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Smokeless Tobacco Use and Salivary Cotinine Concentration  

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The objective of the current study was to examine demographic, tobacco-related, and psychosocial factors associated with cotinine concentration in a group of 256 male smokeless tobacco (ST) users living in the Ohio Appalachian region. Participants completed a survey that included questions on: 1) current and past tobacco use behaviors; 2) demographics; 3) tobacco dependence; 4) decisional balance; 5) health behaviors; and 6) perceived stress and depressive symptoms. Saliva samples were obtain...

Ferketich, Amy K.; Wee, Alvin G.; Shultz, Jennifer; Wewers, Mary Ellen

2007-01-01

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Salivary cotinine concentrations in daily smokers in Barcelona, Spain: a cross-sectional study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Characterizing and comparing the determinant of cotinine concentrations in different populations should facilitate a better understanding of smoking patterns and addiction. This study describes and characterizes determinants of salivary cotinine concentration in a sample of Spanish adult daily smoker men and women. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out between March 2004 and December 2005 in a representative sample of 1245 people from the general population of Barcelona, Spain. A standard questionnaire was used to gather information on active tobacco smoking and passive exposure, and a saliva specimen was obtained to determine salivary cotinine concentration. Two hundred and eleven adult smokers (>16 years old with complete data were included in the analysis. Determinants of cotinine concentrations were assessed using linear regression models. Results Salivary cotinine concentration was associated with the reported number of cigarettes smoked in the previous 24 hours (R2 = 0.339; p R2 = 0.386; p Conclusion This study shows that salivary cotinine concentration is significantly associated with the number of cigarettes smoked and sex, but not with other smoking-related variables.

Pascual José A

2009-09-01

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Utility and Cutoff Value of Hair Nicotine as a Biomarker of Long-Term Tobacco Smoke Exposure, Compared to Salivary Cotinine  

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Full Text Available While hair samples are easier to collect and less expensive to store and transport than biological fluids, and hair nicotine characterizes tobacco exposure over a longer time period than blood or urine cotinine, information on its utility, compared with salivary cotinine, is still limited. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 289 participants (107 active smokers, 105 passive smokers with self-reported secondhand smoke (SHS exposure, and 77 non-smokers with no SHS exposure in Baltimore (Maryland, USA. A subset of the study participants (n = 52 were followed longitudinally over a two-month interval.  Median baseline hair nicotine concentrations for active, passive and non-smokers were 16.2, 0.36, and 0.23 ng/mg, respectively, while those for salivary cotinine were 181.0, 0.27, and 0.27 ng/mL, respectively. Hair nicotine concentrations for 10% of passive or non-smokers were higher than the 25th percentile value for active smokers while all corresponding salivary cotinine concentrations for them were lower than the value for active smokers. This study showed that hair nicotine concentration values could be used to distinguish active or heavy passive adult smokers from non-SHS exposed non-smokers. Our results indicate that hair nicotine is a useful biomarker for the assessment of long-term exposure to tobacco smoke.

Sungroul Kim

2014-08-01

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Determinants of salivary cotinine level: a population-based study in Brazil / Determinantes dos níveis de cotinina salivar: um estudo de base populacional no Brasil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Realizou-se um estudo transversal para analisar a relação entre número de cigarros fumados e outras características com a concentração de cotinina salivar entre fumantes. MÉTODOS: Fumantes ativos de 15 anos ou mais foram selecionados por meio de amostra probabilística em múltiplos estágios [...] no ano 2000, município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. O estudo incluiu 401 fumantes. A concentração de cotinina salivar foi determinada utilizando-se cromatografia gasosa com detector de nitrogênio/fósforo. Coletaram-se informações demográficas e sobre o comportamento tabágico utilizando-se questionário padronizado. A relação entre o número de cigarros fumados nas últimas 24h e o nível de cotinina foi analisada utilizando técnica não paramétrica baseada em regressões robustas locais ponderadas. RESULTADOS: O nível médio ajustado de cotinina foi significativamente (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted to assess, in active smokers, the relationship of number of cigarettes smoked and other characteristics to salivary cotinine concentrations. METHODS: A random sample of active smokers aged 15 years or older was selected using a stepwi [...] se cluster sample strategy, in the year 2000 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The study included 401 subjects. Salivary cotinine concentration was determined using gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detection. A standard questionnaire was used to collect demographic and smoking behavioral data. The relation between the number of cigarettes smoked in the last 24h and cotinine level was examined by means of a nonparametric fitting technique of robust locally weighted regression. RESULTS: Significantly (p40 ng/mL per cigarette were excluded. CONCLUSIONS: There was found a positive association between self-reporting smoking five minutes after waking up, and inhaling more than ½ the time are consistent and higher cotinine levels. These can be markers of dependence and higher nicotine intake. Salivary cotinine proved to be a useful biomarker of recent smoking and can be used in epidemiological studies and smoking cessation programs.

Valeska Carvalho, Figueiredo; Moyses, Szklo; André Salem, Szklo; Neal, Benowitz; José Azevedo, Lozana; Leticia, Casado; Elaine, Masson; Jonathan, Samet.

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Determinants of salivary cotinine level: a population-based study in Brazil / Determinantes dos níveis de cotinina salivar: um estudo de base populacional no Brasil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Realizou-se um estudo transversal para analisar a relação entre número de cigarros fumados e outras características com a concentração de cotinina salivar entre fumantes. MÉTODOS: Fumantes ativos de 15 anos ou mais foram selecionados por meio de amostra probabilística em múltiplos estágios [...] no ano 2000, município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. O estudo incluiu 401 fumantes. A concentração de cotinina salivar foi determinada utilizando-se cromatografia gasosa com detector de nitrogênio/fósforo. Coletaram-se informações demográficas e sobre o comportamento tabágico utilizando-se questionário padronizado. A relação entre o número de cigarros fumados nas últimas 24h e o nível de cotinina foi analisada utilizando técnica não paramétrica baseada em regressões robustas locais ponderadas. RESULTADOS: O nível médio ajustado de cotinina foi significativamente (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted to assess, in active smokers, the relationship of number of cigarettes smoked and other characteristics to salivary cotinine concentrations. METHODS: A random sample of active smokers aged 15 years or older was selected using a stepwi [...] se cluster sample strategy, in the year 2000 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The study included 401 subjects. Salivary cotinine concentration was determined using gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detection. A standard questionnaire was used to collect demographic and smoking behavioral data. The relation between the number of cigarettes smoked in the last 24h and cotinine level was examined by means of a nonparametric fitting technique of robust locally weighted regression. RESULTS: Significantly (p40 ng/mL per cigarette were excluded. CONCLUSIONS: There was found a positive association between self-reporting smoking five minutes after waking up, and inhaling more than ½ the time are consistent and higher cotinine levels. These can be markers of dependence and higher nicotine intake. Salivary cotinine proved to be a useful biomarker of recent smoking and can be used in epidemiological studies and smoking cessation programs.

Valeska Carvalho, Figueiredo; Moyses, Szklo; André Salem, Szklo; Neal, Benowitz; José Azevedo, Lozana; Leticia, Casado; Elaine, Masson; Jonathan, Samet.

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Determinants of salivary cotinine level: a population-based study in Brazil Determinantes dos níveis de cotinina salivar: um estudo de base populacional no Brasil  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted to assess, in active smokers, the relationship of number of cigarettes smoked and other characteristics to salivary cotinine concentrations. METHODS: A random sample of active smokers aged 15 years or older was selected using a stepwise cluster sample strategy, in the year 2000 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The study included 401 subjects. Salivary cotinine concentration was determined using gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detection. A standard questionnaire was used to collect demographic and smoking behavioral data. The relation between the number of cigarettes smoked in the last 24h and cotinine level was examined by means of a nonparametric fitting technique of robust locally weighted regression. RESULTS: Significantly (p40 ng/mL per cigarette were excluded. CONCLUSIONS: There was found a positive association between self-reporting smoking five minutes after waking up, and inhaling more than ½ the time are consistent and higher cotinine levels. These can be markers of dependence and higher nicotine intake. Salivary cotinine proved to be a useful biomarker of recent smoking and can be used in epidemiological studies and smoking cessation programs.OBJETIVO: Realizou-se um estudo transversal para analisar a relação entre número de cigarros fumados e outras características com a concentração de cotinina salivar entre fumantes. MÉTODOS: Fumantes ativos de 15 anos ou mais foram selecionados por meio de amostra probabilística em múltiplos estágios no ano 2000, município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. O estudo incluiu 401 fumantes. A concentração de cotinina salivar foi determinada utilizando-se cromatografia gasosa com detector de nitrogênio/fósforo. Coletaram-se informações demográficas e sobre o comportamento tabágico utilizando-se questionário padronizado. A relação entre o número de cigarros fumados nas últimas 24h e o nível de cotinina foi analisada utilizando técnica não paramétrica baseada em regressões robustas locais ponderadas. RESULTADOS: O nível médio ajustado de cotinina foi significativamente (p<0,05 mais elevado entre indivíduos que fumaram o primeiro cigarro até cinco minutos depois de acordar e entre os que fumaram de um a 20 cigarros nas últimas 24h e tragavam mais de metade das vezes. Considerando-se fumantes de um a 20 cigarros, a inclinação da curva de regressão foi significativamente maior entre os que, após acordar, esperam mais de cinco minutos para fumar e para os que consumiam cigarros "suaves", quando comparados a seus opostos. Essas heterogeneidades desaparecem ao se excluir indivíduos com cotinina inferior a 40 ng/ml/cigarro. CONCLUSÕES: Houve associação positiva entre referir fumar até cinco minutos depois de acordar e tragar mais da metade das vezes e níveis de cotinina salivar. Essas informações podem ser marcadores de dependência e maior absorção de nicotina entre fumantes. A cotinina salivar mostrou-se útil como biomarcador do uso recente de tabaco a ser usado em estudos epidemiológicos e programas de cessação de fumar.

Valeska Carvalho Figueiredo

2007-12-01

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Punto de corte óptimo de la concentración de cotinina en saliva para discriminar entre fumadores y no fumadores en la población adulta de Barcelona / Optimal cut-point of salivary cotinine concentration to discriminate smoking status in the adult population in Barcelona  

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Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Evaluar el punto de corte óptimo de la concentración de cotinina en saliva para discriminar el consumo de tabaco en la población adulta de Barcelona. Métodos: Estudio transversal de una muestra representativa (n=1117) de la población adulta (>16 años) de la ciudad de Barcelona (2004-2005). [...] El estudio recogió información sobre tabaquismo (activo y pasivo) mediante cuestionario y una muestra de saliva para la determinación de cotinina. Se realizó un análisis de sensibilidad y especificidad estratificado por sexo, edad, tipo de consumo (diario y ocasional) y exposición al humo ambiental del tabaco en el hogar. Se calcularon las curvas ROC y el área bajo la curva. Resultados: La prevalencia de fumadores (diarios y ocasionales) fue del 27,8% (intervalo de confianza del 95%: 25,2-30,4%). El punto de corte óptimo que separa a los no fumadores de los fumadores es 9,2ng/ml (sensibilidad del 88,7% y especificidad del 89,0%). El área bajo la curva ROC fue 0,952. El punto de corte fue 12,2ng/ml para los hombres y 7,6 para las mujeres, y aumentaba en los grupos de edad con mayor prevalencia de tabaquismo. Los fumadores diarios tenían un punto de corte superior al de los fumadores ocasionales. Conclusiones: El punto de corte óptimo que discrimina fumadores de no fumadores en la población adulta es 9,2ng/ml, con sensibilidad y especificidad cercanas al 90%. El punto de corte es más alto en los hombres y en los grupos de menor edad, y aumenta cuanto mayor es la prevalencia de consumo diario. Abstract in english Objective: To assess the optimal cut-point for salivary cotinine concentration to identify smoking status in the adult population of Barcelona. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of a representative sample (n=1,117) of the adult population (>16 years) in Barcelona (2004-2005). This study [...] gathered information on active and passive smoking by means of a questionnaire and a saliva sample for cotinine determination. We analyzed sensitivity and specificity according to sex, age, smoking status (daily and occasional), and exposure to second-hand smoke at home. ROC curves and the area under the curve were calculated. Results: The prevalence of smokers (daily and occasional) was 27.8% (95% CI: 25.2-30.4%). The optimal cut-point to discriminate smoking status was 9.2ng/ml (sensitivity=88.7% and specificity=89.0%). The area under the ROC curve was 0.952. The optimal cut-point was 12.2ng/ml in men and 7.6ng/ml in women. The optimal cut-point was higher at ages with a greater prevalence of smoking. Daily smokers had a higher cut-point than occasional smokers. Conclusions: The optimal cut-point to discriminate smoking status in the adult population is 9.2ng/ml, with sensitivities and specificities around 90%. The cut-point was higher in men and in younger people. The cut-point increases with higher prevalence of daily smokers.

Jose M., Martínez-Sánchez; Marcela, Fu; Carles, Ariza; María J., López; Esteve, Saltó; José A., Pascual; Anna, Schiaffino; Josep M., Borràs; Mercè, Peris; Antonio, Agudo; Manel, Nebot; Esteve, Fernández.

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Punto de corte óptimo de la concentración de cotinina en saliva para discriminar entre fumadores y no fumadores en la población adulta de Barcelona / Optimal cut-point of salivary cotinine concentration to discriminate smoking status in the adult population in Barcelona  

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Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Evaluar el punto de corte óptimo de la concentración de cotinina en saliva para discriminar el consumo de tabaco en la población adulta de Barcelona. Métodos: Estudio transversal de una muestra representativa (n=1117) de la población adulta (>16 años) de la ciudad de Barcelona (2004-2005). [...] El estudio recogió información sobre tabaquismo (activo y pasivo) mediante cuestionario y una muestra de saliva para la determinación de cotinina. Se realizó un análisis de sensibilidad y especificidad estratificado por sexo, edad, tipo de consumo (diario y ocasional) y exposición al humo ambiental del tabaco en el hogar. Se calcularon las curvas ROC y el área bajo la curva. Resultados: La prevalencia de fumadores (diarios y ocasionales) fue del 27,8% (intervalo de confianza del 95%: 25,2-30,4%). El punto de corte óptimo que separa a los no fumadores de los fumadores es 9,2ng/ml (sensibilidad del 88,7% y especificidad del 89,0%). El área bajo la curva ROC fue 0,952. El punto de corte fue 12,2ng/ml para los hombres y 7,6 para las mujeres, y aumentaba en los grupos de edad con mayor prevalencia de tabaquismo. Los fumadores diarios tenían un punto de corte superior al de los fumadores ocasionales. Conclusiones: El punto de corte óptimo que discrimina fumadores de no fumadores en la población adulta es 9,2ng/ml, con sensibilidad y especificidad cercanas al 90%. El punto de corte es más alto en los hombres y en los grupos de menor edad, y aumenta cuanto mayor es la prevalencia de consumo diario. Abstract in english Objective: To assess the optimal cut-point for salivary cotinine concentration to identify smoking status in the adult population of Barcelona. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of a representative sample (n=1,117) of the adult population (>16 years) in Barcelona (2004-2005). This study [...] gathered information on active and passive smoking by means of a questionnaire and a saliva sample for cotinine determination. We analyzed sensitivity and specificity according to sex, age, smoking status (daily and occasional), and exposure to second-hand smoke at home. ROC curves and the area under the curve were calculated. Results: The prevalence of smokers (daily and occasional) was 27.8% (95% CI: 25.2-30.4%). The optimal cut-point to discriminate smoking status was 9.2ng/ml (sensitivity=88.7% and specificity=89.0%). The area under the ROC curve was 0.952. The optimal cut-point was 12.2ng/ml in men and 7.6ng/ml in women. The optimal cut-point was higher at ages with a greater prevalence of smoking. Daily smokers had a higher cut-point than occasional smokers. Conclusions: The optimal cut-point to discriminate smoking status in the adult population is 9.2ng/ml, with sensitivities and specificities around 90%. The cut-point was higher in men and in younger people. The cut-point increases with higher prevalence of daily smokers.

Jose M., Martínez-Sánchez; Marcela, Fu; Carles, Ariza; María J., López; Esteve, Saltó; José A., Pascual; Anna, Schiaffino; Josep M., Borràs; Mercè, Peris; Antonio, Agudo; Manel, Nebot; Esteve, Fernández.

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Punto de corte óptimo de la concentración de cotinina en saliva para discriminar entre fumadores y no fumadores en la población adulta de Barcelona Optimal cut-point of salivary cotinine concentration to discriminate smoking status in the adult population in Barcelona  

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Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar el punto de corte óptimo de la concentración de cotinina en saliva para discriminar el consumo de tabaco en la población adulta de Barcelona. Métodos: Estudio transversal de una muestra representativa (n=1117 de la población adulta (>16 años de la ciudad de Barcelona (2004-2005. El estudio recogió información sobre tabaquismo (activo y pasivo mediante cuestionario y una muestra de saliva para la determinación de cotinina. Se realizó un análisis de sensibilidad y especificidad estratificado por sexo, edad, tipo de consumo (diario y ocasional y exposición al humo ambiental del tabaco en el hogar. Se calcularon las curvas ROC y el área bajo la curva. Resultados: La prevalencia de fumadores (diarios y ocasionales fue del 27,8% (intervalo de confianza del 95%: 25,2-30,4%. El punto de corte óptimo que separa a los no fumadores de los fumadores es 9,2ng/ml (sensibilidad del 88,7% y especificidad del 89,0%. El área bajo la curva ROC fue 0,952. El punto de corte fue 12,2ng/ml para los hombres y 7,6 para las mujeres, y aumentaba en los grupos de edad con mayor prevalencia de tabaquismo. Los fumadores diarios tenían un punto de corte superior al de los fumadores ocasionales. Conclusiones: El punto de corte óptimo que discrimina fumadores de no fumadores en la población adulta es 9,2ng/ml, con sensibilidad y especificidad cercanas al 90%. El punto de corte es más alto en los hombres y en los grupos de menor edad, y aumenta cuanto mayor es la prevalencia de consumo diario.Objective: To assess the optimal cut-point for salivary cotinine concentration to identify smoking status in the adult population of Barcelona. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of a representative sample (n=1,117 of the adult population (>16 years in Barcelona (2004-2005. This study gathered information on active and passive smoking by means of a questionnaire and a saliva sample for cotinine determination. We analyzed sensitivity and specificity according to sex, age, smoking status (daily and occasional, and exposure to second-hand smoke at home. ROC curves and the area under the curve were calculated. Results: The prevalence of smokers (daily and occasional was 27.8% (95% CI: 25.2-30.4%. The optimal cut-point to discriminate smoking status was 9.2ng/ml (sensitivity=88.7% and specificity=89.0%. The area under the ROC curve was 0.952. The optimal cut-point was 12.2ng/ml in men and 7.6ng/ml in women. The optimal cut-point was higher at ages with a greater prevalence of smoking. Daily smokers had a higher cut-point than occasional smokers. Conclusions: The optimal cut-point to discriminate smoking status in the adult population is 9.2ng/ml, with sensitivities and specificities around 90%. The cut-point was higher in men and in younger people. The cut-point increases with higher prevalence of daily smokers.

Jose M. Martínez-Sánchez

2009-12-01

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Cotinine concentrations in follicular fluid as a measure of secondhand tobacco smoke exposure in women undergoing in vitro fertilization: inter-matrix comparisons with urine and temporal variability.  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined the relationship between cotinine measures in follicular fluid (FF) and urine to inform our exposure assessment strategy for an ongoing epidemiological study of secondhand tobacco smoke (STS) exposure and early pregnancy loss. Among subjects undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF), we compared cotinine levels in paired urine and FF samples from the same women and examined FF cotinine levels over time. We found a weak rank-order relationship (Spearman rcotinine concentrations in FF and urine. We observed fair reliability (ICC=0.42-0.52) in FF cotinine concentrations from women undergoing multiple IVF cycles. If available, FF cotinine concentrations may be desired as a biomarker of low-level tobacco smoke exposure over urinary cotinine in studies of early reproduction. Collection of multiple FF samples for cotinine analysis may be needed to accurately represent long-term STS exposure. PMID:21397293

Benedict, Merle D; Missmer, Stacey A; Vitonis, Allison F; Cramer, Daniel W; Meeker, John D

2011-06-01

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Validation of Self-Reported Smokeless Tobacco Use by Measurement of Serum Cotinine Concentration Among US Adults.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although investigators have assessed the relationship between self-reported cigarette smoking and biomarker levels, the validity of self-reported information on smokeless tobacco (SLT) use is uncertain. We used aggregated data from the 2003-2004, 2005-2006, 2007-2008, and 2009-2010 administrations of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to compare self-reported SLT use with serum concentrations of cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine, among US adults aged ?18 years. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to determine the optimal serum cotinine cutpoint for discriminating SLT users from nonusers of tobacco, and concordance analysis was used to compare self-reported SLT use with cotinine levels. Among the 30,298 adult respondents who completed the NHANES during 2003-2010, 418 reported having exclusively used SLT and no other type of tobacco (cigarettes, cigars, or pipes) during the past 5 days, while 23,457 reported not using any tobacco. The optimal cotinine cutpoint for discriminating SLT users from non-tobacco users was 3.0 ng/mL (sensitivity = 97.0%, specificity = 93.0%), which was comparable to a revised cutpoint recommended for identifying adult cigarette smokers. Concordance with cotinine was 96.4% and 93.7% for self-reported SLT use and tobacco nonuse, respectively. These findings indicate that self-reported SLT use among adults correlates highly with serum cotinine levels and that the optimal cutpoint for minimizing misclassification of self-reported use is a serum cotinine concentration of 3.0 ng/mL. PMID:25125690

Agaku, Israel T; King, Brian A

2014-10-01

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COTININE CONCENTRATIONS IN SEMEN, URINE AND BLOOD OF SMOKERS AND NONSMOKERS  

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The extent to which ambient exposures to environmental chemicals results in exposures to human genetic material is poorly understood. he purpose of the current study is to document the presence of cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine but not a known mutagen, in the semen of men exp...

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Biomonitoring of Urinary Cotinine Concentrations Associated with Plasma Levels of Nicotine Metabolites after Daily Cigarette Smoking in a Male Japanese Population  

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Full Text Available Human biomonitoring of plasma and urinary levels of nicotine, cotinine, and 3?-hydroxycotinine was conducted after daily cigarette smoking in a population of 92 male Japanese smokers with a mean age of 37 years who had smoked an average of 23 cigarettes per day for 16 years. Members of the population were genotyped for the nicotine-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6. The mean levels of nicotine, the levels of its metabolites cotinine and 3?-hydroxycotinine, and the sum of these three levels in subjects one hour after smoking the first cigarette on the sampling day were 20.1, 158, 27.7, and 198 ng/mL in plasma and 846, 1,020, 1,010, and 2,870 ng/mL in urine under daily smoking conditions. Plasma levels of 3'-hydroxycotinine and urinary levels of nicotine and 3?-hydroxycotinine were dependent on the CYP2A6 phenotype group, which was estimated from the CYP2A6 genotypes of the subjects, including those with whole gene deletion. Plasma cotinine levels were significantly correlated with the number of cigarettes smoked on the day before sampling (r = 0.71, the average number of cigarettes smoked daily (r = 0.58, and the Brinkman index (daily cigarettes × years, r = 0.48 under the present conditions. The sum of nicotine, cotinine, and 3?-hydroxycotinine concentrations in plasma showed a similar relationship to that of the plasma cotinine levels. Urinary concentrations of cotinine and the sum of nicotine metabolite concentrations also showed significant correlations with the plasma levels and the previous day’s and average cigarette consumption. The numbers of cigarettes smoked per day by two subjects with self-reported light smoking habits were predicted by measuring the urinary cotinine concentrations and using linear regression equations derived from above-mentioned data. These results indicate that biomonitoring of the urinary cotinine concentration is a good, easy-to-use marker for plasma levels of cotinine and the sum of nicotine metabolites in smokers independent of genetic polymorphism of CYP2A6.

Hiroshi Yamazaki

2010-07-01

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Seasonal Variation in Human Salivary Cortisol Concentration  

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Measurement of cortisol concentration can contribute important information about an individual's ability to adjust to various environmental demands of both physical and psychosocial origin. However, one uncertainty that affects the possibilities of correctly interpreting and designing field studies is the lack of observations of the impact of seasonal changes on cortisol excretion. For this reason, the month-to-month changes in diurnal cortisol concentration, the awakening cortisol response (ACR), maximum morning concentration, and fall during the day were studied in a group of 24 healthy men and women 32 to 61 yrs of age engaged in active work. On one workday for 12 consecutive months, participants collected saliva at four time points for determination of cortisol: at awakening, +30 min, +8 h, and at 21:00 h. Data were analyzed by a repeated measures design with month (12 levels) and time-of-day (4 levels) as categorical predictors. Cortisol concentrations were analyzed on a log scale. The diurnal pattern ofcortisol was similar across months (interaction between month and time of day: p>0.4). The main effects of month and time-of-day were statistically significant (p

Persson, Roger; Garde, Anne Helene

2008-01-01

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Salivary and serum hyaluronic acid concentrations in patients with Sjögren's syndrome  

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OBJECTIVE—To evaluate salivary hyaluronic acid (HA) concentration in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS).?METHODS—Salivary and serum HA concentrations were evaluated using a radiometric assay. Thirty nine patients with SS served as the study group and their results were compared with 19 patients having clinical symptoms and signs of dry mouth and with 10 normal controls.?RESULTS—Salivary HA concentrations were significantly increased (p < 0.05) in the 39 patients wit...

Tishler, M.; Yaron, I.; Shirazi, I.; Yaron, M.

1998-01-01

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Cotinine Concentrations in Follicular Fluid as a Measure of Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Women Undergoing In Vitro Fertilization: Inter-matrix Comparisons with Urine and Temporal Variability  

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We examined the relationship between cotinine measures in follicular fluid (FF) and urine to inform our exposure assessment strategy for an ongoing epidemiological study of secondhand tobacco smoke (STS) exposure and early pregnancy loss. Among subjects undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF), we compared cotinine levels in paired urine and FF samples from the same women and examined FF cotinine levels over time. We found a weak rank-order relationship (Spearman r <0.2) and poor agreement for...

Benedict, Merle D.; Missmer, Stacey A.; Vitonis, Allison F.; Cramer, Daniel W.; Meeker, John D.

2011-01-01

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Effect of Pilocarpine and Angiotensin II on Salivary Flow, Total Protein and Electrolyte Concentrations of Saliva  

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Full Text Available Present studies have focused on the effect of intraperitonially i.p. injection of angiotensin II (ANG II and pilocarpine on the salivary secretion, salivary amylase, saliva total proteins, saliva calcium sodium and potassium. Rats were anesthetized with urethane (1.25 g kg < SUP>-1 < /SUP> b. wt.. The amount of saliva secretion was studied over a 5 min period. Male Holtzman rats (250-300 g were housed in individual metabolic cages, with free access to food pellets and tap water ad libitum. The basal salivary flow after i.p saline 0.15 M NaCl as control was 17?1 mg/5 min. Angiotensin II (120 ng/0.5 mL, increased the salivary flow. The previous application of losartan (AT < SUB>1 < /SUB> ANG II receptors antagonist blocked the sialogogue effect of ANG II. PD123319 (AT < SUB>2 < /SUB>ANG II receptors antagonist blocked with smaller intensity the effect of ANG II. Animals treated with ANG II showed no change in the concentration of total protein, salivary amylase and calcium. The same happened when treated with losartan or PD123319. ANG II increased the concentration of sodium and decreased the concentration of potassium. Losartan blocked the effect of ANG II on sodium and potassium concentration. Pilocarpine increased the salivary flow. Losartan and PD123319 produced no change in salivary flow stimulated by pilocarpine. Pilocarpine did not alter the total protein, salivary amylase and calcium. Previous application of losartan and PD123319 produced no change in this pilocarpine effect. Pilocarpine decreased sodium and potassium concentration. Losartan and PD123319 produced no change in these effects of pilocarpine. In conclusion the results of the present study showed the importance of ANG II and pilocarpine in the control of the mechanism of salivary secretion and in the sodium and potassium-saliva concentration.

Wilson Abrao Saad

2005-01-01

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Salivary pH as a marker of plasma adiponectin concentrations in Women  

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Abstract Background Plasma adiponectin is a significant correlate of the pro-inflammatory cardiometabolic risk profile associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Salivary pH is influenced by several cardiometabolic risk components such as inflammation, oxidation and numerous oral and systemic health modulators, including the menopausal status. This study aimed to assess the association between plasma adiponectin concentrations and salivary pH in women according to the menop...

Tremblay Monique; Loucif Yacine; Methot Julie; Brisson Diane; Gaudet Daniel

2012-01-01

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Salivary pH as a marker of plasma adiponectin concentrations in Women  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasma adiponectin is a significant correlate of the pro-inflammatory cardiometabolic risk profile associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Salivary pH is influenced by several cardiometabolic risk components such as inflammation, oxidation and numerous oral and systemic health modulators, including the menopausal status. This study aimed to assess the association between plasma adiponectin concentrations and salivary pH in women according to the menopausal status. Method Unstimulated saliva collection was performed in 151 Caucasian women of French-Canadian origin (53 premenopausal women (PMW and 98 menopausal women (MW. Student's t test, ANOVA and linear regression models were used to assess the association between plasma adiponectin concentrations and salivary pH. Results Plasma adiponectin levels increased as a function of salivary pH in the whole sample and among MW (r = 0.29 and r = 0.36, p 2 was 10.8% (p Conclusions These results suggest that salivary pH is a significant correlate of plasma adiponectin levels in women. With the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes and obesity, new technologies should be developed to more easily monitor health status, disease onset and progression. Salivary pH, a simple, inexpensive and non-invasive measure, could be a very promising avenue.

Tremblay Monique

2012-02-01

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Salivary VIP concentrations are elevated in humans after acute stress.  

Science.gov (United States)

Salivary (s)-cortisol, s-amylase, s-DHEA are used extensively in stress research. Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) is also detectable in saliva using a standard RIA kit. VIP is a 28 amino acid neuropeptide that belongs to the secretin/glucagon family of peptides and acts as a neurotransmitter/neuromodulator. VIP has also been detected in the parasympathetic nerves enervating the salivary glands. Here we measured the level of s-cortisol, s-DHEA, s-amylase and s-VIP in three different stress exercises of different duration and intensity. The results indicate that a brief intense exercise lasting minutes elicited a stress response with significant increases in s-cortisol, s-DHEA, s-amylase and s-VIP. A less rigorous exercise did not elicit a stress response with no significant increases in s-cortisol, s-DHEA, s-amylase and s-VIP. A longer intense exercise lasting hours elicited a stress response with significant increases only in s-cortisol. PMID:23994551

Ventre, Giovanni; Colonna, Caitlin; Smith, Jennifer; Alfano, Denise; Moldow, Roberta

2013-11-01

 
 
 
 
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New procyanidin b3-human salivary protein complexes by mass spectrometry. Effect of salivary protein profile, tannin concentration, and time stability.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several factors could influence the tannin-protein interaction such as the human salivary protein profile, the tannin tested, and the tannin/protein ratio. The goal of this study aims to study the effect of different salivas (A, B, and C) and different tannin concentrations (0.5 and 1 mg/mL) on the interaction process as well as the complex's stability over time. This study is focused on the identification of new procyanidin B3-human salivary protein complexes. Thus, 48 major B3-human salivary protein aggregates were identified regardless of the saliva and tannin concentration tested. A higher number of aggregates was found at lower tannin concentration. Moreover, the number of protein moieties involved in the aggregation process was higher when the tannin concentration was also higher. The selectivity of the different groups of proteins to bind tannin was also confirmed. It was also verified that the B3-human salivary protein complexes formed evolved over time. PMID:25248720

Perez-Gregorio, Maria Rosa; Mateus, Nuno; De Freitas, Victor

2014-10-15

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Toxicokinetics and correlation of carbamazepine salivary and serum concentrations in acute poisonings  

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Full Text Available Background/Aim. Saliva is a body fluid which, like serum, can be used for determination of concentrations of certain drugs, both in pharmacotherapy as well as in acute poisonings. The aim of this study was to determine carbamazepine concentrations in both saliva and serum in acute poisoning in order to show if there is a correlation between the obtained values, as well as to monitor toxicokinetics of carbamazepine in body fluides. Methods. Saliva and serum samples were obtained from 26 patients treated with carbamazepine and 20 patients acutely poisoned by the drug immediately after their admission in the Emergency Toxicology Unit. Determination of salivary and serum carbamazepine concentrations was performed by the validated high pressure liquid chromatographyultraviolet (HPLC-UV method. Results. A significant correlation of salivary and serum carbamazepine concentrations in both therapeutic application and acute poisoning (r = 0.9481 and 0.9117, respectively was confirmed. In acute poisonings the mean ratio between salivary and serum concentrations of carbamazepine (0.43 was similar to the mean ratio after its administration in therapeutic doses (0.39, but there were high inter-individual variations in carbamazepine concentrations in the acutely poisoned patients, as a consequence of different ingested doses of the drug. In acute poisoning the halftime of carbamazepine in saliva and serum was 12.57 h and 6.76 h, respectively. Conclusion. Our results suggest a possible use of saliva as an alternative biological material for determination of carbamazepine concentrations in therapeutic application and acute poisoning as well, and a possible extrapolation of the results obtained in saliva to serum concentrations of carbamazepine.

?or?evi? Snežana

2012-01-01

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Cotinine levels in relation to smoking behavior and addiction in young adolescent smokers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of this study was to identify associations among self-reported nicotine exposure, nicotine addiction, and actual nicotine intake as measured by salivary cotinine levels in adolescent smokers. A total of 170 adolescent smokers with a mean age of 15 years were recruited from seven northern Californian public high schools. Data were collected on smoking behaviors, addiction, craving, and withdrawal. Nicotine dependence was assessed using a modified teen Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire (mtFTQ), a modified Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (mNDSS), and a simple self-rating. Withdrawal was assessed using the Minnesota Withdrawal Questionnaire, and craving was assessed using a survey created by the authors. Salivary cotinine levels were collected from and analysed in participants who self-identified as smokers; data from the 54 participants who smoked in the past 4 days and whose salivary cotinine levels were greater than 0.1 ng/ml were used in the analysis. Among this group of adolescent smokers, the mean number of cigarettes smoked per day was 3.51 (SD = 3.44) and the mean level of salivary cotinine was 44.1 ng/ml (Mdn = 24.2). Even at this low level of nicotine exposure, cotinine was highly correlated with measures of nicotine dependence such as the mtFTQ (r = 0.497, p = .001), NDSS (r = 0.439, p = .002), timing of craving in the morning (r = -0.601, p = .000), and self-rated addiction (r = 0.562, p = .000). Most interesting, cotinine levels reached a plateau at around 4-5 cigarettes/day. PMID:17365743

Rubinstein, Mark L; Thompson, Pamela J; Benowitz, Neal L; Shiffman, Saul; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara

2007-01-01

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May salivary gland secretory proteins from hematophagous leeches (Hirudo verbana) reach pharmacologically relevant concentrations in the vertebrate host?  

Science.gov (United States)

Saliva of hematophagous leeches (Hirudo sp.) contains bioactive proteins which allow the leech proper feeding and storage of ingested blood, but may also exert effects in the host. Leech therapy is used to treat many different ailments in humans, although only a small fraction of salivary proteins are characterized yet. Moreover, we do not know whether complete transfer of salivary proteins stored in the unicellular salivary glands in a leech to the host during feeding may generate concentrations that are sufficiently high to affect physiological processes in the host. Our 3D reconstruction of a portion of internal leech tissue from histological sections revealed that one leech contains approx. 37,000 salivary gland cells. Using tissue slices from pig liver and mouse skeletal muscle for reference, we obtained data for protein densities in leech salivary gland cells. As individual salivary cells are voluminous (67,000 µm(3)) and the stored proteins are densely packed (approx. 500 µg/mm(3)), we extrapolated that a single leech may contain up to 1.2 mg of salivary proteins. Analyzing protein extracts of unfed or fed leeches by 2D electrophoresis, we calculated the relative molar amounts of individual salivary proteins in the mass range of 17-60 kDa which may be released from a single leech during feeding. Distribution of these salivary proteins in the host (assumed plasma volume of 5 l) may result in concentrations of individual compounds between 3 and 236 pmol/l. Such concentrations seem sufficiently high to exert biochemical interactions with target molecules in the host. PMID:24058492

Lemke, Sarah; Müller, Christian; Lipke, Elisabeth; Uhl, Gabriele; Hildebrandt, Jan-Peter

2013-01-01

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Salivary concentrations of nickel and chromium in patients with burning mouth syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been documented in vitro and in vivo that metal dental appliances release metal ions due to corrosion. Dentists must choose among many dental casting alloys available, often without knowledge of their biological properties and effect on oral mucosa. The aim of this study was to measure metal content of nickel (Ni) and chromium (Cr) in whole saliva of 85 patients with and without metal dental appliances. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected and analyzed by using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. History data, subjective complaints and objective findings on oral mucosa were recorded. The concentration of metal ions was investigated in correlation to burning mouth syndrome, erythema of oral mucosa, pH and smoking habit. Results showed a higher Ni concentration in patients with metal restorations, especially wearers of predominantly base metal appliances. The concentration of Cr showed no difference between patient groups. Although burning mouth syndrome was more frequent in the group with dental casting alloys, there was no correlation between higher Ni and Cr concentrations and burning mouth syndrome. Erythema of oral mucosa was a common finding in study patients, but did not correlate with salivary Ni and Cr ion concentrations. Salivary Ni and Cr concentrations were not related to either pH or smoking habit. PMID:21489358

Bari?evi?, Marinka; Mravak-Stipeti?, Marinka; Stanimirovi?, Andrija; Blanuša, Maja; Kern, Josipa; Lon?ar, Božana; Andabak, Ana; Bari?evi?, Denis

2011-01-01

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The relationship between salivary cortisol concentrations and anxiety in adolescent and non-adolescent pregnant women  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The main purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between salivary cortisol concentrations and self-report anxiety in 50 adolescent and 178 non-adolescent women during the last month of pregnancy. The subjects were randomly selected from a previous study involving women who att [...] ended antenatal care from September 1997 to August 2000 at 17 health services in Southeast Brazil. Salivary cortisol was measured with an enzyme immunoassay kit, and anxiety was assessed by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventories (STAI) of Spielberger. After saliva collection, the participants completed the STAI. Mean concentrations of cortisol for both pregnant adolescents (14.17 ± 6.78 nmol/l) and non-adolescents (13.81 ± 8.51 nmol/l) were similar (P = 0.89). Forty-three percent of the pregnant adolescents and 30.5% of the non-adolescents felt anxious at the time of being questioned (State Anxiety Inventory (SAI) scores >40; P = 0.06). Cortisol concentrations in adolescents were negatively related to the SAI scores (r = -0.39; P = 0.01) which assess a temporary condition of anxiety. There was a statistically significant difference in mean cortisol concentrations between adolescents with low (40) SAI scores (P = 0.03, t-test), but no differences for non-adolescents. The negative relationship between salivary cortisol concentrations and anxiety scores in adolescents may be due to puberty-related hormone differences during this period of life. Pregnant adolescents may possess unique biological or psychological characteristics compared to adults and non-pregnant adolescents. Thus, we need to know more about the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis of pregnant adolescents.

P.H.C., Rondó; A.J., Vaz; F., Moraes; A., Tomkins.

1403-14-01

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Do whole-body vibration exercise and resistance exercise modify concentrations of salivary cortisol and immunoglobulin A?  

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A single bout of resistance exercise (RE) induces hormonal and immune responses, playing an important role in a long-term adaptive process. Whole-body vibration (WBV) has also been shown to affect hormonal responses. Evidence suggests that combining WBV with RE may amplify hormonal and immune responses due to the increased neuromuscular load. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate salivary cortisol (Scortisol) and salivary IgA (SIgA) concentrations following a RE session combined or...

Roschel, H.; Barroso, R.; Batista, M.; Ugrinowitsch, C.; Tricoli, V.; Arsati, F.; Lima-arsati, Y. B.; Arau?jo, V. C.; Moreira, A.

2011-01-01

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Effect of a protein-rich meal on urinary and salivary free amino acid concentrations in human subjects.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study was to investigate whether in healthy volunteers acute changes in plasma free amino acid composition after a protein-rich test meal are reflected in the urinary and salivary concentrations of the corresponding amino acids. The ingestion of a protein-rich meal elicited a significant increase of plasma and urine amino acid concentrations. The postprandial salivary amino acid excretion showed only minor changes. For several amino acids (alanine, arginine, asparagine, glycine, threonine and valine) significant relations were observed between the increase in concentration of these amino acids in venous plasma and urine. In whole saliva, only threonine and valine showed a significant relationship with the corresponding plasma concentration. Our data suggest that the urinary amino acid excretion of several amino acids has the potential for estimating short-term changes in plasma concentrations. Determination of salivary amino acid concentrations seems less appropriate for this purpose. PMID:9267701

Brand, H S; Jörning, G G; Chamuleau, R A; Abraham-Inpijn, L

1997-08-01

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Comparison of urinary and plasma cotinine levels during the three trimesters of pregnancy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Assays of metabolised cotinine are considered to be an accurate measure of exposure to cigarette smoke among pregnant women. We investigated the association and differences between the cotinine levels in maternal urine and blood, and the umbilical cord blood of three tobacco exposure groups at different stages of pregnancy. A prospective study was conducted among 398 pregnant women undergoing prenatal care in different trimesters at two medical centres and one regional hospital in central Taiwan. All 398 subjects (including 25 smokers, 191 passive smokers and 182 non-smokers) remained in the study up to the time of delivery; 384 of them delivered singleton live births. Cotinine levels were assayed in the maternal plasma and urine of the mothers at each trimester and in the cord blood of the newborns. All specimens were measured using a sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography. Cotinine concentrations in plasma and urine showed a significant dose-dependent difference among the three groups (non-smoker, passive and active smoker) and a trend that increased with gestation among the pregnant women. Significant correlations between cotinine concentrations in plasma and urine among the pregnant women in each trimester were found. In addition, the level of cotinine in umbilical cord blood was significantly correlated with that in maternal blood at term (r = 0.89, P cotinine concentrations in the plasma and urine of pregnant women from the beginning to the end of pregnancy was found, and this correlated significantly with the cotinine levels in the umbilical cord blood. PMID:18426525

Wu, Fang Y; Chiu, Hsien T; Wu, Hong D Isaac; Lin, Chouh J; Lai, Jim S; Kuo, Hsien-Wen

2008-05-01

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Gas chromatographic analysis of nicotine and cotinine in hair.  

Science.gov (United States)

Non-invasive validation of cigarette- or cigar-smoking behaviour is necessary for large population studies. Urine or saliva samples can be used for confirmation of recent nicotine intake by analysis of cotinine, the major metabolite of nicotine. However, this test is not suitable for validation of survey data, since the quantification of cotinine in saliva only reflects nicotine exposure during the preceding week. To validate information on tobacco use, we investigated hair samples for quantifying nicotine and cotinine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Hair (about 50-100 mg) was incubated in 1 M sodium hydroxide at 100 degrees C for 10 min. After cooling, samples were extracted by diethyl ether, using ketamine as an internal standard. Drugs were separated on a 12-m BP-5 capillary column, and detected using selected-ion monitoring (m/z 84, 98 and 180 for nicotine, cotinine and ketamine, respectively). Hair from non-smokers and smokers contained nicotine and cotinine. Although it is difficult to determine an absolute cut-off concentration, more than 2 ng of nicotine per milligram of hair can be used to differentiate smokers from non-smokers. Some applications of this technique are developed to determine the status of passive smokers, the gestational exposure in babies and the pattern of an individual's nicotine use by cutting strands of hair into sections of one-month intervals. PMID:1400830

Kintz, P

1992-09-16

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Cotinine en pédiatrie et en santé au travail Cotinine in pediatry and at the workplace  

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Full Text Available L'intérêt du suivi d'une exposition au tabac par la mesure de la concentration de la cotinine dans les milieux biologiques est connu depuis longtemps. Métabolite principal de la nicotine, avec une demi-vie d'élimination longue, le suivi de la cotinine permet l'évaluation de l'imprégnation tabagique dans les cas particuliers du tabagisme passif chez l'enfant et chez l'adulte, dans les lieux publics ou le milieu professionnel. Le suivi de ce marqueur s'avère également particulièrement intéressant en santé au travail pour la surveillance d'expositions à certains solvants organiques (benzène, toluène, éthylbenzéne, xylène, hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques... dont les concentrations ou celles de leurs métabolites sont influencées par la consommation de tabac. L'urine demeure la matrice biologique de choix pour évaluer le degré d'exposition. Un seuil de positivité mesuré à 6 ng/mL dans l'urine permet de distinguer une population pédiatrique exposée ou non. D'autres matrices comme les cheveux ou la salive apparaissent depuis plusieurs années comme utiles dans le cadre du dépistage de l'exposition au tabagisme environnemental. Le dosage de la cotinine dans les cheveux montre une nouvelle fois l'intérêt rétrospectif de l'utilisation de ce type de matrice. La salive, avec un intérêt moindre chez le nouveau né, a été utilisée dans plusieurs études pour distinguer des populations exposées et non exposées avec un seuil de positivité fixé à 1 ng/mL. Deux types de méthodes sont principalement utilisées pour le dosage de la cotinine : les méthodes chromatographiques HPLC-DAD, HPLC-MS, GC-MS et les méthodes immunologiques (RIA ou immunoenzymatiques par ELISA. Des études récentes montrent l'évolution des techniques ELISA. Elles peuvent par exemple être utilisées dans la salive avec un seuil de positivité de la cotinine à 1 ng/mL permettant de définir une population imprégnée. Actuellement, nombreuses sont les études qui utilisent avec succès les techniques immunologiques en pédiatrie et en santé au travail. Les avantages apparaissent alors multiples notamment en termes de coût et de rapidité. Elles sont suffisamment sensibles et peuvent être utilisées pour différents types de matrices biologiques. It is well known today that tobacco exposure can be assessed by the measurement of several markers in biological fluids. Cotinine, a nicotine metabolite with a longer biological half-life than nicotine, is probably the most reliable index that can be used to measure exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in adults in the context of an exposure at workplace, and also in children. Additionally, cotinine appears to be a very useful marker to investigate the exposure of workers to organic solvents (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons... given that their concentrations and/or those of their metabolites can be influenced by tobacco smoke. Urine remains an accurate biological specimen to assess the level of tobacco exposure of individuals. A urinary cotinine level of 6 ng/mL (cut-off is a precise and sensitive test in discerning exposed children to tobacco smoke from non-exposed children. Other alternative biological specimens such as hair or saliva can also be used for this purpose. Hair cotinine has proved to be a reliable tool for evaluating the level of environmental tobacco smoke in a pediatric population. Saliva has been successfully applied in several studies amongst primary school children or in workers with a cut-off value for cotinine of 1 ng/mL. Various assays are presently available for the measurement of cotinine in biological specimens. Most of them are based on chromatographic (HPLC-UV, HPLC-MS, GC-MS or immunoassay methods (RIA, EIA. Recent studies showed that ELISA can be used to measure cotinine in saliva at a level as low as 1 ng/mL, this concentration being the cut-off allowing to distinguish individuals exposed to environmental tobacco smoke from individuals not exposed. Currently, many studies dealing

Hoizey Guillaume

2009-05-01

32

A two-year follow-up study of salivary cortisol concentration and the risk of depression  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Stress is a suspected cause of depression. High cortisol concentration, a biomarker of an activated stress response, has been found in depressed patients. The aim of this study was to determine if a high level of salivary cortisol is a risk factor of depression. In 2007, we enrolled 4467 public employees. Morning and evening salivary cortisol concentration were measured for each participant. Participants reporting high levels of depressive, burnout, or stress symptoms, assessed by questionnaires were assigned to a psychiatric interview. In this interview 98 participants were diagnosed with depression and subsequently excluded. Two years later in 2009, 2920 participants who had provided at least one valid saliva cortisol measurement at baseline participated at follow up. The psychiatric interviews were repeated and 62 cases of newly onset depression were diagnosed. Odds ratios of depression were estimated for every 1.0nmol/l increase in morning, evening, and daily mean cortisol concentration, as well as for the difference between morning and evening cortisol concentration. The risk of depression decreased by increasing daily mean cortisol concentration and by increasing difference between morning and evening concentrations, while morning and evening cortisol concentrations were not significantly associated with depression. The adjusted odds ratios for 1.0nmol/l increase in morning, evening, and daily mean cortisol concentration were 0.69 (95% CI: 0.45, 1.05), 0.87 (95% CI: 0.59, 1.28), and 0.53 (95% CI: 0.32, 0.90), respectively. The adjusted odds ratio for 1.0nmol/l increase in difference between morning and evening concentration were 0.64 (95% CI: 0.45, 0.90). This study did not support the hypothesis that high salivary cortisol concentration is a risk factor of depression, but indicate that low mean salivary cortisol concentration and a small difference between morning and evening cortisol concentration may be risk factors of depression.

Grynderup, Matias BrØdsgaard; Kolstad, Henrik Albert

2013-01-01

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A surrogate method for comparison analysis of salivary concentrations of Xylitol-containing products  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Xylitol chewing gum has been shown to reduce Streptococcus mutans levels and decay. Two studies examined the presence and time course of salivary xylitol concentrations delivered via xylitol-containing pellet gum and compared them to other xylitol-containing products. Methods A within-subjects design was used for both studies. Study 1, adults (N = 15 received three xylitol-containing products (pellet gum (2.6 g, gummy bears (2.6 g, and commercially available stick gum (Koolerz, 3.0 g; Study 2, a second group of adults (N = 15 received three xylitol-containing products (pellet gum, gummy bears, and a 33% xylitol syrup (2.67 g. For both studies subjects consumed one xylitol product per visit with a 7-day washout between each product. A standardized protocol was followed for each product visit. Product order was randomly determined at the initial visit. Saliva samples (0.5 mL to 1.0 mL were collected at baseline and up to 10 time points (~16 min in length after product consumption initiated. Concentration of xylitol in saliva samples was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. Area under the curve (AUC for determining the average xylitol concentration in saliva over the total sampling period was calculated for each product. Results In both studies all three xylitol products (Study 1: pellet gum, gummy bears, and stick gum; Study 2: pellet gum, gummy bears, and syrup had similar time curves with two xylitol concentration peaks during the sampling period. Study 1 had its highest mean peaks at the 4 min sampling point while Study 2 had its highest mean peaks between 13 to 16 minutes. Salivary xylitol levels returned to baseline at about 18 minutes for all forms tested. Additionally, for both studies the total AUC for the xylitol products were similar compared to the pellet gum (Study 1: pellet gum – 51.3 ?g.min/mL, gummy bears – 59.6 ?g.min/mL, and stick gum – 46.4 ?g.min/mL; Study 2: pellet gum – 63.0 ?g.min/mL, gummy bears – 55.9 ?g.min/mL, and syrup – 59.0 ?g.min/mL. Conclusion The comparison method demonstrated high reliability and validity. In both studies other xylitol-containing products had time curves and mean xylitol concentration peaks similar to xylitol pellet gum suggesting this test may be a surrogate for longer studies comparing various products.

Zhou Lingmei

2008-02-01

34

Dose-related association between urinary cotinine-verified smoking status and dyslipidemia among Korean men: the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.  

Science.gov (United States)

This cross-sectionally designed study was based on data collected during the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A total 3231 South Korean men aged more than 19 years were included. Urinary cotinine concentrations were measured. Smoking status was defined using questionnaire responses and urinary cotinine concentrations. Hierarchical multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association of urinary cotinine concentrations with the prevalence of dyslipidemia and various parameters of dyslipidemia. There is a significant dose-related association between smoking as assessed by urinary cotinine concentration and dyslipidemia and various parameters of dyslipidemia among South Korean men. PMID:24810391

Nam, Ga Eun; Kim, Do Hoon; Park, Yong Gyu; Han, Kyungdo; Choi, Youn Seon; Kim, Seon Mee; Ko, Byung Joon; Kim, Yang Hyun; Lee, Kyung Shik; Baek, Sung Joon

2014-09-01

35

Transformation techniques for cross-sectional and longitudinal endocrine data: application to salivary cortisol concentrations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Endocrine time series often lack normality and homoscedasticity most likely due to the non-linear dynamics of their natural determinants and the immanent characteristics of the biochemical analysis tools, respectively. As a consequence, data transformation (e.g., log-transformation) is frequently applied to enable general linear model-based analyses. However, to date, data transformation techniques substantially vary across studies and the question of which is the optimum power transformation remains to be addressed. The present report aims to provide a common solution for the analysis of endocrine time series by systematically comparing different power transformations with regard to their impact on data normality and homoscedasticity. For this, a variety of power transformations of the Box-Cox family were applied to salivary cortisol data of 309 healthy participants sampled in temporal proximity to a psychosocial stressor (the Trier Social Stress Test). Whereas our analyses show that un- as well as log-transformed data are inferior in terms of meeting normality and homoscedasticity, they also provide optimum transformations for both, cross-sectional cortisol samples reflecting the distributional concentration equilibrium and longitudinal cortisol time series comprising systematically altered hormone distributions that result from simultaneously elicited pulsatile change and continuous elimination processes. Considering these dynamics of endocrine oscillations, data transformation prior to testing GLMs seems mandatory to minimize biased results. PMID:23063878

Miller, Robert; Plessow, Franziska

2013-06-01

36

Salivary Glands  

Science.gov (United States)

Salivary Glands Salivary Glands Patient Health Information News media interested in covering the latest from AAO-HNS/F can ... at newsroom@entnet.org . Where Are Your Salivary Glands? The glands are found in and around your ...

37

Time course of nicotine and cotinine incorporation into samples of nonsmokers' beard hair following a single dose of nicotine polacrilex.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hair nicotine and cotinine have been proposed as longer-term markers of exposure to secondhand smoke. In this study, we evaluated the rate and extent of nicotine and cotinine deposition into beard hair among six male nonsmokers following a single exposure to 4 mg of nicotine in Nicorette(®) (nicotine polacrilex) gum. We collected beard hair samples daily for 12 days following exposure and urine samples for 6 days after exposure. Using liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric analysis, we found that both nicotine and cotinine could be detected in beard samples within 24 h of the exposure and reached a maximum of about 71 pg nicotine and 47 pg cotinine/mg hair, respectively, within 1-2 days, followed by a gradual decline. Compared to beard hair concentrations, nicotine, cotinine, and hydroxycotinine were excreted in urine at much higher levels and also peaked on the day after exposure (mean ± SD urine cotinine = 300 ± 183 ng/mL). Our results confirmed that both nicotine and cotinine can be measured in beard hair samples following a single dose of nicotine. However, both the time-course and extent of deposition of these analytes in beard hair in this study differed from the results reported previously from a similar evaluation. PMID:21219696

Bernert, John T; Alexander, Joseph R; Sosnoff, Connie S; McGuffey, James E

2011-01-01

38

A comparative analysis of the influence of human salivary enzymes on odorant concentration in three palm wines.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of human salivary enzymes on palm wines' odorant concentrations were investigated by the application of aroma extracts dilution analysis (AEDA) and by the calculation of odour activity values (OAVs), respectively. The odorants were quantified by means of stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA), and the degradation profiles of odorants by human saliva were also studied. Results revealed 46 odour-active compounds in the flavour dilution (FD) factor range of 4-256, and all were subsequently identified. Of the 46 odorants, 41 were identified in the Elaeis guineensis wine, 36 in Raphia hookeri wine and 29 in Borassus flabellifer wine. Among the odorants, the highest FD-factors were obtained from acetoin, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine. Among the 13 potent odorants identified, five aroma compounds are reported here as important contributors to palm wine aroma, namely 3-isobutyl-2-methoxy-pyrazine, acetoin, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-methylbutylacetate and ethyl hexanoate. Meanwhile, salivary enzymic degradation of odorants was more pronounced among the aldehydes, esters and thiols. PMID:24071987

Lasekan, Ola

2013-01-01

39

A Comparative Analysis of the Influence of Human Salivary Enzymes on Odorant Concentration in Three Palm Wines  

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Full Text Available The influence of human salivary enzymes on palm wines’ odorant concentrations were investigated by the application of aroma extracts dilution analysis (AEDA and by the calculation of odour activity values (OAVs, respectively. The odorants were quantified by means of stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA, and the degradation profiles of odorants by human saliva were also studied. Results revealed 46 odour-active compounds in the flavour dilution (FD factor range of 4-256, and all were subsequently identified. Of the 46 odorants, 41 were identified in the Elaeis guineensis wine, 36 in Raphia hookeri wine and 29 in Borassus flabellifer wine. Among the odorants, the highest FD-factors were obtained from acetoin, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine. Among the 13 potent odorants identified, five aroma compounds are reported here as important contributors to palm wine aroma, namely 3-isobutyl-2-methoxy-pyrazine, acetoin, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-methylbutylacetate and ethyl hexanoate. Meanwhile, salivary enzymic degradation of odorants was more pronounced among the aldehydes, esters and thiols.

