Sébastien; Buffet Sylvain; Villard Claude; Baudelet Emilie; Pophillat Mathieu; Granjeaud Samuel; Rogier Christophe; Almeras Lionel

2012-01-01

365

Comparison of labial and sublingual salivary gland biopsies in the diagnosis of Sjögren's syndrome.  

OpenAIRE

This study was designed to compare labial and sublingual salivary gland biopsies in the diagnosis of Sjögren's syndrome (SS). Fourteen labial and 29 sublingual specimens were considered positive. There was a better correlation between infiltration of the ductal structure and the focus score in the sublingual salivary gland biopsy than in the labial salivary gland biopsy. Use of sublingual salivary gland biopsy as an additional diagnostic tool in SS is therefore suggested.

Pennec, Y. L.; Leroy, J. P.; Jouquan, J.; Lelong, A.; Katsikis, P.; Youinou, P.

1990-01-01

366

Source, topography and excitatory effects of GABAergic innervation in cockroach salivary glands  

OpenAIRE

Cockroach salivary glands are innervated by dopaminergic and serotonergic neurons. Both transmitters elicit saliva secretion. We studied the distribution pattern of neurons containing gamma-aminobutyric acid ( GABA) and their physiological role. Immunofluorescence revealed a GABA-immunoreactive axon that originates within the subesophageal ganglion at the salivary neuron 2 (SN2) and this extends within the salivary duct nerve towards the salivary gland. GABA-positive fibers form a network on ...

Blenau, Wolfgang; Rotte, Cathleen; Witte, Jeannine; Baumann, Otto; Walz, Bernd

2009-01-01

367

A paper strip based non-invasive glucose biosensor for salivary analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

In our present study, we developed an optical biosensor for direct determination of salivary glucose by using immobilized glucose oxidase enzyme on filter paper strip (specific activity 1.4 U/strip) and then reacting it with synthetic glucose samples in presence of co-immobilized color pH indicator. The filter paper changed color based on concentration of glucose in reaction media and hence, by scanning this color change (using RGB profiling) through an office scanner and open source image processing software (GIMP) the concentration of glucose in the reaction medium could be deduced. Once the biosensor was standardized, the synthetic glucose sample was replaced with human saliva from donors. The individual's blood glucose level at the time of obtaining saliva was also measured using an Accuchek(™) active glucometer (Roche Inc.). In this preliminary study, a correlation of nearly 0.64 was found between glucose levels in saliva and blood of healthy individuals and in diabetic patients it was nearly in the order of 0.95, thereby validating the importance of salivary analysis. The RGB profiling method obtained a detection range of 9-1350 mg/dL glucose at a response time of 45 s and LOD of 22.2 mg/dL. PMID:25282078

Soni, Anuradha; Jha, Sandeep Kumar

2015-05-15

368

Measurement of salivary cortisol--effects of replacing polyester with cotton and switching antibody  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Stable performance between-runs are essential in longitudinal studies and when different studies are being compared. However, changes in analytical kits and laboratory material occur and have the potential to threaten analytical stability. In the present case, we examined how salivary cortisol measurements in our laboratory were affected by: 1) changes in the tampon material and 2) changes in the antibody of the analytical kit. In study 1, saliva from healthy subjects (n = 19) was split and spiked to Salivette polyester and cotton tampons, respectively, and treated as ordinary samples before being analysed for cortisol using a Spectria RIA kit for cortisol. In study 2, 68 anonymous saliva samples were analysed with the Spectria Cortisol RIA kit both before and after the manufacturer changed the antibody. The change from polyester to cotton tampons reduced the measured concentration of salivary cortisol by 62 %. A difference of 12 % between the two runs with different antibodies could not be attributed to differences in storage or in thawing and freezing of samples. To conclude, both a change in the material of the Salivette used for collecting saliva samples as well as a change of antibody in a kit can have a major impact on measurements, as illustrated here for concentrations of cortisol in saliva. It is therefore recommended always to check that the analysis stays in statistical control in one's own laboratory when changes are made, even if the manufacturer reports that the changes should have no effects.

Hansen, Ase Marie; Garde, Anne Helene

2008-01-01

369

Seasonal rhythms of salivary cortisol secretion in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Salivary cortisol has been recently used to assess welfare of captive and free-ranging animals. However, rhythms of cortisol secretion may vary annually and thus, it is necessary to take into account these rhythms when evaluating the physiological significance of fluctuations of this hormone throughout the year as stress indicator in animals. Here, we analyze monthly differences in cortisol secretion in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) during a year. Saliva samples of eight adult female Asian elephants were collected and analyzed using Radioimmunoassay. Results revealed an overall seasonal pattern of salivary cortisol secretion and significant differences in cortisol concentration among months were found. Overall, the highest cortisol levels were recorded in October, and then decreased until reaching the lowest concentration in April. However, some individual variations were found respect this annual overall trend. The occurrence of this annual pattern of cortisol secretion should be taken into account when using cortisol as a tool to assess animal welfare in captive animal at zoological parks, as well as it opens new questions to further analyze this pattern and its variations, as well as the endogenous mechanisms controlling it. PMID:22366473

