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Sample records for salivary cotinine concentrations

  1. Smokeless Tobacco Use and Salivary Cotinine Concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Ferketich, Amy K.; Wee, Alvin G.; Shultz, Jennifer; Wewers, Mary Ellen

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to examine demographic, tobacco-related, and psychosocial factors associated with cotinine concentration in a group of 256 male smokeless tobacco (ST) users living in the Ohio Appalachian region. Participants completed a survey that included questions on: 1) current and past tobacco use behaviors; 2) demographics; 3) tobacco dependence; 4) decisional balance; 5) health behaviors; and 6) perceived stress and depressive symptoms. Saliva samples were obtain...

  2. Salivary cotinine concentration versus self-reported cigarette smoking: Three patterns of inconsistency in adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Kandel, Denise B.; Schaffran, Christine; Griesler, Pamela C.; Hu, Mei-chen; Davies, Mark; Benowitz, Neal

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined the extent and sources of discrepancies between self-reported cigarette smoking and salivary cotinine concentration among adolescents. The data are from household interviews with a cohort of 1,024 adolescents from an urban school system. Histories of tobacco use in the last 7 days and saliva samples were obtained. Logistic regressions identified correlates of three inconsistent patterns: (a) Pattern 1—self-reported nonsmoking among adolescents with cotinine concen...

  3. Passive smoking, salivary cotinine concentrations, and middle ear effusion in 7 year old children.

    OpenAIRE

    Strachan, D. P.; Jarvis, M. J.; Feyerabend, C.

    1989-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the contribution of passive exposure to tobacco smoke to the development of middle ear underpressure and effusion. DESIGN--Cross sectional observational study. SETTING--One third of the primary schools in Edinburgh. SUBJECTS--892 Children aged 6 1/2 to 7 1/2 were examined, and satisfactory tympanograms were obtained in 872. Results of assay of salivary cotinine concentrations were available for 770 children, and satisfactory tympanograms were available for 736 of these. E...

  4. Comparison of serum and salivary cotinine measurements by a sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method as an indicator of exposure to tobacco smoke among smokers and nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernert, J T; McGuffey, J E; Morrison, M A; Pirkle, J L

    2000-01-01

    Exposure to tobacco smoke, both from active smoking and from passive exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, can be monitored by measuring cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine, in a variety of biological sources including blood, urine, and saliva. Previously, a sensitive atmospheric-pressure ionization, tandem mass spectrometric (LC-API-MS-MS) method for cotinine measurements in serum was developed in support of a large, recurrent national epidemiologic investigation. The current study examined the application of this LC-API-MS-MS method to both serum and saliva cotinine measurements in a group of 200 healthy adults, including both smokers and nonsmokers. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between serum and saliva cotinine concentrations to facilitate the linking of results from epidemiologic studies using salivary cotinine measurements to existing national data based on serum cotinine analyses. The results indicate that a simple, linear relationship can be developed to describe serum and saliva cotinine concentrations in an individual, and the expression describing this relationship can be used to estimate with reasonable accuracy (approximately +/- 10%) the serum cotinine concentration in an individual given his or her salivary cotinine result. It was further confirmed that saliva cotinine samples are generally quite stable during storage after collection, even at ambient temperatures, and this sample matrix appears to be well-suited to the requirements of many epidemiologic investigations. PMID:10926356

  5. Utility and cutoff value of hair nicotine as a biomarker of long-term tobacco smoke exposure, compared to salivary cotinine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungroul; Apelberg, Benjamin J; Avila-Tang, Erika; Hepp, Lisa; Yun, Dongmin; Samet, Jonathan M; Breysse, Patrick N

    2014-08-01

    While hair samples are easier to collect and less expensive to store and transport than biological fluids, and hair nicotine characterizes tobacco exposure over a longer time period than blood or urine cotinine, information on its utility, compared with salivary cotinine, is still limited. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 289 participants (107 active smokers, 105 passive smokers with self-reported secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure, and 77 non-smokers with no SHS exposure) in Baltimore (Maryland, USA). A subset of the study participants (n = 52) were followed longitudinally over a two-month interval.  Median baseline hair nicotine concentrations for active, passive and non-smokers were 16.2, 0.36, and 0.23 ng/mg, respectively, while those for salivary cotinine were 181.0, 0.27, and 0.27 ng/mL, respectively. Hair nicotine concentrations for 10% of passive or non-smokers were higher than the 25th percentile value for active smokers while all corresponding salivary cotinine concentrations for them were lower than the value for active smokers. This study showed that hair nicotine concentration values could be used to distinguish active or heavy passive adult smokers from non-SHS exposed non-smokers. Our results indicate that hair nicotine is a useful biomarker for the assessment of long-term exposure to tobacco smoke. PMID:25153466

  6. Utility and Cutoff Value of Hair Nicotine as a Biomarker of Long-Term Tobacco Smoke Exposure, Compared to Salivary Cotinine

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    Sungroul Kim

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available While hair samples are easier to collect and less expensive to store and transport than biological fluids, and hair nicotine characterizes tobacco exposure over a longer time period than blood or urine cotinine, information on its utility, compared with salivary cotinine, is still limited. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 289 participants (107 active smokers, 105 passive smokers with self-reported secondhand smoke (SHS exposure, and 77 non-smokers with no SHS exposure in Baltimore (Maryland, USA. A subset of the study participants (n = 52 were followed longitudinally over a two-month interval.  Median baseline hair nicotine concentrations for active, passive and non-smokers were 16.2, 0.36, and 0.23 ng/mg, respectively, while those for salivary cotinine were 181.0, 0.27, and 0.27 ng/mL, respectively. Hair nicotine concentrations for 10% of passive or non-smokers were higher than the 25th percentile value for active smokers while all corresponding salivary cotinine concentrations for them were lower than the value for active smokers. This study showed that hair nicotine concentration values could be used to distinguish active or heavy passive adult smokers from non-SHS exposed non-smokers. Our results indicate that hair nicotine is a useful biomarker for the assessment of long-term exposure to tobacco smoke.

  7. MEASURING NICOTINE INTAKE AMONG HIGHLY DEPENDENT ADOLESCENT SMOKERS: COMPARABILITY OF SALIVA AND PLASMA COTININE CONCENTRATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Parzynski, Craig S.; Jaszyna-gasior, Maria; Franken, Frederick H.; Moolchan, Eric T.

    2007-01-01

    Cotinine is the most common biomarker used to assess nicotine exposure and abstinence. It can be measured in various matrices including saliva, plasma, and urine. Previous research with adults has shown high correlations between saliva and plasma cotinine concentrations. However, research has not examined this relationship in adolescents. Additionally, variability in saliva flow and metabolism across gender, ethnicity, and age may impact the relationship between saliva and plasma cotinine con...

  8. Utility and Cutoff Value of Hair Nicotine as a Biomarker of Long-Term Tobacco Smoke Exposure, Compared to Salivary Cotinine

    OpenAIRE

    Sungroul Kim; Apelberg, Benjamin J.; Erika Avila-Tang; Lisa Hepp; Dongmin Yun; Samet, Jonathan M.; Breysse, Patrick N.

    2014-01-01

    While hair samples are easier to collect and less expensive to store and transport than biological fluids, and hair nicotine characterizes tobacco exposure over a longer time period than blood or urine cotinine, information on its utility, compared with salivary cotinine, is still limited. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 289 participants (107 active smokers, 105 passive smokers with self-reported secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure, and 77 non-smokers with no SHS exposure) in Baltimore...

  9. Hair nicotine/cotinine concentrations as a method of monitoring exposure to tobacco smoke among infants and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzatzarakis, M N; Vardavas, C I; Terzi, I; Kavalakis, M; Kokkinakis, M; Liesivuori, J; Tsatsakis, A M

    2012-03-01

    In this pilot study, we examined the validity and usefulness of hair nicotine-cotinine evaluation as a biomarker of monitoring exposure to tobacco. Head hair samples were collected from 22 infants (<2 years of age) and 44 adults with different exposures to tobacco (through either active or passive smoking) and analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for nicotine and cotinine. Hair samples were divided into three groups, infants, passive smoker adults and active smoker adults, and into eight subgroups according to the degree of exposure. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.1 ng/mg for nicotine and 0.05 ng/mg for cotinine. Mean recovery was 69.15% for nicotine and 72.08% for cotinine. The within- and between-day precision for cotinine and nicotine was calculated at different concentrations. Moreover, hair nicotine and cotinine concentrations were highly correlated among adult active smokers (R (2) = 0.710, p < 0.001), among adult nonsmokers exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS; R (2) = 0.729, p < 0.001) and among infants (R (2) = 0.538, p = 0.01). Among the infants exposed to SHS from both parents the noted correlations were even stronger (R (2) = 0.835, p = 0.02). The above results identify the use of hair samples as an effective method for assessing exposure to tobacco, with a high association between nicotine and cotinine especially among infants heavily exposed to SHS. PMID:22027507

  10. Secondhand smoke exposure and urine cotinine concentrations by occupation among Korean workers: results from the 2008 Korea National Survey for Environmental Pollutants in the Human Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, So Ryong; Lee, Chae Kwan; Im, Hosub; Yang, Wonho; Urm, Sang-Hwa; Yu, Seung-Do; Lee, Jin Heon; Suh, Chun Hui; Kim, Kun Hyung; Son, Byung Chul; Kim, Jeong Ho; Kim, Se Yeong; Lee, Soo Woong; Lee, Jong Tae

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the status of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure through urine cotinine analysis among nonsmoking workers in Korea and to analyze factors affecting urine cotinine concentrations. Data were based on "The 2008 Korea National Survey for Environmental Pollutants in the Human Body," a cross-sectional study of the National Institute of Environmental Research of Korea. We selected 1448 nonsmoking adult workers from 200 localities to participate in this survey. Urine cotinine concentrations were analyzed using a gas chromatograph-mass selective detector. We calculated separate covariate-adjusted geometric means for socio-demographic variables for males, females, and total subjects by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS version 18.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Ill.). The prevalence of self-reported exposure to SHS was 36.9%. The geometric mean (95% confidence interval) of urine cotinine concentrations among all participants was 16.50 (14.48-18.80) ?g/L. Gender, living area, education, and SHS exposure showed significant differences in urine cotinine concentrations. The urine cotinine concentrations of farmworkers and blue-collar workers such as skilled agricultural, forestry, and fishery workers, and elementary occupations were higher than those of white-collar workers such as clerical support workers, technicians, and associate professionals. Such a high proportion of the population having high urine cotinine levels indicates widespread exposure to SHS among nonsmoking workers in Korea. Furthermore, the urine cotinine levels among nonsmoking workers exposed to SHS varied by occupation. The measured urine cotinine concentration is suggested to be a valuable indication of SHS exposure in Korea. PMID:24219421

  11. Passive exposure to tobacco smoke: saliva cotinine concentrations in a representative population sample of non-smoking schoolchildren.

    OpenAIRE

    Jarvis, M. J.; Russell, M. A.; Feyerabend, C.; Eiser, J. R.; Morgan, M.; Gammage, P.; Gray, E. M.

    1985-01-01

    Saliva cotinine concentrations in 569 non-smoking schoolchildren were strongly related to the smoking habits of their parents. When neither parent smoked the mean concentration was 0.44 ng/ml, rising to 3.38 ng/ml when both parents were cigarette smokers. Mothers' smoking had a stronger influence than did fathers' (p less than 0.01). In addition, there was a small independent effect of number of siblings who smoked (p less than 0.01). The dose of nicotine received from fathers' smoking was es...

  12. Biomonitoring of Urinary Cotinine Concentrations Associated with Plasma Levels of Nicotine Metabolites after Daily Cigarette Smoking in a Male Japanese Population

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    Hiroshi Yamazaki

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Human biomonitoring of plasma and urinary levels of nicotine, cotinine, and 3?-hydroxycotinine was conducted after daily cigarette smoking in a population of 92 male Japanese smokers with a mean age of 37 years who had smoked an average of 23 cigarettes per day for 16 years. Members of the population were genotyped for the nicotine-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6. The mean levels of nicotine, the levels of its metabolites cotinine and 3?-hydroxycotinine, and the sum of these three levels in subjects one hour after smoking the first cigarette on the sampling day were 20.1, 158, 27.7, and 198 ng/mL in plasma and 846, 1,020, 1,010, and 2,870 ng/mL in urine under daily smoking conditions. Plasma levels of 3'-hydroxycotinine and urinary levels of nicotine and 3?-hydroxycotinine were dependent on the CYP2A6 phenotype group, which was estimated from the CYP2A6 genotypes of the subjects, including those with whole gene deletion. Plasma cotinine levels were significantly correlated with the number of cigarettes smoked on the day before sampling (r = 0.71, the average number of cigarettes smoked daily (r = 0.58, and the Brinkman index (daily cigarettes × years, r = 0.48 under the present conditions. The sum of nicotine, cotinine, and 3?-hydroxycotinine concentrations in plasma showed a similar relationship to that of the plasma cotinine levels. Urinary concentrations of cotinine and the sum of nicotine metabolite concentrations also showed significant correlations with the plasma levels and the previous day’s and average cigarette consumption. The numbers of cigarettes smoked per day by two subjects with self-reported light smoking habits were predicted by measuring the urinary cotinine concentrations and using linear regression equations derived from above-mentioned data. These results indicate that biomonitoring of the urinary cotinine concentration is a good, easy-to-use marker for plasma levels of cotinine and the sum of nicotine metabolites in smokers independent of genetic polymorphism of CYP2A6.

  13. Heart rate and salivary cortisol concentrations in foals at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, C; Erber, R; Ille, N; Wulf, M; Aurich, J; Möstl, E; Aurich, C

    2015-02-01

    Heart rate (HR), HR variability (HRV) and salivary cortisol concentrations were determined in foals (n?=?13) during the perinatal phase and until 5 months of age. In the fetus, HR decreased from 77?±?3 beats/min at 120?min before birth to 60?±?1 beats/min at 5?min before birth (P?beats/min (P?<0.01). Salivary cortisol concentrations immediately after birth were 11.9?±?3.6?ng/mL and within 2?h increased to a maximum of 52.5?±?12.3?ng/mL (P?<0.01). In conclusion, increases in HR and salivary cortisol concentrations in foals are not induced during parturition, but occur immediately after birth. PMID:25582796

  14. Comparison of Expired Carbon Monoxide and Plasma Cotinine as Markers of Cigarette Abstinence

    OpenAIRE

    Jatlow, Peter; Toll, Benjamin A.; Leary, Vanessa; Krishnan-sarin, Suchitra; O’malley, Stephanie S.

    2008-01-01

    The clinical pharmacology of biochemical measures of nicotine exposure has been thoroughly reviewed with regard to usefulness and limitations in detecting abstinence from cigarette smoking. While plasma nicotine concentration measures only acute nicotine exposure, plasma, salivary, and urine cotinine concentrations reflect exposure over an extended period of time. Although, expired carbon monoxide (CO) is frequently used to confirm self reports, it has a relatively short half life, calling in...

  15. Human Blood Concentrations of Cotinine, a Biomonitoring Marker for Tobacco Smoke, Extrapolated from Nicotine Metabolism in Rats and Humans and Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling

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    Masato Kitajima

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study defined a simplified physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK model for nicotine and its primary metabolite cotinine in humans, based on metabolic parameters determined in vitro using relevant liver microsomes, coefficients derived in silico, physiological parameters derived from the literature, and an established rat PBPK model. The model consists of an absorption compartment, a metabolizing compartment, and a central compartment for nicotine and three equivalent compartments for cotinine. Evaluation of a rat model was performed by making comparisons with predicted concentrations in blood and in vivo experimental pharmacokinetic values obtained from rats after oral treatment with nicotine (1.0 mg/kg, a no-observed-adverse-effect level for 14 days. Elimination rates of nicotine in vitro were established from data from rat liver microsomes and from human pooled liver microsomes. Human biomonitoring data (17 ng nicotine and 150 ng cotinine per mL plasma 1 h after smoking from pooled five male Japanese smokers (daily intake of 43 mg nicotine by smoking revealed that these blood concentrations could be calculated using a human PBPK model. These results indicate that a simplified PBPK model for nicotine/cotinine is useful for a forward dosimetry approach in humans and for estimating blood concentrations of other related compounds resulting from exposure to low chemical doses.

  16. Estimation of Cutoff Values of Cotinine in Urine and Saliva for Pregnant Women in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pola?ska, Kinga

    2013-01-01

    Setting appropriate cutoff values and the use of a highly sensitive analytical method allow for correct classification of the smoking status. Urine-saliva pairs samples of pregnant women in the second and third trimester, and saliva only in the first trimester were collected. Offline SPE and LC-ESI-MS/MS method was developed in the broad concentration range (saliva 0.4–1000?ng/mL, urine 0.8–4000?ng/mL). The mean recoveries were 3.7 ± 7.6% for urine and 99.1 ± 2.6% for saliva. LOD for saliva was 0.12?ng/mL and for urine 0.05?ng/mL; LOQ was 0.4?ng/mL and 0.8?ng/mL, respectively. Intraday and interday precision equaled, respectively, 1.2% and 3.4% for urine, and 2.3% and 6.4% for saliva. There was a strong correlation between salivary cotinine and the uncorrected cotinine concentration in urine in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. The cutoff values were established for saliva 12.9?ng/mL and urine 42.3?ng/mL or 53.1??g/g creatinine with the ROC curve analysis. The developed analytical method was successfully applied to quantify cotinine, and a significant correlation between the urinary and salivary cotinine levels was found. The presented cut-off values for salivary and urinary cotinine ensure a categorization of the smoking status among pregnant women that is more accurate than self-reporting. PMID:24228246

  17. Seasonal Variation in Human Salivary Cortisol Concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Roger; Garde, Anne Helene

    2008-01-01

    Measurement of cortisol concentration can contribute important information about an individual's ability to adjust to various environmental demands of both physical and psychosocial origin. However, one uncertainty that affects the possibilities of correctly interpreting and designing field studies is the lack of observations of the impact of seasonal changes on cortisol excretion. For this reason, the month-to-month changes in diurnal cortisol concentration, the awakening cortisol response (ACR), maximum morning concentration, and fall during the day were studied in a group of 24 healthy men and women 32 to 61 yrs of age engaged in active work. On one workday for 12 consecutive months, participants collected saliva at four time points for determination of cortisol: at awakening, +30 min, +8 h, and at 21:00 h. Data were analyzed by a repeated measures design with month (12 levels) and time-of-day (4 levels) as categorical predictors. Cortisol concentrations were analyzed on a log scale. The diurnal pattern ofcortisol was similar across months (interaction between month and time of day: p>0.4). The main effects of month and time-of-day were statistically significant (p

  18. Salivary and serum hyaluronic acid concentrations in patients with Sjögren's syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Tishler, M.; Yaron, I.; Shirazi, I.; Yaron, M.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To evaluate salivary hyaluronic acid (HA) concentration in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS).?METHODS—Salivary and serum HA concentrations were evaluated using a radiometric assay. Thirty nine patients with SS served as the study group and their results were compared with 19 patients having clinical symptoms and signs of dry mouth and with 10 normal controls.?RESULTS—Salivary HA concentrations were significantly increased (p 

  19. Technical note: comparison of salivary and serum cortisol concentrations after adrenocorticotropic hormone challenge in ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, D T; Ross, T T; Hallford, D M; Yates, L J; Wesley, R L

    2010-02-01

    An ACTH challenge was conducted to determine if salivary cortisol concentration reflects serum cortisol concentration in ewes. Twelve yearling ewes (64.0 +/- 1.2 kg) were administered ACTH (100 IU, intravenously) or saline. Serum and salivary samples were collected at 30-min intervals for 2 h before ACTH administration, at 15-min intervals for 2 h after treatment, and at 30-min intervals for an additional 3 h, and cortisol concentration was determined by RIA. Although ewes responded to ACTH and saline, cortisol concentration was greater (P cortisol concentration was greater (P cortisol concentration (P = 0.126) and time to peak salivary cortisol concentration (P = 0.109), or between saliva and serum for time to peak cortisol concentration (P = 0.220) and return to baseline cortisol concentration (P = 0.341). The serum (P = 0.009) and salivary (P = 0.050) cortisol areas under the curve between 0 and 150 min were greater for ACTH-treated ewes than controls, and serum (P = 0.002) and salivary (P cortisol return to baseline concentration was longer for ACTH-treated ewes. The correlation coefficient between serum and salivary cortisol concentrations was 0.88 (P salivary cortisol concentration is closely related to serum cortisol concentration and that the former may represent a suitable noninvasive alternative to blood collection for measurement of cortisol in sheep. PMID:19854993

  20. Salivary Concentration of Progesterone and Cortisol Significantly Differs Across Individuals After Correcting for Blood Hormone Values

    OpenAIRE

    Konishi, Shoko; Brindle, Eleanor; Guyton, Amanda; O’connor, Kathleen A.

    2012-01-01

    Between-individual variation of salivary progesterone (P4) and cortisol levels does not always closely reflect blood hormone concentrations. This may be partly a function of individual differences in salivary hormone excretion. We tested whether time of day at sampling and ethnicity contributed to individual variation in salivary hormones after adjusting for blood hormone levels. Forty-three Caucasian and 15 Japanese women (18–34 years) collected four sets of matched dried blood spot (DBS) ...

  1. Diurnal salivary cortisol concentrations in Parkinson’s disease: increased total secretion and morning cortisol concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Skogar, O?; Fall, Per-arne; Hallgren, G.; Lo?kk, J.; Bringer, B.; Carlsson, M.; Lennartsson, U.; Sandbjo?rk, H.; To?rnhage, C-j

    2011-01-01

    Background:Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder. There is limited knowledge about the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in PD. The primary aim of this prospective study was to analyze diurnal salivary cortisol concentrations in patients with PD and correlate these with age, gender, body mass index (BMI), duration of PD, and pain. The secondary aim was to compare the results with a healthy reference group. Methods:Fifty-nine PD patients, 35 women...

  2. Cotinine Concentrations in Follicular Fluid as a Measure of Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Women Undergoing In Vitro Fertilization: Inter-matrix Comparisons with Urine and Temporal Variability

    OpenAIRE

    Benedict, Merle D.; Missmer, Stacey A.; Vitonis, Allison F.; Cramer, Daniel W.; Meeker, John D.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the relationship between cotinine measures in follicular fluid (FF) and urine to inform our exposure assessment strategy for an ongoing epidemiological study of secondhand tobacco smoke (STS) exposure and early pregnancy loss. Among subjects undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF), we compared cotinine levels in paired urine and FF samples from the same women and examined FF cotinine levels over time. We found a weak rank-order relationship (Spearman r

  3. Relation of passive smoking as assessed by salivary cotinine concentration and questionnaire to spirometric indices in children.

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, D. G.; Whincup, P. H.; Papacosta, O.; Strachan, D. P.; Jarvis, M. J.; Bryant, A.

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies of the effects of passive exposure to smoke on spirometric indices in children have largely relied on questionnaire measures of exposure. This may have resulted in underestimation of the true effect of passive smoking. Biochemical measures offer the opportunity to estimate recent exposure directly. METHODS: The relation between spirometric indices and passive exposure to tobacco smoke was examined in a large population sample of 5-7 year old children from 10 towns...

  4. Salivary concentration of the antimicrobial peptide LL-37 in patients with oral lichen planus

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    Sotiria Davidopoulou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The antimicrobial peptide LL-37 is a significant molecule of innate immunity and recent studies indicate that it plays an important role in maintaining oral health. Yet limited knowledge exists on its role in oral diseases and oral lichen planus (OLP in particular. Objective: The study aimed to examine: 1 the salivary concentration of LL-37 in patients with OLP and healthy subjects, 2 the relation between the type (reticular or erosive and size of OLP lesions and LL-37 concentration, and 3 the effect of the therapeutic modalities on LL-37 levels. Design: The salivary peptide concentration in samples from 20 patients and 30 healthy subjects at the same age range was determined by ELISA. Results: Despite the wide variation in peptide concentration found in both groups, the healthy subjects exhibited significantly lower levels than patients. Patients with the erosive form had significantly higher peptide concentrations than patients with the reticular form. Systemic treatment with corticosteroids resulted in a significant decrease of the salivary peptide concentration, while other treatment modalities, such as administration of vitamins A and E or local application of corticosteroids had no effect. Improved clinical appearance of the lesions was followed by a decrease in the salivary LL-37 level. Conclusions: Salivary concentration of LL-37 correlates to the manifestation of mucosa lesions in OLP patients, the highest levels being observed in the most severe cases. This increase in peptide levels may protect against lesion infection and promote a quick wound healing.

  5. Diurnal salivary cortisol concentrations in Parkinson’s disease: increased total secretion and morning cortisol concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skogar Ö

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Ö Skogar1,4, P-A Fall2, G Hallgren3, J Lökk4, B Bringer2, M Carlsson1, U Lennartsson3, H Sandbjork3, C-J Törnhage51Department of Geriatrics, Ryhov Hospital, Jonkoping, 2Department of Geriatrics, University Hospital, Linkoping, 3Department of Neurology, Skaraborg Hospital, Skovde, 4Institute of Neurobiology, Care Sciences, and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, 5Department of Pediatrics, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, SwedenBackground: Parkinson’s disease (PD is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder. There is limited knowledge about the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in PD. The primary aim of this prospective study was to analyze diurnal salivary cortisol concentrations in patients with PD and correlate these with age, gender, body mass index (BMI, duration of PD, and pain. The secondary aim was to compare the results with a healthy reference group.Methods: Fifty-nine PD patients, 35 women and 24 men, aged 50–79 years, were recruited. The reference group comprised healthy individuals matched for age, gender, BMI, and time point for sampling. Salivary cortisol was collected at 8 am, 1 pm, and 8 pm, and 8 am the next day using cotton-based Salivette® tubes and analyzed using Spectria® Cortisol I125. A visual analog scale was used for estimation of pain.Results: The median cortisol concentration was 16.0 (5.8–30.2 nmol/L at 8 am, 5.8 (3.0–16.4 at 1 pm, 2.8 (1.6–8.0 at 8 pm, and 14.0 (7.5–28.7 at 8 am the next day. Total secretion and rate of cortisol secretion during the day (8 am–8 pm and the concentration of cortisol on the next morning were lower (12.5 nmol/L in the reference group. No significant correlations with age, gender, BMI, duration of PD, Hoehn and Yahr score, Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale III score, gait, pain, or cortisol concentrations were found.Conclusion: The neurodegenerative changes in PD does not seem to interfere with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Salivary cortisol concentrations in PD patients were increased in the morning compared with the reference group, and were not influenced by motor dysfunction, duration of disease, or coexistence of chronic or acute pain.Keywords: cortisol, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, Parkinson's disease

  6. Salivary concentrations of cortisol and testosterone and prediction of performance in a professional triathlon competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balthazar, Cláudio Heitor; Garcia, Marcia Carvalho; Spadari-Bratfisch, Regina Celia

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine salivary cortisol and testosterone concentrations in professional male athletes during a short triathlon competition using non-invasive methods, and to determine whether these hormone concentrations could be accurate predictors of performance. Eight adult male athletes (age, mean ± SEM: 27.8 ± 3.2 years; body mass index: 21.66 ± 0.42) in a professional triathlon team volunteered to participate in this study. Saliva samples were taken on the competition day and 7 days after competition on a rest day. The performance of the athletes was assessed by their rank order in the competition. Salivary cortisol concentrations were greater on the competition day than on the rest day in the early morning, immediately after waking up, 30 min later, immediately before the start of the competition, and later in the evening. Testosterone concentrations were greater on the competition day in the morning and in the evening. The diurnal rhythm of both cortisol and testosterone concentrations was maintained on both days and the testosterone/cortisol ratio (T/C ratio) was similar between days. The performance of the athletes was positively correlated with salivary cortisol concentration in the early morning of the competition day, but was not correlated with testosterone concentrations at any of the time points. In conclusion, early morning salivary cortisol concentration, but not T/C ratio, could be used to predict performance in athletes during a professional triathlon competition. PMID:22128832

  7. Salivary glucose concentration exhibits threshold kinetics in normal-weight, overweight, and obese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartman ML

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mor-Li Hartman,1 J Max Goodson,1 Roula Barake,2 Osama Alsmadi,3 Sabiha Al-Mutawa,4 Jitendra Ariga,4 Pramod Soparkar,1 Jawad Behbehani,5 Kazem Behbehani,6 Francine Welty7 1Department of Applied Oral Sciences, The Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, MA, USA; 2Department of Nutrition, The Dasman Diabetes Institute, Dasman, Kuwait; 3Genome Center, The Dasman Diabetes Institute, Dasman, Kuwait; 4Ministry of Health, Kuwait City, Kuwait; 5Faculty of Dentistry, Kuwait University, Kuwait City, Kuwait; 6The Dasman Diabetes Institute, Dasman, Kuwait; 7Division of Cardiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA Background: Metabolic syndrome in childhood predicts the development of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes (T2D in adulthood. Testing for features of metabolic syndrome, such as fasting plasma glucose concentration, requires blood sampling which can be difficult in children. Here we evaluated salivary glucose concentration as a surrogate measurement for plasma glucose concentration in 11-year-old US children. Methods: Children from Portland, Maine, and Cambridge, Massachusetts, with a mean age of 10.6±0.2 years provided 6-hour fasting samples of both blood and whole saliva. Salivary glucose levels were measured with a high-sensitivity assay (sensitivity =0.002 mg/dL. Plasma glucose levels were determined by a commercial clinical laboratory. Blood pressure, salivary flow rate, height, and weight were also measured. Results: Of the 65 children enrolled, there were two underweight children (3.1%, 30 normal-weight children (46.2%, 12 overweight children (18.4%, and 21 obese children (32.3%. The mean overall glucose concentrations were 0.11±0.02 mg/dL in saliva and 86.3±0.8 mg/dL in plasma, and these did not differ significantly by body–weight groups. By regression analysis, the plasma concentration equaled 13.5 times the saliva concentration, with a threshold level of 84.8 mg/dL. Salivary glucose values less than threshold plasma concentration were essentially zero. Diagnostic analysis indicated a positive predictive value of 50%, a negative predictive value of 90%, and a sensitivity and specificity both of approximately 75%. The salivary glucose concentration did not vary with saliva flow rate. Conclusion: Taking into account the threshold response characteristics of the salivary glucose concentration response, these results suggest that testing salivary glucose levels may be useful as a screening assay for high fasting plasma glucose levels. The low false positive value is important to assure a low fraction of missed diagnoses. Keywords: saliva, salivary glucose, plasma glucose, children

  8. Biomonitoring of Urinary Cotinine Concentrations Associated with Plasma Levels of Nicotine Metabolites after Daily Cigarette Smoking in a Male Japanese Population

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroshi Yamazaki; Fumiaki Shono; Tetsuya Kamataki; Ryohji Takano; Norie Murayama; Taku Nagano; Makiko Shimizu; Kazuma Kiyotani

    2010-01-01

    Human biomonitoring of plasma and urinary levels of nicotine, cotinine, and 3?-hydroxycotinine was conducted after daily cigarette smoking in a population of 92 male Japanese smokers with a mean age of 37 years who had smoked an average of 23 cigarettes per day for 16 years. Members of the population were genotyped for the nicotine-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6). The mean levels of nicotine, the levels of its metabolites cotinine and 3?-hydroxycotinine, and the sum of th...

  9. Évaluation de la concentration de nicotine et de cotinine urinaires chez un groupe de fumeurs actifs et un groupe de “fumeurs passifs”, par chromatographie liquide haute performance (HPLC utilisant une méthode d’extraction en phase solide (SPE Evaluation of urinary levels of nicotine and cotinine, in active and passive groups of smokers, by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC using a solid phase extraction method (SPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzouz Mohamed

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectifs : Évaluation de la concentration de nicotine et de cotinine urinaires et le taux de carboxyhémoglobine (HbCO chez un groupe de fumeurs actifs (n = 22 et un groupe de « fumeurs passifs » (n = 22, afin d’apprécier l’intensité de l’imprégnation tabagique. Matériels et méthodes : Évaluation de la concentration de nicotine et de cotinine urinaires par chromatographie liquide haute performance (HPLC utilisant une méthode d’extraction en phase solide (SPE; évaluation du taux de la carboxyhémoglobine (HbCO par spectrophotométrie UV-VIS. Résultats : Les concentrations urinaires de nicotine varient de 0,48 à 7,59 ?g/mL (moyenne : 3,39  ±  2,06 ?g/mL chez les fumeurs actifs et de 0,31 à 1,27 ?g/mL (moyenne : 0,64  ±  0,31 ?g/mL chez les « fumeurs passifs ». Les concentrations urinaires de cotinine varient de 0,99 à 9,17 ?g/mL (moyenne : 4,14  ±  2,35 ?g/mL chez les fumeurs actifs et de 0,14 à 2,58 ?g/mL (moyenne : 1,25  ±  0,79 ?g/mL chez les « fumeurs passifs ». Le taux de l’ HbCO varie de 0,26 à 8,02 % (moyenne : 3  ±  0,021 % chez les fumeurs actifs, les « fumeurs passifs » et les témoins présentent des taux inférieurs à la limite de détection. Conclusion : La nicotine et la cotinine sont plus spécifiques de l’exposition tabagique que l’HbCO. Les concentrations de nicotine et de cotinine urinaires, retrouvés chez les « fumeurs passifs », soulignent la réalité et l’intensité de l’exposition de ces derniers, d’où la nécessité de prendre des mesures plus restrictives en matière de lutte contre le tabagisme. Objectives: This paper evaluates the urinary levels of nicotine and cotinine and the level of carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO in active (n = 22 and passive (n = 22 groups of smokers, in order to determine the severity of tobacco impregnation. Materials and methods: The levels of nicotine and cotinine in urine were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC using the solid phase extraction method (SPE; the level of carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO was measured by UV-VIS spectrophotometry. Results: The results indicate that the concentration of nicotine in urine is 0.48 to 7.59 ?g/mL (average of 3.39  ±  2.06 ?g/mL in active smokers and 0.31 to 1.27 ?g/mL (average of 0.64  ±  0.31 ?g/mL in passive smokers. The concentration of cotinine in urine is 0.99 to 9.17 ?g/mL (average of 4.14  ±  2.35 ?g/mL in active smokers and 0.14 to 2.58 ?g/mL (average of 1.25  ±  0.79 ?g/mL in passive smokers. The level of HbCO is 0.26 to 8.02% (average of 3  ±  0.021% in active smokers and could not be detected in the passive smokers. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that cotinine and nicotine are more suitable for assessing the intensity of tobacco exposure than HbCO. The measured levels of nicotine and cotinine in passive smokers reveal the fact that this group of people faces a high risk due to tobacco exposure; thus, restrictive measures need to be taken to protect this group.

  10. Blood alcohol concentration measurement using a salivary reagent stick: a reliable tool for emergency departments?

    OpenAIRE

    Phair, I. C.; Mardel, S.; Bodiwala, G. G.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) were made on patients who presented to an accident and emergency department with acute alcohol intoxication. A correlation of r = 0.418 was noted to exist between BAC as measured by sampling saliva and blood. Blood alcohol concentrations as measured by salivary reagent strip (ALCO-SCREEN, Chem Elec.) were significantly lower (p less than 0.0001) than those determined by gas chromatography of serum. Although such reagent strips offer a rapid me...

  11. Salivary eicosanoid concentration in patients with Sjögren's syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Tishler, M.; Yaron, I.; Raz, A.; Meyer, F. A.; Yaron, M.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate eicosanoid concentrations in the saliva of patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS). METHODS: Whole mixed saliva of 36 subjects was assayed for eicosanoid concentrations using a radioimmunoassay. Patients with primary SS having positive lip biopsy served as the study group; their results were compared with data from patients with dry mouth and negative lip biopsy (dry mouth group), and with a group of normal healthy controls. RESULTS: Concentrations of thrombox...

  12. A surrogate method for comparison analysis of salivary concentrations of Xylitol-containing products

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou Lingmei; Tolentino Ernie; Hagstrom Mary K; Mueller Gregory; Rothen Marilynn; Ly Kiet A; Milgrom Peter; Riedy Christine A; Roberts Marilyn C

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Xylitol chewing gum has been shown to reduce Streptococcus mutans levels and decay. Two studies examined the presence and time course of salivary xylitol concentrations delivered via xylitol-containing pellet gum and compared them to other xylitol-containing products. Methods A within-subjects design was used for both studies. Study 1, adults (N = 15) received three xylitol-containing products (pellet gum (2.6 g), gummy bears (2.6 g), and commercially available stick gum (...

  13. Salivary cortisol concentrations and behavior in a population of healthy dogs hospitalized for elective procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Hekman, Jessica P.; Karas, Alicia Z.; Dreschel, Nancy A.

    2012-01-01

    Identification of severe stress in hospitalized veterinary patients may improve treatment outcomes and welfare. To assess stress levels, in Study 1, we collected salivary cortisol samples and behavioral parameters in 28 healthy dogs hospitalized prior to elective procedures. Dogs were categorized into two groups; low cortisol (LC) and high cortisol (HC), based on the distribution of cortisol concentrations (< or ? 0.6 µg/dL). We constructed a stress research tool (SRT) based on three behav...

  14. Human Blood Concentrations of Cotinine, a Biomonitoring Marker for Tobacco Smoke, Extrapolated from Nicotine Metabolism in Rats and Humans and Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Masato Kitajima; Norie Murayama; Makiko Shimizu; Taku Nagano; Ryohji Takano; Kana Horiuchi; Hiroshi Yamazaki; Fumiaki Shono

    2010-01-01

    The present study defined a simplified physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for nicotine and its primary metabolite cotinine in humans, based on metabolic parameters determined in vitro using relevant liver microsomes, coefficients derived in silico, physiological parameters derived from the literature, and an established rat PBPK model. The model consists of an absorption compartment, a metabolizing compartment, and a central compartment for nicotine and three equivalent compar...

  15. The relationship between salivary cortisol concentrations and anxiety in adolescent and non-adolescent pregnant women

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P.H.C., Rondó; A.J., Vaz; F., Moraes; A., Tomkins.

    1403-14-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between salivary cortisol concentrations and self-report anxiety in 50 adolescent and 178 non-adolescent women during the last month of pregnancy. The subjects were randomly selected from a previous study involving women who att [...] ended antenatal care from September 1997 to August 2000 at 17 health services in Southeast Brazil. Salivary cortisol was measured with an enzyme immunoassay kit, and anxiety was assessed by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventories (STAI) of Spielberger. After saliva collection, the participants completed the STAI. Mean concentrations of cortisol for both pregnant adolescents (14.17 ± 6.78 nmol/l) and non-adolescents (13.81 ± 8.51 nmol/l) were similar (P = 0.89). Forty-three percent of the pregnant adolescents and 30.5% of the non-adolescents felt anxious at the time of being questioned (State Anxiety Inventory (SAI) scores >40; P = 0.06). Cortisol concentrations in adolescents were negatively related to the SAI scores (r = -0.39; P = 0.01) which assess a temporary condition of anxiety. There was a statistically significant difference in mean cortisol concentrations between adolescents with low (40) SAI scores (P = 0.03, t-test), but no differences for non-adolescents. The negative relationship between salivary cortisol concentrations and anxiety scores in adolescents may be due to puberty-related hormone differences during this period of life. Pregnant adolescents may possess unique biological or psychological characteristics compared to adults and non-pregnant adolescents. Thus, we need to know more about the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis of pregnant adolescents.

  16. The relationship between salivary cortisol concentrations and anxiety in adolescent and non-adolescent pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rondó P.H.C.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between salivary cortisol concentrations and self-report anxiety in 50 adolescent and 178 non-adolescent women during the last month of pregnancy. The subjects were randomly selected from a previous study involving women who attended antenatal care from September 1997 to August 2000 at 17 health services in Southeast Brazil. Salivary cortisol was measured with an enzyme immunoassay kit, and anxiety was assessed by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventories (STAI of Spielberger. After saliva collection, the participants completed the STAI. Mean concentrations of cortisol for both pregnant adolescents (14.17 ± 6.78 nmol/l and non-adolescents (13.81 ± 8.51 nmol/l were similar (P = 0.89. Forty-three percent of the pregnant adolescents and 30.5% of the non-adolescents felt anxious at the time of being questioned (State Anxiety Inventory (SAI scores >40; P = 0.06. Cortisol concentrations in adolescents were negatively related to the SAI scores (r = -0.39; P = 0.01 which assess a temporary condition of anxiety. There was a statistically significant difference in mean cortisol concentrations between adolescents with low (40 SAI scores (P = 0.03, t-test, but no differences for non-adolescents. The negative relationship between salivary cortisol concentrations and anxiety scores in adolescents may be due to puberty-related hormone differences during this period of life. Pregnant adolescents may possess unique biological or psychological characteristics compared to adults and non-pregnant adolescents. Thus, we need to know more about the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis of pregnant adolescents.