Ola Lasekan

2013-09-01

40

Flujo y concentración de proteínas en saliva total humana / Salivary flow rate and protein concentration in human whole saliva  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo. Determinar los promedios de flujo salival y la concentración de proteínas totales en una población joven del Estado de México. Material y métodos. Se seleccionaron 120 sujetos a quienes se les colectó saliva total humana (STH) no estimulada y estimulada, la cual se analizó por medio de gra [...] vimetría y espectrofotometría (LV/LU); se calcularon medidas de tendencia central y de dispersión; posteriormente, se correlacionaron estos datos con los índices CPOD y CPITN. Resultados. Los sujetos estudiados mostraron un promedio de flujo salival (ml/min ± DE) en STH no estimulada de 0.397±.26, y en STH estimulada, de 0.973±.53. El promedio en la concentración de proteínas (mg/ml ± DE) fue de 1.374±.45 en STH no estimulada y de 1.526±.44 en STH estimulada. Las mujeres presentaron un menor porcentaje de flujo salival y mayor concentración de proteínas. No se observaron correlaciones entre el flujo y la concentración de proteínas totales y el CPOD y CPITN; sin embargo, sí las hubo con otras variables. Conclusiones. Estos hallazgos podrían estar asociados con el grado de nutrición, las características genéticas y los niveles de salud bucal en nuestra población. El presente estudio representa la fase inicial de la creación de una base de datos en sialoquímica, cuya meta será identificar los parámetros que indiquen el riesgo de enfermedades sistémicas o bucodentales. Abstract in english Objective. To determine the average salivary flow rates and total protein concentrations in a population of the State of Mexico. Material and methods. A gravimetric and spectrophotometric analysis was applied to 120 subjects in total resting and stimulated whole saliva and results were correlated wi [...] th the DMFT and CPITN indexes. Results. Subjects allowed average salivary flow rate (ml/min ± SD) in non-stimulated human whole saliva (HWS) of 0.397±.26 and in stimulated HWS of 0.973±.53. Average protein concentration was (mg/ml ± SD) 1.374±.45 in non-stimulated HWS and 1.526±.44 in stimulated HWS. Females showed a lower percentage of salivary flow and greater protein concentrations. No correlations were observed between flow and total protein concentration, and DMFT and CPITN; however, correlations were present with other variables. Conclusions. These findings could be associated to degree of nutrition, genetic characteristics and level of oral disease in our population. Present results represent the first step to create a database in sialochemistry to identify risk indicators of specific oral and systemic diseases.

JOSÉ ANTONIO, BANDERAS-TARABAY; MIREYA, GONZÁLEZ-BEGNÉ; MARTHA, SÁNCHEZ-GARDUÑO; ELVA, MILLÁN-CORTÉZ; ARACELI, LÓPEZ-RODRÍGUEZ; ARACELI, VILCHIS-VELÁZQUEZ.

 
 
 
 
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Flujo y concentración de proteínas en saliva total humana Salivary flow rate and protein concentration in human whole saliva  

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Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar los promedios de flujo salival y la concentración de proteínas totales en una población joven del Estado de México. Material y métodos. Se seleccionaron 120 sujetos a quienes se les colectó saliva total humana (STH no estimulada y estimulada, la cual se analizó por medio de gravimetría y espectrofotometría (LV/LU; se calcularon medidas de tendencia central y de dispersión; posteriormente, se correlacionaron estos datos con los índices CPOD y CPITN. Resultados. Los sujetos estudiados mostraron un promedio de flujo salival (ml/min ± DE en STH no estimulada de 0.397±.26, y en STH estimulada, de 0.973±.53. El promedio en la concentración de proteínas (mg/ml ± DE fue de 1.374±.45 en STH no estimulada y de 1.526±.44 en STH estimulada. Las mujeres presentaron un menor porcentaje de flujo salival y mayor concentración de proteínas. No se observaron correlaciones entre el flujo y la concentración de proteínas totales y el CPOD y CPITN; sin embargo, sí las hubo con otras variables. Conclusiones. Estos hallazgos podrían estar asociados con el grado de nutrición, las características genéticas y los niveles de salud bucal en nuestra población. El presente estudio representa la fase inicial de la creación de una base de datos en sialoquímica, cuya meta será identificar los parámetros que indiquen el riesgo de enfermedades sistémicas o bucodentales.Objective. To determine the average salivary flow rates and total protein concentrations in a population of the State of Mexico. Material and methods. A gravimetric and spectrophotometric analysis was applied to 120 subjects in total resting and stimulated whole saliva and results were correlated with the DMFT and CPITN indexes. Results. Subjects allowed average salivary flow rate (ml/min ± SD in non-stimulated human whole saliva (HWS of 0.397±.26 and in stimulated HWS of 0.973±.53. Average protein concentration was (mg/ml ± SD 1.374±.45 in non-stimulated HWS and 1.526±.44 in stimulated HWS. Females showed a lower percentage of salivary flow and greater protein concentrations. No correlations were observed between flow and total protein concentration, and DMFT and CPITN; however, correlations were present with other variables. Conclusions. These findings could be associated to degree of nutrition, genetic characteristics and level of oral disease in our population. Present results represent the first step to create a database in sialochemistry to identify risk indicators of specific oral and systemic diseases.

JOSÉ ANTONIO BANDERAS-TARABAY

1997-09-01

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Salivary flow rate, pH, and concentrations of calcium, phosphate, and sIgA in Brazilian pregnant and non-pregnant women  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on salivary variables and pregnancy in Latin America are scarce. This study aimed to compare salivary flow rate, pH, and concentrations of calcium, phosphate, and sIgA of unstimulated whole saliva in pregnant and non-pregnant Brazilians. Methods Cross-sectional study. Sample was composed by 22 pregnant and 22 non-pregnant women attending the Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics, São Lucas Hospital, in Porto Alegre city, South region of Brazil. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected to determine salivary flow rate, pH, and biochemical composition. Data were analyzed by Student t test and ANCOVA (two-tailed ? = 0.05. Results No difference was found for salivary flow rates and concentrations of total calcium and phosphate between pregnant and non-pregnant women (p > 0.05. Pregnant women had lower pH (6.7 than non-pregnant women (7.5 (p Conclusion Some of the tested variables of unstimulated whole saliva were different between pregnant and non-pregnant Brazilians in this sample. Overall, the values of the tested salivary parameters were within the range of international references of normality.

Lindemann Laura

2006-11-01

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Do whole-body vibration exercise and resistance exercise modify concentrations of salivary cortisol and immunoglobulin A?  

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Full Text Available A single bout of resistance exercise (RE induces hormonal and immune responses, playing an important role in a long-term adaptive process. Whole-body vibration (WBV has also been shown to affect hormonal responses. Evidence suggests that combining WBV with RE may amplify hormonal and immune responses due to the increased neuromuscular load. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate salivary cortisol (Scortisol and salivary IgA (SIgA concentrations following a RE session combined or not with WBV. Nine university students (22.9 ± 5.1 years, 175.8 ± 5.2 cm, and 69.2 ± 7.3 kg performed five sets of squat exercise (70% one-repetition-maximum combined (R+V30 or not (R with WBV at 30 Hz. Saliva samples were obtained before and after exercise. Subjects also rated their effort according to the Borg CR-10 scale (RPE. Data were analyzed by a mixed model. RPE was higher after R+V30 (8.3 ± 0.7 compared to R (6.2 ± 0.7. However, Scortisol (pre: 10.6 ± 7.6 and 11.7 ± 7.6, post: 8.3 ± 6.3 and 10.2 ± 7.2 ng/mL for R and R+V30, respectively and SIgA concentrations (pre: 98.3 ± 22.6 and 116.1 ± 51.2, post: 116.6 ± 64.7 and 143.6 ± 80.5 µg/mL for R and R+V30, respectively were unaffected. No significant correlations were observed between Scortisol and RPE (r = 0.45, P = 0.22; r = 0.30, P = 0.42, for R and R+V30, respectively. On the basis of these data, neither protocol modified salivary cortisol or IgA, although RPE was higher after R+V30 than R.

H. Roschel

2011-06-01

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Do whole-body vibration exercise and resistance exercise modify concentrations of salivary cortisol and immunoglobulin A?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english A single bout of resistance exercise (RE) induces hormonal and immune responses, playing an important role in a long-term adaptive process. Whole-body vibration (WBV) has also been shown to affect hormonal responses. Evidence suggests that combining WBV with RE may amplify hormonal and immune respon [...] ses due to the increased neuromuscular load. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate salivary cortisol (Scortisol) and salivary IgA (SIgA) concentrations following a RE session combined or not with WBV. Nine university students (22.9 ± 5.1 years, 175.8 ± 5.2 cm, and 69.2 ± 7.3 kg) performed five sets of squat exercise (70% one-repetition-maximum) combined (R+V30) or not (R) with WBV at 30 Hz. Saliva samples were obtained before and after exercise. Subjects also rated their effort according to the Borg CR-10 scale (RPE). Data were analyzed by a mixed model. RPE was higher after R+V30 (8.3 ± 0.7) compared to R (6.2 ± 0.7). However, Scortisol (pre: 10.6 ± 7.6 and 11.7 ± 7.6, post: 8.3 ± 6.3 and 10.2 ± 7.2 ng/mL for R and R+V30, respectively) and SIgA concentrations (pre: 98.3 ± 22.6 and 116.1 ± 51.2, post: 116.6 ± 64.7 and 143.6 ± 80.5 µg/mL for R and R+V30, respectively) were unaffected. No significant correlations were observed between Scortisol and RPE (r = 0.45, P = 0.22; r = 0.30, P = 0.42, for R and R+V30, respectively). On the basis of these data, neither protocol modified salivary cortisol or IgA, although RPE was higher after R+V30 than R.

H., Roschel; R., Barroso; M., Batista; C., Ugrinowitsch; V., Tricoli; F., Arsati; Y.B., Lima-Arsati; V.C., Araújo; A., Moreira.

2011-06-01

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Do whole-body vibration exercise and resistance exercise modify concentrations of salivary cortisol and immunoglobulin A?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english A single bout of resistance exercise (RE) induces hormonal and immune responses, playing an important role in a long-term adaptive process. Whole-body vibration (WBV) has also been shown to affect hormonal responses. Evidence suggests that combining WBV with RE may amplify hormonal and immune respon [...] ses due to the increased neuromuscular load. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate salivary cortisol (Scortisol) and salivary IgA (SIgA) concentrations following a RE session combined or not with WBV. Nine university students (22.9 ± 5.1 years, 175.8 ± 5.2 cm, and 69.2 ± 7.3 kg) performed five sets of squat exercise (70% one-repetition-maximum) combined (R+V30) or not (R) with WBV at 30 Hz. Saliva samples were obtained before and after exercise. Subjects also rated their effort according to the Borg CR-10 scale (RPE). Data were analyzed by a mixed model. RPE was higher after R+V30 (8.3 ± 0.7) compared to R (6.2 ± 0.7). However, Scortisol (pre: 10.6 ± 7.6 and 11.7 ± 7.6, post: 8.3 ± 6.3 and 10.2 ± 7.2 ng/mL for R and R+V30, respectively) and SIgA concentrations (pre: 98.3 ± 22.6 and 116.1 ± 51.2, post: 116.6 ± 64.7 and 143.6 ± 80.5 µg/mL for R and R+V30, respectively) were unaffected. No significant correlations were observed between Scortisol and RPE (r = 0.45, P = 0.22; r = 0.30, P = 0.42, for R and R+V30, respectively). On the basis of these data, neither protocol modified salivary cortisol or IgA, although RPE was higher after R+V30 than R.

H., Roschel; R., Barroso; M., Batista; C., Ugrinowitsch; V., Tricoli; F., Arsati; Y.B., Lima-Arsati; V.C., Araújo; A., Moreira.

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Comparative evaluation of salivary IL-1?, IL-10 and TNF-? concentrations in patients with oral pemphigus vulgaris lesions by ELISA technique  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Based on recent research, cytokines particularly IL-1?, IL-10, and INF-? might play a role in the pathogenesis of pemphigus vulgaris. Some autoimmune diseases have been successfully treated with the use of antibodies against cytokines. The aim of this study was to compare salivary concentrations of IL-1?, IL-10, and TNF-? in patients with pemphigus vulgaris and normal individuals. Materials and methods: In this analytical-descriptive study, 24 pemphigus vulgaris patients referring to the Department of Dermatology, Alzahra Hospital, and 26 healthy individuals were evaluated. Unstimulated salivary samples were collected by spitting method in both groups. IL-1?, IL-10, and TNF-? concentrations were measured by ELISA technique. The results were analyzed by t-test (?=0.05.Results: The mean salivary concentrations of IL-1?, IL-10 and TNF-? were higher in pemphigus vulgaris patients compared to healthy subjects. The differences were significant in relation to IL-1? (p value = 0.024 and TNF-? (p value = 0.005 between the two groups; however, the differences were not significant in relation to IL-10 (p value = 0.243.Conclusion: The increase in salivary concentrations of IL-1? and TNF-? in patients with pemphigus vulgaris compared to healthy individuals might indicate the role of these agents in the pathogenesis of this disorder. Key words: ELISA technique, IL-1?, IL-10, TNF-?, Pemphigus vulgaris.

Faezeh Khozeimeh

2011-01-01

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Variation of serum and urine cotinine in passive and active smokers and applicability in preconceptional smoking cessation counseling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study assessed the applicability of serum and urine cotinine as a biochemical marker of self-reported smoking habits for use in a preconception smoking cessation program. The variation of serum and urine cotinine over the course of the day was investigated in a sample of 21 smokers and 8 passive smokers who reported their smoking habits and exposure to smoke daily in a questionnaire for 10 consecutive days. Blood and urine samples were collected on two sampling days, 1 week apart. Both serum and urine cotinine assay could distinguish between passive and active smokers, but not between higher categories of smokers (1019 and ?20 cigarettes per ay) due to significant intersubject overlap. In serum, no significant differences were found between morning and afternoon cotinine concentrations in either day, in contrast to urine cotinine (with lower excretions observed n the morning). An overall coefficient of variation of 22- was observed for both specimens in smokers. Because serum cotinine is subject to lower variability over the course of the day, it is more practical for use in a clinical setting where appointments are scheduled throughout the day in order o confirm smoking status

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Smoking and use of smokeless tobacco in treated hypertensive men at high coronary risk: utility of urinary cotinine determination.  

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Guidelines for the treatment of hypertension underline the central importance of strenuous efforts to reduce the prevalence of smoking, as epidemiological studies consistently have demonstrated that smoking increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and death by some two- or three-fold. Accuracy of a questionnaire is examined against the ability of urinary cotinine determination to distinguish between men exposed to tobacco (94 smokers [25%], 30 snuff users [8%]) and men not exposed (n = 257), all of whom where treated hypertensives and were associated with at least one of the following factors: smoking, diabetes mellitus, serum cholesterol > or = 6.5 mmol/L. Main outcome variables in this cross-sectional study of 381 men were cotinine concentration and cotinine:creatinine ratio in overnight urine samples (decision limits: 2 mumol/L and 1.0 mmol/mol, respectively); tobacco use according to questionnaire; and follow-up examination by questionnaire of alleged non-smokers with high urinary cotinine levels. Questionnaire sensitivity was 85%, whereas the urinary cotinine assay showed 98% sensitivity and 99% specificity. Fourteen (15%) out of 94 patients may have used tobacco without reporting it in the questionnaire. In conclusion, cotinine measurement substantially improved the discrimination between smokers and non-smokers in men with multiple risk factors for cardiovascular disease. PMID:12371055

Agewall, S; Persson, B; Lindstedt, G; Fagerberg, B

2002-01-01

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The effects of a formal exercise training programme on salivary hormone concentrations and body composition in previously sedentary aging men  

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Alteration in body composition, physical function, and substrate metabolism occur with advancing age. These changes may be attenuated by exercise. This study examined whether twenty eight, previously sedentary males (62.5 ± 5.3 years of age; body mass of 89.7 ± 16.4 kg) adhering to the ACSM minimum guidelines for aerobic exercise for six weeks would improve exercise capabilities, body composition and salivary hormone profiles. After six weeks of adhering to the guidelines, salivary testoste...

Hayes, Lawrence D.; Grace, Fergal M.; Sculthorpe, Nick; Herbert, Peter; Ratcliffe, John Wt; Kilduff, Liam P.; Baker, Julien S.

2013-01-01

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Providing Coaching and Cotinine Results to Preteens to Reduce Their Secondhand Smoke Exposure  

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Background: Secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) poses health risks to children living with smokers. Most interventions to protect children from SHSe have coached adult smokers. This trial determined whether coaching and cotinine feedback provided to preteens can reduce their SHSe. Methods: Two hundred one predominantly low-income families with a resident smoker and a child aged 8 to 13 years who was exposed to two or more cigarettes per day or had a urine cotinine concentration ? 2.0 ng/mL were randomized to control or SHSe reduction coaching groups. During eight in-home sessions over 5 months, coaches presented to the child graphic charts of cotinine assay results as performance feedback and provided differential praise and incentives for cotinine reductions. Generalized estimating equations were used to determine the differential change in SHSe over time by group. Results: For the baseline to posttest period, the coaching group had a greater decrease in both urine cotinine concentration (P = .039) and reported child SHSe in the number of cigarettes exposed per day (child report, P = .003; parent report, P = .078). For posttest to month 12 follow-up, no group or group by time differences were obtained, and both groups returned toward baseline. Conclusions: Coaching preteens can reduce their SHSe, although reductions may not be sustained without ongoing counseling, feedback, and incentives. Unlike interventions that coach adults to reduce child SHSe, programs that increase child avoidance of SHSe have the potential to reduce SHSe in all settings in which the child is exposed, without requiring a change in adult smoking behavior. PMID:21474574

Wahlgren, Dennis R.; Liles, Sandy; Jones, Jennifer A.; Hughes, Suzanne C.; Matt, Georg E.; Ji, Ming; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N.; Swan, Gary E.; Chatfield, Dale; Ding, Ding

2011-01-01

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Association of self-reported passive smoking in pregnant women with cotinine level of maternal urine and umbilical cord blood at delivery.  

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Passive smoking during pregnancy leads to adverse effects on mother and infant. The present investigation was designed to evaluate the association between maternal reported passive smoking with the cotinine concentration of maternal urine and umbilical cord blood at delivery and to determine the accuracy of maternal reporting of exposure to cigarette smoke during pregnancy. This was a cross-sectional study. From the 108 non-smoker pregnant women who were referred for delivery, 54 were passive smokers. Urine samples were collected from the mothers in the delivery room and blood samples after birth were taken from the umbilical cord. Passive smoking was evaluated through questionnaire and cotinine level of urine and umbilical cord blood. The geometric mean cotinine concentration of the maternal urine and the umbilical cord serum were, respectively, 27.4 ± 29.96 ng/mL and 3.71 ± 1.22 ng/mL in the exposed group (P urinary and umbilical cord serum level of cotinine (P cotinine level of urine (kappa = 96%) and umbilical cord (kappa = 98%) (P cotinine measurement. PMID:22150710

Baheiraei, Azam; Banihosseini, Seyede Z; Heshmat, Ramin; Mota, Ali; Mohsenifar, Afshin

2012-01-01

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Interpersonal and temporal variability of urinary cotinine in elderly subjects.  

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Although a single measurement of urinary cotinine is often used for biological monitoring, the validity of this measurement for estimating long-term exposure has not been well evaluated. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of using a single measurement per person to estimate long-term smoking exposure in an elderly population. Analysis was conducted using a cohort of elderly subjects for whom multiple urinary cotinine measurements had been collected over eight weeks. The mixed-effects model of urinary cotinine indicated that interpersonal variability was greater than temporal variability. The efficacy of using single measurements to track the mean long-term exposure of a population is supported by the relatively consistent population averages. The classification of high and low exposure groups using a single measurement or using eight measurements produced similar group distributions. When using cut-off levels of 20 and 100 ?g cotinine/g creatinine, 9.3% and 5.6% of individual exposures were misclassified, respectively, when using a single measurement. Urinary cotinine can be a useful biomarker for characterizing exposure to tobacco smoke. Although the incidence of misclassification decreased with an increase in the number of measurements, a single measurement of the urinary cotinine level may accurately represent long-term exposure to tobacco smoke. PMID:21900044

Lee, Kiyoung; Lim, Soogil; Bartell, Scott; Hong, Yun-Chul

2011-12-01

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Radionuclide salivary gland imaging  

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Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

Mishkin, F.S.

1981-10-01

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Radionuclide salivary gland imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific

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The urinary cotinine levels of infants and the determinants.  

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The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the route of tobacco smoke exposure on urinary cotinine levels of infants. A cross-sectional analysis was done on 254 six-month-old infants. The infants were grouped according to the route of tobacco smoke exposure. The urinary cotinine/creatinine ratios were determined. Forty-nine percent (124/254) of mothers were smokers. Urinary cotinine levels in infants of smoking mothers were statistically significantly higher than levels in infants of non-smoking mothers. The highest mean cotinine/creatinine level was found in the breast-milk-exposed group. Linear regression analysis showed that maternal smoking increased urinary cotinine level by 541 times and breastfeeding increased it by 171 times, whereas early start of formula feeding decreased it by 63 times. Tobacco exposure by breastfeeding may be more harmful than other routes of exposure. Mothers should be encouraged to stop smoking during the breastfeeding period even if they avoid exposing their infants to passive tobacco smoke. PMID:20718188

Yilmaz, Gonca; Karacan, Candemir; Besler, H Tanju; Yurdakök, Kadriye; Co?kun, Turgay

2010-01-01

56

Intracerebellar behavioral interactions between nicotine, cotinine and ethanol in mice  

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Using ethanol-induced motor incoordination as the test response as evaluated by rotorod, possible behavioral interactions between ethanol and (-)-nicotine in the cerebellum, one of the key motor area, were investigated. (-)-Nicotine, 5, 1.25, 0.625 ng/100nL intracerebellarly significantly attenuated motor incoordination due to ethanol in a dose-dependent manner. Similarly, (-)-cotinine, a major metabolite of nicotine, 5, 2.5, and 1.25 ng/100nL, significantly but less marked compared to (-)-nicotine attenuated ethanol-induced motor incoordination. The highest, 5 ng/100nL, dose of (-)-nicotine or (-)-cotinine followed by saline instead of ethanol did not alter normal motor coordination. The attenuation of ethanol-induced motor incoordination by (-)-nicotine and (-)- cotinine was blocked by intracerebellar hexamethonium 1 ug/100nL, a purported nicotinic cholinergic antagonist. The data obtained strongly suggest participation of cerebellar nicotinic cholinergic receptor in the ethanol-induced motor incoordination.

Dar, M.S.; Li, C. (East Carolina Univ., Greenville, NC (United States))

1992-02-26

57

Environmental tobacco smoke and canine urinary cotinine level  

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Epidemiologic studies of companion animals such as dogs have been established as models for the relationship between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and cancer risk in humans. While results from these studies are provocative, pet owner report of a dog's ETS exposure has not yet been validated. We have evaluated the relationship between dog owner's report of household smoking by questionnaire and dog's urinary cotinine level. Between January and October 2005, dog owners presenting their pet for non-emergency veterinary care at the Foster Hospital for Small Animals at Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, were asked to complete a 10-page questionnaire measuring exposure to household ETS in the previous 24 h and other factors. A free-catch urine sample was also collected from dogs. Urinary cotinine level was assayed for 63 dogs, including 30 whose owners reported household smoking and 33 unexposed dogs matched on age and month of enrollment. Urinary cotinine level was significantly higher in dogs exposed to household smoking in the 24 h before urine collection compared to unexposed dogs (14.6 ng/ml vs. 7.4 ng/ml; P=0.02). After adjustment for other factors, cotinine level increased linearly with number of cigarettes smoked by all household members (P=0.004). Other canine characteristics including age, body composition and nose length were also associated with cotinine level. Findings from our study suggest that household smoking levels ady suggest that household smoking levels as assessed by questionnaire are significantly associated with canine cotinine levels

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Comparación de la concentración total de proteínas salivales de adultos y adultos mayores Comparison of total salivary protein concentration in adults and older adults  

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Full Text Available Objetivo: Entre las moléculas orgánicas que componen la saliva se han descrito un gran número de proteínas. No existe evidencia suficiente que permita especular sobre los cambios en el contenido proteico salival asociados al envejecimiento normal. El objetivo fue determinar si existen diferencias en la concentración total de proteínas en saliva de adultos y adultos mayores. Método: Se obtuvieron muestras de saliva estimulada y no estimulada de individuos pertenecientes a dos grupos etarios, adultos (A (n=30 (edad promedio: 25 años y adultos mayores (AM (n=30 (edad promedio: 68 años. Se excluyeron aquellos sujetos que presentaron alguna patología oral/sistémica o consumo de fármacos/sustancias relacionados con alteraciones del flujo o composición salival. Cada muestra fue centrifugada. A 10 µl del sobrenadante se agregaron 190 µl de solución de Bradford. Se realizó el recuento mediante lectura con espectrofotómetro (595 nm. La concentración de proteínas fue comparada entre los grupos en estudio utilizando la prueba t de Student (pObjective: A high number of proteins has been described in saliva. Scarce evidence allows to speculate about the variations on protein content associated with aging. The aim was to determine if there is a difference in total protein concentration between adults and older adults. Methods: Samples were collected from unstimulated and stimulated saliva of individuals from two age groups, adults (A (n=30 (mean age 25 years and older adults (OA (n=30(mean age: 68 years. Subjects with oral/systemic diseases or consuming medications that alter salivary flow were excluded from the study. Each sample was centrifuged and 10 ?l of the supernatant was added to 190 ?l of Bradford solution. Protein concentration was obtained by spectrophotometry (595 nm Protein concentration was compared between the groups using student’s t test (p<0.05. Results: Total protein concentration from unstimulated saliva was higher in OA (5.5±2.6 ug/ul than in A (3.2 ± 1.7 ug/ul (p<0.05. Total protein concentration of stimulated saliva was higher in OA (4.9±0.4 ug/ul than in A (4.0±0.3 ug/ul (p<0.05. Conclusion: Salivary protein concentration increases in older adults. Further studies are suggested to characterize these changes.

RJ Castro

2012-04-01

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Who is stressed? A pilot study of salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase concentrations in agoraphobic patients and their novice therapists undergoing in vivo exposure.  

Science.gov (United States)

In cognitive behavioural therapy of phobic anxiety, in vivo exposure is considered as an effective treatment strategy. Apparently, it involves the experience of stress and anxiety in patients. Given the therapist's role during exposure sessions, it is conceivable that the performance is also accompanied with the experience of stress in therapists, especially when unversed in conducting psychotherapy. Studies confirmed that cognitive behavioural therapists tend to avoid therapist-guided in vivo exposure. The objective of this study was the simultaneous investigation of therapist's and patient's stress response during in vivo exposure. Therefore, 23 agoraphobic patients and their 23 treating therapists in training provided five saliva samples during an in vivo exposure and five samples during an ordinary therapy session. Before and during exposure session, subjective evaluations of stress and anxiety were assessed. Results suggested that therapists reported similar levels of perceived stress as patients before exposure. Both groups displayed significantly elevated salivary cortisol (sC) levels during exposure compared to the control session and a trend for alterations in salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) activity was found. Therapists reached peak concentrations of sC before start of the intervention followed by a decline during exposure, while patients displayed peak levels of cortisol secretion after 60 min of exposure. In vivo exposure seems to be a demanding intervention not only for the patient, but also for therapists in training. However, it was also demonstrated that physiological and subjective stress rather decrease during the intervention and that both groups rated exposure to be substantially successful. Based on the presented results, another potential factor contributing to the under-usage of exposure treatment is conceivable and needs to be addressed in future research. PMID:25127086

Schumacher, Sarah; Gaudlitz, Katharina; Plag, Jens; Miller, Robert; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Fehm, Lydia; Fydrich, Thomas; Ströhle, Andreas

2014-11-01

60

TUMORS OF SALIVARY GLANDS  

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The glands are divided into major and minor salivary gland categories. The major salivary glands are the parotid, the submandibular, and the sublingual glands. The minor glands are dispersed throughout the upper aerodigestive submucosa. Salivary gland tumors are abnormal cells growing in the ducts that drain the salivary glands. Salivary glands tumors are uncommon and are subdivided into benign neoplasms, tumor-like conditions, and malignant neoplasms...

Gaurav Solanki

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Comparación de la concentración total de proteínas salivales de adultos y adultos mayores / Comparison of total salivary protein concentration in adults and older adults  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Entre las moléculas orgánicas que componen la saliva se han descrito un gran número de proteínas. No existe evidencia suficiente que permita especular sobre los cambios en el contenido proteico salival asociados al envejecimiento normal. El objetivo fue determinar si existen diferencias en [...] la concentración total de proteínas en saliva de adultos y adultos mayores. Método: Se obtuvieron muestras de saliva estimulada y no estimulada de individuos pertenecientes a dos grupos etarios, adultos (A) (n=30) (edad promedio: 25 años) y adultos mayores (AM) (n=30) (edad promedio: 68 años). Se excluyeron aquellos sujetos que presentaron alguna patología oral/sistémica o consumo de fármacos/sustancias relacionados con alteraciones del flujo o composición salival. Cada muestra fue centrifugada. A 10 µl del sobrenadante se agregaron 190 µl de solución de Bradford. Se realizó el recuento mediante lectura con espectrofotómetro (595 nm). La concentración de proteínas fue comparada entre los grupos en estudio utilizando la prueba t de Student (p Abstract in english Objective: A high number of proteins has been described in saliva. Scarce evidence allows to speculate about the variations on protein content associated with aging. The aim was to determine if there is a difference in total protein concentration between adults and older adults. Methods: Samples wer [...] e collected from unstimulated and stimulated saliva of individuals from two age groups, adults (A) (n=30) (mean age 25 years) and older adults (OA) (n=30)(mean age: 68 years). Subjects with oral/systemic diseases or consuming medications that alter salivary flow were excluded from the study. Each sample was centrifuged and 10 ?l of the supernatant was added to 190 ?l of Bradford solution. Protein concentration was obtained by spectrophotometry (595 nm) Protein concentration was compared between the groups using student’s t test (p

RJ, Castro; G, Guzmán; RA, Giacaman.

2012-04-01

62

Comparación de la concentración total de proteínas salivales de adultos y adultos mayores / Comparison of total salivary protein concentration in adults and older adults  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Entre las moléculas orgánicas que componen la saliva se han descrito un gran número de proteínas. No existe evidencia suficiente que permita especular sobre los cambios en el contenido proteico salival asociados al envejecimiento normal. El objetivo fue determinar si existen diferencias en [...] la concentración total de proteínas en saliva de adultos y adultos mayores. Método: Se obtuvieron muestras de saliva estimulada y no estimulada de individuos pertenecientes a dos grupos etarios, adultos (A) (n=30) (edad promedio: 25 años) y adultos mayores (AM) (n=30) (edad promedio: 68 años). Se excluyeron aquellos sujetos que presentaron alguna patología oral/sistémica o consumo de fármacos/sustancias relacionados con alteraciones del flujo o composición salival. Cada muestra fue centrifugada. A 10 µl del sobrenadante se agregaron 190 µl de solución de Bradford. Se realizó el recuento mediante lectura con espectrofotómetro (595 nm). La concentración de proteínas fue comparada entre los grupos en estudio utilizando la prueba t de Student (p Abstract in english Objective: A high number of proteins has been described in saliva. Scarce evidence allows to speculate about the variations on protein content associated with aging. The aim was to determine if there is a difference in total protein concentration between adults and older adults. Methods: Samples wer [...] e collected from unstimulated and stimulated saliva of individuals from two age groups, adults (A) (n=30) (mean age 25 years) and older adults (OA) (n=30)(mean age: 68 years). Subjects with oral/systemic diseases or consuming medications that alter salivary flow were excluded from the study. Each sample was centrifuged and 10 ?l of the supernatant was added to 190 ?l of Bradford solution. Protein concentration was obtained by spectrophotometry (595 nm) Protein concentration was compared between the groups using student’s t test (p

RJ, Castro; G, Guzmán; RA, Giacaman.

63

Salivary Gland Disorders  

Science.gov (United States)

Your salivary glands make saliva - sometimes called spit - and empty it into your mouth through openings called ducts. Saliva makes your ... antibodies that can kill germs. Problems with salivary glands can cause the glands to become irritated and ...

64

Environmental tobacco smoke and canine urinary cotinine level  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Epidemiologic studies of companion animals such as dogs have been established as models for the relationship between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and cancer risk in humans. While results from these studies are provocative, pet owner report of a dog’s ETS exposure has not yet been validated. We have evaluated the relationship between dog owner’s report of household smoking by questionnaire and dog’s urinary cotinine level. Between January and October, 2005, dog owners pr...

Bertone-johnson, Elizabeth R.; Procter-gray, Elizabeth; Gollenberg, Audra L.; Bundga, Michele E.; Barber, Lisa G.

2008-01-01

65

Salivary testosterone levels in preadolescent children  

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Abstract Background Saliva reflects the plasma free fraction of testosterone which is biologically active, and available for uptake by tissues. Testosterone concentration in saliva, though differing slightly from the concentration of unbound testosterone in serum, is in good correlation with the latter, indicating that salivary testosterone provides a reliable method for determination of serum free testosterone. The study aimed to investigate salivary testosterone levels and ...

Dohnányiová Monika; Putz Zdenek; Pastor Karol; Ostatníková Daniela; Mat'ašeje Anna; Hampl Richard

2002-01-01

66

Salivary gland tumors  

Science.gov (United States)

Salivary gland tumors are abnormal cells growing in the tubes (ducts) that drain the salivary glands or the gland itself. ... The salivary glands are located around the mouth. They produce saliva, which moistens food to help with chewing and swallowing. There ...

67

Simultaneous determination of cotinine and trans-3-hydroxycotinine in urine by automated solid-phase extraction using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the simultaneous automated solid-phase extraction and quantification of cotinine and trans-3-hydroxycotinine in human urine. Good linearity was observed over the concentration ranges studied (R(2) > 0.99). The limit of quantification was 10?ng/mL for both analytes. The limits of detection were 0.06?ng/mL for cotinine (COT) and 0.02?ng/mL for trans-3-hydroxycotinine (OH-COT). Accuracy for COT ranged from 0.98 to 5.28% and the precision ranged from 1.24 to 8.78%. Accuracy for OH-COT ranged from -2.66 to 3.72% and the precision ranged from 3.15 to 7.07%. Mean recoveries for cotinine and trans-3-hydroxycotinine ranged from 77.7 to 89.1%, and from 75.4 to 90.2%, respectively. This analytical method for the simultaneous measurement of cotinine and trans-3-hydroxycotinine in urine will be used to monitor tobacco smoking in pregnant women and will permit the usefulness of trans-3-hydroxycotinine as a specific biomarker of tobacco exposure to be determined. PMID:24616054

Chiadmi, Fouad; Schlatter, Joël

2014-04-01

68

Salivary testosterone levels in preadolescent children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Saliva reflects the plasma free fraction of testosterone which is biologically active, and available for uptake by tissues. Testosterone concentration in saliva, though differing slightly from the concentration of unbound testosterone in serum, is in good correlation with the latter, indicating that salivary testosterone provides a reliable method for determination of serum free testosterone. The study aimed to investigate salivary testosterone levels and their changes in preadolescent children and to study sexual dimorphism. Methods Testosterone levels were determined in 203 healthy preadolescent children (77 girls and 126 boys from saliva samples by radioimmunoassay. Sampling was performed once a year with respect to circadian and seasonal fluctuations of testosterone. Data were statistically analyzed by Statgraphic software. Results Mean salivary testosterone concentrations (± SD were 0.038 ± 0.012 nmol/L and 0.046 ± 0.026 nmol/L for girls and boys, with the medians 0.035 nmol/L and 0.041 nmol/L, respectively. Statistical analysis did not prove changes in salivary testosterone concentrations in the preadolescent period of life, with an exception of the insignificant fall at the age of 7 years, and an insignificant rise at the age of 9 years in girls. Conclusions Generally it can be concluded that salivary testosterone levels in our prepubertal subjects remained stable. There was no significant increase of salivary testosterone levels from the age of 6 until the age of 9 in both sexes. Sexual dimorphism in salivary testosterone levels was proved with significantly higher (p = 0.009 salivary testosterone levels in boys than in girls.

Dohnányiová Monika

2002-06-01

69

Electrochemical immunoassay of cotinine in serum based on nanoparticle probe and immunochromatographic strip  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Using nanoparticle probe in immunochromatographic strip. ? Enhanced sensitivity by using nanoparticle label. ? Rapid and sensitive detection of cotinine in serum. - Abstract: A disposable sensor for the determination of cotinine in human serum was developed based on immunochromatographic test strip and quantum dot label. In this assay, cotinine linked with quantum dot competes with cotinine in sample to bind to anti-cotinine antibody in the test strip and the quantum dots serve as signal vehicles for electrochemical readout. Some parameters governing the performance of the sensor were optimized. The sensor shows a wide linear range from 1 ng mL?1 to 100 ng mL?1 cotinine with a detection limit of 1.0 ng mL?1. The sensor was validated with spiked human serum samples and it was found that this method was reliable in measuring cotinine in human serum. The results demonstrate that this sensor is rapid, accurate, and less expensive and has the potential for point of care (POC) detection of cotinine and fast screening of tobacco smoke exposure.

70

Electrochemical Immunoassay of Cotinine in Serum Based on Nanoparticle Probe and Immunochromatographic Strip  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A disposable sensor for the determination of cotinine in human serum was developed based on immunochromatographic test strip and quantum dot label. In this assay, cotinine modified on quantum dot competes with cotinine in sample to bind to anti-cotinine antibody in the test strip and the quantum dots serve as signal vehicles for electrochemical readout. Some parameters governing the performance of the sensor were optimized. The sensor shows a wide linear range from 1 ng mL-1 to 100 ng mL-1 cotinine with a detection limit of 1.0 ng mL-1. The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) of the sensor was less than 2% for cotinine. The sensor was validated with spiked human serum samples and it was found that this method was reliable in measuring cotinine in human serum with average recovery of 100.99%. The results demonstrate that this sensor is a rapid, clinically accurate, and less expensive and has the potential for point of care (POC) detection of cotinine and fast screening of tobacco smoke exposure.

Nian, Hung-Chi; Wang, Jun; Wu, Hong J.; Lo, Jiunn-Guang; Chiu, Kong-Hwa; Pounds, Joel G.; Lin, Yuehe

2012-02-03

71

Electrochemical immunoassay of cotinine in serum based on nanoparticle probe and immunochromatographic strip  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using nanoparticle probe in immunochromatographic strip. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enhanced sensitivity by using nanoparticle label. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rapid and sensitive detection of cotinine in serum. - Abstract: A disposable sensor for the determination of cotinine in human serum was developed based on immunochromatographic test strip and quantum dot label. In this assay, cotinine linked with quantum dot competes with cotinine in sample to bind to anti-cotinine antibody in the test strip and the quantum dots serve as signal vehicles for electrochemical readout. Some parameters governing the performance of the sensor were optimized. The sensor shows a wide linear range from 1 ng mL{sup -1} to 100 ng mL{sup -1} cotinine with a detection limit of 1.0 ng mL{sup -1}. The sensor was validated with spiked human serum samples and it was found that this method was reliable in measuring cotinine in human serum. The results demonstrate that this sensor is rapid, accurate, and less expensive and has the potential for point of care (POC) detection of cotinine and fast screening of tobacco smoke exposure.

Nian Hungchi [Pacific Norwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, 30013, Taiwan (China); Wang Jun; Wu Hong [Pacific Norwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Lo, Jiunn-Guang [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, 30013, Taiwan (China); Chiu, Kong-Hwa [Department of Applied Science, National DongHwa University, Hualien, 970, 30013, Taiwan (China); Pounds, Joel G. [Pacific Norwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Lin Yuehe, E-mail: yuehe.lin@pnnl.gov [Pacific Norwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

2012-02-03

72

Salivary mental stress proteins.  

Science.gov (United States)

Of the major diagnostic specimen types, saliva is one of the most easily collected. Many studies have focused on the evaluation of salivary proteins secreted by healthy people and patients with various diseases during responses to acute mental stress. In particular, such studies have focused on cortisol, ?-amylase, chromogranin A (CgA), and immunoglobulin A (IgA) as salivary stress markers. Each of these salivary stress markers has its own strengths and weaknesses as well as data gaps related to many factors including collection technique. In this review, we summarize the critical knowledge of the positive and negative attributes and data gaps pertaining to each salivary stress marker. PMID:23939251

Obayashi, Konen

2013-10-21

73

Elevated salivary C-reactive protein levels are associated with active and passive smoking in healthy youth: A pilot study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined salivary C-reactive protein (CRP levels in the context of tobacco smoke exposure (TSE in healthy youth. We hypothesized that there would be a dose-response relationship between TSE status and salivary CRP levels. Methods This work is a pilot study (N = 45 for a larger investigation in which we aim to validate salivary CRP against serum CRP, the gold standard measurement of low-grade inflammation. Participants were healthy youth with no self-reported periodontal disease, no objectively measured obesity/adiposity, and no clinical depression, based on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II. We assessed tobacco smoking and confirmed smoking status (non-smoking, passive smoking, and active smoking with salivary cotinine measurement. We measured salivary CRP by the ELISA method. We controlled for several potential confounders. Results We found evidence for the existence of a dose-response relationship between the TSE status and salivary CRP levels. Conclusions Our preliminary findings indicate that salivary CRP seems to have a similar relation to TSE as its widely used serum (systemic inflammatory biomarker counterpart.

Azar Rima

2011-12-01

74

An update: salivary hormones and physical exercise.  

Science.gov (United States)

Saliva contains cells and compounds, of local and non-local oral origin, namely inorganic, organic non-protein, protein/polypeptide, and lipid molecules. Moreover, some hormones, commonly assayed in plasma, such as steroids, are detectable in oral fluid and peptide/protein, and non-steroid hormones have been investigated. The sports practice environment and athletes' availability, together with hormone molecule characteristics in saliva and physical exercise behavior effects, confirm this body fluid as an alternative to serum. This review focuses on the relation between salivary steroids and psycho-physiological stress and underlines how the measurement of salivary cortisol provides an approach of self-report psychological indicator and anxiety change in relation to exercise performance. The correlation between salivary and plasma steroid hormone (cortisol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)) levels, observed during exercise, has been considered, underlining how the type, duration, and intensity of the exercise influence the salivary steroid concentrations in the same way as serum-level variations. Training conditions have been considered in relation to the salivary hormonal response. This review focuses on studies related to salivary hormone measurements, mainly steroids, in physical exercise. Saliva use in physical disciplines, as a real alternative to serum, could be a future perspective. PMID:21129038

Gatti, R; De Palo, E F

2011-04-01

75

Serum cotinine levels in pipe smokers: evidence against nicotine as cause of coronary heart disease.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Serum levels of cotinine (a principal metabolite of nicotine) were studied in men who did not smoke (28), and in men who smoked cigarettes only (150), cigars only (70), and pipes only (56). The mean cotinine level for pipe smokers was 389 ng/ml, significantly higher than the mean level for cigarette and cigar smokers (306 and 121 ng/ml, respectively); no cotinine was detected in the serum from any of the non-smokers. Large prospective studies have shown that pipe smokers have no material exce...

Wald, Nj; Idle, M.; Boreham, J.; Bailey, A.

1981-01-01

76

Dynamic radioisotopic study of the salivary glands. Quantification test  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ost-stimulus excretion study. The dynamic radioisotopic examination of the salivary glands, by the comparison of concentration and excretion images and by the study of parameters, separately and as a whole, is thus a useful complement to other paraclinical examinations and contributes essential information in most salivary diseases

77

Salivary and serum immunoglobulin levels in cats with chronic gingivostomatitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The salivary and serum concentrations of immunoglobulins G, M and A (IgG, IgM and IgA), and the salivary concentrations of albumin were measured by ELISA in 30 cats with chronic gingivostomatitis and 32 healthy cats. The cats with chronic gingivostomatitis had significantly higher salivary concentrations of IgG, IgM and albumin, and higher serum concentrations of IgG, IgM and IgA, but significantly lower salivary concentrations of IgA than the healthy cats. The cats with chronic gingivostomatitis were treated with either methylprednisolone, sodium aurothiomalate, metronidazole and spiramycin, or oral hygiene products. After three months of treatment, the cats receiving methylprednisolone had a significant reduction in serum IgG levels compared to the cats treated with sodium aurothiomalate or metronidazole and spiramycin, but after six months of treatment there were no significant differences between the groups. Before the treatments, the levels of oral inflammation were not correlated significantly with any of the serum or salivary immunoglobulin levels. However, the changes in oral inflammation were correlated significantly with the changes in the salivary IgM concentration after three and six months of treatment, and with the change in the salivary IgA concentration after six months of treatment. PMID:12585597

Harley, R; Gruffydd-Jones, T J; Day, M J

2003-02-01

78

A selective molecularly imprinted polymer-carbon nanotube sensor for cotinine sensing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Conductive composite films comprised of single-walled carbon nanotubes coated with molecularly imprinted poly-4-vinylphenol are produced and characterized using ultraviolet and infrared spectroscopies, confirming the successful molecular imprinting of the film with cotinine. The electrical resistance of the imprinted film changes significantly upon binding cotinine, by more than 30?k?, while the unimprinted film in comparison elicits little response. Additionally, once the cotinine template desorbs from the film, the resistance of the imprinted film returns to a value close to the pre-adsorption baseline. Scanning electron microscopy is used to study the morphology of the film compared with the unimprinted control, and gas chromatography quantitatively confirms that the imprinted film selectively detects cotinine while discriminating against the structurally similar alkaloid, nicotine. PMID:24375584

Antwi-Boampong, Sadik; Mani, Kristina S; Carlan, Jean; BelBruno, Joseph J

2014-01-01

79

Plasma cotinine levels and pancreatic cancer in the EPIC cohort study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Smoking is an established risk factor for pancreatic cancer, previously investigated by the means of questionnaires. Using cotinine as a biomarker for tobacco exposure allows more accurate quantitative analyses to be performed. This study on pancreatic cancer, nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC cohort), included 146 cases and 146 matched controls. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, plasma cotinine levels were analyzed on average 8.0 years before cancer onset (5-95% range: 2.8-12.0 years). The relation between plasma cotinine levels and pancreatic cancer was analyzed with conditional logistic regression for different levels of cotinine in a population of never and current smokers. This was also done for the self-reported number of smoked cigarettes per day at baseline. Every increase of 350 nmol/L of plasma cotinine was found to significantly elevate risk of pancreatic cancer (odds ratio (OR): 1.33, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11-1.60). People with a cotinine level over 1187.8 nmol/L, a level comparable to smoking 17 cigarettes per day, have an elevated risk of pancreatic cancer, compared to people with cotinine levels below 55 nmol/L (OR: 3.66, 95% CI: 1.44-9.26). The results for self-reported smoking at baseline also show an increased risk of pancreatic cancer from cigarette smoking based on questionnaire information. People who smoke more than 30 cigarettes per day showed the highest risk compared to never smokers (OR: 4.15, 95% CI: 1.02-16.42). This study is the first to show that plasma cotinine levels are strongly related to pancreatic cancer. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Leenders, Max; Chuang, Shu-Chun

2012-01-01

80

Salivary gland disorders.  

Science.gov (United States)

Salivary gland disorders include inflammatory, bacterial, viral, and neoplastic etiologies. The presentation can be acute, recurrent, or chronic. Acute suppurative sialadenitis presents as rapid-onset pain and swelling and is treated with antibiotics, salivary massage, hydration, and sialagogues such as lemon drops or vitamin C lozenges. Viral etiologies include mumps and human immunodeficiency virus, and treatment is directed at the underlying disease. Recurrent or chronic sialadenitis is more likely to be inflammatory than infectious; examples include recurrent parotitis of childhood and sialolithiasis. Inflammation is commonly caused by an obstruction such as a stone or duct stricture. Management is directed at relieving the obstruction. Benign and malignant tumors can occur in the salivary glands and usually present as a painless solitary neck mass. Diagnosis is made by imaging (e.g., ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging) and biopsy (initially with fine-needle aspiration). Overall, most salivary gland tumors are benign and can be treated with surgical excision. PMID:25077394

Wilson, Kevin F; Meier, Jeremy D; Ward, P Daniel

2014-06-01

 
 
 
 
81

Salivary gland infections  

Science.gov (United States)

... salivary duct stones . Poor cleanliness in the mouth ( oral hygiene ) Low amounts of water in the body, most ... home to help with recovery include: Practice good oral hygiene. Brush your teeth and floss well at least ...

82

Cotinine: beyond that expected, more than a biomarker of tobacco consumption  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A greater incidence of tobacco consumption occurs among individuals with psychiatric conditions including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, bipolar disorder, major depression and schizophrenia, compared with the general population. Even when still controversial, it has been postulated that smoking is a form of self-medication that reduces psychiatric symptoms among individuals with these disorders. To better understand the component(s of tobacco-inducing smoking behavior, greater attention has been directed toward nicotine. However, in recent years, new evidence has shown that cotinine, the main metabolite of nicotine, exhibits beneficial effects over psychiatric symptoms and may therefore promote smoking within this population. Some of the behavioral effects of cotinine compared to nicotine are discussed here. Cotinine, which accumulates in the body as a result of tobacco exposure, crosses the blood-brain barrier and has different pharmacological properties compared with nicotine. Cotinine has a longer plasma half-life than nicotine and showed no addictive or cardiovascular effects in humans. In addition, at the preclinical level, cotinine facilitated the extinction of fear memory and anxiety after fear conditioning, improved working memory in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD and in a monkey model of schizophrenia. Altogether, the new evidence suggests that the pharmacological and behavioral effects of cotinine may play a key role in promoting tobacco smoking in individuals that suffer from psychiatric conditions and represents a new potential therapeutic agent against psychiatric conditions such as AD and PTSD.

ValentinaEcheverria Moran

2012-10-01

83

Pediatric salivary gland imaging  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A variety of lesions occur in the pediatric salivary glands. With modern imaging techniques such as Doppler sonography, helical CT, and MRI, identification of a specific etiology is often possible. Knowledge of clinical information, normal anatomy, and imaging characteristics of salivary gland pathology are essential for appropriate radiologic evaluation. This review illustrates the various congenital, neoplastic, and inflammatory entities that can occur within the parotid, submandibular, and sublingual spaces. (orig.)

Boyd, Zachary T. [University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City, MO (United States); Goud, Asha R. [University of California Irvine Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Orange, CA (United States); Lowe, Lisa H. [Children' s Mercy Hospitals and Clinics and the University of Missouri-Kansas City, Department of Radiology, Kansas City, MO (United States); Shao, Lei [Children' s Mercy Hospitals and Clinics and the University of Missouri-Kansas City, Department of Pathology, Kansas City, MO (United States)

2009-07-15

84

SALIVARY GLANDS - AN OVERVIEW  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The glands are divided into major and minor salivary gland categories. The major salivary glands are parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands. The minor glands are dispersed throughout the upper aero-digestive submucosa. Saliva is the watery substance produced in the mouths of humans and other animals. Saliva is a component of oral fluid. Human saliva is composed of 98% water, while the other 2% consists o...

Gaurav Solanki

2012-01-01

85

Estudo comparativo da concentração salivar do fator de crescimento epidérmico em indivíduos com laringite crônica por doença do refluxo gastroesofágica antes e após o tratamento: resultados preliminares Salivary egf concentration in adults with reflux chronic laryngitis before and after treatment: preliminary results  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Os mecanismos fisiopatológicos do refluxo laringofaríngeo (RLF são pouco conhecidos. O Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico (EGF é a proteína de produção salivar com maior ação na regeneração do epitélio da orofaringe e tubo digestivo alto, tendo sido demonstradas deficiências em sua concentração salivar em indivíduos com RLF. OBJETIVO: Comparar a concentração salivar de EGF em um mesmo indivíduo com RLF antes e após o tratamento. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Neste estudo prospectivo doze indivíduos com DRGE e RLF de moderada intensidade tiveram sua saliva espontânea coletada antes e após o tratamento e controle da doença. A concentração salivar de EGF foi estabelecida através de exame de ELISA (Quantikine ®. RESULTADOS: Onze pacientes eram do sexo feminino e um do sexo masculino, com idade média de 49 anos. A concentração salivar de EGF pré-tratamento foi de 2.867,6pg/mL e a pós-tratamento foi 1.588,5pg/mL, sendo esta diferença estatisticamente significante (p=0,015. DISCUSSÃO E CONCLUSÕES: Apesar de a concentração salivar de EGF ser maior nos indivíduos antes do tratamento, esta não consegue alcançar àquela de uma população normal (estabelecida previamente, o que sugere uma deficiência primária deste importante fator de defesa em indivíduos com RLF.The Laryngopharyngeal Reflux (LPR physiopathology is still unknown. The Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF is a biologically active salivary protein that aids in the rapid regeneration of the oropharyngeal and upper digestive tract mucosas. Salivary deficiency of this protein in patients with LPR has been demonstrated in previous studies. AIM: To compare salivary EGF concentration in patients with LPR before and after treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective study twelve patients with GERD and moderate LPR were studied. Whole saliva samples were collected before and after treatment and salivary EGF concentration was determined using a commercially available ELISA kit (Quantikine ®. RESULTS: There were eleven females and one male among the patients, the mean age was 49 years. The mean pre-treatment salivary EGF concentration was 2,867.6 pg/mL and the mean post treatment EGF concentration was 1,588.5 pg/mL. This difference was statistically significant (p=0.015. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Although salivary EGF concentrations are higher before LPR treatment, the concentration is still much lower than the mean salivary EGF concentration in normal individuals without LPR, which suggests a primary disorder of this defense factor in individuals with LPR.

Claudia Alessandra Eckley

2007-04-01

86

Undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas may be divided into small cell and large cell types. Among large cell undifferentiated carcinomas, lymphoepithelial carcinomas have to be distinguished, the latter of which are endemic in the Arctic regions and southern China where virtually all cases of these tumors are associated with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Association with EBV may also be observed in sporadic cases, and detection of EBV gene products may aid their diagnosis. Immunohistology may be employed to resolve the differential diagnosis of undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas, comprising malignant lymphomas, amelanotic melanomas, Merkel cell carcinomas, and adenoid cystic carcinomas, in particular in small biopsy materials. Because of the rarity of undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas, the differential diagnosis should always include metastases of undifferentiated carcinomas arising at other primary sites, particularly when expressing the thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) Udgivelsesdato: 2004

Herbst, H.; Hamilton-Dutoit, S.