Menargues Marcilla, Asunción; Urios, Vicente; Limiñana, Rubén

2012-04-01

370

Salivary levels of hyaluronic acid in female patients with dry mouth compared with age-matched controls: a pilot study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Little is known regarding the association between the level of hyaluronic acid (HA) in saliva and dry mouth status. The aim of this study was to evaluate the salivary levels of HA in female patients with dry mouth (perceived xerostomia and hyposalivation) and compare them with age-matched controls. We studied 46 females, and classified them into two groups based on perceived xerostomia and salivary flow rate, as well as a control group without symptoms. HA concentrations in unstimulated whole saliva were determined and a significant difference was found between the groups. The statistical association was stronger in patients (perceived xerostomia, normosalivation) administrated xerogenic drugs, while the HA levels in that group were significantly lower than those in the controls when converted to absolute amount of saliva per min. Within the limitations of the present study, patients with dry mouth had lower HA levels in saliva, which may serve as a marker of local dryness or oral mucosa lubrication. PMID:19265265

Higuchi, Yasushi; Ansai, Toshihiro; Awano, Shuji; Soh, Inho; Yoshida, Akihiro; Hamasaki, Tomoko; Kakinoki, Yasuaki; Takehara, Tadamichi

2009-02-01

371

Short-term salivary acetaldehyde increase due to direct exposure to alcoholic beverages as an additional cancer risk factor beyond ethanol metabolism  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasing body of evidence now implicates acetaldehyde as a major underlying factor for the carcinogenicity of alcoholic beverages and especially for oesophageal and oral cancer. Acetaldehyde associated with alcohol consumption is regarded as 'carcinogenic to humans' (IARC Group 1, with sufficient evidence available for the oesophagus, head and neck as sites of carcinogenicity. At present, research into the mechanistic aspects of acetaldehyde-related oral cancer has been focused on salivary acetaldehyde that is formed either from ethanol metabolism in the epithelia or from microbial oxidation of ethanol by the oral microflora. This study was conducted to evaluate the role of the acetaldehyde that is found as a component of alcoholic beverages as an additional factor in the aetiology of oral cancer. Methods Salivary acetaldehyde levels were determined in the context of sensory analysis of different alcoholic beverages (beer, cider, wine, sherry, vodka, calvados, grape marc spirit, tequila, cherry spirit, without swallowing, to exclude systemic ethanol metabolism. Results The rinsing of the mouth for 30 seconds with an alcoholic beverage is able to increase salivary acetaldehyde above levels previously judged to be carcinogenic in vitro, with levels up to 1000 ?M in cases of beverages with extreme acetaldehyde content. In general, the highest salivary acetaldehyde concentration was found in all cases in the saliva 30 sec after using the beverages (average 353 ?M. The average concentration then decreased at the 2-min (156 ?M, 5-min (76 ?M and 10-min (40 ?M sampling points. The salivary acetaldehyde concentration depends primarily on the direct ingestion of acetaldehyde contained in the beverages at the 30-sec sampling, while the influence of the metabolic formation from ethanol becomes the major factor at the 2-min sampling point. Conclusions This study offers a plausible mechanism to explain the increased risk for oral cancer associated with high acetaldehyde concentrations in certain beverages.

Monakhova Yulia B

2011-01-01

372

Serum cotinine and urinary 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanonol levels among non-Hispanic Asian American smokers and nonsmokers as compared to other race/ethnicities: data from NHANES 2011-2012.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to evaluate serum cotinine and total urinary 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanonol (NNAL) levels from a nationally representative sample of non-Hispanic Asian Americans as compared with other racial/ethnic groups. Data from the latest National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2011-2012 were used for this purpose. The total sample size used was 4580. Regression models were fitted to estimate serum cotinine and urinary NNAL levels for smokers and nonsmokers aged 20 years and older adjusted for other factors that affect these levels. For nonsmokers, exposure to second hand smoke at home was associated with about 30 times higher serum cotinine levels when compared to those without such exposure (0.717 ng mL(-1) vs. 0.024 ng mL(-1), plevels among nonsmokers with second hand smoke exposure at home were about twenty times what they were in those without such exposure (9 pg mL(-1) vs. 109 pg mL(-1), plevels occurred in non-Hispanic Asian smokers (92.6 ng mL(-1)) and Hispanics (84.5 ng mL(-1)) as compared to non-Hispanic whites (143.8 ng mL(-1)) and non-Hispanic blacks (158.4 ng mL(-1)). Urinary NNAL levels for smokers were in the order: non-Hispanic Asian (0.121 ng mL(-1))substantially higher levels of serum cotinine but substantially lower levels of urinary NNAL irrespective of smoking status thus pointing towards differences in elimination kinetics of nicotine/cotinine and NNAL. PMID:25462301

Jain, Ram B

2015-02-01

373

Repeated bouts of eccentrically biased endurance exercise stimulate salivary IgA secretion rate.  

Science.gov (United States)

To determine the salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) response to repeated bouts of unaccustomed, downhill running (eccentrically biased) and examine potential protective immunological adaption from a repeated bout effect. Eleven active but untrained males (age: 19.7±0.4 years; VO2peak: 47.8± 3.6 ml · kg(-1) · min (-1)) performed two 60 min bouts (Run 1 and Run 2) of downhill running (-13.5% gradient), separated by 14 days, at a speed eliciting 75% of their VO2peak on a level grade. Saliva samples were collected before (baseline), immediately post exercise (IPE), and every hour for 12 h and every 24 h for 6 days after each run. Salivary sIgA concentration was measured and sIgA secretion rate was calculated. Results were analysed using repeated measures ANOVA (12 h period: 2x14; 24 h intervals: 2x7; p ? 0.05) with Tukey post-hoc tests where appropriate. Results are reported as means ± SE. There was a significant (p < 0.0001) interaction effect for sIgA secretion rate, IPE, with higher values after Run 2, as well as a significant (p < 0.01) time effect with elevated levels IPE and between 24 h and 144 h. There was a run effect (p < 0.0001), with the sIgA secretion rate significantly higher after Run 2. Repeated bouts of unaccustomed, eccentrically biased exercise induced alterations in the salivary sIgA secretion rate. This may serve as a protective mucosal adaptation to exercise-induced tissue damage. PMID:25729146

