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Sample records for salivary cotinine concentrations

  1. The relationship of salivary cotinine to respiratory symptoms, spirometry, and exercise-induced bronchospasm in seven-year-old children.

    Strachan, D P; Jarvis, M J; Feyerabend, C

    1990-07-01

    The effects of passive tobacco smoke exposure upon respiratory symptoms and lung function were assessed in a cross-sectional survey of 770 children 7 yr of age, using cotinine as a quantitative biochemical marker of exposure. Salivary cotinine levels were strongly related to the number of smokers in the home, but three-quarters of children from nonsmoking households had detectable salivary cotinine, and 10% of this group were in the upper two-fifths of the distribution of measured tobacco smoke exposure. Smoking by persons other than members of the household may deserve greater attention in future studies of young children. After adjustment for housing tenure, most respiratory symptoms were unrelated to salivary cotinine, but a "tendency for colds to go to the chest" was twice as prevalent in the upper two-fifths as in the lower two-fifths of the cotinine distribution. No association was found between salivary cotinine and reports of wheeze or measured reduction in FEV1 after 6 min of free running. After adjustment for sex, height, test conditions, and housing tenure, all baseline spirometric indices except FVC were inversely associated with salivary cotinine. Only FEF75-85 and FEF75 were significantly reduced, the difference for each index between the top and bottom quintiles of the cotinine distribution being about 7%, equivalent to a reduction of 1.1% (95% CL, 0.1 to 2.1%) per doubling of cotinine concentration. These changes may be evidence of small airways damage, which could later progress to more severe respiratory impairment. PMID:2368962

  2. Utility and Cutoff Value of Hair Nicotine as a Biomarker of Long-Term Tobacco Smoke Exposure, Compared to Salivary Cotinine

    Sungroul Kim

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available While hair samples are easier to collect and less expensive to store and transport than biological fluids, and hair nicotine characterizes tobacco exposure over a longer time period than blood or urine cotinine, information on its utility, compared with salivary cotinine, is still limited. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 289 participants (107 active smokers, 105 passive smokers with self-reported secondhand smoke (SHS exposure, and 77 non-smokers with no SHS exposure in Baltimore (Maryland, USA. A subset of the study participants (n = 52 were followed longitudinally over a two-month interval.  Median baseline hair nicotine concentrations for active, passive and non-smokers were 16.2, 0.36, and 0.23 ng/mg, respectively, while those for salivary cotinine were 181.0, 0.27, and 0.27 ng/mL, respectively. Hair nicotine concentrations for 10% of passive or non-smokers were higher than the 25th percentile value for active smokers while all corresponding salivary cotinine concentrations for them were lower than the value for active smokers. This study showed that hair nicotine concentration values could be used to distinguish active or heavy passive adult smokers from non-SHS exposed non-smokers. Our results indicate that hair nicotine is a useful biomarker for the assessment of long-term exposure to tobacco smoke.

  3. Intravenous and oral suicidal e-liquid poisonings with confirmed nicotine and cotinine concentrations.

    Sommerfeld, Karina; Łukasik-Głębocka, Magdalena; Kulza, Maksymilian; Drużdż, Artur; Panieński, Paweł; Florek, Ewa; Zielińska-Psuja, Barbara

    2016-05-01

    The increasing availability of e-cigarettes is a potential toxicological concern. E-cigarettes appeared on the Polish market in 2006, and since 2009 they have been widely available with a new source of nicotine, the so-called e-liquid. In this paper two cases of suicidal oral and intravenous poisonings with the e-liquid are described. The clinical courses of these poisonings are presented. Nicotine and cotinine concentrations in the patient's blood were determined using high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. In the course of intoxication patient No. 1, classic symptoms of acute nicotine poisoning without convulsions were observed. Nicotine and cotinine concentrations measured in serum were 0.096 and 4.4mg/L, respectively. The case of patient No. 2, admission with no typical symptoms of nicotine poisoning was identified, except unconsciousness and slow respiration. Nicotine and cotinine concentrations in the serum at the time of No. 2 admissions were determined to be 0.8 and 1.3mg/L, respectively. With the increasing number of e-liquid poisonings cases, it should be aware that these products can be a readily available source of poison. PMID:27020616

  4. Determination of salivary cotinine through solid phase extraction using a bead-injection lab-on-valve approach hyphenated to hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography.

    Ramdzan, Adlin N; Barreiros, Luísa; Almeida, M Inês G S; Kolev, Spas D; Segundo, Marcela A

    2016-01-15

    Cotinine, the first metabolite of nicotine, is often used as a biomarker in the monitoring of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure due to its long half-life. This paper reports on the development of an at-line automatic micro-solid phase extraction (μSPE) method for the determination of salivary cotinine followed by its analysis via hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC). The SPE methodology is based on the bead injection (BI) concept in a mesofluidic lab-on-valve (LOV) flow system to automatically perform all SPE steps. Three commercially available reversed-phase sorbents were tested, namely, Oasis HLB, Lichrolut EN and Focus, and the spherically shaped sorbents (i.e., Oasis HLB and Focus) provided better packing within the SPE column and hence higher column efficiency. An HILIC column was chosen based on its potential for achieving higher sensitivity and better retention of polar compounds such as cotinine. The method uses an isocratic program with acetonitrile:100mM ammonium acetate buffer, pH 5.8 in 95:5 v/v ratio as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1). Using this approach, the linear calibration range was from 10 to 1000 ng which corresponded to 5-500 μg L(-1). The corresponding μSPE-BI-LOV system was proven to be reliable in the handing and analysis of viscous biological samples such as saliva, achieving a sampling rate of 6h(-1) and a limit of detection and quantification of 1.5 and 3μgL(-1), respectively. PMID:26747690

  5. Secondhand smoke exposure and urine cotinine concentrations by occupation among Korean workers: results from the 2008 Korea National Survey for Environmental Pollutants in the Human Body.

    Lee, So Ryong; Lee, Chae Kwan; Im, Hosub; Yang, Wonho; Urm, Sang-Hwa; Yu, Seung-Do; Lee, Jin Heon; Suh, Chun Hui; Kim, Kun Hyung; Son, Byung Chul; Kim, Jeong Ho; Kim, Se Yeong; Lee, Soo Woong; Lee, Jong Tae

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the status of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure through urine cotinine analysis among nonsmoking workers in Korea and to analyze factors affecting urine cotinine concentrations. Data were based on "The 2008 Korea National Survey for Environmental Pollutants in the Human Body," a cross-sectional study of the National Institute of Environmental Research of Korea. We selected 1448 nonsmoking adult workers from 200 localities to participate in this survey. Urine cotinine concentrations were analyzed using a gas chromatograph-mass selective detector. We calculated separate covariate-adjusted geometric means for socio-demographic variables for males, females, and total subjects by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS version 18.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Ill.). The prevalence of self-reported exposure to SHS was 36.9%. The geometric mean (95% confidence interval) of urine cotinine concentrations among all participants was 16.50 (14.48-18.80) μg/L. Gender, living area, education, and SHS exposure showed significant differences in urine cotinine concentrations. The urine cotinine concentrations of farmworkers and blue-collar workers such as skilled agricultural, forestry, and fishery workers, and elementary occupations were higher than those of white-collar workers such as clerical support workers, technicians, and associate professionals. Such a high proportion of the population having high urine cotinine levels indicates widespread exposure to SHS among nonsmoking workers in Korea. Furthermore, the urine cotinine levels among nonsmoking workers exposed to SHS varied by occupation. The measured urine cotinine concentration is suggested to be a valuable indication of SHS exposure in Korea. PMID:24219421

  6. Seasonal Variation in Human Salivary Cortisol Concentration

    Persson, Roger; Garde, Anne Helene; Hansen, Åse Marie; Osterberg, Kai; Larsson, Britt; Orbaek, Palle; Karlson, Björn

    2008-01-01

    Measurement of cortisol concentration can contribute important information about an individual's ability to adjust to various environmental demands of both physical and psychosocial origin. However, one uncertainty that affects the possibilities of correctly interpreting and designing field studi...

  7. Effect of Pilocarpine and Angiotensin II on Salivary Flow, Total Protein and Electrolyte Concentrations of Saliva

    Wilson Abrao Saad

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Present studies have focused on the effect of intraperitonially i.p. injection of angiotensin II (ANG II and pilocarpine on the salivary secretion, salivary amylase, saliva total proteins, saliva calcium sodium and potassium. Rats were anesthetized with urethane (1.25 g kg < SUP>-1 < /SUP> b. wt.. The amount of saliva secretion was studied over a 5 min period. Male Holtzman rats (250-300 g were housed in individual metabolic cages, with free access to food pellets and tap water ad libitum. The basal salivary flow after i.p saline 0.15 M NaCl as control was 17?1 mg/5 min. Angiotensin II (120 ng/0.5 mL, increased the salivary flow. The previous application of losartan (AT < SUB>1 < /SUB> ANG II receptors antagonist blocked the sialogogue effect of ANG II. PD123319 (AT < SUB>2 < /SUB>ANG II receptors antagonist blocked with smaller intensity the effect of ANG II. Animals treated with ANG II showed no change in the concentration of total protein, salivary amylase and calcium. The same happened when treated with losartan or PD123319. ANG II increased the concentration of sodium and decreased the concentration of potassium. Losartan blocked the effect of ANG II on sodium and potassium concentration. Pilocarpine increased the salivary flow. Losartan and PD123319 produced no change in salivary flow stimulated by pilocarpine. Pilocarpine did not alter the total protein, salivary amylase and calcium. Previous application of losartan and PD123319 produced no change in this pilocarpine effect. Pilocarpine decreased sodium and potassium concentration. Losartan and PD123319 produced no change in these effects of pilocarpine. In conclusion the results of the present study showed the importance of ANG II and pilocarpine in the control of the mechanism of salivary secretion and in the sodium and potassium-saliva concentration.

  8. Salivary concentration of the antimicrobial peptide LL-37 in patients with oral lichen planus

    Sotiria Davidopoulou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The antimicrobial peptide LL-37 is a significant molecule of innate immunity and recent studies indicate that it plays an important role in maintaining oral health. Yet limited knowledge exists on its role in oral diseases and oral lichen planus (OLP in particular. Objective: The study aimed to examine: 1 the salivary concentration of LL-37 in patients with OLP and healthy subjects, 2 the relation between the type (reticular or erosive and size of OLP lesions and LL-37 concentration, and 3 the effect of the therapeutic modalities on LL-37 levels. Design: The salivary peptide concentration in samples from 20 patients and 30 healthy subjects at the same age range was determined by ELISA. Results: Despite the wide variation in peptide concentration found in both groups, the healthy subjects exhibited significantly lower levels than patients. Patients with the erosive form had significantly higher peptide concentrations than patients with the reticular form. Systemic treatment with corticosteroids resulted in a significant decrease of the salivary peptide concentration, while other treatment modalities, such as administration of vitamins A and E or local application of corticosteroids had no effect. Improved clinical appearance of the lesions was followed by a decrease in the salivary LL-37 level. Conclusions: Salivary concentration of LL-37 correlates to the manifestation of mucosa lesions in OLP patients, the highest levels being observed in the most severe cases. This increase in peptide levels may protect against lesion infection and promote a quick wound healing.

  9. Diurnal salivary cortisol concentrations in Parkinson’s disease: increased total secretion and morning cortisol concentrations

    Skogar Ö

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Ö Skogar1,4, P-A Fall2, G Hallgren3, J Lökk4, B Bringer2, M Carlsson1, U Lennartsson3, H Sandbjork3, C-J Törnhage51Department of Geriatrics, Ryhov Hospital, Jonkoping, 2Department of Geriatrics, University Hospital, Linkoping, 3Department of Neurology, Skaraborg Hospital, Skovde, 4Institute of Neurobiology, Care Sciences, and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, 5Department of Pediatrics, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, SwedenBackground: Parkinson’s disease (PD is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder. There is limited knowledge about the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in PD. The primary aim of this prospective study was to analyze diurnal salivary cortisol concentrations in patients with PD and correlate these with age, gender, body mass index (BMI, duration of PD, and pain. The secondary aim was to compare the results with a healthy reference group.Methods: Fifty-nine PD patients, 35 women and 24 men, aged 50–79 years, were recruited. The reference group comprised healthy individuals matched for age, gender, BMI, and time point for sampling. Salivary cortisol was collected at 8 am, 1 pm, and 8 pm, and 8 am the next day using cotton-based Salivette® tubes and analyzed using Spectria® Cortisol I125. A visual analog scale was used for estimation of pain.Results: The median cortisol concentration was 16.0 (5.8–30.2 nmol/L at 8 am, 5.8 (3.0–16.4 at 1 pm, 2.8 (1.6–8.0 at 8 pm, and 14.0 (7.5–28.7 at 8 am the next day. Total secretion and rate of cortisol secretion during the day (8 am–8 pm and the concentration of cortisol on the next morning were lower (12.5 nmol/L in the reference group. No significant correlations with age, gender, BMI, duration of PD, Hoehn and Yahr score, Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale III score, gait, pain, or cortisol concentrations were found.Conclusion: The neurodegenerative changes in PD does not seem to interfere with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Salivary cortisol concentrations in PD patients were increased in the morning compared with the reference group, and were not influenced by motor dysfunction, duration of disease, or coexistence of chronic or acute pain.Keywords: cortisol, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, Parkinson's disease

  10. Salivary glucose concentration exhibits threshold kinetics in normal-weight, overweight, and obese children

    Hartman ML

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mor-Li Hartman,1 J Max Goodson,1 Roula Barake,2 Osama Alsmadi,3 Sabiha Al-Mutawa,4 Jitendra Ariga,4 Pramod Soparkar,1 Jawad Behbehani,5 Kazem Behbehani,6 Francine Welty7 1Department of Applied Oral Sciences, The Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, MA, USA; 2Department of Nutrition, The Dasman Diabetes Institute, Dasman, Kuwait; 3Genome Center, The Dasman Diabetes Institute, Dasman, Kuwait; 4Ministry of Health, Kuwait City, Kuwait; 5Faculty of Dentistry, Kuwait University, Kuwait City, Kuwait; 6The Dasman Diabetes Institute, Dasman, Kuwait; 7Division of Cardiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA Background: Metabolic syndrome in childhood predicts the development of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes (T2D in adulthood. Testing for features of metabolic syndrome, such as fasting plasma glucose concentration, requires blood sampling which can be difficult in children. Here we evaluated salivary glucose concentration as a surrogate measurement for plasma glucose concentration in 11-year-old US children. Methods: Children from Portland, Maine, and Cambridge, Massachusetts, with a mean age of 10.60.2 years provided 6-hour fasting samples of both blood and whole saliva. Salivary glucose levels were measured with a high-sensitivity assay (sensitivity =0.002 mg/dL. Plasma glucose levels were determined by a commercial clinical laboratory. Blood pressure, salivary flow rate, height, and weight were also measured. Results: Of the 65 children enrolled, there were two underweight children (3.1%, 30 normal-weight children (46.2%, 12 overweight children (18.4%, and 21 obese children (32.3%. The mean overall glucose concentrations were 0.110.02 mg/dL in saliva and 86.30.8 mg/dL in plasma, and these did not differ significantly by bodyweight groups. By regression analysis, the plasma concentration equaled 13.5 times the saliva concentration, with a threshold level of 84.8 mg/dL. Salivary glucose values less than threshold plasma concentration were essentially zero. Diagnostic analysis indicated a positive predictive value of 50%, a negative predictive value of 90%, and a sensitivity and specificity both of approximately 75%. The salivary glucose concentration did not vary with saliva flow rate. Conclusion: Taking into account the threshold response characteristics of the salivary glucose concentration response, these results suggest that testing salivary glucose levels may be useful as a screening assay for high fasting plasma glucose levels. The low false positive value is important to assure a low fraction of missed diagnoses. Keywords: saliva, salivary glucose, plasma glucose, children

  11. Comparison of salivary fluoride levels following use of dentifrices containing different concentrations of fluoride

    Nagpal D; Damle S

    2007-01-01

    Many industrialized countries have reported a decline in caries prevalence over the past few decades. These reductions have been related to the regular use of fluoride dentifrices. Fluoride dentifrices are the most cost-effective and efficient means of caries prevention. However, there have been concerns regarding the risk of fluorosis in children due to the ingestion of dentifrices. This has led to the use of dentifrices with low concentration of fluoride. Salivary fluoride levels after toot...

  12. Salivary concentration of the antimicrobial peptide LL-37 in patients with oral lichen planus

    Sotiria Davidopoulou; Haris Theodoridis; Konstantinos Nazer; Eftichia Kessopoulou; George Menexes; Sotirios Kalfas

    2014-01-01

    Background: The antimicrobial peptide LL-37 is a significant molecule of innate immunity and recent studies indicate that it plays an important role in maintaining oral health. Yet limited knowledge exists on its role in oral diseases and oral lichen planus (OLP) in particular. Objective: The study aimed to examine: 1) the salivary concentration of LL-37 in patients with OLP and healthy subjects, 2) the relation between the type (reticular or erosive) and size of OLP lesions and LL-37 concent...

  13. A two-year follow-up study of salivary cortisol concentration and the risk of depression

    Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard; Kolstad, Henrik A.; Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Andersen, Johan Hviid; Bonde, Jens Peter; Buttenschøn, Henriette Nørmølle; Kærgaard, Anette; Kærlev, Linda; Rugulies, Reiner; Thomsen, Jane Frølund; Vammen, Marianne Agergaard; Mors, Ole; Hansen, Ase Marie

    2013-01-01

    employees. Morning and evening salivary cortisol concentration were measured for each participant. Participants reporting high levels of depressive, burnout, or stress symptoms, assessed by questionnaires were assigned to a psychiatric interview. In this interview 98 participants were diagnosed with...

  14. Investigation of The Association between Salivary Procalcitonin Concentration and Chronic Periodontitis

    Hojatollah Yousefimanesh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Chronic periodontitis is the most common form of periodontal disease. Changes in biomarkers seem to be associated with the disease progression. Procalcitonin (PCT is one of these biomarkers that are altered during infection. This study was established to investigate the relationship between periodontitis as an infectious disease and salivary PCT. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was performed on 30 patients with generalized chronic periodontitis and 30 health individuals as control group who were referred to Dental School, Jundishapur University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran at Feb to Apr 2014. The saliva samples were collected and analyzed by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA method. Data analysis was performed using t test with the SPSS (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA version 13. Results: In both groups, age and sex distribution values were not significantly different. The concentrations of salivary PCT in controls and patients ranged from 0.081 pg/ mL to 0.109 pg/mL and from 0.078 pg/mL to 0.114 pg/mL, respectively. The statistically significant differences between the two groups were not observed (P=0.17. Conclusion: It seems that salivary PCT concentration is not affected by disease progression. Therefore, PCT is not a valuable marker for the existence of periodontal disease.

  15. Intensive resistance exercise and circadian salivary testosterone concentrations among young male recreational lifters.

    Shariat, Ardalan; Kargarfard, Mehdi; Danaee, Mahmoud; Bahri Mohd Tamrin, Shamsul

    2015-01-01

    Strength and morphological adaptations to resistance exercise are mediated in part by anabolic hormones such as testosterone, yet the time course of variability in circadian hormone concentrations is not well characterized. This study, investigated how the circadian rhythm of salivary testosterone is altered by resistance exercise in young men. Twenty healthy young male recreational lifters (age, 18.0 1.3 years) with 2 years of experience in weightlifting were recruited. A randomized controlled trial was conducted, and subjects were randomly assigned to either the resistance exercise group (n = 10), who completed a series of resistance exercise (3 times a week, in the afternoon, 6-7 repetitions, at 85% of 1 repetition maximum for 3 weeks), or a control group (n = 10), who did not exercise during the 3 weeks. Before and after the study, an unstimulated saliva sample (2 ml) was taken every 2 hours for a maximum of 16 hours during each day. A significant decrease was observed in the resistance exercise (44.2%, p = 0.001) and control group (46.1%, p = 0.001) for salivary testosterone at each time point compared with baseline (p = 0.001). There was also no significant difference between the exercise and resting conditions in both groups for salivary testosterone (p > 0.05), except a significantly higher increase by 38.4% vs. -0.02% (p = 0.001), at 1730 hours during exercise sessions in the resistance exercise group compared with the control group. Resistance exercise has no noteworthy effect on circadian secretion of salivary testosterone throughout the 16 waking hours. These results indicate that athletes can undertake resistance exercise in either the morning or afternoon with the knowledge that a similar testosterone response can be expected regardless of the time of day. PMID:25051005

  16. LC/ESI-MS/MS method for determination of salivary eicosapentaenoic acid concentration to arachidonic acid concentration ratio.

    Ogawa, Shoujiro; Tomaru, Koki; Matsumoto, Nagisa; Watanabe, Shui; Higashi, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    A simple liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS) method for determination of the eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) concentration to arachidonic acid (AA) concentration ratio in human saliva has been developed. The EPA/AA ratio in serum or plasma is widely recognized as a useful indicator in identifying the risk of cardiovascular disease, especially atherosclerosis. The salivary EPA/AA ratio is expected to be a convenient alternative to the serum or plasma EPA/AA ratio, because saliva offers the advantages of easy and noninvasive sampling. The saliva was deproteinized with acetonitrile, purified using an Oasis HLB cartridge, and derivatized with 1-[(4-dimethylaminophenyl)carbonyl]piperazine (DAPPZ). The derivatized EPA and AA were subjected to LC/ESI-MS/MS, and the EPA/AA ratio was determined using the selected reaction monitoring mode. The DAPPZ-derivatization increased the ESI sensitivity by 100- and 300-fold for EPA and AA, respectively, and enabled the detection of trace fatty acids in saliva using a 200 μL sample. The assay reproducibility was satisfactory (relative standard deviation, <5.0%). The method was successfully applied to the measurement of the salivary EPA/AA ratios of healthy Japanese subjects and their changes owing to the supplementation of EPA. PMID:25620210

  17. The effects of training volume and competition on the salivary cortisol concentrations of Olympic weightlifters.

    Crewther, Blair T; Heke, Taati; Keogh, Justin W L

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of training volume and competition on the salivary cortisol (Sal-C) concentrations of Olympic weightlifters. Male (n = 5) and female (n = 4) Olympic weightlifters provided saliva samples across a 5-week experimental = period. The first aim was to assess the weekly effects of high (≥ 200 sets) and low (≤ 100 sets) training volume on Sal-C. The second aim was to compare Sal-C concentrations and 1 repetition maximum (1RM) performance during 2 simulated and 2 actual competitions. Performance was assessed using the snatch, clean and jerk, and the Olympic total lift. Data from each competition setting were pooled before analysis. There were no significant weekly changes in Sal-C levels (p > 0.05). The actual competitions produced higher (128-130%) Sal-C concentrations (p clean and jerk, and the Olympic total, than the simulated competitions (p < 0.05). Individual Sal-C concentrations before the simulated competitions were positively correlated to all of the 1RM lifts (r = 0.48-0.49, p < 0.05). In conclusion, actual competitions produced greater Sal-C responses than simulated competitions, and this appeared to benefit the 1RM performance of Olympic weightlifters. Individuals with higher Sal-C concentrations also tended to exhibit superior 1RM lifts during the simulated competitions. Given these findings, greater emphasis should be placed upon the monitoring of C to establish normative values, training standards and to assist with performance prediction. PMID:21116196

  18. A surrogate method for comparison analysis of salivary concentrations of Xylitol-containing products

    Zhou Lingmei

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Xylitol chewing gum has been shown to reduce Streptococcus mutans levels and decay. Two studies examined the presence and time course of salivary xylitol concentrations delivered via xylitol-containing pellet gum and compared them to other xylitol-containing products. Methods A within-subjects design was used for both studies. Study 1, adults (N = 15 received three xylitol-containing products (pellet gum (2.6 g, gummy bears (2.6 g, and commercially available stick gum (Koolerz, 3.0 g; Study 2, a second group of adults (N = 15 received three xylitol-containing products (pellet gum, gummy bears, and a 33% xylitol syrup (2.67 g. For both studies subjects consumed one xylitol product per visit with a 7-day washout between each product. A standardized protocol was followed for each product visit. Product order was randomly determined at the initial visit. Saliva samples (0.5 mL to 1.0 mL were collected at baseline and up to 10 time points (~16 min in length after product consumption initiated. Concentration of xylitol in saliva samples was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. Area under the curve (AUC for determining the average xylitol concentration in saliva over the total sampling period was calculated for each product. Results In both studies all three xylitol products (Study 1: pellet gum, gummy bears, and stick gum; Study 2: pellet gum, gummy bears, and syrup had similar time curves with two xylitol concentration peaks during the sampling period. Study 1 had its highest mean peaks at the 4 min sampling point while Study 2 had its highest mean peaks between 13 to 16 minutes. Salivary xylitol levels returned to baseline at about 18 minutes for all forms tested. Additionally, for both studies the total AUC for the xylitol products were similar compared to the pellet gum (Study 1: pellet gum – 51.3 μg.min/mL, gummy bears – 59.6 μg.min/mL, and stick gum – 46.4 μg.min/mL; Study 2: pellet gum – 63.0 μg.min/mL, gummy bears – 55.9 μg.min/mL, and syrup – 59.0 μg.min/mL. Conclusion The comparison method demonstrated high reliability and validity. In both studies other xylitol-containing products had time curves and mean xylitol concentration peaks similar to xylitol pellet gum suggesting this test may be a surrogate for longer studies comparing various products.

  19. Effect of Pilocarpine and Angiotensin II on Salivary Flow, Total Protein and Electrolyte Concentrations of Saliva

    Wilson Abrao Saad; Laura Izabel Gutierrez; Regina Celia Vendramini; Andre Henrique Freiria de Oliveira; Luiz Antonio de Arruda. Camargo; Gustavo Garcia

    2005-01-01

    Present studies have focused on the effect of intraperitonially i.p. injection of angiotensin II (ANG II) and pilocarpine on the salivary secretion, salivary amylase, saliva total proteins, saliva calcium sodium and potassium. Rats were anesthetized with urethane (1.25 g kg < SUP>-1 < /SUP> b. wt.). The amount of saliva secretion was studied over a 5 min period. Male Holtzman rats (250-300 g) were housed in individual metabolic cages, with free access to food pellets and tap water...

  20. A simplified method for the analysis of urinary cotinine by GC-MS

    Luiz Carlos da Cunha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cotinine is the major metabolite of nicotine and, being very stable and having a long biological half-life, it can be used as a biomarker for tobacco exposure. The aim of this study was to develop an analytical GC-MS technique to measure levels of cotinine in the urine of active and passive smokers and to compare the results with reference values. The extraction of cotinine to generate the calibration curve was performed by mixing urine (250 µL with 50 µL of a cotinine standard, 50 µL of an internal standard of deuterated cotinine (15 µg∙mL-1 and 50 µL of 10% NH4 OH solution. Next, 2 mL of a mixture of MTBE:dichloromethane:ethyl acetate (30:30:40 by volume was added and the whole was vortexed, then centrifuged at 3000 rpm. Finally, 1.6 mL of the organic layer was evaporated under a stream of dry air at 50 °C. The resulting extract was dissolved in methanol and injected into the GC-MS system. The LOQ and LOD for cotinine were 100 and 20 ng∙mL-1, respectively. The curve was linear over the whole tested range of 100 - 5000 ng∙mL-1 and the method achieved 50% recovery. The intra and inter-day precisions were 1.62 – 7.28% and 0.86 – 2.68%, respectively. Accuracy was determined at three concentrations (low, medium and high, with six replicates (95.24 – 97.67%. The validation of this cotinine assay by GC-MS showed that it exhibited satisfactory limits and the assay could be performed with a one-step liquid-liquid extraction. The technique presented here can thus be used for the quantitation of cotinine levels in the urine of passive and active smokers.

  1. Morphological alterations in salivary glands of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) exposed to neem seed oil with known azadirachtin concentration.

    Remedio, R N; Nunes, P H; Anholeto, L A; Oliveira, P R; Sá, I C G; Camargo-Mathias, M I

    2016-04-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica) has attracted the attention of researchers worldwide due to its repellent properties and recognized effects on the morphology and physiology of arthropods, including ticks. Therefore, this study aimed to demonstrate the effects of neem seed oil enriched with azadirachtin on salivary glands of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, targets of great veterinary interest because of their ability to transmit pathogens to dogs. For this, R. sanguineus semi-engorged females were subjected to treatment with neem seed oil, with known azadirachtin concentrations (200, 400 and 600ppm). After dissection, salivary glands were collected and evaluated through morphological techniques in light microscopy, confocal scanning laser microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, so that the possible relation between neem action and further impairment in these ectoparasites feed performance could be established. Neem oil demonstrated a clear dose-dependent effect in the analyzed samples. The agranular (type I) and granular acini (types II and III) showed, particularly in individuals treated with the highest concentrations of the product, cells with irregular shape, intense cytoplasmic disorganization and vacuolation, dilation of rough endoplasmic reticulum lumen, besides alterations in mitochondrial intermembrane space. These morphological damages may indicate modifications in salivary glands physiology, demonstrating the harmful effects of compounds present in neem oil on ticks. These results reinforce the potential of neem as an alternative method for controlling R. sanguineus ticks, instead of synthetic acaricides. PMID:26852009

  2. INFLUENCE OF SMOKING ON THE SALIVARY AND BLOOD CONCENTRATION OF SOME BIVALENT CATIONS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS

    Al. MANEA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether chronic periodontitis can stand behind the modifications observed in the salivary and blood concentration of some bivalent cations (Calcium, Magnesium, Zinc and Copper. The investigations were performed on an experimental group of 30 patients with clinically-onset chronic periodontitis, and on a control one, including 30 periodontitisfree patients. Total saliva samples were obtained as “first time in the morning” then weighed and processed. Cations were read on an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (Calcium, Copper and Zinc and also by Ion Chromatography (Magnesium. The same patients were required to undergo laboratory blood tests for Calcium, Magnesium and Zinc. The obtained data were normalised, then statistically interpreted using two-tailed heteroscedastic t-Student tests. The results obtained showed a clear connection of blood magnesium, and also of salivary calcium, magnesium, zinc and copper, to chronic periodontitis. Salivary cations are therefore related to the local inflammatory status and associated pathological processes. Blood magnesium could be affected by chronic inflammation.

  3. R-(+) and S-(-) isomers of cotinine augment cholinergic responses in vitro and in vivo.

    Terry, Alvin V; Callahan, Patrick M; Bertrand, Daniel

    2015-02-01

    The nicotine metabolite cotinine (1-methyl-5-[3-pyridynl]-2-pyrrolidinone), like its precursor, has been found to exhibit procognitive and neuroprotective effects in some model systems; however, the mechanism of these effects is unknown. In this study, both the R-(+) and S-(-) isomers of cotinine were initially evaluated in an extensive profiling screen and found to be relatively inactive across a wide range of potential pharmacologic targets. Electrophysiological studies on human α4β2 and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) expressed in Xenopus oocytes confirmed the absence of agonistic activity of cotinine at α4β2 or α7 nAChRs. However, a significant increase in the current evoked by a low concentration of acetylcholine was observed at α7 nAChRs exposed to 1.0 μM R-(+)- or S-(-)-cotinine. Based on these results, we used a spontaneous novel object recognition (NOR) procedure for rodents to test the hypothesis that R-(+)- or S-(-)-cotinine might improve recognition memory when administered alone or in combination with the Alzheimer's disease (AD) therapeutic agent donepezil. Although both isomers enhanced NOR performance when they were coadministered with donepezil, neither isomer was active alone. Moreover, the procognitive effects of the drug combinations were blocked by methyllycaconitine and dihydro-β-erythroidine, indicating that both α7 and α4β2 nAChRs contribute to the response. These results indicate that cotinine may sensitize α7 nAChRs to low levels of acetylcholine (a previously uncharacterized mechanism), and that cotinine could be used as an adjunctive agent to improve the effective dose range of cholinergic compounds (e.g., donepezil) in the treatment of AD and other memory disorders. PMID:25503389

  4. Salivary oxytocin concentrations in response to running, sexual self-stimulation, breastfeeding and the TSST: The Regensburg Oxytocin Challenge (ROC) study.

    Jong, Trynke R de; Menon, Rohit; Bludau, Anna; Grund, Thomas; Biermeier, Verena; Klampfl, Stefanie M; Jurek, Benjamin; Bosch, Oliver J; Hellhammer, Juliane; Neumann, Inga D

    2015-12-01

    Intranasal oxytocin (OXT) application is emerging as a potential treatment for socio-emotional disorders associated with abnormalities in OXT system (re-) activity. The crucial identification of patients with such abnormalities could be streamlined by the assessment of basal and stimulus-induced OXT concentrations in saliva, using a simple, stress-free sampling procedure (i.e. an OXT challenge test). We therefore established the Regensburg Oxytocin Challenge (ROC) test to further validate salivary OXT concentrations as a practical, reliable and sensitive biomarker. OXT concentrations were quantified by radioimmunoassay in samples collected at home by healthy adult male and female volunteers before and after running ("Run") or sexual self-stimulation ("Sex"). In lactating women, salivary OXT concentrations were quantified before, during and after breastfeeding. Salivary OXT along with salivary cortisol and heart rate were monitored in healthy adult participants undergoing the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). The home-based "Run" and "Sex" challenges as well as the laboratory-based TSST caused quantifiable, rapid, and consistent increases in salivary OXT (approximately 2.5-fold after 10-15min), which were similar for men and women. Breastfeeding did not result in measurably increased salivary OXT levels, probably because the short pulses of OXT release characteristic for lactation were missed. Taken together, ROC tests reliably assess the responsiveness of the OXT system (i.e., the increase in salivary OXT concentrations as compared to basal levels) to challenges such as "Run" and "Sex" at home or psychosocial stress (TSST) in the laboratory. Further studies with larger sample numbers are essentially needed in order to reveal individual differences in ROC test outcomes depending on, for example, genetic or environmental factors. PMID:26385109

  5. Determinants of serum cotinine and hair cotinine as biomarkers of childhood secondhand smoke exposure

    Kalkbrenner, Amy E; Hornung, Richard W.; Bernert, John T.; HAMMOND, S. KATHERINE; Braun, Joe M.; Lanphear, Bruce P.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the determinants of childhood secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is important in measuring and preventing exposure to this widespread environmental contaminant. We evaluated the ability of a broad set of factors to explain variability in serum cotinine, reflecting recent exposure, and hair cotinine, reflecting longer-term exposure. We included repeated measures from 223 elementary-school-age asthmatic children residing with a smoker. We used a manual model-building approach and lik...

  6. A Comparative Analysis of the Influence of Human Salivary Enzymes on Odorant Concentration in Three Palm Wines

    Ola Lasekan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of human salivary enzymes on palm wines’ odorant concentrations were investigated by the application of aroma extracts dilution analysis (AEDA and by the calculation of odour activity values (OAVs, respectively. The odorants were quantified by means of stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA, and the degradation profiles of odorants by human saliva were also studied. Results revealed 46 odour-active compounds in the flavour dilution (FD factor range of 4-256, and all were subsequently identified. Of the 46 odorants, 41 were identified in the Elaeis guineensis wine, 36 in Raphia hookeri wine and 29 in Borassus flabellifer wine. Among the odorants, the highest FD-factors were obtained from acetoin, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine. Among the 13 potent odorants identified, five aroma compounds are reported here as important contributors to palm wine aroma, namely 3-isobutyl-2-methoxy-pyrazine, acetoin, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-methylbutylacetate and ethyl hexanoate. Meanwhile, salivary enzymic degradation of odorants was more pronounced among the aldehydes, esters and thiols.

  7. A comparative analysis of the influence of human salivary enzymes on odorant concentration in three palm wines.

    Lasekan, Ola

    2013-01-01

    The influence of human salivary enzymes on palm wines' odorant concentrations were investigated by the application of aroma extracts dilution analysis (AEDA) and by the calculation of odour activity values (OAVs), respectively. The odorants were quantified by means of stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA), and the degradation profiles of odorants by human saliva were also studied. Results revealed 46 odour-active compounds in the flavour dilution (FD) factor range of 4-256, and all were subsequently identified. Of the 46 odorants, 41 were identified in the Elaeis guineensis wine, 36 in Raphia hookeri wine and 29 in Borassus flabellifer wine. Among the odorants, the highest FD-factors were obtained from acetoin, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine. Among the 13 potent odorants identified, five aroma compounds are reported here as important contributors to palm wine aroma, namely 3-isobutyl-2-methoxy-pyrazine, acetoin, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-methylbutylacetate and ethyl hexanoate. Meanwhile, salivary enzymic degradation of odorants was more pronounced among the aldehydes, esters and thiols. PMID:24071987

  8. Variation of serum and urine cotinine in passive and active smokers and applicability in preconceptional smoking cessation counseling

    This study assessed the applicability of serum and urine cotinine as a biochemical marker of self-reported smoking habits for use in a preconception smoking cessation program. The variation of serum and urine cotinine over the course of the day was investigated in a sample of 21 smokers and 8 passive smokers who reported their smoking habits and exposure to smoke daily in a questionnaire for 10 consecutive days. Blood and urine samples were collected on two sampling days, 1 week apart. Both serum and urine cotinine assay could distinguish between passive and active smokers, but not between higher categories of smokers (1019 and ≥20 cigarettes per ay) due to significant intersubject overlap. In serum, no significant differences were found between morning and afternoon cotinine concentrations in either day, in contrast to urine cotinine (with lower excretions observed n the morning). An overall coefficient of variation of 22- was observed for both specimens in smokers. Because serum cotinine is subject to lower variability over the course of the day, it is more practical for use in a clinical setting where appointments are scheduled throughout the day in order o confirm smoking status

  9. Salivary flow rate, pH, and concentrations of calcium, phosphate, and sIgA in Brazilian pregnant and non-pregnant women

    Lindemann Laura; Veeck Elaine B; Marinho Sandra A; Rockenbach Maria I; Shinkai Rosemary S

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Studies on salivary variables and pregnancy in Latin America are scarce. This study aimed to compare salivary flow rate, pH, and concentrations of calcium, phosphate, and sIgA of unstimulated whole saliva in pregnant and non-pregnant Brazilians. Methods Cross-sectional study. Sample was composed by 22 pregnant and 22 non-pregnant women attending the Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics, São Lucas Hospital, in Porto Alegre city, South region of Brazil. Unstimulated whole saliv...

  10. A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for nicotine and cotinine; utility in screening tobacco exposure in patients taking amiodarone.

    Gabr, Raniah Q; Elsherbiny, Marwa E; Somayaji, Vishwa; Pollak, P Timothy; Brocks, Dion R

    2011-10-01

    A liquid chromatographic mass spectrometric (LC-MS) assay for the quantification of nicotine and cotinine in human specimens was developed. Human serum and urine (100 ?L) were subjected to liquid-liquid extraction. For glucuronidated cotinine, serum was alkalinized and hydrolyzed before extraction. The dried samples were reconstituted and run using gradient flow reverse-phase liquid chromatography with MS detection. The ions utilized for quantification of nicotine, cotinine and milrinone (internal standard) were 162.8, 176.9 and 211.9 m/z, respectively. The mean recoveries were over 80% for cotinine and nicotine with excellent linearity between nominal concentrations and peak area ratios, over a wide concentration range. The percentage coefficient of variation and mean error of the inter- and intra-day validations were smokers or exposed to second-hand smoke. Significant concentrations of nicotine and cotinine were measured in the urine of a known smoking volunteer. The method was highly specific, sensitive and applicable as a tool in detecting and monitoring the passive exposure to tobacco smoke using small specimen volumes (0.1 mL). PMID:21308701

  11. Concentracin de ?-amilasa salival en nios con diferentes ndices de caries / Salivary ?-Amylase Concentration in Children with Different Caries Indexes

    Claudia Patricia Lamby Tovar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: La a-amilasa salival humana (AASH es la protena ms abundante en la saliva; tiene varias funciones que la hacen especial desde el punto de vista cariognico, por lo cual puede estar relacionada con el ndice de caries. Propsito: Determinar las diferencias en la concentracin de AASH en nios con diferentes ndices de caries. Mtodos: Se obtuvieron muestras de saliva de 100 nios que se clasificaron dentro de cuatro de las siete categoras del Sistema Internacional de Valoracin y Deteccin de Caries (ICDAS, con 25 individuos por grupo: sanos, opacidad blanca, microcavidad y cavidad extensa. Se determin la cantidad total de protena por el mtodo de Bradford y la concentracin AASH por medio de la tcnica de Elisa indirecta. Los valores obtenidos de protena total y AASH fueron analizados por medio del software Stata versin 9.2. Resultados: Al comparar las medias de la concentracin de protena total en los cuatro grupos de estudio, no hubo diferencias estadsticamente significativas. Los promedios de la concentracin de AASH en tres de los cuatro grupos: sanos, microcavidad y opacidad blanca, no presentaron diferencias estadsticamente significativas. En el grupo de cavidad extensa, este valor fue menor, diferencia que fue estadsticamente significativa con respecto a los otros tres grupos. Conclusin: La menor concentracin de AASH en el grupo con cavidad extensa posiblemente indica que, dada la redundancia funcional de esta enzima, la proteccin de las superficies orales es de mayor importancia.Background: Human salivary a-amylase (HSAA is the most abundant protein in saliva, has several functions that make it of special interest from a cariogenic point of view, thus may be related to the caries indexes. Purpose: Determine the differences according to the quantified amounts of HSAA in the saliva of children with different caries indexes. Methods: Salivary samples were obtained via spontaneous salivation from a total of 100 children, who were assigned into four groups (n=25 each according to four categories of the International Caries Detection & Assessment System (ICDAS: sound, white opacity, microcavity and extensive cavity. The total quantity of protein present in each of the samples was determined through the Bradford Method and the concentration of HSAA was determined by an indirect ELISA technique. Non-parametric statistical was perform with Stata 9.2 software. Results: Non-significant statistical differences for variable total protein in the four groups were found. The concentration of HSAA showed statistically significant differences between groups of individuals with white opacity and extensive cavities, microcavity and extensive cavity, and sound and extensive cavity. Conclusions: The findings suggest that from the different functions identified for HSAA, protection of the tooth surfaces has a major relevance.

  12. The effect of lithium on the iodide concentrating mechanism in mouse salivary gland

    The iodide concentrating mechanism, measured as the gland (G/P) 125I- concentrationr ratio, was measured in male mouse submandibular glands after the animals had been fed with varying amounts of litium chloride for intervals ranging from 0 to 8 weeks. After acute exposure (by injection) to lithium the G/P 125I- fell compared to control values and was further depressed at high serum lithium values. Chronic exposure to lithium was characterised by an increase in the G/P 125I- ratios at therapeutic serum lithium concentrations. It is suggested that lithium has a direct effect on the iodide concentrating mechanism that may be independent of any action of thyroid stimulating hormone during this process. The effect may be important in the formation of litium induced goitre. (author)

  13. Genetic Polymorphism CYP17 rs2486758 and Metabolic Risk Factors Predict Daily Salivary 17 beta-Estradiol Concentration in Healthy Premenopausal Norwegian Women. The EBBA-I Study

    Iversen, Anita; Thune, Inger; Mctiernan, Anne; Makar, Karen W; Wilsgaard, Tom; Ellison, Peter T; Jasienska, Grazyna; Flote, Vidar Gordon; Poole, Elizabeth M; Furberg, Anne-Sofie

    2012-01-01

    Context: The relationship between low-penetrance genes, metabolic risk factors, and levels of endogenous 17β-estradiol and progesterone, which play a role in breast cancer risk, remains unclear.
    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether common polymorphisms in CYP17, in combination with metabolic risk factors (individually or clustered), alter salivary concentrations of free biologically active 17β-estradiol and progesterone among healthy premenopausal Norwegian women. ...

  14. Determination of a saliva cotinine cut-off to distinguish pregnant smokers from pregnant non-smokers

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F; Wachmann, Carsten Henrik; Ottesen, Bent

    2007-01-01

    Objective validation of smoking status is necessary. Earlier studies have used saliva cotinine concentrations between 14.2 and 30 ng/ml as cut-off values to distinguish pregnant smokers from non-smokers. However, these cut-offs derive from studies including men and non-pregnant women. This...... constitutes a problem, as recent studies have reported an accelerated metabolism in pregnant smokers. The aim of this study was to determine the optimum cut-off cotinine level distinguishing pregnant smokers from pregnant non-smokers....

  15. Effect of Non-surgical Periodontal Therapy on Serum and Salivary Concentrations of Visfatin in Patients with Chronic Periodontitis

    Nader Abolfazli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Visfatin, mainly secreted by visceral adipose tissue, especially by macrophages, plays an impor-tant role in regulating the defense and immune functions, and functions as a growth factor, a cytokine, an enzyme and more importantly as a proinflammatory mediator. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of non-surgical perio-dontal treatment on serum and salivary levels of visfatin in patients with generalized moderate-to-severe chronic periodonti-tis. Materials and methods. Eighteen patients with generalized moderate-to-severe chronic periodontitis were selected based on periodontal parameters of gingival index (GI, probing pocket depth (PPD, clinical attachment level (CAL and radio-graphic parameters. Serum and salivary samples were collected at baseline and one month following non-surgical periodon-tal therapy (scaling and root planing ([SRP]. Visfatin levels were measured using an ELISA kit. Data were analyzed by SPSS 15, using paired t-test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Results. Mean salivary and serum levels of visfatin significantly decreased after non-surgical periodontal treatment (P<0.05. Changes in salivary visfatin levels were more prominent. Conclusion. According to the findings of this study it seems that there is a direct relationship between periodontal tissue inflammation and disease activity with salivary and serum visfatin levels.

  16. Changes in Salivary Cortisol Concentration in Horses during Different Types of Exercise.

    Kang, Ok-Deuk; Lee, Wang-Shik

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to estimate the change of stress level in horses based on cortisol concentration levels in their saliva. A total of 61 horses were divided into the following three groups: i) tourist riding experience (TR, n = 23); ii) resting group (RR, n = 14); and iii) horse-riding education (ER, n = 24). The saliva samples of TR and ER groups were taken using plain cotton Salivettes four times a day: at 07:00 (basal), 11:00 (Exercise 1, after 1-hour exercise in the morning), 14:00 (Exercise 2, after 1-hour exercise in the afternoon), and 16:00 (Exercise 3, after 1-hour exercise in the afternoon). The saliva samples of RR were measured at the same time. The samples were analyzed using the SAS program general linear model procedure. In a percentage relative to the base value, cortisol levels in Exercise 3 were confirmed to decrease in all groups as compared to the basal value percentage in the following sequence: ER>TR>RR. The highest peak was confirmed in Exercise 2 (approximately 131%) of RR group and the lowest peak appeared in Exercise 3 (approximately 52%) of ER group. Therefore, resting without any particular exercise can also increase the stress level of horses. Thus, it is better to exercise, as exercise can reduce the stress level, even in cases when riders are clumsy or lack appropriate horse-riding experience. The results of the present study are useful to equestrian center owners and educational riding instructors in that they provide a meaningful insight into a better horse management. PMID:26954193

  17. Changes in Salivary Cortisol Concentration in Horses during Different Types of Exercise

    Kang, Ok-Deuk; Lee, Wang-Shik

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the change of stress level in horses based on cortisol concentration levels in their saliva. A total of 61 horses were divided into the following three groups: i) tourist riding experience (TR, n = 23); ii) resting group (RR, n = 14); and iii) horse-riding education (ER, n = 24). The saliva samples of TR and ER groups were taken using plain cotton Salivettes four times a day: at 07:00 (basal), 11:00 (Exercise 1, after 1-hour exercise in the morning), 14:00 (Exercise 2, after 1-hour exercise in the afternoon), and 16:00 (Exercise 3, after 1-hour exercise in the afternoon). The saliva samples of RR were measured at the same time. The samples were analyzed using the SAS program general linear model procedure. In a percentage relative to the base value, cortisol levels in Exercise 3 were confirmed to decrease in all groups as compared to the basal value percentage in the following sequence: ER>TR>RR. The highest peak was confirmed in Exercise 2 (approximately 131%) of RR group and the lowest peak appeared in Exercise 3 (approximately 52%) of ER group. Therefore, resting without any particular exercise can also increase the stress level of horses. Thus, it is better to exercise, as exercise can reduce the stress level, even in cases when riders are clumsy or lack appropriate horse-riding experience. The results of the present study are useful to equestrian center owners and educational riding instructors in that they provide a meaningful insight into a better horse management. PMID:26954193

  18. Determination of a saliva cotinine cut-off to distinguish pregnant smokers from pregnant non-smokers

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F; Wachmann, Carsten Henrik; Ottesen, Bent

    2007-01-01

    Objective validation of smoking status is necessary. Earlier studies have used saliva cotinine concentrations between 14.2 and 30 ng/ml as cut-off values to distinguish pregnant smokers from non-smokers. However, these cut-offs derive from studies including men and non-pregnant women. This...

  19. A receiver operated curve-based evaluation of change in sensitivity and specificity of cotinine urinalysis for detecting active tobacco use

    Yatan Pal Singh Balhara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco use has been associated with various carcinomas including lung, esophagus, larynx, mouth, throat, kidney, bladder, pancreas, stomach, and cervix. Biomarkers such as concentration of cotinine in the blood, urine, or saliva have been used as objective measures to distinguish nonusers and users of tobacco products. A change in the cut-off value of urinary cotinine to detect active tobacco use is associated with a change in sensitivity and sensitivity of detection. Aim: The current study aimed at assessing the impact of using different cut-off thresholds of urinary cotinine on sensitivity and specificity of detection of smoking and smokeless tobacco product use among psychiatric patients. Settings and Design: All the male subjects attending the psychiatry out-patient department of the tertiary care multispecialty teaching hospital constituted the sample frame for the current study in a cross-sectionally. Materials and Methods: Quantitative urinary cotinine assay was done by using ELISA kits of Calbiotech. Inc., USA. We used the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve to assess the sensitivity and specificity of various cut-off values of urinary cotinine to identify active smokers and users of smokeless tobacco products. Results: ROC analysis of urinary cotinine levels in detection of self-reported smoking provided the area under curve (AUC of 0.434. Similarly, the ROC analysis of urinary cotinine levels in detection of self-reported smoking revealed AUC of 0.44. The highest sensitivity and specificity of 100% for smoking were detected at the urinary cut-off value greater than or equal to 2.47 ng/ml. Conclusions: The choice of cut-off value of urinary cotinine used to distinguish nonusers form active users of tobacco products impacts the sensitivity as well as specificity of detection.

  20. Prenatal Tobacco Exposure and Cotinine in Newborn Dried Blood Spots

    Murphy, Sharon E.; Wickham, Katherine M.; Lindgren, Bruce; Joseph, Anne M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking by pregnant women is a major public health hazard with both short- and long-term effects on offspring. This study describes the presence and level of the nicotine metabolite cotinine in newborn dried blood spots (DBS) and compares it with the reported maternal smoking recorded on state birth registries. We hypothesize that cotinine in DBS may be a useful measure of newborn in utero tobacco exposure. METHODS: An observational, cross-sectional study of 1414 DBS obtained from California, Michigan, New York, and Washington newborn screening programs was carried out. Cotinine levels in DBS were quantified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis and compared with maternal smoking as reported in vital statistics data. RESULTS: Cotinine ?0.3 ng/g was detected in 35% of newborn DBS, including DBS of 29% of newborns whose mothers reportedly did not smoke cigarettes during pregnancy, some of whom were presumably exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. Twelve percent of the newborn DBS had cotinine levels that were ?9.0 ng/g (equivalent to 6 ng/mL plasma, a level that indicates active smoking of the mother), although 41% of the mothers of these infants reportedly did not smoke. CONCLUSIONS: These data confirm that reported smoking during pregnancy is an imperfect measure of prenatal tobacco smoke exposure. Cotinine assessment in newborns may improve surveillance of tobacco use during pregnancy. PMID:24819573

  1. Environmental tobacco smoke and canine urinary cotinine level

    Epidemiologic studies of companion animals such as dogs have been established as models for the relationship between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and cancer risk in humans. While results from these studies are provocative, pet owner report of a dog's ETS exposure has not yet been validated. We have evaluated the relationship between dog owner's report of household smoking by questionnaire and dog's urinary cotinine level. Between January and October 2005, dog owners presenting their pet for non-emergency veterinary care at the Foster Hospital for Small Animals at Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, were asked to complete a 10-page questionnaire measuring exposure to household ETS in the previous 24 h and other factors. A free-catch urine sample was also collected from dogs. Urinary cotinine level was assayed for 63 dogs, including 30 whose owners reported household smoking and 33 unexposed dogs matched on age and month of enrollment. Urinary cotinine level was significantly higher in dogs exposed to household smoking in the 24 h before urine collection compared to unexposed dogs (14.6 ng/ml vs. 7.4 ng/ml; P=0.02). After adjustment for other factors, cotinine level increased linearly with number of cigarettes smoked by all household members (P=0.004). Other canine characteristics including age, body composition and nose length were also associated with cotinine level. Findings from our study suggest that household smoking levels as assessed by questionnaire are significantly associated with canine cotinine levels

  2. Relationship between Caregivers’ Smoking at Home and Urinary Levels of Cotinine in Children

    Yun Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the impact of different smoking behaviors of caregivers on environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure in children aged 5–6 years in Changsha, China. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, random digit-dial telephone survey of caregivers (n = 543 between August and October 2013. Caregivers’ smoking behaviors were collected by a questionnaire. Exposure assessment was based upon determination of urinary cotinine levels in children employing gas chromatography–triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS. Results: In children not living with a smoker, children living with one smoker, and children living with more than one smoker at home, median urinary cotinine concentrations (ng/mL were 0.72, 2.97, and 4.46, respectively. For children living with one smoker, median urinary cotinine levels of children exposed to ETS were associated with caregiver smoking behaviors, i.e., if a caregiver consumed more cigarettes (>20 compared with ≤10; 7.73 versus 2.29 ng/mL, respectively. Conclusions: The magnitude of ETS exposure in children is correlated with the smoking behaviors of the caregiver. Counseling for smoking cessation and educational interventions are needed urgently for smoking caregivers to increase their awareness about ETS exposure and to encourage smoking cessation at home or to take precautions to protect children’s health.

  3. Accelerated solvent extraction for gas chromatographic analysis of nicotine and cotinine in meconium samples.

    Sant'anna, Simone Gomes; Oliveira, Carolina Dizioli Rodrigues; Diniz, Edna Maria de Albuquerque; Yonamine, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    Adverse effects associated with smoking during pregnancy are well documented. Although self-report surveys on drug consumption during pregnancy have been improved with new interviewing techniques, underreporting is still a concern. Therefore, a series of biological markers and specimens to diagnose fetal exposure to tobacco have been studied. In the present study, an analytical method was developed to detect nicotine and cotinine (the main nicotine metabolite) in meconium samples. Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) followed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) were used as sample preparation techniques. The analytes were detected by gas-chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detection. The limits of detection were 3.0 and 30 ng/g for cotinine and nicotine, respectively. The method showed good linearity (r(2) > 0.98) in the concentration range studied (LOQ-500 ng/g). The intraday precision, given by the RSD of the method, was less than 15% for cotinine and nicotine. The method proved to be fast, practical, and sensitive. Smaller volumes of organic solvents are necessary compared to other chromatographic methods published in the scientific literature. This is the first report in which ASE was used as sample preparation technique in methods to detect xenobiotics in meconium. PMID:22290748

  4. Effect of casein phosphopeptide - amorphous calcium phosphate containing chewing gum on salivary concentration of calcium and phosphorus: An in-vivo study

    B P Santhosh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Caries clinical trials of sugar-free chewing gum have shown that the gum is noncariogenic and in fact has anticariogenic effect through the stimulation of saliva. Sugar-free gums, therefore, may be an excellent delivery vehicle for safe and effective additive, capable of promoting enamel remineralization. Casein phosphopeptide - amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP nanocomplexes incorporated into sugar-free chewing gum have shown to remineralize enamel subsurface lesions in situ. So this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of CPP-ACP containing sugar-free chewing gum on salivary concentration of calcium and phosphorous. Materials and Methods : Unstimulated saliva from each 24 selected subjects was collected. Then each subject was given two pellets of chewing gum containing CPP-ACP and asked to chew for a period of 20 min, after which saliva samples were collected from each individual. Once all the samples were collected they were assessed for calcium and phosphorous concentration using affiliated reagent kits and photometer. Statistical Analysis Used: Data obtained were analyzed using student′s paired t test. Results: Significant difference was found in the calcium and phosphorus concentration of saliva before and after chewing CPP-ACP containing chewing gum. Conclusions: Chewing of CPP-ACP containing chewing gum showed a significant increase in the salivary concentration of calcium for a prolonged period of time hence it may help in the remineralization of tooth surfaces.

  5. Effect of Non-surgical Periodontal Therapy on Serum and Salivary Concentrations of Visfatin in Patients with Chronic Periodontitis

    Nader Abolfazli; Sahar Jabali; Fariba Saleh Saber; Zohreh Babaloo; Adileh Shirmohammadi

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Visfatin, mainly secreted by visceral adipose tissue, especially by macrophages, plays an impor-tant role in regulating the defense and immune functions, and functions as a growth factor, a cytokine, an enzyme and more importantly as a proinflammatory mediator. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of non-surgical perio-dontal treatment on serum and salivary levels of visfatin in patients with generalized moderate-to-severe chronic periodonti-tis. Mat...

  6. The Relation between Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke and the Quantity of Cotinine in the Urine of School Children in Taif City, Saudi Arabia.

    Desouky, Dalia El Sayed; Elnemr, Gamal; Alnawawy, Ali; Taha, Azza Ali

    2016-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is a major public health problem for all ages. Despite the high prevalence of smoking among the Saudi population, there is limited information about levels of urinary cotinine in Saudi children exposed to SHS. The aim of the study was to assess the exposure of schoolchildren to ETS, and measure their urinary cotinine levels. Multistage cluster sampling was carried out, where schoolchildren from 4 schools were randomly chosen from primary schools in Taif city. A questionnaire including questions on SHS exposure and smoking rules in the residence were sent to students parents/guardians. Urine samples were taken and analyzed for total cotinine using chemiluminescent immunoassay. Of the studied children, 38.4% had a smoking father, 61.8%, 41.2% and 49.3% of them were exposed to ETS indoors, outdoors and both indoors and outdoors respectively. The mean urinary cotinine was significantly higher among children exposed to ETS compared to unexposed children. Urinary cotinine levels in children with both indoor and outdoor exposure was significantly higher compared with its level in children with single exposure. A significant positive correlation was found between urinary cotinine concentrations and the number of cigarette packs smoked by parents, and the number of smokers in the residence. The mean urinary cotinine level was significantly higher in children who reported no smoking rules at the residence.. The study revealed a high exposure of Saudi children to ETS. An antismoking media awareness campaign on the harmful effects of ETS should be carried out, in addition to family counseling programs targeted to parents to protect their children from ETS. PMID:26838199

  7. A single-step extraction method for the determination of nicotine and cotinine in Jordanian smokers' blood and urine samples by RP-HPLC and GC-MS.

    Massadeh, Adnan M; Gharaibeh, Ahmad A; Omari, Khaled W

    2009-02-01

    A simple, rapid, reliable, and low cost one-step extraction method is developed and validated for the determination of nicotine and cotinine in human plasma and urine in smokers using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The run times are 16 and 10 min for HPLC and GC-MS, respectively. The method is validated over a wide linear range of 1-5000 ng/mL with correlation coefficients being consistently greater than 0.9985. The criteria considered for validation are: limit of quantitation, linearity, accuracy, precision, recovery, specificity, and selectivity. This study is aimed to estimate the nicotine and cotinine in Jordanian smokers' blood and urine samples; to study the relationship between the concentration of nicotine in urine and plasma samples; and to investigate the effect of pH on the extraction of nicotine and cotinine in urine samples. In the presented study, one hundred blood and urine samples are collected from eighty smokers and twenty nonsmokers. Samples are taken from the same volunteer at the same time after each volunteer fills in a questionnaire. Results of nicotine concentrations in smokers' plasma are in the range of 181-3702 ng/mL with an average of 1263.1 ng/mL, whereas nicotine in urine samples is in the range of 1364-1972 ng/mL, with an average of 1618 ng/mL. Cotinine concentrations in smokers' plasma are in the range of 21-4420 ng/mL with an average of 379.4 ng/mL, whereas cotinine in urine is in the range of 6-3946 ng/mL with an average of 865 ng/mL. Statistical analysis indicates highly significant differences in nicotine and cotinine concentrations in smoker samples compared with nonsmoker samples (p<0.05). PMID:19222926

  8. In Vitro Inhibition of Human Sperm Creatine Kinase by Nicotine,Cotinine and Cadmium, as a Mechanism in Smoker Men Infertility

    Mohammad Ali Ghaffari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nicotine, cotinine and cadmium are harmful components of cigarettes that have aneffect on human reproductive function. Although the effects of cigarette smoke on male reproductivefunction is characterized in several articles its mechanism of action is still unknown.In the present study, we investigate the effect of nicotine, cotinine and cadmium on human spermcreatine kinase activity in vitro.Materials and Methods: Total creatine kinase activity is measured in sperm homogenates afterchromatography on a diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-32 column.Results: We show that creatine kinase activity is significantly inhibited by nicotine (44%, cotinine(39% and cadmium (65% at a concentration of 60 μg/ml. Kinetic studies reveal that the inhibitoryeffect of nicotine, cotinine and cadmium are competitive in relation to creatine phosphate.Conclusion: Considering the importance of creatine kinase activity for normal sperm energymetabolism, our results suggest that inhibition of this enzyme by nicotine, cotinine and cadmium maybe an important mechanism in infertility amongst male smokers. However, further investigationsare needed to elucidate the exact mechanism of cigarette effect on male reproductive function atthe molecular level.

  9. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific

  10. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-10-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

  11. Gender differences in cadmium and cotinine levels in prepubertal children

    Fucic, A., E-mail: afucic@imi.hr [Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Ksaverska c 2, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Plavec, D [Children Hospital Srebrnjak (Croatia); Casteleyn, L. [KU Leuven (Belgium); Aerts, D. [Federal Public Service Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment - DG Environment (Belgium); Biot, P. [DG Environment, Multilateral and Strategic Affairs (Belgium); Katsonouri, A. [State General Laboratory, Ministry of Health (Cyprus); Cerna, M. [Laboratoire National de Sante (Luxembourg); National Institute of Public Health (Czech Republic); Knudsen, L.E. [University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Castano, A. [Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Spain); Rudnai, P. [National Institute of Environmental Health (Hungary); Gutleb, A. [Centre de Recherche Public - Gabriel Lippmann (Luxembourg); Ligocka, D. [Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (Poland); Lupsa, I-R. [Environmental Health Center (Romania); Berglund, M. [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet (Sweden); Horvat, M. [Institute Josef Stefan (Slovenia); Halzlova, K. [Public Health Authority (Slovakia); State General Laboratory, Ministry of Health (Cyprus); Schoeters, G.; Koppen, G. [Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), Environmental Risk and Health (Netherlands); Hadjipanayis, A. [Larnaca General Hospital, Ministry of Health, Republic of Cyprus (Cyprus); Krskova, A. [Laboratoire National de Sante (Luxembourg); National Institute of Public Health (Czech Republic); and others

    2015-08-15

    Susceptibility to environmental stressors has been described for fetal and early childhood development. However, the possible susceptibility of the prepubertal period, characterized by the orchestration of the organism towards sexual maturation and adulthood has been poorly investigated and exposure data are scarce. In the current study levels of cadmium (Cd), cotinine and creatinine in urine were analyzed in a subsample 216 children from 12 European countries within the DEMOCOPHES project. The children were divided into six age–sex groups: boys (6–8 years, 9–10 years and 11 years old), and girls (6–7 years, 8–9 years, 10–11 years). The number of subjects per group was between 23 and 53. The cut off values were set at 0.1 µg/L for Cd, and 0.8 µg/L for cotinine defined according to the highest limit of quantification. The levels of Cd and cotinine were adjusted for creatinine level. In the total subsample group, the median level of Cd was 0.180 µg/L (range 0.10–0.69 µg/L), and for cotinine the median wet weight value was 1.50 µg/L (range 0.80–39.91 µg/L). There was no significant difference in creatinine and cotinine levels between genders and age groups. There was a significant correlation between levels of cadmium and creatinine in all children of both genders. This shows that even at such low levels the possible effect of cadmium on kidney function was present and measurable. An increase in Cd levels was evident with age. Cadmium levels were significantly different between 6–7 year old girls, 11 year old boys and 10–11 year old girls. As there was a balanced distribution in the number of subjects from countries included in the study, bias due to data clustering was not probable. The impact of low Cd levels on kidney function and gender differences in Cd levels needs further investigation. - Highlights: • In 216 children from 6 to 11 years old the median level of Cd was 0.18 µg/L. • The median level of cotinine was 1.50 µg/L. • Correlation between levels of Cd and creatinine in all children was detected. • Cd levels were different between 6–7 year old, 10–11 year old girls vs. 11 year old boys.

  12. Gender differences in cadmium and cotinine levels in prepubertal children

    Susceptibility to environmental stressors has been described for fetal and early childhood development. However, the possible susceptibility of the prepubertal period, characterized by the orchestration of the organism towards sexual maturation and adulthood has been poorly investigated and exposure data are scarce. In the current study levels of cadmium (Cd), cotinine and creatinine in urine were analyzed in a subsample 216 children from 12 European countries within the DEMOCOPHES project. The children were divided into six age–sex groups: boys (6–8 years, 9–10 years and 11 years old), and girls (6–7 years, 8–9 years, 10–11 years). The number of subjects per group was between 23 and 53. The cut off values were set at 0.1 µg/L for Cd, and 0.8 µg/L for cotinine defined according to the highest limit of quantification. The levels of Cd and cotinine were adjusted for creatinine level. In the total subsample group, the median level of Cd was 0.180 µg/L (range 0.10–0.69 µg/L), and for cotinine the median wet weight value was 1.50 µg/L (range 0.80–39.91 µg/L). There was no significant difference in creatinine and cotinine levels between genders and age groups. There was a significant correlation between levels of cadmium and creatinine in all children of both genders. This shows that even at such low levels the possible effect of cadmium on kidney function was present and measurable. An increase in Cd levels was evident with age. Cadmium levels were significantly different between 6–7 year old girls, 11 year old boys and 10–11 year old girls. As there was a balanced distribution in the number of subjects from countries included in the study, bias due to data clustering was not probable. The impact of low Cd levels on kidney function and gender differences in Cd levels needs further investigation. - Highlights: • In 216 children from 6 to 11 years old the median level of Cd was 0.18 µg/L. • The median level of cotinine was 1.50 µg/L. • Correlation between levels of Cd and creatinine in all children was detected. • Cd levels were different between 6–7 year old, 10–11 year old girls vs. 11 year old boys

  13. Salivary glands - "an unisex organ'?

    Konttinen, Y T; Stegaev, V; Mackiewicz, Z; Porola, P; Hänninen, A; Szodoray, P

    2010-10-01

    Usually no distinction is made between female and male salivary glands although cyclic changes of and ⁄ or differences in serum and salivary sex steroid concentrations characterize women and men. Moreover, sexual dimorphism is well recognized in salivary glands of rodents.Salivary glands contain estrogen and androgen receptors and are, according to modern high throughput technologies,subjected to gender differences not explainable by gene dose effects by the X chromosome alone. Because sex steroids are lipophilic, it is often thought that approximately 10% of them passively diffuse from plasma to saliva. Indeed, saliva can find use as sample material in sports medicine, pediatrics, veterinary medicine and behavioral sciences. Last but not least, humans and other primates are unique in that they have a reticular zone in their adrenal cortex, which produces dehydroepiandrosterone and androstendione pro-hormones. These are processed in peripheral tissues, not only in female breast and uterus and male prostate, but also in salivary glands by an intracrine enzymatic machinery to active 17b-estradiol,dihydrotestosterone and others, to satisfy and buffer against a constantly changing needs caused by circadian,menstrual, pregnancy and chronobiological hormonal changes in the systemic circulation. Female dominance of Sjögren's syndrome and certain forms of salivary gland cancer probably reflect these gender-based differences. PMID:20412448

  14. Oral vs. salivary diagnostics

    Marques, Joana; Corby, Patricia M.; Barber, Cheryl A.; Abrams, William R.; Malamud, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    The field of "salivary diagnostics" includes studies utilizing samples obtained from a variety of sources within the oral cavity. These samples include; whole unstimulated saliva, stimulated whole saliva, duct saliva collected directly from the parotid, submandibular/sublingual glands or minor salivary glands, swabs of the buccal mucosa, tongue or tonsils, and gingival crevicular fluid. Many publications state "we collected saliva from subjects" without fully describing the process or source of the oral fluid. Factors that need to be documented in any study include the time of day of the collection, the method used to stimulate and collect the fluid, and how much fluid is being collected and for how long. The handling of the oral fluid during and post-collection is also critical and may include addition of protease or nuclease inhibitors, centrifugation, and cold or frozen storage prior to assay. In an effort to create a standard protocol for determining a biomarker's origin we carried out a pilot study collecting oral fluid from 5 different sites in the mouth and monitoring the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines detected using MesoScaleDiscovery (MSD) electrochemiluminesence assays. Our data suggested that 3 of the cytokines are primarily derived from the submandibular gland, while 7 of the cytokines come from a source other than the major salivary glands such as the minor salivary glands or cells in the oral mucosae. Here we review the literature on monitoring biomarkers in oral samples and stress the need for determining the blood/saliva ratio when a quantitative determination is needed and suggest that the term oral diagnostic be used if the source of an analyte in the oral cavity is unknown.