2004-01-01

87

Comparison of salivary cortisol concentrations in Jaguars kept in captivity with differences in exposure to the public / Comparação das concentrações de cortisol salivar em onças-pintadas criadas em cativeiro com diferenças de exposição ao público  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Em geral, onças-pintadas criadas em cativeiro são usadas para fins educacionais e de recreação. No entanto, o impacto da exposição ao público sobre esses animais não tem sido avaliado. Neste estudo, foi comparado o impacto de dois diferentes níveis de exposição ao público em sete onças-pintadas, alo [...] jadas em dois criadouros, por meio da avaliação de um dos hormônios indicadores de estresse, o cortisol salivar. A saliva foi coletada usando um material absorvente que foi mastigado pelos animais e subsequentemente analisado por imunoenzimoensaio. As concentrações de cortisol salivar foram significativamente maiores em onças-pintadas com maior exposição ao público. Esses resultados sugerem que onças-pintadas, normalmente solitárias e esquivas na natureza, podem ter seu bem-estar consideravelmente diminuído pelo aumento de exposição ao público. Este estudo é o primeiro relato de mensuração de cortisol salivar em onças-pintadas. Abstract in english For the most part, jaguars kept in captivity are used for educational and recreational purposes and it hasn't been determined the different impacts that public exposure would have on these animals. In this study, we compared the salivary cortisol, one of the stress indicator hormones, in seven capti [...] ve jaguars exposed to the high and low public visitation. Saliva was collected using an absorbent material that was chewed by the animals and subsequently analyzed through an immunoenzymatic assay. Salivary cortisol concentrations were significantly higher in the jaguars with higher public exposure, which suggest a more hormonal stress response. These results indicated that jaguars, animals usually of solitary and secretive behavior, may have their welfare considerably diminished by increased public exposure. Additionally, design of the enclosures, without refuges and proximity of people, could predispose jaguars to psychological stress.

Julio César, Montanha; Sérgio Leme, Silva; Vanner, Boere.

88

Comparison of salivary cortisol concentrations in Jaguars kept in captivity with differences in exposure to the public Comparação das concentrações de cortisol salivar em onças-pintadas criadas em cativeiro com diferenças de exposição ao público  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For the most part, jaguars kept in captivity are used for educational and recreational purposes and it hasn't been determined the different impacts that public exposure would have on these animals. In this study, we compared the salivary cortisol, one of the stress indicator hormones, in seven captive jaguars exposed to the high and low public visitation. Saliva was collected using an absorbent material that was chewed by the animals and subsequently analyzed through an immunoenzymatic assay. Salivary cortisol concentrations were significantly higher in the jaguars with higher public exposure, which suggest a more hormonal stress response. These results indicated that jaguars, animals usually of solitary and secretive behavior, may have their welfare considerably diminished by increased public exposure. Additionally, design of the enclosures, without refuges and proximity of people, could predispose jaguars to psychological stress.Em geral, onças-pintadas criadas em cativeiro são usadas para fins educacionais e de recreação. No entanto, o impacto da exposição ao público sobre esses animais não tem sido avaliado. Neste estudo, foi comparado o impacto de dois diferentes níveis de exposição ao público em sete onças-pintadas, alojadas em dois criadouros, por meio da avaliação de um dos hormônios indicadores de estresse, o cortisol salivar. A saliva foi coletada usando um material absorvente que foi mastigado pelos animais e subsequentemente analisado por imunoenzimoensaio. As concentrações de cortisol salivar foram significativamente maiores em onças-pintadas com maior exposição ao público. Esses resultados sugerem que onças-pintadas, normalmente solitárias e esquivas na natureza, podem ter seu bem-estar consideravelmente diminuído pelo aumento de exposição ao público. Este estudo é o primeiro relato de mensuração de cortisol salivar em onças-pintadas.

Julio César Montanha

2009-09-01

89

Comparison of salivary cortisol concentrations in Jaguars kept in captivity with differences in exposure to the public / Comparação das concentrações de cortisol salivar em onças-pintadas criadas em cativeiro com diferenças de exposição ao público  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Em geral, onças-pintadas criadas em cativeiro são usadas para fins educacionais e de recreação. No entanto, o impacto da exposição ao público sobre esses animais não tem sido avaliado. Neste estudo, foi comparado o impacto de dois diferentes níveis de exposição ao público em sete onças-pintadas, alo [...] jadas em dois criadouros, por meio da avaliação de um dos hormônios indicadores de estresse, o cortisol salivar. A saliva foi coletada usando um material absorvente que foi mastigado pelos animais e subsequentemente analisado por imunoenzimoensaio. As concentrações de cortisol salivar foram significativamente maiores em onças-pintadas com maior exposição ao público. Esses resultados sugerem que onças-pintadas, normalmente solitárias e esquivas na natureza, podem ter seu bem-estar consideravelmente diminuído pelo aumento de exposição ao público. Este estudo é o primeiro relato de mensuração de cortisol salivar em onças-pintadas. Abstract in english For the most part, jaguars kept in captivity are used for educational and recreational purposes and it hasn't been determined the different impacts that public exposure would have on these animals. In this study, we compared the salivary cortisol, one of the stress indicator hormones, in seven capti [...] ve jaguars exposed to the high and low public visitation. Saliva was collected using an absorbent material that was chewed by the animals and subsequently analyzed through an immunoenzymatic assay. Salivary cortisol concentrations were significantly higher in the jaguars with higher public exposure, which suggest a more hormonal stress response. These results indicated that jaguars, animals usually of solitary and secretive behavior, may have their welfare considerably diminished by increased public exposure. Additionally, design of the enclosures, without refuges and proximity of people, could predispose jaguars to psychological stress.

Julio César, Montanha; Sérgio Leme, Silva; Vanner, Boere.

1745-17-01

90

Efecto de la Cotinina en la Viabilidad de Fibroblastos / EFFECT OF COTININE ON THE VIABILITY OF FIBROBLASTS.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar "in vitro" el efecto de la cotinina en la viabilidad celular utilizando un linaje continuo de fibroblastos. Fueron formados grupos experimentales según las concentraciones de cotinina : 0 (control), 50ng, 100ng, 500ng, 1ug/ml. y tiempo de condicionamento (1, 24, 4 [...] 8 horas). Cada uno de los 12 orificios de una placa para cultivo celular recibió 1 mL de medio de Eagle y 1mL de cotinina en las diferentes concentraciones, inmediatamente fue acrescentado 1ml de medio de cultivo conteniendo 1x10(5) cels/mL. Después del condicionamento con la droga, en los 3 períodos ensayados, las células fueron teñidas con azul de tripan 0,4% y observadas en un microscopio invertido, por un examinador ciego para los grupos experimentales. Los experimentos fueron repetidos 5 vezes. Los resultados mostraron que las dos concentraciones mayores de cotinina presentaron los menores porcentajes de células viables, sin embargo, esta diferencia fue reducida. La viabilidad celular presentó una pequeña disminución con el aumento del tiempo de condicionamiento. Concluimos que la cotinina puede afectar la viabilidad celular solo en las dos mayores concentraciones ensayadas. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate, in vitro, the effect of cotinine on the viability of fibroblasts from a continuous lineage. Experimental groups were formed according to drug dosage: 0 (control), 50ng, 100ng, 500ng, 1ug/ml, and time of exposure: (1, 24, 48 horas).Twelve wells microplates were [...] used. Each well received 1ml of Eagle medium and 1ml of a solution containing 1x10(5) cells/ml. Cotinine at the tested concentrations was then added to the wells. After the incubation period, cells viability was assessed by using trypan blue 0,4%. Cell viabylity were assessed on a inverted micorscope, by the single examiner who was blend to the experimentals groups. The experiment was repeated 5 times. Results demostrated that the two greater concentrations presented the more non viable cells, but these diferences were minimal. The cells viability presented minimal decreased with the increased of time exposure. Cotinine affect fibroblasts for the high tested dose.

Aurora E., Traverso Martínez; Karina, Gonzales Silvério; Carlos, Rossa Jr.

2004-01-01

91

Salivary cytokines in healthy adolescent girls: Intercorrelations, stability, and associations with serum cytokines, age, and pubertal stage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Theoretically, the measurement of cytokines in saliva may have utility for studies of brain, behavior, and immunity in youth. Cytokines in saliva and serum were analyzed across three annual assessments in healthy adolescent girls (N?=?114, 11-17 years at enrollment). Samples were assayed for GM-CSF, IFN?, IL-1?, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, TNF?, adiponectin, and cotinine. Results revealed: (1) cytokine levels, except IFN? and IL-10, were detectable in saliva, and salivary levels, except IL-8 and IL-1?, were lower than serum levels; (2) salivary cytokine levels were lower in older girls and positively associated with adiponectin; (3) compared to serum levels, the correlations between salivary cytokines were higher, but salivary cytokines were less stable across years; and (4) except for IL-1?, there were no significant serum-saliva associations. Variation in basal salivary cytokine levels in healthy adolescent girls reflect compartmentalized activity of the oral mucosal immune system, rather than systemic cytokine activity. PMID:23868603

Riis, Jenna L; Out, Dorothee; Dorn, Lorah D; Beal, Sarah J; Denson, Lee A; Pabst, Stephanie; Jaedicke, Katrin; Granger, Douglas A

2014-05-01

92

Pictorial essay: Salivary gland imaging.  

Science.gov (United States)

Salivary glands are the first organs of digestion secreting their digestive juices into the oral cavity. Parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands are the major paired salivary glands in the decreasing order of their size. In addition, multiple small minor salivary glands are noted randomly distributed in the upper aerodigestive tract, including paranasal sinuses and parapharyngeal spaces. The imaging is directed to the major salivary glands. Commonly used imaging methods include plain radiography and conventional sialography. Recently, high-resolution ultrasonography (HRUS) is being increasingly used for targeted salivary gland imaging. However, the advent of cross-sectional imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have revolutionized the imaging of salivary glands. This article illustrates the role of imaging in evaluating the variegated disease pattern of the major salivary glands. PMID:23833425

Rastogi, Rajul; Bhargava, Sumeet; Mallarajapatna, Govindarajan Janardan; Singh, Sudhir Kumar

2012-10-01

93

Evaluation of Salivary Albumin in Diabetic Patients  

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Full Text Available "nBackground: The clinical symptoms of diabetes mellitus in oral cavity are xerostomia, pathological changes in periodontal tis­sues and caries. It has been suggested that the determination of salvia`s components in diabetic patients may be useful in de­scribing and further understanding the oral findings in this condition. The aim of this study was to detect differences be­tween the salivary albumin in diabetic patients and healthy people."nMethods: A case-control study was carried out using data from Hamadan researches diabetes center in 2008. We selected 40 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus aged 9-61 years, 40 patients with type2 aged 39-82 years and 40 healthy controls aged 20-67 years. Dental and oral status was assessed for all subjects. Completely unstimulated saliva samples were col­lected from diabetic patients and control subjects. Nephelometric method was used to determine salivary albumin con­centra­tion. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS."nResults: No significant difference in salivary albumin concentration was found between the control group and type1 dia­betic patients but salivary albumin was significantly higher in type2 diabetic patients in compare with control groups (P= 0.017, also no significant difference was found between type1 and type2 diabetic patients. In diabetic patients, complain of dry mouth and burning feeling in mouth was significantly higher, as well as, dental examinations showed higher DMFT mean values than the controls."nConclusion: Adults with type2 diabetes mellitus have higher concentration of salivary albumin that would play a helpful diagnos­tic role in oral findings of diabetic patients.

PB Vaziri

2009-09-01

94

Self-reported smoking, cotinine levels, and patterns of smoking in pregnancy.  

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Non-pregnant adult smokers generally exhibit fairly stable smoking behaviour over time. In studies of this population, cotinine assays are considered a 'gold standard' measure of exposure to cigarette smoke; current smoking status can be validated with high sensitivity and specificity. In contrast, there is substantial within-person fluctuation in pregnancy smoking, as women try repeatedly to quit or cut down. As a result, cotinine measures may be of limited use for validation of amount smoked, as they are informative only about recent exposure, vary with individual smoking topography and are dependent on time lapsed since the last cigarette smoked. Thus, in reproductive epidemiology, where timing, intensity and duration of exposure are critical, self-reported history of cigarette consumption may be a more relevant fetal exposure than current smoking status. If there were substantial within-person variation over the course of pregnancy, numerous measures of cotinine would be needed to characterise patterns of fetal exposure and would not be feasible in many studies. We examined self-reported smoking patterns and compared them to patterns of urinary cotinine levels in a prospective study of 998 pregnant women, recruited 1988-92. Fluctuations in smoking were considerable and, while cotinine measures and self-reported number of cigarettes were highly correlated at any given time point across women (r=0.70), the within-person correlation between the patterns of self-reported number of cigarettes and cotinine levels was weaker (r=0.33). For researchers interested in fetal outcomes in which intensity and timing of exposure are critical, we conclude that self-reported variations in smoking during pregnancy may be a valid way to characterise detailed patterns of fetal exposure in epidemiological studies. PMID:16115289

Pickett, Kate E; Rathouz, Paul J; Kasza, Kristen; Wakschlag, Lauren S; Wright, Rosalind

2005-09-01

95

Single gas chromatography method with nitrogen phosphorus detector for urinary cotinine determination in passive and active smokers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A nicotina é uma substância presente no cigarro capaz de causar dependência, sendo biotransformada em vários metabólitos nos seres humanos, dentre eles a cotinina urinária, que é considerada um indicador biológico de exposição à nicotina, devido a suas altas concentrações, comparado a outras matrize [...] s. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um único método para determinação de cotinina urinária, em amostras de urina de fumantes ativos e passivos, através de cromatografia em fase gasosa com detector de nitrogênio- fósforo (CG-DNF). Para o preparo de amostras foram utilizados 5 mL de urina, 1 mL de hidróxido de sódio 5 mol L-1, 5 mL de clorofórmio, tendo como padrão interno a lidocaína. Na faixa de concentrações de 10-1000 ng mL-1 e 500- 6000 ng mL-1, o coeficiente de determinação foi 0,9986 e 0,9952, respectivamente e, o limite de quantificação foi 10 ng mL-1. A precisão intra- e interensaio apresentou desvio padrão relativo (%) menor que 14,2% e a inexatidão foi menor que +11,9%, com uma eficiência de extração de 88,5%. O método apresentou robustez, de acordo com o teste de Youden. As concentrações médias de cotinina observadas foram 2980 ng mL-1, para fumantes ativos e 132 ng mL-1, para fumantes passivos. Os resultados sugerem que o método é confiável, preciso, linear e apresentou robustez, na faixa avaliada, podendo ser aplicado na rotina para análises de amostras de fumantes ativos e passivos, pois é capaz de quantificar uma ampla faixa de concentrações de cotinina urinária. Abstract in english Nicotine is a major addictive compound in cigarettes and is rapidly and extensively metabolized to several metabolites in humans, including urinary cotinine, considered a biomarker due to its high concentration compared to other metabolites. The aim of this study was to develop a single method for d [...] etermination of urinary cotinine, in active and passive smokers, by gas chromatography with a nitrogen phosphorus detector (GC-NPD). Urine (5.0 mL) was extracted with 1.0 mL of sodium hydroxide 5 mol L-1, 5.0 mL of chloroform, and lidocaine used as the internal standard. Injection volume was 1 ?L in GC-NPD. Limit of quantification was 10 ng mL-1. Linearity was evaluated in the ranges 10-1000 ng mL-1 and 500-6000 ng mL-1, with determination coefficients of 0.9986 and 0.9952, respectively. Intra- and inter-assay standard relative deviations were lower than 14.2 %, while inaccuracy (bias) was less than +11.9%. The efficiency of extraction was greater than 88.5%. Ruggedness was verified, according to Youden's test. Means of cotinine concentrations observed were 2,980 ng mL-1 for active smokers and 132 ng mL-1, for passive smokers. The results revealed that satisfactory chromatographic separation between the analyte and interferents was obtained with a ZB-1 column. This method is reliable, precise, linear and presented ruggedness in the range evaluated. The results suggest that it can be applied in routine analysis for passive and active smokers, since it is able to quantify a wide range of cotinine concentrations in urine.

Lusiane, Malafatti; Patrícia Penido, Maia; Matheus Coutinho Gonçalves, Martins; Maria Elisa Pereira Bastos de, Siqueira; Isarita, Martins.

96

Single gas chromatography method with nitrogen phosphorus detector for urinary cotinine determination in passive and active smokers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A nicotina é uma substância presente no cigarro capaz de causar dependência, sendo biotransformada em vários metabólitos nos seres humanos, dentre eles a cotinina urinária, que é considerada um indicador biológico de exposição à nicotina, devido a suas altas concentrações, comparado a outras matrize [...] s. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um único método para determinação de cotinina urinária, em amostras de urina de fumantes ativos e passivos, através de cromatografia em fase gasosa com detector de nitrogênio- fósforo (CG-DNF). Para o preparo de amostras foram utilizados 5 mL de urina, 1 mL de hidróxido de sódio 5 mol L-1, 5 mL de clorofórmio, tendo como padrão interno a lidocaína. Na faixa de concentrações de 10-1000 ng mL-1 e 500- 6000 ng mL-1, o coeficiente de determinação foi 0,9986 e 0,9952, respectivamente e, o limite de quantificação foi 10 ng mL-1. A precisão intra- e interensaio apresentou desvio padrão relativo (%) menor que 14,2% e a inexatidão foi menor que +11,9%, com uma eficiência de extração de 88,5%. O método apresentou robustez, de acordo com o teste de Youden. As concentrações médias de cotinina observadas foram 2980 ng mL-1, para fumantes ativos e 132 ng mL-1, para fumantes passivos. Os resultados sugerem que o método é confiável, preciso, linear e apresentou robustez, na faixa avaliada, podendo ser aplicado na rotina para análises de amostras de fumantes ativos e passivos, pois é capaz de quantificar uma ampla faixa de concentrações de cotinina urinária. Abstract in english Nicotine is a major addictive compound in cigarettes and is rapidly and extensively metabolized to several metabolites in humans, including urinary cotinine, considered a biomarker due to its high concentration compared to other metabolites. The aim of this study was to develop a single method for d [...] etermination of urinary cotinine, in active and passive smokers, by gas chromatography with a nitrogen phosphorus detector (GC-NPD). Urine (5.0 mL) was extracted with 1.0 mL of sodium hydroxide 5 mol L-1, 5.0 mL of chloroform, and lidocaine used as the internal standard. Injection volume was 1 ?L in GC-NPD. Limit of quantification was 10 ng mL-1. Linearity was evaluated in the ranges 10-1000 ng mL-1 and 500-6000 ng mL-1, with determination coefficients of 0.9986 and 0.9952, respectively. Intra- and inter-assay standard relative deviations were lower than 14.2 %, while inaccuracy (bias) was less than +11.9%. The efficiency of extraction was greater than 88.5%. Ruggedness was verified, according to Youden's test. Means of cotinine concentrations observed were 2,980 ng mL-1 for active smokers and 132 ng mL-1, for passive smokers. The results revealed that satisfactory chromatographic separation between the analyte and interferents was obtained with a ZB-1 column. This method is reliable, precise, linear and presented ruggedness in the range evaluated. The results suggest that it can be applied in routine analysis for passive and active smokers, since it is able to quantify a wide range of cotinine concentrations in urine.

Lusiane, Malafatti; Patrícia Penido, Maia; Matheus Coutinho Gonçalves, Martins; Maria Elisa Pereira Bastos de, Siqueira; Isarita, Martins.

2010-12-01

97

Relationships between age, drugs, oral sensorial complaints and salivary profile.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between oral sensorial complaints (OSCs) and salivary flow rate, composition and drug consumption of subjects aged 18-90 years. The results were correlated with both drug consumption and OSCs. Only individuals who were free of conditions that are already known to cause OSCs were included in the study. The three most significant observations were as follows: (1) elderly people have significantly reduced and altered salivary secretion compared with younger people. While specific concentrations increased, the total values of most salivary components decreased in the elderly; (2) 50% of the elderly population have OSCs regarding taste, burning mouth syndrome or xerostomia; and (3) OSCs were more prevalent in elderly people who use drugs than in those who do not. In conclusion, a reduction in salivary function and altered composition are age related. A compensatory capacity that prevents OSCs appears to exist in elderly patients who do not use drugs, but drugs were found to have an extensive effect on OSCs. The finding that the total amounts of salivary components and not only the salivary flow rate were reduced in elderly people is of great clinical relevance, since such a reduction is expected to be reflected in compromising various salivary functions. PMID:15598412

Nagler, Rafael M; Hershkovich, Oded

2005-01-01

98

Salivary Ceruloplasmin Ferroxidase & Oxidase Activities in Celiac Patients  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the current study was to evaluate salivary ferroxidase ceruloplasmin activities in celiac patients with different histopathological severity. This study included 75 celiac patients with different mean age (18.68 ± 11.13) year, who had positive screen for celiac antibodies, and who had gastrointestinal symptoms. In order to simplify the comparison with the healthy control group, celiac patients were divided into two groups according to their histopathological severity: severe (marsh IIIa, b, c) & less severe (marsh 0, I). All these patients have been evaluating for salivary ceruloplasmin (Cp) concentration and Cp ferroxidase activities. To confirm the presence of the enzymatic activity of this protein, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was carried out and then stained for Cp ferroxidase, as well as for Cp oxidase activity. Furthermore, the concentrations of salivary total protein, albumin, and globulin were measured in the studied groups. A significant increase (p<0.05) in salivary concentration of ceruloplasmin was found in all above mentioned patients groups in comparison to that of the control group, except for total villous atrophy (marsh IIIc) patients subgroup. Salivary Cp ferroxidase activity revealed statistically significant decrease among the patient groups as well as between them and the control group. The result of salivary total protein and globulin showed presence a significant increase (p<0.05) in comparison to that of the control group. Meanwhile albumin levels was found to increase non-significantly (p=0.186). PMID:23675269

Hasan, Hathama R.; Ghadhban, Jasim M.; Abudal Kadhum, Zahraa I.

2012-01-01

99

Sialography And Salivary Scan Study Of Salivary Diseases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to established the characteristic radiographic features in salivary gland diseases by means of sialography and scintigraphy. Sialograms and scintigrams with diseases of salivary gland were examined. In this group were 5 salivary stones, 14 sialadenitis, 17 Sjogren's syndromes and 8 benign tumors. The obtained results were as follows;1. In the configuration of the shape of main duct, those revealed that modified curvilinear and curvilinear types were predominant in Sjogren's syndromes but reverse sigmoid and angular types were in sialolithiasis and sialadenitis combined with sialodochitis. 2. In the configuration of the course of main duct, those revealed that smooth types were predominant in sialadenitis and irregular types were predominant in Sjogren's syndromes and benign tumors and irregular types were seen in all salivary stones and sialadenitis combined with sialodochitis. 3. In the type of intraglandular pattern, those revealed that destructive changes of salivary duct system and parenchyma were severe in sialadenitis and salivary stones and predominantly severe in Sjogren's syndromes. 4. The function of salivary gland was decreased severely in Sjogren's syndrome. and also decrease in salivary stone and sialadenitis. In benign tumor, the uptake of radioisotope was not seen in lesion and the function of salivary gland decreased in its remaining normal parenchyma.

100

Malignant salivary gland tumours  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The most frequent malignant salivary gland tumours are the mucoepidermoid tumour, adenoid cystic carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The major salivary glands and the minor glands of the mouth and upper respiratory tract may potentially develop any of these malignant lesions. Malignant lesions most frequently present as a palpable mass and tend to enlarge more rapidly than benign neoplasms. Pain, paresthesia, muscle paralysis and fixation to surrounding tissue are all ominous signs and symptoms. The only reliable means of differential diagnosis of these lesions is biopsy and histologic analysis. Therapy involves surgery or a combination of surgery and radiation therapy. The ultimate prognosis is governed by the intrinsic biologic behaviour of the neoplasms, the extent of disease and adequate clinical therapy

 
 
 
 
101

Diagnostics of salivary gland disorders  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this article several diagnostic techniques are described for the diagnosis of the salivary glands. Sialography can be used for chronic inflammations and obstructions. Scintiscanning is useful in the determination of function disorders and the simultaneous diagnosis of all big salivary glands. With echography it is possible to distinguish solid and cystoid tumors. Computer tomography locates space occupying processes. Still the clinical investigations and anamneses are the most important diagnostic means for disorders of the salivary glands. 34 refs.; 6 figs.; 1 table

102

Radionuclide imaging of salivary glands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Salivary scintigraphy is a relatively simple and non-invasive technique for assessing global and regional glandular function in many clinical settings. In contradistinction to other imaging modalities it gives specific functional information (sialadenitis, Sjogrens' disease) and reasonably useful anatomical information (abscess, granuloma, neoplasm) about all the major salivary glands. If performed routinely in appropriate clinical settings the salivary scintigraphy can be of immense diagnostic importance in clinical practice. (author). 7 refs., 3 figs

103

ELIMINATION OF URINARY COTININE IN CHILDREN EXPOSED TO KNOWN LEVELS OF SIDE-STREAM CIGARETTE SMOKE  

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The establishment of a quantitative personal marker of side-stream smoke exposure in children is important in the study of potential health effects in the group. Cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine, has been shown to exhibit a dose-response relationship to side-stream smoke exposu...

104

Cotinine reduces depressive-like behavior, working memory deficits, and synaptic loss associated with chronic stress in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic stress underlies and/or exacerbates many psychiatric conditions and often results in memory impairment as well as depressive symptoms. Such afflicted individuals use tobacco more than the general population and this has been suggested as a form of self-medication. Cotinine, the predominant metabolite of nicotine, may underlie such behavior as it has been shown to ameliorate anxiety and memory loss in animal models. In this study, we sought to investigate the effects of cotinine on working memory and depressive-like behavior in mice subjected to prolonged restraint. Cotinine-treated mice displayed better performance than vehicle-treated cohorts on the working memory task, the radial arm water maze test. In addition, with or without chronic stress exposure, cotinine-treated mice engaged in fewer depressive-like behaviors as assessed using the tail suspension and Porsolt's forced swim tests. These antidepressant and nootropic effects of cotinine were associated with an increase in the synaptophysin expression, a commonly used marker of synaptic density, in the hippocampus as well as the prefrontal and entorhinal cortices of restrained mice. The beneficial effects of cotinine in preventing various consequences of chronic stress were underscored by the inhibition of the glycogen synthase kinase 3 ? in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Taken together, our results show for the first time that cotinine reduces the negative effects of stress on mood, memory, and the synapse. PMID:24713149

Grizzell, J Alex; Iarkov, Alexandre; Holmes, Rosalee; Mori, Takahashi; Echeverria, Valentina

2014-07-15

105

Decrease in salivary lactoferrin output in chronically intoxicated alcohol-dependent patients  

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Salivary lactoferrin is a glycoprotein involved in the elimination of pathogens and the prevention of massive overgrowth of microorganisms that affect oral and general health. A high concentration of lactoferrin in saliva is often considered to be a marker of damage to the salivary glands, gingivitis, or leakage through inflamed or damaged oral mucosa, infiltrated particularly by neutrophils. We conducted a study to determine the effect of chronic alcohol intoxication on salivary lac...

Napoleon Waszkiewicz; Beata Zalewska-Szajda; Anna Zalewska; Magdalena Waszkiewicz; S?awomir Dariusz Szajda; Bernadeta Repka; Agata Szulc; Alina K?pka; Alina Minarowska; Sylwia Chojnowska; Beata Konarzewska; Jerzy Robert ?adny; Urszula Kowzan; Krzysztof Zwierz

2012-01-01

106

Salivary cortisol in top-level professional soccer players.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have tested the hypothesis that salivary cortisol increases after a competitive training match in top-level male professional soccer players divided in team A (n = 11) versus team B (n = 11). Saliva samples collected before and after the match were analyzed. Salivary cortisol concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results from a two-way ANOVA with repeated measures showed no significant changes in salivary cortisol between either teams or time points (P > 0.05). Further investigation regarding competitive matches in a competition environment is warranted. In summary, the influence of intensive competitive training match alone appears to be minimal on salivary cortisol changes in top-level soccer adapted to this type of stress. From a practical application, the variability of the responses among the players leads us to suggest that there is a need to individually analyse the results with team sports. PMID:19159948

Moreira, Alexandre; Arsati, Franco; de Oliveira Lima Arsati, Ynara Bosco; da Silva, Danilo Augusto; de Araújo, Vera Cavalcanti

2009-05-01

107

The variability of urinary cotinine levels in young children: implications for measuring ETS exposure.  

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This study examined the within-subject variability of urinary cotinine levels in young children (aged = 0.6-7.2 years) of smoking parents to determine the number of urine samples needed to provide accurate estimates of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) for different time intervals. Secondary analyses were conducted of five independent studies (N = 376), in which multiple urinary cotinine measures had been collected over time periods up to 13 months. Over measurement periods of 4-15 days, the within-subject cotinine levels varied 3-5 times more than would be expected based on measurement error alone. Over 7-13 months, the within-subject variability was 10-20 times higher than would be expected based on the measurement error. Findings indicated that cotinine measures from single urine samples provided highly accurate estimates of only recent exposure (i.e., 2-3 days; rho = 0.99). To achieve similarly precise estimates of the mean cotinine level of an individual child over 4-15 days, up to nine urine samples may be necessary. Up to 12 urine samples may be required to achieve similarly precise estimates of ETS exposure over a 4- to 13-month period. Epidemiologic and clinical research on ETS exposure in children can benefit from multiple urine samples (a) to accurately measure average exposure at the level of the individual child, (b) to describe temporal patterns, (c) to detect incidences of peak exposure that would remain underrecognized if monitoring is limited to a single time point, and (d) to establish stable baseline levels and endpoints based on urine samples collected over clinically relevant time periods. PMID:17365739

Matt, Georg E; Hovell, Melbourne F; Quintana, Penelope J E; Zakarian, Joy; Liles, Sandy; Meltzer, Susan B; Benowitz, Neal L

2007-01-01

108

SALIVARY ANTIMICROBIAL PROTEIN RESPONSE TO PROLONGED RUNNING  

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Full Text Available Prolonged exercise may compromise immunity through a reduction of salivary antimicrobial proteins (AMPs. Salivary IgA (IgA has been extensively studied, but little is known about the effect of acute, prolonged exercise on AMPs including lysozyme (Lys and lactoferrin (Lac. Objective: To determine the effect of a 50-km trail race on salivary cortisol (Cort, IgA, Lys, and Lac. Methods: 14 subjects: (6 females, 8 males completed a 50km ultramarathon. Saliva was collected pre, immediately after (post and 1.5 hrs post race ( 1.5. Results: Lac concentration was higher at 1.5 hrs post race compared to post exercise (p0.05. IgA concentration, secretion rate, and IgA/Osm were lower 1.5 hrs post compared to pre race (p<0.05. Cort concentration was higher at post compared to 1.5 (p<0.05, but was unaltered from pre race levels. Subjects finished in 7.81 ± 1.2 hrs. Saliva flow rate did not differ between time points. Saliva Osm increased at post (p<0.05 compared to pre race. Conclusions: The intensity could have been too low to alter Lys and Lac secretion rates and thus, may not be as sensitive as IgA to changes in response to prolonged running. Results expand our understanding of the mucosal immune system and may have implications for predicting illness after prolonged running.

Suzanne Schneider

2013-01-01

109

Salivary abnormalities in Prader-Willi Syndrome  

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Although abnormal saliva is a well documented finding in PWS, little is known about the saliva in these individuals. We have recently undertaken a study to characterize the salivary composition from PW patients and to see if there is any correlation with their underlying molecular diagnosis (deletion vs. disomy). We have collected whole saliva on 3 patients; 2 had normal high-resolution karyotype analysis (Cases 1 & 3) and 1 had a deletion of 15q11q13 (Case 3). For all parameters, Case 3`s values were notably different from those of his unaffected sibling. The salivary flow rates and concentrations for all 3 PW patients are similar and are significantly different from normal controls (mean {plus_minus} SE) (p<0.05). Although this data is from only 3 PW patients, it provides valuable information. First, decreased flow appears to be due to an effect of PWS and not medications since Cases 2 & 3 are not on any medications. Second, decreased flow appears to be present in younger as well as older individuals. Third, deviations from normal in the salivary composition are evident. It is possible that these alterations are concentration effects relative to a decrease in flow rate. We are currently obtaining saliva from more PW individuals to see if these alterations are present in all PW patients and whether they can be applied as a screening test.

Hart, S.; Poshva, C. [Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States)

1994-09-01

110

Measurement of salivary adiponectin levels.  

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We designed a method for measuring salivary adiponectin. In 188 healthy males, salivary adiponectin levels were measured using a commercial enzyme immunoassay kit for plasma with minor modifications. Intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation for salivary adiponectin ranged from 0.6 to 4.9 and 1.1 to 9.8%, respectively. Salivary adiponectin levels ranged from 0.37 to 6.42 ng/ml, exceeding the kit's detection limit. For the over-43 age group, there was a significant correlation between plasma and salivary adiponectin levels (psalivary adiponectin as a marker of increased risk of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or cardiovascular disease. PMID:17357881

Toda, M; Tsukinoki, R; Morimoto, K

2007-03-01

111

Sialorrhea and Salivary Composition in Patients With Parkinson's Disease  

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Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the salivary composition and production in mild and severe Parkinson's Disease (PD patients.Materials and Methods: A total of 37 patients with PD and age matched 30 control subjects were participated in this study. The Hoehn and Yahr (HY disability scale was used to determine the severity of the disease. Salivary collection was performed according to a methodology described in the literature and salivary composition was determined. Between group comparisons were performed using the independent t test and chi-square.Results: Salivary production in patients of the Parkinson group was significantly lower than in controls (0.68±0.26 mg vs. 1.27±0.65 mg, respectively; p=0.009. But there was no significant difference in salivary production between mild and severe Parkinson patients (0.71±0.33 mg vs. 0.66±0.17 mg, respectively; p=0.62. Decrease in the production of saliva was not significantly correlated with levodopa/benserazide dose, HY scale and UPDRS score (r=0.283, p=0.09; r=-0.166, p=0.325; r=-0.208, p=0.217; respectively.In PD patients, salivary concentrations of sodium, potassium, chloride were higher but amylase was lower than in controls (p=0.02, p<0.001, p=0.003, p=0.04, respectively. When mild and severe PD patients were compared there were no significant difference between amylase, potassium, and chloride concentrations of the groups (p=0.07, p=0.32, p=0.16, respectively.Conclusions: PD is associated with decreased salivary production, abnormally high electrolyte and low amylase concentrations. Drooling of saliva is caused by concomitant swallowing difficulties. Thus, using botulinum toxin or anticolinergic drugs in treatment of drooling may cause xerostomia.

Bugra KOCA

2009-12-01

112

Responses of salivary cortisol and ?-amylase to official competition  

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Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the relationship between salivary cortisol, ?-amylase and total protein response in the official football players during the course of a game. Nine young amateur football players agreed to participate in the study. Saliva samples were collected from each player 30 min and 5 min before the start of the competition, at half time, and then again 5 and 30 min after the end of competition. A significant increase in cortisol (p=0.04 in response to playing the competition was observed including a significantly higher concentration 30 min after match as compared to half time (p=0.016. In contrast, changes in salivary ?-amylase changes were irregular, but there was significant decline 5 min after end of match as compared to the 5 min before the beginning of match (p<0.019. No significant difference in total protein concentration was observed. Though salivary cortisol, ?-amylase and total protein changes were observed concomitantly, but there no significant relationship between them. We conclude that participation in competition has an accumulative effect on salivary cortisol concentration, but this was not related changes in salivary ?-amylase.

MOHAMMAD A. AZARBAYJANI

2011-06-01

113

An Evaluation of Cotinine as an Index of Exposure to Tabacco Smoke in Children with Recurrent Respiratory Tract Infections Using HPLC Method  

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Full Text Available The authors evaluated the frequency of exposure to tobacco smoke among children suffering from respiratory tract infections. The investigations comprised 141 children aged from 2 months to 6 years that were treated in the 2nd Department of Pediatric and Allergology of Polish Mother’s Memorial Hospital Research Institute in ?ód? (Poland. 69 of them were exposed to tobacco smoke in their home environment. The remaining 72 children came from non-smoking families. 26 (37.7% individuals among the passive smokers and 15 (20.83% among the children from non-smoking families suffered from recurrent respiratory tract infections. Cotinine concentrations were evaluated in the group of 69 children using the HPLC-UV method. The determined average cotinine/creatinine index expressed as median was higher in passive smokers with recurrent respiratory infections than among passive smokers with non-recurrent respiratory infections. Moreover, it was stated that the exposure to cigarette smoke was more often among children of younger and less well educated parents as well as living in poor housing conditions. These studies clearly indicate that there is a need for extensive education on the harmful effects of passive smoking and the recurrence of infections.

Wioletta Grys

2013-07-01

114

Effects of red wine intake on human salivary antiradical capacity and total polyphenol content.  

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The protective effects of grape polyphenols have been reported on oral health, though unreasonable alcohol consumption represents a risk factor for developing oral cancer. The possible effects of red wine consumption on salivary antiradical activity were investigated in healthy volunteers for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. Time-course (from 0 min to 240 min) changes of salivary radical-scavenging capacity were measured by the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS(+)) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays, in twelve healthy volunteers, after the intake of red wine (125 mL), a capsule of red wine extract (300 mg) or water (125 mL). Furthermore, time-course of salivary total polyphenol levels, detected by the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method, was also determined. Both ABTS and DPPH tests showed that red wine consumption did not increase salivary antiradical activity in volunteers. Conversely, red wine extract administration caused a marked rise in salivary ABTS radical-scavenging capacity within 30 min, followed by a plateau up to 240 min. The same treatment also raised salivary DPPH radical-scavenging activity at any time point, though to a minor extent. The highest salivary polyphenol concentration was reached 30 min after wine drinking, followed by a steady decrease up to 240 min. Wine drinking was not associated to a reduced salivary antiradical capacity. However, wine extract greatly improved the salivary antioxidant status. PMID:23643701

Varoni, Elena Maria; Vitalini, Sara; Contino, Daniele; Lodi, Giovanni; Simonetti, Paolo; Gardana, Claudio; Sardella, Andrea; Carrassi, Antonio; Iriti, Marcello

2013-08-01

115

Effect of pilocarpine mouthwash on salivary flow  

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Full Text Available Pilocarpine is a cholinergic agonist that increases salivary flow and has been used to treat xerostomia. Oral intake is the most frequent route of administration. Adverse effects are dose-dependent and include sudoresis, facial blushing and increased urinary frequency. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of topical pilocarpine solutions as mouthwashes on salivary flow and their adverse effects on healthy subjects. Forty volunteers received 10 ml 0.5, 1 and 2% pilocarpine solutions or 0.9% saline in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled manner. Salivation was measured before and 45, 60 and 75 min after mouth rinsing for 1 min with 10 ml of saline or pilocarpine solutions. Vital signs were measured and ocular, gastrointestinal and cardiovascular symptoms, anxiety and flushing were estimated using visual analog scales. There was a dose-dependent increase in salivation. Salivation measured after 1 and 2% pilocarpine (1.4 ± 0.36 and 2.22 ± 0.42 g, respectively was significantly (P<0.001 higher than before (0.70 ± 0.15 and 0.64 ± 0.1 g, with a plateau between 45 and 75 min. Cardiovascular, visual, gastrointestinal and behavioral symptoms and signs were not changed by topical pilocarpine. Mouth rinsing with pilocarpine solutions at concentrations of 1 to 2% induced a significant objective and subjective dose-dependent increase in salivary flow, similar to the results reported by others studying the effect of oral 5 mg pilocarpine. The present study revealed the efficacy of pilocarpine mouthwash solutions in increasing salivary flow in healthy volunteers, with no adverse effects. Additional studies on patients with xerostomia are needed.

Bernardi R.

2002-01-01

116

Development of a sensitive method for the determination of cotinine in human urine with capillary gas chromatography and nitrogen-selective detection after solid-phase extraction  

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In dit rapport wordt de ontwikkeling van een gevoelige methode beschreven voor de kwantitatieve bepaling van cotinine in humane urine. Cotinine is een metaboliet van nicotine, die in de urine wordt uitgescheiden en gerelateerd kan worden aan de actieve of passieve inhalatie van tabaksrook. Cotinine wordt uit urine geisoleerd door middel van een vaste-fase extractie gevolgd door een clean-up van het vaste-fase extract door selective heroplossing in een niet mengbare com...

Doorn C van; de Groot G

2012-01-01

117

Radioimmunoassay of salivary steroid hormones for easy diagnosis of and adrenal functions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The salivary levels of progesterone, estradiol and cortisol were determined by radioimmunoassay in fertile and infertile women. progesterone concentration was also determined in sera of both groups. Results have shown salivary progesterone to be promising in the assessment of ovarian function. Positive and significant correlation was obtained between serum and salivary progesterone for both considered groups. Although, concentrations of estradiol in saliva seems to be useful in predicting the time of ovulation onset however, further evaluations, are still needed. High levels of salivary cortisol were obtained reflecting stress during menses, ovulation and awaiting for the onset of the next cycle. Consequently, salivary cortisol is a good monitor for adrenal function. 6 figs., 5 tabs

118

Circulating immune complexes, immunoglobulin G, salivary proteins and salivary immunoglobulin A in patients with Sjögren's syndrome  

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Full Text Available Introduction. Sjögren's syndrome (SS is a chronic autoimmune disorder, with its major clinical manifestations resulting from changes in exocrine glands. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate serum concentrations of circulating immune complexes (CIC and immunoglobulin G (IgG, and salivary proteins (SP and salivary immunoglobulin A (sIgA in 40 patients with SS, and to correlate these values among themselves, as well as with the unstimulated salivary flow rate (USFR and the duration of disease. Methods. The total of 40 patients were included in this research. CIC was determined using the solution of polyethylene glycol and IgG with the standard procedure of radial immunodiffusion. SP was investigated by the method of Lowry and sIgA was separated from the whole saliva using the method of immune chromatography. Results. The values of most of the studied parameters exceeded the normal range in a high degree: CIC 72.5%, IgG 70%, SP 80%. The concentrations of CIC were significantly higher in the patients with the duration of disease less than 10 years. With the decrease of USFR, the concentration of sIgA and IgG were increased with statistical significance. Conclusion The increased prevalence of abnormal values of CIC, IgG and SP indicate that the patients with SS have developed a higher level of immune reactivity. These results could be useful in diagnosis and disease activity monitoring.

Hadži-Mihailovi? Miloš

2009-01-01

119

Salivary and serum analysis in children diagnosed with pneumonia.  

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The aim of the current study was to evaluate specific markers for pneumonia by using a non-invasive assessment of inflammatory/oxidative biomarkers in saliva accompanying a routine serum analysis. No study evaluating saliva of children with pneumonia has been published previously. Salivary analysis was performed in 15 children diagnosed with lobar pneumonia and in a parallel group of 16 children matching in age and gender in whom there was no respiratory illness, and compared to the serum analysis obtained routinely in both groups of children. Salivary flow rate was lower in the patients' group as was uric acid concentration (by 60%). Increase in salivary concentrations of almost all parameters analyzed was found: Ca, P, and Mg concentrations were higher in the patients' group by 23%, 55%, and 33%, respectively, while LDH, total protein amylase and albumin concentrations were higher by 275%, 79%, and 42%, respectively. In the serum, white cell counts and neutrophils were significantly higher, and sodium level significantly lower in the patients' group. Compositional changes were in the range of 3-80% while the saliva alterations were more profound, in the range of 42-275%. The results demonstrated in the current study indicate salivary analysis as a potentially novel tool for children with pneumonia. Human salivary collection and analysis is a non-invasive tool that could provide additional information for diagnosis and follow-up of pneumonia, especially in children. This is especially beneficial for pediatric patients, as salivary collection is simple, non-invasive, and patient-friendly. PMID:23532916

Klein Kremer, Adi; Kuzminsky, Ela; Bentur, Lea; Nagler, Rafael M

2014-06-01

120

Salivary exoglycosidases in gestational diabetes   

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Full Text Available Introduction: As exoglycosidases have been described as potential markers of salivary gland pathology, we decided to check the possibility of the use of these enzymes in the detection of salivary gland involvement in gestational diabetes.Materials and methods: For this purpose diabetic pregnant women were compared to pregnant and non-pregnant healthy women. The activities of total HEX as well as GLU in the saliva were determined in duplicate according to Marciniak et al. The activities of GAL, FUC, and MAN in the saliva were determined in duplicate according to Zwierz et al.Results: It was found that the specific activities of exoglycosidases in the saliva of diabetic pregnant women significantly increased in comparison to healthy pregnant and non-pregnant women.Conclusion: Increased specific activity of exoglycosidases suggests that gestational diabetes provokes structural/functional alterations in salivary glands and changes in the salivary glycoconjugates metabolism.

Anna Zalewska

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
121

Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors  

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... Factors Request Permissions Download PDF Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors This section has been reviewed and approved by ... menu on the side of your screen. A risk factor is anything that increases a person’s chance of ...

122

Development and comparison of two competitive ELISAs for estimation of cotinine in human exposed to environmental tobacco smoke.  

Science.gov (United States)

We simultaneously set up two competitive (direct and indirect) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based on the same antibody for estimation of cotinine (COT) in pregnant women especially and population generally exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. The results show that the limits of detection (LODs) for direct competitive ELISA and indirect competitive ELISA were 0.04 ?gL(-1) and 0.1 ?gL(-1) , respectively. Direct competitive ELISA was found to be more sensitive than indirect competitive ELISA. Thereafter, we applied our direct competitive ELISA for the detection of COT from urinary samples taken from 450 volunteers from the Zhejiang Province of China. COT was detected in 100% of participants with concentration ranging from LOD to 5358.0 ?gL(-1) . The GM and 95th percentile concentration of COT in pregnant women were 6.3 ?gL(-1) and 57.2 ?gL(-1) , respectively. Males had statistically higher COT concentrations than females (P?concentrations than non-smokers (P?concentration than pregnant women. We conclude that our developed direct competitive ELISA is useful for detecting the COT in urinary concentration of human. The human urinary data obtained in this study indicated that common people generally and pregnant women especially were highly exposed to COT. Further studies are needed to focus on the sources of exposure, potential health effects and risk assessment of exposure to COT. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24470075

Lei, Yajing; Zhang, Qian; Fang, Lizheng; Akash, Muhammad Sajid Hamid; Rehman, Kanwal; Liu, Zhiming; Shi, Weixing; Chen, Shuqing

2014-10-01

123

Imaging of salivary gland tumours  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

vity, pharynx and tracheo-bronchial tree, are also not accessible by conventional ultrasound. Recent study suggests that MR spectroscopy may differentiate malignant and benign salivary gland tumours as well as distinguishing Warthin's tumor from pleomorphic adenoma. However, its role in clinical practice is not well established. Similarly, the role of nuclear medicine and PET scan, in imaging of parotid masses is limited. Sialography is used to delineate the salivary ductal system and has limited role in assessment of tumour extent

124

Cotinine halts the advance of Alzheimer's disease-like pathology and associated depressive-like behavior in Tg6799 mice.  

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Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with cognitive and non-cognitive symptoms for which there are currently no effective therapies. We have previously reported that cotinine, a natural product obtained from tobacco leaves, prevented memory loss and diminished amyloid-? (A?) plaque pathology in transgenic 6799 mice (Tg6799 mice) when treated prior to the development of the pathology. We have also shown that cotinine reduces depressive-like behavior in normal and chronically stressed C57BL/6 mice. Here, we extend our previous studies by investigating the effects of cotinine on the progression of AD-like pathology, depressive-like behavior, and the mechanisms underlying its beneficial effects in Tg6799 mice when left untreated until after a more advanced stage of the disease's development. The results show that vehicle-treated Tg6799 mice displayed an accentuated loss of working memory and an abundant A? plaque pathology that were accompanied by higher levels of depressive-like behavior as compared to control littermates. By contrast, prolonged daily cotinine treatment to Tg6799 mice, withheld until after a mid-level progression of AD-like pathology, reduced A? levels/plaques and depressive-like behavior. Moreover, this treatment paradigm dramatically improved working memory as compared to control littermates. The beneficial effects of cotinine were accompanied by an increase in the expression of the active form of protein kinase B and the postsynaptic density protein 95 in the hippocampi and frontal cortices of Tg6799 mice. This suggests that cotinine halts the progression of AD-like pathology while reducing depressive-like behavior by stimulating signaling pathways supporting synaptic plasticity in Tg6799 mice. The potential use of cotinine to treat cognitive and non-cognitive symptoms of AD is discussed. PMID:25100990

Patel, Sagar; Grizzell, J Alex; Holmes, Rosalee; Zeitlin, Ross; Solomon, Rosalynn; Sutton, Thomas L; Rohani, Adeeb; Charry, Laura C; Iarkov, Alexandre; Mori, Takashi; Echeverria Moran, Valentina

2014-01-01

125

Effects of cations and anions as aggregating agents on SERS detection of cotinine (COT) and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine (3HC).  

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The sensitivity of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) highly depends on experimental factors including aggregating agents and pH. Using silver nanoparticles as the substrate, the effect of five cationic (K(+), Na(+), Mg(2+), Li(+), Ca(2+)) and three anionic (Cl(-), Br(-), I(-)) aggregating agents was examined on the SERS detection of tobacco-related biomarkers, namely cotinine (COT) and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine (3HC). The optimal concentrations of the aggregating agents with respect to highest SERS intensity varied widely (from 1.5 mM for MgCl2 to 150 mM for LiCl). Both cations and anions strongly influenced the SERS enhancement. When Cl(-) was used as the anion, Mg(2+) and Na(+) exhibited the highest SERS intensities for COT and 3HC, respectively. When Mg(2+) was used as the cation, Cl(-) and Br(-) generated the highest SERS enhancement for COT and 3HC, respectively. Clearly, SERS enhancement also depended on the target molecule. Among the 11 aggregating agent combinations tested, the highest SERS enhancement is obtained using 1.5 mM MgCl2 for COT at pH 7.0 and 50 mM NaBr for 3HC at pH 3.0. PMID:23998370

Han, Sungyub; Hong, Seongmin; Li, Xiao

2013-11-15

126

Direct radioimmunoassay (RIA) of salivary testosterone: correlation with free and total serium testosterone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Simple and sensitive direct RIA for determination of salivary testosterone was developed by using RSL NOSOLVEX TM (125 1) kit produced by Radioassay System Laboratories (Carcon, California). In addition, a relationship between salivary and serum free and total testosterone concentrations was studied in randomly selected 45 healthy subjects, 5 females on oral contraceptive pills and 28 hypertensive patients on various treatment regimens. The lowest weight of testosterone detectable by the modified method was equivalent to 1 pg/ml of saliva, taking into account analytical variability. Intra- and interassay coefficients of variation were 5.09 +/- 2.7% and 8.2 +/- 5.9% respectively. Statistically significant correlations were found between salivary and serum free testosterone (r = 0.97) and salivary and serum total testosterone concentrations (r = 0.70 - 0.87). The exception to this was a group of hypertensive females in which no correlation (r = 0.14) between salivary and total serum testosterone was found. It is also of interest that, while salivary testosterone was significantly increased in subjects taking oral contraceptives and most of the hypertensive patients, the total serum testosterone concentration was in normal range. These findings suggest that the determination of salivary testosterone is a reliable method to detect changes in the concentration of available biologically active hormone in the circulation. 21 references, 4 figures, 1 tablees, 4 figures, 1 table

127

Adrenergic effects on secretion of amylase from the rat salivary glands  

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The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of adrenergic agents on secretion of amylase from the salivary glands in vivo. Saliva was collected from the distal oesophagus in conscious rats. Adrenaline increased the concentration of amylase in saliva and serum significantly. The result of infusion of alpha- and beta-adrenergic antagonists as well as noradrenaline and isoproterenol showed that secretion of salivary amylase is predominantly mediated by stimulation of beta-adrenergic receptors, especially of the beta 1-subtype. Investigation of the isoenzyme pattern in saliva, pancreatic juice and serum demonstrated that the major component in serum is salivary amylase. This study has shown that beta-adrenergic agents stimulate secretion of amylase from the salivary glands in rats. Though the secretion is mainly exocrine small amounts of amylase is found in serum, which seems to originate from the salivary glands.

Poulsen, Steen Seier; NexØ, Ebba

1988-01-01

128

Biokinetics and dose estimation of {sup 65}Zn in the salivary gland and male reproductive organs  

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ICRP is revising its recommendations for radiological protection and has added salivary and secretory glands as new target organs. However, little information is available on the distributions of radionuclides in the salivary gland, secretory glands and male reproductive organs. This study deals with the distribution of {sup 65}Zn in the salivary gland and male reproductive organs as a function of time after a single intravenous and oral administration. For the study, 64 Wistar strain male rats, eight weeks of age were used. The rats were periodically sacrificed, the liver, kidney, spleen, pancreas, thymus, salivary gland, testis, epididymitis and prostate gland sampled and the radioactivity of these organs measured with an NaI scintillation counter. The relative concentration of {sup 65}Zn was highest in the prostate gland. We estimated the radiation dose in humans using rat data for the salivary and secretory glands as well as reproductive organs after intake of {sup 65}Zn. (authors)

Matsumoto, M. [Research Center for Radiation Emergency Medicine, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1, Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi 263-8555 (Japan); Homma-Takeda, S. [Research Center for Radiation Protection, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1, Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi 263-8555 (Japan); Nishimura, Y. [Fundamental Technology Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1, Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi 263-8555 (Japan)

2007-07-01

129

Imaging of salivary gland tumours  

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Salivary gland neoplasms account for <3% of all tumors. Most of them are benign and parotid gland is the commonest site. As a general rule, the smaller the involved salivary gland, the higher is the possibility of the tumor being malignant. The role of imaging in assessment of salivary gland tumour is to define intra-glandular vs. extra-glandular location, detect malignant features, assess local extension and invasion, detect nodal metastases and systemic involvement. Image guided fine needle aspiration cytology provides a safe means to obtain cytological confirmation. For lesions in the superficial parotid and submandibular gland, ultrasound is an ideal tool for initial assessment. These are superficial structures accessible by high resolution ultrasound and FNAC which provides excellent resolution and tissue characterization without a radiation hazard. Nodal involvement can also be assessed. If deep tissue extension is suspected or malignancy confirmed on cytology, an MRI or CT is mandatory to evaluate tumour extent, local invasion and perineural spread. For all tumours in the sublingual gland, MRI should be performed as the risk of malignancy is high. For lesions of the deep lobe of parotid gland and the minor salivary glands, MRI and CT are the modalities of choice. Ultrasound has limited visualization of the deep lobe of parotid gland which is obscured by the mandible. Minor salivary gland lesions in the mucosa of oral cavity, pharynx and tracheo-bronchial tree, are also not accessible by conventional ultrasound. Recent study suggests that MR spectroscopy may differentiate malignant and benign salivary gland tumours as well as distinguishing Warthin's tumor from pleomorphic adenoma. However, its role in clinical practice is not well established. Similarly, the role of nuclear medicine and PET scan, in imaging of parotid masses is limited. Sialography is used to delineate the salivary ductal system and has limited role in assessment of tumour extent.