McKune, Aj; Starzak, D; Semple, Sj

2015-03-01

374

Salivary defense factors and oral health in patients with common variable immunodeficiency.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies of oral health in patients with common variable immunodeficiency have given controversial results. Obviously, one major factor modifying the oral health of these patients is saliva, in which the antibody-mediated defense is remarkably impaired compared to that of healthy subjects. However, the occurrence of nonimmunoglobulin (innate) antimicrobial agents in saliva of these patients is virtually unknown. Therefore, we analyzed both immune (total IgA, IgG, IgM, anti-Streptococcus mutans IgA, IgG, and IgM antibodies) and nonimmune (lysozyme, lactoferrin, salivary peroxidase, myeloperoxidase, hypothiocyanite, thiocyanate, and agglutinins) factors in whole saliva of 15 patients with common variable immunodeficiency. All patients were on Ig-replacement therapy (median duration, 10 years; range, 2-25 years), which had normalized their IgG but not their IgA or IgM levels both in serum and in saliva. Also, comprehensive clinical and microbiological analyses were made. The control group comprised 15 age- and sex-matched immunologically healthy subjects. The results showed no notable differences in dental caries, periodontal diseases, or salivary microorganisms but the patients had a history of more frequent oral mucosal lesions and respiratory infections. All innate, nonimmune salivary defense factors were equally abundant in the patients as in the controls, in many cases even at somewhat higher concentrations. These findings suggest that in spite of immunodeficiency, patients with common variable immunodeficiency display normal, perhaps even slightly elevated, levels of nonimmunoglobulin defense factors in whole saliva.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7929697

Kirstilä, V; Tenovuo, J; Ruuskanen, O; Nikoskelainen, J; Irjala, K; Vilja, P

1994-07-01

375

The relationship between psychological distress with salivary ?-amylase and stress related symptoms among breast cancer survivors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Aims: This study examined the stress levels, the stressors and biomarker such as Alpha (?-Amylase enzyme which is secreted under distress conditions. The aim was to determine the relationship between these three variables. Methods: The study respondents were made up of cancer outpatients from 3 hospitals namely the Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Seberang Jaya and Johor Baru, Pantai Ipoh and Putrajaya. The Personal Stress Inventory (PSI questionnaire was used to identify stressors, while the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS were used to determine the psychological distress levels. The Salimentary Oral Swab (SOS Technique was used to collect the saliva and then the Salivary ?-Amylase Assay Kit was used to analyse for ? amylase. Results: The majority of respondents were stressed due to their sensitive emotion and nervousness in their daily lives (68.7%, they had poor memory and short attention spans of carrying out job tasks (67.3% as well as they were emotionally depressed (65.3%. Their poor memory and short attention span (p = 0.037, heavy work load and poor task delivery (p = 0.008 were predictors for distress using HADS. The salivary ?-amylase concentration was significantly related to the stress levels (p = 0.002. Conclusion: Breast cancer respondents with musculoskeletal system related symptoms, with heavy work load and poor task delivery, as well as had poor memory and short attention span were at higher risk of experiencing psychological distress. The salivary ?-amylase which had significant relationships with psychological distress was therefore, a potential biological indicator for distress, while the musculoskeletal system related symptoms from the PSI questionnaire were predictors for distress.

H. W. Yong

2013-04-01

376

Sjoegren's syndrome. A functional scintigraphic study of salivary glands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One-hundred and twenty patients with sicca syndrome, connective tissue disease or chronic graft-versus-host disease were investigated in the Saint-Louis Hospital Department of Nuclear Medicine. Technetium scanning of the salivary glands was performed in all patients. The results of the scintigraphic study were closely correlated with clinical and histological data in patients with Sjoegren's syndrome. This method, which accurately quantifies the salivary function without danger nor discomfort to the patients, has a number of advantages: (a) it is sensitive enough to detect minimal salivary gland dysfunction; (b) it differentiates between parotid gland and submandibular gland involvement demonstrates assymetry in pathological processes; (c) it helps in following up patients with Sjoegren's disease and in assessing the results of immunosuppressive or anti-inflammatory treatment

377

HIV-associated salivary gland enlargement: a clinical review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Salivary gland disease is well established as an important HIV associated oral lesion. It manifests as salivary gland swelling involving one or both parotid glands with or without xerostomia. In the context of HIV, the swelling may be due to a wide spectrum of pathological conditions that include re [...] active or inflammatory disorders, acute and chronic infections, and neoplasms. This paper reviews the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, aspects of diagnosis and management of HIV associated salivary gland enlargement, in particular parotid gland enlargement, due to benign lymphoepithelial cysts (BLEC). Parotid gland enlargement is typically an early manifestation in the HIV-positive patient and should alert healthcare professionals to the likelihood of HIV infection. FNAC of the parotid gland is required to confirm the diagnosis and instituting HAART forms an important part of the management. There is a shift away from surgery in the treatment of this essentially ‘benign’ condition.