  17. ADHD medication reduces cotinine levels and withdrawal in smokers with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehricke, Jean-G; Hong, Nuong; Wigal, Timothy L; Chan, Vivien; Doan, Ashley

    2011-05-01

    Individuals with ADHD may self-medicate with nicotine, the main psychoactive ingredient in tobacco smoke, in order to reduce symptoms and negative moods associated with ADHD. ADHD medication (e.g., methylphenidate and atomoxetine) may mimic some of the effects of nicotine and may aid smoking cessation in smokers with ADHD. The present study examined if ADHD medication reduces smoking and withdrawal in non-treatment seeking smokers with ADHD. Fifteen adult smokers with ADHD participated in the study, which consisted of an experimental phase and field monitoring phase to examine the acute and extended effects, respectively, of ADHD medication. During the experimental phase, smokers were asked to complete a Continuous Performance Task (CPT) and the Shiffman-Jarvik smoking withdrawal questionnaire during the following four conditions: (1) ADHD medication+cigarette smoking, (2) ADHD medication+overnight abstinence, (3) placebo+cigarette smoking, and (4) placebo+overnight abstinence. During the field monitoring phase, participants were asked to provide salivary cotinine samples and complete electronic diaries about smoking, smoking urge, ADHD symptoms, and stress in everyday life for two days on ADHD medication and for two days on placebo. Results of the experimental phase showed that ADHD medication improved task performance on the CPT and reduced withdrawal during overnight abstinence. During the field monitoring phase, ADHD medication reduced salivary cotinine levels compared to placebo. In addition, the electronic diary revealed that ADHD medication improved difficulty concentrating during no smoking events and stress. The findings of the present study suggest that, along with other strategies, ADHD medication may be used to aid smoking withdrawal and cessation in smokers with ADHD. PMID:21356232

  18. Cotinine en pédiatrie et en santé au travail Cotinine in pediatry and at the workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoizey Guillaume

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available L'intérêt du suivi d'une exposition au tabac par la mesure de la concentration de la cotinine dans les milieux biologiques est connu depuis longtemps. Métabolite principal de la nicotine, avec une demi-vie d'élimination longue, le suivi de la cotinine permet l'évaluation de l'imprégnation tabagique dans les cas particuliers du tabagisme passif chez l'enfant et chez l'adulte, dans les lieux publics ou le milieu professionnel. Le suivi de ce marqueur s'avère également particulièrement intéressant en santé au travail pour la surveillance d'expositions à certains solvants organiques (benzène, toluène, éthylbenzéne, xylène, hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques... dont les concentrations ou celles de leurs métabolites sont influencées par la consommation de tabac. L'urine demeure la matrice biologique de choix pour évaluer le degré d'exposition. Un seuil de positivité mesuré à 6 ng/mL dans l'urine permet de distinguer une population pédiatrique exposée ou non. D'autres matrices comme les cheveux ou la salive apparaissent depuis plusieurs années comme utiles dans le cadre du dépistage de l'exposition au tabagisme environnemental. Le dosage de la cotinine dans les cheveux montre une nouvelle fois l'intérêt rétrospectif de l'utilisation de ce type de matrice. La salive, avec un intérêt moindre chez le nouveau né, a été utilisée dans plusieurs études pour distinguer des populations exposées et non exposées avec un seuil de positivité fixé à 1 ng/mL. Deux types de méthodes sont principalement utilisées pour le dosage de la cotinine : les méthodes chromatographiques HPLC-DAD, HPLC-MS, GC-MS et les méthodes immunologiques (RIA ou immunoenzymatiques par ELISA. Des études récentes montrent l'évolution des techniques ELISA. Elles peuvent par exemple être utilisées dans la salive avec un seuil de positivité de la cotinine à 1 ng/mL permettant de définir une population imprégnée. Actuellement, nombreuses sont les études qui utilisent avec succès les techniques immunologiques en pédiatrie et en santé au travail. Les avantages apparaissent alors multiples notamment en termes de coût et de rapidité. Elles sont suffisamment sensibles et peuvent être utilisées pour différents types de matrices biologiques. It is well known today that tobacco exposure can be assessed by the measurement of several markers in biological fluids. Cotinine, a nicotine metabolite with a longer biological half-life than nicotine, is probably the most reliable index that can be used to measure exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in adults in the context of an exposure at workplace, and also in children. Additionally, cotinine appears to be a very useful marker to investigate the exposure of workers to organic solvents (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons... given that their concentrations and/or those of their metabolites can be influenced by tobacco smoke. Urine remains an accurate biological specimen to assess the level of tobacco exposure of individuals. A urinary cotinine level of 6 ng/mL (cut-off is a precise and sensitive test in discerning exposed children to tobacco smoke from non-exposed children. Other alternative biological specimens such as hair or saliva can also be used for this purpose. Hair cotinine has proved to be a reliable tool for evaluating the level of environmental tobacco smoke in a pediatric population. Saliva has been successfully applied in several studies amongst primary school children or in workers with a cut-off value for cotinine of 1 ng/mL. Various assays are presently available for the measurement of cotinine in biological specimens. Most of them are based on chromatographic (HPLC-UV, HPLC-MS, GC-MS or immunoassay methods (RIA, EIA. Recent studies showed that ELISA can be used to measure cotinine in saliva at a level as low as 1 ng/mL, this concentration being the cut-off allowing to distinguish individuals exposed to environmental tobacco smoke from individuals not exposed. Currently, many studies dealing

  19. A two-year follow-up study of salivary cortisol concentration and the risk of depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grynderup, Matias BrØdsgaard; Kolstad, Henrik A.

    2013-01-01

    Stress is a suspected cause of depression. High cortisol concentration, a biomarker of an activated stress response, has been found in depressed patients. The aim of this study was to determine if a high level of salivary cortisol is a risk factor of depression. In 2007, we enrolled 4467 public employees. Morning and evening salivary cortisol concentration were measured for each participant. Participants reporting high levels of depressive, burnout, or stress symptoms, assessed by questionnaires were assigned to a psychiatric interview. In this interview 98 participants were diagnosed with depression and subsequently excluded. Two years later in 2009, 2920 participants who had provided at least one valid saliva cortisol measurement at baseline participated at follow up. The psychiatric interviews were repeated and 62 cases of newly onset depression were diagnosed. Odds ratios of depression were estimated for every 1.0nmol/l increase in morning, evening, and daily mean cortisol concentration, as well as for the difference between morning and evening cortisol concentration. The risk of depression decreased by increasing daily mean cortisol concentration and by increasing difference between morning and evening concentrations, while morning and evening cortisol concentrations were not significantly associated with depression. The adjusted odds ratios for 1.0nmol/l increase in morning, evening, and daily mean cortisol concentration were 0.69 (95% CI: 0.45, 1.05), 0.87 (95% CI: 0.59, 1.28), and 0.53 (95% CI: 0.32, 0.90), respectively. The adjusted odds ratio for 1.0nmol/l increase in difference between morning and evening concentration were 0.64 (95% CI: 0.45, 0.90). This study did not support the hypothesis that high salivary cortisol concentration is a risk factor of depression, but indicate that low mean salivary cortisol concentration and a small difference between morning and evening cortisol concentration may be risk factors of depression.

  20. Influence of water exercise and land stretching on salivary cortisol concentrations and anxiety in chronic low back pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugano, A; Nomura, T

    2000-07-01

    Land stretching exercises are common exercise therapy for low back pain (LBP) patients. However, recently, water exercise became a popular rehabilitation for LBP patients, and many studies have reported the physical benefits of water exercise. This study compared the psychological and endocrinological effects of water exercise and land stretching by measuring salivary cortisol concentration and anxiety in chronic LBP patients. Seven volunteers (4 female and 3 male, mean age: 61.9 +/- 11.8 yrs) who suffered from chronic LBP (pain duration: 4.5 +/- 1.3 yrs) participated in the sessions of water exercise and land stretching programs (90 minutes) on different days. The land stretching program consisted mainly of stretching, and the water exercise program contained not only stretching, but also walking, jogging, muscle strengthening, swimming and relaxation. After both exercise programs, the subjective pain scores of the patients showed a significant decrease. Salivary cortisol concentrations were also significantly decreased during pre- to post-90 minute water exercise. (P < 0.05). With land stretching, salivary cortisol concentrations also decreased significantly (P < 0.05). State anxiety decreased significantly (P < 0.05) after both water exercise and land stretching compared with pre-exercise scores (P < 0.05), though no significant changes were found in the patients' trait anxiety scores. No significant correlation was found between salivary cortisol concentrations and state anxiety with water exercise and land stretching. The findings of the present study suggested both exercises showed similar tendencies, and had decreased salivary cortisol level and state anxiety. PMID:11037691

  1. Increase in concentration of waking salivary cortisol in recovered patients with depression.

    OpenAIRE

    Bhagwagar, Z.; Hafizi, S.; Cowen, Pj

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis with elevated plasma cortisol levels is characteristic of acute major depression. However, it is unclear whether HPA axis abnormalities are present in fully recovered patients. An increase in salivary cortisol levels after waking provides a simple, dynamic measure of HPA axis activity. The authors measured this increase in recovered depressed patients and in a healthy comparison group. METHOD: Salivary cortisol levels wer...

  2. Fecal and Salivary Cortisol Concentrations in Woolly (Lagothrix ssp. and Spider Monkeys (Ateles spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly D. Ange-van Heugten

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Detrimental physiological effects due to stressors can contribute to the low captive success of primates. The objective of this research was to investigate the potential impact of diet composition on cortisol concentrations in feces and saliva in woolly (n=27 and spider monkeys (n=61. The research was conducted in three studies: the first investigated spider monkeys in the United States, the second investigated spider monkeys within Europe, and the third investigated woolly monkeys within Europe. Fecal cortisol in spider monkeys in US zoos varied (P=.07 from 30 to 66 ng/g. The zoo with the highest fecal cortisol also had the highest salivary cortisol (P?.05. For European zoos, fecal cortisol differed between zoos for both spider and woolly monkeys (P?.05. Spider monkeys had higher fecal cortisol than woolly monkeys (P?.05. Zoos with the highest dietary carbohydrates, sugars, glucose, and fruit had the highest cortisol. Cortisol was highest for zoos that did not meet crude protein requirements and fed the lowest percentage of complete feeds and crude fiber. Differences among zoos in housing and diets may increase animal stress. The lifespan and reproductive success of captive primates could improve if stressors are reduced and dietary nutrients optimized.

  3. Candida albicans Flu1-Mediated Efflux of Salivary Histatin 5 Reduces Its Cytosolic Concentration and Fungicidal Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Rui; Kumar, Rohitashw; Tati, Swetha; Puri, Sumant; Edgerton, Mira

    2013-01-01

    Histatin 5 (Hst 5) is a salivary human antimicrobial peptide that is toxic to the opportunistic yeast Candida albicans. Fungicidal activity of Hst 5 requires intracellular translocation and accumulation to a threshold concentration for it to disrupt cellular processes. Previously, we observed that total cytosolic levels of Hst 5 were gradually reduced from intact cells, suggesting that C. albicans possesses a transport mechanism for efflux of Hst 5. Since we identified C. albicans polyamine t...

  4. Passive smoking and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke: prospective study with cotinine measurement.

    OpenAIRE

    Whincup, Ph; Gilg, Ja; Emberson, Jr; Jarvis, Mj; Feyerabend, C.; Bryant, A.; Walker, M.; Cook, Dg

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between a biomarker of overall passive exposure to tobacco smoke (serum cotinine concentration) and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. DESIGN: Prospective population based study in general practice (the British regional heart study). PARTICIPANTS: 4729 men in 18 towns who provided baseline blood samples (for cotinine assay) and a detailed smoking history in 1978-80. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Major coronary heart disease and stroke events (fatal and n...

  5. Salivary mucoceles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall incidence of salivary gland disease in dogs and cats is low. Salivary mucocele is the most frequently diagnosed disease of salivary glands. Mucoceles consist of collections of saliva in subcutaneous, sublingual, pharyngeal, or periorbital locations. Definitive therapy of salivary mucoceles consists of excision of the affected salivary gland and mucocele drainage

  6. A simplified method for the analysis of urinary cotinine by GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos da Cunha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cotinine is the major metabolite of nicotine and, being very stable and having a long biological half-life, it can be used as a biomarker for tobacco exposure. The aim of this study was to develop an analytical GC-MS technique to measure levels of cotinine in the urine of active and passive smokers and to compare the results with reference values. The extraction of cotinine to generate the calibration curve was performed by mixing urine (250 µL with 50 µL of a cotinine standard, 50 µL of an internal standard of deuterated cotinine (15 µg?mL-1 and 50 µL of 10% NH4 OH solution. Next, 2 mL of a mixture of MTBE:dichloromethane:ethyl acetate (30:30:40 by volume was added and the whole was vortexed, then centrifuged at 3000 rpm. Finally, 1.6 mL of the organic layer was evaporated under a stream of dry air at 50 °C. The resulting extract was dissolved in methanol and injected into the GC-MS system. The LOQ and LOD for cotinine were 100 and 20 ng?mL-1, respectively. The curve was linear over the whole tested range of 100 - 5000 ng?mL-1 and the method achieved 50% recovery. The intra and inter-day precisions were 1.62 – 7.28% and 0.86 – 2.68%, respectively. Accuracy was determined at three concentrations (low, medium and high, with six replicates (95.24 – 97.67%. The validation of this cotinine assay by GC-MS showed that it exhibited satisfactory limits and the assay could be performed with a one-step liquid-liquid extraction. The technique presented here can thus be used for the quantitation of cotinine levels in the urine of passive and active smokers.

  7. Cotinine levels in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diken, Ozlem Erçen; Unculu, Serap; Karnak, Demet; Ca?layan, Osman; Göçmen, Julide Sedef; Kayacan, Oya

    2010-09-01

    Cotinine is a major metabolite of nicotine. This study was planned to investigate the relationship between bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid cotinine levels and serum cotinine levels in smokers and nonsmokers with various pulmonary diseases and to investigate whether these levels are affected by passive smoking. Serum and BAL fluid cotinine levels were measured in 27 patients. BAL cotinine levels were measured using a sensitive ELISA kit produced to measure cotinine in saliva. Plates were read by microuant (BioTek, USA) micro plate reader. All patient serum cotinine levels were detectable except for one nonsmoker patient. However, BAL fluid cotinine levels were measurable in only 6 patients (two of them were nonsmokers). A significant positive correlation was seen between serum and BAL fluid cotinine levels (r = 0.726; p = 0.000). Serum cotinine levels were significantly higher in present smokers than non-smokers (21.0 +/- 16.01; 5.35 +/- 7.65; p = 0.004). However, there were no significant differences in BAL fluid cotinine levels between smokers and nonsmokers. Passive smoking can increase nicotine metabolites in serum and other body fluids, including BAL fluid. Since BAL fluid and serum cotinine levels were well correlated, there is no need to use invasive procedures, such as bronchoscopy and expensive, time consuming BAL fluid analyses. Serum cotinine levels can give a rough idea of smoking status. BAL fluid cotinine meaurements should be done for only scientific reasons. PMID:21073047

  8. The effect of storage conditions on salivary cortisol concentrations using an enzyme immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalla, Anjana A; Thomsen, Gerda; Knudsen, Gitte M; Frokjaer, Vibe G

    2015-01-01

    Saliva samples are easy to collect and are applicable for home-sampling, e.g. when studying HPA-axis dynamics to characterize diurnal cortisol profiles and the cortisol awakening response. However, the storing and transport conditions might be critical in the home-sampling approach. Here, we tested the stability of saliva cortisol in samples stored at different temperatures and after repeated thawing-freezing cycles when measured with an Enzyme Immuno Assay (EIA). Thirteen healthy volunteers, six women and seven men, mean age 31 (range 26-49) years collected saliva either in the morning hours (08:00-10:00 h) or before lunch (11:00-12:00 h). Storage at six different conditions were tested: Storage at - 18°C, - 4°C, 4°C and room temperature for 72 h. One condition tested was at - 18°C for 72 h and then kept in an envelope for 72 h with a freezing element in room temperature surroundings where after it was stored at - 80°C. The last tube was stored directly at - 80°C and served as the 'gold standard'. The saliva samples were assayed using Salivary Cortisol Diagnostic EIA. Differences in cortisol measurements between each of the five conditions and the 'gold standard' (- 80°C) were evaluated by one-sample t-test. No significant differences were observed. This indicates that an EIA method can be used reliably when measuring salivary cortisol samples obtained by home-sampling including a postal delivery. PMID:25510953

  9. Associations of long-term shift work with waking salivary cortisol concentration and patterns among police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekedulegn, Desta; Burchfiel, Cecil M; Violanti, John M; Hartley, Tara A; Charles, Luenda E; Andrew, Michael E; Miller, Diane B

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether long-term shift work is associated with both the total hormonal secretion after awakening and the pattern of the cortisol levels during the first hour following awakening, among 65 randomly selected police officers who represent a high stress occupation. Dominant shift (Day, Afternoon, or Midnight) was ascertained using daily payroll records of each participant's work activities during the 6-8 yrs prior to saliva sampling. Four salivary samples were collected at 15 min intervals upon first awakening. After accounting for potential confounders, salivary cortisol concentrations averaged across all four time points and total area under the curve differed significantly across shift with midnight shift workers showing suppressed awakening cortisol response relative to the afternoon and day shift. The percent of hours worked on midnight shift was inversely correlated with total awakening cortisol output. In contrast, the pattern of cortisol secretion during the first hour following waking appeared not to be affected as no significant interaction effect was found between time since awakening and shift work. The results show that long-term midnight shift work is associated with decreased absolute mean level and total volume of cortisol released over the waking period. PMID:23047078

  10. R-(+) and S-(-) isomers of cotinine augment cholinergic responses in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Alvin V; Callahan, Patrick M; Bertrand, Daniel

    2015-02-01

    The nicotine metabolite cotinine (1-methyl-5-[3-pyridynl]-2-pyrrolidinone), like its precursor, has been found to exhibit procognitive and neuroprotective effects in some model systems; however, the mechanism of these effects is unknown. In this study, both the R-(+) and S-(-) isomers of cotinine were initially evaluated in an extensive profiling screen and found to be relatively inactive across a wide range of potential pharmacologic targets. Electrophysiological studies on human ?4?2 and ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) expressed in Xenopus oocytes confirmed the absence of agonistic activity of cotinine at ?4?2 or ?7 nAChRs. However, a significant increase in the current evoked by a low concentration of acetylcholine was observed at ?7 nAChRs exposed to 1.0 ?M R-(+)- or S-(-)-cotinine. Based on these results, we used a spontaneous novel object recognition (NOR) procedure for rodents to test the hypothesis that R-(+)- or S-(-)-cotinine might improve recognition memory when administered alone or in combination with the Alzheimer's disease (AD) therapeutic agent donepezil. Although both isomers enhanced NOR performance when they were coadministered with donepezil, neither isomer was active alone. Moreover, the procognitive effects of the drug combinations were blocked by methyllycaconitine and dihydro-?-erythroidine, indicating that both ?7 and ?4?2 nAChRs contribute to the response. These results indicate that cotinine may sensitize ?7 nAChRs to low levels of acetylcholine (a previously uncharacterized mechanism), and that cotinine could be used as an adjunctive agent to improve the effective dose range of cholinergic compounds (e.g., donepezil) in the treatment of AD and other memory disorders. PMID:25503389

  11. Time to first cigarette after waking predicts cotinine levels

    OpenAIRE

    Muscat, Joshua E.; Stellman, Steven D.; Caraballo, Ralph S.; Richie, John P.

    2009-01-01

    There is wide variability in cotinine levels per cigarette smoked. We hypothesized that in addition to smoking frequency, other behavioral measures of nicotine dependence such as the time to first cigarette after waking are associated with cotinine levels. To test this hypothesis, we measured plasma and urinary cotinine in a community-based study of 252 black and white daily cigarette smokers. Results: Among one pack per day smokers, plasma cotinine levels varied from 16 to 1180 (ng/ml), a 74...

  12. Do whole-body vibration exercise and resistance exercise modify concentrations of salivary cortisol and immunoglobulin A?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    H., Roschel; R., Barroso; M., Batista; C., Ugrinowitsch; V., Tricoli; F., Arsati; Y.B., Lima-Arsati; V.C., Araújo; A., Moreira.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A single bout of resistance exercise (RE) induces hormonal and immune responses, playing an important role in a long-term adaptive process. Whole-body vibration (WBV) has also been shown to affect hormonal responses. Evidence suggests that combining WBV with RE may amplify hormonal and immune respon [...] ses due to the increased neuromuscular load. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate salivary cortisol (Scortisol) and salivary IgA (SIgA) concentrations following a RE session combined or not with WBV. Nine university students (22.9 ± 5.1 years, 175.8 ± 5.2 cm, and 69.2 ± 7.3 kg) performed five sets of squat exercise (70% one-repetition-maximum) combined (R+V30) or not (R) with WBV at 30 Hz. Saliva samples were obtained before and after exercise. Subjects also rated their effort according to the Borg CR-10 scale (RPE). Data were analyzed by a mixed model. RPE was higher after R+V30 (8.3 ± 0.7) compared to R (6.2 ± 0.7). However, Scortisol (pre: 10.6 ± 7.6 and 11.7 ± 7.6, post: 8.3 ± 6.3 and 10.2 ± 7.2 ng/mL for R and R+V30, respectively) and SIgA concentrations (pre: 98.3 ± 22.6 and 116.1 ± 51.2, post: 116.6 ± 64.7 and 143.6 ± 80.5 µg/mL for R and R+V30, respectively) were unaffected. No significant correlations were observed between Scortisol and RPE (r = 0.45, P = 0.22; r = 0.30, P = 0.42, for R and R+V30, respectively). On the basis of these data, neither protocol modified salivary cortisol or IgA, although RPE was higher after R+V30 than R.

  13. Salivary Glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... system attacks the salivary glands causing significant inflammation. Dry mouth or dry eyes are common. This may occur ... of a salivary gland does not produce a dry mouth, called xerostomia. However, radiation therapy to the mouth ...

  14. Concentración de ?-amilasa salival en niños con diferentes índices de caries / Salivary ?-Amylase Concentration in Children with Different Caries Indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Patricia Lamby Tovar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: La a-amilasa salival humana (AASH es la proteína más abundante en la saliva; tiene varias funciones que la hacen especial desde el punto de vista cariogénico, por lo cual puede estar relacionada con el índice de caries. Propósito: Determinar las diferencias en la concentración de AASH en niños con diferentes índices de caries. Métodos: Se obtuvieron muestras de saliva de 100 niños que se clasificaron dentro de cuatro de las siete categorías del Sistema Internacional de Valoración y Detección de Caries (ICDAS, con 25 individuos por grupo: sanos, opacidad blanca, microcavidad y cavidad extensa. Se determinó la cantidad total de proteína por el método de Bradford y la concentración AASH por medio de la técnica de Elisa indirecta. Los valores obtenidos de proteína total y AASH fueron analizados por medio del software Stata versión 9.2. Resultados: Al comparar las medias de la concentración de proteína total en los cuatro grupos de estudio, no hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas. Los promedios de la concentración de AASH en tres de los cuatro grupos: sanos, microcavidad y opacidad blanca, no presentaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas. En el grupo de cavidad extensa, este valor fue menor, diferencia que fue estadísticamente significativa con respecto a los otros tres grupos. Conclusión: La menor concentración de AASH en el grupo con cavidad extensa posiblemente indica que, dada la redundancia funcional de esta enzima, la protección de las superficies orales es de mayor importancia. Background: Human salivary a-amylase (HSAA is the most abundant protein in saliva, has several functions that make it of special interest from a cariogenic point of view, thus may be related to the caries indexes. Purpose: Determine the differences according to the quantified amounts of HSAA in the saliva of children with different caries indexes. Methods: Salivary samples were obtained via spontaneous salivation from a total of 100 children, who were assigned into four groups (n=25 each according to four categories of the International Caries Detection & Assessment System (ICDAS: sound, white opacity, microcavity and extensive cavity. The total quantity of protein present in each of the samples was determined through the Bradford Method and the concentration of HSAA was determined by an indirect ELISA technique. Non-parametric statistical was perform with Stata 9.2 software. Results: Non-significant statistical differences for variable total protein in the four groups were found. The concentration of HSAA showed statistically significant differences between groups of individuals with white opacity and extensive cavities, microcavity and extensive cavity, and sound and extensive cavity. Conclusions: The findings suggest that from the different functions identified for HSAA, protection of the tooth surfaces has a major relevance.

  15. Plasma and salivary concentrations of erythromycin after administration of three different formulations.

    OpenAIRE

    Henry, J.; Turner, P.; Garland, M.; Esmieu, F.

    1980-01-01

    In a 6-volunteer cross-over study the pharmacokinetics of 3 erythromycin preparations were compared. A single oral dose of 500 mg of each preparation was administered at each occasion and the levels measured in timed samples of plasma and saliva. Markedly higher blood concentrations of the estolate and propionate were obtained compared to the stearate. Comparison of serum and plasma concentration of the drugs from each split sample showed no significant differences. Plasma concentrations alwa...

  16. Deuterium isotope effects in the in vivo metabolism of cotinine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an attempt to further understanding of the molecular mechanisms associated with the mammalian oxidative metabolism of foreign substances, the deuterium isotope effect involved in the in vivo metabolism of the tobacco alkaloid cotinine was investigated. Mixtures of cotinine-d0 and cotinine-3,3-d2 in varying ratios were administered to Rhesus monkeys. Unchanged drug and several of its oxidized metabolites including trans-3-hydroxycotinine were isolated from the 24-hr urine collection. The deuterium contents of these isolated compounds were found to be greater than that present in the administered cotinine except for trans-3-hydroxycotinine which showed a substantial decrease in the deuterium to proton ratio. On the basis of these determinations the deuterium isotope effect for the 3-hydroxylation of cotinine was calculated to be between 6 and 7, indicating that carbon--hydrogen bond cleavage is likely to be involved in the rate-determining step in this metabolic conversion. (U.S.)

  17. Fecal and Salivary Cortisol Concentrations in Woolly (Lagothrix ssp.) and Spider Monkeys (Ateles spp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ange-van Heugten, Kimberly D.; Eric van Heugten; Saskia Timmer; Guido Bosch; Abahor Elias; Scott Whisnant; Swarts, Hans J. M.; Peter Ferket; Verstegen, Martin W. A.

    2009-01-01

    Detrimental physiological effects due to stressors can contribute to the low captive success of primates. The objective of this research was to investigate the potential impact of diet composition on cortisol concentrations in feces and saliva in woolly (n=27) and spider monkeys (n=61). The research was conducted in three studies: the first investigated spider monkeys in the United States, the second investigated spider monkeys within Europe, and the third investigated woolly monkeys within E...

  18. Providing Coaching and Cotinine Results to Preteens to Reduce Their Secondhand Smoke Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlgren, Dennis R.; Liles, Sandy; Jones, Jennifer A.; Hughes, Suzanne C.; Matt, Georg E.; Ji, Ming; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N.; Swan, Gary E.; Chatfield, Dale; Ding, Ding

    2011-01-01

    Background: Secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) poses health risks to children living with smokers. Most interventions to protect children from SHSe have coached adult smokers. This trial determined whether coaching and cotinine feedback provided to preteens can reduce their SHSe. Methods: Two hundred one predominantly low-income families with a resident smoker and a child aged 8 to 13 years who was exposed to two or more cigarettes per day or had a urine cotinine concentration ? 2.0 ng/mL were randomized to control or SHSe reduction coaching groups. During eight in-home sessions over 5 months, coaches presented to the child graphic charts of cotinine assay results as performance feedback and provided differential praise and incentives for cotinine reductions. Generalized estimating equations were used to determine the differential change in SHSe over time by group. Results: For the baseline to posttest period, the coaching group had a greater decrease in both urine cotinine concentration (P = .039) and reported child SHSe in the number of cigarettes exposed per day (child report, P = .003; parent report, P = .078). For posttest to month 12 follow-up, no group or group by time differences were obtained, and both groups returned toward baseline. Conclusions: Coaching preteens can reduce their SHSe, although reductions may not be sustained without ongoing counseling, feedback, and incentives. Unlike interventions that coach adults to reduce child SHSe, programs that increase child avoidance of SHSe have the potential to reduce SHSe in all settings in which the child is exposed, without requiring a change in adult smoking behavior. PMID:21474574

  19. Salivary scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salivary gland scintigraphy with technetium 99m (99mTc) in the form pertechnetate ion is a relatively simple procedure, which can provide a unique and sensitive means for investigating salivary gland physiologic function and its derangements. However, salivary scintigraphy is poorly suited for the detection and characterization of masses in and around the salivary glands. Computed tomography (CT) has, therefore, largely supplanted scintigraphy for the evaluation of masses and is the method of choice because it can provide exquisite anatomic detail. Consequently, CT is more sensitive for mass detection and can also provide useful information as to whether a mass has arisen from within or from outside of a salivary gland or whether a mass is circumscribed or invasive. It also can disclose the relationship of the mass to the facial nerve and occasionally can provide histologic characterization of such masses as cysts, lipomas, and masseter muscle hypertrophy

  20. Candida albicans flu1-mediated efflux of salivary histatin 5 reduces its cytosolic concentration and fungicidal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Kumar, Rohitashw; Tati, Swetha; Puri, Sumant; Edgerton, Mira

    2013-04-01

    Histatin 5 (Hst 5) is a salivary human antimicrobial peptide that is toxic to the opportunistic yeast Candida albicans. Fungicidal activity of Hst 5 requires intracellular translocation and accumulation to a threshold concentration for it to disrupt cellular processes. Previously, we observed that total cytosolic levels of Hst 5 were gradually reduced from intact cells, suggesting that C. albicans possesses a transport mechanism for efflux of Hst 5. Since we identified C. albicans polyamine transporters responsible for Hst 5 uptake, we hypothesized that one or more polyamine efflux transporters may be involved in the efflux of Hst 5. C. albicans FLU1 and TPO2 were found to be the closest homologs of Saccharomyces cerevisiae TPO1, which encodes a major spermidine efflux transporter, indicating that the products of these two genes may be involved in efflux of Hst 5. We found that flu1?/? cells, but not tpo2?/? cells, had significant reductions in their rates of Hst 5 efflux and had significantly higher cytoplasmic Hst 5 and Hst 5 susceptibilities than did the wild type. We also found that flu1?/? cells had reduced biofilm formation compared to wild-type cells in the presence of Hst 5. Transcriptional levels of FLU1 were not altered over the course of treatment with Hst 5; therefore, Hst 5 is not likely to induce FLU1 gene overexpression as a potential mechanism of resistance. Thus, Flu1, but not Tpo2, mediates efflux of Hst 5 and is responsible for reduction of its toxicity in C. albicans. PMID:23380720

  1. Quantification of Nicotine, Cotinine, trans-3’-Hydroxycotinine, Nornicotine and Norcotinine in Human Meconium by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, Teresa R.; Shakleya, Diaa M.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2008-01-01

    There are no analytical methods that simultaneously quantify nicotine, cotinine, trans-3’-hydroxycotinine, nornicotine and norcotinine in human meconium. Such a method could improve identification of in utero tobacco exposure, determine if maternal dose-meconium concentration relationships exist, and whether nicotine meconium concentrations predict neonatal outcomes. The first liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous qua...

  2. Combined Analysis of the Tobacco Metabolites Cotinine and 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol in Human Urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotandeniya, Delshanee; Carmella, Steven G; Ming, Xun; Murphy, Sharon E; Hecht, Stephen S

    2015-02-01

    Two of the most widely measured compounds in the urine of people who use tobacco products are cotinine, a major metabolite of the addictive constituent nicotine, and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), a metabolite of the powerful lung carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). Thousands of analyses have been reported in the literature, carried out exclusively, to the best of our knowledge, by separate methods. In the study reported here, we have developed a sensitive, accurate, and precise liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry-selected reaction monitoring method for the combined analysis of total cotinine (the sum of cotinine and its glucuronide) and total NNAL (the sum of NNAL and its glucuronide). The new method quantifies naturally occurring [(13)C]cotinine to minimize problems associated with the vast differences in concentration of total cotinine and total NNAL in urine. This method should greatly facilitate future determinations of these important compounds. PMID:25544129

  3. Single gas chromatography method with nitrogen phosphorus detector for urinary cotinine determination in passive and active smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Lusiane Malafatti; Patrícia Penido Maia; Matheus Coutinho Gonçalves Martins; Maria Elisa Pereira Bastos de Siqueira; Isarita Martins

    2010-01-01

    Nicotine is a major addictive compound in cigarettes and is rapidly and extensively metabolized to several metabolites in humans, including urinary cotinine, considered a biomarker due to its high concentration compared to other metabolites. The aim of this study was to develop a single method for determination of urinary cotinine, in active and passive smokers, by gas chromatography with a nitrogen phosphorus detector (GC-NPD). Urine (5.0 mL) was extracted with 1.0 mL of sodium hydroxide 5 m...

  4. Cotinine and trans 3'-hydroxycotinine in dried blood spots as biomarkers of tobacco exposure and nicotine metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Sharon E; Wickham, Katherine M; Lindgren, Bruce R; Spector, Logan G; Joseph, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco use is the major preventable cause of premature death in the United States. Second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure also contributes to a number of premature deaths as well as other negative health outcomes. An accurate assessment of tobacco smoke exposure is critical to understanding these disease processes. The plasma concentration of cotinine, the primary metabolite of nicotine, is widely accepted as a quantitative measure of tobacco and SHS exposure. However, it is not always feasible to collect plasma. Dried blood spots (DBS), which are collected routinely from newborns and often from young children for lead screening, provide an alternative sampling method. We have developed a quantitative high throughput liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for the analysis of cotinine in DBS. The limit of quantitation was 0.3 ng/g (~ 0.2 ng/ml plasma). Cotinine levels in DBS from 83 smokers and 99 non-smokers exposed to SHS were determined. Plasma cotinine concentrations in these subjects ranged from exposure in children. PMID:23443235

  5. Relationship between Caregivers’ Smoking at Home and Urinary Levels of Cotinine in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the impact of different smoking behaviors of caregivers on environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure in children aged 5–6 years in Changsha, China. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, random digit-dial telephone survey of caregivers (n = 543 between August and October 2013. Caregivers’ smoking behaviors were collected by a questionnaire. Exposure assessment was based upon determination of urinary cotinine levels in children employing gas chromatography–triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS. Results: In children not living with a smoker, children living with one smoker, and children living with more than one smoker at home, median urinary cotinine concentrations (ng/mL were 0.72, 2.97, and 4.46, respectively. For children living with one smoker, median urinary cotinine levels of children exposed to ETS were associated with caregiver smoking behaviors, i.e., if a caregiver consumed more cigarettes (>20 compared with ?10; 7.73 versus 2.29 ng/mL, respectively. Conclusions: The magnitude of ETS exposure in children is correlated with the smoking behaviors of the caregiver. Counseling for smoking cessation and educational interventions are needed urgently for smoking caregivers to increase their awareness about ETS exposure and to encourage smoking cessation at home or to take precautions to protect children’s health.

  6. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific

  7. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-10-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

  8. Use of anti-Aedes aegypti salivary extract antibody concentration to correlate risk of vector exposure and dengue transmission risk in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londono-Renteria, Berlin; Cardenas, Jenny C; Cardenas, Lucio D; Christofferson, Rebecca C; Chisenhall, Daniel M; Wesson, Dawn M; McCracken, Michael K; Carvajal, Daisy; Mores, Christopher N

    2013-01-01

    Norte de Santander is a region in Colombia with a high incidence of dengue virus (DENV). In this study, we examined the serum concentration of anti-Aedes salivary gland extract (SGE) antibodies as a biomarker of DENV infection and transmission, and assessed the duration of anti-SGE antibody concentration after exposure to the vector ceased. We also determined whether SGE antibody concentration could differentiate between positive and negative DENV infected individuals and whether there are differences in exposure for each DENV serotype. We observed a significant decrease in the concentration of IgG antibodies at least 40 days after returning to an "Ae. aegypti-free" area. In addition, we found significantly higher anti-SGE IgG concentrations in DENV positive patients with some difference in exposure to mosquito bites among DENV serotypes. We conclude that the concentration of IgG antibodies against SGE is an accurate indicator of risk of dengue virus transmission and disease presence. PMID:24312537

  9. Comparación de la concentración total de proteínas salivales de adultos y adultos mayores Comparison of total salivary protein concentration in adults and older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RJ Castro

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Entre las moléculas orgánicas que componen la saliva se han descrito un gran número de proteínas. No existe evidencia suficiente que permita especular sobre los cambios en el contenido proteico salival asociados al envejecimiento normal. El objetivo fue determinar si existen diferencias en la concentración total de proteínas en saliva de adultos y adultos mayores. Método: Se obtuvieron muestras de saliva estimulada y no estimulada de individuos pertenecientes a dos grupos etarios, adultos (A (n=30 (edad promedio: 25 años y adultos mayores (AM (n=30 (edad promedio: 68 años. Se excluyeron aquellos sujetos que presentaron alguna patología oral/sistémica o consumo de fármacos/sustancias relacionados con alteraciones del flujo o composición salival. Cada muestra fue centrifugada. A 10 µl del sobrenadante se agregaron 190 µl de solución de Bradford. Se realizó el recuento mediante lectura con espectrofotómetro (595 nm. La concentración de proteínas fue comparada entre los grupos en estudio utilizando la prueba t de Student (pObjective: A high number of proteins has been described in saliva. Scarce evidence allows to speculate about the variations on protein content associated with aging. The aim was to determine if there is a difference in total protein concentration between adults and older adults. Methods: Samples were collected from unstimulated and stimulated saliva of individuals from two age groups, adults (A (n=30 (mean age 25 years and older adults (OA (n=30(mean age: 68 years. Subjects with oral/systemic diseases or consuming medications that alter salivary flow were excluded from the study. Each sample was centrifuged and 10 ?l of the supernatant was added to 190 ?l of Bradford solution. Protein concentration was obtained by spectrophotometry (595 nm Protein concentration was compared between the groups using student’s t test (p<0.05. Results: Total protein concentration from unstimulated saliva was higher in OA (5.5±2.6 ug/ul than in A (3.2 ± 1.7 ug/ul (p<0.05. Total protein concentration of stimulated saliva was higher in OA (4.9±0.4 ug/ul than in A (4.0±0.3 ug/ul (p<0.05. Conclusion: Salivary protein concentration increases in older adults. Further studies are suggested to characterize these changes.

  10. In Vitro Inhibition of Human Sperm Creatine Kinase by Nicotine,Cotinine and Cadmium, as a Mechanism in Smoker Men Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Ghaffari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nicotine, cotinine and cadmium are harmful components of cigarettes that have aneffect on human reproductive function. Although the effects of cigarette smoke on male reproductivefunction is characterized in several articles its mechanism of action is still unknown.In the present study, we investigate the effect of nicotine, cotinine and cadmium on human spermcreatine kinase activity in vitro.Materials and Methods: Total creatine kinase activity is measured in sperm homogenates afterchromatography on a diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-32 column.Results: We show that creatine kinase activity is significantly inhibited by nicotine (44%, cotinine(39% and cadmium (65% at a concentration of 60 ?g/ml. Kinetic studies reveal that the inhibitoryeffect of nicotine, cotinine and cadmium are competitive in relation to creatine phosphate.Conclusion: Considering the importance of creatine kinase activity for normal sperm energymetabolism, our results suggest that inhibition of this enzyme by nicotine, cotinine and cadmium maybe an important mechanism in infertility amongst male smokers. However, further investigationsare needed to elucidate the exact mechanism of cigarette effect on male reproductive function atthe molecular level.

  11. Salivary Gland Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, H. L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes materials and procedures for an experiment utilizing a live dog to demonstrate: (1) physiology of the salivary gland; (2) parasympathetic control of the salivary gland; (3) influence of varying salivary flow rates on sodium and potassium ions, osmolarity and pH; and (4) salivary secretion as an active process. (DS)

  12. Environmental tobacco smoke and canine urinary cotinine level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidemiologic studies of companion animals such as dogs have been established as models for the relationship between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and cancer risk in humans. While results from these studies are provocative, pet owner report of a dog's ETS exposure has not yet been validated. We have evaluated the relationship between dog owner's report of household smoking by questionnaire and dog's urinary cotinine level. Between January and October 2005, dog owners presenting their pet for non-emergency veterinary care at the Foster Hospital for Small Animals at Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, were asked to complete a 10-page questionnaire measuring exposure to household ETS in the previous 24 h and other factors. A free-catch urine sample was also collected from dogs. Urinary cotinine level was assayed for 63 dogs, including 30 whose owners reported household smoking and 33 unexposed dogs matched on age and month of enrollment. Urinary cotinine level was significantly higher in dogs exposed to household smoking in the 24 h before urine collection compared to unexposed dogs (14.6 ng/ml vs. 7.4 ng/ml; P=0.02). After adjustment for other factors, cotinine level increased linearly with number of cigarettes smoked by all household members (P=0.004). Other canine characteristics including age, body composition and nose length were also associated with cotinine level. Findings from our study suggest that household smoking levels ady suggest that household smoking levels as assessed by questionnaire are significantly associated with canine cotinine levels

  13. Urinary cotinine and lung cancer risk in a female cohort.

    OpenAIRE

    Waard, F.; Kemmeren, J. M.; Ginkel, L. A.; Stolker, A. A.