Lee, Y.Y.P.; Wong, K.T.; King, A.D. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin NT, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Ahuja, A.T. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin NT, Hong Kong (Hong Kong)], E-mail: aniltahuja@cuhk.edu.hk

2008-06-15

130

What interactions drive the salivary mucosal pellicle formation?  

Science.gov (United States)

The bound salivary pellicle is essential for protection of both the enamel and mucosa in the oral cavity. The enamel pellicle formation is well characterised, however the mucosal pellicle proteins have only recently been clarified and what drives their formation is still unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the salivary pellicle on particles with different surface properties (hydrophobic or hydrophilic with a positive or negative charge), to determine a suitable model to mimic the mucosal pellicle. A secondary aim was to use the model to test how transglutaminase may alter pellicle formation. Particles were incubated with resting whole mouth saliva, parotid saliva and submandibular/sublingual saliva. Following incubation and two PBS and water washes bound salivary proteins were eluted with two concentrations of SDS, which were later analysed using SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. Experiments were repeated with purified transglutaminase to determine how this epithelial-derived enzyme may alter the bound pellicle. Protein pellicles varied according to the starting salivary composition and the particle chemistry. Amylase, the single most abundant protein in saliva, did not bind to any particle indicating specific protein binding. Most proteins bound through hydrophobic interactions and a few according to their charges. The hydrophobic surface most closely matched the known salivary mucosal pellicle by containing mucins, cystatin and statherin but an absence of amylase and proline-rich proteins. This surface was further used to examine the effect of added transglutaminase. At the concentrations used only statherin showed any evidence of crosslinking with itself or another saliva protein. In conclusion, the formation of the salivary mucosal pellicle is probably mediated, at least in part, by hydrophobic interactions to the epithelial cell surface. PMID:24921197

Gibbins, Hannah L; Yakubov, Gleb E; Proctor, Gordon B; Wilson, Stephen; Carpenter, Guy H

2014-08-01

131

Salivary antimicrobial proteins associate with age-related changes in streptococcal composition in dental plaque.  

Science.gov (United States)

Secretion of antimicrobial proteins (AMPs) and salivary antibodies can modify biofilm formation at host body surfaces. In adolescents, associations have been reported between dental caries and salivary AMPs. AMPs demonstrate direct antimicrobial effects at high concentrations, and at lower more physiological concentrations they mediate changes in host cell defenses, which may alter the local environment and indirectly shape local biofilm formation. The expression of salivary AMPs in preschool children, at an age when the oral bacteria are known to change, has not been investigated. We sought to investigate salivary AMP expression in the context of previously well-documented changes in the oral cavities of this age group including salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA), oral bacteria and dental caries. Dental plaque and saliva were collected from 57 children aged 12-24 months at baseline, of whom 23 children were followed-up at 3 years of age. At each time, saliva was assessed for LL37, human neutrophil peptides 1-3, calprotectin, lactoferrin, salivary IgA, total plaque bacteria and Streptococcus mutans. Over time, concentrations of AMPs, S. mutans and bacteria-specific salivary IgA increased. Caries experience was also recorded when children were 3 years old. Concentrations of AMPs were highest in the saliva of 3-year-old children with the greatest burden of S. mutans. These data suggest that salivary AMPs are variable over time and between individuals, and are linked with bacterial colonization. At follow up, the majority of children remained caries free. Larger longitudinal studies are required to confirm whether salivary AMP levels are predictive of caries and whether their modulation offers therapeutic benefit. PMID:24890264

Malcolm, J; Sherriff, A; Lappin, D F; Ramage, G; Conway, D I; Macpherson, L M D; Culshaw, S

2014-12-01

132

Effect of topical application of melatonin to the gingiva on salivary osteoprotegerin, RANKL and melatonin levels in patients with diabetes and periodontal disease.  

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This cross-section study was designed to assess the effect of topical application of melatonin to the gingiva on salivary RANKL, osteoprotegrin (OPG) and melatonin levels as well as plasma melatonin in 30 patients with diabetes and periodontal disease and in a control group of 30 healthy subjects. Salivary RANKL and OPG were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and salivary and plasma melatonin by radioimmunoassay using commercial kits. Periodontograms were performed using the Florida Probe(®). Diabetic patients were treated with topical application of melatonin (1% orabase cream formula) once daily for 20 days. Patients with diabetes showed significantly higher mean levels of salivary RANKL than healthy subjects as well as significantly lower values of salivary OPG and salivary and plasma melatonin. After treatment with melatonin, there was a statistically significant decrease of the gingival index, pocket depth and salivary levels of RANKL, and a significant rise in salivary values of OPG. Changes of salivary OPG levels before and after topical melatonin treatment correlated significantly with changes in the gingival index and pocket depth. Treatment with topical melatonin was associated with an improvement in the gingival index and pocket depth, a reduction in salivary concentrations of RANKL and increase in salivary concentrations of OPG, which indicates that melatonin has a favorable effect in slowing osteoclastogenesis, improving the quality of alveolar bone and preventing the progression of periodontal disease. PMID:23934086

Cutando, Antonio; López-Valverde, Antonio; de Diego, Rafael Gómez; de Vicente, Joaquín; Reiter, Russell; Fernández, María Herrero; Ferrera, María José

2014-07-01

133

Sleep and Salivary Cortisol  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of the present chapter was to analyze whether measures of cortisol in saliva were associated with measures of sleep and to explore if divergent results were related to underlying differences in theoretic assumptions and methods. Measures of sleep quality included sleep duration, overall sleep quality, difficulty falling asleep, disturbed sleep, and sleep deprivation. Twenty-three papers were found to fulfill the inclusion criteria. Cortisol measures were grouped into single time points at different times during the day, deviations at different time periods during the day, reactivity and recovery after a standardized laboratory test, area under the curve and response to dexamethasone test. A large proportion of the studies included showed non-significant findings, which, in several cases, may be a result of low power. The most consistent results were a positive association between sleep duration and single measures of salivary cortisol at awakening, which was observed in 3 studies. In these studies, sleep duration was also associated with low evening cortisol levels, steep diurnal deviation of cortisol and/or high area under the curve. Together these findings suggest that longer sleep duration is related to a more dynamic cortisol secretion. Two of the 6 studies on disturbed or restless sleep showed relations to flat diurnal deviation and low laboratory stress test reactivity. This to some extent corroborates the findings on sleep duration. However, the many non-significant findings as well as the theoretical and methodological differences (e.g., heterogeneity in measures) complicate comparisons. Conflicting results may be at least partially due to differences in methods and underlying assumptions.

Garde, Anne Helene; Karlson, Bernt

2011-01-01

134

Different stressors elicit different responses in the salivary biomarkers cortisol, haptoglobin, and chromogranin A in pigs.  

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Most commonly, salivary cortisol is used in pig stress assessment, alternative salivary biomarkers are scarcely studied. Here, salivary cortisol and two alternative salivary biomarkers, haptoglobin and chromogranin A were measured in a pig stress study. Treatment pigs (n?=?24) were exposed to mixing and feed deprivation, in two trials, and compared to untreated controls (n?=?24). Haptoglobin differed for feed deprivation vs control. Other differences were only found within treatment. Treatment pigs had higher salivary cortisol concentrations on the mixing day (P?concentrations were increased on the day of refeeding (P?salivary biomarkers were positive. Cortisol and chromogranin A were moderately correlated (r?=?0.49, P?salivary biomarkers in stress evaluation seems useful. PMID:24957408

Ott, S; Soler, L; Moons, C P H; Kashiha, M A; Bahr, C; Vandermeulen, J; Janssens, S; Gutiérrez, A M; Escribano, D; Cerón, J J; Berckmans, D; Tuyttens, F A M; Niewold, T A

2014-08-01

135

Correlation between urinary nicotine, cotinine and self-reported smoking status among educated young adults.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to correlate, differentiate and validate the self-reported smoking status of educated young adults with urinary biomarkers (i.e. nicotine and cotinine). Freshmen students were recruited on voluntary basis. They filled-up self-administered questionnaire and their urine samples were collected for analysis. The urinary nicotine (UN) and cotinine (UC) were measured by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry. Smokers, non-smokers and ex-smokers were found to be both significantly correlated and different in their UN and UC levels. UC level of 25ng/ml was the optimal cut-off to differentiate smokers from non-smokers. Using this cut-off value, the prevalence of smoking among the students was found to be higher (15.4%) than the self-reported data (14.3%). UC is useful in validating individual recent smoking history and the cut-off could serve as a marker for assessing the clinical impact of smoking and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure on human health. PMID:21783987

Man, Che Nin; Fathelrahman, Ahmed Ibrahim; Harn, Gam Lay; Lajis, Razak; Samin, Ahmad Shalihin Mohd; Omar, Maizurah; Awang, Rahmat; Bayanuddin, Nurulain Abdullah

2009-07-01

136

Utilisation de la cotinine contenue dans les cheveux comme marqueur d'une exposition à la fumée de tabac. Méta-analyse d'études internationales Benchmarking hair cotinine as a marker of tobacco smoke exposure. Meta-analysis of international studies  

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Full Text Available Au cours des 12 dernières années, nous avons établi et validé l'utilisation de la cotinine contenue dans les cheveux comme marqueur de l'exposition à la fumée de tabac. Cette méta-analyse, réalisée à partir de toutes les études disponibles de notre laboratoire et d'autres centres, est destinée à établir des valeurs de cotinine dans les cheveux, dans le contexte de l'exposition f à la fumée de tabac environnante. Les valeurs ci-dessous ont été mesurées sur plus de 1000 patients :?Femmes non enceintes : Fumeuses actives $ightarrow$ cotinine (ng/mg = 2.72 et [95% IC] = 2.32-3.13 Fumeuses passives $ightarrow$ cotinine (ng/mg = 0.62 et [95% IC] = 0.51-0.74 Non exposées $ightarrow$ cotinine (ng/mg = 0.29 et [95% IC] = 0.23-0.36 ?Femmes enceintes : Fumeuses actives $ightarrow$ cotinine (ng/mg = 1. 7 et [95% IC] = 1.46-1.94 Fumeuses passives $ightarrow$ cotinine (ng/mg = 0.07 et [95% IC] = 0-0.09 Non exposées $ightarrow$ cotinine (ng/mg = 0.08 et [95% IC] = 0-0.09 ?Enfants : Passifs $ightarrow$ cotinine (ng/mg = 0.96 et [95% IC] = 0.86-1.07 Non exposés $ightarrow$ cotinine (ng/mg = 0.33 et [95% IC] = 0.25-0.4 ?Nouveau-nés : Exposés in utéro $ightarrow$ cotinine (ng/mg = 1.42 et [95% IC] = 1.18-1.65 ? ? La séparation entre les différents états d'exposition avec un intervalle de confiance à 95% devrait pouvoir faciliter les recherches, ainsi que les cas cliniques où une exposition passive peut être dangereuse (par exemple des enfants avec de l'asthme vivant dans une maison de fumeurs et aider l'assurance maladie. Over the last 12 years we established and validated the use of hair cotinine as a biomarker of exposure to tobacco smoke. This meta analysis of all available studies from our laboratory and other centers, aimed at establishing values of hair cotinine in the context offetal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. The following are the values arrived at with over 1000 patients:?Non pregnant women: active smokers $ightarrow$ cotinine (ng/mg = 2.72 et [95% IC] = 2.32-3.13 passive smokers $ightarrow$ cotinine (ng/mg = 0.62 et [95% IC] = 0.51-0.74 unexposed $ightarrow$ cotinine (ng/mg = 0.29 et [95% IC] = 0.23-0.36 ?Pregnant women:active smokers $ightarrow$ cotinine (ng/mg = 1. 7 et [95% IC] = 1.46-1.94 passive smokers $ightarrow$ cotinine (ng/mg = 0.07 et [95% IC] = 0-0.09 unexposed $ightarrow$ cotinine (ng/mg = 0.08 et [95% IC] = 0-0.09 ?Children: Passive $ightarrow$ cotinine (ng/mg = 0.96 et [95% IC] = 0.86-1.07 unexposed $ightarrow$ cotinine (ng/mg = 0.33 et [95% IC] = 0.25-0.4 ?Neonates: Exposed in utero $ightarrow$ cotinine (ng/mg = 1.42 et [95% IC] = 1.18-1.65 ? The clear 95% confidence interval separation between the different states of exposure mayfacilitate research, as well as clinical cases where passive exposure can be life threatening (eg children with asthma in homes of smokers, and in health insurance.

Florescu Ana

2008-02-01

137

Salivary biomarkers for clinical applications.  

Science.gov (United States)

For clinical applications such as monitoring health status, disease onset and progression, and treatment outcome, there are three necessary prerequisites: (i) a simple method for collecting biologic samples, ideally noninvasively; (ii) specific biomarkers associated with health or disease; and (iii) a technology platform to rapidly utilize the biomarkers. Saliva, often regarded as the 'mirror of the body', is a perfect surrogate medium to be applied for clinical diagnostics. Saliva is readily accessible via a totally noninvasive method. Salivary biomarkers, whether produced by healthy individuals or by individuals affected by specific diseases, are sentinel molecules that could be used to scrutinize health and disease surveillance. The visionary investment by the US National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, the discovery of salivary biomarkers, and the ongoing development of salivary diagnostic technologies have addressed its diagnostic value for clinical applications. The availability of more sophisticated analytic techniques gives optimism that saliva can eventually be placed as a biomedium for clinical diagnostics. This review presents current salivary biomarker research and technology developmental efforts for clinical applications. PMID:19712004

Zhang, Lei; Xiao, Hua; Wong, David T

2009-01-01

138

Does cotinine act upon reactive oxygen species and peroxidases? / A cotinina age sobre espécies reativas do oxigênio e peroxidases?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A nicotina, um agente oxidante, é certamente um dos alcalóides mais amplamente utilizados no mundo. Juntamente com seu principal metabolito, a cotinina, a nicotina é responsável pela tabaco-dependência. O uso de tabaco está intimamente associado a doenças pulmonares, modificações morfológicas em leu [...] cócitos e a geração de espécies oxidantes. O principal objetivo deste estudo foi identificar uma possível relação entre cotinina, geração de espécies reativas do oxigênio e processos oxidativos. Após o estudo da ação da cotinina em diferentes modelos químicos e em cinéticas enzimáticas com peroxidases (mieloperoxidase e peroxidase de raiz forte), conclui-se que a cotinina não age diretamente sobre H2O2, HOCl, taurine cloramina, peroxidase de raiz forte ou mieloperoxidase. Abstract in english Nicotine, an oxidizing agent, is certainly one of the most widely used alkaloids in the world. It is, together with its main metabolite, cotinine, responsible for tobacco-dependence. The use of tobacco is closely associated with lung disease, morphological leukocyte modification and generation of ox [...] idant species. The aim of this study was to look for a possible relationship between cotinine, oxidant species generation and oxidative processes. After studying the action of cotinine in some chemical oxidation models and on the enzymatic kinetics of peroxidases (myeloperoxidase and horseradish peroxidase), we concluded that cotinine does not act directly upon H2O2, HOCl, taurine chloramines, horseradish peroxidase or myeloperoxidase.

J.C.R., Vellosa; N.M., Khalil; L.M., Fonseca; I.L., Brunetti; O.M.M.F., Oliveira.

139

Self-reported smoking and urinary cotinine levels among pregnant women in Korea and factors associated with smoking during pregnancy.  

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This study examined urinary cotinine levels and self-reported smoking among pregnant women in Korea and the factors associated with smoking during pregnancy. The subjects were selected from pregnant women who visited 30 randomly sampled obstetric clinics and prenatal care hospitals in Korea in 2006. Smoking status was determined by self-reporting and urinary cotinine measurement. A total of 1,090 self-administered questionnaires and 1,057 urine samples were analyzed. The percentage of smoking revealed by self-reporting was 0.55% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.11-0.99) and that revealed by urinary cotinine measurement (>100 ng/mL) was 3.03% (95% CI, 1.99-4.06). The kappa coefficient of agreement between self-reported smoking status and urinary cotinine measurement was 0.20 (95% CI, 0.03-0.37). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that early gestational period, low educational level, and being married to a smoker were significant risk factors for smoking during pregnancy. Smoking among pregnant women in Korea is not negligible, and those who are concerned to maternal and child health should be aware of this possibility among pregnant women in countries with similar cultural background. PMID:20436713

Jhun, Hyung-Joon; Seo, Hong-Gwan; Lee, Do-Hoon; Sung, Moon-Woo; Kang, Yoon-Dan; Syn, Hee Chul; Jun, Jong Kwan

2010-05-01

140

Gross morphology and ultrastructure of salivary glands of the mute cicada Karenia caelatata Distant (Hemiptera: Cicadoidea).  

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Salivary glands of the cicada Karenia caelatata Distant were investigated using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The salivary glands are paired structures and consist of principal glands and accessory glands. The principal gland is subdivided into anterior lobe and posterior lobe; the former contains about 34-39 long digitate lobules, while the latter contains approximately 30-33 long digitate lobules and 13-22 short digitate lobules. These short digitate lobules, about one fifth or sixth as long as the long digitate lobules, locate at the base of the long digitate lobules of posterior lobe. All of these digitate lobules vary in size, disposition, length and shape. The anterior lobe and the posterior lobe are connected by an anterior-posterior duct. Two efferent salivary ducts, which connect with the posterior lobe, fuse to form a common duct. The accessory gland is composed of three parts: a greatly tortuous and folded accessory salivary tube, a circlet of gular gland constituting of several acini of the same size, and a non-collapsible accessory salivary duct. The digitate lobules and gular glands possess secretory cells containing abundant secretory granules vary in size, shape, and electron density, as might indicate different materials are synthesized in different secretory regions. The anterior-posterior duct lines with a player of cuticular lining, and cells beneath the cuticular lining lack of basal infoldings, as suggests the duct serves just to transport secretions. The accessory salivary duct is lined with cuticular lining; cells of the duct have well developed basal infoldings associated with abundant mitochondria, as probably suggests the duct is a reabsorptive region of ions. The cells of the accessory salivary tube possess deep basal infoldings and well developed apical dense microvilli, indicating the cells of the tube are secretory in function. Concentric lamellar structures and a peculiar structure with abundant membrane-bound vesicles and secretory granules are observed for the first time, but their derivation and function remain unclear. The morphology and ultrastructure differences observed in the principal glands and accessory gland of the salivary glands of K. caelatata indicate that the sheath saliva was secreted by the principal glands, and the watery saliva was secreted by the accessory salivary glands. Rod-shaped microorganisms are found in the salivary glands (i.e., accessory salivary duct, gular gland, and long digitate lobule of salivary glands) for the first time, and their identity, function, and relationship to microorganisms residing in the salivary glands and/or other parts of alimentary canal of other cicadas need to be investigated further. PMID:23245811

Zhong, Hai-ying; Wei, Cong; Zhang, Ya-lin

2013-02-01

 
 
 
 
141

Green tea consumption after intense taekwondo training enhances salivary defense factors and antibacterial capacity.  

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The aim of this study was to investigate the short-term effects of green tea consumption on selected salivary defense proteins, antibacterial capacity and anti-oxidation activity in taekwondo (TKD) athletes, following intensive training. Twenty-two TKD athletes performed a 2-hr TKD training session. After training, participants ingested green tea (T, caffeine 6 mg/kg and catechins 22 mg/kg) or an equal volume of water (W). Saliva samples were collected at three time points: before training (BT-T; BT-W), immediately after training (AT-T; AT-W), and 30 min after drinking green tea or water (Rec-T; Rec-W). Salivary total protein, immunoglobulin A (SIgA), lactoferrin, ?-amylase activity, free radical scavenger activity (FRSA) and antibacterial capacity were measured. Salivary total protein, lactoferrin, SIgA concentrations and ?-amylase activity increased significantly immediately after intensive TKD training. After tea drinking and 30 min rest, ?-amylase activity and the ratio of ?-amylase to total protein were significantly higher than before and after training. In addition, salivary antibacterial capacity was not affected by intense training, but green tea consumption after training enhanced salivary antibacterial capacity. Additionally, we observed that salivary FRSA was markedly suppressed immediately after training and quickly returned to pre-exercise values, regardless of which fluid was consumed. Our results show that green tea consumption significantly enhances the activity of ?-amylase and salivary antibacterial capacity. PMID:24498143

Lin, Shiuan-Pey; Li, Chia-Yang; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Chang, Chen-Kang; Chou, Kuei-Ming; Fang, Shih-Hua

2014-01-01

142

Glucuronidation of nicotine and cotinine by UGT2B10: loss of function by the UGT2B10 Codon 67 (Asp>Tyr) polymorphism.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nicotine, the major addicting agent in tobacco and tobacco smoke, undergoes a complex metabolic pathway, with approximately 22% of nicotine urinary metabolites in the form of phase II N-glucuronidated compounds. Recent studies have shown that UGT2B10 is a major enzyme involved in the N-glucuronidation of several tobacco-specific nitrosamines. In the present study, microsomes of UGT2B10-overexpressing HEK293 cells exhibited high N-glucuronidation activity against both nicotine and cotinine with apparent KM's that were 37- and 3-fold lower than that observed for microsomes of UGT1A4-overexpressing cells against nicotine and cotinine, respectively. The KM of microsomes from wild-type (WT) UGT2B10-overexpressing cells for nicotine and cotinine was similar to that observed for human liver microsomes (HLM) against both substrates. The level of glucuronidated nicotine or cotinine in 112 HLM samples was correlated with UGT2B10 genotype; the levels of nicotine- and cotinine-glucuronide were 21% to 30% lower in specimens from subjects with the UGT2B10 (*1/*2) genotype compared with specimens from subjects with the WT UGT2B10 (*1/*1) genotype; a 5- and 16-fold lower level of nicotine- and cotinine-glucuronide formation, respectively, was observed in HLM from subjects with the UGT2B10 (*2/*2) genotype. In contrast to the relatively high activity observed for cells overexpressing WT UGT2B10 in vitro, little or no glucuronidation was observed for microsomes from cells overexpressing the UGT2B10*2 variant against either nicotine or cotinine. These data suggest that UGT2B10 is the major hepatic enzyme involved in nicotine/cotinine glucuronidation and that the UGT2B10*2 variant significantly reduces nicotine- and cotinine-N-glucuronidation formation and plays an important role in nicotine metabolism and elimination. PMID:17909004

Chen, Gang; Blevins-Primeau, Andrea S; Dellinger, Ryan W; Muscat, Joshua E; Lazarus, Philip

2007-10-01

143

What's New in Salivary Gland Cancer Research and Treatment?  

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... salivary gland cancer What’s new in salivary gland cancer research and treatment? Medical centers throughout the world are ... Doctor After Treatment What`s New in Salivary Gland Cancer Research? Other Resources and References Cancer Information Cancer Basics ...

144

Biological Markers and Salivary Cortisol  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This chapter focuses on salivary cortisol in relation to biological markers. Specifically, associations with conventional cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic abnormalities (body mass index, waist circumference, waist/hip ratio, lipid status, glucose, blood pressure, heart rate and heart rate variability), markers related to inflammation (C-reactive protein, cytokines and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) and other stress hormones (adrenaline and noradrenaline) were studied. The focus was on healthy adult populations; studies on patient populations and pregnant women were excluded. Studies on genome variations and pharmacological interventions were also excluded. After meeting all exclusion criteria, 42 papers remained. In total, 273 associations between salivary cortisol and any of the markers mentioned were studied, comprising 241 associations on metabolic abnormalities, 30 on inflammation, and 2 on stress hormones. Of the salivary cortisol measures reported for evaluations of all markers tested were 136 (49%) single time points, 100 (37%) deviations, 36 (13%) AUC, and 1 (1%) dexamethasone test. Of these, 72 (26%) were statistically significant, and 201 (74%) indicated non-significant findings. Several of the markers tested showed low or no association with any of the measurements of salivary cortisol. The number of studies exploring the association between cortisol in saliva and markers for inflammation is low, which limits the possibility of interpretation. The number of studies on adrenaline and noradrenaline is also low. To sum up, the proportion of non-significant findings was considerable. This may be due to a large number of studies with relatively small study populations. This is true for metabolic abnormalities, markers related to inflammation as well as other stress hormones. Further studies on inflammatory markers and approaches designed to study variability in other systems in relation to cortisol variability are required.

Hansen, Åse Marie; Gunnarsson, Lars-Gunnar

2011-01-01

145

Recent Advances In Salivary Diagnostics  

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Full Text Available Saliva has been the most efficient diagnostic tool since ages, its progress frombeing a lie detector in the times of the ancient Greeks to the present evolution into amaster tool in the much talked about metabonomics. This review article attempts toshow the way how saliva has reached its potential to serve the status of a potentialdiagnostic aid. This article also focuses on the developments made in the past and alsothe futuristic plans in the field of salivary diagnostics.

Sumit Majumdar

2012-07-01

146

Salivary gammagraphy in Sjogren Syndrome  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bearing in mind that the Tc-99m pertecnate is taken up by the active glandular tissues of the salivary glands, we evaluate and objectivate the decrease of this captation in the case of chronic inflammation of distinct evolution of the parotid. Our results are encouraging in that sense that the experiment is not invasive and thus there are no risks for the patient nor for the doctor

147

Salivary diagnostics: a brief review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Early detection of disease plays a crucial role for treatment planning and prognosis. Saliva has great potential as a diagnostic fluid and offers advantage over serum and other biological fluids by an economic and noninvasive collection method for monitoring of systemic health and disease progression. The plethora of components in this fluid can act as biomarkers for diagnosis of various systemic and local diseases. In this review paper, we have emphasized the role of salivary biomarkers as diagnostic tools. PMID:24616813

Malathi, Narasimhan; Mythili, Sabesan; Vasanthi, Hannah R

2014-01-01

148

Salivary characteristics of diabetic children  

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Full Text Available Salivary components may suffer variations that can be detected by chemical determinations. The aim of this work was to determine physical and biochemical characteristics of the saliva of a group of diabetic children compared to those of a control group. Relation to oral health indices was also determined. Twenty diabetic children (3-15-years-old and 21 control children (5-12-years-old were included in this study. Total proteins, sugars and calcium were determined by colorimetric methods, and glucose, urea, alpha-amylase and acid phosphatase by enzymatic methods. Our results demonstrated that acidic pH, diminished salivary flow rate and excess foam are usually present in saliva of diabetic children. Total sugars, glucose, urea and total proteins were greater in diabetic patients than controls, while calcium values were decreased. These differences were confirmed by the discrimination test. Diabetic children have higher DMFT-dmft-deft and DMFS-dmfs-defs values compared to those of the control children despite their lower sugar intake. Some salivary components in addition to the diminished flow rate could be involved in the characterization of the oral health state of diabetic children.

López María Elena

2003-01-01

149

Tight Junctions in Salivary Epithelium  

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Full Text Available Epithelial cell tight junctions (TJs consist of a narrow belt-like structure in the apical region of the lateral plasma membrane that circumferentially binds each cell to its neighbor. TJs are found in tissues that are involved in polarized secretions, absorption functions, and maintaining barriers between blood and interstitial fluids. The morphology, permeability, and ion selectivity of TJ vary among different types of tissues and species. TJs are very dynamic structures that assemble, grow, reorganize, and disassemble during physiological or pathological events. Several studies have indicated the active role of TJ in intestinal, renal, and airway epithelial function; however, the functional significance of TJ in salivary gland epithelium is poorly understood. Interactions between different combinations of the TJ family (each with their own unique regulatory proteins define tissue specificity and functions during physiopathological processes; however, these interaction patterns have not been studied in salivary glands. The purpose of this review is to analyze some of the current data regarding the regulatory components of the TJ that could potentially affect cellular functions of the salivary epithelium.

Olga J. Baker

2010-01-01

150

Dynamic uptake of radioactive substance in rat salivary gland following 3H-melatonin administration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dynamics of radioactive accumulation in rat greater salivary gland following systemic administration of 3H-melatonin was studied to determine a possible action of the hormone in the gland. Progressive decline of 3H-melatonin concentrations was found in the serum, lung, skeletal muscle, liver, kidney, and salivary gland during 60 min following the administration. On the contrary, there was a progressive accumulation of radioactive substance other than 3H-melatonin in the salivary gland but not in other tissues mentioned. The radioactivity was also progressively and preferentially localized in the nuclear fraction of the gland cells. These results suggest a possible direct action of melatonin derivative in rat salivary gland

151

Carbonic anhydrase in minor salivary glands of quail: histochemistry versus immunohistochemistry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies on the mechanisms of saliva secretion have indicated that carbonic anhydrase (CA) is expressed in mammalian salivary glands. The enzyme is present in the saliva as the only known secretory isoenzyme, CAVI; its activity has been related to the modulation of taste and caries development. Unlike mammals, in birds, saliva is produced by the so-called minor salivary glands, mostly concentrated in the tongue. The involvement of CA has never been explored in avian salivary secretion. Thus, we aimed here to ascertain the enzyme occurrence in the quail lingual glands by a parallel investigation of the distributional patterns of CA activity sites, as visualized by histochemistry, and the immunohistochemical patterns of cytosolic CAII and secretory CAVI. The comparative evaluation of our findings does not rule out that some CA isoforms, associated to basolateral borders of the secretory cells and antigenically different from cytosolic CAII and secretory CAVI, may be involved in the salivary secretion in the quail lingual glands. PMID:23323952

Gabrielli, Maria Gabriella; Tomassoni, Daniele

2014-02-01

152

Salivary gland damage in radioiodine therapy. Dosimetry results and their implications; Speicheldruesenschaedigung bei Radioiodtherapien. Dosimetrieergebnisse und deren Implikationen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radioiodine therapy plays a key role in the management of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. However, radioiodine is concentrated not only in the target tissues but also by other tissue expressing sodium/iodine symporters - in particular the submandibular and parotid salivary glands. As a consequence, high-activity radioiodine therapy may be associated with unwanted radiogenic salivary gland damages. As a consequence, the most frequently observed adverse short- and long-term side effects of radioiodine therapy include sialoadenitis and some degree of xerostomia, both with a potentially negative impact on quality of life. In this review, we highlight the function and importance of salivary glands and discuss the current results of dosimetry studies of the salivary glands in patients, who undergo radioiodine therapy. Based on the dosimetry findings, the commonly applied radioprotective procedure to diminish damage to the salivary glands are discussed critically. (orig.)

Freudenberg, L.S.; Stahl, A.; Bockisch, A.; Jentzen, W. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

2010-12-15

153

Quantitative evaluation of Streptococcus mutans and Candida sp and salivary factors in the oral cavity of patients submitted to radiotherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to quantify the microorganisms Streptococcus mutans and Candida sp in the oral cavity of patients with oropharynx carcinoma, before, during and after radiotherapy, and to correlate the results with salivary factors such as pH, buffer capacity and flow rate. Saliva samples were collected, diluted and inoculated in SB-20 agar and in Sabouraud agar, for Streptococcus mutans and Candida sp, respectively. Previously to dilution, the concentrated saliva was analyzed, and the salivary factors were determined. After the growth of colonies, the number of microorganisms was determined in CFU/ml. The analysis of the results allowed to conclude that the salivary factors are related to the presence of microorganisms, and that the number of CFU/ml increased as salivary flow rate decreased. The effects of radiation compromised salivary homeostasis and favored the increase of infection by yeasts and bacteria. (author)

154

Protective effects of Chinese herbal medicine Huqi extractum on salivary glands against radiation in Wistar rats  

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Full Text Available Objective: To explore the protective effects of Huqi extractum, a compound Chinese herbal medicine, on salivary glands against radiation in Wistar rats. Methods: One hundred Wistar rats were randomly divided into sham-exposure group, untreated group, and low-, medium- and high-dose Huqi groups. Local irradiation of 60Co gamma-rays with a single dose of 15 Gy was applied to the salivary glands of the Wistar rats except the sham-exposure group. After 3- and 40-day treatment, saliva was collected. Colorimetric method, iodine-amylase colorimetric method and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to detect concentrations of sodium (Na+, potassium (K+ and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA and activity of salivary amylase. Pathological changes of salivary gland tissues were observed by hematoxylin-eosin straining. Results: After 3-day administration, radiation-induced salivary gland injuries were obvious and prevalent in irradiated rats. Comparing with the sham-exposure group, saliva concentration of sIgA and body weight were reduced in other irradiated groups, except those in the high-dose Huqi group, while salivary amylase level was increased. At 3-day phase, pathologic changes of the salivary glands were featured as swelling acinus plasm and vacuolation. At 40-day phase, atrophy of gland cells was dominant. After 40-day administration, there were no significant differences between the high-dose Huqi group and sham-exposure group in sIgA and amylase levels and body weight, and according to the histological examination, no significant difference was revealed under the optical microscope.Conclusion: Chinese herbal medicine is helpful for the recovery of the salivary glands from the radiation injury, morphologically and functionally in rats.

Yan-li Zhang

2011-01-01

155

A Laboratory Exercise to Illustrate Increased Salivary Cortisol in Response to Three Stressful Conditions Using Competitive ELISA  

Science.gov (United States)

Here, we outline a laboratory exercise that uses a competitive ELISA kit to illustrate the response of salivary cortisol concentrations to three stressful conditions: presentation stress, fasting stress, and competition stress

Mark F. Haussmann (Iowa State University Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Organismal Biology); Carol M. Vleck (Iowa State University Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Organismal Biology); Eugenia S. Farrar (Iowa State University Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Organismal Biology)

2007-03-01

156

Serum and salivary macrophage migration inhibitory factor in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma  

Science.gov (United States)

The overexpression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) has been identified in a variety of tumors and the investigation of its molecular mechanisms in tumor progression is a key topic of research. The present study aimed to investigate MIF as a potential marker for disease control or recurrence, and to assess the association between serum and salivary MIF and the clinicopathological characteristics of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Serum and salivary samples were collected prior to and following the surgical treatment of 50 patients with OSCC. MIF concentrations were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the adopted level of statistical significance was P<0.05. The results revealed that serum MIF concentrations were significantly reduced following tumor resection in OSCC patients. Furthermore, higher preoperative salivary MIF concentrations were observed in patients with larger tumors and in those who succumbed to the disease. In conclusion, high salivary and serological MIF concentrations were identified in patients with OSCC. Nevertheless, only serological MIF concentrations may be considered as a potential marker for the early detection of OSCC recurrence once the salivary levels, prior and following treatment, do not show any significant differences.

DE SOUZA, MARIANA BARBOSA; CURIONI, OTAVIO ALBERTO; KANDA, JOSSI LEDO; DE CARVALHO, MARCOS BRASILINO

2014-01-01

157

Serum and salivary oxidative analysis in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although both inflammatory and neural mechanisms have been suggested as potential contributors to Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type I (CRPS-I), the pathogenesis of the syndrome is still unclear. Clinical trials have shown that free radical scavengers can reduce signs and symptoms of CRPS-I, indirectly suggesting that free radicals and increased oxidative stress are involved in the pathogenesis of CRPS-I. This study investigated this premise by determining the levels of antioxidants in the serum and saliva of 31 patients with CRPS-I and in a control group of 21 healthy volunteers. Serum lipid peroxidation products (MDA) and all antioxidative parameters analyzed were significantly elevated in CRPS-I patients: median salivary peroxidase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity values, uric acid (UA) concentration and total antioxidant status (TAS) values were higher in CRPS-I patients by 150% (p=0.01), 280% (p=0.04), 60% (p=0.0001), and 200% (p=0.0003), respectively, as compared with controls. Similar although not as extensive pattern of oxidative changes were found in the serum: mean serum UA and MDA concentrations and TAS value in the CRPS-I patients were higher by 16% (p=0.04), 25% (p=0.02), and 22% (p=0.05), respectively, than in the controls. Additionally, median salivary albumin concentration and median salivary LDH activities in the patients were 2.5 times (p=0.001) and 3.1 (p=0.004) times higher than in the controls. The accumulated data show that free radicals are involved in the pathophysiology of CRPS-I, which is reflected both in serum and salivary analyses. These data could be used for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in CRPS-I patients. PMID:18539395

Eisenberg, Elon; Shtahl, Shalom; Geller, Rimma; Reznick, Abraham Z; Sharf, Ordi; Ravbinovich, Meirav; Erenreich, Adam; Nagler, Rafael M

2008-08-15

158

[Determination of urinary cotinine of children exposed to passive smoking by stable isotope dilution gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry].  

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An analytical method for the determination of urinary cotinine of children exposed to passive smoking was established based on stable isotope dilution by gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The samples were extracted and purified with chloroform. The extracts were determined by GC-MS/MS in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The cotinine-d3 as an isotope internal standard was applied to quantify and confirm the urinary cotinine of children exposed to passive smoking. The method had a good linearity from 0.1 microg/L to 10 microg/L with the correlation coefficient (r) > 0.998. The recoveries of the cotinine in blank urine were from 79.2% to 112.8% at spiked levels of 0.1, 1.0 and 10 microg/ L, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) from 2.1% to 5. 8%. The limit of quantification ( LOQ) of the method was 0.1 microg/L. The developed method is accurate, sensitive, rapid and can be applied to detect urinary cotinine of children exposed to passive smoking at home. PMID:25269267

Wang, Yun; Huang, Zhiqiang; Ye, Ying; Zhang, Ying; Xiao, Shuiyuan

2014-06-01

159

Determination of the nicotine metabolites cotinine and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine in biologic fluids of smokers and non-smokers using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: biomarkers for tobacco smoke exposure and for phenotyping cytochrome P450 2A6 activity.  

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The nicotine metabolite cotinine is widely used to assess the extent of tobacco use in smokers, and secondhand smoke exposure in non-smokers. The ratio of another nicotine metabolite, trans-3'-hydroxycotinine, to cotinine in biofluids is highly correlated with the rate of nicotine metabolism, which is catalyzed mainly by cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6). Consequently, this nicotine metabolite ratio is being used to phenotype individuals for CYP2A6 activity and to individualize pharmacotherapies for tobacco addiction. In this paper we describe a highly sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for determination of the nicotine metabolites cotinine and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine in human plasma, urine, and saliva. Lower limits of quantitation range from 0.02 to 0.1ng/mL. The extraction procedure is straightforward and suitable for large-scale studies. The method has been applied to several thousand biofluid samples for pharmacogenetic studies and for studies of exposure to low levels of secondhand smoke. Concentrations of both metabolites in urine of non-smokers with different levels of secondhand smoke exposure are presented. PMID:21208832

Jacob, Peyton; Yu, Lisa; Duan, Minjiang; Ramos, Lita; Yturralde, Olivia; Benowitz, Neal L

2011-02-01

160

Salivary duct carcinoma of parotid gland  

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Full Text Available A 40-year old male presented with rapidly growing swelling in the right parotid region. Based on the fine needle aspiration cytology report of adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified, superficial parotidectomy was performed, which showed the features of salivary duct carcinoma by histopathological examination. The smears were reviewed to identify the potential pitfalls in the cytological diagnosis of salivary duct carcinoma.

Kinnera Vijay Sreedhar

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Salivary duct carcinoma of parotid gland  

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A 40-year old male presented with rapidly growing swelling in the right parotid region. Based on the fine needle aspiration cytology report of adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified, superficial parotidectomy was performed, which showed the features of salivary duct carcinoma by histopathological examination. The smears were reviewed to identify the potential pitfalls in the cytological diagnosis of salivary duct carcinoma.

Kinnera Vijay Sreedhar; Mandyam Kumaraswamy; Chowhan Amit; Nandyala Rukmangadha; Bobbidi Venkata; Vutukuru Venkatarami

2009-01-01

162

Botulinum toxin A inhibits salivary secretion of rabbit submandibular gland.  

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Botulinum toxin A (BTXA) has been used in several clinical trials to treat excessive glandular secretion; however, the precise mechanism of its action on the secretory function of salivary gland has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of BTXA on secretion of submandibular gland in rabbits and to identify its mechanism of action on the secretory function of salivary gland. At 12 weeks after injection with 5 units of BTXA, we found a significant decrease in the saliva flow from submandibular glands, while the salivary amylase concentration increased. Morphological analysis revealed reduction in the size of acinar cells with intracellular accumulation of secretory granules that coalesced to form a large ovoid structure. Expression of M3-muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M3 receptor) and aquaporin-5 (AQP5) mRNA decreased after BTXA treatment, and distribution of AQP5 in the apical membrane was reduced at 1, 2 and 4 weeks after BTXA injection. Furthermore, BTXA injection was found to induce apoptosis of acini. These results indicate that BTXA decreases the fluid secretion of submandibular glands and increases the concentration of amylase in saliva. Decreased expression of M3 receptor and AQP5, inhibition of AQP5 translocation, and cell apoptosis might involve in BTXA-reduced fluid secretion of submandibular glands. PMID:24158141

Shan, Xiao-Feng; Xu, Hui; Cai, Zhi-Gang; Wu, Li-Ling; Yu, Guang-Yan

2013-12-01

163

Salivary defense factors in herpes simplex virus infection.  

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Saliva may contribute to a lowering of the infectious herpes simplex virus (HSV) dose during transmission and consequently abrogate infection or lead to decreased reactivation. To test this hypothesis, we assayed saliva for innate defense factors, immunoglobulin content, and the capacity to interfere with HSV infection. Serum or salivary anti-HSV IgG levels did not correlate with control of recurrent labial herpes (RLH) and were significantly higher in subjects with RLH compared with asymptomatic seropositive subjects. Although no differences in levels or output rate of innate defense factors between the groups were observed, the salivary neutralizing activity correlated with lactoferrin and hypothiocyanite concentrations in the asymptomatic seropositive group. Our results suggest that saliva contains factors, in addition to anti-HSV immunoglobulins, that neutralize HSV and may indirectly contribute to the control of RLH. PMID:12097435

Välimaa, H; Waris, M; Hukkanen, V; Blankenvoorde, M F J; Nieuw Amerongen, A V; Tenovuo, J

2002-06-01

164

Salivary cortisol in ambulatory assessment--some dos, some don'ts, and some open questions.  

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The impact of stress on health and disease is an important research topic in psychosomatic medicine. Because research on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation under controlled laboratory studies lacks ecological validity, it needs to be complemented by a research program that includes momentary ambulatory assessment. The measurement of salivary cortisol offers the possibility to trace the free steroid hormone concentrations in ambulant settings. Therefore, in this article, we first discuss the role of salivary cortisol in ambulatory monitoring. We start with a brief description of HPA axis regulation, and we then consider cortisol assessments in other organic materials, followed by a presentation of common salivary markers of HPA axis regulation suitable for ambulatory assessment. We further provide an overview on assessment designs and sources of variability within and between subjects (intervening variables), acknowledge the issue of (non)compliance, and address statistical aspects. We further give an overview of associations with psychosocial and health-related variables relevant for ambulatory assessment. Finally, we deal with preanalytical aspects of laboratory salivary cortisol analysis. The relative simplicity of salivary cortisol assessment protocols may lead to an overoptimistic view of the robustness of this method. We thus discuss several important issues related to the collection and storage of saliva samples and present empirical data on the stability of salivary cortisol measurements over time. PMID:22582339

Kudielka, Brigitte M; Gierens, Andrea; Hellhammer, Dirk H; Wüst, Stefan; Schlotz, Wolff

2012-05-01

165

Determinación de cotinina y exposición a tabaco / Cotinine detection and tobacco smoke exposure  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La exposición a tabaco es una de las causas prevenibles de morbilidad y mortalidad prematura más importante. Se describe un método simple y rápido de detección de cotinina (principal metabolito de nicotina) en orina humana. Se utilizó cromatografía gas-líquido (CGL) con un detector de ionización de [...] llama (FID). Se realizó una extracción líquido-líquido con cloroformo en medio alcalino; el extracto fue secado a 37 °C y redisuelto en 100 µL de solución alcohólica con estándar interno piridina. Se analizó la orina de personas que declararon ser fumadoras y no fumadoras. Mediante la construcción de dos curvas de calibración se cubrió un rango de linealidad de 3 a 5.000 ng/mL. Los fumadores presentaron una mediana y cuartiles (Q) de concentración de cotinina: 255,4 ng/mL, 15,9 ng/mL (Q1) - 1.050,2 ng/mL (Q3), respectivamente, y los no fumadores 15,8 ng/mL, 4,1 ng/mL (Q1) - 38,4 ng/mL (Q3). Wilcoxon sumrank: z = 4,865 p Abstract in english Tobacco is one of the major preventable causes of morbidity and premature mortality in the world. A simple, rapid method for determination of cotinine, major metabolite of nicotine in urine, is described. The assay involves a fast liquid-liquid extraction with chloroform as a solvent in alkaline env [...] ironment. The extract was dried at 37 °C and the residue was dissolved in 100 µL of standard internal of pyridine in methanol solution, and an aliquot was analyzed by gas-liquid chromatograph equipped with a flame -ionization detector. This technique was performed to test urine of a sample of smokers and non-smokers who were previously asked about their smoking habit. The limit of detection was 3.1 ng/mL, and using two calibration curves, a linearity range from 3 a 5.000 ng/mL was covered. The median and quartiles (Q) of cotinine in smokers were 255.4 ng/mL, 15.9 ng/mL (Q1) -1050.2 ng/mL (Q3) ng/mL and in non-smokers 15.8 ng/mL, 4.1 ng/mL (Q1) - 38.4 ng/mL (Q3). Wilcoxon sumrank: z = 4.865 p

Marta Noemí, Vacchino; Susana María, Velurtas; Guillermo Pablo, Salinas; Héctor Hugo, Garcialoredo.

2006-06-01

166

Immunochromatographic assay using gold nanoparticles for measuring salivary secretory IgA in dogs as a stress marker  

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The concentration of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) is a well-known stress marker for humans. The concentration of salivary sIgA in dogs has also been reported as a useful stress marker. In addition, salivary sIgA in dogs has been used to determine the adaptive ability of dogs for further training. There are conventional procedures based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs. However, ELISA requires long assay time, complicated operations and is costly. In the present study, we developed an immunochromatographic assay for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs using a dilution buffer containing a non-ionic surfactant. We determined 2500-fold dilution as the optimum condition for dog saliva using a phosphate buffer (50 mM, pH 7.2) containing non-ionic surfactant (3 wt% Tween 20). The results obtained from the saliva samples of three dogs using immunochromatographic assay were compared with those obtained from ELISA. It was found that the immunochromatographic assay is applicable to judge the change in salivary sIgA in each dog. The immunochromatographic assay for salivary sIgA in dogs is a promising tool, which should soon become commercially available for predicting a dog's psychological condition and estimating adaptive ability for training as guide or police dogs.

Takahashi, Aki; Kato, Yuya; Takezaki, Makoto; Tominaga, Toshihiro; Moriyama, Yoshiko; Takeda, Kunio; Miyahara, Toshiro; Nagatani, Naoki [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Okayama University of Science, 1-1 Ridai-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-0005 (Japan); Uchiyama, Shigeru [Okayama University of Science Specialized Training College, 8-3 Handa-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-0003 (Japan); Yuhi, Teruko; Ushijima, Hiromi, E-mail: nagatani@dac.ous.ac.j [Biodevicetechnology Ltd. 2-13 Asahidai, Nomi-City, Ishikawa 923-1211 (Japan)

2009-06-15

167

Immunochromatographic assay using gold nanoparticles for measuring salivary secretory IgA in dogs as a stress marker  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concentration of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) is a well-known stress marker for humans. The concentration of salivary sIgA in dogs has also been reported as a useful stress marker. In addition, salivary sIgA in dogs has been used to determine the adaptive ability of dogs for further training. There are conventional procedures based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs. However, ELISA requires long assay time, complicated operations and is costly. In the present study, we developed an immunochromatographic assay for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs using a dilution buffer containing a non-ionic surfactant. We determined 2500-fold dilution as the optimum condition for dog saliva using a phosphate buffer (50 mM, pH 7.2) containing non-ionic surfactant (3 wt% Tween 20). The results obtained from the saliva samples of three dogs using immunochromatographic assay were compared with those obtained from ELISA. It was found that the immunochromatographic assay is applicable to judge the change in salivary sIgA in each dog. The immunochromatographic assay for salivary sIgA in dogs is a promising tool, which should soon become commercially available for predicting a dog's psychological condition and estimating adaptive ability for training as guide or police dogs.

168

Salivary gland dysfunction and xerostomia in Sjögren's syndrome  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this article, salivary gland dysfunction and xerostomia in Sjögren's syndrome (SS) are discussed, with a focus on the pathophysiology of salivary dysfunction in SS, the clinical presentation of dry mouth in SS, how to assess salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia in SS, and the impact of salivary gland dysfunction on quality of life in patients with SS

Jensen, Siri Beier; Vissink, Arjan

2014-01-01

169

MRI of salivary gland tumors  

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MRI findings of 13 patients with proven salivary gland tumors, including 7 cases of parotid gland tumors, 2 cases of submandibular gland tumors, and 4 cases of minor salivary gland tumors, were reviewed. All examinations were carried out on a 1.5-T MRI system (General Electric, SIGNA Performance plus and SIMAZU, SMT-150X) with spin echo sequence. T1 and T2 weighted images and Gd-DTPA enhanced T1 weighted images were obtained. The results were as follows: All tumors demonstrated low to intermediate signal intensity on T1 weighted images and intermediate to high signal intensity on T2 weighted images. The differences between malignant and benign tumors were not detected by means of the signal intensity of the tumors. Tumor margins were clear except for 2 cases, including inflamed pleomorphic adenoma of the submandibular gland and adenoid cystic carcinoma of the parotid gland. Except for the case of adenolymphoma, internal structures of the tumor are inhomogenous, especially on T2 weighted images. Although the intraparotid facial nerve is not detected directly, whether the tumor is located on superficial or deep lobe could be detected by drawing a line between the lateral surface of the posterior belly of the digastric muscle and the lateral posterior border of the mandible except for one case and using the retromandibular vein except for two cases. (author).

Ariyoshi, Yasunori; Shimahara, Masashi; Senda, Jyunko; Sakinaka, Isao [Osaka Medical Coll., Takatsuki (Japan); Nakano, Yoshinobu

1996-04-01

170

MRI of salivary gland tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

MRI findings of 13 patients with proven salivary gland tumors, including 7 cases of parotid gland tumors, 2 cases of submandibular gland tumors, and 4 cases of minor salivary gland tumors, were reviewed. All examinations were carried out on a 1.5-T MRI system (General Electric, SIGNA Performance plus and SIMAZU, SMT-150X) with spin echo sequence. T1 and T2 weighted images and Gd-DTPA enhanced T1 weighted images were obtained. The results were as follows: All tumors demonstrated low to intermediate signal intensity on T1 weighted images and intermediate to high signal intensity on T2 weighted images. The differences between malignant and benign tumors were not detected by means of the signal intensity of the tumors. Tumor margins were clear except for 2 cases, including inflamed pleomorphic adenoma of the submandibular gland and adenoid cystic carcinoma of the parotid gland. Except for the case of adenolymphoma, internal structures of the tumor are inhomogenous, especially on T2 weighted images. Although the intraparotid facial nerve is not detected directly, whether the tumor is located on superficial or deep lobe could be detected by drawing a line between the lateral surface of the posterior belly of the digastric muscle and the lateral posterior border of the mandible except for one case and using the retromandibular vein except for two cases. (author)

171

Salivary thyroxine as an estimate of free thyroxine: concise communication  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To test the hypothesis that the levels of salivary thyroxine (T4) reflect those of circulating free T4, we developed a radioimmunoassay (RIA) sensitive to low levels of T4. Concurrent saliva and serum samples were obtained from 32 euthyroid volunteers, ages 19 to 64. Salivary and serum T4 and cortisol levels were measured by RIA. Salivary albumin was measured by nephelometry. Salivary T4 levels were higher than predicted. No correlation was found between salivary T4 and serum levels of free T4 and total T4 but there was a significant correlation between salivary T4 and albumin (r = 0.82). Salivary cortisol levels agreed with reported results and showed no correlation with salivary albumin. We conclude that salivary levels of drugs and hormones may be strongly affected by protein binding, and caution must be exercised in using salivary levels as an estimate of circulating free levels

172

Cotinine halts the advance of Alzheimer’s disease-like pathology and associated depressive-like behavior in Tg6799 mice  

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Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is associated with cognitive and non-cognitive symptoms for which there are currently no effective therapies. We have previously reported that cotinine, a natural product obtained from tobacco leaves, prevented memory loss and diminished amyloid-? (A? plaque pathology in the transgenic 6799 mice (Tg6799 mice when treated prior to the development of the pathology. We have also shown that cotinine reduces depressive-like behavior in normal and chronically stressed C57BL/6 mice. Here, we extend our previous studies by investigating the effects of cotinine on the progression of AD-like pathology, depressive-like behavior, and the mechanisms underlying its beneficial effects in the Tg6799 mice when left untreated until after a more advanced stage of the disease’s development. The results show that vehicle-treated Tg6799 mice displayed an accentuated loss of working memory and an abundant A? plaque pathology that were accompanied by higher levels of depressive-like behavior as compared to control littermates. By contrast, prolonged daily cotinine treatment, withheld until after a mid-level progression of AD-like pathology, reduced A? levels, A? plaques, and depressive-like behavior as well as dramatically improved working memory in Tg6799 mice to levels no different from control littermates. The beneficial effects of cotinine were accompanied by an increase in the expression of the active form of protein kinase B (Akt and the postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95 in the hippocampi and frontal cortices of Tg6799 mice. This suggests that cotinine halts the progression of AD-like pathology while reducing depressive-like behavior by stimulating signaling pathways supporting synaptic plasticity in Tg6799 mice. The potential use of cotinine to treat cognitive and non-cognitive symptoms of AD is discussed.

Valentina Echeverria Moran

2014-07-01

173

Development of simple HPLC/UV with a column-switching method for the determination of nicotine and cotinine in hair samples  

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Full Text Available Nicotine and cotinine in hair are good biomarkers for assessing long-term exposure to smoking. However, analytical devices such as GC/MS are associated with high cost and are not widely used. HPLC/UV is used widely in laboratories, but is unsuitable for measurement of minor constituents, except when using the column-switching method. Thus, we aimed to establish a simple, inexpensive and sensitive method based on HPLC/UV with column switching for measuring nicotine and cotinine in hair. First, we compared the presence and absence of a column selection unit. We then measured amounts of nicotine and cotinine in hair samples collected from the general population, and compared both the corresponding levels and the detection limits with those in previous studies. Finally, initial and running costs of HPLC/UV were compared with other analytical methods. As one of the results, the areas of nicotine and cotinine measured by HPLC/UV with column-switching method were 12.9 and 16.9 times greater, respectively, than those without the column-switching method. The amount of nicotine and cotinine in hair was significantly correlated to number of cigarettes smoked per day (r = 0.228, p = 0.040. In addition, the HPLC/UV method showed similar sensitivity and detection limit (nicotine, 0.10 ng/mg; cotinine, 0.08 ng/mg as reported in previous studies. The cost of the HPLC/UV method is lower than that of other analytical methods. We were able to establish a low-cost method with good sensitivity for measuring nicotine and cotinine in hair. The HPLC/UV with a column-switching method will be useful as a first step in screening surveys in order to better understand the effects of smoking exposure.