S, Ebrahim; B, Singh; SS, Ramklass.

2014-10-01

378

Ultrasonographic changes of major salivary glands in primary Sjoegren's syndrome  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of our study was to determine the reproducibility of a new semi-quantitative scoring system based on ultrasonographic (US) evaluation of structural changes of salivary glands in primary Sjoegren's syndrome (SS). US evaluation of parotid and submandibular glands was performed in 28 SS patients and 29 control subjects independently by two blinded observers. Echogenicity, delineation of glandular borders and sonographic structure (homogeneity, hypoechoic areas, hyperechoic foci) of salivary glands were semi-quantitatively assessed and the final US score calculated. Inter-observer variability was determined by Cohen's test. A high degree of inter-observer agreement was found regarding the final US score (0.90) and in the assessment of glandular homogeneity (0.90), echogenicity (0.88) and hypoechoic areas (0.88). This study showed good reproducibility of the US evaluation of salivary glands using our novel scoring system. This may have important implications on the diagnostic algorithm in patients with SS

379

Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the minor salivary glands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a malignant salivary gland tumor with typical histologic patterns. The majority of the se tumors occurs in the minor salivary glands, especially mucosa of the hard palate. The authors experienced the patients, who complained the tumor-like soft tissue masses on the palatal and mouth floor area. After careful analysis of clinical, radiological and histopathological findings, we diagnosed them as adenoid cystic carcinomas in the minor salivary glands, obtained results were as follows : 1. Main clinical symptoms were a slow growing soft tissue mass with normal intact mucosa on the palatal area, and soft tissue mass with mild pain on the mouth floor area. 2. In the radiographic examinations, soft tissue masses were observed with invasion to adjacent structures, and moderate defined, heterogeneous soft tissue mass with enhanced margin, respectively. 3. In the histopathologic examinations, dark-stained, small uniform ballad's cells in the hyaline or fibrous stroma were observed as solid and cribriform patterns, respectively.

380

A study on salivary cortisol level in patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis during both ulceration and ulcer free periods  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis (RAS is one of the most common oral mucosal disorders. RAS patients show a decline in oral tolerance which leads to epithelial damage. Cortisol secretion in such patients may not be enough to suppress cytotoxic reactions against oral epithelium. The aim of this study was to measure salivary cortisol level during both ulceration and ulcer free phases of the disease. Materials and Methods: In this analytic-descriptive study, a total of 20 patients having minor oral aphthi with a history of at least three times oral ulceration in one year were included.Saliva samples were collected through spitting. The salivary concentration level of cortisol was measured on the first and 7th days from the appearance of aphthous ulcers, every patient was considered as both case and control. Sampling was repeated when ulcers were completely healed. The saliva samples were collected between 9 and 10 am and were analyzed via Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. The collected data were statistically analyzed on a computer through repeated measurement ANOVA and paired t-tests using SPSS software.(? = 0.05Results: The mean concentration of salivary cortisol on the first day of aphthous appearance was 2.72 . However after complete healing of the ulcers, it rose to 3.37 . The difference these values were shown to be statistically significant (p value=0.002. The mean concentration level of salivary cortisol on the 7th day from aphthous appearance (2.6 was also significantly different from the aphthous Free State. (p value = 0.001. Mean cortisol concentration level on the first and 7th days from the appearance of aphthous ulcer did not show a significant difference (p value = 0.304.Conclusion: The results showed that the mean salivary cortisol level at the beginning of the disease as well as during its active ulcerative period (acute phase were significantly lower than in aphthous free periods. It seems that cortisol plays a key role in reducing aphthous ulcer inflammation. Impaired cortisol secretion in RAS patients may cause an increased rate of incidence and severity of aphthous ulcers. Key words: Recurrent aphthous ulcer, Saliva, Hydrocortisone

Parichehr Ghaliani

2010-01-01

381

Studies On Quantitative Analysis Of Salivary Gland Using Computed Tomography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to calculate the size and CT number of both normal parotid and submandibular gland, and evaluate its relation to sex, age and obesity using computed tomography. The computed tomography was performed parallel to the Frankfurt plane in 46 subjects with healthy salivary gland. The subjects were divided into the three groups (young, middle, old) according to their ages. The size of salivary gland was determined as maximum cross-sectional area and the CT number of salivary gland was determined as the mean CT number of three ROI's. The body mass index was calculated from weight and height. The mean maximum cross-sectional area was 7.79 (+/-1.26) cm2 on parotid gland and 4.12 (+/-0.83) cm2 on submandibular gland. The mean CT number was -4.43 (+/-23.87) HU on parotid gland and 50.01 (+/-15.63) HU on submandibular gland. There were decreasing pattern of the maximum cross-sectional area of submandibular gland and the CT number of both parotid and submandibular gland according to age (p<0.05). As the body mass index increased, the maximum cross-sectional area of parotid gland increased and CT number of both parotid and submandibular gland decreased (p<0.05). The maximum cross-sectional area of submandibular gland in male was larger than that in female (p<0.05). As the maximum cross-sectional area and CT number of left salivary gland increased, those of right gland increased (p<0.05). Intra-individual differences in salivary glatra-individual differences in salivary gland size and CT number is considered in the age and individual obesity.

382

Effect of adsorption time on the adhesion strength between salivary pellicle and human tooth enamel.  