  15. Toward improved statistical methods for analyzing Cotinine-Biomarker health association data

    Clark John D; Koru-Sengul Tulay; Fleming Lora E; Lee David J

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Serum cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine, is frequently used in research as a biomarker of recent tobacco smoke exposure. Historically, secondhand smoke (SHS) research uses suboptimal statistical methods due to censored serum cotinine values, meaning a measurement below the limit of detection (LOD). Methods We compared commonly used methods for analyzing censored serum cotinine data using parametric and non-parametric techniques employing data from the 1999-2004 National H...

  16. Factors influencing cotinine half-life during smoking abstinence in African American and Caucasian women.

    Ahijevych, Karen L; Tyndale, Rachel F; Dhatt, Ravinder K; Weed, Harrison G; Browning, Kristine K

    2002-11-01

    Cotinine, the proximate metabolite of nicotine, has been identified as an indicator of smoke constituent exposure. Higher cotinine levels in African American cigarette smokers have been identified. Because African Americans experience disproportionate smoking-related morbidity and mortality, it is important to examine potential factors influencing these higher levels of cotinine. The current study examined selected factors of ethnicity, menthol cigarette preference, body composition and alcohol-use history on cotinine half-life in 6 days of smoking abstinence in African American and Caucasian women. A 7-day inpatient protocol was conducted in the General Clinical Research Center, in which day 1 was ad lib smoking and days 2-7 were smoking abstinence (n = 32). Plasma cotinine was measured every 8 h throughout. Average cotinine half-life was 21.3 h, similar to previously reported 18-20 h. Three women exhibited >14 ng/ml cotinine after 136 h of smoking abstinence. Host factors explaining 52.0% of variance in cotinine half-life and associated with longer half-life were being an African American menthol smoker, fewer years of alcohol use and greater lean body mass. Among menthol smokers, baseline cotinine level and cotinine half-life were not significantly different in Caucasian and African American women. Intra-individual cotinine half-life variation and CYP2A6 genotype were examined in substudies. To improve accuracy in correctly classifying non-smokers with cotinine levels, a period of at least 7 days of smoking abstinence may be warranted. PMID:12521401

  17. Behavioral Adjustment in a Community Sample of Boys: Links with Basal and Stress-Induced Salivary Cortisol Concentrations

    Audrey R. Tyrka; Kelly, Megan M.; Graber, Julia A.; DeRose, Laura; Lee, Janet K.; Warren, Michelle P.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2010-01-01

    Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been observed in association with internalizing symptoms and is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of depression and some anxiety disorders. This study examined basal and stress-induced cortisol concentrations in relation to internalizing and externalizing symptoms in a racially mixed community sample of 102 811 year-old boys. Afternoon basal cortisol concentrations were positively correlated with measures of internal...

  18. The stressed student: influence of written examinations and oral presentations on salivary cortisol concentrations in university students.

    Preuss, Diana; Schoofs, Daniela; Schlotz, Wolff; Wolf, Oliver T

    2010-05-01

    Laboratory research has demonstrated that social-evaluative threat has an influence on the hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis (HPA). In two studies using independent samples, we evaluated the anticipatory cortisol response to a written university examination (n = 35) and to an oral presentation (n = 34). Saliva samples were collected before and after the examinations and on a control day. Additionally, saliva samples were collected on the day before the written examination and a control day. Results revealed significantly elevated cortisol concentrations on the day prior to the examination; however, this effect occurred only in those participants who had their control day after the examination. Cortisol concentrations were elevated on the examination day, with increased concentrations before but not after the examination. For the oral presentation study, the results revealed substantially elevated cortisol concentrations before and after the oral presentation. Taken together the results indicate that written examinations cause a mild anticipatory HPA response while oral presentations induce a strong HPA response. These findings appear to support the idea that social-evaluative threat is an important factor determining the size of the HPA response to laboratory stressors as well as to real-life stressors. PMID:20235829

  19. Brief Communication: Latent toxoplasmosis and salivary testosterone concentration--important confounding factors in second to fourth digit ratio studies.

    Flegr, Jaroslav; Lindová, Jitka; Pivoñková, Vera; Havlícek, Jan

    2008-12-01

    A sexually dimorphic characteristic, the second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D ratio), has been shown to reflect the prenatal concentration of sex steroid hormones and to correlate with many personality, physiological, and life history traits. The correlations are usually stronger for the right than the left hand. Most studies have shown that the 2D:4D ratio does not vary with age or postnatal concentration of sex steroid hormones. Recently, a strong association between left hand 2D:4D ratio and infection with a common human parasite Toxoplasma has been reported. We hypothesized that the confounding effect of Toxoplasma infection on left hand 2D:4D ratio could be responsible for the stronger association between different traits and right hand rather than left hand 2D:4D ratio. This confounding effect of toxoplasmosis could also be responsible for the difficulty in finding an association between 2D:4D ratio and age or postnatal steroid hormone concentration. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the association between sex and age and 2D:4D ratio in a population of 194 female and 106 male students with and without controlling for the confounding variables of Toxoplasma infection and testosterone concentration. Our results showed that the relationship between age and sex and 2D:4D ratio increased sharply when Toxoplasma infection and testosterone concentration were controlled. These results suggest that left hand 2D:4D ratio is more susceptible to postnatal influences and that the confounding factors of Toxoplasma infection, testosterone concentration and possibly also age, should be controlled in future 2D:4D ratio studies. Because of a stronger 2D:4D dimorphism in Toxoplasma-infected than Toxoplasma-free subjects, we predict that 2D:4D ratio dimorphism as well as right hand/left hand 2D:4D ratio dimorphism will be higher in countries with a high prevalence of Toxoplasma infection than in those with a low prevalence. PMID:18615572

  20. Behavioral Adjustment in a Community Sample of Boys: Links with Basal and Stress-Induced Salivary Cortisol Concentrations

    Tyrka, Audrey R.; Kelly, Megan M.; Graber, Julia A.; DeRose, Laura; Lee, Janet K.; Warren, Michelle P.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2010-01-01

    Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been observed in association with internalizing symptoms and is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of depression and some anxiety disorders. This study examined basal and stress-induced cortisol concentrations in relation to internalizing and externalizing symptoms in a racially mixed community sample of 102 811 year-old boys. Afternoon basal cortisol concentrations were positively correlated with measures of internalizing behavior problems, social problems, and emotionality. Greater change in cortisol across a home-visit challenge task was also significantly associated with internalizing behaviors and social problems, as well as attention and thought problems. The implications of these findings and how they may relate to the pathogenesis of emotional and behavioral problems are discussed. PMID:20223598

  1. Exercise upregulates salivary amylase in humans (Review).

    Koibuchi, Eri; Suzuki, Yoshio

    2014-04-01

    The secretion of salivary ?-amylase is influenced by adrenergic regulation of the sympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis; thus, exercise affects the levels of salivary ?-amylase. Granger et al published a review in 2007 that focused attention on salivary ?-amylase. In addition, a portable system for monitoring salivary ?-amylase activity was launched in Japan at the end of 2005. The correlation between exercise and salivary ?-amylase has since been extensively investigated. The present review summarizes relevant studies published in the English and Japanese literature after 2006. A search of the PubMed and CiNii databases identified 54 articles, from which 15 original articles were selected. The findings described in these publications indicate that exercise consistently increases mean salivary ?-amylase activities and concentrations, particularly at an intensity of >70% VO2max in healthy young individuals. Thus, these studies have confirmed that salivary ?-amylase levels markedly increase in response to physical stress. Salivary ?-amylase levels may therefore serve as an effective indicator in the non-invasive assessment of physical stress. PMID:24669232

  2. Salivary testosterone levels in preadolescent children

    Dohnányiová Monika; Putz Zdenek; Pastor Karol; Ostatníková Daniela; Mat'ašeje Anna; Hampl Richard

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Background Saliva reflects the plasma free fraction of testosterone which is biologically active, and available for uptake by tissues. Testosterone concentration in saliva, though differing slightly from the concentration of unbound testosterone in serum, is in good correlation with the latter, indicating that salivary testosterone provides a reliable method for determination of serum free testosterone. The study aimed to investigate salivary testosterone levels and their changes in ...

  3. Diagnostic Methods for Detection of Cotinine Level in Tobacco Users: A Review

    Garg, Aarti; Yadav, Pramod; Jha, Kunal; Handa, Sahil

    2016-01-01

    The greatest disease-producing product known to man is tobacco. It is a cause of many oral diseases and adverse oral conditions. In India, tobacco is available in smokeless and smoking form. Tobacco contains nicotine which metabolises to form a toxic alkaloid i.e. cotinine. It stimulates autonomic ganglia and central nervous system. Cotinine is the best indicator of tobacco smoke exposure. Various methods are used to measure cotinine level in blood, saliva and urine such as high performance liquid chromatography, colorimetric assay, gas chromatography, NicAlert saliva test, etc. Thus such wide range of methods for cotinine detection in tobacco users requires a detailed discussion regarding their utility. This review will help readers to compare various methods for cotinine detection and enable them to make scientifically informative decision.

  4. Salivary testosterone levels in preadolescent children

    Dohnányiová Monika

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Saliva reflects the plasma free fraction of testosterone which is biologically active, and available for uptake by tissues. Testosterone concentration in saliva, though differing slightly from the concentration of unbound testosterone in serum, is in good correlation with the latter, indicating that salivary testosterone provides a reliable method for determination of serum free testosterone. The study aimed to investigate salivary testosterone levels and their changes in preadolescent children and to study sexual dimorphism. Methods Testosterone levels were determined in 203 healthy preadolescent children (77 girls and 126 boys from saliva samples by radioimmunoassay. Sampling was performed once a year with respect to circadian and seasonal fluctuations of testosterone. Data were statistically analyzed by Statgraphic software. Results Mean salivary testosterone concentrations (± SD were 0.038 ± 0.012 nmol/L and 0.046 ± 0.026 nmol/L for girls and boys, with the medians 0.035 nmol/L and 0.041 nmol/L, respectively. Statistical analysis did not prove changes in salivary testosterone concentrations in the preadolescent period of life, with an exception of the insignificant fall at the age of 7 years, and an insignificant rise at the age of 9 years in girls. Conclusions Generally it can be concluded that salivary testosterone levels in our prepubertal subjects remained stable. There was no significant increase of salivary testosterone levels from the age of 6 until the age of 9 in both sexes. Sexual dimorphism in salivary testosterone levels was proved with significantly higher (p = 0.009 salivary testosterone levels in boys than in girls.

  5. Effects of administration of potassium- and sodiumchlorides on faecal excretions and salivary and alimentary concentrations of, Na, K, 134Cs, Ca, Mg and P in reindeer fed a lichen diet

    Hans Staaland

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of the effects of administration of 350 mmol d-1 of KC1 or NaCl on faecal excretions, salivary concentrations and concentrations and pools of Na, K, 134Cs, Ca, Mg, P, and water in the alimentary tract of reindeer was carried out using three groups of three 10 months old reindeer fed a lichen diet. One group was used as a control group with no mineral supplementation. The level of K supplementation mimicked K intakes from summer pastures. NaCl was given at a rate which would mimic intake from salt licks by domestic ruminants of similar body size. Treatment with KC1 increased the salivary and alimentary concentrations and the alimentary pool sizes of K and faecal excretion of K increased. A decrease in l34Cs concentrations in all parts of the gastrointestinal tract indicated greater absorption of 134Cs during the KC1 treatment than in NaCl treated and control animals. Increased intake of Na or K had no significant effect on the digestibility of the lichen diet, but urine production increased. Little effects on pools or concentrations of Ca, Mg and P were observed. NaCl treatment increased urinary and faecal excretion of Na, but did not affect the metabolism of any of the other studied minerals.

  6. Gender differences in cadmium and cotinine levels in prepubertal children

    Fucic, A; Plavec, D; Casteleyn, L; Aerts, D; Biot, P; Katsonouri, A; Cerna, M; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Castano, A; Rudnai, P; Gutleb, A; Ligocka, D; Lupsa, I-R; Berglund, M; Horvat, M; Halzlova, K; Schoeters, G; Koppen, G; Hadjipanayis, A; Krskova, A; Középesy, S; Arendt, M; Fischer, M E; Janasik, B; Gurzau, A E; Gurzau, E S; Grandér, M; Larsson, K; Jajcaj, M; Kolossa-Gehring, M; Sepai, O; Exley, K; Bartolome, M; Cutanda, F; Mazej, D; Nielsen, J K S; Snoj-Tratnik, J; Schwedler, G; Fiddicke, U; Seiwert, M; Govarts, E; Den Hond, E; Koch, H M; Lopez, A; Joas, A; Joas, R

    2015-01-01

    Susceptibility to environmental stressors has been described for fetal and early childhood development. However, the possible susceptibility of the prepubertal period, characterized by the orchestration of the organism towards sexual maturation and adulthood has been poorly investigated and...... exposure data are scarce. In the current study levels of cadmium (Cd), cotinine and creatinine in urine were analyzed in a subsample 216 children from 12 European countries within the DEMOCOPHES project. The children were divided into six age-sex groups: boys (6-8 years, 9-10 years and 11 years old), and...... between levels of cadmium and creatinine in all children of both genders. This shows that even at such low levels the possible effect of cadmium on kidney function was present and measurable. An increase in Cd levels was evident with age. Cadmium levels were significantly different between 6-7 year old...

  7. A fully validated LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of nicotine and its metabolite cotinine in human serum and its application to a pharmacokinetic study after using nicotine transdermal delivery systems with standard heat application in adult smokers.

    Abdallah, Inas A; Hammell, Dana C; Stinchcomb, Audra L; Hassan, Hazem E

    2016-05-01

    A sensitive and simple liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of nicotine and its main metabolite cotinine in human serum samples. Liquid-liquid extraction using ethyl acetate was employed for serum sample extractions. Chromatographic separation was achieved on Phenomenex Luna(®) HILIC column (150mm x 3.0mm, 5μm). Isocratic elution was performed using acetonitrile:100mM ammonium formate buffer (pH=3.2) (90:10, v/v) as the mobile phase, at a flow rate of 0.4mL/min. Tandem mass spectrometric detection was employed at positive electrospray ionization in MRM mode for the determination of both nicotine and cotinine and their stable isotope labeled internal standards. Analysis was carried out in 8min over a concentration range of 0.26-52.5ng/mL and 7.0-1500ng/mL for nicotine and cotinine, respectively. The assay was validated according to FDA guidelines for bioanalytical method validation and satisfactory results were obtained; the accuracy ranged between 93.39% and 105.73% for nicotine and between 93.04% and 107.26% for cotinine. No significant matrix effect was observed. Stability assays indicated both nicotine and cotinine were stable during sample storage, preparation and analytical procedures. The method was successfully applied to biological samples obtained from a pharmacokinetic study conducted in adult smokers to investigate heat effect on nicotine and cotinine serum levels after nicotine transdermal delivery system (TDS) application. PMID:27023159

  8. Elevated salivary C-reactive protein levels are associated with active and passive smoking in healthy youth: A pilot study

    Azar Rima

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined salivary C-reactive protein (CRP levels in the context of tobacco smoke exposure (TSE in healthy youth. We hypothesized that there would be a dose-response relationship between TSE status and salivary CRP levels. Methods This work is a pilot study (N = 45 for a larger investigation in which we aim to validate salivary CRP against serum CRP, the gold standard measurement of low-grade inflammation. Participants were healthy youth with no self-reported periodontal disease, no objectively measured obesity/adiposity, and no clinical depression, based on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II. We assessed tobacco smoking and confirmed smoking status (non-smoking, passive smoking, and active smoking with salivary cotinine measurement. We measured salivary CRP by the ELISA method. We controlled for several potential confounders. Results We found evidence for the existence of a dose-response relationship between the TSE status and salivary CRP levels. Conclusions Our preliminary findings indicate that salivary CRP seems to have a similar relation to TSE as its widely used serum (systemic inflammatory biomarker counterpart.

  9. Cotinine: beyond that expected, more than a biomarker of tobacco consumption

    ValentinaEcheverria Moran

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A greater incidence of tobacco consumption occurs among individuals with psychiatric conditions including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, bipolar disorder, major depression and schizophrenia, compared with the general population. Even when still controversial, it has been postulated that smoking is a form of self-medication that reduces psychiatric symptoms among individuals with these disorders. To better understand the component(s of tobacco-inducing smoking behavior, greater attention has been directed toward nicotine. However, in recent years, new evidence has shown that cotinine, the main metabolite of nicotine, exhibits beneficial effects over psychiatric symptoms and may therefore promote smoking within this population. Some of the behavioral effects of cotinine compared to nicotine are discussed here. Cotinine, which accumulates in the body as a result of tobacco exposure, crosses the blood-brain barrier and has different pharmacological properties compared with nicotine. Cotinine has a longer plasma half-life than nicotine and showed no addictive or cardiovascular effects in humans. In addition, at the preclinical level, cotinine facilitated the extinction of fear memory and anxiety after fear conditioning, improved working memory in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD and in a monkey model of schizophrenia. Altogether, the new evidence suggests that the pharmacological and behavioral effects of cotinine may play a key role in promoting tobacco smoking in individuals that suffer from psychiatric conditions and represents a new potential therapeutic agent against psychiatric conditions such as AD and PTSD.

  10. Salivary Gland Cancer

    ... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Salivary gland cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. It is rare. It may not cause any ... pain in your face Doctors diagnose salivary gland cancer using a physical exam, imaging tests, and a ...

  11. Salivary phenytoin radioimmunoassay

    A simple, specific and rapid radioimmunoassay method for the assessment of non-protein bound ('free') phenytoin concentrations in mixed saliva using 125I-labelled phenytoin is described. Epileptic patients on maintenance phenytoin therapy have mixed saliva phenytoin concentrations similar to 'free' drug levels measured directly in serum or cerebrospinal fluid. Salivary phenytoin levels are approximately 10% of the total serum level in treated epileptic patients and in normal subjects after ingestion of a single oral dose. The half time of disappearance of phenytoin after 100 or 300 mg doses is 12.2 +- 3.0 h in serum and 12. 3 +- 3.2 h in saliva. This method of assessing the biologically active fraction of the drug may be particularly valuable in situations where serum protein binding is abnormal or in drug interactions. It is also non-invasive and requires small sample volumes (20μl) and may therefore be valuable in paediatric practice and in pharmacokinetic studies in which multiple venepunctures would otherwise be required. (orig./MG)

  12. Cotinine prevents memory loss and diminishes Alzheimer's disease-like pathology

    Laura Catalina Charry

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD affects millions of people around the world and currently there are no effective therapies. Cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine, has been shown to be neuroprotective, prevent memory loss and reduce amyloid-? (A? plaque pathology in transgenic AD mice. The beneficial effect that cotinine has on memory is associated with the inhibition of A? aggregation, the stimulation of pro-survival factors such as Akt, and the inhibition of pro-apoptotic factors such as glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3?. These pro-apoptotic factors promote neuronal survival and the synaptic plasticity processes underlying learning and memory in the hippocampus and cortex of wild type and AD mice. Cotinine has also shown to diminish depressive-like behavior in normal and chronically stressed mice. Additionally, the use of this compound in studies has resulted in an increase in the expression of the active form of protein kinase B and the postsynaptic density protein 95 in the hippocampi and frontal cortices. It can be observed in multiple studies, that daily treatment of mice with cotinine reduced A? levels and plaque formation compared with vehicle treated mice, which had higher memory loss and depressive behavior. The beneficial effects of cotinine on brain function and good safety profile, suggest that it may be a potential new therapeutic agent against Alzheimer's disease.

  13. Anti-smoking legislation and its effects on urinary cotinine and cadmium levels

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, Jinny E., E-mail: jinnysanchez@isciii.es [Environmental Toxicology, Centro Nacional de Sanidad Ambiental (CNSA), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Carretera Majadahonda-Pozuelo Km. 2, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid (Spain); Bartolomé, Mónica, E-mail: mbj@isciii.es [Environmental Toxicology, Centro Nacional de Sanidad Ambiental (CNSA), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Carretera Majadahonda-Pozuelo Km. 2, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid (Spain); Cañas, Ana I, E-mail: acanas@isciii.es [Environmental Toxicology, Centro Nacional de Sanidad Ambiental (CNSA), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Carretera Majadahonda-Pozuelo Km. 2, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid (Spain); Huetos, Olga, E-mail: olgahh@isciii.es [Environmental Toxicology, Centro Nacional de Sanidad Ambiental (CNSA), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Carretera Majadahonda-Pozuelo Km. 2, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid (Spain); Navarro, Carmen, E-mail: carnavarro@isciii.es [Environmental Toxicology, Centro Nacional de Sanidad Ambiental (CNSA), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Carretera Majadahonda-Pozuelo Km. 2, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid (Spain); Rodríguez, A. Carolina, E-mail: acrodriguez@isciii.es [Environmental Toxicology, Centro Nacional de Sanidad Ambiental (CNSA), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Carretera Majadahonda-Pozuelo Km. 2, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid (Spain); Arribas, Misericordia, E-mail: marribas@isciii.es [Servicio de Prevención, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid (Spain); Esteban, Marta, E-mail: m.esteban@isciii.es [Environmental Toxicology, Centro Nacional de Sanidad Ambiental (CNSA), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Carretera Majadahonda-Pozuelo Km. 2, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid (Spain); López, Ana, E-mail: alopezh@isciii.es [Environmental Toxicology, Centro Nacional de Sanidad Ambiental (CNSA), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Carretera Majadahonda-Pozuelo Km. 2, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid (Spain); and others

    2015-01-15

    Anti-smoking legislation has been associated with an improvement in health indicators. Since the cadmium (Cd) body burden in the general population is markedly increased by smoke exposure, we analyzed the impact of the more restrictive legislation that came into force in Spain in 2011 by measuring Cd and cotinine in first morning urine samples from 83 adults in Madrid (Spain) before (2010) and after (2011) introduction of this law. Individual pair-wise comparisons showed a reduction of creatinine corrected Cotinine and Cd levels for non-active smokers, i. e. those which urinary cotinine levels are below 50 μg/L. After the application of the stricter law, cotinine levels in urine only decreased in non-active smokers who self-reported not to be exposed to second-hand smoke. The reduction in second hand smoke exposure was significantly higher in weekends (Friday to Sunday) than in working days (Monday to Thursday). The decrease in U-Cd was highly significant in non-active smokers and, in general, correlated with lower creatinine excretion. Therefore correction by creatinine could bias urinary Cd results, at least for cotinine levels higher than 500 μg/L. The biochemical/toxicological benefits detected herein support the stricter application of anti-smoking legislation and emphasize the need to raise the awareness of the population as regards exposure at home.

  14. Anti-smoking legislation and its effects on urinary cotinine and cadmium levels

    Anti-smoking legislation has been associated with an improvement in health indicators. Since the cadmium (Cd) body burden in the general population is markedly increased by smoke exposure, we analyzed the impact of the more restrictive legislation that came into force in Spain in 2011 by measuring Cd and cotinine in first morning urine samples from 83 adults in Madrid (Spain) before (2010) and after (2011) introduction of this law. Individual pair-wise comparisons showed a reduction of creatinine corrected Cotinine and Cd levels for non-active smokers, i. e. those which urinary cotinine levels are below 50 μg/L. After the application of the stricter law, cotinine levels in urine only decreased in non-active smokers who self-reported not to be exposed to second-hand smoke. The reduction in second hand smoke exposure was significantly higher in weekends (Friday to Sunday) than in working days (Monday to Thursday). The decrease in U-Cd was highly significant in non-active smokers and, in general, correlated with lower creatinine excretion. Therefore correction by creatinine could bias urinary Cd results, at least for cotinine levels higher than 500 μg/L. The biochemical/toxicological benefits detected herein support the stricter application of anti-smoking legislation and emphasize the need to raise the awareness of the population as regards exposure at home

  15. Undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas

    Herbst, H.; Hamilton-Dutoit, S.; Jakel, K.T.; Niedobitek, G.

    2004-01-01

    , comprising malignant lymphomas, amelanotic melanomas, Merkel cell carcinomas, and adenoid cystic carcinomas, in particular in small biopsy materials. Because of the rarity of undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas, the differential diagnosis should always include metastases of undifferentiated carcinomas...

  16. Salivary gland infections

    ... salivary duct stones . Poor cleanliness in the mouth ( oral hygiene ) Low amounts of water in the body, most ... home to help with recovery include: Practice good oral hygiene. Brush your teeth and floss well at least ...

  17. Pediatric salivary gland imaging

    Boyd, Zachary T. [University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City, MO (United States); Goud, Asha R. [University of California Irvine Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Orange, CA (United States); Lowe, Lisa H. [Children' s Mercy Hospitals and Clinics and the University of Missouri-Kansas City, Department of Radiology, Kansas City, MO (United States); Shao, Lei [Children' s Mercy Hospitals and Clinics and the University of Missouri-Kansas City, Department of Pathology, Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2009-07-15

    A variety of lesions occur in the pediatric salivary glands. With modern imaging techniques such as Doppler sonography, helical CT, and MRI, identification of a specific etiology is often possible. Knowledge of clinical information, normal anatomy, and imaging characteristics of salivary gland pathology are essential for appropriate radiologic evaluation. This review illustrates the various congenital, neoplastic, and inflammatory entities that can occur within the parotid, submandibular, and sublingual spaces. (orig.)

  18. Pediatric salivary gland imaging

    A variety of lesions occur in the pediatric salivary glands. With modern imaging techniques such as Doppler sonography, helical CT, and MRI, identification of a specific etiology is often possible. Knowledge of clinical information, normal anatomy, and imaging characteristics of salivary gland pathology are essential for appropriate radiologic evaluation. This review illustrates the various congenital, neoplastic, and inflammatory entities that can occur within the parotid, submandibular, and sublingual spaces. (orig.)

  19. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke measured by cotinine 125I-radioimmunoassay

    We describe a polyclonal-antiserum-based 125I-radioimmunoassay for cotinine that is suitable for measuring nonsmokers' passive exposure to tobacco smoke in the environment. The standard curve ranged from 0.25 to 12.0 micrograms/L, with an estimated lower limit of sensitivity of 0.2 microgram/L (95% B/Bo = 0.2 microgram/L; 50% B/Bo = 4.0 micrograms/L). The median within-assay CVs for patients' samples with cotinine values from 0.4 to 1.3, 1.4 to 2.4, 2.5 to 4.6, and 4.7 to 15.6 micrograms/L were 13.9%, 7.2%, 5.1%, and 5.7%, respectively. Between-assay CVs for two quality-control sera with average values of 1.53 and 3.68 micrograms/L were 14.3% and 7.8%, respectively. Analytical recoveries of cotinine from smokers' sera diluted in zero calibrant ranged from 91% to 116%. Cotinine values determined on 79 paired sera and urines from nonsmokers showed significant correlation with self-reported exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (r = 0.49, P less than 0.001 for sera; r = 0.57, P less than 0.001 for urine). The log of the values for serum and urine cotinine were also significantly correlated (r = 0.85, P less than 0.001). Evidently, polyclonal antiserum can be used to develop a cotinine assay for measuring exposure to environmental tobacco smoke that compares well with that described for monoclonal-based assays

  20. Toward improved statistical methods for analyzing Cotinine-Biomarker health association data

    Clark John D

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serum cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine, is frequently used in research as a biomarker of recent tobacco smoke exposure. Historically, secondhand smoke (SHS research uses suboptimal statistical methods due to censored serum cotinine values, meaning a measurement below the limit of detection (LOD. Methods We compared commonly used methods for analyzing censored serum cotinine data using parametric and non-parametric techniques employing data from the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES. To illustrate the differences in associations obtained by various analytic methods, we compared parameter estimates for the association between cotinine and the inflammatory marker homocysteine using complete case analysis, single and multiple imputation, "reverse" Kaplan-Meier, and logistic regression models. Results Parameter estimates and statistical significance varied according to the statistical method used with censored serum cotinine values. Single imputation of censored values with either 0, LOD or LOD/√2 yielded similar estimates and significance; multiple imputation method yielded smaller estimates than the other methods and without statistical significance. Multiple regression modelling using the "reverse" Kaplan-Meier method yielded statistically significant estimates that were larger than those from parametric methods. Conclusions Analyses of serum cotinine data with values below the LOD require special attention. "Reverse" Kaplan-Meier was the only method inherently able to deal with censored data with multiple LODs, and may be the most accurate since it avoids data manipulation needed for use with other commonly used statistical methods. Additional research is needed into the identification of optimal statistical methods for analysis of SHS biomarkers subject to a LOD.

  1. Comparación de la concentración total de proteínas salivales de adultos y adultos mayores Comparison of total salivary protein concentration in adults and older adults

    RJ Castro

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Entre las moléculas orgánicas que componen la saliva se han descrito un gran número de proteínas. No existe evidencia suficiente que permita especular sobre los cambios en el contenido proteico salival asociados al envejecimiento normal. El objetivo fue determinar si existen diferencias en la concentración total de proteínas en saliva de adultos y adultos mayores. Método: Se obtuvieron muestras de saliva estimulada y no estimulada de individuos pertenecientes a dos grupos etarios, adultos (A (n=30 (edad promedio: 25 años y adultos mayores (AM (n=30 (edad promedio: 68 años. Se excluyeron aquellos sujetos que presentaron alguna patología oral/sistémica o consumo de fármacos/sustancias relacionados con alteraciones del flujo o composición salival. Cada muestra fue centrifugada. A 10 µl del sobrenadante se agregaron 190 µl de solución de Bradford. Se realizó el recuento mediante lectura con espectrofotómetro (595 nm. La concentración de proteínas fue comparada entre los grupos en estudio utilizando la prueba t de Student (pObjective: A high number of proteins has been described in saliva. Scarce evidence allows to speculate about the variations on protein content associated with aging. The aim was to determine if there is a difference in total protein concentration between adults and older adults. Methods: Samples were collected from unstimulated and stimulated saliva of individuals from two age groups, adults (A (n=30 (mean age 25 years and older adults (OA (n=30(mean age: 68 years. Subjects with oral/systemic diseases or consuming medications that alter salivary flow were excluded from the study. Each sample was centrifuged and 10 μl of the supernatant was added to 190 μl of Bradford solution. Protein concentration was obtained by spectrophotometry (595 nm Protein concentration was compared between the groups using student’s t test (p<0.05. Results: Total protein concentration from unstimulated saliva was higher in OA (5.5±2.6 ug/ul than in A (3.2 ± 1.7 ug/ul (p<0.05. Total protein concentration of stimulated saliva was higher in OA (4.9±0.4 ug/ul than in A (4.0±0.3 ug/ul (p<0.05. Conclusion: Salivary protein concentration increases in older adults. Further studies are suggested to characterize these changes.

  2. Salivary duct carcinoma

    Breinholt, Helle; Elhakim, Mohammad Talal; Godballe, Christian; Andersen, Lisbeth Juhler; Primdahl, Hanne; Kristensen, Claus A; Bjørndal, Kristine

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To present the first national series of salivary duct carcinoma patients, including survival rates and an analysis of prognostic factors. METHODS: By merging three Danish nationwide registries that encompass an entire population, 34 patients diagnosed with salivary duct carcinoma from...... 1990 to 2005 were identified. Histological slides were reviewed, and data concerning demographics, tumour site, clinical stage, treatment profiles and follow-up were retrieved. Survival estimates and prognostic factors were evaluated by comparing Kaplan-Meier plots using the Mantel-Haenszel log......-rank test. RESULTS: Salivary duct carcinoma showed an incidence of 0.04/100.000 inhabitants/year. Distant recurrence was seen in 52% of patients. Five-year overall survival, disease-specific survival and recurrence-free survival were 32%, 42% and 35%, respectively. Univariate analyses suggested that overall...

  3. A sensitive HPLC-ESI-MS-MS method for the determination of cotinine in urine.

    Apinan, Roongnapa; Choemung, Anuruk; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2010-07-01

    A simple, sensitive, selective, and reproducible method based on high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry was developed for the determination of nicotine and its major metabolite cotinine in human urine. The internal standard (acetaminophen) was separated from cotinine on a Hypersil Gold C(18) column with retention times of 9.3 and 13.0 min, respectively. The mobile phase consisted of a mixture of 10 mM acetate buffer (pH 5.4) and methanol (45:55, v/v), running through the column at a flow rate of 0.6 mL/min. The chromatographic analysis was operated at 25 degrees C. Sample preparation was prepared by liquid-liquid extraction with a mixture of methyl-t-butyl ether in dichloromethane (1:1, v/v). The precision of the method based on within-day repeatability and reproducibility (day-to-day variation) was below 15% (% coefficient of variation). Good accuracy was observed for both the intra-day or inter-day assays. Limit of quantification was accepted as 0.02 ng using 100 mL samples. The mean recoveries for cotinine and the internal standard were greater than 90%. The method has been applied to the investigation of a 2-h urinary excretion of cotinine in 154 healthy non-smoking Thai volunteers (aged 18-45 years) following the administration of a half-piece (2 mg) of nicotine gum. PMID:20822661

  4. Determinación de cotinina y exposición a tabaco Cotinine detection and tobacco smoke exposure

    Marta Noemí Vacchino

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available La exposición a tabaco es una de las causas prevenibles de morbilidad y mortalidad prematura más importante. Se describe un método simple y rápido de detección de cotinina (principal metabolito de nicotina en orina humana. Se utilizó cromatografía gas-líquido (CGL con un detector de ionización de llama (FID. Se realizó una extracción líquido-líquido con cloroformo en medio alcalino; el extracto fue secado a 37 °C y redisuelto en 100 µL de solución alcohólica con estándar interno piridina. Se analizó la orina de personas que declararon ser fumadoras y no fumadoras. Mediante la construcción de dos curvas de calibración se cubrió un rango de linealidad de 3 a 5.000 ng/mL. Los fumadores presentaron una mediana y cuartiles (Q de concentración de cotinina: 255,4 ng/mL, 15,9 ng/mL (Q1 - 1.050,2 ng/mL (Q3, respectivamente, y los no fumadores 15,8 ng/mL, 4,1 ng/mL (Q1 - 38,4 ng/mL (Q3. Wilcoxon sumrank: z = 4,865 p Tobacco is one of the major preventable causes of morbidity and premature mortality in the world. A simple, rapid method for determination of cotinine, major metabolite of nicotine in urine, is described. The assay involves a fast liquid-liquid extraction with chloroform as a solvent in alkaline environment. The extract was dried at 37 °C and the residue was dissolved in 100 µL of standard internal of pyridine in methanol solution, and an aliquot was analyzed by gas-liquid chromatograph equipped with a flame -ionization detector. This technique was performed to test urine of a sample of smokers and non-smokers who were previously asked about their smoking habit. The limit of detection was 3.1 ng/mL, and using two calibration curves, a linearity range from 3 a 5.000 ng/mL was covered. The median and quartiles (Q of cotinine in smokers were 255.4 ng/mL, 15.9 ng/mL (Q1 -1050.2 ng/mL (Q3 ng/mL and in non-smokers 15.8 ng/mL, 4.1 ng/mL (Q1 - 38.4 ng/mL (Q3. Wilcoxon sumrank: z = 4.865 p < 0.01. There was a relationship between cotinine concentration in urine and number of smoked cigarettes. Spearman's rho = 0.5672 (p < 0.001. This technique could identify smokers, second hand smokers and non-smokers using cut-off of 10-15 ng/mL of cotinine in urine, usually adopted in epidemiological studies.

  5. Evaluation of Salivary Albumin in Diabetic Patients

    PB Vaziri

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: The clinical symptoms of diabetes mellitus in oral cavity are xerostomia, pathological changes in periodontal tissues and caries. It has been suggested that the determination of salvia`s components in diabetic patients may be useful in describing and further understanding the oral findings in this condition. The aim of this study was to detect differences between the salivary albumin in diabetic patients and healthy people."nMethods: A case-control study was carried out using data from Hamadan researches diabetes center in 2008. We selected 40 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus aged 9-61 years, 40 patients with type2 aged 39-82 years and 40 healthy controls aged 20-67 years. Dental and oral status was assessed for all subjects. Completely unstimulated saliva samples were collected from diabetic patients and control subjects. Nephelometric method was used to determine salivary albumin concentration. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS."nResults: No significant difference in salivary albumin concentration was found between the control group and type1 diabetic patients but salivary albumin was significantly higher in type2 diabetic patients in compare with control groups (P= 0.017, also no significant difference was found between type1 and type2 diabetic patients. In diabetic patients, complain of dry mouth and burning feeling in mouth was significantly higher, as well as, dental examinations showed higher DMFT mean values than the controls."nConclusion: Adults with type2 diabetes mellitus have higher concentration of salivary albumin that would play a helpful diagnostic role in oral findings of diabetic patients.

  6. Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment

    ... Fast neutron radiation therapy to lymph nodes with cancer. Chemotherapy . A clinical trial of fast neutron radiation therapy to the tumor . A clinical ... Gland Cancer Treatment of stage IV salivary gland cancer may include the ... trial of chemotherapy with or without radiation therapy . Check the list ...

  7. Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer

    2013-02-27

    High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Poorly Differentiated Carcinoma; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer

  8. The Development of Conductive Elements for the Selective Detection of Formaldehyde and Cotinine

    Antwi-Boampong, Sadik

    The development of new materials and techniques presents an opportunity to revisit old problems. Innovations in materials engineering revolutionize the status quo by expanding the tool kit needed to develop robust solutions to complex problems. Challenges that had hitherto been intractable become surmountable; previously established methods are significantly enhanced; fresh impetus is injected into the materials design engine. In one way or another, every scientist contributes to this dynamic creative process where ideas are incubated and developed through fundamental research that culminates in compelling findings applicable in various realms of science. The work presented herein embodies this ethos. Our investigations have applied the relatively nascent technology of molecular imprinting to develop sensing elements for detection of cotinine and formaldehyde. Additionally, we have used different polymer systems to address the inherent limitations of conventional materials using a simple, cost-effective and efficient materials approach. Specifically, in Part I, we investigate molecular imprinting of nylon-6, polyvinylphenol and ElvamideRTM, with cotinine. We examine the capacity of these materials as polymer hosts for molecular imprinting by studying the effect of cotinine imprinting on their nanomechanical properties. By monitoring variations in mechanical properties induced by cotinine templating, we determine the factors critical for effective imprinting and ultimately demonstrate that polyvinylphenol is the most suitable polymer host. Based on these results, we develop a cotinine-imprinted polyvinylphenol-single walled carbon nanotube sensor that readily detects cotinine. Using electrical, spectral and chromatographic characterization, we rigorously demonstrate the enhanced affinity programmed into the sensing layer via molecular imprinting. Part II is dedicated to a familiar problem: formaldehyde sensing. While this challenge has been a trope of the electrochemical sensor industry for years, there still remains a clear need for an affordable device with heightened sensitivity. We achieve this goal in two different ways. The first sensing system is a polyaniline-polyethylenimine composite film that exhibits a profound sensitivity to formaldehyde, but discriminates against a number of selected molecules. This transducing layer complements polyaniline's tunable conductivity with the formaldehyde-binding reactivity of polyethylenimine, to detect formaldehyde. The second approach still relies on the excellent electrical properties of polyaniline but, unlike the polyaniline-polyethylenimine system where the polymers are blended, two separate films in a bilayer assembly are applied for sensing. The top layer, fluoral-p reacts with formaldehyde to form a lutidine compound along with ammonia that tempers the conductivity of the sensor. We articulate the importance of molecular imprinting in optimizing analyte detection by showing that imprinting the underlying polyaniline layer in this bilayer system further enhances the sensor's sensitivity. Findings are summarized at the end of each chapter along with potential opportunities for future work based on the experimental results.

  9. Sialography And Salivary Scan Study Of Salivary Diseases

    The purpose of this study was to established the characteristic radiographic features in salivary gland diseases by means of sialography and scintigraphy. Sialograms and scintigrams with diseases of salivary gland were examined. In this group were 5 salivary stones, 14 sialadenitis, 17 Sjogren's syndromes and 8 benign tumors. The obtained results were as follows;1. In the configuration of the shape of main duct, those revealed that modified curvilinear and curvilinear types were predominant in Sjogren's syndromes but reverse sigmoid and angular types were in sialolithiasis and sialadenitis combined with sialodochitis. 2. In the configuration of the course of main duct, those revealed that smooth types were predominant in sialadenitis and irregular types were predominant in Sjogren's syndromes and benign tumors and irregular types were seen in all salivary stones and sialadenitis combined with sialodochitis. 3. In the type of intraglandular pattern, those revealed that destructive changes of salivary duct system and parenchyma were severe in sialadenitis and salivary stones and predominantly severe in Sjogren's syndromes. 4. The function of salivary gland was decreased severely in Sjogren's syndrome. and also decrease in salivary stone and sialadenitis. In benign tumor, the uptake of radioisotope was not seen in lesion and the function of salivary gland decreased in its remaining normal parenchyma.

  10. Treatment Option Overview (Salivary Gland Cancer)

    ... and Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Research Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Salivary Gland ... in diagnosing salivary gland cancer. Certain factors affect treatment options and prognosis (chance of recovery). The treatment ...

  11. Treatment Options by Stage (Salivary Gland Cancer)

    ... and Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Research Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Salivary Gland ... in diagnosing salivary gland cancer. Certain factors affect treatment options and prognosis (chance of recovery). The treatment ...

  12. Malignant salivary gland tumours

    Thompson, S.H. (University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dept. of Oral Pathology)

    1982-08-01

    The most frequent malignant salivary gland tumours are the mucoepidermoid tumour, adenoid cystic carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The major salivary glands and the minor glands of the mouth and upper respiratory tract may potentially develop any of these malignant lesions. Malignant lesions most frequently present as a palpable mass and tend to enlarge more rapidly than benign neoplasms. Pain, paresthesia, muscle paralysis and fixation to surrounding tissue are all ominous signs and symptoms. The only reliable means of differential diagnosis of these lesions is biopsy and histologic analysis. Therapy involves surgery or a combination of surgery and radiation therapy. The ultimate prognosis is governed by the intrinsic biologic behaviour of the neoplasms, the extent of disease and adequate clinical therapy.

  13. Malignant salivary gland tumours

    The most frequent malignant salivary gland tumours are the mucoepidermoid tumour, adenoid cystic carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The major salivary glands and the minor glands of the mouth and upper respiratory tract may potentially develop any of these malignant lesions. Malignant lesions most frequently present as a palpable mass and tend to enlarge more rapidly than benign neoplasms. Pain, paresthesia, muscle paralysis and fixation to surrounding tissue are all ominous signs and symptoms. The only reliable means of differential diagnosis of these lesions is biopsy and histologic analysis. Therapy involves surgery or a combination of surgery and radiation therapy. The ultimate prognosis is governed by the intrinsic biologic behaviour of the neoplasms, the extent of disease and adequate clinical therapy

  14. The physiology of salivary secretion.

    Proctor, Gordon B

    2016-02-01

    Saliva in the mouth is a biofluid produced mainly by three pairs of major salivary glands - the submandibular, parotid and sublingual glands - along with secretions from many minor submucosal salivary glands. Salivary gland secretion is a nerve-mediated reflex and the volume of saliva secreted is dependent on the intensity and type of taste and on chemosensory, masticatory or tactile stimulation. Long periods of low (resting or unstimulated) flow are broken by short periods of high flow, which is stimulated by taste and mastication. The nerve-mediated salivary reflex is modulated by nerve signals from other centers in the central nervous system, which is most obvious as hyposalivation at times of anxiety. An example of other neurohormonal influences on the salivary reflex is the circadian rhythm, which affects salivary flow and ionic composition. Cholinergic parasympathetic and adrenergic sympathetic autonomic nerves evoke salivary secretion, signaling through muscarinic M3 and adrenoceptors on salivary acinar cells and leading to secretion of fluid and salivary proteins. Saliva gland acinar cells are chloride and sodium secreting, and the isotonic fluid produced is rendered hypotonic by salivary gland duct cells as it flows to the mouth. The major proteins present in saliva are secreted by salivary glands, creating viscoelasticity and enabling the coating of oral surfaces with saliva. Salivary films are essential for maintaining oral health and regulating the oral microbiome. Saliva in the mouth contains a range of validated and potential disease biomarkers derived from epithelial cells, neutrophils, the microbiome, gingival crevicular fluid and serum. For example, cortisol levels are used in the assessment of stress, matrix metalloproteinases-8 and -9 appear to be promising markers of caries and periodontal disease, and a panel of mRNA and proteins has been proposed as a marker of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Understanding the mechanisms by which components enter saliva is an important aspect of validating their use as biomarkers of health and disease. PMID:26662479

  15. [Nicotine and cotinine levels in body fluids of habitual smokers who committed suicide].

    Moriya, Fumio; Furumiya, Junichi; Hashimoto, Yoshiaki

    2006-12-01

    Suicide is a serious social problem because over 30,000 people commit suicide every year since 1998 in Japan. Cigarette smoking is associated with a higher risk for suicide and attempted suicide. We determined nicotine and cotinine levels in blood and urine of 104 deceased individuals (21 suicides and 83 non-suicides). Of the 21 suicides, 16 (76.2%) were smokers; the smoking rate in non-suicides was 41.0% (34 persons). Average levels of nicotine and cotinine in blood were significantly higher in the suicide smokers than in the non-suicide smokers (nicotine: 95.6 +/- 43.9 ng/ml vs. 28.0 +/- 15.2 ng/ml, p preventing suicide. PMID:17313056

  16. Nicotine, cotinine, and anabasine inhibit aromatase in human trophoblast in vitro.

    Barbieri, R L; Gochberg, J; Ryan, K J

    1986-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that women who smoke have lower endogenous estrogen than nonsmokers. To explore the possible link between cigarette smoking and decreased endogenous estrogens, we have examined the effects of constituents of tobacco on estrogen production in human choriocarcinoma cells and term placental microsomes. In choriocarcinoma cell cultures, nicotine, cotinine (a major metabolite of nicotine), and anabasine (a minor component of cigarette tobacco) all inhibited androstene...

  17. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of human salivary NEFA with gas-chromatography and mass spectrometry

    BhushanVKulkarni; KarlVWood

    2012-01-01

    Salivary non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) are proposed to play a role in oral health, oral fat detection, and they may hold diagnostic and prognostic potential. Yet, little is known about the array and concentrations of NEFA in saliva. The aim of the study was to conduct qualitative and quantitative analyses of salivary NEFA in healthy humans and to present a new, efficient protocol to perform such analyses. Resting saliva samples from fifteen participants were collected. The salivary lipids...

  18. Unravelling the Conformational Landscape of Nicotinoids: the Structure of Cotinine by Broadband Rotational Spectroscopy

    Uriarte, Iciar; Ecija, Patricia; Cocinero, Emilio J.; Perez, Cristobal; Caballero-Mancebo, Elena; Lesarri, Alberto

    2015-06-01

    Alkaloids such as nicotine, cotinine or anabasine share a common floppy structural motif consisting of a two-ring assembly with a 3-pyridil methylamine skeleton. In order to investigate the structure-activity relationship of these biomolecules, structural studies with rotational resolution have been carried out for nicotine and anabasine in the gas phase, where these molecules can be probed in an "interaction-free" environment (no solvent or crystal-packing interactions). We hereby present a structural investigation of cotinine in a jet expansion using the chirped-pulse Fourier-transform microwave (CP-FTMW) spectrometer recently built at the University of the Basque Country (UPV-EHU). The rotational spectrum (6-18 GHz) reveals the presence of two different conformations. The conformational preferences of cotinine originate from the internal rotation of the two ring moieties, the detected species differing in a near 180° rotation of pyridine. The final structure is modulated by steric effects. J.-U. Grabow, S. Mata, J. L. Alonso, I. Peña, S. Blanco, J. C. López, C. Cabezas, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2011, 13, 21063. A. Lesarri, E. J. Cocinero, L. Evangelisti, R. D. Suenram, W. Caminati, J.-U. Grabow, Chem. Eur. J. 2010, 16, 10214.

  19. SALIVARY ANTIMICROBIAL PROTEIN RESPONSE TO PROLONGED RUNNING

    Suzanne Schneider

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged exercise may compromise immunity through a reduction of salivary antimicrobial proteins (AMPs. Salivary IgA (IgA has been extensively studied, but little is known about the effect of acute, prolonged exercise on AMPs including lysozyme (Lys and lactoferrin (Lac. Objective: To determine the effect of a 50-km trail race on salivary cortisol (Cort, IgA, Lys, and Lac. Methods: 14 subjects: (6 females, 8 males completed a 50km ultramarathon. Saliva was collected pre, immediately after (post and 1.5 hrs post race ( 1.5. Results: Lac concentration was higher at 1.5 hrs post race compared to post exercise (p0.05. IgA concentration, secretion rate, and IgA/Osm were lower 1.5 hrs post compared to pre race (p<0.05. Cort concentration was higher at post compared to 1.5 (p<0.05, but was unaltered from pre race levels. Subjects finished in 7.81 1.2 hrs. Saliva flow rate did not differ between time points. Saliva Osm increased at post (p<0.05 compared to pre race. Conclusions: The intensity could have been too low to alter Lys and Lac secretion rates and thus, may not be as sensitive as IgA to changes in response to prolonged running. Results expand our understanding of the mucosal immune system and may have implications for predicting illness after prolonged running.

  20. Influence of radioiodine therapy on ocular changes and their relation to urine cotinine level in patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy

    Full text of publication follows. Radioiodine therapy (RIT) is frequently used as the definitive treatment in patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism when remission is not achieved with anti-thyroid drugs (ATDs). In this observational study, we intended to examine whether the use of high doses of radioiodine (RAI) [22 mCi (814 MBq)] with prophylaxis of oral glucocorticoids (oGCS) does not exacerbate Graves ophthalmopathy (GO) in smokers and non-smokers, especially with regard to cotinine concentrations and ocular changes before and after RIT. Material and methods: The studied group consisted of 26 smokers, aged 28-61 years and 25 non-smoker patients, aged 21-54 years, respectively. The patients were qualified to RAI after one-year of ineffective ATDs treatment. Criterion for acceptance in the study were patients with mild GO with hyperthyroidism at diagnosis based on the severity (NOSPECS) and activity (CAS) scale. All the patients were subjected to RIT with oGCS prophylaxis and evaluated prospectively during a one-year follow-up. The ophthalmological examination was performed at various stages of RIT: initial pre-radioiodine administration, at the time of treatment 6, and 12 months after RAI. Urine cotinine measurement was employed to detect nicotine exposure, also in regard to smoking intensity. Results: TSHR-Abs concentration was higher in smokers (P < 0.05), rising from (22.9 1.2) IU/l before therapy to (29.6 5.3) IU/l at 2 months, (32.6 8.6) IU/l at 6 months, and (28.9 10.6) IU/l at 12 months after RIT. These observed changes were statistically different between groups at baseline (P < 0.05) and after one-year follow-up (P < 0.005). Mean urine cotinine were considerably higher in smokers comparing to non smokers in each point of. CAS values in the smoking group before RIT increased statistically from 2.8 0.2 points at baseline to 4.3 0.3 after 6 months, and 4.0 0.5 (12 months), while in the non-smoking patients it was 1.4 0.2, 2.8 0.3 and 2.2 0.2, respectively. Urinary cotinine excretion correlated positively with CAS and TSHR-Ab in the smoking group (r = 0.41; P < 0.05) at baseline and during follow-up. In the NOSPECS classification, the symptoms changed from mild to moderate, mostly in smoking patients. Conclusions: ablative RIT dose with prophylactic oral prednisone is a safe treatment in both smokers and non-smokers with mild GO. The post hoc analysis showed that urinary level of cotinine can be very helpful in the assessment of exacerbation of ophthalmological clinical symptoms before and after RIT particularly in smokers. (authors)

  1. Salivary abnormalities in Prader-Willi Syndrome

    Hart, S.; Poshva, C. [Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Although abnormal saliva is a well documented finding in PWS, little is known about the saliva in these individuals. We have recently undertaken a study to characterize the salivary composition from PW patients and to see if there is any correlation with their underlying molecular diagnosis (deletion vs. disomy). We have collected whole saliva on 3 patients; 2 had normal high-resolution karyotype analysis (Cases 1 & 3) and 1 had a deletion of 15q11q13 (Case 3). For all parameters, Case 3`s values were notably different from those of his unaffected sibling. The salivary flow rates and concentrations for all 3 PW patients are similar and are significantly different from normal controls (mean {plus_minus} SE) (p<0.05). Although this data is from only 3 PW patients, it provides valuable information. First, decreased flow appears to be due to an effect of PWS and not medications since Cases 2 & 3 are not on any medications. Second, decreased flow appears to be present in younger as well as older individuals. Third, deviations from normal in the salivary composition are evident. It is possible that these alterations are concentration effects relative to a decrease in flow rate. We are currently obtaining saliva from more PW individuals to see if these alterations are present in all PW patients and whether they can be applied as a screening test.

  2. Dasatinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Malignant Salivary Gland Tumors

    2015-04-02

    High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Low-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Anaplastic Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Malignant Mixed Cell Type Tumor; Salivary Gland Poorly Differentiated Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer

  3. The effects of saliva collection, handling and storage on salivary testosterone measurement.

    Durdiakov, Jaroslava; Fbryov, Helena; Koborov, Ivana; Ostatnkov, Daniela; Celec, Peter

    2013-12-20

    Several endocrine parameters commonly measured in plasma, such as steroid hormones, can be measured in the oral fluid. However, there are several technical aspects of saliva sampling and processing that can potentially bias the validity of salivary testosterone measurement. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects caused by repeated sampling; 5 min centrifugation (at 2000, 6000 or 10,000g); the stimulation of saliva flow by a cotton swab soaked in 2% citric acid touching the tongue; different storage times and conditions as well as the impact of blood contamination on salivary testosterone concentration measured using a commercially available ELISA kit. Fresh, unprocessed, unstimulated saliva samples served as a control. Salivary testosterone concentrations were influenced neither by repeated sampling nor by stimulation of salivary flow. Testosterone levels determined in samples stored in various laboratory conditions for time periods up to 1 month did not differ in comparison with controls. For both genders, salivary testosterone levels were substantially reduced after centrifugation (men F=29.1; women F=56.17, pcontamination decreased salivary testosterone levels in a dose-dependent manner (men F=6.54, p<0.01, F=5.01, p<0.05). Salivary testosterone can be considered A robust and stable marker. However, saliva processing and blood leakage can introduce bias into measurements of salivary testosterone using ELISA. Our observations should be considered in studies focusing on salivary testosterone. PMID:24051109

  4. Salivary Alterations in Rats with Experimental Chronic Kidney Disease

    Romero, Ana Carolina; Bergamaschi, Cassia Toledo; de Souza, Douglas Nesadal; Nogueira, Fernando Neves

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to analyze changes in saliva composition and salivary secretion process of rats with chronic kidney disease induced by 5/6 nephrectomy to set the foundation for salivary studies related to CKD. Methods CKD was induced in Wistar rats via 5/6 nephrectomy. Blood and saliva samples were collected from Control, Sham and CKD groups at 8 and 12 weeks after the surgery. Salivation was stimulated via intraperitoneal injections of pilocarpine (1.0 mg/Kg body weight) or isoproterenol (5.0 mg/Kg body weight). Saliva was collected and immediately stored at -80°C until analysis. The salivary flow rate, total protein, amylase and peroxidase activities, and urea concentrations were measured. The blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine concentrations were also evaluated. Results Increases in BUN and serum creatinine concentrations were observed in the CKD groups. Amylase activity was significantly reduced in response to both stimuli in the CKD groups at 8 weeks and increased in the CKD groups at 12 weeks in response to isoproterenol stimulus. The peroxidase activities of the CKD groups were significantly reduced in response to isoproterenol stimulation and were increased at 12 weeks in response to pilocarpine stimulation. Salivary urea was significantly increased in the CKD groups at 8 weeks in response to the isoproterenol stimuli and at 12 weeks in response to both salivary agonists. Conclusions The pattern of alterations observed in this experimental model is similar to those observed in patients and clearly demonstrates the viability of 5/6 nephrectomy as an experimental model in future studies to understand the alterations in salivary compositions and in salivary glands that are elicited by CKD. PMID:26859883

  5. Single gas chromatography method with nitrogen phosphorus detector for urinary cotinine determination in passive and active smokers

    Lusiane Malafatti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Nicotine is a major addictive compound in cigarettes and is rapidly and extensively metabolized to several metabolites in humans, including urinary cotinine, considered a biomarker due to its high concentration compared to other metabolites. The aim of this study was to develop a single method for determination of urinary cotinine, in active and passive smokers, by gas chromatography with a nitrogen phosphorus detector (GC-NPD. Urine (5.0 mL was extracted with 1.0 mL of sodium hydroxide 5 mol L-1, 5.0 mL of chloroform, and lidocaine used as the internal standard. Injection volume was 1 μL in GC-NPD. Limit of quantification was 10 ng mL-1. Linearity was evaluated in the ranges 10-1000 ng mL-1 and 500-6000 ng mL-1, with determination coefficients of 0.9986 and 0.9952, respectively. Intra- and inter-assay standard relative deviations were lower than 14.2 %, while inaccuracy (bias was less than +11.9%. The efficiency of extraction was greater than 88.5%. Ruggedness was verified, according to Youden's test. Means of cotinine concentrations observed were 2,980 ng mL-1 for active smokers and 132 ng mL-1, for passive smokers. The results revealed that satisfactory chromatographic separation between the analyte and interferents was obtained with a ZB-1 column. This method is reliable, precise, linear and presented ruggedness in the range evaluated. The results suggest that it can be applied in routine analysis for passive and active smokers, since it is able to quantify a wide range of cotinine concentrations in urine.A nicotina é uma substância presente no cigarro capaz de causar dependência, sendo biotransformada em vários metabólitos nos seres humanos, dentre eles a cotinina urinária, que é considerada um indicador biológico de exposição à nicotina, devido a suas altas concentrações, comparado a outras matrizes. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um único método para determinação de cotinina urinária, em amostras de urina de fumantes ativos e passivos, através de cromatografia em fase gasosa com detector de nitrogênio- fósforo (CG-DNF. Para o preparo de amostras foram utilizados 5 mL de urina, 1 mL de hidróxido de sódio 5 mol L-1, 5 mL de clorofórmio, tendo como padrão interno a lidocaína. Na faixa de concentrações de 10-1000 ng mL-1 e 500- 6000 ng mL-1, o coeficiente de determinação foi 0,9986 e 0,9952, respectivamente e, o limite de quantificação foi 10 ng mL-1. A precisão intra- e interensaio apresentou desvio padrão relativo (% menor que 14,2% e a inexatidão foi menor que +11,9%, com uma eficiência de extração de 88,5%. O método apresentou robustez, de acordo com o teste de Youden. As concentrações médias de cotinina observadas foram 2980 ng mL-1, para fumantes ativos e 132 ng mL-1, para fumantes passivos. Os resultados sugerem que o método é confiável, preciso, linear e apresentou robustez, na faixa avaliada, podendo ser aplicado na rotina para análises de amostras de fumantes ativos e passivos, pois é capaz de quantificar uma ampla faixa de concentrações de cotinina urinária.

  6. The Danish contribution to the European DEMOCOPHES project: A description of cadmium, cotinine and mercury levels in Danish mother-child pairs and the perspectives of supplementary sampling and measurements

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) is an important tool, increasingly used for measuring true levels of the body burdens of environmental chemicals in the general population. In Europe, a harmonized HBM program was needed to open the possibility to compare levels across borders. To explore the prospect of a harmonized European HBM project, DEMOCOPHES (DEMOnstration of a study to COordinate and Perform Human biomonitoring on a European Scale) was completed in 17 European countries. The basic measurements performed in all implemented countries of DEMOCOPHES included cadmium, cotinine and phthalate metabolites in urine and mercury in hair. In the Danish participants, significant correlations between mothers and children for mercury in hair and cotinine in urine were found. Mercury in hair was further significantly associated with intake of fish and area of residence. Cadmium was positively associated with BMI in mothers and an association between cadmium and cotinine was also found. As expected high cotinine levels were found in smoking mothers. For both mercury and cadmium significantly higher concentrations were found in the mothers compared to their children. In Denmark, the DEMOCOPHES project was co-financed by the Danish ministries of health, environment and food safety. The co-financing ministries agreed to finance a number of supplementary measurements of substances of current toxicological, public and regulatory interest. This also included blood sampling from the participants. The collected urine and blood samples were analyzed for a range of other persistent and non-persistent environmental chemicals as well as two biomarkers of effect. The variety of supplementary measurements gives the researchers further information on the exposure status of the participants and creates a basis for valuable knowledge on the pattern of exposure to various chemicals. - Highlights: • Levels of cadmium, mercury and cotinine in the Danish subpopulation are comparable to levels in the total DEMOCOPHES population with mercury in hair above the European median. • Supplementary sample collection and measurements in Denmark gave valuable exposure information on a variety of other chemicals of current toxicological, public and regulatory interest, such as persistent organic pollutants. • It is highly valuable to obtain as much exposure information as possible once you have established the study cohort

  7. The Danish contribution to the European DEMOCOPHES project: A description of cadmium, cotinine and mercury levels in Danish mother-child pairs and the perspectives of supplementary sampling and measurements

    Mørck, Thit A. [Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Nielsen, Flemming [Department of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark); Nielsen, Jeanette K.S.; Jensen, Janne F.; Hansen, Pernille W.; Hansen, Anne K.; Christoffersen, Lea N. [Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Siersma, Volkert D. [The Research Unit for General Practice and Section of General Practice, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Larsen, Ida H.; Hohlmann, Linette K. [Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Skaanild, Mette T. [Danish Environmental Protection Agency (Denmark); Frederiksen, Hanne [Department of Growth and Reproduction, University Hospital, Copenhagen (Denmark); Biot, Pierre [Federal Public Service Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment, Brussels (Belgium); Casteleyn, Ludwine [University of Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Schwedler, Gerda [Federal Environment Agency (UBA), Berlin (Germany); Castaño, Argelia [Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Majadahonda, Madrid (Spain); Angerer, Jürgen; Koch, Holger M. [Institute for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German social Accident Insurance, Institute of the Ruhr-Universität Bochum (IPA), Bochum (Germany); Esteban, Marta [Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Majadahonda, Madrid (Spain); and others

    2015-08-15

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) is an important tool, increasingly used for measuring true levels of the body burdens of environmental chemicals in the general population. In Europe, a harmonized HBM program was needed to open the possibility to compare levels across borders. To explore the prospect of a harmonized European HBM project, DEMOCOPHES (DEMOnstration of a study to COordinate and Perform Human biomonitoring on a European Scale) was completed in 17 European countries. The basic measurements performed in all implemented countries of DEMOCOPHES included cadmium, cotinine and phthalate metabolites in urine and mercury in hair. In the Danish participants, significant correlations between mothers and children for mercury in hair and cotinine in urine were found. Mercury in hair was further significantly associated with intake of fish and area of residence. Cadmium was positively associated with BMI in mothers and an association between cadmium and cotinine was also found. As expected high cotinine levels were found in smoking mothers. For both mercury and cadmium significantly higher concentrations were found in the mothers compared to their children. In Denmark, the DEMOCOPHES project was co-financed by the Danish ministries of health, environment and food safety. The co-financing ministries agreed to finance a number of supplementary measurements of substances of current toxicological, public and regulatory interest. This also included blood sampling from the participants. The collected urine and blood samples were analyzed for a range of other persistent and non-persistent environmental chemicals as well as two biomarkers of effect. The variety of supplementary measurements gives the researchers further information on the exposure status of the participants and creates a basis for valuable knowledge on the pattern of exposure to various chemicals. - Highlights: • Levels of cadmium, mercury and cotinine in the Danish subpopulation are comparable to levels in the total DEMOCOPHES population with mercury in hair above the European median. • Supplementary sample collection and measurements in Denmark gave valuable exposure information on a variety of other chemicals of current toxicological, public and regulatory interest, such as persistent organic pollutants. • It is highly valuable to obtain as much exposure information as possible once you have established the study cohort.

  8. Postirradiation malignant salivary gland tumor

    Rice, D.H.; Batsakis, J.G.; McClatchey, K.D.

    1976-11-01

    Information concerning the relationship between salivary gland tumors and prior exposure to radiation for benign conditions or by accident is slowly being gathered. As yet, no statistical confidence can be established in this relationship. Very likely, this confidence will require studies akin to those done on the problem of thyroid cancer and irradiation. Including the case reported here, 50 tumors of the salivary glands have been reported to have followed prior radiation exposure. Twenty-three of these tumors have been malignant, with the mucoepidermoid carcinoma the most frequent histological type. The latent period in salivary tissues is 20 or more years.

  9. Biotransformation of caffeine, cotinine, and nicotine in stream sediments: Implications for use as wastewater indicators

    Bradley, P.M.; Barber, L.B.; Kolpin, D.W.; McMahon, P.B.; Chapelle, F.H.

    2007-01-01

    Microbially catalyzed cleavage of the imadazole ring of caffeine was observed in stream sediments collected upstream and downstream of municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in three geographically separate stream systems. Microbial demethylation of the N-methyl component of cotinine and its metabolic precursor, nicotine, also was observed in these sediments. These findings indicate that stream sediment microorganisms are able to substantially alter the chemical structure and thus the analytical signatures of these candidate waste indicator compounds. The potential for in situ biotransformation must be considered if these compounds are employed as markers to identify the sources and track the fate of wastewater compounds in surface-water systems.

  10. Caries correlates strongly to salivary levels of matrix metalloproteinase-8.

    Hedenbjrk-Lager, Anders; Bjrndal, Lars; Gustafsson, Anders; Sorsa, Timo; Tjderhane, Leo; kerman, Sigvard; Ericson, Dan

    2015-01-01

    The caries process in dentin involves the degradation of both mineral and organic matrix. The demineralization has been demonstrated to be caused by bacterial acids. However, the collagen degradation is considered to be initiated by endogenous proteolytic enzymes, mainly collagenolytic matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). This paper aims to relate salivary MMP-8 (or salivary collagenase-2) and tissue inhibitor of MMP (TIMP-1) levels to manifest caries in a large number of subjects. A random sample of 451 adults (aged 18-87 years) living in the south of Sweden was included in this study. Standard clinical examinations were performed, and stimulated saliva was collected and analyzed for concentrations of MMP-8, TIMP-1 and total protein, using an immunofluorometric assay, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the Bradford assay, respectively. Salivary numbers of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli were determined using a chair-side kit. Subjects with manifest caries lesions presented with elevated levels of MMP-8 (p protein, MMP-8/TIMP-1 ratio, bleeding on probing and plaque index (p = 0.05) compared with subjects without manifest caries. Multiple linear regression analysis with caries as the dependent variable revealed MMP-8 as the only significant explanatory variable (p protein concentration, caries lesions (p ? 0.001) and salivary secretion rate (p = 0.05) as explanatory variables. In conclusion, our data reveal that subjects with manifest caries lesions have elevated levels of salivary MMP-8 relative to subjects with no caries lesions. PMID:25096527

  11. Sleep and Salivary Cortisol

    Garde, Anne Helene; Karlson, Bernt; Hansen, Åse Marie; Persson, Roger; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn

    The aim of the present chapter was to analyze whether measures of cortisol in saliva were associated with measures of sleep and to explore if divergent results were related to underlying differences in theoretic assumptions and methods. Measures of sleep quality included sleep duration, overall...... sleep quality, difficulty falling asleep, disturbed sleep, and sleep deprivation. Twenty-three papers were found to fulfill the inclusion criteria. Cortisol measures were grouped into single time points at different times during the day, deviations at different time periods during the day, reactivity...... sleep duration and single measures of salivary cortisol at awakening, which was observed in 3 studies. In these studies, sleep duration was also associated with low evening cortisol levels, steep diurnal deviation of cortisol and/or high area under the curve. Together these findings suggest that longer...

  12. Biological Markers and Salivary Cortisol

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Gunnarsson, Lars-Gunnar; Harris, Anette; Eller, Nanne Hurwitz; Garvin, Peter; Garde, Anne Helene

    This chapter focuses on salivary cortisol in relation to biological markers. Specifically, associations with conventional cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic abnormalities (body mass index, waist circumference, waist/hip ratio, lipid status, glucose, blood pressure, heart rate and heart rate...

  13. Urine Cotinine for Assessing Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Korean: Analysis of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES)

    Jung, Sungmo; Lee, In Seon; Kim, Sae Byol; Moon, Chan Soo; Jung, Ji Ye; Kang, Young Ae; Park, Moo Suk; Kim, Young Sam; Kim, Se Kyu; Chang, Joon; KIM, Eun Young

    2012-01-01

    Background The level of urine cotinine is an indicator of tobacco smoke exposure. The purpose of this study is to investigate urine cotinine for the purpose of assessing the smoking status of Korean smokers and non-smokers exposed to tobacco smoke. Methods The subjects were identified from the 2007-2009 and the 2010 data sets of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). They were assigned as non-smokers, current smokers and ex-smokers. Non-smokers were also divided...