    1995-01-01

    In a cohort of women aged 40-64 at entry, 12 h urine samples were obtained at the beginning of a follow-up period of up to 15 years in which incident cases of lung cancer were registered as well as deaths from lung cancer. In this cohort a nested case-control study (n = 397) was carried out by measuring urinary cotinine. The method for quantitation of cotinine was sensitive enough to study lung cancer risk not only in active smokers but also in passive smokers. The results seem to indicate th...

  14. The influence of morphine on the absorption of paracetamol from various formulations in subjects in the supine position, as assessed by TDx measurement of salivary paracetamol concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Julia M; Tyers, Nicola M; Davey, Andrew K

    2003-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of the type of paracetamol formulation on the rate of absorption when subjects are in the supine position, with or without taking concomitant morphine. Two groups of healthy volunteers were used, who were in the fasting state and remained in the supine position during the study. One group took 1,500 mg of paracetamol on three occasions as conventional tablets, dispersible tablets or a suspension in a randomized crossover design. Seventeen saliva samples per subject were obtained (time zero to 360 min post-dose), which were then centrifuged and kept at -20 degrees C prior to analysis. The second group repeated the study following four doses of morphine syrup (10 mg 4 hourly) in the 12 h preceding paracetamol ingestion. In this phase of the study, paracetamol absorption from suspension was not investigated. A TDx assay was used to determine salivary paracetamol concentrations. The tmax for conventional tablets when taken concomitantly with morphine was 160 (+/- 81) min compared to 51 (+/- 58) min for subjects not taking morphine. For dispersible tablets the tmax in the morphine group was 14 (+/- 9) min compared to 15 (+/- 12) min without morphine. The results suggest that patients who are confined to bed and taking morphine will have an unacceptably long delay between taking conventional paracetamol tablets and the paracetamol reaching therapeutic plasma concentrations. Conversely, there is little effect on the absorption of dispersible paracetamol under the same conditions. PMID:14607015

  15. Cotinine and trans 3'-Hydroxycotinine in Dried Blood Spots as Biomarkers of Tobacco Exposure and Nicotine Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Sharon E.; Wickham, Katherine M.; Lindgren, Bruce R.; Spector, Logan G.; Joseph, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco use is the major preventable cause of premature death in the United States. Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure also contributes to a number of premature deaths as well as other negative health outcomes. An accurate assessment of tobacco smoke exposure is critical to understanding these disease processes. The plasma concentration of cotinine, the primary metabolite of nicotine, is widely accepted as a quantitative measure of tobacco and SHS exposure. However, it is not always feasible to ...

  16. Detection by radioimmunoassay of nicotinamide nucleotide analogues in tissues of rabbits injected with nicotine and cotinine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The formation of the NAD and NADP analogues of nicotine and cotinine in vitro by the NAD glycohydrolase-catalyzed exchange reaction suggested that such compounds (and the related mononucleotides) might also be produced in animals receiving the alkaloid or its metabolite. Since only sensitive and specific analytical methods could detect small amounts of the nicotine and cotinine analogues in the presence of the naturally occurring and abundant NMN, NAD and NADP compounds, radioimmunoassays were developed and used for this purpose. In rabbits injected with cotinine, cotinine nucleotide analogues were found at pmole levels/g of wet tissue in extracts from liver, kidney and lung. In both liver and lung extracts, cotinine mononucleotide was identified as the major product. Cotinine nucleotides were also found in the tissues of rabbits injected with nicotine. The rapid metabolism of nicotine to cotinine in vivo probably contributes to the sparsity of the nicotine analogues in tissue extracts from these animals. (author)

  17. Menthol attenuates respiratory irritation and elevates blood cotinine in cigarette smoke exposed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Michael A; Smith, Gregory J; Cichocki, Joseph A; Fan, Lu; Liu, Yi-Shiuan; Caceres, Ana I; Jordt, Sven Eric; Morris, John B

    2015-01-01

    Addition of menthol to cigarettes may be associated with increased initiation of smoking. The potential mechanisms underlying this association are not known. Menthol, likely due to its effects on cold-sensing peripheral sensory neurons, is known to inhibit the sensation of irritation elicited by respiratory irritants. However, it remains unclear whether menthol modulates cigarette smoke irritancy and nicotine absorption during initial exposures to cigarettes, thereby facilitating smoking initiation. Using plethysmography in a C57Bl/6J mouse model, we examined the effects of L-menthol, the menthol isomer added to cigarettes, on the respiratory sensory irritation response to primary smoke irritants (acrolein and cyclohexanone) and smoke of Kentucky reference 2R4 cigarettes. We also studied L-menthol's effect on blood levels of the nicotine metabolite, cotinine, immediately after exposure to cigarette smoke. L-menthol suppressed the irritation response to acrolein with an apparent IC?? of 4 ppm. Suppression was observed even at acrolein levels well above those necessary to produce a maximal response. Cigarette smoke, at exposure levels of 10 mg/m³ or higher, caused an immediate and marked sensory irritation response in mice. This response was significantly suppressed by L-menthol even at smoke concentrations as high as 300 mg/m³. Counterirritation by L-menthol was abolished by treatment with a selective inhibitor of Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 8 (TRPM8), the neuronal cold/menthol receptor. Inclusion of menthol in the cigarette smoke resulted in roughly a 1.5-fold increase in plasma cotinine levels over those observed in mice exposed to smoke without added menthol. These findings document that, L-menthol, through TRPM8, is a strong suppressor of respiratory irritation responses, even during highly noxious exposures to cigarette smoke or smoke irritants, and increases blood cotinine. Therefore, L-menthol, as a cigarette additive, may promote smoking initiation and nicotine addiction. PMID:25679525

  18. Comparación de la concentración total de proteínas salivales de adultos y adultos mayores / Comparison of total salivary protein concentration in adults and older adults

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    RJ, Castro; G, Guzmán; RA, Giacaman.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Entre las moléculas orgánicas que componen la saliva se han descrito un gran número de proteínas. No existe evidencia suficiente que permita especular sobre los cambios en el contenido proteico salival asociados al envejecimiento normal. El objetivo fue determinar si existen diferencias en [...] la concentración total de proteínas en saliva de adultos y adultos mayores. Método: Se obtuvieron muestras de saliva estimulada y no estimulada de individuos pertenecientes a dos grupos etarios, adultos (A) (n=30) (edad promedio: 25 años) y adultos mayores (AM) (n=30) (edad promedio: 68 años). Se excluyeron aquellos sujetos que presentaron alguna patología oral/sistémica o consumo de fármacos/sustancias relacionados con alteraciones del flujo o composición salival. Cada muestra fue centrifugada. A 10 µl del sobrenadante se agregaron 190 µl de solución de Bradford. Se realizó el recuento mediante lectura con espectrofotómetro (595 nm). La concentración de proteínas fue comparada entre los grupos en estudio utilizando la prueba t de Student (p Abstract in english Objective: A high number of proteins has been described in saliva. Scarce evidence allows to speculate about the variations on protein content associated with aging. The aim was to determine if there is a difference in total protein concentration between adults and older adults. Methods: Samples wer [...] e collected from unstimulated and stimulated saliva of individuals from two age groups, adults (A) (n=30) (mean age 25 years) and older adults (OA) (n=30)(mean age: 68 years). Subjects with oral/systemic diseases or consuming medications that alter salivary flow were excluded from the study. Each sample was centrifuged and 10 ?l of the supernatant was added to 190 ?l of Bradford solution. Protein concentration was obtained by spectrophotometry (595 nm) Protein concentration was compared between the groups using student’s t test (p

  19. Cotinine and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons levels in the amniotic fluid and fetal cord at birth and in the urine from pregnant smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Julia de Barros; Chatkin, José Miguel; Zimmer, Aline Rigon; Goulart, Ana Paula Szezepaniak; Thiesen, Flávia Valladão

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking during pregnancy has several impacts on fetal development, including teratogenic effects. The objective of this study was to assess whether the toxic substances (cotinine and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) found in pregnant smokers are transmitted to their fetuses. The outcomes were analyzed measuring cotinine and 1-hydroxypyrene in the amniotic fluid and maternal urine, benzopyrene and cotinine in the umbilical cord blood. Through a controlled cross-sectional design, 125 pregnant women were selected and classified according to their smoking status: 37 current smokers, 25 passive smokers and 63 non-smokers (controls). We performed high-performance liquid chromatography to measure substances' concentrations. A post-hoc Tukey's test was used to analyze the differences between the groups. All variables were significantly different between controls and smokers. The mean ratios between the concentration of cotinine in smokers compared to controls were as follows: 5.9 [2.5-13.5], phydroxypyrene concentration between smokers and controls were 7.3 [1.6-29.6], p?=?0.003 in the urine and 1.3 [1.0-1.7], p?=?0.012 in the amniotic fluid, and of benzopyrene in umbilical cord blood was 2.9 [1.7-4.7], phydroxypyrene in the amniotic fluid and benzopyrene in umbilical cord blood by high-performance liquid chromatography when considering pregnant women in relation to smoking exposure only. PMID:25549364

  20. Salivary concentrations and plasma protein binding of carbamazepine and carbamazepine 10,11-epoxide in epileptic patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Mackichan, J. J.; Duffner, P. K.; Cohen, M. E.

    1981-01-01

    1. The relationships between saliva, free and total plasma concentrations of carbamazepine (CBZ) and carbamazepine 10,11-epoxide (CBZ-EP) were studied in 24 chronically medicated epileptic patients. Four patients were taking CBZ alone, while 20 were taking one or more additional anticonvulsant drugs. 2. The free fraction of CBZ in plasma ranged from 0.19 to 0.33 (mean 0.24) while the saliva:plasma (S:P) concentration ratios ranged from 0.20 to 0.35 (mean 0.27). The free fraction of CBZ-EP in ...

  1. Salivary Gland Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the salivary glands, dry eyes and a dry mouth. Sialadenosis. This condition typically causes painless swelling of ... symptom related to the salivary glands is a dry mouth. Options include: Medication to stimulate more saliva secretion, ...

  2. Environmental tobacco smoke and canine urinary cotinine level

    OpenAIRE

    Bertone-johnson, Elizabeth R.; Procter-gray, Elizabeth; Gollenberg, Audra L.; Bundga, Michele E.; Barber, Lisa G.

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of companion animals such as dogs have been established as models for the relationship between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and cancer risk in humans. While results from these studies are provocative, pet owner report of a dog’s ETS exposure has not yet been validated. We have evaluated the relationship between dog owner’s report of household smoking by questionnaire and dog’s urinary cotinine level. Between January and October, 2005, dog owners pr...

  3. Active and passive exposure status to tobacco smoke of department store employees measured by cotinine ELISA

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshioka, Nobuo; Yonemasu, Kunio; Dohi, Yoshiko; Sakanashi, Teruko; Mizutani, Rika; Kurumatani, Norio; Zheng, Yan; Ohkado, Takashi

    1998-01-01

    Quantitation of urinary cotinine, a major metabolite of nicotine, by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), was performed in parallel with questionnaires containing items on smoking status, such as active and/or passive smokers, the number of cigarettes smoked, and the presence or absence of active smokers in the surroundings in a department store (517 employees). The cotinine values corrected by creatinine (cotinine-creatinine ratios, CCRs) approximately conformed to the extent of sel...

  4. Breast feeding and smoking hygiene: major influences on cotinine in urine of smokers' infants.

    OpenAIRE

    Woodward, A.; Grgurinovich, N.; Ryan, P.

    1986-01-01

    The determinants of urine cotinine levels were studied in a group of 101 infants aged 3 months, including 79 infants whose mothers were current smokers. At a pre-arranged home visit the infants' mothers completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire, and samples of maternal urine and breast milk and infants' urine were collected. Cotinine and nicotine levels were determined by gas-liquid chromatography. Infant urine cotinine levels ranged from 0 to 140 micrograms/l (0-1120 ng cotinine/mg...

  5. Simultaneous determination of cotinine and trans-3-hydroxycotinine in urine by automated solid-phase extraction using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiadmi, Fouad; Schlatter, Joël

    2014-04-01

    A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the simultaneous automated solid-phase extraction and quantification of cotinine and trans-3-hydroxycotinine in human urine. Good linearity was observed over the concentration ranges studied (R(2) > 0.99). The limit of quantification was 10?ng/mL for both analytes. The limits of detection were 0.06?ng/mL for cotinine (COT) and 0.02?ng/mL for trans-3-hydroxycotinine (OH-COT). Accuracy for COT ranged from 0.98 to 5.28% and the precision ranged from 1.24 to 8.78%. Accuracy for OH-COT ranged from -2.66 to 3.72% and the precision ranged from 3.15 to 7.07%. Mean recoveries for cotinine and trans-3-hydroxycotinine ranged from 77.7 to 89.1%, and from 75.4 to 90.2%, respectively. This analytical method for the simultaneous measurement of cotinine and trans-3-hydroxycotinine in urine will be used to monitor tobacco smoking in pregnant women and will permit the usefulness of trans-3-hydroxycotinine as a specific biomarker of tobacco exposure to be determined. PMID:24616054

  6. Effects of administration of potassium- and sodiumchlorides on faecal excretions and salivary and alimentary concentrations of, Na, K, 134Cs, Ca, Mg and P in reindeer fed a lichen diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Staaland

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of the effects of administration of 350 mmol d-1 of KC1 or NaCl on faecal excretions, salivary concentrations and concentrations and pools of Na, K, 134Cs, Ca, Mg, P, and water in the alimentary tract of reindeer was carried out using three groups of three 10 months old reindeer fed a lichen diet. One group was used as a control group with no mineral supplementation. The level of K supplementation mimicked K intakes from summer pastures. NaCl was given at a rate which would mimic intake from salt licks by domestic ruminants of similar body size. Treatment with KC1 increased the salivary and alimentary concentrations and the alimentary pool sizes of K and faecal excretion of K increased. A decrease in l34Cs concentrations in all parts of the gastrointestinal tract indicated greater absorption of 134Cs during the KC1 treatment than in NaCl treated and control animals. Increased intake of Na or K had no significant effect on the digestibility of the lichen diet, but urine production increased. Little effects on pools or concentrations of Ca, Mg and P were observed. NaCl treatment increased urinary and faecal excretion of Na, but did not affect the metabolism of any of the other studied minerals.

  7. Estudo da concentração salivar do fator de crescimento epidérmico em indivíduos com laringite crônica por refluxo laringofaríngeo / Salivary EGF concentration in adults with chronic laryngitis caused by laryngopharyngeal reflux

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Claudia A., Eckley; Henrique O., Costa.

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A Doença do Refluxo Gastroesofágico (DRGE), chegando até a faringe e laringe, pode cursar com intensa inflamação local e rica sintomatologia (Refluxo Laringofaríngeo RLF). Os estudos atuais não foram capazes de provar que o ácido refluído é o causador das alterações visualizadas na larin [...] gite crônica. O Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico (EGF) é um polipeptídeo produzido pelas glândulas salivares, sendo implicado na indução do crescimento epitelial, na inibição da secreção gástrica e na aceleração da cicatrização. Deficiência salivar deste fator foi encontrada na esofagite de refluxo, mas não há relatos sobre a concentração salivar de EGF em indivíduos com RLF. OBJETIVO: Determinar a concentração salivar do EGF em indivíduos com RLF. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Caso controle. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODO: A concentração salivar de EGF de 39 indivíduos com RLF e 20 controles normais foi estudada pela técnica de ELISA. O RLF foi diagnosticado por história e exame videolaringoscópico característicos. Os 39 pacientes com RLF foram estratificados de acordo com os achados de endoscopia digestiva (com ou sem esofagite associada) e de acordo com a intensidade da laringite crônica. Foram, também, submetidos a manometria esofágica e pH-metria esofágica de 24 horas com dois canais. RESULTADOS: Constatou-se uma concentração de EGF significativamente menor nos indivíduos com RLF quando comparados aos controles normais (p=0,002). Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante na concentração salivar de EGF entre os indivíduos com RLF, nem em relação à presença de esofagite, nem quanto à intensidade da laringite. CONCLUSÕES: Este estudo sugere que uma deficiência na concentração salivar do Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico pode estar associada à patogenia da DRGE, e que este polipeptídeo poderia ser um co-fator na gênese do RLF. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) may cause intense inflammation and symptoms in the larynx and pharynx (Laryngopharyngeal Reflux LPR). Studies have not been able to establish a direct link between the refluxed acid and the typical laryngeal findings in LPR. The Epidermal Growth F [...] actor (EGF) is a polypeptide produced by the salivary glands and shown to induce epithelial development, inhibit gastric acid secretion and accelerate wound healing. This factor is decreased in the saliva of patients with reflux esophagitis, but there are no reports of its behavior in LPR. AIM: The objective of this study was to determine the salivary concentration of EGF in adults with LPR compared to normal controls. STUDY DESIGN: Control study. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The salivary EGF concentration of 39 patients with LPR and 20 healthy controls was determined using a commercially available ELISA kit. LPR was diagnosed based on history and typical laryngopharyngeal signs. The 39 patients with LPR were graded according to endoscopic (presence of associated esophagitis) and laryngoscopic criteria (severity of laryngitis). Patients with LPR were also submitted to esophageal manometry and 24-hour double probe pH-metry. RESULTS: Salivary EGF concentration was significantly lower in the LPR group when compared to controls (p= 0,002). No correlation between the severity of laryngeal findings or presence/absence of esophagitis and salivary EGF concentration could be determined. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that a decreased salivary concentration of Epidermal Growth Factor could be associated to the pathogenesis of GERD and that this same deficiency could also be related to LPR.

  8. Estudo da concentração salivar do fator de crescimento epidérmico em indivíduos com laringite crônica por refluxo laringofaríngeo Salivary EGF concentration in adults with chronic laryngitis caused by laryngopharyngeal reflux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia A. Eckley

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A Doença do Refluxo Gastroesofágico (DRGE, chegando até a faringe e laringe, pode cursar com intensa inflamação local e rica sintomatologia (Refluxo Laringofaríngeo RLF. Os estudos atuais não foram capazes de provar que o ácido refluído é o causador das alterações visualizadas na laringite crônica. O Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico (EGF é um polipeptídeo produzido pelas glândulas salivares, sendo implicado na indução do crescimento epitelial, na inibição da secreção gástrica e na aceleração da cicatrização. Deficiência salivar deste fator foi encontrada na esofagite de refluxo, mas não há relatos sobre a concentração salivar de EGF em indivíduos com RLF. OBJETIVO: Determinar a concentração salivar do EGF em indivíduos com RLF. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Caso controle. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODO: A concentração salivar de EGF de 39 indivíduos com RLF e 20 controles normais foi estudada pela técnica de ELISA. O RLF foi diagnosticado por história e exame videolaringoscópico característicos. Os 39 pacientes com RLF foram estratificados de acordo com os achados de endoscopia digestiva (com ou sem esofagite associada e de acordo com a intensidade da laringite crônica. Foram, também, submetidos a manometria esofágica e pH-metria esofágica de 24 horas com dois canais. RESULTADOS: Constatou-se uma concentração de EGF significativamente menor nos indivíduos com RLF quando comparados aos controles normais (p=0,002. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante na concentração salivar de EGF entre os indivíduos com RLF, nem em relação à presença de esofagite, nem quanto à intensidade da laringite. CONCLUSÕES: Este estudo sugere que uma deficiência na concentração salivar do Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico pode estar associada à patogenia da DRGE, e que este polipeptídeo poderia ser um co-fator na gênese do RLF.INTRODUCTION: Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD may cause intense inflammation and symptoms in the larynx and pharynx (Laryngopharyngeal Reflux LPR. Studies have not been able to establish a direct link between the refluxed acid and the typical laryngeal findings in LPR. The Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF is a polypeptide produced by the salivary glands and shown to induce epithelial development, inhibit gastric acid secretion and accelerate wound healing. This factor is decreased in the saliva of patients with reflux esophagitis, but there are no reports of its behavior in LPR. AIM: The objective of this study was to determine the salivary concentration of EGF in adults with LPR compared to normal controls. STUDY DESIGN: Control study. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The salivary EGF concentration of 39 patients with LPR and 20 healthy controls was determined using a commercially available ELISA kit. LPR was diagnosed based on history and typical laryngopharyngeal signs. The 39 patients with LPR were graded according to endoscopic (presence of associated esophagitis and laryngoscopic criteria (severity of laryngitis. Patients with LPR were also submitted to esophageal manometry and 24-hour double probe pH-metry. RESULTS: Salivary EGF concentration was significantly lower in the LPR group when compared to controls (p= 0,002. No correlation between the severity of laryngeal findings or presence/absence of esophagitis and salivary EGF concentration could be determined. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that a decreased salivary concentration of Epidermal Growth Factor could be associated to the pathogenesis of GERD and that this same deficiency could also be related to LPR.

  9. MALIGNANT SALIVARY GLAND TUMORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Trandafir

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Malignant salivary gland tumors make up 6% of all head and neck tumors. Several types of cancer can develop in these glands. Only malignant tumors of the salivary glands are discussed in this paper. The diagnosis and treatment of salivary gland malignancies remain complex, with challenging problems for maxillo-facial surgeon. Scientists have found few risk factors that make a person more likely to develop salivary gland cancer. Salivary gland cancer is uncommon, and there is no widely recommended screening schedule for this cancer. CT scanning or MRI is useful for determining the extent of large tumors, for evaluating extraglandular extension, for determining the actual depth of parotid tumors, and for discovering other tumors in one gland or in the controlateral gland. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB is a valuable diagnostic adjunct in evaluation of head and neck masses but its role in evaluation of salivary gland tumors is controversial. There are also discussed some histologic findings about mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, acinic cell carcinoma, carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenoma, squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma developed in salivary glands. Carefully planned and executed surgical excision is the primary treatment for all malignant tumors of the salivary glands. The principles of surgery vary with the site of origin. The extent of surgery is based on the size of the tumor, local extension and neck metastases. Staging of malignant salivary gland tumors is important for predicting prognosis and for accurate comparison of treatment results.

  10. Salivary mental stress proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obayashi, Konen

    2013-10-21

    Of the major diagnostic specimen types, saliva is one of the most easily collected. Many studies have focused on the evaluation of salivary proteins secreted by healthy people and patients with various diseases during responses to acute mental stress. In particular, such studies have focused on cortisol, ?-amylase, chromogranin A (CgA), and immunoglobulin A (IgA) as salivary stress markers. Each of these salivary stress markers has its own strengths and weaknesses as well as data gaps related to many factors including collection technique. In this review, we summarize the critical knowledge of the positive and negative attributes and data gaps pertaining to each salivary stress marker. PMID:23939251

  11. HOME AIR NICOTINE LEVELS AND URINE COTININE-CREATININE RATIOS IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Science.gov (United States)

    We studied urine cotinine excretion in 27 children who attended a research day care center to determine the extent of correlation between urine cotinine-creatinine ratios (CCR) and intensity of nicotine exposure in the home. verage nicotine levels in home air were determined by a...

  12. Electrochemical Immunoassay of Cotinine in Serum Based on Nanoparticle Probe and Immunochromatographic Strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nian, Hung-Chi; Wang, Jun; Wu, Hong J.; Lo, Jiunn-Guang; Chiu, Kong-Hwa; Pounds, Joel G.; Lin, Yuehe

    2012-02-03

    A disposable sensor for the determination of cotinine in human serum was developed based on immunochromatographic test strip and quantum dot label. In this assay, cotinine modified on quantum dot competes with cotinine in sample to bind to anti-cotinine antibody in the test strip and the quantum dots serve as signal vehicles for electrochemical readout. Some parameters governing the performance of the sensor were optimized. The sensor shows a wide linear range from 1 ng mL-1 to 100 ng mL-1 cotinine with a detection limit of 1.0 ng mL-1. The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) of the sensor was less than 2% for cotinine. The sensor was validated with spiked human serum samples and it was found that this method was reliable in measuring cotinine in human serum with average recovery of 100.99%. The results demonstrate that this sensor is a rapid, clinically accurate, and less expensive and has the potential for point of care (POC) detection of cotinine and fast screening of tobacco smoke exposure.

  13. Electrochemical immunoassay of cotinine in serum based on nanoparticle probe and immunochromatographic strip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Using nanoparticle probe in immunochromatographic strip. ? Enhanced sensitivity by using nanoparticle label. ? Rapid and sensitive detection of cotinine in serum. - Abstract: A disposable sensor for the determination of cotinine in human serum was developed based on immunochromatographic test strip and quantum dot label. In this assay, cotinine linked with quantum dot competes with cotinine in sample to bind to anti-cotinine antibody in the test strip and the quantum dots serve as signal vehicles for electrochemical readout. Some parameters governing the performance of the sensor were optimized. The sensor shows a wide linear range from 1 ng mL?1 to 100 ng mL?1 cotinine with a detection limit of 1.0 ng mL?1. The sensor was validated with spiked human serum samples and it was found that this method was reliable in measuring cotinine in human serum. The results demonstrate that this sensor is rapid, accurate, and less expensive and has the potential for point of care (POC) detection of cotinine and fast screening of tobacco smoke exposure.

  14. Electrochemical immunoassay of cotinine in serum based on nanoparticle probe and immunochromatographic strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nian Hungchi [Pacific Norwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, 30013, Taiwan (China); Wang Jun; Wu Hong [Pacific Norwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Lo, Jiunn-Guang [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, 30013, Taiwan (China); Chiu, Kong-Hwa [Department of Applied Science, National DongHwa University, Hualien, 970, 30013, Taiwan (China); Pounds, Joel G. [Pacific Norwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Lin Yuehe, E-mail: yuehe.lin@pnnl.gov [Pacific Norwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2012-02-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using nanoparticle probe in immunochromatographic strip. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enhanced sensitivity by using nanoparticle label. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rapid and sensitive detection of cotinine in serum. - Abstract: A disposable sensor for the determination of cotinine in human serum was developed based on immunochromatographic test strip and quantum dot label. In this assay, cotinine linked with quantum dot competes with cotinine in sample to bind to anti-cotinine antibody in the test strip and the quantum dots serve as signal vehicles for electrochemical readout. Some parameters governing the performance of the sensor were optimized. The sensor shows a wide linear range from 1 ng mL{sup -1} to 100 ng mL{sup -1} cotinine with a detection limit of 1.0 ng mL{sup -1}. The sensor was validated with spiked human serum samples and it was found that this method was reliable in measuring cotinine in human serum. The results demonstrate that this sensor is rapid, accurate, and less expensive and has the potential for point of care (POC) detection of cotinine and fast screening of tobacco smoke exposure.

  15. Short- and long-term effects of tactile massage on salivary cortisol concentrations in Parkinsons disease : a randomised controlled pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    To?rnhage, Carl-johan; Skogar, O?rjan; Borg, Astrid; Larsson, Birgitta; Robertsson, Laila; Andersson, Lena; Backstro?m, Paulina; Fall, Per-arne; Hallgren, Gunnar; Bringer, Birgitta; Carlsson, Miriam; Lennartsson, Ulla Birgitta; Sandbjo?rk, Ha?kan; Lo?kk, Johan

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder with limited knowledge about the normal function and effects of non-pharmacological therapies on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The aim of the study was to analyse the basal diurnal and total secretion of salivary cortisol in short- and long-term aspects of tactile massage (TM). METHODS: Design: Prospective, Controlled and Randomised Multicentre Trial.Setting and interventions: Forty-five women and me...

  16. Elevated salivary C-reactive protein levels are associated with active and passive smoking in healthy youth: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azar Rima

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined salivary C-reactive protein (CRP levels in the context of tobacco smoke exposure (TSE in healthy youth. We hypothesized that there would be a dose-response relationship between TSE status and salivary CRP levels. Methods This work is a pilot study (N = 45 for a larger investigation in which we aim to validate salivary CRP against serum CRP, the gold standard measurement of low-grade inflammation. Participants were healthy youth with no self-reported periodontal disease, no objectively measured obesity/adiposity, and no clinical depression, based on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II. We assessed tobacco smoking and confirmed smoking status (non-smoking, passive smoking, and active smoking with salivary cotinine measurement. We measured salivary CRP by the ELISA method. We controlled for several potential confounders. Results We found evidence for the existence of a dose-response relationship between the TSE status and salivary CRP levels. Conclusions Our preliminary findings indicate that salivary CRP seems to have a similar relation to TSE as its widely used serum (systemic inflammatory biomarker counterpart.

  17. Salivary Gland Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Salivary gland cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. It is rare. It may not cause any ... pain in your face Doctors diagnose salivary gland cancer using a physical exam, imaging tests, and a ...

  18. N-acetyltransferase 1 polymorphism increases cotinine levels in Caucasian children exposed to secondhand smoke: the CCAAPS birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMasters, G K; Khurana Hershey, G K; Sivaprasad, U; Martin, L J; Pilipenko, V; Ericksen, M B; Burkle, J W; Lindsey, M A; Bernstein, D I; Lockey, J E; Gareri, J; Lubetsky, A; Koren, G; Biagini Myers, J M

    2015-04-01

    Cotinine is a proxy for secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure. Genetic variation along nicotine and cotinine metabolic pathways may alter the internal cotinine dose, leading to misinterpretations of exposure-health outcome associations. Caucasian children with available SHS exposure and hair cotinine data were genotyped for metabolism-related genes. SHS-exposed children had 2.4-fold higher hair cotinine (0.14±0.22?ng?mg(-1)) than unexposed children (0.06±0.05?ng?mg(-1), Psingle-nucleotide polymorphism(s) (SNP(s)) in NAT1 and elucidate the biological consequences of the mutation(s). PMID:25156213

  19. Determinación de cotinina y exposición a tabaco Cotinine detection and tobacco smoke exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Noemí Vacchino

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available La exposición a tabaco es una de las causas prevenibles de morbilidad y mortalidad prematura más importante. Se describe un método simple y rápido de detección de cotinina (principal metabolito de nicotina en orina humana. Se utilizó cromatografía gas-líquido (CGL con un detector de ionización de llama (FID. Se realizó una extracción líquido-líquido con cloroformo en medio alcalino; el extracto fue secado a 37 °C y redisuelto en 100 µL de solución alcohólica con estándar interno piridina. Se analizó la orina de personas que declararon ser fumadoras y no fumadoras. Mediante la construcción de dos curvas de calibración se cubrió un rango de linealidad de 3 a 5.000 ng/mL. Los fumadores presentaron una mediana y cuartiles (Q de concentración de cotinina: 255,4 ng/mL, 15,9 ng/mL (Q1 - 1.050,2 ng/mL (Q3, respectivamente, y los no fumadores 15,8 ng/mL, 4,1 ng/mL (Q1 - 38,4 ng/mL (Q3. Wilcoxon sumrank: z = 4,865 p Tobacco is one of the major preventable causes of morbidity and premature mortality in the world. A simple, rapid method for determination of cotinine, major metabolite of nicotine in urine, is described. The assay involves a fast liquid-liquid extraction with chloroform as a solvent in alkaline environment. The extract was dried at 37 °C and the residue was dissolved in 100 µL of standard internal of pyridine in methanol solution, and an aliquot was analyzed by gas-liquid chromatograph equipped with a flame -ionization detector. This technique was performed to test urine of a sample of smokers and non-smokers who were previously asked about their smoking habit. The limit of detection was 3.1 ng/mL, and using two calibration curves, a linearity range from 3 a 5.000 ng/mL was covered. The median and quartiles (Q of cotinine in smokers were 255.4 ng/mL, 15.9 ng/mL (Q1 -1050.2 ng/mL (Q3 ng/mL and in non-smokers 15.8 ng/mL, 4.1 ng/mL (Q1 - 38.4 ng/mL (Q3. Wilcoxon sumrank: z = 4.865 p < 0.01. There was a relationship between cotinine concentration in urine and number of smoked cigarettes. Spearman's rho = 0.5672 (p < 0.001. This technique could identify smokers, second hand smokers and non-smokers using cut-off of 10-15 ng/mL of cotinine in urine, usually adopted in epidemiological studies.

  20. Cotinine level is associated with asthma severity in passive smoker children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzad, Maryam; Khalilzadeh, Soheila; Eslampanah Nobari, Shabnam; Bloursaz, Mohammadreza; Sharifi, Hooman; Mohajerani, Seyed Amir; Tashayoie Nejad, Sabereh; Velayati, Ali Akbar

    2015-02-01

    Asthma environmental triggers play important roles in severity of disease. Passive smoking could exacerbate asthma symptoms and enhance the decrease in lung function. Cotinine levels could be a reflection of passive exposure to the cigarette both in adults and pediatrics. The aim of this study was to determine degree of association of asthma severity and cotinine level as a marker of passive smoking. In a cross-sectional study, 100 pediatric patients (under 10 years old) with asthma were enrolled, 50 of whom, had been exposed to passive smoking and 50 others included as controls. A complete clinical history, lab exam, and spirometry were performed. A sample of urine, serum and saliva was collected from all attendant patients and controls in the study after confirmation of diagnosis and determination of severity of asthma. The results revealed that age, sex, age of onset of asthma, family history and allergic history were not significantly different between two groups of patients. According to GINA classification, percentage of patients with severe asthma was significantly higher in passive smoker group (p=0.001). Cotinine was significantly higher in passive smoker group compared to control group in serum (p=001), saliva (p=0.001), and urine (p=0.0014). In passive smoker group, cotinine levels were significantly higher in serum (p=0.001), urine (p=0.007), and saliva (p=0.01) of patients with severe asthma than moderate and mild asthma. Serum cotinine (OR: 1.81, 95% CI: 1.35-2.32, p=0.024), urine cotinine (OR: 3.56,95% CI = 1.29-5.53, p=0.01) and saliva cotinine (OR: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.23-1.98, p=0.031) were also significantly associated with higher risk of severe asthma. Cotinine levels were higher in passive smokers compared to non-passive smokers. Besides, cotinine was a predictive risk factor for severe asthma. PMID:25530141

  1. Serum cotinine levels in pipe smokers: evidence against nicotine as cause of coronary heart disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Wald, Nj; Idle, M.; Boreham, J.; Bailey, A.

    1981-01-01

    Serum levels of cotinine (a principal metabolite of nicotine) were studied in men who did not smoke (28), and in men who smoked cigarettes only (150), cigars only (70), and pipes only (56). The mean cotinine level for pipe smokers was 389 ng/ml, significantly higher than the mean level for cigarette and cigar smokers (306 and 121 ng/ml, respectively); no cotinine was detected in the serum from any of the non-smokers. Large prospective studies have shown that pipe smokers have no material exce...

  2. Cotinine and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Levels in the Amniotic Fluid and Fetal Cord at Birth and in the Urine from Pregnant Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Julia de Barros; Chatkin, José Miguel; Zimmer, Aline Rigon; Goulart, Ana Paula Szezepaniak; Thiesen, Flávia Valladão

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking during pregnancy has several impacts on fetal development, including teratogenic effects. The objective of this study was to assess whether the toxic substances (cotinine and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) found in pregnant smokers are transmitted to their fetuses. The outcomes were analyzed measuring cotinine and 1-hydroxypyrene in the amniotic fluid and maternal urine, benzopyrene and cotinine in the umbilical cord blood. Through a controlled cross-sectional design, 125 pregnant women were selected and classified according to their smoking status: 37 current smokers, 25 passive smokers and 63 non-smokers (controls). We performed high-performance liquid chromatography to measure substances’ concentrations. A post-hoc Tukey’s test was used to analyze the differences between the groups. All variables were significantly different between controls and smokers. The mean ratios between the concentration of cotinine in smokers compared to controls were as follows: 5.9 [2.5–13.5], purine; 25 [11.9–52.9], purine and 1.3 [1.0–1.7], p?=?0.012 in the amniotic fluid, and of benzopyrene in umbilical cord blood was 2.9 [1.7–4.7], p<0.001. There were no significant differences between controls and passive smokers. When comparing the three groups together, there were statistical differences between all variables. Thus, the fetuses of pregnant smokers are exposed to toxic and carcinogens substances. To our knowledge, this is the first study to measure 1-hydroxypyrene in the amniotic fluid and benzopyrene in umbilical cord blood by high-performance liquid chromatography when considering pregnant women in relation to smoking exposure only. PMID:25549364

  3. Pediatric salivary gland imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of lesions occur in the pediatric salivary glands. With modern imaging techniques such as Doppler sonography, helical CT, and MRI, identification of a specific etiology is often possible. Knowledge of clinical information, normal anatomy, and imaging characteristics of salivary gland pathology are essential for appropriate radiologic evaluation. This review illustrates the various congenital, neoplastic, and inflammatory entities that can occur within the parotid, submandibular, and sublingual spaces. (orig.)

  4. Correlation between Cigarette Smoking and Urine Cotinine Level in Gastric Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Babhadiashar, Nima; Sotoudeh, Masoud; Azizi, Ebrahim; Bashiri, Jafar; Didevar, Reza; Malekzadeh, Reza; Ghahremani, Mohammad Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Various substances in cigarette smoke including nicotine have been shown to promote/induce cancer cell proliferation. Since cotinine has a longer half life and stability in the blood, it has become the preferred biomarker for cigarette smoking exposure.

  5. Plasma cotinine levels and pancreatic cancer in the EPIC cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leenders, Max; Chuang, Shu-Chun

    2012-01-01

    Smoking is an established risk factor for pancreatic cancer, previously investigated by the means of questionnaires. Using cotinine as a biomarker for tobacco exposure allows more accurate quantitative analyses to be performed. This study on pancreatic cancer, nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC cohort), included 146 cases and 146 matched controls. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, plasma cotinine levels were analyzed on average 8.0 years before cancer onset (5-95% range: 2.8-12.0 years). The relation between plasma cotinine levels and pancreatic cancer was analyzed with conditional logistic regression for different levels of cotinine in a population of never and current smokers. This was also done for the self-reported number of smoked cigarettes per day at baseline. Every increase of 350 nmol/L of plasma cotinine was found to significantly elevate risk of pancreatic cancer (odds ratio (OR): 1.33, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11-1.60). People with a cotinine level over 1187.8 nmol/L, a level comparable to smoking 17 cigarettes per day, have an elevated risk of pancreatic cancer, compared to people with cotinine levels below 55 nmol/L (OR: 3.66, 95% CI: 1.44-9.26). The results for self-reported smoking at baseline also show an increased risk of pancreatic cancer from cigarette smoking based on questionnaire information. People who smoke more than 30 cigarettes per day showed the highest risk compared to never smokers (OR: 4.15, 95% CI: 1.02-16.42). This study is the first to show that plasma cotinine levels are strongly related to pancreatic cancer. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Assessment of smoking status based on cotinine levels in nasal lavage fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cowart Beverly J

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cotinine is a principal metabolite of nicotine with a substantially longer half-life, and cotinine levels in saliva, urine or serum are widely used to validate self-reported smoking status. The nasal cavity and olfactory system are directly exposed to tobacco smoke in smokers and in non-smokers who live with or work around smokers. However, despite the potential for a direct impact of tobacco smoke on the nasal epithelium and olfactory neurons, no prior studies have assessed cotinine levels in nasal mucus. We sought to determine whether cotinine levels in nasal lavage fluid (NLF would provide a reasonable estimate of smoke exposure. We assayed cotinine using a competitive immunoassay in NLF from 23 smokers, 10 non-smokers exposed to tobacco smoke (ETS and 60 non-smokers who did not report smoke exposure. NLF cotinine levels were significantly higher in smokers than in non-smokers, regardless of their exposure to ambient tobacco smoke. Cotinine levels in this small group of exposed non-smokers were not significantly different than those of non-exposed non-smokers. A cutoff of 1 ng/ml provided a sensitivity of 91% and a specificity of 99% for smoking status in this sample. Data were consistent with self-reported smoking status, and a cutoff of 1.0 ng/ml NLF cotinine may be used to classify smoking status. While saliva is the most easily obtained body fluid, NLF can be used to provide an objective and precise indication of smoking status and more directly reflects smoke exposure in the nasal and olfactory mucosa.