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Salivary pellicle is a biofilm that is formed by the selective adsorption of salivary proteins. Almost all the functions of the salivary pellicle (lubricating properties, anti-caries properties, etc.) are closely associated with its adhesion strength to tooth surface. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of adsorption time on the adhesion strength between salivary pellicle and human tooth enamel, aiming to understand what act as the determinant of the interfacial adhesion. In this study, human tooth enamel samples were immersed in human whole saliva in vitro to obtain a salivary pellicle on the surface of enamel. Immersion treatments lasting up to 1, 3, 10 and 60 min were conducted, respectively. Nano-scratch tests were conducted on the surface of enamel after different adsorption times. The wettability of enamel surface was measured through water contact angle. Results showed that the shear energy between salivary pellicle and enamel surface increased exponentially with the adsorption time. The adhesion force between salivary pellicle and bare enamel surface was more than twice that between salivary pellicle and salivary pellicle. It was found that both the wettability and zeta potential of enamel increased obviously after 1 min saliva-adsorption treatment, and then they almost kept stable as the adsorption time further increased. In summary, the adhesion strength between initial salivary pellicle and enamel surface was much higher than that between initial salivary pellicle and outer salivary pellicle. It seemed that electrostatic interaction contributed to the adhesion between the initial salivary pellicle and enamel surface, but not to the adhesion between the initial and outer salivary pellicle. The results would be helpful to extend the understanding of the adhesion mechanism of salivary pellicle and then to develop new artificial saliva and dental restorative materials. PMID:25498298

Zhang, Y F; Zheng, J; Zheng, L; Zhou, Z R

2015-02-01

383

Comparative salivary gland transcriptomics of sandfly vectors of visceral leishmaniasis  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Immune responses to sandfly saliva have been shown to protect animals against Leishmania infection. Yet very little is known about the molecular characteristics of salivary proteins from different sandflies, particularly from vectors transmitting visceral leishmaniasis, the fatal form of the disease. Further knowledge of the repertoire of these salivary proteins will give us insights into the molecular evolution of these proteins and will help us select relevant antigens for the development of a vector based anti-Leishmania vaccine. Results Two salivary gland cDNA libraries from female sandflies Phlebotomus argentipes and P. perniciosus were constructed, sequenced and proteomic analysis of the salivary proteins was performed. The majority of the sequenced transcripts from the two cDNA libraries coded for secreted proteins. In this analysis we identified transcripts coding for protein families not previously described in sandflies. A comparative sandfly salivary transcriptome analysis was performed by using these two cDNA libraries and two other sandfly salivary gland cDNA libraries from P. ariasi and Lutzomyia longipalpis, also vectors of visceral leishmaniasis. Full-length secreted proteins from each sandfly library were compared using a stand-alone version of BLAST, creating formatted protein databases of each sandfly library. Related groups of proteins from each sandfly species were combined into defined families of proteins. With this comparison, we identified families of salivary proteins common among all of the sandflies studied, proteins to be genus specific and proteins that appear to be species specific. The common proteins included apyrase, yellow-related protein, antigen-5, PpSP15 and PpSP32-related protein, a 33-kDa protein, D7-related protein, a 39- and a 16.1- kDa protein and an endonuclease-like protein. Some of these families contained multiple members, including PPSP15-like, yellow proteins and D7-related proteins suggesting gene expansion in these proteins. Conclusion This comprehensive analysis allows us the identification of genus- specific proteins, species-specific proteins and, more importantly, proteins common among these different sandflies. These results give us insights into the repertoire of salivary proteins that are potential candidates for a vector-based vaccine.

Seitz Amy E

2006-03-01

384

Radionuclide salivary imaging usefulness in a private otolaryngology practice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radionuclide salivary gland scans were performed on 44 patients using sodium pertechnetate Tc 99m. The accuracy of the scans and their usefulness in the clinical treatment of the patients were reviewed. The scan provided helpful information in 31 of 38 cases in which adequate follow-up data were available, although it proved diagnostic in only six patients. It was particularly useful in the evaluation of primary salivary gland neoplasms, acute and chronic sialadenitis, and sialolithiasis, as well as in the differential diagnosis of xerostomia. The value of this procedure in the elucidation of a variety of morphologic and functional diseases of these glands warrants its greater application in private otolaryngologic practices

385

Regeneration of irradiated salivary glands by stem cell therapy  

OpenAIRE

Yearly, worldwide more than 500.000 new head and neck cancer patients are treated with radiotherapy. Co-irradiation of salivary glands may lead to xerostomia (=dry mouth syndrome), resulting in permanent loss of saliva production. This loss of gland function after radiation is thought to be due to a loss of stem cells that are no longer able to replenish saliva-producing acinar cells. Therefore, stem cell therapy could be utilized to prevent radiation-induced damage to the salivary gland. ...

Lombaert, Isabelle Madeleine Armand

2008-01-01

386

Current status of the development of an artificial salivary gland.  

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Salivary glands (SGs) secrete more than half a liter of saliva daily. Saliva has many functions in maintaining the normal homeostasis of the oral cavity. Several causes underlie salivary impairment, where irradiation therapy to head and neck cancer patients is one of the most debilitating causes leading to considerable decrease in the patients' quality of life. In the last decade, others and we have focused on implementing tissue engineering principles combined with gene transfer and stem cell methodologies to develop an artificial SG device. This manuscript provides an overview of the current status of engineering an artificial SG. PMID:18471085

Aframian, Doron J; Palmon, Aaron

2008-06-01

387

[Rhabdomyosarcoma of the salivary glands. Report of 3 cases].  