  14. Arti fi cial Salivary Glands

    Rezwana Begum Mohammed

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Head and neck cancer is the fi fth most common malignancy and accounts for 3% of all new cancer cases each year. Treat- ment for most patients with head and neck cancers includes ionizing radiation. A consequence of this treatment is irreversible damage to salivary glands which is accompanied by a loss of fl uid-secreting acinar-cells and a considerable decrease of saliva output. Despite recent improvements in treating xerostomia (e.g. saliva stimulants, saliva substitutes, and gene therapy, there is a need of more scienti fi c advancements that can be clinically applied toward restoration of compromised salivary gland func- tion. Here we provide a summary of the current salivary cell models that have been used to advance restorative treatments via development of an arti fi cial salivary gland. Although these models are not fully characterized, their improvement may lead to the construction of an arti fi cial salivary gland that is in high demand for improving the quality of life of many patients suffe- ring from salivary secretory dysfunction

  15. Direct radioimmunoassay (RIA) of salivary testosterone: correlation with free and total serium testosterone

    Simple and sensitive direct RIA for determination of salivary testosterone was developed by using RSL NOSOLVEX TM (125 1) kit produced by Radioassay System Laboratories (Carcon, California). In addition, a relationship between salivary and serum free and total testosterone concentrations was studied in randomly selected 45 healthy subjects, 5 females on oral contraceptive pills and 28 hypertensive patients on various treatment regimens. The lowest weight of testosterone detectable by the modified method was equivalent to 1 pg/ml of saliva, taking into account analytical variability. Intra- and interassay coefficients of variation were 5.09 +/- 2.7% and 8.2 +/- 5.9% respectively. Statistically significant correlations were found between salivary and serum free testosterone (r = 0.97) and salivary and serum total testosterone concentrations (r = 0.70 - 0.87). The exception to this was a group of hypertensive females in which no correlation (r = 0.14) between salivary and total serum testosterone was found. It is also of interest that, while salivary testosterone was significantly increased in subjects taking oral contraceptives and most of the hypertensive patients, the total serum testosterone concentration was in normal range. These findings suggest that the determination of salivary testosterone is a reliable method to detect changes in the concentration of available biologically active hormone in the circulation. 21 references, 4 figures, 1 table

  16. Surgery for Benign Salivary Neoplasms.

    Gillespie, M Boyd; Iro, Heinrich

    2016-01-01

    Salivary neoplasms are relatively infrequent entities that account for only 4% of tumors of the head and neck. Although slow-growing lesions of the preauricular area and submandibular space are often confused with sebaceous cysts, lymph nodes, or lipomas by the non-otolaryngologist, otolaryngologists-head and neck surgeons recognize that all preauricular and submandibular masses should be considered a salivary neoplasm until proven otherwise. Surgery remains the treatment of choice for benign salivary gland neoplasms; however, techniques continue to evolve in order to preserve salivary function and reduce surgical morbidity. The goals of management of benign salivary neoplasms include accurate diagnosis of the lesion, complete surgical extirpation, and functional preservation of adjacent cranial nerves. Accurate diagnosis is aided by appropriate preoperative physical examination, imaging, and fine needle aspiration biopsy. Benign neoplasms typically present as slow-growing, painless, mobile masses without adverse features, such as tissue fixation, ulceration, a cranial nerve deficit, or regional lymphadenopathy. Preoperative imaging with ultrasonography, computed tomography, or magnetic resonance imaging reveals well-circumscribed lesions without an infiltrative growth pattern or associated adenopathy. Fine needle aspiration biopsy may favor a benign neoplasm, supporting the clinical presentation. Surgery for a benign or malignant salivary neoplasm is in essence a false dichotomy since the surgeon can never be completely confident of the diagnosis until the specimen is removed. The surgeon must recognize the significant overlap between benign and malignant salivary masses in terms of clinical presentation, imaging, and cytology, which requires the surgeon to remain vigilant and flexible at the time of surgery should tissue characteristics or frozen section analysis suggest a malignant process. PMID:27093461

  17. Imaging of salivary gland tumours

    Salivary gland neoplasms account for <3% of all tumors. Most of them are benign and parotid gland is the commonest site. As a general rule, the smaller the involved salivary gland, the higher is the possibility of the tumor being malignant. The role of imaging in assessment of salivary gland tumour is to define intra-glandular vs. extra-glandular location, detect malignant features, assess local extension and invasion, detect nodal metastases and systemic involvement. Image guided fine needle aspiration cytology provides a safe means to obtain cytological confirmation. For lesions in the superficial parotid and submandibular gland, ultrasound is an ideal tool for initial assessment. These are superficial structures accessible by high resolution ultrasound and FNAC which provides excellent resolution and tissue characterization without a radiation hazard. Nodal involvement can also be assessed. If deep tissue extension is suspected or malignancy confirmed on cytology, an MRI or CT is mandatory to evaluate tumour extent, local invasion and perineural spread. For all tumours in the sublingual gland, MRI should be performed as the risk of malignancy is high. For lesions of the deep lobe of parotid gland and the minor salivary glands, MRI and CT are the modalities of choice. Ultrasound has limited visualization of the deep lobe of parotid gland which is obscured by the mandible. Minor salivary gland lesions in the mucosa of oral cavity, pharynx and tracheo-bronchial tree, are also not accessible by conventional ultrasound. Recent study suggests that MR spectroscopy may differentiate malignant and benign salivary gland tumours as well as distinguishing Warthin's tumor from pleomorphic adenoma. However, its role in clinical practice is not well established. Similarly, the role of nuclear medicine and PET scan, in imaging of parotid masses is limited. Sialography is used to delineate the salivary ductal system and has limited role in assessment of tumour extent

  18. Does cotinine act upon reactive oxygen species and peroxidases? / A cotinina age sobre espcies reativas do oxignio e peroxidases?

    J.C.R., Vellosa; N.M., Khalil; L.M., Fonseca; I.L., Brunetti; O.M.M.F., Oliveira.

    Full Text Available A nicotina, um agente oxidante, certamente um dos alcalides mais amplamente utilizados no mundo. Juntamente com seu principal metabolito, a cotinina, a nicotina responsvel pela tabaco-dependncia. O uso de tabaco est intimamente associado a doenas pulmonares, modificaes morfolgicas em leu [...] ccitos e a gerao de espcies oxidantes. O principal objetivo deste estudo foi identificar uma possvel relao entre cotinina, gerao de espcies reativas do oxignio e processos oxidativos. Aps o estudo da ao da cotinina em diferentes modelos qumicos e em cinticas enzimticas com peroxidases (mieloperoxidase e peroxidase de raiz forte), conclui-se que a cotinina no age diretamente sobre H2O2, HOCl, taurine cloramina, peroxidase de raiz forte ou mieloperoxidase. Abstract in english Nicotine, an oxidizing agent, is certainly one of the most widely used alkaloids in the world. It is, together with its main metabolite, cotinine, responsible for tobacco-dependence. The use of tobacco is closely associated with lung disease, morphological leukocyte modification and generation of ox [...] idant species. The aim of this study was to look for a possible relationship between cotinine, oxidant species generation and oxidative processes. After studying the action of cotinine in some chemical oxidation models and on the enzymatic kinetics of peroxidases (myeloperoxidase and horseradish peroxidase), we concluded that cotinine does not act directly upon H2O2, HOCl, taurine chloramines, horseradish peroxidase or myeloperoxidase.

  19. The role of nicotine, cotinine and caffeine on the electrochemical behavior and bacterial colonization to cp-Ti.

    Baro, Valentim A R; Ricomini-Filho, Antonio P; Faverani, Leonardo P; Del Bel Cury, Altair A; Sukotjo, Cortino; Monteiro, Douglas R; Yuan, Judy Chia-Chun; Mathew, Mathew T; do Amaral, Regiane C; Mesquita, Marcelo F; da Silva, Wander J; Assuno, Wirley G

    2015-11-01

    Although smoking promotes deleterious effect to bone healing, there is a lack of study investigating its role on the implant structure and biofilm growth. We hypothesized that nicotine, cotinine and caffeine would impair the corrosion resistance of commercially-pure titanium (cp-Ti) and would enhance Streptococcus sanguinis biofilm growth. Neither the smoking products nor the caffeine affected the corrosion tendency (P>.05) and the oxide layer resistance (P=.762) of cp-Ti. Lower capacitance values were noted in the presence of nicotine (P=.001) and cotinine (P=.0006). SEM showed no pitting corrosion, and the EDS spectra did not differ among groups. Nicotine (300?g/mL) induced higher surface roughness (P=.03) and greater surface change of cp-Ti. Nicotine at 3?g/mL, and cotinine at 0.3 and 3?g/mL increased the number of viable cells (PBiofilm exposed to nicotine (0.3, 3 and 30?g/mL) (P=.025, .030, .040, respectively) and cotinine (3 and 30?g/mL) (P=.027, .049, respectively) enhanced carbohydrate content. Biofilm biomass and protein content were similar among groups (P>.05). These findings suggest a greater biofilm accumulation in smokers, a risk factor that may lead to peri-implantitis. PMID:26249572

  20. Cotinine inhibits the pro-inflammatory response initiated by multiple cell surface Toll-like receptors in monocytic THP cells

    Bagaitkar Juhi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The primary, stable metabolite of nicotine [(S-3-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl pyridine] in humans is cotinine [(S-1-methyl-5-(3-pyridinyl-2-pyrrolidinone]. We have previously shown that cotinine exposure induces convergence and amplification of the GSK3β-dependent PI3 kinase and cholinergic anti-inflammatory systems. The consequence is reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion by human monocytes responding to bacteria or LPS, a TLR4 agonist. Findings Here we show that cotinine-induced inflammatory suppression may not be restricted to individual Toll-like receptors (TLRs. Indeed, in monocytic cells, cotinine suppresses the cytokine production that is normally resultant upon agonist-specific engagement of all of the major surface exposed TLRs (TLR 2/1; 2/6; 4 and 5, although the degree of suppression varies by TLR. Conclusions These results provide further mechanistic insight into the increased susceptibility to multiple bacterial infections known to occur in smokers. They also establish THP-1 cells as a potentially suitable model with which to study the influence of tobacco components and metabolites on TLR-initiated inflammatory events.

  1. Dynamic radioisotopic study of the salivary glands. Quantification test

    Quantified dynamic radioisotopic exploration, a new and rational examination, should find its place in a thorough check-up of the salivary glands together with clinical, immunological, anatomopathological and sialographic investigations. The object of this work was to standardise the test procedure with a view to routine use on patients and to define certain quantified parameters representing objectively the different aspects of the salivary functions. Our procedure through reeding sophisticated equipment, is simple to perform and relies on use of: radiotechnetium employed at activities which allow repetitive exlorations whereby pathological changes may be followed; the gamma camera and its data processing system which records all radioactive information obtained on the patient's head. These results will supply the data needed to judge the salivary functions as a whole. The apparatus used provides a remarkable pictorial record made up not only of morphological and functional images at each stage of the examination but also of ciphered radioactivity versus time curves for each of the main salivary glands and for any other zone of interest. From these curves it is then possible to define quantified parameters, reproducible and expressing functional activity. This procedure, safe and painless, seems to suit the patients who lie still without complaint for 60 minutes, 45 minutes for the concentration study and 15 minutes for the post-stimulus excretion study. The dynamic radioisotopic examination of the salivary glands, by the comparison of concentration and excretion images and by the study of parameters, separately and as a whole, is thus a useful complement to other paraclinical examinations and contributes essential information in most salivary diseases

  2. Effects of cobalt 60 irradiation on rat salivary glands

    A single irradiation of Co-60 was given to the head and neck region in male Sprague-Dawley rats. According to the time, dose and fractionation factor (TDF), the experimental animals were equally divided into the group of 11.36 Gy (TDF 50), the group of 17.82 Gy (TDF 100), and the group of 27.97 Gy (TDF 200). Parotid, submandibular, and sublingual salivary glands were examined by light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and biochemically one, 3, and 7 days after irradiation. Parotid saliva samples were also collected after stimulation with pilocarpine, and the flow rate, concentration of total salivary protein, and ?-amylase activity were assessed. The parotid gland showed the most significant decrease in ?-amylase activity at 3 days in all groups. ?-amylase activity in the submandibular and sublingual glands was much lower than in the parotid gland. Non-lysosome enzyme, acid p-nitrophenyl phosphatase activity in the salivary glands was increased. Similarly, a lysosomal enzyme, ?-D-glucuronidase in the salivary glands was increased. Alkaline phosphatase activity was increased in the parotid gland and decreased in the submandibular and sublingual glands. Salivary flow rate in the parotid gland was decreased one, 3, and 7 days after irradiation, markedly depending on irradiation doses. Light microscopy of the salivary glands revealed atrophy, vacuolization, and degranulation in acinar cells, especially in granular tubule cells. Electron microscopy revealed vacuolization and degeneration of mitochondria, secretory granules, and other organelles in the cytoplasm of acinar cells. Morphological changes of secretory granules were dose-dependent. Not only morphological but also biochemical changes in the parotid gland occurred synchronously. (N.K.) 56 refs

  3. Exercise upregulates salivary amylase in humans (Review)

    KOIBUCHI, ERI; Suzuki, Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    The secretion of salivary α-amylase is influenced by adrenergic regulation of the sympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis; thus, exercise affects the levels of salivary α-amylase. Granger et al published a review in 2007 that focused attention on salivary α-amylase. In addition, a portable system for monitoring salivary α-amylase activity was launched in Japan at the end of 2005. The correlation between exercise and salivary α-amylase has since been extensively ...

  4. Effect of fluoride dentifrices on salivary fluoride levels in children.

    Paul S.; Tandon S; Murthy K

    1993-01-01

    Fluoride dentifrices are well accepted for their caries preventive effects. The fluoride concentration in the oral fluids after tooth brushing with fluoride dentifrices may have an important relationship to the caries reducing capacity. The present study was aimed to clinically evaluate the salivary fluoride retention of dentifrices containing low fluoride concentration in 50 children, aged 7-9 years before, during and after the use of fluoride toothpaste. Estimation of fluoride in saliva was...

  5. Chitosan adsorption to salivary pellicles.

    van der Mei, Henny C; Engels, Eefje; de Vries, Joop; Dijkstra, Rene J B; Busscher, Henk J

    2007-08-01

    The salivary pellicle is a negatively charged protein film, to which oral bacteria readily adhere. Chitosans are cationic biomolecules with known antimicrobial properties that can be modified in different ways to enhance its antimicrobial activity. Here, we determined the changes in surface chemical composition using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), in hydrophobicity by analyzing water contact angles, in charge through measuring streaming potentials, and evaluated morphology using atomic force microscopy (AFM), of salivary pellicles upon adsorption of different chitosans. The adsorption of chitosans to pellicles was chemically evident from altered carbon functionalities and the presence of an N(1s) peak at 401.1 eV as a result of protonated amines in XPS. Chitosan adsorption made the pellicle (zeta potential of untreated pellicles 29 mV) positively charged and more hydrophobic. A chemically modified chitosan (CL) and an unmodified chitosan (UC) caused aggregation of adsorbed salivary proteins, and AFM revealed clumps of protein after treatment with these chitosans, yielding an increase in pellicle surface roughness from 5.1 nm to between 16.3 and 35.6 nm for CL and UC, respectively. In summary, chitosans have a clear tendency to adsorb to salivary pellicles with a profound effect on the surface properties of the pellicle. Therefore, chitosans may provide anchoring molecules to affix antimicrobials to pellicle surfaces. PMID:17697170

  6. Stages of Salivary Gland Cancer

    ... Fast neutron radiation therapy to lymph nodes with cancer. Chemotherapy . A clinical trial of fast neutron radiation therapy to the tumor . A clinical ... Gland Cancer Treatment of stage IV salivary gland cancer may include the ... trial of chemotherapy with or without radiation therapy . Check the list ...

  7. Green tea consumption after intense taekwondo training enhances salivary defense factors and antibacterial capacity.

    Lin, Shiuan-Pey; Li, Chia-Yang; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Chang, Chen-Kang; Chou, Kuei-Ming; Fang, Shih-Hua

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the short-term effects of green tea consumption on selected salivary defense proteins, antibacterial capacity and anti-oxidation activity in taekwondo (TKD) athletes, following intensive training. Twenty-two TKD athletes performed a 2-hr TKD training session. After training, participants ingested green tea (T, caffeine 6 mg/kg and catechins 22 mg/kg) or an equal volume of water (W). Saliva samples were collected at three time points: before training (BT-T; BT-W), immediately after training (AT-T; AT-W), and 30 min after drinking green tea or water (Rec-T; Rec-W). Salivary total protein, immunoglobulin A (SIgA), lactoferrin, ?-amylase activity, free radical scavenger activity (FRSA) and antibacterial capacity were measured. Salivary total protein, lactoferrin, SIgA concentrations and ?-amylase activity increased significantly immediately after intensive TKD training. After tea drinking and 30 min rest, ?-amylase activity and the ratio of ?-amylase to total protein were significantly higher than before and after training. In addition, salivary antibacterial capacity was not affected by intense training, but green tea consumption after training enhanced salivary antibacterial capacity. Additionally, we observed that salivary FRSA was markedly suppressed immediately after training and quickly returned to pre-exercise values, regardless of which fluid was consumed. Our results show that green tea consumption significantly enhances the activity of ?-amylase and salivary antibacterial capacity. PMID:24498143

  8. Association of serum cotinine levels and the parameters of vascular structure and function in never-smoking adults.

    Wang, Jin-Wen; Hu, Da-Yi

    2015-12-01

    Passive smoking is now recognized to be associated with early arterial damage. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure, measured objectively by serum cotinine level, and the parameters used to assess vascular structure and function among never smokers in North China. From January 2008 to August 2008, 652 adults aged 20-70 years were enrolled. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), ankle-brachial index, and carotid intima-media thickness measurements were performed in all patients. All participants were required to respond to an interviewer-led questionnaire including medical histories and demographic data and to receive blood tests on biochemical indicators. We found that in nonsmokers, higher levels of serum cotinine were positively associated with higher baPWV and brachial pulse pressure after adjusting for heart rate, body mass index, and other confounders. Tests for linear trends for this association were statistically significant. In contrast, no association was present with ankle-brachial index and carotid intima-media thickness. In never smokers, higher SHS exposure measured objectively by serum cotinine levels was found to be associated with brachial pulse pressure and baPWV after adjusting for confounders. PMID:26481411

  9. What's New in Salivary Gland Cancer Research and Treatment?

    ... salivary gland cancer What’s new in salivary gland cancer research and treatment? Medical centers throughout the world are ... Doctor After Treatment What`s New in Salivary Gland Cancer Research? Other Resources and References Cancer Information Cancer Basics ...

  10. Caries correlates strongly to salivary levels of matrix metalloproteinase-8

    Hedenbjrk-Lager, Anders; Bjrndal, Lars; Gustafsson, Anders; Sorsa, Timo; Tjderhane, Leo; kerman, Sigvard; Ericson, Dan

    2015-01-01

    examinations were performed, and stimulated saliva was collected and analyzed for concentrations of MMP-8, TIMP-1 and total protein, using an immunofluorometric assay, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the Bradford assay, respectively. Salivary numbers of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli were...... determined using a chair-side kit. Subjects with manifest caries lesions presented with elevated levels of MMP-8 (p < 0.001) as well as total protein, MMP-8/TIMP-1 ratio, bleeding on probing and plaque index (p = 0.05) compared with subjects without manifest caries. Multiple linear regression analysis with...... caries as the dependent variable revealed MMP-8 as the only significant explanatory variable (p < 0.001). TIMP-1 was not significant in any case. Using MMP-8 as the dependent variable revealed total protein concentration, caries lesions (p ? 0.001) and salivary secretion rate (p = 0.05) as explanatory...

  11. Salivary gland dysfunction following radioactive iodine therapy

    Radioactive iodine is used extensively for the treatment of thyrotoxicosis and thyroid carcinoma. Iodine is actively taken up by the salivary glands and, following its use, salivary dysfunction may result as a consequence of radiation damage. The literature is reviewed and a case is reported in which a patient presented with a significant increase in caries rate attributed to salivary dysfunction following radioactive iodine therapy for a thyroid carcinoma

  12. Salivary gammagraphy in Sjogren Syndrome

    Bearing in mind that the Tc-99m pertecnate is taken up by the active glandular tissues of the salivary glands, we evaluate and objectivate the decrease of this captation in the case of chronic inflammation of distinct evolution of the parotid. Our results are encouraging in that sense that the experiment is not invasive and thus there are no risks for the patient nor for the doctor

  13. Beneficial effects of nicotine, cotinine and its metabolites as potential agents for Parkinson’s disease

    Barreto, George E.; Iarkov, Alexander; Moran, Valentina Echeverria

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, which is characterized by neuroinflammation, dopaminergic neuronal cell death and motor dysfunction, and for which there are no proven effective treatments. The negative correlation between tobacco consumption and PD suggests that tobacco-derived compounds can be beneficial against PD. Nicotine, the more studied alkaloid derived from tobacco, is considered to be responsible for the beneficial behavioral and neurological effects of tobacco use in PD. However, several metabolites of nicotine, such as cotinine, also increase in the brain after nicotine administration. The effect of nicotine and some of its derivatives on dopaminergic neurons viability, neuroinflammation, and motor and memory functions, have been investigated using cellular and rodent models of PD. Current evidence shows that nicotine, and some of its derivatives diminish oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in the brain and improve synaptic plasticity and neuronal survival of dopaminergic neurons. In vivo these effects resulted in improvements in mood, motor skills and memory in subjects suffering from PD pathology. In this review, we discuss the potential benefits of nicotine and its derivatives for treating PD. PMID:25620929

  14. Salivary characteristics of diabetic children

    López María Elena

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Salivary components may suffer variations that can be detected by chemical determinations. The aim of this work was to determine physical and biochemical characteristics of the saliva of a group of diabetic children compared to those of a control group. Relation to oral health indices was also determined. Twenty diabetic children (3-15-years-old and 21 control children (5-12-years-old were included in this study. Total proteins, sugars and calcium were determined by colorimetric methods, and glucose, urea, alpha-amylase and acid phosphatase by enzymatic methods. Our results demonstrated that acidic pH, diminished salivary flow rate and excess foam are usually present in saliva of diabetic children. Total sugars, glucose, urea and total proteins were greater in diabetic patients than controls, while calcium values were decreased. These differences were confirmed by the discrimination test. Diabetic children have higher DMFT-dmft-deft and DMFS-dmfs-defs values compared to those of the control children despite their lower sugar intake. Some salivary components in addition to the diminished flow rate could be involved in the characterization of the oral health state of diabetic children.

  15. Salivary paracetamol elimination kinetics during the menstrual cycle.

    Somaja, L; Thangam, J

    1987-01-01

    Studies were done to examine the influence of the menstrual cycle on the elimination kinetics of paracetamol. Salivary concentrations of paracetamol were determined after oral administration of 1 g of paracetamol on day 3, 10, 14, 20 and 25 of the menstrual cycle in normal healthy women volunteers with regular menstrual cycles. There was no significant difference in elimination half-life (t 1/2) or metabolic clearance rate (CL) between the various days of the menstrual cycle. The result sugge...

  16. Cotinine halts the advance of Alzheimer’s disease-like pathology and associated depressive-like behavior in Tg6799 mice

    J Alex Grizzell

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is associated with cognitive and non-cognitive symptoms for which there are currently no effective therapies. We have previously reported that cotinine, a natural product obtained from tobacco leaves, prevented memory loss and diminished amyloid-β (Aβ plaque pathology in the transgenic 6799 mice (Tg6799 mice when treated prior to the development of the pathology. We have also shown that cotinine reduces depressive-like behavior in normal and chronically stressed C57BL/6 mice. Here, we extend our previous studies by investigating the effects of cotinine on the progression of AD-like pathology, depressive-like behavior, and the mechanisms underlying its beneficial effects in the Tg6799 mice when left untreated until after a more advanced stage of the disease’s development. The results show that vehicle-treated Tg6799 mice displayed an accentuated loss of working memory and an abundant Aβ plaque pathology that were accompanied by higher levels of depressive-like behavior as compared to control littermates. By contrast, prolonged daily cotinine treatment, withheld until after a mid-level progression of AD-like pathology, reduced Aβ levels, Aβ plaques, and depressive-like behavior as well as dramatically improved working memory in Tg6799 mice to levels no different from control littermates. The beneficial effects of cotinine were accompanied by an increase in the expression of the active form of protein kinase B (Akt and the postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95 in the hippocampi and frontal cortices of Tg6799 mice. This suggests that cotinine halts the progression of AD-like pathology while reducing depressive-like behavior by stimulating signaling pathways supporting synaptic plasticity in Tg6799 mice. The potential use of cotinine to treat cognitive and non-cognitive symptoms of AD is discussed.

  17. Quantitative evaluation of Streptococcus mutans and Candida sp and salivary factors in the oral cavity of patients submitted to radiotherapy

    The aim of this study was to quantify the microorganisms Streptococcus mutans and Candida sp in the oral cavity of patients with oropharynx carcinoma, before, during and after radiotherapy, and to correlate the results with salivary factors such as pH, buffer capacity and flow rate. Saliva samples were collected, diluted and inoculated in SB-20 agar and in Sabouraud agar, for Streptococcus mutans and Candida sp, respectively. Previously to dilution, the concentrated saliva was analyzed, and the salivary factors were determined. After the growth of colonies, the number of microorganisms was determined in CFU/ml. The analysis of the results allowed to conclude that the salivary factors are related to the presence of microorganisms, and that the number of CFU/ml increased as salivary flow rate decreased. The effects of radiation compromised salivary homeostasis and favored the increase of infection by yeasts and bacteria. (author)

  18. Salivary hormones and anxiety in winners and losers of an international judo competition.

    Papacosta, Elena; Nassis, George P; Gleeson, Michael

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the responses of salivary hormones and salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) and anxiety in winners and losers during an international judo competition. Twenty-three trained, male, national-level judo athletes provided three saliva samples during a competition day: morning, in anticipation of competition after an overnight fast, mid-competition, and post-competition within 15 min post-fight for determination of salivary cortisol, salivary testosterone, salivary testosterone/cortisol ratio, SIgA absolute concentrations, SIgA secretion rate and saliva flow rate. The competitive state anxiety inventory questionnaire was completed by the athletes (n = 12) after the first saliva collection for determination of somatic anxiety, cognitive anxiety and self-confidence. Winners were considered 1-3 ranking place (n = 12) and losers (n = 11) below third place in each weight category. Winners presented higher anticipatory salivary cortisol concentrations (p = 0.03) and a lower mid-competition salivary testosterone/cortisol ratio (p = 0.003) compared with losers with no differences for salivary testosterone. Winners tended to have higher SIgA secretion rates (p = 0.07) and higher saliva flow rates (p = 0.009) at mid-competition. Higher levels of cognitive anxiety (p = 0.02) were observed in the winners, without differences according to the outcome in somatic anxiety and self-confidence. The results suggest that winners experienced higher levels of physiological arousal and better psychological preparedness in the morning, and as the competition progressed, the winners were able to control their stress response better. PMID:26584022

  19. Radiosialometry, a New Test of Salivary Gland Function

    The value of salivary gland scanning is limited as the variations between scintigrams of normal individuals are large, the time of measuring is quite long and the results are not quantitative. The background radiation of the skull and the amount of absorbing tissues varies and thus the results are difficult to evaluate. A varying rate of salivation causes a varying scanning picture. A new method called radiosialometry is described and gives a quantitative and fairly fast measuring of the accumulation of 99mTc-pertechnetate in the parotid glands. The patients are pretreated with 1.0 mg Atropine intravenously immediately before the intravenous administration of 99mTc and the mouth is filled with gauze. The varying salivary flow to the mouth is prevented in this way and the measuring conditions are stabilized. A specially designed collimator is used and the variation of skull-background-radiation can, by special means, be calculated. The increase of the activity in the parotid glands during a certain period can be calculated and the values obtained can be corrected for differences in the plasma concentration of the isotope between different individuals. The final values obtained in this way are comparable between different individuals and at different times. This is possible because we have determined the mean plasma concentration curve of 99mTc in atropinized individuals after intravenous administration of the isotope. The radiosialometry values of eight persons without signs of illness of the salivary glands are presented. The side differences are quite small. As a comparison two other cases are presented: one case with a chronic parotitis with a very poor concentration ability in the parotid glands and one case with an adenocarcinoma of one parotid gland with an exceptionally high side difference. The method is expected to become important in the study of disturbances of the function of the parotid glands, and seems to be a more reliable test of the parotid gland function than salivary gland scanning. (author)

  20. Circulating immune complexes, immunoglobulin G, salivary proteins and salivary immunoglobulin A in patients with Sjögren's syndrome

    Hadži-Mihailović Miloš

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sjögren's syndrome (SS is a chronic autoimmune disorder, with its major clinical manifestations resulting from changes in exocrine glands. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate serum concentrations of circulating immune complexes (CIC and immunoglobulin G (IgG, and salivary proteins (SP and salivary immunoglobulin A (sIgA in 40 patients with SS, and to correlate these values among themselves, as well as with the unstimulated salivary flow rate (USFR and the duration of disease. Methods. The total of 40 patients were included in this research. CIC was determined using the solution of polyethylene glycol and IgG with the standard procedure of radial immunodiffusion. SP was investigated by the method of Lowry and sIgA was separated from the whole saliva using the method of immune chromatography. Results. The values of most of the studied parameters exceeded the normal range in a high degree: CIC 72.5%, IgG 70%, SP 80%. The concentrations of CIC were significantly higher in the patients with the duration of disease less than 10 years. With the decrease of USFR, the concentration of sIgA and IgG were increased with statistical significance. Conclusion The increased prevalence of abnormal values of CIC, IgG and SP indicate that the patients with SS have developed a higher level of immune reactivity. These results could be useful in diagnosis and disease activity monitoring.

  1. Nicotine, cotinine, and myosmine determination using polymer films of tailor-designed zinc porphyrins as recognition units for piezoelectric microgravimetry chemosensors.

    Noworyta, Krzysztof; Kutner, Wlodzimierz; Wijesinghe, Channa A; Srour, Serge G; D'Souza, Francis

    2012-03-01

    Two electropolymerizable zinc porphyrins with receptor sites tailor-designed for selective recognition of the nicotine, cotinine, or myosmine alkaloids were synthesized. These were 5-(2-phenoxyacetamide)-10,15,20-tris(triphenylamino)porphyrinato zinc(II) 1 and 5-(2,5-phenylene-bis(oxy)diacetamide)-10,15,20-tris(triphenylamino)porphyrinato zinc(II) 2 featuring one and two pendant amide side "pincers", respectively, and three triphenylamine substituents at the meso positions of the porphyrin macrocycles capable of electrochemical polymerization. Thin polymerfilms of these porphyrins served for recognition and the piezoelectric microgravimetry (PM) for analytical signal transduction of a new chemical sensor devised for determination of these alkaloids. The films were deposited by potentiodynamic electropolymerization on the 10 MHz quartz resonators of the electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) without affecting the electronic structure of the porphyrin macrocycles. Under favorable flow injection analysis (FIA) conditions, the alkaloid analytes were determined at the concentration level of 0.1 mM with high sensitivity and selectivity. Affinity toward the analytes of the polymer of 2 was higher than that of 1 due to the higher binding ability offered by two pendant pincers of the former. Because of the selective receptors and PM applied under FIA conditions, the developed procedure offered an alternative to the time-consuming and relatively expensive high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), capillary electrophoresis (CE), and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methods of detection and quantification of these alkaloids. PMID:22394091

  2. Psychological distress and salivary secretory immunity.

    Engeland, C G; Hugo, F N; Hilgert, J B; Nascimento, G G; Junges, R; Lim, H-J; Marucha, P T; Bosch, J A

    2016-02-01

    Stress-induced impairments of mucosal immunity may increase susceptibility to infectious diseases. The present study investigated the association of perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and loneliness with salivary levels of secretory immunoglobulin A (S-IgA), the subclasses S-IgA1, S-IgA2, and their transporter molecule Secretory Component (SC). S-IgA/SC, IgA1/SC and IgA2/SC ratios were calculated to assess the differential effects of stress on immunoglobulin transport versus availability. This study involved 113 university students, in part selected on high scores on the UCLA Loneliness Scale and/or the Beck Depression Inventory. Stress levels were assessed using the Perceived Stress Scale. Unstimulated saliva was collected and analysed for total S-IgA and its subclasses, as well as SC and total salivary protein. Multiple linear regression analyses, adjusted for gender, age, health behaviours, and concentration effects (total protein) revealed that higher perceived stress was associated with lower levels of IgA1 but not IgA2. Perceived stress, loneliness and depressive symptoms were all associated with lower IgA1/SC ratios. Surprisingly, higher SC levels were associated with loneliness and depressive symptoms, indicative of enhanced transport activity, which explained a lower IgA1/SC ratio (loneliness and depression) and IgA2/SC ratio (depression). This is the first study to investigate the effects of protracted psychological stress across S-IgA subclasses and its transporter SC. Psychological stress was negatively associated with secretory immunity, specifically IgA1. The lower immunoglobulin/transporter ratio that was associated with higher loneliness and depression suggested a relative immunoglobulin depletion, whereby availability was not keeping up with enhanced transport demand. PMID:26318411

  3. Role of amylase, mucin, IgA and albumin on salivary protein buffering capacity: A pilot study

    Zeinab Cheaib; Adrian Lussi

    2013-06-01

    It has been suggested that proteins serve as major salivary buffers below pH5. It remains unclear, however, which salivary proteins are responsible for these buffering properties. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the correlation between salivary concentration of total protein, amylase, mucin, immunoglobulin A (IgA), albumin and total salivary protein buffering capacity at a pH range of 4–5. In addition, the buffering capacity and the number of carboxylic acid moieties of single proteins were assessed. Stimulated saliva samples were collected at 9:00, 13:00 and 17:00 from 4 healthy volunteers on 3 successive days. The buffering capacities were measured for total salivary protein or for specific proteins. Also, the concentration of total protein, amylase, mucin, IgA and albumin were analysed. Within the limits of the current study, it was found that salivary protein buffering capacity was highly positively correlated with total protein, amylase and IgA concentrations. A weak correlation was observed for both albumin and mucin individually. Furthermore, the results suggest that amylase contributed to 35% of the salivary protein buffering capacity in the pH range of 4–5.

  4. Imaging of the major salivary glands

    Afzelius, Pia; Nielsen, Ming-Yuan; Ewertsen, Caroline; Bloch, Klaus Poulsen

    2016-01-01

    The major salivary glands, submandibular, parotid and sublingual glands play an important role in preserving the oral cavity and dental health. Patients with problems of the major salivary glands may present with symptoms such as dry mouth, dysphagia and obstruction of duct, inflammation, severe...

  5. Lapatinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent and/or Metastatic Adenoid Cystic Cancer or Other Salivary Gland Cancers

    2013-10-10

    High-grade Salivary Gland Carcinoma; High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Low-grade Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Low-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Malignant Mixed Cell Type Tumor

  6. Lithium Induces Glycogen Accumulation in Salivary Glands of the Rat.

    Souza, D N; Mendes, F M; Nogueira, F N; Simões, A; Nicolau, J

    2016-02-01

    Lithium is administered for the treatment of mood and bipolar disorder. The aim of this study was to verify whether treatment with different concentrations of lithium may affect the glycogen metabolism in the salivary glands of the rats when compared with the liver. Mobilization of glycogen in salivary glands is important for the process of secretion. Two sets of experiments were carried out, that is, in the first, the rats received drinking water supplemented with LiCl (38,25 and 12 mM of LiCl for 15 days) and the second experiment was carried out by intraperitoneal injection of LiCl solution (12 mg/kg and 45 mg LiCl/kg body weight) for 3 days. The active form of glycogen phosphorylase was not affected by treatment with LiCl considering the two experiments. The active form of glycogen synthase presented higher activity in the submandibular glands of rats treated with 25 and 38 mM LiCl and in the liver, with 25 mM LiCl. Glycogen level was higher than that of control in the submandibular glands of rats receiving 38 and 12 mM LiCl, in the parotid of rats receiving 25 and 38 mM, and in the liver of rats receiving 12 mM LiCl. The absolute value of glycogen for the submandibular treated with 25 mM LiCl, and the liver treated with 38 mM LiCl, was higher than the control value, although not statistically significant for these tissues. No statistically significant difference was found in the submandibular and parotid salivary glands for protein concentration when comparing experimental and control groups. We concluded that LiCl administered to rats influences the metabolism of glycogen in salivary glands. PMID:26155966

  7. Evaluation of Salivary Glucose, IgA and Flow Rate in Diabetic Patients: A Case-Control Study

    P. Bakianian Vaziri

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: An association between diabetes mellitus and alterations in the oral cavity has been noted. In this study, we evaluated differences between salivary IgA, glucose and flow rate in diabetic patients compared with healthy controls.Materials and Methods: Forty patients with type 1 diabetes, 40 patients with type 2 diabetes and 40 healthy controls were selected. Whole unstimulated saliva samples were collected by the standard method and the salivary flow rate was determined. Nephelometricand Pars method were used to measure salivary IgA and salivary glucose concentrations,respectively. Statistical analysis was performed by Chi-square and t test.Results: There were no significant differences in salivary IgA and glucose concentrations between type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients and their matched control subjects (P>0.05.Salivary flow rate was significantly lower in diabetic patients (P<0.05. In addition,DMFT was higher in diabetic patients than the controls.Conclusion: Determination of salivary constituents may be useful in the description and management of oral findings in diabetic patients.

  8. Immunochromatographic assay using gold nanoparticles for measuring salivary secretory IgA in dogs as a stress marker

    Takahashi, Aki; Kato, Yuya; Takezaki, Makoto; Tominaga, Toshihiro; Moriyama, Yoshiko; Takeda, Kunio; Miyahara, Toshiro; Nagatani, Naoki [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Okayama University of Science, 1-1 Ridai-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-0005 (Japan); Uchiyama, Shigeru [Okayama University of Science Specialized Training College, 8-3 Handa-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-0003 (Japan); Yuhi, Teruko; Ushijima, Hiromi, E-mail: nagatani@dac.ous.ac.j [Biodevicetechnology Ltd. 2-13 Asahidai, Nomi-City, Ishikawa 923-1211 (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    The concentration of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) is a well-known stress marker for humans. The concentration of salivary sIgA in dogs has also been reported as a useful stress marker. In addition, salivary sIgA in dogs has been used to determine the adaptive ability of dogs for further training. There are conventional procedures based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs. However, ELISA requires long assay time, complicated operations and is costly. In the present study, we developed an immunochromatographic assay for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs using a dilution buffer containing a non-ionic surfactant. We determined 2500-fold dilution as the optimum condition for dog saliva using a phosphate buffer (50 mM, pH 7.2) containing non-ionic surfactant (3 wt% Tween 20). The results obtained from the saliva samples of three dogs using immunochromatographic assay were compared with those obtained from ELISA. It was found that the immunochromatographic assay is applicable to judge the change in salivary sIgA in each dog. The immunochromatographic assay for salivary sIgA in dogs is a promising tool, which should soon become commercially available for predicting a dog's psychological condition and estimating adaptive ability for training as guide or police dogs.

  9. Immunochromatographic assay using gold nanoparticles for measuring salivary secretory IgA in dogs as a stress marker

    Takahashi, Aki; Uchiyama, Shigeru; Kato, Yuya; Yuhi, Teruko; Ushijima, Hiromi; Takezaki, Makoto; Tominaga, Toshihiro; Moriyama, Yoshiko; Takeda, Kunio; Miyahara, Toshiro; Nagatani, Naoki

    2009-06-01

    The concentration of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) is a well-known stress marker for humans. The concentration of salivary sIgA in dogs has also been reported as a useful stress marker. In addition, salivary sIgA in dogs has been used to determine the adaptive ability of dogs for further training. There are conventional procedures based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs. However, ELISA requires long assay time, complicated operations and is costly. In the present study, we developed an immunochromatographic assay for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs using a dilution buffer containing a non-ionic surfactant. We determined 2500-fold dilution as the optimum condition for dog saliva using a phosphate buffer (50 mM, pH 7.2) containing non-ionic surfactant (3 wt% Tween 20). The results obtained from the saliva samples of three dogs using immunochromatographic assay were compared with those obtained from ELISA. It was found that the immunochromatographic assay is applicable to judge the change in salivary sIgA in each dog. The immunochromatographic assay for salivary sIgA in dogs is a promising tool, which should soon become commercially available for predicting a dog's psychological condition and estimating adaptive ability for training as guide or police dogs.

  10. Immunochromatographic assay using gold nanoparticles for measuring salivary secretory IgA in dogs as a stress marker

    Aki Takahashi, Shigeru Uchiyama, Yuya Kato, Teruko Yuhi, Hiromi Ushijima, Makoto Takezaki, Toshihiro Tominaga, Yoshiko Moriyama, Kunio Takeda, Toshiro Miyahara and Naoki Nagatani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA is a well-known stress marker for humans. The concentration of salivary sIgA in dogs has also been reported as a useful stress marker. In addition, salivary sIgA in dogs has been used to determine the adaptive ability of dogs for further training. There are conventional procedures based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs. However, ELISA requires long assay time, complicated operations and is costly. In the present study, we developed an immunochromatographic assay for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs using a dilution buffer containing a non-ionic surfactant. We determined 2500-fold dilution as the optimum condition for dog saliva using a phosphate buffer (50 mM, pH 7.2 containing non-ionic surfactant (3 wt% Tween 20. The results obtained from the saliva samples of three dogs using immunochromatographic assay were compared with those obtained from ELISA. It was found that the immunochromatographic assay is applicable to judge the change in salivary sIgA in each dog. The immunochromatographic assay for salivary sIgA in dogs is a promising tool, which should soon become commercially available for predicting a dog's psychological condition and estimating adaptive ability for training as guide or police dogs.

  11. Immunochromatographic assay using gold nanoparticles for measuring salivary secretory IgA in dogs as a stress marker

    The concentration of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) is a well-known stress marker for humans. The concentration of salivary sIgA in dogs has also been reported as a useful stress marker. In addition, salivary sIgA in dogs has been used to determine the adaptive ability of dogs for further training. There are conventional procedures based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs. However, ELISA requires long assay time, complicated operations and is costly. In the present study, we developed an immunochromatographic assay for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs using a dilution buffer containing a non-ionic surfactant. We determined 2500-fold dilution as the optimum condition for dog saliva using a phosphate buffer (50 mM, pH 7.2) containing non-ionic surfactant (3 wt% Tween 20). The results obtained from the saliva samples of three dogs using immunochromatographic assay were compared with those obtained from ELISA. It was found that the immunochromatographic assay is applicable to judge the change in salivary sIgA in each dog. The immunochromatographic assay for salivary sIgA in dogs is a promising tool, which should soon become commercially available for predicting a dog's psychological condition and estimating adaptive ability for training as guide or police dogs.

  12. Salivary biomarkers for dental caries.

    Gao, Xiaoli; Jiang, Shan; Koh, David; Hsu, Chin-Ying Stephen

    2016-02-01

    As a highly prevalent multifactorial disease, dental caries afflicts a large proportion of the world's population. As teeth are constantly bathed in saliva, the constituents and properties of this oral fluid play an essential role in the occurrence and progression of dental caries. Various inorganic (water and electrolytes) and organic (proteins and peptides) components may protect teeth from dental caries. This occurs via several functions, such as clearance of food debris and sugar, aggregation and elimination of microorganisms, buffering actions to neutralize acid, maintaining supersaturation with respect to tooth mineral, participation in formation of the acquired pellicle and antimicrobial defense. Modest evidence is available on the associations between dental caries and several salivary parameters, including flow rate, buffering capacity and abundance of mutans streptococci. Despite some controversial findings, the main body of the literature supports an elevated caries prevalence and/or incidence among people with a pathologically low saliva flow rate, compromised buffering capacity and early colonization or high titer of mutans streptococci in saliva. The evidence remains weak and/or inconsistent on the association between dental caries and other saliva parameters, such as other possible cariogenic species (Lactobacillus spp., Streptococcus sanguis group, Streptococcus salivarius, Actinomyces spp. and Candida albicans), diversity of saliva microbiomes, inorganic and organic constituents (electrolytes, immunoglobulins, other proteins and peptides) and some functional properties (sugar clearance rate, etc.). The complex interactions between salivary components and functions suggest that saliva has to be considered in its entirety to account for its total effects on teeth. PMID:26662487

  13. The prevalence of self-reported smoking and validation with urinary cotinine among commercial drivers in major parks in Lagos, Nigeria

    Obianuju B. Ozoh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The validity of self-reported smoking is questionable because smokers are inclined to deny smoking. We aimed to determine the prevalence of self-reported smoking among intra-city commercial drivers in Lagos, and assess its validity based on urinary cotinine assessment. This study was conducted at three major motor parks in Lagos, Nigeria. Information on smoking status and habits was obtained from 500 consecutive male drivers using a structured questionnaire during a face-to-face interview. Eighty-one self-reported smokers and non-smokers were selected by systematic random sampling for urinary cotinine assessment using cotinine strips. The prevalence of self-reported smoking was compared to the prevalence of smoking based on urinary cotinine and the specificity and positive predictive values of self-reported smoking was determined. Prevalence of self-reported current smoking was 32% and 17.9% of nonsmokers were passive smokers. Among 81 drivers in whom urinary cotinine assessment was performed, the prevalence of smoking based on self-report was 34 (42% compared to 41 (50.6% when based on urinary cotinine, (X2=38.56, P<0.001. The rate of misclassification among self-reported non-smokers as smokers was 21.3% and misclassification rate for self-reported smokers as non-smokers was 8.8%. The sensitivity of self-reported smoking in accurately classifying smoking status was 91.2% and the specificity was 78.7%. The prevalence of self-reported cigarette smoking among commercial drivers in Lagos is high and a significant proportion of self-reported non-smokers are passive smokers. Self-reported smoking status obtained during face-to-face interview appears unreliable in obtaining accurate smoking data in our locality.

  14. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of human salivary NEFA with gas-chromatography and mass spectrometry

    BhushanVKulkarni

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Salivary NEFA are proposed to play a role in oral health, oral fat detection, and they may hold diagnostic and prognostic potential. Yet, little is known about the array and concentrations of NEFA in saliva. The aim of the study was to conduct qualitative and quantitative analysis of salivary NEFA in healthy humans and to present a new, efficient protocol to perform such analyses. Resting saliva samples from fifteen participants were collected. The salivary lipids were extracted using a modified Folch extraction. The NEFA in the extracted lipids were selectively subjected to pentafluorobenzyl bromide derivatization and qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. A total 16 NEFA were identified in resting saliva. The four major NEFA were palmitic, linoleic, oleic and stearic acids. Their concentrations ranged from 2-9 micromolar. This is the first study to characterize individual human salivary NEFA and their respective concentrations. The method used in the study is sensitive, precise, and accurate. It is specific to fatty acids in non-esterified form and hence enables analysis of NEFA without their separation from other lipid classes. Thus, it saves time, reagents and prevents loss of sample. These properties make it suitable for large scale analysis of salivary NEFA.

  15. Salivary immunoglobulin A levels in rapid and slow plaque formers: a pilot study.

    Zee, K Y; Samaranayake, L P; Attstrm, R

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the salivary immunoglobulin A concentration in rapid and slow plaque formers. After 3 days of oral hygiene abstinence, 49 healthy volunteers were screened using the plaque index (PI) to assess their plaque formation rates. Five subjects with the highest, and five with the lowest mean PI were selected as rapid and slow plaque formers, respectively. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from each of these ten subjects and the levels of salivary IgA assessed using a conventional ELISA technique. Reference curves for salivary IgA were established by testing serial dilutions of human IgA with known concentrations. When the differences between the two groups were compared, almost a twofold increase in the mean salivary IgA concentration in the slow (16 microg/ml +/- 4) compared with the rapid (9 microg/ml +/- 3) plaque formers was recorded (p < 0.05). These findings, reported for the first time, imply that salivary IgA may play a crucial role in regulating the pioneer plaque development on enamel surfaces. PMID:11548203

  16. Iatrogenic causes of salivary gland dysfunction

    Saliva is important for maintaining oral health and function. There are instances when medical therapy is intended to decrease salivary flow, such as during general anesthesia, but most instances of iatrogenic salivary gland dysfunction represent untoward or unavoidable side-effects. The clinical expression of the salivary dysfunction can range from very minor transient alteration in saliva flow to a total loss of salivary function. The most common forms of therapy that interfere with salivation are drug therapies, cancer therapies (radiation or chemotherapy), and surgical therapy. These therapies can affect salivation by a number of different mechanisms that include: disruption of autonomic nerve function related to salivation, interference with acinar or ductal cell functions related to salivation, cytotoxicity, indirect effects (vasoconstriction/dilation, fluid and electrolyte balance, etc.), and physical trauma to salivary glands and nerves. A wide variety of drugs is capable of increasing or decreasing salivary flow by mimicking autonomic nervous system actions or by directly acting on cellular processes necessary for salivation: drugs can also indirectly affect salivation by altering fluid and electrolyte balance or by affecting blood flow to the glands. Ionizing radiation can cause permanent damage to salivary glands, damage that is manifest as acinar cell destruction with subsequent atrophy and fibrosis of the glands. Cancer chemotherapy can cause changes in salivation, but the changes are usually much less severe and only transient. Finally, surgical and traumatic injuries interfere with salivation because of either disruption of gland innervation or gross physical damage (or removal) of glandular tissue (including ducts)

  17. Salivary Duct Carcinoma of the Minor Salivary Gland: A Rare Case Report

    Shalini Gupta

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Salivary duct carcinoma is a rare invasive malignancy arising in the ductal epithelium of the salivary glands. Nearly 85% of the cases occur in the parotid gland followed by submandibular gland. Rarely is it described in the hard palate. Salivary duct carcinomas affecting the minor salivary glands have been reported in only 4% of the SDC cases and constitute 2% of all the salivary gland malignant neoplasms. It is characterized by aggressive behavior with early metastasis, local recurrence and significant mortality. The tumor has predilection for older men in the 6th to 7th decades of life. In this article; we report a case of a salivary gland carcinoma which was present in the right posterior region of the maxilla of a 50 year old female patient. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2013; 1(4.000: 222-226

  18. Serum Level of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 in Patients with Salivary Gland Tumor

    Maryam Mardani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the Problem: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs have been implicated in the pathogenesis of certain diseases and cancers via tissue destruction and can be secreted into the blood stream. MMP9 expression in the salivary gland tissue was evaluated but their serum level in the salivary gland tumors was not studied. Purpose: The aim of our study was to determine the concentration of serum MMP-9 in healthy participants and in patients with salivary gland tumor. Materials and Method: Using an ELISA kit, the circulating levels of MMP-9 in sera from 58 patients with salivary gland tumor (31 pleomorphic adenoma, 17 adenoid cystic carcinoma and 10 mucoepidermoid carcinoma and 30 healthy controls was assessed. Results: The serum MMP9 level in patients with salivary gland tumors (380.0±301.3 pg/ml also patients with benign tumors (354.3±218.7 pg/ml (354.3±218.7 pg/ml were significantly lower than that in the healthy group (727.4±624.6 pg/ml (Respectively p= 0.02 and p= 0.01. Mean serum MMP9 concentration in malignant tumors was (402.3±441.8pg/ml higher than benign tumors (354.3±218.7 pg/ml but the difference was not significant (p= 0.9. Conclusion: Our results showed that serum level of MMP9 decreased in patients with salivary gland tumors which suggest that MMP9 may not have a potential role in development and pathogenesis of salivary gland tumor.

  19. Parotid salivary parameters in bulimic patients – a controlled clinical trial.

    Elżbieta Paszyńska

    2015-08-01

    Erosive-abrasive tooth surface loss seems to be a significant diagnostic tool of bulimia nervosa. The presence of pathological changes in teeth structure indicates the loss of protective properties of saliva, which is proved by pH value and concentration of buffer ions. It is advisable to monitor salivary parameters, such as salivary flow rate, pH and the concentration of buffer ions in long-term treatment with SI-5-HT drugs in case of patients with purging-type bulimia. There is also a need for regular dental check-ups of the oral cavity tissues.

  20. Salivary gland progenitor cell biology provides a rationale for therapeutic salivary gland regeneration

    Lombaert, Isabelle M.A; Knox, Sarah M.; Hoffman, Matthew P.

    2011-01-01

    An irreversible loss of salivary gland function often occurs in humans after removal of salivary tumors, after therapeutic radiation of head and neck tumors, as a result of Sjögren’s syndrome, and in genetic syndromes affecting gland development. The permanent loss of gland function impairs the oral health of these patients and broadly affects their quality of life. The regeneration of functional salivary gland tissue is thus an important therapeutic goal for the field of regenerative medicin...

  1. Salivary alpha amylase and salivary cortisol response to fluid consumption in exercising athletes

    Backes, TP; Horvath, PJ; Kazial, KA

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine salivary biomarker response to fluid consumption in exercising athletes. Exercise induces stress on the body and salivary alpha amylase (sAA) and salivary cortisol are useful biomarkers for activity in the sympathoadrenal medullary system and the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis which are involved in the stress response. Fifteen college students were given 150 ml and 500 ml of water on different days and blinded to fluid condition. The exercise pro...

  2. Salivary Bisphenol-A Levels due to Dental Sealant/Resin: A Case-Control Study in Korean Children

    Han, Dong-Hun; Kim, Min-Ji; Jun, Eun-Joo; Kim, Jin-Bom

    2012-01-01

    Dental sealants and composite filling materials containing bisphenol-A (BPA) derivatives are increasingly used in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between salivary BPA and the number of tooth surfaces filled with dental sealant, and to determine a cutoff BPA level. Salivary BPA concentration and the number of tooth surfaces filled with dental sealant/resin were determined in 124 age and gender matched children: 62 controls had no dental sealant/resin on their to...

  3. New Anthocyanin-Human Salivary Protein Complexes.

    Ferrer-Gallego, Raúl; Soares, Susana; Mateus, Nuno; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa; de Freitas, Victor

    2015-08-01

    The interaction between phenolic compounds and salivary proteins is considered the basis of the poorly understood phenomenon of astringency. Furthermore, this interaction is an important factor in relation to their bioavailability. In this work, interactions between anthocyanin and human salivary protein fraction were studied by mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS and FIA-ESI-MS) and saturation-transfer difference (STD) NMR spectroscopy. Anthocyanins were able to interact with saliva proteins. The dissociation constant (KD) between malvidin 3-glucoside and salivary proline-rich proteins was 1.92 mM for the hemiketal form (pH 3.4) and 1.83 mM for the flavylium cation (pH 1.0). New soluble complexes between these salivary proteins and malvidin 3-glucoside were identified for the first time. PMID:26162056

  4. Effect of sensory stimulation on salivary IgA secretion rate in karate players

    I Baralic

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Secretory IgA is predominant immunoglobulin in secretions of the mucosal immune system. Low concentration of salivary IgA is associated with a higher risk of respiratory tract infections episodes in athletes during the training season. The purpose of this study was to determine whether orange-flavored whey based drink has beneficial effect on level of IgA in saliva after the training. Methods: Twenty healthy, young karate players participated in this study. They were divided into two groups. One group rinsed a mouth with 20 ml of liquid whey, two times in 30-min period: 15 and 30 min after training. Second group rinsed a mouth with 20 ml of whey based orange flavored soft drink, at the same time. Saliva was collected before the training, just after the training and after application of fluids. Results: We observed decrease in salivary flow after physical activity. The salivary flow was higher after the application of flavored drink compared to salivary flow after the application of whey. The absolute concentration of sIgA and sIgA secretion rate decreased just after exercise compared to pre exercise values. Application of whey elevated sIgA levels on day 1, while application of flavored drink caused increasing in sIgA levels on day 3. In all other cases sIgA level was decreasing even after applied stimuli. Conclusions: The exercise induces decreasing in salivary flow, sIgA absolute concentration and sIgA secretion rate. Application of fluid whey and flavored whey-based drink elevated salivary flow, but had little effect on absolute concentration of sIgA and sIgA secretion rate in young karate players.

  5. Abnormal Salivary Total and Oligomeric Alpha-Synuclein in Parkinson’s Disease

    Vivacqua, Giorgio; Latorre, Anna; Suppa, Antonio; Nardi, Michela; Pietracupa, Sara; Mancinelli, Romina; Fabbrini, Giovanni; Colosimo, Carlo; Gaudio, Eugenio; Berardelli, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    In Parkinson’s disease (PD), alpha-synuclein (a-syn) can be detected in biological fluids including saliva. Although previous studies found reduced a-syn total (a-syntotal) concentration in saliva of PD patients, no studies have previously examined salivary a-syn oligomers (a-synolig) concentrations or assessed the correlation between salivary a-syntotal, a-synolig and clinical features in a large cohort of PD patients. Is well known that a-synolig exerts a crucial neurotoxic effect in PD. We collected salivary samples from 60 PD patients and 40 age- and sex-comparable healthy subjects. PD was diagnosed according to the United Kingdom Brain Bank Criteria. Samples of saliva were analyzed by specific anti-a-syn and anti-oligomeric a-syn ELISA kits. A complete clinical evaluation of each patient was performed using MDS-Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, Montreal Cognitive Assessment and Frontal Assessment Battery. Salivary a-syntotal was lower, whereas a-synolig was higher in PD patients than healthy subjects. The a-synolig/a-syntotal ratio was also higher in patients than in healthy subjects. Salivary a-syntotal concentration negatively correlated with that of a-synolig and correlated with several patients’ clinical features. In PD, decreased salivary concentration of a-syntotal may reflect the reduction of a-syn monomers (a-synmon), as well as the formation of insoluble intracellular inclusions and soluble oligomers. The combined detection of a-syntotal and a-synolig in the saliva might help the early diagnosis of PD. PMID:27011009

  6. Comparative Human Salivary and Plasma Proteomes

    Loo, J A; Yan, W.; Ramachandran, P.; Wong, D. T.

    2010-01-01

    The protein compositions, or the proteomes, found in human salivary and plasma fluids are compared. From recent experimental work by many laboratories, a catalogue of 2290 proteins found in whole saliva has been compiled. This list of salivary proteins is compared with the 2698 proteins found in plasma. Approximately 27% of the whole-saliva proteins are found in plasma. However, despite this apparent low degree of overlap, the distribution found across Gene Ontological categories, such as mol...

  7. Salivary Immunoglobulins and Prevalent Coronary Artery Disease

    Janket, S.; Meurman, J. H.; Baird, A E; Qvarnström, M.; Nuutinen, P; Ackerson, L.K.; Hong, J; Muthukrishnan, P.; Van Dyke, T E

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies examined the serum immunoglobulin levels in relation to coronary artery disease (CAD). We hypothesized that the salivary immunoglobulins might better estimate oral infections in this relationship. Multivariate logistic regression analyses utilizing the data from 256 angiographically confirmed CAD patients and 250 non-CAD individuals that controlled for age, sex, smoking, diabetes, total/HDL cholesterol ratio, hypertension, and education revealed the trends that salivary IgA w...

  8. Impact of salivary flow and lysozyme content and output on the oral health of rheumatoid arthritis patients

    Anna Zalewska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose:The aim of the study was to examine salivary flow rate, DMF index, lysozyme concentration and its output in two groups of rheumatoid patients and to compare the results with those of healthy controls.Material/Methods:Rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients were divided into two study groups: with reduced salivary flow rate ?0.15 ml/min (RA HS, hyposalivation and with normal salivary secretion rate >0.2 ml/min (RA NS, normal salivation. The healthy control group (C was recruited from the Department of Conservative Dentistry. Salivary lysozyme concentration was determined by radial immunodiffusion. ANOVA followed by LSD test were used for the statistical analysis.Results:We found that lysozyme concentration was higher and lysozyme output and salivary flow rate were statistically lower in the RA HS group in comparison to the RA NS and C groups. The DMF index was statistically higher in both RA groups in comparison to the control group.Conclusions:RA disease impacts negatively on oral health and salivary parameters. Hyposalivation of RA patients increases the negative influence of RA on oral health. RA patients should receive more stomatological attention.

  9. Inducible HSP70 Protects Radiation-Induced Salivary Gland Damage

    Irradiation (IR) delivered to the head and neck is a common treatment for malignancies. Salivary glands in the irradiation field are severely damaged, and consequently this resulted in marked salivary hypofunction. While the exact mechanism of salivary gland damage remains enigmatic, fluid secreting acinar cells are lost, and saliva output is dramatically reduced. Previously we have reported that inducible heat shock protein 70 (HSP70i) induced radioresistance in vitro. Moreover, HSP70i localized to salivary glands by gene transfer has great potential for the treatment of salivary gland. Herein, we investigated whether HSP70 can use as radio protective molecules for radiation-induced salivary gland damage in vivo

  10. Adrenoceptor-activated nitric oxide synthesis in salivary acinar cells

    Looms, Dagnia; Dissing, Steen; Tritsaris, Katerina; Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge; Nauntofte, Birgitte

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the cellular regulation of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in isolated acinar cells from rat parotid and human labial salivary glands, using the newly developed fluorescent nitric oxide (NO) indicator, DAF-2. We found that sympathetic stimulation with norepinephrine (NE) caused...... a strong increase in NO synthesis that was not seen after parasympathetic stimulation with acetylcholine. In rat parotid acinar cells, we furthermore investigated to which extent the NOS activity was dependent on the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) by simultaneously measuring NO...

  11. Salivary phosphate-binding chewing gum reduces hyperphosphatemia in dialysis patients.

    Savica, Vincenzo; Calò, Lorenzo A; Monardo, Paolo; Davis, Paul A; Granata, Antonio; Santoro, Domenico; Savica, Rodolfo; Musolino, Rosa; Comelli, Maria Cristina; Bellinghieri, Guido

    2009-03-01

    In uremic patients, hyperphosphatemia is associated with cardiovascular calcification and increased cardiovascular mortality. Despite the use of phosphate binders, only half of hemodialysis (HD) patients achieve recommended serum phosphate levels. A hyperphosphoric salivary content, which correlates linearly with serum phosphate, has been reported in HD patients. We hypothesized that binding salivary phosphate during periods of fasting in addition to using phosphate binders with meals could improve the treatment of hyperphosphatemia. We assessed the phosphate-binding capacity of the natural polymer chitosan by (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance and established that 10 and 20% (wt/vol) middle viscosity chitosan solutions bind 30 and 50% of the phosphate contained in PBS, respectively. Thirteen HD patients with serum phosphate levels >6.0 mg/dl despite treatment with sevelamer hydrochloride chewed 20 mg of chitosan-loaded chewing gum twice daily for 2 wk at fast in addition to their prescribed phosphate-binding regimen. Salivary phosphate and serum phosphate significantly decreased during the first week of chewing; by the end of 2 wk, salivary phosphate decreased 55% from baseline (73.21 +/- 19.19 to 33.19 +/- 6.53; P chewing gum, whereas serum phosphate levels took 30 d to return to baseline. Parathyroid hormone and serum calcium concentrations were not affected by the gum. In conclusion, adding salivary phosphate binding to traditional phosphate binders could be a useful approach for improving treatment of hyperphosphatemia in HD patients. PMID:19020004

  12. Stress among nurses: an examination of salivary cortisol levels on work and day off

    Maria Cecilia Pires da Rocha

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the use of salivary cortisol concentration as a physiological index of the stress level among nurses on their work day and day off and correlates it with the questionnaire used to measure occupational stress in nurses (Inventário de Estresse em Enfermeiros - IEE. This is a comparative, cross-sectional descriptive study in which sociodemographic data, IEE results and salivary cortisol levels were used. Fifty-seven nurses participated in the study (80.7% females and a mean age of 37.1 years old. The IEE average score was 124.5. The average cortisol level was 564.1 ng/m on work day and 354.1 ng/mL on day off. Nurses who had double workdays presented high values of salivary cortisol during the work day (638.1 ng/mL. In conclusion, salivary cortisol identified the nurses’ stress level, and differences were found between a work day and day off. On the nurses’ day off, their salivary cortisol levels and stress scores were lower.

  13. Salivary pH while dissolving vitamin C-containing tablets.

    Hays, G L; Bullock, Q; Lazzari, E P; Puente, E S

    1992-10-01

    Vitamin C is packaged in numerous forms which allow protracted exposure of the teeth to ascorbic acid. The repeated use of chewable mega dose tablets of vitamin C as a mint can damage the teeth by dissolving the enamel. In the time it takes to dissolve a chewable vitamin C tablet, a salivary pH drop takes place; salivary calcium and phosphorus ion concentration drops, and enamel dissolution may begin. Although sodium ascorbate, a buffering agent, is present in many vitamin C products, it may be added in insufficient quantity to be effective. With no apparent therapeutic value from topical vitamin C, vitamin C-containing products should be swallowed. PMID:1299255

  14. 0268 Is perceived stress related to an increase in salivary cortisol

    Fink, Samuel; Peter Bonde, Jens; Agergaard Vammen, Marianne; Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Frølund Thomsen, Jane

    have not been consistent. This study explores the association between Perceived Stress and salivary cortisol levels using the largest population ever used in this field. METHOD: 4467 public employees in the PRISME cohort in 2007. 3217 of those did a similar follow up study in 2009. A 4-item Danish...... version of the PSS-scale was used to measure perceived stress and operationalized as the average score. Salivary cortisol samples were taken at 30 min post awakening and at 8 pm. A mean value of cortisol was calculated. In our analysis we applied logarithmic transformation to the concentrations. RESULTS......: Linear regression analysis done for the association between PSS-score and salivary cortisol levels showed no significant association between the two. For cortisol mean the regression resulted in β=-0.005(Cl: -0.036-0.026) in 2007 and -0.010(Cl: -0.047-0.028) in 2009. Cortisol morning analysis resulted in...

  15. Salivary hormones and IgA in relation to physical performance in football.

    Peailillo, Luis; Maya, Luis; Nio, Gonzalo; Torres, Hernan; Zbinden-Foncea, Hermann

    2015-12-01

    Salivary biomarkers have shown to be useful to assess physiological stress in football, but their relationship with physical performance is unknown. The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of a football match on salivary cortisol, testosterone and immunoglobulin A (IgA) concentrations in elite footballers, and to examine the relationship of physical performance during the match to these biomarkers. Nine elite football players were assessed before, during and after a friendly international match. Physical performance during the match was measured by time-motion analysis, whilst salivary cortisol, testosterone and IgA were measured before and 10min post-match. The results showed that players covered an average of 9463458m during the match. Salivary cortisol did not change post-match. Testosterone and IgA concentrations decreased by 30.6% and 74.5%, respectively. The testosterone/cortisol (T/C) ratio decreased by 64.2% after the match. Changes in testosterone concentrations correlated (r=0.85) with distance covered. Pre- and post-match testosterone levels correlated with post-match IgA concentrations (r=0.8 and 0.89, respectively). These results suggest that a football match induces catabolic stress as indicated by the decreased T/C ratio. It seems that footballers with smaller decreases in testosterone levels covered more distance and decreased their immune function less. PMID:26146019

  16. [Clinicopathological study of salivary gland adenocarcinomas].

    Iwasaki, K; Ono, I; Ebihara, S

    1989-12-01

    A total of 27 cases of salivary gland adenocarcinomas were studied from clinicopathological view point. Adenocarcinomas of the salivary gland were microscopically subclassified into 3 groups according to Luna's classification: Salivary duct carcinomas histologically resembled the ductal carcinoma of the breast, displayed nuclear atypia and had poorer prognosis than the other subclasses of salivary gland adenocarcinomas. Terminal duct carcinomas lacked in nuclear atypia and displayed a variety of growth patterns, including papillary, cribriform, tubular, and solid. Some terminal duct carcinomas showed prominent mucin-production. Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinomas had clear cytoplasms and exuberant glycogen. In addition to the clinicopathological study, nuclear areas of the tumor cells were measured in each of the 27 salivary gland adenocarcinomas, and mean nuclear area (MMA) and standard deviation (SD) were calculated. The group with more than 50 microns 2 of MNA had poorer prognosis than the group with 50 microns 2 or less of MNA, and the group with more than 13 microns 2 of SD had poorer prognosis than the group with 13 microns 2 or less of SD. Finally, immunohistochemical study was performed against various markers including keratin, epithelial membrane antigen, lactoferrin, S-100 protein, CEA, etc., using the Avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method. Lactoferrin was present in most of the salivary duct carcinomas, on the other hand, S-100 protein was detected in all of the five cases of the terminal duct carcinoma investigated. But immunohistochemical study is not especially useful in distinguishing subclasses of salivary gland adenocarcinomas or investigating the origin of tumor cells. PMID:2559959

  17. SALIVARY GLYCOCONJUGATES AS BIOMARKERS OF CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS

    Roopa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Periodontitis is the major cause of tooth loss and is significantly associated with an increased risk of stroke, type 2 diabetes and heart diseases. Glycoconjugates are expressed on the cell surface as components of glycoproteins, glycosphingo lipids and proteoglycans and plays a vital role in infection and disease. The objective of the study was to assess the changes in salivary glycoconjugates levels in chronic periodontitis (CP and in healthy individuals without periodontitis. This study was undertaken as a preliminary step towards the use of salivary glycoconjugates as reliable markers of CP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 150 subjects took part in the study. 75 patients with CP (aged 30-55 and 75 age and sex matched healthy controls. Salivary glycoconjugates – sialic acid both – free (FSA and protein bound (PBSA, L- Fucose (Fuc and Total protein (Tp were assessed in both cases and in controls by standard methods. RESULTS: The salivary glycoconjugate levels were significantly higher in CP compared to normal healthy controls. Salivary FSA, Fuc and Tp in CP were elevated with mean ± SD values being 25.9±4.02, 46.9±5.65 and 178.4±23.1 mg/L respectively when compared to healthy controls 19.69±4.53, 42.1±3.2, 90.62±15.8 mg/ L respectively which was found to be statistically significant (p<.001. The values of salivary PBSA were significantly lowered when compared to healthy controls. (p <.01 CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study indicate that salivary glycoconjugates could be sensitive biochemical markers of chronic periodontitis.