  7. Contingency Management for Smoking Cessation: Enhancing Feasibility through Use of Immunoassay Test Strips Measuring Cotinine

    OpenAIRE

    Schepis, Ty S.; Duhig, Amy M.; Liss, Thomas; Mcfetridge, Amanda; Wu, Ran; Cavallo, Dana A.; Dahl, Tricia; Jatlow, Peter; Krishnan-sarin, Suchitra

    2008-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) is a powerful behavioral intervention that has been shown to reduce the use of a wide variety of substances including tobacco. Use of CM techniques for smoking cessation has been restricted by the use of multiple daily measurements of breath CO as the objective indicator to reinforce abstinence. Cotinine, with its longer half-life, may be a better marker. We evaluated the use of urine cotinine (determined using once-daily semiquantitative Immunoassay Test Strips an...

  8. Cotinine: beyond that expected, more than a biomarker of tobacco consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ValentinaEcheverria Moran

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A greater incidence of tobacco consumption occurs among individuals with psychiatric conditions including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, bipolar disorder, major depression and schizophrenia, compared with the general population. Even when still controversial, it has been postulated that smoking is a form of self-medication that reduces psychiatric symptoms among individuals with these disorders. To better understand the component(s of tobacco-inducing smoking behavior, greater attention has been directed toward nicotine. However, in recent years, new evidence has shown that cotinine, the main metabolite of nicotine, exhibits beneficial effects over psychiatric symptoms and may therefore promote smoking within this population. Some of the behavioral effects of cotinine compared to nicotine are discussed here. Cotinine, which accumulates in the body as a result of tobacco exposure, crosses the blood-brain barrier and has different pharmacological properties compared with nicotine. Cotinine has a longer plasma half-life than nicotine and showed no addictive or cardiovascular effects in humans. In addition, at the preclinical level, cotinine facilitated the extinction of fear memory and anxiety after fear conditioning, improved working memory in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD and in a monkey model of schizophrenia. Altogether, the new evidence suggests that the pharmacological and behavioral effects of cotinine may play a key role in promoting tobacco smoking in individuals that suffer from psychiatric conditions and represents a new potential therapeutic agent against psychiatric conditions such as AD and PTSD.

  9. Estudo comparativo da concentração salivar do fator de crescimento epidérmico em indivíduos com laringite crônica por doença do refluxo gastroesofágica antes e após o tratamento: resultados preliminares / Salivary egf concentration in adults with reflux chronic laryngitis before and after treatment: preliminary results

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Claudia Alessandra, Eckley; Lilia da Silva, Rios; Luiz Vicente, Rizzo.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Os mecanismos fisiopatológicos do refluxo laringofaríngeo (RLF) são pouco conhecidos. O Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico (EGF) é a proteína de produção salivar com maior ação na regeneração do epitélio da orofaringe e tubo digestivo alto, tendo sido demonstradas deficiências em sua concentração saliv [...] ar em indivíduos com RLF. OBJETIVO: Comparar a concentração salivar de EGF em um mesmo indivíduo com RLF antes e após o tratamento. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Neste estudo prospectivo doze indivíduos com DRGE e RLF de moderada intensidade tiveram sua saliva espontânea coletada antes e após o tratamento e controle da doença. A concentração salivar de EGF foi estabelecida através de exame de ELISA (Quantikine ®). RESULTADOS: Onze pacientes eram do sexo feminino e um do sexo masculino, com idade média de 49 anos. A concentração salivar de EGF pré-tratamento foi de 2.867,6pg/mL e a pós-tratamento foi 1.588,5pg/mL, sendo esta diferença estatisticamente significante (p=0,015). DISCUSSÃO E CONCLUSÕES: Apesar de a concentração salivar de EGF ser maior nos indivíduos antes do tratamento, esta não consegue alcançar àquela de uma população normal (estabelecida previamente), o que sugere uma deficiência primária deste importante fator de defesa em indivíduos com RLF. Abstract in english The Laryngopharyngeal Reflux (LPR) physiopathology is still unknown. The Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) is a biologically active salivary protein that aids in the rapid regeneration of the oropharyngeal and upper digestive tract mucosas. Salivary deficiency of this protein in patients with LPR has be [...] en demonstrated in previous studies. AIM: To compare salivary EGF concentration in patients with LPR before and after treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective study twelve patients with GERD and moderate LPR were studied. Whole saliva samples were collected before and after treatment and salivary EGF concentration was determined using a commercially available ELISA kit (Quantikine ®). RESULTS: There were eleven females and one male among the patients, the mean age was 49 years. The mean pre-treatment salivary EGF concentration was 2,867.6 pg/mL and the mean post treatment EGF concentration was 1,588.5 pg/mL. This difference was statistically significant (p=0.015). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Although salivary EGF concentrations are higher before LPR treatment, the concentration is still much lower than the mean salivary EGF concentration in normal individuals without LPR, which suggests a primary disorder of this defense factor in individuals with LPR.

  10. Estudo comparativo da concentração salivar do fator de crescimento epidérmico em indivíduos com laringite crônica por doença do refluxo gastroesofágica antes e após o tratamento: resultados preliminares Salivary egf concentration in adults with reflux chronic laryngitis before and after treatment: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Alessandra Eckley

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Os mecanismos fisiopatológicos do refluxo laringofaríngeo (RLF são pouco conhecidos. O Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico (EGF é a proteína de produção salivar com maior ação na regeneração do epitélio da orofaringe e tubo digestivo alto, tendo sido demonstradas deficiências em sua concentração salivar em indivíduos com RLF. OBJETIVO: Comparar a concentração salivar de EGF em um mesmo indivíduo com RLF antes e após o tratamento. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Neste estudo prospectivo doze indivíduos com DRGE e RLF de moderada intensidade tiveram sua saliva espontânea coletada antes e após o tratamento e controle da doença. A concentração salivar de EGF foi estabelecida através de exame de ELISA (Quantikine ®. RESULTADOS: Onze pacientes eram do sexo feminino e um do sexo masculino, com idade média de 49 anos. A concentração salivar de EGF pré-tratamento foi de 2.867,6pg/mL e a pós-tratamento foi 1.588,5pg/mL, sendo esta diferença estatisticamente significante (p=0,015. DISCUSSÃO E CONCLUSÕES: Apesar de a concentração salivar de EGF ser maior nos indivíduos antes do tratamento, esta não consegue alcançar àquela de uma população normal (estabelecida previamente, o que sugere uma deficiência primária deste importante fator de defesa em indivíduos com RLF.The Laryngopharyngeal Reflux (LPR physiopathology is still unknown. The Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF is a biologically active salivary protein that aids in the rapid regeneration of the oropharyngeal and upper digestive tract mucosas. Salivary deficiency of this protein in patients with LPR has been demonstrated in previous studies. AIM: To compare salivary EGF concentration in patients with LPR before and after treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective study twelve patients with GERD and moderate LPR were studied. Whole saliva samples were collected before and after treatment and salivary EGF concentration was determined using a commercially available ELISA kit (Quantikine ®. RESULTS: There were eleven females and one male among the patients, the mean age was 49 years. The mean pre-treatment salivary EGF concentration was 2,867.6 pg/mL and the mean post treatment EGF concentration was 1,588.5 pg/mL. This difference was statistically significant (p=0.015. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Although salivary EGF concentrations are higher before LPR treatment, the concentration is still much lower than the mean salivary EGF concentration in normal individuals without LPR, which suggests a primary disorder of this defense factor in individuals with LPR.

  11. CYP2A6 Genotype but not Age Determines Cotinine Half-life in Infants and Children

    OpenAIRE

    Dempseyl, Delia A.; Sambol, Nancy C.; Jacob, Peyton; Hoffmann, E.; Tyndale, Rachel F.; Fuentes-afflick, Elena; Benowitz, Neal L.

    2013-01-01

    The formation of cotinine, the main proximate metabolite and a biomarker of nicotine exposure, is mediated primarily by CYP2A6. Our aim was to determine if higher cotinine levels in young children exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) are a result of age-related differences in pharmacokinetics. Forty-nine participants, 2 to 84 months old, received oral deuterium-labeled cotinine, with daily urine samples for up to 10 days for cotinine half-life measurement. DNA from saliva was used for CYP2A6 gen...

  12. Comparison of salivary cortisol concentrations in Jaguars kept in captivity with differences in exposure to the public / Comparação das concentrações de cortisol salivar em onças-pintadas criadas em cativeiro com diferenças de exposição ao público

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Julio César, Montanha; Sérgio Leme, Silva; Vanner, Boere.

    1745-17-01

    Full Text Available Em geral, onças-pintadas criadas em cativeiro são usadas para fins educacionais e de recreação. No entanto, o impacto da exposição ao público sobre esses animais não tem sido avaliado. Neste estudo, foi comparado o impacto de dois diferentes níveis de exposição ao público em sete onças-pintadas, alo [...] jadas em dois criadouros, por meio da avaliação de um dos hormônios indicadores de estresse, o cortisol salivar. A saliva foi coletada usando um material absorvente que foi mastigado pelos animais e subsequentemente analisado por imunoenzimoensaio. As concentrações de cortisol salivar foram significativamente maiores em onças-pintadas com maior exposição ao público. Esses resultados sugerem que onças-pintadas, normalmente solitárias e esquivas na natureza, podem ter seu bem-estar consideravelmente diminuído pelo aumento de exposição ao público. Este estudo é o primeiro relato de mensuração de cortisol salivar em onças-pintadas. Abstract in english For the most part, jaguars kept in captivity are used for educational and recreational purposes and it hasn't been determined the different impacts that public exposure would have on these animals. In this study, we compared the salivary cortisol, one of the stress indicator hormones, in seven capti [...] ve jaguars exposed to the high and low public visitation. Saliva was collected using an absorbent material that was chewed by the animals and subsequently analyzed through an immunoenzymatic assay. Salivary cortisol concentrations were significantly higher in the jaguars with higher public exposure, which suggest a more hormonal stress response. These results indicated that jaguars, animals usually of solitary and secretive behavior, may have their welfare considerably diminished by increased public exposure. Additionally, design of the enclosures, without refuges and proximity of people, could predispose jaguars to psychological stress.

  13. Comparison of salivary cortisol concentrations in Jaguars kept in captivity with differences in exposure to the public Comparação das concentrações de cortisol salivar em onças-pintadas criadas em cativeiro com diferenças de exposição ao público

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Montanha

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available For the most part, jaguars kept in captivity are used for educational and recreational purposes and it hasn't been determined the different impacts that public exposure would have on these animals. In this study, we compared the salivary cortisol, one of the stress indicator hormones, in seven captive jaguars exposed to the high and low public visitation. Saliva was collected using an absorbent material that was chewed by the animals and subsequently analyzed through an immunoenzymatic assay. Salivary cortisol concentrations were significantly higher in the jaguars with higher public exposure, which suggest a more hormonal stress response. These results indicated that jaguars, animals usually of solitary and secretive behavior, may have their welfare considerably diminished by increased public exposure. Additionally, design of the enclosures, without refuges and proximity of people, could predispose jaguars to psychological stress.Em geral, onças-pintadas criadas em cativeiro são usadas para fins educacionais e de recreação. No entanto, o impacto da exposição ao público sobre esses animais não tem sido avaliado. Neste estudo, foi comparado o impacto de dois diferentes níveis de exposição ao público em sete onças-pintadas, alojadas em dois criadouros, por meio da avaliação de um dos hormônios indicadores de estresse, o cortisol salivar. A saliva foi coletada usando um material absorvente que foi mastigado pelos animais e subsequentemente analisado por imunoenzimoensaio. As concentrações de cortisol salivar foram significativamente maiores em onças-pintadas com maior exposição ao público. Esses resultados sugerem que onças-pintadas, normalmente solitárias e esquivas na natureza, podem ter seu bem-estar consideravelmente diminuído pelo aumento de exposição ao público. Este estudo é o primeiro relato de mensuração de cortisol salivar em onças-pintadas.

  14. Undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbst, H.; Hamilton-Dutoit, S.

    2004-01-01

    Undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas may be divided into small cell and large cell types. Among large cell undifferentiated carcinomas, lymphoepithelial carcinomas have to be distinguished, the latter of which are endemic in the Arctic regions and southern China where virtually all cases of these tumors are associated with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Association with EBV may also be observed in sporadic cases, and detection of EBV gene products may aid their diagnosis. Immunohistology may be employed to resolve the differential diagnosis of undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas, comprising malignant lymphomas, amelanotic melanomas, Merkel cell carcinomas, and adenoid cystic carcinomas, in particular in small biopsy materials. Because of the rarity of undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas, the differential diagnosis should always include metastases of undifferentiated carcinomas arising at other primary sites, particularly when expressing the thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) Udgivelsesdato: 2004

  15. Evaluation of Salivary Albumin in Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PB Vaziri

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: The clinical symptoms of diabetes mellitus in oral cavity are xerostomia, pathological changes in periodontal tis­sues and caries. It has been suggested that the determination of salvia`s components in diabetic patients may be useful in de­scribing and further understanding the oral findings in this condition. The aim of this study was to detect differences be­tween the salivary albumin in diabetic patients and healthy people."nMethods: A case-control study was carried out using data from Hamadan researches diabetes center in 2008. We selected 40 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus aged 9-61 years, 40 patients with type2 aged 39-82 years and 40 healthy controls aged 20-67 years. Dental and oral status was assessed for all subjects. Completely unstimulated saliva samples were col­lected from diabetic patients and control subjects. Nephelometric method was used to determine salivary albumin con­centra­tion. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS."nResults: No significant difference in salivary albumin concentration was found between the control group and type1 dia­betic patients but salivary albumin was significantly higher in type2 diabetic patients in compare with control groups (P= 0.017, also no significant difference was found between type1 and type2 diabetic patients. In diabetic patients, complain of dry mouth and burning feeling in mouth was significantly higher, as well as, dental examinations showed higher DMFT mean values than the controls."nConclusion: Adults with type2 diabetes mellitus have higher concentration of salivary albumin that would play a helpful diagnos­tic role in oral findings of diabetic patients.

  16. Anti-smoking legislation and its effects on urinary cotinine and cadmium levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, Jinny E; Bartolomé, Mónica; Cañas, Ana I; Huetos, Olga; Navarro, Carmen; Rodríguez, A Carolina; Arribas, Misericordia; Esteban, Marta; López, Ana; Castaño, Argelia

    2015-01-01

    Anti-smoking legislation has been associated with an improvement in health indicators. Since the cadmium (Cd) body burden in the general population is markedly increased by smoke exposure, we analyzed the impact of the more restrictive legislation that came into force in Spain in 2011 by measuring Cd and cotinine in first morning urine samples from 83 adults in Madrid (Spain) before (2010) and after (2011) introduction of this law. Individual pair-wise comparisons showed a reduction of creatinine corrected Cotinine and Cd levels for non-active smokers, i. e. those which urinary cotinine levels are below 50 ?g/L. After the application of the stricter law, cotinine levels in urine only decreased in non-active smokers who self-reported not to be exposed to second-hand smoke. The reduction in second hand smoke exposure was significantly higher in weekends (Friday to Sunday) than in working days (Monday to Thursday). The decrease in U-Cd was highly significant in non-active smokers and, in general, correlated with lower creatinine excretion. Therefore correction by creatinine could bias urinary Cd results, at least for cotinine levels higher than 500 ?g/L. The biochemical/toxicological benefits detected herein support the stricter application of anti-smoking legislation and emphasize the need to raise the awareness of the population as regards exposure at home. PMID:25460641

  17. Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Poorly Differentiated Carcinoma; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer

  18. Salivary Diagnostics- Reloaded

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambil Sara Varghese

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As we approach the threshold of genomic medicine, the increasing use of salivary diagnostics will helpcatalyze a shift from disease diagnosis to health surveillance. With new techniques for detecting small quantities ofsalivary components, including proteins and messenger RNA (mRNA, the field of salivary diagnostics hasemerged as one of dentistry’s most promising areas of research. Because collecting saliva is noninvasive, it isbecoming the preferable way in bridging state-of-the-art saliva-based biosensors and disease-discriminatorysalivary biomarkers in diagnostic applications.The challenge to make salivary diagnostics a clinical reality is in establishing the scientific foundation and clinicalvalidations necessary to position it as a highly accurate and feasible technology, which can achieve definite pointof-care assessment of patient health and disease status.The field of salivary diagnostics is now becoming a broad,complex and crosscutting area of scientific research with enormous potential to impact the practicing dentist andhealth care in general.

  19. Analysis of nicotine and cotinine in the hair of hospitality workers exposed to environmental tobacco smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimich-Ward, H; Gee, H; Brauer, M; Leung, V

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if hair nicotine and cotinine levels reflect relative exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in subjects who worked in the hospitality industry, where public smoking was permitted. Hair samples from 26 subjects were analyzed by gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry techniques for nicotine and cotinine. An exposure gradient was shown for nicotine but not cotinine. Among nonsmokers, those working in bars where there are no public smoking restrictions had the highest hair nicotine levels, which were close to levels found in smokers. Nicotine measured in hair is useful as a biological marker for exposure to ETS from multiple sources. Bar workers in particular are exposed to high levels of ETS, which may adversely affect the health of nonsmokers. PMID:9343759

  20. Single gas chromatography method with nitrogen phosphorus detector for urinary cotinine determination in passive and active smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusiane Malafatti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Nicotine is a major addictive compound in cigarettes and is rapidly and extensively metabolized to several metabolites in humans, including urinary cotinine, considered a biomarker due to its high concentration compared to other metabolites. The aim of this study was to develop a single method for determination of urinary cotinine, in active and passive smokers, by gas chromatography with a nitrogen phosphorus detector (GC-NPD. Urine (5.0 mL was extracted with 1.0 mL of sodium hydroxide 5 mol L-1, 5.0 mL of chloroform, and lidocaine used as the internal standard. Injection volume was 1 ?L in GC-NPD. Limit of quantification was 10 ng mL-1. Linearity was evaluated in the ranges 10-1000 ng mL-1 and 500-6000 ng mL-1, with determination coefficients of 0.9986 and 0.9952, respectively. Intra- and inter-assay standard relative deviations were lower than 14.2 %, while inaccuracy (bias was less than +11.9%. The efficiency of extraction was greater than 88.5%. Ruggedness was verified, according to Youden's test. Means of cotinine concentrations observed were 2,980 ng mL-1 for active smokers and 132 ng mL-1, for passive smokers. The results revealed that satisfactory chromatographic separation between the analyte and interferents was obtained with a ZB-1 column. This method is reliable, precise, linear and presented ruggedness in the range evaluated. The results suggest that it can be applied in routine analysis for passive and active smokers, since it is able to quantify a wide range of cotinine concentrations in urine.A nicotina é uma substância presente no cigarro capaz de causar dependência, sendo biotransformada em vários metabólitos nos seres humanos, dentre eles a cotinina urinária, que é considerada um indicador biológico de exposição à nicotina, devido a suas altas concentrações, comparado a outras matrizes. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um único método para determinação de cotinina urinária, em amostras de urina de fumantes ativos e passivos, através de cromatografia em fase gasosa com detector de nitrogênio- fósforo (CG-DNF. Para o preparo de amostras foram utilizados 5 mL de urina, 1 mL de hidróxido de sódio 5 mol L-1, 5 mL de clorofórmio, tendo como padrão interno a lidocaína. Na faixa de concentrações de 10-1000 ng mL-1 e 500- 6000 ng mL-1, o coeficiente de determinação foi 0,9986 e 0,9952, respectivamente e, o limite de quantificação foi 10 ng mL-1. A precisão intra- e interensaio apresentou desvio padrão relativo (% menor que 14,2% e a inexatidão foi menor que +11,9%, com uma eficiência de extração de 88,5%. O método apresentou robustez, de acordo com o teste de Youden. As concentrações médias de cotinina observadas foram 2980 ng mL-1, para fumantes ativos e 132 ng mL-1, para fumantes passivos. Os resultados sugerem que o método é confiável, preciso, linear e apresentou robustez, na faixa avaliada, podendo ser aplicado na rotina para análises de amostras de fumantes ativos e passivos, pois é capaz de quantificar uma ampla faixa de concentrações de cotinina urinária.

  1. Single gas chromatography method with nitrogen phosphorus detector for urinary cotinine determination in passive and active smokers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lusiane, Malafatti; Patrícia Penido, Maia; Matheus Coutinho Gonçalves, Martins; Maria Elisa Pereira Bastos de, Siqueira; Isarita, Martins.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A nicotina é uma substância presente no cigarro capaz de causar dependência, sendo biotransformada em vários metabólitos nos seres humanos, dentre eles a cotinina urinária, que é considerada um indicador biológico de exposição à nicotina, devido a suas altas concentrações, comparado a outras matrize [...] s. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um único método para determinação de cotinina urinária, em amostras de urina de fumantes ativos e passivos, através de cromatografia em fase gasosa com detector de nitrogênio- fósforo (CG-DNF). Para o preparo de amostras foram utilizados 5 mL de urina, 1 mL de hidróxido de sódio 5 mol L-1, 5 mL de clorofórmio, tendo como padrão interno a lidocaína. Na faixa de concentrações de 10-1000 ng mL-1 e 500- 6000 ng mL-1, o coeficiente de determinação foi 0,9986 e 0,9952, respectivamente e, o limite de quantificação foi 10 ng mL-1. A precisão intra- e interensaio apresentou desvio padrão relativo (%) menor que 14,2% e a inexatidão foi menor que +11,9%, com uma eficiência de extração de 88,5%. O método apresentou robustez, de acordo com o teste de Youden. As concentrações médias de cotinina observadas foram 2980 ng mL-1, para fumantes ativos e 132 ng mL-1, para fumantes passivos. Os resultados sugerem que o método é confiável, preciso, linear e apresentou robustez, na faixa avaliada, podendo ser aplicado na rotina para análises de amostras de fumantes ativos e passivos, pois é capaz de quantificar uma ampla faixa de concentrações de cotinina urinária. Abstract in english Nicotine is a major addictive compound in cigarettes and is rapidly and extensively metabolized to several metabolites in humans, including urinary cotinine, considered a biomarker due to its high concentration compared to other metabolites. The aim of this study was to develop a single method for d [...] etermination of urinary cotinine, in active and passive smokers, by gas chromatography with a nitrogen phosphorus detector (GC-NPD). Urine (5.0 mL) was extracted with 1.0 mL of sodium hydroxide 5 mol L-1, 5.0 mL of chloroform, and lidocaine used as the internal standard. Injection volume was 1 ?L in GC-NPD. Limit of quantification was 10 ng mL-1. Linearity was evaluated in the ranges 10-1000 ng mL-1 and 500-6000 ng mL-1, with determination coefficients of 0.9986 and 0.9952, respectively. Intra- and inter-assay standard relative deviations were lower than 14.2 %, while inaccuracy (bias) was less than +11.9%. The efficiency of extraction was greater than 88.5%. Ruggedness was verified, according to Youden's test. Means of cotinine concentrations observed were 2,980 ng mL-1 for active smokers and 132 ng mL-1, for passive smokers. The results revealed that satisfactory chromatographic separation between the analyte and interferents was obtained with a ZB-1 column. This method is reliable, precise, linear and presented ruggedness in the range evaluated. The results suggest that it can be applied in routine analysis for passive and active smokers, since it is able to quantify a wide range of cotinine concentrations in urine.

  2. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke measured by cotinine 125I-radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a polyclonal-antiserum-based 125I-radioimmunoassay for cotinine that is suitable for measuring nonsmokers' passive exposure to tobacco smoke in the environment. The standard curve ranged from 0.25 to 12.0 micrograms/L, with an estimated lower limit of sensitivity of 0.2 microgram/L (95% B/Bo = 0.2 microgram/L; 50% B/Bo = 4.0 micrograms/L). The median within-assay CVs for patients' samples with cotinine values from 0.4 to 1.3, 1.4 to 2.4, 2.5 to 4.6, and 4.7 to 15.6 micrograms/L were 13.9%, 7.2%, 5.1%, and 5.7%, respectively. Between-assay CVs for two quality-control sera with average values of 1.53 and 3.68 micrograms/L were 14.3% and 7.8%, respectively. Analytical recoveries of cotinine from smokers' sera diluted in zero calibrant ranged from 91% to 116%. Cotinine values determined on 79 paired sera and urines from nonsmokers showed significant correlation with self-reported exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (r = 0.49, P less than 0.001 for sera; r = 0.57, P less than 0.001 for urine). The log of the values for serum and urine cotinine were also significantly correlated (r = 0.85, P less than 0.001). Evidently, polyclonal antiserum can be used to develop a cotinine assay for measuring exposure to environmental tobacco smoke that compares well with that described for monoclonal-based assays

  3. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke measured by cotinine sup 125 I-radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, G.J.; Palomaki, G.E.; Lea, D.H.; Haddow, J.E. (Foundation for Blood Research, Scarborough, ME (USA))

    1989-06-01

    We describe a polyclonal-antiserum-based {sup 125}I-radioimmunoassay for cotinine that is suitable for measuring nonsmokers' passive exposure to tobacco smoke in the environment. The standard curve ranged from 0.25 to 12.0 micrograms/L, with an estimated lower limit of sensitivity of 0.2 microgram/L (95% B/Bo = 0.2 microgram/L; 50% B/Bo = 4.0 micrograms/L). The median within-assay CVs for patients' samples with cotinine values from 0.4 to 1.3, 1.4 to 2.4, 2.5 to 4.6, and 4.7 to 15.6 micrograms/L were 13.9%, 7.2%, 5.1%, and 5.7%, respectively. Between-assay CVs for two quality-control sera with average values of 1.53 and 3.68 micrograms/L were 14.3% and 7.8%, respectively. Analytical recoveries of cotinine from smokers' sera diluted in zero calibrant ranged from 91% to 116%. Cotinine values determined on 79 paired sera and urines from nonsmokers showed significant correlation with self-reported exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (r = 0.49, P less than 0.001 for sera; r = 0.57, P less than 0.001 for urine). The log of the values for serum and urine cotinine were also significantly correlated (r = 0.85, P less than 0.001). Evidently, polyclonal antiserum can be used to develop a cotinine assay for measuring exposure to environmental tobacco smoke that compares well with that described for monoclonal-based assays.

  4. Decrease in salivary lactoferrin output in chronically intoxicated alcohol-dependent patients

    OpenAIRE

    Napoleon Waszkiewicz; Beata Zalewska-Szajda; Anna Zalewska; Magdalena Waszkiewicz; S?awomir Dariusz Szajda; Bernadeta Repka; Agata Szulc; Alina K?pka; Alina Minarowska; Sylwia Chojnowska; Beata Konarzewska; Jerzy Robert ?adny; Urszula Kowzan; Krzysztof Zwierz

    2012-01-01

    Salivary lactoferrin is a glycoprotein involved in the elimination of pathogens and the prevention of massive overgrowth of microorganisms that affect oral and general health. A high concentration of lactoferrin in saliva is often considered to be a marker of damage to the salivary glands, gingivitis, or leakage through inflamed or damaged oral mucosa, infiltrated particularly by neutrophils. We conducted a study to determine the effect of chronic alcohol intoxication on salivary lac...

  5. SALIVARY ANTIMICROBIAL PROTEIN RESPONSE TO PROLONGED RUNNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Schneider

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged exercise may compromise immunity through a reduction of salivary antimicrobial proteins (AMPs. Salivary IgA (IgA has been extensively studied, but little is known about the effect of acute, prolonged exercise on AMPs including lysozyme (Lys and lactoferrin (Lac. Objective: To determine the effect of a 50-km trail race on salivary cortisol (Cort, IgA, Lys, and Lac. Methods: 14 subjects: (6 females, 8 males completed a 50km ultramarathon. Saliva was collected pre, immediately after (post and 1.5 hrs post race ( 1.5. Results: Lac concentration was higher at 1.5 hrs post race compared to post exercise (p0.05. IgA concentration, secretion rate, and IgA/Osm were lower 1.5 hrs post compared to pre race (p<0.05. Cort concentration was higher at post compared to 1.5 (p<0.05, but was unaltered from pre race levels. Subjects finished in 7.81 ± 1.2 hrs. Saliva flow rate did not differ between time points. Saliva Osm increased at post (p<0.05 compared to pre race. Conclusions: The intensity could have been too low to alter Lys and Lac secretion rates and thus, may not be as sensitive as IgA to changes in response to prolonged running. Results expand our understanding of the mucosal immune system and may have implications for predicting illness after prolonged running.

  6. Cytotoxic properties of salivary oxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisham, M B; Ryan, E M

    1990-01-01

    Salivary peroxidase and to a lesser extent myeloperoxidase are present in significant concentrations in saliva and catalyze the oxidation of thiocyanate anion (SCN-) by H2O2 to yield the potent oxidants hypothiocyanous acid (HOSCN) and its conjugate base hypothiocyanite anion (OSCN-). The objective of this study was to characterize the cytotoxic potential of peroxidase-generated HOSCN/OSCN- toward human erythrocytes. We found that HOSCN/OSCN- (0.25 mM) generated by the peroxidase-H2O2-SCN- system caused significant hemolysis at pH 6.0 but not at pH 6.5, 7.0, or 7.4. Erythrocyte hemoglobin (OxyHb) was oxidized to methemoglobin (MetHb) at all pH values tested; however, the rate of MetHb formation was dramatically increased at low pH and was not affected by inosine hexaphosphate, suggesting that hemoglobin was oxidized primarily by HOSCN. Concurrent with oxidation of hemoglobin (Hb), there was a pH-dependent consumption of HOSCN/OSCN- with more of the oxidant consumed at pH 6.0 compared with pH 6.5, 7.0, or 7.4. The enhanced oxidation of Hb at acidic pH was not due simply to increased membrane permeability by the uncharged species (HOSCN), since both erythrocyte lysate Hb and purified Hb were oxidized to the same extent at low pH as were intact erythrocytes. It is concluded that both OSCN- and HOSCN enter human erythrocytes where the protonated oxidant (HOSCN) mediates hemolysis and oxidizes OxyHb to MetHb, whereas both HOSCN and OSCN- oxidize glutathione (GSH). These data suggest that the extracellular pH may play an important role in modulating the cytotoxic properties of salivary oxidants. PMID:2154109

  7. Dasatinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Malignant Salivary Gland Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-02

    High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Low-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Anaplastic Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Malignant Mixed Cell Type Tumor; Salivary Gland Poorly Differentiated Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer

  8. Yohimbine increases human salivary secretion.

    OpenAIRE

    Chatelut, E.; Rispail, Y.; Berlan, M.; Montastruc, J. L.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of oral yohimbine (14 mg) on salivary secretion was evaluated in healthy volunteers. Yohimbine significantly increased salivary secretion when compared with placebo. This effect was significant from 60 min until 180 min after administration under our experimental conditions. Yohimbine (or alpha 2-adrenoceptor blocking agents) could have a potential interest in the treatment of dry mouths.

  9. Cotinine and interferon-gamma levels in pre-school children exposed to household tobacco smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Kalalo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Environmental tobacco smoke has been consistently linked to negative health outcomes, especially in children, including an increased susceptibility to infections. Cigarette smoking has a depressive effect on interferon-? (IFN-?. Serum cotinine is a marker of exposure to smoke. Objective To determine the association between serum cotinine and interferon-? (IFN-? levels in children with household tobacco smoke exposure. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study at the Tumumpa and Singkil Districts of Manado, Indonesia, from February to May 2012. Subjects were collected by consecutively sampling of healthy children aged 1-3 years who came to the integrated health posts. Seventy-four children were recruited and consisted of two groups of 37 subjects each, the tobacco smoke exposure group and the non-tobacco smoke exposure group. Blood specimens were collected from all subjects for laboratory blood tests of cotinine and IFN-? levels. Results were analyzed by T-test and Pearson’s correlation analysis with a P<0.05 is considered as statistically significant. Results There was no significant correlation between serum cotinine and interferon-? levels in the tobacco smoke exposure group. However, the interferon-? level in the tobacco smoke exposure group was significantly lower than that of the non-tobacco smoke exposure group (P<0.0001. Conclusion Cotinine is not related to the interferon-? level in children exposed to tobacco smoke, however, the interferon-? level in children with tobacco smoke exposure is lower than in the non-tobacco smoke exposure group. [Paediatr Indones. 2013;53:287-90.].

  10. The variability of urinary cotinine levels in young children: implications for measuring ETS exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt, Georg E; Hovell, Melbourne F; Quintana, Penelope J E; Zakarian, Joy; Liles, Sandy; Meltzer, Susan B; Benowitz, Neal L

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the within-subject variability of urinary cotinine levels in young children (aged = 0.6-7.2 years) of smoking parents to determine the number of urine samples needed to provide accurate estimates of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) for different time intervals. Secondary analyses were conducted of five independent studies (N = 376), in which multiple urinary cotinine measures had been collected over time periods up to 13 months. Over measurement periods of 4-15 days, the within-subject cotinine levels varied 3-5 times more than would be expected based on measurement error alone. Over 7-13 months, the within-subject variability was 10-20 times higher than would be expected based on the measurement error. Findings indicated that cotinine measures from single urine samples provided highly accurate estimates of only recent exposure (i.e., 2-3 days; rho = 0.99). To achieve similarly precise estimates of the mean cotinine level of an individual child over 4-15 days, up to nine urine samples may be necessary. Up to 12 urine samples may be required to achieve similarly precise estimates of ETS exposure over a 4- to 13-month period. Epidemiologic and clinical research on ETS exposure in children can benefit from multiple urine samples (a) to accurately measure average exposure at the level of the individual child, (b) to describe temporal patterns, (c) to detect incidences of peak exposure that would remain underrecognized if monitoring is limited to a single time point, and (d) to establish stable baseline levels and endpoints based on urine samples collected over clinically relevant time periods. PMID:17365739

  11. Assessment of local tobacco consumption by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry sewage analysis of nicotine and its metabolites, cotinine and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine, after enzymatic deconjugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Álvarez, Tania; Rodil, Rosario; Rico, María; Cela, Rafael; Quintana, José Benito

    2014-10-21

    Cotinine (COT), trans-3'-hydroxycotinine (OH-COT), cotinine-N-?-glucuronide (COT-GLUC), and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine-O-?-glucuronide (OH-COT-GLUC) are excreted in urine following the intake of nicotine (NIC), and, as such, they have been detected in sewage. Thus, they also constitute convenient biomarkers for NIC tracing through the sewage epidemiology approach at the local scale. Such estimation requires granting a good stability of the target biomarkers in sewage. However, it was found that glucuronides are not stable, particularly in the case of OH-COT-GLUC, which could render variable concentrations of COT, OH-COT, and their glucuronides, depending on sampling and storage time or temperature. Thus, an enzymatic deconjugation with ?-glucuronidase was optimized. With the optimized method, after enzymatic deglucuronization, the limits of quantification obtained were in the range of 0.2-1 ?g L(-1), relative standard deviations were <10%, and the trueness in terms of recovery was in the 95%-112% range. The application of the method to composite sewage samples collected during 1 week in three different years in Santiago de Compostela (Galicia, Spain) showed COT and OH-COT concentrations of 0.3-1.9 ?g L(-1) and 1.0-3.3 ?g L(-1), respectively. Thereby, the average NIC consumption derived was in the 1.7-1.9 mg per day and person range, being comparable to those derived from tobacco sales statistics. PMID:25263812

  12. Salivary gland sparing radiotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Dijkema, T.

    2013-01-01

    Dry mouth or xerostomia is the most frequently observed side-effect of radiotherapy (RT) in the head-and-neck region and is caused by salivary gland damage. The aim of this thesis was to determine the RT dose-response relationships for the parotid and submandibular glands and to investigate the effect of their sparing on patient-reported xerostomia after RT for tumors of the oropharynx. The mean parotid gland dose can be used to estimate the risk of significant functional decline (flow re...

  13. TRPV1 in Salivary Gland Epithelial Cells Is Not Involved in Salivary Secretion via Transcellular Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seulki; Shin, Yong-Hwan; Namkoong, Eun; Hwang, Sung-Min; Cong, Xin; Yu, Guangyan

    2014-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) was originally found in sensory neurons. Recently, it has been reported that TRPV1 is expressed in salivary gland epithelial cells (SGEC). However, the physiological role of TRPV1 in salivary secretion remains to be elucidated. We found that TRPV1 is expressed in mouse and human submandibular glands (SMG) and HSG cells, originated from human submandibular gland ducts at both mRNA and protein levels. However, capsaicin (CAP), TRPV1 agonist, had little effect on intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in these cells, although carbachol consistently increased [Ca2+]i. Exposure of cells to high temperature (>43?) or acidic bath solution (pH5.4) did not increase [Ca2+]i, either. We further examined the role of TRPV1 in salivary secretion using TRPV1 knock-out mice. There was no significant difference in the pilocarpine (PILO)-induced salivary flow rate between wild-type and TRPV1 knock-out mice. Saliva flow rate also showed insignificant change in the mice treated with PILO plus CAP compared with that in mice treated with PILO alone. Taken together, our results suggest that although TRPV1 is expressed in SGEC, it appears not to play any direct roles in saliva secretion via transcellular pathway. PMID:25598668

  14. Responses of salivary cortisol and ?-amylase to official competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMMAD A. AZARBAYJANI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the relationship between salivary cortisol, ?-amylase and total protein response in the official football players during the course of a game. Nine young amateur football players agreed to participate in the study. Saliva samples were collected from each player 30 min and 5 min before the start of the competition, at half time, and then again 5 and 30 min after the end of competition. A significant increase in cortisol (p=0.04 in response to playing the competition was observed including a significantly higher concentration 30 min after match as compared to half time (p=0.016. In contrast, changes in salivary ?-amylase changes were irregular, but there was significant decline 5 min after end of match as compared to the 5 min before the beginning of match (p<0.019. No significant difference in total protein concentration was observed. Though salivary cortisol, ?-amylase and total protein changes were observed concomitantly, but there no significant relationship between them. We conclude that participation in competition has an accumulative effect on salivary cortisol concentration, but this was not related changes in salivary ?-amylase.

  15. Effects of red wine intake on human salivary antiradical capacity and total polyphenol content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varoni, Elena Maria; Vitalini, Sara; Contino, Daniele; Lodi, Giovanni; Simonetti, Paolo; Gardana, Claudio; Sardella, Andrea; Carrassi, Antonio; Iriti, Marcello

    2013-08-01

    The protective effects of grape polyphenols have been reported on oral health, though unreasonable alcohol consumption represents a risk factor for developing oral cancer. The possible effects of red wine consumption on salivary antiradical activity were investigated in healthy volunteers for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. Time-course (from 0 min to 240 min) changes of salivary radical-scavenging capacity were measured by the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS(+)) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays, in twelve healthy volunteers, after the intake of red wine (125 mL), a capsule of red wine extract (300 mg) or water (125 mL). Furthermore, time-course of salivary total polyphenol levels, detected by the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method, was also determined. Both ABTS and DPPH tests showed that red wine consumption did not increase salivary antiradical activity in volunteers. Conversely, red wine extract administration caused a marked rise in salivary ABTS radical-scavenging capacity within 30 min, followed by a plateau up to 240 min. The same treatment also raised salivary DPPH radical-scavenging activity at any time point, though to a minor extent. The highest salivary polyphenol concentration was reached 30 min after wine drinking, followed by a steady decrease up to 240 min. Wine drinking was not associated to a reduced salivary antiradical capacity. However, wine extract greatly improved the salivary antioxidant status. PMID:23643701

  16. Understanding Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Effects in Asthmatic Children through Determination of Urinary Cotinine and Targeted Metabolomics of Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Effects in Asthmatic Children through Determination of Urinary Cotinine and Targeted Metabolomics of Plasma Introduction Asthma is a complex disease with multiple triggers and causal factors, Exposure to environmental tob...

  17. CT diagnosis of the salivary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The salivary glands consist of the major salivary glands (parotid glands, submandibular glands, and sublingual glands) and small salivary glands (labial glands, staphyline glands, buccal glands, molar glands, and lingual glands). Only the major salivary glands are considered to raise problems in reading CT images. CT was considered to be particularly of value for the parotid glands. Anatomy and CT diagnosis of the major salivary glands, especially the parotid glands, were explained. (Ueda, J.)

  18. CT diagnosis of the salivary glands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Akio; Kato, Takakuni; Kawanishi, Nobukatsu; Noguchi, Akihiko; Kamata, Nobuetsu; Uchida, Masaoki (Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo. Hospital)

    1982-10-01

    The salivary glands consist of the major salivary glands (parotid glands, submandibular glands, and sublingual glands) and small salivary glands (labial glands, staphyline glands, buccal glands, molar glands, and lingual glands). Only the major salivary glands are considered to raise problems in reading CT images. CT was considered to be particularly of value for the parotid glands. Anatomy and CT diagnosis of the major salivary glands, especially the parotid glands, were explained.