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Rhabdomyosarcoma of the salivary glands is rare. Tumours develop mostly in children and young patients but can be diagnosed in older people. We report three new cases in women 7, 14 and 75 years old. Tumefaction of the parotid region and facial paralysis were the principle clinical symptoms. Two patients underwent a total parotidectomy and radiotherapy. The third patient had a locally advanced tumour and received chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy. Loco-regional recurrence was observed in all cases and median survival was 12 months. Rhabdomyosarcoma of the salivary glands is locally aggressive. Treatments include surgery and radiotherapy. The role of chemotherapy remains to be discussed. PMID:15953749

BenJelloun, H; Jouhadi, H; Maazouzi, A; Benchakroun, N; Acharki, A; Tawfiq, N; Sahraoui, S; Benider, A

2005-09-01

388

Lymphoid lesions of salivary glands: Malignant and Benign  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in english Lesions of salivary glands with a prominent lymphoid component are a heterogeneous group of diseases that include benign reactive lesions and malignant neoplasms. Occasionally, these pathologic entities present difficulties in the clinical and pathological diagnosis and prognosis. Lymphoepithelial s [...] ialadenitis, HIV-associated salivary gland disease, chronic sclerosing sialadenitis, Warthin tumor, and extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma are examples of this pathology that are sometimes problematic to differentiate from one another. In this paper the author reviewed the main clinical, pathological and prognostic features of these lesions.

Gary L., Ellis.

2007-11-01

389

Raman spectroscopic investigation of urinary calculi and salivary stones  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The capabilities and limitations of determining the composition of urinary calculi (34 patients) and salivary stones (27 patients) by Raman spectroscopy have been investigated by analysing Raman spectra obtained with 1064 nm laser excitation, and comparing them with Raman spectra both from specific reference substances and from a commercial Raman database. The composition results were also compared with those obtained by other analytical methods e.g. powder diffraction. Raman spectroscopy proves to be an analytical method which provides reliable results on the composition of urinary calculi and salivary stones quickly, non-destructively and without any need of sample preparation. (author)

390

Characterization of the In Vitro Kinetic Interaction of Chlorpyrifos-Oxon with Rat Salivary Cholinesterase: A Potential Biomonitoring Matrix  

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Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a commonly used organophosphate insecticide (OP). The primary mechanism of action for CPF involves the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by the active metabolite, CPF-oxon, with subsequent accumulation of acetylcholine (ACh) resulting in a wide range of neutotoxicity. CPF-oxon, can likewise inhibit other non-target cholinesterases (ChE) such as butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), which represents a detoxification mechanism and a potential biomarker of exposure/response. Biological monitoring for OPs has focused on measuring parent chemical or metabolite in blood and urine or blood ChE inhibition. Salivary biomonitoring has recently been explored as a practical method for examination of chemical exposure; however, there are a limited number of studies exploring its use for OPs. To evaluate the use of salivary ChE as a biological monitor for OP exposure, the current study characterized salivary ChE activity in Sprague-Dawley rats through its comparison with brain and plasma ChE using BW284C51 and iso-OMPA as selective inhibitors of AChE and BuChE, respectively. The study also estimated the kinetic constants describing BuChE interaction with CPF-oxon. A modified Ellman assay in conjunction with pharmacodynamic (PD) modeling was used to characterize the in vitro titration of diluted rat salivary ChE enzyme with CPF-oxon. The results indicated that, more than 95% of rat salivary ChE activity was associated with BuChE activity, total BuChE active site concentration was 0.0012 0.00013 nmol/ml saliva, reactivation rate constant (Kr) was 0.068 0.008 h-1 and inhibitory (Ki) rate constant of 8.825 and 9.80 nM-1h-1 determined experimentally and using model optimization respectively. These study results would be helpful for further evaluating the potential utility of salivary ChE as a practical tool for biological monitor of OP exposures.

Kousba, Ahmed A.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Poet, Torka S.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Timchalk, Charles (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

2003-02-12

391

Modulatory effect of esophageal intraluminal mechanical and chemical stressors on salivary prostaglandin E2 in humans.  

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As has been demonstrated, infusion of hydrochloric acid (HCl) and pepsin into the human esophageal lumen, which mimics the natural gastroesophageal reflux, results in a significant increase in salivary volume, salivary bicarbonate and epidermal growth factor. However, the impact of intraluminal acid/pepsin solution on salivary prostaglandin E2 (sPGE2), the major protective factor of the upper alimentary tract, has never been explored. Therefore, using the newly developed esophageal perfusion model, the impact of both mechanical and chemical stimuli of the esophagus on sPGE2 secretion in humans was studied. Salivary PGE2 was assessed in saliva collected during basal conditions, chewing of parafilm, placement of intraesophageal tubing, inflation of intraesophageal balloons, and perfusion with sodium chloride, HCl, or HCl/pepsin solutions. The concentration of sPGE2 was measured using the RIA kit from Amersham (Arlington Heights, IL) after the solid-phase extraction and derivatization. The concentration of sPGE2 in the basal saliva was (mean +/- standard error of mean) 186 +/- 31 pg/mL and was similar during the chewing of parafilm (171 +/- 32 pg/mL). The placement of intraesophageal tubing, however, resulted in a significant decline of sPGE2 concentration to the value of 91 +/- 22 pg/mL (P < 0.01). This decline was maintained when intraesophageal balloons, which compartmentalized a 7.5 cm perfused segment of the esophagus, were inflated (86 +/- 17 pg/mL; P < 0.01). This decline was potentiated further when subsequent perfusion with saline was implemented to reach the lowest value of 46 +/- 17 pg/mL (P < 0.001 versus basal and P < 0.05 versus tubing and balloon evoked values) at the end of the perfusing procedure. Esophageal perfusion with acid and acid/pepsin solution, however, partly restored the significant decline in sPGE2 concentration observed during prolonged perfusion with saline. The sPGE2 output during basal conditions was 89 +/- 13 pg/min and increased dramatically during stimulation by placement of intraesophageal tubing (241 +/- 48 pg/min; P < 0.01) and inflation of intraesophageal balloons (244 +/- 48 pg/min; P < 0.01). Subsequent esophageal perfusion with saline resulted in a gradual decline of sPGE2 output evoked by mechanical stimuli that reached the final value of 178 +/- 39, which was not significantly different from that observed in the basal condition (P < 0.1 versus basal value). Introduction of HCl and pepsin into the perfusing solution significantly prevented the decline of sPGE2 output observed during perfusion with saline (252 +/- 36 pg/min; P < 0.01 versus basal). The modulatory impact of mechanical and chemical stimulation on sPGE2, demonstrated for the first time in humans, may suggest the potential contribution of salivary prostanoids to the maintenance of the integrity of the esophageal mucosa. PMID:9030674