  18. Salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland

    Mona Mlika

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland is an uncommon tumor, highly aggressive. About 200 cases have been reported in the English literature. Pathomorphologically, these tumors showed great similarities to ductal carcinoma of the female breast, which is why they described this tumor as "salivary duct carcinoma." The authors describe a new case of salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland. We present the case of a 50-year-old patient with progressive facial paralysis. The MRI examination of the head showed two ill-defined formations. A malignant tumor was strongly suspected, so that a total left parotidectomy with excision of the adjacent facial nerve and left lymph node dissection was performed. Microscopic examination concluded to a salivary duct carcinoma of the left parotid gland negative with Her2/neu antibody with lymph node metastasis. There were no recurrences or metastases within 3 years of follow-up. Salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland is a rare tumor with an aggressive behavior. This is due to its propensity to infiltrate distant organs. The diagnosis is based on microscopic examination. Treatment modalities are non-consensual, but some authors advocate the necessity of aggressive approach, especially in tumors negative with Heur2/neu antibody. This is due to the fact that the overexpression of this antigen was reported to be associated with a poor prognosis.

  19. Capability of Tissue Stem Cells to Organize into Salivary Rudiments

    Fumio Endo; Masanori Shinohara; Kenji Okumura

    2012-01-01

    Branching morphogenesis (BrM), an essential step for salivary gland development, requires epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. BrM is impaired when the surrounding mesenchyme is detached from the salivary epithelium during the pseudoglandular stage. It is believed that the salivary mesenchyme is indispensable for BrM, however, an extracellular matrix gel with exogenous EGF can be used as a substitute for the mesenchyme during BrM in the developing salivary epithelium. Stem/progenitor cells is...

  20. Steroid hormone receptors in human salivary gland tumours.

    Lamey, P J; Leake, R. E.; Cowan, S K; Soutar, D S; McGregor, I. A.; McGregor, F M

    1987-01-01

    Major salivary gland tumours were studied for the presence of hormone receptors for oestrogen and progesterone. Of the eight salivary gland tumours exhibiting varied histology, none showed high affinity receptors for oestrogen or progesterone. Salivary tissue from four patients with non-neoplastic salivary gland disease was also studied and found not to contain high affinity receptor sites. The absence of hormone receptors in these glands suggests that such tumours are not dependent on endocr...

  1. Effect of competitional stress on salivary dehydroepiandrosterone, cortisol in female handballists

    Parvin Farzanegi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hormonal responses to competitions and their relationships have been extensively examined in male athletes, but there are few studies in women. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of competition stress on salivary dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA and cortisol in female handballists. Materials and Method: Ten female handballists of Islamic Azad University (Sari Branch (age 21.5±2.5 years participated in this study. Salivary samples were collected 30 min and 5 min before competition, between two half times and immediately after four competitions. The salivary DHEA and cortisol concentrations were measured by ELISA method. Results: The results of one-way ANOVA with repeated measures have shown a significant (p=0.001 increases for DHEA concentration after four competitions, however, cortisol and DHEA/cortisol ratio did not show any changes after four competition (p>0.05. Conclusion: These results indicate that salivary DHEA is more sensitive to competition situations than cortisol concentration. We suggested that androgens maybe more affected by competition

  2. Salivary glands and human selection: a hypothesis.

    Shields, E D; Mann, R W

    1996-01-01

    Stafne static bone defect (SSBD) of the mandible is the only described destructive bone lesion that is highly localized, nonprogressive, but nonhealing. This common defect in male is found in the region of the major salivary glands that produce a cornucopia of biologically active factors. We describe rare phenocopies caused by mandibular immobility that hold the gland in a constant position thus implicating a localized chronic "leak" of an osteoclast induction factor from the major salivary glands as the pathologic agent. This finding suggests that increased salivary gland size could simulate immobility by apposing the gland to bone, thus allowing the "leaked" factor's gradient to have an effect. In one step, the putative genetic enlargement of a critical gland that produces many factors important for survival, a broad biological vista would be available to the massive potential for both positive and negative selection. Positive selection was identified by observing a correlation between the prevalence of enhanced androgen-induced enlarge salivary glands (SSBD) as a marker, with a great preponderance of males) and the conjectured resulting increased production of immunoreactive factors, with pole-to-equator isotherm and broad ranged infection clines. Negative selection was observed among the slave ancestors of African Americans for a potential embryonic homeotic mutation causing larger salivary glands in both sexes (decreased prevalence of SSBD, with an equal sex ratio). The decreased production of saliva and electrolytes diminished the salt and water depletive effects of severe diarrhea and vomiting induced by enteric diseases, which killed many slaves. Data presented suggests that SSBD is a polymorphism and a marker of selection processes that cause variation in size, or structure, of the major salivary glands. PMID:8773904

  3. Salivary Output in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    T. Radhika

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes Mellitus (DM is a common but complex metabolic disorder affecting various systems in the body. Oral cavity is no exception as this chronic condition exerts a huge impact on oral health. Salivary dysfunction has been reported to be a frequent oral complication in Type 2 diabetics which in turn leads to an array of oral complications because oral health is to a greater extent dependent on the quality and quantity of saliva. Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the salivary flow rate and prevalence of subjective symptoms of xerostomia in diabetics and non-diabetics. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 100 type 2 diabetic patients and 50 non-diabetic subjects. Random non-fasting plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels were used to determine the diabetic status of the individuals. Unstimulated saliva was collected using “Spit technique”. Stimulated saliva was collected using 2% citric acid. Unstimulated and Stimulated Salivary Flow Rate (USFR and SSFR was calculated for every patient and expressed as ml/min. Xerostomia was evaluated using a multi-item inventory comprising 19 questions. Results: In our study, both whole unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rates were decreased in diabetics compared to non-diabetics and this difference was statistically significant (p = 0.000. A greater percentage of diabetic patients perceived xerostomia symptoms compared to non-diabetics. Conclusion: Type 2 diabetics have higher prevalence of xerostomia and significantly reduced salivary flow rate compared to non-diabetics. Alterations in salivary flow create an imbalance in the homeostasis of oral environment leading to spectrum of oral ailments in these individuals

  4. Histopathological audit of salivary gland neoplasms

    Salivary gland neoplasms are uncommon but important presentation to general surgeons. Objective: To analyze the relative frequency and distribution of Salivary gland neoplasms in our division. Setting: Department of surgery and pathology, Peoples Medical University hospital and GMMMC hospital Sukkur. Study design: Descriptive (case series) Subjects and methods: A total of 40 patients registered for salivary gland tumors from oct 2008 to 0ct 2013 were included in the study. A thorough history, clinical examination, routine haematological and biochemical studies were done in all patients. FNAC was done in all cases. All patients were subjected to surgical intervention on standard rules. Each resected specimen was sent for histopathology. Information about age, gender and tumor location was obtained from clinical record and frequency of different neoplasms was studied from histopathological report. All data was collected on especially designed proforma. Data analysis was done using spss version 17. Results: A total of 40 patients were registered for salivary gland neoplasms. 28 patients (70%) had parotid lesions, 10 patients (25%) had submandibular gland involvement and 2 patients ( 5%) had minor salivary gland tumors. Patients were between 15 - 80 years of age( mean age =34.7 years) 24 patients(60%) were male and 16 (40%) were female,with male to female ratio of 1.5:1.32 . 22 (80%) had benign lesions and 8 patients (20%) had malignant lesions. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common benign tumor affecting the parotid gland. Adenocarcinoma represented as the most prevelant parotid malignancy. Benign neoplasms occurred in third and fourth decades of life and malignant neoplasms were diagnosed in sixth and seventh decades of life. Conclusion:Salivary gland neoplasms are uncommon but they have occasioned much interest and debate because of broad histological spectrum. The data presented in this study is corroborated with most of the studied literature worldwide. (author)

  5. Mercuric dichloride induces DNA damage in human salivary gland tissue cells and lymphocytes

    Schmid, Katharina; Kroemer, Susanne [University of Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany); Sassen, Andrea [University of Regensburg, Department of Pathology, Regensburg (Germany); Staudenmaier, Rainer [Technical University of Munich, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Munich (Germany); Reichl, Franz-Xaver [University of Munich, Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Munich (Germany); Harreus, Ulrich [University of Munich, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Munich (Germany); Hagen, Rudolf; Kleinsasser, Norbert [University of Wuerzburg, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2007-11-15

    Amalgam is still one of the most frequently used dental filling materials. However, the possible adverse effects especially that of the mercuric component have led to continued controversy. Considering that mercury may be released from amalgam fillings into the oral cavity and also reach the circulating blood after absorption and resorption, it eventually may contribute to tumorigenesis in a variety of target cells. The present investigation focuses on genotoxic effects below a cytotoxic dose level of mercuric dichloride (HgCl{sub 2}) in human samples of salivary glands and lymphocytes to elucidate a possible role in tumor initiation. DNA migration due to single strand breaks, alkali labile sites and incomplete excision repair was quantified with the aid of the single cell microgel electrophoresis (Comet) assay. The concepts of Olive Tail Moment, percentage of DNA in the Tail and Tail Length were used as measures of DNA damage. To control for cytotoxic effects, the trypan blue exclusion test was applied. Human samples of the parotid salivary gland and lymphocytes of ten donors were exposed to HgCl{sub 2} concentrations from 1 to 50 {mu}M. N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) served as controls. Increasing dose-dependent DNA migration could be demonstrated after exposure to HgCl{sub 2} in cells of the salivary glands and lymphocytes. In both cell types a significant increase in DNA migration could be shown starting from HgCl{sub 2} concentrations of 5 {mu}M in comparison to the negative control. The viability of the cell systems was not affected except at the highest concentration (50 {mu}M) tested. These data indicate genotoxic effects of mercuric dichloride in human salivary glands and lymphocytes at concentrations not leading to cytotoxic effects or cell death. Consequently, a contributory role in oral salivary gland tumor initiation warrants further investigation. (orig.)

  6. Osteopontin expression in salivary gland carcinomas

    Bjrndal, Kristine; Larsen, Stine R; Godballe, Christian; Krogdahl, Annelise

    2011-01-01

    J Oral Pathol Med (2010) Background:? In several cancer types, osteopontin (OPN) expression has been correlated with tumor progression and prognosis. Two earlier studies have examined OPN expression in salivary gland carcinomas with contradictory results. Methods:? One hundred and seventy......:? Osteopontin was expressed in all salivary gland carcinomas. Adenoid cystic carcinomas had the highest mean sum score (7.3) and a significantly higher proportion of carcinomas with high OPN sum score than both mucoepidermoid carcinoma and acinic cell carcinoma. Correlation of OPN expression with known...

  7. Salivary gland carcinomas of the larynx

    Nielsen, Troels Krogh; Bjørndal, Kristine; Krogdahl, Annelise; Primdahl, Hanne; Kristensen, Claus Andrup; Andersen, Elo Verner; Godballe, Christian

    2012-01-01

    a review of literature from 1991 to 2010 was performed. RESULTS: Six Danish patients with a malignant salivary gland tumor in the larynx were identified resulting in an incidence of 0.001/100,000 inhabitants/year. Four had adenoid cystic carcinoma and two a mucoepidermoid carcinoma. All patients....... The male vs. female ratio was 2:1, the most common location was the supraglottic region (52%) and the most predominant histological subtypes were adenoid cystic carcinoma (46%), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (35%) and adenocarcinoma NOS (12%). CONCLUSION: Laryngeal salivary gland carcinoma is a rare...

  8. Chlorella intake attenuates reduced salivary SIgA secretion in kendo training camp participants

    Otsuki Takeshi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The green alga Chlorella contains high levels of proteins, vitamins, and minerals. We previously reported that a chlorella-derived multicomponent supplement increased the secretion rate of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA in humans. Here, we investigated whether intake of this chlorella-derived supplement attenuated the reduced salivary SIgA secretion rate during a kendo training camp. Methods Ten female kendo athletes participated in inter-university 6-day spring and 4-day summer camps. They were randomized into two groups; one took placebo tablets during the spring camp and chlorella tablets during the summer camp, while the other took chlorella tablets during the spring camp and placebo tablets during the summer camp. Subjects took these tablets starting 4 weeks before the camp until post-camp saliva sampling. Salivary SIgA concentrations were measured by ELISA. Results All subjects participated in nearly all training programs, and body-mass changes and subjective physical well-being scores during the camps were comparable between the groups. However, salivary SIgA secretion rate changes were different between these groups. Salivary SIgA secretion rates decreased during the camp in the placebo group (before vs. second, middle, and final day of camp, and after the camp: 146 ± 89 vs. 87 ± 56, 70 ± 45, 94 ± 58, and 116 ± 71 μg/min, whereas no such decreases were observed in the chlorella group (121 ± 53 vs. 113 ± 68, 98 ± 69,115 ± 80, and 128 ± 59 μg/min. Conclusion Our results suggest that a use of a chlorella-derived dietary supplement attenuates reduced salivary SIgA secretion during a training camp for a competitive sport.

  9. Salivary Defense Proteins: Their Network and Role in Innate and Acquired Oral Immunity

    Gbor Fbin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous defense proteins present in the saliva. Although some of these molecules are present in rather low concentrations, their effects are additive and/or synergistic, resulting in an efficient molecular defense network of the oral cavity. Moreover, local concentrations of these proteins near the mucosal surfaces (mucosal transudate, periodontal sulcus (gingival crevicular fluid and oral wounds and ulcers (transudate may be much greater, and in many cases reinforced by immune and/or inflammatory reactions of the oral mucosa. Some defense proteins, like salivary immunoglobulins and salivary chaperokine HSP70/HSPAs (70 kDa heat shock proteins, are involved in both innate and acquired immunity. Cationic peptides and other defense proteins like lysozyme, bactericidal/permeability increasing protein (BPI, BPI-like proteins, PLUNC (palate lung and nasal epithelial clone proteins, salivary amylase, cystatins, prolin-rich proteins, mucins, peroxidases, statherin and others are primarily responsible for innate immunity. In this paper, this complex system and function of the salivary defense proteins will be reviewed.

  10. Effect of plaque accumulation and salivary factors on enamel demineralization and plaque composition in situ

    Tenuta Livia Maria Andal

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of some plaque and salivary factors on caries progression in situ. The salivary secretion rate, buffering capacity and mutans streptococci counts from 13 volunteers were determined. For three distinct periods of time, 4, 7 and 10 days, each of them wore a palatal appliance containing 4 bovine enamel blocks. They used a non-fluoridated dentifrice during the experiment and a 20% sucrose solution was dripped onto the blocks 10 times a day. Mutans streptococci (MS, calcium (Ca, and insoluble polysaccharide (IP were quantified in the dental plaque formed on the enamel blocks, after each period. Enamel demineralization was assessed by surface microhardness, and the percentage of surface microhardness change (%SMC in relation to the baseline values was calculated. Enamel demineralization occurred after each period of plaque accumulation (p < 0.05, and the %SMC increased with time (from 13.8 to 48.3%. The concentrations of Ca and IP in plaque were not statistically different among the experimental times, but significant correlations were found between these concentrations and %SMC. Neither the salivary factors assessed initially nor mutans streptococci in plaque presented statistically significant correlations to %SMC. The results suggest that enamel demineralization is time-dependent and is more related to the composition of the biofilm formed than to the salivary factors studied.

  11. Influence of antiretroviral therapy and periodontal disease on human salivary beta-defensin 2 in patients infected with HIV.

    Lourenco, Alan Grupioni; Rodrigues Alves Ribeiro, Ana Elisa; Nakao, Cristiano; Fragoso Motta, Ana Carolina; Machado, Alcyone Artioli; Komesu, Marilena Chinali

    2014-01-01

    Studies have addressed periodontal disease biomarkers in salivary proteins associated with innate immunity, mostly due to the alteration in the concentration of many of these proteins in the presence of inflammation. On the other hand, some systemic diseases can modify salivary protein concentrations, which may change their importance or role as specific biomarkers. To study the relationship between periodontal disease and concentrations of human beta-defensin 2 (HBD-2) in the saliva of patients infected and not infected with HIV. To evaluate the association between HBD-2 salivary concentration and viral load, the TCD4+ lymphocyte count (LTCD-4+) and the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) was assessed in HIV infected patients. Concentrations of HBD-2 were measured in 48 patients not infected with HIV and 53 HIV-infected patients by ELISA, and these data were compared according to periodontal status. Within the group of HIV-infected patients, measures of HBD-2 were assessed according to viral load, LTCD-4+ count and the use of ART. Concentrations of salivary HBD-2 were associated with periodontal disease in non-HIV-infected patients. In HIV-infected patients, salivary HBD-2 was associated with serum status and the use of ART, but it was not related to the periodontal condition. The presence of HBD-2 in the saliva of HIV-infected patients showed no correlations with LTCD-4+ count or viral load. HBD-2 could be a periodontal biomarker in non-HIV-infected patients, but in HIV-infected patients, while salivary HBD- 2 was influenced by the serum status and ART use, it was not correlated with the periodontal condition. PMID:24720483

  12. Weight Control Methods Related to Cotinine-Verified Smoking among Korean Adult Women: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2011

    Kim, Young Kyun; Cho, Young Gyu; Kang, Jae Heon; Park, Hyun Ah; Kim, Kyoung Woo; Hur, Yang Im; Yoo, Yeon Gak; An, Jiyoung

    2015-01-01

    Background Korean women are known to have a very low smoking rate. However, the actual smoking rate among Korean women is higher than 10% and may continue to increase gradually. In addition, some Korean women use extreme weight control methods that have potentially harmful effects. This study was conducted to elucidate weight control methods related to cotinine-verified smoking among Korean adult women. Methods This cross-sectional study involved 4,189 women aged ≥19 years who had attempted w...

  13. Agreement between Maternal Self-reported Ethanol Intake and Tobacco Use During Pregnancy and Meconium Assays for Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters and Cotinine

    Derauf, Chris; Alan R. Katz; Easa, David

    2003-01-01

    Reliance on self-reported use of tobacco and intake of ethanol during pregnancy is associated with a high probability of error. Use of biological markers, or biomarkers, potentially offers a more valid method to assess exposure. Although cotinine is an established biomarker for tobacco use, there is no established biomarker for in utero ethanol exposure. Recent reports suggest that fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) could serve this purpose. To assess agreement between maternal self-reported toba...

  14. The incorporation of radio-labelled nucleic acid precursors by Theileria parva in bovine blood and salivary glands of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks

    The uptake of radio-labelled nucleic acid precursors by blood and tick salivary gland forms of Theileria parva was studied. Piroplasms took up tritiated purines, particularly hypoxanthine, but not pyrimidines. Similar uptake was recorded by T. parva, both in tick saliva and in salivary glands maintained in vitro. Intermediate parasite stages were those most readily labelled in glands; this reflected active nucleic acid synthesis associated with rapid parasite division. Radio-labelling of T. parva in tick salivary glands could be of value in procedures used for concentrating and purifying theilerial sporozoites. (author)

  15. Incorporation of radio-labelled nucleic acid precursors by Theileria parva in bovine blood and salivary glands of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks

    Irvin, A.D.; Boarer, C.D.H.; Kurtti, T.J.; Ocama, J.G.R. (International Lab. for Research on Animal Diseases, Nairobi (Kenya))

    1981-12-01

    The uptake of radio-labelled nucleic acid precursors by blood and tick salivary gland forms of Theileria parva was studied. Piroplasms took up tritiated purines, particularly hypoxanthine, but not pyrimidines. Similar uptake was recorded by T. parva, both in tick saliva and in salivary glands maintained in vitro. Intermediate parasite stages were those most readily labelled in glands; this reflected active nucleic acid synthesis associated with rapid parasite division. Radio-labelling of T. parva in tick salivary glands could be of value in procedures used for concentrating and purifying theilerial sporozoites.

  16. Excretory function of salivary gland during static salivary scintigraphy using technetium-99m pertechnetate: a correlation study with salivary flow rate in sjogrens syndrome

    Salivary scintigraphy is useful in the evaluation of xerostomia. To identify the relevant and clinically applicable parameter for the evaluation of xerostomia, we performed static salivary scintigraphy using Tc-99m and compared it with salivary flow rate in patients with xerostomia. Twenty-three female patients (age 51.2±10.4 years) who suffered from xerostomia were investigated. Nine patients were classified as Sjogrens syndrome (SS) by clinical criteria, and 14 patients were classified as non-Sjogrens syndrome. Un-stimulated salivary flow rate and simulated salivary flow rate were checked. Salivary scintigraphy was performed with injection of 25 mCi Tc-99m pertechnetate after injection anterior static image was obtained over face as basal uptake. ROIs were drawn over each salivary gland with background subtraction by square ROI drawn over skull. We used the mean data of right and left salivary glands for analysis. Percent excretion of salivary gland was calculated. Un-stimulated salivary flow rates(SFR) were different between groups (p0.05): 5.88±4.07 ml/15 min in SS, and 10.31±6.49 ml/15 min in non-SS. The uptake value in submandibular gland revealed significant difference between the groups. The percent excretion of submandibular gland had positive correlation with un-stimulated salivary flow rate (r=0.534, p=0.009), and that of parotid gland was also positive correlation (r=0.437, p=0.037). The result of multiple regression analysis revealed only percent excretion of submandibular gland was single determinant of unstimulated SFR. Percent excretion of submandibular gland had positive correlation with un-stimulated SFR. Thus, excretory function of submandibular gland assessed by salivary scintigraphy appears more related with xerostomia than parotid gland

  17. General Information about Salivary Gland Cancer

    ... Fast neutron radiation therapy to lymph nodes with cancer. Chemotherapy . A clinical trial of fast neutron radiation therapy to the tumor . A clinical ... Gland Cancer Treatment of stage IV salivary gland cancer may include the ... trial of chemotherapy with or without radiation therapy . Check the list ...

  18. Osteopontin expression in salivary gland carcinomas

    Bjørndal, Kristine; Larsen, Stine R; Godballe, Christian; Krogdahl, Annelise

    2011-01-01

    :  Osteopontin was expressed in all salivary gland carcinomas. Adenoid cystic carcinomas had the highest mean sum score (7.3) and a significantly higher proportion of carcinomas with high OPN sum score than both mucoepidermoid carcinoma and acinic cell carcinoma. Correlation of OPN expression with known...

  19. Salivary microflora and mode of delivery

    Boustedt, Katarina; Roswall, Josefine; Dahlén, Gunnar; Dahlgren, Jovanna; Twetman, Svante

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous cross-sectional studies have suggested that the mode of delivery can influence the composition of oral microflora. The aim of this prospective study was to compare the salivary colonization in vaginally delivered children with children delivered by Caesarian section (C...

  20. Quantitative Analysis of Salivary Cortisol Using LC-MS/MS.

    Zhang, Yan Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Cortisol is one of the most important glucocorticoids and plays important roles in regulating human metabolism. Midnight salivary cortisol has been shown to correlate well with free cortisol concentration in serum and is one of the first tests recommended for the diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome.The procedure described here involves centrifugation of the saliva samples to remove solids and mucus strands before they are diluted with buffer and mixed with deuterated internal standard D4-cortisol. The samples are then subjected to reverse phase separation on a C18 column and analyzed by a tandem mass spectrometry method (LC-MS/MS). Quantification is achieved by comparing the responses of a given sample to the responses of the calibrators of known concentrations. The calibrators are prepared and analyzed along with the patient samples. Analytical specificity is ensured by using multiple reaction monitoring with fragment ions that are unique to cortisol and deuterated internal standard. PMID:26602119

  1. Caries Experience and Salivary Parameters among Overweight Children and Adolescents

    Michele B. Diniz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a chronic disease characterized by excess body fat, which can lead to other health problems, including insulin resistance, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, polycystic ovary syndrome, hypertension, dyslipidemia, sleep apnea, asthma, heart attack, stroke, atherosclerosis and metabolic syndrome. Currently, obesity and dental caries are major public health concerns and dietary habits are a very important common component of their etiological factors, showing some correlation with the sociodemographic characteristics of individuals presenting these diseases. In relation to caries experience, the literature suggests a correlation between obesity and dental caries in children and adolescents, in primary and/or permanent dentition, though divergent results exist regarding assessment based on the method recommended by the WHO (1997, i.e., restricted to carious lesions with cavitation. Some studies indicate greater prevalence of proximal carious lesions in obese adolescents compared with those with normal weight. Salivary changes, such as the concentrations of phosphate, sialic acid, proteins and immunoglobulins and in peroxidase activity could explain the increased probability of obese children presenting greater risk of dental caries. Thus, it is important to consider the contribution of salivary parameters in caries experience of overweight children and adolescents and the implementation of preventive measures in this population.

  2. Reduced salivary flow and colonization by mutans streptococci in children with Down syndrome

    Cristina Areias

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Although individuals with Down syndrome have considerable oral disease, the prevalence of dental caries in this group is low. The present study aimed to compare known risk factors for dental caries development in children with Down syndrome and a matched population (siblings. In both populations, the number of acidogenic microorganisms, such as mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and Candida species, and the paraffin-stimulated pH, flow rate and IgA concentration in whole saliva were evaluated and compared. METHOD: Saliva was collected, and the caries index was evaluated in 45 sibling pairs aged between 6 and 18 years old. The salivary IgA concentration was determined by immunoturbidimetry. Salivary mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and Candida species were quantified on mitis salivarius agar containing bacitracin and 20% sucrose, rogosa agar supplemented with glacial acetic acid and sabouraud agar supplemented with chloramphenicol, respectively. RESULTS: Down syndrome children had a higher caries-free rate (p<0.05 and lower salivary mutans streptococci counts (p<0.03 compared to their siblings. Similar numbers of lactobacilli and Candida species were found in both groups. Salivary flow rates were 36% lower in Down syndrome children compared to their siblings (p<0.05. The salivary pH did not differ between Down syndrome children and controls. The Down syndrome children had an IgA secretion rate 29% lower than that of their siblings, but this difference was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the lower number of mutans streptococci in the saliva may be one of the factors contributing to the lower caries rate observed in Down syndrome children, despite evidence of hyposalivation.

  3. Oral and salivary changes in patients with chronic kidney disease: A clinical and biochemical study

    Beela Ram Anuradha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Both chronic kidney disease (CKD and its treatment can affect a wide range of tissues and systems. It directly or indirectly affects flow, concentrations and composition of saliva. Hemodialysis can effectively minimize most of these complications to some extent. Aims: The main aim of this study was to know the salivary content of sodium, potassium, calcium, urea, bicarbonate and oral manifestations in patients with CKD. Subjects and Methods: For this study, 50 patients diagnosed with CKD and 50 systemically and periodontally healthy individuals were subjected to a detailed general and intraoral examination. Whole un-stimulated saliva samples of all the selected subjects were collected and subjected to calcium (Ca, phosphorous (P, sodium (Na, potassium (K, bicarbonate and urea analysis. Statistical Analysis Used: Paired t-test, Mann-Whitney test. Results: Among 50 study subjects, 26 subjects had reduced salivary flow in the range of 0.1-0.4 ml/min. Intraoral examination of the study subjects revealed pallor, increased deposition of calculus, bleeding gums, metallic taste, hypoplasia of teeth and fissured tongue. There was a significant difference between healthy and prehemodialysis patients in the salivary sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, urea levels and the difference was insignificant in relation to bicarbonate levels. Conclusions: Alterations in salivary calcium, phosphorous, urea, sodium, potassium levels were significantly higher in the study groups when compared to control groups and the difference was insignificant in relation to bicarbonate level. The increased levels in dialysis patients correlated with renal disease severity.

  4. Salivary testosterone and immunoglobulin A were increased by resistance training in adults with Down syndrome

    G. Fornieles

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to assess the influence of resistance training on salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA levels and hormone profile in sedentary adults with Down syndrome (DS. A total of 40 male adults with DS were recruited for the trial through different community support groups for people with intellectual disabilities. All participants had medical approval for participation in physical activity. Twenty-four adults were randomly assigned to perform resistance training in a circuit with six stations, 3 days per week for 12 weeks. Training intensity was based on functioning in the eight-repetition maximum (8RM test for each exercise. The control group included 16 age-, gender-, and BMI-matched adults with DS. Salivary IgA, testosterone, and cortisol levels were measured by ELISA. Work task performance was assessed using the repetitive weighted-box-stacking test. Resistance training significantly increased salivary IgA concentration (P=0.0120; d=0.94 and testosterone levels (P=0.0088; d=1.57 in the exercising group. Furthermore, it also improved work task performance. No changes were seen in the controls who had not exercised. In conclusion, a short-term resistance training protocol improved mucosal immunity response as well as salivary testosterone levels in sedentary adults with DS.

  5. Salivary testosterone and immunoglobulin A were increased by resistance training in adults with Down syndrome

    G., Fornieles; M.A., Rosety; S., Elosegui; J.M., Rosety; J.R., Alvero-Cruz; N., Garcia; M., Rosety; T., Rodriguez-Pareja; R., Toro; M., Rosety-Rodriguez; F.J., Ordonez; I., Rosety.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to assess the influence of resistance training on salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels and hormone profile in sedentary adults with Down syndrome (DS). A total of 40 male adults with DS were recruited for the trial through different community support groups for people with [...] intellectual disabilities. All participants had medical approval for participation in physical activity. Twenty-four adults were randomly assigned to perform resistance training in a circuit with six stations, 3 days per week for 12 weeks. Training intensity was based on functioning in the eight-repetition maximum (8RM) test for each exercise. The control group included 16 age-, gender-, and BMI-matched adults with DS. Salivary IgA, testosterone, and cortisol levels were measured by ELISA. Work task performance was assessed using the repetitive weighted-box-stacking test. Resistance training significantly increased salivary IgA concentration (P=0.0120; d=0.94) and testosterone levels (P=0.0088; d=1.57) in the exercising group. Furthermore, it also improved work task performance. No changes were seen in the controls who had not exercised. In conclusion, a short-term resistance training protocol improved mucosal immunity response as well as salivary testosterone levels in sedentary adults with DS.

  6. Anopheles salivary gland proteomes from major malaria vectors

    2012-01-01

    Background Antibody responses against Anopheles salivary proteins can indicate individual exposure to bites of malaria vectors. The extent to which these salivary proteins are species-specific is not entirely resolved. Thus, a better knowledge of the diversity among salivary protein repertoires from various malaria vector species is necessary to select relevant genus-, subgenus- and/or species-specific salivary antigens. Such antigens could be used for quantitative (mosquito density) and qualitative (mosquito species) immunological evaluation of malaria vectors/host contact. In this study, salivary gland protein repertoires (sialomes) from several Anopheles species were compared using in silico analysis and proteomics. The antigenic diversity of salivary gland proteins among different Anopheles species was also examined. Results In silico analysis of secreted salivary gland protein sequences retrieved from an NCBInr database of six Anopheles species belonging to the Cellia subgenus (An. gambiae, An. arabiensis, An. stephensi and An. funestus) and Nyssorhynchus subgenus (An. albimanus and An. darlingi) displayed a higher degree of similarity compared to salivary proteins from closely related Anopheles species. Additionally, computational hierarchical clustering allowed identification of genus-, subgenus- and species-specific salivary proteins. Proteomic and immunoblot analyses performed on salivary gland extracts from four Anopheles species (An. gambiae, An. arabiensis, An. stephensi and An. albimanus) indicated that heterogeneity of the salivary proteome and antigenic proteins was lower among closely related anopheline species and increased with phylogenetic distance. Conclusion This is the first report on the diversity of the salivary protein repertoire among species from the Anopheles genus at the protein level. This work demonstrates that a molecular diversity is exhibited among salivary proteins from closely related species despite their common pharmacological activities. The involvement of these proteins as antigenic candidates for genus-, subgenus- or species-specific immunological evaluation of individual exposure to Anopheles bites is discussed. PMID:23148599

  7. Anopheles salivary gland proteomes from major malaria vectors

    Fontaine Albin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibody responses against Anopheles salivary proteins can indicate individual exposure to bites of malaria vectors. The extent to which these salivary proteins are species-specific is not entirely resolved. Thus, a better knowledge of the diversity among salivary protein repertoires from various malaria vector species is necessary to select relevant genus-, subgenus- and/or species-specific salivary antigens. Such antigens could be used for quantitative (mosquito density and qualitative (mosquito species immunological evaluation of malaria vectors/host contact. In this study, salivary gland protein repertoires (sialomes from several Anopheles species were compared using in silico analysis and proteomics. The antigenic diversity of salivary gland proteins among different Anopheles species was also examined. Results In silico analysis of secreted salivary gland protein sequences retrieved from an NCBInr database of six Anopheles species belonging to the Cellia subgenus (An. gambiae, An. arabiensis, An. stephensi and An. funestus and Nyssorhynchus subgenus (An. albimanus and An. darlingi displayed a higher degree of similarity compared to salivary proteins from closely related Anopheles species. Additionally, computational hierarchical clustering allowed identification of genus-, subgenus- and species-specific salivary proteins. Proteomic and immunoblot analyses performed on salivary gland extracts from four Anopheles species (An. gambiae, An. arabiensis, An. stephensi and An. albimanus indicated that heterogeneity of the salivary proteome and antigenic proteins was lower among closely related anopheline species and increased with phylogenetic distance. Conclusion This is the first report on the diversity of the salivary protein repertoire among species from the Anopheles genus at the protein level. This work demonstrates that a molecular diversity is exhibited among salivary proteins from closely related species despite their common pharmacological activities. The involvement of these proteins as antigenic candidates for genus-, subgenus- or species-specific immunological evaluation of individual exposure to Anopheles bites is discussed.

  8. Analysis on the time/activity curve of salivary gland scintigraphy in salivary gland diseases

    Salivary gland scintigraphy with 99mTcO4- is a simple method to evaluate salivary gland function and has been available as a technique using a time/activity curve for a number of years. But, there were few reports on the relationship between the various patterns of the time/activity curves and the salivary flow rate from the gland. This presents correlation between the time/activity curve pattern and the salivary flow rate from the parotid gland. Sixty-five patients complaining of xerostomia were examined. Sixty-two were female and 3 male (average age 45.6 years, range 17-69 years). Their diagnosis were 26 Sjoegren Syndrome, 28 suspicion of Sjoegren Syndrome and 11 parotiditis. The salivary flow rate from parotid gland was measured by stimulation with 10% citric acid using modified Carlson crittenden cup every 10 seconds for 5 min. 185 MBq 99mTcO4- was injected intravenously and sequential scintigraphy was performed. Time/activity curves were recorded on film. Six kinds of basic patterns were as follows: normal pattern, median pattern, flat pattern and sloped pattern (Mita et al 1981), reaccumulation flat pattern and poor secretion (Stimulant secretory ratio: less than 70%) pattern by us. The amount of saliva was as follows: normal pattern (n=31), 5.4+0.4 ml; reaccumulation flat pattern (n=3), 4.2+0.6 ml; poor secretion pattern (n=18), 4.1+0.5 ml; median pattern (n=20), 3.5+0.5 ml; flat pattern (n=11), 2.6+0.5 ml and sloped pattern (n=1), 1.5 ml. Normal pattern versus poor secretion pattern, median pattern and flat pattern in the salivary flow rate were statistically significant as determined by Students' t-test. We assessed the correlation between the pattern of time/activity curve in the salivary gland scintigraphy and the amount of saliva. (author)

  9. SALIVARY GLAND LESIONS: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF 100 CASES OF SALIVARY SWELLING PRESENTING FOR FNAC AT CYTOPATHOLOGY DEPARTMENT, CIMS, BILASPUR

    Ganguly

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fine - needle aspiration cytology (FNAC of the salivary gland is a time tested, cost effective, reliable and safe technique in the diagnosis of both neoplastic and non - neoplastic lesions of the salivary gland. It also helps to eliminate confusion with lymphadenopathies as there is a lot of overlap in the clinical presentation of both saliv ary gland and lymph node swellings. Here we aim to study the incidence of common salivary gland pathologies in our set up and also attempt to analyze the role of FNAC in differentiating between sialadenopathies and lymphadenopathies. METHODS: A retrospecti ve study of 100 consecutive patients clinically diagnosed with salivary gland pathologies and referred to Cytopathology Section, Department of Pathology, CIMS, Bilaspur for FNAC was conducted from 01.04.2004 to 07.05.2010. Clinically diagnosed lymph node s wellings which subsequently evinced salivary gland cytopathology were also included in this study. The lesions were classified based on cytomorphological diagnostic criteria and different incidental parameters like age, sex, location, presenting symptoms, duration of complaints etc were calculated. RESULTS: The lesions were broadly categorized cytomorphologically into non - neoplastic salivary gland lesions (42.5%, benign neoplastic salivary gland lesions (46.25% and malignant salivary gland lesions (11.25 % after excluding the negative results (aspiration failure, inadequate material, non salivary cytopathology. M : F Ratio was 1.56:1 (61:39. Parotid was the most common salivary gland involved (47.5%. The most common benign salivary neoplasm was pleomorph ic adenoma (38.75% and the most common malignant neoplasm was mucoepidermoid carcinoma (7.5% . CONCLUSION: FNAC is a reliable, safe and simple outpatient procedure in the diagnosis of salivary gland lesions, and is also of some value in distinguishing sal ivary lesions from clinically indistinguishable non salivary swellings occurring in the same locations

  10. Ion and water transport by isolated cockroach salivary glands.

    Smith, R K; House, C R

    1979-12-31

    When the isolated salivary glands of the cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea Oliver are stimulated by dopamine, the putative neurotransmitter, they secrete a fluid containing (mM):Na, 121; K, 47; Cl, 143. Stimulation of glands by 5-hydroxytryptamine or the neuro-transmitter evokes a secretion identical in Na composition to this. Dopamine-evoked secretion is abolished in the absence of extracellular Na. The relationship between the rates of fluid secretion and Na transport is linear. However, at very low rates of secretion the Na concentration falls. Calcium, K and Cl ions can be removed from the bathing solution without abolishing fluid secretion. Our evidence suggests that (i) the primary secretion is formed by active transport of Na in the acini, and (ii) the ionic composition of this secretion is modified by re-absorption of Na and an independent secretion of K in the ducts. PMID:537033

  11. The emerging landscape of salivary diagnostics.

    Zhang, Yong; Sun, Jie; Lin, Chien-Chung; Abemayor, Elliot; Wang, Marilene B; Wong, David T W

    2016-02-01

    Saliva contains a variety of biomolecules, including DNA, coding and noncoding RNA, proteins, metabolites and microbiota. The changes in the salivary levels of these molecular constituents can be used to develop markers for disease detection and risk assessment. Use of saliva as an early-detection tool is a promising approach because collection of saliva is easy and noninvasive. Here, we review recent developments in salivary diagnostics, accomplished using salivaomics approaches, including genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolomic and microbiomic technologies. Additionally, we illustrate the mechanisms of how diseases distal from the oralcavity can lead to the appearance of discriminatory biomarkers in saliva, and discuss the relevance of these markers for translational and clinical applications. PMID:26662481

  12. Salivary gland doses from dental radiographic exposures

    Salivary gland doses incurred during dental radiography were measured by phantom dosimetry, and these dose data and data obtained during a two-week survey of Hiroshima and Nagasaki dental hospitals and clinics were used to estimate the respective doses to members of the populations of the two cities. The results obtained were used to supplement previously determined doses to the thyroid gland, lens, and pituitary gland from dental radiography. No significant differences in doses were observed by age, sex or city. Doses to the salivary glands during dental radiography are probably not sufficiently large to cause bias in assessments of atomic bomb survivors for late radiation effects. However, the steadily increasing use of dental radiography underscores the need for continued monitoring of dental radiography doses in the interests of these assessments. (author)

  13. Translational and clinical applications of salivary diagnostics.

    Giannobile, W V; McDevitt, J T; Niedbala, R S; Malamud, D

    2011-10-01

    There have been significant advances in techniques for the detection of biomarker signals in the oral cavity (e.g., ELISAs for proteins, PCR for RNA and DNA) as well as the engineering and development of microfluidic approaches to make oral-based point-of-care (POC) methods for the diagnosis for both local and systemic conditions a reality. In this section, we focus on three such approaches, namely, periodontal disease management, early markers for systemic diseases, and salivary markers useful for pharmacogenomic studies. Novel approaches using non-invasive, salivary samples and user-friendly devices offer results that are as sensitive and specific as laboratory-based analyses using blood or urine. PMID:21917748

  14. THE EFFECT OF SPORT COMPETITION ON SALIVARY STEROIDS IN AMATEUR FEMALE KARATE ATHLETES

    Mohammad Ali Azarbayjani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of present study was to investigate the impact of repeated competition on salivary cortisol and DHEA-S in amateur women karate athletes. We recruited 20 young elite female karate fighters [height 158 ± 7 cm (mean ± S.D., weight 59.5 ± 10.9 kg, age 21.1 ± 3.0 years], who were placed first till fourth in the Iranian championship tournament. Five ml of unstimulated whole saliva was collected 30-min before and 5 - min after first and last match in competition and analyzed for cortisol and DHEA-S concentrations. The results showed that participation in competition resulted in significantly increased saliva cortisol level (p 0.05. Significant differences insalivary steroids were not different between winners and losers (p > 0.05. The results of present study show that salivary cortisol concentration is a suitable index for showing competing stress.

  15. Playing match venue does not affect resting salivary steroids in elite Futsal players.

    Arruda, Ademir F S; Aoki, Marcelo S; Miloski, Bernardo; Freitas, Camila G; Moura, Nivaldo R; Moreira, Alexandre

    2016-03-01

    This study examined the influence of competition playing venue on the hormonal responses in elite Futsal players. Twenty-one males (age, 19.30.7years; height, 174.24.1cm; body mass, 71.87.9kg) from two Futsal teams were monitored during two competitive matches that were played against each other on a home and away basis. Saliva sampling was conducted before (pre) and after (post) each match. The concentration of salivary steroids (testosterone [T] and cortisol [C]) was assessed by ELISA. Resting concentration of salivary steroid (T and C) hormones was not affected by playing venue (home and away). Both Futsal matches promoted a significant increase in T and C from pre - to post-matches (ppressure for positive results in front of supporters, families and friends may impose a higher level of stress on the players at their own facility. PMID:26683533

  16. First screening of Aedes albopictus immunogenic salivary proteins

    Doucouré, Souleymane; Cornélie, Sylvie; Patramool, S.; Mouchet, François; Demettre, E.; Seveno, M.; Dehecq, J. S.; Rutee, H.; Hervé, Jean-Pierre; Favier, F.; Missé, Dorothée; Gasque, P.; Remoué, Franck

    2013-01-01

    Study of the human antibody (Ab) response to Aedes salivary proteins can provide new biomarkers to evaluate human exposure to vector bites. The identification of genus-and/or species-specific proteins is necessary to improve the accuracy of biomarkers. We analysed Aedes albopictus immunogenic salivary proteins by 2D immunoproteomic technology and compared the profiles according to human individual exposure to Ae. albopictus or Ae. aegypti bites. Strong antigenicity to Ae. albopictus salivary ...

  17. Lifestyle, mental health status and salivary secretion rates

    Toda, Masahiro; Morimoto, Kanehisa; Fukuda, Sanae; HAYAKAWA, KAZUO

    2002-01-01

    The relations between salivary variables, lifestyle and mental health status were investigated for 61 healthy female university students. The salivary secretion rates were significantly higher in the good lifestyle groups compared with the poor lifestyle groups. Among the 8 lifestyle items tested. eating breakfast and mental stress were significantly related to the salivary secretion rates. The present findings suggest that the acquisition of a good lifestyle is also very important from t...

  18. Mitochondrial Mutations in Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Salivary Glands

    Mithani, Suhail K.; Shao, Chunbo; Tan, Marietta; Smith, Ian M.; Califano, Joseph A.; El-Naggar, Adel K; Patrick K. Ha

    2009-01-01

    Background The MitoChip v2.0 resequencing array is an array-based technique allowing for accurate and complete sequencing of the mitochondrial genome. No studies have investigated mitochondrial mutation in salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinomas. Methodology The entire mitochondrial genome of 22 salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACC) of salivary glands and matched leukocyte DNA was sequenced to determine the frequency and distribution of mitochondrial mutations in ACC tumors. Princip...

  19. Translational and Clinical Applications of Salivary Diagnostics

    Giannobile, W. V.; McDevitt, J T; Niedbala, R.S.; Malamud, D.

    2011-01-01

    There have been significant advances in techniques for the detection of biomarker signals in the oral cavity (e.g., ELISAs for proteins, PCR for RNA and DNA) as well as the engineering and development of microfluidic approaches to make oral-based point-of-care (POC) methods for the diagnosis for both local and systemic conditions a reality. In this section, we focus on three such approaches, namely, periodontal disease management, early markers for systemic diseases, and salivary markers usef...

  20. Cancer of the thyroid and salivary glands

    Since 1960, A-bomb radiation related thyroid cancer has been studied with the Adult Health Study (AHS) sample at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commision-Radiation Effects Research Foundation (ABCC-RERF). The number of A-bomb survivors developing thyroid cancer has increased with time. The observations have led to the conclusion that the incidence of thyroid cancer is high among A-bomb survivors, especially those exposed within 1,500 m from ground zero. Similar findings were observed among patients from the Hiroshima University School of Medicine and from the national health insurance program. Ezaki has studied the incidence of clinical and occult thyroid cancer in Hiroshima during 1958 - 79 using the ABCC-RERF Life Span Study sample consisting of 75,493 subjects. The incidence of clinical cancer was higher with increasing radiation doses, especially in females under the age of 20 when exposed. The incidence of occult cancer was significantly higher in survivors with 50+ rad than in the control group. Studies for cancer of the salivary glands have been commenced in the 1970s. Takeichi et al. and Belsky et al. have reported a high incidence of salivary gland cancer among A-bomb survivors. The subsequent study with the AHS sample has revealed that the overall incidence of benign and malignant salivary gland tumors and the incidence of malignant tumors were 9.3 times and 21.8 times higher, respectively, in the group with 300+ rad than in the control group. (Namekawa, K.)

  1. Anti-apoptotic gene transcription signature of salivary gland neoplasms

    Development of accurate therapeutic approaches to salivary gland neoplasms depends on better understanding of their molecular pathogenesis. Tumour growth is regulated by the balance between proliferation and apoptosis. Few studies have investigated apoptosis in salivary tumours relying almost exclusively on immunohistochemistry or TUNEL assay. Furthermore, there is no information regarding the mRNA expression profile of apoptotic genes in salivary tumors. Our objective was to investigate the quantitative expression of BCL-2 (anti-apoptotic), BAX and Caspase3 (pro-apoptotic genes) mRNAs in salivary gland neoplasms and examine the association of these data with tumour size, proliferative activity and p53 staining (parameters associated with a poor prognosis of salivary tumours patients). We investigated the apoptotic profile of salivary neoplasms in twenty fresh samples of benign and seven samples of malignant salivary neoplasms, using quantitative real time PCR. We further assessed p53 and ki-67 immunopositivity and obtained clinical tumour size data. We demonstrated that BCL-2 mRNA is overexpressed in salivary neoplasms, leading to an overall anti-apoptotic profile. We also found an association between the anti-apoptotic index (BCL-2/BAX) with p53 immunoexpression. A higher proliferative activity was found in the malignant tumours. In addition, tumour size was associated with cell proliferation but not with the transcription of apoptotic genes. In conclusion, we show an anti-apoptotic gene expression profile in salivary neoplasms in association with p53 staining, but independent of cell proliferation and tumour size

  2. Salivary Histatin 5 Is an Inhibitor of Both Host and Bacterial Enzymes Implicated in Periodontal Disease

    Gusman, Heloisa; Travis, James; Helmerhorst, Eva J.; Potempa, Jan; Troxler, Robert F.; Oppenheim, Frank G.

    2001-01-01

    One of the salient features of periodontitis and gingivitis is the increase in the levels of bacterial and host-derived proteolytic enzymes in oral inflammatory exudates. This study evaluated the potential of histatin 5, a 24-residue histidine-rich salivary antimicrobial protein, to inhibit these enzymes. Using biotinylated gelatin as a substrate, histatin 5 was found to inhibit the activity of the host matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) of 0....

  3. Psychosocial Stress Increases Salivary Alpha-Amylase Activity Independently from Plasma Noradrenaline Levels

    Petrakova, Liubov; Doering, Bettina K.; Vits, Sabine; Engler, Harald; Rief, Winfried; Schedlowski, Manfred; Grigoleit, Jan-Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Salivary alpha-amylase activity (sAA) and plasma noradrenaline (NA) concentrations are often considered to be surrogate markers of sympathetic activation in response to stress. However, despite accumulating evidence for a close association between sAA and noradrenaline and other indicators of sympathetic activity, reliability and generality of this relation remains unclear. We employed the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in order to directly compare the responses in sAA and NA to psychologica...

  4. Factors affecting antimicrobial activity of MUC7 12-mer, a human salivary mucin-derived peptide

    Bobek Libuse A; Campagna Alexander N; Wei Guo-Xian

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background MUC7 12-mer (RKSYKCLHKRCR), a cationic antimicrobial peptide derived from the human low-molecular-weight salivary mucin MUC7, possesses potent antimicrobial activity in vitro. In order to evaluate the potential therapeutic application of the MUC7 12-mer, we examined the effects of mono- and divalent cations, EDTA, pH, and temperature on its antimicrobial activity. Methods Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) were determined using a liquid growth inhibition assay in 96-...

  5. Reference values for salivary testosterone in adolescent boys and girls determined using Isotope-Dilution Liquid-Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry (ID-LC-MS/MS).

    Büttler, Rahel M; Peper, Jiska S; Crone, Eveline A; Lentjes, Eef G W; Blankenstein, Marinus A; Heijboer, Annemieke C

    2016-05-01

    The measurement of testosterone in saliva is an attractive alternative to serum analysis due to the simple and non-invasive sample collection. In children and adolescents salivary testosterone is mainly measured to investigate whether puberty has started or not. This study aimed to establish reference values for salivary testosterone during puberty in boys and girls. We measured salivary testosterone using ID-LC-MS/MS in a cohort of 131 girls and 123 boys of whom each had salivary testosterone measured at two time points during puberty. Salivary testosterone concentrations start to increase with the start of puberty around eight years and continuously increase up to adult concentrations in the following ten years. Reference values were calculated using the Lambda-Mu-Sigma (LMS)-curve fitting method and provided per year from 8 to 26years of age in boys and girls. These reference ranges may help clinicians and researchers to interpret salivary testosterone results in both individual patients and study subjects. PMID:26920638

  6. Estimation and comparison of salivary secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor in human immunodeficiency virus patients and healthy individuals

    Kumar Pushpanshu

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The salivary anti-HIV factor, SLPI, is not only preserved in HIV infection but its concentration may even get enhanced in the infection. However, the clinical significance of SLPI levels and disease severity should be investigated further with a larger sample of patients.

  7. Inhibition of hydroxyapatite growth by casein, a potential salivary phosphoprotein homologue.

    Romero, Maria J R H; Nakashima, Syozi; Nikaido, Toru; Ichinose, Shizuko; Sadr, Alireza; Tagami, Junji

    2015-08-01

    Salivary phosphoproteins are essential in tooth mineral regulation but are often overlooked in vitro. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of casein, as a salivary phosphoprotein homologue, on the deposition and growth of hydroxyapatite (HA) on tooth surfaces. Hydroxyapatite growth was quantified using seeded crystal systems. Artificial saliva (AS) containing HA powder and 0, 10, 20, 50, or 100 μg ml(-1) of casein, or 100 μg ml(-1) of dephosphorylated casein (Dcasein), was incubated for 0-8 h at 37°C, pH 7.2. Calcium concentrations were measured using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Surface precipitation of HA on bovine enamel and dentine blocks, incubated in similar conditions for 7 d, was examined using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with selected area electron diffraction (SAED). Casein adsorption was assessed using modified Lowry assays and zeta-potential measurements. The AAS results revealed a concentration-dependent inhibition of calcium consumption. Hydroxyapatite precipitation occurred when no casein was present, whereas precipitation of HA was apparently completely inhibited in casein-containing groups. Adsorption data demonstrated increasingly negative zeta-potential with increased casein concentration and an affinity constant similar to proline-rich proteins with Langmuir modelling. Casein inhibited the deposition and growth of HA primarily through the binding of esterized phosphate to HA active sites, indicating its potential as a mineral-regulating salivary phosphoprotein homologue in vitro. PMID:26083784

  8. Asociacin de la severidad de la periodontitis con niveles de cotinina y Porphyromonas gingivalis / Association between the severity of periodontitis with cotinine levels and Porphyromonas gingivalis

    Carlos Martn, Ardila Medina; Isabel Cristina, Guzmn Zuluaga; Maria Adelaida, Vlez Echeverri.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: la cotinina aumenta los efectos de las toxinas producidas por los periodontopatgenos y se ha observado que el hbito de fumar altera la respuesta humoral e incrementa la infectividad de la Porphyromonas gingivalis. Objetivo: investigar la asociacin entre los niveles de cotinina, la sev [...] eridad y la extensin de la periodontitis, entre los niveles de cotinina y presencia de P. gingivalis. Mtodo: en el presente estudio de corte transversal, el universo estuvo constituido por 108 sujetos. Los parmetros periodontales se midieron en seis sitios por diente en todos los dientes, se excluy el tercer molar. Se tomaron muestras de P. gingivalis en las bolsas periodontales. Resultados: al comparar fumadores y no fumadores se observaron diferencias estadsticamente significativas en la profundidad de sondaje y en el nivel de insercin clnica, con peores condiciones periodontales en los fumadores (p Abstract in english Background: cotinine increases the effects of the toxins produced by periodontopathogens and it has been observed that the smoking habit alters the humoral response and decreases the effectiveness of Porphyromonas gingivalis. Objective: to investigate the association between the cotinine levels and [...] the severity and extent of periodontitis; as well as between the cotinine levels and the presence of Porphyromonas gingivalis. Method: in the present cross-sectional study, the universe was composed of 108 individuals. The periodontal parameters were measured in six sites per tooth in all the teeth; the third molar was excluded. Some samples of Porphyromonas gingivalis in the periodontal pocket were taken. Results: when comparing smokers and non-smokers, differences statistically significant in the probing depth and in the clinical attachment level were observed with worse periodontal conditions in smokers (p

  9. Exoglycosidases and lectins as sequencing approaches of salivary gland oligosaccharides

    Menghi, Giovanna; Materazzi, G.

    1994-01-01

    This review was focused on the salivary gland oligosaccharide chains studied by lectin histochemistry combined with exoglycosidase digestion. Glycoconjugates play an important role in many biofunctions and, generally. salivary mucins, which consist of numerous oligosaccharide chains attached at closely spaced intervals to a peptide backbone, serve as lubricants and protective agents, but in many instances we are ignorant about the role of biochemically iden...

  10. Salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma in Denmark 1990-2005

    Bjørndal, Kristine; Krogdahl, Annelise; Therkildsen, Marianne H; Charabi, Birgitte; Kristensen, Claus A; Andersen, Elo; Schytte, Sten; Primdahl, Hanne; Johansen, Jørgen; Pedersen, Henrik B; Andersen, Lisbeth J; Godballe, Christian

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To describe outcome and prognostic factors, including the effect of radiotherapy, in a consecutive national series of salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinomas. METHODS: From the national Danish salivary gland carcinoma database in the structure of DAHANCA, 201 patients diagnosed with adenoid...

  11. Secretion of salivary statherin is compromised in uncontrolled diabetic patients

    Masahiro Izumi

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions and general significance: The results show that synthesis and secretion of statherin is reduced in diabetics and this reduction is salivary gland specific. As compromised salivary statherin secretion leads to increased oral health risk, this study indicates that routine oral health assessment of these patients is warranted.

  12. Salivary lead and cadmium in a young population residing in Mexico city.

    Gonzalez, M; Banderas, J A; Baez, A; Belmont, R

    1997-09-19

    Mexico city has a very high pollution index. Based on the view 'that salivary monitoring can be extended to environmental pollutants', we performed this study in order to determine not only the concentrations of lead and cadmium in human saliva, but also to establish their possible association with some socio-demographic factors. One hundred dental students from the National Autonomous University of Mexico living in Mexico city participated in the study. Stimulated human whole saliva samples were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The results show that Pb (x = 3.10 microg/dl(-1); maximum x = 16.8 microg/dl(-1) and minimum x = 0.04 microg/dl[-1]) and Cd (x = 0.25 microg/dl(-1); maximum x = 2.04 microg/dl(-1) and minimum x = 0.004 microg/dl[-1]) concentrations were higher than those reported elsewhere, and that there was no association between several variables studied (age, gender, geographic area and consumption of canned food) and salivary Pb. However, an inverse association was found between Cd and age (chi2 = 5.9012; P saliva has potential as a technique for monitoring ambient pollutants recent exposure, since circulating levels of certain polluting chemicals can be transported into salivary glands and secretions. PMID:9381483

  13. Abnormal gallium scan patterns of the salivary gland in pulmonary sarcoidosis

    The findings of gallium imaging suggest that parotid abnormalities in sarcoidosis are common. Correlation with lung and mediastinal uptake suggests that this represents an early disease state and that it responds to steroid administration. That the findings after therapy do not simply represent suppression of the uptake mechanism for gallium is supported by objective improvement in pulmonary function as well as symptomatic relief. Salivary gland accumulation of gallium citrate occurred in one third of our control group patients--in those who had collagen disease and presumably either were alcoholic or had infectious parotitis. This may also be seen in lymphoma and after radiation therapy. Although the combination of salivary gland, pulmonary, and hilar concentration of gallium is not specific, in the appropriate clinical setting the pattern may be helpful in suggesting the correct diagnosis

  14. Abnormal gallium scan patterns of the salivary gland in pulmonary sarcoidosis

    Mishkin, F.S.; Tanaka, T.T.; Niden, A.H.

    1978-12-01

    The findings of gallium imaging suggest that parotid abnormalities in sarcoidosis are common. Correlation with lung and mediastinal uptake suggests that this represents an early disease state and that it responds to steroid administration. That the findings after therapy do not simply represent suppression of the uptake mechanism for gallium is supported by objective improvement in pulmonary function as well as symptomatic relief. Salivary gland accumulation of gallium citrate occurred in one third of our control group patients--in those who had collagen disease and presumably either were alcoholic or had infectious parotitis. This may also be seen in lymphoma and after radiation therapy. Although the combination of salivary gland, pulmonary, and hilar concentration of gallium is not specific, in the appropriate clinical setting the pattern may be helpful in suggesting the correct diagnosis.

  15. A functional test of the salivary gland using sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate

    The function of the parotid glands were studied in 45 patients with parotid gland diseases, with the salivary glands affection systemic diseases, and with radiation injury of the parotid glands. As a control, the studies were done on 13 patients with no history of salivary gland disease. The method is consisted of sequential scientigraphy using a gamma scintillation camera and simultaneous recordings of the time-activity curves for the regions over the parotid glands and Stensen's orifices. The examination was commenced immediately after intravenous injection of sup(99m)Tc, and was continued up to 30 minutes. Salivation was stimulated with oral administration of tartaric acid at 20 minutes after injection. According to whether the uptake, concentration and excretion of sup(99m)Tc were diminished or increased, the time-activity curves could be grouped four different patterns. Using this method, a clinician can determine the exact stage of glandular dysfunction. (author)

  16. HSP25 Protects Radiation-Induced Salivary Gland Damage

    Irradiation (IR) is a central treatment modality administered for head and neck malignancies. A significant consequence of this IR treatment is irreversible damage to salivary gland in the IR field. While the exact mechanism of salivary gland damage remains enigmatic, fluid secreting acinar cells are lost, and saliva output is dramatically reduced. Previously we have reported that heat shock protein 25 (HSP25) induced radioresistance in vitro. HSP25 interferes negatively with apoptosis through several pathways which involve its direct interaction with cytochrome c, protein kinase c delta or Akt. And localized gene transfer to salivary glands has great potential for the treatment of salivary gland. Herein, we investigated whether HSP25 can use as radio protective molecules for radiation-induced salivary gland damage in vivo

  17. Stellate Ganglion Block Reduces the Radicular Pain and Salivary Alpha-Amylase Activity in Patients with Cervical Spondylosis

    Takashi Egashira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The effects of stellate ganglion block (SGB on radicular pain associated with cervical spondylosis remain to be clarified. So we measured salivary alpha-amylase which reflects sympathetic nerve activity under psychological stress after SGB block or trigger points injection (TPI. Study Design A randomized, prospective, controlled trial Setting After institutional approval and informed consent, 40 patients who was suffered from neck-shoulder pain associated with cervical radiculopathy were randomly divided into two groups according to nerve block treatment. Group A (n=20, male 10 patients, female 10 patients, 50±8yr, mean±SD received SGB and group B (n=20, male 10 patients, female 10 patients, 52±6yr received TPI. SGB or TPI was produced by 6 ml of 1% mepivacaine a total of 5 times (twice per week. Visual analogue scale (VAS and the concentration of salivary alpha-amylase were measured before (T0 each nerve block and 3 days (T1, 6 days (T2, 9 days (T3, 12 days (T4 and 15days (T5 after each nerve block. The consumption of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID was measured at T0 and T5 in each group. Results In group A, VAS was median 74 (range 60, 78 at T0 and showed a significant decrease at T3 [53 (48, 65, p<0.05], T4 [50 (42, 66, p<0.05] and T5 [48 (26,57, p<0.05]. The concentration of salivary alpha-amylase was median 116 (range 96, 144 KU/ml at T0 and showed a significant decrease at T3 [86 (79, 105, p<0.05], T4 [79 (68, 88] and T5 [70 (55, 84, p<0.05]. In group B, VAS and the concentration of salivary alpha-amylase showed no change throughout the time course. VAS in group A was significant lower than that in group B at T3, T4 and T5. The concentration of salivary alpha-amylase was significant lower than that in group B at T4 and T5. The consumption of NSAID in group A was significantly lower than that in group B at T5. Limitations Subjects are out patients. Patients include radicular pain due to different pathogenesis, e.g., cervical herniated intervertebral disc, disc bulging, and neuro-foramen narrowing. Conclusion The results indicate that SGB shows the reduction of VAS scale and the concentration of salivary alpha-amylase in patients with cervical spondylosis. These results show that salivary alpha-amylase activity could reflect the physical stress with radicular pain.

  18. Salivary agglutinin/glycoprotein-340/DMBT1

    Ligtenberg, Antoon J M; Veerman, Enno C I; Nieuw Amerongen, Arie V; Mollenhauer, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Salivary agglutinin (SAG), lung glycoprotein-340 (gp-340) and Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumours 1 (DMBT1) are three names for identical proteins encoded by the dmbt1 gene. DMBT1/SAG/gp-340 belongs to the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) superfamily of proteins, a superfamily of secreted o...... for DMBT1 as a molecule linking innate immune processes with regenerative processes....... membrane-bound proteins with SRCR domains that are highly conserved down to sponges, the most ancient metazoa. On the one hand, DMBT1 may represent an innate defence factor acting as a pattern recognition molecule. It interacts with a broad range of pathogens, including cariogenic streptococci and...

  19. Evaluation of anxiety and salivary chromogranin a secretion in women receiving breast conserving surgery followed by radiation therapy

    We conducted a prospective study to assess the anxiety and salivary Chromogranin A (CgA), which is considered to be a biomarker of the stress response, in outpatients receiving breast conserving surgery followed by radiation therapy (RT) to the whole breast. Fifty consecutive patients who received whole-breast RT were enrolled in this study. The anxiety levels were measured by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) at the beginning of RT (baseline), 30 Gy, completion of RT, and 1 and 3 months after RT. Salivary CgA levels were also measured at the same time. The mean state anxiety score for all patients was 46.16 with a standard error (SE) of 1.57 at the beginning of RT (baseline) which continued to decline during and after RT. It reached its lowest score with 36.34±1.56 at 3 months after RT (p<0.0001). The mean trait anxiety score for all patients was 43.10±1.54 at baseline and remained constant during RT but began to decline after completion of RT and reached a low level at 3 months after RT (p=0.0021). The mean salivary CgA concentration for all patients demonstrated no consistent trends over time, but at 30 Gy the concentration showed a significant decreasing pattern (p=0.0473). Salivary CgA concentrations and state anxiety and trait anxiety scores at all time points showed no correlation. The mean anxiety scores measured by State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) showed no positive correlation with salivary CgA concentration for breast cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy following breast conserving surgery. (author)

  20. Salivary gland dosimetry using 124I-PET/CT imaging and MIRD method

    Full text of publication follows. Aim: Salivary gland toxicity is often of concern on radioiodine therapy of thyroid cancer. The major problem is that toxicity could occur even if the absorbed doses are below the expected limits (26 Gy for EBRT). In the past this was associated to the fact that the poor accuracy of standard dosimetric methods, based on planar I131 images, assuming that calculated absorbed doses were underestimated. The Aim of this work was the evaluation of the feasibility of using serial 124I-PET/CT scans for the measurement of absorbed doses to salivary glands. Material and Methods: Twenty-five patients affected by metastatic thyroid cancer (MTC) were enrolled in a study approved by the ethical Committee of our Institution, with the Aim to evaluate the usefulness of 124I PET/CT sequential scans to predict absorbed doses to metastatic thyroid cancer patients undergoing 131I therapy. Fifteen patients had salivary glands included in the PET FOV and were used for absorbed dose measurements to submandibular salivary glands and parotids. For each of the four PET/CT scans the mean activity concentration in the glands were obtained, corrected for partial volume effect and scaled to 131I decay time. Absorbed doses were calculated using the sphere model of the MIRD formalism, with volumes segmented on CT images. Results: The 131I administered activity was 3700 MBq for patients presenting negative PET/CT finding and 7400-11100 MBq for patients with iodine avid metastases. Mean dose per administered 131I activity was respectively 0.67 ± 0.35 mGy/MBq and 0.56 ± 0.37 mGy/MBq for parotids and submandibular glands. The corresponding mean absorbed doses were 4.11 ± 2.55 Gy (range: 0.19 - 11 Gy) and 3.38 ± 2.62 Gy (range: 0.26 - 10.3 Gy). Two patients complained for mild salivary complications and none of the patient had severe impairment. Discussion and Conclusion: 124I-PET/CT imaging can usefully be used for salivary gland dosimetry following the MIRD formalism. Although the values found in this work are slightly lower than similar data published in literature, they are quite below the toxicity thresholds. Considering the mean doses per unit of 131I administered activity, the toxicity limit would not be exceeded even following high dose protocols. However the clinical toxicity occurs and probably the reason should be related with a possible higher radiosensitivity of the glands and the influence of cumulative dose due to multiple treatments. (authors)

  1. 31phosphorus spectroscopy of space-occupying lesions of the salivary glands. Clinic results and differential diagnosis

    In a prospective study, 15 normals and 20 patients with space-occupying lesions of the salivary glands were examined by MRT images and by in vivo 31phosphorus spectroscopy. The spectra of malignant tumours showed a significant increase in concentration of phosphomonoesters, phosphodiesters and inorganic phosphates when compared with normals. In addition there was an enormous reduction in creatine phosphates. Increased pH values and marked increase in concentration of inorganic phosphates correlated with poorly vascularised necrotic tumour segments. Concentrations of ATP and PCr were similar to normal muscle tissue. High concentrations of PME and PDE correlated directly with the proliferation of tumour cells and were an important marker for the bioenergy and phospholipid metabolism of the growing tumour. Standardised in vivo 31phosphorus spectroscopy of space-occupying lesions of the salivary glands provides noninvasive prognostic information on the type and behaviour of the lesion and is complementary to clinical and histological findings. (orig.)

  2. Salivary Secretory Immunoglobulin a secretion increases after 4-weeks ingestion of chlorella-derived multicomponent supplement in humans: a randomized cross over study

    Iemitsu Motoyuki

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlorella, a unicellular green alga that grows in fresh water, contains high levels of proteins, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fibers. Some studies have reported favorable immune function-related effects on biological secretions such as blood and breast milk in humans who have ingested a chlorella-derived multicomponent supplement. However, the effects of chlorella-derived supplement on mucosal immune functions remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether chlorella ingestion increases the salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA secretion in humans using a blind, randomized, crossover study design. Methods Fifteen men took 30 placebo and 30 chlorella tablets per day for 4 weeks separated by a 12-week washout period. Before and after each trial, saliva samples were collected from a sterile cotton ball that was chewed after overnight fasting. Salivary SIgA concentrations were measured using ELISA. Results Compliance rates for placebo and chlorella ingestions were 97.0 1.0% and 95.3 1.6%, respectively. No difference was observed in salivary SIgA concentrations before and after placebo ingestion (P = 0.38. However, salivary SIgA concentrations were significantly elevated after chlorella ingestion compared to baseline (P P = 0.36, it significantly increased after 4-week chlorella ingestion than before intake (P Conclusions These results suggest 4-week ingestion of a chlorella-derived multicomponent supplement increases salivary SIgA secretion and possibly improves mucosal immune function in humans.

  3. The Effect of Mustard Gas on Salivary Trace Metals (Zn, Mn, Cu, Mg, Mo, Sr, Cd, Ca, Pb, Rb)

    Zamani Pozveh, Elham; Seif, Ahmad; Ghalayani, Parichehr; Maleki, Abbas; Mottaghi, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    We have determined and compared trace metals concentration in saliva taken from chemical warfare injures who were under the exposure of mustard gas and healthy subjects by means of inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) for the first time. The influence of preliminary operations on the accuracy of ICP-OES analysis, blood contamination, the number of restored teeth in the mouth, salivary flow rate, and daily variations in trace metals concentration in saliva were al...