Masayoshi Tsuji

2013-04-01

174

Iatrogenic causes of salivary gland dysfunction  

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Saliva is important for maintaining oral health and function. There are instances when medical therapy is intended to decrease salivary flow, such as during general anesthesia, but most instances of iatrogenic salivary gland dysfunction represent untoward or unavoidable side-effects. The clinical expression of the salivary dysfunction can range from very minor transient alteration in saliva flow to a total loss of salivary function. The most common forms of therapy that interfere with salivation are drug therapies, cancer therapies (radiation or chemotherapy), and surgical therapy. These therapies can affect salivation by a number of different mechanisms that include: disruption of autonomic nerve function related to salivation, interference with acinar or ductal cell functions related to salivation, cytotoxicity, indirect effects (vasoconstriction/dilation, fluid and electrolyte balance, etc.), and physical trauma to salivary glands and nerves. A wide variety of drugs is capable of increasing or decreasing salivary flow by mimicking autonomic nervous system actions or by directly acting on cellular processes necessary for salivation: drugs can also indirectly affect salivation by altering fluid and electrolyte balance or by affecting blood flow to the glands. Ionizing radiation can cause permanent damage to salivary glands, damage that is manifest as acinar cell destruction with subsequent atrophy and fibrosis of the glands. Cancer chemotherapy can cause changes in salivation, but the changes are usually much less severe and only transient. Finally, surgical and traumatic injuries interfere with salivation because of either disruption of gland innervation or gross physical damage (or removal) of glandular tissue (including ducts).

Schubert, M.M.; Izutsu, K.T.

1987-02-01

175

Salivary ?-amylase response to endotoxin administration in humans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Salivary ?-amylase (sAA) is a digestive enzyme that plays also an important role in mucosal immunity. Secretion of the sAA is largely under the control of the autonomic nervous system and increases in sAA activity have repeatedly been observed in response to various stressors. The present study aimed at investigating whether and to what extent sAA activity levels are affected during systemic inflammation. Fourteen healthy male volunteers received intravenous injections of either bacterial endotoxin or placebo at two different occasions in a randomized and double-blinded manner. sAA activity was monitored over a period of 6h together with inflammatory markers, plasma norepinephrine (NE) and salivary cortisol levels, vital parameters, and state anxiety. Endotoxin administration elicited a transient inflammatory response reflected by increases in body temperature, whole blood cell counts, and circulating levels of interleukin (IL)-6. The immune changes were accompanied by a transient increase in sAA activity, elevations in salivary cortisol and plasma NE concentrations, as well as increases in heart rate and state anxiety. Although sAA and plasma NE responses showed distinct time courses, a significant positive correlation over the total observation period was found. Whether the observed sAA response is driven by an increase in sympathetic activity or more generally reflects inflammation induced changes in sympathetic-parasympathetic balance remains to be elucidated. PMID:23394872

Grigoleit, Jan-Sebastian; Kullmann, Jennifer S; Oberbeck, Reiner; Schedlowski, Manfred; Engler, Harald

2013-09-01

176

Recent advances in the diagnostic pathology of salivary carcinomas.  

Science.gov (United States)

This review concentrates on the most important developments since the WHO classification of 2005. In particular, the identification of specific translocations is revolutionising the way salivary tumours are considered and will have a major impact on future diagnostic practice. This is true so far in four malignancies: mammary analogue secretory, mucoepidermoid, adenoid cystic and hyalinising clear cell carcinomas. In each, the gene rearrangement is found in 80 % or more of cases. Two 2014 publications have added further possible candidates with molecular abnormalities to the list (cribriform adenocarcinoma of the tongue and minor salivary glands and epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma), but these findings have yet to be confirmed by other investigators. The advances in molecular pathology have also allowed re-evaluation of the morphology; for example, it is now realised that the histological spectrum of hyalinising clear cell carcinoma includes intracellular mucin in over half of cases, as well as tumours with only scanty clear cells. In a separate development, it is now proposed that salivary duct carcinoma can be subdivided along molecular lines, in ways analogous to breast cancer, suggesting new therapeutic prospects in an otherwise highly aggressive malignancy. PMID:25172327

Simpson, Roderick H W; Skálová, Alena; Di Palma, Silvana; Leivo, Ilmo

2014-10-01

177

Salivary Duct Carcinoma of the Minor Salivary Gland: A Rare Case Report  

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Full Text Available Salivary duct carcinoma is a rare invasive malignancy arising in the ductal epithelium of the salivary glands. Nearly 85% of the cases occur in the parotid gland followed by submandibular gland. Rarely is it described in the hard palate. Salivary duct carcinomas affecting the minor salivary glands have been reported in only 4% of the SDC cases and constitute 2% of all the salivary gland malignant neoplasms. It is characterized by aggressive behavior with early metastasis, local recurrence and significant mortality. The tumor has predilection for older men in the 6th to 7th decades of life. In this article; we report a case of a salivary gland carcinoma which was present in the right posterior region of the maxilla of a 50 year old female patient. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2013; 1(4.000: 222-226

Shalini Gupta

2013-08-01

178

Salivary duct carcinoma of the palate  

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Full Text Available Salivary duct carcinoma is a rare high-grade neoplasm that more frequently affects the parotid gland. Though neoplasms of this type are infrequent in minor salivary glands, they are less aggressive and may lead to early diagnosis before distant metastases could occur. Salivary duct carcinoma is also the most frequent epithelial component of carcinosarcoma. The present article reports a case of SDC of the palate in a 26-year-old male and discusses SDC as a malignant epithelial component in carcinosarcoma.

Ponniah I

2005-01-01

179

Nicotine, cotinine, and myosmine determination using polymer films of tailor-designed zinc porphyrins as recognition units for piezoelectric microgravimetry chemosensors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two electropolymerizable zinc porphyrins with receptor sites tailor-designed for selective recognition of the nicotine, cotinine, or myosmine alkaloids were synthesized. These were 5-(2-phenoxyacetamide)-10,15,20-tris(triphenylamino)porphyrinato zinc(II) 1 and 5-(2,5-phenylene-bis(oxy)diacetamide)-10,15,20-tris(triphenylamino)porphyrinato zinc(II) 2 featuring one and two pendant amide side "pincers", respectively, and three triphenylamine substituents at the meso positions of the porphyrin macrocycles capable of electrochemical polymerization. Thin polymerfilms of these porphyrins served for recognition and the piezoelectric microgravimetry (PM) for analytical signal transduction of a new chemical sensor devised for determination of these alkaloids. The films were deposited by potentiodynamic electropolymerization on the 10 MHz quartz resonators of the electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) without affecting the electronic structure of the porphyrin macrocycles. Under favorable flow injection analysis (FIA) conditions, the alkaloid analytes were determined at the concentration level of 0.1 mM with high sensitivity and selectivity. Affinity toward the analytes of the polymer of 2 was higher than that of 1 due to the higher binding ability offered by two pendant pincers of the former. Because of the selective receptors and PM applied under FIA conditions, the developed procedure offered an alternative to the time-consuming and relatively expensive high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), capillary electrophoresis (CE), and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methods of detection and quantification of these alkaloids. PMID:22394091

Noworyta, Krzysztof; Kutner, Wlodzimierz; Wijesinghe, Channa A; Srour, Serge G; D'Souza, Francis

2012-03-01

180

Salivary characteristics of diabetic children  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Os componentes salivares podem sofrer variações que podem ser detectadas por análise química. O objetivo desse trabalho foi determinar as características físicas e bioquímicas da saliva de um grupo de crianças diabéticas comparadas a um grupo controle. A relação com a saúde oral também foi determina [...] da. Vinte crianças diabéticas (3-15 anos) e 21 crianças do grupo controle (5-12 anos) foram incluídas nesse estudo. Quantidade total de proteínas, açúcares e cálcio foram determinadas por métodos colorimétricos e glicose, uréia, a-amilase e ácido fosfórico por métodos enzimáticos. Nossos resultados demonstraram que o pH ácido diminuiu o fluxo salivar e o excesso de espuma são normalmente encontrados na saliva de crianças diabéticas. O total de açúcares, glucose, uréia e proteínas foram maiores em pacientes diabéticos do que no controle enquanto o cálcio diminuiu. Essas diferenças foram confirmadas pelo teste de discriminação. As crianças diabéticas têm maiores valores de DMFT-dmft-deft and DMFS-dmfs-defs quando comparadas àquelas do grupo controle apesar do menor consumo de açúcar. Alguns componentes salivares e a diminuição do fluxo salivar podem estar envolvidos na caracterização da saúde oral das crianças diabéticas. Abstract in english Salivary components may suffer variations that can be detected by chemical determinations. The aim of this work was to determine physical and biochemical characteristics of the saliva of a group of diabetic children compared to those of a control group. Relation to oral health indices was also deter [...] mined. Twenty diabetic children (3-15-years-old) and 21 control children (5-12-years-old) were included in this study. Total proteins, sugars and calcium were determined by colorimetric methods, and glucose, urea, alpha-amylase and acid phosphatase by enzymatic methods. Our results demonstrated that acidic pH, diminished salivary flow rate and excess foam are usually present in saliva of diabetic children. Total sugars, glucose, urea and total proteins were greater in diabetic patients than controls, while calcium values were decreased. These differences were confirmed by the discrimination test. Diabetic children have higher DMFT-dmft-deft and DMFS-dmfs-defs values compared to those of the control children despite their lower sugar intake. Some salivary components in addition to the diminished flow rate could be involved in the characterization of the oral health state of diabetic children.

María Elena, López; María Eugenia, Colloca; Rafael Gustavo, Páez; Judit Nora, Schallmach; Myriam Adriana, Koss; Amalia, Chervonagura.

 
 
 
 
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High Endogenous Salivary Amylase Activity Is Associated with Improved Glycemic Homeostasis following Starch Ingestion in Adults123  

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In the current study, we determined whether increased digestion of starch by high salivary amylase concentrations predicted postprandial blood glucose following starch ingestion. Healthy, nonobese individuals were prescreened for salivary amylase activity and classified as high (HA) or low amylase (LA) if their activity levels per minute fell 1 SD higher or lower than the group mean, respectively. Fasting HA (n = 7) and LA (n = 7) individuals participated in 2 sessions during which they inges...

Mandel, Abigail L.; Breslin, Paul A. S.

2012-01-01

182

Effect of sensory stimulation on salivary IgA secretion rate in karate players  

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Full Text Available Objectives: Secretory IgA is predominant immunoglobulin in secretions of the mucosal immune system. Low concentration of salivary IgA is associated with a higher risk of respiratory tract infections episodes in athletes during the training season. The purpose of this study was to determine whether orange-flavored whey based drink has beneficial effect on level of IgA in saliva after the training. Methods: Twenty healthy, young karate players participated in this study. They were divided into two groups. One group rinsed a mouth with 20 ml of liquid whey, two times in 30-min period: 15 and 30 min after training. Second group rinsed a mouth with 20 ml of whey based orange flavored soft drink, at the same time. Saliva was collected before the training, just after the training and after application of fluids. Results: We observed decrease in salivary flow after physical activity. The salivary flow was higher after the application of flavored drink compared to salivary flow after the application of whey. The absolute concentration of sIgA and sIgA secretion rate decreased just after exercise compared to pre exercise values. Application of whey elevated sIgA levels on day 1, while application of flavored drink caused increasing in sIgA levels on day 3. In all other cases sIgA level was decreasing even after applied stimuli. Conclusions: The exercise induces decreasing in salivary flow, sIgA absolute concentration and sIgA secretion rate. Application of fluid whey and flavored whey-based drink elevated salivary flow, but had little effect on absolute concentration of sIgA and sIgA secretion rate in young karate players.

I Baralic

2010-12-01

183

Cancer of the thyroid and salivary glands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The relationship of atomic bomb exposure to tumors of the head and neck has been studied in detail for the thyroid and salivary gland. It has been deomonstrated by animal experiments and studies conducted on those undergoing radiation therapy of the neck during childhood, and on those exposed to radioactive fallout from hydrogen-bomb tests in the Marshall Islands, that thyroid neoplasms can be induced by radiation. Although it was assumed that radiation would ahve a similar effect on the salivary gland located near the thyroid gland, it was in the 1970s that studies were commenced on the salivary gland. A study of the Adult Health Study population presented data which show that the incidence of salivary gland tumors was 9.3-fold higher in the group exposed to 300+ rad than in the control group and when confined only to malignant tumors the incidence was 21.8-fold higher

184

Increased salivary cortisol after waking in depression.  

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RATIONALE: Cortisol hypersecretion is regarded as important in the pathophysiology of major depression. However, recent studies in community-based samples have been inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether acutely depressed, medication-free subjects show an exaggerated release of cortisol in saliva in relation to awakening. METHODS: We studied the pattern of waking salivary cortisol in 20 unmedicated acutely depressed subjects and 40 healthy controls. RESULTS: In both groups, salivary co...

Bhagwagar, Z.; Hafizi, S.; Cowen, Pj

2005-01-01

185

Salivary electrolytes in psoriasis: A preliminary study  

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Full Text Available Background: There have been few isolated studies on alteration of salivary electrolytes in psoriasis but this subject has not been pursued extensively. Purpose: The present study was conducted to assess any alteration in the levels of salivary electrolytes in psoriasis and to correlate the same with type and severity of the disease. Materials and Methods: Fifteen patients of uncomplicated psoriasis and 12 age and sex matched controls attending the outpatient department of R.L.J.H. and S.N.R. Hospitals, Kolar, India were included for analysis of salivary electrolytes. PASI scoring was used to assess the severity of the disease. Student?s t-test ( P < 0.05; significant was utilized for statistical evaluation of results. Results: Salivary sodium levels were significantly elevated in psoriasis ( P value 0.002, whereas there was no significant rise in levels of salivary potassium. However, potassium levels correlated significantly with severity of the disease ( P value 0.043. Conclusion: There was elevation of salivary sodium levels in patients of psoriasis and potassium levels correlated with severity of the disease. Limitation: Unicentre hospital based study with small sample size; hence the results cannot be generalized.

Singh Gurcharan

2006-01-01

186

Interaction of plant polyphenols with salivary proteins.  

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Tannins are polyphenols that occur widespread in plant-based food. They are considered to be part of the plant defense system against environmental stressors. Tannins have a number of effects on animals, including growth-rate depression and inhibition of digestive enzymes. Tannins also have an effect on humans: They are, for example, the cause of byssinosis, a condition that is due to exposure to airborne tannin. Their biological effect is related to the great efficiency by which tannins precipitate proteins, an interaction that occurs by hydrophobic forces and hydrogen bonding. Two groups of salivary proteins, proline-rich proteins and histatins, are highly effective precipitators of tannin, and there is evidence that at least proline-rich proteins act as a first line of defense against tannins, perhaps by precipitating tannins in food and preventing their absorption from the alimentary canal. Proline plays an important role in the interaction of proline-rich proteins with tannins. In contrast, it is primarily basic residues that are responsible for the binding of histatins to tannin. The high concentration of tannin-binding proteins in human saliva may be related to the fruit and vegetable diet of human ancestors. PMID:12097360

Bennick, Anders

2002-01-01

187

Salivary secretion during meals in lactating dairy cattle  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Four multiparous Holstein cows in midlactation were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square to evaluate whether source of forage influenced salivary secretion during eating in lactating dairy cows. The forages were allocated separately from the pelleted concentrates. Cows were offered 1 of 4 forages each period: barley silage, alfalfa silage, long-stemmed alfalfa hay, or chopped barley straw. Saliva secretion was measured during the morning meal by collecting masticates through the rumen cannula at the cardia of each cow. Rate of salication (213 g/min) was not affected by forage source. However, the forage sources differed in eating rate (g og DM/min), which led to differences in ensalivation of forages (g of saliva/g of DM and g of saliva/g of NDF). On the basis of DM, ensalivation (g of saliva/g of DM) was greatest for straw (7.23) and similar for barley sialge, alfalfa silage, and alfalfa hay (4.15, 3.40, and 4.34 g/g of DM, respectively). Higher ensalivation of straw could be accounted for by its higher neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content; ensalivation of NDF (g of saliva/g of NDF) was actually greatest for long-stemmed alfalfa hay (12.4) and similar for the other chopped forages (8.9). Cows consumed concentrate about 3 to 12 times faster than the various forages (DM basis), and ensalivation of concentrate was much lower (1.12 g of saliva/g of DM) than for forages. Feed characteristics such as particle size, DM, and NDF content affect salivary output during eating by affecting the eating rate. Slower eating rate and greater time spent eating may help prevent ruminal acidosis by increasing the total daily salivary secretion in dairy cows.

Beauchemin, K.A.; Eriksen, L.

2008-01-01

188

Nicotine, cotinine, and b-nicotyrine inhibit NNK-induced DNA-strand break in the hepatic cell line HepaRG.  

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Recent in vitro work using purified enzymes demonstrated that nicotine and/or a nicotine metabolite could inhibit CYPs (CYP2A6, 2A13, 2E1) involved in the metabolism of the genotoxic tobacco nitrosamine NNK. This observation raises the possibility of nicotine interaction with the mechanism of NNK bioactivation. Therefore, we hypothesized that nicotine or a nicotine metabolite such as cotinine might contribute to the inhibition of NNK-induced DNA strand breaks by interfering with CYP enzymes. The effect of nicotine and cotinine on DNA strand breaks was evaluated using the COMET assay in CYP competent HepaRG cells incubated with bioactive CYP-dependent NNK and CYP-independent NNKOAc (4-(acetoxymethylnitrosoamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone). We report a dose-dependent reduction in DNA damage in hepatic-derived cell lines in the presence of nicotine and cotinine. Those results are discussed in the context of the in vitro model selected. PMID:25221795

Ordonez; Sierra, Ana Belen; Camacho, Oscar M; Baxter, Andrew; Banerjee, Anisha; Waters, David; Minet, Emmanuel

2014-10-01

189

Inducible HSP70 Protects Radiation-Induced Salivary Gland Damage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Irradiation (IR) delivered to the head and neck is a common treatment for malignancies. Salivary glands in the irradiation field are severely damaged, and consequently this resulted in marked salivary hypofunction. While the exact mechanism of salivary gland damage remains enigmatic, fluid secreting acinar cells are lost, and saliva output is dramatically reduced. Previously we have reported that inducible heat shock protein 70 (HSP70i) induced radioresistance in vitro. Moreover, HSP70i localized to salivary glands by gene transfer has great potential for the treatment of salivary gland. Herein, we investigated whether HSP70 can use as radio protective molecules for radiation-induced salivary gland damage in vivo

190

Inducible HSP70 Protects Radiation-Induced Salivary Gland Damage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Irradiation (IR) delivered to the head and neck is a common treatment for malignancies. Salivary glands in the irradiation field are severely damaged, and consequently this resulted in marked salivary hypofunction. While the exact mechanism of salivary gland damage remains enigmatic, fluid secreting acinar cells are lost, and saliva output is dramatically reduced. Previously we have reported that inducible heat shock protein 70 (HSP70i) induced radioresistance in vitro. Moreover, HSP70i localized to salivary glands by gene transfer has great potential for the treatment of salivary gland. Herein, we investigated whether HSP70 can use as radio protective molecules for radiation-induced salivary gland damage in vivo.

Lee, Hae-June; Lee, Yoon-Jin; Kwon, Hee-Choong; Lee, Su-Jae; Bae, Sang-Woo; Lee, Yun-Sil [Korea Institute of Radiological Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung-Ho [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

2006-07-01

191

Measuring environmental tobacco smoke exposure in infants and young children through urine cotinine and memory-based parental reports: empirical findings and discussion  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVE—This study examined the reliability and potential biases of two urine collection methods from which cotinine measures were obtained and the validity of memory-based parental reports of their children's exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS).?DESIGN—Structured interviews were conducted with mothers of infants and young children to obtain memory-based estimates of recent ETS exposure. Urine samples were collected through standard and cotton roll collection methods for cotinine analysis.?SETTING—All interviews took place at an off-campus research facility. Urine samples were collected at the study office or the subjects' homes.?PARTICIPANTS—Mothers were recruited from San Diego county sites of the Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Supplemental Food and Nutrition Program. Sample 1 (infants) consisted of eight boys and eight girls aged 1-44 months (mean = 12.6 months). Sample 2 (children) included 10 boys and 10 girls aged 3-8 years (mean = 61.2 months).?MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Urine cotinine and memory-based parent reports of ETS exposure from structured interviews.?RESULTS—There was overall high reliability for urine cotinine measures and no effect of collection method on urine cotinine levels. Memory-based reports obtained from smoking mothers showed moderately strong and consistent linear relationships with urine cotinine measures of their infants and children (r = 0.50 to r = 0.63), but not for reports obtained from non-smoking mothers.?CONCLUSIONS—Memory-based parental reports of short-term ETS exposure can play an important role in quantifying ETS exposure in infants and children.???Keywords: environmental tobacco smoke; parental smoking; passive smoking PMID:10599573

Matt, G.; Wahlgren, D.; Hovell, M.; Zakarian, J.; Bernert, J.; Meltzer, S.; Pirkle, J.; Caudill, S.

1999-01-01

192

The prevalence of self-reported smoking and validation with urinary cotinine among commercial drivers in major parks in Lagos, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The validity of self-reported smoking is questionable because smokers are inclined to deny smoking. We aimed to determine the prevalence of self-reported smoking among intra-city commercial drivers in Lagos, and assess its validity based on urinary cotinine assessment. This study was conducted at three major motor parks in Lagos, Nigeria. Information on smoking status and habits was obtained from 500 consecutive male drivers using a structured questionnaire during a face-to-face interview. Eighty-one self-reported smokers and non-smokers were selected by systematic random sampling for urinary cotinine assessment using cotinine strips. The prevalence of self-reported smoking was compared to the prevalence of smoking based on urinary cotinine and the specificity and positive predictive values of self-reported smoking was determined. Prevalence of self-reported current smoking was 32% and 17.9% of nonsmokers were passive smokers. Among 81 drivers in whom urinary cotinine assessment was performed, the prevalence of smoking based on self-report was 34 (42% compared to 41 (50.6% when based on urinary cotinine, (X2=38.56, P<0.001. The rate of misclassification among self-reported non-smokers as smokers was 21.3% and misclassification rate for self-reported smokers as non-smokers was 8.8%. The sensitivity of self-reported smoking in accurately classifying smoking status was 91.2% and the specificity was 78.7%. The prevalence of self-reported cigarette smoking among commercial drivers in Lagos is high and a significant proportion of self-reported non-smokers are passive smokers. Self-reported smoking status obtained during face-to-face interview appears unreliable in obtaining accurate smoking data in our locality.

Obianuju B. Ozoh

2014-02-01

193

Salivary cortisol assessment in the evaluation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A simple, short and sensitive direct radio-immunoassay technique for the determination of salivary cortisol concentration was employed to assess saliva as a medium for evaluating cortisol response during endocrine testing in 9 controls and 40 patients. Results in controls suggested that an adequate salivary cortisol response to insulin hypoglycaemia was an increase of 150% above the basal value with a minimum peak of 15 nmol/l. Thirty-three patients were classified as being either good or poor responders to insulin hypoglycaemia on the basis of criteria for plasma cortisol levels. When the defined salivary cortisol response was used for assessment, all 33 patients were correctly categorized into the same response groups. The salivary cortisol response to intramuscular tetracosactin in 3 patients and an intravenous dexamethasone infusion in 4 patients confirmed the value of saliva as an assay medium. These studies show that the salivary cortisol response parallels that of total plasma cortisol in all cases. However, with sampling at short intervals a lag in secretion of the free fraction from the plasma into the saliva becomes apparent. The relative change in cortisol levels from the basal value is greater in saliva than in plasma

194

Salivary duct carcinoma of the palatal salivary glands: a case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

There are many variants of salivary gland tumors; however, salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) ranks among those with the worst prognoses. The parotid glands are the most common site of origin. Minor salivary glands account for only 10% of SDC, and the palatal glands are the most vulnerable. If it is not recognized and treated early, SDC metastasizes to regional lymph nodes and eventually to distant organs. The histologic features are unusual in that the tumor cells exhibit comedonecrosis, a type of necrosis seldom if ever seen with other types of oral cancer. This article presents a case involving ductal carcinoma of palatal salivary glands, a rare and virulent type of salivary gland tumor, the patient's unwillingness to undergo conventional treatment, and the final outcome. PMID:24983167

Dunlap, Charles L; Dunlap, Shara M

2014-01-01

195

PrPSc in Salivary Glands of Scrapie-Affected Sheep?  

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The salivary glands of scrapie-affected sheep and healthy controls were investigated for the presence of the pathological prion protein (PrPSc). PrPSc was detected in major (parotid and mandibular) and minor (buccal, labial, and palatine) salivary glands of naturally and experimentally infected sheep. Using Western blotting, the PrPSc concentration in glands was estimated to be 0.02 to 0.005% of that in brain. Immunohistochemistry revealed intracellular depositions of PrPSc in ductal and acin...

Vascellari, Marta; Nonno, Romolo; Mutinelli, Franco; Bigolaro, Michela; Di Bari, Michele Angelo; Melchiotti, Erica; Marcon, Stefano; D Agostino, Claudia; Vaccari, Gabriele; Conte, Michela; Grossi, Luigi; Rosone, Francesca; Giordani, Francesco; Agrimi, Umberto

2007-01-01

196

Exposure to tobacco smoke based on urinary cotinine levels among Israeli smoking and nonsmoking adults: a cross-sectional analysis of the first Israeli human biomonitoring study  

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Background Cotinine levels provide a valid measure of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The goal of this study was to examine exposure to tobacco smoke among smoking and nonsmoking Israeli adults and to identify differences in ETS exposure among nonsmokers by socio-demographic factors. Methods We analyzed urinary cotinine data from the first Israeli human biomonitoring study conducted in 2011. In-person questionnaires included data on socio-demographic and active smoking status. Cotinine levels were measured using a gas chromatography–mass spectrometry procedure. We calculated creatinine-adjusted urinary cotinine geometric means (GM) among smokers and nonsmokers, and by socio-demographic, smoking habits and dietary factors. We analyzed associations, in a univariable and multivariable analysis, between socio-demographic variables and proportions of urinary cotinine ?1 ?g/l (Limit of Quantification?=?LOQ) or ?4 ?g/l. Results Cotinine levels were significantly higher among 91 smokers (GM?=?89.7 ?g/g creatinine; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 47.4-169.6) than among 148 nonsmokers (GM?=?1.3; 1.1-1.7). Among exclusive waterpipe smokers, cotinine levels were relatively high (GM?=?53.4; 95% CI 12.3-232.7). ETS exposure was widespread as 62.2% of nonsmokers had levels???LOQ, and was higher in males (75.8%) than in females (52.3%). In a multivariable model, urinary cotinine???LOQ was higher in males (Prevalence ratio [PR]?=?1.30; 95% CI: 1.02-1.64, p?=?0.032) and in those with lower educational status (PR?=?1.58; 1.04-2.38, p?=?0.031) and decreased with age (PR?=?0.99; 0.98-1.00, p?=?0.020, per one additional year). There were no significant differences by ethnicity, residence type or country of birth. Conclusions Our findings indicate widespread ETS exposure in the nonsmoking Israeli adult population, especially among males, and younger and less educated participants. These findings demonstrate the importance of human biomonitoring, were instrumental in expanding smoke-free legislation implemented in Israel on July 2012 and will serve as a baseline to measure the impact of the new legislation. PMID:24377966

2013-01-01

197

Iatrogenic causes of salivary gland dysfunction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Saliva is important for maintaining oral health and function. There are instances when medical therapy is intended to decrease salivary flow, such as during general anesthesia, but most instances of iatrogenic salivary gland dysfunction represent untoward or unavoidable side-effects. The clinical expression of the salivary dysfunction can range from very minor transient alteration in saliva flow to a total loss of salivary function. The most common forms of therapy that interfere with salivation are drug therapies, cancer therapies (radiation or chemotherapy), and surgical therapy. These therapies can affect salivation by a number of different mechanisms that include: disruption of autonomic nerve function related to salivation, interference with acinar or ductal cell functions related to salivation, cytotoxicity, indirect effects (vasoconstriction/dilation, fluid and electrolyte balance, etc.), and physical trauma to salivary glands and nerves. A wide variety of drugs is capable of increasing or decreasing salivary flow by mimicking autonomic nervous system actions or by directly acting on cellular processes necessary for salivation: drugs can also indirectly affect salivation by altering fluid and electrolyte balance or by affecting blood flow to the glands. Ionizing radiation can cause permanent damage to salivary glands, damage that is manifest as acinar cell destruction with subsequent atrophy and fibrosis of the glands. Cancer chemotherapy can cause changes in sCancer chemotherapy can cause changes in salivation, but the changes are usually much less severe and only transient. Finally, surgical and traumatic injuries interfere with salivation because of either disruption of gland innervation or gross physical damage (or removal) of glandular tissue (including ducts)

198

Ultradian rhythmicity and induced changes in salivary testosterone.  

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Testosterone and cortisol respond to exercise stimuli and modulate adaptation. Episodic basal secretion of these hormones may modify the responsiveness of these hormones. We sought to identify episodic steroid secretion via frequent salivary sampling and investigate any interaction between ultradian rhythmicity and induced changes in testosterone. Salivary testosterone and cortisol concentrations of seven males (age 20-40 years) were measured every 10 min between 0800 and 1600 h on three consecutive days. On either the second or third day, three interventions designed to elicit a hormonal response were randomly assigned: sprint exercise (two 30-s maximal efforts on a cycle ergometer); boxing (two 30-s maximal punching efforts); and a violent video game (10 min of player vs. player combat). On the other days subjects were inactive. Testosterone data on non-intervention days suggested pulsatile secretion with a pulse interval of 47 +/- 9 min (mean +/- SD). The sprint intervention substantially affected hormones: it elicited a small transient elevation in testosterone (by a factor of 1.21; factor 90% confidence limits x/ divided by 1.21) 10 min after exercise, and a moderate elevation in cortisol peaking 50 min post-exercise (factor 2.3; x/ divided by 2.6). The testosterone response correlated with the change in testosterone concentration in the 10 min prior to the sprint (r = 0.78; 90% CL 0.22-0.95) and with a measure of randomness in testosterone fluctuations (r = 0.83; 0.35-0.96). Thus, the salivary testosterone response to exercise may be dependent on the underlying ultradian rhythm and aspects of its regulation. This interaction may have important implications for adaptation to exercise. PMID:20512500

Beaven, C Martyn; Ingram, John R; Gill, Nicholas D; Hopkins, Will G

2010-09-01

199

Association between salivary pH and metabolic syndrome in women: a cross-sectional study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The salivary flow rate is an important determinant of salivary pH. It is influenced by several metabolic syndrome (MetS components as well as the menopausal status. The cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors that characterizes the MetS could be exacerbated following menopause. The objective of this study was therefore to document the association between salivary pH and MetS expression in women according to the menopausal status. Methods In this cross-sectional study, unstimulated saliva collection was performed on 198 Caucasian women of French-Canadian origin of which 55 were premenopausal women (PMW and 143 menopausal women (MW. Student’s t test, ANOVA and correlation analyses were used to assess the association between salivary pH and MetS components. Results The salivary pH level was significantly correlated with several MetS covariates, namely triglycerides (TG, apolipoprotein B (apo B and plasma glucose concentrations as well as waist circumference and the number of MetS components present in the whole sample and PMW only. Mean pH levels decreased as the number of MetS components increased (p?=?0.004. The correlations between salivary pH and variables associated with MetS components tended to be stronger in PMW. The proportion of the variance (R2 of salivary pH explained by MetS-related variables in PMW, MW and the whole sample was 23.6% (p?=?0.041, 18.1% and 17.0% (p? Conclusions The increasing prevalence of obesity calls for the development of new technologies to more easily monitor health status without increasing the burden of healthcare costs. As such, the salivary pH could be an inexpensive screening tool. These exploratory data suggest that salivary pH may be a significant correlate of the expression of MetS components. However, other studies with different populations are needed to confirm these findings before our observations lead to practical use in clinical settings.

Tremblay Monique

2012-09-01

200

Salivary proteomics in biomedical research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Proteins that are important indicators of physiological or pathological states, can provide information for the identification of early and differential markers for disease. Saliva, contains an abundance of proteins, offers an easy, inexpensive, safe, and non-invasive approach for disease detection, and possesses a high potential to revolutionize the diagnostics. Discovery of salivary biomarkers could be used to scrutinize health and disease surveillance. The impact of human saliva proteome analysis in the search for clinically relevant disease biomarkers will be realized through advances made using proteomic technologies. The advancements of emerging proteomic techniques have benefited biomarker research to the point where saliva is now recognized as an excellent diagnostic medium for the detection of disease. This review presents an overview of the value of saliva as a credible diagnostic tool and we aim to summarize the proteomic technologies currently used for global analysis of saliva proteins and to elaborate on the application of saliva proteomics to the discovery of disease biomarkers, and discuss some of the critical challenges and perspectives in this field. PMID:23146870

Zhang, Aihua; Sun, Hui; Wang, Ping; Wang, Xijun

2013-01-16

 
 
 
 
201

Chemoreirradiation for recurrent salivary gland malignancies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background and purpose: To report our experience in treating recurrent salivary gland malignancies using concurrent chemotherapy and reirradiation. Materials and methods: Between 1986 and 2007, 14 patients with locoregionally recurrent salivary gland cancer underwent maximal surgical resection followed by adjuvant 5-fluorouracil and hydroxyurea-based chemotherapy concurrently with 1.5 Gy twice daily or 2 Gy daily reirradiation. Each cycle consisted of chemoreirradiation for 5 consecutive days followed by a 9-day break. The median reirradiation dose was 66 Gy (R 30-72 Gy) after a mean radiation treatment interval of 48 months. Results: The median follow-up for all patients was 18 months (R 2-125 months) and 41 months for survivors. The parotid gland (n = 6) and minor salivary glands (n = 6) were involved more commonly than the submandibular gland (n = 2). Locoregional control at 1 and 3 years was 72.2% and 51.6%, respectively. Actuarial overall survival at 3 and 5 years was 35.7% and 26.8%, respectively. Tracheostomies and feeding tubes were placed in 2 and 8 patients, respectively. Six patients had feeding tubes at last follow-up or death. Conclusions: Concurrent chemotherapy and reirradiation for recurrent salivary malignancies result in promising locoregional control for patients with recurrent salivary gland malignancies.

202

Anopheles salivary gland proteomes from major malaria vectors  

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BackgroundAntibody responses against Anopheles salivary proteins can indicate individual exposure to bites of malaria vectors. The extent to which these salivary proteins are species-specific is not entirely resolved. Thus, a better knowledge of the diversity among salivary protein repertoires from various malaria vector species is necessary to select relevant genus-, subgenus- and/or species-specific salivary antigens. Such antigens could be used for quantitative (mosquito density) and...

Fontaine, Albin; Fusai?, Thierry; Briolant, Se?bastien; Buffet, Sylvain; Villard, Claude; Baudelet, Emilie; Pophillat, Mathieu; Granjeaud, Samuel; Rogier, Christophe; Almeras, Lionel

2012-01-01

203

Diazepam and N-desmethyldiazepam concentrations in saliva, plasma and CSF.  

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1 Salivary and plasma diazepam and nordiazepam concentrations were measured in 51 paired samples from four experimental situations. In seven of the patients CSF samples were estimated. 2 Correlation of 0.89 (P less than 0.001) was observed between salivary and plasma diazepam and 0.81 (P less than 0.001) between salivary and plasma nordiazepam. 3 Mean salivary diazepam was 1.6% (+/- 0.3%) of the plasma diazepam. It was found to vary markedly in an acute dosage study. Mean salivary nordiazepam...

Hallstrom, C.; Lader, M. H.

1980-01-01

204

Effect of competitional stress on salivary dehydroepiandrosterone, cortisol in female handballists  

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Full Text Available Background: Hormonal responses to competitions and their relationships have been extensively examined in male athletes, but there are few studies in women. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of competition stress on salivary dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA and cortisol in female handballists. Materials and Method: Ten female handballists of Islamic Azad University (Sari Branch (age 21.5±2.5 years participated in this study. Salivary samples were collected 30 min and 5 min before competition, between two half times and immediately after four competitions. The salivary DHEA and cortisol concentrations were measured by ELISA method. Results: The results of one-way ANOVA with repeated measures have shown a significant (p=0.001 increases for DHEA concentration after four competitions, however, cortisol and DHEA/cortisol ratio did not show any changes after four competition (p>0.05. Conclusion: These results indicate that salivary DHEA is more sensitive to competition situations than cortisol concentration. We suggested that androgens maybe more affected by competition

Parvin Farzanegi

2010-11-01

205

Low salivary testosterone levels in patients with breast cancer  

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Abstract Background Correlation between circulating sex steroid levels and breast cancer has been controversial, with measurement of free, or bioavailable hormone rarely available. Salivary hormone levels represent the bioavailable fraction. To further elucidate the role of endogenous hormones in breast cancer, we aimed to assess correlation between salivary sex steroid levels and breast cancer prevalence. Methods Salivary hormone levels of testosterone (T), Est...

Tsigginou Alexandra; Marinopoulos Spyros; Zava David; Dimitrakakis Constantine; Antsaklis Aris; Glaser Rebecca

2010-01-01

206

Studies on the Ig response from human peripheral mononuclear cells in the presence of environmental agents - Effect of nicotine and cotinine and respiratory syncytial virus on non specific and specific immune response; Die Modulation der primaeren und sekundaeren in vitro Immunantwort humaner Lymphozyten durch Umweltschadstoffe - Einfluss von Nikotin und Cotinin sowie RSV auf Parameter der unspezifischen und spezifischen Immunantwort  

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The cell- and molecularbiological mechanisms of the Ig-response (G,A,E) was studied with human peripheral mononuclear cells and the effect of RSV (respiratory syncytial virus), nicotine and cotinine alone as well as combined were analysed. In addition to the mononuclear cells bronchial epithelial cells (cell lines) were used and the effect of RSV, nicotine and cotinine were studied. Using this two compartment system (bronchial epithelial cells, cell lines) and human immunoeffector cells (coculture and transwell) the in vivo situation can be experimentally mimicked in vitro. Our results show that RSV modulates the Ig-response and the conditions of (polyclonal) IgE-induction with RSV are established. Nicotine and cotinine (10{sup -5} M - 10{sup -10} M) induce mRNA expression for various cytokines in PBMC and also modulate the cytokine induced Ig-response. Nicotine and cotinine prime bronchial epithelial cells so that a subsequent microbial interaction (RSV, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) leads to an exaggerated inflammatory (cytokines, leukotrienes) response. It is suggested that proinflammatory mediators from epithelial cells modulate the Ig-response of cytokine primed B-cells thus affecting secondarily the mucosa barrier. This system will be used to study the effects of environmental agents on the non specific and specific immune response and will be challenged with additional agents. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es wurden die zell- und molekularbiologischen Mechanismen der primaeren und sekundaeren Ig-(G,A,E,M) Antwort unter dem Einfluss von RSV (repiratory syncytial virus) sowie Nikotin und Cotinin bearbeitet. Neben peripheren mononukleaeren Zellen wurden Bronchialepithelzellen (Zellinien) analysiert und die Einwirkung von RSV, Nikotin und Cotinin ueberprueft. Das System wurde benutzt, um die Wechselwirkung mit Immuneffektorzellen unter dem Einfluss der Schadstoffe zu analysieren. Es wird gezeigt, dass RSV als Infektionsstimulus die primaere und sekundaere Ig-Antwort in unterschiedlichem Masse fuer sich allein als auch unter dem Einfluss von Zytokinen (IL-2, IL-4) moduliert. Die Bedingungen der polyklonalen Ig(E)-Synthese unter dem Einfluss von Interleukin 2 und RSV wurden erarbeitet. Nikotin und Cotinin induzieren die mRNA Expression fuer verschiedene Zytokine. Nikotin und Cotinin ``primen`` Immuneffektorzellen, so dass ein nachfolgender mikrobieller Stimulus (RSV, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) zu einer verstaerkten Mediatorfreisetzung (IL-8) fuehrt. RSV loest die Freisetzung proinflammatorischer Mediatoren (IL-1, IL-6, IL-8) aus Bronchialepithelzellen aus, die ihrerseits unter dem Einfluss von Nikotin und Cotinin Immuneffektorzellen aktivieren und damit die Ig-Synthese und den Mukosaschutz veraendern. Das in vitro Zweikomponentensystem (Bronchialepithelzellen + periphere mononukleaere Zellen) in Kokultur oder Transwellkultur erweist sich als ein gutes in vitro Modell, um den Einfluss von Umweltschadstoffen an humanen Effektorzellen funktionell zu analysieren. (orig.)

Koenig, W. [Ruhr-Universitaet, Bochum (Germany). Med. Mikrobiologie und Immunologie, Arbeitsgruppe fuer Infektabwehrmechanismen; Arnold, R. [Ruhr-Universitaet, Bochum (Germany). Med. Mikrobiologie und Immunologie, Arbeitsgruppe fuer Infektabwehrmechanismen; Fischer, A. [Ruhr-Universitaet, Bochum (Germany). Med. Mikrobiologie und Immunologie, Arbeitsgruppe fuer Infektabwehrmechanismen; Kasimir-Bauer, S. [Ruhr-Universitaet, Bochum (Germany). Med. Mikrobiologie und Immunologie, Arbeitsgruppe fuer Infektabwehrmechanismen

1994-04-01

207

Salivary Output in Type 2 Diabetic Patients  

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Full Text Available Background: Diabetes Mellitus (DM is a common but complex metabolic disorder affecting various systems in the body. Oral cavity is no exception as this chronic condition exerts a huge impact on oral health. Salivary dysfunction has been reported to be a frequent oral complication in Type 2 diabetics which in turn leads to an array of oral complications because oral health is to a greater extent dependent on the quality and quantity of saliva. Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the salivary flow rate and prevalence of subjective symptoms of xerostomia in diabetics and non-diabetics. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 100 type 2 diabetic patients and 50 non-diabetic subjects. Random non-fasting plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels were used to determine the diabetic status of the individuals. Unstimulated saliva was collected using “Spit technique”. Stimulated saliva was collected using 2% citric acid. Unstimulated and Stimulated Salivary Flow Rate (USFR and SSFR was calculated for every patient and expressed as ml/min. Xerostomia was evaluated using a multi-item inventory comprising 19 questions. Results: In our study, both whole unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rates were decreased in diabetics compared to non-diabetics and this difference was statistically significant (p = 0.000. A greater percentage of diabetic patients perceived xerostomia symptoms compared to non-diabetics. Conclusion: Type 2 diabetics have higher prevalence of xerostomia and significantly reduced salivary flow rate compared to non-diabetics. Alterations in salivary flow create an imbalance in the homeostasis of oral environment leading to spectrum of oral ailments in these individuals

T. Radhika

2014-01-01

208

Histopathological audit of salivary gland neoplasms  

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Salivary gland neoplasms are uncommon but important presentation to general surgeons. Objective: To analyze the relative frequency and distribution of Salivary gland neoplasms in our division. Setting: Department of surgery and pathology, Peoples Medical University hospital and GMMMC hospital Sukkur. Study design: Descriptive (case series) Subjects and methods: A total of 40 patients registered for salivary gland tumors from oct 2008 to 0ct 2013 were included in the study. A thorough history, clinical examination, routine haematological and biochemical studies were done in all patients. FNAC was done in all cases. All patients were subjected to surgical intervention on standard rules. Each resected specimen was sent for histopathology. Information about age, gender and tumor location was obtained from clinical record and frequency of different neoplasms was studied from histopathological report. All data was collected on especially designed proforma. Data analysis was done using spss version 17. Results: A total of 40 patients were registered for salivary gland neoplasms. 28 patients (70%) had parotid lesions, 10 patients (25%) had submandibular gland involvement and 2 patients ( 5%) had minor salivary gland tumors. Patients were between 15 - 80 years of age( mean age =34.7 years) 24 patients(60%) were male and 16 (40%) were female,with male to female ratio of 1.5:1.32 . 22 (80%) had benign lesions and 8 patients (20%) had malignant lesions. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common benign tumor affecting the parotid gland. Adenocarcinoma represented as the most prevelant parotid malignancy. Benign neoplasms occurred in third and fourth decades of life and malignant neoplasms were diagnosed in sixth and seventh decades of life. Conclusion:Salivary gland neoplasms are uncommon but they have occasioned much interest and debate because of broad histological spectrum. The data presented in this study is corroborated with most of the studied literature worldwide. (author)

209

Effect of smoking on salivary composition and periodontal status  

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Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the effect of smoking on the periodontal status and salivary composition of whole saliva in subjects with clinically healthy periodontium and chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: The study comprised of 400 subjects equally divided into four groups of non-smokers with clinically healthy periodontium, smokers with clinically healthy periodontium, non-smokers with chronic periodontitis and smokers with chronic periodontitis. Clinical measurements and non-stimulated whole saliva were obtained. Biochemical analysis of salivary total protein, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus was performed. Results: The clinical parameters of probing depth and clinical attachment levels did not reveal any statistically significant differences between the smokers and non-smokers groups. The plaque index and gingival index were significantly higher in smokers with periodontitis (P<0.05) as compared with non-smokers with periodontitis. On biochemical analysis of whole saliva, total protein, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus were reduced in smokers with periodontitis to 0.43±0.50 gm/dL, 3.47±1.49 mg/dL, 0.80±3.87 mEq/L Neo and 18.45±8.77 mg% from 1.70±2.09 gm/dL, 13.89±10.34 mg/dL, 1.26±0.90 mEq/L Neo and 29.23±16.02 mg%, respectively, in non-smokers with healthy periodontium. Conclusion: The present study exhibited reduced concentrations of total proteins, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus in whole saliva in smokers with chronic periodontitis. It may thus be concluded that the analysis of salivary composition could be used as an auxiliary means of diagnosis. PMID:23162327

Kolte, Abhay P.; Kolte, Rajashri A.; Laddha, Rashmi K.

2012-01-01

210

Stress and salivary cortisol during pregnancy  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The purpose of this study was to determine whether exposure to stressful life events was associated with changes in levels of circulating cortisol during pregnancy in a population of 603 pregnant women. The participating pregnant women filled out a questionnaire and collected a morning and evening sample of saliva in early pregnancy (median 14th gestational week) and in late pregnancy (median and 30th gestational week). They were asked to report the number of life events experienced during first and second trimester, respectively, and were asked to rate the intensity of the experienced events. Complications related to the pregnancy such as vaginal bleeding and suspected growth retardation were registered and the women were asked about concerns about their pregnancy. The salivary samples were analyzed for cortisol and the levels were higher in late than in early pregnancy. In late pregnancy women exposed to more than one life event or were concerned about pregnancy complications during second trimester had a higher evening cortisol level, whereas morning values were unaffected. After adjustment for smoking women who experienced more than one very stressful life event had 27% higher evening cortisol concentrations (95% confidence intervals: 1-59%). Women with worries about pregnancy complications had 27% (95% confidence intervals: 2-57%) higher levels. In early pregnancy women reporting stressful life events did not have higher evening cortisol levels, but tended to have a blunted morning HPA response. In conclusion, we found differences in the associations between chronic stress in early and late pregnancy and cortisol levels indicating that the response to chronic stress is dependent on the stage of the pregnancy.

Obel, Carsten; Hedegaard, M

2005-01-01

211

Effects of cobalt 60 irradiation on rat salivary glands; Correlation of early changes with irradiation dose  

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A single irradiation of Co-60 was given to the head and neck region in male Sprague-Dawley rats. According to the time, dose and fractionation factor (TDF), the experimental animals were equally divided into the group of 11.36 Gy (TDF 50), the group of 17.82 Gy (TDF 100), and the group of 27.97 Gy (TDF 200). Parotid, submandibular, and sublingual salivary glands were examined by light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and biochemically one, 3, and 7 days after irradiation. Parotid saliva samples were also collected after stimulation with pilocarpine, and the flow rate, concentration of total salivary protein, and {alpha}-amylase activity were assessed. The parotid gland showed the most significant decrease in {alpha}-amylase activity at 3 days in all groups. {alpha}-amylase activity in the submandibular and sublingual glands was much lower than in the parotid gland. Non-lysosome enzyme, acid p-nitrophenyl phosphatase activity in the salivary glands was increased. Similarly, a lysosomal enzyme, {beta}-D-glucuronidase in the salivary glands was increased. Alkaline phosphatase activity was increased in the parotid gland and decreased in the submandibular and sublingual glands. Salivary flow rate in the parotid gland was decreased one, 3, and 7 days after irradiation, markedly depending on irradiation doses. Light microscopy of the salivary glands revealed atrophy, vacuolization, and degranulation in acinar cells, especially in granular tubule cells. Electron microscopy revealed vacuolization and degeneration of mitochondria, secretory granules, and other organelles in the cytoplasm of acinar cells. Morphological changes of secretory granules were dose-dependent. Not only morphological but also biochemical changes in the parotid gland occurred synchronously. (N.K.) 56 refs.

Shigematsu, Yoshiaki (Meikai Univ., Sakado, Saitama (Japan). School of Dentistry)

1991-11-01

212

Salivary gland choristoma of the middle ear.  

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Choristoma is a mass of tissue histologically normal for an organ or part of the body other than the site at which it is located. A rare case of ectopic salivary gland choristoma in the middle ear is described in a 14-year-old girl whose only symptom was a 55 dB conductive hearing loss. The left middle ear mass appeared whitish and was located behind the intact tympanic membrane. We first suspected it to be congenital middle ear cholesteatoma. Exploratory tympanotomy, however, revealed a salivary gland choristoma that adhered tightly to the facial nerve. Differential diagnosis and treatment of this rare condition are discussed. PMID:16735921

Enoz, Murat; Suoglu, Yusufhan

2006-06-01

213

Salivary Defense Proteins: Their Network and Role in Innate and Acquired Oral Immunity  

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Full Text Available There are numerous defense proteins present in the saliva. Although some of these molecules are present in rather low concentrations, their effects are additive and/or synergistic, resulting in an efficient molecular defense network of the oral cavity. Moreover, local concentrations of these proteins near the mucosal surfaces (mucosal transudate, periodontal sulcus (gingival crevicular fluid and oral wounds and ulcers (transudate may be much greater, and in many cases reinforced by immune and/or inflammatory reactions of the oral mucosa. Some defense proteins, like salivary immunoglobulins and salivary chaperokine HSP70/HSPAs (70 kDa heat shock proteins, are involved in both innate and acquired immunity. Cationic peptides and other defense proteins like lysozyme, bactericidal/permeability increasing protein (BPI, BPI-like proteins, PLUNC (palate lung and nasal epithelial clone proteins, salivary amylase, cystatins, prolin-rich proteins, mucins, peroxidases, statherin and others are primarily responsible for innate immunity. In this paper, this complex system and function of the salivary defense proteins will be reviewed.

Gábor Fábián

2012-04-01

214

Plasma, salivary, and urinary oxytocin in anorexia nervosa: a pilot study.  

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Although oxytocin (OT) has the potential to be an informative biomarker of social functioning in patients with eating disorders, the burden of invasive blood draws or lumbar punctures limits OT study. Salivary and urinary OT measurements may be advantageous, as they require less invasive sampling techniques which could be conducted in a wider variety of settings. Yet, the degree to which the concentration of OT in these fluids is correlated with blood levels is uncertain, as is the impact of vomiting on salivary secretion of OT. Therefore, we compared contemporaneously sampled OT concentration in blood, saliva, and urine from twenty women acutely ill with anorexia nervosa. Salivary OT was positively correlated with plasma OT in patients with no history of self-induced vomiting (r=0.89), but correlation was lower in those with recent history of self-induced vomiting (r=0.42). Urinary and plasma OT were not well-correlated(r=0.13), suggesting preliminarily that collection of plasma OT remains the method of choice. Self-induced vomiting in eating disorders may limit the applicability of salivary sampling for OT. PMID:22664406

Hoffman, Elizabeth R; Brownley, Kimberly A; Hamer, Robert M; Bulik, Cynthia M

2012-08-01

215

Industrial noise exposure and salivary cortisol in blue collar industrial workers.  

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Measuring non-auditory effects of noise such as stress-inducing ones have become of interest recently. Salivary cortisol has become a popular measure in stress research. So, assessing noise-induced stress via saliva cortisol evaluation can present a bright future in non-invasive exposure assessment methods. This study had 3 goals: (1) Assess and compare saliva cortisol concentrations in the morning and evening in normal work day and leisure day in industrial workers, (2) assess the relationship between industrial noise exposure and salivary cortisol concentrations, and (3) assess the possibility of using salivary cortisol as a possible marker of noise-induced stress. This study included 80 male participants working in 4 different parts (painting, assembling lines, casting, and packaging) of a household manufacturing company. Morning and evening saliva samples were collected at 7.00 am and 4.00 pm, respectively. Noise exposure levels were assessed by sound level meter and noise dosimeter. All measurements occurred in two days: One in leisure day and other in working day. Descriptive statistics, paired sample t-test, and regression analysis were used as statistical tools of this study with P 80 dBA. Our study revealed that industrial noise, with levels > 80 dBA, has a significant effect on salivary cortisol elevation. PMID:22918149

Fouladi, D Behzad; Nassiri, Parvin; Monazzam, E Mohammadreza; Farahani, Saeed; Hassanzadeh, Gholamreza; Hoseini, Mostafa

2012-01-01

216

Analysis on the time/activity curve of salivary gland scintigraphy in salivary gland diseases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

(n=20), 3.5+0.5 ml; flat pattern (n=11), 2.6+0.5 ml and sloped pattern (n=1), 1.5 ml. Normal pattern versus poor secretion pattern, median pattern and flat pattern in the salivary flow rate were statistically significant as determined by Students' t-test. We assessed the correlation between the pattern of time/activity curve in the salivary gland scintigraphy and the amount of saliva. (author)

217

Excretory function of salivary gland during static salivary scintigraphy using technetium-99m pertechnetate: a correlation study with salivary flow rate in sjogrens syndrome  

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Salivary scintigraphy is useful in the evaluation of xerostomia. To identify the relevant and clinically applicable parameter for the evaluation of xerostomia, we performed static salivary scintigraphy using Tc-99m and compared it with salivary flow rate in patients with xerostomia. Twenty-three female patients (age 51.2{+-}10.4 years) who suffered from xerostomia were investigated. Nine patients were classified as Sjogrens syndrome (SS) by clinical criteria, and 14 patients were classified as non-Sjogrens syndrome. Un-stimulated salivary flow rate and simulated salivary flow rate were checked. Salivary scintigraphy was performed with injection of 25 mCi Tc-99m pertechnetate after injection anterior static image was obtained over face as basal uptake. ROIs were drawn over each salivary gland with background subtraction by square ROI drawn over skull. We used the mean data of right and left salivary glands for analysis. Percent excretion of salivary gland was calculated. Un-stimulated salivary flow rates(SFR) were different between groups (p<0.05): 0.58{+-}0.49 ml/15 min in SS, and 1.40{+-}1.14 ml/m in non-SS. However, SFR were not different between groups (p>0.05): 5.88{+-}4.07 ml/15 min in SS, and 10.31{+-}6.49 ml/15 min in non-SS. The uptake value in submandibular gland revealed significant difference between the groups. The percent excretion of submandibular gland had positive correlation with un-stimulated salivary flow rate (r=0.534, p=0.009), and that of parotid gland was also positive correlation (r=0.437, p=0.037). The result of multiple regression analysis revealed only percent excretion of submandibular gland was single determinant of unstimulated SFR. Percent excretion of submandibular gland had positive correlation with un-stimulated SFR. Thus, excretory function of submandibular gland assessed by salivary scintigraphy appears more related with xerostomia than parotid gland.

Jang, S. J.; Lee, W. W.; Lee, Y. J.; So, Y.; Jeong, J. G.; Lee, M. C.; Kim, S. E. [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2005-07-01

218

DETERMINATION OF SALIVARY CORTISOL IN HEALTHY CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS  

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Full Text Available Recognized as a reliable tool for assessing the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, measurement of salivary cortisol plays an important role in both the clinical and research settings. To establish a normative data, which forms the basis for the usage of this valuable parameter, we gathered 8:00 h saliva samples from 94 healthy individuals aged 6-14 years. Cortisol levels were measured by radioimmunoassay technique, using Orion Diagnostica's coated tube technology. Based on mean±2SD, we established a normal range for salivary cortisol concentrations in this age group: 1.69 - 12.81nmol/L. Considering a confidence interval for upper and lower limits, there was an upper limit equal to 11.42 -14.29 nmol/L and a lower limit of 1.21 - 2.25 nmol/L. Regarding the results of this study, cortisol levels were age dependent, and although with a low correlation coefficient, there was a positive correlation between cortisol levels and weight and height. There was no correlation with BMI and no sex difference was found.