Namiot, Z; Yu, Z J; Piascik, R; Hetzel, D P; McCallum, R W; Sarosiek, J

1997-02-01

392

Oral tumor resection and salivary duct relocation with an ultrasonic surgical aspirator.  

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We describe a procedure of oral tumor resection and salivary duct relocation with an ultrasonic surgical aspirator. After mucosal incision, resection of the underlying musculature was performed using an ultrasonic surgical aspirator. Using the apparatus, the salivary duct was easily exposed without damaging or cutting the duct. After identification of the salivary duct, salivary duct relocation was performed. After resection of the tumor, the artificial dermis was trimmed and sutured to the mucosal edges of the surgical defect. This method is a reliable and simple procedure that can be used to avoid postoperative complications such as salivary fistula or swelling of the gland. PMID:19625841

Yura, Shinya; Kato, Takumi; Ooi, Kazuhiro; Izumiyama, Yuri

2009-07-01

393

Breast Cancer Exosome-like Microvesicles and Salivary Gland Cells Interplay Alters Salivary Gland Cell-Derived Exosome-like Microvesicles In Vitro  

OpenAIRE

Saliva is a useful biofluid for the early detection of disease, but how distal tumors communicate with the oral cavity and create disease-specific salivary biomarkers remains unclear. Using an in vitro breast cancer model, we demonstrated that breast cancer-derived exosome-like microvesicles are capable of interacting with salivary gland cells, altering the composition of their secreted exosome-like microvesicles. We found that the salivary gland cells secreted exosome-like microvesicles enca...

Lau, Chang S.; Wong, David T. W.

2012-01-01

394

Studies of the effects of radiation or surgery on the salivary amylase activity and the isoamylase composition in salivary gland tumours  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The total amylase activity and the isoamylase composition of saliva were studied in patients with salivary gland tumours before and after treatment to evaluate the efficiency of treatment in terms of its ability to restore normal or nearly normal salivary function. The material for the study comprised 35 normal subjects, one case of mumps and eight cases of histologically proved salivary gland tumours, three of which received radiation treatment and one was subjected to total parotidectomy. It is observed that there is a marked deviation from normal in the total salivary amylase activity and the isoamylase pattern in mumps and untreated salivary gland tumours and some increase in amylase activity is noticeable after treatment of these tumours, the increase being more marked after surgery. The salivary isoamylase pattern restored to normal in case of mumps after recovery and in salivary gland tumour after surgery but not after irradiation. These findings suggest that in view of the deleterious effects of radiaton on salivary gland function, surgery is preferable to radiation as the treatment of choice. Further studies are underway to assess the utility of the heat labile salivary amylase fraction obseved in these cases in detecting recurrences. (author)

395

Plasma amylase activity as a biochemical indicator of radiation injury to salivary glands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Irradiation of the salivary glands produces a rapid increase of salivary amylase in serum, released by the highly radiation sensitive serous cells of the glands. Serial assays of salivary amylase in serum were performed in patients treated by radiation to the upper neck region. The changes observed were compared with the amount of salivary gland mass irradiated and with the dose fractionation modality used. The irradiated volume included either the entire salivary gland mass or less than 50 per cent of the gland. Two fractionation modalities were used: a conventional fractionation of 2 Gy per day, 5 times a week, or a multiple daily fractionation of 2 Gy, 3 times a day in two series of 4 days with a 4-day interval. Both parameters (salivary gland mass irradiated and fractionation modality used) significantly influenced the shape of the amylase curve in the serum. Serum amylase may therefore be considered a reliable biologic indicator of early injury to the salivary glands. (Auth.)

396

Research on plasma and saliva levels of some bivalent cations in patients with chronic periodontitis (salivary cations in chronic periodontitis).  