  4. The role of secretory granules in radiation-induced dysfunction of rat salivary glands

    To investigate the possible role of secretory granules in radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction, rats were pretreated with isoproterenol (5 mg/kg intraperitoneally) to degranulate salivary gland acini. At maximal depletion, salivary glands were locally irradiated with a single dose of 15 Gy of X rays. Parotid and submandibular/sublingual saliva samples were collected before and 1-10 days after irradiation. The lag phase, flow rate, concentrations of potassium and sodium, and amylase secretion were determined. Sham-treated, isoproterenol-treated and irradiated animals provided reference data. In the parotid gland, but not in the submandibular gland, protection against radiation-induced changes in flow rate and composition of saliva occurred after pretreatment with isoproterenol. Combining morphological data from a previous study with data from the current study, it is suggested that improvement of parotid gland function is attributed predominantly to a proliferative stimulus on acinar cells by isoproterenol and not to its degranulation effect. After pretreatment with isoproterenol, an earlier expression of radiation-induced acinar cell damage leading to death was observed, followed by a faster tissue recovery. Thus the proliferative stimulus on acinar cells may accelerate the unmasking of latent lethal damage, resulting in the earlier replacement of dead cells by new, functionally intact cells. 33 refs., 2 figs

  5. Influence of menstrual cycle and salivary -estradiol on volatile sulfur compound

    Shahla Kakoei DDS, MSc

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: -estradiol is a steroid sex hormone that plays important role in oral physiology. The aim of this studywas to determin the association of the menstrual cycle and salivary -estradiol with the production of volatile sulfurcompounds (VSC.METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, twenty female dental students in good oral and general health were recruited forevaluation of VSC, salivary flow, -estradiol concentration, oral dryness feeling and dysmenorrhea. Data were analyzedby marginal homogeneity test and xtgee model.RESULTS: The only covariates that significantly related to VSC were being at the follicular phase (B = -0.21, P = 0.02,being at the pre-menstrual phase (B = -0.25, P = 0.01, stressfulness (B = 0.02, P = 0.01 and oral dryness feeling(B = 0.34, P = 0.02. Salivary -estradiol was at the level of 59.7 ? 31.2 in those having halitosis (VSC ? 75 while inthe others (VSC < 75 it was about 40.8 ? 18.0 (P < 0.009. This difference was not statistically significant in multivariateanalysis.CONCLUSIONS: The menstrual cycle, stress and oral dryness were the most important determinants of halitosis. Thesalivary -estradiol level could not explain such relationship as its effect was eliminated considering the other factors.

  6. Cytochemical study of Rhodnius neglectus and Rhodnius prolixus salivary gland cells (Hemiptera, Triatominae

    Ana C. B. M. Anh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Triatomines are hematophagous bugs of medical interest in South and Central America, where they may act as invertebrate hosts of the hemoflagellate protozoa Trypanosoma cruzi (the causative of Chagas disease and Trypanosoma rangeli (Tejera, 1920. Triatomines of Rhodnius genus have salivary gland formed by two close and independent units: the principal and the accessory. This gland secretes saliva that abounds in substances that facilitate and permit feeding. Despite this importance, there are few reports on its cytochemistry. In purpose of amplifying this understanding, in this work it was investigated the nuclear structures (chromatin and nucleolar corpuscles of salivary gland cells of Rhodnius neglectus (Lent, 1954 and Rhodnius prolixus (Stl, 1859. The salivary glands were removed from adult insects, fixed and submitted to different cytochemical methods: lacto-acetic orcein, silver ion impregnation, Feulgen reaction, Toluidine Blue, Variant method of critical electrolyte concentration and C-banding. The results evidenced predominance of binucleated cells, with bulky and polyploid nucleus, decondensed chromatin and a large nucleolar area. In addition, cytoplasmic metachromasy and a clear association between nucleolar and heterochromatic corpuscles were observed. Such characteristics were associated with intense synthesis activity to produce saliva. Besides, the heterochromatic corpuscles observed with C Banding permitted the differentiation of sexes and species.

  7. SALIVARY ALPHA-AMYLASE AS A BIOMARKER OF DENTAL FEAR AND ANXIETY IN CHILDREN

    Réka GYERGYAY

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dental treatment represents a stress factor for most children. The aim of the study was to analyse the variation of salivary alpha-amylase concentration in children after a video viewing on dental treatments. In this study, 7 to 10 year-old school children were evaluated (n=119. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected before and after viewing a 15 min video on dental treatments performed on children. Changes in salivary alpha-amylase levels have been assessed. Video viewing on dental procedures led to a significant increase of the alpha-amylase level in the whole sample group. This was noticeable in terms of gender as well as age groups. From the viewpoint of age and gender, girls displayed significantly higher levels of amylase in all age groups, while this could be observed only in younger boys. In conclusion, analysis of salivary alpha-amylase revealed that the sight of dental treatment represents a significant source of stress among children.

  8. Salivary levels of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-? in patients undergoing hemodialysis

    Khozeymeh, Faezeh; Mortazavi, Mojgan; Khalighinejad, Navid; Akhavankhaleghi, Mehrdad; Alikhani, Milad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) are elevated in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). IL-6 and TNF-? are toxins which deteriorate renal function, and their pathogenic role has been confirmed in cardiovascular and oral diseases. This study was designed to investigate the salivary levels of IL-6 and TNF-? in patients with ESRD undergoing hemodialysis (HD). Materials and Methods: Twenty patients with ESRD who were treated with 4 h HD sessions, with low flux membrane were included in this cross-sectional study. Average Kt/V index in patients was 1.19 0.1. Twenty age-sex-matched healthy controls with no infectious diseases during 1 month before saliva sampling were selected. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected and TNF-? and IL-6, concentrations were measured using human IL-6 and TNF-? ELISA kits. Independent t-test was used to analyze the data using SPSS (? = 0.05). Results: There was a significant difference between dialysis and control groups regarding the salivary levels of TNF-? (P = 0.034) and IL-6 (P = 0.001). Conclusion: Considering the results of this study and reported role of inflammatory cytokines in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular and oral diseases, measurement of salivary IL-6 and TNF-? in HD patients may help in risk stratification of HD patients and in planning pertinent preventive strategies.

  9. The Comparison of Salivary IgA and IgE Levels in Children with Breast- and Formula- Feeding During Infancy Period

    A. Jafarzadeh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral local immune factors may play a protective role against oral diseases and defend against microbial agents. Salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA is a major factor for the local host defence against caries and periodontal disease. The aims of this study were to determine the concentrations of salivary IgA and IgE levels in breast-fed and formula-fed children in infancy period.Methods and Materials: Totally, 80 healthy 5 years old children were included in the study. According to type of feeding in infancy period, the children divided into two groups: 50 breast-fed and 30 formula-fed. One milliliter of saliva was collected from each participant, centrifuged, and stored at -70 C. The salivary IgA and IgE concentrations were measured, using ELISA technique.Results: In breast-fed children, the salivary IgA level (39.6 mg/l ± 17.3 was significantly higher than that in formula-fed children (26.9 mg/l ± 14 (P=0.0001. However, the salivary IgE level was significantly lower in breast-fed children, comparing with formula fed ones (5.01 IU/ml ± 19.70 vs. 11.74 IU/ml ± 39.40 (P=0.047.Discussion: These results suggest that breast feeding enhances salivary IgA level in the early period of life which may contribute in oral cavity immunity. Higher salivary IgE level observed in formula-fed subjects may have a potential role in development of allergic or inflammatory reactions.

  10. Ageing exacerbates damage of systemic and salivary neutrophils from patients presenting Candida-related denture stomatitis

    Porto Vinicius

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ageing leads to a decline in the function of the immune system, increasing the body's susceptibility to infections through the impairment of T-cells, macrophages, neutrophils and dendritic cells Denture stomatitis is a primary oral disease affecting elderly denture wearers. The major etiologic factor involved in this pathology is the infection by Candida albicans, an opportunistic pathogen that causes local and disseminated diseases in immunosuppressed humans. Neutrophils play a critical role in the immune response against C. albicans and are continually present in the salivary fluid and in the blood. The aim of this study was to determine ageing-related changes in salivary and blood neutrophils and their potential implications in Candida-related denture stomatitis. Results Our results showed a lower number of neutrophils in the saliva from patients presenting Candida-related denture stomatitis in comparison to their matched controls. Furthermore, fewer neutrophils were isolated from the saliva of aged control individuals in comparison to matched younger subjects. CXCR1, CD62L and CD11b expression were significantly greater on systemic neutrophils from younger control individuals. Elderly individuals showed more apoptotic salivary neutrophils and lower GM-CSF levels than younger ones, regardless of the occurrence of Candida infection. On the other hand, CXCL-8 concentrations were higher in the saliva from elderly individuals. Besides, TNF-? was detected at elevated levels in the saliva from infected elderly subjects. Salivary neutrophils from elderly and young patients presented impaired phagocytic activity against C. albicans. However, just systemic neutrophils from elderly showed decreased phagocytosis when compared to the younger ones, regardless of the occurrence of infection. In addition, neutrophils from aged individuals and young patients presented low fungicidal activity. Conclusion The data suggests that the Candida related-denture stomatitis is associated to neutrophils function deficiency, and ageing drastically appears to alter important characteristics of such cells, facilitating the establishment of this infection.

  11. A benign salivary gland tumor of minor salivary gland mimicking an epithelial malignancy

    Vandana Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pleomorphic adenoma (PA is the most common benign tumor of major or minor salivary glands. Microscopically, PA exhibits a great diversity of morphological aspects. Here, we present an unusual case of PA with extensive squamous metaplasia and keratin-filled cysts in the left retromolar region of a 50-year-old edentulous person whose microscopic finding may represent a diagnostic dilemma for pathologists.

  12. Sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma of minor salivary gland

    Pooja G Lohiya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma (SMEC is extremely rare variant of the mucoepidermoid carcinoma, which is the most common primary malignancy of the salivary glands. As its name suggests, SMEC is characterized by an intense central sclerosis that occupies the entirety of an otherwise typical tumor, frequently with an inflammatory infiltrate of plasma cells, eosinophils, and/or lymphocytes at its peripheral regions, but its uncompanionship with inflammatory cell infiltration might explain its progressive stage of the sclerosis. The sclerosis associated with these tumors may obscure their typical morphologic features and result in diagnostic difficulties. Tumor infarction and extravasation of mucin eventuating in reactive fibrosis are two mechanisms of formation that have been suggested as underlying this morphologic variant. Morphologic evidence in support of the mucin extravasation hypothesis was identified, as small pools of mucin were present throughout the tumor.

  13. Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of Minor Salivary Glands

    Tinoco, Paulo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Mucoepidermoid Carcinomas (MEC represent about 5% of all tumors in the salivary glands. It is an aggressive lesion and must be considered as a diagnosis hypothesis in the oral mucosa proliferative lesions. The early diagnosis and the correct management of this neoplasm are key factors for the prognosis. Wide local resection and eventually postoperative radiotherapy is the choice treatment. Objective: To report the case of a patient with mucoepidermoid carcinoma of oral cavity, exteriorizing through the mouth and being submitted to surgical exeresis and radiotherapy that evolved to death on the fourth month from beginning of the treatment. Case Report: CT, 47 years old, white woman was forwarded to the ORL service of the HSJA after a critical bleeding episode in oral cavity. She reported the appearing of a mass with fast and expansive growth in a topography of canine fossa for +/- 06 months, associated to the loss of 10 kg. Patient dehydrated, pale with pediculated tumoration of +/- 06 cm, firm consistency, painless upon palpation and bleeding. Chronic alcoholic and smoker. Non-palpable cervical lymph nodes. Faced with the case we opted for a surgical resection of the tumor and the performance of histopathological exam that confirmed mucoepidermoid carcinoma of minor salivary glands. The patient was sent to the radiotherapy service; but she abandoned the treatment and evolved with death 4 months after. Final Comments: In this case, the fast and aggressive growth of the lesion, the size of the tumor and the abandonment of the proposed treatment was determinant for the patient's prognosis.

  14. Irradiation of salivary glands in the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    The irradiation of salivary glands in the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is efficient. A dose about 20 Gy in five seances delivered by electrons seems a correct compromise between efficiency and toxicity. (N.C.)

  15. Salivary Gland Biopsy Shows Promise to Helping to Diagnose Parkinson's

    ... alike — in PDF's new scientific journal. Browse Now Parkinson's HelpLine Learn More Science News Salivary Gland Biopsy Shows Promise to Helping to Diagnose Parkinson’s - Mar 20 2014 A simple outpatient procedure that ...

  16. Salivary cortisol in depressed patients versus control persons

    Knorr, Ulla; Vinberg, Maj; Kessing, Lars V; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2010-01-01

    salivary cortisol in depressed patients (0-29 nmol/l) and control persons (1-23 nmol/l) showed substantial overlap suggesting lack of discriminative capacity. These results should be interpreted with caution as the heterogeneity for the morning analysis was large and a funnel plot, suggested presence of...... bias. Further, in meta-regression analyses higher intra-assay coefficients of variation in cortisol kits (p=0.07) and mean age (p=0.08) were associated with a higher mean difference of morning salivary cortisol between depressed and controls, while gender and depression severity were not. Based on the...... available studies there is not firm evidence for a difference of salivary cortisol in depressed patients and control persons and salivary cortisol is unable to discriminate between persons with and without depression....

  17. Biomaterials-based strategies for salivary gland tissue regeneration.

    Ozdemir, Tugba; Fowler, Eric W; Hao, Ying; Ravikrishnan, Anitha; Harrington, Daniel A; Witt, Robert L; Farach-Carson, Mary C; Pradhan-Bhatt, Swati; Jia, Xinqiao

    2016-04-22

    The salivary gland is a complex, secretory tissue that produces saliva and maintains oral homeostasis. Radiation induced salivary gland atrophy, manifested as "dry mouth" or xerostomia, poses a significant clinical challenge. Tissue engineering recently has emerged as an alternative, long-term treatment strategy for xerostomia. In this review, we summarize recent efforts towards the development of functional and implantable salivary glands utilizing designed polymeric substrates or synthetic matrices/scaffolds. Although the in vitro engineering of a complex implantable salivary gland is technically challenging, opportunities exist for multidisciplinary teams to assemble implantable and secretory tissue modules by combining stem/progenitor cells found in the adult glands with biomimetic and cell-instructive materials. PMID:26878077

  18. Neural control of salivary glands in ixodid ticks

    Šimo, Ladislav; Žitňan, Dušan; Park, Yoonseong

    2011-01-01

    Studies of tick salivary glands (SGs) and their components have produced a number of interesting discoveries over the last four decades. However, the precise neural and physiological mechanisms controlling SG secretion remain enigmatic. Major studies of SG control have identified and characterized many pharmacological and biological compounds that activate salivary secretion, including dopamine (DA), octopamine, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), ergot alkaloids, pilocarpine (PC), and their pharmaco...

  19. Quantification of salivary gland Scintigraphy by means of factor analysis

    Peter Knoll; Siroos Mirzaei

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: In this study the automatic separation of oral and salivary gland activity and spontaneous secretion by means of factor analysis for quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy is introduced. Methods: After intravenous administration of 99mTc sodium pertechnetate, dynamis scintigraphy was performed using a128x128 matrix, acquisition time 30 min, 2 frame/min). 20 minutes after tracer application 2 ml of lemon juice was delivered to stimulate the glands. Applying elliptical regions o...

  20. Dialysis Unmasks the Fungicidal Properties of Glandular Salivary Secretions

    Helmerhorst, Eva J.; Flora, Bianca; Troxler, Robert F.; Oppenheim, Frank G.

    2004-01-01

    Several salivary proteins exhibit fungicidal activity against the opportunistic oral pathogen Candida albicans when they are tested as pure proteins in vitro. However, salivary secretions that are examined by the same assays either lack or exhibit very low candidacidal activity. Since ionic strength is known to have an inhibitory effect on the fungicidal activities of some proteins, parotid secretion was subjected to dialysis with membranes having molecular weight cutoffs (MWCOs) of 500, 1,00...

  1. Salivary Analytes in Patients with Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Nola Fuchs, Petra; Rogi?, Dunja; Vidovi?-Juras, Danica; Sui?, Mato; Milenovi?, Aleksandar; Brailo, Vlaho; Vu?i?evi? Boras, Vanja

    2011-01-01

    Literature data indicates that measurement of certain salivary constituents might serve as a useful diagnostic/prognostic tool in the patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). In 24 patients with OSCC (602.5yrs) and in 24 controls (243.7yrs) we have determined levels of salivary magnesium, calcium, copper, chloride, phosphate, potassium, sodium, total proteins and amylase. Sodium, potasium and chloride were determined by indirect potentiometry whereas copper, magnesium ...

  2. Extracellular Ca(2+) sensing in salivary ductal cells.

    Bandyopadhyay, Bidhan C; Swaim, William D; Sarkar, Ankana; Liu, Xibao; Ambudkar, Indu S

    2012-08-31

    Ca(2+) is secreted from the salivary acinar cells as an ionic constituent of primary saliva. Ions such as Na(+) and Cl(-) get reabsorbed whereas primary saliva flows through the salivary ductal system. Although earlier studies have shown that salivary [Ca(2+)] decreases as it flows down the ductal tree into the oral cavity, ductal reabsorption of Ca(2+) remains enigmatic. Here we report a potential role for the G protein-coupled receptor, calcium-sensing receptor (CSR), in the regulation of Ca(2+) reabsorption by salivary gland ducts. Our data show that CSR is present in the apical region of ductal cells where it is co-localized with transient receptor potential canonical 3 (TRPC3). CSR is activated in isolated salivary gland ducts as well as a ductal cell line (SMIE) by altering extracellular [Ca(2+)] or by aromatic amino acid, L-phenylalanine (L-Phe, endogenous component of saliva), as well as neomycin. CSR activation leads to Ca(2+) influx that, in polarized cells grown on a filter support, is initiated in the luminal region. We show that TRPC3 contributes to Ca(2+) entry triggered by CSR activation. Further, stimulation of CSR in SMIE cells enhances the CSR-TRPC3 association as well as surface expression of TRPC3. Together our findings suggest that CSR could serve as a Ca(2+) sensor in the luminal membrane of salivary gland ducts and regulate reabsorption of [Ca(2+)] from the saliva via TRPC3, thus contributing to maintenance of salivary [Ca(2+)]. CSR could therefore be a potentially important protective mechanism against formation of salivary gland stones (sialolithiasis) and infection (sialoadenitis). PMID:22778254

  3. Salivary Gland NK Cells Are Phenotypically and Functionally Unique

    Tessmer, Marlowe S.; Reilly, Emma C.; Brossay, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells and CD8+ T cells play vital roles in containing and eliminating systemic cytomegalovirus (CMV). However, CMV has a tropism for the salivary gland acinar epithelial cells and persists in this organ for several weeks after primary infection. Here we characterize a distinct NK cell population that resides in the salivary gland, uncommon to any described to date, expressing both mature and immature NK cell markers. Using ROR?t reporter mice and nude mice, we also show th...

  4. Fractionated irradiation of salivary glands : loss and protection of function

    Funegård, Ulrika

    1995-01-01

    Radiotherapy of malignancies in the head and neck often involves the major and minor salivary glands in the radiation field. Adverse effects, such as dry mouth symptoms, are common after such therapy. The aim of this thesis was to study longitudinal effects of fractionated irradiation to the head and neck on salivary gland function in man and in the rat and to test radioprotection from antioxidant vitamins (retinol, a-tocopherol and ^-carotene). A sharp decrease in parotid saliva flow rate wa...

  5. In Vitro Identification of Histatin 5 Salivary Complexes.

    Moffa, Eduardo B; Machado, Maria A A M; Mussi, Maria C M; Xiao, Yizhi; Garrido, Saulo S; Giampaolo, Eunice T; Siqueira, Walter L

    2015-01-01

    With recent progress in the analysis of the salivary proteome, the number of salivary proteins identified has increased dramatically. However, the physiological functions of many of the newly discovered proteins remain unclear. Closely related to the study of a protein's function is the identification of its interaction partners. Although in saliva some proteins may act primarily as single monomeric units, a significant percentage of all salivary proteins, if not the majority, appear to act in complexes with partners to execute their diverse functions. Coimmunoprecipitation (Co-IP) and pull-down assays were used to identify the heterotypic complexes between histatin 5, a potent natural antifungal protein, and other salivary proteins in saliva. Classical protein-protein interaction methods in combination with high-throughput mass spectrometric techniques were carried out. Co-IP using protein G magnetic Sepharose TM beads suspension was able to capture salivary complexes formed between histatin 5 and its salivary protein partners. Pull-down assay was used to confirm histatin 5 protein partners. A total of 52 different proteins were identified to interact with histatin 5. The present study used proteomic approaches in conjunction with classical biochemical methods to investigate protein-protein interaction in human saliva. Our study demonstrated that when histatin 5 is complexed with salivary amylase, one of the 52 proteins identified as a histatin 5 partner, the antifungal activity of histatin 5 is reduced. We expected that our proteomic approach could serve as a basis for future studies on the mechanism and structural-characterization of those salivary protein interactions to understand their clinical significance. PMID:26544073

  6. Characterization of salivary alpha-amylase binding to Streptococcus sanguis.

    SCANNAPIECO, F.A.; Bergey, E J; Reddy, M. S.; Levine, M. J.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the major salivary components which interact with oral bacteria and to determine the mechanism(s) responsible for their binding to the bacterial surface. Strains of Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, and Actinomyces viscosus were incubated for 2 h in freshly collected human submandibular-sublingual saliva (HSMSL) or parotid saliva (HPS), and bound salivary components were eluted with 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate. By sodium ...

  7. Anatomy and Histology of Rodent and Human Major Salivary Glands

    Amano, Osamu; Mizobe, Kenichi; Bando, Yasuhiko; Sakiyama, Koji

    2012-01-01

    Major salivary glands of both humans and rodents consist of three pairs of macroscopic glands: parotid, submandibular, and sublingual. These glands secrete serous, mucous or mixed saliva via the proper main excretory ducts connecting the glandular bodies with the oral cavity. A series of discoveries about the salivary ducts in the 17th century by Niels Stensen (1638–1686), Thomas Wharton (1614–1673), and Caspar Bartholin (1655–1738) established the concept of exocrine secretion as well as sal...

  8. Estimation of long-term salivary gland damage induced by radiotherapy

    A classification is proposed for estimating salivary gland damage induced by radiotherapy to the head and neck. The volume of salivary glands irradiated was evaluated, and their relative proportions of whole saliva output were calculated. Stimulated salivary flow rate was measured in 61 patients treated with radiotherapy for head and neck malignancies. A highly significant negative correlation was found between the classification of salivary gland damage and stimulated salivary flow rate. The volume of the major salivary glands irradiated seems to be the most important factor affecting the postirradiation salivary flow after a curative dose of radiotherapy. If possible, partial sparing of the salivary glands may help to keep the patient's salivary secretion at an acceptable level and promote protection against dental caries. Most patients irradiated to the head and neck, however, need an effective prophylactic programme for the rest of their lives in order to preserve their teeth. (orig.)

  9. Caveolin-1 overexpression in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors.

    Jaafari-Ashkavandi, Zohreh; Ashraf, Mohammad Javad; Nazhvani, Ali Dehghani; Azizi, Zahra

    2016-02-01

    Caveolin-1, a tyrosine-phosphorylated protein, is supposed to have different regulatory roles as promoter or suppressor in many human cancers. However, no published study concerned its expression in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the expression of Cav-1 in the most common benign and malignant salivary gland tumors and evaluate its correlation with proliferation activity. In this cross-sectional retrospective study, immunohistochemical expression of caveolin-1 and Ki67 were evaluated in 49 samples, including 11 normal salivary glands, 15 cases of pleomorphic adenoma (PA), 13 adenoid cystic carcinomas (AdCC), and 10 mucoepidermoid carcinomas (MEC). The expression of Cav-1 was seen in 18 % of normal salivary glands and 85 % of tumors. The immunoreaction in the tumors was significantly higher than normal tissues (P = 0.001), but the difference between benign and malignant tumors was not significant (P = 0.07). Expression of Cav-1 was correlated with Ki67 labeling index in PAs, but not in malignant tumors. Cav-1 expression was not in association with tumor size and stage. Overexpression of Cav-1 was found in salivary gland tumors in comparison with normal tissues, but no significant difference was observed between benign and malignant tumors. Cav-1 was inversely correlated with proliferation in PA. Therefore, this marker may participate in tumorigenesis of salivary gland tumors and may be a potential biomarker for cancer treatments. PMID:26323261

  10. Immunohistochemical analysis of CD34 expression in salivary gland tumors

    Saede Atarbashi Moghadam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tumor growth depends on angiogenesis which is assessed by measuring the tumor microvessel density (MVD through CD34 immunostaining. The present study was performed to evaluate the situation of angiogenic activity in salivary gland neoplasms. The possible role of CD34 in progression and invasion of salivary gland tumors is also investigated. Materials and Methods: Tissue specimens of 15 pleomorphic adenoma (PA and 15 malignant salivary gland tumors including mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC, adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC and salivary duct carcinoma (SDC were immunostained for CD34 protein. The most vascularized areas at low power magnification (hotspots were selected for vessel counting at Χ400 magnification. Then, the mean number of microvessels in three fields within the tumor mass was calculated. Results: MVD in PA and malignant salivary gland tumors were 10.93 ΁ 5.95 and 26.46 ΁ 7.32, respectively. Tumor angiogenesis in PA was much lower than other lesions (P 0.05. Conclusion: Salivary gland carcinomas demonstrated higher vascular density than benign PA despite of cell types and architecture. The reason for this higher angiogenic activity could be related to metabolic characteristics of malignant cells.

  11. Salivary hypofunction: an update on aetiology, diagnosis and therapeutics.

    Saleh, Jamil; Figueiredo, Maria Antonia Zancanaro; Cherubini, Karen; Salum, Fernanda Gonçalves

    2015-02-01

    Saliva is of paramount importance for the maintenance of oral and general homeostasis. Salivary hypofunction predispose patients to disorders such as dysgeusia, pain and burning mouth, caries and other oral infectious diseases, dysphagia and dysphonia. The aim of this study was to provide an update on the aetiology, diagnostic methods and therapeutic strategies for the management of hyposalivation and xerostomia. The present paper describes subjective and objective methods for the diagnosis of salivary dysfunctions; moreover a number of drugs, and systemic disorders associated with decreased salivary flow rate are listed. We also focused on the underlying mechanisms to radiotherapy-induced salivary damage. Therapeutics for hyposalivation and xerostomia were discussed and classified as preventive, symptomatic, topical and systemic stimulants, disease-modifying agents, and regenerative. New therapeutic modalities have been studied and involve stem cells transplantation, with special attention to regeneration of damage caused by ionizing radiation to the salivary glands. More studies in this area are needed to provide new perspectives in the treatment of patients with salivary dysfunctions. PMID:25463902

  12. High-throughput wide dynamic range procedure for the simultaneous quantification of nicotine and cotinine in multiple biological matrices using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Pérez-Ortuño, Raúl; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Fernández, Esteve; Pascual, José A

    2015-11-01

    A straightforward, high-throughput method was developed and fully validated for the simultaneous determination of the specific tobacco biomarkers nicotine and its main metabolite cotinine in a wide dynamic range and supporting the most common human biological matrices (urine, oral fluid and hair). Sample preparation was performed inside the very HPLC injection vials by pipetting 0.5 mL of the liquid samples, deuterated internal standards in alkaline solution and dichloromethane as extraction solvent. Solid samples (i.e. around 10 mg hair) were first submitted to alkaline digestion in the HPLC vials and processed accordingly. The organic phase (reached through the upper aqueous layer) was directly injected without further treatment. Instrumental analysis was performed using hydrophilic interaction (HILIC) ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Total chromatographic time was 2 min. The method covers a wide dynamic range making it fit-for-purpose for the analysis of samples covering entire populations, irrespective of the level of exposure or tobacco use. Calibration curves (r (2) > 0.995) covered the range 1-2000 ng/mL (or 0.05-100 ng/mg hair) for nicotine and 0.1-2000 ng/mL (or 0.005-100 ng/mg hair) for cotinine. Within-run and between-run precision and accuracy were typically below 10 %, and always below 20 % at the lower limit of quantification. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of samples from different projects involving multiple matrices. PMID:26342312

  13. The Effect of Calcium Pre-Rinse on Salivary Fluoride After 900 ppm Fluoride Mouthwash: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Nahid Ramazani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Calcium fluoride deposit during fluoride application. Uptake and retention of fluoride by saliva depends generally on the concentration of calcium. In this study, the ef-fect of calcium pre-rinse on salivary fluoride concentration after a 900 ppm fluoride mouthwash was investigated.Materials and Methods: This cross-over double-blind randomized clinical trial was con-ducted in a girls' dormitory in Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, southeast Iran. In this study, 42 female dental students were chosen using simple randomization. During the first phase, 21 subjects (group A used fluoride rinse (F regimen and the remaining (group B used calcium pre-rinse followed immediately by fluoride rinse (Ca + F regi-men. In the second phase, participants rinsed using the mouthwashes not previously used. Prior to each phase prophylaxis was performed and no fluoridated product was used dur-ing a two-week interval between the phases. Salivary samples were taken immediately be-fore (baseline, 1 and 12 hours after rinsing. The salivary fluoride concentration was de-termined using fluoride sensitive electrode. Repeated measures ANOVA was used for sta-tistical analysis and the significance level was set at P<0.05.Results: There was significant difference between fluoride concentrations at different time points (P< 0.001. Significant differences were observed when the different time points of two regimens were examined. In contrast to this, the baseline before using F regimen and the baseline before using Ca + F regimen did not show any significance (P= 0.070.Conclusion: Pre-rinsing with calcium before fluoride is recommended because of signifi-cant increases in salivary fluoride concentration.

  14. Wearable salivary uric acid mouthguard biosensor with integrated wireless electronics

    Kim, Jayoung; Imani, Somayeh; de Araujo, William R.; Warchall, Julian; Valdés-Ramírez, Gabriela; Paixão, Thiago R.L.C.; Mercier, Patrick P.; Wang, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    This article demonstrates an instrumented mouthguard capable of non-invasively monitoring salivary uric acid (SUA) levels. The enzyme (uricase)-modified screen printed electrode system has been integrated onto a mouthguard platform along with anatomically-miniaturized instrumentation electronics featuring a potentiostat, microcontroller, and a Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) transceiver. Unlike RFID-based biosensing systems, which require large proximal power sources, the developed platform enables real-time wireless transmission of the sensed information to standard smartphones, laptops, and other consumer electronics for on-demand processing, diagnostics, or storage. The mouthguard biosensor system offers high sensitivity, selectivity, and stability towards uric acid detection in human saliva, covering the concentration ranges for both healthy people and hyperuricemia patients. The new wireless mouthguard biosensor system is able to monitor SUA level in real-time and continuous fashion, and can be readily expanded to an array of sensors for different analytes to enable an attractive wearable monitoring system for diverse health and fitness applications. PMID:26276541

  15. Wearable salivary uric acid mouthguard biosensor with integrated wireless electronics.

    Kim, Jayoung; Imani, Somayeh; de Araujo, William R; Warchall, Julian; Valdés-Ramírez, Gabriela; Paixão, Thiago R L C; Mercier, Patrick P; Wang, Joseph

    2015-12-15

    This article demonstrates an instrumented mouthguard capable of non-invasively monitoring salivary uric acid (SUA) levels. The enzyme (uricase)-modified screen printed electrode system has been integrated onto a mouthguard platform along with anatomically-miniaturized instrumentation electronics featuring a potentiostat, microcontroller, and a Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) transceiver. Unlike RFID-based biosensing systems, which require large proximal power sources, the developed platform enables real-time wireless transmission of the sensed information to standard smartphones, laptops, and other consumer electronics for on-demand processing, diagnostics, or storage. The mouthguard biosensor system offers high sensitivity, selectivity, and stability towards uric acid detection in human saliva, covering the concentration ranges for both healthy people and hyperuricemia patients. The new wireless mouthguard biosensor system is able to monitor SUA level in real-time and continuous fashion, and can be readily expanded to an array of sensors for different analytes to enable an attractive wearable monitoring system for diverse health and fitness applications. PMID:26276541

  16. A comparison of salivary IgA in children with Down syndrome and their family members.

    Balaji, Karthika; Milne, Trudy J; Drummond, Bernadette K; Cullinan, Mary P; Coates, Dawn E

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare total IgA in the whole saliva of children with Down syndrome with levels in sibling and parent groups. IgA measurements were presented as the concentration in saliva (μg/ml) and also adjusted for salivary flow rate (SFR; μg/min). Twenty children with Down syndrome, ten siblings and twenty parents were recruited. Stimulated whole saliva was collected from the participants and SFR calculated. The measurement of salivary IgA (sIgA) was carried out using an indirect competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. The difference in the mean SFR between children with Down syndrome, parents and siblings were not statistically significant. The mean salivary concentration of IgA was higher in children with Down syndrome (95.1μg/ml) compared with siblings (48.3μg/ml; p=0.004). When adjusted for SFR children with Down syndrome had mean sIgA levels of 98.8μg/min and the siblings 48.6μg/min (p=0.008). The children with Down syndrome had sIgA levels similar to those of the parents (92.5μg/ml; 93.2μg/min). There was a positive correlation between age and sIgA concentration in the siblings (p=0.008) but not for children with Down syndrome (p=0.363). This suggests that under similar environmental influences, the levels of sIgA in children with Down syndrome are higher than in the siblings, from a very young age. PMID:27023400

  17. The salivary secretome of the tsetse fly Glossina pallipides (Diptera: Glossinidae) infected by salivary gland hypertrophy virus

    Kariithi, H.M.; Ince, I. A.; Boeren, S.; Abd-Alla, A. M. M.; Parker, A.G.; Aksoy, S; Vlak, J. M.; Oers, van, H.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background The competence of the tsetse fly Glossina pallidipes (Diptera; Glossinidae) to acquire salivary gland hypertrophy virus (SGHV), to support virus replication and successfully transmit the virus depends on complex interactions between Glossina and SGHV macromolecules. Critical requisites to SGHV transmission are its replication and secretion of mature virions into the fly's salivary gland (SG) lumen. However, secretion of host proteins is of equal importance for successful transmissi...

  18. The Salivary Secretome of the Tsetse Fly Glossina pallidipes (Diptera: Glossinidae) Infected by Salivary Gland Hypertrophy Virus

    Kariithi, Henry M.; Ince, Ikbal A.; Boeren, Sjef; Abd-Alla, Adly M.M.; Parker, Andrew G.; Aksoy, Serap; Vlak, Just M.; van Oers, Monique M.

    2011-01-01

    Background The competence of the tsetse fly Glossina pallidipes (Diptera; Glossinidae) to acquire salivary gland hypertrophy virus (SGHV), to support virus replication and successfully transmit the virus depends on complex interactions between Glossina and SGHV macromolecules. Critical requisites to SGHV transmission are its replication and secretion of mature virions into the fly's salivary gland (SG) lumen. However, secretion of host proteins is of equal importance for successful transmissi...

  19. Evaluation of non-microbial salivary caries activity parameters and salivary biochemical indicators in predicting dental caries

    Kaur, A; K S Kwatra; Kamboj, P.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was the evaluation of non-microbial salivary caries activity parameters and salivary biochemical indicators in predicting dental caries. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out on 60 children, aged 4-6 years, selected from the schools of Panchkula district, Haryana, on the basis of their caries status. Level of hydration, flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, relative viscosity, calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase levels in caries-free ...

  20. Disruption of the salivary gland muscle in tsetse, Glossina pallidipes Austen, as a result of salivary gland hypertrophy virus infection.

    Guerra, L; Stoffolano, J G; Belardinelli, M C; Gambellini, G; Taddei, A R; Laghezza Masci, V; Fausto, A M

    2015-12-01

    The secretory region of the salivary glands in Glossina pallidipes Austen (Diptera: Glossinidae) is characterized by an external muscle layer. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy investigations provide a detailed description of the longitudinal muscle fibres and a comparison of their structure when affected by salivary gland hypertrophy virus. The virus is responsible for hypertrophy of the salivary glands in symptomatic flies, specifically of the muscle fibres, the cytoarchitecture of which is completely altered. Although observations did not reveal viral particles in the muscle cells of either asymptomatic or symptomatic flies, muscle fibres were enlarged and detached from one another and their associated basement membrane only in symptomatic flies. A decrease in type IV collagen labelling in the basement membrane of the muscles in symptomatic flies is reported and is considered a potential cause of the salivary gland muscle alteration and, possibly, myopathy. The maintenance of an organized muscular layer is essential for the normal secretion of saliva and hence its pathology in symptomatic tsetse flies could affect the normal transmission of the trypanosome that develops inside the salivary gland epithelium. Therefore, a better understanding of the possible role of the virus is essential in order to elucidate its impact on salivary deployment in symptomatic flies. PMID:26177673

  1. Influence of prone positioning on premature newborn infant stress assessed by means of salivary cortisol measurement: pilot study

    Cândia, Maria Fernanda; Osaku, Erica Fernanda; Leite, Marcela Aparecida; Toccolini, Beatriz; Costa, Nicolle Lamberti; Teixeira, Sandy Nogueira; Costa, Claudia Rejane Lima de Macedo; Piana, Pitágoras Augusto; Cristovam, Marcos Antonio da Silva; Osaku, Nelson Ossamu

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study sought to assess the influence of prone positioning on the stress of newborn premature infants through the measurement of the salivary cortisol concentration and the evaluation of physiological and behavioral responses before and after changes in body positioning. Methods Saliva samples were collected from newborn infants at two different times: the first (corresponding to the baseline) after a period of 40 minutes during which the infants were not subjected to any manipu...

  2. Biomacromolecule conjugated nanofiber scaffold for salivary gland tissue engineering

    Jayarathanam, Kavitha

    Xerostomia or dry mouth, resulting from loss of salivary gland secretion can be alleviated by tissue engineering approaches to restore glandular cell function. Engineering an artificial salivary gland structure requires closely mimicking the natural environment, both physically and functionally, to promote epithelial cell proliferation, monolayer formation and apico-basal polarization. While the physical structure of the salivary gland extracellular matrix (ECM) can be reconstructed using biocompatible nanofiber scaffolds, the chemical signals from ECM macromolecules are equally involved in the gland morphogenesis. In these glands, Hyaluronic acid (HA), a biomacromolecule that is a major component of the ECM, plays a crucial role in recruiting growth factors to improve cell viability and growth in these glands. Another molecule of interest that improved salivary epithelial cell viability and apico-basal differentiation is laminin, a major protein found in the basement membrane. We hypothesize that these biomacromolecules, when conjugated nanofiber scaffolds, will provide the essential chemical signals that promote cell viability, proliferation, polarity in the salivary cell line of interest. These morphological changes will in turn promote the secretory function (salivary production). The nanofiber scaffold consisting of poly(lactic-co-glycolic)acid is conjugated with HA using a polyethylene glycol (PEG) diamine crosslinker. This conjugation was confirmed using fluorescence spectrometry, water contact angle test and immunocytochemistry analysis using confocal microscopy. The effect of HA in promoting cell survival in-vitro was established with MTT assay using SIMS (mouse submandibular immortalized ductal SIMS cells) cells. The effect of HA in improving the apico - basal polarity of SIMS cells will be assessed. Chemical modification of synthetic nanopolymeric scaffolds with ECM molecules e.g., HA, laminin are the next step towards developing "smart scaffolds", that can be used to specifically induce proper salivary gland function. These scaffolds can potentially be used to provide a viable approach for creating future artificial tissue engineered glands.

  3. Distinct regulation by lipopolysaccharides of the expression of interleukin-1β by murine macrophages and salivary glands.

    Seil, M; El Ouaaliti, M; Abdou Foumekoye, S; Pochet, S; Dehaye, J P

    2012-02-01

    The regulation of interleukin (IL)-1 expression and secretion by salivary glands and macrophages in response to lipopolysaccharides (LPS) was compared. In wild-type mice, injection of LPS significantly decreased the volume of saliva stimulated by pilocarpine and increased its protein and amylase concentration. It did not modify the salivary concentration of IL-1β. The cytokine was expressed by submandibular acini and ducts. Macrophages also expressed IL-1β but at lower concentration than salivary glands. The pre-incubation of macrophages with LPS increased the phosphorylation of IκB and the expression of IL-1β. Adenosine triphosphate also promoted the secretion of the cytokine by these cells. These responses were absent in submandibular gland cells. These glands expressed CD14, TLR4 and MyD88. P2X(7)-KO mice secreted a lower volume of saliva which contained less proteins and amylase. In conclusion, IL-1β is constitutively expressed by submandibular glands and its secretion is not regulated by a P2X(7) agonist. In these cells, LPS do not activate the nuclear factor-κB-pro-IL-1β axis in spite of the expression of the proteins involved in their recognition. PMID:20682589

  4. Quantitative evaluation of Streptococcus mutans and Candida sp and salivary factors in the oral cavity of patients submitted to radiotherapy; Avaliacao quantitativa de Streptococcus do grupo mutans e Candida sp e fatores salivares na cavidade bucal de pacientes submetidos a radioterapia

    Spolidorio, Denise Madalena Palomari; Spolidorio, Luis Carlos; Barbeiro, Roberto Henrique; Bernardo, Wagner Luis Carvalho; Pavan, Sabrina [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia; Hoefling, Jose Francisco [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia

    2001-12-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the microorganisms Streptococcus mutans and Candida sp in the oral cavity of patients with oropharynx carcinoma, before, during and after radiotherapy, and to correlate the results with salivary factors such as pH, buffer capacity and flow rate. Saliva samples were collected, diluted and inoculated in SB-20 agar and in Sabouraud agar, for Streptococcus mutans and Candida sp, respectively. Previously to dilution, the concentrated saliva was analyzed, and the salivary factors were determined. After the growth of colonies, the number of microorganisms was determined in CFU/ml. The analysis of the results allowed to conclude that the salivary factors are related to the presence of microorganisms, and that the number of CFU/ml increased as salivary flow rate decreased. The effects of radiation compromised salivary homeostasis and favored the increase of infection by yeasts and bacteria. (author)

  5. Salivary Gland Neoplasms in Children and Adolescents.

    Bradley, Patrick J; Eisele, David W

    2016-01-01

    Salivary gland neoplasms (SGNs) in children are uncommon. Epithelial SGNs (ESGNs) comprise the majority (95%), with the remaining being mesenchymal SGNs (MeSGNs). Pleomorphic adenoma is the most frequently encountered benign neoplasm, mucoepidermoid carcinoma is the most frequent malignant ESGN, and rhabdomyosarcoma is the most frequent malignant MeSGN. ESGN presents in the second decade, whereas MeSGN presents in the first and second decades. Swelling without pain or neurological signs is the main presentation of both benign and malignant neoplasms. Making an accurate preoperative histological diagnosis is important, so a needle biopsy or a perioperative frozen section is useful when there is doubt about the disease status of the patient; the excised tumour margin is also important. Surgical excision should aim to achieve clear margin excision in benign and malignant ESGNs, minimising the need for adjuvant radiotherapy and maximising the long-term likelihood of patient cure. Benign ESGNs are uncommon, and excision is curative, whereas malignant ESGN and MeSGN should be managed by a multidisciplinary paediatric oncology team. PMID:27093697

  6. Psychosocial factors at home and at work and levels of salivary cortisol

    Eller, Nanna Hurwitz; Netterstrøm, Bo; Hansen, Ase Marie; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2006-01-01

    Salivary cortisol as a physiological measure of stress has attracted great interest in recent years.......Salivary cortisol as a physiological measure of stress has attracted great interest in recent years....

  7. Is salivary gland function altered in noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and obesity-insulin resistance?

    Ittichaicharoen, Jitjiroj; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

    2016-04-01

    Salivary gland dysfunction in several systemic diseases has been shown to decrease the quality of life in patients. In non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), inadequate salivary gland function has been evidenced to closely associate with this abnormal glycemic control condition. Although several studies demonstrated that NIDDM has a positive correlation with impaired salivary gland function, including decreased salivary flow rate, some studies demonstrated contradictory findings. Moreover, the changes of the salivary gland function in pre-diabetic stage known as insulin resistance are still unclear. The aim of this review is to comprehensively summarize the current evidence from in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies regarding the relationship between NIDDM and salivary gland function, as well as the correlation between obesity and salivary gland function. Consistent findings as well as controversial reports and the mechanistic insights regarding the effect of NIDDM and obesity-insulin resistance on salivary gland function are also presented and discussed. PMID:26774185

  8. HISTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF MUCOSUBSTANCES OF NORMAL HUMAN PAROTID SALIVARY GLAND

    Rohini R

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available : INTRODUCTION: The oral cavity is one of the important routes for infections and infestations. Majority of the infections occur through food and air. The oral cavity is said to be even worst than anal canal due to its direct exposure to atmosphere and the moist condition, which facilitate the bacterial growth. Plenty of lymphoid tissue and glandular secretions protects the mucosa of oral cavity. Glandular secretions are serous and mucous in nature and are rich in Mucosubstances which protect the oral mucosa from bacteria and viruses. They help to lubricate the oral mucosa. In unstimulated state major bulk of secretion is from parotid salivary gland. METHODS: In the present study Mucosubstances present in parotid salivary gland are studied. 30 normal human parotid salivary glands were collected and fixed in 10% formalin with 2% Ca acetate and pinch of phosphotungstic acid. 4 to 5 micron thick sections were cut and blocks were prepared. The sections were stained with periodic acid Schiff (PAS, alcian blue (AB at different pH and Aldyhyde fuschin (AF individually and in combinations. Confirmatory tests were carried out. RESULTS: the normal parotid salivary gland shows presence of neutral Mucosubstances with very trace amount of sialomucins and sulphomucins. Presence of neutral mucins indicates that the secretions of parotid salivary gland are rich in enzymes.

  9. Salivary SPECT and factor analysis in Sjoegren's syndrome

    Salivary SPECT and factor analysis in Sjoegren's syndrome were performed in 17 patients and 6 volunteers as controls. The ability of SPECT to detect small differences in the level of uptake can be used to separate glands from background even when uptake is reduced as in the patients with Sjoegren's syndrome. In control and probable Sjoegren's syndrome groups the uptake ratio of the submandibular gland to parotid gland on salivary SPECT (S/P ratio) was less than 1.0. However, in the definite Sjoergren's syndrome group, the ratio was more than 1.0. Moreover, the ratio in all patients with sialectasia, which is characteristic of Sjoegren's syndrome, was more than 1.0. Salivary factor analysis of normal parotid glands showed slowly increasing patterns of uptake and normal submandibular glands had rapidly increasing patterns of uptake. However, in the definite Sjoegren's syndrome group, the factor analysis patterns were altered, with slowly increasing patterns dominating both in the parotid and submandibular glands. These results suggest that the S/P ratio in salivary SPECT and salivary factor analysis provide additional radiologic criteria in diagnosing Sjoegren's syndrome. (orig.)

  10. Maspin and MCM2 immunoprofiling in salivary gland carcinomas

    Helmy Iman M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathogenesis of salivary gland carcinomas is very complex and prognostic markers are difficult to find in these carcinomas of which the different subtypes have varying malignant potential. The study was conducted to examine the cellular distribution of maspin and MCM2 in salivary gland carcinomas and their value to predict lymph node metastasis. Materials and methods Fifty three paraffin blocks of different lesions (15 muco-epidermoid carcinoma, 14 adenoid cystic carcinoma, 3 epi-myoepithelial carcinoma, 5 salivary duct carcinoma, 5 malignant pleomorphic adenoma, 6 polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma and 5 acinic cell carcinoma were prepared for immunohistochemical staining with maspin and MCM2 antibodies. ANOVA and Pearson correlation tests were used for the statistical analysis of the results. Results All salivary gland carcinomas express maspin and MCM2 with variable cellular localization. There was a significant difference in the expression of each antibody between mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma and polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma. No association was found between examined markers and lymph node metastasis. Conclusions Salivary gland carcinomas express maspin and MCM2 with variable levels and cellular localization, consisting important markers of biological behavior in these tumors. The level of MCM2 expression can be used in the differential diagnosis of adenoid cystic carcinoma and polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma. Further study with large sample size is recommended to assess their value in prediction of lymph node metastasis.

  11. Salivary antioxidant capacity in graft versus host disease.

    Nagler, Rafael; Barness-Hadar, Liat; Lieba, Merav; Nagler, Arnon

    2006-01-01

    Stem cell transplantation (SCT)-related salivary gland injury and dysfunction result in local and systemic manifestations that may be long lasting and are associated with a high rate of morbidity and increased risk of infection. The salivary antioxidant system may have a major protective role. We, therefore, assessed salivary antioxidant capacity and function in 30 patients who had undergone SCT: 18 males and 12 females whose median age was 36 years (range: 7-58). Salivary gland function was assessed by sialometric and biochemistry means, which included measuring total protein, secretory IgA (SIgA) and the antioxidants peroxidase, uric acid (UA), and total antioxidant status (TAS) in the collected saliva. In patients who developed graft versus host disease (GVHD), we observed a significant decrease of the salivary flow rate, from 0.74 +/- 0.14 ml/minute to 0.19 +/- 0.08 ml/min, pre- and post-SCT, respectively (p mucositis, as the saliva constantly swallowed into the GIT losses its usual antioxidant protective roles. In conclusion, our findings may point at a possible new mechanism for the pathogenesis of oral and intestinal mucositis in pre-GVHD patients. Therapy with artificial saliva and free radical scavengers and/or antioxidants (administered either systemically or via oral rinses) thus, may be of clinical relevance. PMID:16809154

  12. Applications of and limitations to salivary gland scintigraphy

    Salivary gland functional imaging is a simple, non-invasive procedure which requires little in terms of time and money to clarify disorders of saliva production and elimination. With relatively low levels of radiation exposure, there is no reason to expect side effects to the patient, provided that a physiological taste stimulant such as lemon juice is used to stimulate saliva production. From a dynamic study we derived functional curves for the parotides and the submandibular glands using the ROI-technique. Typical curves allow to differentiate between inflammatory, degenerative and obstructive diseases of the salivary glands. In cases of salivary gland tumours, additional information of pre- or posttherapeutic relevance may be expected e.g. concerning the saliva flow patterns. However, for primary diagnosis, other imaging procedures are more useful. In combination with sonography, swellings and pain of the salivary glands may be reliably clarified. Except for time activity curves for the salivary glands, quantitative analysis of pertechnetate uptake is only of secondary importance. This is due to methodological problems (e.g. definition of ROI) on the one hand and to a considerable inter- and intra-individual variability of the secretory gland outputs of the parotides and submandibular glands on the other hand. (orig.)

  13. Contribution and advantages of scintigraphy in salivary pathology

    Recent technical improvements, especially the use of the scintillation camera, enable kinetic studies to be carried out by isotopic exploration and salivary scintigraphy has become an easy, fast and painless method of functional investigation of the main salivary glands. This work outlines the results obtained by Tc 99m scintigraphy with a scintillation camera, relative to the most important salivary gland diseases. After an account of the anatomy and general pathology of the parotid glands and submaxillaries the chief characteristics of the tracer, the detection techniques and the method employed here are described briefly. The elementary scintigraphic aspects found in the different observations are reported, then discussed in connection with results already published. The conclusion drawn from this work is that it is possible in the vast majority of cases, by comparing and combining the morphological and kinetic study of the salivary glands by technetium 99m scintigraphy with the clinical context, to obtain very valuable information which no other complementary examination has so far been able to supply satisfactorily. Now that scintigraphy has become a method of functional and not only morphological exploration it occupies a vital place in the study of the salivary glands

  14. Anopheles salivary gland proteomes from major malaria vectors

    Fontaine Albin; Fusaï Thierry; Briolant Sébastien; Buffet Sylvain; Villard Claude; Baudelet Emilie; Pophillat Mathieu; Granjeaud Samuel; Rogier Christophe; Almeras Lionel

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Antibody responses against Anopheles salivary proteins can indicate individual exposure to bites of malaria vectors. The extent to which these salivary proteins are species-specific is not entirely resolved. Thus, a better knowledge of the diversity among salivary protein repertoires from various malaria vector species is necessary to select relevant genus-, subgenus- and/or species-specific salivary antigens. Such antigens could be used for quantitative (mosquito density)...

  15. A Role for Notch Signaling in Salivary Acinar Cell Growth and Differentiation

    Dang, Howard; Alan L. Lin; Zhang, Binxian; Zhang, Hong-Mei; Katz, Michael S; Yeh, Chih-Ko

    2009-01-01

    The Notch pathway is crucial for stem/progenitor cell maintenance, growth and differentiation in a variety of tissues. The Notch signaling is essential for Drosophila salivary gland development but its role in mammalian salivary gland remains unclear. The human salivary epithelial cell line, HSG, was studied to determine the role of Notch signaling in salivary epithelial cell differentiation. HSG expressed Notch 1 to 4, and the Notch ligands Jagged 1 and 2 and Delta 1. Treatment of HSG cells ...

  16. Squamous cell carcinoma of submandibular salivary gland: A rare case report

    Vardendra Manvikar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant tumors of submandibular salivary gland are rare in occurrence. Squamous cell carcinoma of salivary glands accounts for about 0.9-4.7% of all salivary gland tumors with a predilection to occur in parotid gland due to perinodal involvement. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of submandibular salivary gland accounts to about 2% of the tumors and hence it is being represented for its rarity.

  17. Salivary gland dysfunction and xerostomia in Sjögren's syndrome

    Jensen, Siri Beier; Vissink, Arjan

    2014-01-01

    In this article, salivary gland dysfunction and xerostomia in Sjögren's syndrome (SS) are discussed, with a focus on the pathophysiology of salivary dysfunction in SS, the clinical presentation of dry mouth in SS, how to assess salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia in SS, and the impact of s...

  18. Salivary alkaline phosphatase and calcium in caries-active type II diabetes mellitus patients: An in vivostudy

    Mithra N Hegde

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes Mellitus is a metabolic syndrome, affecting the oral health in various ways with dental caries being one of the most common problems encountered. Saliva is one of the most abundant secretions in the human body with a variety of natural protective and defence molecules bathing the oral cavity maintaining equilibrium. Its collection is easy and non-invasive. Aims: To compare and evaluate salivary alkaline phosphatase levels and calcium ion levels between caries active type II diabetes mellitus patients and non-diabetics. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out on caries-active age and gender matched 60 non-diabetic and 60 patients with known Type II diabetes mellitus subjects of age group 25-50 years with DMFT index >10. Saliva sample was collected to analyse for alkaline phosphatase enzyme and concentration of calcium ions using Agappe kits. Statistical Analysis: Student ?t? test was used to correlate the salivary electrolyte concentration in non- diabetic and diabetic patients with dental caries. A ?P? value of 0.05 or less was considered significant. Results are presented as mean standard deviation (X SD. Results: The alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity in saliva was higher in diabetic patients when compared to that of non-diabetic patients with salivary calcium ions were significantly higher in non-diabetic individuals. Conclusion: Diabetes Mellitus patients are more prone to dental caries, hence require intervention to improve the quality of saliva.

  19. Quantitative detection of multiple fluorophore sites as a tool for diagnosis and monitoring disease progression in salivary glands

    Gannot, Israel; Bonner, Robert F.; Gannot, Gallya; Fox, Philip C.; You, Joon S.; Waynant, Ronald W.; Gandjbakhche, Amir H.

    1997-08-01

    A series of fluorescent surface images were obtained from physical models of localized fluorophores embedded at various depths and separations in tissue phantoms. Our random walk theory was applied to create an analytical model of multiple flurophores embedded in tissue-like phantom. Using this model, from acquired set of surface images, the location of the fluorophores was reconstructed and compared it to their known 3-D distributions. A good correlation was found, and the ability to resolve fluorophores as a function of depth and separation was determined. In parallel in in-vitro study, specific coloring of sections of minor salivary glands was also demonstrated. These results demonstrate the possibility of using inverse methods to reconstruct unknown locations and concentrations of optical probes specifically bound to infiltrating lymphocytes in minor salivary glands of patients with Sjogren's syndrome.

  20. HIV-associated salivary gland enlargement: a clinical review

    S, Ebrahim; B, Singh; SS, Ramklass.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Salivary gland disease is well established as an important HIV associated oral lesion. It manifests as salivary gland swelling involving one or both parotid glands with or without xerostomia. In the context of HIV, the swelling may be due to a wide spectrum of pathological conditions that include re [...] active or inflammatory disorders, acute and chronic infections, and neoplasms. This paper reviews the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, aspects of diagnosis and management of HIV associated salivary gland enlargement, in particular parotid gland enlargement, due to benign lymphoepithelial cysts (BLEC). Parotid gland enlargement is typically an early manifestation in the HIV-positive patient and should alert healthcare professionals to the likelihood of HIV infection. FNAC of the parotid gland is required to confirm the diagnosis and instituting HAART forms an important part of the management. There is a shift away from surgery in the treatment of this essentially benign condition.

  1. Salivary gland disease in pediatric HIV patients: an update.

    Pinto, Andres; De Rossi, Scott S

    2004-01-01

    Oral manifestations are one of the earliest clinical indicators of HIV infection and progression in children. Prompt recognition of these signs and symptoms by dental providers can help in the diagnosis and intervention of delaying the progression of HIV disease to AIDS. Salivary gland disease is a common manifestation of HIV infection in pediatric patients, presenting either as gland enlargement and/or xerostomia. The parotid glands by far are most frequently affected, though the other major glands are commonly involved. Diseases of the salivary glands and the corresponding quantitative changes in saliva affect the homeostasis of the oral cavity and account for significant morbidity during the progression of HIV disease. This paper summarizes the research on HIV-related salivary gland disease and outlines treatment and management considerations. PMID:15272653

  2. Pleomorphic adenoma of minor salivary gland: hard palate

    The pleomorphic adenoma or mixed tumor occurs in 4 to 14% of the accessory glands salivary. Different localizations exist: AEC, nasal block, lips, maxillary sinus, nasopharynx or in any other localization where salivate tissue exists, but the palate constitutes the most frequent localization, because it gathers more than 50% of minor salivary glands. In the palate, it can be developed a wide variety of tumors coming from the connective and epithelial tissue, 44% arise in the minor salivary glands. In 49 to 65% of them are benign tumors, principally pleomorphic adenomas, located preferably in the hard palate, nearby or in the union with the soft palate as in our case. We present a 42 year old patient with at pleomorphic adenoma of hard palate. (The author)

  3. Oxidative DNA damage and repair in children exposed to low levels of arsenic in utero and during early childhood: Application of salivary and urinary biomarkers

    The present study aimed to assess arsenic exposure and its effect on oxidative DNA damage and repair in young children exposed in utero and continued to live in arsenic-contaminated areas. To address the need for biological specimens that can be acquired with minimal discomfort to children, we used non-invasive urinary and salivary-based assays for assessing arsenic exposure and early biological effects that have potentially serious health implications. Levels of arsenic in nails showed the greatest magnitude of difference between exposed and control groups, followed by arsenic concentrations in saliva and urine. Arsenic levels in saliva showed significant positive correlations with other biomarkers of arsenic exposure, including arsenic accumulation in nails (r = 0.56, P < 0.001) and arsenic concentration in urine (r = 0.50, P < 0.05). Exposed children had a significant reduction in arsenic methylation capacity indicated by decreased primary methylation index and secondary methylation index in both urine and saliva samples. Levels of salivary 8-OHdG in exposed children were significantly higher (∼ 4-fold, P < 0.01), whereas levels of urinary 8-OHdG excretion and salivary hOGG1 expression were significantly lower in exposed children (∼ 3-fold, P < 0.05), suggesting a defect in hOGG1 that resulted in ineffective cleavage of 8-OHdG. Multiple regression analysis results showed that levels of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in saliva and urine had a significant positive association with salivary 8-OHdG and a significant negative association with salivary hOGG1 expression. - Highlights: • The effects of arsenic exposure in utero and through early childhood were studied. • Arsenic-exposed children had a reduction in arsenic methylation capacity. • Exposed children had more DNA damage, observed as elevated salivary 8-OHdG. • Lower salivary hOGG1 in exposed children indicated impairment of 8-OHdG repair. • Salivary and urinary 8-OHdG levels were discordant

  4. Oxidative DNA damage and repair in children exposed to low levels of arsenic in utero and during early childhood: Application of salivary and urinary biomarkers

    Hinhumpatch, Pantip; Navasumrit, Panida [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, Chulabhorn Research Institute, Laksi, Bangkok (Thailand); Chulabhorn Graduate Institute, Laksi, Bangkok (Thailand); Center of Excellence on Environmental Health and Toxicology, CHE, Ministry of Education (Thailand); Chaisatra, Krittinee; Promvijit, Jeerawan [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, Chulabhorn Research Institute, Laksi, Bangkok (Thailand); Mahidol, Chulabhorn [Laboratory of Chemical Carcinogenesis, Chulabhorn Research Institute, Laksi, Bangkok (Thailand); Ruchirawat, Mathuros, E-mail: mathuros@cri.or.th [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, Chulabhorn Research Institute, Laksi, Bangkok (Thailand); Chulabhorn Graduate Institute, Laksi, Bangkok (Thailand); Center of Excellence on Environmental Health and Toxicology, CHE, Ministry of Education (Thailand); Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Phayathai, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2013-12-15

    The present study aimed to assess arsenic exposure and its effect on oxidative DNA damage and repair in young children exposed in utero and continued to live in arsenic-contaminated areas. To address the need for biological specimens that can be acquired with minimal discomfort to children, we used non-invasive urinary and salivary-based assays for assessing arsenic exposure and early biological effects that have potentially serious health implications. Levels of arsenic in nails showed the greatest magnitude of difference between exposed and control groups, followed by arsenic concentrations in saliva and urine. Arsenic levels in saliva showed significant positive correlations with other biomarkers of arsenic exposure, including arsenic accumulation in nails (r = 0.56, P < 0.001) and arsenic concentration in urine (r = 0.50, P < 0.05). Exposed children had a significant reduction in arsenic methylation capacity indicated by decreased primary methylation index and secondary methylation index in both urine and saliva samples. Levels of salivary 8-OHdG in exposed children were significantly higher (∼ 4-fold, P < 0.01), whereas levels of urinary 8-OHdG excretion and salivary hOGG1 expression were significantly lower in exposed children (∼ 3-fold, P < 0.05), suggesting a defect in hOGG1 that resulted in ineffective cleavage of 8-OHdG. Multiple regression analysis results showed that levels of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in saliva and urine had a significant positive association with salivary 8-OHdG and a significant negative association with salivary hOGG1 expression. - Highlights: • The effects of arsenic exposure in utero and through early childhood were studied. • Arsenic-exposed children had a reduction in arsenic methylation capacity. • Exposed children had more DNA damage, observed as elevated salivary 8-OHdG. • Lower salivary hOGG1 in exposed children indicated impairment of 8-OHdG repair. • Salivary and urinary 8-OHdG levels were discordant.

  5. Assessment of prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke by cotinine in cord blood for the evaluation of smoking control policies in Spain

    Puig Carme

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last few years a decreasing trend in smoking has occurred not only in the general population but also during pregnancy. Several countries have implemented laws requiring all enclosed workplace and public places to be free of second hand smoke (SHS. In Spain, legislation to reduce SHS was implemented in 2005. The present study examines the possible effect of this legislation on prenatal SHS exposure. Methods Mothers and newborns were recruited from 3 independent studies performed in Hospital del Mar (Barcelona and approved by the local Ethics Committee: 415 participated in a study in 1996-1998, 283 in 2002-2004 and 207 in 2008. A standard questionnaire, including neonatal and sociodemographic variables,tobacco use and exposure during pregnancy, was completed at delivery for all the participants in the three study groups. Fetal exposure to tobacco was studied by measuring cotinine in cord blood by radioimmunoassay (RIA. Results 32.8% of the pregnant women reported to smoke during pregnancy in 1996-1998, 25.9% in 2002-2004 and 34.1% in 2008. In the most recent group, the percentage of no prenatal SHS exposure (cord blood cotinine 0.2-1 ng/mL showed an increase compared to the previous groups while the percentages of both: low (1.1-14 ng/mL and very high (> 100 ng/mL prenatal SHS exposure showed a decrease. Discussion The results of the three study periods (1996-2008 demonstrated a significant increase in the percentage of newborns free from SHS exposure and a decrease in the percentage of newborns exposed to SHS during pregnancy, especially at the very high levels of exposure. A significant maternal smoking habit was noted in this geographical area with particular emphasis on immigrant pregnant smoking women. Conclusions Our study indicates that there is a significant maternal smoking habit in this geographical area. Our recommendation is that campaigns against smoking should be directed more specifically towards pregnant women with particular emphasis on non-native pregnant smokers due to the highest prevalence of tobacco consumption in the immigrant women.

  6. Differential expression of Aedes aegypti salivary transcriptome upon blood feeding

    Wikel Stephen K

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Saliva of Aedes aegypti contains a complex array of proteins essential for both blood feeding and pathogen transmission. A large numbers of those proteins are classified as unknown in regard to their function(s. Understanding the dynamic interactions at the mosquito-host interface can be achieved in part by characterizing mosquito salivary gland gene expression relative to blood feeding. Towards this end, we developed an oligonucleotide microarray representing 463 transcripts to determine differential regulation of salivary gland genes. This microarray was used to investigate the temporal gene expression pattern of Ae. aegypti salivary gland transcriptome at different times post-blood feeding. Expression of the majority of salivary gland genes (7787% did not change significantly as a result of blood feeding, while 8 to 20% of genes were down-regulated and 2.8 to 11.6% genes were up-regulated. Up-regulated genes included defensins, mucins and other immune related proteins. Odorant-binding protein was significantly down-regulated. Among unknown function proteins, several were up-regulated during the first three hours post-blood feeding and one was significantly down-regulated. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR was used to substantiate differential expression patterns of five randomly selected genes. Linear regression analysis revealed a high degree of correlation (R2 > 0.89 between oligonucleotide microarray and quantitative RT-PCR data. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate differential expression of the Ae. aegypti salivary gland transcriptome upon blood feeding. A microarray provides a robust, sensitive way to investigate differential regulation of mosquito salivary gland genes.

  7. Salivary proteins of plant-feeding hemipteroids - implication in phytophagy.

    Sharma, A; Khan, A N; Subrahmanyam, S; Raman, A; Taylor, G S; Fletcher, M J

    2014-04-01

    Many hemipteroids are major pests and vectors of microbial pathogens, infecting crops. Saliva of the hemipteroids is critical in enabling them to be voracious feeders on plants, including the economically important ones. A plethora of hemipteroid salivary enzymes is known to inflict stress in plants, either by degrading the plant tissue or by affecting their normal metabolism. Hemipteroids utilize one of the following three strategies of feeding behaviour: salivary sheath feeding, osmotic-pump feeding and cell-rupture feeding. The last strategy also includes several different tactics such as lacerate-and-flush, lacerate-and-sip and macerate-and-flush. Understanding hemipteroid feeding mechanisms is critical, since feeding behaviour directs salivary composition. Saliva of the Heteroptera that are specialized as fruit and seed feeders, includes cell-degrading enzymes, auchenorrhynchan salivary composition also predominantly consists of cell-degrading enzymes such as amylase and protease, whereas that of the Sternorhyncha includes a variety of allelochemical-detoxifying enzymes. Little is known about the salivary composition of the Thysanoptera. Cell-degrading proteins such as amylase, pectinase, cellulase and pectinesterase enable stylet entry into the plant tissue. In contrast, enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase, laccase and trehalase detoxify plant chemicals, enabling the circumvention of plant-defence mechanisms. Salivary enzymes such as M1-zinc metalloprotease and CLIP-domain serine protease as in Acyrthosiphon pisum (Aphididae), and non-enzymatic proteins such as apolipophorin, ficolin-3-like protein and 'lava-lamp' protein as in Diuraphis noxia (Aphididae) have the capacity to alter host-plant-defence mechanisms. A majority of the hemipteroids feed on phloem, hence Ca++-binding proteins such as C002 protein, calreticulin-like isoform 1 and calmodulin (critical for preventing sieve-plate occlusion) are increasingly being recognized in hemipteroid-plant interactions. Determination of a staggering variety of proteins shows the complexity of hemipteroid saliva: effector proteins localized in hemipteran saliva suggest a similarity to the physiology of pathogen-plant interactions. PMID:24280006

  8. Sialolithiasis of minor salivary glands / Sialolitase de glndulas salivares menores

    Isabela Fernandes, SOUZA; Michele Montini, KAWATAKE; Andresa Borges, SOARES; Paulo de Camargo, MORAES; Vera Cavalcanti de, ARAJO; Fabrcio, PASSADOR-SANTOS.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A sialolitase, ou clculo salivar uma doena de glndulas salivares, caracterizada pela formao de estrutura mineralizada no interior dos ductos salivares excretores ou no prprio parnquima glandular. A glndula submandibular acometida em aproximadamente 80% dos casos seguida das glndulas pa [...] rtida e sublingual. Embora raro o clculo salivar tambm pode ocorrer em glndulas salivares menores. O lbio superior e a mucosa oral so os stios de envolvimento de maior frequncia, embora possam desenvolver-se em qualquer regio da cavidade oral que contenha glndulas salivares menores. O tratamento baseia-se na remoo cirurgia, com prognstico favorvel. Este artigo apresenta trs casos raros de sialolitase de glndula salivar menor localizados em lbio superior e inferior, abordando as caractersticas clnicas e sua relao com os achados microscpicos, diagnstico e formas de tratamento. A etiologia da leso e fatores que devem ser considerados para o diagnstico, tratamento adequado e um melhor prognstico so discutidos neste estudo. Abstract in english Sialolithiasis, or salivary calculus, is a disease of the salivary glands, characterized by the formation of mineralized structures within the excretory salivary ducts or the glandular parenchyma. Approximately 80% occur in the submandibular gland, followed by the parotid and sublingual glands. Alth [...] ough rare, sialolithiasis can also occur in the minor salivary glands. Although the oral cavity and upper lip are the most common sites, they can develop in any region of the oral cavity that contains minor salivary glands. Treatment is based on surgical excision of the lesion, with a favorable prognosis. This study presents three cases of sialolithiasis of minor salivary glands of the upper and lower lip, addresses their clinical characteristics and correlation with microscopic findings, diagnosis and treatment plans. Etiology and factors that should be considered during diagnosis, appropriate treatment and improved prognosis are discussed in this study.