E. Safarzadeh

2005-04-01

219

Caries Experience and Salivary Parameters among Overweight Children and Adolescents  

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Full Text Available Obesity is a chronic disease characterized by excess body fat, which can lead to other health problems, including insulin resistance, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, polycystic ovary syndrome, hypertension, dyslipidemia, sleep apnea, asthma, heart attack, stroke, atherosclerosis and metabolic syndrome. Currently, obesity and dental caries are major public health concerns and dietary habits are a very important common component of their etiological factors, showing some correlation with the sociodemographic characteristics of individuals presenting these diseases. In relation to caries experience, the literature suggests a correlation between obesity and dental caries in children and adolescents, in primary and/or permanent dentition, though divergent results exist regarding assessment based on the method recommended by the WHO (1997, i.e., restricted to carious lesions with cavitation. Some studies indicate greater prevalence of proximal carious lesions in obese adolescents compared with those with normal weight. Salivary changes, such as the concentrations of phosphate, sialic acid, proteins and immunoglobulins and in peroxidase activity could explain the increased probability of obese children presenting greater risk of dental caries. Thus, it is important to consider the contribution of salivary parameters in caries experience of overweight children and adolescents and the implementation of preventive measures in this population.

Michele B. Diniz

2013-11-01

220

Adrenoceptor-activated nitric oxide synthesis in salivary acinar cells  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We investigated the cellular regulation of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in isolated acinar cells from rat parotid and human labial salivary glands, using the newly developed fluorescent nitric oxide (NO) indicator, DAF-2. We found that sympathetic stimulation with norepinephrine (NE) caused a strong increase in NO synthesis that was not seen after parasympathetic stimulation with acetylcholine. In rat parotid acinar cells, we furthermore investigated to which extent the NOS activity was dependent on the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) by simultaneously measuring NO synthesis and [Ca2+]i. It was found that a simple correlation between the rise in [Ca2+]i and the rate of NO production following NE stimulation does not exist, and studies in which [Ca2+]i was elevated by means of the Ca 2+ ionophore, ionomycin, further established that even a very large rise in [Ca2+]i did not cause significant NO synthesis. We furthermore found that activating adrenoceptors with NE causes synthesis of cGMP by activating a guanylyl cyclase, and that an enhanced [cGMP] evoked by use of caged cGMP causes Ca2+ release from internal stores. Thus, upon sympathetic stimulation, salivary gland acini synthesize NO that, in addition to playing a role in controlling intracellular [Ca2+] i' also might play a role in retrograde signaling processes to the surrounding tissue.

Looms, Dagnia; Dissing, Steen

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Modeling the relationship of cotinine and self-reported measures of maternal smoking during pregnancy: a deterministic approach.  

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Studies of effects of prenatal exposure to cigarettes frequently acquire both self-report and biological assays of maternal smoking. However, little attention has been paid to methods for combining information from both sources to enhance the precision of exposure measurement. This paper analyzes the relationship between the two commonly used measures of smoking exposure during pregnancy: Maternal self-report and urinary cotinine. We present a deterministic method for combining the two measures and examine its robustness under different assumptions. We apply the method to a dataset from the Family Health and Development Project. In addition, we propose an approach for calibrating the self-report measures for individual women based on both sources of information. Enhancing the quality of exposure measurement may substantially advance studies of the teratological effects of exposure on offspring. PMID:17454700

Dukic, Vanja M; Niessner, Marina; Benowitz, Neal; Hans, Sydney; Wakschlag, Lauren

2007-04-01

222

Salivary prions in sheep and deer.  

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Scrapie of sheep and chronic wasting disease (CWD) of cervids are transmissible prion diseases. Milk and placenta have been identified as sources of scrapie prions but do not explain horizontal transmission. In contrast, CWD prions have been reported in saliva, urine and feces, which are thought to be responsible for horizontal transmission. While the titers of CWD prions have been measured in feces, levels in saliva or urine are unknown. Because sheep produce ~17 L/day of saliva, and scrapie prions are present in tongue and salivary glands of infected sheep, we asked if scrapie prions are shed in saliva. We inoculated transgenic (Tg) mice expressing ovine prion protein, Tg(OvPrP) mice, with saliva from seven Cheviot sheep with scrapie. Six of seven samples transmitted prions to Tg(OvPrP) mice with titers of -0.5 to 1.7 log ID?? U/ml. Similarly, inoculation of saliva samples from two mule deer with CWD transmitted prions to Tg(ElkPrP) mice with titers of -1.1 to -0.4 log ID?? U/ml. Assuming similar shedding kinetics for salivary prions as those for fecal prions of deer, we estimated the secreted salivary prion dose over a 10-mo period to be as high as 8.4 log ID?? units for sheep and 7.0 log ID?? units for deer. These estimates are similar to 7.9 log ID?? units of fecal CWD prions for deer. Because saliva is mostly swallowed, salivary prions may reinfect tissues of the gastrointestinal tract and contribute to fecal prion shedding. Salivary prions shed into the environment provide an additional mechanism for horizontal prion transmission. PMID:22453179

Tamgüney, Gültekin; Richt, Jürgen A; Hamir, Amir N; Greenlee, Justin J; Miller, Michael W; Wolfe, Lisa L; Sirochman, Tracey M; Young, Alan J; Glidden, David V; Johnson, Natrina L; Giles, Kurt; DeArmond, Stephen J; Prusiner, Stanley B

2012-01-01

223

Salivary testosterone and immunoglobulin A were increased by resistance training in adults with Down syndrome  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This study was designed to assess the influence of resistance training on salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels and hormone profile in sedentary adults with Down syndrome (DS). A total of 40 male adults with DS were recruited for the trial through different community support groups for people with [...] intellectual disabilities. All participants had medical approval for participation in physical activity. Twenty-four adults were randomly assigned to perform resistance training in a circuit with six stations, 3 days per week for 12 weeks. Training intensity was based on functioning in the eight-repetition maximum (8RM) test for each exercise. The control group included 16 age-, gender-, and BMI-matched adults with DS. Salivary IgA, testosterone, and cortisol levels were measured by ELISA. Work task performance was assessed using the repetitive weighted-box-stacking test. Resistance training significantly increased salivary IgA concentration (P=0.0120; d=0.94) and testosterone levels (P=0.0088; d=1.57) in the exercising group. Furthermore, it also improved work task performance. No changes were seen in the controls who had not exercised. In conclusion, a short-term resistance training protocol improved mucosal immunity response as well as salivary testosterone levels in sedentary adults with DS.

G., Fornieles; M.A., Rosety; S., Elosegui; J.M., Rosety; J.R., Alvero-Cruz; N., Garcia; M., Rosety; T., Rodriguez-Pareja; R., Toro; M., Rosety-Rodriguez; F.J., Ordonez; I., Rosety.

2014-04-01

224

Radioimmunoassay of salivary oestriol: Application to the assessment of foetal well-being  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A simple, rapid radioimmunoassay for salivary oestriol has been developed based upon a radioiodinated tracer and a Sepharose-coupled antiserum with high specificity for oestriol and oestriol-3-conjugates. The standard curve covers the range 0.75 to 17.5 nmol/L, and assay sensitivity and precision are adequate for determination of third trimester oestriol concentrations. This assay, with a short incubation time (15 min) and a high tracer activity, has proved suitable for automation using a continuous-flow system based upon the 'Southmead System' described by Ismail and co-workers. Preliminary ether extraction is unnecessary since salivary oestriol is predominantly in the unconjugated form. Measurements of unconjugated oestriol in matched samples of plasma and saliva show an excellent correlation (r=0.95). A preliminary study has been carried out to assess the feasibility of constructing individual daily salivary oestriol profiles throughout the third trimester. Data have now been collected on normal, diabetic and other high-risk patients, and these indicate that salivary oestriol measurements provide a practical alternative to the determination of plasma unconjugated oestriol. (author)

225

Salivary testosterone and immunoglobulin A were increased by resistance training in adults with Down syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was designed to assess the influence of resistance training on salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels and hormone profile in sedentary adults with Down syndrome (DS). A total of 40 male adults with DS were recruited for the trial through different community support groups for people with intellectual disabilities. All participants had medical approval for participation in physical activity. Twenty-four adults were randomly assigned to perform resistance training in a circuit with six stations, 3 days per week for 12 weeks. Training intensity was based on functioning in the eight-repetition maximum (8RM) test for each exercise. The control group included 16 age-, gender-, and BMI-matched adults with DS. Salivary IgA, testosterone, and cortisol levels were measured by ELISA. Work task performance was assessed using the repetitive weighted-box-stacking test. Resistance training significantly increased salivary IgA concentration (P=0.0120; d=0.94) and testosterone levels (P=0.0088; d=1.57) in the exercising group. Furthermore, it also improved work task performance. No changes were seen in the controls who had not exercised. In conclusion, a short-term resistance training protocol improved mucosal immunity response as well as salivary testosterone levels in sedentary adults with DS. PMID:24714816

Fornieles, G; Rosety, M A; Elosegui, S; Rosety, J M; Alvero-Cruz, J R; Garcia, N; Rosety, M; Rodriguez-Pareja, T; Toro, R; Rosety-Rodriguez, M; Ordonez, F J; Rosety, I

2014-04-01

226

Salivary thyroxine as an estimate of free thyroxine: concise communication  

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To test the hypothesis that the levels of salivary thyroxine (T/sub 4/) reflect those of circulating free T/sub 4/, we developed a radioimmunoassay (RIA) sensitive to low levels of T/sub 4/. Concurrent saliva and serum samples were obtained from 32 euthyroid volunteers, ages 19 to 64. Salivary and serum T/sub 4/ and cortisol levels were measured by RIA. Salivary albumin was measured by nephelometry. Salivary T/sub 4/ levels were higher than predicted. No correlation was found between salivary T/sub 4/ and serum levels of free T/sub 4/ and total T/sub 4/ but there was a significant correlation between salivary T/sub 4/ and albumin (r = 0.82). Salivary cortisol levels agreed with reported results and showed no correlation with salivary albumin. We conclude that salivary levels of drugs and hormones may be strongly affected by protein binding, and caution must be exercised in using salivary levels as an estimate of circulating free levels.

Elson, M.K.; Morley, J.E.; Shafer, R.B.

1983-08-01

227

Comparison of Salivary Biochemical Composition between End Stage Renal Disease and Healthy Subjects  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Following the renal disease involvement, some variations may occur in the flow, pH and biochemical components of the saliva; therefore, saliva possibly would be a useful tool for diagnosis and monitoring of the renal disease through evaluation of the components. The aim of the present study was to analyse the biochemical composition of the saliva in patients undergone haemodialysis for the end-stage renal disease (ESRD in Imam Khomeini Hospital. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 64 haemodialysis patients and 67 healthy individuals were selected and their salivary samples were obtained by spitting method. Salivary biochemical factors were determined by serum kits and auto-analyzer while the samples’ pH was determined by an automatic pH meter. Then, Creatinine, Ca, Mg, urea, ?-amylase parameters as well as the salivary flow rate were measured. The saliva biochemical compositions were analyzed using Student t test. Results: The mean (± standard deviation of the salivary flow rate was statistically lower in ESRD patients than healthy ones (0.34±0.22 ml/min vs. 0.57±0.29 ml/min: P<0.001. Salivary pH (7.87±0.72 vs. 6.99±0.4: P<0.001 and concentrations of urea (134.4±40.8 vs. 40.8±15.1 mg/dl: P<0.001; Cr (1.1±0.9 vs. 0.4±0.1 mg/dl: P<0.001 and ?-amylase (1107.4±788.4 vs. 568.3±437.0 mg/dl: P<0.001 were statistically higher in ESRD patients than healthy controls. Ca was significantly lower in ESRD patients than healthy ones (2.8±2.8 vs. 3.6±2.0 mg/dl: P<0.05.. No significant differences were noted between both groups regarding salivary Mg. The mean (± standard deviation age was statistically higher in ESRD patients than healthy ones (63.2±15.4 years vs. 48.2±15.3 years: P<0.001. No significant differences were noted between both groups regarding weight and gender. Conclusion: Due to the significant alternations of the salivary biochemical concentrations in ESRD patients; saliva can be used as a diagnostic tool for monitoning the involvement of the renal diseases.

Mahin Bakhshi

228

GATA3 immunohistochemical expression in salivary gland neoplasms.  

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GATA3 is a zinc finger transcription factor that regulates the normal development of many tissues and cell types. Recent studies have shown that immunohistochemical nuclear staining for GATA3 among tumors is highly restricted to carcinomas of breast and urothelial origin; however salivary gland tumors have not been tested. Given that breast and salivary gland tissues are very similar with respect to embryologic development and structure, we performed GATA3 staining on a spectrum of salivary gland neoplasms. GATA3 immunohistochemistry was performed on a diverse collection of 180 benign and malignant salivary gland neoplasms including 10 acinic cell carcinomas, 2 adenocarcinomas not otherwise specified, 41 adenoid cystic carcinomas, 2 epithelial-myoepithelial carcinomas, 1 low grade cribriform cystadenocarcinoma, 15 mammary analogue secretory carcinomas, 7 metastatic squamous cell carcinomas, 27 mucoepidermoid carcinomas, 2 oncocytic carcinomas, 5 oncocytomas, 34 pleomorphic adenomas, 4 polymorphous low grade adenocarcinomas, 25 salivary duct carcinomas, and 5 Warthin tumors. Staining for GATA3 was observed in 92/180 (51 %) of salivary gland tumors. GATA3 staining was observed in most of the tumor types, but diffuse immunolabeling was consistently seen in salivary duct carcinoma (25 of 25) and mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (15 of 15)-the two tumor types that most closely resemble breast neoplasia. Background benign salivary gland tissue was also usually weakly positive in both acini and ducts. GATA3 immunostaining is not restricted to tumors of breast and urothelial origin. Rather, it is expressed across many different types of salivary gland neoplasms. As a result, salivary gland origin should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a GATA3-positive carcinoma, particularly in the head and neck. Although GATA3 immunohistochemistry is not helpful in resolving the differential diagnosis between a primary salivary gland neoplasm and metastatic breast cancer, it may have some utility in subtyping salivary gland tumors, particularly salivary duct carcinoma and mammary analogue secretory carcinoma. PMID:23604756

Schwartz, Lauren E; Begum, Shahnaz; Westra, William H; Bishop, Justin A

2013-12-01

229

Anopheles salivary gland proteomes from major malaria vectors  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibody responses against Anopheles salivary proteins can indicate individual exposure to bites of malaria vectors. The extent to which these salivary proteins are species-specific is not entirely resolved. Thus, a better knowledge of the diversity among salivary protein repertoires from various malaria vector species is necessary to select relevant genus-, subgenus- and/or species-specific salivary antigens. Such antigens could be used for quantitative (mosquito density and qualitative (mosquito species immunological evaluation of malaria vectors/host contact. In this study, salivary gland protein repertoires (sialomes from several Anopheles species were compared using in silico analysis and proteomics. The antigenic diversity of salivary gland proteins among different Anopheles species was also examined. Results In silico analysis of secreted salivary gland protein sequences retrieved from an NCBInr database of six Anopheles species belonging to the Cellia subgenus (An. gambiae, An. arabiensis, An. stephensi and An. funestus and Nyssorhynchus subgenus (An. albimanus and An. darlingi displayed a higher degree of similarity compared to salivary proteins from closely related Anopheles species. Additionally, computational hierarchical clustering allowed identification of genus-, subgenus- and species-specific salivary proteins. Proteomic and immunoblot analyses performed on salivary gland extracts from four Anopheles species (An. gambiae, An. arabiensis, An. stephensi and An. albimanus indicated that heterogeneity of the salivary proteome and antigenic proteins was lower among closely related anopheline species and increased with phylogenetic distance. Conclusion This is the first report on the diversity of the salivary protein repertoire among species from the Anopheles genus at the protein level. This work demonstrates that a molecular diversity is exhibited among salivary proteins from closely related species despite their common pharmacological activities. The involvement of these proteins as antigenic candidates for genus-, subgenus- or species-specific immunological evaluation of individual exposure to Anopheles bites is discussed.

Fontaine Albin

2012-11-01

230

The activity of selected glycosidases in salivary gland tumors.  

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Full Text Available The monitoring of the patients after salivary gland tumors surgery is an important clinical issue. Still imperfect diagnostic procedures also remain a challenge for searching new sensitive and specific biomarkers of neoplastic processes in salivary glands. The aim of the presented study was an the assessment of the activity of HEX, with its isoforms HEX-A and HEX-B, GLU, GAL, MAN and FUC in salivary gland tumor tissues in comparison to a healthy salivary gland tissues taken during autopsy. A group of 42 patients with benign and malignant salivary gland tumors, aged 25-65 were examined. Fragments of salivary gland tumor tissue, fragments of healthy tissue removed during autopsy, blood serum and saliva were collected from patients with salivary gland tumors and healthy volunteers. In salivary gland tumor tissue the activity of HEX, HEX-A, HEX-B, GAL, FUC was considerably higher than in comparison to healthy salivary gland tissue and ascending trend of activity of GLU, MAN was also noticed. The activity of all lysosomal exoglycosidases in blood serum in patients with salivary gland tumors was considerably higher in comparison to healthy volunteers blood serum. The considerably higher activity of HEX, HEX-A, GLU, GAL, MAN, FUC and descending trend of activity of HEX-B were noticed in saliva of patients with salivary gland tumors in comparison to healthy volunteers. The assessment of HEX in blood serum and saliva of patients with salivary gland tumor can be possibly used in diagnostics and monitoring of salivary glands tumors.

Sylwia Chojnowska

2010-11-01

231

Factors of salivary gland tumor influence on salivary gland function. Studies on salivary scintigraphy using 99mTcO4-  

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The purpose of this study was to show clearly what factors such as tumor size, duration of illness, location, and tumor invasion in salivary gland tumor affect salivary gland function. The study cases were 42 salivary gland tumor patients who underwent computed tomography (CT) and sialoscintigraphy. Salivary gland tumor was confirmed histopathologically. The patients were 24 males and 18 females, aged from 16 to 82 years old (mean age: 52.8 years old). There were 23 patients with parotid gland tumors and 19 patients with submandibular gland tumors (27 benign tumors, 15 malignant tumors). By using 99mTcO4- sialoscintigraphy, the salivary gland function was classified into three different types according to stimulatory selection ratio which was expressed as the ratio of pre- to post-stimulation counts on the salivary gland, namely, normal, lower functional, and no functional types. Then the normal type was judged abnormal function, and the lower and no functional types were judged as abnormal function. The results were as follows: There was a significant difference between malignant tumor and benign tumor in salivary gland function (P<0.0001). Depending on tumor size, abnormal function was significantly higher than normal function (P<0.05). There was no statistical significant difference among duration of illness, location of tumor, and salivary gland function. There was a significant difference between tumor invasion and salivary gland function (P<0.0001). The results showed that salivary gland function was disturbed in salivary gland tumor with larger size and positive invasion. (author)

232

Insights into the insect salivary gland proteome: diet-associated changes in caterpillar labial salivary proteins.  

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The primary function of salivary glands is fluid and protein secretion during feeding. Compared to mammalian systems, little is known about salivary protein secretion processes and the effect of diet on the salivary proteome in insect models. Therefore, the effect of diet nutritional quality on caterpillar labial salivary gland proteins was investigated using an unbiased global proteomic approach by nanoLC/ESI/tandem MS. Caterpillars of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua Hübner, were fed one of three diets: an artificial diet containing their self-selected protein to carbohydrate (p:c) ratio (22p:20c), an artificial diet containing a higher nutritional content but the same p:c ratio (33p:30c) or the plant Medicago truncatula Gaertn. As expected, most identified proteins were associated with secretory processes and not influenced by diet. However, some diet-specific differences were observed. Nutrient stress-associated proteins, such as peptidyl-propyl cis-trans isomerase and glucose-regulated protein94/endoplasmin, and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase were identified in the labial salivary glands of caterpillars fed nutritionally poor diets, suggesting a link between nutritional status and vesicular exocytosis. Heat shock proteins and proteins involved in endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein degradation were also abundant in the labial salivary glands of these caterpillars. In comparison, proteins associated with development, such as arylphorin, were found in labial salivary glands of caterpillars fed 33p:30c. These results suggest that caterpillars fed balanced or nutritionally-poor diets have accelerated secretion pathways compared to those fed a protein-rich diet. PMID:23353727

Afshar, Khashayar; Dube, Fitsum Fikru; Najafabadi, Hamed S; Bonneil, Eric; Thibault, Pierre; Salavati, Reza; Bede, Jacqueline C

2013-03-01

233

Determination of the Nicotine Metabolites Cotinine and Trans-3?-Hydroxycotinine in Biologic fluids of Smokers and Non-Smokers using Liquid Chromatography - Tandem Mass Spectrometry: Biomarkers for Tobacco Smoke Exposure and for Phenotyping Cytochrome P450 2A6 Activity  

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The nicotine metabolite cotinine is widely used to assess the extent of tobacco use in smokers, and secondhand smoke exposure in non-smokers. The ratio of another nicotine metabolite, trans-3?-hydroxycotinine, to cotinine in biofluids is highly correlated with the rate of nicotine metabolism, which is catalyzed mainly by Cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6). Consequently, this nicotine metabolite ratio is being used to phenotype individuals for CYP2A6 activity and to individualize pharmacotherapies...

Jacob, Peyton; Yu, Lisa; Duan, Minjiang; Ramos, Lita; Yturralde, Olivia; Benowitz, Neal L.

2011-01-01

234

THE SALIVARY GLAND CHROMOSOMES OF ANOPHELES OCCIDENTALIS.  

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Increasing emphasis is being placed on the study of the genetics of insect vectors of disease, and, although Anopheles occidentalis is not itself a malaria vector, study of its salivary gland chromosomes is important as part of investigations into the phylogenetic and evolutionary relationships of anophelines, especially in view of this species' close morphological similarity to other members of the A. maculipennis complex.The authors of this paper provide a map of the salivary chromosomes of A. occidentalis, and discuss the many points of resemblance of those chromosomes to those of A. freeborni in particular. However, they point out that at least ten different paracentric inversions must be postulated to derive the A. occidentalis chromosomes from those of A. freeborni. PMID:14315725

BAKER, R H; KITZMILLER, J B

1965-01-01

235

THE EFFECT OF SPORT COMPETITION ON SALIVARY STEROIDS IN AMATEUR FEMALE KARATE ATHLETES  

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Full Text Available The purpose of present study was to investigate the impact of repeated competition on salivary cortisol and DHEA-S in amateur women karate athletes. We recruited 20 young elite female karate fighters [height 158 ± 7 cm (mean ± S.D., weight 59.5 ± 10.9 kg, age 21.1 ± 3.0 years], who were placed first till fourth in the Iranian championship tournament. Five ml of unstimulated whole saliva was collected 30-min before and 5 - min after first and last match in competition and analyzed for cortisol and DHEA-S concentrations. The results showed that participation in competition resulted in significantly increased saliva cortisol level (p 0.05. Significant differences insalivary steroids were not different between winners and losers (p > 0.05. The results of present study show that salivary cortisol concentration is a suitable index for showing competing stress.

Mohammad Ali Azarbayjani

2010-06-01

236

Sialolithiasis: An unusually large asymptomatic submandibular salivary stone  

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Salivary gland calculi account for the most common disease of salivary glands. The majority of sialoliths occur in submandibular gland or its duct and they are a common cause of acute and chronic infections. This case report describes an asymptomatic patient presenting with a large submandibular duct sialolith, the subsequent non surgical management of the patient along with etiology, diagnosis and various treatment modalities available for the treatment of salivary gland calculi depend...

Kamtane Smita; Ghodke Monali

2013-01-01

237

Plexiform Neurofibroma of the Submandibular Salivary Gland: A Rare Tumour  

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A 15 year old boy presented with swelling in the submandibular region. X ray of the part showed faint radio opaque shadow. A provisional diagnosis of sialadenitis with sialiolithiasis was made. Excised mass was reported histopathologically as plexiform neurofibroma of submandibular salivary gland. Plexiform neurofibroma of the salivary gland is a rare benign tumour, often present in the parotid gland. It is very rare in submandibular salivary gland. It is a slow growing, locally infiltrating...

Tati, Shekar Y.; Gole, Gautam N.; Prabhala, Shailaja; Gole, Sheetal G.

2011-01-01

238

Scintigraphy of the salivary glands in Sjögen's syndrome.  

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Scintigraphy of the salivary glands with technetium-sodium pertechnetate (99mTc) was undertaken on 320 patients with oral dryness or connective tissue disease using a computer assisted method that gave quantitative results about the major salivary gland function. Compared with clinical and histological data, scintigraphy provides a sensitive method, even though it is not specific, for detecting minimal injuries to salivary glands in patients suspected of having Sjögen's syndrome. Moreover, i...

Arrago, J. P.; Rain, J. D.; Brocheriou, C.; Rocher, F.

1987-01-01

239

Immunohistochemical and quantitative changes in salivary EGF, amylase and haptocorrin following radiotherapy for oral cancer  

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Epidermal growth factor (EGF), amylase and haptocorrin are molecules produced in the salivary glands. The aim of the present study was to determine immunohistochemical and quantitative alterations in EGF as compared with haptocorrin and amylase following radiotherapy for oral cancer. Changes in the salivary secretion of EGF are of interest because of the importance of EGF in mucosal regeneration. Immunohistochemical studies on normal tissue from parotid and submandibular glands have demonstrated EGF in the serous acini with a tendency to single cell expression in the parotid gland. Amylase has been found in the serous acini of both the submandibular and parotid glands. Haptocorrin was localized in the duct system of both glands. In the submandibular glands with radiotherapy induced sialoadenitis only very few acini with weak or no staining for EGF and amylase were demonstrated, while no changes were observed in the staining for haptocorrin. Analysis on stimulated whole saliva samples collected from 20 healthyindividuals and from 20 patients prior to, and 1, 2 and 3 weeks following radiotherapy showed significant reduction in salivary contents of EGF and amylase after treatment as expressed per g protein (p <0.0002). The salivary content of haptocorrin increased significantly after treatment (p <0.002). These alterations may be explained by the different cellular sites of the molecules studied, the serous acini being more sensitive to ionising radiation than the duct system. The concentration of EGF in saliva before treatment was significantly higher in patients than in the control group (p <0.02), which may indicate that the tumors induce increased secretion of salivary EGF, or alternatively that the oral tumors contribute with EGF to the saliva. In conclusion we have demonstrated a reduction in the mitogenic peptide EGF both immunohistochemically and quantitatively following irradiation for oral cancer, results which may contribute to the understanding of the clinical signs of mucositis.

Christensen, M E; Hansen, H S

1996-01-01

240

Social Closeness Increases Salivary Progesterone in Humans  

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We examined whether interpersonal closeness increases salivary progesterone. One hundred and sixty female college students (80 dyads) were randomly assigned to participate in either a closeness task with a partner versus a neutral task with a partner. Those exposed to the closeness induction had higher levels of progesterone relative to those exposed to the neutral task. Across conditions, progesterone increase one week later predicted the willingness to sacrifice for the partner. These resul...

Brown, Stephanie L.; Fredrickson, Barbara L.; Wirth, Michelle M.; Poulin, Michael J.; Meier, Elizabeth A.; Heaphy, Emily D.; Cohen, Michael D.; Schultheiss, Oliver C.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Salivary gland scintigraphy in sjögren syndrome  

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Sjögren syndrome is a systemic autoimmune disease that mainly affects exocrineglands, such as the salivary and lacrimal glands, causing a decline in their secretions.This disease is also known as Sicca Syndrome. It is reported a clinical case of a womanwho fulfill all diagnostic criteria of European-American Consensus of Sjogren Syndrome2002.RESUMEN:El Síndrome de Sjögren es una enfermedad sistémica autoinmune que afectaprincipalmente las glándulas exocrinas del organismo, como las saliv...

Betancourt-Piñeres Aiken Felipe; Milanés-Pérez Rosa Isabel; Bonnet-Palencia Igor Iván; Padilla-Tovar Lacides; Moreno-Grau Álvaro; Álvarez-Romero Erick; Muñoz-Méndez José Thomas

2011-01-01

242

Salivary mucins in oral mucosal defense.  

Science.gov (United States)

1. Salivary mucins are well recognized as an important factor in the preservation of the health of the oral cavity. These large glycoproteins play a major role in the formation of protective coatings covering tooth enamel and oral mucosa, which act as a dynamic functional barrier capable of modulating the untoward effects of oral environment, and are of significance to the processes occurring within the epithelial perimeter of mucosal defense. 2. Based on macromolecular characteristics, the mucins in saliva fall into high (> 1000 kDa) and low (200-300 kDa) molecular weight forms. The two forms, although differ with respect to bacterial clearance ability, display virtually identical carbohydrate chain make-up, ranging in size from 3 to 16 sugar units. 3. Of the two mucin forms, the low molecular weight form more efficient in bacterial aggregation, predominates in saliva and oral mucosal mucus coat of caries-resistant individuals, while the level of the high molecular weight form is higher in caries-susceptible subjects. The saliva of caries-resistant individuals also exhibits greater activity of protease capable of conversion of the high molecular weight mucin to the low molecular weight form. 4. The bacterial aggregating activity of salivary mucins appears to be associated with sulfomucins rather than sialomucins. While the removal of sialic acid causes only partial loss in mucin aggregating capacity, a complete loss in the bacterial aggregating activity occurs following mucin desulfation. 5. The mucins in oral mucosal mucus coat interact with the epithelial surfaces through specific membrane receptors. This interaction apparently involves the carbohydrate moiety of mucin molecule and may be rendered vulnerable to disruption by opportunistic bacteria colonizing the oral mucosa. 6. Salivary sulfo- and sialomucins actively participate in the modulation of the oral mucosal calcium channel activity through the inhibition of EGF-stimulated channel protein tyrosine phosphorylation. This function of salivary mucins is of paramount importance to mucosal calcium homeostasis. PMID:8842677

Slomiany, B L; Murty, V L; Piotrowski, J; Slomiany, A

1996-07-01

243

Electrochemical Measurements of Salivary Amylase Activity  

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Stress constitutes a more and more common cause for many health disorders inmodern society. Salivary -amylase (AA), the most abundant enzyme in humanwhole saliva, has in recent years been found to be a good surrogate biomarker formonitoring stress levels in individuals. This work aims to form the foundation ofa novel approach for measuring the activity of the enzyme in saliva samples bymeans of electrochemistry. The idea is to implement several enzymes along witha starch substrate and an elec...

Ho?ckerdal, Henrik

2012-01-01

244

A proteomics approach to characterizing tick salivary secretions.  

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The saliva of ticks contains a complex mixture of bioactive molecules including proteins that modulate host responses ensuring successful feeding. The limited amount of saliva that can be obtained from ticks has hampered characterization of salivary proteins using traditional protein chemistry. Recent improvements in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, and bioinformatics provide new tools to characterize small amounts of protein. These methods were employed to characterize salivary proteins from Amblyomma americanum and Amblyvomma maculatum. Salivation was induced by injection of dopamine and theophylline. It was necessary to desalt and concentrate saliva before analysis by 2-D electrophoresis. Comparison of 1-D and 2-D gel patterns revealed that the major protein component of saliva did not appear on 2-D gels. Characterization of this protein showed that it was identical to the major protein present in the hemolymph of both tick species. Protein profiles obtained by 1-D and 2-D gel electrophoresis were similar for both tick species, however, higher concentrations of lower molecular weight proteins were present in A. maculatum. Protein analysis by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and western blot analysis showed that except for the most abundant protein with a molecular weight of 95 kDa, all of the proteins detected were of host origin. It is not known if this is an artifact of the collection method or has physiological significance. In either case, in these species of ticks, host proteins will have to be removed from saliva samples prior to 2-D analysis in order to characterize lower abundance proteins of tick origin. PMID:15198089

Madden, Robin D; Sauer, John R; Dillwith, Jack W

2004-01-01

245

Optical approach to the salivary pellicle  

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The salivary pellicle plays an important role in oral physiology, yet noninvasive in situ characterization and mapping of this layer remains elusive. The goal of this study is to develop an optical approach for the real-time, noninvasive mapping and characterization of salivary pellicles using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical coherence microscopy (OCM). The long-term goals are to improve diagnostic capabilities in the oral cavity, gain a better understanding of physiological and pathological processes related to the oral hard tissues, and monitor treatment responses. A salivary pellicle is incubated on small enamel cubes using human whole saliva. OCT and OCM imaging occurs at 0, 10, 30, 60 min, and 24 h. For some imaging, spherical gold nanoparticles (15 nm) are added to determine whether this would increase the optical signal from the pellicle. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) provides the baseline information. In the saliva-incubated samples, a surface signal from the developing pellicle is visible in OCT images. Pellicle ``islands'' form, which increase in complexity over time until they merge to form a continuous layer over the enamel surface. Noninvasive, in situ time-based pellicle formation on the enamel surface is visualized and characterized using optical imaging.

Baek, Jae Ho; Krasieva, Tatiana; Tang, Shuo; Ahn, Yehchan; Kim, Chang Soo; Vu, Diana; Chen, Zhongping; Wilder-Smith, Petra

2009-07-01

246

Effect of lithium on secretory factors and growth stimulation by bombesin in rat pancreas and salivary glands.  

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Lithium, a drug of choice in bipolar affective disorders, also affects the metabolism and cell proliferation in a diverse array of organisms. In this study, we investigated the effect of lithium on bombesin-mediated function in excretion and growth of the pancreas and the salivary glands. The weight, protein content, amylase concentration and salivary flow rate of the pancreas, parotid and the submandibular glands were determined in male Wistar rats after consumption of either water or lithium chloride (600 mg/l) for 14 days and each group received s.c. injection of either saline or bombesin (10 microg/kg) during the last 4 days of experiment. Our results revealed that administration of bombesin in lithium-treated group not only suppressed pancreas and parotid weight augmentation due to bombesin, but also significantly decreased pancreas growth. Chronic lithium consumption significantly inhibited the protein content augmentation due to bombesin in the salivary glands. Getting bombesin, as well as saline in lithium-treated group, resulted in notable decrease in salivary protein content. Protein content of pancreatic gland increased considerably in the bombesin-injected groups either treated with saline or lithium. In conclusion, the stimulatory effect of bombesin on the growth and protein content of the pancreas and the salivary gland was inhibited by lithium. Lithium seems to be a potent inhibitor of growth factors induced by bombesin probably through inhibiting phosphatidylinositol 4,5,bisphosphate hydrolysis. PMID:21789882

Javadi-Paydar, Mehrak; Vojdanpak, Shahaboddin; Pour-Ali, Maryam; Halajian, Hosein; Ghazi, Payam; Shahsavari, Fatemeh; Emami-Razavi, Seyed Hasan; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

2010-02-28

247

Galanin: hydrokinetic action on salivary glands in man.  

Science.gov (United States)

Galanin was infused intravenously into eight healthy volunteers at a dose of 40 pmol kg-1 min-1 for 1 h to investigate the pharmacological effects of this peptide on the postprandial sialagogical response in man. Galanin significantly increased the salivary volume and the saliva output of sodium, chloride and bicarbonate compared to control saline infusion, but had no effect on the output of potassium and alpha-amylase. An increase in salivary pH was also observed. The increase in salivary volume may indicate a physiological role of galanin in the control of salivary secretion. PMID:2485092

Bauer, F E; Ghatei, M A; Zintel, A; Bloom, S R

1989-12-01

248

Salivary duct carcinoma of parotid gland- An incidental finding  

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Full Text Available Salivary duct carcinoma, a recently added separate entity of salivary gland tumor is a rare tumour with its aggressive behaviour. Due to morphological similarities with ductal carcinoma of breast the name salivary duct carcinoma is given. It is more common in male than in female. But our case is of 45yr female with mass in the parotid region. The diagnosis on USG and CT was organized collection. But on excision the diagnosis turned to be salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland

Suparna Suvernakar V, Shubha Deshpande A, Prabha Mulay S

2014-07-01

249

Anaerobic Threshold and Salivary ?-amylase during Incremental Exercise  

Science.gov (United States)

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to clarify the validity of salivary ?-amylase as a method of quickly estimating anaerobic threshold and to establish the relationship between salivary ?-amylase and double-product breakpoint in order to create a way to adjust exercise intensity to a safe and effective range. [Subjects and Methods] Eleven healthy young adults performed an incremental exercise test using a cycle ergometer. During the incremental exercise test, oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, and ventilatory equivalent were measured using a breath-by-breath gas analyzer. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured to calculate the double product, from which double-product breakpoint was determined. Salivary ?-amylase was measured to calculate the salivary threshold. [Results] One-way ANOVA revealed no significant differences among workloads at the anaerobic threshold, double-product breakpoint, and salivary threshold. Significant correlations were found between anaerobic threshold and salivary threshold and between anaerobic threshold and double-product breakpoint. [Conclusion] As a method for estimating anaerobic threshold, salivary threshold was as good as or better than determination of double-product breakpoint because the correlation between anaerobic threshold and salivary threshold was higher than the correlation between anaerobic threshold and double-product breakpoint. Therefore, salivary threshold is a useful index of anaerobic threshold during an incremental workload. PMID:25140097

Akizuki, Kazunori; Yazaki, Syouichirou; Echizenya, Yuki; Ohashi, Yukari

2014-01-01

250

Results of radiation therapy for carcinoma of the salivary glands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of radiation therapy in 152 patients with carcinoma of the major and minor salivary glands during the past 30 years were analyzed. Long-term suvivors with recurrent disease and/or distant metastasis were common in the minor salivary glands as compared to the major salivary glands. The effects of radiation therapy depend on the degree of residual tumor after surgery. The treatment of choice for the tumor must be the surgery. However, local control was obtained by radiation therapy in many patients treated with brachytherapy or intracavitary electron beam in the minor salivary glands with a slight degree of residual tumor. (author)

251

Central Nifedipine-induced Alterations in Salivary Flow and Compounds: Role of Nitric Oxide  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the role of nifedipine and Nitric Oxide (NO on salivary flow and compounds (salivary amylase, saliva total proteins, saliva calcium, sodium and potassium. Male Holtzman rats weighting 200-250 g were anesthetized with zoletil 50 mg kg-1 (tiletamine chloridrate 125.0 mg and zolazepan chloridrate 125.0 mg into quadriceps muscle and stainless steel cannulas were implanted into their lateral ventricle of the brain (LV. Animals in divided group were injected with nifedipine (50 ?g ?L-1 alone and in combination with 7-nitroindazol (7-NIT (40 ?g ?L-1, neuronal NO Sinthase Inhibitor (nNOSI and Sodium Nitroprussate (SNP (30 ?g ?L-1 NO donor agent. As a secretory stimuli, pilocarpine dissolved in isotonic was administered intraperitoneally (ip at a dosage of 10 mg kg-1 body weight. Saliva was collected for 7 min with four cotton balls weighing approximately 20 mg each, two of which were placed on either side of the oral cavity, with the other two placed under the tongue. Nifedipine treatment induced a reduction in saliva secretion rate and concentration of amylase, total protein and calcium without changes in sodium and potassium concentration in comparison with controls. Co-treatment of animals with nifedipine and SNP retained flow rate and concentration of amylase, total protein and calcium in normal levels. Co-treatment of animals with nifedipine and 7-NIT potentiated the effect of nifedipine on the reduction of saliva secretion and concentrations of amylase, total protein and calcium. Nifedipine (dihydroperidine calcium-channel blocker widely in use is associated with salivary dysfunction acting in the central nervous system structures. NO might be the mechanism for protective effect against the nifedipine-induce salivary dysfunction, acting in the CNS.

Wilson Abrao Saad

2006-01-01

252

S-100 protein antibodies do not label normal salivary gland myoepithelium. Histogenetic implications for salivary gland tumors.  

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Neoplastically modified myoepithelial cells have a key role in developing the histologic characteristics of some salivary gland tumors. S-100 protein expressed in certain of these tumors is suggested to support this role, as the principal component in the human salivary gland reported to be S-100 protein-positive is myoepithelium. Confirmation of such an important aspect is required. Immunoperoxidase staining of parotid salivary gland shows considerably different patterns obtained with antibo...

Dardick, I.; Stratis, M.; Parks, W. R.; Denardi, F. G.; Kahn, H. J.

1991-01-01

253

pH Salival, Capacidad Buffer, Proteínas Totales y Flujo Salival en Pacientes Hipertensos Controlados Usuarios de Diuréticos / Salivary pH, Buffer Capacity, Total Proteins and Salivary Flow in Controlled Hypertensive Patients Diuretic Users  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La hipertensión arterial (HTA) es una enfermedad cardiovascular que padece gran parte de la población mundial y nacional, alcanzando en Chile un 26,9% en el año 2010. El objetivo fue determinar pH salival, capacidad buffer, proteínas totales y flujo salival, en pacientes hipertensos controlados usua [...] rios de diuréticos. Se analizaron 14 muestras de saliva no estimulada de pacientes hipertensos controlados con diuréticos y 10 muestras de saliva no estimulada de personas que no padecían enfermedades sistémicas y no tomaban medicamentos, los valores obtenidos de pH salival, capacidad buffer, flujo salival y proteínas totales fueron determinados en ambos grupos. La mediana obtenida en las muestras de hipertensos controlados con diuréticos, para el pH salival fue de 6,83; para la capacidad buffer fue 4,86; para el flujo salival fue 0,55 ml/min y para las proteínas totales salivales fue de 1,09 g/dL. Para el grupo de pacientes sanos la mediana fue de 6,88 para el pH; 4,25 para la capacidad buffer; 1,8 ml/min para el flujo salival y 0,29 g/dL para las proteínas totales salivales. Además, no se encontró asociación entre el flujo salival (rs = 0,425), capacidad buffer (rs = 0,283) y concentración de proteínas (rs = 0,245) con la dosis del diurético (p > 0,05) . Se encontró que existieron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en el flujo salival y la concentración de proteínas salivales entre el grupo de pacientes hipertensos y de pacientes sanos (U Mann-Wthitney P 0,005). Los pacientes que sufren HTA y están siendo controlados con diuréticos tienen una disminución del flujo salival y un aumento de la concentración de proteínas, no viéndose afectadas las variables de pH y capacidad buffer. Abstract in english Introduction: Hypertension (HT) is a cardiovascular disease with a high prevalence around the world. In Chile at year 2010 it reached 26.9% of the population. Objective: To determine salivary pH, buffering capacity, total proteins and salivary flow in controlled hypertensive diuretic users and a gro [...] up without systemic diseases. Methods: 14 samples of unstimulated saliva of patients with hypertension treated with diuretics and 10 samples of unstimulated saliva of people without systemic diseases and not taking medication were analyzed. pH, salivary buffering, salivary flow and total protein were determined in both groups. Results: The figures for the treated HT patients were as follows: pH: 6.83, buffer capacity: 4.86, salivary flow: 0.55 ml / min and total salivary proteins: 1.09 g / dL. For those without systemic diseases the results were: pH: 6,88, buffer capacity: 4,25, saliva flow: 1.8 ml / min and total salivary protein: 0.29 g / dL. No association was found between salivary flow (rs = 0.425), buffering capacity (rs = 0.283) and protein concentration (rs = 0.245) with the diuretic dose (p > 0.05). Statistically significant differences were found in salivary flow and total salivary protein concentration between the group with hypertension and without. (U Mann-Wthitney P > 0.005). No statistically significant differences in salivary pH and buffering capacity were found among the study groups (U Mann-Wthitney > 0.005). Conclusion: Patients with hypertension and treated with diuretics have a decreased salivary flow and an increased total protein concentration while ph and buffer capacity remained normal.

Samuel, Muñoz L; Carmen Gloria, Narváez.

2012-04-01

254

pH Salival, Capacidad Buffer, Proteínas Totales y Flujo Salival en Pacientes Hipertensos Controlados Usuarios de Diuréticos / Salivary pH, Buffer Capacity, Total Proteins and Salivary Flow in Controlled Hypertensive Patients Diuretic Users  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La hipertensión arterial (HTA) es una enfermedad cardiovascular que padece gran parte de la población mundial y nacional, alcanzando en Chile un 26,9% en el año 2010. El objetivo fue determinar pH salival, capacidad buffer, proteínas totales y flujo salival, en pacientes hipertensos controlados usua [...] rios de diuréticos. Se analizaron 14 muestras de saliva no estimulada de pacientes hipertensos controlados con diuréticos y 10 muestras de saliva no estimulada de personas que no padecían enfermedades sistémicas y no tomaban medicamentos, los valores obtenidos de pH salival, capacidad buffer, flujo salival y proteínas totales fueron determinados en ambos grupos. La mediana obtenida en las muestras de hipertensos controlados con diuréticos, para el pH salival fue de 6,83; para la capacidad buffer fue 4,86; para el flujo salival fue 0,55 ml/min y para las proteínas totales salivales fue de 1,09 g/dL. Para el grupo de pacientes sanos la mediana fue de 6,88 para el pH; 4,25 para la capacidad buffer; 1,8 ml/min para el flujo salival y 0,29 g/dL para las proteínas totales salivales. Además, no se encontró asociación entre el flujo salival (rs = 0,425), capacidad buffer (rs = 0,283) y concentración de proteínas (rs = 0,245) con la dosis del diurético (p > 0,05) . Se encontró que existieron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en el flujo salival y la concentración de proteínas salivales entre el grupo de pacientes hipertensos y de pacientes sanos (U Mann-Wthitney P 0,005). Los pacientes que sufren HTA y están siendo controlados con diuréticos tienen una disminución del flujo salival y un aumento de la concentración de proteínas, no viéndose afectadas las variables de pH y capacidad buffer. Abstract in english Introduction: Hypertension (HT) is a cardiovascular disease with a high prevalence around the world. In Chile at year 2010 it reached 26.9% of the population. Objective: To determine salivary pH, buffering capacity, total proteins and salivary flow in controlled hypertensive diuretic users and a gro [...] up without systemic diseases. Methods: 14 samples of unstimulated saliva of patients with hypertension treated with diuretics and 10 samples of unstimulated saliva of people without systemic diseases and not taking medication were analyzed. pH, salivary buffering, salivary flow and total protein were determined in both groups. Results: The figures for the treated HT patients were as follows: pH: 6.83, buffer capacity: 4.86, salivary flow: 0.55 ml / min and total salivary proteins: 1.09 g / dL. For those without systemic diseases the results were: pH: 6,88, buffer capacity: 4,25, saliva flow: 1.8 ml / min and total salivary protein: 0.29 g / dL. No association was found between salivary flow (rs = 0.425), buffering capacity (rs = 0.283) and protein concentration (rs = 0.245) with the diuretic dose (p > 0.05). Statistically significant differences were found in salivary flow and total salivary protein concentration between the group with hypertension and without. (U Mann-Wthitney P > 0.005). No statistically significant differences in salivary pH and buffering capacity were found among the study groups (U Mann-Wthitney > 0.005). Conclusion: Patients with hypertension and treated with diuretics have a decreased salivary flow and an increased total protein concentration while ph and buffer capacity remained normal.

Samuel, Muñoz L; Carmen Gloria, Narváez.

255

Direct salivary cortisol radio-immunoassay determination. Clinical applications  

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Salivary cortisol levels reflect the biologically active free fraction of blood cortisol. The authors describe the results obtained with the aim of a radio-immunoassay commercial serum cortisol kit, without prealable extraction in different physiological and pathological situations. Salivary cortisol determination appears performant both in nycthemeral studies and in stimulation or freination tests

256

Intimate Partner Violence Exposure, Salivary Cortisol, and Childhood Asthma  

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Parents were given supplies to collect 3 child salivary cortisol samples (awakening, 30-min after awakening, bedtime) at home on a typical day, and return them via mail. Medical records also were abstracted. Results: Fifty-three percent (n = 29) returned child salivary samples. Families who returned samples typically returned them within 2 weeks,…

Bair-Merritt, Megan H.; Johnson, Sara B.; Okelo, Sande; Page, Gayle

2012-01-01

257

Salivary cortisol and immunoglobulin A responses to simulated and official Jiu-Jitsu matches.  

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The aim of this study was to compare the salivary cortisol (sC) and the salivary immunoglobulin A (sIgA) responses to simulated and official Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu (BJJ) matches. Saliva samples were collected from 9 male BJJ athletes before (pre) and after (post) 2 simulated matches (SMs) and 2 official matches (OMs) performed during 2 different competitions. Salivary cortisol and sIgA concentrations (absolute concentration of sIgA [sIgAabs] and the secretion rate of sIgA [sIgArate]) were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. For sC, there was an effect of condition (SM vs. OM) (p BJJ matches can increase sC levels. Moreover, the higher sC resting levels, observed before OMs, suggest that psychological factors associated with high physical-physiological demands from official BJJ competitions maximize stress hormone responses. In addition, the present findings suggest that the acute effect of BJJ matches on mucosal immunity is minimal, and it seems unlikely that changes in cortisol play a major role in the alterations in sIgA levels in response to BJJ matches. The findings of this study suggest that the use of sC can provide valuable information for coaches regarding athletes' responses to competition. In addition, psychological strategies should be implemented before events, to improve the manner in which BJJ athletes cope with the stress inherent to official matches. PMID:22027851

Moreira, Alexandre; Franchini, Emerson; de Freitas, Camila Gobo; Schultz de Arruda, Ademir F; de Moura, Nivaldo Ribeiro; Costa, Eduardo Caldas; Aoki, Marcelo Saldanha

2012-08-01

258

The effects of SES on infant and maternal diurnal salivary cortisol output.  

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The present study directly compared diurnal salivary cortisol output and maternal-infant synchrony in low and high socio-economic status (SES) mother-infant dyads. Saliva cortisol samples were collected from 32 6-12-month-old infants and their mothers on the same day in the morning, afternoon and evening, and assayed for free cortisol concentration. Low-SES infants and mothers exhibited higher average salivary cortisol output, without dysregulation, compared to high-SES infants. Low-SES infants and mothers also showed reduced synchrony in cortisol output compared to high-SES infants and mothers. Results are discussed with respect to maternal sensitivity and early stress reduction interventions. PMID:24813589

Clearfield, Melissa W; Carter-Rodriguez, Ariel; Merali, Al-Rahim; Shober, Rachel

2014-08-01

259

Warthin tumor arising from the minor salivary gland.  

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Warthin tumor (WT) accounts for 4% to 13% of all salivary gland tumors. This benign tumor, which commonly arises in the parotid gland, is the second most common tumor of the salivary gland. WT is multicentric in 12% to 20% of patients and is bilateral in 5% to 14%. The mean age at diagnosis is 62 years (range, 12-92 years), and it rarely presents (<6%) before age 40 years. Extraparotid WT, arising from the submandibular gland or cervical lymph node for example, is very infrequent, with corresponding incidences of 0.4% to 6.9% and 8%, respectively. Moreover, WT arising from the minor salivary gland is extremely rare, with a reported incidence of merely 0.1% to 1.2%. We report here WT arising from the minor salivary gland in the buccal mucosa in a 66-year-old woman and review cases of WT of the minor salivary gland reported in the English literature. PMID:22976673

Iwai, Toshinori; Baba, Junichi; Murata, Shogo; Mitsudo, Kenji; Maegawa, Jiro; Nagahama, Kiyotaka; Tohnai, Iwai

2012-09-01

260

Salivary gland neoplasms: an analysis of 74 cases.  

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Between 2006 and 2009, 74 cases of salivary gland neoplasms were analyzed retrospectively, of which 44 (60%) were benign and 30 (40%) malignant. 61 % percent of neoplasms were in the parotid gland, 22% in the minor salivary glands including sublingual salivary glands, and 17% in the submandibular glands. The most common benign neoplasm was pleomorphic adenoma (64%), and the most common malignant neoplasm were adenoid cystic carcinoma (17%) and mucoepidermoid carcinoma (23%). We analyze the incidence and distribution of all types of salivary gland neoplasms in our series, and provide data for comparison with other epidemiological studies from different geographical sites and races. Demographic data from these studies help us to a better understanding of the biological and clinical characteristics of the disease. Further epidemiological surveys should be encouraged for better understanding of the disease and to provide early and better treatment of salivary gland neoplasms. PMID:23139498

Sirohi, Deepika; Sharma, Rohit; Sinha, Ramen; Suresh Menon, P

2009-06-01

 
 
 
 
261

Salivary gland accumulation of meta-[131I]iodobenzylguanidine  

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Intense uptake of m-[131I]iodobenzylguanidine (I-131 MIBG) has been observed in the salivary glands of patients undergoing scintigraphy for the location of suspected pheochromocytomas. This uptake of radioativity was not due to free I-131 derived from the I-131 MIBG but rather to uptake of I-131 MIBG by sympathetic neuronal elements in the salivary glands. In keeping with this, administration of tricycle antidepressants reversibly blocked salivary uptake of I-131 MIBG. Furthermore, I-131 MIBG uptake was markedly diminished by the ipsilateral salivary glands in a patient with Horner's syndrome, and was bilaterally diminished in a patient with severe idiopathic sympathetic autonomic neuropathy. The salivary gland uptake of I-131 MIBG may provide a means for the study of sympathetic innervation of these organs, and thus for the study of generalized disorders of autonomic innervation

262

Solid blue dot tumour: minor salivary gland acinic cell carcinoma.  

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Acinic cell adenocarcinoma (ACC) is a low-grade malignant salivary neoplasm that constitutes approximately 17% of all primary salivary gland malignancies. In the head and neck region, the parotid gland is the predominant site of origin and ACC is usually more frequent in women than men. Previous radiation exposure and familial predisposition are some of the risk factors for ACC. ACCs rarely involve minor salivary glands constituting only 13-17% of all minor salivary gland tumours. Generally, a slowly enlarging mass lesion in the tail of the parotid gland is the most frequent presentation. ACC has a significant tendency to recur, metastasise and may have an aggressive evolution. Therefore, a long-term follow-up is mandatory after treatment. Here we report the case of a woman in her 60s with an ACC in association with the labial minor salivary gland, presenting in the post-treatment period of squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. PMID:24928927

Bavle, Radhika M; Makarla, Soumya; Nadaf, Afreen; Narasimhamurthy, Srinath

2014-01-01

263

Determinación de los niveles de cortisol salival en una muestra de sujetos de Santiago de Chile Salivary cortisol among subjects with and without Cushing syndrome  

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Full Text Available Background: Salivary cortisol measurement is recommended as a screening mea-sure when a Cushing Syndrome is suspected. Theproposed cut-offpointfor aprobable diagnosis is 0.16 ug/dL. Aim: To determine salivary cortisol concentrations during the day inpatients with and without Cushing syndrome and with depression. Material and Methods: Salivary cortisol was measured by competitive enzyme immuno assay (EIA, in samples obtained at 8:00,15:00 and 23:00 h in 78 patients without Cushing syndrome, aged 40 ± 15years (28 males, 30 patients with depression aged 40 ± 12years (nine males and four jemales with Cushing syndrome aged 42 ± 17 years. Results: Salivary cortisol was higher among patients with Cushing syndrome than the rest of patients. A salivary cortisol over the cut-off value of O.16 ug/dL was found in 42% of subjects without Cushing syndrome and in 33% of patients with depression. Median values among patients without Cushing syndrome, depression and with Cushing syndrome were 0.21 (range < 0.1-1.42, 0.2 (range 0,12-0.9 and 0.58 (range 0.37-1.1 ug/dL, respectively Conclusions: Salivary cortisol measured by EIA method was higher among patients with Cushing syndrome but there was a great overlap with values obtained in subjects without the syndrome.