  19. Menthol smoking in relation to time to first cigarette and cotinine: Results from a community-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Muscat, Joshua E.; Liu, Hsiao-pin; Stellman, Steven D.; Richie, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Smokers who have their first cigarette shortly after waking, an indicator of nicotine dependence, have substantially higher cotinine levels. There is controversy regarding the role of menthol in nicotine dependence. We hypothesized that menthol smokers have a shorter time to first cigarette (TTFC), and tested whether any statistical association actually reflects increased dependence by measuring nicotine uptake (e.g. cotinine) in the same group of smokers. A cross-sectional community-based st...

  20. Self-reported Smoking and Urinary Cotinine Levels among Pregnant Women in Korea and Factors Associated with Smoking during Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Jhun, Hyung-joon; Seo, Hong-gwan; Lee, Do-hoon; Sung, Moon-woo; Kang, Yoon-dan; Syn, Hee Chul; Jun, Jong Kwan

    2010-01-01

    This study examined urinary cotinine levels and self-reported smoking among pregnant women in Korea and the factors associated with smoking during pregnancy. The subjects were selected from pregnant women who visited 30 randomly sampled obstetric clinics and prenatal care hospitals in Korea in 2006. Smoking status was determined by self-reporting and urinary cotinine measurement. A total of 1,090 self-administered questionnaires and 1,057 urine samples were analyzed. The percentage of smoking...

  1. Radioimmunoassay of salivary steroid hormones for easy diagnosis of and adrenal functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The salivary levels of progesterone, estradiol and cortisol were determined by radioimmunoassay in fertile and infertile women. progesterone concentration was also determined in sera of both groups. Results have shown salivary progesterone to be promising in the assessment of ovarian function. Positive and significant correlation was obtained between serum and salivary progesterone for both considered groups. Although, concentrations of estradiol in saliva seems to be useful in predicting the time of ovulation onset however, further evaluations, are still needed. High levels of salivary cortisol were obtained reflecting stress during menses, ovulation and awaiting for the onset of the next cycle. Consequently, salivary cortisol is a good monitor for adrenal function. 6 figs., 5 tabs

  2. An Evaluation of Cotinine as an Index of Exposure to Tabacco Smoke in Children with Recurrent Respiratory Tract Infections Using HPLC Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wioletta Grys

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The authors evaluated the frequency of exposure to tobacco smoke among children suffering from respiratory tract infections. The investigations comprised 141 children aged from 2 months to 6 years that were treated in the 2nd Department of Pediatric and Allergology of Polish Mother’s Memorial Hospital Research Institute in ?ód? (Poland. 69 of them were exposed to tobacco smoke in their home environment. The remaining 72 children came from non-smoking families. 26 (37.7% individuals among the passive smokers and 15 (20.83% among the children from non-smoking families suffered from recurrent respiratory tract infections. Cotinine concentrations were evaluated in the group of 69 children using the HPLC-UV method. The determined average cotinine/creatinine index expressed as median was higher in passive smokers with recurrent respiratory infections than among passive smokers with non-recurrent respiratory infections. Moreover, it was stated that the exposure to cigarette smoke was more often among children of younger and less well educated parents as well as living in poor housing conditions. These studies clearly indicate that there is a need for extensive education on the harmful effects of passive smoking and the recurrence of infections.

  3. The Danish contribution to the European DEMOCOPHES project: A description of cadmium, cotinine and mercury levels in Danish mother-child pairs and the perspectives of supplementary sampling and measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mørck, Thit A; Nielsen, Flemming; Nielsen, Jeanette K S; Jensen, Janne F; Hansen, Pernille W; Hansen, Anne K; Christoffersen, Lea N; Siersma, Volkert D; Larsen, Ida H; Hohlmann, Linette K; Skaanild, Mette T; Frederiksen, Hanne; Biot, Pierre; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Schwedler, Gerda; Castaño, Argelia; Angerer, Jürgen; Koch, Holger M; Esteban, Marta; Schoeters, Greet; Den Hond, Elly; Exley, Karen; Sepai, Ovnair; Bloemen, Louis; Joas, Reinhard; Joas, Anke; Fiddicke, Ulrike; Lopez, Ana; Cañas, Ana; Aerts, Dominique; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2014-10-14

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) is an important tool, increasingly used for measuring true levels of the body burdens of environmental chemicals in the general population. In Europe, a harmonized HBM program was needed to open the possibility to compare levels across borders. To explore the prospect of a harmonized European HBM project, DEMOCOPHES (DEMOnstration of a study to COordinate and Perform Human biomonitoring on a European Scale) was completed in 17 European countries. The basic measurements performed in all implemented countries of DEMOCOPHES included cadmium, cotinine and phthalate metabolites in urine and mercury in hair. In the Danish participants, significant correlations between mothers and children for mercury in hair and cotinine in urine were found. Mercury in hair was further significantly associated with intake of fish and area of residence. Cadmium was positively associated with BMI in mothers and an association between cadmium and cotinine was also found. As expected high cotinine levels were found in smoking mothers. For both mercury and cadmium significantly higher concentrations were found in the mothers compared to their children. In Denmark, the DEMOCOPHES project was co-financed by the Danish ministries of health, environment and food safety. The co-financing ministries agreed to finance a number of supplementary measurements of substances of current toxicological, public and regulatory interest. This also included blood sampling from the participants. The collected urine and blood samples were analyzed for a range of other persistent and non-persistent environmental chemicals as well as two biomarkers of effect. The variety of supplementary measurements gives the researchers further information on the exposure status of the participants and creates a basis for valuable knowledge on the pattern of exposure to various chemicals. PMID:25440293

  4. The Danish contribution to the European DEMOCOPHES project : A description of cadmium, cotinine and mercury levels in Danish mother-child pairs and the perspectives of supplementary sampling and measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MØrck, Thit A; Nielsen, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) is an important tool, increasingly used for measuring true levels of the body burdens of environmental chemicals in the general population. In Europe, a harmonized HBM program was needed to open the possibility to compare levels across borders. To explore the prospect of a harmonized European HBM project, DEMOCOPHES (DEMOnstration of a study to COordinate and Perform Human biomonitoring on a European Scale) was completed in 17 European countries. The basic measurements performed in all implemented countries of DEMOCOPHES included cadmium, cotinine and phthalate metabolites in urine and mercury in hair. In the Danish participants, significant correlations between mothers and children for mercury in hair and cotinine in urine were found. Mercury in hair was further significantly associated with intake of fish and area of residence. Cadmium was positively associated with BMI in mothers and an association between cadmium and cotinine was also found. As expected high cotinine levels were found in smoking mothers. For both mercury and cadmium significantly higher concentrations were found in the mothers compared to their children. In Denmark, the DEMOCOPHES project was co-financed by the Danish ministries of health, environment and food safety. The co-financing ministries agreed to finance a number of supplementary measurements of substances of current toxicological, public and regulatory interest. This also included blood sampling from the participants. The collected urine and blood samples were analyzed for a range of other persistent and non-persistent environmental chemicals as well as two biomarkers of effect. The variety of supplementary measurements gives the researchers further information on the exposure status of the participants and creates a basis for valuable knowledge on the pattern of exposure to various chemicals.

  5. Salivary Cortisol, Salivary Alpha Amylase, and the Dental Anxiety Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Sadi, Hana; Finkelman, Matthew; Rosenberg, Morton

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between dental anxiety, salivary cortisol, and salivary alpha amylase (sAA) levels. Furthermore, the aim was to look into individual differences such as age, race, gender, any existing pain, or traumatic dental experience and their effect on dental anxiety. This study followed a cross-sectional design and included a convenience sample of 46. Every patient was asked to complete the Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS) and a basic demographic/denta...

  6. Immunochromatographic assay using gold nanoparticles for measuring salivary secretory IgA in dogs as a stress marker

    OpenAIRE

    Aki Takahashi, Shigeru Uchiyama

    2009-01-01

    The concentration of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) is a well-known stress marker for humans. The concentration of salivary sIgA in dogs has also been reported as a useful stress marker. In addition, salivary sIgA in dogs has been used to determine the adaptive ability of dogs for further training. There are conventional procedures based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs. However, ELISA requires long assay time, complicated operations...

  7. Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Request Permissions Print to PDF Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 04/ ... menu on the side of your screen. A risk factor is anything that increases a person’s chance of ...

  8. Smoking, secondhand smoke, and cotinine levels in a subset of EPIC cohort.

    OpenAIRE

    Baltar, Vt; Xun, Ww; Chuang, Sc; Relton, C; Ueland, Pm; Vollset, Se; Midttun, Ø.; Johansson, M.; Slimani, N.; Jenab, M.; Clavel-chapelon, F.; Boutron-ruault, Mc; Fagherazzi, G.; Kaaks, R.; Rohrmann, S.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several countries are discussing new legislation regarding the ban on smoking in public places, based on the growing evidence of the hazards of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure. The objective of the present study is to quantitatively assess the relationship between smoking, SHS, and serum cotinine levels in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. METHODS: From a study on lung cancer in the EPIC cohort, questionnaire information on smoking was...

  9. Cotinine and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Levels in the Amniotic Fluid and Fetal Cord at Birth and in the Urine from Pregnant Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Julia Barros; Chatkin, Jose? Miguel; Zimmer, Aline Rigon; Goulart, Ana Paula Szezepaniak; Thiesen, Fla?via Vallada?o

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking during pregnancy has several impacts on fetal development, including teratogenic effects. The objective of this study was to assess whether the toxic substances (cotinine and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) found in pregnant smokers are transmitted to their fetuses. The outcomes were analyzed measuring cotinine and 1-hydroxypyrene in the amniotic fluid and maternal urine, benzopyrene and cotinine in the umbilical cord blood. Through a controlled cross-sectional design, 125...

  10. Simple and Rapid Assay Method for Simultaneous Quantification of Urinary Nicotine and Cotinine using Micro-Extraction by Packed Sorbent and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    HIROSHI SENO; OSAMU SUZUKI; AKIRA ISHII; KEI ZAITSU; HIDEKI HATTORI; TADASHI OGAWA; MASAE IWAI

    2013-01-01

    A simple and rapid method for determination of nicotine and cotinine levels in urine was developed using samples prepared by micro-extraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) and subjected to gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. This method provided good reproducibility, as well as good linearity of calibration curves in the range of 1–100 and 50–1000 ng/mL for quality control samples spiked with nicotine and cotinine, respectively. The detection limit of nicotine and cotinine ...

  11. Arti fi cial Salivary Glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezwana Begum Mohammed

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Head and neck cancer is the fi fth most common malignancy and accounts for 3% of all new cancer cases each year. Treat- ment for most patients with head and neck cancers includes ionizing radiation. A consequence of this treatment is irreversible damage to salivary glands which is accompanied by a loss of fl uid-secreting acinar-cells and a considerable decrease of saliva output. Despite recent improvements in treating xerostomia (e.g. saliva stimulants, saliva substitutes, and gene therapy, there is a need of more scienti fi c advancements that can be clinically applied toward restoration of compromised salivary gland func- tion. Here we provide a summary of the current salivary cell models that have been used to advance restorative treatments via development of an arti fi cial salivary gland. Although these models are not fully characterized, their improvement may lead to the construction of an arti fi cial salivary gland that is in high demand for improving the quality of life of many patients suffe- ring from salivary secretory dysfunction

  12. Salivary gland cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, April; Warner, Kristy; Nör, Jacques E

    2013-09-01

    Emerging evidence suggests the existence of a tumorigenic population of cancer cells that demonstrate stem cell-like properties such as self-renewal and multipotency. These cells, termed cancer stem cells (CSC), are able to both initiate and maintain tumor formation and progression. Studies have shown that CSC are resistant to traditional chemotherapy treatments preventing complete eradication of the tumor cell population. Following treatment, CSC are able to re-initiate tumor growth leading to patient relapse. Salivary gland cancers are relatively rare but constitute a highly significant public health issue due to the lack of effective treatments. In particular, patients with mucoepidermoid carcinoma or adenoid cystic carcinoma, the two most common salivary malignancies, have low long-term survival rates due to the lack of response to current therapies. Considering the role of CSC in resistance to therapy in other tumor types, it is possible that this unique sub-population of cells is involved in resistance of salivary gland tumors to treatment. Characterization of CSC can lead to better understanding of the pathobiology of salivary gland malignancies as well as to the development of more effective therapies. Here, we make a brief overview of the state-of-the-science in salivary gland cancer, and discuss possible implications of the cancer stem cell hypothesis to the treatment of salivary gland malignancies. PMID:23810400

  13. Development and comparison of two competitive ELISAs for estimation of cotinine in human exposed to environmental tobacco smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yajing; Zhang, Qian; Fang, Lizheng; Akash, Muhammad Sajid Hamid; Rehman, Kanwal; Liu, Zhiming; Shi, Weixing; Chen, Shuqing

    2014-10-01

    We simultaneously set up two competitive (direct and indirect) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based on the same antibody for estimation of cotinine (COT) in pregnant women especially and population generally exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. The results show that the limits of detection (LODs) for direct competitive ELISA and indirect competitive ELISA were 0.04 ?gL(-1) and 0.1 ?gL(-1), respectively. Direct competitive ELISA was found to be more sensitive than indirect competitive ELISA. Thereafter, we applied our direct competitive ELISA for the detection of COT from urinary samples taken from 450 volunteers from the Zhejiang Province of China. COT was detected in 100% of participants with concentration ranging from LOD to 5358.0 ?gL(-1). The GM and 95th percentile concentration of COT in pregnant women were 6.3 ?gL(-1) and 57.2 ?gL(-1), respectively. Males had statistically higher COT concentrations than females (P < 0.0001), active smokers had statistically higher COT concentrations than non-smokers (P < 0.0001), whereas, non-pregnant women were found to have higher COT concentration than pregnant women. We conclude that our developed direct competitive ELISA is useful for detecting the COT in urinary concentration of human. The human urinary data obtained in this study indicated that common people generally and pregnant women especially were highly exposed to COT. Further studies are needed to focus on the sources of exposure, potential health effects and risk assessment of exposure to COT. PMID:24470075

  14. Direct radioimmunoassay (RIA) of salivary testosterone: correlation with free and total serium testosterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simple and sensitive direct RIA for determination of salivary testosterone was developed by using RSL NOSOLVEX TM (125 1) kit produced by Radioassay System Laboratories (Carcon, California). In addition, a relationship between salivary and serum free and total testosterone concentrations was studied in randomly selected 45 healthy subjects, 5 females on oral contraceptive pills and 28 hypertensive patients on various treatment regimens. The lowest weight of testosterone detectable by the modified method was equivalent to 1 pg/ml of saliva, taking into account analytical variability. Intra- and interassay coefficients of variation were 5.09 +/- 2.7% and 8.2 +/- 5.9% respectively. Statistically significant correlations were found between salivary and serum free testosterone (r = 0.97) and salivary and serum total testosterone concentrations (r = 0.70 - 0.87). The exception to this was a group of hypertensive females in which no correlation (r = 0.14) between salivary and total serum testosterone was found. It is also of interest that, while salivary testosterone was significantly increased in subjects taking oral contraceptives and most of the hypertensive patients, the total serum testosterone concentration was in normal range. These findings suggest that the determination of salivary testosterone is a reliable method to detect changes in the concentration of available biologically active hormone in the circulation. 21 references, 4 figures, 1 tablees, 4 figures, 1 table

  15. Biokinetics and dose estimation of 65Zn in the salivary gland and male reproductive organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, M; Homma-Takeda, S; Nishimura, Y

    2007-01-01

    ICRP is revising its recommendations for radiological protection and has added salivary and secretory glands as new target organs. However, little information is available on the distributions of radionuclides in the salivary gland, secretory glands and male reproductive organs. This study deals with the distribution of 65Zn in the salivary gland and male reproductive organs as a function of time after a single intravenous and oral administration. For the study, 64 Wistar strain male rats, eight weeks of age were used. The rats were periodically sacrificed, the liver, kidney, spleen, pancreas, thymus, salivary gland, testis, epididymitis and prostate gland sampled and the radioactivity of these organs measured with an NaI scintillation counter. The relative concentration of 65Zn was highest in the prostate gland. We estimated the radiation dose in humans using rat data for the salivary and secretory glands as well as reproductive organs after intake of 65Zn. PMID:17627954

  16. Adrenergic effects on secretion of amylase from the rat salivary glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier; NexØ, Ebba

    1988-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of adrenergic agents on secretion of amylase from the salivary glands in vivo. Saliva was collected from the distal oesophagus in conscious rats. Adrenaline increased the concentration of amylase in saliva and serum significantly. The result of infusion of alpha- and beta-adrenergic antagonists as well as noradrenaline and isoproterenol showed that secretion of salivary amylase is predominantly mediated by stimulation of beta-adrenergic receptors, especially of the beta 1-subtype. Investigation of the isoenzyme pattern in saliva, pancreatic juice and serum demonstrated that the major component in serum is salivary amylase. This study has shown that beta-adrenergic agents stimulate secretion of amylase from the salivary glands in rats. Though the secretion is mainly exocrine small amounts of amylase is found in serum, which seems to originate from the salivary glands.

  17. Salivary gland damage in radioiodine therapy. Dosimetry results and their implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioiodine therapy plays a key role in the management of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. However, radioiodine is concentrated not only in the target tissues but also by other tissue expressing sodium/iodine symporters - in particular the submandibular and parotid salivary glands. As a consequence, high-activity radioiodine therapy may be associated with unwanted radiogenic salivary gland damages. As a consequence, the most frequently observed adverse short- and long-term side effects of radioiodine therapy include sialoadenitis and some degree of xerostomia, both with a potentially negative impact on quality of life. In this review, we highlight the function and importance of salivary glands and discuss the current results of dosimetry studies of the salivary glands in patients, who undergo radioiodine therapy. Based on the dosimetry findings, the commonly applied radioprotective procedure to diminish damage to the salivary glands are discussed critically. (orig.)

  18. Dynamic radioisotopic study of the salivary glands. Quantification test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantified dynamic radioisotopic exploration, a new and rational examination, should find its place in a thorough check-up of the salivary glands together with clinical, immunological, anatomopathological and sialographic investigations. The object of this work was to standardise the test procedure with a view to routine use on patients and to define certain quantified parameters representing objectively the different aspects of the salivary functions. Our procedure through reeding sophisticated equipment, is simple to perform and relies on use of: radiotechnetium employed at activities which allow repetitive exlorations whereby pathological changes may be followed; the gamma camera and its data processing system which records all radioactive information obtained on the patient's head. These results will supply the data needed to judge the salivary functions as a whole. The apparatus used provides a remarkable pictorial record made up not only of morphological and functional images at each stage of the examination but also of ciphered radioactivity versus time curves for each of the main salivary glands and for any other zone of interest. From these curves it is then possible to define quantified parameters, reproducible and expressing functional activity. This procedure, safe and painless, seems to suit the patients who lie still without complaint for 60 minutes, 45 minutes for the concentration study and 15 minutes for the post-stimulus excretion study. The dynamic radioisotopic examination of the salivary glands, by the comparison of concentration and excretion images and by the study of parameters, separately and as a whole, is thus a useful complement to other paraclinical examinations and contributes essential information in most salivary diseases

  19. Imaging of salivary gland tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y.Y.P.; Wong, K.T.; King, A.D. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin NT, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Ahuja, A.T. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin NT, Hong Kong (Hong Kong)], E-mail: aniltahuja@cuhk.edu.hk

    2008-06-15

    Salivary gland neoplasms account for <3% of all tumors. Most of them are benign and parotid gland is the commonest site. As a general rule, the smaller the involved salivary gland, the higher is the possibility of the tumor being malignant. The role of imaging in assessment of salivary gland tumour is to define intra-glandular vs. extra-glandular location, detect malignant features, assess local extension and invasion, detect nodal metastases and systemic involvement. Image guided fine needle aspiration cytology provides a safe means to obtain cytological confirmation. For lesions in the superficial parotid and submandibular gland, ultrasound is an ideal tool for initial assessment. These are superficial structures accessible by high resolution ultrasound and FNAC which provides excellent resolution and tissue characterization without a radiation hazard. Nodal involvement can also be assessed. If deep tissue extension is suspected or malignancy confirmed on cytology, an MRI or CT is mandatory to evaluate tumour extent, local invasion and perineural spread. For all tumours in the sublingual gland, MRI should be performed as the risk of malignancy is high. For lesions of the deep lobe of parotid gland and the minor salivary glands, MRI and CT are the modalities of choice. Ultrasound has limited visualization of the deep lobe of parotid gland which is obscured by the mandible. Minor salivary gland lesions in the mucosa of oral cavity, pharynx and tracheo-bronchial tree, are also not accessible by conventional ultrasound. Recent study suggests that MR spectroscopy may differentiate malignant and benign salivary gland tumours as well as distinguishing Warthin's tumor from pleomorphic adenoma. However, its role in clinical practice is not well established. Similarly, the role of nuclear medicine and PET scan, in imaging of parotid masses is limited. Sialography is used to delineate the salivary ductal system and has limited role in assessment of tumour extent.

  20. Measurement of late-night salivary cortisol with an automated immunoassay system

    OpenAIRE

    Vogeser, Michael; Durner, Ju?rgen; Seliger, Ewald; Auernhammer, Christoph

    2006-01-01

    Background: Measurement of late-night salivary cortisol concentrations is increasingly used as a screening test in suspected Cushing's syndrome. Cortisol concentrations are typically extremely low in late-night samples and discordant assay-specific reference ranges have been reported. Therefore, the aim of our study was to assess the analytical performance of the first automated cortisol immunoassay specified for salivary measurements and to establish late-night sampling reference-range data ...

  1. Treatment Option Overview (Salivary Gland Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be needed. There are different types of treatment for patients with salivary gland cancer. Different types ... Patients with salivary gland cancer should have their treatment planned by a team of doctors who are ...

  2. Salivary gland calculi - contemporary methods of imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sialolithiasis is the most common disorder of major salivary glands. The main site of salivary stones formation is submandibular gland, followed by parotid and sublingual gland. The aim of this article was to present current diagnostic imaging modalities carried out in patients suspected with salivary stones on the basis of own material and review of literature. Current diagnostic imaging tools used in the imaging of salivary stones were described and illustrated in this paper. These are: conventional radiography, sialography, ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance sialography and sialoendoscopy. Digital subtraction sialography and ultrasonography are the methods of choice in the imaging of salivary gland calculi. Although sialography is a very old diagnostic method, still it is the best diagnostic tool in the imaging of subtle anatomy of salivary gland duct system. Digital subtraction sialography can show the exact location of salivary stone and enables imaging of salivary ducts pathology (e.g. stenoses), which is especially important when sialoendoscopy is planned. Sialography is also used as the treatment method, i.e. interventional sialography. Non enhanced computed tomography is recommended when multiple and tiny salivary stones are suspected. Magnetic resonance imaging is the evolving alternative diagnostic method. In this diagnostic modality there is no need for salivary ducts cannulation and administration of contrast material. Thus magnetic ation of contrast material. Thus magnetic resonance sialography can also be carried out in the acute sialoadenitis. In the future, sialoendoscopy may become one of the main diagnostic and treatment procedures for salivary duct disorders, especially in salivary stone cases. (authors)

  3. [Salivary gland tumors in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thariat, Juliette; Vedrine, Pierre-Olivier; Orbach, Daniel; Marcy, Pierre-Yves; Badoual, Cécile; Butori, Catherine; Teissier, Natacha; Toussaint, Bruno; Castillo, Laurent

    2011-07-01

    Salivary gland tumors in children are rare: they correspond to 8-10% of head and neck pediatric tumors. Clinicians of all disciplines should be aware of this diagnosis in front of non-inflammatory mass of the parotid or in the territory of other salivary glands. In children, 50% of salivary gland tumors are malignant which contrasts with a 10-25% risk in adults. Epithelial tumors are the most common, mucoepidermoïd carcinomas of the parotid in particular. Surgery is the treatment of choice in epithelial tumors. Adjuvant radiotherapy may be indicated in case of unfavorable prognostic factors but must be balanced with the risk of radiation-induced growth defects and secondary cancer. The role of chemotherapy is limited in these tumors, but should be discussed in case of an inoperable or metastatic lesion. PMID:21690035

  4. Sleep and Salivary Cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Anne Helene; Karlson, Bernt

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present chapter was to analyze whether measures of cortisol in saliva were associated with measures of sleep and to explore if divergent results were related to underlying differences in theoretic assumptions and methods. Measures of sleep quality included sleep duration, overall sleep quality, difficulty falling asleep, disturbed sleep, and sleep deprivation. Twenty-three papers were found to fulfill the inclusion criteria. Cortisol measures were grouped into single time points at different times during the day, deviations at different time periods during the day, reactivity and recovery after a standardized laboratory test, area under the curve and response to dexamethasone test. A large proportion of the studies included showed non-significant findings, which, in several cases, may be a result of low power. The most consistent results were a positive association between sleep duration and single measures of salivary cortisol at awakening, which was observed in 3 studies. In these studies, sleep duration was also associated with low evening cortisol levels, steep diurnal deviation of cortisol and/or high area under the curve. Together these findings suggest that longer sleep duration is related to a more dynamic cortisol secretion. Two of the 6 studies on disturbed or restless sleep showed relations to flat diurnal deviation and low laboratory stress test reactivity. This to some extent corroborates the findings on sleep duration. However, the many non-significant findings as well as the theoretical and methodological differences (e.g., heterogeneity in measures) complicate comparisons. Conflicting results may be at least partially due to differences in methods and underlying assumptions.

  5. Irradiation induced salivary gland neoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-six patients with a prior history of irradiation for benign conditions of the head and neck and salivary gland abnormalities are reported. All the patients had preoperative physical findings suggestive of tumor, not glandular infection. Forty-six per cent of the patients had one carcinoma and 11% had two carcinomas within the irradiated field. Eight of the 11 malignant tumors in these 26 patients were in the parotid gland. The nonmalignant salivary changes were similar to those previously reported in glands receiving therapeutic irradiation for carcinoma

  6. Biotransformation of caffeine, cotinine, and nicotine in stream sediments: Implications for use as wastewater indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, P.M.; Barber, L.B.; Kolpin, D.W.; McMahon, P.B.; Chapelle, F.H.

    2007-01-01

    Microbially catalyzed cleavage of the imadazole ring of caffeine was observed in stream sediments collected upstream and downstream of municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in three geographically separate stream systems. Microbial demethylation of the N-methyl component of cotinine and its metabolic precursor, nicotine, also was observed in these sediments. These findings indicate that stream sediment microorganisms are able to substantially alter the chemical structure and thus the analytical signatures of these candidate waste indicator compounds. The potential for in situ biotransformation must be considered if these compounds are employed as markers to identify the sources and track the fate of wastewater compounds in surface-water systems. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  7. Development of a simple and rapid elisa of urinary cotinine for epidemiological application

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshioka, Nobuo; Dohi, Yoshiko; Yonemasu, Kunio

    1998-01-01

    Highly stereospecific polyclonal antibodies (anti-CN) to cotinine (CN), a major metabolite of nicotine, were prepared from rabbit antisera to CN-linked keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) by removing the antibodies to KLH and to its binding regions of CN. This was achieved by using immunoadsorbents consisting of insolubilized KLH onto CNBr-activated-Sepharose 4B. A new simple and rapid enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) of urinary CN was developed using the anti-CN. A brief outline of the ...

  8. Novel method for the isolation and quantitative analysis of nicotine and cotinine in biological fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maskarinec, M.P.; Harvey, R.W.; Caton, J.E.

    1978-07-01

    A rapid quantitative method has been developed for the estimation of nicotine and cotinine in blood and urine. Isolation is accomplished by adsorption of the alkaloids on Amberlite XAD-2 resin and subsequent elution with chloroform/methanol. No solvent extraction or further purification is required. The final determination is made by high performance liquid chromatography using uv detection. Absolute recovery of nicotine was at least 80% in all samples. The accuracy of the method is estimated to be +-5% on standard addition measurements. Detection limits of 2 ng/ml urine may be routinely obtained.

  9. What Is Salivary Gland Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... here. Most of these tumors are benign (not cancer), but the parotid glands still are where most malignant (cancerous) salivary ... gland adenocarcinomas. Acinic cell carcinoma: Most acinic cell carcinomas start in the parotid gland. They tend to be slow growing and ...

  10. Influence of menstrual cycle and salivary ß-estradiol on volatile sulfur compound

    OpenAIRE

    Shahla Kakoei Dds, Msc; Dds, Fahimeh Barkhori; Ali Mirzazadeh Md, Mph; Mohammad Mohammadi Dds, Msc; Ahmad Gholamhoseinian PhD

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: ß -estradiol is a steroid sex hormone that plays important role in oral physiology. The aim of this studywas to determin the association of the menstrual cycle and salivary ß-estradiol with the production of volatile sulfurcompounds (VSC).METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, twenty female dental students in good oral and general health were recruited forevaluation of VSC, salivary flow, ß-estradiol concentration, oral dryness feeling and dysmenorrhea. Data were analyzedby ma...

  11. Acute citalopram administration produces correlated increases in plasma and salivary cortisol.

    OpenAIRE

    Bhagwagar, Z.; Hafizi, S.; Cowen, Pj

    2002-01-01

    RATIONALE: Intravenous administration of the selective serotonin (5-HT) re-uptake inhibitor, citalopram, increases plasma cortisol. This would be expected to produce a parallel increase in salivary cortisol concentration. OBJECTIVE: To find out whether IV citalopram produces correlated increases in plasma and salivary cortisol levels. METHODS: Twelve healthy volunteers were tested on two occasions receiving either citalopram (10 mg IV) or saline in a double-blind, randomised, cross-over desig...

  12. Green tea consumption after intense taekwondo training enhances salivary defense factors and antibacterial capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shiuan-Pey; Li, Chia-Yang; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Chang, Chen-Kang; Chou, Kuei-Ming; Fang, Shih-Hua

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the short-term effects of green tea consumption on selected salivary defense proteins, antibacterial capacity and anti-oxidation activity in taekwondo (TKD) athletes, following intensive training. Twenty-two TKD athletes performed a 2-hr TKD training session. After training, participants ingested green tea (T, caffeine 6 mg/kg and catechins 22 mg/kg) or an equal volume of water (W). Saliva samples were collected at three time points: before training (BT-T; BT-W), immediately after training (AT-T; AT-W), and 30 min after drinking green tea or water (Rec-T; Rec-W). Salivary total protein, immunoglobulin A (SIgA), lactoferrin, ?-amylase activity, free radical scavenger activity (FRSA) and antibacterial capacity were measured. Salivary total protein, lactoferrin, SIgA concentrations and ?-amylase activity increased significantly immediately after intensive TKD training. After tea drinking and 30 min rest, ?-amylase activity and the ratio of ?-amylase to total protein were significantly higher than before and after training. In addition, salivary antibacterial capacity was not affected by intense training, but green tea consumption after training enhanced salivary antibacterial capacity. Additionally, we observed that salivary FRSA was markedly suppressed immediately after training and quickly returned to pre-exercise values, regardless of which fluid was consumed. Our results show that green tea consumption significantly enhances the activity of ?-amylase and salivary antibacterial capacity. PMID:24498143

  13. Caries correlates strongly to salivary levels of matrix metalloproteinase-8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedenbjörk-Lager, Anders; BjØrndal, Lars

    2015-01-01

    The caries process in dentin involves the degradation of both mineral and organic matrix. The demineralization has been demonstrated to be caused by bacterial acids. However, the collagen degradation is considered to be initiated by endogenous proteolytic enzymes, mainly collagenolytic matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). This paper aims to relate salivary MMP-8 (or salivary collagenase-2) and tissue inhibitor of MMP (TIMP-1) levels to manifest caries in a large number of subjects. A random sample of 451 adults (aged 18-87 years) living in the south of Sweden was included in this study. Standard clinical examinations were performed, and stimulated saliva was collected and analyzed for concentrations of MMP-8, TIMP-1 and total protein, using an immunofluorometric assay, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the Bradford assay, respectively. Salivary numbers of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli were determined using a chair-side kit. Subjects with manifest caries lesions presented with elevated levels of MMP-8 (p < 0.001) as well as total protein, MMP-8/TIMP-1 ratio, bleeding on probing and plaque index (p = 0.05) compared with subjects without manifest caries. Multiple linear regression analysis with caries as the dependent variable revealed MMP-8 as the only significant explanatory variable (p < 0.001). TIMP-1 was not significant in any case. Using MMP-8 as the dependent variable revealed total protein concentration, caries lesions (p ? 0.001) and salivary secretion rate (p = 0.05) as explanatory variables. In conclusion, our data reveal that subjects with manifest caries lesions have elevated levels of salivary MMP-8 relative to subjects with no caries lesions.

  14. Does cotinine act upon reactive oxygen species and peroxidases? / A cotinina age sobre espécies reativas do oxigênio e peroxidases?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J.C.R., Vellosa; N.M., Khalil; L.M., Fonseca; I.L., Brunetti; O.M.M.F., Oliveira.

    Full Text Available A nicotina, um agente oxidante, é certamente um dos alcalóides mais amplamente utilizados no mundo. Juntamente com seu principal metabolito, a cotinina, a nicotina é responsável pela tabaco-dependência. O uso de tabaco está intimamente associado a doenças pulmonares, modificações morfológicas em leu [...] cócitos e a geração de espécies oxidantes. O principal objetivo deste estudo foi identificar uma possível relação entre cotinina, geração de espécies reativas do oxigênio e processos oxidativos. Após o estudo da ação da cotinina em diferentes modelos químicos e em cinéticas enzimáticas com peroxidases (mieloperoxidase e peroxidase de raiz forte), conclui-se que a cotinina não age diretamente sobre H2O2, HOCl, taurine cloramina, peroxidase de raiz forte ou mieloperoxidase. Abstract in english Nicotine, an oxidizing agent, is certainly one of the most widely used alkaloids in the world. It is, together with its main metabolite, cotinine, responsible for tobacco-dependence. The use of tobacco is closely associated with lung disease, morphological leukocyte modification and generation of ox [...] idant species. The aim of this study was to look for a possible relationship between cotinine, oxidant species generation and oxidative processes. After studying the action of cotinine in some chemical oxidation models and on the enzymatic kinetics of peroxidases (myeloperoxidase and horseradish peroxidase), we concluded that cotinine does not act directly upon H2O2, HOCl, taurine chloramines, horseradish peroxidase or myeloperoxidase.

  15. Salivary cortisol, salivary alpha amylase, and the dental anxiety scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadi, Hana; Finkelman, Matthew; Rosenberg, Morton

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between dental anxiety, salivary cortisol, and salivary alpha amylase (sAA) levels. Furthermore, the aim was to look into individual differences such as age, race, gender, any existing pain, or traumatic dental experience and their effect on dental anxiety. This study followed a cross-sectional design and included a convenience sample of 46. Every patient was asked to complete the Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS) and a basic demographic/dental history questionnaire. A saliva sample, utilizing the method of passive drooling, was then collected in 2-mL cryovials. Samples were analyzed for salivary cortisol and sAA levels by Salimetrics. Significant associations were observed between DAS scores and presence of pain and history of traumatic dental experience. However, no significant correlations were observed between DAS, cortisol, and sAA levels. Our study reconfirms that dental anxiety is associated with presence of pain and a history of traumatic dental experience. On the other hand, our study was the first to our knowledge to test the correlation between the DAS and sAA; nevertheless, our results failed to show any significant correlation between dental anxiety, cortisol, and sAA levels. PMID:23763559

  16. What Are the Key Statistics about Salivary Gland Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for salivary gland cancer? What are the key statistics about salivary gland cancer? Salivary gland cancers are ... be better or worse than this.) For more statistics related to survival, see the section “ Survival rates ...

  17. Salivary secretion during meals in lactating dairy cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Beauchemin, K. A.; Eriksen, L.; Nørgaard, Peder; Rode, L. M.

    2008-01-01

    Four multiparous Holstein cows in midlactation were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square to evaluate whether source of forage influenced salivary secretion during eating in lactating dairy cows. The forages were allocated separately from the pelleted concentrates. Cows were offered 1 of 4 forages each period: barley silage, alfalfa silage, long-stemmed alfalfa hay, or chopped barley straw. Saliva secretion was measured during the morning meal by collecting masticates through the rumen cannula at the ...

  18. Salivary paracetamol elimination kinetics during the menstrual cycle.

    OpenAIRE

    Somaja, L.; Thangam, J.

    1987-01-01

    Studies were done to examine the influence of the menstrual cycle on the elimination kinetics of paracetamol. Salivary concentrations of paracetamol were determined after oral administration of 1 g of paracetamol on day 3, 10, 14, 20 and 25 of the menstrual cycle in normal healthy women volunteers with regular menstrual cycles. There was no significant difference in elimination half-life (t 1/2) or metabolic clearance rate (CL) between the various days of the menstrual cycle. The result sugge...

  19. Immunosensor with Fluid Control Mechanism for Salivary Cortisol Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi, Masaki; Matsuda, Yohei; Sasaki, Shohei; Sasaki, Makoto; Kadoma, Yoshihiro; Imai, Yoshikatsu; Niwa, Daisuke; Shetty, Vivek

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to demonstrate a new design for a cortisol immunosensor for the noninvasive and quantitative analysis of salivary cortisol. We propose a cortisol immunosensor with a fluid control mechanism which has both a vertical flow and a lateral flow. The detected current resulting from a competitive reaction between the sample cortisol and a glucose oxidase (GOD)-labeled cortisol conjugate was found to be inversely related to the concentration of cortisol in the sample s...

  20. [The value of ultrasonography in salivary pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, P

    1990-01-01

    Ultrasound has been increasingly used in recent years and thanks to high performance, easy to use apparatus, it can now be used for exploration of the salivary glands. This non invasive, painless and relatively inexpensive examination provides rapid visualisation of the salivary glands and is a useful adjunct to radio-xero-sialographic examination, particularly in tumour pathology. Following a review of normal appearances, the author briefly describes the various salivary gland lesions. PMID:2130478

  1. SALIVARY ANTIMICROBIAL PROTEIN RESPONSE TO PROLONGED RUNNING

    OpenAIRE

    Suzanne Schneider; Karol Dokladny; Cheryl Gourley; Matthew Kuennen; Gillum, Trevor L.

    2013-01-01

    Prolonged exercise may compromise immunity through a reduction of salivary antimicrobial proteins (AMPs). Salivary IgA (IgA) has been extensively studied, but little is known about the effect of acute, prolonged exercise on AMPs including lysozyme (Lys) and lactoferrin (Lac). Objective: To determine the effect of a 50-km trail race on salivary cortisol (Cort), IgA, Lys, and Lac. Methods: 14 subjects: (6 females, 8 males) completed a 50km ultramarathon. Saliva was collected pre, immediatel...

  2. Quantitative evaluation of Streptococcus mutans and Candida sp and salivary factors in the oral cavity of patients submitted to radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to quantify the microorganisms Streptococcus mutans and Candida sp in the oral cavity of patients with oropharynx carcinoma, before, during and after radiotherapy, and to correlate the results with salivary factors such as pH, buffer capacity and flow rate. Saliva samples were collected, diluted and inoculated in SB-20 agar and in Sabouraud agar, for Streptococcus mutans and Candida sp, respectively. Previously to dilution, the concentrated saliva was analyzed, and the salivary factors were determined. After the growth of colonies, the number of microorganisms was determined in CFU/ml. The analysis of the results allowed to conclude that the salivary factors are related to the presence of microorganisms, and that the number of CFU/ml increased as salivary flow rate decreased. The effects of radiation compromised salivary homeostasis and favored the increase of infection by yeasts and bacteria. (author)

  3. Salivary Gland Development: A Template for Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vaishali N.; Hoffman, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian salivary gland develops as a highly branched structure designed to produce and secrete saliva. This review will focus on research on mouse submandibular gland development and the translation of this basic research towards therapy for patients suffering from salivary hypofunction. Here we review the most recent literature that has enabled a better understanding of the mechanisms of salivary gland development. Additionally, we discuss approaches proposed to restore salivary function using gene and cell-based therapy. Increasing our understanding of the developmental mechanisms involved during development is critical to design effective therapies for regeneration and repair of damaged glands. PMID:24333774

  4. [Ultrasound of the salivary glands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritzmann, N

    2009-01-01

    In acute inflammatory diseases sonography can differentiate between obstructive or non-obstructive sialoadenitis. Abscess formations may be detected and the maturation of the colliquation may be controlled. Abscesses may be punctured under US guidance. In Sjögren's syndrome the sonographic changes correlate with the histological destruction, in acute forms hypervascularisation is found in color Doppler. In fibrotic cases the stimulation-induced hyperemia is impaired. In sialoadenosis inflammatory and tumorous lesions can be ruled out by sonography. Tumors of the salivary glands can be visualized with high sensitivity. Like other imaging methods the specificity in assessment of the histology of a tumor is low. Multilocular lesions as sarcoidosis, lymphoma, metastases or cystadenolymphoma are discussed. In deep located, malignant tumors or when the tumor cannot be delineated completely, MR or CT are obligatory to delineate the tumor. Sonography enables the diagnosis of cysts or ranulae. The accuracy of sonography in assessment of sialolithiasis is about 90 %. Non-opaque stones can be visualized, too. However, small stones of less than 2 mm are difficult to detect since the posterior shadow may be missing. The concrements can be differentiated into intraductal or intraglandular stones. Indirect signs like ductal dilatations or inflammatory changes may be found. Pseudotumorous lesions as hypertrophy of the masseter muscle, tuberculosis, sarcoidosis or lymphoepithelial lesions in AIDS are discussed. In children the main differential diagnosis of salivary gland pathologies are addressed. In many diseases sonography is the first line imaging modality in assessment of salivary glands. PMID:19148852

  5. A Laboratory Exercise to Illustrate Increased Salivary Cortisol in Response to Three Stressful Conditions Using Competitive ELISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark F. Haussmann (Iowa State University Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Organismal Biology)

    2007-03-01

    Here, we outline a laboratory exercise that uses a competitive ELISA kit to illustrate the response of salivary cortisol concentrations to three stressful conditions: presentation stress, fasting stress, and competition stress

  6. Salivary and serum interleukin 1 beta, interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha in patients with leukoplakia and oral cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Brailo, Vlaho; Vucicevic-boras, Vanja; Lukac, Josip; Biocina-lukenda, Dolores; Zilic-alajbeg, Iva; Milenovic, Aleksandar; Balija, Melita

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of study was to compare salivary and serum concentrations of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1?), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) in patients with oral leukoplakia, oral cancer and healthy controls. Study design: Eighty eight patients (28 with oral cancer, 29 leukoplakia, and 31 healthy controls) were included in this study. Cytokine concentrations were measured by commercial enzyme linked immunoassay. Results: Salivary IL-1? and IL-6 were sign...