  9. Repeated bouts of eccentrically biased endurance exercise stimulate salivary IgA secretion rate

    Andrew J McKune

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To determine the salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA response to repeated bouts of unaccustomed, downhill running (eccentrically biased and examine potential protective immunological adaption from a repeated bout effect. Eleven active but untrained males (age: 19.7±0.4 years; VO2peak: 47.8±3.6 ml · kg-1 · min -1 performed two 60 min bouts (Run 1 and Run 2 of downhill running (-13.5% gradient, separated by 14 days, at a speed eliciting 75% of their VO2peak on a level grade. Saliva samples were collected before (baseline, immediately post exercise (IPE, and every hour for 12 h and every 24 h for 6 days after each run. Salivary sIgA concentration was measured and sIgA secretion rate was calculated. Results were analysed using repeated measures ANOVA (12 h period: 2x14; 24 h intervals: 2x7; p ≤ 0.05 with Tukey post-hoc tests where appropriate. Results are reported as means ± SE. There was a significant (p < 0.0001 interaction effect for sIgA secretion rate, IPE, with higher values after Run 2, as well as a significant (p < 0.01 time effect with elevated levels IPE and between 24 h and 144 h. There was a run effect (p < 0.0001, with the sIgA secretion rate significantly higher after Run 2. Repeated bouts of unaccustomed, eccentrically biased exercise induced alterations in the salivary sIgA secretion rate. This may serve as a protective mucosal adaptation to exercise-induced tissue damage.

  10. Programmed cell death in the larval salivary glands of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera, Apidae)

    E C M Silva-Zacarin; G A Tomaino; M R Brocheto-Braga; S R Taboga; R L M Silva De Moraes

    2007-03-01

    The morphological and histochemical features of degeneration in honeybee (Apis mellifera) salivary glands were investigated in 5th instar larvae and in the pre-pupal period. The distribution and activity patterns of acid phosphatase enzyme were also analysed. As a routine, the larval salivary glands were fixed and processed for light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Tissue sections were subsequently stained with haematoxylin–eosin, bromophenol blue, silver, or a variant of the critical electrolyte concentration (CEC) method. Ultrathin sections were contrasted with uranyl acetate and lead citrate. Glands were processed for the histochemical and cytochemical localization of acid phosphatase, as well as biochemical assay to detect its activity pattern. Acid phosphatase activity was histochemically detected in all the salivary glands analysed. The cytochemical results showed acid phosphatase in vesicles, Golgi apparatus and lysosomes during the secretory phase and, additionally, in autophagic structures and luminal secretion during the degenerative phase. These findings were in agreement with the biochemical assay. At the end of the 5th instar, the glandular cells had a vacuolated cytoplasm and pyknotic nuclei, and epithelial cells were shed into the glandular lumen. The transition phase from the 5th instar to the pre-pupal period was characterized by intense vacuolation of the basal cytoplasm and release of parts of the cytoplasm into the lumen by apical blebbing; these blebs contained cytoplasmic RNA, rough endoplasmic reticule and, occasionally, nuclear material. In the pre-pupal phase, the glandular epithelium showed progressive degeneration so that at the end of this phase only nuclei and remnants of the cytoplasm were observed. The nuclei were pyknotic, with peripheral chromatin and blebs. The gland remained in the haemolymph and was recycled during metamorphosis. The programmed cell death in this gland represented a morphological form intermediate between apoptosis and autophagy.

  11. Immunization of Cattle with Tick Salivary Gland Extracts

    Ali Nikpay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rhipicephalus (Boophilus annulatus tick is one of the most important ectoparasite of cattle. Re­cently, several laboratories in the world have been concentrated on immunizing cattle against tick using various types of tissue extracts of ticks. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of immunization of cattle with tick salivary gland extract on biological parameters of ticks and humoral immune responses of cattle.Methods: Fourteen more dominant protein bands identified as immunogenic by Western-blot analysis were eluted from polyacrylamide gel. Test and control groups were injected three times with eluted proteins and sterile PBS (pH= 7.2 respectively with equivalent amount of adjuvant. After four weeks a tick challenge was performed. Fi­nally, biological parameters of collected engorged female ticks were recorded and humoral immune responses to immunization measured by ELISA.Results: The results indicated immunization of cattle resulted in reduction in mean tick counts, attachment, en­gorgement weights, feeding index, egg mass weight, hatchability and fertility index (respectively 63.1%, 62.6%, 30.2%, 36.4%, 40%, 78.7% and 13.3% and increased duration of feeding, pre-oviposition and incubation period of eggs (respectively 8.6%, 45 and 31.34%. All changes were statistically significant (P< 0.05. Results showed an increase in antibody production of test group from the first week after immunization. The antibody level was boosted following tick infestation.Conclusion: This investigation indicates that immunization of cattle with these antigens could induce a protective immune response against Rh. (B. annulatus tick that would be expected to provide a safe non-chemical means of tick control.

  12. Short-term salivary acetaldehyde increase due to direct exposure to alcoholic beverages as an additional cancer risk factor beyond ethanol metabolism

    Monakhova Yulia B

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasing body of evidence now implicates acetaldehyde as a major underlying factor for the carcinogenicity of alcoholic beverages and especially for oesophageal and oral cancer. Acetaldehyde associated with alcohol consumption is regarded as 'carcinogenic to humans' (IARC Group 1, with sufficient evidence available for the oesophagus, head and neck as sites of carcinogenicity. At present, research into the mechanistic aspects of acetaldehyde-related oral cancer has been focused on salivary acetaldehyde that is formed either from ethanol metabolism in the epithelia or from microbial oxidation of ethanol by the oral microflora. This study was conducted to evaluate the role of the acetaldehyde that is found as a component of alcoholic beverages as an additional factor in the aetiology of oral cancer. Methods Salivary acetaldehyde levels were determined in the context of sensory analysis of different alcoholic beverages (beer, cider, wine, sherry, vodka, calvados, grape marc spirit, tequila, cherry spirit, without swallowing, to exclude systemic ethanol metabolism. Results The rinsing of the mouth for 30 seconds with an alcoholic beverage is able to increase salivary acetaldehyde above levels previously judged to be carcinogenic in vitro, with levels up to 1000 μM in cases of beverages with extreme acetaldehyde content. In general, the highest salivary acetaldehyde concentration was found in all cases in the saliva 30 sec after using the beverages (average 353 μM. The average concentration then decreased at the 2-min (156 μM, 5-min (76 μM and 10-min (40 μM sampling points. The salivary acetaldehyde concentration depends primarily on the direct ingestion of acetaldehyde contained in the beverages at the 30-sec sampling, while the influence of the metabolic formation from ethanol becomes the major factor at the 2-min sampling point. Conclusions This study offers a plausible mechanism to explain the increased risk for oral cancer associated with high acetaldehyde concentrations in certain beverages.

  13. Raman spectroscopic investigation of urinary calculi and salivary stones

    Full text: The capabilities and limitations of determining the composition of urinary calculi (34 patients) and salivary stones (27 patients) by Raman spectroscopy have been investigated by analysing Raman spectra obtained with 1064 nm laser excitation, and comparing them with Raman spectra both from specific reference substances and from a commercial Raman database. The composition results were also compared with those obtained by other analytical methods e.g. powder diffraction. Raman spectroscopy proves to be an analytical method which provides reliable results on the composition of urinary calculi and salivary stones quickly, non-destructively and without any need of sample preparation. (author)

  14. Radionuclide salivary imaging usefulness in a private otolaryngology practice

    Radionuclide salivary gland scans were performed on 44 patients using sodium pertechnetate Tc 99m. The accuracy of the scans and their usefulness in the clinical treatment of the patients were reviewed. The scan provided helpful information in 31 of 38 cases in which adequate follow-up data were available, although it proved diagnostic in only six patients. It was particularly useful in the evaluation of primary salivary gland neoplasms, acute and chronic sialadenitis, and sialolithiasis, as well as in the differential diagnosis of xerostomia. The value of this procedure in the elucidation of a variety of morphologic and functional diseases of these glands warrants its greater application in private otolaryngologic practices

  15. Minor salivary gland tumors of the upper aerodigestive tract

    This paper compares the outcome of minor salivary gland tumors of the upper aerodigestive tract according to treatment modalities. One hundred fourteen patients with minor salivary gland tumors were treated between 1961 and 1986. The median follow-up was 38 months (24-225 months). There were 35 paranasal sinus tumors (31%), 62 oral cavity tumors (54%), and 17 tumors of other sites (15%). Adenoid cystic carcinoma was the most common histologic type, accounting for 70 lesions (61%), followed by mucoepidermoid carcinoma, n = 28 (25%); adenocarcinoma, 15 (13%); and malignant mixed tumor, n = 1 (1%)

  16. A quantitative analysis of electrolyte exchange in the salivary duct

    Patterson, Kate; Catalán, Marcelo A.; James E. Melvin; Yule, David I.; Crampin, Edmund J.; Sneyd, James

    2012-01-01

    A healthy salivary gland secretes saliva in two stages. First, acinar cells generate primary saliva, a plasma-like, isotonic fluid high in Na+ and Cl−. In the second stage, the ducts exchange Na+ and Cl− for K+ and HCO3−, producing a hypotonic final saliva with no apparent loss in volume. We have developed a tool that aims to understand how the ducts achieve this electrolyte exchange while maintaining the same volume. This tool is part of a larger multiscale model of the salivary gland and ca...

  17. Congenital salivary gland anlage tumor - in utero and postnatal imaging

    We present a case of an infant with congenital salivary gland anlage tumor, with fetal and postnatal imaging. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case describing the in utero imaging findings of salivary gland anlage tumor. A fetal MRI was performed secondary to the clinical finding of polyhydramnios, which identified a nasopharyngeal mass. Because findings were concerning for airway obstruction, the fetus was delivered by ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) to airway procedure. A postnatal CT confirmed the findings of the fetal MRI. The lesion was resected when the baby was 4 days old and recovery was uneventful. (orig.)

  18. Congenital salivary gland anlage tumor - in utero and postnatal imaging

    Radhakrishnan, Rupa; Calvo-Garcia, Maria A.; Koch, Bernadette L. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Lim, Foong-Yen [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Pediatric Surgery, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Elluru, Ravindhra G. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Pediatric Otolaryngology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2015-03-01

    We present a case of an infant with congenital salivary gland anlage tumor, with fetal and postnatal imaging. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case describing the in utero imaging findings of salivary gland anlage tumor. A fetal MRI was performed secondary to the clinical finding of polyhydramnios, which identified a nasopharyngeal mass. Because findings were concerning for airway obstruction, the fetus was delivered by ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) to airway procedure. A postnatal CT confirmed the findings of the fetal MRI. The lesion was resected when the baby was 4 days old and recovery was uneventful. (orig.)

  19. Temporal Stability of the Salivary Microbiota in Oral Health

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Holmstrup, Palle; Jensen, Allan Bardow; Kokaras, Alexis; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Paster, Bruce J

    2016-01-01

    variation. The purpose of this study is to compare the salivary microbiome over time to determine the optimal time for sampling. DESIGN: Stimulated saliva samples were collected from 5 orally healthy individuals in 4 h intervals for 24 h, and collection was repeated 7 days later (number of samples per...... over time. CONCLUSIONS: Although there was considerable variation between subjects, microbial profiles within subjects were stable throughout a 24 hour period and after 1 week. Since there is little or no evidence of diurnal variation of the salivary microbiome, time of sampling of saliva is not...

  20. Assessment of Salivary Gland Function Using Salivary Scintigraphy in Pre and Post Radioactive Iodine Therapy in Diagnosed Thyroid Carcinoma Patients

    Badam, Raj Kumar; Suram, Jyotsna; Babu, Dara Balaji Gandhi; Marshal, Rahul; Bontha, Sharath Chandra; Lavanya, Reddy; Kanth, Sudheer

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Thyroid carcinoma represents less than 1% of all cancers. The first line of treatment for thyroid cancer is partial/total thyroidectomy. High-dose Iodine131 therapy using Iodine radioisotopes is commonly used in patients with well differentiated thyroid carcinoma after total thyroidectomy. In this process, the non-thyroidal tissues, such as, salivary gland, stomach and breast tissues also take up radioactive iodine. Salivary gland scintigraphy is widely accepted as a sensitive and valid method for evaluation of salivary gland dysfunction after Radioactive Iodine131 Therapy (RIT). Aim To assess and compare the salivary flow rates, relative uptake and ejection fractions in parotid and submandibular glands just before and one month after Iodine131 therapy. Materials and Methods The study was conducted on 24 patients diagnosed with well differentiated thyroid carcinoma who underwent partial/total thyroidectomy and were due for radioactive iodine therapy. These patients were divided into two groups based on the lesion based dosimetry (Group A: 60-100Gy; Group B: 100-150Gy). Salivary gland assessment was done by salivary gland scintigraphy before and after RIT. Statistical Analysis The data collected was tabulated and statistically analysed using SPSS software version16 using paired t-test and individual sample t-test. Results A statistically significant difference in the uptake percent and ejection fraction percent in the parotid and submandibular glands before RIT and one month after RIT was observed in the study. Conclusion We inferred from the study that there was an overall decrease in uptake percent and ejection fraction percent one month post RIT in both parotid and submandibular glands. Also, a statistically significant difference was noted in the uptake and ejection fraction percent between Group A and Group B concluding the fact that the damage is dose related. PMID:26894178

  1. Impaired salivary gland function after radiotherapy compounded by commonly prescribed medications

    Impaired salivary gland function can be a major cause of late morbidity following the treatment of head and neck cancer with radiotherapy. A large number of commonly prescribed medications can also reduce salivary gland function. We report three patients with already impaired salivary gland function following successful radiotherapy in whom additional prescribed medication led to an increased reduction in salivary flow, thus further impairing the quality of life of these patients. Stopping the medication resulted in subjective and objective improvement in salivary gland function. (author)

  2. Breast Cancer Exosome-like Microvesicles and Salivary Gland Cells Interplay Alters Salivary Gland Cell-Derived Exosome-like Microvesicles In Vitro

    Lau, Chang S.; Wong, David T. W.

    2012-01-01

    Saliva is a useful biofluid for the early detection of disease, but how distal tumors communicate with the oral cavity and create disease-specific salivary biomarkers remains unclear. Using an in vitro breast cancer model, we demonstrated that breast cancer-derived exosome-like microvesicles are capable of interacting with salivary gland cells, altering the composition of their secreted exosome-like microvesicles. We found that the salivary gland cells secreted exosome-like microvesicles enca...

  3. Studies of the effects of radiation or surgery on the salivary amylase activity and the isoamylase composition in salivary gland tumours

    The total amylase activity and the isoamylase composition of saliva were studied in patients with salivary gland tumours before and after treatment to evaluate the efficiency of treatment in terms of its ability to restore normal or nearly normal salivary function. The material for the study comprised 35 normal subjects, one case of mumps and eight cases of histologically proved salivary gland tumours, three of which received radiation treatment and one was subjected to total parotidectomy. It is observed that there is a marked deviation from normal in the total salivary amylase activity and the isoamylase pattern in mumps and untreated salivary gland tumours and some increase in amylase activity is noticeable after treatment of these tumours, the increase being more marked after surgery. The salivary isoamylase pattern restored to normal in case of mumps after recovery and in salivary gland tumour after surgery but not after irradiation. These findings suggest that in view of the deleterious effects of radiaton on salivary gland function, surgery is preferable to radiation as the treatment of choice. Further studies are underway to assess the utility of the heat labile salivary amylase fraction obseved in these cases in detecting recurrences. (author)

  4. Plasma amylase activity as a biochemical indicator of radiation injury to salivary glands

    Irradiation of the salivary glands produces a rapid increase of salivary amylase in serum, released by the highly radiation sensitive serous cells of the glands. Serial assays of salivary amylase in serum were performed in patients treated by radiation to the upper neck region. The changes observed were compared with the amount of salivary gland mass irradiated and with the dose fractionation modality used. The irradiated volume included either the entire salivary gland mass or less than 50 per cent of the gland. Two fractionation modalities were used: a conventional fractionation of 2 Gy per day, 5 times a week, or a multiple daily fractionation of 2 Gy, 3 times a day in two series of 4 days with a 4-day interval. Both parameters (salivary gland mass irradiated and fractionation modality used) significantly influenced the shape of the amylase curve in the serum. Serum amylase may therefore be considered a reliable biologic indicator of early injury to the salivary glands. (Auth.)

  5. A stepwise reduction in plasma and salivary nitrite with increasing strengths of mouthwash following a dietary nitrate load.

    Woessner, Mary; Smoliga, James M; Tarzia, Brendan; Stabler, Thomas; Van Bruggen, Mitch; Allen, Jason D

    2016-04-01

    Nitric Oxide (NO) bioavailability is essential for vascular health. Dietary supplementation with inorganic nitrate, which is abundant in vegetables and roots, has been identified as an effective means of increasing vascular NO bioavailability. Recent studies have shown a reduction in resting blood pressures in both normotensive and hypertensive subjects following ingestion of inorganic nitrate. Oral bacteria play a key role in this process and the use of strong antibacterial mouthwash rinses can disable this mechanism. Hence, mouthwash usage, a $1.4 billion market in the US, may potentially be detrimental to cardiovascular health. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of different strengths of commercially available mouthwash products on salivary and plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations following 8.4 mmol inorganic nitrate load (beetroot juice). Specifically, we examined the effects of Listerine antiseptic mouthwash, Cepacol antibacterial mouthwash, and Chlorhexidine mouthwash versus control (water). Twelve apparently healthy normotensive males (36 ± 11yrs) completed four testing visits in a randomized order, separated by one week. Testing consisted of blood pressure (BP), and saliva and venous blood collection at baseline and each hour for 4 h. Following baseline-testing participants consumed 140 ml of beet juice and then 15 min later gargled with 5 mL of assigned mouthwash. Testing and mouthwash rinse was repeated every hour for 4 h. Linear mixed effects models, followed by pairwise comparisons where appropriate, were used to determine the influence of treatment and time on plasma and saliva nitrate and nitrite, and BP. Plasma and salivary nitrate increased above baseline (time effect) for all conditions (p ≤ 0.01). There were time (p ≤ 0.01), treatment (p ≤ 0.01), and interaction (p ≤ 0.05) effects for plasma and salivary nitrite. There was a treatment effect on systolic BP (p ≤ 0.05). Further examination revealed a differentiation of plasma and salivary nitrite concentration between control/antiseptic and antibacterial/chlorhexidine treatments. When examined in this manner there was a reduction in both SBP (p ≤ 0.01) and mean arterial BP (p ≤ 0.05) from the antibacterial/chlorhexidine treatments. These results suggest a potentially differentiating effect of different commercially available mouthwash solutions on plasma and salivary nitrite concentrations and resting blood pressure responses. This raises potential public health related questions on the appropriate widespread usage of different mouthwash formulations. PMID:26778277

  6. What Happens After Treatment for Salivary Gland Cancer?

    ... Treatment of salivary gland cancer can sometimes cause problems such as trouble speaking or swallowing, dry mouth, or even tooth loss. ... who is trained in helping people with speech problems. Some people might need to learn new ways of speaking. The speech therapist can play a major role ...

  7. Effort Reward Imbalance, and Salivary Cortisol in the Morning

    Eller, Nanna Hurwitz; Nielsen, Søren Feodor; Blønd, Morten; Lindhardt Nielsen, Martin; Hansen, Åse Marie; Netterstrøm, Bo

    2012-01-01

    effects models with subject as a random effect and appropriate covariates were used to evaluate associations between the Effort Reward Model, and salivary cortisol at awakening (S0), and ACR. Results ERI was negatively and significantly associated with S0 for women and positively associated with ACR. S0...

  8. Ultrasonography-histopathology correlation in major salivary glands lesions.

    Petrovan, Cecilia; Nekula, Diana Maria; Mocan, Simona Liliana; Void?zan, Toader Septimiu; Co?arc?, Adina

    2015-01-01

    Major salivary glands display a various and complex pathology, showing different evolution and prognosis, depending on the histopathological form. The choice of an appropriate treatment plan for the best outcome, therefore the proper surgical approach, would imply preoperative knowledge of the histopathological diagnosis. However, any core-biopsy performed prior to surgery presents the risk of a false result and increases the difficulty of latter surgery. Therefore, some complementary examinations are used, among these, ultrasonography. The retrospective study (April 2010-March 2013) conducted in the Clinic of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Emergency County Hospital, Tirgu Mures, Romania, aims to evaluate the relevance of the ultrasonography by itself in leading towards a proper preoperative assessment and diagnosis, and thus, in choosing the proper treatment plan. The study included 33 lesions of the major salivary glands, undergoing first ultrasonography, then curative surgery. Different characteristics (shape, dimension, consistency, vascularization, homogeneity, delimitation) were assessed on ultrasonography as well as on histopathology; finally, the correlation between those two examinations was evaluated, by comparing diagnoses. The results of our study are similar to others, showing that ultrasonography can diagnose preoperatively the majority lesions of major salivary glands. The conclusions of the study sustain the importance of ultrasonography as a routine examination in major salivary glands lesions. PMID:26193218

  9. Sarcoidosis with salivary gland involvement: biochemical studies on parotid saliva.

    Beeley, J A; Chisholm, D M

    1976-08-01

    Parotid saliva from a patient suffering from sarcoidosis with salivary gland involvement has been shown to have a decreased level of alpha-amylase but increased levels of albumin and lysozyme. These observations suggest that in addition to impaired gland function, gland damage as a result of inflammation had occurred which permitted increased passage of constituents from serum into the gland secretion. PMID:956685

  10. [Salivary duct carcinoma--a clinicopathological analysis of five cases].

    Bień, Stanisław; Sygut, Jacek; Kopczyński, Janusz; Postuła, Sylwia; Ziółkowska, Magdalena

    2007-01-01

    The 5 cases of salivary duct carcinoma (SDC); very rare, but distinct group of highly malignant salivary gland tumor are presented, and difficulties with pathological and clinical diagnosis is discussed. The SDC developed in single cases in parotid salivary gland, submandibular salivary and in mucosa of maxillary sinus, pyriform fossa and oral cavity (check). In 3 cases the second malignant tumor was present--synchronously (SDC + pleomorphic adenoma in parotid gland; SDC + squamous cell carcinoma in hypopharynx) or metachroneously (squamous cell carcinoma of upper lip followed by SDC). In one case the high levels of PSA suggesting of metastases from unknown primary within the prostate gland, or PSA expression related to SDC was observed. The four patients received radical treatment - surgical resection followed by radiotherapy; in one case only palliative treatment was applied, due to patient's poor general condition and high advancement of the primary disease. The observation ranged from 10 to 77 months (average time--31 months). The one patient died 13 months after diagnosis and palliative treatment. The three patients are alive with distant metastases to the lung and bones (77, 38 and 18 months after primary treatment was completed). Only one patient with 10 months observation after treatment is living without symptoms of recurrence or metastases. PMID:17605416

  11. Distribution of Dendritic Cells in Normal Human Salivary Glands

    Dendritic cells (DC) are believed to contribute to development of autoimmune sialadenitis, but little is known about their distribution in normal salivary glands. In this study, DC were identified and their distribution was determined in normal human parotid and submandibular glands. For light microscopy, salivary gland sections were stained with H&E or immunocytochemically using antibodies to DC markers. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to evaluate the ultrastructural characteristics of DC. In H&E sections, elongated, irregularly shaped nuclei were occasionally seen in the striated and excretory duct epithelium. Immunolabeling with anti-HLA-DR, anti-CD11c and anti-S100 revealed DC with numerous processes extending between ductal epithelial cells, often close to the lumen. Morphometric analyses indicated that HLA-DR-positive DC occupied approximately 4–11% of the duct wall volume. Similar reactive cells were present in acini, intercalated ducts and interstitial tissues. TEM observations revealed cells with indented nuclei containing dense chromatin, pale cytoplasm with few organelles, and lacking junctional attachments to adjacent cells. These results indicate that DC are abundant constituents of normal human salivary glands. Their location within ductal and acinar epithelium suggests a role in responding to foreign antigens and/or maintaining immunological tolerance to salivary proteins

  12. Cortisol, salivary alpha-amylase and children's perceptions of their social networks.

    Ponzi, Davide; Muehlenbein, Michael P; Geary, David C; Flinn, Mark V

    2016-04-01

    In recent years there has been a growing interest in the use of social network analysis in biobehavioral research. Despite the well-established importance of social relationships in influencing human behavior and health, little is known about how children's perception of their immediate social relationships correlates with biological parameters of stress. In this study we explore the association between two measures of children's personal social networks, perceived network size and perceived network density, with two biomarkers of stress, cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase. Forty children (mean age = 8.30, min age = 5, and max age = 12) were interviewed to collect information about their friendships and three samples of saliva were collected. Our results show that children characterized by a lower pre-interview cortisol concentration and a lower salivary alpha-amylase reactivity to the interview reported the highest density of friendships. We discuss this result in light of the multisystem approach to the study of children's behavioral outcomes, emphasizing that future work of this kind is needed in order to understand the cognitive and biological mechanisms underlying children's and adolescents' social perceptual biases. PMID:25919481

  13. Changes in salivary cortisol levels as a prognostic predictor in children with anorexia nervosa.

    Shibuya, Ikuhiko; Nagamitsu, Shinichiro; Okamura, Hisayoshi; Komatsu, Hiroko; Ozono, Shuichi; Yamashita, Yushiro; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2011-11-01

    This study investigated the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity in children with anorexia nervosa (AN) before and after inpatient treatment. Salivary cortisol levels were measured to ascertain whether changes in the HPA axis activity following therapeutic intervention could be applicable as a prognostic predictor. This study comprised 21 females with AN and 22 control subjects. Saliva was collected at 2-hour intervals from 9 a.m. to 7 p.m. before and after inpatient treatment. The concentrations for areas under the curve (AUC) were compared with physical parameters, eating attitude score, profile of mood states (POMS), and prognostic factors. Mean salivary cortisol levels at all points and mean AUC cortisol levels in subjects with AN before therapy were significantly higher than those in controls, but returned to control levels after inpatient treatment. Higher AUC cortisol levels were associated with lower standard deviation for weight in AN. A significant positive correlation between the AUC cortisol level and POMS subscale of "Fatigue" was apparent in the control group, but not in the AN group. The increased change values of AUC cortisol level before and after inpatient treatment correlated with increased body weight gain ratio just after treatment, but not with the ratio after one year. The present study indicated that HPA axis activity could reflect severity of illness, but did not show an accurate neuroendocrine response for mood states. Changes in HPA axis activity following treatment could therefore be used to predict prognosis and particularly in the short term. PMID:21906636

  14. INFLUENCE OF MUSIC TYPE LISTENING ON ANAEROBIC PERFORMANCE AND SALIVARY CORTISOL IN MALES ATHLETES

    Mohammad Ghaderi.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Music has been widely recommended as a technique to enhance the psychophysical state of participants in sport and exercise. However, there is scant scientific evidence to clarify its proposed benefits. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of fast and slow rhythm of music on anaerobic performance and salivary cortisol concentration in trained men. Thirty male physical education college students (ages: 25.66±3.89 yr, height: 176.65 ± 7.66 cm, body mass: 78.45±16.20 kg voluntary participated in this study and divided to three groups: fast music, slow music, and no music(control. All subjects performed the coninghum test following a 20% grate and 14.3km/h speed on the treadmill. For measuring of cortisol, not stimulated samples of saliva collected, 15 minutes befor and immediately 5 and 30 minute after the exercise. No significant differences were found in anaerobic performance among the three groups in pretest indicating homogeneity of the groups. However, salivary cortisol no significant in anaerobic performance 5 and 30 minute after exercise as well. Summarily, Music doed not have a positive effect on performance, this study provided some support for the hypothesis that listening fast and slow music not significantly impacted during supramaximal exercise.

  15. The role of buffer anions and protons in secretion by the rabbit mandibular salivary gland

    Case, R M; Conigrave, A D; Favaloro, E J; Novak, I; Thompson, C H; Young, J A

    1982-01-01

    + absorption. However, when extracellular pH was controlled by replacing HCO3- with the hydrophilic HEPES buffer, fluid secretion but not ductal Na+ absorption was restored to normal. 4. Complete replacement of exogenous HCO3- with acetate increased fluid secretion by 110% and also stimulated ductal Na......+ absorption. This effect did not appear to be related to changes in cell pH and remains unexplained. Acetate entered the saliva in concentrations comparable to those seen for HCO3- in control experiments. 5. Salivary secretion showed an almost linear dependence on extracellular pH, rising from 14% of control...... (pH 7.4) levels at pH 6.2 to 130% at pH 7.8. Ductal Na+ absorption showed similar pH dependence. 6. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors did not affect fluid secretion rates (except when supramaximal doses of ACh were used to evoke secretion) but they did cause a large reduction in salivary HCO3- output. In...

  16. Salivary testosterone and EEG spectra of 9- to 11-year-old male children.

    Poblano, Adrian; Rothenberg, Stephen J; Fonseca, Maria Eugenia; Cruz, Maria Luisa; Flores, Teodoro; Zarco, Irma

    2003-01-01

    Although most investigators agree that there are electroencephalogram (EEG) changes with chronological age around puberty, no one has remarked on why this is so. As the increase in testosterone at the end of prepubertal childhood is a biomarker for the on-set of a period of accelerated growth and development, we searched for an association between testosterone level and the spectral power and topography of EEG. We tested 60 children between 9- and 11-years-old, each demonstrating normal neurological examination and Wechsler intelligence scale over 90. Salivary testosterone was measured using immunoenzymatic chemiluminescent assay. Children were divided into 3 groups according to measured testosterone level. EEG was processed with a Fast Fourier Transform; average of relative power spectral analyses were calculated and data divided into delta, theta, alpha, and beta bands. The principal finding was the highly significant interaction between EEG band and testosterone group, F(6, 171) = 4.54, Huynh-Feldt epsilon = 0.853, p =.001. Delta relative power decreased significantly and Alpha relative power increased significantly in the 2 groups with higher salivary testosterone concentration when compared to the lowest testosterone group. This work suggests that increased testosterone in prepubertal children can predict some of the same EEG changes that are usually associated with increased chronological age. PMID:12740191

  17. Silk formation mechanisms in the larval salivary glands of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    Elaine C M Silva-Zacarin; Regina L M Silva De Moraes; S R Taboga

    2003-12-01

    The mechanism of silk formation in Apis mellifera salivary glands, during the 5th instar, was studied. Larval salivary glands were dissected and prepared for light and polarized light microscopy, as well as for scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that silk formation starts at the middle of the 5th instar and finishes at the end of the same instar. This process begins in the distal secretory portion of the gland, going towards the proximal secretory portion; and from the periphery to the center of the gland lumen. The silk proteins are released from the secretory cells as a homogeneous substance that polymerizes in the lumen to form compact birefringent tactoids. Secondly, the water absorption from the lumen secretion, carried out by secretory and duct cells, promotes aggregation of the tactoids that form a spiral-shape filament with a zigzag pattern. This pattern is also the results of the silk compression in the gland lumen and represents a high concentration of macromolecularly well-oriented silk proteins.

  18. Morphological and protein analyses of adult female salivary glands of Anopheles barbirostris species A1 (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Phattanawiboon, B; Jariyapan, N; Roytrakul, S; Paemanee, A; Sor-suwan, S; Intakhan, N; Chanmol, W; Siriyasatien, P; Saeung, A; Choochote, W

    2014-12-01

    Morphology and protein profiles of female salivary glands of Anopheles barbirostris species A1 were analyzed. Female glands consisted of a distinctive tri-lobed structure connected to a main salivary canal, a single medial and two lateral lobes with proximal and distal portions. Cellular architecture was similar among the lobes, with secretory material appearing as large masses. Cells of the proximal-lateral lobes contained secretory masses with a finely filamentous aspect. In the distal-lateral lobes, cells had a dense secretory product with mottled pattern. Cells of the medial lobe had secretory masses which were uniformly stained and highly electron dense. Following emergence, the glands accumulated secretory material rapidly and developed completely within three days. Degenerative changes including loss of stored secretion and increase of cytoplasmic vacuolation and concentric lamellar structures were observed from day 16 post emergence that correlated with total amount of the salivary gland proteins determined during development. SDS-PAGE, nanoLC-MS, and glycoprotein analysis revealed at least eleven major protein bands, of which each morphological region contained different major proteins. Two glycoproteins, apyrase/5'-nucleotidase and D7, were identified. These results form a basis for further studies on details of cytopathological changes of malarial infected glands and roles of the proteins in disease transmission. PMID:25776608

  19. Research on plasma and saliva levels of some bivalent cations in patients with chronic periodontitis (salivary cations in chronic periodontitis).

    Manea, A; Nechifor, M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether chronic periodontitis can stand behind modifications in the salivary and blood concentration of some bivalent cations (Calcium, Magnesium, Zinc and Copper). For this purpose, we formed a group of 30 adult patients with clinically onset chronic periodontitis, and another one of 30 healthy patients as control. Both groups were free from acute oral pathology and general illnesses. The groups were divided again according to the habit of smoking. Total saliva samples were obtained as "first time in the morning", then weighed and processed. Cations were read on Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer and by Ion Chromatography (Magnesium). The same patients were required to undergo laboratory blood tests for Calcium, Magnesium and Zinc. Data obtained was normalised, then statistically interpreted using two-tailed heteroscedastic t-Student tests. Our data confirmed the existence of a connection between salivary calcium, magnesium, zinc and copper, and of blood magnesium, and chronic periodontitis. Salivary calcium and magnesium are affected by smoking. PMID:25076713

  20. Intracellular Ca2+ responses and cell volume regulation upon cholinergic and purinergic stimulation in an immortalized salivary cell line.

    Aure, Marit H; Røed, Asbjørn; Galtung, Hilde Kanli

    2010-06-01

    The water channel aquaporin 5 (AQP5) seems to play a key role in salivary fluid secretion and appears to be critical in the cell volume regulation of acinar cells. Recently, the cation channel transient potential vanilloid receptor 4 (TRPV4) was shown to be functionally connected to AQP5 and also to cell volume regulation in salivary glands. We used the Simian virus 40 (SV40) immortalized cell line SMG C10 from the rat submandibular salivary gland to investigate the effect of ATP and the neurotransmitter analogue carbachol on Ca(2+) signalling and cell volume regulation, as well as the involvement of TRPV4 in the responses. We used fura-2-AM imaging, cell volume measurements, and western blotting. Both carbachol and ATP increased the concentration of intracellular Ca(2+), but no volume changes could be measured. Inhibition of TRPV4 with ruthenium red impaired both ATP- and carbachol-stimulated Ca(2+) signals. Peak Ca(2+) signalling during hyposmotic exposure was significantly decreased following inhibition of TRPV4, while the cells' ability to volume regulate appeared to be unaffected. These results show that in the SMG C10 cells, simulation of nervous stimulation did not induce cell swelling, although the cells had intact volume regulatory mechanisms. Furthermore, even though Ca(2+) signals were not needed for this volume regulation, TRPV4 seems to play a role during ATP and carbachol stimulation. PMID:20572856

  1. Radioimmunoassay method suitable for analysis of salivary cortisol in patients with breast cancer in treatment by teletherapy - a preliminary study

    Determination of salivary cortisol using radioimmunoassay and the relationship between stress levels were investigated before and after of the psychological intervention of 21 patients during teletherapy treatment of breast cancer. The benefits of psychological intervention during cancer treatment has been observed in some studies and evidence show that the patient's emotional state directly influences adherence to treatment, good prognosis and under stress. Thus, in present study 21 patients aged 50-70 years, females in the treatment of breast cancer at the Radiotherapy Service of Santa Casa de Misericordia in Belo Horizonte, were divided randomly into two groups: control (without psychological intervention) and Group TCC (with psychological intervention). Salivary cortisol concentrations are reportedly about 5.10% of those in serum, the levels has been used as an objective marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and avoided the confounding effects of venepuncture stress on cortisol levels. The assessment of cortisol in saliva has proven a valid and reliable measure of unbound steroid in the circulation. The salivary cortisol measured by radioimmunoassay in control patients and TCC showed no significant differences. The radioimmunoassay method show be suitable for analysis of salivary cortisol because allows measure low detection limits and have high sensibility. The values of TCC group and Control group were higher than reference values, except for one patient of the control group. At the beginning of treatment, both groups were homogeneous for Teletherapy. Both the TCC group as the control group had . 80% of participants in phase with stress. It was observed in the TCC group after radiotherapy showing a reversal 60% of participants without stress. The data show that cognitive-behavioral therapy has benefits for the control of psychological stress and enhance relevance of the psychologist to provide reduction or stress control during radiation treatment without interfering with the integrity of the participants. (author)

  2. Radioimmunoassay method suitable for analysis of salivary cortisol in patients with breast cancer in treatment by teletherapy - a preliminary study

    Souza, Kellen Verena S. [Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear. Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Pampulha, MG (Brazil); Santos, Jane Lima dos [Departamento de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilheus, BA (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Determination of salivary cortisol using radioimmunoassay and the relationship between stress levels were investigated before and after of the psychological intervention of 21 patients during teletherapy treatment of breast cancer. The benefits of psychological intervention during cancer treatment has been observed in some studies and evidence show that the patient's emotional state directly influences adherence to treatment, good prognosis and under stress. Thus, in present study 21 patients aged 50-70 years, females in the treatment of breast cancer at the Radiotherapy Service of Santa Casa de Misericordia in Belo Horizonte, were divided randomly into two groups: control (without psychological intervention) and Group TCC (with psychological intervention). Salivary cortisol concentrations are reportedly about 5.10% of those in serum, the levels has been used as an objective marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and avoided the confounding effects of venepuncture stress on cortisol levels. The assessment of cortisol in saliva has proven a valid and reliable measure of unbound steroid in the circulation. The salivary cortisol measured by radioimmunoassay in control patients and TCC showed no significant differences. The radioimmunoassay method show be suitable for analysis of salivary cortisol because allows measure low detection limits and have high sensibility. The values of TCC group and Control group were higher than reference values, except for one patient of the control group. At the beginning of treatment, both groups were homogeneous for Teletherapy. Both the TCC group as the control group had . 80% of participants in phase with stress. It was observed in the TCC group after radiotherapy showing a reversal 60% of participants without stress. The data show that cognitive-behavioral therapy has benefits for the control of psychological stress and enhance relevance of the psychologist to provide reduction or stress control during radiation treatment without interfering with the integrity of the participants. (author)

  3. Evaluation of serum and salivary lipid profile: A correlative study

    Simranjit Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The correlation of serum and salivary lipid profile has been poorly characterized. The most commonly used laboratory diagnostic procedures for lipid profile involve analysis of cellular and chemical constituents of blood/plasma. As a diagnostic aid, saliva offers many advantages over serum. Aims: To evaluate and compare the serum and salivary lipid profile levels in healthy individuals and to validate the role of saliva as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for assessing lipid profile. Settings and Design: The present study was a prospective study. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 healthy study subjects who had no complaint or any major illness in recent past were selected. The parameters assessed included serum and salivary: total cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDLC, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDLC, very low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDLC and triglycerides (TGL. Statistical Analysis Used: Evaluation of results and statistical analysis was carried out using descriptive, correlation and regression analysis. Results: There was a moderate level of correlation between serum and salivary TC, TGL, HDLC and VLDLC and there was a low and quite small correlation between serum and salivary LDLC. For all the five parameters assessed as a part of lipid profile, the correlation coefficients were highly significant statistically and also, with an increase in the serum mean values, corresponding increase in the saliva mean values for all the five parameters was noted. Conclusions: From the present study we conclude that saliva can be used as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for assessing lipid profile.

  4. Analysis of the salivary microbiome using culture-independent techniques

    Lazarevic Vladimir

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The salivary microbiota is a potential diagnostic indicator of several diseases. Culture-independent techniques are required to study the salivary microbial community since many of its members have not been cultivated. Methods We explored the bacterial community composition in the saliva sample using metagenomic whole genome shotgun (WGS sequencing, the extraction of 16S rRNA gene fragments from metagenomic sequences (16S-WGS and high-throughput sequencing of PCR-amplified bacterial 16S rDNA gene (16S-HTS regions V1 and V3. Results The hierarchical clustering of data based on the relative abundance of bacterial genera revealed that distances between 16S-HTS datasets for V1 and V3 regions were greater than those obtained for the same V region with different numbers of PCR cycles. Datasets generated by 16S-HTS and 16S-WGS were even more distant. Finally, comparison of WGS and 16S-based datasets revealed the highest dissimilarity. The analysis of the 16S-HTS, WGS and 16S-WGS datasets revealed 206, 56 and 39 bacterial genera, respectively, 124 of which have not been previously identified in salivary microbiomes. A large fraction of DNA extracted from saliva corresponded to human DNA. Based on sequence similarity search against completely sequenced genomes, bacterial and viral sequences represented 0.73% and 0.0036% of the salivary metagenome, respectively. Several sequence reads were identified as parts of the human herpesvirus 7. Conclusions Analysis of the salivary metagenome may have implications in diagnostics e.g. in detection of microorganisms and viruses without designing specific tests for each pathogen.

  5. Studies On Quantitative Analysis Of Salivary Gland Using Computed Tomography

    The purpose of this study was to calculate the size and CT number of both normal parotid and submandibular gland, and evaluate its relation to sex, age and obesity using computed tomography. The computed tomography was performed parallel to the Frankfurt plane in 46 subjects with healthy salivary gland. The subjects were divided into the three groups (young, middle, old) according to their ages. The size of salivary gland was determined as maximum cross-sectional area and the CT number of salivary gland was determined as the mean CT number of three ROI's. The body mass index was calculated from weight and height. The mean maximum cross-sectional area was 7.79 (+/-1.26) cm2 on parotid gland and 4.12 (+/-0.83) cm2 on submandibular gland. The mean CT number was -4.43 (+/-23.87) HU on parotid gland and 50.01 (+/-15.63) HU on submandibular gland. There were decreasing pattern of the maximum cross-sectional area of submandibular gland and the CT number of both parotid and submandibular gland according to age (p<0.05). As the body mass index increased, the maximum cross-sectional area of parotid gland increased and CT number of both parotid and submandibular gland decreased (p<0.05). The maximum cross-sectional area of submandibular gland in male was larger than that in female (p<0.05). As the maximum cross-sectional area and CT number of left salivary gland increased, those of right gland increased (p<0.05). Intra-individual differences in salivary gland size and CT number is considered in the age and individual obesity.

  6. Titratable acidity of beverages influences salivary pH recovery

    Livia Maria Andaló TENUTA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A low pH and a high titratable acidity of juices and cola-based beverages are relevant factors that contribute to dental erosion, but the relative importance of these properties to maintain salivary pH at demineralizing levels for long periods of time after drinking is unknown. In this crossover study conducted in vivo, orange juice, a cola-based soft drink, and a 10% sucrose solution (negative control were tested. These drinks differ in terms of their pH (3.5 ± 0.04, 2.5 ± 0.05, and 5.9 ± 0.1, respectively and titratable acidity (3.17 ± 0.06, 0.57 ± 0.04 and < 0.005 mmols OH- to reach pH 5.5, respectively. Eight volunteers with a normal salivary flow rate and buffering capacity kept 15 mL of each beverage in their mouth for 10 s, expectorated it, and their saliva was collected after 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 s. The salivary pH, determined using a mini pH electrode, returned to the baseline value at 30 s after expectoration of the cola-based soft drink, but only at 90 s after expectoration of the orange juice. The salivary pH increased to greater than 5.5 at 15 s after expectoration of the cola drink and at 30 s after expectoration of the orange juice. These findings suggest that the titratable acidity of a beverage influences salivary pH values after drinking acidic beverages more than the beverage pH.

  7. Determination of arginine catabolism by salivary pellet

    M.A. Hoogenkamp

    2014-01-01

    Changing from the use of the toxic, environmentally hazardous, mercury containing Nessler's reagent to a colorimetric enzyme assay achieved a safer and greener determination of ammonium concentration.

  8. Nuclear hBD-1 accumulation in malignant salivary gland tumours

    Whereas the antimicrobial peptides hBD-2 and -3 are related to inflammation, the constitutively expressed hBD-1 might function as 8p tumour suppressor gene and thus play a key role in control of transcription and induction of apoptosis in malignant epithelial tumours. Therefore this study was conducted to characterise proteins involved in cell cycle control and host defence in different benign and malignant salivary gland tumours in comparison with healthy salivary gland tissue. 21 paraffin-embedded tissue samples of benign (n = 7), and malignant (n = 7) salivary gland tumours as well as healthy (n = 7) salivary glands were examined immunohistochemically for the expression of p53, bcl-2, and hBD-1, -2, -3. HBD-1 was distributed in the cytoplasm of healthy salivary glands and benign salivary gland tumours but seems to migrate into the nucleus of malignant salivary gland tumours. Pleomorphic adenomas showed cytoplasmic as well as weak nuclear hBD-1 staining. HBD-1, 2 and 3 are traceable in healthy salivary gland tissue as well as in benign and malignant salivary gland tumours. As hBD-1 is shifted from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in malignant salivary gland tumours, we hypothesize that it might play a role in the oncogenesis of these tumours. In pleomorphic adenomas hBD-1 might be connected to their biologic behaviour of recurrence and malignant transformation

  9. Accumulation of radioactivity in rat brain and peripheral tissues including salivary gland after intravenous administration of 14C-D-aspartic acid

    After the intravenous administration of 14C-D-aspartic acid (Asp) into Sprague-Dawley rats (male, 7-week-old), the distribution and elimination of radioactivity was investigated by the whole body autoradiography. High radioactivities were detected in pineal gland, pituitary gland and salivary gland at 30 min after administration. The other tissues detected were liver, lung, adrenal gland, pancreas and spleen where D-Asp was reported to occur naturally. After 24 hr, the radioactivities were still detected at high levels in the pineal, pituitary and salivary glands. The data suggested the natural occurrence of D-Asp in salivary gland. After careful examination utilizing fluorescent derivatization and chiral separation by high-performance liquid chromatography, the presence of D-Asp was, for the first time, demonstrated in salivary gland in situ, the concentration of which was 7.85 ± 1.0 nmol/g. The administration of 14C-L-Asp was also carried out. The data suggested that D-Asp in the circulating blood is one of the sources of the tissue D-Asp. (author)

  10. Accumulation of radioactivity in rat brain and peripheral tissues including salivary gland after intravenous administration of {sup 14}C-D-aspartic acid

    Imai, Kazuhiro; Fukushima, Takeshi; Santa, Tomofumi; Homma, Hiroshi [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences; Sugihara, Juko; Kodama, Hirohiko; Yoshikawa, Masayoshi

    1997-03-01

    After the intravenous administration of {sup 14}C-D-aspartic acid (Asp) into Sprague-Dawley rats (male, 7-week-old), the distribution and elimination of radioactivity was investigated by the whole body autoradiography. High radioactivities were detected in pineal gland, pituitary gland and salivary gland at 30 min after administration. The other tissues detected were liver, lung, adrenal gland, pancreas and spleen where D-Asp was reported to occur naturally. After 24 hr, the radioactivities were still detected at high levels in the pineal, pituitary and salivary glands. The data suggested the natural occurrence of D-Asp in salivary gland. After careful examination utilizing fluorescent derivatization and chiral separation by high-performance liquid chromatography, the presence of D-Asp was, for the first time, demonstrated in salivary gland in situ, the concentration of which was 7.85 {+-} 1.0 nmol/g. The administration of {sup 14}C-L-Asp was also carried out. The data suggested that D-Asp in the circulating blood is one of the sources of the tissue D-Asp. (author)

  11. Salivary antibodies induced by the seven-valent PncOMPC conjugate vaccine in the Finnish Otitis Media Vaccine Trial

    Palmu Arto AI

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mucosal antibodies have been suggested to have a role in defence against pneumococcal infections. We investigated here the ability of a seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, PncOMPC, to induce mucosal immune response. Methods Healthy Finnish children (n = 111, a subcohort of the Finnish Otitis Media Vaccine Trial, were recruited and 56 of them were immunised with the PncOMPC at the age of 2, 4, and 6 months. At 12 months of age, 49 of them received the PncOMPC and 7 were vaccinated with the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PncPS as a booster. The control group of 55 children received a hepatitis B vaccine at the same ages. Salivary anti-Pnc IgG, IgA, IgA1, and IgA2 antibodies to serotypes 6B, 14, 19F, and 23F were measured in both groups at the age of 7 and 13 months. Results Salivary anti-Pnc IgG and IgA were detected more often in the PncOMPC than in the control group. However, the difference between groups was significant only for 19F and 23F IgA concentrations at the age of 7 months. At the age of 13 months, antibody concentrations did not differ between PncOMPC and control groups. The rises in IgA concentrations between 7 and 13 months of age were mainly of subclass IgA1. Further, there is a clear trend that PncPS booster induces higher salivary anti-Pnc PS antibody concentrations than the PncOMPC. Conclusion We found that PncOMPC can induce a mucosal IgA response. However, the actual impact of mucosal antibodies in protection against pneumococcal infections is not clear.

  12. Elevada concentración de metabolitos de cotinina en hijos de padres fumadores High levels of cotinine metabolite in smoker's parents children

    Eduardo Lazcano-Ponce

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: La exposición al humo de tabaco de segunda mano (HTSM en niños y adultos puede ser común en oficinas gubernamentales, lugares de trabajo, vehículos y espacios públicos, pero es de particular importancia en el hogar. Los grados de exposición elevados en niños pueden constituirse como la principal justificación para restringir el tabaquismo dentro del hogar. El objetivo fue determinar los valores de HTSM mediante biomarcadores séricos en binomios padres- hijos menores de cinco años, en México, participantes de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud 2000. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se seleccionaron 76 binomios padres-hijos de hogares con adultos no fumadores y 83 binomios similares pero con adultos fumadores en el hogar. La selección se restringió a hogares donde hubiera presencia de niños menores de cinco años de edad. Las muestras séricas se analizaron por cromatografía líquida. Se construyeron modelos de correlación de exposición entre los binomios padres-hijos estratificados por el antecedente de tabaquismo en los padres. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de individuos con más de 15 ng/mL de cotinina en suero en los fumadores fue de 100%; la cuantificación mínima fue 18.50 y la máxima de 221.5 ng/mL. En los adultos, los valores séricos de cotinina fueron 50 veces mayores en los fumadores (107.4 ng/mL que en los no fumadores (1.99 ng/mL; similar observación a la referida tuvo la exposición a 3’-hidroxicotinina (0.69 en no fumadores vs. 33.59 ng/mL en adultos fumadores. Hubo una diferencia significativa tres veces mayor de valores de cotinina (0.19 vs. 0.60 ng/mL y de 3’-hidroxicotinina (0.06 vs. 0.19 ng/mL en los hijos de fumadores. CONCLUSIONES: A pesar de que existe diferencia significativa de HTSM en niños de padres fumadores, la exposición observada de HTSM en niños menores de cinco años de padres no fumadores también es relevante. En México se documenta por primera vez una elevada exposición al HTSM en niños, no sólo de padres fumadores sino también de padres no fumadores. Esto pone de relevancia que la exposición al HTSM no es sólo un problema de salud pública que se presenta en hogares de padres fumadores, sino que la exposición en niños mexicanos es frecuente en diversos lugares públicos. Es necesario implementar estudios adicionales en México para evaluar el impacto de intervenciones que garanticen hogares y espacios libres de humo de tabaco.INTRODUCTION: Children and adult exposure to SecondHand Smoke (SHS may occur in government offices, work and public places as well as in vehicles. Nevertheless, SHS is particularly important at home. High exposure levels in children may be the main reason to prevent parents and other family members from smoking at home. This study aims at establishing SHS levels by measuring biomakers in serum in pairs of parents and their younger than five years old children in Mexico, included in the 2000 National Health Survey. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventy-six parents-children pairs were taken from households with non smokers adults, as well as 83 pairs with adult smokers at home. Selection was limited to the adult population in households with children under five years old. Serum samples were analyzed through liquid chromatographic. Correlation exposure models between parents-children pairs were built and stratified according to parents’ background concerning smoking. RESULTS: In the smokers group, people with more than 15ng/mL of cotinine metabolites in serum showed prevalence of 100%. Minimum quantification was 18.50 and maximum 221.5ng/mL. In adults, cotinine metabolite levels in serun were 50 times higher in smokers (107.4ng/mL, than in non smokers (1.99 ng/mL. Concerning 3-hydroxycotinine, something similar was observed (0.60 in non smokers vs. 33.50 ng/mL in smokers. A significant difference three times higher in cotinine levels (0.10 vs. 0.60ng/mL and 3-hydroxycotinine (0.06 vs. 0.19ng/mL was found in those children with, at least, one of both parents who smoked. CONCLUSIONS: It is worthwhile noting that although there is a significant difference in ETS in children with both parents who smoke, the ETS found in children younger than five years old, from non smokers parents, is also important. This is the first time that high SHS in children from smokers and non smokers parents is documented in Mexico. This highlights the fact that SHS in Mexican children represents not only a public health problem in households with smokers; it also occurs frequently in different public places. Further studies must be carried on in Mexico and in the region in order to assess the impact of interventions which will guarantee households and public spaces free from SHS.

  13. Recent and long-term occupational noise exposure and salivary cortisol level

    Stokholm, Zara Ann; Hansen, se Marie; Grynderup, Matias Brdsgaard; Bonde, Jens Peter; Christensen, Kent Lodberg; Frederiksen, Thomas Winther; Lund, Sren Peter; Vestergaard, Jesper Medom; Kolstad, Henrik Albert

    2014-01-01

    -term occupational noise exposure and cortisol level measured off work to assess a possible sustained HPA-axis effect. We included 501 industrial, finance, and service workers who were followed for 24h during work, leisure, and sleep. Ambient occupational noise exposure levels were recorded every 5s by personal...... estimated the noise level at the ear. Salivary cortisol concentration was measured at 20.00 h, the following day at awakening, and 30 min after awakening on average 5, 14 and 14.5h after finishing work. The mean ambient noise exposure level was 79.9 dB(A) [range: 55.0-98.9] and the mean estimated level at...... observed no statistically significant exposure response relation between recent, or long-term ambient occupational noise exposure level and any cortisol parameter off work. This was neither the case for recent noise level at the ear. To conclude, neither recent nor long-term occupational noise exposure...

  14. Are changes in workplace bullying status related to changes in salivary cortisol?

    Gullander, Maria; Grynderup, Matias; Hansen, Åse Marie; Hogh, Annie; Persson, Roger; Kolstad, Henrik Albert; Mors, Ole; Kaerlev, Linda

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study aims to investigate whether incident workplace bullying and its dicontinuance is related to subsequent change in morning and evening saliva cortisol concentrations. METHODS: Participants came from two Danish cohort studies, the PRISME cohort (n=4489) and the Workplace...... Bullying and Harassment Cohort (n=3707). At baseline and follow-up exposure to bullying was measured by a single question on bullying (preceded by a definition). Two saliva samples to measure cortisol were collected during a work-day (30min after awakening and at 8p.m.). All participants responding to the...... item on workplace bullying, giving saliva samples and participated at both baseline and follow-up were included. The reference group consisted of non-bullied respondents at both baseline and follow-up. Multilevel mixed-effects linear regressions were used to test for changes in salivary cortisol after...

  15. Imaging of the salivary glands in children and adolescents

    In children and adolescents, imaging of the salivary glands is a valuable supplement to clinical examination in various diseases. The choice of the most appropriate radiological technique depends on patient compliance, the necessity of avoiding radiation exposure as far as possible, and the tentative diagnosis made on the basis of the clinical examination. Ultrasonography (US) is the method of choice for the detection of both acute inflammatory disease and masses in the salivary gland and the adjacent tissue. US can also be implemented as a screening method for calculi, though sialography is superior for this purpose. Sialography is the only technique that allows diagnosis and evaluation of the degree of chronic inflammation. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are required for more deeply located neoplasms of the parotid region. (orig.)

  16. Surgery for Malignant Sublingual and Minor Salivary Gland Neoplasms.

    Bradley, Patrick J; Ferris, Robert L

    2016-01-01

    Malignant sublingual gland neoplasms are rare, early-stage neoplasms presenting as painless non-ulcerated masses in the antero-lateral floor of the mouth. The majority of patients present with advanced disease, with symptoms of pain or anaesthesia of the tongue. Malignant minor salivary gland neoplasms are more common, the majority (>80%) of which present in the oral cavity, most frequently in the palatal area, as painless masses or as obstructive symptoms in the head and neck region. The most frequent pathologies are adenoid cystic carcinoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma (>85%), with the majority presenting at an advanced stage (III/IV). Wide tumour-free surgical margin excision is the treatment of choice, followed by radiotherapy, after discussion of the multidisciplinary head and neck cancer tumour board. Improvements in survival and quality of life have been achieved since the introduction of endoscopic and robotic surgeries for many minor salivary gland malignancies. PMID:27092950

  17. Diagnostic Challenge of a Deep Minor Salivary Gland Neoplasm

    Wagner, Vivian P.; Martins, Manoela D.; Genari, Bruna; do Amaral, Fernando B.; Maciel, Antônio C.; Martins, Marco A. T.; Munerato, Maria C.

    2014-01-01

    Core needle biopsy represents a safe and cheap alternative diagnostic method to open biopsy and fine-needle aspiration cytology in head and neck tumors. There is little evidence in the literature about the use of core needle biopsy in minor salivary gland lesions. This single case report presents a 60-year-old woman with a painless swelling in the soft palate, breathing and swallowing difficulties, and a feeling of suffocation. Two open biopsies had inconclusive diagnosis and the lesion could only be assessed and diagnosed as pleomorphic adenoma through core needle biopsy. Recognizing the correct indication of core needle biopsy can benefit both health professionals and patients; thus, it is important to consider the possibility of performing this method to diagnose minor salivary gland tumors. PMID:25002981

  18. Chikungunya Virus Replication in Salivary Glands of the Mosquito Aedes albopictus

    Anubis Vega-Rúa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is an emerging arbovirus transmitted to humans by mosquitoes such as Aedes albopictus. To be transmitted, CHIKV must replicate in the mosquito midgut, then disseminate in the hemocele and infect the salivary glands before being released in saliva. We have developed a standardized protocol to visualize viral particles in the mosquito salivary glands using transmission electron microscopy. Here we provide direct evidence for CHIKV replication and storage in Ae. albopictus salivary glands.

  19. Frozen Section as a Diagnostic Test for Major Salivary Gland Tumors

    Zahra Mokhtari; Leila Ojani; Shabnam Mortazavi; Hasty Borghei; Seyed Ziaodin Madani; Nasrin Yazdani; Leila V. Mostaan

    2012-01-01

    Major salivary gland tumors are uncommon and the exact nature of these tumors is not obvious. This study was carried out to compare the histological results of intraoperative frozen sections against those of permanent reports for major salivary glands masses. One hundred thirty-nine patients with major salivary gland masses who were candidates for surgery underwent an intraoperative frozen section biopsy. A permanent histological examination was then performed for definite diagnosis and its r...

  20. Chikungunya Virus Replication in Salivary Glands of the Mosquito Aedes albopictus.

    Vega-Rúa, Anubis; Schmitt, Christine; Bonne, Isabelle; Krijnse Locker, Jacomine; Failloux, Anna-Bella

    2015-11-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an emerging arbovirus transmitted to humans by mosquitoes such as Aedes albopictus. To be transmitted, CHIKV must replicate in the mosquito midgut, then disseminate in the hemocele and infect the salivary glands before being released in saliva. We have developed a standardized protocol to visualize viral particles in the mosquito salivary glands using transmission electron microscopy. Here we provide direct evidence for CHIKV replication and storage in Ae. albopictus salivary glands. PMID:26593936

  1. The influence of intensive physical training on salivary adipokine levels in Elite Rhythmic Gymnasts.

    Roupas, N D; Mamali, I; Armeni, A K; Markantes, G K; Theodoropoulou, A; Alexandrides, T K; Leglise, M; Markou, K B; Georgopoulos, N A

    2012-12-01

    Exercise challenges homeostasis and establishes a new dynamic equilibrium. Elite Rhythmic Gymnasts (RG's) begin exercise at an early age, undergo physical and psychological stress, and adopt negative energy balance to retain a lean physique. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of negative energy balance, acute and chronic exercise on salivary adiponectin, resistin and visfatin levels and their interaction with salivary cortisol, and insulin levels in elite RG's. This study is unique in character, as all variables were assessed on the field of competition. The study included 51 elite RG's participating in "Kalamata 2010 World Cup" in Kalamata, Greece on April 2010. Twenty-seven healthy age-matched girls were used as controls. Anthropometric values were assessed; baseline and post exercise salivary cortisol, insulin, adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin levels were measured. Comparisons regarding hormonal features between RG's and controls were adjusted for BMI and body fat percentage. Salivary adiponectin levels were higher (p<0.05) and visfatin lower (p=0.094) in RG's compared with controls, while no significant changes were observed regarding salivary cortisol, insulin, and resistin levels. In elite RG's acute intensive anaerobic exercise led to increased salivary insulin levels (p<0.001), reduced salivary adiponectin (p<0.001) and visfatin levels (p<0.05), and no changes in salivary resistin levels. Moreover, diurnal variation of salivary cortisol was lost. In elite RG's salivary adiponectin is upregulated and salivary visfatin is downregulated after chronic intensive exercise and negative energy balance, while both salivary adiponectin and visfatin levels are suppressed after short term intensive anaerobic exercise. PMID:22864904

  2. Pharmacology of serotonin-induced salivary secretion in Periplaneta americana

    Blenau, Wolfgang; Troppmann, Britta; Walz, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    The acinar salivary gland of the cockroach, Periplaneta americana, is innervated by dopaminergic and serotonergic nerve fibers. Stimulation of the glands by serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) results in the production of a protein-rich saliva, whereas stimulation by dopamine results in saliva that is protein-free. Thus, dopamine acts selectively on ion-transporting peripheral cells within the acini, and 5-HT acts on protein-producing central cells. We have investigated the pharmacology of ...

  3. Clinical management of salivary deficiency: A review article

    The physical, chemical and antibacterial properties of saliva provide protection to human dentition against dental diseases, Therefore, salivary deficiency has to be managed carefully. The causes of saliva deficiency are many and varied. It is worth mentioning that saliva flow rate is normally affected by physiologic condition, such as eating, resting, sleeping, cold or hot season etc. In this paper the protective role of saliva, etiologiy of saliva deficiency and its clinical management are discussed. (author

  4. Morphogenesis of normal human salivary gland cells in vitro

    Azuma, M.; M. Sato

    1994-01-01

    Primary cultured human salivary gland cells were transfected with ori-defective mutant DNA of SV40. Following 2-3 weeks of transfection, slowly expanding colonies consisting of small compact cells emerged, while mock-transfected cells did not grow any more and eventually entered crisis, followed by cell death. Using limited dilution technique, we isolated 4 cell clones with distinct morphology from a single colony. Morphological observation of cells cultured on...

  5. Subjective Stress, Salivary Cortisol, and Electrophysiological Responses to Psychological Stress

    Mingming QI; Gao, Heming; Guan, Lili; Liu, Guangyuan; YANG, JUAN

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the subjective stress, salivary cortisol, and electrophysiological responses to psychological stress induced by a modified version of a mental arithmetic task. Fifteen participants were asked to estimate whether the multiplication product of two-decimal numbers was above 10 or not either with a time limit (the stress condition) or without a time limit (the control condition). The results showed that participants reported higher levels of stress, anxiety,...

  6. Salivary Glands Disorders Assessed by Sialography and Sialo-CT

    Jahanbakhsh Hashemi

    2009-01-01

      "nIn this lecture we discuss salivary glands pathologies which were assessed by sialo-CT and sialography in Imam Reza Hospital, Mashad University of Medical Sciences. Besides this lecture we will show the exhibition of "Beautiful Radiology" that is adapted from the British Journal of Radiology. These pictures were created by using X-Ray machines as cameras. The photographs are of the internal structures of plants, revealing the beauty of natural farms invisible to the human ey...

  7. Influence of mirtazapine on salivary cortisol in depressed patients

    Laakmann, G.; J. Hennig; Baghai, Thomas C.; Schule, C.

    2003-01-01

    Unlike other antidepressants, mirtazapine does not inhibit the reuptake of norepinephrine or serotonin but acts as an antagonist at presynaptic alpha(2)-receptors, at postsynaptic 5-HT2 and 5-HT3 receptors, and at histaminergic H1 receptors. Furthermore, mirtazapine has been shown to acutely inhibit cortisol secretion in healthy subjects. In the present study, the impact of mirtazapine treatment on salivary cortisol secretion was investigated in 12 patients (4 men, 8 women) suffering from maj...

  8. Malignant Salivary Glands Tumors in Kerman Province: A Retrospective Study

    M.S. Hashemi Pour; Zarei, R.; G. Chamani; Rad, M.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Malignant salivary glands tumors (MSGTs) are uncommon cancers. The most common site of these cancers is the parotid gland. Some investigations show these cancers preference for males than females. The majority of MSGTs arise in sixth decade of human life. According to the literature review for the present work, there is a few epidemiological researches about MSGTs in Iran and especially there isn't any study in Kerman province. So the aim of this study was investigation the inci...

  9. Salivary and serum antibodies in experimental canine taeniasis.

    Kinder, A; Carter, S D; Allan, J; Marshall-Clarke, S; Craig, P S

    1992-03-01

    Specific IgG and IgA antibodies against adult Taenia pisiformis excretory/secretory antigen were detected in sera and saliva by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in experimentally infected dogs. IgG titres in serum and IgA in saliva corresponded with infection status, while serum IgA levels closely reflected faecal egg counts. The salivary IgA response was particularly raised and could have significant immunodiagnostic use for taeniasis in dogs. PMID:1502792

  10. Tick salivary secretion as a source of antihemostatics

    Chmelař, Jindřich; Calvo, E.; Pedra, J. H. F.; Francischetti, I.M.B.; Kotsyfakis, Michalis

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 13 (2012), s. 3842-3854. ISSN 1874-3919 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/12/2409 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Tick * Salivary gland * Hemostasis * Coagulation * Platelet aggregation * Thrombin Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.088, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S187439191200245X

  11. Salivary function in patients with chronic renal failure undergoing hemodialysis

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in salivary gland function in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) undergoing hemodialysis. The group consisted of 23 patients with CRF (13 female, 10 male; mean age: 40±13 yr) and 14 healthy control subjects (mean age: 40±13 yr). All underwent dynamic salivary gland scintigraphy with gustatory stimulation. After intravenous administration of 99mTc pertechnetate, first, perfusion images at 2 seconds per frame were acquired for 1 minute, then dynamic images at 1 minute per frame were acquired for 45 minutes. At 30 minutes after injection , 10 ml lemon juice was given for 15 minutes as a gustatory stimulus. We obtained time-activity curves derived from regions of interest centered over the four major salivary glands. The following functional indices were calculated for each gland: the time of maximum radioactivity (Tmax) for the prestimulated period, the time of minimum radioactivity (Tmin), as an indicator of velocity of secretion after stimulation, and the Lem E5% value as an indicator of the secretion function. When the patients with CRF undergoing hemodialysis were compared to the controls, there were statistically significant differences in Tmax, Tmin and Lem E5% values for bilateral parotid glands, and Tmin values for bilateral submandibular glands (pmax and Lem E5% values for bilateral submandibular glands. There were also significant differences in Tmax and Lem E5% values for bilateral parotid glands between mild oral problems and severe oral problems in patients with CRF (undergoing hemodialysis). In this study, prolonged Tmax and Tmin values, and decreased Lem E5% values for parotid glands and prolonged Tmin values for submandibular glands on salivary scintigraphy pointed out decreased parenchymatous and excretory function in patients with CRF undergoing hemodialysis. (author)

  12. Wearable salivary uric acid mouthguard biosensor with integrated wireless electronics

    Kim, Jayoung; Imani, Somayeh; de Araujo, William R.; Warchall, Julian; Valdés-Ramírez, Gabriela; Paixão, Thiago R. L. C.; Mercier, Patrick P; Wang, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    This article demonstrates an instrumented mouthguard capable of non-invasively monitoring salivary uric acid (SUA) levels. The enzyme (uricase)-modified screen printed electrode system has been integrated onto a mouthguard platform along with anatomically-miniaturized instrumentation electronics featuring a potentiostat, microcontroller, and a Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) transceiver. Unlike RFID-based biosensing systems, which require large proximal power sources, the developed platform enable...