MACARENA LÉPEZ

2010-02-01

264

TP53 mutations in salivary gland neoplasms  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Vários estudos mostram que a perda da função do gene TP53 desempenha um importante papel na gênese de diversas neoplasias, incluindo as neoplasias de glândula salivar. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a presença de mutações no gene TP53 em neoplasias de glândula salivar. Para isso, DNA gen [...] ômico foi extraído de casos de adenoma pleomórfico (AP), carcinoma em adenoma pleomórfico (CAP), carcinoma mucoepidermóide (CME), carcinoma adenóide cístico (CAC) e adenocarcinoma polimorfo de baixo grau de malignidade (APBG) emblocados em parafina. Foi realizada amplificação pela técnica da PCR dos exons 5 a 8 e em seguida a SSCP (análise de conformação de fita simples). Foi observada alteração na mobilidade das bandas em 9 das 18 neoplasias estudadas, principalmente nos exons 5 e 8. Esses achados sugerem que mutações no gene TP53 estão relacionadas à patogênese das neoplasias de glândula salivar e que os exons 5 e 8 estão mais freqüentemente envolvidos. Abstract in english Many studies have demonstrated that loss of TP53 gene function has an important role in the genesis of many neoplasms, including salivary gland neoplasms. The purpose of this study was to examine the mutation profile of the TP53 gene in salivary gland neoplasms. Genomic DNA was extracted from paraff [...] in-embedded tissues of pleomorphic adenoma, carcinoma in pleomorphic adenoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma and polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma. Exons 5 to 8 of the TP53 gene were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to perform single-stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. Band shifting was observed in exons 5, 6 and 8 in 9 out of 18 neoplasms. The results of this study suggest that mutations in TP53 gene are related to salivary gland neoplasms pathogenesis and that exons 5 and 8 are most frequently involved.

Luciana Fasanella, Matizonkas-Antonio; Ricardo Alves de, Mesquita; Suzana C. Orsini Machado de, Souza; Fabio Daumas, Nunes.

2005-08-01

265

Ultrastructure of bovine von Ebner's salivary glands.  

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Bovine von Ebner's glands were studied by electron microscopy. The gland consists of tubulo-alveolar adenomeres which open into an abbreviated duct system. The cells of the secretory acini show many morphological features typical of serous cells and contain numerous granules with a complex substructure. Short intercalated ducts connect the acini with excretory ducts which are lined with bistratified epithelium. The striated ducts are absent. The von Ebner's gland morphology was compared with that of the same gland in other species of mammals and with the ultrastructure of the major bovine salivary glands. PMID:7872495

Gargiulo, A M; Ceccarelli, P; Dall'Aglio, C; Pedini, V

1995-01-01

266

Complete agenesis of major salivary glands.  

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A 4 year-old female patient was treated for persistent right-sided dacryocystitis and xerostomia. MRI was performed to screen for a dry syndrome; which resulted in the diagnosis of agenesis of the parotid and submandibular glands as well as lacrimal duct malformation. An MRI of each parent was normal. The mother's history revealed 4 days of pyrexia during the 8th week of amenorrhea. This was an isolated case, with no family history, characterized by a febrile episode during pregnancy at the period of main salivary gland genesis. Epigenetic mechanisms could be implicated. PMID:23993206

Berta, E; Bettega, G; Jouk, P S; Billy, G; Nugues, F; Morand, B

2013-10-01

267

Evaluation of anxiety and salivary chromogranin a secretion in women receiving breast conserving surgery followed by radiation therapy  

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We conducted a prospective study to assess the anxiety and salivary Chromogranin A (CgA), which is considered to be a biomarker of the stress response, in outpatients receiving breast conserving surgery followed by radiation therapy (RT) to the whole breast. Fifty consecutive patients who received whole-breast RT were enrolled in this study. The anxiety levels were measured by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) at the beginning of RT (baseline), 30 Gy, completion of RT, and 1 and 3 months after RT. Salivary CgA levels were also measured at the same time. The mean state anxiety score for all patients was 46.16 with a standard error (SE) of 1.57 at the beginning of RT (baseline) which continued to decline during and after RT. It reached its lowest score with 36.34±1.56 at 3 months after RT (p<0.0001). The mean trait anxiety score for all patients was 43.10±1.54 at baseline and remained constant during RT but began to decline after completion of RT and reached a low level at 3 months after RT (p=0.0021). The mean salivary CgA concentration for all patients demonstrated no consistent trends over time, but at 30 Gy the concentration showed a significant decreasing pattern (p=0.0473). Salivary CgA concentrations and state anxiety and trait anxiety scores at all time points showed no correlation. The mean anxiety scores measured by State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) showed no positive correlation with salivary CgA concentration for breast cancer patients undergoingon for breast cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy following breast conserving surgery. (author)

268

Adjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients induces temporary salivary gland hypofunction.  

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It is an open question if chemotherapy (CT) per se imposes adverse effects on salivary gland function. The aim of the present study was to investigate effects of CT on salivary function in breast cancer patients during and after adjuvant CT. Forty-five breast cancer patients, eligible for adjuvant CT with CEF or CMF (cyclophosphamide, epirubicin or methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil) were followed before, during, six months and one year after CT. Findings were compared to those in a control group of 31 breast cancer patients not receiving CT. Flow rates and compositions of unstimulated and stimulated whole saliva as well as stimulated parotid saliva (UWS, SWS and SPS) were measured. Feeling of oral dryness and saliva-related complaints were registered. UWS and SWS flow rates decreased during CT (p<0.001 and p<0.01). UWS remained lower six months after, but reached baseline level within one year. SPS flow rate was not significantly affected, suggesting that the decrease in whole saliva production is accounted for by decreased acinar saliva formation by the submandibular glands. Twenty patients (44%) suffered from hyposalivation (UWS < or = 0.1 ml/min and/or SWS < or = 0.5 ml/min) during CT. Xerostomia scores rose during CT and stayed elevated one year after treatment. CT also induced compositional changes by slightly increasing salivary sodium and chloride concentrations as well as decreasing inorganic phosphate concentrations in spite of lower or unchanged flow rates, implying that ductal modification mechanisms are affected. UWS and SWS total protein output and UWS secretory IgA output decreased in response to CT. Thus, the results suggest that acinar and ductal cell functions are affected by adjuvant CT. These adverse drug reactions are temporary, as salivary findings generally returned to baseline values within one year following treatment. PMID:17588802

Jensen, Siri Beier; Mouridsen, Henning T; Reibel, Jesper; Brünner, Nils; Nauntofte, Birgitte

2008-02-01

269

Identifying sources and estimating glandular output of salivary TIMP-1  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Objective. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1) has been identified as a potential biomarker in diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Since TIMP-1 resides in most tissues and bodily fluids, we evaluated the potential of using saliva to obtain reproducible TIMP-1 measurements in a non-invasive manner. Material and methods. Samples of unstimulated and stimulated whole saliva and saliva collected from individual glands were analysed for TIMP-1 content. A TIMP-1 ELISA was validated for use in saliva testing and the most optimal sampling and handling procedures for reproducible measurements identified. Western blotting and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry were used for confirmatory analyses. Results. The TIMP-1 ELISA was found suitable for saliva measurements. All saliva secretions contained TIMP-1, but in different concentrations ranging from 2.81 ng/mL in submandibular/sublingual saliva to 173.88 ng/mL in parotid saliva. TIMP-1 concentrations were influenced to a varying degree by fluctuations in flow. We found the lowest output in submandibular/sublingual saliva stimulated with 0.5 % citric acid (3.56 ng/min) and highest output in chewing-stimulated whole saliva (267.01 ng/min). Conclusion. This study shows that saliva contains authentic TIMP-1, the concentration of which was found to depend on gland type and salivary flow. Stimulated whole saliva is suggested as a reliable and easily accessible source for TIMP-1 determinations in bodily fluids.

Holten-Andersen, L; Beier Jensen, S

2008-01-01

270

Salivary growth factors and cytokines are not deficient in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease or Barrett's esophagus.  

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Growth factors, such as epidermal growth factor (EGF), are known to protect upper gut mucosa against irritants and to enhance healing of ulcerative lesions in animal models. A number of salivary growth factors are found in human saliva. The aim of this study was to determine if salivary growth factors and cytokines are deficient in patients with esophagitis or with Barrett's metaplasia. Fifteen healthy subjects, eight patients with esophagitis, and 13 patients with Barrett's metaplasia were included. Salivary concentration of EGF, FGF, IL-1, and IL-6 were measured during esophageal saline and hydrochloric acid perfusion and in the postprandial state. There was no statistically significant difference in the concentration of EGF or cytokines among the three study groups in each experimental condition or among the three experimental conditions in each group. FGF basic could not be detected in saliva. In conclusion, these findings do not support the hypothesis that a deficiency in salivary growth factors or cytokines plays a significant role in the development of mild to moderate reflux esophagitis or Barrett's metaplasia. PMID:11318540

Kongara, K; Varilek, G; Soffer, E E

2001-03-01

271

Damage to salivary glands by radioiodine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Functional scintiscans of 113 thyroidectomized patients have been investigated. 37 patients had not received radioiodine, 76 patients at least 170 mCi I-131. Criteria of damage employed in the study were, on the one hand, a lack of Tc-99m-pertechnetate secretion in the glands and, on the other hand, non-measurable activity excretion after stimulation with lemon juice. Damage of at least one salivary gland increased from 5% of all cases before radioiodine administration to 28% after radioiodine administration. The parotid glands were more frequently affected than the submandibular glands, mainly with regard to impaired secretion. For a longitudinal study of dose dependence, course control by functional scintiscanning was carried out in 20 thyroidectomized patients. The patients were examined before and after 170 mCi I-131; 12 patients were re-examined after 270 mCi I-131. A continuous deterioration of the secretion and excretion characteristics of the salivary glands was found which was easy to quantify. (orig./MG)

272

Effect of pilocarpine mouthwash on salivary flow  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Pilocarpine is a cholinergic agonist that increases salivary flow and has been used to treat xerostomia. Oral intake is the most frequent route of administration. Adverse effects are dose-dependent and include sudoresis, facial blushing and increased urinary frequency. The objective of the present s [...] tudy was to evaluate the effects of topical pilocarpine solutions as mouthwashes on salivary flow and their adverse effects on healthy subjects. Forty volunteers received 10 ml 0.5, 1 and 2% pilocarpine solutions or 0.9% saline in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled manner. Salivation was measured before and 45, 60 and 75 min after mouth rinsing for 1 min with 10 ml of saline or pilocarpine solutions. Vital signs were measured and ocular, gastrointestinal and cardiovascular symptoms, anxiety and flushing were estimated using visual analog scales. There was a dose-dependent increase in salivation. Salivation measured after 1 and 2% pilocarpine (1.4 ± 0.36 and 2.22 ± 0.42 g, respectively) was significantly (P

R., Bernardi; C., Perin; F.L., Becker; G.Z., Ramos; G.Z., Gheno; L.R., Lopes; M., Pires; H.M.T., Barros.

273

The effect of chronic treatment with fluoride on salivary activity, tooth, and bone in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR).  

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The present study evaluated the effect of chronic treatment with sodium fluoride on salivary activity, tooth, and bone in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). The treatment was made with a 20-ppm NaF solution added to the drinking water for 30 days. Systolic blood pressure values were obtained by plethysmography; fluoride concentration was determined by an ion-selective electrode; calcium concentration and amylase activity were determined by commercial kits; and enamel microhardness was verified by longitudinal section. Systolic blood pressure values and animals' weight were not changed by treatment. However, the salivary flow rate-which was lowered in SHR at baseline when compared to Wistar rats-was found to be increased with the treatment with NaF. The fluoride concentration was increased in the plasma of the treated groups, even though it remained lower for the treated SHR in relation to the treated Wistar rats. Calcium concentration was decreased in the saliva and plasma of SHR treated with NaF. A reduction in the plasmatic total protein concentration was observed in SHR treated with NaF. The fluoride concentration on bone surface was found to be increased in Wistar or SHR treated with NaF. In treated SHR's femurs, it was observed a significant reduction in fluoride concentrations. Enamel microhardness of the incisor teeth was not changed by the treatment with NaF in both groups. The distribution of fluoride to the salivary glands in SHR is poor, and treatment with NaF causes a decrease in the concentration of important biochemical parameters to the salivary physiology in SHR. PMID:24390229

Picco, Daniele C R; Delbem, Alberto C B; Sassaki, Kikue T; Sumida, Doris H; Antoniali, Cristina

2014-04-01

274

The Effect of Calcium Pre-Rinse on Salivary Fluoride After 900 ppm Fluoride Mouthwash: A Randomized Clinical Trial  

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Objective: Calcium fluoride deposit during fluoride application. Uptake and retention of fluoride by saliva depends generally on the concentration of calcium. In this study, the ef-fect of calcium pre-rinse on salivary fluoride concentration after a 900 ppm fluoride mouthwash was investigated.Materials and Methods: This cross-over double-blind randomized clinical trial was con-ducted in a girls' dormitory in Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, southeast Iran. In this study, 42 female dent...

Nahid Ramazani; Rahil Ahmadi; Zahra Heidari; Arezoo Hushmandi

2013-01-01

275

Salivary expression of soluble HER2 in breast cancer patients with positive and negative HER2 status  

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Full Text Available Fatna Laidi,1 Amal Bouziane,2 Amina Lakhdar,3 Samira Khabouze,3 Brahim Rhrab,3 Fatima Zaoui1 1Oral Biomechanics and Biotechnology Research Unit, Faculty of Dental Medicine, 2Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Biostatistical, Clinical and Epidemiological Research Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ibn Sina University Hospital, Rabat, Morocco Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between salivary concentration of the soluble fragment of the HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor protein and its status in mammary tissues. Methods: This case-control study was done in 27 breast cancer patients with no visible metastatic disease treated at the gynecology service, Maternity Souissi Hospital, Rabat, Morocco. Two groups were selected, ie, patients with positive and negative HER2 status in mammary tissue. The salivary HER2 protein concentration was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The salivary HER2 concentration was compared between the HER2-positive and HER2-negative groups using the Mann-Whitney U test. A P-value <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: No statistically significant difference in salivary HER2 protein expression was found between the case and control groups. There was also no significant difference in clinical characteristics according to positive and negative HER2 status (P>0.05, except for the progesterone hormone receptor which was statistically significant in both the case and control groups (P=0.047. Conclusion: According to our data, salivary expression of the HER2 receptor may not be a reliable alternative to tissue assessment. Keywords: breast cancer, HER2, saliva, diagnosis

Laidi F

2014-07-01

276

Fat-containing salivary gland tumors: a review.  

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Fat-containing tumors of the salivary glands are uncommon. Their wide histological spectrum varies from pure lipomatous neoplasms similar to their cutaneous and soft tissue counterparts to mixed lipoepithelial lesions specific to the salivary glands. With few exceptions, these uncommon lesions affect mainly the elderly, with a mean age at presentation of ? 50 years and show a predilection for males. A few cases occur in childhood; some of them represent congenital lesions. In decreasing order of frequency, ordinary (soft-tissue type) lipoma, oncocytic lipoadenoma, non-oncocytic sialolipoma, and pleomorphic adenoma/myoepithelioma with extensive lipometaplasia are the main variants of fat containing tumors encountered in the salivary glands. While pleomorphic adenoma/myoepithelioma with lipometaplasia behave in the same way as their non-fat-containing counterparts, other lipomatous salivary gland tumors listed above are cured with simple excision and do not carry a risk of recurrence. Other lipoma variants (spindle cell lipoma, osteolipoma, fibrolipoma, angiolipoma, pleomorphic lipoma, lipoblastoma and hibernoma) are exceptionally rare in the salivary gland. Atypical lipomatous tumors/liposarcoma have been only rarely reported in the salivary gland and they behave in a similar fashion to their soft-tissue counterparts. Diffuse lipomatosis and lobular fatty atrophy are the two tumor-like lesions that might closely mimic sialolipoma, particularly in limited biopsy material without knowledge of the gross findings. This review summarizes the clinicopathological features of the main types of salivary fat-containing lesions and discusses their differential diagnoses. PMID:23821211

Agaimy, Abbas

2013-07-01

277

Clear cell carcinoma of minor salivary gland: A case of clinical dilemma.  

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Clear cell tumor in oral cavity constitutes an assorted group of lesions, which may be odontogenic, metastatic or of salivary gland origin. Those associated with salivary glands accounts for less than 1% of total cases mainly seen in the major salivary gland. Occurrence of clear cell carcinoma in minor salivary gland is rare and uncommon. Hence, this case of intraoral clear cell carcinoma associated with minor salivary gland of palate in a 57-year-old male patient is being reported. PMID:25191080

Agrawal, Jayshree; Kumar, Y Pavan; Damera, D Ajit; Kumar, Suresh

2014-07-01

278

Simultaneous quantitation of urinary cotinine and acrylonitrile-derived mercapturic acids with ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  

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Acrylonitrile (AN), a widely used industrial chemical also found in tobacco smoke, has been classified as a possible human carcinogen (group 2B) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. AN can be detoxified by glutathione S-transferase (GST) to form glutathione (GSH) conjugates in vivo. It can be metabolically activated by cytochrome P450 2E1 to form 2-cyanoethylene oxide, which can also be detoxified by GST to generate GSH conjugates. The GSH conjugates can be further metabolized to mercapturic acids (MAs), namely, N-acetyl-S-(2-cyanoethyl)cysteine (CEMA), N-acetyl-S-(2-hydroxyethyl)cysteine (HEMA), and N-acetyl-S-(1-cyano-2-hydroxyethyl)cysteine (CHEMA). This study developed an ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method to quantitatively profile the major AN urinary metabolites (CEMA, HEMA, and CHEMA) to assess AN exposure, as well as analyze urinary cotinine (COT) as an indicator for tobacco smoke exposure. The limits of quantitation were 0.1, 0.1, 1.0, and 0.05 ?g/L for HEMA, CEMA, CHEMA, and COT, respectively. This method was applied to analyze the three AN-derived MAs in 36 volunteers with no prior occupational AN exposure. Data analysis showed significant correlations between the level of COT and the levels of these MAs, suggesting them as biomarkers for exposure to low levels of AN. The results demonstrate that a highly specific and sensitive UPLC-MS/MS method has been successfully developed to quantitatively profile the major urinary metabolites of AN in humans to assess low AN exposure. PMID:22231508

Wu, Chia-Fang; Uang, Shi-Nian; Chiang, Su-Yin; Shih, Wei-Chung; Huang, Yu-Fang; Wu, Kuen-Yuh

2012-02-01

279

The role of secretory granules in radiation-induced dysfunction of rat salivary glands  

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To investigate the possible role of secretory granules in radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction, rats were pretreated with isoproterenol (5 mg/kg intraperitoneally) to degranulate salivary gland acini. At maximal depletion, salivary glands were locally irradiated with a single dose of 15 Gy of X rays. Parotid and submandibular/sublingual saliva samples were collected before and 1-10 days after irradiation. The lag phase, flow rate, concentrations of potassium and sodium, and amylase secretion were determined. Sham-treated, isoproterenol-treated and irradiated animals provided reference data. In the parotid gland, but not in the submandibular gland, protection against radiation-induced changes in flow rate and composition of saliva occurred after pretreatment with isoproterenol. Combining morphological data from a previous study with data from the current study, it is suggested that improvement of parotid gland function is attributed predominantly to a proliferative stimulus on acinar cells by isoproterenol and not to its degranulation effect. After pretreatment with isoproterenol, an earlier expression of radiation-induced acinar cell damage leading to death was observed, followed by a faster tissue recovery. Thus the proliferative stimulus on acinar cells may accelerate the unmasking of latent lethal damage, resulting in the earlier replacement of dead cells by new, functionally intact cells. 33 refs., 2 figs.

Peter, B.; Van Waarde, M.A.W.H.; Konings, A.W.T. [Univ. of Groningen (Netherlands); Vissink, A. [Univ. of Groningen (Netherlands)]|[Univ. Hospital, Groningen (Netherlands); `s-Gravenmade, E.J. [Univ. Hospital, Groningen (Netherlands)

1995-02-01

280

The role of secretory granules in radiation-induced dysfunction of rat salivary glands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To investigate the possible role of secretory granules in radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction, rats were pretreated with isoproterenol (5 mg/kg intraperitoneally) to degranulate salivary gland acini. At maximal depletion, salivary glands were locally irradiated with a single dose of 15 Gy of X rays. Parotid and submandibular/sublingual saliva samples were collected before and 1-10 days after irradiation. The lag phase, flow rate, concentrations of potassium and sodium, and amylase secretion were determined. Sham-treated, isoproterenol-treated and irradiated animals provided reference data. In the parotid gland, but not in the submandibular gland, protection against radiation-induced changes in flow rate and composition of saliva occurred after pretreatment with isoproterenol. Combining morphological data from a previous study with data from the current study, it is suggested that improvement of parotid gland function is attributed predominantly to a proliferative stimulus on acinar cells by isoproterenol and not to its degranulation effect. After pretreatment with isoproterenol, an earlier expression of radiation-induced acinar cell damage leading to death was observed, followed by a faster tissue recovery. Thus the proliferative stimulus on acinar cells may accelerate the unmasking of latent lethal damage, resulting in the earlier replacement of dead cells by new, functionally intact cells. 33 refs., 2 figs

 
 
 
 
281

Modeling neuroendocrine stress reactivity in salivary cortisol: adjusting for peak latency variability.  

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In this report, we present growth curve modeling (GCM) with landmark registration as an alternative statistical approach for the analysis of time series cortisol data. This approach addresses an often-ignored but critical source of variability in salivary cortisol analyses: individual and group differences in the time latency of post-stress peak concentrations. It allows for the simultaneous examination of cortisol changes before and after the peak while controlling for timing differences, and thus provides additional information that can help elucidate group differences in the underlying biological processes (e.g., intensity of response, regulatory capacity). We tested whether GCM with landmark registration is more sensitive than traditional statistical approaches (e.g., repeated measures ANOVA--rANOVA) in identifying sex differences in salivary cortisol responses to a psychosocial stressor (Trier Social Stress Test--TSST) in healthy adults (mean age 23). We used plasma ACTH measures as our "standard" and show that the new approach confirms in salivary cortisol the ACTH finding that males had longer peak latencies, higher post-stress peaks but a more intense post-peak decline. This finding would have been missed if only saliva cortisol was available and only more traditional analytic methods were used. This new approach may provide neuroendocrine researchers with a highly sensitive complementary tool to examine the dynamics of the cortisol response in a way that reduces risk of false negative findings when blood samples are not feasible. PMID:24754834

Lopez-Duran, Nestor L; Mayer, Stefanie E; Abelson, James L

2014-07-01

282

Association of human immune response to Aedes aegypti salivary proteins with dengue disease severity.  

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Dengue viruses (DENV; family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus) are transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and can cause dengue fever (DF), a relatively benign disease, or more severe dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF). Arthropod saliva contains proteins delivered into the bite wound that can modulate the host haemostatic and immune responses to facilitate the intake of a blood meal. The potential effects on DENV infection of previous exposure to Ae. aegypti salivary proteins have not been investigated. We collected Ae. aegypti saliva, concentrated the proteins and fractionated them by nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). By the use of immunoblots, we analysed reactivity with the mosquito salivary proteins (MSP) of sera from 96 Thai children diagnosed with secondary DENV infections leading either to DF or DHF, or with no DENV infection, and found that different proportions of each patient group had serum antibodies reactive to specific Ae. aegypti salivary proteins. Our results suggest that prior exposure to MSP might play a role in the outcome of DENV infection in humans. PMID:21995849

Machain-Williams, C; Mammen, M P; Zeidner, N S; Beaty, B J; Prenni, J E; Nisalak, A; Blair, C D

2012-01-01

283

Imunoglobulina A secretora, proteínas totais e fluxo de saliva nas ulcerações aftosas recorrentes Secretory A immunoglobulin, total proteins and salivary flow in Recurrent Aphthous Ulceration  

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Full Text Available De etiologia discutível, as ulcerações aftosas recorrentes (UAR são, na maioria das vezes, consideradas em um quadro de deficiência imunológica. OBJETIVOS: Este trabalho baseia-se na revisão de literatura e em investigações clínico-laboratoriais dos títulos salivares de imunoglobulina A secretora (IgA-s, proteínas totais e fluxo de saliva (em repouso de pacientes nos períodos de atividade e quiescência das Ulcerações aftosas recorrentes. Forma de Estudo: Estudo clínico e experimental. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Empregou-se a Nefelometria na quantificação das IgA-s salivares, o vermelho de Pirogalol para as proteínas totais salivares e a análise gravimétrica para a determinação do fluxo de saliva. RESULTADOS: Os resultados demonstraram aumento estatisticamente significativo das IgA-s salivares nos períodos de lesão ativa em relação aos de quiescência. Não houve diferença estatística nas concentrações de proteínas totais e no fluxo de saliva. CONCLUSÃO: Sugere-se que a IgA-s pode ser usada como parâmetro do status imune da mucosa oral.Clinical and experimental study. Introduction. Of debatable etiology, Recurrent Aphthous Ulcerations (R.A.U, is most of the time considered an immunological deficiency. AIM: The aim of this paper is to review the literature and clinical investigations regarding IgA-s, total proteins salivary concentration and basal salivary flow of patients with R.A.U. during activity and quiescence. METHODOLOGY: Nephelometry was used to measure salivary IgA-s; Pyrogallol red was used for total salivary proteins and the gravimetrical analysis for salivary flow measurement. RESULTS: Results demonstrated a significant increase in salivary IgA-s in active lesions in relation to quiescence. On the other hand, protein concentration rates were similar in both periods. CONCLUSION: Salivary IgA-s can be used as a parameter to study the immune status of the oral mucosa.

Kennedy de Oliveira Martinez

2007-06-01

284

The Comparison of Salivary IgA and IgE Levels in Children with Breast- and Formula- Feeding During Infancy Period  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Oral local immune factors may play a protective role against oral diseases and defend against microbial agents. Salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA is a major factor for the local host defence against caries and periodontal disease. The aims of this study were to determine the concentrations of salivary IgA and IgE levels in breast-fed and formula-fed children in infancy period.Methods and Materials: Totally, 80 healthy 5 years old children were included in the study. According to type of feeding in infancy period, the children divided into two groups: 50 breast-fed and 30 formula-fed. One milliliter of saliva was collected from each participant, centrifuged, and stored at -70 C. The salivary IgA and IgE concentrations were measured, using ELISA technique.Results: In breast-fed children, the salivary IgA level (39.6 mg/l ± 17.3 was significantly higher than that in formula-fed children (26.9 mg/l ± 14 (P=0.0001. However, the salivary IgE level was significantly lower in breast-fed children, comparing with formula fed ones (5.01 IU/ml ± 19.70 vs. 11.74 IU/ml ± 39.40 (P=0.047.Discussion: These results suggest that breast feeding enhances salivary IgA level in the early period of life which may contribute in oral cavity immunity. Higher salivary IgE level observed in formula-fed subjects may have a potential role in development of allergic or inflammatory reactions.

A. Jafarzadeh

2007-01-01

285

Effect of Pre-Analytical Conditions on Salivary Nitrite Levels  

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Full Text Available The aim of the present paper was to analyze the influence of sampling and storage procedures on nitrite con- centration values in the saliva of healthy persons. The samples were obtained and stored under varied condi- tions, and processed using the Griess method. Results: when the salivary nitrite concentration was measured immediately after collection a significant dependence on the collection time was observed. A mean value of 94 µmol/L (range 3 - 625 was obtained at 8:30 am. This value decreased significantly with time (p < 0.05 reaching a value of 68 at 12:30 noon. Concerning the sample storage, a significant increase in the nitrite concentration was observed after 2 hrs, either at 4?C or at room temperature (p < 0.05. In spite of the high variability between individuals the values for each individual showed a marked constancy independent of the sampling day. According to our results, by controlling pre-analytical parameters, principally sampling and storage procedures, reproducibility is improved.

Rosana Andrea Morelatto

2011-10-01

286

Asociación de la severidad de la periodontitis con niveles de cotinina y Porphyromonas gingivalis / Association between the severity of periodontitis with cotinine levels and Porphyromonas gingivalis  

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Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Fundamento: la cotinina aumenta los efectos de las toxinas producidas por los periodontopatógenos y se ha observado que el hábito de fumar altera la respuesta humoral e incrementa la infectividad de la Porphyromonas gingivalis. Objetivo: investigar la asociación entre los niveles de cotinina, la sev [...] eridad y la extensión de la periodontitis, entre los niveles de cotinina y presencia de P. gingivalis. Método: en el presente estudio de corte transversal, el universo estuvo constituido por 108 sujetos. Los parámetros periodontales se midieron en seis sitios por diente en todos los dientes, se excluyó el tercer molar. Se tomaron muestras de P. gingivalis en las bolsas periodontales. Resultados: al comparar fumadores y no fumadores se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en la profundidad de sondaje y en el nivel de inserción clínica, con peores condiciones periodontales en los fumadores (p Abstract in english Background: cotinine increases the effects of the toxins produced by periodontopathogens and it has been observed that the smoking habit alters the humoral response and decreases the effectiveness of Porphyromonas gingivalis. Objective: to investigate the association between the cotinine levels and [...] the severity and extent of periodontitis; as well as between the cotinine levels and the presence of Porphyromonas gingivalis. Method: in the present cross-sectional study, the universe was composed of 108 individuals. The periodontal parameters were measured in six sites per tooth in all the teeth; the third molar was excluded. Some samples of Porphyromonas gingivalis in the periodontal pocket were taken. Results: when comparing smokers and non-smokers, differences statistically significant in the probing depth and in the clinical attachment level were observed with worse periodontal conditions in smokers (p

Carlos Martín, Ardila Medina; Isabel Cristina, Guzmán Zuluaga; Maria Adelaida, Vélez Echeverri.

2014-08-01

287

Ageing exacerbates damage of systemic and salivary neutrophils from patients presenting Candida-related denture stomatitis  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Ageing leads to a decline in the function of the immune system, increasing the body's susceptibility to infections through the impairment of T-cells, macrophages, neutrophils and dendritic cells Denture stomatitis is a primary oral disease affecting elderly denture wearers. The major etiologic factor involved in this pathology is the infection by Candida albicans, an opportunistic pathogen that causes local and disseminated diseases in immunosuppressed humans. Neutrophils play a critical role in the immune response against C. albicans and are continually present in the salivary fluid and in the blood. The aim of this study was to determine ageing-related changes in salivary and blood neutrophils and their potential implications in Candida-related denture stomatitis. Results Our results showed a lower number of neutrophils in the saliva from patients presenting Candida-related denture stomatitis in comparison to their matched controls. Furthermore, fewer neutrophils were isolated from the saliva of aged control individuals in comparison to matched younger subjects. CXCR1, CD62L and CD11b expression were significantly greater on systemic neutrophils from younger control individuals. Elderly individuals showed more apoptotic salivary neutrophils and lower GM-CSF levels than younger ones, regardless of the occurrence of Candida infection. On the other hand, CXCL-8 concentrations were higher in the saliva from elderly individuals. Besides, TNF-? was detected at elevated levels in the saliva from infected elderly subjects. Salivary neutrophils from elderly and young patients presented impaired phagocytic activity against C. albicans. However, just systemic neutrophils from elderly showed decreased phagocytosis when compared to the younger ones, regardless of the occurrence of infection. In addition, neutrophils from aged individuals and young patients presented low fungicidal activity. Conclusion The data suggests that the Candida related-denture stomatitis is associated to neutrophils function deficiency, and ageing drastically appears to alter important characteristics of such cells, facilitating the establishment of this infection.

Porto Vinicius

2009-03-01

288

Estimation of Absorbed Dose of Salivary Glands in Radioiodine Therapy and Its Reduction Using Pilocarpine  

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Full Text Available Introduction:  The use of radioactive iodine (131I has become an important adjunct to the treatment of thyroid cancer and hyperthyroidism. Salivary gland has the ability to concentrate radioactive iodine under normal circumstances. Salivary gland dysfunction and dry mouth are the common side effects of high-dose radioiodine therapy. The purpose of this study was to determine the absorbed dose of salivary glands. Methods: Twenty patients who were divided into two groups of 10 were studied (A group without pilocarpine and the B group received pilocarpine during treatment. The absorbed dose of parotid glands and the submandibular glands of patients was measured using thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD at three different times (24 hours, 8 days and 3 months after treatment. The attenuation coefficient of patients and the effects of pilocarpine were also determined. Results: In group A total attenuation coefficient was 0.335, 0.323, and 0.357 for parotid glands and the right and left submandibular glands, respectively. In group B total attenuation coefficient was 0.462, 0.482, and 0.514 for parotid glands and the right and left submandibular glands, respectively. The results also showed the dose decreases to 1 cGy after 3 and 2 half life for A and B group, respectively. Conclusion: The findings showed that the dose decreases to 1 cGy after 3 half life of Iodine therapy. The exponential coefficient attenuation of salivary glands varied 3% to 4%.  Pilocarpine appears to be effective in increasing excretion of radioactive iodine and enhancing coefficient attenuation (up to 1.5 to 2 times.

Daryoush Shahbazi-Gahrouei

2007-09-01

289

Cigarette smoke effect on total salivary antioxidant capacity, salivary glutathione peroxidase and gamma-glutamyltransferase activity.  

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Saliva is the first biological fluid that inhaled cigarette smoke (CS) encounters. CS contains several carcinogens known to initiate and promote tumourigenesis and metastasis. One of the aims of this study was to establish if glutathione peroxidase and gamma-glutamyltranspherase (GGT) could be used as possible markers for evaluating the oral oxidative stress caused by smoking. The effect of CS on free radical generation was investigated using two methods. Using different assays, different antioxidants present in saliva may be evidenced due to the different principles on which they are based. Our results indicate that exposure to CS caused a statistically significant decrease of both salivary glutathione peroxidase (p saliva is important but it must be done together with the evaluation of salivary specific markers of oxidative stress, such as uric acid, albumin and possibly, GGT. PMID:19346588

Greabu, Maria; Totan, Alexandra; Battino, Maurizio; Mohora, Maria; Didilescu, Andreea; Totan, Cosmin; Spinu, Tudor

2008-01-01

290

Pleomorphic adenoma of minor salivary gland in the parapharyngeal space  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Majority of tumours occurring in minor salivary gland are malignant. Pleomorphic adenoma is of rare occurrence in parapharangeal space. Case presentation A rare case of a minor salivary gland pleomorphic adenoma of the parapharyngeal space is reported. Review of literature, clinical features, pathology, radiological findings and treatment of these tumours are discussed. Conclusions Parapharangeal salivary tumours presents as a painless progressive swelling with majority of these being malignant. Pleomorphic adenoma in parapharangeal space is of rare occurrence. Complete surgical excision is the treatment of choice.

Abraham Elizabeth K

2003-02-01

291

Management of minor salivary gland carcinomas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To assess the role of radiotherapy alone or in combination with surgery in the treatment of patients with malignant minor salivary gland carcinomas. Methods and Materials: Between October 1964 and November 1992, 95 patients with minor salivary gland carcinomas of the head and neck received radiotherapy with curative intent. Eighty-seven patients were previously untreated, and 8 were treated for postsurgical recurrence. Fifty-one patients were treated with radiotherapy alone, and 44 were treated by surgical resection plus radiotherapy. Patients were staged according to the 1983 American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging criteria for squamous cell carcinomas. Results: The 20-year actuarial rate of local control was 57% with no significant difference according to histologic type. When tumor stage was taken into consideration, there were no significant differences in local control according to tumor site. The 12-year actuarial probability of distant metastases was 40% (19% as the only site of failure). In multivariate analyses, local control was significantly affected only by tumor stage and treatment type (combined therapy better than radiotherapy alone); tumor stage was a significant predictor of cause-specific survival and freedom from relapse. Freedom-from-relapse rates were higher for patients who received combined treatment (p = 0.068). Conclusions: Treatment of minor salivary gland carcinomas is usually by combined surgery and radiotherapy, but there are situations where surgery alone or radiotherapy alone may be used. The ability to control these tumors with radiotherapy alone is not widely recognized. In the present series, the tumor was locally controlled in 20 patients with previously untreated primary lesions after radiotherapy alone (2.5 to 21 years) and in 4 other patients who were treated by radiotherapy alone for postsurgical recurrent tumor (3.5 to 14 years after radiotherapy). Contrary to the widely held belief that local recurrence after radiotherapy eventually develops in all patients with adenoid cystic carcinoma, local control has been maintained in 13 patients after radiotherapy alone; 5 of the 13 patients have been observed for 10 to 17 years

292

Significant correlation between salivary and serum Ca 15-3 in healthy women and breast cancer patients.  

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The tumor marker CA 15-3 is one of the most import reliable for metastatic breast cancer monitoring. While it is generally assessed in serum of patients, blood sampling is an invasive method compared to saliva sampling which is simple and could be an alternative to blood according to many studies. The aim of this investigation was to assess the relationship between serum and salivary concentrations of the protein CA 15-3 in patients with breast cancer and healthy asymptomatic volunteers. A case-control study was conducted with 60 women: 29 breast cancer patients from the Maternity Hospital Souissi Rabat (Morocco) and 31 healthy asymptomatic women. The CA 15-3 concentrations in saliva and serum samples were assessed using an enzyme immune assay (EIA kits) and comparison between cases and controls was made by the Mann-Whitney test. The correlation between serum and saliva CA 15-3 concentration was tested using Pearson correlation. The comparison result of CA15-3 concentration in saliva and serum level in cases and controls was not statistically significant (p>0.05). However, the correlation between salivary and serum CA 15-3 concentration was positive and statistically significant (r=0.27, p=0.03). In conclusion, the positive correlation between salivary and serum expression found in our study suggests that saliva could be an alternative to blood sampling to help breast cancer monitoring. PMID:24969900

Laidi, Fatna; Bouziane, Amal; Lakhdar, Amina; Khabouze, Samira; Amrani, Mariam; Rhrab, Brahim; Zaoui, Fatima

2014-01-01

293

Porcine salivary analysis by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis in 3 models of acute stress: a pilot study.  

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The purpose of this research was to study changes in the salivary proteome of healthy pigs in stressful situations to identify any potential new salivary biomarker of stress. Three groups of animals were subjected to 3 stress models: snaring restraint followed by simulated sampling of vena cava blood; brief transport by road; and restriction of movement in a digestibility cage. Saliva was obtained from each animal before and 15 and 30 min after the induction of stress. The samples from the animals that showed the greatest increase in salivary cortisol concentration were pooled and run on 2-dimensional gels. Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250 was used for spot detection and mass spectrometry for spot identification. Statistical analyses showed that 2 proteins had significant differences in expression before and after the induction of stress. These proteins were identified as odorant-binding protein and fragments of albumin. Further studies will be necessary to confirm the value of using these proteins as salivary biomarkers of stress in pigs. PMID:24688174

Fuentes-Rubio, María; Cerón, José J; de Torre, Carlos; Escribano, Damián; Gutiérrez, Ana M; Tecles, Fernando

2014-04-01

294

Male gamblers have significantly greater salivary cortisol before and after betting on a horse race, than do female gamblers.  

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Prevalence rates of gambling are influenced by gender. Among normative populations, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to stress is affected by gender. However, pathological, compared to recreational, gamblers demonstrate perturbations in HPA activation in response to gambling stimuli. We examined whether there were gender differences in HPA response to gambling in a naturalistic setting among horse-race bettors and scratch-off lottery bettors. Salivary cortisol was collected from horse-race gamblers (n=32) and scratch-off lottery ticket players (n=39) before and after (0, 10, or 20 min) betting on a horse race at an off-track betting establishment. Salivary cortisol levels were significantly higher among men than among women, both prior to and following, betting on a horse race. Among women, but not men, there was a decline in salivary cortisol across time in scratch-off bettors, whereas women horse-race bettors maintained consistent low concentrations of salivary cortisol at every time point sampled. Together these data suggest that engaging in gambling may have different effects on stress responses of men, compared to women. Whether these gender differences in HPA activation contribute to gender-related differences in gambling behavior is the subject of ongoing investigation. PMID:19683542

Franco, C; Paris, J J; Wulfert, E; Frye, C A

2010-02-01

295

[A submandibular swelling: the salivary gland?].  

Science.gov (United States)

Four patients, three men aged 32, 51 and 74 years, respectively, and a woman aged 34 years, presented with a submandibular swelling. In all four patients, the swelling was caused by submandibular salivary-gland disease. The first patient appeared to have chronic sialoadenitis due to sialolithiasis, in the second patient the diagnosis was sialoadenosis due to anorexia-boulimia, the third patient had a pleomorphic adenoma and the fourth had a malignant neoplasm of the floor of the mouth causing obstruction of the submandibular gland. A submandibular swelling may have many different causes. It is sometimes difficult to differentiate between enlargement of the submandibular gland and an enlarged lymph node. Intra-oral inspection and palpation may give valuable information about the origin of some submandibular swellings. Using a combination of history, examination and, when necessary, fine-needle aspiration and röntgenological examination, the diagnosis of submandibular lumps is usually straightforward. PMID:15636472

Strabbing, E M; de Visscher, J G A M; van der Waal, I

2004-12-18

296

Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma of the parotid salivary gland.  

Science.gov (United States)

Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma is a borderline neoplasm characterized by proliferation of endothelial cells with epithelioid morphology. The tumor, in terms of histology and behavior, occupies an intermediate position between hemangioma and conventional angiosarcoma. It is encountered in a wide variety of sites, such as soft tissues and skin, visceral organs, and bone. This article describes a slowly growing, painful tumor that developed in the parotid gland of a 48-year-old white woman and was treated with a superficial parotidectomy. Microscopically, the lesion consisted of short strands, cords, or small clusters of epithelioid vacuolated cells that exhibited strong immunoreactivity for endothelial cell markers (CD 31, CD 34, and factor VIII-related antigen). Previous reports have presented epithelioid hemangioendotheliomas in the head and neck region but, to our knowledge, this is the first reported case in the parotid salivary gland. PMID:10846129

Pigadas, N; Mohamid, W; McDermott, P

2000-06-01

297

Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of Minor Salivary Glands  

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Full Text Available Introduction: The Mucoepidermoid Carcinomas (MEC represent about 5% of all tumors in the salivary glands. It is an aggressive lesion and must be considered as a diagnosis hypothesis in the oral mucosa proliferative lesions. The early diagnosis and the correct management of this neoplasm are key factors for the prognosis. Wide local resection and eventually postoperative radiotherapy is the choice treatment. Objective: To report the case of a patient with mucoepidermoid carcinoma of oral cavity, exteriorizing through the mouth and being submitted to surgical exeresis and radiotherapy that evolved to death on the fourth month from beginning of the treatment. Case Report: CT, 47 years old, white woman was forwarded to the ORL service of the HSJA after a critical bleeding episode in oral cavity. She reported the appearing of a mass with fast and expansive growth in a topography of canine fossa for +/- 06 months, associated to the loss of 10 kg. Patient dehydrated, pale with pediculated tumoration of +/- 06 cm, firm consistency, painless upon palpation and bleeding. Chronic alcoholic and smoker. Non-palpable cervical lymph nodes. Faced with the case we opted for a surgical resection of the tumor and the performance of histopathological exam that confirmed mucoepidermoid carcinoma of minor salivary glands. The patient was sent to the radiotherapy service; but she abandoned the treatment and evolved with death 4 months after. Final Comments: In this case, the fast and aggressive growth of the lesion, the size of the tumor and the abandonment of the proposed treatment was determinant for the patient's prognosis.

Tinoco, Paulo

2011-01-01

298

The relationship between salivary secretion rate and masticatory efficiency.  

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In order to elucidate the relationship between the salivary secretion rate and masticatory efficiency, experimental hypo- and hyper-salivation were produced by the administration of atropine sulphate presenting an anticholinergic effect and pilocarpine hydrochloride having a muscarine effect orally in 10 healthy fully dentates. To confirm the pharmaceutical effect of these drugs, the unstimulated whole salivary secretion rate during 10 min, and masticatory efficiency using the sieve method were measured before and after medication. The unstimulated whole salivary secretion rate during 10 min decreased significantly by the administration of atropine sulphate (P atropine sulphate medication was significantly lower than that before (P < 0.01). The increase in salivary secretion by pilocarpine hydrochloride did not lead to a higher masticatory efficiency. The evidence supports the understanding that saliva plays an important role in masticatory function. PMID:15125589

Ishijima, T; Koshino, H; Hirai, T; Takasaki, H

2004-01-01

299

Salivary cortisol as a biomarker in stress research.  

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Salivary cortisol is frequently used as a biomarker of psychological stress. However, psychobiological mechanisms, which trigger the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) can only indirectly be assessed by salivary cortisol measures. The different instances that control HPAA reactivity (hippocampus, hypothalamus, pituitary, adrenals) and their respective modulators, receptors, or binding proteins, may all affect salivary cortisol measures. Thus, a linear relationship with measures of plasma ACTH and cortisol in blood or urine does not necessarily exist. This is particularly true under response conditions. The present paper addresses several psychological and biological variables, which may account for such dissociations, and aims to help researchers to rate the validity and psychobiological significance of salivary cortisol as an HPAA biomarker of stress in their experiments. PMID:19095358

Hellhammer, Dirk H; Wüst, Stefan; Kudielka, Brigitte M

2009-02-01

300

Extracellular Ca(2+) sensing in salivary ductal cells.  

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Ca(2+) is secreted from the salivary acinar cells as an ionic constituent of primary saliva. Ions such as Na(+) and Cl(-) get reabsorbed whereas primary saliva flows through the salivary ductal system. Although earlier studies have shown that salivary [Ca(2+)] decreases as it flows down the ductal tree into the oral cavity, ductal reabsorption of Ca(2+) remains enigmatic. Here we report a potential role for the G protein-coupled receptor, calcium-sensing receptor (CSR), in the regulation of Ca(2+) reabsorption by salivary gland ducts. Our data show that CSR is present in the apical region of ductal cells where it is co-localized with transient receptor potential canonical 3 (TRPC3). CSR is activated in isolated salivary gland ducts as well as a ductal cell line (SMIE) by altering extracellular [Ca(2+)] or by aromatic amino acid, L-phenylalanine (L-Phe, endogenous component of saliva), as well as neomycin. CSR activation leads to Ca(2+) influx that, in polarized cells grown on a filter support, is initiated in the luminal region. We show that TRPC3 contributes to Ca(2+) entry triggered by CSR activation. Further, stimulation of CSR in SMIE cells enhances the CSR-TRPC3 association as well as surface expression of TRPC3. Together our findings suggest that CSR could serve as a Ca(2+) sensor in the luminal membrane of salivary gland ducts and regulate reabsorption of [Ca(2+)] from the saliva via TRPC3, thus contributing to maintenance of salivary [Ca(2+)]. CSR could therefore be a potentially important protective mechanism against formation of salivary gland stones (sialolithiasis) and infection (sialoadenitis). PMID:22778254

Bandyopadhyay, Bidhan C; Swaim, William D; Sarkar, Ankana; Liu, Xibao; Ambudkar, Indu S

2012-08-31

 
 
 
 
301

The pattern of genomic gains in salivary gland MALT lymphomas  

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Background and Objectives: Salivary gland mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas typically lack chromosomal translocations and the molecular genetics underlying their development is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate chromosomal changes in these lymphomas. Design and Methods: We performed comparative genomic hybridisation using DNA samples extracted from microdissected tumour cells in 19 salivary gland MALT lymphomas. Recurrent chromosomal changes were further verif...

Zhou, Y.; Ye, H.; Hamoudi, R.; Du, M-q; Martin-subero, J. I.; Gesk, S.; Siebert, R.; Lu, Y-j; Wang, R.; Shipley, J.; Isaacson, P. G.; Dogan, A.

2007-01-01

302

Acute reboxetine administration increases plasma and salivary cortisol.  

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We investigated the effect of a single oral dose of the selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, reboxetine (4 mg), on plasma and salivary cortisol in 24 healthy volunteers in a randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group design. Reboxetine significantly increased both plasma and salivary cortisol, although the correlation between the responses in plasma and saliva was modest. Our results are consistent with previous neuroendocrine challenge studies showing that potentiation of brain no...

Hill, Sa; Taylor, Mj; Harmer, Cj; Cowen, Pj

2003-01-01

303

Early morning salivary cortisol is not associated with extraversion  

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An association between salivary cortisol levels and neuroticism has recently been reported, but it is unclear whether this association is unique to neuroticism or extends to other personality measures. The present study investigated early morning salivary cortisol levels in individuals selected for high and low extraversion. Thirty-three healthy volunteers were selected on the basis of their score on the extraversion sub-scale of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, and provided fasting sal...

Munafo, MR; Lee, L.; Ayres, R.; Flint, J.; Goodwin, G.; Harmer, Cj

2006-01-01

304

Insight into the Salivary Transcriptome and Proteome of Dipetalogaster maxima  

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Dipetalogaster maximais a blood-sucking Hemiptera that inhabits sylvatic areas in Mexico. It usually takes its blood meal from lizards, but following human population growth, it invaded suburban areas, feeding also on humans and domestic animals. Hematophagous insect salivary glands produce potent pharmacologic compounds that counteract host hemostasis, including anticlotting, antiplatelet, and vasodilatory molecules. To obtain further insight into the salivary biochemical and pharmacologic c...

Assumpc?a?o, Teresa C. F.; Charneau, Se?bastien; Santiago, Paula B. M.; Francischetti, Ivo M. B.; Meng, Zhaojing; Arau?jo, Carla N.; Pham, M.; Queiroz, Rayner M. L.; Castro, Cleudson Nery; Ricart, Carlos Andre?; Santana, Jaime M.; Ribeiro, Jose? M. C.

2011-01-01

305

Quantification of salivary gland Scintigraphy by means of factor analysis  

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Introduction: In this study the automatic separation of oral and salivary gland activity and spontaneous secretion by means of factor analysis for quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy is introduced. Methods: After intravenous administration of 99mTc sodium pertechnetate, dynamis scintigraphy was performed using a128x128 matrix, acquisition time 30 min, 2 frame/min). 20 minutes after tracer application 2 ml of lemon juice was delivered to stimulate the glands. Applying elliptical regions o...

Peter Knoll; Siroos Mirzaei

2010-01-01

306

Intraoral lymphoepithelial carcinoma of the minor salivary glands.  

Science.gov (United States)

The occurrence of lymphoepithelial carcinoma in the oral cavity is extremely rare and a case with involvement of minor salivary glands is very uncommon. We describe a case of LELC of the oral cavity with involvement of the upper lip and of minor salivary glands. The tumour was described at the clinical and instrumental level; moreover, its histopathological phenotype was defined. Finally, the problems of differential diagnosis and the most appropriate therapeutic approaches are discussed. PMID:23160698

Menditti, Dardo; Laino, Luigi; Milano, Massimiliano; Caputo, Cristian; Boccellino, Mariarosaria; D'Avino, Alfredo; Baldi, Alfonso

2012-01-01

307

Imunoglobulina A secretora, proteínas totais e fluxo de saliva nas ulcerações aftosas recorrentes / Secretory A immunoglobulin, total proteins and salivary flow in Recurrent Aphthous Ulceration  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese De etiologia discutível, as ulcerações aftosas recorrentes (UAR) são, na maioria das vezes, consideradas em um quadro de deficiência imunológica. OBJETIVOS: Este trabalho baseia-se na revisão de literatura e em investigações clínico-laboratoriais dos títulos salivares de imunoglobulina A secretora ( [...] IgA-s), proteínas totais e fluxo de saliva (em repouso) de pacientes nos períodos de atividade e quiescência das Ulcerações aftosas recorrentes. Forma de Estudo: Estudo clínico e experimental. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Empregou-se a Nefelometria na quantificação das IgA-s salivares, o vermelho de Pirogalol para as proteínas totais salivares e a análise gravimétrica para a determinação do fluxo de saliva. RESULTADOS: Os resultados demonstraram aumento estatisticamente significativo das IgA-s salivares nos períodos de lesão ativa em relação aos de quiescência. Não houve diferença estatística nas concentrações de proteínas totais e no fluxo de saliva. CONCLUSÃO: Sugere-se que a IgA-s pode ser usada como parâmetro do status imune da mucosa oral. Abstract in english Clinical and experimental study. Introduction. Of debatable etiology, Recurrent Aphthous Ulcerations (R.A.U), is most of the time considered an immunological deficiency. AIM: The aim of this paper is to review the literature and clinical investigations regarding IgA-s, total proteins salivary concen [...] tration and basal salivary flow of patients with R.A.U. during activity and quiescence. METHODOLOGY: Nephelometry was used to measure salivary IgA-s; Pyrogallol red was used for total salivary proteins and the gravimetrical analysis for salivary flow measurement. RESULTS: Results demonstrated a significant increase in salivary IgA-s in active lesions in relation to quiescence. On the other hand, protein concentration rates were similar in both periods. CONCLUSION: Salivary IgA-s can be used as a parameter to study the immune status of the oral mucosa.

Kennedy de Oliveira, Martinez; Lauro Lúcio, Mendes; José Bento, Alves.

308

Measurement of salivary resistin, visfatin and adiponectin levels.  