  7. Salivary defense factors in herpes simplex virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Välimaa, H; Waris, M; Hukkanen, V; Blankenvoorde, M F J; Nieuw Amerongen, A V; Tenovuo, J

    2002-06-01

    Saliva may contribute to a lowering of the infectious herpes simplex virus (HSV) dose during transmission and consequently abrogate infection or lead to decreased reactivation. To test this hypothesis, we assayed saliva for innate defense factors, immunoglobulin content, and the capacity to interfere with HSV infection. Serum or salivary anti-HSV IgG levels did not correlate with control of recurrent labial herpes (RLH) and were significantly higher in subjects with RLH compared with asymptomatic seropositive subjects. Although no differences in levels or output rate of innate defense factors between the groups were observed, the salivary neutralizing activity correlated with lactoferrin and hypothiocyanite concentrations in the asymptomatic seropositive group. Our results suggest that saliva contains factors, in addition to anti-HSV immunoglobulins, that neutralize HSV and may indirectly contribute to the control of RLH. PMID:12097435

  8. Salivary duct carcinoma of parotid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinnera Vijay Sreedhar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A 40-year old male presented with rapidly growing swelling in the right parotid region. Based on the fine needle aspiration cytology report of adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified, superficial parotidectomy was performed, which showed the features of salivary duct carcinoma by histopathological examination. The smears were reviewed to identify the potential pitfalls in the cytological diagnosis of salivary duct carcinoma.

  9. General Information about Salivary Gland Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the salivary glands. The salivary glands make saliva and release it into the mouth. Saliva has enzymes that help digest food and antibodies ... called nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI). CT scan (CAT scan) : A procedure that makes a series of ...

  10. Salivary cortisol in ambulatory assessment--some dos, some don'ts, and some open questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudielka, Brigitte M; Gierens, Andrea; Hellhammer, Dirk H; Wüst, Stefan; Schlotz, Wolff

    2012-05-01

    The impact of stress on health and disease is an important research topic in psychosomatic medicine. Because research on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation under controlled laboratory studies lacks ecological validity, it needs to be complemented by a research program that includes momentary ambulatory assessment. The measurement of salivary cortisol offers the possibility to trace the free steroid hormone concentrations in ambulant settings. Therefore, in this article, we first discuss the role of salivary cortisol in ambulatory monitoring. We start with a brief description of HPA axis regulation, and we then consider cortisol assessments in other organic materials, followed by a presentation of common salivary markers of HPA axis regulation suitable for ambulatory assessment. We further provide an overview on assessment designs and sources of variability within and between subjects (intervening variables), acknowledge the issue of (non)compliance, and address statistical aspects. We further give an overview of associations with psychosocial and health-related variables relevant for ambulatory assessment. Finally, we deal with preanalytical aspects of laboratory salivary cortisol analysis. The relative simplicity of salivary cortisol assessment protocols may lead to an overoptimistic view of the robustness of this method. We thus discuss several important issues related to the collection and storage of saliva samples and present empirical data on the stability of salivary cortisol measurements over time. PMID:22582339

  11. Expression and localization of cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase in major salivary glands of male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shengnan; Liu, Ying; Ma, Qiwang; Cui, Sheng; Liu, Jiali

    2015-04-01

    Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is the most abundant free amino acid in mammalian cells. It plays a significant role in cell development, nutrition, and survival, such as in the regulation of ion transport and osmoregulation. Cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase (CSD) is the rate-limiting biosynthetic enzyme of taurine. Recently, the synthesis of taurine has been observed in the central nervous system, kidney, liver, and muscle. However, the synthesis of taurine in the salivary glands has still not been described in detail. We have detected CSD expression in the major salivary glands of adult male mice by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blot, and immunofluorescence. In addition, we determined the content of taurine by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results show that taurine is present in high concentrations in the major salivary glands of male mice. CSD messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein are expressed in the major salivary glands of male mice. The relative levels of CSD mRNA increase from the submandibular gland (SMG) to the sublingual gland (SLG) and parotid gland (PG), but the levels of the CSD protein are the opposite. The immunofluorescence results indicate that CSD is mainly located in the excretory ducts (EDs) and interlobular duct (IL) of SMG and ED in SLG, respectively. These results suggest that the major salivary glands of male mice produce taurine through the CSD pathway, and the synthesis of taurine might be related to sodium reabsorption in the salivary glands. PMID:25645459

  12. Gelsolin is a potential cellular target for cotinine to regulate the migration and apoptosis of A549 and T24 cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Jakub Marcin; Klimaszewska-Wi?niewska, Anna; Izdebska, Magdalena; Gagat, Maciej; Grzanka, Alina

    2015-02-01

    In the present work, we have investigated the effect of cotinine, the major metabolite of nicotine on the A549 and T24 cell lines in the context of structural and quantitative changes of F-actin, gelsolin and vimentin. The chosen cell lines constitute the established experimental models for lung and bladder cancers, respectively, in the case of which, smoking cigarettes is one of the key factor increasing their incidence rate significantly. In order to evaluate the impact of cotinine on the viability and proliferation of A549 and T24 cells, the MTT assay was performed. The organization and distribution of F-actin, gelsolin and vimentin were examined using conventional and confocal fluorescence microscopy. The levels of F-actin and gelsolin as well as the percentages of apoptotic and dead cells were assessed using the image-based cytometer. The ultrastructural changes of cotinine-treated A549 and T24 cells were visualized under the transmission electron microscopy. We have shown here that cotinine enhances the survival and proliferation rate of A549 and T24 cells. We have also found that in A549 cells, but not in T24 cell line, cotinine acted stimulating on the vimentin filament network. Furthermore, the increase in the fluorescence intensity of gelsolin upon the addition of cotinine to the T24 cells was found to be correlated with the lack of apoptosis induction as well as the increase of migration potential of these cells. On the other hand, the cotinine-induced decrease in the fluorescence intensity of gelsolin was associated with the increase in the percentages of apoptotic A549 cells and the decreased migratory ability of these cells. Based on the obtained results, we propose that the gelsolin is an important cellular target for cotinine, through which this compound influences on the basic processes involved in neoplastic transformation and metastasis, such as migration and apoptosis. PMID:25544037

  13. Osteopontin expression in salivary gland carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    BjØrndal, Kristine; Larsen, Stine R

    2011-01-01

    J Oral Pathol Med (2010) Background:? In several cancer types, osteopontin (OPN) expression has been correlated with tumor progression and prognosis. Two earlier studies have examined OPN expression in salivary gland carcinomas with contradictory results. Methods:? One hundred and seventy-five patients with a primary salivary gland carcinoma diagnosed from January 1, 1990 to December 31, 2005 were identified in the local pathology register, Odense University Hospital. Criteria as documented by Allred et al. were used to assess OPN immunostaining that was performed on surgical specimens. Results:? Osteopontin was expressed in all salivary gland carcinomas. Adenoid cystic carcinomas had the highest mean sum score (7.3) and a significantly higher proportion of carcinomas with high OPN sum score than both mucoepidermoid carcinoma and acinic cell carcinoma. Correlation of OPN expression with known prognostic factors in salivary gland carcinomas was insignificant. Conclusions:? Salivary gland carcinomas express OPN. The expression does not correlate with known prognostic factors.

  14. Sonography of the salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritzmann, N; Rettenbacher, T; Hollerweger, A; Macheiner, P; Hübner, E

    2003-05-01

    Due to their superficial position, the parotid, the submandibular, and the sublingual glands can be imaged with high-resolution transducers. In acute inflammatory diseases sonography can differentiate between obstructive or non-obstructive sialoadenitis. Abscess formations may be detected and the maturation of the colliquation may be controlled. Abscesses may be punctured under US guidance. In Sjögren's syndrome the sonographic changes correlate with the histological destruction, and in acute forms hypervascularization is found in color Doppler. In fibrotic cases the stimulation-induced hyperemia is impaired. In sialoadenosis inflammatory and tumorous lesions can be ruled out by sonography. Tumors of the salivary glands can be visualized with high sensitivity. Like other imaging methods the specificity in assessment of the histology of a tumor is low. Multilocular lesions, such as sarcoidosis, lymphoma, metastases, or cystadenolymphoma, are discussed. In deep located, malignant tumors or when the tumor cannot be delineated completely, MR or CT are obligatory to delineate the tumor. Sonography enables the diagnosis of cysts or ranulae. The accuracy of sonography in assessment of sialolithiasis is approximately 90%. Non-opaque stones can be visualized, too; however, small stones of less than 2 mm are difficult to detect since the posterior shadow may be missing. The concrements can be differentiated into intraductal or intraglandular stones. Indirect signs, such as ductal dilatations or inflammatory changes, may be found. Pseudotumorous lesions, such as hypertrophy of the masseter muscle, tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, or lymphoepithelial lesions in AIDS, are discussed. In children the main differential diagnosis of salivary gland pathologies are addressed. In many diseases sonography is the first-line imaging modality in assessment of salivary glands. PMID:12695816

  15. [Determination of urinary cotinine of children exposed to passive smoking by stable isotope dilution gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Huang, Zhiqiang; Ye, Ying; Zhang, Ying; Xiao, Shuiyuan

    2014-06-01

    An analytical method for the determination of urinary cotinine of children exposed to passive smoking was established based on stable isotope dilution by gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The samples were extracted and purified with chloroform. The extracts were determined by GC-MS/MS in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The cotinine-d3 as an isotope internal standard was applied to quantify and confirm the urinary cotinine of children exposed to passive smoking. The method had a good linearity from 0.1 microg/L to 10 microg/L with the correlation coefficient (r) > 0.998. The recoveries of the cotinine in blank urine were from 79.2% to 112.8% at spiked levels of 0.1, 1.0 and 10 microg/ L, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) from 2.1% to 5. 8%. The limit of quantification ( LOQ) of the method was 0.1 microg/L. The developed method is accurate, sensitive, rapid and can be applied to detect urinary cotinine of children exposed to passive smoking at home. PMID:25269267

  16. Immunochromatographic assay using gold nanoparticles for measuring salivary secretory IgA in dogs as a stress marker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Aki; Kato, Yuya; Takezaki, Makoto; Tominaga, Toshihiro; Moriyama, Yoshiko; Takeda, Kunio; Miyahara, Toshiro; Nagatani, Naoki [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Okayama University of Science, 1-1 Ridai-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-0005 (Japan); Uchiyama, Shigeru [Okayama University of Science Specialized Training College, 8-3 Handa-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-0003 (Japan); Yuhi, Teruko; Ushijima, Hiromi, E-mail: nagatani@dac.ous.ac.j [Biodevicetechnology Ltd. 2-13 Asahidai, Nomi-City, Ishikawa 923-1211 (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    The concentration of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) is a well-known stress marker for humans. The concentration of salivary sIgA in dogs has also been reported as a useful stress marker. In addition, salivary sIgA in dogs has been used to determine the adaptive ability of dogs for further training. There are conventional procedures based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs. However, ELISA requires long assay time, complicated operations and is costly. In the present study, we developed an immunochromatographic assay for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs using a dilution buffer containing a non-ionic surfactant. We determined 2500-fold dilution as the optimum condition for dog saliva using a phosphate buffer (50 mM, pH 7.2) containing non-ionic surfactant (3 wt% Tween 20). The results obtained from the saliva samples of three dogs using immunochromatographic assay were compared with those obtained from ELISA. It was found that the immunochromatographic assay is applicable to judge the change in salivary sIgA in each dog. The immunochromatographic assay for salivary sIgA in dogs is a promising tool, which should soon become commercially available for predicting a dog's psychological condition and estimating adaptive ability for training as guide or police dogs.

  17. Immunochromatographic assay using gold nanoparticles for measuring salivary secretory IgA in dogs as a stress marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aki Takahashi, Shigeru Uchiyama, Yuya Kato, Teruko Yuhi, Hiromi Ushijima, Makoto Takezaki, Toshihiro Tominaga, Yoshiko Moriyama, Kunio Takeda, Toshiro Miyahara and Naoki Nagatani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA is a well-known stress marker for humans. The concentration of salivary sIgA in dogs has also been reported as a useful stress marker. In addition, salivary sIgA in dogs has been used to determine the adaptive ability of dogs for further training. There are conventional procedures based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs. However, ELISA requires long assay time, complicated operations and is costly. In the present study, we developed an immunochromatographic assay for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs using a dilution buffer containing a non-ionic surfactant. We determined 2500-fold dilution as the optimum condition for dog saliva using a phosphate buffer (50 mM, pH 7.2 containing non-ionic surfactant (3 wt% Tween 20. The results obtained from the saliva samples of three dogs using immunochromatographic assay were compared with those obtained from ELISA. It was found that the immunochromatographic assay is applicable to judge the change in salivary sIgA in each dog. The immunochromatographic assay for salivary sIgA in dogs is a promising tool, which should soon become commercially available for predicting a dog's psychological condition and estimating adaptive ability for training as guide or police dogs.

  18. Immunochromatographic assay using gold nanoparticles for measuring salivary secretory IgA in dogs as a stress marker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Aki; Uchiyama, Shigeru; Kato, Yuya; Yuhi, Teruko; Ushijima, Hiromi; Takezaki, Makoto; Tominaga, Toshihiro; Moriyama, Yoshiko; Takeda, Kunio; Miyahara, Toshiro; Nagatani, Naoki

    2009-06-01

    The concentration of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) is a well-known stress marker for humans. The concentration of salivary sIgA in dogs has also been reported as a useful stress marker. In addition, salivary sIgA in dogs has been used to determine the adaptive ability of dogs for further training. There are conventional procedures based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs. However, ELISA requires long assay time, complicated operations and is costly. In the present study, we developed an immunochromatographic assay for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs using a dilution buffer containing a non-ionic surfactant. We determined 2500-fold dilution as the optimum condition for dog saliva using a phosphate buffer (50 mM, pH 7.2) containing non-ionic surfactant (3 wt% Tween 20). The results obtained from the saliva samples of three dogs using immunochromatographic assay were compared with those obtained from ELISA. It was found that the immunochromatographic assay is applicable to judge the change in salivary sIgA in each dog. The immunochromatographic assay for salivary sIgA in dogs is a promising tool, which should soon become commercially available for predicting a dog's psychological condition and estimating adaptive ability for training as guide or police dogs.

  19. Immunochromatographic assay using gold nanoparticles for measuring salivary secretory IgA in dogs as a stress marker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) is a well-known stress marker for humans. The concentration of salivary sIgA in dogs has also been reported as a useful stress marker. In addition, salivary sIgA in dogs has been used to determine the adaptive ability of dogs for further training. There are conventional procedures based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs. However, ELISA requires long assay time, complicated operations and is costly. In the present study, we developed an immunochromatographic assay for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs using a dilution buffer containing a non-ionic surfactant. We determined 2500-fold dilution as the optimum condition for dog saliva using a phosphate buffer (50 mM, pH 7.2) containing non-ionic surfactant (3 wt% Tween 20). The results obtained from the saliva samples of three dogs using immunochromatographic assay were compared with those obtained from ELISA. It was found that the immunochromatographic assay is applicable to judge the change in salivary sIgA in each dog. The immunochromatographic assay for salivary sIgA in dogs is a promising tool, which should soon become commercially available for predicting a dog's psychological condition and estimating adaptive ability for training as guide or police dogs.

  20. Salivary gland dysfunction and xerostomia in Sjögren's syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Siri Beier; Vissink, Arjan

    2014-01-01

    In this article, salivary gland dysfunction and xerostomia in Sjögren's syndrome (SS) are discussed, with a focus on the pathophysiology of salivary dysfunction in SS, the clinical presentation of dry mouth in SS, how to assess salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia in SS, and the impact of salivary gland dysfunction on quality of life in patients with SS

  1. Cord serum cotinine as a biomarker of fetal exposure to cigarette smoke at the end of pregnancy.

    OpenAIRE

    Pichini, S.; Basagan?a, X. B.; Pacifici, R.; Garcia, O.; Puig, C.; Vall, O.; Harris, J.; Zuccaro, P.; Segura, J.; Sunyer, J.

    2000-01-01

    This study investigated the association between biomarkers of fetal exposure to cigarette smoke at the end of pregnancy, cotinine in cord serum and in maternal and newborn urine samples, and quantitative measurement of smoking intake and exposure evaluated by maternal self-reported questionnaire. Study subjects were 429 mothers and their newborns from a hospital in Barcelona, Spain. A questionnaire including smoking habits was completed in the third trimester of pregnancy and on the day of de...

  2. The Effects of Electronic Cigarette Emissions on Systemic Cotinine Levels, Weight and Postnatal Lung Growth in Neonatal Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath-Morrow, Sharon A.; Hayashi, Madoka; Aherrera, Angela; Lopez, Armando; Malinina, Alla; Collaco, Joseph M.; Neptune, Enid; Klein, Jonathan D.; Winickoff, Jonathan P.; Breysse, Patrick; Lazarus, Philip; Chen, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objective Electronic cigarette (E-cigarettes) emissions present a potentially new hazard to neonates through inhalation, dermal and oral contact. Exposure to nicotine containing E-cigarettes may cause significant systemic absorption in neonates due to the potential for multi-route exposure. Systemic absorption of nicotine and constituents of E-cigarette emissions may adversely impact weight and lung development in the neonate. To address these questions we exposed neonatal mice to E-cigarette emissions and measured systemic cotinine levels and alveolar lung growth. Methods/Main Results Neonatal mice were exposed to E-cigarettes for the first 10 days of life. E-cigarette cartridges contained either 1.8% nicotine in propylene glycol (PG) or PG vehicle alone. Daily weights, plasma and urine cotinine levels and lung growth using the alveolar mean linear intercept (MLI) method were measured at 10 days of life and compared to room air controls. Mice exposed to 1.8% nicotine/PG had a 13.3% decrease in total body weight compared to room air controls. Plasma cotinine levels were found to be elevated in neonatal mice exposed to 1.8% nicotine/PG E-cigarettes (mean 62.34± 3.3 ng/ml). After adjusting for sex and weight, the nicotine exposed mice were found to have modestly impaired lung growth by MLI compared to room air control mice (pE-cigarette emissions during the neonatal period can adversely impact weight gain. In addition exposure to nicotine containing E-cigarettes can cause detectable levels of systemic cotinine, diminished alveolar cell proliferation and a modest impairment in postnatal lung growth. PMID:25706869

  3. Credibility of a smoking questionnaire based on urine cotinine level for patients with bladder cancer – a preliminary report

    OpenAIRE

    Leszniewski, Jaros?aw; Pufal, Ewa; Wolski, Zbigniew

    2011-01-01

    An analysis of the reliability of a questionnaire on smoking in 96 patients with transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder. The credibility of the questionnaire was evaluated based on the detection of cotinine, an objective marker of tobacco smoke exposure, in urine. It was confirmed that approximately 18% of smokers did not admit to smoking, did not comply with recommendations to stop smoking, and about 4% of non-smokers were exposed to tobacco smoke unknowingly.

  4. Cotinine and N-(2-hydroxyethyl)valine as markers of passive exposure to tobacco smoke in children

    OpenAIRE

    Gilli, Giorgio; Scursatone, Vincenzo; Pignata, Cristina; Vincenti, Marco; Bono, Roberto; Traversi, Deborah; Schiliro, Tiziana

    2005-01-01

    Large segments of populations, including children, are exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), a risk factor for lung cancer and heart, circulatory and respiratory diseases. Recently, ETS was classified as a class A carcinogen by USEPA, as carcinogenic to humans by IARC (group 1) and by the National Toxicology Program of the US National Institutes of Health. Cotinine, a product of the metabolism of nicotine, is measurable in urine and, correlates strictly and directly to ETS exposure...

  5. Salivary thyroxine as an estimate of free thyroxine: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To test the hypothesis that the levels of salivary thyroxine (T4) reflect those of circulating free T4, we developed a radioimmunoassay (RIA) sensitive to low levels of T4. Concurrent saliva and serum samples were obtained from 32 euthyroid volunteers, ages 19 to 64. Salivary and serum T4 and cortisol levels were measured by RIA. Salivary albumin was measured by nephelometry. Salivary T4 levels were higher than predicted. No correlation was found between salivary T4 and serum levels of free T4 and total T4 but there was a significant correlation between salivary T4 and albumin (r = 0.82). Salivary cortisol levels agreed with reported results and showed no correlation with salivary albumin. We conclude that salivary levels of drugs and hormones may be strongly affected by protein binding, and caution must be exercised in using salivary levels as an estimate of circulating free levels

  6. MRI of salivary gland tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ariyoshi, Yasunori; Shimahara, Masashi; Senda, Jyunko; Sakinaka, Isao [Osaka Medical Coll., Takatsuki (Japan); Nakano, Yoshinobu

    1996-04-01

    MRI findings of 13 patients with proven salivary gland tumors, including 7 cases of parotid gland tumors, 2 cases of submandibular gland tumors, and 4 cases of minor salivary gland tumors, were reviewed. All examinations were carried out on a 1.5-T MRI system (General Electric, SIGNA Performance plus and SIMAZU, SMT-150X) with spin echo sequence. T1 and T2 weighted images and Gd-DTPA enhanced T1 weighted images were obtained. The results were as follows: All tumors demonstrated low to intermediate signal intensity on T1 weighted images and intermediate to high signal intensity on T2 weighted images. The differences between malignant and benign tumors were not detected by means of the signal intensity of the tumors. Tumor margins were clear except for 2 cases, including inflamed pleomorphic adenoma of the submandibular gland and adenoid cystic carcinoma of the parotid gland. Except for the case of adenolymphoma, internal structures of the tumor are inhomogenous, especially on T2 weighted images. Although the intraparotid facial nerve is not detected directly, whether the tumor is located on superficial or deep lobe could be detected by drawing a line between the lateral surface of the posterior belly of the digastric muscle and the lateral posterior border of the mandible except for one case and using the retromandibular vein except for two cases. (author).

  7. Serum Level of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 in Patients with Salivary Gland Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Mardani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the Problem: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs have been implicated in the pathogenesis of certain diseases and cancers via tissue destruction and can be secreted into the blood stream. MMP9 expression in the salivary gland tissue was evaluated but their serum level in the salivary gland tumors was not studied. Purpose: The aim of our study was to determine the concentration of serum MMP-9 in healthy participants and in patients with salivary gland tumor. Materials and Method: Using an ELISA kit, the circulating levels of MMP-9 in sera from 58 patients with salivary gland tumor (31 pleomorphic adenoma, 17 adenoid cystic carcinoma and 10 mucoepidermoid carcinoma and 30 healthy controls was assessed. Results: The serum MMP9 level in patients with salivary gland tumors (380.0±301.3 pg/ml also patients with benign tumors (354.3±218.7 pg/ml (354.3±218.7 pg/ml were significantly lower than that in the healthy group (727.4±624.6 pg/ml (Respectively p= 0.02 and p= 0.01. Mean serum MMP9 concentration in malignant tumors was (402.3±441.8pg/ml higher than benign tumors (354.3±218.7 pg/ml but the difference was not significant (p= 0.9. Conclusion: Our results showed that serum level of MMP9 decreased in patients with salivary gland tumors which suggest that MMP9 may not have a potential role in development and pathogenesis of salivary gland tumor.

  8. Serum Level of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 in Patients with Salivary Gland Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardani, Maryam; Andisheh-Tadbir, Azadeh; Khademi, Bijan; Biparva, Peyman; Malekzadeh, Mahyar

    2014-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of certain diseases and cancers via tissue destruction and can be secreted into the blood stream. MMP9 expression in the salivary gland tissue was evaluated but their serum level in the salivary gland tumors was not studied. Purpose: The aim of our study was to determine the concentration of serum MMP-9 in healthy participants and in patients with salivary gland tumor. Materials and Method: Using an ELISA kit, the circulating levels of MMP-9 in sera from 58 patients with salivary gland tumor (31 pleomorphic adenoma, 17 adenoid cystic carcinoma and 10 mucoepidermoid carcinoma) and 30 healthy controls was assessed. Results: The serum MMP9 level in patients with salivary gland tumors (380.0±301.3 pg/ml) also patients with benign tumors (354.3±218.7 pg/ml) (354.3±218.7 pg/ml) were significantly lower than that in the healthy group (727.4±624.6 pg/ml) (Respectively p= 0.02 and p= 0.01). Mean serum MMP9 concentration in malignant tumors was (402.3±441.8pg/ml) higher than benign tumors (354.3±218.7 pg/ml) but the difference was not significant (p= 0.9). Conclusion: Our results showed that serum level of MMP9 decreased in patients with salivary gland tumors which suggest that MMP9 may not have a potential role in development and pathogenesis of salivary gland tumor. PMID:25469360

  9. High-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection cotinine method adapted for the assessment of tobacco smoke exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolomé, Mónica; Gallego-Picó, Alejandrina; Huetos, Olga; Castaño, Argelia

    2014-06-01

    Smoking is considered to be one of the main risk factors for cancer and other diseases and is the second leading cause of death worldwide. As the anti-tobacco legislation implemented in Europe has reduced secondhand smoke exposure levels, analytical methods must be adapted to these new levels. Recent research has demonstrated that cotinine is the best overall discriminator when biomarkers are used to determine whether a person has ongoing exposure to tobacco smoke. This work proposes a sensitive, simple and low-cost method based on solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography with diode array detection for the assessment of tobacco smoke exposure by cotinine determination in urine. The analytical procedure is simple and fast (20 min) when compared to other similar methods existing in the literature, and it is cheaper than the mass spectrometry techniques usually used to quantify levels in nonsmokers. We obtained a quantification limit of 12.30 ?g/L and a recovery of over 90%. The linearity ranges used were 12-250 and 250-4000 ?g/L. The method was successfully used to determine cotinine in urine samples collected from different volunteers and is clearly an alternative routine method that allows active and passive smokers to be distinguished. PMID:24668723

  10. Nizatidine and cisapride increase salivary secretion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Kyoichi; Furuta, Kenji; Katsube, Tomoko; Fujisawa, Tomoo; Azumi, Takane; Fujishiro, Hirofumi; Ishihara, Shunji; Amano, Yuji; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu

    2004-03-01

    Saliva is a neurally induced solution with buffering capacity against acidic solutions. Salivation therefore plays an important role in defending the esophageal mucosa against refluxed gastric acid and is evoked by cholinergic stimulation. Both nizatidine and cisapride are reported to increase acetylcholine concentrations in the postganglionic cholinergic synapses. We performed this study to clarify the effect of administration of nizatidine and cisapride on salivary secretion. Eight-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were used for the experiments. Histamine-stimulated gastric acid secretion was measured after intraduodenal administration of nizatidine or famotidine to determine the equipotent acid-suppressing doses. Salivary secretion was then measured for 3 hr after intraduodenal administration of nizatidine (30 mg/kg), famotidine (3 mg/kg), or cisapride (1 mg/kg). Both nizatidine and famotidine dose-dependently inhibited histamine-stimulated gastric acid secretion. Total salivary secretion was significantly increased by nizatidine (P = 0.02) and cisapride (P = 0.02) but not by famotidine (P = 0.50) compared with controls. PMID:15139487

  11. Clinical evaluation of Sjoegren's syndrome by salivary gland scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 20 cases of Sjo7gren's syndrome which was diagnosed according to the criteria directed by Ministry of Health Welfare, salivary scintigraphy revealed decreased RI uptake of the major salivary glands (the parotid gland, submandibular gland) (75%), difference between right and left RI uptakes (80%), residual image after salivation (94%), suggesting remarkable decrease in salivary secretory function. The results of salivary scintigraphy correlated with those of sialography in advanced cases. There was a correlation between histopathological findings and salivary scintigram. (Ueda, J.)

  12. Salivary Duct Carcinoma of the Minor Salivary Gland: A Rare Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Gupta

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Salivary duct carcinoma is a rare invasive malignancy arising in the ductal epithelium of the salivary glands. Nearly 85% of the cases occur in the parotid gland followed by submandibular gland. Rarely is it described in the hard palate. Salivary duct carcinomas affecting the minor salivary glands have been reported in only 4% of the SDC cases and constitute 2% of all the salivary gland malignant neoplasms. It is characterized by aggressive behavior with early metastasis, local recurrence and significant mortality. The tumor has predilection for older men in the 6th to 7th decades of life. In this article; we report a case of a salivary gland carcinoma which was present in the right posterior region of the maxilla of a 50 year old female patient. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2013; 1(4.000: 222-226

  13. Determinación de cotinina y exposición a tabaco / Cotinine detection and tobacco smoke exposure

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marta Noemí, Vacchino; Susana María, Velurtas; Guillermo Pablo, Salinas; Héctor Hugo, Garcialoredo.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La exposición a tabaco es una de las causas prevenibles de morbilidad y mortalidad prematura más importante. Se describe un método simple y rápido de detección de cotinina (principal metabolito de nicotina) en orina humana. Se utilizó cromatografía gas-líquido (CGL) con un detector de ionización de [...] llama (FID). Se realizó una extracción líquido-líquido con cloroformo en medio alcalino; el extracto fue secado a 37 °C y redisuelto en 100 µL de solución alcohólica con estándar interno piridina. Se analizó la orina de personas que declararon ser fumadoras y no fumadoras. Mediante la construcción de dos curvas de calibración se cubrió un rango de linealidad de 3 a 5.000 ng/mL. Los fumadores presentaron una mediana y cuartiles (Q) de concentración de cotinina: 255,4 ng/mL, 15,9 ng/mL (Q1) - 1.050,2 ng/mL (Q3), respectivamente, y los no fumadores 15,8 ng/mL, 4,1 ng/mL (Q1) - 38,4 ng/mL (Q3). Wilcoxon sumrank: z = 4,865 p Abstract in english Tobacco is one of the major preventable causes of morbidity and premature mortality in the world. A simple, rapid method for determination of cotinine, major metabolite of nicotine in urine, is described. The assay involves a fast liquid-liquid extraction with chloroform as a solvent in alkaline env [...] ironment. The extract was dried at 37 °C and the residue was dissolved in 100 µL of standard internal of pyridine in methanol solution, and an aliquot was analyzed by gas-liquid chromatograph equipped with a flame -ionization detector. This technique was performed to test urine of a sample of smokers and non-smokers who were previously asked about their smoking habit. The limit of detection was 3.1 ng/mL, and using two calibration curves, a linearity range from 3 a 5.000 ng/mL was covered. The median and quartiles (Q) of cotinine in smokers were 255.4 ng/mL, 15.9 ng/mL (Q1) -1050.2 ng/mL (Q3) ng/mL and in non-smokers 15.8 ng/mL, 4.1 ng/mL (Q1) - 38.4 ng/mL (Q3). Wilcoxon sumrank: z = 4.865 p

  14. Salivary duct carcinoma of the palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponniah I

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Salivary duct carcinoma is a rare high-grade neoplasm that more frequently affects the parotid gland. Though neoplasms of this type are infrequent in minor salivary glands, they are less aggressive and may lead to early diagnosis before distant metastases could occur. Salivary duct carcinoma is also the most frequent epithelial component of carcinosarcoma. The present article reports a case of SDC of the palate in a 26-year-old male and discusses SDC as a malignant epithelial component in carcinosarcoma.

  15. Pharmacokinetic study of yohimbine and its pharmacodynamic effects on salivary secretion in patients treated with tricyclic antidepressants.

    OpenAIRE

    Bagheri, H.; Picault, P.; Schmitt, L.; Houin, G.; Berlan, M.; Montastruc, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic parameters and the time course of the effect after acute oral administration of yohimbine on salivary secretion in patients treated with tricyclic antidepressants were investigated. Yohimbine (10 mg) increased both salivary outflow and plasma noradrenaline levels for 4 h. Pharmacokinetic parameters (t1/2, tmax, Cmax and AUCexp) and plasma concentrations of noradrenaline were higher in patients treated with tricyclic antidepressants than in controls. At this dose, yohimbine...

  16. Receptors for the neuropeptides, myoinhibitory peptide and SIFamide, in control of the salivary glands of the blacklegged tick Ixodes scapularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simo, Ladislav; Ko?i, Juraj; Park, Yoonseong

    2013-04-01

    Tick salivary glands are important organs that enable the hematophagous feeding of the tick. We previously described the innervation of the salivary gland acini types II and III by a pair of protocerebral salivary gland neurons that produce both myoinhibitory peptide (MIP) and SIFamide (Šimo et al., 2009b). In this study we identified authentic receptors expressed in the salivary glands for these neuropeptides. Homology-based searches for these receptors in the Ixodes scapularis genome sequence were followed by gene cloning and functional expression of the receptors. Both receptors were activated by low nanomolar concentrations of their respective ligands. The temporal expression patterns of the two ligands and their respective receptors suggest that the SIFamide signaling system pre-exists in unfed salivary glands, while the MIP system is activated upon initiation of feeding. Immunoreactivity for the SIFamide receptor in the salivary gland was detected in acini types II and III, surrounding the acinar valve and extending to the basal region of the acinar lumen. The location of the SIFamide receptor in the salivary glands suggests three potential target cell types and their probable functions: myoepithelial cell that may function in the contraction of the acini and/or the control of the valve; large, basally located dopaminergic granular cells for regulation of paracrine dopamine; and neck cells that may be involved in the control of the acinar duct and its valve. PMID:23357681

  17. Effect of sensory stimulation on salivary IgA secretion rate in karate players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Baralic

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Secretory IgA is predominant immunoglobulin in secretions of the mucosal immune system. Low concentration of salivary IgA is associated with a higher risk of respiratory tract infections episodes in athletes during the training season. The purpose of this study was to determine whether orange-flavored whey based drink has beneficial effect on level of IgA in saliva after the training. Methods: Twenty healthy, young karate players participated in this study. They were divided into two groups. One group rinsed a mouth with 20 ml of liquid whey, two times in 30-min period: 15 and 30 min after training. Second group rinsed a mouth with 20 ml of whey based orange flavored soft drink, at the same time. Saliva was collected before the training, just after the training and after application of fluids. Results: We observed decrease in salivary flow after physical activity. The salivary flow was higher after the application of flavored drink compared to salivary flow after the application of whey. The absolute concentration of sIgA and sIgA secretion rate decreased just after exercise compared to pre exercise values. Application of whey elevated sIgA levels on day 1, while application of flavored drink caused increasing in sIgA levels on day 3. In all other cases sIgA level was decreasing even after applied stimuli. Conclusions: The exercise induces decreasing in salivary flow, sIgA absolute concentration and sIgA secretion rate. Application of fluid whey and flavored whey-based drink elevated salivary flow, but had little effect on absolute concentration of sIgA and sIgA secretion rate in young karate players.

  18. Cotinine halts the advance of Alzheimer’s disease-like pathology and associated depressive-like behavior in Tg6799 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Echeverria Moran

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is associated with cognitive and non-cognitive symptoms for which there are currently no effective therapies. We have previously reported that cotinine, a natural product obtained from tobacco leaves, prevented memory loss and diminished amyloid-? (A? plaque pathology in the transgenic 6799 mice (Tg6799 mice when treated prior to the development of the pathology. We have also shown that cotinine reduces depressive-like behavior in normal and chronically stressed C57BL/6 mice. Here, we extend our previous studies by investigating the effects of cotinine on the progression of AD-like pathology, depressive-like behavior, and the mechanisms underlying its beneficial effects in the Tg6799 mice when left untreated until after a more advanced stage of the disease’s development. The results show that vehicle-treated Tg6799 mice displayed an accentuated loss of working memory and an abundant A? plaque pathology that were accompanied by higher levels of depressive-like behavior as compared to control littermates. By contrast, prolonged daily cotinine treatment, withheld until after a mid-level progression of AD-like pathology, reduced A? levels, A? plaques, and depressive-like behavior as well as dramatically improved working memory in Tg6799 mice to levels no different from control littermates. The beneficial effects of cotinine were accompanied by an increase in the expression of the active form of protein kinase B (Akt and the postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95 in the hippocampi and frontal cortices of Tg6799 mice. This suggests that cotinine halts the progression of AD-like pathology while reducing depressive-like behavior by stimulating signaling pathways supporting synaptic plasticity in Tg6799 mice. The potential use of cotinine to treat cognitive and non-cognitive symptoms of AD is discussed.