  13. Salivary Biomarkers in the Control of Mosquito-Borne Diseases

    Souleymane Doucoure; Papa Makhtar Drame

    2015-01-01

    Vector control remains the most effective measure to prevent the transmission of mosquito-borne diseases. However, the classical entomo-parasitological methods used to evaluate the human exposure to mosquito bites and the effectiveness of control strategies are indirect, labor intensive, and lack sensitivity in low exposure/transmission areas. Therefore, they are limited in their accuracy and widespread use. Studying the human antibody response against the mosquito salivary proteins has provi...

  14. Human herpes virus 6 and endogenous biotin in salivary glands.

    Green, M.; Sviland, L; Taylor, C. E.; Peiris, M.; McCarthy, A. L.; Pearson, A. D.; Malcolm, A. J.

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: To detect the presence of human herpes virus 6 (HHV6) and endogenous biotin in paraffin wax embedded and frozen salivary glands. METHODS: Two stage indirect and streptavidin-biotin immunoperoxidase techniques were used to visualise the antigens. RESULTS: HHV6 could not be shown in any of the tissues. However, considerable endogenous biotin antigenicity was detected in the glandular elements of the paraffin wax embedded material. CONCLUSIONS: Results obtained with avidin-biotin detection...

  15. My Journey into the World of Salivary Gland Sebaceous Neoplasms

    Gnepp, Douglas R.

    2012-01-01

    As part of this symposium honoring Leon Barnes, the authors were asked to present the case from which they learned the most. I chose a cystic sebaceous lymphadenoma (SL) as my case presentation. This paper presents this unusual case, as well as several additional sebaceous tumors that came across my desk the first few years I was in practice. These interesting cases led me to thoroughly review the literature on sebaceous tumors of the salivary glands, resulting in several publications, the la...

  16. Evaluation of Salivary Secretory Immunoglobulin A Levels in Diabetic Patients and Association with Oral and Dental Manifestations

    Shahla Kakoei; Bahareh Hosseini; Ali-Akbar Haghdoost; Mojgan Sanjari; Ahmad Gholamhosseinian; Afshar, Vahid F. N.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Oral and dental manifestations in diabetic patients can arise due to numerous factors, including elevated salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (s-IgA) levels. This study aimed to evaluate s-IgA concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and to investigate the association between s-IgA levels and oral and dental manifestations of T2DM. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out between October 2011 and September 2012 in Kerman, I...

  17. Characterization of salivary alpha-amylase binding to Streptococcus sanguis

    Scannapieco, F.A.; Bergey, E.J.; Reddy, M.S.; Levine, M.J. (State Univ. of New York, Buffalo (USA))

    1989-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the major salivary components which interact with oral bacteria and to determine the mechanism(s) responsible for their binding to the bacterial surface. Strains of Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, and Actinomyces viscosus were incubated for 2 h in freshly collected human submandibular-sublingual saliva (HSMSL) or parotid saliva (HPS), and bound salivary components were eluted with 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate. By sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western transfer, alpha-amylase was the prominent salivary component eluted from S. sanguis. Studies with {sup 125}I-labeled HSMSL or {sup 125}I-labeled HPS also demonstrated a component with an electrophoretic mobility identical to that of alpha-amylase which bound to S. sanguis. Purified alpha-amylase from human parotid saliva was radiolabeled and found to bind to strains of S. sanguis genotypes 1 and 3 and S. mitis genotype 2, but not to strains of other species of oral bacteria. Binding of ({sup 125}I)alpha-amylase to streptococci was saturable, calcium independent, and inhibitable by excess unlabeled alpha-amylases from a variety of sources, but not by secretory immunoglobulin A and the proline-rich glycoprotein from HPS. Reduced and alkylated alpha-amylase lost enzymatic and bacterial binding activities. Binding was inhibited by incubation with maltotriose, maltooligosaccharides, limit dextrins, and starch.

  18. Quantitative assessment of irradiated salivary gland by sequential sialoscintigraphy

    Salivary gland function of patients which received radiotherapy was evaluated quantitatively by sequential sialoscintigraphy. Materials were 31 cases with malignant tumor in the head and neck. After intravenous injection of 10 mCi of 99mTc pertechnetate, the data were stored in a computer system from 0 to 50 minute. Lemon juice was given at 30 minute. 5 ROIs, which were designed on 4 major salivary glands and forehead for a background, were made. Uptake ratio (Ku), excretion ratio (Ke) and excretion velocity (Ve) were calculated by each time activity curve. Before irradiation, Ku, Ke and Ve were 67 ± 10 (%), 69 ± 14 (%) and 0.49 ± 0.20 (1/min)(parotid gland), 70 ± 8 (%), 54 ± 13 (%) and 0.35 ± 0.15 (1/min)(submandibular gland) respectively. The value of Ku showed little change after irradiation, but Ke and Ve significantly decreased according to radiation dose. The parotid gland were affected by radiation more than the submandibular gland. We concluded that sequential sialoscintigraphy was a useful examination for evaluating dysfunction of the irradiated salivary gland. (author)

  19. Characterization of salivary alpha-amylase binding to Streptococcus sanguis

    The purpose of this study was to identify the major salivary components which interact with oral bacteria and to determine the mechanism(s) responsible for their binding to the bacterial surface. Strains of Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, and Actinomyces viscosus were incubated for 2 h in freshly collected human submandibular-sublingual saliva (HSMSL) or parotid saliva (HPS), and bound salivary components were eluted with 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate. By sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western transfer, alpha-amylase was the prominent salivary component eluted from S. sanguis. Studies with 125I-labeled HSMSL or 125I-labeled HPS also demonstrated a component with an electrophoretic mobility identical to that of alpha-amylase which bound to S. sanguis. Purified alpha-amylase from human parotid saliva was radiolabeled and found to bind to strains of S. sanguis genotypes 1 and 3 and S. mitis genotype 2, but not to strains of other species of oral bacteria. Binding of [125I]alpha-amylase to streptococci was saturable, calcium independent, and inhibitable by excess unlabeled alpha-amylases from a variety of sources, but not by secretory immunoglobulin A and the proline-rich glycoprotein from HPS. Reduced and alkylated alpha-amylase lost enzymatic and bacterial binding activities. Binding was inhibited by incubation with maltotriose, maltooligosaccharides, limit dextrins, and starch

  20. Aquaporin expression patterns in the developing mouse salivary gland.

    Larsen, Helga S; Ruus, Ann-Kristin; Galtung, Hilde Kanli

    2009-12-01

    Little is known about the presence of the various membrane-located water channels, aquaporins (AQP), during the prenatal and postnatal development of the mouse submandibular salivary gland (SMG). To learn more about AQPs in the developing aspect of salivary glands, we investigated trends in the expression patterns of several AQPs using the embryonic, early postnatal, and young adult mouse SMGs as models. We have chosen AQPs previously found in salivary glands in other animals. Transcripts of AQPs 1, 3, 4, 5, and 8 were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and quantified. Aquaporin proteins 1, 3, 4, and 5, but not AQP protein 8, were detected and quantified using western blotting. The various AQPs showed distinct transcript and protein-expression patterns. The change in trends may indicate that the importance of the various AQPs varies throughout the developmental stages in the mouse SMG. Their presence might be related to cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, apoptosis, transepithelial transport, osmosensing, or cell volume regulation; all roles that in the literature are linked to the various AQPs. Overall, this study demonstrates that AQP presentation varies and has a specific expression pattern during the development of mouse SMG. This feature may be important for glandular anatomical and physiological development. PMID:20121927

  1. Aquaporins in the adult mouse submandibular and sublingual salivary glands.

    Aure, Marit H; Ruus, Ann-Kristin; Galtung, Hilde K

    2014-02-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) is a family of membrane bound water channels found in most tissues. In addition to contribute to transepithelial water movement, AQPs are shown to be involved in a variety of processes such as proliferation, cell migration, and apoptosis. In salivary glands, it is well known that AQP5 plays an important role in fluid secretion. In recent years, several AQPs that demonstrate specific expression trends during development have been found in the mouse submandibular gland (SMG). In this study, we wanted to further investigate the presence and localization of the AQP family in the adult mouse SMG in addition to the less studied sublingual gland. Real time PCR and Western blot demonstrated the presence of AQP3, 4, 8, 9, and 11 transcripts and proteins. AQP1 and AQP7 were shown to be localized in endothelial cells, while AQP4 was found in the satellite cells of the parasympathetic ganglia in both glands. The result from this study shows that AQPs are found in defined subpopulations of cells in salivary glands, providing novel insights to their specific roles in salivary glands. PMID:23880985

  2. Prognostic significance of Ki-67 in salivary gland carcinomas

    Larsen, Stine Rosenkilde; Bjørndal, Kristine; Godballe, Christian; Krogdahl, Annelise

    2012-01-01

    J Oral Pathol Med (2012) Background:  Salivary gland carcinomas are a heterogeneous group of tumors with varying malignant potential. In this study, we evaluated the proliferative marker Ki-67 in salivary gland carcinomas and related the Ki-67 index to clinical data. Methods:  A total of 176...... salivary gland carcinomas of 13 different subtypes were stained immunohistochemically for Ki-67. The number of Ki-67 positive cells was counted and the Ki-67 index was calculated as the percentage of positive tumor cells. Results:  The Ki-67 median value was 26 (range 1-99). The median follow-up time was 6.......9 years (range 0-19 years). The 5- and 10-year crude survival was 70% and 59%, respectively. In univariate analysis, Ki-67 index, stage, vascular invasion and tumor grade were significantly related to crude survival, but in multivariate analysis only Ki-67 index, age, and stage were independent prognostic...

  3. SALIVARY CORTISOL CHANGES IN CHILDREN DURING DENTAL EXTRACTIONS

    Vivek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental environment may be a source of stress for young children. Such stressful conditions may provoke fear and anxiety in children. Therefore stress factor is high in children visiting dentists and this stress may increase or decrease in the subsequent visits that follow dependent upon to what they are exposed to , during these visits especially high anxiety provoki ng procedures like dental extractions. Cortisol , called also stress hormone participates in organisms response to stress situations and enters into complex interactions with the hormonal and immune system of a man. The salivary cortisol levels were inve stigated in 60 children who were divided into study and control groups respectively. The control group was not subjected to any treatment except for collection of saliva. Children belonging to the study group were subjected to dental extraction as indicate d and were performed in three scheduled appointments. Saliva samples were collected from all the children during all the appointments. Salivary cortisol levels were evaluated using the ELISA kit supplied by Salimetrics. The results indicated that the saliv ary cortisol levels increased in the study group when compared to the control groups and within the study group the salivary cortisol levels in the second appointment were on a higher level when compared to the first and third appointments

  4. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE FACIAL ARTERY AND SUB MANDIBULAR SALIVARY GLAND

    S.V.Venugopal,

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of relationship between the facial artery and submandibular salivary gland is essential for the surgeon operating in the submandibular region. This study has been under taken to have the knowledge of this relationship. Submandibular region has been dissected on 20 male cadavers in the Department of Anatomy, Sree Narayana Institute of Medical Sciences, Kerala. The course of the facial artery and its relationship to submandibular salivary gland has been followed carefully. The standard description of ascent of the facial artery along the entire length of posterior border of the submandibular salivary gland was seen in 15 out of the 20 sides studied. In 4 out of 20 sides dissected the facial artery reached only the upper part of the posterior border of the gland. The facial artery arose high on the external carotid artery near the angle of the mandible in one specimen. It reached the gland only at its postero-superior angle, pierced through the gland and emerged on the upper part of the lateral surface of the gland. Our study shows that only 1/5 of instances facial artery courses along the posterior border of the gland. In 4/5 of instances it reaches only the upper part of the posterior border.

  5. Pleomorphic adenoma of an accessory submandibular salivary gland: a rare entity.

    Desai, Rajiv S; Meshram, Deepashree; Jangam, Sagar S; Singh, Jatinder S

    2015-10-01

    An accessory submandibular salivary gland is a rare anatomical variant, and a tumour within one is even rarer. We describe a 54-year-old man who presented with a slowly-enlarging mass in the right submandibular region which on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) seemed to be close to, but not arising from, the right submandibular salivary gland. This was found to be a benign pleomorphic adenoma arising from an accessory submandibular salivary gland. To our knowledge it is only the second report of a pleomorphic adenoma that developed within an accessory submandibular salivary gland. PMID:26123656

  6. Salivary type alpha-amylase activity in serum and in urine of patients with lung adenocarcinoma

    Total alpha-amylase activity in sera and urine of 30 patients with lung adenocarcinoma has been tested. The results were compared with control group of 30 healthy voluntaries. The activity of pancreatic type was differentiated from salivary alpha amylase. Salivary type was inhibited selectively by Triticum aestivum. Higher levels of total and salivary type amylase were noted in patients with lung adenocarcinoma in comparison to healthy control. The increase was significant (p<0.005). Correlation was observed between the activity of salivary type amylase and the stage of adenocarcinoma. (author)

  7. On the receptors which mediate the hyperpolarization of salivary gland cells of Nauphoeta cinerea Olivier.

    Ginsborg, B L; House, C R; Silinsky, E M

    1976-11-01

    The actions of sympathomimetics and of catecholamine antagonists have been investigated on the membrane potential and responses to nerve stimulation of acinar cells of the salivary gland of Nauphoeta cinerea Olivier. 2. Hyperpolarizations such as those evoked by nerve stimulation and by low concentrations of adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine were not produced by the alpha-agonists amidephrine and methoxamine. Isoprenaline was active, but only in concentrations above 100 muM. 3. Tyramine, an indirectly acting sympathomimetic, and high concentrations of methoxamine caused an increase in the rate of the small transient hyperpolarizations sometimes seen in the absence of stimulation. 4. The response to nerve stimulation was unaffected by propranolol (20 muM) an alpha-adrenergic antagonist. Phentolamine, an alpha-adrenergic antagonist, reduced matching responses to nerve stimulation and to dopamine to about the same extent. 5. As on other systems responsive to low concentrations of dopamine, apomorphine was active, although only in high concentration, and ergometrine and methysergide were antagonistic both to nerve stimulation and to dopamine. PMID:11342

  8. Morphogenesis of normal human salivary gland cells in vitro.

    Azuma, M; Sato, M

    1994-10-01

    Primary cultured human salivary gland cells were transfected with ori-defective mutant DNA of SV40. Following 2-3 weeks of transfection, slowly expanding colonies consisting of small compact cells emerged, while mock-transfected cells did not grow any more and eventually entered crisis, followed by cell death. Using limited dilution technique, we isolated 4 cell clones with distinct morphology from a single colony. Morphological observation of cells cultured on plastic dishes precisely revealed the characteristics of the constituent cells of salivary gland; i.e., three cell clones showing cuboidal- (NS-SV-DC), spindle- (NS-SV-MC), and flattened morphology (NS-SV-SC) were similar to duct-, myoepithelial-, and squamous phenotype, respectively. A remaining cell clone, polygonal in shape and with numerous secretory granules (NS-SV-AC), resembled an acinar cell. Characterization of cell clones by ultrastructural examination and search for specific antigens showed the similarity of NS-SV-DC, NS-SV-MC, NS-SV-AC, and NS-SV-SC to duct, myoepithelial, acinar, and squamous cells, respectively. Anchorage-independent growth in soft agar and tumorigenicity in nude mice were not recognized in all cell clones. These results demonstrate that establishment of cell clones with duct-, myoepithelial-, acinar-, or squamous phenotype was accomplished in the in vitro system, and that based on the evaluation of colony-forming ability in soft agar and tumorigenicity in nude mice these cell clones can be considered to be non-tumorigenic. Using the above in vitro system, we examined the effect of a reconstituted basement membrane extract, Matrigel, on the morphogenesis of cultured normal human salivary gland cells. When NS-SV-DC or NS-SV-MC were seeded on Matrigel in serum-free culture conditions, they formed round or zonal clusters on day 1; failing however, to develop into a salivary gland morphogenesis. Semithin sections of cell clones cultured on Matrigel exhibited multicellular aggregates on day 1, while on days 2 and 3 these cells lost both cell-cell and cell-Matrigel interactions and eventually entered crisis. In an attempt to understand the mechanism involved in this phenomenon, we have investigated proteolytic enzymes and their inhibitors secreted by cell clones. Although cell clones produced almost identical levels of gelatinases, they released increased amounts of plasminogen activators (PAs) as compared with a neoplastic human salivary gland cell line (HSG), which had already been demonstrated to differentiate into acinar cells when cultured on Matrigel. Obvious difference of expression level of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) was not observed in these cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7894150

  9. Determination of the Nicotine Metabolites Cotinine and Trans-3′-Hydroxycotinine in Biologic fluids of Smokers and Non-Smokers using Liquid Chromatography - Tandem Mass Spectrometry: Biomarkers for Tobacco Smoke Exposure and for Phenotyping Cytochrome P450 2A6 Activity

    Jacob, Peyton; Yu, Lisa; Duan, Minjiang; Ramos, Lita; Yturralde, Olivia; Benowitz, Neal L.

    2010-01-01

    The nicotine metabolite cotinine is widely used to assess the extent of tobacco use in smokers, and secondhand smoke exposure in non-smokers. The ratio of another nicotine metabolite, trans-3′-hydroxycotinine, to cotinine in biofluids is highly correlated with the rate of nicotine metabolism, which is catalyzed mainly by Cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6). Consequently, this nicotine metabolite ratio is being used to phenotype individuals for CYP2A6 activity and to individualize pharmacotherapies f...

  10. Salivary Immuno Factors, Cortisol and Testosterone Responses in Athletes of a Competitive 5,000 m Race.

    Li, Chia-Yang; Hsu, Gi-Sheng; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Ko, Miau-Hwa; Fang, Shih-Hua

    2015-08-31

    The exercise-stress model can be a model of temporary immunosuppression that occurs after severe physical and psychological stress. It also allows for the study of interactions between the endocrine and the immune systems. This study examined changes in salivary hormonal and immune factors in athletes in response to physical and psychological stress in a 5,000 m running competition. Eighteen endurance-trained runners (9 males and 9 females) participated in this study. All participants completed a competitive 5,000 m race. Saliva samples were collected 10 min before (PRE) and 10 min after (POST) the competition. Saliva was analyzed for α-amylase activity, concentrations of salivary immunoglobulin A (SIgA), lactoferrin, cortisol, testosterone and total protein. Although the concentrations of salivary TP, SIgA, lactoferrin, cortisol and α-amylase activity were significantly increased immediately after a competitive 5,000 m race, the secretion rates of these factors were not significantly altered in both male and female groups. Additionally, basal levels of SIgA and α-amylase activity were significantly higher in female runners than in male runners. This gender difference still existed after the race. The secretion rates of testosterone decreased significantly after the race in the male, but not in the female group. Moreover, testosterone-to-cortisol (T/C) ratios were significantly lower post-competition compared to pre-competition in both male and female athletes. The T/C ratio had been used as a performance index for athletes. Whether there are correlations between these changes of their physiological characteristics and better running performance need further investigations. PMID:26211650

  11. Influence of prone positioning on premature newborn infant stress assessed by means of salivary cortisol measurement: pilot study

    Cândia, Maria Fernanda; Osaku, Erica Fernanda; Leite, Marcela Aparecida; Toccolini, Beatriz; Costa, Nicolle Lamberti; Teixeira, Sandy Nogueira; Costa, Claudia Rejane Lima de Macedo; Piana, Pitágoras Augusto; Cristovam, Marcos Antonio da Silva; Osaku, Nelson Ossamu

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study sought to assess the influence of prone positioning on the stress of newborn premature infants through the measurement of the salivary cortisol concentration and the evaluation of physiological and behavioral responses before and after changes in body positioning. Methods Saliva samples were collected from newborn infants at two different times: the first (corresponding to the baseline) after a period of 40 minutes during which the infants were not subjected to any manipulation and were placed in the lateral or supine position, and the second 30 minutes after placement in the prone position. Variables including heart rate, respiratory rate, peripheral oxygen saturation, and the Brazelton sleep score were recorded before, during, and at the end of the period in the prone position. Results The sample comprised 16 newborn premature infants (56.3% male) with a gestational age between 26 and 36 weeks, postnatal age between 1 and 33 days, birth weight of 935 to 3,050g, and weight at the time of intervention of 870 to 2,890g. During the intervention, six participants breathed room air, while the remainder received oxygen therapy. The median salivary cortisol concentration was lower in the prone position compared to baseline (0.13 versus 0.20; p=0.003), as was the median Brazelton sleep score (p=0.02). The average respiratory rate was lower after the intervention (54.88±7.15 versus 60±7.59; p=0.0004). The remainder of the investigated variables did not exhibit significant variation. Conclusion Prone positioning significantly reduced the salivary cortisol level, respiratory rate, and Brazelton sleep score, suggesting a correlation between prone positioning and reduction of stress in preterm infants. PMID:25028952

  12. Sialolipoma of the parotid gland: Case report with literature review comparing major and minor salivary gland sialolipomas

    Sohail Qayyum

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sialolipoma is a rare tumor found within both major and minor salivary glands. Here we discuss sialolipoma of the parotid gland and briefly review the English literature. Including our case, a total of 35 sialolipomas have been reported, 18 within major salivary glands and 17 within minor salivary glands. Major gland sialolipomas most often are presented in the parotid gland (77% and those from minor glands were most often seen in the palate (41%. All lesions were well circumscribed and contained mature adipose tissue intimately admixed with benign salivary gland components. Ductal dilatation was found in 100% of minor salivary gland sialolipomas but in only 28% of major salivary gland tumors. Nerve entrapment has also rarely been noted in major salivary glands (14% whereas myxoid degeneration has been identified in rare minor salivary glands tumors (13%. Treatment is surgical excision and is curative with no reports of recurrence.

  13. A survey of schoolchildren's exposure to secondhand smoke in Malaysia

    Turner Stephen W

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a lack of data describing the exposure of Malaysian schoolchildren to Secondhand Smoke (SHS. The aim of this study is to identify factors influencing schoolchildren's exposures to SHS in Malaysia. Method This cross-sectional study was carried out to measure salivary cotinine concentrations among 1064 schoolchildren (10-11 years attending 24 schools in Malaysia following recent partial smoke-free restrictions. Parents completed questionnaires and schoolchildren provided saliva samples for cotinine assay. Results The geometric mean (GM salivary cotinine concentrations for 947 non-smoking schoolchildren stratified by household residents' smoking behaviour were: for children living with non-smoking parents 0.32 ng/ml (95% CI 0.28-0.37 (n = 446; for children living with a smoker father 0.65 ng/ml (95% CI 0.57-0.72 (n = 432; for children living with two smoking parents 1.12 ng/ml (95% CI 0.29-4.40 (n = 3; for children who live with an extended family member who smokes 0.62 ng/ml (95% CI 0.42-0.89 (n = 33 and for children living with two smokers (father and extended family member 0.71 ng/ml (95% CI 0.40-0.97 (n = 44. Parental-reported SHS exposures showed poor agreement with children's self-reported SHS exposures. Multiple linear regression demonstrated that cotinine levels were positively associated with living with one or more smokers, urban residence, occupation of father (Armed forces, parental-reported exposure to SHS and education of the father (Diploma/Technical certificate. Conclusions This is the first study to characterise exposures to SHS using salivary cotinine concentrations among schoolchildren in Malaysia and also the first study documenting SHS exposure using salivary cotinine as a biomarker in a South-East Asian population of schoolchildren. Compared to other populations of similarly aged schoolchildren, Malaysian children have higher salivary cotinine concentrations. The partial nature of smoke-free restrictions in Malaysia is likely to contribute to these findings. Enforcement of existing legislation to reduce exposure in public place settings and interventions to reduce exposure at home, especially to implement effective home smoking restriction practices are required.

  14. Radioimmunoassay of salivary cyclosporine with use of 125I-labeled cyclosporine

    We prepared 125I-labeled cyclosporine (125I-CS) by modifying the procedure of Mahoney and Orf and characterized it with regards to maximal immunoreactivity (greater than 90%), trichloroacetic acid precipitability (greater than 90%), and stability (90% immunoreactive after five half-lives of 125I). For a particular preparation of 125I-CS, we estimated its immunoreaction concentration (50 pmol/L) and the equilibrium constant for its reaction with Sandoz polyclonal antiserum (K = 3.9 X 10(9) L/mol). By substituting 125I-CS as tracer in the Sandoz radioimmunoassay and by modifying other aspects of the assay, we developed a procedure that is sufficiently sensitive (0.34 micrograms/L) to allow measurement of trough (lowest inter-dose) cyclosporine concentrations in parotid saliva. Of 38 kidney-transplant patients, 35 had measurable concentrations in saliva (mean 8.3, SD 5.2 micrograms/L), and these correlated moderately with paired serum concentrations (r = 0.68, P less than 0.001). We believe that measurement of salivary cyclosporine may offer a simple way of estimating the free fraction of the drug in serum or plasma

  15. Receptors for the Neuropeptides, Myoinhibitory Peptide and SIFamide, in Control of the Salivary Glands of the Blacklegged Tick Ixodes scapularis

    imo, Ladislav; Ko?i, Juraj; PARK, YOONSEONG

    2013-01-01

    Tick salivary glands are important organs that enable the hematophagous feeding of the tick. We previously described the innervation of the salivary gland acini types II and III by a pair of protocerebral salivary gland neurons that produce both myoinhibitory peptide (MIP) and SIFamide (imo et al., 2009b). In this study we identified authentic receptors expressed in the salivary glands for these neuropeptides. Homology-based searches for these receptors in the Ixodes scapularis genome sequen...

  16. Individual Differences in AMY1 Gene Copy Number, Salivary α-Amylase Levels, and the Perception of Oral Starch

    Mandel, Abigail L.; Peyrot des Gachons, Catherine; Plank, Kimberly L.; Alarcon, Suzanne; Breslin, Paul A.S.

    2010-01-01

    Background The digestion of dietary starch in humans is initiated by salivary α-amylase, an endo-enzyme that hydrolyzes starch into maltose, maltotriose and larger oligosaccharides. Salivary amylase accounts for 40 to 50% of protein in human saliva and rapidly alters the physical properties of starch. Importantly, the quantity and enzymatic activity of salivary amylase show significant individual variation. However, linking variation in salivary amylase levels with the oral perception of star...

  17. Evaluation of Salivary Nitric Oxide Levels in Smokers, Tobacco Chewers and Patients with Oral Lichenoid Reactions

    Jose, Joy Idiculla; Sivapathasundharam, B.; Sabarinath, B.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nitric oxide (NO), a free radical, acts as a signalling molecule affecting numerous physiological and pathological processes. Role of nitric oxide as a mediator in tobacco related habits and the resultant oral lichenoid reactions was assessed. Aim The aim of the study is to evaluate and compare the salivary nitric oxide levels in normal patients with that of smokers, tobacco chewers and patients with oral lichenoid reactions. Materials and Methods One hundred and twenty patients were enrolled in the study which included 30 healthy patients without any chronic inflammatory lesion and habit as controls (group I), 30 smokers without the habit of tobacco/betel nut chewing and any oral lesion (group II), 30 tobacco chewers without the habit of smoking and any oral lesion (group III) and 30 histologically confirmed cases of oral lichenoid reaction with the habit of tobacco usage (group IV). Saliva from these patients was collected and the nitrite concentration was assessed. Results Our results concluded that there was highly significant increase in the nitric oxide levels in smokers, tobacco chewers and patients with oral lichenoid reactions compared to that of controls. Also, there was a significant increase in nitric oxide levels in patients with smoking associated oral lichenoid reactions in comparison with smokers and in patients with lichenoid reactions associated with tobacco chewing in comparison with tobacco chewers. Conclusion Estimation of salivary nitric oxide levels is a simple, non-invasive procedure and could be analysed to suggest the role of nitric oxide in the pathogenesis of these lesions. The increased activity of the enzyme may indicate that nitric oxide has a pathophysiological role in these lesions. PMID:26894179

  18. Stress and salivary cortisol during pregnancy

    Obel, Carsten; Hedegaard, Morten; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Secher, Niels Jrgen; Olsen, Jrn; Levine, S

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether exposure to stressful life events was associated with changes in levels of circulating cortisol during pregnancy in a population of 603 pregnant women. The participating pregnant women filled out a questionnaire and collected a morning and evening...... exposed to more than one life event or were concerned about pregnancy complications during second trimester had a higher evening cortisol level, whereas morning values were unaffected. After adjustment for smoking women who experienced more than one very stressful life event had 27% higher evening...... cortisol concentrations (95% confidence intervals: 1-59%). Women with worries about pregnancy complications had 27% (95% confidence intervals: 2-57%) higher levels. In early pregnancy women reporting stressful life events did not have higher evening cortisol levels, but tended to have a blunted morning HPA...

  19. Stress and salivary cortisol during pregnancy

    Obel, Carsten; Hedegaard, Morten; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Secher, Niels Jrgen; Olsen, Jrn; Levine, S

    2005-01-01

    exposed to more than one life event or were concerned about pregnancy complications during second trimester had a higher evening cortisol level, whereas morning values were unaffected. After adjustment for smoking women who experienced more than one very stressful life event had 27% higher evening......The purpose of this study was to determine whether exposure to stressful life events was associated with changes in levels of circulating cortisol during pregnancy in a population of 603 pregnant women. The participating pregnant women filled out a questionnaire and collected a morning and evening...... cortisol concentrations (95% confidence intervals: 1-59%). Women with worries about pregnancy complications had 27% (95% confidence intervals: 2-57%) higher levels. In early pregnancy women reporting stressful life events did not have higher evening cortisol levels, but tended to have a blunted morning HPA...

  20. GENES EXPRESSED EXCLUSIVELY IN THE SALIVARY GLANDS OF THE FIRST INSTAR LARVAE OF HESSIAN FLY

    Several families of genes that are exclusively expressed in the salivary glands of the first instar larvae have been identified and characterized by sequencing clones from a Hessian fly [Mayetiola destructor (Say)] salivary cDNA library. All of these genes encode putative proteins with secretion sig...

  1. Mass spectrometry based proteomic analysis of salivary glands of urban malaria vector Anopheles stephensi.

    Vijay, Sonam; Rawat, Manmeet; Sharma, Arun

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland proteins of Anopheles mosquitoes offer attractive targets to understand interactions with sporozoites, blood feeding behavior, homeostasis, and immunological evaluation of malaria vectors and parasite interactions. To date limited studies have been carried out to elucidate salivary proteins of An. stephensi salivary glands. The aim of the present study was to provide detailed analytical attributives of functional salivary gland proteins of urban malaria vector An. stephensi. A proteomic approach combining one-dimensional electrophoresis (1DE), ion trap liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS), and computational bioinformatic analysis was adopted to provide the first direct insight into identification and functional characterization of known salivary proteins and novel salivary proteins of An. stephensi. Computational studies by online servers, namely, MASCOT and OMSSA algorithms, identified a total of 36 known salivary proteins and 123 novel proteins analysed by LC/MS/MS. This first report describes a baseline proteomic catalogue of 159 salivary proteins belonging to various categories of signal transduction, regulation of blood coagulation cascade, and various immune and energy pathways of An. stephensi sialotranscriptome by mass spectrometry. Our results may serve as basis to provide a putative functional role of proteins in concept of blood feeding, biting behavior, and other aspects of vector-parasite host interactions for parasite development in anopheline mosquitoes. PMID:25126571

  2. Unraveling dual feeding associated molecular complexity of salivary glands in the mosquito Anopheles culicifacies.

    Sharma, Punita; Sharma, Swati; Mishra, Ashwani Kumar; Thomas, Tina; Das De, Tanwee; Rohilla, Suman Lata; Singh, Namita; Pandey, Kailash C; Valecha, Neena; Dixit, Rajnikant

    2015-01-01

    Mosquito salivary glands are well known to facilitate meal acquisition, however the fundamental question on how adult female salivary gland manages molecular responses during sugar versus blood meal uptake remains unanswered. To investigate these responses, we analyzed a total of 58.5 million raw reads generated from two independent RNAseq libraries of the salivary glands collected from 3-4?day-old sugar and blood fed Anopheles culicifacies mosquitoes. Comprehensive functional annotation analysis of 10,931 contigs unraveled that salivary glands may encode diverse nature of proteins in response to distinct physiological feeding status. Digital gene expression analysis and PCR validation indicated that first blood meal significantly alters the molecular architecture of the salivary glands. Comparative microscopic analysis also revealed that first blood meal uptake not only causes an alteration of at least 12-22% of morphological features of the salivary glands but also results in cellular changes e.g. apoptosis, confirming together that adult female salivary glands are specialized organs to manage meal specific responses. Unraveling the underlying mechanism of mosquito salivary gene expression, controlling dual feeding associated responses may provide a new opportunity to control vector borne diseases. PMID:26163527

  3. Radiation-Induced Salivary Gland Dysfunction Results From p53-Dependent Apoptosis

    Purpose: Radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer causes adverse secondary side effects in the salivary glands and results in diminished quality of life for the patient. A previous in vivo study in parotid salivary glands demonstrated that targeted head-and-neck irradiation resulted in marked increases in phosphorylated p53 (serine18) and apoptosis, which was suppressed in transgenic mice expressing a constitutively active mutant of Akt1 (myr-Akt1). Methods and Materials: Transgenic and knockout mouse models were exposed to irradiation, and p53-mediated transcription, apoptosis, and salivary gland dysfunction were analyzed. Results: The proapoptotic p53 target genes PUMA and Bax were induced in parotid salivary glands of mice at early time points after therapeutic radiation. This dose-dependent induction requires expression of p53 because no radiation-induced expression of PUMA and Bax was observed in p53-/- mice. Radiation also induced apoptosis in the parotid gland in a dose-dependent manner, which was p53 dependent. Furthermore, expression of p53 was required for the acute and chronic loss of salivary function after irradiation. In contrast, apoptosis was not induced in p53-/- mice, and their salivary function was preserved after radiation exposure. Conclusions: Apoptosis in the salivary glands after therapeutic head-and-neck irradiation is mediated by p53 and corresponds to salivary gland dysfunction in vivo

  4. Sex Differences in Salivary Cortisol, Alpha-Amylase, and Psychological Functioning Following Hurricane Katrina

    Vigil, Jacob M.; Geary, David C.; Granger, Douglas A.; Flinn, Mark V.

    2010-01-01

    The study examines group and individual differences in psychological functioning and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity among adolescents displaced by Hurricane Katrina and living in a U.S. government relocation camp (n = 62, ages 12-19 years) 2 months postdisaster. Levels of salivary cortisol, salivary

  5. Salivary gland hypertrophy viruses (SGHVs): a novel group of insect pathogenic viruses

    Salivary gland hypertrophy viruses (SGHVs) are a unique, unclassified group of entomopathogenic, double-stranded DNA viruses that have been reported from three genera of Diptera. These viruses replicate in nuclei of salivary gland cells in adult flies, inducing gland enlargement with little obvious ...

  6. Value of fine-needle aspiration biopsy of salivary gland lesions

    Christensen, Rikke Klby; Bjrndal, Kristine; Godballe, Christian; Krogdahl, Annelise

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the utility of fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) in the diagnosis and treatment planning of the lesions of the salivary gland. METHODS: Eight hundred seventy-nine aspiration biopsies of the lesion of the salivary gland over a 10-year period, from...

  7. Adrenergic effects on secretion of amylase from the rat salivary glands

    Poulsen, Steen Seier; Nexø, Ebba

    1988-01-01

    , pancreatic juice and serum demonstrated that the major component in serum is salivary amylase. This study has shown that beta-adrenergic agents stimulate secretion of amylase from the salivary glands in rats. Though the secretion is mainly exocrine small amounts of amylase is found in serum, which seems to...

  8. The influence of a magnesium-rich marine extract on behaviour, salivary cortisol levels and skin lesions in growing pigs.

    O'Driscoll, K; O'Gorman, D M; Taylor, S; Boyle, L A

    2013-06-01

    Growing pigs can display undesirable behaviours, reflecting or causing poor welfare. Addition of magnesium (Mg) to the diet could reduce these, as Mg supplementation has been associated with improved coping ability in response to stress. This study examined the effect of supplementation with a Mg-rich marine extract-based product (Supplement) on the behaviour, skin and tail lesion scores and salivary cortisol concentrations of growing pigs. At weaning (28 days), 448 piglets were assigned to either Control or Supplement (0.05%) diets in single-sex groups of 14. Four weeks later (c. 17 kg), pigs were blocked according to weight and back test scores. Seven piglets from each pen were mixed with seven from another pen of the same sex and dietary treatment to yield the following groups: control male, Supplement male, control female and Supplement female (n = 4 of each). This marked the start of the 9-week experimental period. Instances of the following behaviours were recorded in each pen for 8 × 2 min periods 1 day/week: aggression (fight, head-knock and bite); harmful (tail-in-mouth, ear-chewing and belly-nosing); and sexual/mounting behaviour. Four focal pigs were selected from each pen, and their behaviour was continuously recorded for 2 × 5 min periods on the same day. Saliva was collected once per week at 1000 h by allowing pigs to chew on a cotton bud for c. 1 min. Salivary cortisol was analysed in duplicate by an enzyme immunoassay. Skin and tail lesions were scored according to severity 1 day/week. There were fewer aggressive incidents in Supplement pens (P < 0.01), and mounting behaviour (performed only by males) was almost three times lower in Supplement than in control pens (P < 0.01). However, there was no effect of Supplement on the incidence of each of the harmful behaviours. Behaviour of the focal pigs showed no treatment effect on the duration or incidence of aggressive behaviour. However, Supplement pigs spent less time performing harmful behaviours compared with control pigs (P < 0.001). Supplement had no effect on the occurrence or severity of tail-biting outbreaks or on tail lesion scores. However, Supplement females had lower skin lesion scores, in particular in the ears and shoulders (P < 0.01). Finally, Supplement pigs had lower salivary cortisol concentrations (P < 0.01). Mounting is a major welfare concern in uncastrated pigs, and therefore this represents an important welfare benefit of Supplement. Reduced salivary cortisol, in conjunction with reduced skin lesion scores in supplemented females, suggests that addition of a Mg-rich marine extract improved pig welfare in this system. PMID:23253104

  9. Daytime Secretion of Salivary Cortisol and Alpha-Amylase in Preschool-Aged Children with Autism and Typically Developing Children

    Kidd, Sharon A.; Corbett, Blythe A.; Granger, Douglas A.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Anders, Thomas F.; Tager, Ira B.

    2012-01-01

    We examined daytime salivary cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) secretion levels and variability in preschool-aged children with autism (AUT) and typically developing children (TYP). Fifty-two subjects (26 AUT and 26 TYP) were enrolled. Salivary samples were obtained at waking, midday, and bedtime on two consecutive days at three phases…

  10. Daytime Secretion of Salivary Cortisol and Alpha-Amylase in Preschool-Aged Children with Autism and Typically Developing Children

    Kidd, Sharon A.; Corbett, Blythe A.; Granger, Douglas A.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Anders, Thomas F.; Tager, Ira B.

    2012-01-01

    We examined daytime salivary cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) secretion levels and variability in preschool-aged children with autism (AUT) and typically developing children (TYP). Fifty-two subjects (26 AUT and 26 TYP) were enrolled. Salivary samples were obtained at waking, midday, and bedtime on two consecutive days at three phases

  11. Influence of Type 2 Diabetes on Prevalence of Key Periodontal Pathogens, Salivary Matrix Metalloproteinases, and Bone Remodeling Markers in Sudanese Adults with and without Chronic Periodontitis

    Mohamed, Hasaan Gassim; Idris, Shaza Bushra; Mustafa, Manal; Ahmed, Mutaz Faisal; Åstrøm, Anne Nordrehaug; Mustafa, Kamal; Ibrahim, Salah Osman

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the influence of type 2 diabetes on the occurrence of six periodontal pathogens in plaque samples of patients with and without chronic periodontitis. Levels of salivary MMP-8, MMP-9, RANKL, and OPG were also investigated. The study enrolled 31 patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic periodontitis (DM + CP), 29 with chronic periodontitis (CP), and 20 with type 2 diabetes (DM). Questionnaire-guided interviews were conducted and plaque index, bleeding on probing, and pocket depth were recorded. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was utilized to determine the prevalence of the bacteria. The levels of salivary molecules were determined by enzyme immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The CP group had the highest prevalence of P. gingivalis (81.5%), followed by the DM + CP (59.3%) and DM (55.0%) groups (P > 0.05). Similar trends were observed for P. intermedia and T. denticola. The prevalence of T. forsythia was 100% in both periodontitis groups compared to 90% in the DM group. There were no significant differences between the groups regarding the concentrations of MMP-8, MMP-9, or OPG. RANKL concentrations were below the detection limit. Our data show that type 2 diabetes has no significant influence on the prevalence of the investigated periodontal pathogens, or the levels of salivary MMP-8, MMP-9, and OPG.

  12. Reduction of radiation-induced damage to salivary gland by bone marrow derived stem cells

    Irradiation of the salivary glands can result in severe side effects that reduce the patient's quality of life. Late damage to the salivary glands is mainly caused by exhaustion of the tissue's stem cells. Post-irradiation replacement of salivary gland stem cells with healthy donor stem cells may reduce complications. Bone marrow derived stem cells (BMSC) have been show to be multipotent and engraft in many tissue after injury. In this study we assessed the potential of BMSC to reduce irradiation-induced salivary gland damage. The salivary glands of wild type C57Bl/6 mice were locally irradiated with 20 Gy. Thirty days later, BMSC from transgenic eGFP+ C57Bl/6 mice were transplanted by i.v. injection or by direct injection into the salivary glands. In addition, animals were transplanted with eGFP + bone marrow after 9.5 Gy TBI excluding the salivary glands. Subsequently, the animals were locally irradiated to the salivary gland with 20 Gy. Thirty days later i.v. G-CSF mobilised eGFP + bone marrow derived stem cells to the peripheral blood. Again thirty days after mobilisation, the salivary gland were harvested. eGFP + cells were detected by confocal laser fluorescence scanning microscopy and flow cytometry and H and E histology was performed. eGFP + cells were detected in the salivary gland after all protocols. The number of eGFP + cells in irradiated salivary glands was highest in animals treated with G-CSF. Intraglandular transplantation, in contrast, was successful only in 1 out of 8 attempts. Immuno-histochemistry using a-SM-actin antibodies showed the close vicinity of actin and eGFP within the cells, demonstrating the occurrence of BMSC derived myoepithelial cells in irradiated salivary gland. Further, cell-type specific antibodies will reveal the nature of all eGFP + cells. H and E histology revealed improved gland morphology in animals treated with G-CSF after irradiation when compared to the non-treated animals. These preliminary results indicate that bone marrow-derived cells home to severely damaged salivary glands after transplantation/mobilisation. Hence, BMSC transplantation could become a promising modality to ameliorate radiation-induced complications in salivary glands after radiotherapy

  13. Clinical Performance of a Salivary Amylase Activity Monitor During Hemodialysis Treatment

    Masaru Shimazaki

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The hemodialysis procedure is thought to be a physical stressor in the majority of hemodialyzed patients. Previous studies suggest that elevated salivary amylase level may correlate with increased plasma norepinephrine level under psychological and physical stress conditions. In this study, we investigated biological stress reactivity during hemodialysis treatment using salivary amylase activity as a biomarker. Seven patients (male/female = 5/2, age:67.7+ /− 5.9 years who had been receiving regular 4 h hemodialysis were recruited. Salivary amylase activity was measured using a portable analyzer every hour during the hemodialysis session. Salivary amylase activity was shown to be relatively stable and constant throughout hemodialysis, whereas there were significant changes in systolic blood pressure and pulse rate associated with blood volume reduction. Our results show that hemodialysis treatment per se dose not affect salivary amylase activity.

  14. Incidence of symptomatic salivary disease in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer treated with radioactive iodine

    Background: The radioactive iodine therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer can produce severe and frequent salivary symptoms, during the treatment or later. Aim: To analyze the incidence, severity and characteristics of the salivary signs and symptoms in these patients. Patients and Method: Retrospective and descriptive anal isis of 106 patients with confirmed diagnosis of differentiated thyroid cancer, treated with surgery and radioactive iodine, that completed a telephonic survey for the evaluation of salivary symptoms. Results: 26 (24.52%) patients presented with salivary symptoms or signs after the radioactive iodine therapy (mean 5 months). The average doses of I 131 was 128,5 mCi. Xerostomy, pain, xeroftalmy, inflammation, sialoadenitis and dysgeusia, were the most frequent clinical symptoms. Conclusions: After radioactive iodine therapy the salivary symptoms and signs incidence is high. We conclude that the indication for this treatment must be selective, but in accordance with the oncological risk of each patient

  15. Salivary duct cyst in the upper lip: Case report and review of the literature

    Filipe Nobre Chaves

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Salivary duct cyst (SDC in an uncommon lesion of the minor salivary glands, with etiology related to obstruction of the salivary duct. It presents with a color similar to that of the mucosa, is mobile, measures between 3 and 10 mm and affects preferentially the bottom lip, floor of the mouth and the jugal mucosa. SDC have a predilection for the male and individual in elderly groups. The pathogenesis of SDC is associated with the formation of a mucous plug that causes partial or total obstruction of the salivary gland system duct, resulting in the dilation of the duct and increase in intraluminal pressure. They present clinical-pathological characteristics similar to those of salivary gland tumors, making diagnosis difficult and subject to errors in treatment. It is important for the dentist to include SDC in the differential diagnosis of lesions that affect the upper lip, although it is relatively rarely found in this anatomic site.

  16. No Detectable Hypoxia in Malignant Salivary Gland Tumors: Preliminary Results

    Purpose: Hypoxia is detected in most solid tumors and is associated with malignant progression and adverse treatment outcomes. However, the oxygenation status of malignant salivary gland tumors has not been previously studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential clinical relevance of hypoxia in this tumor type. Methods and Materials: Twelve patients scheduled for surgical resection of a salivary gland tumor were preoperatively injected with the hypoxia marker pimonidazole and the proliferation marker iododeoxyuridine. Tissue samples of the dissected tumor were immunohistochemically stained for blood vessels, pimonidazole, carbonic anhydrase-IX, glucose transporters-1 and -3 (Glut-1, Glut-3), hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, iododeoxyuridine, and epidermal growth factor receptor. The tissue sections were quantitatively assessed by computerized image analysis. Results: The tissue material from 8 patients was of sufficient quality for quantitative analysis. All tumors were negative for pimonidazole binding, as well as for carbonic anhydrase-IX, Glut-1, Glut-3, and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α. The vascular density was high, with a median value of 285 mm-2 (range, 209-546). The iododeoxyuridine-labeling index varied from <0.1% to 12.2% (median, 2.2%). Epidermal growth factor receptor expression levels were mostly moderate to high. In one-half of the cases, nuclear expression of epidermal growth factor receptor was observed. Conclusion: The absence of detectable pimonidazole binding, as well as the lack of expression of hypoxia-associated proteins in all tumors, indicates that malignant salivary gland tumors are generally well oxygenated. It is unlikely that hypoxia is a relevant factor for their clinical behavior and treatment responsiveness.

  17. Saliva, salivary gland, and hemolymph collection from Ixodes scapularis ticks.

    Patton, Toni G; Dietrich, Gabrielle; Brandt, Kevin; Dolan, Marc C; Piesman, Joseph; Gilmore, Robert D

    2012-01-01

    Ticks are found worldwide and afflict humans with many tick-borne illnesses. Ticks are vectors for pathogens that cause Lyme disease and tick-borne relapsing fever (Borrelia spp.), Rocky Mountain Spotted fever (Rickettsia rickettsii), ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia chaffeensis and E. equi), anaplasmosis (Anaplasma phagocytophilum), encephalitis (tick-borne encephalitis virus), babesiosis (Babesia spp.), Colorado tick fever (Coltivirus), and tularemia (Francisella tularensis) (1-8). To be properly transmitted into the host these infectious agents differentially regulate gene expression, interact with tick proteins, and migrate through the tick (3,9-13). For example, the Lyme disease agent, Borrelia burgdorferi, adapts through differential gene expression to the feast and famine stages of the tick's enzootic cycle (14,15). Furthermore, as an Ixodes tick consumes a bloodmeal Borrelia replicate and migrate from the midgut into the hemocoel, where they travel to the salivary glands and are transmitted into the host with the expelled saliva (9,16-19). As a tick feeds the host typically responds with a strong hemostatic and innate immune response (11,13,20-22). Despite these host responses, I. scapularis can feed for several days because tick saliva contains proteins that are immunomodulatory, lytic agents, anticoagulants, and fibrinolysins to aid the tick feeding (3,11,20,21,23). The immunomodulatory activities possessed by tick saliva or salivary gland extract (SGE) facilitate transmission, proliferation, and dissemination of numerous tick-borne pathogens (3,20,24-27). To further understand how tick-borne infectious agents cause disease it is essential to dissect actively feeding ticks and collect tick saliva. This video protocol demonstrates dissection techniques for the collection of hemolymph and the removal of salivary glands from actively feeding I. scapularis nymphs after 48 and 72 hours post mouse placement. We also demonstrate saliva collection from an adult female I. scapularis tick. PMID:22371172

  18. Multiscale feature analysis of salivary gland branching morphogenesis.

    Bilgin, Cemal Cagatay; Ray, Shayoni; Baydil, Banu; Daley, William P; Larsen, Melinda; Yener, Blent

    2012-01-01

    Pattern formation in developing tissues involves dynamic spatio-temporal changes in cellular organization and subsequent evolution of functional adult structures. Branching morphogenesis is a developmental mechanism by which patterns are generated in many developing organs, which is controlled by underlying molecular pathways. Understanding the relationship between molecular signaling, cellular behavior and resulting morphological change requires quantification and categorization of the cellular behavior. In this study, tissue-level and cellular changes in developing salivary gland in response to disruption of ROCK-mediated signaling by are modeled by building cell-graphs to compute mathematical features capturing structural properties at multiple scales. These features were used to generate multiscale cell-graph signatures of untreated and ROCK signaling disrupted salivary gland organ explants. From confocal images of mouse submandibular salivary gland organ explants in which epithelial and mesenchymal nuclei were marked, a multiscale feature set capturing global structural properties, local structural properties, spectral, and morphological properties of the tissues was derived. Six feature selection algorithms and multiway modeling of the data was performed to identify distinct subsets of cell graph features that can uniquely classify and differentiate between different cell populations. Multiscale cell-graph analysis was most effective in classification of the tissue state. Cellular and tissue organization, as defined by a multiscale subset of cell-graph features, are both quantitatively distinct in epithelial and mesenchymal cell types both in the presence and absence of ROCK inhibitors. Whereas tensor analysis demonstrate that epithelial tissue was affected the most by inhibition of ROCK signaling, significant multiscale changes in mesenchymal tissue organization were identified with this analysis that were not identified in previous biological studies. We here show how to define and calculate a multiscale feature set as an effective computational approach to identify and quantify changes at multiple biological scales and to distinguish between different states in developing tissues. PMID:22403724

  19. Tannin-binding salivary proteins in three captive rhinoceros species.

    Clauss, Marcus; Gehrke, Janin; Hatt, Jean-Michel; Dierenfeld, Ellen S; Flach, Edmund J; Hermes, Robert; Castell, Johanna; Streich, W Juergen; Fickel, Joerns

    2005-01-01

    Tannin-binding salivary proteins (TBSP) are considered to be counter-defences acquired in the course of evolution by animals whose natural forage contains such tannins. As tannins mostly occur in browse material but not in grasses, it is assumed that grazers do not have a need for TBSP. Whereas it has been shown in several non-ungulate species that TBSP can be induced by dietary tannins, their presence or absence in ungulates has, so far, been shown to be a species-specific characteristic independent of dietary manipulations. We investigated saliva from three rhinoceros species from zoological gardens fed comparable, conventional zoo diets. As expected, saliva from white rhinoceroses (Ceratotherum simum, grazer) had lower tannin-binding capacities than that from black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis, browser). Surprisingly, however, Indian rhinoceroses (Rhinoceros unicornis), commonly regarded as grazers as well, displayed the highest tannin-binding capacities of the three species investigated. It is speculated that this discrepancy might be a result of an evolutionarily recent switch to a grass-dominated diet in Indian rhinoceroses, and that the black rhinoceros, which is closer related to the white rhinoceros than the Indian species, has evolved an inducible mechanism of TBSP production. In separate trials during which the tannin content of the diets of black rhinoceroses was increased by the addition of either tannic acid or quebracho, the tannin-binding capacity of black rhinoceros saliva was increased to levels within the same range as that of Indian rhinoceroses on the conventional diets. While induction trials in white and Indian rhinoceroses remain to be performed for a full understanding of salivary anti-tannin defence in rhinoceroses, these results are the first report of an induced salivary response to increased dietary tannin levels in an ungulate species. PMID:15664314

  20. Prospective study on 12 patients of salivary glands radiotherapy as treatment of salivary stasis in patients suffering from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    The authors report a study which aimed at assessing the efficiency and tolerance of salivary gland radiotherapy in patients suffering from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Twelve patients have been treated by conformational irradiation after a planning scanography with support mask. Results are discussed in terms of salivary discomfort (almost immediate disappearance in 11 cases), and other minor effects. Although a greater number of patients is still needed, the treatment gives promising results. Short communication

  1. Sensing of Salivary Glucose Using Nano-Structured Biosensors

    Yunqing Du; Wenjun Zhang; Wang, Ming L

    2016-01-01

    The anxiety and pain associated with frequent finger pricking has always been troublesome for diabetics measuring blood glucose (BG) in their daily lives. For this reason, a reliable glucose monitoring system that allows noninvasive measurements is highly desirable. Our main objective is to develop a biosensor that can detect low-level glucose in saliva (physiological range 0.5–20 mg/dL). Salivary glucose (SG) sensors were built using a layer-by-layer self-assembly of single-walled carbon nan...

  2. The oral-systemic connection: role of salivary diagnostics

    Malamud, Daniel

    2013-05-01

    Utilizing saliva instead of blood for diagnosis of both local and systemic health is a rapidly emerging field. Recognition of oral-systemic interrelationships for many diseases has fostered collaborations between medicine and dentistry, and many of these collaborations rely on salivary diagnostics. The oral cavity is easily accessed and contains most of the analytes present in blood. Saliva and mucosal transudate are generally utilized for oral diagnostics, but gingival crevicular fluid, buccal swabs, dental plaque and volatiles may also be useful depending on the analyte being studied. Examples of point-of-care devices capable of detecting HIV, TB, and Malaria targets are being developed and discussed in this overview.

  3. SURGICAL TREATMENT OF SALIVARY FISTULA IN A BULLOCK

    Asit Kumar Maji; Arindam Samanta

    2014-01-01

    A non-descript bullock of six years of age and 225 kg of body weight was suffering from left parotid salivary fistula with huge loss of saliva. The loss of saliva was reduced (from 11ml/minute to 5ml/min.) by pre-operative management of housing in silent area as well as withholding of food in addition to the use of antibiotic and other supportive therapy. Under Xylazine (0.1mg/kg I/M) and local infiltration of 2% Lignocaine hydrochloride, following standard surgical protocol, the ...

  4. Radiation therapy of malignant tumours of the salivary glands

    Results of treating patients w;th different malignant tumours of salivary glands are presented. Five-year survival rate after combined treatment is shown to depend on the histologic fo;m and stage of tumor. The highest five-year survival rate is noted in patients with adenocystomic carcinomas (83%), mucoepidermoid tumors (78,5%), the lowest (16,6%) in patients with non-differentiated carcinomas. Radiotherapy as an independent method ensures five-year survival rate in patients with adenocystomic carcinoma in 38.8%, with adenocarcinoma in 8.3%, with other histologic forms in 37.5% of cases

  5. Salivary function in patients with chronic renal failure undergoing hemodialysis

    Kaya, M.; Cermik, T.F.; Uestuen, F.; Sen, S.; Berkarda, S. [Trakya Univ., Edirne (Turkey). Medical Faculty

    2002-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in salivary gland function in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) undergoing hemodialysis. The group consisted of 23 patients with CRF (13 female, 10 male; mean age: 40{+-}13 yr) and 14 healthy control subjects (mean age: 40{+-}13 yr). All underwent dynamic salivary gland scintigraphy with gustatory stimulation. After intravenous administration of {sup 99m}Tc pertechnetate, first, perfusion images at 2 seconds per frame were acquired for 1 minute, then dynamic images at 1 minute per frame were acquired for 45 minutes. At 30 minutes after injection , 10 ml lemon juice was given for 15 minutes as a gustatory stimulus. We obtained time-activity curves derived from regions of interest centered over the four major salivary glands. The following functional indices were calculated for each gland: the time of maximum radioactivity (T{sub max}) for the prestimulated period, the time of minimum radioactivity (T{sub min}), as an indicator of velocity of secretion after stimulation, and the Lem E{sub 5}% value as an indicator of the secretion function. When the patients with CRF undergoing hemodialysis were compared to the controls, there were statistically significant differences in T{sub max}, T{sub min} and Lem E{sub 5}% values for bilateral parotid glands, and T{sub min} values for bilateral submandibular glands (p<0.05), there were no statistically significant differences in T{sub max} and Lem E{sub 5}% values for bilateral submandibular glands. There were also significant differences in T{sub max} and Lem E{sub 5}% values for bilateral parotid glands between mild oral problems and severe oral problems in patients with CRF (undergoing hemodialysis). In this study, prolonged T{sub max} and T{sub min} values, and decreased Lem E{sub 5}% values for parotid glands and prolonged T{sub min} values for submandibular glands on salivary scintigraphy pointed out decreased parenchymatous and excretory function in patients with CRF undergoing hemodialysis. (author)

  6. Titratable acidity of beverages influences salivary pH recovery

    Tenuta, Livia Maria Andaló; Constanza Estefany FERNÁNDEZ; Ana Carolina Siqueira BRANDÃO; Cury, Jaime Aparecido

    2015-01-01

    A low pH and a high titratable acidity of juices and cola-based beverages are relevant factors that contribute to dental erosion, but the relative importance of these properties to maintain salivary pH at demineralizing levels for long periods of time after drinking is unknown. In this crossover study conducted in vivo, orange juice, a cola-based soft drink, and a 10% sucrose solution (negative control) were tested. These drinks differ in terms of their pH (3.5 ± 0.04, 2.5 ± 0.05, and 5.9 ± 0...

  7. Tissue microarray construction for salivary gland tumors study

    Paiva Fonseca, Felipe; de Almeida, Oslei Paes; Ayroza Rangel, Ana Lúcia Carrinho; Vargas, Pablo Agustín

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe and discuss the design, building and usefulness of tissue microarray (TMA) blocks for the study of salivary gland tumors (SGTs). Study Design: Two hundred thirty-eight formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded SGTs were arranged in blocks of TMA using a manual tissue arrayer. Three representative cores of 1.0, 2.0 or 3.0mm were taken from each original block and their characteristics were analyzed and described. Results: It was created 12 TMA blocks that presented highly repres...

  8. [Steroids, histamine and serotonin in medicinal leech salivary gland secretions].

    Baskova, I P; Ferner, Z; Balkina, A S; Kozin, S; Kharitonova, O V; Zavalova, L L; Zgoda, V G

    2008-01-01

    Lipids represent 20% of the total weight of dried pool of medicinal leech salivary gland secretion (SGS) received from about 50 individual animals. There were detected steroids, but not pospholipids in SGS lipid fraction. Immunochemiluminescent analysis identified free steroid hormones in SGS: cortisol, progesterone, testosterone, estradiol and dehydroepiandrosterone. Microchromatografic-mass-spectrometric analysis of SGS and of low-molecular weight fraction (LMW) (molecular masses ranged from 220 to 850 Da) has shown the multicomponent nature of the LMW fraction. Using standart preparations as the reference steroid hormones (cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone, androstenedione and testosterone) and histamine and serotonine have been identified in SGS. PMID:18522215

  9. Structural modifications of the salivary conditioning film upon exposure to sodium bicarbonate: implications for oral lubrication and mouthfeel.

    Ash, A; Wilde, P J; Bradshaw, D J; King, S P; Pratten, J R

    2016-03-14

    The salivary conditioning film (SCF) that forms on all surfaces in the mouth plays a key role in lubricating the oral cavity. As this film acts as an interface between tongue, enamel and oral mucosa, it is likely that any perturbations to its structure could potentially lead to a change in mouthfeel perception. This is often experienced after exposure to oral hygiene products. For example, consumers that use dentifrice that contain a high concentration of sodium bicarbonate (SB) often report a clean mouth feel after use; an attribute that is clearly desirable for oral hygiene products. However, the mechanisms by which SB interacts with the SCF to alter lubrication in the mouth is unknown. Therefore, saliva and the SCF was exposed to high ionic strength and alkaline solutions to elucidate whether the interactions observed were a direct result of SB, its high alkalinity or its ionic strength. Characteristics including bulk viscosity of saliva and the viscoelasticity of the interfacial salivary films that form at both the air/saliva and hydroxyapatite/saliva interfaces were tested. It was hypothesised that SB interacts with the SCF in two ways. Firstly, the ionic strength of SB shields electrostatic charges of salivary proteins, thus preventing protein crosslinking within the film and secondly; the alkaline pH (≈8.3) of SB reduces the gel-like structure of mucins present in the pellicle by disrupting disulphide bridging of the mucins via the ionization of their cysteine's thiol group, which has an isoelectric point of ≈8.3. PMID:26883483

  10. The effect of Cinnamaldehyde on mucositis and salivary antioxidant capacity in gamma-irradiated rats (a preliminary study

    Molania Tahereh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose of the study The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cinnamaldehyde on mucositis and salivary total antioxidant capacity in gamma-irradiated rats. Methods The study was conducted on 28 male Wistar rats, 711 weeks of age and 160??20 g body weight, divided into four groups of seven rats each. The first group receiving normal saline (S, the second group receiving saline and gamma radiation (SR, the third group receiving 50 mg/kg cinnamaldehyde 98% (C, and the fourth group receiving 50 mg/kg cinnamaldehyde 98% and gamma radiation (CR. SR and CR groups were exposed to 15 Gy gamma irradiation for 7 min and 39 s. Rats were intraperitoneally injected each day during the 10-day period of the experiment, and their tongues and lips were examined to assess the incidence and severity of mucositis. The saliva samples were taken from the animals three times on day zero, six, and ten. Results The mean mucositis incidence appeared to be delayed in the CR than the SR group (P?=?0.024, and the severity was significantly higher in the SR compared to the CR group;the difference was statistically significant on the second?day (P?=?0.027. In the evaluation of salivary antioxidant capacity, salivary antioxidant concentration was significantly higher in the C than the S, SR, and CR groups on the tenth day of the experiment (p Conclusion The clinical effects in the CR group seem to be due to antioxidant, anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory effects of cinnamaldehyde; this conclusion, however, requires further investigations. Delayed antioxidant effect in the CR group was evident in ip cinnamaldehyde injection, the exact mechanism is not clear.

  11. The Effect of Cinnamaldehyde on Mucositis and Salivary Antioxidant Capacity in Gamma-irradiated Rats (a Preliminary Study

    Tahereh Molania

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose of the study: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cinnamaldehyde on mucositis and salivary total antioxidant capacity in gamma-irradiated rats.Methods: The study was conducted on 28 male Wistar rats, 711 weeks of age and 160 20 g body weight,divided into four groups of seven rats each. The first group receiving normal saline (S, the second group receiving saline and gamma radiation (SR, the third group receiving 50 mg/kg cinnamaldehyde 98% (C, and the fourthgroup receiving 50 mg/kg cinnamaldehyde 98% and gamma radiation (CR. SR and CR groups were exposed to 15 Gy gamma irradiation for 7 min and 39 s. Rats were intraperitoneally injected each day during the 10-day period of the experiment, and their tongues and lips were examined to assess the incidence and severity of mucositis. Thesaliva samples were taken from the animals three times on day zero, six, and ten.Results: The mean mucositis incidence appeared to be delayed in the CR than the SR group (P = 0.024, and theseverity was significantly higher in the SR compared to the CR group;the difference was statistically significant onthe second day (P = 0.027. In the evaluation of salivary antioxidant capacity, salivary antioxidant concentration wassignificantly higher in the C than the S, SR, and CR groups on the tenth day of the experiment (p <0.05.Conclusion: The clinical effects in the CR group seem to be due to antioxidant, anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory effects of cinnamaldehyde; this conclusion, however, requires further investigations. Delayed antioxidant effect in the CR group was evident in ip cinnamaldehyde injection, the exact mechanism is not clear.

  12. Salivary and serum biomarkers for the study of side effects of aripiprazole coprescribed with mirtazapine in rats.

    Bogdan, Maria; Silosi, Isabela; Surlin, Petra; Tica, Andrei Adrian; Tica, Oana Sorina; Balseanu, Tudor-Adrian; Rauten, Anne-Marie; Camen, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the co-administration of aripiprazole and mirtazapine could determine weight gain and lipid metabolism disorders in Wistar rats, compared to the same side effects produced by mirtazapine alone, and the risk of hepatotoxicity due to the combination of the two substances. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP/FABP1) and repulsive guidance molecule C/hemojuvelin (RGM-C/HJV) levels were determined in serum and in saliva. Also, serum levels for total cholesterol (TC), low and high-density lipoprotein (LDL, HDL), triglycerides (TG), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT) and alanine amino transferase (ALAT) were assessed. We found positive and statistically significant correlations between serum and salivary levels of TNF-α, L-FABP/FABP1 and RGM-C/HJV. Mirtazapine determined significantly differences of TNF-α and L-FABP serum levels; final body weight; TC and LDL levels, leading to higher concentrations than its association with aripiprazole. Although not statistically significant, mirtazapine group experienced higher values for salivary levels of TNF-α, TG and ASAT, and lower values for HDL, compared to aripiprazole + mirtazapine group. The results suggest that aripiprazole might improve some of the disturbances caused by mirtazapine, and that the two drugs combination cause no additional alterations in liver function. Also, the findings indicate that TNF-α, L-FABP/FABP1 and RGM-C/HJV levels can be helpful as biomarkers for metabolic disturbances and impaired function of hepatocytes, and that their salivary determination can replace serum determination. PMID:26221370

  13. Normal values of 99mTc-pertechnetate uptake and excretion fraction by major salivary glands

    Uptake and excretion fraction of 99mTc-pertechnetate by salivary glands have been assessed in the scintigraphic evaluation of xerostomia. Several quantitative methods derived from standard dynamic scintigraphy have been suggested. However, the indices proposed are quite variable and unlikely to be useful in clinical practice. Aims: To determine the normal values of major salivary glands uptake and excretion fraction with 99mTc-pertechnetate in healthy subjects and the normal ratio of 99mTc-pertechnetate uptake by major salivary glands to the thyroid gland uptake. Materials and Methods: Twenty five volunteers without clinical evidence of xerostomia underwent salivary glands scintigraphy. They were previously placed on a low iodine diet and discontinued any medications, food supplements or skin ointments that could interfere with the 99mTc-pertechnetate thyroid uptake. After intravenous administration of 555 MBq of 99mTc-pertechnetate, sequential dynamic images of the head and neck, at 15 seconds per frame, were obtained for 20 minutes. Static images were obtained at 20 minutes and then at 3 minutes after oral stimulation with lemon juice. Images of the syringe before and after tracer injection were also performed to calculate the administered dose and the percent uptake by the salivary glands and thyroid. The normal excretion fraction rates were also calculated for the parotids and the submandibular glands. Results: The mean uptake, as percent of the injected dose of 99mTc-pertechnetate, by the parotid and submandibular glands, the salivary glands to thyroid uptake ratio, and the mean excretion fractions for the major salivary glands are presented. Conclusion: Salivary glands scintigraphy with uptake and excretion fraction calculation is an easy to perform, non-invasive and objective method to investigate salivary glands function. Our findings help the nuclear physician to interpret salivary gland scintigraphy more objectively in patients with thyroid gland dysfunction in whom 99mTc-pertechnetate thyroid uptake may be abnormal

  14. Adverse affects of drugs on saliva and salivary glands

    Vidhi Vinayak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Saliva is the most valuable oral fluid is critical to the preservation and management of oral health. Saliva containing various organic and inorganic substances provides primary natural protection for teeth and soft tissues in the oral cavity assists in mastication, deglutition and digestion of food. The secretion of saliva can be affected due to various local and systemic causes. However if a patient is taking medication and has altered salivary secretion the differential diagnosis should include the possibility of an adverse drug reaction. The drugs may lead to alteration in the flow rate of saliva, which can be either increased or reduced, however certain drugs have been reported to cause change in the color of the saliva. Several drugs may lead to sialadenitis associated with altered salivary secretion. These symptoms may simulate systemic diseases, Hence oral physicians need to be vigilant in recognizing these adverse drug reactions in the patients and it is incumbent upon the practitioner to try to stay abreast of this ever evolving field especially as it relates to dental therapeutics.

  15. Radiation therapy for carcinoma of the major salivary glands

    From January 1967 through November 1991, a total of 135 patients with carcinoma of the major salivary glands (parotid: 95; submandibular: 39, sublingual: 1) were treated at our department. 40 patients had adenocarcinoma, 29 adenoid cystic carcinoma, 24 mucoepidermoid carcinoma and 16 squamous cell carcinoma. 100 patients were irradiated postoperatively and the remaining 35 were treated with radiation alone. Total radiation doses delivered were 50 Gy for the postoperative group and 50 to 66 Gy for the group receiving only radiation using a 60Co single portal with or without wedged paired or single electron portal boost. Actuarial five-year survivals after radiation therapy were 55% for the postoperative group and 26% for radiation only group (p=0.0004). The local control rates for the postoperative group were 83% for adenocarcinoma, 81% for adenoid cystic carcinoma, 83% for mucoepidermoid carcinoma and 62% for squamous cell carcinoma. Corresponding figures for the radiation only group were 40% for adenocarcinoma, 38% for adenoid cystic carcinoma and 33% for mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Conventional irradiation techniques continue to play an important role because they offer superior local control for postoperative patients with carcinoma of the major salivary glands. However, the local control rates for the radiation only group were only 30 to 40%, so that new irradiation modalities such as provided by a high LET machine are needed for these patients. (orig.)