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The purpose of this study was to determine whether chronic periodontitis can stand behind modifications in the salivary and blood concentration of some bivalent cations (Calcium, Magnesium, Zinc and Copper). For this purpose, we formed a group of 30 adult patients with clinically onset chronic periodontitis, and another one of 30 healthy patients as control. Both groups were free from acute oral pathology and general illnesses. The groups were divided again according to the habit of smoking. Total saliva samples were obtained as "first time in the morning", then weighed and processed. Cations were read on Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer and by Ion Chromatography (Magnesium). The same patients were required to undergo laboratory blood tests for Calcium, Magnesium and Zinc. Data obtained was normalised, then statistically interpreted using two-tailed heteroscedastic t-Student tests. Our data confirmed the existence of a connection between salivary calcium, magnesium, zinc and copper, and of blood magnesium, and chronic periodontitis. Salivary calcium and magnesium are affected by smoking. PMID:25076713

Manea, A; Nechifor, M

2014-01-01

397

INFLUENCE OF MUSIC TYPE LISTENING ON ANAEROBIC PERFORMANCE AND SALIVARY CORTISOL IN MALES ATHLETES  

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Full Text Available Music has been widely recommended as a technique to enhance the psychophysical state of participants in sport and exercise. However, there is scant scientific evidence to clarify its proposed benefits. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of fast and slow rhythm of music on anaerobic performance and salivary cortisol concentration in trained men. Thirty male physical education college students (ages: 25.66±3.89 yr, height: 176.65 ± 7.66 cm, body mass: 78.45±16.20 kg voluntary participated in this study and divided to three groups: fast music, slow music, and no music(control. All subjects performed the coninghum test following a 20% grate and 14.3km/h speed on the treadmill. For measuring of cortisol, not stimulated samples of saliva collected, 15 minutes befor and immediately 5 and 30 minute after the exercise. No significant differences were found in anaerobic performance among the three groups in pretest indicating homogeneity of the groups. However, salivary cortisol no significant in anaerobic performance 5 and 30 minute after exercise as well. Summarily, Music doed not have a positive effect on performance, this study provided some support for the hypothesis that listening fast and slow music not significantly impacted during supramaximal exercise.

Mohammad Ghaderi.

2012-12-01

398

Diurnal patterns of salivary cortisol and DHEA in adolescent anorexia nervosa.  

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Although there is well-documented evidence for hyperactivity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function in anorexia nervosa (AN), there has been little research into secretory patterns of salivary cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in this condition. The cortisol awakening response (CAR), a prominent and discrete feature of the cortisol cycle, has not been extensively explored in adolescent AN. Saliva samples were collected at awakening, 30 min and 12 h post-awakening on two consecutive weekdays from eight female adolescents with clinically diagnosed AN and 41 healthy control (HC) age-matched females. Adolescent AN patients had greater salivary cortisol and DHEA concentrations than HC girls at all points. Increased hormone secretion was unrelated to body mass index. However, despite hypersecretion of both hormones, the circadian pattern including the CAR paralleled that of the HC group. Findings from this preliminary study confirm dysregulation of HPA axis function in adolescent AN as evidenced by hypersecretion of both cortisol and DHEA, which share the common secretagogue adrenocorticotropic hormone. However, the parallel diurnal profiles for AN and HC participants, including the CAR, may indicate hypersecretion per se rather than differential regulation of the diurnal pattern of these two adrenal steroids in AN. PMID:22356124

Oskis, Andrea; Loveday, Catherine; Hucklebridge, Frank; Thorn, Lisa; Clow, Angela

2012-11-01

399

Pouteria ramiflora extract inhibits salivary amylolytic activity and decreases glycemic level in mice.  

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In this study, extracts of plant species from the Cerrado biome were assessed in order to find potential inhibitors of human salivary alpha-amylase. The plants were collected and extracts were obtained from leaves, bark, and roots. We performed a preliminary phytochemical analysis and a screening for salivar alpha-amylase inhibitory activity. Only three botanical families (Sapotaceae, Sapindaceae and Flacourtiaceae) and 16 extracts showed a substantial inhibition (>75%) of alpha-amylase. The ethanolic extracts of Pouteria ramiflora obtained from stem barks and root barks decreased amylolytic activity above 95% at a final concentration of 20 µg/mL. Thus, adult male Swiss mice were treated orally with P. ramiflora in acute toxicity and glycemic control studies. Daily administration with 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg of aqueous extract of P. ramiflora for eight days can reduce significantly body weight and blood glucose level in mice. These data suggest that the crude polar extract of P. ramiflora decreases salivary amylolytic activity while lowering the blood levels of glucose. PMID:24068095

De Gouveia, Neire M; De Albuquerque, Cibele L; Espindola, Laila S; Espindola, Foued S

2013-09-01

400

Salivary cortisol responses to household tasks among couples with unexplained chronic fatigue.  

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This study examined salivary cortisol levels in couples in which one member had unexplained chronic fatigue (CF). The couples completed questionnaires and seven household activities in a laboratory setting and provided salivary cortisol samples prior to and immediately after the activities, as well as again after completing additional questionnaires and debriefing. The couples rated their interactions as similar to those at home, suggesting ecological validity, and patients with CF experienced the activities as involving more exertion than did their partners. The multilevel model results indicated that patients with CF had overall lower cortisol levels and flatter slopes across repeated measurements than did their significant others. Patients' and significant others' cortisol concentrations were significantly associated with each other over time. Furthermore, significant others' cortisol was associated with greater relationship satisfaction and greater observed rates of patients' illness/pain behaviors per minute, but patients' levels of cortisol were not associated with relationship variables. This study is the first to examine cortisol in couples with CF; the results are discussed in terms of implications for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25844497

Schmaling, Karen B; Romano, Joan M; Jensen, Mark P; Wilkinson, Charles W; McPherson, Sterling

2015-04-01