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Hormonal determination in saliva offers several advantages. Peptides enter the salivary glands either by active transport mechanisms or are expressed and secreted by the salivary glands themselves. The collection of saliva is a noninvasive, easily repeatable and less stressful technique than blood withdrawal. The purpose of the present study was to introduce a method for measuring salivary resistin, visfatin and adiponectin levels and to evaluate their associations with serum levels. Resistin, visfatin and adiponectin levels were measured in serum and saliva of 50 healthy adult volunteers (17 male and 33 female) using commercial enzyme immunoassay kits for serum with minor modifications. The present study documented the determination of resistin and adiponectin levels in saliva and the significant correlation of salivary levels with serum levels (r=0.441, psalivary resistin with serum levels, while it confirmed the significant association between salivary and serum adiponectin. The introduction of salivary determinations of adipokines could contribute to the elucidation of the physiology and the role of the specific adipokines in various clinical conditions (obesity, insulin resistance, inflammation, reproduction, energy imbalance and stress response). PMID:22108712

Mamali, Irene; Roupas, Nikolaos D; Armeni, Anastasia K; Theodoropoulou, Anastasia; Markou, Kostas B; Georgopoulos, Neoklis A

2012-01-01

309

[Cutaneous adnexal and salivary gland tumours. Similarities and differences].  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite major discrepancies in basic microscopic anatomy, remarkable similarities are manifest within the wide spectrum of cutaneous adnexal and salivary gland tumors. In this study salivary gland and adnexal tumors were identified and investigated with respect to similarities in histology, terminology and pathogenesis. Histological similarities of certain types of salivary gland tumors relate to eccrine, apocrine and rarely sebaceous (but not trichofollicular) types of adnexal tumors. The most striking similarity was found with salivary gland pleomorphic adenoma and cutaneous mixed tumor. Multistep carcinogenesis starting with intraductal carcinoma, identified in carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma is identical to that found in cutaneous carcinoma ex spiradenoma. Further histological and terminological similarities are shown for mucinous and mucoepidermoid carcinoma, for lymphadenoma and lymphoepithelial carcinoma, for sebaceous adenoma and carcinoma, for adenoid-cystic carcinoma, as well as for salivary gland basal cell adenoma versus cutaneous spiradenoma. Manifest diagnostic problems related to histologically similar salivary gland and adnexal tumors are rare and are topographically limited to the parotid and oral areas. PMID:25103327

Ihrler, S; Weiler, C; Eckert, F; Mollenhauer, M

2014-09-01

310

Salivary flow and oral complaints in adult dental patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Saliva plays an important role in maintaining oral health and functions. In the present study, unstimulated and stimulated whole salivary flow and various oral complaints were surveyed in 1427 individuals, 669 men (47%) and 758 women (53%). These individuals, aged 20 to 69 years and from different socioeconomic backgrounds, were recruited from 2000 randomly selected men and women in the register of the public dental health service in northern Sweden. The unstimulated salivary flow rate ranged from 0 to 2.07 mL/min (mean 0.33+/-SD 0.26) for men, and from 0 to 1.35 mL/min (mean 0.26+/-SD 0.21) for women. The stimulated salivary flow rate ranged from 0.17 to 7.3 mL/min (mean 2.50+/-SD 1.06) for men, and from 0 to 6.40 mL/min (mean 2.02+/-SD 0.93) for women. Women over 55 years of age had a reduced unstimulated salivary flow (Pcomplaints had a lower unstimulated salivary flow (Pburning mouth had a lower stimulated salivary flow (Pcomplaints of burning mouth (Pcomplaints (Pcomplaints in patients. PMID:10634685

Bergdahl, M

2000-02-01

311

The Effect of Calcium Pre-Rinse on Salivary Fluoride After 900 ppm Fluoride Mouthwash: A Randomized Clinical Trial  

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Full Text Available Objective: Calcium fluoride deposit during fluoride application. Uptake and retention of fluoride by saliva depends generally on the concentration of calcium. In this study, the ef-fect of calcium pre-rinse on salivary fluoride concentration after a 900 ppm fluoride mouthwash was investigated.Materials and Methods: This cross-over double-blind randomized clinical trial was con-ducted in a girls' dormitory in Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, southeast Iran. In this study, 42 female dental students were chosen using simple randomization. During the first phase, 21 subjects (group A used fluoride rinse (F regimen and the remaining (group B used calcium pre-rinse followed immediately by fluoride rinse (Ca + F regi-men. In the second phase, participants rinsed using the mouthwashes not previously used. Prior to each phase prophylaxis was performed and no fluoridated product was used dur-ing a two-week interval between the phases. Salivary samples were taken immediately be-fore (baseline, 1 and 12 hours after rinsing. The salivary fluoride concentration was de-termined using fluoride sensitive electrode. Repeated measures ANOVA was used for sta-tistical analysis and the significance level was set at P<0.05.Results: There was significant difference between fluoride concentrations at different time points (P< 0.001. Significant differences were observed when the different time points of two regimens were examined. In contrast to this, the baseline before using F regimen and the baseline before using Ca + F regimen did not show any significance (P= 0.070.Conclusion: Pre-rinsing with calcium before fluoride is recommended because of signifi-cant increases in salivary fluoride concentration.

Nahid Ramazani

2013-01-01

312

Comparable sensitivities of urine cotinine and breath carbon monoxide at follow-up time points of three months or more in a smoking cessation trial.  

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To control for likely overreporting of abstinence in clinical trials of smoking cessation aids, field convention demands the corroboration of subjects' self-reports by a biochemical/pharmacological marker. It is, however, currently debated if urinary cotinine (UC), a metabolite of nicotine, should be preferred because of its higher sensitivity, although sample collection for and analysis of cotinine are much more expensive and work intensive than carbon monoxide (CO) measurements in exhaled air. In the present study, it turned out that UC was of only moderately higher sensitivity than CO (99.4% vs. 96.3%; p = 0.02), the difference being significant only at group sizes of >164. UC identified participants as smokers who escaped CO detection in 4.9% of the cases, whereas CO identified smokers who escaped UC detection in 2.7% of the cases (p = 0.014). Our findings suggest that the costs/disadvantages of using UC instead of CO may outweigh its benefit as a pharmacological marker of (non)smoking status. PMID:20299823

Fritz, Michael; Wallner, Reinhild; Grohs, Ursula; Kemmler, Georg; Saria, Alois; Zernig, Gerald

2010-01-01

313

Salivary cortisol and sleep problems among civil servants  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVE: The present study used information from a field study conducted among 4489 civil servants (70% women) in Denmark in 2007. The purpose was to examine the association between sleep problems and salivary cortisol by using a cross-sectional design with repeated measures in a subsample three-month later. METHODS: Sleep problems during the past night and the past 4 weeks were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire on overall sleep quality, disturbed sleep, sleep length and awakening problems. Saliva samples were collected in a single day, using cotton tubes, 30min after awakening and again at 2000h. A subsample of 387 participants collected saliva samples three-month later at awakening, +20min and +40min after awakening and at 2000h. We adjusted for confounders related to sampling time, life style and personal characteristics, socioeconomic status and work aspects. RESULTS: Sleep problems during the past four weeks were associated with low morning and evening saliva cortisol concentrations: [-3.1%per score of disturbed sleep (p=.009); and -4.7% per score of awakening problems (p

Hansen, Ase Marie; Thomsen, Jane FrØlund

2012-01-01

314

Calcium, amylase, glucose, total protein concentrations, flow rate, pH and buffering capacity of saliva in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate qualitative and quantitative changes in the saliva of individuals undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. METHODS: Salivary samples were collected from 50 individuals divided in two groups: Experimental Group - patients with fixed orthodontic appliances (n=25); [...] and Control Group - subjects with no orthodontic appliances (n=25). Salivary flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, amylase activity, concentrations of total proteins, calcium and glucose were measured in all salivary samples. RESULTS: There was a reduction in salivary pH and buffering capacity and an increase in the concentration of calcium ions in the experimental group (p

Hellen Soares, Teixeira; Stella Maris Oliveira, Kaulfuss; Jucienne Salgado, Ribeiro; Betina do Rosário, Pereira; João Armando, Brancher; Elisa Souza, Camargo.

2012-04-01

315

Calcium, amylase, glucose, total protein concentrations, flow rate, pH and buffering capacity of saliva in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate qualitative and quantitative changes in the saliva of individuals undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. METHODS: Salivary samples were collected from 50 individuals divided in two groups: Experimental Group - patients with fixed orthodontic appliances (n=25); [...] and Control Group - subjects with no orthodontic appliances (n=25). Salivary flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, amylase activity, concentrations of total proteins, calcium and glucose were measured in all salivary samples. RESULTS: There was a reduction in salivary pH and buffering capacity and an increase in the concentration of calcium ions in the experimental group (p

Hellen Soares, Teixeira; Stella Maris Oliveira, Kaulfuss; Jucienne Salgado, Ribeiro; Betina do Rosário, Pereira; João Armando, Brancher; Elisa Souza, Camargo.

316

Oral complications of cancer therapies. Pretherapy interventions to modify salivary dysfunction  

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Salivary gland dysfunction is a common side effect of cancer therapies. Salivary secretions are reduced rapidly after starting head and neck radiotherapy. Salivary gland dysfunction has also been linked to bone marrow transplantation and to cytotoxic chemotherapy. Salivary gland stimulation during radiation has been suggested as a means of reducing radiation damage. Results of an ongoing study investigating the effects of pilocarpine on radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction suggest that parotid function was preserved, but not submandibular/sublingual function. Also, patients receiving pilocarpine had less frequent oral complaints. Further research is necessary to develop means of preventing or alleviating the salivary side effects of cancer therapies. 37 references.

Wolff, A.; Atkinson, J.C.; Macynski, A.A.; Fox, P.C. (National Institute of Dental Research, Bethesda, MD (USA))

1990-01-01

317

The effectiveness of the Uchida-Kraepelin test for psychological stress: an analysis of plasma and salivary stress substances  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA axis and sympathetic adrenomedullary (SAM system are the major stress-response pathways. Plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH represents HPA axis activity, while plasma catecholamines are used as markers of the SAM system. Salivary alpha amylase (AA, chromogranin A (CgA, and immunoglobulin A (IgA are candidate markers of stress activation, although their role has not been established. The Uchida-Kraepelin (U-K test is a questionnaire that requires intense concentration and effort, and has been used as a tool to induce mental stress. However, it is not clear whether or not the test is effective as a psychological/mental stressor. Methods In this study, normal young women took the U-K test and serial measurements of plasma ACTH and catecholamines (dopamine, noradrenaline, and adrenaline (n = 10, as well as salivary AA, CgA, and IgA (n = 16 before, during and after the test. Results We found no changes in any of these parameters at any time point during or after the U-K test. Conclusion Our findings indicate that the U-K test is not a suitable for measuring the psychological/mental stress of young women because the plasma data showed that it did not affect the HPA axis and SAM system. The U-K test should be employed carefully as a psychological/mental stressor due to insufficient scientific evidence of its effectiveness. In addition, salivary AA, CgA, and IgA should not simply be compared with previous reports, because the mechanism of secretion and normal range of each salivary parameter remain unknown. Salivary AA, CgA, and IgA may not be suitable candidate markers of psychological/mental stress.

Kanai Aya

2009-04-01

318

Efficacy of Scopolamine patch on the Secretory Function of salivary Glands by TC-99m Pertechnetate Salivary Scintigraphy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to evaluate quantitatively the reducing effect of the anticholinergics (scopolamine patch) on the salivary glands by dynamic salivary scintigraphy. Eleven normal volunteers were studied by salivary gland scintigraphy. After injection of 370 MBq Tc-99m pertechnetate, dynamic salivary scintigraphy with citric acid stimulation was performed for 30 minutes. After 5 days, they were administrated the scopolamine patch. The salivary scintigraphy were performed by same method after 2 days. Functional parameters for the parotid and submandibular glands, that is uptake radio(UR), Tmax, Tmin, maximum accumulation(MA), and maximum secretion(MS), were calculated. In submandibular glands, there was no statistical significance in UR, Tmax, Tmin and MA between before and after the scopolamine patch(p>0.05). The MS of submandibular gland after the scopolamine patch was significantly higher than before patch(p>0.05). In parotid glands, there was no statistical significance in UR, Tmax, Tmin, MA, and MS between before and after patch(p>0.05). It seems that is not satisfied the reducing effect of the scopolamine patch on the secretory function of salivary glands

319

Assessment of parotid salivary gland function in head and neck cancer patients receiving radiation therapy using quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background: Radiation therapy for cancer of the head and neck region often causes salivary gland dysfunction and xerostomia. Several reports suggest that the submandibular and sublingual glands may be less radiosensitive than the parotid glands. The effect of radiotherapy on parotid gland function was studied by salivary scintigraphy in patients irradiated with different doses of radiation in the head and neck region. The purpose of this study was to evaluate differential dose of radiation effects on the parotid glands using quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy (QSGS). Methods: Thirty-five patients with head and neck tumours were enrolled in a prospective salivary function study using Scintigraphy. Twenty-seven of thirty-five patients received different doses of radiation and remaining 8 patients did not receive radiation and they were considered as control. Stimulated parotid flow rate was measured in all the patients from scintigraphy of parotid glands. Results: Patients who received radiation dose of =50 Gy showed severe salivary dysfunction when compared to patients who received radiation dose <50 Gy. Overall, patients who received radiation showed significant dysfunction of parotid gland when compared to patients who did not receive radiotherapy. Conclusion: Dysfunction of the parotid salivary gland increases as the radiation dose increases . QSGS appears to be a useful toll in qualitatively and quantitatively evaluating the grade of dysfunction following rading the grade of dysfunction following radiotherapy. (author)

320

INFLUENCE OF MUSIC TYPE LISTENING ON ANAEROBIC PERFORMANCE AND SALIVARY CORTISOL IN MALES ATHLETES  

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Music has been widely recommended as a technique to enhance the psychophysical state of participants in sport and exercise. However, there is scant scientific evidence to clarify its proposed benefits. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of fast and slow rhythm of music on anaerobic performance and salivary cortisol concentration in trained men. Thirty male physical education college students (ages: 25.66±3.89 yr, height: 176.65 ± 7.66 cm, body mass: 78.45±16.20 kg...

Mohammad Ghaderi.; Mohammad Ali Azerbaijani.; Hamid Agha Alinejad.; Sirvan Atashak; Mahdieh Molanouri Shamsi.; Davod Ghaderi.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Determinación de los niveles de cortisol salival en una muestra de sujetos de Santiago de Chile / Salivary cortisol among subjects with and without Cushing syndrome  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Background: Salivary cortisol measurement is recommended as a screening mea-sure when a Cushing Syndrome is suspected. Theproposed cut-offpointfor aprobable diagnosis is 0.16 ug/dL. Aim: To determine salivary cortisol concentrations during the day inpatients with and without Cushing syndrome and wit [...] h depression. Material and Methods: Salivary cortisol was measured by competitive enzyme immuno assay (EIA), in samples obtained at 8:00,15:00 and 23:00 h in 78 patients without Cushing syndrome, aged 40 ± 15years (28 males), 30 patients with depression aged 40 ± 12years (nine males) and four jemales with Cushing syndrome aged 42 ± 17 years. Results: Salivary cortisol was higher among patients with Cushing syndrome than the rest of patients. A salivary cortisol over the cut-off value of O.16 ug/dL was found in 42% of subjects without Cushing syndrome and in 33% of patients with depression. Median values among patients without Cushing syndrome, depression and with Cushing syndrome were 0.21 (range

MACARENA, LÉPEZ; EGARDO, CAAMAÑO; CARMEN, ROMERO; JENNY, FIEDLER; VERÓNICA, ARAYA.

2010-02-01

322

Monitoring hormone-induced oxygen consumption in the salivary glands of the blowfly, Calliphora vicina, by use of luminescent microbeads  

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The salivary glands of the blowfly were injected with luminescent oxygen-sensitive microbeads. The changes in oxygen content within individual gland tubules during hormone-induced secretory activity were quantified. The measurements are based on an upgraded phase-modulation technique, where the phase shift of the sensor phosphorescence is determined independently from concentration and background signals. We show that the combination of a lock-in amplifier with a fluorescence microscope resul...

Schma?lzlin, Elmar; Walz, Bernd; Klimant, Ingo; Schewe, Bettina; Lo?hmannsro?ben, Hans-gerd

2006-01-01

323

Salivary Alpha-Amylase Activity and Salivary Flow Rate in Young Adults  

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The secretion of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) is more associated with psychoneuroendocrinological response to stress than with the flow rate and age. The aim of this cross sectional study is to build an explanatory model based on patterns of relationship between age 20-39 in resting and stimulated saliva under no stressful condition in healthy volunteers. Both resting and stimulated saliva were collected from 40 subjects. The sAA values were log-transformed, the normality assumption was verif...

Arhakis, Aristidis; Karagiannis, Vasilis; Kalfas, Sotirios

2013-01-01

324

Determination of the human salivary peptides histatins 1, 3, 5 and statherin by high-performance liquid chromatography and by diode-array detection.  

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A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with diode-array detection for the quantification of several human salivary peptides is described. Sample pretreatment consisted of the acidification of whole saliva by phosphate buffer. This treatment produced precipitation of mucins, alpha-amylases and other high-molecular-mass salivary proteins, simultaneous inhibition of intrinsic protease activities and reduction of sample viscosity. Direct HPLC analysis by diode-array detection of the resulting acidic sample allowed one to quantify histatin 1, histatin 3, histatin 5, statherin, as well as uric acid, in normal subjects. Moreover, the groups of peaks pertaining to proline-rich proteins and cystatins were tentatively identified. The method can be useful in assessing the concentration of salivary peptides from normal subjects and from patients suffering oral and/or periodontal diseases. PMID:11232845

Castagnola, M; Congiu, D; Denotti, G; Di Nunzio, A; Fadda, M B; Melis, S; Messana, I; Misiti, F; Murtas, R; Olianas, A; Piras, V; Pittau, A; Puddu, G

2001-02-10

325

Quantitative evaluation of Streptococcus mutans and Candida sp and salivary factors in the oral cavity of patients submitted to radiotherapy; Avaliacao quantitativa de Streptococcus do grupo mutans e Candida sp e fatores salivares na cavidade bucal de pacientes submetidos a radioterapia  

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The aim of this study was to quantify the microorganisms Streptococcus mutans and Candida sp in the oral cavity of patients with oropharynx carcinoma, before, during and after radiotherapy, and to correlate the results with salivary factors such as pH, buffer capacity and flow rate. Saliva samples were collected, diluted and inoculated in SB-20 agar and in Sabouraud agar, for Streptococcus mutans and Candida sp, respectively. Previously to dilution, the concentrated saliva was analyzed, and the salivary factors were determined. After the growth of colonies, the number of microorganisms was determined in CFU/ml. The analysis of the results allowed to conclude that the salivary factors are related to the presence of microorganisms, and that the number of CFU/ml increased as salivary flow rate decreased. The effects of radiation compromised salivary homeostasis and favored the increase of infection by yeasts and bacteria. (author)

Spolidorio, Denise Madalena Palomari; Spolidorio, Luis Carlos; Barbeiro, Roberto Henrique; Bernardo, Wagner Luis Carvalho; Pavan, Sabrina [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia; Hoefling, Jose Francisco [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia

2001-12-01

326

Bright light exposure during the daytime affects circadian rhythms of urinary melatonin and salivary immunoglobulin A.  

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The effects of bright light exposure during the daytime on circadian urinary melatonin and salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) rhythms were investigated in an environmental chamber controlled at a global temperature of 27 degrees C+/-0.2 degrees C and a relative humidity of 60%+/-5%. Seven diurnally active healthy females were studied twice, in bright and dim light conditions. Bright light of 5000 lux was provided by placing fluorescent lamps about 1 meter in front of the subjects during the daytime exposure (06:30-19:30) from 06:30 on day 1 to 10:30 on day 3. Dim light was controlled at 200 lux, and the subjects were allowed to sleep from 22:30 to 06:30 under both light exposure conditions. Urine and saliva were collected at 4h intervals for assessing melatonin and IgA. Melatonin excretion in the urine was significantly greater during the nighttime (i.e., at 06:30 on day 1 and at 02:30 on day 2) after the bright light condition than during the dim light condition. Furthermore, the concentration and the amount of salivary IgA tended to be higher in the bright light than in the dim light condition, especially during the night-time. Also, salivary IgA concentration and the total amount secreted in the saliva were significantly positively correlated with urinary melatonin. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that bright light exposure during the daytime enhances the nocturnal melatonin increase and activates the mucosal immune response. PMID:10373104

Park, S J; Tokura, H

1999-05-01

327

Applications of and limitations to salivary gland scintigraphy  

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Salivary gland functional imaging is a simple, non-invasive procedure which requires little in terms of time and money to clarify disorders of saliva production and elimination. With relatively low levels of radiation exposure, there is no reason to expect side effects to the patient, provided that a physiological taste stimulant such as lemon juice is used to stimulate saliva production. From a dynamic study we derived functional curves for the parotides and the submandibular glands using the ROI-technique. Typical curves allow to differentiate between inflammatory, degenerative and obstructive diseases of the salivary glands. In cases of salivary gland tumours, additional information of pre- or posttherapeutic relevance may be expected e.g. concerning the saliva flow patterns. However, for primary diagnosis, other imaging procedures are more useful. In combination with sonography, swellings and pain of the salivary glands may be reliably clarified. Except for time activity curves for the salivary glands, quantitative analysis of pertechnetate uptake is only of secondary importance. This is due to methodological problems (e.g. definition of ROI) on the one hand and to a considerable inter- and intra-individual variability of the secretory gland outputs of the parotides and submandibular glands on the other hand. (orig.)

328

Salivary antioxidant capacity in graft versus host disease.  

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Stem cell transplantation (SCT)-related salivary gland injury and dysfunction result in local and systemic manifestations that may be long lasting and are associated with a high rate of morbidity and increased risk of infection. The salivary antioxidant system may have a major protective role. We, therefore, assessed salivary antioxidant capacity and function in 30 patients who had undergone SCT: 18 males and 12 females whose median age was 36 years (range: 7-58). Salivary gland function was assessed by sialometric and biochemistry means, which included measuring total protein, secretory IgA (SIgA) and the antioxidants peroxidase, uric acid (UA), and total antioxidant status (TAS) in the collected saliva. In patients who developed graft versus host disease (GVHD), we observed a significant decrease of the salivary flow rate, from 0.74 +/- 0.14 ml/minute to 0.19 +/- 0.08 ml/min, pre- and post-SCT, respectively (p saliva of the GVHD patients were found to be significantly reduced, to about one-third of the base-line value (P saliva constantly swallowed into the GIT losses its usual antioxidant protective roles. In conclusion, our findings may point at a possible new mechanism for the pathogenesis of oral and intestinal mucositis in pre-GVHD patients. Therapy with artificial saliva and free radical scavengers and/or antioxidants (administered either systemically or via oral rinses) thus, may be of clinical relevance. PMID:16809154

Nagler, Rafael; Barness-Hadar, Liat; Lieba, Merav; Nagler, Arnon

2006-01-01

329

Expression of CDK6 in Salivary Gland Tumors  

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Full Text Available To investigate the expression of CDK6 in salivary gland tumors. In this study, 59 samples of salivary gland tumors from Khalili Hospital pathology archive, including 19 cases of pleomorphic Adenoma, 14 cases of Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma and 19 cases of Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma, as well as 10 cases of normal salivary gland tissue, were reviewed by Immunohistochemistry (IHC for CDK6 staining. CDK6 expression in normal salivary gland was limited to the cytoplasm of ductal cells, but in tumoral tissues was both nuclear and cytoplasmic. Mean percentage of CDK6 staining in the tumoral group (17.38±21.25 was significantly higher than the normal group (1.1±0.99. So, we recognized a higher expression of this marker in tumoral lesions than in normal tissues (p = 0.021. But there wasn’t any statistically significant difference between expression of CDK6 in different types of tumors (p = 0.2. This study demonstrated that over expression of nuclear CDK6 and the dysregulation of PRb pathway play a role in the oncogenesis of salivary gland tumors.

Mohammad Javad Ashraf

2012-01-01

330

Primary midgut, salivary gland, and ovary cultures from Boophilus microplus.  

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Primary cell cultures from different tick organs are a valuable tool for host parasite research in the study of the protozoan Babesia sp., which infects different organs of the tick. In this work we describe the generation of midgut, salivary gland, and ovary primary cell cultures from dissections of Boophilus microplus. Midguts, salivary glands, and ovaries were dissected from B. microplus ticks on different days after bovine infestation; different enzymatic disaggregating protocols were tested in the presence of proteolytic enzymes, such as trypsin and collagenase type I and II, for tissue disaggregation and primary cell culture generation. The dissected tick organs obtained 18-20 days after bovine infestation showed a major cellular differentiation and were easier to identify by cellular morphology. The enzymatic disaggregation results showed that each tissue required a different proteolytic enzyme for optimal disaggregation; collagenase type I produced the most complete disaggregation for ovaries but not for midgut or salivary glands. Collagenase type II was effective for salivary glands but performed poorly on ovaries and midgets, and typsin was effective for midguts only. The midgut and ovary primary cell cultures were maintained for 4 weeks in optimal conditions after the cells were no longer viable. The salivary gland cell cultures were viable for 8 months. PMID:19120172

Mosqueda, Juan; Cossío-Bayugar, Raquel; Rodríguez, Elba; Falcón, Alfonso; Ramos, Alberto; Figueroa, Julio V; Alvarez, Antonio

2008-12-01

331

Contribution and advantages of scintigraphy in salivary pathology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent technical improvements, especially the use of the scintillation camera, enable kinetic studies to be carried out by isotopic exploration and salivary scintigraphy has become an easy, fast and painless method of functional investigation of the main salivary glands. This work outlines the results obtained by Tc 99m scintigraphy with a scintillation camera, relative to the most important salivary gland diseases. After an account of the anatomy and general pathology of the parotid glands and submaxillaries the chief characteristics of the tracer, the detection techniques and the method employed here are described briefly. The elementary scintigraphic aspects found in the different observations are reported, then discussed in connection with results already published. The conclusion drawn from this work is that it is possible in the vast majority of cases, by comparing and combining the morphological and kinetic study of the salivary glands by technetium 99m scintigraphy with the clinical context, to obtain very valuable information which no other complementary examination has so far been able to supply satisfactorily. Now that scintigraphy has become a method of functional and not only morphological exploration it occupies a vital place in the study of the salivary glands

332

Some factors influencing salivary function when treating with radiotherapy  

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Salivary flow rate was studied in 29 patients treated with external irradiation to head and neck areas. Resting saliva samples were collected before, during the radiotherapy course and follow-up. Several parameters were investigated: field arrangement, amount of salivary glands irradiated, dose to these glands, initial FR, its recovery during and after irradiation, and influence of therapy interruption in FR. It was found that the level of the upper border of the field is a critical factor when using parallel-opposed lateral fields to the upper neck area and lateral face. More than 50% of the parotids have to be outside the fields to prevent severe dryness. Neck fields which do not encompass salivary glands do not decrease salivary secretion. There is some relation between the initial FR and the dose necessary to produce dryness: patients with high initial salivary FR require higher doses. FR recovery occurs during weekend interruptions before xerostomia develops. Interruptions of therapy for more than two weeks during the radiotherapy course prior to development of dryness might decrease late xerostomia, at least in patients with high initial FR. Objective recovery of the FR has not been observed after treatment in spite of the subjective improvement in the sensation of dryness of some patients

333

Quantification of salivary gland Scintigraphy by means of factor analysis  

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Full Text Available Introduction: In this study the automatic separation of oral and salivary gland activity and spontaneous secretion by means of factor analysis for quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy is introduced. Methods: After intravenous administration of 99mTc sodium pertechnetate, dynamis scintigraphy was performed using a128x128 matrix, acquisition time 30 min, 2 frame/min. 20 minutes after tracer application 2 ml of lemon juice was delivered to stimulate the glands. Applying elliptical regions of interest (ROIs for oral cavity and four major salivary gland and factor analysis of  medical image sequences results in factor image and factor curves, which are used for quantification of the pre- and post-stimulatory oral activity index, and for the four major glands and the sublingual gland, the maximum accumulation (MA, the maximum secretion (MS and the secretion velocity (SV. Results: With FAMIS it is possible to fully separate automatic separate the three superimposed processes we have in salivary gland scintigraphy: glandular and oral activity and spontaneous secretion. Comparing our quantitative results obtained by FAMIS with ROI analysis we found significant different values that are due to the fact that the spontaneous secretion in the oral cavity superimposes the true oral and glandular activity curves. Conclusion: The application of factor analysis improves the results of salivary gland scintigraphy by separation of superimposed dynamic processes of oral and glandular activity and spontaneous secretion

Peter Knoll

2010-10-01

334

Pleomorphic adenoma of minor salivary gland: rare tumor in tongue base  

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Full Text Available Pleomorphic adenoma (PA is the neoplasm most common salivary gland. Mainly affects themajor salivary glands, and is much less commonly found in minor salivary glands, the mostfrequent being the palate and upper lip. Although pleomorphic adenoma is abenign neoplasm, usually the capsule is incomplete and tends to recur after incompletesurgical resection.

P. Blanco Pérez

2010-12-01

335

Measurement of salivary cortisol--effects of replacing polyester with cotton and switching antibody  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Stable performance between-runs are essential in longitudinal studies and when different studies are being compared. However, changes in analytical kits and laboratory material occur and have the potential to threaten analytical stability. In the present case, we examined how salivary cortisol measurements in our laboratory were affected by: 1) changes in the tampon material and 2) changes in the antibody of the analytical kit. In study 1, saliva from healthy subjects (n = 19) was split and spiked to Salivette polyester and cotton tampons, respectively, and treated as ordinary samples before being analysed for cortisol using a Spectria RIA kit for cortisol. In study 2, 68 anonymous saliva samples were analysed with the Spectria Cortisol RIA kit both before and after the manufacturer changed the antibody. The change from polyester to cotton tampons reduced the measured concentration of salivary cortisol by 62 %. A difference of 12 % between the two runs with different antibodies could not be attributed to differences in storage or in thawing and freezing of samples. To conclude, both a change in the material of the Salivette used for collecting saliva samples as well as a change of antibody in a kit can have a major impact on measurements, as illustrated here for concentrations of cortisol in saliva. It is therefore recommended always to check that the analysis stays in statistical control in one's own laboratory when changes are made, even if the manufacturer reports that the changes should have no effects.

Hansen, Ase Marie; Garde, Anne Helene

2008-01-01

336

Serum ?-amylase and radioinduced changes in the parotid salivary glands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using the inhibitory chromogenic method of O'Donel et al. the authors determined ?-amylase and salivary isoenzyme activities in 30 patients with oncologic diseases (19 men and 11 women), 14 to 71 years of age, with localized tumors in the epipharynx, tonsils, hypopharynx, maxillary sinuses, lingual base, in whom the two parotid salivary glands had come within the range of the external beam gamma-therapy at different involvement degree. Measurements were performed within the 30-40 Gy interval, and the results were compared with those in a control group of normal subjects. There was increase in total amylase and salivary isomerase activities, mostly when 100% of the parotid glands had been involved. This is a sound reason for clinical search of radioinduced changes in the glands

337

Ca²?-dependent K? channels in exocrine salivary glands.  

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In the last 15 years, remarkable progress has been realized in identifying the genes that encode the ion-transporting proteins involved in exocrine gland function, including salivary glands. Among these proteins, Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channels take part in key functions including membrane potential regulation, fluid movement and K(+) secretion in exocrine glands. Two K(+) channels have been identified in exocrine salivary glands: (1) a Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel of intermediate single channel conductance encoded by the KCNN4 gene, and (2) a voltage- and Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channel of large single channel conductance encoded by the KCNMA1 gene. This review focuses on the physiological roles of Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channels in exocrine salivary glands. We also discuss interesting recent findings on the regulation of Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channels by protein-protein interactions that may significantly impact exocrine gland physiology. PMID:24559652

Catalán, Marcelo A; Peña-Munzenmayer, Gaspar; Melvin, James E

2014-06-01

338

Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the minor salivary glands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a malignant salivary gland tumor with typical histologic patterns. The majority of the se tumors occurs in the minor salivary glands, especially mucosa of the hard palate. The authors experienced the patients, who complained the tumor-like soft tissue masses on the palatal and mouth floor area. After careful analysis of clinical, radiological and histopathological findings, we diagnosed them as adenoid cystic carcinomas in the minor salivary glands, obtained results were as follows : 1. Main clinical symptoms were a slow growing soft tissue mass with normal intact mucosa on the palatal area, and soft tissue mass with mild pain on the mouth floor area. 2. In the radiographic examinations, soft tissue masses were observed with invasion to adjacent structures, and moderate defined, heterogeneous soft tissue mass with enhanced margin, respectively. 3. In the histopathologic examinations, dark-stained, small uniform ballad's cells in the hyaline or fibrous stroma were observed as solid and cribriform patterns, respectively.

339

Pleomorphic adenoma of minor salivary gland: hard palate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pleomorphic adenoma or mixed tumor occurs in 4 to 14% of the accessory glands salivary. Different localizations exist: AEC, nasal block, lips, maxillary sinus, nasopharynx or in any other localization where salivate tissue exists, but the palate constitutes the most frequent localization, because it gathers more than 50% of minor salivary glands. In the palate, it can be developed a wide variety of tumors coming from the connective and epithelial tissue, 44% arise in the minor salivary glands. In 49 to 65% of them are benign tumors, principally pleomorphic adenomas, located preferably in the hard palate, nearby or in the union with the soft palate as in our case. We present a 42 year old patient with at pleomorphic adenoma of hard palate. (The author)

340

Salivary proteins of plant-feeding hemipteroids - implication in phytophagy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many hemipteroids are major pests and vectors of microbial pathogens, infecting crops. Saliva of the hemipteroids is critical in enabling them to be voracious feeders on plants, including the economically important ones. A plethora of hemipteroid salivary enzymes is known to inflict stress in plants, either by degrading the plant tissue or by affecting their normal metabolism. Hemipteroids utilize one of the following three strategies of feeding behaviour: salivary sheath feeding, osmotic-pump feeding and cell-rupture feeding. The last strategy also includes several different tactics such as lacerate-and-flush, lacerate-and-sip and macerate-and-flush. Understanding hemipteroid feeding mechanisms is critical, since feeding behaviour directs salivary composition. Saliva of the Heteroptera that are specialized as fruit and seed feeders, includes cell-degrading enzymes, auchenorrhynchan salivary composition also predominantly consists of cell-degrading enzymes such as amylase and protease, whereas that of the Sternorhyncha includes a variety of allelochemical-detoxifying enzymes. Little is known about the salivary composition of the Thysanoptera. Cell-degrading proteins such as amylase, pectinase, cellulase and pectinesterase enable stylet entry into the plant tissue. In contrast, enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase, laccase and trehalase detoxify plant chemicals, enabling the circumvention of plant-defence mechanisms. Salivary enzymes such as M1-zinc metalloprotease and CLIP-domain serine protease as in Acyrthosiphon pisum (Aphididae), and non-enzymatic proteins such as apolipophorin, ficolin-3-like protein and 'lava-lamp' protein as in Diuraphis noxia (Aphididae) have the capacity to alter host-plant-defence mechanisms. A majority of the hemipteroids feed on phloem, hence Ca++-binding proteins such as C002 protein, calreticulin-like isoform 1 and calmodulin (critical for preventing sieve-plate occlusion) are increasingly being recognized in hemipteroid-plant interactions. Determination of a staggering variety of proteins shows the complexity of hemipteroid saliva: effector proteins localized in hemipteran saliva suggest a similarity to the physiology of pathogen-plant interactions. PMID:24280006

Sharma, A; Khan, A N; Subrahmanyam, S; Raman, A; Taylor, G S; Fletcher, M J

2014-04-01

 
 
 
 
341

Analysis of the salivary gland transcriptome of Frankliniella occidentalis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Saliva is known to play a crucial role in insect feeding behavior and virus transmission. Currently, little is known about the salivary glands and saliva of thrips, despite the fact that Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (the western flower thrips) is a serious pest due to its destructive feeding, wide host range, and transmission of tospoviruses. As a first step towards characterizing thrips salivary gland functions, we sequenced the transcriptome of the primary salivary glands of F. occidentalis using short read sequencing (Illumina) technology. A de novo-assembled transcriptome revealed 31,392 high quality contigs with an average size of 605 bp. A total of 12,166 contigs had significant BLASTx or tBLASTx hits (E?1.0E-6) to known proteins, whereas a high percentage (61.24%) of contigs had no apparent protein or nucleotide hits. Comparison of the F. occidentalis salivary gland transcriptome (sialotranscriptome) against a published F. occidentalis full body transcriptome assembled from Roche-454 reads revealed several contigs with putative annotations associated with salivary gland functions. KEGG pathway analysis of the sialotranscriptome revealed that the majority (18 out of the top 20 predicted KEGG pathways) of the salivary gland contig sequences match proteins involved in metabolism. We identified several genes likely to be involved in detoxification and inhibition of plant defense responses including aldehyde dehydrogenase, metalloprotease, glucose oxidase, glucose dehydrogenase, and regucalcin. We also identified several genes that may play a role in the extra-oral digestion of plant structural tissues including ?-glucosidase and pectin lyase; and the extra-oral digestion of sugars, including ?-amylase, maltase, sucrase, and ?-glucosidase. This is the first analysis of a sialotranscriptome for any Thysanopteran species and it provides a foundational tool to further our understanding of how thrips interact with their plant hosts and the viruses they transmit. PMID:24736614

Stafford-Banks, Candice A; Rotenberg, Dorith; Johnson, Brian R; Whitfield, Anna E; Ullman, Diane E

2014-01-01

342

Salivary defense factors and oral health in patients with common variable immunodeficiency.  

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Studies of oral health in patients with common variable immunodeficiency have given controversial results. Obviously, one major factor modifying the oral health of these patients is saliva, in which the antibody-mediated defense is remarkably impaired compared to that of healthy subjects. However, the occurrence of nonimmunoglobulin (innate) antimicrobial agents in saliva of these patients is virtually unknown. Therefore, we analyzed both immune (total IgA, IgG, IgM, anti-Streptococcus mutans IgA, IgG, and IgM antibodies) and nonimmune (lysozyme, lactoferrin, salivary peroxidase, myeloperoxidase, hypothiocyanite, thiocyanate, and agglutinins) factors in whole saliva of 15 patients with common variable immunodeficiency. All patients were on Ig-replacement therapy (median duration, 10 years; range, 2-25 years), which had normalized their IgG but not their IgA or IgM levels both in serum and in saliva. Also, comprehensive clinical and microbiological analyses were made. The control group comprised 15 age- and sex-matched immunologically healthy subjects. The results showed no notable differences in dental caries, periodontal diseases, or salivary microorganisms but the patients had a history of more frequent oral mucosal lesions and respiratory infections. All innate, nonimmune salivary defense factors were equally abundant in the patients as in the controls, in many cases even at somewhat higher concentrations. These findings suggest that in spite of immunodeficiency, patients with common variable immunodeficiency display normal, perhaps even slightly elevated, levels of nonimmunoglobulin defense factors in whole saliva.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7929697

Kirstilä, V; Tenovuo, J; Ruuskanen, O; Nikoskelainen, J; Irjala, K; Vilja, P

1994-07-01

343

The relationship between psychological distress with salivary ?-amylase and stress related symptoms among breast cancer survivors  

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Full Text Available Background and Aims: This study examined the stress levels, the stressors and biomarker such as Alpha (?-Amylase enzyme which is secreted under distress conditions. The aim was to determine the relationship between these three variables. Methods: The study respondents were made up of cancer outpatients from 3 hospitals namely the Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Seberang Jaya and Johor Baru, Pantai Ipoh and Putrajaya. The Personal Stress Inventory (PSI questionnaire was used to identify stressors, while the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS were used to determine the psychological distress levels. The Salimentary Oral Swab (SOS Technique was used to collect the saliva and then the Salivary ?-Amylase Assay Kit was used to analyse for ? amylase. Results: The majority of respondents were stressed due to their sensitive emotion and nervousness in their daily lives (68.7%, they had poor memory and short attention spans of carrying out job tasks (67.3% as well as they were emotionally depressed (65.3%. Their poor memory and short attention span (p = 0.037, heavy work load and poor task delivery (p = 0.008 were predictors for distress using HADS. The salivary ?-amylase concentration was significantly related to the stress levels (p = 0.002. Conclusion: Breast cancer respondents with musculoskeletal system related symptoms, with heavy work load and poor task delivery, as well as had poor memory and short attention span were at higher risk of experiencing psychological distress. The salivary ?-amylase which had significant relationships with psychological distress was therefore, a potential biological indicator for distress, while the musculoskeletal system related symptoms from the PSI questionnaire were predictors for distress.

H. W. Yong

2013-04-01

344

Dietary and flight energetic adaptations in a salivary gland transcriptome of an insectivorous bat.  

Science.gov (United States)

We hypothesized that evolution of salivary gland secretory proteome has been important in adaptation to insectivory, the most common dietary strategy among Chiroptera. A submandibular salivary gland (SMG) transcriptome was sequenced for the little brown bat, Myotis lucifugus. The likely secretory proteome of 23 genes included seven (RETNLB, PSAP, CLU, APOE, LCN2, C3, CEL) related to M. lucifugus insectivorous diet and metabolism. Six of the secretory proteins probably are endocrine, whereas one (CEL) most likely is exocrine. The encoded proteins are associated with lipid hydrolysis, regulation of lipid metabolism, lipid transport, and insulin resistance. They are capable of processing exogenous lipids for flight metabolism while foraging. Salivary carboxyl ester lipase (CEL) is thought to hydrolyze insect lipophorins, which probably are absorbed across the gastric mucosa during feeding. The other six proteins are predicted either to maintain these lipids at high blood concentrations or to facilitate transport and uptake by flight muscles. Expression of these seven genes and coordinated secretion from a single organ is novel to this insectivorous bat, and apparently has evolved through instances of gene duplication, gene recruitment, and nucleotide selection. Four of the recruited genes are single-copy in the Myotis genome, whereas three have undergone duplication(s) with two of these genes exhibiting evolutionary 'bursts' of duplication resulting in multiple paralogs. Evidence for episodic directional selection was found for six of seven genes, reinforcing the conclusion that the recruited genes have important roles in adaptation to insectivory and the metabolic demands of flight. Intragenic frequencies of mobile- element-like sequences differed from frequencies in the whole M. lucifugus genome. Differences among recruited genes imply separate evolutionary trajectories and that adaptation was not a single, coordinated event. PMID:24454705

Phillips, Carleton J; Phillips, Caleb D; Goecks, Jeremy; Lessa, Enrique P; Sotero-Caio, Cibele G; Tandler, Bernard; Gannon, Michael R; Baker, Robert J

2014-01-01

345

Short-term salivary acetaldehyde increase due to direct exposure to alcoholic beverages as an additional cancer risk factor beyond ethanol metabolism  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasing body of evidence now implicates acetaldehyde as a major underlying factor for the carcinogenicity of alcoholic beverages and especially for oesophageal and oral cancer. Acetaldehyde associated with alcohol consumption is regarded as 'carcinogenic to humans' (IARC Group 1, with sufficient evidence available for the oesophagus, head and neck as sites of carcinogenicity. At present, research into the mechanistic aspects of acetaldehyde-related oral cancer has been focused on salivary acetaldehyde that is formed either from ethanol metabolism in the epithelia or from microbial oxidation of ethanol by the oral microflora. This study was conducted to evaluate the role of the acetaldehyde that is found as a component of alcoholic beverages as an additional factor in the aetiology of oral cancer. Methods Salivary acetaldehyde levels were determined in the context of sensory analysis of different alcoholic beverages (beer, cider, wine, sherry, vodka, calvados, grape marc spirit, tequila, cherry spirit, without swallowing, to exclude systemic ethanol metabolism. Results The rinsing of the mouth for 30 seconds with an alcoholic beverage is able to increase salivary acetaldehyde above levels previously judged to be carcinogenic in vitro, with levels up to 1000 ?M in cases of beverages with extreme acetaldehyde content. In general, the highest salivary acetaldehyde concentration was found in all cases in the saliva 30 sec after using the beverages (average 353 ?M. The average concentration then decreased at the 2-min (156 ?M, 5-min (76 ?M and 10-min (40 ?M sampling points. The salivary acetaldehyde concentration depends primarily on the direct ingestion of acetaldehyde contained in the beverages at the 30-sec sampling, while the influence of the metabolic formation from ethanol becomes the major factor at the 2-min sampling point. Conclusions This study offers a plausible mechanism to explain the increased risk for oral cancer associated with high acetaldehyde concentrations in certain beverages.

Monakhova Yulia B

2011-01-01

346

Comparative salivary gland transcriptomics of sandfly vectors of visceral leishmaniasis  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Immune responses to sandfly saliva have been shown to protect animals against Leishmania infection. Yet very little is known about the molecular characteristics of salivary proteins from different sandflies, particularly from vectors transmitting visceral leishmaniasis, the fatal form of the disease. Further knowledge of the repertoire of these salivary proteins will give us insights into the molecular evolution of these proteins and will help us select relevant antigens for the development of a vector based anti-Leishmania vaccine. Results Two salivary gland cDNA libraries from female sandflies Phlebotomus argentipes and P. perniciosus were constructed, sequenced and proteomic analysis of the salivary proteins was performed. The majority of the sequenced transcripts from the two cDNA libraries coded for secreted proteins. In this analysis we identified transcripts coding for protein families not previously described in sandflies. A comparative sandfly salivary transcriptome analysis was performed by using these two cDNA libraries and two other sandfly salivary gland cDNA libraries from P. ariasi and Lutzomyia longipalpis, also vectors of visceral leishmaniasis. Full-length secreted proteins from each sandfly library were compared using a stand-alone version of BLAST, creating formatted protein databases of each sandfly library. Related groups of proteins from each sandfly species were combined into defined families of proteins. With this comparison, we identified families of salivary proteins common among all of the sandflies studied, proteins to be genus specific and proteins that appear to be species specific. The common proteins included apyrase, yellow-related protein, antigen-5, PpSP15 and PpSP32-related protein, a 33-kDa protein, D7-related protein, a 39- and a 16.1- kDa protein and an endonuclease-like protein. Some of these families contained multiple members, including PPSP15-like, yellow proteins and D7-related proteins suggesting gene expansion in these proteins. Conclusion This comprehensive analysis allows us the identification of genus- specific proteins, species-specific proteins and, more importantly, proteins common among these different sandflies. These results give us insights into the repertoire of salivary proteins that are potential candidates for a vector-based vaccine.

Seitz Amy E

2006-03-01

347

Lymphoid lesions of salivary glands: Malignant and Benign  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in english Lesions of salivary glands with a prominent lymphoid component are a heterogeneous group of diseases that include benign reactive lesions and malignant neoplasms. Occasionally, these pathologic entities present difficulties in the clinical and pathological diagnosis and prognosis. Lymphoepithelial s [...] ialadenitis, HIV-associated salivary gland disease, chronic sclerosing sialadenitis, Warthin tumor, and extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma are examples of this pathology that are sometimes problematic to differentiate from one another. In this paper the author reviewed the main clinical, pathological and prognostic features of these lesions.

Gary L., Ellis.

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MRI of mass lesions of the salivary gland  

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The usefulness of MRI for the diagnosis of salivary gland tumors was studied in 20 salivary tumors, 10 pleomorphic adenomas, 5 Warthin's tumors, 3 adenocarcinomas, and leach of adenoma and acinar cell carcinoma. We examined 9 tumors by dynamic MRI, after a bolus intravenous injection of 0.1 mmol/kg Gd-DTPA. Pleomorphic adenoma showed continuous enhancement on dynamic MRI, and good enhancement on enhanced MRI. One of the adenocarcinoma showed marginal enhancement on dynamic MRI and enhanced MRI and the center of the tumor showed low signal intensity. Warthin's tumor showed poor enhancement on dynamic MRI and enhanced MRI. (author).

Inoue, Singo; Paku, Jinho; Takano, Youichi (Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan)) (and others)

1994-06-01

349

MRI of mass lesions of the salivary gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The usefulness of MRI for the diagnosis of salivary gland tumors was studied in 20 salivary tumors, 10 pleomorphic adenomas, 5 Warthin's tumors, 3 adenocarcinomas, and leach of adenoma and acinar cell carcinoma. We examined 9 tumors by dynamic MRI, after a bolus intravenous injection of 0.1 mmol/kg Gd-DTPA. Pleomorphic adenoma showed continuous enhancement on dynamic MRI, and good enhancement on enhanced MRI. One of the adenocarcinoma showed marginal enhancement on dynamic MRI and enhanced MRI and the center of the tumor showed low signal intensity. Warthin's tumor showed poor enhancement on dynamic MRI and enhanced MRI. (author)

350

Emerging horizons of salivary diagnostics for periodontal disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

The field of salivary diagnostics to allow risk determination for periodontal diseases is advancing. New technologies in proteomics, genomics and nanotechnologies have continued the discovery of discriminatory periodontal disease biomarkers. This review briefly overviews biomarker studies that have been completed in saliva for the detection of periodontal disease since 2010. Disease specific biomarkers could be used in risk determination, treatment planning and disease progression. Currently, diagnostic tests are commercially available, and the development of point-of-care tests is expanding. Even though challenges remain, salivary diagnostics for periodontal disease is promising and could facilitate the diagnostics and treatment in a clinical practice by dental practitioners. PMID:25415010

Fuentes, L; Yakob, M; Wong, D T W

2014-11-21

351

Raman spectroscopic investigation of urinary calculi and salivary stones  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The capabilities and limitations of determining the composition of urinary calculi (34 patients) and salivary stones (27 patients) by Raman spectroscopy have been investigated by analysing Raman spectra obtained with 1064 nm laser excitation, and comparing them with Raman spectra both from specific reference substances and from a commercial Raman database. The composition results were also compared with those obtained by other analytical methods e.g. powder diffraction. Raman spectroscopy proves to be an analytical method which provides reliable results on the composition of urinary calculi and salivary stones quickly, non-destructively and without any need of sample preparation. (author)

352

European results in neutron therapy of malignant salivary gland tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Europe to date, 501 patients with salivary gland tumors have been treated with neutrons alone or with combined modalities. The most common histological types are adenoid cystic carcinomas, muco-epidermoid carcinomas and malignant mixed tumors. The results of conventional radiotherapy are suboptimal in inoperable or incompletely resected salivary gland tumors and in recurrent disease. The pooled data of some international series for low linear energy transfer radiation show a local control of 28 %. Especially in advanced tumors neutron therapy can improve local control and should be the treatment of choice. The clinical data from different therapy centers in Europe show local control of 67 % in gross disease. (author)

353

Minor salivary gland tumors of the upper aerodigestive tract  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper compares the outcome of minor salivary gland tumors of the upper aerodigestive tract according to treatment modalities. One hundred fourteen patients with minor salivary gland tumors were treated between 1961 and 1986. The median follow-up was 38 months (24-225 months). There were 35 paranasal sinus tumors (31%), 62 oral cavity tumors (54%), and 17 tumors of other sites (15%). Adenoid cystic carcinoma was the most common histologic type, accounting for 70 lesions (61%), followed by mucoepidermoid carcinoma, n = 28 (25%); adenocarcinoma, 15 (13%); and malignant mixed tumor, n = 1 (1%)

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A study on salivary cortisol level in patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis during both ulceration and ulcer free periods  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis (RAS is one of the most common oral mucosal disorders. RAS patients show a decline in oral tolerance which leads to epithelial damage. Cortisol secretion in such patients may not be enough to suppress cytotoxic reactions against oral epithelium. The aim of this study was to measure salivary cortisol level during both ulceration and ulcer free phases of the disease. Materials and Methods: In this analytic-descriptive study, a total of 20 patients having minor oral aphthi with a history of at least three times oral ulceration in one year were included.Saliva samples were collected through spitting. The salivary concentration level of cortisol was measured on the first and 7th days from the appearance of aphthous ulcers, every patient was considered as both case and control. Sampling was repeated when ulcers were completely healed. The saliva samples were collected between 9 and 10 am and were analyzed via Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. The collected data were statistically analyzed on a computer through repeated measurement ANOVA and paired t-tests using SPSS software.(? = 0.05Results: The mean concentration of salivary cortisol on the first day of aphthous appearance was 2.72 . However after complete healing of the ulcers, it rose to 3.37 . The difference these values were shown to be statistically significant (p value=0.002. The mean concentration level of salivary cortisol on the 7th day from aphthous appearance (2.6 was also significantly different from the aphthous Free State. (p value = 0.001. Mean cortisol concentration level on the first and 7th days from the appearance of aphthous ulcer did not show a significant difference (p value = 0.304.Conclusion: The results showed that the mean salivary cortisol level at the beginning of the disease as well as during its active ulcerative period (acute phase were significantly lower than in aphthous free periods. It seems that cortisol plays a key role in reducing aphthous ulcer inflammation. Impaired cortisol secretion in RAS patients may cause an increased rate of incidence and severity of aphthous ulcers. Key words: Recurrent aphthous ulcer, Saliva, Hydrocortisone

Parichehr Ghaliani

2010-01-01

355

Characterization of the In Vitro Kinetic Interaction of Chlorpyrifos-Oxon with Rat Salivary Cholinesterase: A Potential Biomonitoring Matrix  

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Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a commonly used organophosphate insecticide (OP). The primary mechanism of action for CPF involves the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by the active metabolite, CPF-oxon, with subsequent accumulation of acetylcholine (ACh) resulting in a wide range of neutotoxicity. CPF-oxon, can likewise inhibit other non-target cholinesterases (ChE) such as butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), which represents a detoxification mechanism and a potential biomarker of exposure/response. Biological monitoring for OPs has focused on measuring parent chemical or metabolite in blood and urine or blood ChE inhibition. Salivary biomonitoring has recently been explored as a practical method for examination of chemical exposure; however, there are a limited number of studies exploring its use for OPs. To evaluate the use of salivary ChE as a biological monitor for OP exposure, the current study characterized salivary ChE activity in Sprague-Dawley rats through its comparison with brain and plasma ChE using BW284C51 and iso-OMPA as selective inhibitors of AChE and BuChE, respectively. The study also estimated the kinetic constants describing BuChE interaction with CPF-oxon. A modified Ellman assay in conjunction with pharmacodynamic (PD) modeling was used to characterize the in vitro titration of diluted rat salivary ChE enzyme with CPF-oxon. The results indicated that, more than 95% of rat salivary ChE activity was associated with BuChE activity, total BuChE active site concentration was 0.0012 0.00013 nmol/ml saliva, reactivation rate constant (Kr) was 0.068 0.008 h-1 and inhibitory (Ki) rate constant of 8.825 and 9.80 nM-1h-1 determined experimentally and using model optimization respectively. These study results would be helpful for further evaluating the potential utility of salivary ChE as a practical tool for biological monitor of OP exposures.

Kousba, Ahmed A.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Poet, Torka S.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Timchalk, Charles (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

2003-02-12

356

Impaired salivary gland function after radiotherapy compounded by commonly prescribed medications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Impaired salivary gland function can be a major cause of late morbidity following the treatment of head and neck cancer with radiotherapy. A large number of commonly prescribed medications can also reduce salivary gland function. We report three patients with already impaired salivary gland function following successful radiotherapy in whom additional prescribed medication led to an increased reduction in salivary flow, thus further impairing the quality of life of these patients. Stopping the medication resulted in subjective and objective improvement in salivary gland function. (author)

357

Oxidative DNA damage and repair in children exposed to low levels of arsenic in utero and during early childhood: application of salivary and urinary biomarkers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study aimed to assess arsenic exposure and its effect on oxidative DNA damage and repair in young children exposed in utero and continued to live in arsenic-contaminated areas. To address the need for biological specimens that can be acquired with minimal discomfort to children, we used non-invasive urinary and salivary-based assays for assessing arsenic exposure and early biological effects that have potentially serious health implications. Levels of arsenic in nails showed the greatest magnitude of difference between exposed and control groups, followed by arsenic concentrations in saliva and urine. Arsenic levels in saliva showed significant positive correlations with other biomarkers of arsenic exposure, including arsenic accumulation in nails (r=0.56, Parsenic concentration in urine (r=0.50, Parsenic methylation capacity indicated by decreased primary methylation index and secondary methylation index in both urine and saliva samples. Levels of salivary 8-OHdG in exposed children were significantly higher (~4-fold, Parsenic (iAs) in saliva and urine had a significant positive association with salivary 8-OHdG and a significant negative association with salivary hOGG1 expression. PMID:24128852

Hinhumpatch, Pantip; Navasumrit, Panida; Chaisatra, Krittinee; Promvijit, Jeerawan; Mahidol, Chulabhorn; Ruchirawat, Mathuros

2013-12-15

358

Studies of the effects of radiation or surgery on the salivary amylase activity and the isoamylase composition in salivary gland tumours  

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The total amylase activity and the isoamylase composition of saliva were studied in patients with salivary gland tumours before and after treatment to evaluate the efficiency of treatment in terms of its ability to restore normal or nearly normal salivary function. The material for the study comprised 35 normal subjects, one case of mumps and eight cases of histologically proved salivary gland tumours, three of which received radiation treatment and one was subjected to total parotidectomy. It is observed that there is a marked deviation from normal in the total salivary amylase activity and the isoamylase pattern in mumps and untreated salivary gland tumours and some increase in amylase activity is noticeable after treatment of these tumours, the increase being more marked after surgery. The salivary isoamylase pattern restored to normal in case of mumps after recovery and in salivary gland tumour after surgery but not after irradiation. These findings suggest that in view of the deleterious effects of radiaton on salivary gland function, surgery is preferable to radiation as the treatment of choice. Further studies are underway to assess the utility of the heat labile salivary amylase fraction obseved in these cases in detecting recurrences.

Sirsat, A.V.; Talavdekar, R.V.; Rajpal, R.M. (Tata Memorial Hospital, Bombay (India))

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