  19. Urinary concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Israeli adults: demographic and life-style predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Hagai; Berman, Tamar; Goldsmith, Rebecca; Göen, Thomas; Spungen, Judith; Novack, Lena; Amitai, Yona; Shohat, Tamar; Grotto, Itamar

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants associated with adverse health outcomes, including cancer, asthma, and reduced fertility. Because data on exposure to these contaminants in Israel and the Middle East are very limited this study was conducted to measure urinary levels of PAHs in the general adult population in Israel and to identify demographic and life-style predictors of exposure. We measured concentrations of five PAH metabolites: 1-hydroxypyrene (1OH_pyrene) and four different hydroxyphenanthrenes (1-hydroxyphenanthrene, 2-hydroxyphenanthrene, 3-hydroxyphenanthrene, 4-hydroxyphenanthrene), as well as cotinine in urine samples collected from 243 Israeli adults from the general population. We interviewed participants using structured questionnaires to collect detailed demographic, smoking and dietary data. For over 99% of the study participants, urinary concentration of at least one of the PAHs was above both the limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ). All PAHs were significantly correlated (rho=0.67-0.92). Urinary concentration of hydroxyphenanthrenes, but not 1OH_pyrene, was significantly higher among Arabs and Druze study participants (N=56) compared to Jewish participants (N=183). For 4-hydroxyphenanthrene, concentration in Arabs and Druze was 1.95 (95% CI 1.50-2.52) that of Jews, after controlling for creatinine, age and cotinine levels. Urinary concentrations of all PAHs were significantly higher among current smokers or participants with higher cotinine levels and increased significantly with smoking frequency. While PAHs concentrations were not associated with cotinine concentrations in nonsmokers in the overall study population, PAHs concentration was significantly higher among nonsmoking Jews with cotinine ?LOQ (1?g/L), which represents exposure to environmental tobacco smoking, compared to nonsmoking Jews with cotinine concentrations concentrations were found for those consuming grilled food once a month or more. For 3-hydroxyphenanthrene, concentration in those consuming grilled food once a month or more was 2.72 (95% CI 1.01-4.98) times that of those consuming grilled food less than once a month or not at all, after controlling for creatinine, age and cotinine levels. In conclusion, we found that the general adult population in Israel is widely exposed to PAHs. Exposure differed by ethnic sub-groups both in magnitude and sources of exposure. The finding of higher exposure among Arabs and Druze highlights disparities in environmental exposures across subpopulations and suggests that further research and preventive measure are warranted to reduce PAHs exposure and associated health outcomes, especially in the Arab population in the Middle East. PMID:25456148

  20. Sublingual salivary gland sialolithiasis in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, T; Welsh, E; McGorum, I; Yool, D

    2008-05-01

    A case of sialolithiasis of the sublingual/mandibular salivary gland and duct complex in a dog was reported. Sialoadenectomy of the ipsilateral glands successfully treated the associated sialocele. PMID:18373538

  1. Restoring the function of salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagami, H; Wang, S; Hai, B

    2008-01-01

    Salivary gland destruction occurs as a result of various pathological conditions such as radiation therapy for head and neck cancer and Sjögren's syndrome. As saliva possesses self-cleaning and antibacterial capability, hyposalivation is known to deteriorate dental caries and periodontal disease. Furthermore, hyposalivation causes mastication and swallowing problems, burning sensation of the mouth and dysgeusia. Currently available treatments for dry mouth are prescription for artificial saliva, moisturizers and medications which induce salivation from the residual tissue. Unfortunately, these treatments cannot restore the acini functions. This review focuses on various efforts to restore the function of damaged salivary gland. First, the possibility of salivary gland regeneration and tissue engineering is discussed with reference to stem cells, growth factors and scaffold materials. Second, the current status of gene transfer to salivary glands is discussed. PMID:18173444

  2. Toward salivary gland stem cell regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiubea-Cohen, Raluca; David, Ran; Neumann, Yoav; Palmon, Aaron; Aframian, Doron

    2013-07-01

    Head and neck cancer is the sixth most common cancer worldwide, resulting in ~ 640,000 cases. Most of these patients have irreversible damage to their salivary glands due to irradiation therapy, which typically leads to significant decrease in quality of life. In the last 2 decades, several strategies have been suggested to overcome this problem; however, no biologically based treatments are available. In the past few years, the authors of the present article and other researchers have focused on a new strategy of re-implantation of autologous salivary gland cells into the residual irradiated salivary glands. This article reviews the current prospective of the irradiation-induced salivary gland impairment mechanisms and the envisioned therapeutic modalities based on stem cell therapy. PMID:24568246

  3. Imaging of the major salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzelius, Pia; Nielsen, Ming-Yuan; Ewertsen, Caroline; Bloch, Klaus Poulsen

    2014-10-16

    The major salivary glands, submandibular, parotid and sublingual glands play an important role in preserving the oral cavity and dental health. Patients with problems of the major salivary glands may present with symptoms such as dry mouth, dysphagia and obstruction of duct, inflammation, severe dental caries or swelling. Imaging plays an important role in visualization of morphology and function, to establish a diagnosis, for treatment, and for surgical planning. There are several options for diagnostic imaging: plain radiography, sialography, ultrasound (US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), salivary gland scintigraphy and (18) F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET). We present an overview of the modalities in relation to common salivary gland disease. PMID:25319072

  4. [Value of echography in salivary pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, P

    1991-05-01

    Major advances in echography techniques over the past few years include the development of simple high performance units adapted to investigating the salivary glands. This non-traumatic, painless and inexpensive technique offers a means of rapid examination and is fully complementary to X-ray and xero and sialographic imagery, particularly in tumor pathology. The author gives a review of normal images then presents different lesions of the salivary gland. PMID:1880766

  5. Enhanced early morning salivary cortisol in neuroticism.

    OpenAIRE

    Portella, Mj; Harmer, Cj; Flint, J.; Cowen, P.; Goodwin, Gm

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Neuroticism is a predisposing factor for major depression. The increase in salivary cortisol that follows waking provides a reliable measure of adrenocortical activity, and this response is increased in recovered depressed patients. This study compared waking cortisol levels in healthy subjects with high and low levels of neuroticism without a previous history of depression. METHOD: Salivary cortisol levels were measured upon waking and at 15-minute intervals for the next hour in v...

  6. Global diversity in the human salivary microbiome

    OpenAIRE

    Nasidze, Ivan; Li, Jing; Quinque, Dominique; Tang, Kun; Stoneking, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The human salivary microbiome may play a role in diseases of the oral cavity and interact with microbiomes from other parts of the human body (in particular, the intestinal tract), but little is known about normal variation in the salivary microbiome. We analyzed 14,115 partial (?500 bp) 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequences from saliva samples from 120 healthy individuals (10 individuals from each of 12 worldwide locations). These sequences could be assigned to 101 known bacterial genera, of ...

  7. Increased salivary cortisol after waking in depression.

    OpenAIRE

    Bhagwagar, Z.; Hafizi, S.; Cowen, Pj

    2005-01-01

    RATIONALE: Cortisol hypersecretion is regarded as important in the pathophysiology of major depression. However, recent studies in community-based samples have been inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether acutely depressed, medication-free subjects show an exaggerated release of cortisol in saliva in relation to awakening. METHODS: We studied the pattern of waking salivary cortisol in 20 unmedicated acutely depressed subjects and 40 healthy controls. RESULTS: In both groups, salivary co...

  8. Relationship of the human salivary peroxidase system to oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenovuo, J; Pruitt, K M

    1984-12-01

    The human salivary peroxidase system (SPS) contributes in several ways to the maintenance of good oral health. The SPS is one of the non-immunoglobulin defense factors which regulate the quantity and species distribution of oral micro-organisms. The SPS also prevents toxic accumulations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and it inactivates many carcinogenic and mutagenic compounds. The salivary glands secrete a peroxidase enzyme (salivary peroxidase) as well as the thiocyanate ion (SCN-, derived from diet). The enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of SCN- by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The H2O2 is excreted by oral bacteria and by host cells in amounts which vary with the state of cellular metabolism, the diet and other factors. Oxidized forms of SCN- temporarily inhibit the growth, respiration and metabolism of most species of oral bacteria. The major oxidized form generated in the mouth is the hypothiocyanite ion (OSCN-) which must reach a minimum threshold concentration before bacterial inhibition occurs. This threshold concentration varies from species to species. The concentration of OSCN- in the mouth rises and falls with the availability of H2O2. This natural rise and fall, together with bacterial variation in sensitivity to OSCN- inhibition, suggests a role for the SPS in the regulation of the oral microflora. As a result of the rapid consumption of H2O2 by the SPS, host cells are protected from a toxic build up of this potent oxidizing agent. The major product of the reaction, OSCN-, does not harm human cells. Many carcinogenic and mutagenic compounds may serve as substrates for the SPS and be oxidized to less harmful compounds. PMID:6097657

  9. Salivary secretion during meals in lactating dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beauchemin, K.A.; Eriksen, L.

    2008-01-01

    Four multiparous Holstein cows in midlactation were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square to evaluate whether source of forage influenced salivary secretion during eating in lactating dairy cows. The forages were allocated separately from the pelleted concentrates. Cows were offered 1 of 4 forages each period: barley silage, alfalfa silage, long-stemmed alfalfa hay, or chopped barley straw. Saliva secretion was measured during the morning meal by collecting masticates through the rumen cannula at the cardia of each cow. Rate of salication (213 g/min) was not affected by forage source. However, the forage sources differed in eating rate (g og DM/min), which led to differences in ensalivation of forages (g of saliva/g of DM and g of saliva/g of NDF). On the basis of DM, ensalivation (g of saliva/g of DM) was greatest for straw (7.23) and similar for barley sialge, alfalfa silage, and alfalfa hay (4.15, 3.40, and 4.34 g/g of DM, respectively). Higher ensalivation of straw could be accounted for by its higher neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content; ensalivation of NDF (g of saliva/g of NDF) was actually greatest for long-stemmed alfalfa hay (12.4) and similar for the other chopped forages (8.9). Cows consumed concentrate about 3 to 12 times faster than the various forages (DM basis), and ensalivation of concentrate was much lower (1.12 g of saliva/g of DM) than for forages. Feed characteristics such as particle size, DM, and NDF content affect salivary output during eating by affecting the eating rate. Slower eating rate and greater time spent eating may help prevent ruminal acidosis by increasing the total daily salivary secretion in dairy cows.

  10. Circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus): a factor to consider during welfare assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menargues, Asunción; Urios, Vicente; Limiñana, Ruben; Mauri, Montserrat

    2012-01-01

    Elevated glucocorticoid levels during an extended time period might be a stress indicator in nonhuman animals. Therefore, knowledge of the circadian pattern of cortisol secretion is very important to correctly interpret data obtained for welfare assessment of animals in captivity through salivary cortisol. In order to define the circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol secretion in the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus), morning and evening saliva samples of 3 Asian elephants were collected and analyzed by radioimmunoassay. Significantly higher salivary cortisol concentrations were found in the morning than in the evening in all individuals. These results show that salivary cortisol of Asian elephants follows a diurnal pattern of secretion, which could be taken into account when using this methodology to assess welfare in captive Asian elephants. PMID:23009627

  11. Salivary cortisol assessment in the evaluation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple, short and sensitive direct radio-immunoassay technique for the determination of salivary cortisol concentration was employed to assess saliva as a medium for evaluating cortisol response during endocrine testing in 9 controls and 40 patients. Results in controls suggested that an adequate salivary cortisol response to insulin hypoglycaemia was an increase of 150% above the basal value with a minimum peak of 15 nmol/l. Thirty-three patients were classified as being either good or poor responders to insulin hypoglycaemia on the basis of criteria for plasma cortisol levels. When the defined salivary cortisol response was used for assessment, all 33 patients were correctly categorized into the same response groups. The salivary cortisol response to intramuscular tetracosactin in 3 patients and an intravenous dexamethasone infusion in 4 patients confirmed the value of saliva as an assay medium. These studies show that the salivary cortisol response parallels that of total plasma cortisol in all cases. However, with sampling at short intervals a lag in secretion of the free fraction from the plasma into the saliva becomes apparent. The relative change in cortisol levels from the basal value is greater in saliva than in plasma

  12. Salivary cortisol assessment in the evaluation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahn, S.E.; Maxwell, J.U.; Barron, J.L. (Cape Town Univ. (South Africa))

    1984-05-26

    A simple, short and sensitive direct radio-immunoassay technique for the determination of salivary cortisol concentration was employed to assess saliva as a medium for evaluating cortisol response during endocrine testing in 9 controls and 40 patients. Results in controls suggested that an adequate salivary cortisol response to insulin hypoglycaemia was an increase of 150% above the basal value with a minimum peak of 15 nmol/l. Thirty-three patients were classified as being either good or poor responders to insulin hypoglycaemia on the basis of criteria for plasma cortisol levels. When the defined salivary cortisol response was used for assessment, all 33 patients were correctly categorized into the same response groups. The salivary cortisol response to intramuscular tetracosactin in 3 patients and an intravenous dexamethasone infusion in 4 patients confirmed the value of saliva as an assay medium. These studies show that the salivary cortisol response parallels that of total plasma cortisol in all cases. However, with sampling at short intervals a lag in secretion of the free fraction from the plasma into the saliva becomes apparent. The relative change in cortisol levels from the basal value is greater in saliva than in plasma.

  13. A stacking flow immunoassay for the detection of dengue-specific immunoglobulins in salivary fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Bai, Jianhao; Ying, Jackie Y

    2015-03-01

    Paper-based immunoassays, usually in the form of lateral flow tests, are currently the standard platform for home diagnostics. However, conventional lateral tests are often complicated by severe non-specific adsorption of detector particles when applied to test samples containing salivary fluid. It is believed that a high concentration of proteinaceous substances in salivary fluid causes particle aggregation and adhesion. In this study, we developed a stacking flow platform for single-step detection of a target antibody in salivary fluid. Stacking flow circumvents the need for separate sample pre-treatments, such as filtration or centrifugation, which are often required prior to testing saliva samples using paper-based immunoassays. This is achieved by guiding the samples and reagents to the test strip through different paths. By doing so, salivary substances that interfere with the particle-based sensing system are removed before they come into contact with the detection reagents, which greatly reduces the background. In addition, the stacking flow configuration enables uniform flow with a unique flow regulator, which leads to even test lines with good quantification capability, enabling the detection of ~20 ng mL(-1) ?-fetoprotein in the serum. We have successfully applied the stacking flow device to detect dengue-specific immunoglobulins that are present in salivary fluid. PMID:25608951

  14. [Stress among nurses: an examination of salivary cortisol levels on work and day off].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires da Rocha, Maria Cecília; Figueiredo de Martino, Milva Maria; Grassi-Kassisse, Dora Maria; Luiz de Souza, Aglécio

    2013-10-01

    The present study evaluates the use of salivary cortisol concentration as a physiological index of the stress level among nurses on their work day and day off and correlates it with the questionnaire used to measure occupational stress in nurses (Inventário de Estresse em Enfermeiros - IEE). This is a comparative, cross-sectional descriptive study in which sociodemographic data, IEE results and salivary cortisol levels were used. Fifty-seven nurses participated in the study (80.7% females and a mean age of 37.1 years old). The IEE average score was 124.5. The average cortisol level was 564.1 ng/m on work day and 354.1 ng/mL on day off. Nurses who had double workdays presented high values of salivary cortisol during the work day (638.1 ng/mL). In conclusion, salivary cortisol identified the nurses' stress level, and differences were found between a work day and day off. On the nurses' day off, their salivary cortisol levels and stress scores were lower. PMID:24346461

  15. Sarcomatoid salivary duct carcinoma of minor salivary gland: A rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamilselvi R

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A 35-year-old female presented with swelling in the soft palate. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC revealed pleomorphic adenoma, and on histopathological examination, it was diagnosed as carcinosarcoma/salivary duct carcinoma in the minor salivary gland, which was confirmed by immunohistochemical stains. We report this case for its rarity.

  16. DIETARY TRYPTOPHAN EFFECTS ON PLASMA AND SALIVARY CORTISOL AND MEAT QUALITY IN PIGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four experiments were conducted to determine the effects of supplemental Trp on meat quality, plasma and salivary cortisol, and plasma lactate. Experiment 1 was a preliminary study to measure plasma cortisol concentrations in four barrows (50 kg BW) that were snared for 30 s at time 0 min. Pigs we...

  17. Pathogenesis of salivary gland disease and xerostomia. The conception of Mikulicz's disease based on new knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review focuses on two topics of salivary gland diseases regarding xerostomia. First, the pathogenesis and treatment of xerostomia after radiotherapy against head and neck cancer is discussed. It is well known that the extent of radiation-induced salivary dysfunction and mucositis depends on the radiation dose and field. Moreover, the balance in the defense system of oropharyngeal cavity alters after radiotherapy. This altered balance may impair the ability to maintain the stable immunological control mechanism. Second, the newly established concept about Mikulicz's disease is discussed. Recently, elevated IgG4 concentration in serum and prominent infiltrating by plasmacytes expressing IgG4 in the salivary glands in Mikulicz's disease were revealed. Mikulicz's disease is different from Sjoegren's syndrome, and may be a systemic IgG4-related plasmacytic disease. (author)

  18. Ultradian rhythmicity and induced changes in salivary testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaven, C Martyn; Ingram, John R; Gill, Nicholas D; Hopkins, Will G

    2010-09-01

    Testosterone and cortisol respond to exercise stimuli and modulate adaptation. Episodic basal secretion of these hormones may modify the responsiveness of these hormones. We sought to identify episodic steroid secretion via frequent salivary sampling and investigate any interaction between ultradian rhythmicity and induced changes in testosterone. Salivary testosterone and cortisol concentrations of seven males (age 20-40 years) were measured every 10 min between 0800 and 1600 h on three consecutive days. On either the second or third day, three interventions designed to elicit a hormonal response were randomly assigned: sprint exercise (two 30-s maximal efforts on a cycle ergometer); boxing (two 30-s maximal punching efforts); and a violent video game (10 min of player vs. player combat). On the other days subjects were inactive. Testosterone data on non-intervention days suggested pulsatile secretion with a pulse interval of 47 +/- 9 min (mean +/- SD). The sprint intervention substantially affected hormones: it elicited a small transient elevation in testosterone (by a factor of 1.21; factor 90% confidence limits x/ divided by 1.21) 10 min after exercise, and a moderate elevation in cortisol peaking 50 min post-exercise (factor 2.3; x/ divided by 2.6). The testosterone response correlated with the change in testosterone concentration in the 10 min prior to the sprint (r = 0.78; 90% CL 0.22-0.95) and with a measure of randomness in testosterone fluctuations (r = 0.83; 0.35-0.96). Thus, the salivary testosterone response to exercise may be dependent on the underlying ultradian rhythm and aspects of its regulation. This interaction may have important implications for adaptation to exercise. PMID:20512500

  19. Cotinine versus questionnaire: early-life environmental tobacco smoke exposure and incident asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlsten Chris

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of biomarkers has expanded considerably, as an alternative to questionnaire-based metrics of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS; few studies have assessed the affect of such alternative metrics on diverse respiratory outcomes in children, and we aimed to do so. Methods We evaluated various measures of birth-year ETS, in association with multiple respiratory endpoints early years of life, in the novel context of a birth cohort at high risk for asthma. We administered questionnaires to parents, both at the end of pregnancy and at one year of life, and measured cotinine in cord blood (CCot; in 275 children and in urine (UCot; obtained at 12 months in 365 children, each by radioimmunoassay. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess the association of the various metrics with recurrent wheeze at age 2 and with bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR and asthma at age 7. Results Self-reported 3rd trimester maternal smoking was associated with significantly increased risk for recurrent wheeze at age 2 (odds ratio 3.5 [95% confidence interval = 1.2,10.7]; the risks associated with CCot and 3rd trimester smoking in any family member were similar (OR 2.9 [1.2,7.0] and 2.6 [1.0,6.5], respectively. No metric of maternal smoking at 12 months appeared to significantly influence the risk of recurrent wheeze at age 2, and no metric of ETS at any time appeared to significantly influence risk of asthma or BHR at age 7. Conclusions Biomarker- and questionnaire-based assessment of ETS in early life lead to similar estimates of ETS-associated risk of recurrent wheeze and asthma.

  20. Simple and Rapid Assay Method for Simultaneous Quantification of Urinary Nicotine and Cotinine using Micro-Extraction by Packed Sorbent and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HIROSHI SENO

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A simple and rapid method for determination of nicotine and cotinine levels in urine was developed using samples prepared by micro-extraction by packed sorbent (MEPS and subjected to gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis. This method provided good reproducibility, as well as good linearity of calibration curves in the range of 1–100 and 50–1000 ng/mL for quality control samples spiked with nicotine and cotinine, respectively. The detection limit of nicotine and cotinine was as low as 0.25 and 20 ng/mL, respectively. An evaporation procedure is not suitable for nicotine determination, thus an advantage of the present MEPS assay method is direct testing with GC-MS without the need for evaporation to a dry solvent. Our findings show that it may be useful for determining nicotine levels in various types of research studies.

  1. Diazepam and N-desmethyldiazepam concentrations in saliva, plasma and CSF.

    OpenAIRE

    Hallstrom, C.; Lader, M. H.

    1980-01-01

    1 Salivary and plasma diazepam and nordiazepam concentrations were measured in 51 paired samples from four experimental situations. In seven of the patients CSF samples were estimated. 2 Correlation of 0.89 (P less than 0.001) was observed between salivary and plasma diazepam and 0.81 (P less than 0.001) between salivary and plasma nordiazepam. 3 Mean salivary diazepam was 1.6% (+/- 0.3%) of the plasma diazepam. It was found to vary markedly in an acute dosage study. Mean salivary nordiazepam...

  2. The prevalence of self-reported smoking and validation with urinary cotinine among commercial drivers in major parks in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obianuju B. Ozoh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The validity of self-reported smoking is questionable because smokers are inclined to deny smoking. We aimed to determine the prevalence of self-reported smoking among intra-city commercial drivers in Lagos, and assess its validity based on urinary cotinine assessment. This study was conducted at three major motor parks in Lagos, Nigeria. Information on smoking status and habits was obtained from 500 consecutive male drivers using a structured questionnaire during a face-to-face interview. Eighty-one self-reported smokers and non-smokers were selected by systematic random sampling for urinary cotinine assessment using cotinine strips. The prevalence of self-reported smoking was compared to the prevalence of smoking based on urinary cotinine and the specificity and positive predictive values of self-reported smoking was determined. Prevalence of self-reported current smoking was 32% and 17.9% of nonsmokers were passive smokers. Among 81 drivers in whom urinary cotinine assessment was performed, the prevalence of smoking based on self-report was 34 (42% compared to 41 (50.6% when based on urinary cotinine, (X2=38.56, P<0.001. The rate of misclassification among self-reported non-smokers as smokers was 21.3% and misclassification rate for self-reported smokers as non-smokers was 8.8%. The sensitivity of self-reported smoking in accurately classifying smoking status was 91.2% and the specificity was 78.7%. The prevalence of self-reported cigarette smoking among commercial drivers in Lagos is high and a significant proportion of self-reported non-smokers are passive smokers. Self-reported smoking status obtained during face-to-face interview appears unreliable in obtaining accurate smoking data in our locality.

  3. Measuring environmental tobacco smoke exposure in infants and young children through urine cotinine and memory-based parental reports: empirical findings and discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt, G.; Wahlgren, D.; Hovell, M.; Zakarian, J.; Bernert, J.; Meltzer, S.; Pirkle, J.; Caudill, S.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—This study examined the reliability and potential biases of two urine collection methods from which cotinine measures were obtained and the validity of memory-based parental reports of their children's exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS).?DESIGN—Structured interviews were conducted with mothers of infants and young children to obtain memory-based estimates of recent ETS exposure. Urine samples were collected through standard and cotton roll collection methods for cotinine analysis.?SETTING—All interviews took place at an off-campus research facility. Urine samples were collected at the study office or the subjects' homes.?PARTICIPANTS—Mothers were recruited from San Diego county sites of the Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Supplemental Food and Nutrition Program. Sample 1 (infants) consisted of eight boys and eight girls aged 1-44 months (mean = 12.6 months). Sample 2 (children) included 10 boys and 10 girls aged 3-8 years (mean = 61.2 months).?MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Urine cotinine and memory-based parent reports of ETS exposure from structured interviews.?RESULTS—There was overall high reliability for urine cotinine measures and no effect of collection method on urine cotinine levels. Memory-based reports obtained from smoking mothers showed moderately strong and consistent linear relationships with urine cotinine measures of their infants and children (r = 0.50 to r = 0.63), but not for reports obtained from non-smoking mothers.?CONCLUSIONS—Memory-based parental reports of short-term ETS exposure can play an important role in quantifying ETS exposure in infants and children.???Keywords: environmental tobacco smoke; parental smoking; passive smoking PMID:10599573

  4. Effect of competitional stress on salivary dehydroepiandrosterone, cortisol in female handballists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Farzanegi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hormonal responses to competitions and their relationships have been extensively examined in male athletes, but there are few studies in women. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of competition stress on salivary dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA and cortisol in female handballists. Materials and Method: Ten female handballists of Islamic Azad University (Sari Branch (age 21.5±2.5 years participated in this study. Salivary samples were collected 30 min and 5 min before competition, between two half times and immediately after four competitions. The salivary DHEA and cortisol concentrations were measured by ELISA method. Results: The results of one-way ANOVA with repeated measures have shown a significant (p=0.001 increases for DHEA concentration after four competitions, however, cortisol and DHEA/cortisol ratio did not show any changes after four competition (p>0.05. Conclusion: These results indicate that salivary DHEA is more sensitive to competition situations than cortisol concentration. We suggested that androgens maybe more affected by competition

  5. Salivary Surrogates of Plasma Nitrite and Catecholamines during a 21-Week Training Season in Swimmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Gómez, Miguel Mauricio; Bocanegra Jaramillo, Olga Lucia; Teixeira, Renata Roland; Espindola, Foued Salmen

    2013-01-01

    The collection of samples of saliva is noninvasive and straightforward, which turns saliva into an ideal fluid for monitoring the adaptive response to training. Here, we investigated the response of the salivary proteins alpha-amylase (sAA), chromogranin A (sCgA), and the concentration of total protein (sTP) as well as salivary nitrite (sNO2) in relation to plasma catecholamines and plasma nitrite (pNO2), respectively. The variation in these markers was compared to the intensity and load of training during a 21-week training season in 12 elite swimmers. Overall, the salivary proteins tracked the concentration of plasma adrenaline and were inversely correlated with the training outcomes. No correlations were observed between sNO2 and pNO2. However, sNO2 correlated positively with the intensity and load of training. We argue that the decrease in sympathetic activity is responsible for the decrease in the concentration of proteins throughout the training season. Furthermore, the increase in nitrite is likely to reflect changes in hemodynamics and regulation of vascular tone. The association of the salivary markers with the training outcomes underlines their potential as noninvasive markers of training status in professional athletes. PMID:23700456

  6. Quantitation of Cotinine and its Metabolites in Rat Plasma and Brain Tissue by Hydrophilic Interaction Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS)

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Pei; Beck, Wayne D.; Callahan, Patrick M.; Terry, Alvin V.; Bartlett, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we developed a sensitive method to quantify cotinine (COT), norcotinine (NCOT), trans-3?-hydroxycotinine (OHCOT) and cotinine-N-oxide (COTNO) in rat plasma and brain tissue, using solid phase extraction (SPE), hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The linear range was 1–100 ng/ml for each analyte in rat plasma and brain homogenate (3–300 ng/g brain tissue). The method was validated with precision within 15% relative sta...

  7. The Ratio of a Urinary Tobacco-Specific Lung Carcinogen Metabolite to Cotinine is Significantly Higher in Passive than in Active Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Vogel, Rachel Isaksson; Carmella, Steven G.; Stepanov, Irina; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Hecht, Stephen S.

    2011-01-01

    4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol plus its glucuronides (total NNAL), metabolites of the lung carcinogen NNK, and total cotinine, metabolites of nicotine, are biomarkers of active and passive cigarette smoking. We calculated the total NNAL: total cotinine (× 103) ratio in 408 passive (infants, children, adults) and 1088 active smokers. The weighted averages were 0.73 (95% CI 0.71, 0.76) for passive smokers and 0.07 (0.06, 0.08) for active smokers (p

  8. Deep metaproteomic analysis of human salivary supernatant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagtap, Pratik; McGowan, Thomas; Bandhakavi, Sricharan; Tu, Zheng Jin; Seymour, Sean; Griffin, Timothy J; Rudney, Joel D

    2012-04-01

    The human salivary proteome is extremely complex, including proteins from salivary glands, serum, and oral microbes. Much has been learned about the host component, but little is known about the microbial component. Here we report a metaproteomic analysis of salivary supernatant pooled from six healthy subjects. For deep interrogation of the salivary proteome, we combined protein dynamic range compression (DRC), multidimensional peptide fractionation, and high-mass accuracy MS/MS with a novel two-step peptide identification method using a database of human proteins plus those translated from oral microbe genomes. Peptides were identified from 124 microbial species as well as uncultured phylotypes such as TM7. Streptococcus, Rothia, Actinomyces, Prevotella, Neisseria, Veilonella, Lactobacillus, Selenomonas, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, and Campylobacter were abundant among the 65 genera from 12 phyla represented. Taxonomic diversity in our study was broadly consistent with metagenomic studies of saliva. Proteins mapped to 20 KEGG pathways, with carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid metabolism, energy metabolism, translation, membrane transport, and signal transduction most represented. The communities sampled appear to be actively engaged in glycolysis and protein synthesis. This first deep metaproteomic catalog from human salivary supernatant provides a baseline for future studies of shifts in microbial diversity and protein activities potentially associated with oral disease. PMID:22522805

  9. Establishment of immortal multipotent rat salivary progenitor cell line toward salivary gland regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaniv, Adi; Neumann, Yoav; David, Ran; Stiubea-Cohen, Raluca; Orbach, Yoav; Lang, Stephan; Rotter, Nicole; Dvir-Ginzberg, Mona; Aframian, Doron J; Palmon, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    Adult salivary gland stem cells are promising candidates for cell therapy and tissue regeneration in cases of irreversible damage to salivary glands in head and neck cancer patients undergoing irradiation therapy. At present, the major restriction in handling such cells is their relatively limited life span during in vitro cultivation, resulting in an inadequate experimental platform to explore the salivary gland-originated stem cells as candidates for future clinical application in therapy. We established a spontaneous immortal integrin ?6?1-expressing cell line of adult salivary progenitor cells from rats (rat salivary clone [RSC]) and investigated their ability to sustain cellular properties. This line was able to propagate for more than 400 doublings without loss of differentiation potential. RSC could differentiate in vitro to both acinar- and ductal-like structures and could be further manipulated upon culturing on a 3D scaffolds with different media supplements. Moreover, RSC expressed salivary-specific mRNAs and proteins as well as epithelial stem cell markers, and upon differentiation process their expression was changed. These results suggest RSC as a good model for further studies exploring cellular senescence, differentiation, and in vitro tissue engineering features as a crucial step toward reengineering irradiation-impaired salivary glands. PMID:20673137

  10. Establishment of functional acinar-like cultures from human salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, S I; Ong, H L; Gallo, A; Liu, X; Illei, G; Alevizos, I

    2015-02-01

    Disorders of human salivary glands resulting from therapeutic radiation treatment for head and neck cancers or from the autoimmune disease Sjögren syndrome (SS) frequently result in the reduction or complete loss of saliva secretion. Such irreversible dysfunction of the salivary glands is due to the impairment of acinar cells, the major glandular cells of protein, salt secretion, and fluid movement. Availability of primary epithelial cells from human salivary gland tissue is critical for studying the underlying mechanisms of these irreversible disorders. We applied 2 culture system techniques on human minor salivary gland epithelial cells (phmSG) and optimized the growth conditions to achieve the maintenance of phmSG in an acinar-like phenotype. These phmSG cells exhibited progenitor cell markers (keratin 5 and nanog) as well as acinar-specific markers-namely, ?-amylase, cystatin C, TMEM16A, and NKCC1. Importantly, with an increase of the calcium concentration in the growth medium, these phmSG cells were further promoted to acinar-like cells in vitro, as indicated by an increase in AQP5 expression. In addition, these phmSG cells also demonstrated functional calcium mobilization, formation of epithelial monolayer with high transepithelial electrical resistance (TER), and polarized secretion of ?-amylase secretion after ?-adrenergic receptor stimulation. Taken together, suitable growth conditions have been established to isolate and support culture of acinar-like cells from the human salivary gland. These primary epithelial cells can be useful for study of molecular mechanisms involved in regulating the function of acinar cells and in the loss of salivary gland function in patients. PMID:25416669

  11. Chlorella intake attenuates reduced salivary SIgA secretion in kendo training camp participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otsuki Takeshi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The green alga Chlorella contains high levels of proteins, vitamins, and minerals. We previously reported that a chlorella-derived multicomponent supplement increased the secretion rate of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA in humans. Here, we investigated whether intake of this chlorella-derived supplement attenuated the reduced salivary SIgA secretion rate during a kendo training camp. Methods Ten female kendo athletes participated in inter-university 6-day spring and 4-day summer camps. They were randomized into two groups; one took placebo tablets during the spring camp and chlorella tablets during the summer camp, while the other took chlorella tablets during the spring camp and placebo tablets during the summer camp. Subjects took these tablets starting 4 weeks before the camp until post-camp saliva sampling. Salivary SIgA concentrations were measured by ELISA. Results All subjects participated in nearly all training programs, and body-mass changes and subjective physical well-being scores during the camps were comparable between the groups. However, salivary SIgA secretion rate changes were different between these groups. Salivary SIgA secretion rates decreased during the camp in the placebo group (before vs. second, middle, and final day of camp, and after the camp: 146 ± 89 vs. 87 ± 56, 70 ± 45, 94 ± 58, and 116 ± 71 ?g/min, whereas no such decreases were observed in the chlorella group (121 ± 53 vs. 113 ± 68, 98 ± 69,115 ± 80, and 128 ± 59 ?g/min. Conclusion Our results suggest that a use of a chlorella-derived dietary supplement attenuates reduced salivary SIgA secretion during a training camp for a competitive sport.

  12. Stress and salivary cortisol during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obel, C; Hedegaard, M; Henriksen, T B; Secher, N J; Olsen, J; Levine, S

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether exposure to stressful life events was associated with changes in levels of circulating cortisol during pregnancy in a population of 603 pregnant women. The participating pregnant women filled out a questionnaire and collected a morning and evening sample of saliva in early pregnancy (median 14th gestational week) and in late pregnancy (median and 30th gestational week). They were asked to report the number of life events experienced during first and second trimester, respectively, and were asked to rate the intensity of the experienced events. Complications related to the pregnancy such as vaginal bleeding and suspected growth retardation were registered and the women were asked about concerns about their pregnancy. The salivary samples were analyzed for cortisol and the levels were higher in late than in early pregnancy. In late pregnancy women exposed to more than one life event or were concerned about pregnancy complications during second trimester had a higher evening cortisol level, whereas morning values were unaffected. After adjustment for smoking women who experienced more than one very stressful life event had 27% higher evening cortisol concentrations (95% confidence intervals: 1-59%). Women with worries about pregnancy complications had 27% (95% confidence intervals: 2-57%) higher levels. In early pregnancy women reporting stressful life events did not have higher evening cortisol levels, but tended to have a blunted morning HPA response. In conclusion, we found differences in the associations between chronic stress in early and late pregnancy and cortisol levels indicating that the response to chronic stress is dependent on the stage of the pregnancy. PMID:15854781

  13. Stress and salivary cortisol during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Carsten; Hedegaard, M

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether exposure to stressful life events was associated with changes in levels of circulating cortisol during pregnancy in a population of 603 pregnant women. The participating pregnant women filled out a questionnaire and collected a morning and evening sample of saliva in early pregnancy (median 14th gestational week) and in late pregnancy (median and 30th gestational week). They were asked to report the number of life events experienced during first and second trimester, respectively, and were asked to rate the intensity of the experienced events. Complications related to the pregnancy such as vaginal bleeding and suspected growth retardation were registered and the women were asked about concerns about their pregnancy. The salivary samples were analyzed for cortisol and the levels were higher in late than in early pregnancy. In late pregnancy women exposed to more than one life event or were concerned about pregnancy complications during second trimester had a higher evening cortisol level, whereas morning values were unaffected. After adjustment for smoking women who experienced more than one very stressful life event had 27% higher evening cortisol concentrations (95% confidence intervals: 1-59%). Women with worries about pregnancy complications had 27% (95% confidence intervals: 2-57%) higher levels. In early pregnancy women reporting stressful life events did not have higher evening cortisol levels, but tended to have a blunted morning HPA response. In conclusion, we found differences in the associations between chronic stress in early and late pregnancy and cortisol levels indicating that the response to chronic stress is dependent on the stage of the pregnancy.

  14. Histopathological audit of salivary gland neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salivary gland neoplasms are uncommon but important presentation to general surgeons. Objective: To analyze the relative frequency and distribution of Salivary gland neoplasms in our division. Setting: Department of surgery and pathology, Peoples Medical University hospital and GMMMC hospital Sukkur. Study design: Descriptive (case series) Subjects and methods: A total of 40 patients registered for salivary gland tumors from oct 2008 to 0ct 2013 were included in the study. A thorough history, clinical examination, routine haematological and biochemical studies were done in all patients. FNAC was done in all cases. All patients were subjected to surgical intervention on standard rules. Each resected specimen was sent for histopathology. Information about age, gender and tumor location was obtained from clinical record and frequency of different neoplasms was studied from histopathological report. All data was collected on especially designed proforma. Data analysis was done using spss version 17. Results: A total of 40 patients were registered for salivary gland neoplasms. 28 patients (70%) had parotid lesions, 10 patients (25%) had submandibular gland involvement and 2 patients ( 5%) had minor salivary gland tumors. Patients were between 15 - 80 years of age( mean age =34.7 years) 24 patients(60%) were male and 16 (40%) were female,with male to female ratio of 1.5:1.32 . 22 (80%) had benign lesions and 8 patients (20%) had malignant lesions. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common benign tumor affecting the parotid gland. Adenocarcinoma represented as the most prevelant parotid malignancy. Benign neoplasms occurred in third and fourth decades of life and malignant neoplasms were diagnosed in sixth and seventh decades of life. Conclusion:Salivary gland neoplasms are uncommon but they have occasioned much interest and debate because of broad histological spectrum. The data presented in this study is corroborated with most of the studied literature worldwide. (author)

  15. Molecular cues for development and regeneration of salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Wang, Songlin

    2014-03-01

    The hypofunction of salivary glands caused by Sjögren's Syndrome or radiotherapy for head and neck cancer significantly compromises the quality of life of millions patients. Currently no curative treatment is available for the irreversible hyposalivation, whereas regenerative strategies targeting salivary stem/progenitor cells are promising. However, the success of these strategies is constrained by the lack of insights on the molecular cues of salivary gland regeneration. Recent advances in the molecular controls of salivary gland morphogenesis provided valuable clues for identifying potential regenerative cues. A complicated network of signaling molecules between epithelia, mesenchyme, endothelia, extracellular matrix and innervating nerves orchestrate the salivary gland organogenesis. Here we discuss the roles of several cross-talking intercellular signaling pathways, i.e., FGF, Wnt, Hedgehog, Eda, Notch, Chrm1/HB-EGF and Laminin/Integrin pathways, in the development of salivary glands and their potentials to promote salivary regeneration. PMID:24189993

  16. Human salivary gland stem cells ameliorate hyposalivation of radiation-damaged rat salivary glands

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Jaemin; Baek, Hyunjung; Kim, Yoon-ju; Choi, Youngwook; Lee, Heekyung; Lee, Eunju; Kim, Eun Sook; Hah, Jeong Hun; Kwon, Tack-kyun; Choi, Ik Joon; Kwon, Heechung

    2013-01-01

    Salivary function in mammals may be defective for various reasons, such as aging, Sjogren's syndrome or radiation therapy in head and neck cancer patients. Recently, tissue-specific stem cell therapy has attracted public attention as a next-generation therapeutic reagent. In the present study, we isolated tissue-specific stem cells from the human submandibular salivary gland (hSGSCs). To efficiently isolate and amplify hSGSCs in large amounts, we developed a culture system (lasting 4–5 week...

  17. Saliva versus plasma pharmacokinetics: theory and application of a salivary excretion classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idkaidek, Nasir; Arafat, Tawfiq

    2012-08-01

    The aims of this work were to study pharmacokinetics of randomly selected drugs in plasma and saliva samples in healthy human volunteers, and to introduce a Salivary Excretion Classification System. Saliva and plasma samples were collected for 3-5 half-life values of sitagliptin, cinacalcet, metformin, montelukast, tolterodine, hydrochlorothiazide (HCT), lornoxicam, azithromycin, diacerhein, rosuvastatin, cloxacillin, losartan and tamsulosin after oral dosing. Saliva and plasma pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by noncompartmental analysis using the Kinetica program. Effective intestinal permeability (Peff) values were estimated by the Nelder-Mead algorithm of the Parameter Estimation module using the SimCYP program. Peff values were optimized to predict the actual average plasma profile of each drug. All other physicochemical factors were kept constant during the minimization processes. Sitagliptin, cinacalcet, metformin, tolterodine, HCT, azithromycin, rosuvastatin and cloxacillin had salivary excretion with correlation coefficients of 0.59-0.99 between saliva and plasma concentrations. On the other hand, montelukast, lornoxicam, diacerhein, losartan and tamsulosin showed no salivary excretion. Estimated Peff ranged 0.16-44.16 × 10(-4) cm/s, while reported fraction unbound to plasma proteins (fu) ranged 0.01-0.99 for the drugs under investigation. Saliva/plasma concentrations ratios ranged 0.11-13.4, in agreement with drug protein binding and permeability. A Salivary Excretion Classification System (SECS) was suggested based on drug high (H)/low (L) permeability and high (H)/low (L) fraction unbound to plasma proteins, which classifies drugs into 4 classes. Drugs that fall into class I (H/H), II (L/H) or III (H/L) are subjected to salivary excretion, while those falling into class IV (L/L) are not. Additional data from literature was also analyzed, and all results were in agreement with the suggested SECS. Moreover, a polynomial relationship with correlation coefficient of 0.99 is obtained between S* and C*, where S* and C* are saliva and concentration dimensionless numbers respectively. The proposed Salivary Excretion Classification System (SECS) can be used as a guide for drug salivary excretion. Future work is planned to test these initial findings, and demonstrate SECS robustness across a range of carefully selected (based on physicochemical properties) drugs that fall into classes I, II or III. PMID:22784220

  18. Salivary hormonal values from high-speed resistive exercise workouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, John F; Lutz, Brant M; Davidson, Mark E; Wilson, Kyle; Crane, Chris S; Craig, Chrsity E; Nissen, Tim E; Mason, Melissa L; Coday, Michael A; Sheaff, Robert J; Potter, William T

    2012-03-01

    Our study purpose examined salivary hormonal responses to high-speed resistive exercise. Healthy subjects (n = 45) performed 2 elbow flexor workouts on a novel (inertial kinetic exercise; Oconomowoc, WI, USA) strength training device. Our methods included saliva sample collection at both preexercise and immediately postexercise; workouts entailed two 60-second sets separated by a 90-second rest period. The samples were analyzed in duplicate for their testosterone and cortisol concentrations ([T], [C]). Average and maximum elbow flexor torque were measured from each exercise bout; they were later analyzed with a 2(gender) × 2(workout) analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures for workout. The [T] and [C] each underwent a 2(gender) × 2(time) ANOVA with repeated measures for time. A within-subject design was used to limit error variance. Average and maximum torque each had gender (men > women; p salivary assays may be a viable alternative to blood draws from athletes, yet coaches and others who may administer this treatment should know that our results may have produced greater pre-post hormonal changes if postexercise sample collection had occurred at a later time point. PMID:22310520

  19. Caries Experience and Salivary Parameters among Overweight Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele B. Diniz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a chronic disease characterized by excess body fat, which can lead to other health problems, including insulin resistance, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, polycystic ovary syndrome, hypertension, dyslipidemia, sleep apnea, asthma, heart attack, stroke, atherosclerosis and metabolic syndrome. Currently, obesity and dental caries are major public health concerns and dietary habits are a very important common component of their etiological factors, showing some correlation with the sociodemographic characteristics of individuals presenting these diseases. In relation to caries experience, the literature suggests a correlation between obesity and dental caries in children and adolescents, in primary and/or permanent dentition, though divergent results exist regarding assessment based on the method recommended by the WHO (1997, i.e., restricted to carious lesions with cavitation. Some studies indicate greater prevalence of proximal carious lesions in obese adolescents compared with those with normal weight. Salivary changes, such as the concentrations of phosphate, sialic acid, proteins and immunoglobulins and in peroxidase activity could explain the increased probability of obese children presenting greater risk of dental caries. Thus, it is important to consider the contribution of salivary parameters in caries experience of overweight children and adolescents and the implementation of preventive measures in this population.