  16. Radiation therapy for carcinoma of the major salivary glands

    Teshima, T. (Dept. of Radiology, Osaka Univ. Medical School (Japan)); Inoue, Ta. (Dept. of Radiology, Osaka Univ. Medical School (Japan)); Inoue, To. (Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Univ. Medical School (Japan)); Ikeda, H. (Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Univ. Medical School (Japan)); Yamazaki, H. (Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Univ. Medical School (Japan)); Ohtani, M. (Dept. of Radiology, Osaka Univ. Medical School (Japan)); Shimizutani, K. (Dept. of Radiology, Osaka Univ. Medical School (Japan)); Furukawa, S. (Dept. of Radiology, Osaka Univ. Medical School (Japan)); Kozuka, T. (Dept. of Radiology, Osaka Univ. Medical School (Japan)); Murayama, S. (National Inst. of Radiological Science, Chiba (Japan))

    1993-08-01

    From January 1967 through November 1991, a total of 135 patients with carcinoma of the major salivary glands (parotid: 95; submandibular: 39, sublingual: 1) were treated at our department. 40 patients had adenocarcinoma, 29 adenoid cystic carcinoma, 24 mucoepidermoid carcinoma and 16 squamous cell carcinoma. 100 patients were irradiated postoperatively and the remaining 35 were treated with radiation alone. Total radiation doses delivered were 50 Gy for the postoperative group and 50 to 66 Gy for the group receiving only radiation using a [sup 60]Co single portal with or without wedged paired or single electron portal boost. Actuarial five-year survivals after radiation therapy were 55% for the postoperative group and 26% for radiation only group (p=0.0004). The local control rates for the postoperative group were 83% for adenocarcinoma, 81% for adenoid cystic carcinoma, 83% for mucoepidermoid carcinoma and 62% for squamous cell carcinoma. Corresponding figures for the radiation only group were 40% for adenocarcinoma, 38% for adenoid cystic carcinoma and 33% for mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Conventional irradiation techniques continue to play an important role because they offer superior local control for postoperative patients with carcinoma of the major salivary glands. However, the local control rates for the radiation only group were only 30 to 40%, so that new irradiation modalities such as provided by a high LET machine are needed for these patients. (orig.)

  17. Eight-month test-retest agreement in morning salivary cortisol, self- and parent-rated anxiety in boys with an Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Sharpley, Christopher F; Bitsika, Vicki; Agnew, Linda L; Andronicos, Nicholas M

    2015-11-01

    The agreement over time in morning salivary cortisol concentrations and also self- and parent-rated anxiety was investigated in a sample of 16 boys with an ASD. Cortisol and anxiety data were collected eight months apart. Results indicated that there were significant correlations between each pair of measures from the two occasions, suggesting that cortisol concentrations and anxiety did not vary much at all over that time, challenging the assumption that cortisol needs to be measured over multiple days to obtain reliable data from children with an ASD. Implications for research into the ways these children respond to chronic stressors are discussed. PMID:26220465

  18. Regeneration of irradiated salivary glands with stem cell marker expressing cells

    Background: Stem cell therapy could be a potential way for reducing radiation-induced hyposalivation and improving the patient's quality of life. However, the identification and purification of salivary gland stem cells have not been accomplished. This study aims to better characterize the stem/progenitor cell population with regenerative potential residing in the mouse salivary gland. Methods: Mouse submandibular gland tissue, isolated cells and cultured 3 day old salispheres were tested for their expression of stem cell markers c-Kit, CD133, CD49f, and CD24 using immunohistochemistry for tissue and flow cytometry for cells. Mice were locally irradiated with a single dose of 15 Gy and transplanted with cells expressing defined markers. Results: Cells expressing known stem cell markers are localized in the larger ducts of the mouse salivary gland. Isolated cells and cells from day 3 salispheres also express these markers: c-Kit (0.058% vs. 0.65%), CD133 (6% vs. 5%), CD49f (78% vs. 51%), and CD24 (60% vs. 60%, respectively). Intraglandular transplantation of these cells into irradiated salivary glands of mice resulted in stem cell marker-specific recovery of salivary gland function. Conclusions: Different stem cell-associated markers are expressed in mouse salivary gland cells, which upon transplantation are able to regenerate the irradiation damaged salivary gland.

  19. Epithelial and stromal patterns of pleomorphic adenoma of minor salivary glands: A histopathological and histochemical study

    Yasmin Satpathy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pleomorphic adenoma (PA accounts for 45-74% of all the salivary gland neoplasms, of which 40-70% are present in minor salivary glands. Studies have depicted variations in histological typing and classification of these tumors. Its pleomorphism is attributed to the cytological differentiations of the epithelial components and the diverse stromal components. Biochemical investigations of saliva have revealed "mucins" to be its main component. Mucins reflect in their composition, the functional state of the mucosa, both in health and disease. Many reviews on histochemical classification and identification have been put forward to explain the intricacies of mucins; however, no attempts have been made to classify salivary gland tumors based on their mucin profiles and assess its prognostic significance. Thus, this study was executed to analyze the clinical, histopathological and histochemical behavior of PA of minor salivary glands and decipher a correlation. Materials and Methods: Twenty-six diagnosed cases of PA of minor salivary glands and five controls of normal minor salivary glands of the hard palate were included in the study. Blocks were retrieved, sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H and E stain as well as combined Alcian blue (AB-periodic acid-Schiff (PAS stains. Results: The stained slides revealed an array of epithelial and stromal patterns and varying heterogeneity of mucin expression of normal and neoplastic minor salivary glands. Conclusion : The study elucidated the role of mucins in tumorigenesis and its prognostic implications.

  20. Primary salivary duct carcinoma of the lung, mucin-rich variant.

    Fishbein, Gregory A; Grimes, Brandon S; Xian, Rena R; Lee, Jay M; Barjaktarevic, Igor; Xu, Haodong

    2016-01-01

    Primary salivary gland-type lung cancer is a heterogeneous group of neoplasms arising from the seromucinous glands of the respiratory tract. Histopathologically, they are identical to salivary gland neoplasms of the head and neck. While mucoepidermoid carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma are overwhelmingly the most common subtypes found in the lung, reports of uncommon subtypes can be found in the literature. We report a case of a 73-year-old woman with primary lung salivary duct carcinoma, mucin-rich variant--an exceedingly rare subtype of an already rare malignant salivary-type neoplasm. One case of primary lung salivary duct carcinoma has been reported in the literature; however, the mucin-rich variant has never been described in the lung. Furthermore, the tumor in our case bears a rare BRAF G464V mutation. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a BRAF G464V mutation detected in a salivary duct carcinoma or any other salivary-type neoplasm. PMID:26527521

  1. Salivary flow rate and pH during prolonged gum chewing in humans.

    Polland, K E; Higgins, F; Orchardson, R

    2003-09-01

    Gum chewing for 20 min causes an increase in salivary flow rate and salivary pH. Most people chew gum for longer than 20 min, and our aim was to determine how whole mouth salivary flow rate and pH might adapt during prolonged gum chewing. Resting saliva was collected over 5 min; gum-stimulated saliva was collected at intervals during 90 min, chewing a single pellet (1.5 g) of mint-flavoured, sugar-free gum (n = 19). Subjects chewed at their own preferred rate and style. Both salivary flow rate and pH were increased above resting levels for the entire 90 min. The salivary flow was significantly greater (anovaP < 0.05) than resting flows up to 55-min chewing. The saliva pH remained significantly higher (P < 0.0001) than the resting pH even after 90-min chewing. When the experiment was repeated with the gum pellets replaced at 30 and 60 min (n = 9), similar increases in salivary flow rate and pH were found. In the latter experiment, there was no evidence of any cumulative effects on flow or pH. The persistent increase in salivary pH in particular could be beneficial to oral and dental health. PMID:12950965

  2. Radioiodine therapy effects on salivary function in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer

    Salivary gland involvement is one of the radioiodine therapy complications. Salivary gland scintigraphy in quantitative mode can accurately evaluate salivary gland function. Methods: salivary gland scintigraphy was performed with Tc-99m pertechnetate, at the time of iodine therapy as a basic study, and then 3 weeks and 3 months afterwards. Ejection fraction of parotid and submandibular glands was obtained at each stage of the study. Results: 36 patients (10 male, 16 female) were studied. Mean of ejection fraction 3 week and 3 months following radioiodine therapy was reduced. There was no significant involvement in 12 patients (33.3%). With increase in radioiodine dose more salivary gland involvement was noted in 3 weeks (p= 0.07), but not after 3 months (p=0.5). No difference was noted between two sexes (p=0.6). Parotid gland involvement was more than submandibular gland (<0.05), confirming more radiosensitivity of parotid gland. No meaningful relation was noted between salivary gland involvement with age (p=0.1). Parotid gland dysfunction was not related to radioiodine dose, But in submandibular gland, with dosage increase, more involvement was noted (p=0.02). Clinical symptoms were not reliable in evaluating salivary gland dysfunction

  3. Effects of Repeated Administration of Pilocarpine and Isoproterenol on Aquaporin-5 Expression in Rat Salivary Glands

    Aquaporins are water channel proteins which enable rapid water movement across the plasma membrane. Aquaporin-5 (AQP5) is the major aquaporin and is expressed on the apical membrane of salivary gland acinar cells. We examined the effects of repeated administration of pilocarpine, a clinically useful stimulant for salivary fluid secretion, and isoproterenol (IPR), a stimulant for salivary protein secretion, on the abundance of AQP5 protein in rat salivary glands by immunofluorescence microscopy and semi-quantitative immunoblotting. Unexpectedly AQP5 was decreased in pilocarpine-administered salivary glands, in which fluid secretion must be highly stimulated, implying that AQP5 might not be required for fluid secretion at least in pilocarpine-administered state. The abundance of AQP5, on the other hand, was found to be significantly increased in IPR-administered submandibular and parotid glands. To address the possible mechanism of the elevation of AQP5 abundance in IPR-administered animals, changes of AQP5 level in fasting animals, in which the exocytotic events are reduced, were examined. AQP5 was found to be decreased in fasting animals as expected. These results suggested that the elevation of cAMP and/or frequent exocytotic events could increase AQP5 protein. AQP5 expression seems to be easily changed by salivary stimulants, although these changes do not always reflect the ability in salivary fluid secretion

  4. Kinetics of the phosphotransferase reaction of the catalytic subunit of the tick salivary gland cAMP-dependent protein kinase

    The catalytic subunit of the cAMP dependent protein kinase was purified 100-fold from tick salivary glands. The enzyme mechanism of the phosphotransferase reaction catalyzed by this subunit was investigated. Highly purified enzyme did not show ATP-ase activity in the absence of protein substrates. Initial velocities were measured using histone H-1 or a synthetic heptapeptide, Kemptide, as P/sub i/ acceptors and (?-32P) ATP as a phosphodonor. Patterns were consistent with a sequential, but not a ping pong mechanism. At high concentration (>2Km), histone showed substrate inhibition which was noncompetitive versus ATP. Product inhibition by Mg.ADP was competitive versus ATP and noncompetitive with respect to H-1. Phosphohistone on the other hand was noncompetitive with respect to H-1, but gave parabolic competitive inhibition against ATP. Dead-end inhibition by AMP-PNP, an analogue of ATP, was competitive and noncompetitive against ATP and H-1, respectively. The inhibitory of cAMP dependent protein kinase was noncompetitive with ATP and competitive with histone. These studies strongly suggest that the tick salivary gland protein kinase has a sequential mechanism with primarily ordered addition of ATP followed by protein substrate and ordered release of phosphoprotein and ADP, but some random character

  5. Bone-muscle unit activity, salivary steroid hormones profile, and physical effort over a 3-week stage race.

    Grasso, D; Corsetti, R; Lanteri, P; Di Bernardo, C; Colombini, A; Graziani, R; Banfi, G; Lombardi, G

    2015-02-01

    Muscle traction and bone metabolism are functionally linked and co-regulated by a series of factors. Although a role for steroid hormones was hypothesized, a clear definition of the bone-muscle interconnection still lacks. To investigate this relationship, we studied bone metabolism, muscle activity, and salivary steroid hormones profile in relation with the physical effort across a cycling stage race, a model of effort in absence of load. Nine pro-cyclists were recruited; body weight and power output/energy expenditure were recorded. Diet was kept constant. Saliva was collected at days -1, 4, 8, 12, 14, 19, and 23; blood and urine were collected at days -1, 12, and 23. Salivary steroid hormones [cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), testosterone, and estradiol], serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and creatine kinase (CK) activities, plasma sclerostin, and urinary calcium and phosphorous were measured. Cortisol remained constant, testosterone decreased at day 4, and estradiol and DHEA firstly increased and then returned to basal levels. Hormone concentrations were not correlated with plasma volume shifts. LDH, CK, AST, sclerostin, and urinary calcium and phosphorous increased. DHEA and estradiol correlated with the physical effort and the bone-muscular markers. A relationship between muscle activity, in absence of load, and bone resorption emerged under a putative regulation by DHEA and estradiol. PMID:24433517

  6. Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Preserves Salivary Gland Function After Fractionated Radiation

    Purpose: Radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer consists of fractionated radiation treatments that cause significant damage to salivary glands leading to chronic salivary gland dysfunction with only limited prevention and treatment options currently available. This study examines the feasibility of IGF-1 in preserving salivary gland function following a fractionated radiation treatment regimen in a pre-clinical model. Methods and Materials: Mice were exposed to fractionated radiation, and salivary gland function and histological analyses of structure, apoptosis, and proliferation were evaluated. Results: In this study, we report that treatment with fractionated doses of radiation results in a significant level of apoptotic cells in FVB mice after each fraction, which is significantly decreased in transgenic mice expressing a constitutively active mutant of Akt1 (myr-Akt1). Salivary gland function is significantly reduced in FVB mice exposed to fractionated radiation; however, myr-Akt1 transgenic mice maintain salivary function under the same treatment conditions. Injection into FVB mice of recombinant insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), which activates endogenous Akt, suppressed acute apoptosis and preserved salivary gland function after fractionated doses of radiation 30 to 90 days after treatment. FVB mice exposed to fractionated radiation had significantly lower levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive salivary acinar cells 90 days after treatment, which correlated with a chronic loss of function. In contrast, FVB mice injected with IGF-1 before each radiation treatment exhibited acinar cell proliferation rates similar to those of untreated controls. Conclusion: These studies suggest that activation of IGF-1-mediated pathways before head-and-neck radiation could modulate radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction and maintain glandular homeostasis.

  7. Salivary alpha-amylase, secretory IgA and free cortisol as neurobiological components of the stress response in the acute phase of anorexia nervosa.

    Paszynska, E; Dmitrzak-Weglarz, M; Tyszkiewicz-Nwafor, M; Slopien, A

    2016-06-01

    Objectives One novel hypothesis of the pathogenesis of anorexia nervosa (AN) is the possible role of mental stress in hyperactivity of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Two components of stress response - salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) and free cortisol - have been proposed. They can be determined in saliva, which closely reflects their concentrations in plasma. The purpose of this study was to measure salivary free cortisol, sAA and their correlation to secretory IgA (sIgA) of patients with AN in comparison to the average population. Methods A controlled clinical trial was designed for a matched group of 47 AN patients and 54 healthy individuals. After clinical examination, unstimulated salivary samples were taken during the acute stage of AN (BMI < 15 kg/m(2)) in the first week of hospitalisation. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) suitable for measuring sAA, sIgA and free cortisol were used. Results Anorexic patients exhibited disturbances in sAA secretion, and significantly increased cortisol and sIgA levels with a distinct correlation between these two parameters. Conclusions The behaviour of cortisol, sAA and sIgA levels can be assessed as an effect of stress reaction among AN patients with hyperactivity of the HPA axis and ANS dysregulation. The effect of stress response can be assessed reliably in saliva. PMID:26983011

  8. The salivary proteome profile in patients affected by SAPHO syndrome characterized by a top-down RP-HPLC-ESI-MS platform.

    Sanna, Monica; Firinu, Davide; Manconi, Paolo Emilio; Pisanu, Maria; Murgia, Giuseppe; Piras, Valentina; Castagnola, Massimo; Messana, Irene; del Giacco, Stefano Renato; Cabras, Tiziana

    2015-06-01

    SAPHO syndrome is a rare and often unrecognized disease with prominent inflammatory cutaneous and articular symptoms characterized by musculoskeletal manifestations (synovitis, hyperostosis, osteomyelitis) associated with dermatological conditions (severe acne and pustulosis). The acidic soluble fraction of whole saliva from 10 adult women affected by SAPHO syndrome and from a group of 28 healthy women was analysed by RP-HPLC-ESI-MS with the aim of discovering salivary biomarkers of the disorder. The levels of the oral proteins and peptides were correlated with clinical data. The following proteins showed a significant decreased concentration in saliva of SAPHO subjects with respect to controls: cystatin S1 and SN, histatins, the major acidic PRPs, P-C and P-B peptides. The cystatin SN abundance lowered according to the disease duration and histatins showed positive correlations with the C reactive protein. Statistical analysis performed excluding one patient with a different pattern of salivary proteins/peptides highlighted a positive relationship between cystatin S1, histatins 3, histatin 5, and the neutrophil count. Moreover, histatin 3 correlated positively with the total white cell count and negatively with the erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Levels and frequency of S100A12 protein showed a trend to increase in SAPHO patients. The high expression of this pro-inflammatory protein is probably related to the inflammatory response and to the altered neutrophil responses to functional stimuli that characterize SAPHO syndrome suggesting a possible application as a salivary biomarker. PMID:25671558

  9. Detection of Salivary Interleukin 2 and Interleukin 6 in Patients With Burning Mouth Syndrome

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The etiology of BMS remains unknown. Role of various cytokines has been implicated in the development of BMS. The aim of this study was to evaluate levels of salivary IL-2 and IL-6 in patients with BMS, compared with age-matched healthy volunteers (control group. Whole saliva from 30 patients with BMS, age range 55–65, was tested for the presence of IL-6 and IL-2 by enzyme immunoassay. Control group consisted of 30 healthy participants, aged 55–65 years. Saliva IL-2 concentrations in BMS were significantly increased in patients compared to healthy subjects: mean 34.1 ± 9.7 versus 7.3 ± 3.0 pg/mL; P < .001 . Patients with BMS had significantly higher concentrations of IL-6 compared to control: mean 30.8 ± 5.6 versus 5.2 ± 2.8 pg/mL; P < .001 . In patients with BMS, IL-2 and IL-6 levels in saliva are elevated, correlating with the severity of illness.

  10. Oral intake of Lactobacillus pentosus strain b240 accelerates salivary immunoglobulin A secretion in the elderly: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial

    Kotani Yoshifumi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immunoglobulin A (IgA secretion in saliva decreases with age and may be the cause of increased vulnerability of the elderly to respiratory infections. The effect of oral intake of lactic acid bacteria on salivary secretory IgA (SIgA in the elderly has not been reported. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the acceleration of salivary SIgA secretion by oral intake of Lactobacillus pentosus strain b240 (b240 in the elderly. Results A total of 80 healthy elderly individuals were randomly allocated to either an intervention (i.e., b240 or a control (i.e., placebo group. The elderly individuals in the b240 group were given a sterile water beverage (125 mL containing heat-killed b240 (4 109 cells, while those in the placebo group were given only a sterile water beverage (125 mL; both groups received their respective beverages once daily for 12 weeks. Saliva was collected before initiation of the study and every 2 weeks thereafter. Saliva flow rate and SIgA concentration were determined, and the SIgA secretion rate was calculated. The mean salivary SIgA secretion rate in the b240 group steadily increased until week 4 (exhibiting a 20% elevation relative to that at week 0, and then remained stable until week 12. Changes in SIgA secretion rate over the intervention period were significantly greater in the b240 group than in the placebo group. The treatment groups exhibited no significant differences in adverse events. Conclusions Oral intake of L. pentosus strain b240 for 12 weeks significantly accelerated salivary SIgA secretion, thereby indicating its potential utility in the improvement of mucosal immunity and resistance against infection in the elderly.

  11. A systematic review of salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia induced by cancer therapies

    Jensen, S.B.; Pedersen, A.M.L.; Vissink, A.; Andersen, Elo Verner; Brown, Timothy William Charles; Davies, A.N.; Dutilh, J.; Fulton, J.S.; Jankovic, L.; Lopes, Natasha; Mello, A.L.S.; Muniz, L.V.; Murdoch-Kinch, C.A.; Nair, R.G.; Napenas, J.J.; Nogueira-Rodrigues, A.; Saunders, Dorthe Rosenkilde; Stirling, B.; von Bultzingslowen, I.; Weikel, D.S.; Elting, L.S.; Spijkervet, F.K.L.; Brennan, M.T.

    2010-01-01

    submandibular and minor salivary glands, as these glands are major contributors to moistening of oral tissues. Other cancer treatments also induce salivary gland hypofunction, although to a lesser severity, and in the case of chemotherapy and immunotherapy, the adverse effect is temporary. Fields of sparse...... literature included pediatric cancer populations, cancer chemotherapy, radioactive iodine treatment, total body irradiation/hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and immunotherapy...... treatment, and immunotherapy. Salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia are induced by radiotherapy in the head and neck region depending on the cumulative radiation dose to the gland tissue. Treatment focus should be on optimized/new approaches to further reduce the dose to the parotids, and particularly...

  12. Salivary duct cyst on lower lip: A rare entity and literature review

    Ankita Tandon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucocele forms because of salivary gland mucous extravasation or retention and is usually related to trauma in the area of the lower lips. Salivary duct cyst, however, is a type of mucous retention cyst which is almost never located on the lower lip. The aim of this paper is to report this extremely rare salivary duct cyst present on the lower lip and to critically review the literature to build important concepts that would help clinicians in the diagnosis and treatment of this pathology.

  13. Technetium-99m pertechnetate and gallium-67 imaging in salivary gland disease

    Thirty-two patients with salivary gland tumors or sialadenitis were studied with Tc-99m pertechnetate and Ga-67 imaging and, in some instances, sialography. The diagnostic algorithm presented allows the correct categorization of the salivary gland pathology in the vast majority of patients. The patients were studied serially with Tc-99m pertechnetate, Ga-67 and in certain situations sialography (or CT-sialography). Use of the algorithm can distinguish benign salivary tumors from malignant tumors and malignant tumors from inflammatory disease. The limitations and pitfalls of interpretation are discussed

  14. Clinical evaluation of the diffuse hypertrophy of salivary glands with dynamic scintigraphy

    The dynamic scintigraphy with 99mTcO4- was performed on 36 subjects with normal and diffuse hypertrophy of salivary glands. The results showed that there was a significant difference in morphology and function between normal subjects and subjects with chronic parotitis and Sjoegren's syndrome. There was also a significant difference in morphology and function between these two diseases. It is concluded that dynamic scintigraphy of salivary glands with 99mTcO4- is a simple, safe, accurate, reliable and noninvasive method in evaluating changes of morphology and function of salivary glands and in differentiating between different diseases, especially in functional change which cannot be determined by other methods

  15. Detection of saliva-range glucose concentrations using organic thin-film transistors

    We describe the development of a glucose sensor through direct incorporation of an enzyme (glucose oxidase) into the gate of an organic thin film transistor (OTFT). We show that glucose diffusion is the key determinant of the device response time and present a mechanism of glucose sensing in these devices that involves protonic doping of the transistor channel via enzymatic oxidation of glucose. The integrated OTFT sensor is sensitive across 4 decades of glucose concentration; a range that encompasses both the blood and salivary glucose concentration levels. As such, this work acts as a proof-of-concept for low-cost printed biosensors for salivary glucose.

  16. Detection of saliva-range glucose concentrations using organic thin-film transistors

    Elkington, D.; Belcher, W. J.; Dastoor, P. C.; Zhou, X. J. [Centre for Organic Electronics, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales 2308 (Australia)

    2014-07-28

    We describe the development of a glucose sensor through direct incorporation of an enzyme (glucose oxidase) into the gate of an organic thin film transistor (OTFT). We show that glucose diffusion is the key determinant of the device response time and present a mechanism of glucose sensing in these devices that involves protonic doping of the transistor channel via enzymatic oxidation of glucose. The integrated OTFT sensor is sensitive across 4 decades of glucose concentration; a range that encompasses both the blood and salivary glucose concentration levels. As such, this work acts as a proof-of-concept for low-cost printed biosensors for salivary glucose.

  17. Human UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 2B10: Validation of Cotinine as a Selective Probe Substrate, Inhibition by UGT Enzyme-Selective Inhibitors and Antidepressant and Antipsychotic Drugs, and Structural Determinants of Enzyme Inhibition.

    Pattanawongsa, Attarat; Nair, Pramod C; Rowland, Andrew; Miners, John O

    2016-03-01

    Although there is evidence for an important role of UGT2B10 in the N-glucuronidation of drugs and other xenobiotics, the inhibitor selectivity of this enzyme is poorly understood. This study sought primarily to characterize the inhibition selectivity of UGT2B10 by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzyme-selective inhibitors used for reaction phenotyping, and 34 antidepressant and antipsychotic drugs that contain an amine functional group. Initial studies demonstrated that cotinine is a highly selective substrate of human liver microsomal UGT2B10. The kinetics of cotinine N-glucuronidation by recombinant UGT and human liver microsomes ( bovine serum albumin) were consistent with the involvement of a single enzyme. Of the UGT enzyme-selective inhibitors employed for reaction phenotyping, only the UGT2B4/7 inhibitor fluconazole reduced recombinant UGT2B10 activity to an appreciable extent. The majority of antidepressant and antipsychotic drugs screened for effects on UGT2B10 inhibited enzyme activity with IC50 values <100 M. The most potent inhibition was observed with the tricyclic antidepressants amitriptyline and doxepin and the tetracyclic antidepressant mianserin, and the structurally related compounds desloratadine and loratadine. Molecular modeling using a ligand-based approach indicated that hydrophobic and charge interactions are involved in inhibitor binding, whereas spatial features influence the potency of UGT2B10 inhibition. Respective mean Ki,u ( S.D.) values for amitriptyline, doxepin, and mianserin inhibition of human liver microsomal UGT2B10 were 0.61 0.05, 0.95 0.18, and 0.43 0.01 M. In vitro-in vivo extrapolation indicates that these drugs may perpetrate inhibitory drug-drug interactions when coadministered with compounds that are cleared predominantly by UGT2B10. PMID:26669329

  18. Exposure of hospitality workers to environmental tobacco smoke

    Bates, M; Fawcett, J; Dickson, S; Berezowski, R; Garrett, N

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine quantitatively the extent of exposure of hospitality workers to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure during the course of a work shift, and to relate these results to the customer smoking policy of the workplace. Subjects: Three categories of non-smoking workers were recruited: (1) staff from hospitality premises (bars and restaurants) that permitted smoking by customers; (2) staff from smokefree hospitality premises; and (3) government employees in smokefree workplaces. All participants met with a member of the study team before they began work, and again at the end of their shift or work day. At each meeting, participants answered questions from a standardised questionnaire and supplied a saliva sample. Main outcome measures: Saliva samples were analysed for cotinine. The difference between the first and second saliva sample cotinine concentrations indicated the degree of exposure to ETS over the course of the work shift. Results: Hospitality workers in premises allowing smoking by customers had significantly greater increases in cotinine than workers in smokefree premises. Workers in hospitality premises with no restrictions on customer smoking were more highly exposed to ETS than workers in premises permitting smoking only in designated areas. Conclusions: Overall, there was a clear association between within-shift cotinine concentration change and smoking policy. Workers in premises permitting customer smoking reported a higher prevalence of respiratory and irritation symptoms than workers in smokefree workplaces. Concentrations of salivary cotinine found in exposed workers in this study have been associated with substantial involuntary risks for cancer and heart disease. PMID:12035005

  19. The effects of a three-week resistance exercise plus whole body vibration (WBV on the testosterone-free cortisole ratio differences and activity of the α-salivary amylase enzyme

    MohammadAli Fathi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Researchers have already reported the hormonal responses of the effects of isolated resistance exercise or whole body vibration (WBV. However, no documents are available on the combination of the resistance exercise plus WBV on biomarkers, particularly salivary α-amylase activity as well as free testosterone to cortisol ratio (FTCR. Materials and Methods: To discover this, thirty young football players were randomly allocated into three WBV (n=10, resistance exercise (n=10, and a combination of both (n=10. The subjects took nine sessions of exercise during a three-week period. The WBV included one minute exercise followed by one minute rest for 10 minutes with 50 Hz frequency, four mm. transverse translation and in semi-squat standing condition. The resistive exercise included three-period exercises with 70% one-maximal repetition with a two-minute rest interval. The third group carried out the resistance exercise firstly and then WBV. The pre / post salivary samples were collected. Results: It showed that the concentration of the cortisol and the salivary α-amylaseactivity increased significantly. The testosterone increased among all groups following the first session, but significantly decreased at the last session. The statistical analysis showed a significant increase in cortisol concentration only in WBV group (p=0.004. Conclusion: The results confirmed that hormone secretion requires an acceptable threshold of both intensity and duration of training. In addition, secretion of the α-salivary amylase responses to various physiologic stresses immediately. In submaximal exercises, there is probably no difference among training techniques, WHB and strengthening exercises. The current study also emphasizes on salivary α-amylaseactivity immediately following physiological stresses.

  20. The effect of storage conditions on salivary cortisol concentrations using an enzyme immunoassay

    Nalla, Anjana Anita; Thomsen, Gerda; Knudsen, Gitte M; Frokjaer, Vibe G

    2015-01-01

    Saliva samples are easy to collect and are applicable for home-sampling, e.g. when studying HPA-axis dynamics to characterize diurnal cortisol profiles and the cortisol awakening response. However, the storing and transport conditions might be critical in the home-sampling approach. Here, we tested...... the stability of saliva cortisol in samples stored at different temperatures and after repeated thawing-freezing cycles when measured with an Enzyme Immuno Assay (EIA). Thirteen healthy volunteers, six women and seven men, mean age 31 (range 26-49) years collected saliva either in the morning hours...... (08:00-10:00 h) or before lunch (11:00-12:00 h). Storage at six different conditions were tested: Storage at - 18°C, - 4°C, 4°C and room temperature for 72 h. One condition tested was at - 18°C for 72 h and then kept in an envelope for 72 h with a freezing element in room temperature surroundings...

  1. Dispatches from the Interface of Salivary Bioscience and Neonatal Research

    KristinVoegtline

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of the interdisciplinary field of salivary bioscience has created opportunity for neonatal researchers to measure multiple components of biological systems non-invasively in oral fluids. The implications are profound and potentially high impact. From a single oral fluid specimen, information can be obtained about a vast array of biological systems (e.g., endocrine, immune, autonomic nervous system and the genetic polymorphisms related to individual differences in their function. The purpose of this review is to describe the state of the art for investigators interested in integrating these unique measurement tools into the current and next generation of research on gonadal steroid exposure during the prenatal and neonatal developmental periods

  2. Salivary cortisol and depression in public sector employees

    Vammen, Marianne Agergaard; Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Hansen, Åse Marie; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard; Andersen, Johan Hviid; Bonde, Jens Peter; Buttenschøn, Henriette Nørmølle; Kolstad, Henrik Albert; Kærgaard, Anette; Kærlev, Linda; Mors, Ole; Rugulies, Reiner; Thomsen, Jane Frølund

    2014-01-01

    participants collected three morning saliva samples (at awakening, 20min and 40min after awakening) plus an evening sample (2000h); participants with high baseline scores of self-reported depressive symptoms, burnout and perceived stress were invited to a standardized interview (SCAN) to detect clinical....... In the present study, we examined the association of several cortisol measures and depression in a repeated cross-sectional and short-term follow-up design. Depression was assessed by both self-reported symptoms of depression and clinical interviews. METHOD: In 2007, 10,036 public sector employees...... activity and alcohol consumption. RESULTS: None except one of the measures of salivary cortisol were associated with self-reported depressive symptoms or clinical depression, neither in the four cross-sectional analyses nor in the two short term follow-up analyses. E.g. in 2007, the adjusted odds ratios...

  3. [Salivary gland-type lung tumor: An update].

    Gibault, Laure; Badoual, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    "Salivary gland-type" tumors arising from the bronchi and lung are rare but not exceptional entities. They are mostly represented by malignant entities such as cystic adenoid carcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma and epithelial/myoepithelial carcinoma. Benign tumors are rare, mainly encompassing pleomorphic adenomas, which are to differentiate from mucous gland adenomas, another entity arising specifically from the peri-bronchial glands. These tumours develop in the proximal bronchi and are not associated with smoke abuse. Their main treatment is surgery. It is important to differentiate them from other broncho-pulmonary tumours as they do not share the same prognosis and therapeutic. This article will review the WHO 2015 classification of these tumours as well as recent updates from the literature to help define diagnosis criteria for these uncommon entities. PMID:26774826

  4. Salivary cortisol and sleep problems among civil servants

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Thomsen, Jane Frølund; Kaergaard, Anette; Kolstad, Henrik Albert; Kaerlev, Linda; Mors, Ole; Rugulies, Reiner; Bonde, Jens Peter; Andersen, Johan Hvid; Mikkelsen, Sigurd

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The present study used information from a field study conducted among 4489 civil servants (70% women) in Denmark in 2007. The purpose was to examine the association between sleep problems and salivary cortisol by using a cross-sectional design with repeated measures in a subsample three......-month later. METHODS: Sleep problems during the past night and the past 4 weeks were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire on overall sleep quality, disturbed sleep, sleep length and awakening problems. Saliva samples were collected in a single day, using cotton tubes, 30min after awakening and again...... at 2000h. A subsample of 387 participants collected saliva samples three-month later at awakening, +20min and +40min after awakening and at 2000h. We adjusted for confounders related to sampling time, life style and personal characteristics, socioeconomic status and work aspects. RESULTS: Sleep...

  5. Sclerosing Polycystic Adenosis: A Rare Tumor of the Salivary Glands

    Tang, Christopher G; Fong, Justin B; Axelsson, Karen L; Gurushanthaiah, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Case Presentation: A 74-year-old woman presented to the Head and Neck Surgery clinic with a 4-year history of a slowly growing, painful, left-sided neck mass in the tail of the parotid gland. Fine-needle aspiration suggested well-differentiated adenocarcinoma. Discussion and Results: The patient underwent a superficial parotidectomy and super-selective neck dissection (level 2). Pathology revealed a tumor consistent with sclerosing polycystic adenosis. Conclusion: Sclerosing polycystic adenosis is a rare inflammatory process that causes fibrocystic changes in the salivary gland. Apocrine-like metaplasia and epithelial atypia are common pathologic features. To our knowledge, a total of 51 cases have been described in the English-language literature. PMID:27043832

  6. Titratable acidity of beverages influences salivary pH recovery

    Livia Maria Andal, TENUTA; Constanza Estefany, FERNNDEZ; Ana Carolina Siqueira, BRANDO; Jaime Aparecido, CURY.

    Full Text Available A low pH and a high titratable acidity of juices and cola-based beverages are relevant factors that contribute to dental erosion, but the relative importance of these properties to maintain salivary pH at demineralizing levels for long periods of time after drinking is unknown. In this crossover stu [...] dy conducted in vivo, orange juice, a cola-based soft drink, and a 10% sucrose solution (negative control) were tested. These drinks differ in terms of their pH (3.5 0.04, 2.5 0.05, and 5.9 0.1, respectively) and titratable acidity (3.17 0.06, 0.57 0.04 and

  7. Salivary Biomarkers in the Control of Mosquito-Borne Diseases

    Souleymane Doucoure

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Vector control remains the most effective measure to prevent the transmission of mosquito-borne diseases. However, the classical entomo-parasitological methods used to evaluate the human exposure to mosquito bites and the effectiveness of control strategies are indirect, labor intensive, and lack sensitivity in low exposure/transmission areas. Therefore, they are limited in their accuracy and widespread use. Studying the human antibody response against the mosquito salivary proteins has provided new biomarkers for a direct and accurate evaluation of the human exposure to mosquito bites, at community and individual levels. In this review, we discuss the development, applications and limits of these biomarkers applied to Aedes- and Anopheles-borne diseases.

  8. Contribution on the study of normal salivary glands by scintigraphy

    The topographic, morphological, dimensional and functional aspects of the normal salivary glands have been studied by the scintigraphic techniques with 99Tc. The mean values of the areas of the scintigraphic projection in cm2, for parotid glands are 7.34 for the right and 7.80 for the left one; for submandibulars, 4.43 for the right and 4.46 for the left one. Percentual mean values of uptake of the injected dose by the parotid glands are: 0.32% for the right and 0.30% for the left one; for the submandibulars, 0.29% for both sides. Concerning position, the superior third of the parotid gland was found in 97% of the cases, at the level of the external hearing meatus, with the major axis in parallel with the ascending branch of the mandibula

  9. Postoperative radiation therapy for major salivary gland cancer

    A retrospective study was performed on 29 patients with major salivary gland cancer treated with postoperative irradiation between 1981 and 2002. Univariate and multivariate analyses of age, gender, cancer grade, T stage, N stage, surgical resectability, concomitant chemotherapy, and neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy were performed for disease-free survival. The 5-year survival rates and 5-year disease-free survival rate were 61.6% and 41.4%, respectively. Both univariate and multivariate analyses showed that cancer grade and surgical resectability influenced survival rates. Chemotherapy did not influence the disease-free survival. The total dose of postoperative radiation was 47.68.8 Gy in the complete excision group as planned, but was 56.17.9 Gy in the incomplete excision group, which may be insufficient and lead to poor treatment outcome. (author)

  10. Sonography and cytology in the evaluation of salivary gland masses

    The contribution of the combined use of US and cytology is evaluated in the diagnosis of masses in yhe salivary glands and adjacent structures. US had 87.2% sensitivity in locating the mass; its accuracy in defining both phisical structure and benign/malignant nature of the lesion was 91% and 74% respectively. Thus US, after demonstrating a lesion, does not always allow the exact definition of its characteristic. In many of these cases, other imaging modalities do not help either. In our series of cases, cytology allowed an unquestionable diagnosis to be made in 87.2% of cases, and the combined use of US and cytology rose the figure to 97%. The only limitation is the evaluation of the deep extent of large masses: in such cases CT or, if available, MR imaging are recommended

  11. Relacin entre los niveles de cortisol salival y la presencia de xerostoma en mujeres menopasicas: Estudio preliminar / The relationship between the levels of salivary cortisol and the presence of xerostomia in menopausal women: A preliminary study

    Begoa, Rivera Gmez; Gonzalo, Hernndez Vallejo; Lorenzo, Arriba de la Fuente; Margarita, Lpez Cantor; Milagros, Daz; Rosa M, Lpez-Pintor.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available La xerostoma es un sntoma especialmente frecuente en las mujeres en torno a la menopausia, que se asocia en muchas ocasiones con estados depresivos. Objetivos: Valorar la relacin entre las cifras del flujo salival total no estimulado y la presencia de xerostoma, y determinar los niveles de corti [...] sol salival y su relacin con la misma. Diseo del estudio: Se seleccionaron 30 mujeres de los pacientes que acuden al Departamento de Medicina y Ciruga Bucofacial y se formaron dos grupos, estudio y control. Se recogieron muestras de flujo salival total no estimulado y mediante tcnica de ELISA se determinaron las cifras de cortisol salival. Resultados: Las medias de flujo salival total no estimulado para el grupo control y estudio fueron de 0.37 0.28 ml/min. y de 0.24 0.18 ml/min. respectivamente. La concentracin de cortisol salival fue de 3.47 1.64 ng/ml. para el grupo control y de 2.29 2.60 ng/ml. para el grupo estudio. Las pruebas estadsticas aplicadas no mostraron diferencias significativas entre los dos grupos del estudio para ambas variables. Conclusiones: Los resultados del presente estudio indican que no existe relacin entre las variaciones en el flujo salival total no estimulado y las concentraciones de cortisol correspondientes. Abstract in english Xerostomia is a particularly frequent occurrence among menopausal women, and is often associated with depression. Objectives: To evaluate the relationship between unstimulated salivary flow rate and the presence of xerostomia, and to determine the levels of salivary cortisol and its relationship wit [...] h xerostomia. Study design: Thirty women were selected from patients attending the Department of Medicine and Buccofacial surgery, and formed into two groups, study and control. Samples of unstimulated salivary flow were collected, and the amounts of salivary cortisol determined using the ELISA technique (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). Results: The mean unstimulated salivary flow rates for the control and study group were 0.37 0.28 ml/min and 0.24 0.18 ml/min, respectively. The concentration of salivary cortisol was 3.47 1.64 ng/ml for the control group and 2.29 2.60 ng/ml for the study group. The statistical tests applied showed no significant differences for either variable between the two groups in the study. Conclusions: The results of the present study indicate that there is no relationship between variations in the rates of unstimulated salivary flow and the corresponding concentration of cortisol.

  12. Oxytocin administration, salivary testosterone, and father-infant social behavior.

    Weisman, Omri; Zagoory-Sharon, Orna; Feldman, Ruth

    2014-03-01

    The growing involvement of fathers in childcare is followed by an increased interest in the neurobiology of fatherhood; yet, experimental work on the neuroendocrine basis of paternal care in humans is limited. The steroid Testosterone (T) and the neuropeptide Oxytocin (OT) have each been implicated in complex social behavior including parenting. However, no study to date explored the interaction between these two hormones in the context of fathering. In the current study we first test the relationship between father's basal salivary T and father and infant's social behaviors during parent-child interaction. Second, we examine the effects of intranasal OT administration on father's T production, and, finally, address the relations between OT-induced change in father's T with father-infant social behavior. Thirty-five fathers and their infants participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject study. Father-infant interaction was micro-coded for paternal and infant social behavior and synchrony was measured as the coordination between their gaze, affect, and vocalizations. Father's salivary T levels were measured at baseline and three times after administration. Results indicate that lower baseline T correlated with more optimal father and infant's behaviors. OT administration altered T production in fathers, relative to the pattern of T in the placebo condition. Finally, OT-induced change in T levels correlated with parent-child social behaviors, including positive affect, social gaze, touch, and vocal synchrony. Findings support the view that neuroendocrine systems in human males evolved to support committed parenting and are the first to describe the dynamic interactions between OT and T within a bio-behavioral synchrony model. PMID:24252717

  13. Physiological role of aquaporin 5 in salivary glands.

    Hosoi, Kazuo

    2016-04-01

    Regarding the 13 known mammalian aquaporins (AQPs), their functions in their expressing tissues, effects of their mutation/polymorphisms in humans, and effects of knockout of their genes are summarized in this review article. The roles of AQP5, an exocrine gland-type water channel, in the salivary gland under normal and pathophysiological conditions are reviewed in detail. First, the involvement of AQP5 in water secretion from acinar cells was demonstrated by measuring volume changes of acini/acinar cells, as well as activation energy (E a) in transepithelial water movement by NMR spectrometry, and a functional linkage between AQP5 and TRPV4 was suggested. Next, involvement of the parasympathetic nervous system on the AQP5 levels in the acinar cells of the submandibular and that of a β-adrenergic agonist on those in the parotid gland are described. That is, chorda tympani denervation induces autophagy of the submandibular gland, causing AQP5 degradation/metabolism, whereas isoproterenol, a β-adrenergic agonist, causes first an increase then decrease in AQP5 levels in the parotid gland, which action is coupled with the secretory-restoration cycle of amylase-containing secretory granules. The PG also responded to endotoxin, a lipopolysaccharide that activates NF-κB and MAPK pathways. Elevated NF-κB and AP-1 (c-Fos/c-Jun) form a complex that can bind to the NF-κB-responsive element on the AQP5 promoter and thus potentially downregulate AQP5 transcription. Salivary gland pathologies and conditions involving AQP5 and possible treatments are described as well. PMID:26537593

  14. Hyaluronidase activity in the salivary glands of tabanid flies.

    Volfova, Vera; Tothova, Viktorie; Volf, Petr

    2016-06-01

    Tabanids are haematophagous insects that act as biological and mechanical vectors of various diseases, including viruses, bacteria and parasites. The saliva of these insects contains strong anticoagulant and vasodilatory activities as well as immunoregulatory peptides. Here we demonstrate pronounced hyaluronidase (hyase) activity in ten tabanid species of the genera Chrysops, Haematopota, Hybomitra and Tabanus. Compared to other haematophagous insects, the ability of tabanid hyases to hydrolyze hyaluronic acid (HA) is extremely high, for example the enzyme activity of Hybomitra muehlfeldi was found to be 32-fold higher than the salivary hyase activity of the sand fly Phlebotomus papatasi. Hyases of all ten tabanid species tested also cleaved chondroitin sulfate A, another glycosaminoglycan present in the extracellular matrix of vertebrates. The pH optimum of the enzyme activity was measured in eight tabanid species; the hyase of Haemopota pluvialis was the only one with optimum at pH 4.0, while in the other seven species the activity optimum was at 5.0. SDS PAGE zymography showed the monomeric character of the enzymes in all tabanid species tested. Under non-reducing conditions the activities were visible as single bands with estimated MW between 35 and 52 kDa. The very high hyaluronidase activity in tabanid saliva might be related to their aggressive biting behavior as well as to their high efficiency as mechanical vectors. As they are supposedly involved in the enlargement of feeding hematomas, hyases might contribute to the mechanical transmission of pathogens. Pathogens present in vector mouthparts are co-inoculated into the vertebrate host together with saliva and may benefit from increased tissue permeability and the immunomodulatory activity of the salivary hyase. PMID:27045753

  15. Testing and analysis on total protein, albumin and A/G of salivary in radiation exposure persons

    Objective: To study the oral health effect of long term low dose radiation on exposure personnel and to provide a basis for further improving the protection ability. Methods: Testing method, which was based on APT and HSA interactions induced by synchronous fluorescence specific changes, and intensity and concentrations of HSA in the solution in the system of synchronous fluorescence showed a good linear relations. the establishment of a APT as a molecular probe was used to test concentration of salivary total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), globulin (GLO) and albumin by synchronous fluorescence spectrum analysis. The information was analyzed in Foxpro 6.0 and SPSS 16.0 software. Result: Protein (TP) Mean Value was 3.904 ±1.369 g/L, Minimum Value was 0.30 g/L and Maximum Value was 7.50 g/L. Albumin (ALB) Mean Value was 0.965±0.665 g/L, Minimum Value was 0.09 g/L and Maximum Value was 3.98 g/L. Globulin (GLO) Mean Value was 2.895±0.947 g/L, Minimum Value was 0.01 g/L and Maximum Value was 5.81 g/L. A/G Mean Value was 0.327. Conclusion: Long term and low dose of radiation would break the chronic physiological balance and concentration of salivary total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), globulin (GLO) and albumin and globulin ratio (A/G) changed obviously. It was necessary to do more special oral health care, further improve the individual protection consciousness, strengthen the radiation monitoring and protection measures, improve the regulation system, and reduce radiation damage on special personnel health significantly. (authors)

  16. Evaluation of Salivary Secretory Immunoglobulin A Levels in Diabetic Patients and Association with Oral and Dental Manifestations

    Shahla Kakoei

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Oral and dental manifestations in diabetic patients can arise due to numerous factors, including elevated salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (s-IgA levels. This study aimed to evaluate s-IgA concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and to investigate the association between s-IgA levels and oral and dental manifestations of T2DM. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out between October 2011 and September 2012 in Kerman, Iran, and included 260 subjects (128 patients with T2DM and 132 healthy controls. Unstimulated salivary samples were collected from all subjects and s-IgA levels were determined using the immunoturbidimetric method. The oral cavities and teeth of T2DM patients were evaluated for oral and dental manifestations. Results: Both diabetic and control subjects with higher concentrations of s-IgA had significantly higher numbers of decayed, missing or filled teeth (DMFT and periodontal index (PDI scores (P <0.050. s-IgA levels were significantly higher in subjects with oral candidiasis (P <0.050. Among diabetic patients, significantly higher s-IgA levels were concomitant with xerostomia and denture stomatitis (P ≤0.050. There were no significant differences between s-IgA concentrations and other oral or dental manifestations in either group. Conclusion: Individuals with a greater number of DMFT, a higher PDI score and oral candidiasis had significantly higher s-IgA levels. s-IgA levels were not significantly higher among diabetic patients in comparison to the control group. However, significantly higher s-IgA levels occurred with xerostomia and denture stomatitis in diabetic patients. In addition, s-IgA was significantly higher in patients with uncontrolled diabetes compared to those with controlled diabetes.

  17. Evaluation of Salivary Secretory Immunoglobulin A Levels in Diabetic Patients and Association with Oral and Dental Manifestations

    Kakoei, Shahla; Hosseini, Bahareh; Haghdoost, Ali-Akbar; Sanjari, Mojgan; Gholamhosseinian, Ahmad; Afshar, Vahid F. N.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Oral and dental manifestations in diabetic patients can arise due to numerous factors, including elevated salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (s-IgA) levels. This study aimed to evaluate s-IgA concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and to investigate the association between s-IgA levels and oral and dental manifestations of T2DM. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out between October 2011 and September 2012 in Kerman, Iran, and included 260 subjects (128 patients with T2DM and 132 healthy controls). Unstimulated salivary samples were collected from all subjects and s-IgA levels were determined using the immunoturbidimetric method. The oral cavities and teeth of T2DM patients were evaluated for oral and dental manifestations. Results: Both diabetic and control subjects with higher concentrations of s-IgA had significantly higher numbers of decayed, missing or filled teeth (DMFT) and periodontal index (PDI) scores (P <0.050). s-IgA levels were significantly higher in subjects with oral candidiasis (P <0.050). Among diabetic patients, significantly higher s-IgA levels were concomitant with xerostomia and denture stomatitis (P ?0.050). There were no significant differences between s-IgA concentrations and other oral or dental manifestations in either group. Conclusion: Individuals with a greater number of DMFT, a higher PDI score and oral candidiasis had significantly higher s-IgA levels. s-IgA levels were not significantly higher among diabetic patients in comparison to the control group. However, significantly higher s-IgA levels occurred with xerostomia and denture stomatitis in diabetic patients. In addition, s-IgA was significantly higher in patients with uncontrolled diabetes compared to those with controlled diabetes. PMID:26629378

  18. A systematic review of salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia induced by cancer therapies

    Jensen, S.B.; Pedersen, A.M.L.; Vissink, A.; Andersen, Elo Verner; Brown, Timothy William Charles; Davies, A.N.; Dutilh, J.; Fulton, J.S.; Jankovic, L.; Lopes, Natasha; Mello, A.L.S.; Muniz, L.V.; Murdoch-Kinch, C.A.; Nair, R.G.; Napenas, J.J.; Nogueira-Rodrigues, A.; Saunders, Dorthe Rosenkilde; Stirling, B.; von Bultzingslowen, I.; Weikel, D.S.; Elting, L.S.; Spijkervet, F.K.L.; Brennan, M.T.

    2010-01-01

    This systematic review aimed to assess the literature for prevalence, severity, and impact on quality of life of salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia induced by cancer therapies. The electronic databases of MEDLINE/PubMed and EMBASE were searched for articles published in English since the ...... literature included pediatric cancer populations, cancer chemotherapy, radioactive iodine treatment, total body irradiation/hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and immunotherapy...... met by 184 articles covering salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia induced by conventional, 3D conformal radiotherapy or intensity-modulated radiotherapy in head and neck cancer patients, cancer chemotherapy, total body irradiation/hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, radioactive iodine...... submandibular and minor salivary glands, as these glands are major contributors to moistening of oral tissues. Other cancer treatments also induce salivary gland hypofunction, although to a lesser severity, and in the case of chemotherapy and immunotherapy, the adverse effect is temporary. Fields of sparse...

  19. Salivary gland transcriptome analysis in response to sugar feeding in malaria vector Anopheles stephensi.

    Dixit, Rajnikant; Rawat, Manmeet; Kumar, Sanjeev; Pandey, Kailash C; Adak, T; Sharma, Arun

    2011-10-01

    In this study, we analyzed a small scale transcriptome of salivary glands in sugar fed female mosquitoes. Thirty five percent of the transcripts could not be assigned a function. Some of them may code for salivary gland specific products involved in sugar feeding. We identified and characterized two new putative cDNAs encoding a sugar transporter and a cAMP generating DAPIT (Diabetes-Associated proteins in insulin sensitive tissues). Down regulation of these two cDNAs in response to blood feeding suggest that both AsST and AsDAPIT salivary genes may specifically be involved in the facilitation of sugar metabolism and energy production. The inability to absorb or digest sugar may cause organ failure, improper functioning of nervous system, behavioral disorder and death. Further functional characterization of theses putative transcripts is under investigation to examine their role in the mosquito salivary glands. PMID:21787783

  20. Study about xerostomia, salivary flow rate and systemic conditions of postmenopausal women

    Flávia Lopes Carvalho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To make a quantitative evaluation of salivary flow and occurrence of xerostomia in post-menopausal women, according to thesystemic condition related by the patients. Methods: The sample was composed of 20 post-menopausal women, who were submitted to anamnesis and completely stimulated sialometry. Results: The results revealed that 50% of the women examined related the presence of xerostomia; hyposalivation was more present than normal salivary flow and low salivary flow; among the patients who related having systemic ailments, cardiovascular diseases were the most frequent, followed by depression and nervousness. Conclusion: It was concluded that xerostomia and quantitative alteration in salivary flow are common among post-menopausal women, and that ailments of a psychological nature were shown to be related to the manifestation of xerostomia.

  1. Salivary DJ-1 could be an indicator of Parkinsons disease progression

    Li-na Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Conclusions: According to the investigation in a large cohort, we reported for the first time the prognostic potential of the salivary DJ-1 as a biomarker for evaluating nigrostriatal dopaminergic function in PD.

  2. Primary Pulmonary Salivary Gland-type Tumors: A Review and Update.

    Falk, Nadja; Weissferdt, Annikka; Kalhor, Neda; Moran, Cesar A

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary salivary gland-type tumors (SGT) comprise a very small proportion of primary lung neoplasms. The most common tumors among this group are mucoepidermoid carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma. Contrary to the head and neck region, benign SGT such as pleomorphic adenomas are exceedingly rare in the pulmonary system. More recently, 2 additional SGT, namely hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma and salivary duct-like carcinoma were recognized as primary lung tumors expanding the spectrum of SGT that have been described to originate in the tracheobronchial system. Primary pulmonary SGT must be clinically excluded from metastatic salivary gland neoplasms as their morphology is indistinguishable from that of their salivary gland counterparts. Little is known about the clinical behavior and best treatment approach for these unusual tumors. In this review, we provide a comprehensive summary of primary pulmonary SGT with particular emphasis on morphologic characteristics and latest developments in terms of immunohistochemical and molecular techniques. PMID:26645458

  3. Salivary gland necrosis in dogs: a retrospective study of 19 cases.

    Schroeder, H; Berry, W L

    1998-03-01

    Salivary gland necrosis has been described in dogs and is characterised by enlarged, hard, painful salivary glands, retching and vomiting or regurgitation. The cause has yet to be determined. A retrospective study of 19 dogs with the same clinical signs was undertaken for breed, age, gender, history and presenting signs, diagnostic evaluations and findings, treatment and outcome. An underlying association was identified in 16 of the 19 dogs. This included Spirocerca lupi infestation (seven dogs), megaoesophagus (three dogs) and oesophagitis, oesophageal diverticulum, giardiasis and suspected autoimmune sialadenitis. Almost all associated lesions involved the oesophagus. Where the associated disease was successfully treated, the salivary glands returned to normal and all clinical signs resolved. It is hypothesised that an afferent vagal reflex may be involved, and that the mechanism of disease is similar to the neural pathogenesis suggested for hypertrophic osteopathy; in this instance, the efferent targets are the salivary glands rather than the limbs. PMID:9551379

  4. Study on Salivary Glands α-amylase In Wheat Bug Eurygaster maura (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae

    Mohammad Mehrabadi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available α-amylase activity in the salivary glands of Eurygaster maura was determined by biochemical experiments. Some of adult insect was collected and their salivary glands isolated and characterized. Enzyme samples from salivary glands of adults were prepared by the method of Cohen with slight modifications. α-Amylase activity was assayed based on Bernfeld method by the dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS procedure. The activity of α-amylase in salivary glands was 0.050 U/insect. The optimum pH and temperature for the enzyme activity was determined to be 6.5-7 and 30-35°C, respectively. The enzyme activity was inhibited by addition of EDTA (Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid urea, CaCl2, MgCl2 and SDS but Mg2+, NaCl and KCl enhanced enzyme activity.

  5. Gustatory impairment and salivary gland pathophysiology in relation to oral cancer treatment

    Gustation and salivation were evaluated in 41 patients with oral carcinoma who were treated preoperatively with Peplomycin (PLM) or PLM+5-FU+60CO- radiation. Thresholds for sweet, salt, sour and bitter were originally elevated in many patients. Gustatory impairment increased especially with chemo-and radiotherapy. Recovery, however, took place within a year to almost original levels. Salivation was originally not impaired. Resting salivary flow rate (SFR) of the combined therapy group was decreased to half the initial rate, and a 20% decrease of SFR was seen in the PLM group. Corresponding to SFR, 99mTc uptake of the submandibular glands had declined, and salivary viscosity had increased. Salivary gland damage persisted during the study, and appeared irreversible. It was concluded from these results that taste impairment by oral cancer treatment is temporary, while damage to the salivary glands is permanent. (author)

  6. Clinical significance of serial scintigraphy of salivary glands with sup(99m)Tc

    Serial salivary gland scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc was performed for salivary gland diseases to examine its clinical significance. The technique failed to differentiate between sialolithiasis and inflammation (chronic parotitis), but did well to demonstrate the glandular function. Tumors smaller than about 2 cm in diameter were hard to defect. Warthin tumor and oncocytoma showed an increase of sup(99m)Tc accumulation. It was difficult, however, to differentiate between an intra- or extraglandular tumor. Quantitative functional tests could be performed in dry mouth. Serial salivary gland scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc was poor for the qualitative diagnosis of salivary gland diseases, but excellent in functional tests. (Chiba, N.)

  7. Salivary tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 localization and glycosylation profile analysis

    Holten-Andersen, Lars; Thaysen-Andersen, Morten; Jensen, Siri Beier; von Buchwald, Christian; Højrup, Peter; Offenberg, Hanne Kjær; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Brünner, Nils; Nauntofte, Birgitte; Reibel, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) has been associated with pathological conditions in the oral cavity, but the origin of TIMP-1 in saliva remains unknown. Hence, we studied the localization of TIMP-1 in salivary gland tissue and also investigated if TIMP-1 found in blood and saliva is identical. Human salivary gland......Holten-Andersen L, Thaysen-Andersen M, Jensen SB, Buchwald C, Højrup P, Offenberg H, Nielsen HJ, Brünner N, Nauntofte B, Reibel J. Salivary tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 localization and glycosylation profile analysis. APMIS 2011; 119: 741-9. Salivary tissue inhibitor of...... tissue samples (four parotid gland and four submandibular gland biopsies) were analysed for the presence of TIMP-1 mRNA and protein expression. To assess TIMP-1 glycosylation profiles in blood and saliva, the protein was isolated from plasma and unstimulated and stimulated whole saliva as well as...

  8. Evaluation of salivary function by sialoscintigraphy in locally advanced nasopharyngeal cancer patients after intensity modulated radiotherapy

    T L Chuang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the salivary gland function changes by sialoscintigraphy in locally advanced nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC after intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT. Materials And Methods: Salivary function was assessed by sialoscintigraphy. Quantitative sialoscintigraphy was performed in 24 NPC patients prior to and after IMRT. Results were categorized in four groups according to the duration of treatment. The sialoscintigraphy parameters were examined. Results: Sialoscintigraphy showed a significant difference in the secretion of each interval groups. The parameters of scintigraphy, except maximum accumulation (MA of submandibular glands, decreased first after radiotherapy, and then recovered. However, the MA of submandibular glands was continuously downhill after radiation. Conclusions: The sialoscintigraphy parameters of each gland changed with the different radiation dose and follow-up intervals. The salivary function was influenced after radiotherapy in locally advanced NPC, especially, in the submandibular gland. Strategies to improve the salivary function should be assessed.

  9. Value of sialography and salivary gland scintigraphy in the evaluation of rheumatoid polyarthritis

    This work aims to establish the frequency and severity of salivary gland disease. Very many techniques are available for the exploration of these glands. Each patient was subjected to: a parotid sialograph, a technetium 99m exploration of the salivary glands and mouth cavity. These two methods of salivary gland exploration should be carried out together, since sialographic data are largely static and anatomical while scintigraphy mainly supplies dynamic, functional data. The scintigraphic examinations were carried out with a Picker Dyna Camera II coupled to data processing units (NUKAB system with recorded programmes). The radiotracer used is technetium 99m. 2 millicuries of technetium as pertechnetate are injected intraveinously and reach the salivary glands through their vascular networks, thus being available to the different tissues of each gland: interstitial tissue, acini, intralobular ducts, efferent ducts

  10. Decreased salivary sulphotransferase activity correlated with inflammation and autoimmunity parameters in Sjogren's syndrome patients

    Castro, Isabel; Aguilera, Sergio; Brockhausen, Inka; Alliende, Cecilia; Quest, Andrew F G; Molina, Claudio; Urzúa, Ulises; Mandel, Ulla; Bahamondes, Verónica; Barrera, María-José; Sánchez, Marianela; González, Sergio; Hermoso, Marcela; Leyton, Cecilia; González, María-Julieta

    2012-01-01

    To determine the expression and enzymatic activities of sulphotransferases involved in mucin hyposulphation in labial salivary glands (LSGs) from SS patients and to correlate sulphotransferase activity with clinical parameters such as secretion, inflammation and serology....

  11. A survey of schoolchildren's exposure to secondhand smoke in Malaysia

    Turner Stephen W; Rahman Hejar A; Omar Affandi; Semple Sean; Abidin Emilia; Ayres Jon G

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background There is a lack of data describing the exposure of Malaysian schoolchildren to Secondhand Smoke (SHS). The aim of this study is to identify factors influencing schoolchildren's exposures to SHS in Malaysia. Method This cross-sectional study was carried out to measure salivary cotinine concentrations among 1064 schoolchildren (10-11 years) attending 24 schools in Malaysia following recent partial smoke-free restrictions. Parents completed questionnaires and schoolchildren p...

  12. Salivary gland scintigraphy with 99mTc-pertechnetate in Sjoegren's syndro Relationship to clinicopathologic features of salivary and lacrimal glands

    Salivary gland scintigraphy was performed on 52 patients who were suspected of having Sjoegren's syndrome (SS), and the results were compared with clinicopathologic features of the salivary and lacrimal glands. The time-activity curves which were obtained from computer-assisted analysis of 99mTc-pertechnetate (99mTc) scintigraphy were classified into four types (normal, median, flat and sloped types). The stimulated parotid flow rate decreased and the incidence of SS-related sialographic and histopathologic findings increased significantly as the scintigraphic abnormality advanced. In addition, the lacrimal gland function decreased and the proportion of patients diagnosed as having keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) increased significantly as the scintigraphic abnormality advanced. These results indicate that the results of scintigraphy are related not only to the clinicopathologic features of the salivary glands but also to the lacrimal gland functions in SS. (au) 25 refs

  13. Effects of a poverty-alleviation intervention on salivary cortisol in very low-income children

    Fernald, Lia; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2009-01-01

    Correlational studies have shown associations between social class and salivary cortisol suggestive of a causal link between childhood poverty and activity of the stress-sensitive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system. Using a quasi-experimental design, we evaluated the association between a family’s participation in a large-scale, conditional cash transfer program in Mexico (Oportunidades, formerly Progresa) during the child’s early years of life and children’s salivary cortisol...

  14. Salivary creatinine and urea analysis in patients with chronic kidney disease: a case control study

    Lasisi, Taye Jemilat; Raji, Yemi Raheem; Salako, Babatunde Lawal

    2016-01-01

    Background Many metabolic changes develop in patients with chronic kidney disease which often necessitate frequent biochemical analysis of blood. Saliva analysis as an alternative to blood has many advantages. The aims of this study were to evaluate levels of salivary creatinine and urea in patients with chronic kidney disease in comparison to healthy individuals; to determine correlation between salivary creatinine/urea and blood creatinine/urea and to evaluate the diagnostic potential of sa...

  15. Spontaneous salivary fistula diagnosed and follow up with radionuclide sialography : a case study

    Full text: Spontaneous salivary fistula is extremely rare. We could find only one case previously reported in the English literature. Most salivary fistula result from previous trauma e.g. surgical procedures or accidental damage to the parotid gland or Stensen's ducL With this study we would like to report probably the first successful application of radionuclide sialography to confirm this rare condition. (author)

  16. Comparative Analysis of Salivary Gland Proteomes of Two Glossina Species that Exhibit Differential Hytrosavirus Pathologies

    Kariithi, Henry M.; İnce, İkbal Agah; Boeren, Sjef; Murungi, Edwin K.; Meki, Irene K.; Otieno, Everlyne A.; Nyanjom, Steven R. G.; Van Oers, Monique M.; Just M. Vlak; Abd-Alla, Adly M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Glossina pallidipes salivary gland hypertrophy virus (GpSGHV; family Hytrosaviridae) is a dsDNA virus exclusively pathogenic to tsetse flies (Diptera; Glossinidae). The 190 kb GpSGHV genome contains 160 open reading frames and encodes more than 60 confirmed proteins. The asymptomatic GpSGHV infection in flies can convert to symptomatic infection that is characterized by overt salivary gland hypertrophy (SGH). Flies with SGH show reduced general fitness and reproductive dysfunction. Although t...

  17. Evaluation of Salivary Level of Paraoxonase and Total Antioxidant Capacity in Type II Diabetic Subjects

    Sh. Radi; H.R. Abdolsamadi; Ranjbar, A.; N. Rafieian; Sh. Borzoei; Gh. Roshanaei; M. Jazyeri; F. Montazeran

    2015-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: Salivary antioxidants play important roles in the defensive mechanism of saliva against free radicals. Due to Prevalence of diabetes and numerous factors associated in its pathogenesis, understanding the defensive mechanism of salivary antioxidant against free radicals can provide helpful strategies in diagnosis and evaluation of diabetes. The aim of this study was evaluation of the paraoxonase (PON1) levels and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of saliva in diabetic ...

  18. Ultrastructural changes in the sublingual salivary gland of prenatal buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

    A.D.Singh1; Opinder Singh

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was aimed to elucidate ultrastructural changes in the development of sublingual salivary gland of buffalo during prenatal life. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on sublingual salivary gland of 36 buffalo fetuses ranging from 13.2 cm curved crown-rump length (CVRL) (88th day) to full term. The fetuses were categorized into three groups based on their CVRL. Results: The cells lining the terminal tubules were undifferentiated with poorly developed cyt...

  19. Mosquito salivary gland protein preservation in the field for immunological and biochemical analysis

    Almeras L; Rogier C; Fusai T; Bourdon S; Bakkali N; Diouf I; Pascual A.; Fontaine A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Mosquito salivary proteins are involved in several biological processes that facilitate their blood feeding and have also been reported to elicit an IgG response in vertebrates. A growing number of studies have focused on this immunological response for its potential use as a biological marker of exposure to arthropod bites. As mosquito saliva collection is extremely laborious and inefficient, most research groups prefer to work on mosquito salivary glands (SGs). Thus, SG protein int...

  20. Differential expression of topoisomerase IIα protein in salivary gland carcinomas: histogenetic and prognostic implications

    Salivary gland carcinomas are relatively uncommon heterogeneous malignancies characterized by locoregional invasion and distant metastasis. Topoisomerase IIα (topoIIα), located at chromosome 17q21-22, is considered a major mediator of cell proliferation and DNA replication. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression of topoIIα in various types of salivary gland tumors and its biological significance. The protein expression of topoIIα was evaluated immunohistochemically in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue from 54 salivary gland carcinomas and 20 benign tumors (10 pleomorphic adenomas and 10 Warthin's tumors). The primary salivary gland carcinoma specimens consisted of 17 adenoid cystic carcinomas, 7 adenocarcinomas not otherwise specified, 7 mucoepidermoid carcinomas, 6 salivary duct carcinomas, 3 acinic cell carcinomas, 3 carcinomas ex pleomorphic adenomas, 3 epithelial-myoepithelial carcinomas, 2 carcinosarcomas, 2 lymphoepithelial carcinomas, 2 myoepithelial carcinomas, 1 oncocytic carcinoma, and 1 squamous cell carcinoma. The associations between clinicopathological factors and outcome were analyzed. Of the 54 primary salivary gland carcinomas, 38 (70%) showed positive expression (≥10%) of topoIIα protein, and 16 carcinomas (30%) and all benign tumors were negative (p < 0.001). Expression of topoIIα was more frequently observed in salivary duct carcinoma, carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma, adenocarcinoma, and adenoid cystic carcinoma, solid type, and it was associated with advanced stage and shortened survival. The results of the present study suggest that topoIIα expression is associated with histologically aggressive subtypes and shortened survival. Furthermore, it may provide useful prognostic information and suggests the potential efficacy of topoIIα-targeting therapy in patients with salivary gland carcinoma