  20. Adrenoceptor-activated nitric oxide synthesis in salivary acinar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Looms, Dagnia; Dissing, Steen

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the cellular regulation of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in isolated acinar cells from rat parotid and human labial salivary glands, using the newly developed fluorescent nitric oxide (NO) indicator, DAF-2. We found that sympathetic stimulation with norepinephrine (NE) caused a strong increase in NO synthesis that was not seen after parasympathetic stimulation with acetylcholine. In rat parotid acinar cells, we furthermore investigated to which extent the NOS activity was dependent on the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) by simultaneously measuring NO synthesis and [Ca2+]i. It was found that a simple correlation between the rise in [Ca2+]i and the rate of NO production following NE stimulation does not exist, and studies in which [Ca2+]i was elevated by means of the Ca 2+ ionophore, ionomycin, further established that even a very large rise in [Ca2+]i did not cause significant NO synthesis. We furthermore found that activating adrenoceptors with NE causes synthesis of cGMP by activating a guanylyl cyclase, and that an enhanced [cGMP] evoked by use of caged cGMP causes Ca2+ release from internal stores. Thus, upon sympathetic stimulation, salivary gland acini synthesize NO that, in addition to playing a role in controlling intracellular [Ca2+] i' also might play a role in retrograde signaling processes to the surrounding tissue.

  1. Excretory function of salivary gland during static salivary scintigraphy using technetium-99m pertechnetate: a correlation study with salivary flow rate in sjogrens syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, S. J.; Lee, W. W.; Lee, Y. J.; So, Y.; Jeong, J. G.; Lee, M. C.; Kim, S. E. [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Salivary scintigraphy is useful in the evaluation of xerostomia. To identify the relevant and clinically applicable parameter for the evaluation of xerostomia, we performed static salivary scintigraphy using Tc-99m and compared it with salivary flow rate in patients with xerostomia. Twenty-three female patients (age 51.2{+-}10.4 years) who suffered from xerostomia were investigated. Nine patients were classified as Sjogrens syndrome (SS) by clinical criteria, and 14 patients were classified as non-Sjogrens syndrome. Un-stimulated salivary flow rate and simulated salivary flow rate were checked. Salivary scintigraphy was performed with injection of 25 mCi Tc-99m pertechnetate after injection anterior static image was obtained over face as basal uptake. ROIs were drawn over each salivary gland with background subtraction by square ROI drawn over skull. We used the mean data of right and left salivary glands for analysis. Percent excretion of salivary gland was calculated. Un-stimulated salivary flow rates(SFR) were different between groups (p<0.05): 0.58{+-}0.49 ml/15 min in SS, and 1.40{+-}1.14 ml/m in non-SS. However, SFR were not different between groups (p>0.05): 5.88{+-}4.07 ml/15 min in SS, and 10.31{+-}6.49 ml/15 min in non-SS. The uptake value in submandibular gland revealed significant difference between the groups. The percent excretion of submandibular gland had positive correlation with un-stimulated salivary flow rate (r=0.534, p=0.009), and that of parotid gland was also positive correlation (r=0.437, p=0.037). The result of multiple regression analysis revealed only percent excretion of submandibular gland was single determinant of unstimulated SFR. Percent excretion of submandibular gland had positive correlation with un-stimulated SFR. Thus, excretory function of submandibular gland assessed by salivary scintigraphy appears more related with xerostomia than parotid gland.

  2. Salivary gland choristoma of the middle ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fois, Paolo; Giannuzzi, Anna Lisa; Paties, Carlo Terenzio; Falcioni, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    Choristoma of the middle ear is a rare condition characterized by the presence of normal salivary gland tissue in the middle ear space. Salivary gland choristomas are benign lesions that are frequently associated with ossicular chain and facial nerve anomalies. Total surgical excision is indicated when there is no risk of damaging the facial nerve. We describe a new case of salivary gland choristoma of the middle ear, and we discuss the etiology, histologic features, and management of such lesions. Our patient was a 22-year-old woman in whom we surgically removed a whitish retrotympanic mass. Intraoperatively, we also detected an ossicular chain malformation. Histologic examination of the choristoma revealed the presence of salivary gland tissue. Furthermore, the lesion contained an extensive and previously undescribed component: a well-defined pseudostratified respiratory-type epithelium, similar to that of a normal eustachian tube. Ten months after removal of the choristoma, we surgically repaired the ossicular chain anomalies. No recurrence was noted on follow-up. PMID:25397377

  3. Reduced salivary flow and colonization by mutans streptococci in children with Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Areias

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Although individuals with Down syndrome have considerable oral disease, the prevalence of dental caries in this group is low. The present study aimed to compare known risk factors for dental caries development in children with Down syndrome and a matched population (siblings. In both populations, the number of acidogenic microorganisms, such as mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and Candida species, and the paraffin-stimulated pH, flow rate and IgA concentration in whole saliva were evaluated and compared. METHOD: Saliva was collected, and the caries index was evaluated in 45 sibling pairs aged between 6 and 18 years old. The salivary IgA concentration was determined by immunoturbidimetry. Salivary mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and Candida species were quantified on mitis salivarius agar containing bacitracin and 20% sucrose, rogosa agar supplemented with glacial acetic acid and sabouraud agar supplemented with chloramphenicol, respectively. RESULTS: Down syndrome children had a higher caries-free rate (p<0.05 and lower salivary mutans streptococci counts (p<0.03 compared to their siblings. Similar numbers of lactobacilli and Candida species were found in both groups. Salivary flow rates were 36% lower in Down syndrome children compared to their siblings (p<0.05. The salivary pH did not differ between Down syndrome children and controls. The Down syndrome children had an IgA secretion rate 29% lower than that of their siblings, but this difference was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the lower number of mutans streptococci in the saliva may be one of the factors contributing to the lower caries rate observed in Down syndrome children, despite evidence of hyposalivation.

  4. Isolation and characterization of salivary antigens from the female tick, Dermacentor andersoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, J R; Allen, J R

    1987-05-01

    The salivary glands of ixodid ticks are complex organs which are known to contain the antigens responsible for tick resistance in animals. We have identified a large number of proteins from salivary gland extracts (SGE), at least some of which are immunologically recognized by tick resistant animals and which are therefore presumed to be secreted salivary components. During the 6 to 10 day feeding process, a number of these antigens alter in concentration according to individual kinetics, and some of these changes correlate with the kinetics of skin test reactivity of SGE obtained at different times throughout the feeding period. By use of immunoaffinity chromatography we have isolated large quantities of many of the salivary antigens (SGA) contained in SGE, and found that they contain several esterase activities. SGA stimulates both immediate and delayed skin reactions in tick resistant guinea-pigs, and these reactions are about 200-fold more intense, per unit protein, than those elicited by SGE. The skin reactions to SGA are basophil-mediated and have many features in common with the cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity reactions of tick resistant animals. The demonstrated antigenic complexity of the glands may have profound implications for attempts to develop anti-tick vaccines, as it may eventually be found that candidate vaccines will have to incorporate more than one tick antigen in order to be effective. PMID:3299226

  5. Salivary testosterone and immunoglobulin A were increased by resistance training in adults with Down syndrome

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    G., Fornieles; M.A., Rosety; S., Elosegui; J.M., Rosety; J.R., Alvero-Cruz; N., Garcia; M., Rosety; T., Rodriguez-Pareja; R., Toro; M., Rosety-Rodriguez; F.J., Ordonez; I., Rosety.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to assess the influence of resistance training on salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels and hormone profile in sedentary adults with Down syndrome (DS). A total of 40 male adults with DS were recruited for the trial through different community support groups for people with [...] intellectual disabilities. All participants had medical approval for participation in physical activity. Twenty-four adults were randomly assigned to perform resistance training in a circuit with six stations, 3 days per week for 12 weeks. Training intensity was based on functioning in the eight-repetition maximum (8RM) test for each exercise. The control group included 16 age-, gender-, and BMI-matched adults with DS. Salivary IgA, testosterone, and cortisol levels were measured by ELISA. Work task performance was assessed using the repetitive weighted-box-stacking test. Resistance training significantly increased salivary IgA concentration (P=0.0120; d=0.94) and testosterone levels (P=0.0088; d=1.57) in the exercising group. Furthermore, it also improved work task performance. No changes were seen in the controls who had not exercised. In conclusion, a short-term resistance training protocol improved mucosal immunity response as well as salivary testosterone levels in sedentary adults with DS.

  6. Salivary thyroxine as an estimate of free thyroxine: concise communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elson, M.K.; Morley, J.E.; Shafer, R.B.

    1983-08-01

    To test the hypothesis that the levels of salivary thyroxine (T/sub 4/) reflect those of circulating free T/sub 4/, we developed a radioimmunoassay (RIA) sensitive to low levels of T/sub 4/. Concurrent saliva and serum samples were obtained from 32 euthyroid volunteers, ages 19 to 64. Salivary and serum T/sub 4/ and cortisol levels were measured by RIA. Salivary albumin was measured by nephelometry. Salivary T/sub 4/ levels were higher than predicted. No correlation was found between salivary T/sub 4/ and serum levels of free T/sub 4/ and total T/sub 4/ but there was a significant correlation between salivary T/sub 4/ and albumin (r = 0.82). Salivary cortisol levels agreed with reported results and showed no correlation with salivary albumin. We conclude that salivary levels of drugs and hormones may be strongly affected by protein binding, and caution must be exercised in using salivary levels as an estimate of circulating free levels.

  7. Anopheles salivary gland proteomes from major malaria vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontaine Albin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibody responses against Anopheles salivary proteins can indicate individual exposure to bites of malaria vectors. The extent to which these salivary proteins are species-specific is not entirely resolved. Thus, a better knowledge of the diversity among salivary protein repertoires from various malaria vector species is necessary to select relevant genus-, subgenus- and/or species-specific salivary antigens. Such antigens could be used for quantitative (mosquito density and qualitative (mosquito species immunological evaluation of malaria vectors/host contact. In this study, salivary gland protein repertoires (sialomes from several Anopheles species were compared using in silico analysis and proteomics. The antigenic diversity of salivary gland proteins among different Anopheles species was also examined. Results In silico analysis of secreted salivary gland protein sequences retrieved from an NCBInr database of six Anopheles species belonging to the Cellia subgenus (An. gambiae, An. arabiensis, An. stephensi and An. funestus and Nyssorhynchus subgenus (An. albimanus and An. darlingi displayed a higher degree of similarity compared to salivary proteins from closely related Anopheles species. Additionally, computational hierarchical clustering allowed identification of genus-, subgenus- and species-specific salivary proteins. Proteomic and immunoblot analyses performed on salivary gland extracts from four Anopheles species (An. gambiae, An. arabiensis, An. stephensi and An. albimanus indicated that heterogeneity of the salivary proteome and antigenic proteins was lower among closely related anopheline species and increased with phylogenetic distance. Conclusion This is the first report on the diversity of the salivary protein repertoire among species from the Anopheles genus at the protein level. This work demonstrates that a molecular diversity is exhibited among salivary proteins from closely related species despite their common pharmacological activities. The involvement of these proteins as antigenic candidates for genus-, subgenus- or species-specific immunological evaluation of individual exposure to Anopheles bites is discussed.

  8. Simultaneous determination of chromium, cadmium, and lead and evaluation of the correlation between chromium and cotinine in Chinese smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yongfeng; Hou, Hongwei; Zhu, Fengpeng; Wang, An; Liu, Yong; Hu, Qingyuan

    2014-04-01

    Heavy metals in tobacco caused wide public concern. To study the impact of heavy metals in smokers, 193 smokers and 58 nonsmokers were surveyed, and their urinary levels of chromium (UCr), lead (UPb), and cadmium (UCd) were assayed. In this study, UCr, UPb, and UCd in smokers (33.41 ± 14.99, 3.21 ± 1.34, 0.38 ± 0.64 ?g/24 h, respectively) and nonsmokers (27.45 ± 10.49, 3.02 ± 0.88, 0.20 ± 0.16 ?g/24 h, respectively) were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results showed that the content of UCr, UPb, and UCd in smokers were higher than in nonsmokers. Further analyses of correlations between the levels of urinary chromium and cotinine revealed positive relationship (correlation coefficient r = 0.51). PMID:24526319

  9. THE EFFECT OF SPORT COMPETITION ON SALIVARY STEROIDS IN AMATEUR FEMALE KARATE ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Azarbayjani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of present study was to investigate the impact of repeated competition on salivary cortisol and DHEA-S in amateur women karate athletes. We recruited 20 young elite female karate fighters [height 158 ± 7 cm (mean ± S.D., weight 59.5 ± 10.9 kg, age 21.1 ± 3.0 years], who were placed first till fourth in the Iranian championship tournament. Five ml of unstimulated whole saliva was collected 30-min before and 5 - min after first and last match in competition and analyzed for cortisol and DHEA-S concentrations. The results showed that participation in competition resulted in significantly increased saliva cortisol level (p 0.05. Significant differences insalivary steroids were not different between winners and losers (p > 0.05. The results of present study show that salivary cortisol concentration is a suitable index for showing competing stress.

  10. CHANGES IN SOME BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN THE SALIVARY GLANDS OF TWO IXODID TICKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Daham H. Al-Mola

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Extracts of salivary glands of the two types of ticks namely, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and a Rhipocephalus sanguineus sanguineus , were subjected to the test of some biochemical parameters . The total protein intensity has been estimated in salivary glands extracts in the two types, high percentage was found in H.anatolicum compared with R.sanguineus forms, (104.12±4.93 and (91.33±3.04 microgram/Cm3 respectively. The intensity of carbohydrates in salivary gland extracts was high in H.anatolicum (0.640±0.009, after comparing with a lower intensity for R.sanguineuss (0.360 ±0.004 microgram/Cm3. The lipid intensity in salivary glands was high in R.sanguineus (245.37±8.76 compared with concentrations in H.anatolicum (244.80±9.27microgram/Cm3.The total isolation of protein amount in the salivary glands in both types of tick, electrophoresis technique with Poly acrylamid gel with SDS has been implied to trace the most important separated proteins. The results denotes the existence of the four protein bands in H.anatolicum, and three protein bands in R.sanguineus, and their molecular weights were recognized. The Molecular weights for the four bands were; 76.190, 53.616, 38.168, and 16.614 kDa, respectively, while the molecular weight for the three protein bands were 73.569, 51.760, and 32.779 kDa, respectively.

  11. Central Nifedipine-induced Alterations in Salivary Flow and Compounds: Role of Nitric Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Abrao Saad

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the role of nifedipine and Nitric Oxide (NO on salivary flow and compounds (salivary amylase, saliva total proteins, saliva calcium, sodium and potassium. Male Holtzman rats weighting 200-250 g were anesthetized with zoletil 50 mg kg-1 (tiletamine chloridrate 125.0 mg and zolazepan chloridrate 125.0 mg into quadriceps muscle and stainless steel cannulas were implanted into their lateral ventricle of the brain (LV. Animals in divided group were injected with nifedipine (50 ?g ?L-1 alone and in combination with 7-nitroindazol (7-NIT (40 ?g ?L-1, neuronal NO Sinthase Inhibitor (nNOSI and Sodium Nitroprussate (SNP (30 ?g ?L-1 NO donor agent. As a secretory stimuli, pilocarpine dissolved in isotonic was administered intraperitoneally (ip at a dosage of 10 mg kg-1 body weight. Saliva was collected for 7 min with four cotton balls weighing approximately 20 mg each, two of which were placed on either side of the oral cavity, with the other two placed under the tongue. Nifedipine treatment induced a reduction in saliva secretion rate and concentration of amylase, total protein and calcium without changes in sodium and potassium concentration in comparison with controls. Co-treatment of animals with nifedipine and SNP retained flow rate and concentration of amylase, total protein and calcium in normal levels. Co-treatment of animals with nifedipine and 7-NIT potentiated the effect of nifedipine on the reduction of saliva secretion and concentrations of amylase, total protein and calcium. Nifedipine (dihydroperidine calcium-channel blocker widely in use is associated with salivary dysfunction acting in the central nervous system structures. NO might be the mechanism for protective effect against the nifedipine-induce salivary dysfunction, acting in the CNS.

  12. Localization of lysozyme mRNA in the labial salivary glands by in situ hybridization in Sjoegren's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, lysozyme mRNA in labial salivary glands has been localized with in situ hybridization technique using 35S-labeled hen lysozyme cDNA (cDNALZM) as a hybridization probe in normals and in patients with Sjoegren's syndrome. 35S-DNALZM:mRNA hybrids were detected only in acinar serous cells, although lysozyme was identified in ductal cells using immunohistochemical techniques. Our results suggest that the serous acinar cells are the only site of lysozyme synthesis in small salivary glands. The presence of lysozyme in ductal cells may be a result of reabsorption from the saliva or concentration from the blood or surrounding tissues. (author)

  13. Salivary cortisol hypersecretion in juvenile depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, D M; Goodyer, I M

    1988-05-01

    Thirty depressed inpatients aged 7-16 yrs were compared for salivary hypercortisolism with a control group of 16 inpatients of mixed diagnosis matched for age and sex. Four cortisol samples were taken over a 48 hr period: 8 a.m. and 11 p.m. on the first day; then, with 1 mg of dexamethasone given immediately after the second sample, at 4 p.m. and 11 p.m. on the second day. All except the 8 a.m. value were significantly greater (P less than 0.03) in the depressed group. A 4 nmol/l cutoff for the 4 p.m. sample gave 48% sensitivity and 91% specificity for discriminating depressed cases (P = 0.03). The results indicate that the salivary method for estimating cortisol levels in children and adolescents with depression warrants further study. PMID:3417807

  14. Submandibular swelling: tooth or salivary stone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capaccio, Pasquale; Marciante, Giulia Anna; Gaffuri, Michele; Spadari, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Submandibular swelling is a common clinical disorder of the maxillo-facial region that may be one of the manifestation of several pathologic disorders including sialolithiasis. A 38-year-old woman experienced a recurrent painful swelling in the right submandibular region for seven years. The symptoms, not always meal-related, gradually became chronic and associated with dysphagia, odynophagia and fever. Ultrasonography of the salivary glands revealed a retained glandular structure and no ductal obstruction or dilatation, and orthopantomography showed the presence of a structure compatible with tooth, but these findings did not correlate with clinical scenario. Only CT dental scan identified the radiological image as a salivary stone. Sialolithiasis should always be considered in the diagnostic iter of painful submandibular swelling. A careful evaluation of recurrence and characteristics of signs and symptoms associated to the swelling can help in making the correct diagnosis and planning a proper therapeutic strategy. PMID:24025889

  15. Salivary gland doses from dental radiographic exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salivary gland doses incurred during dental radiography were measured by phantom dosimetry, and these dose data and data obtained during a two-week survey of Hiroshima and Nagasaki dental hospitals and clinics were used to estimate the respective doses to members of the populations of the two cities. The results obtained were used to supplement previously determined doses to the thyroid gland, lens, and pituitary gland from dental radiography. No significant differences in doses were observed by age, sex or city. Doses to the salivary glands during dental radiography are probably not sufficiently large to cause bias in assessments of atomic bomb survivors for late radiation effects. However, the steadily increasing use of dental radiography underscores the need for continued monitoring of dental radiography doses in the interests of these assessments. (author)

  16. Pleomorphic adenoma of minor salivary gland in the parapharyngeal space

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham Elizabeth K; Sebastian Paul; Varghese Bipin T; Mathews Anitha

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background Majority of tumours occurring in minor salivary gland are malignant. Pleomorphic adenoma is of rare occurrence in parapharangeal space. Case presentation A rare case of a minor salivary gland pleomorphic adenoma of the parapharyngeal space is reported. Review of literature, clinical features, pathology, radiological findings and treatment of these tumours are discussed. Conclusions Parapharangeal salivary tumours presents as a painless progressive swelling with majority of...

  17. Lifestyle, mental health status and salivary secretion rates

    OpenAIRE

    Toda, Masahiro; Morimoto, Kanehisa; Fukuda, Sanae; Hayakawa, Kazuo

    2002-01-01

    The relations between salivary variables, lifestyle and mental health status were investigated for 61 healthy female university students. The salivary secretion rates were significantly higher in the good lifestyle groups compared with the poor lifestyle groups. Among the 8 lifestyle items tested. “eating breakfast” and “mental stress” were significantly related to the salivary secretion rates. The present findings suggest that the acquisition of a good lifestyle is also very importan...

  18. Hemangioma in minor salivary glands: real or illusion

    OpenAIRE

    Kumaran Mayelam G; Shankar Kolappan A; Karunakaran Kaliappan; SureshKumar Palani; Ponniah Irulandy; Preeti Lakshmi

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Hemangioma is a common soft tissue lesion in the head and neck region. Hemangioma in the context of minor salivary glands is rarely encountered in surgical pathology practice, and for this reason most pathologist are often unfamiliar with its histomorphological features. We report a rare histological finding of salivary gland structures within a cavernous hemangioma, which may or may not have originated in the minor salivary gland.

  19. Determination of the Nicotine Metabolites Cotinine and Trans-3?-Hydroxycotinine in Biologic fluids of Smokers and Non-Smokers using Liquid Chromatography - Tandem Mass Spectrometry: Biomarkers for Tobacco Smoke Exposure and for Phenotyping Cytochrome P450 2A6 Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob, Peyton; Yu, Lisa; Duan, Minjiang; Ramos, Lita; Yturralde, Olivia; Benowitz, Neal L.

    2010-01-01

    The nicotine metabolite cotinine is widely used to assess the extent of tobacco use in smokers, and secondhand smoke exposure in non-smokers. The ratio of another nicotine metabolite, trans-3?-hydroxycotinine, to cotinine in biofluids is highly correlated with the rate of nicotine metabolism, which is catalyzed mainly by Cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6). Consequently, this nicotine metabolite ratio is being used to phenotype individuals for CYP2A6 activity and to individualize pharmacotherapies...

  20. Validation of a cortisol enzyme immunoassay and characterization of salivary cortisol circadian rhythm in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintz, Matthew R; Santymire, Rachel M; Parr, Lisa A; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V

    2011-09-01

    Monitoring concentrations of stress hormones is an important tool for behavioral research and conservation for animals both in the wild and captivity. Glucocorticoids can be measured in mammals as an indicator of stress by analyzing blood, feces, urine, hair, feathers, or saliva. The advantages of using saliva for measuring cortisol concentrations are three-fold: it is minimally invasive, multiple samples can be collected from the same individual in a short timeframe, and cortisol has a relatively short response time in saliva as compared with other materials. The purpose of this study was to: (1) conduct an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge as a physiological validation for an enzyme immunoassay to measure salivary cortisol in chimpanzees and (2) characterize the circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol in chimpanzees. We determined that salivary cortisol concentrations peaked 45 min following the ACTH challenge, which is similar to humans. Also, salivary cortisol concentrations peaked early in the morning and decreased throughout the day. We recommend that saliva collection may be the most effective method of measuring stress reactivity and has the potential to complement behavioral, cognitive, physiological, and welfare studies. PMID:21538448

  1. Social Closeness Increases Salivary Progesterone in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Stephanie L.; Fredrickson, Barbara L.; Wirth, Michelle M.; Poulin, Michael J.; Meier, Elizabeth A.; Heaphy, Emily D.; Cohen, Michael D.; Schultheiss, Oliver C.

    2009-01-01

    We examined whether interpersonal closeness increases salivary progesterone. One hundred and sixty female college students (80 dyads) were randomly assigned to participate in either a closeness task with a partner versus a neutral task with a partner. Those exposed to the closeness induction had higher levels of progesterone relative to those exposed to the neutral task. Across conditions, progesterone increase one week later predicted the willingness to sacrifice for the partner. These resul...

  2. Salivary cortisol and psychosocial hazards at work

    OpenAIRE

    Maina, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    Background Experimental and clinical evidence suggest that stress can lead to ill-health through the disregulation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis. Studies to date have produced equivocal results likely due to different methodologies and failure to account for confounding factors. This investigation aimed to assess the relation between self-reported work-related stressors and salivary cortisol and to clarify the role of the potential confounders. Methods Thirty-six cal...

  3. Salivary Cortisol Lower in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Wahbeh, Helane?; Oken, Barry S.

    2013-01-01

    Altered cortisol has been demonstrated to be lower in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in most studies. This cross-sectional study evaluated salivary cortisol at waking, 30 minutes after, and bedtime in 51 combat veterans with PTSD compared to 20 veterans without PTSD. It also examined the relationship of cortisol to PTSD symptoms using two classifications: DSM-IV and the more recent four-factor classification proposed for DSM-V. The PTSD group had lower cortisol values than the control g...

  4. Aphasia Severity and Salivary Cortisol over Time

    OpenAIRE

    Laures-gore, Jacqueline S.

    2012-01-01

    The current study explored the complicated interplay between aphasia and the stress biomarker, cortisol, in left hemisphere (LH) and right hemisphere (RH) stroke patients. Nineteen LH patients and 12 RH patients began the study between one to six months post-stroke and were followed for three months. During this time, language skills were assessed monthly while afternoon salivary cortisol samples were collected biweekly. The LH and RH groups showed improvements in language test scores over th...

  5. Salivary duct carcinoma of parotid gland- An incidental finding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparna Suvernakar V, Shubha Deshpande A, Prabha Mulay S

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Salivary duct carcinoma, a recently added separate entity of salivary gland tumor is a rare tumour with its aggressive behaviour. Due to morphological similarities with ductal carcinoma of breast the name salivary duct carcinoma is given. It is more common in male than in female. But our case is of 45yr female with mass in the parotid region. The diagnosis on USG and CT was organized collection. But on excision the diagnosis turned to be salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland

  6. Oxidative DNA damage and repair in children exposed to low levels of arsenic in utero and during early childhood: Application of salivary and urinary biomarkers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study aimed to assess arsenic exposure and its effect on oxidative DNA damage and repair in young children exposed in utero and continued to live in arsenic-contaminated areas. To address the need for biological specimens that can be acquired with minimal discomfort to children, we used non-invasive urinary and salivary-based assays for assessing arsenic exposure and early biological effects that have potentially serious health implications. Levels of arsenic in nails showed the greatest magnitude of difference between exposed and control groups, followed by arsenic concentrations in saliva and urine. Arsenic levels in saliva showed significant positive correlations with other biomarkers of arsenic exposure, including arsenic accumulation in nails (r = 0.56, P < 0.001) and arsenic concentration in urine (r = 0.50, P < 0.05). Exposed children had a significant reduction in arsenic methylation capacity indicated by decreased primary methylation index and secondary methylation index in both urine and saliva samples. Levels of salivary 8-OHdG in exposed children were significantly higher (? 4-fold, P < 0.01), whereas levels of urinary 8-OHdG excretion and salivary hOGG1 expression were significantly lower in exposed children (? 3-fold, P < 0.05), suggesting a defect in hOGG1 that resulted in ineffective cleavage of 8-OHdG. Multiple regression analysis results showed that levels of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in saliva and urine had a significant positive association with salivary 8-OHdG and a significant negative association with salivary hOGG1 expression. - Highlights: • The effects of arsenic exposure in utero and through early childhood were studied. • Arsenic-exposed children had a reduction in arsenic methylation capacity. • Exposed children had more DNA damage, observed as elevated salivary 8-OHdG. • Lower salivary hOGG1 in exposed children indicated impairment of 8-OHdG repair. • Salivary and urinary 8-OHdG levels were discordant

  7. pH Salival, Capacidad Buffer, Proteínas Totales y Flujo Salival en Pacientes Hipertensos Controlados Usuarios de Diuréticos / Salivary pH, Buffer Capacity, Total Proteins and Salivary Flow in Controlled Hypertensive Patients Diuretic Users

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Samuel, Muñoz L; Carmen Gloria, Narváez.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available La hipertensión arterial (HTA) es una enfermedad cardiovascular que padece gran parte de la población mundial y nacional, alcanzando en Chile un 26,9% en el año 2010. El objetivo fue determinar pH salival, capacidad buffer, proteínas totales y flujo salival, en pacientes hipertensos controlados usua [...] rios de diuréticos. Se analizaron 14 muestras de saliva no estimulada de pacientes hipertensos controlados con diuréticos y 10 muestras de saliva no estimulada de personas que no padecían enfermedades sistémicas y no tomaban medicamentos, los valores obtenidos de pH salival, capacidad buffer, flujo salival y proteínas totales fueron determinados en ambos grupos. La mediana obtenida en las muestras de hipertensos controlados con diuréticos, para el pH salival fue de 6,83; para la capacidad buffer fue 4,86; para el flujo salival fue 0,55 ml/min y para las proteínas totales salivales fue de 1,09 g/dL. Para el grupo de pacientes sanos la mediana fue de 6,88 para el pH; 4,25 para la capacidad buffer; 1,8 ml/min para el flujo salival y 0,29 g/dL para las proteínas totales salivales. Además, no se encontró asociación entre el flujo salival (rs = 0,425), capacidad buffer (rs = 0,283) y concentración de proteínas (rs = 0,245) con la dosis del diurético (p > 0,05) . Se encontró que existieron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en el flujo salival y la concentración de proteínas salivales entre el grupo de pacientes hipertensos y de pacientes sanos (U Mann-Wthitney P 0,005). Los pacientes que sufren HTA y están siendo controlados con diuréticos tienen una disminución del flujo salival y un aumento de la concentración de proteínas, no viéndose afectadas las variables de pH y capacidad buffer. Abstract in english Introduction: Hypertension (HT) is a cardiovascular disease with a high prevalence around the world. In Chile at year 2010 it reached 26.9% of the population. Objective: To determine salivary pH, buffering capacity, total proteins and salivary flow in controlled hypertensive diuretic users and a gro [...] up without systemic diseases. Methods: 14 samples of unstimulated saliva of patients with hypertension treated with diuretics and 10 samples of unstimulated saliva of people without systemic diseases and not taking medication were analyzed. pH, salivary buffering, salivary flow and total protein were determined in both groups. Results: The figures for the treated HT patients were as follows: pH: 6.83, buffer capacity: 4.86, salivary flow: 0.55 ml / min and total salivary proteins: 1.09 g / dL. For those without systemic diseases the results were: pH: 6,88, buffer capacity: 4,25, saliva flow: 1.8 ml / min and total salivary protein: 0.29 g / dL. No association was found between salivary flow (rs = 0.425), buffering capacity (rs = 0.283) and protein concentration (rs = 0.245) with the diuretic dose (p > 0.05). Statistically significant differences were found in salivary flow and total salivary protein concentration between the group with hypertension and without. (U Mann-Wthitney P > 0.005). No statistically significant differences in salivary pH and buffering capacity were found among the study groups (U Mann-Wthitney > 0.005). Conclusion: Patients with hypertension and treated with diuretics have a decreased salivary flow and an increased total protein concentration while ph and buffer capacity remained normal.

  8. S-100 protein antibodies do not label normal salivary gland myoepithelium. Histogenetic implications for salivary gland tumors.

    OpenAIRE

    Dardick, I.; Stratis, M.; Parks, W. R.; Denardi, F. G.; Kahn, H. J.

    1991-01-01

    Neoplastically modified myoepithelial cells have a key role in developing the histologic characteristics of some salivary gland tumors. S-100 protein expressed in certain of these tumors is suggested to support this role, as the principal component in the human salivary gland reported to be S-100 protein-positive is myoepithelium. Confirmation of such an important aspect is required. Immunoperoxidase staining of parotid salivary gland shows considerably different patterns obtained with antibo...

  9. Weight Control Methods Related to Cotinine-Verified Smoking among Korean Adult Women: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Kyun; Kang, Jae Heon; Park, Hyun Ah; Kim, Kyoung Woo; Hur, Yang Im; Yoo, Yeon Gak; An, Jiyoung

    2015-01-01

    Background Korean women are known to have a very low smoking rate. However, the actual smoking rate among Korean women is higher than 10% and may continue to increase gradually. In addition, some Korean women use extreme weight control methods that have potentially harmful effects. This study was conducted to elucidate weight control methods related to cotinine-verified smoking among Korean adult women. Methods This cross-sectional study involved 4,189 women aged ?19 years who had attempted weight control during the past 1 year from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2011. Smoking status was assessed using both self-report questionnaires and assays of urinary cotinine, and weight control methods were investigated using self-report questionnaires. Results The smoking rate based on the measurement of urinary cotinine was 12.4% ± 0.8% among Korean women. Cotinine-verified smokers were more likely to attempt fasting (odds ratio, 2.19; 95% confidence intervals, 1.03 to 4.67), taking prescription diet-pills (odds ratio, 2.37; 95% confidence intervals, 1.47 to 3.82), and taking nonprescription diet-pills (odds ratio, 3.46; 95% confidence intervals, 1.71 to 6.98), and were less likely to attempt eating less food or modifying dietary patterns (odds ratio, 0.71; 95% confidence intervals, 0.51 to 0.99) compared to non-smokers. Conclusion Korean adult women's smoking is independently related to a high likelihood of using weight control methods with potentially harmful effects, such as fasting and taking diet-pills, and a low likelihood of choosing weight control methods, including dietary modification, that require constant effort for a prolonged time. PMID:25802688

  10. Measuring environmental tobacco smoke exposure in infants and young children through urine cotinine and memory-based parental reports: empirical findings and discussion

    OpenAIRE

    Matt, G.; Wahlgren, D.; Hovell, M.; Zakarian, J.; Bernert, J.; Meltzer, S.; Pirkle, J.; Caudill, S.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—This study examined the reliability and potential biases of two urine collection methods from which cotinine measures were obtained and the validity of memory-based parental reports of their children's exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS).?DESIGN—Structured interviews were conducted with mothers of infants and young children to obtain memory-based estimates of recent ETS exposure. Urine samples were collected through standard and cotton roll collection methods for cot...

  11. Salivary expression of soluble HER2 in breast cancer patients with positive and negative HER2 status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidi, Fatna; Bouziane, Amal; Lakhdar, Amina; Khabouze, Samira; Rhrab, Brahim; Zaoui, Fatima

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between salivary concentration of the soluble fragment of the HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor) protein and its status in mammary tissues. Methods This case-control study was done in 27 breast cancer patients with no visible metastatic disease treated at the gynecology service, Maternity Souissi Hospital, Rabat, Morocco. Two groups were selected, ie, patients with positive and negative HER2 status in mammary tissue. The salivary HER2 protein concentration was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The salivary HER2 concentration was compared between the HER2-positive and HER2-negative groups using the Mann-Whitney U test. A P-value 0.05), except for the progesterone hormone receptor which was statistically significant in both the case and control groups (P=0.047). Conclusion According to our data, salivary expression of the HER2 receptor may not be a reliable alternative to tissue assessment. PMID:25053886

  12. Measuring salivary analytes from free-ranging monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, James P; Vitale, Alison B; Rivera, Adaris Mas; Ayala, James E; Maestripieri, Dario

    2010-12-01

    Studies of large free-ranging mammals have been revolutionized by non-invasive methods for assessing physiology, which usually involve the measurement of fecal or urinary biomarkers. However, such techniques are limited by numerous factors. To expand the range of physiological variables measurable non-invasively from free-ranging primates, we developed techniques for sampling monkey saliva by offering monkeys ropes with oral swabs sewn on the ends. We evaluated different attractants for encouraging individuals to offer samples, and proportions of individuals in different age/sex categories willing to give samples. We tested the saliva samples we obtained in three commercially available assays: cortisol, salivary alpha amylase, and secretory immunoglobulin A. We show that habituated free-ranging rhesus macaques will give saliva samples voluntarily without training, with 100% of infants, and over 50% of adults willing to chew on collection devices. Our field methods are robust even for analytes that show poor recovery from cotton, and/or that have concentrations dependent on salivary flow rate. We validated the cortisol and SAA assays for use in rhesus macaques by showing aspects of analytical validation, such as that samples dilute linearly and in parallel to assay standards. We also found that values measured correlated with biologically meaningful characteristics of sampled individuals (age and dominance rank). The SIgA assay tested did not react to samples. Given the wide range of analytes measurable in saliva but not in feces or urine, our methods considerably improve our ability to study physiological aspects of the behavior and ecology of free-ranging primates, and are also potentially adaptable to other mammalian taxa. PMID:20837036

  13. Cotinine exposure increases Fallopian tube PROKR1 expression via nicotinic AChRalpha-7: a potential mechanism explaining the link between smoking and tubal ectopic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Julie L V; Oliver, Elizabeth; Lee, Kai-Fai; Entrican, Gary; Jabbour, Henry N; Critchley, Hilary O D; Horne, Andrew W

    2010-11-01

    Tubal ectopic pregnancy (EP) is the most common cause of maternal mortality in the first trimester of pregnancy; however, its etiology is uncertain. In EP, embryo retention within the Fallopian tube (FT) is thought to be due to impaired smooth muscle contractility (SMC) and alterations in the tubal microenvironment. Smoking is a major risk factor for EP. FTs from women with EP exhibit altered prokineticin receptor-1 (PROKR1) expression, the receptor for prokineticins (PROK). PROK1 is angiogenic, regulates SMC, and is involved in intrauterine implantation. We hypothesized that smoking predisposes women to EP by altering tubal PROKR1 expression. Sera/FT were collected at hysterectomy (n=21). Serum levels of the smoking metabolite, cotinine, were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. FTs were analyzed by q-RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and Western blotting for expression of PROKR1 and the predicted cotinine receptor, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ?-7 (AChR?-7). FT explants (n=4) and oviductal epithelial cells (cell line OE-E6/E7) were treated with cotinine and an nAChR?-7 antagonist. PROKR1 transcription was higher in FTs from smokers (PE6/E7 cells increased PROKR1 expression (P<0.05), which was negated by cotreatment with nAChR?-7 antagonist. Smoking targets human FTs via nAChR?-7 to increase tubal PROKR1, leading to alterations in the tubal microenvironment that could predispose to EP. PMID:20864676

  14. Postnatal salivary cortisol and sense of coherence (SOC) in Eritrean mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almedom, Astier M; Teclemichael, Tesfaldet; Romero, L Michael; Alemu, Zemui

    2005-01-01

    This pilot study explores possible physiological correlates of maternal sense of coherence (SOC) by looking at salivary cortisol levels in Eritrean mothers during the immediate pre- and postnatal period. Samples of pre- and postnatal resting whole saliva were obtained from 19 mothers and from 31 controls in Ghinda. Radioimmunoassay results revealed no differences between prenatal and control concentrations of salivary cortisol, but postnatal levels were significantly lower (P < 0.014). Mothers who delivered in hospital had significantly higher SOC scores compared to those who opted for home birth (P < 0.045). This difference was particularly pronounced in the comprehensibility subscale of the SOC scores (P < 0.037). Moreover, mothers with higher comprehensibility scores showed significantly lower postnatal cortisol levels (P < 0.017). No associations were found between cortisol and age or parity. The implications of these findings for maternity health service policy and practice in Eritrea are considered. PMID:15849703

  15. Human salivary gland stem cells ameliorate hyposalivation of radiation-damaged rat salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jaemin; Baek, Hyunjung; Kim, Yoon-Ju; Choi, Youngwook; Lee, Heekyung; Lee, Eunju; Kim, Eun Sook; Hah, Jeong Hun; Kwon, Tack-Kyun; Choi, Ik Joon; Kwon, Heechung

    2013-01-01

    Salivary function in mammals may be defective for various reasons, such as aging, Sjogren's syndrome or radiation therapy in head and neck cancer patients. Recently, tissue-specific stem cell therapy has attracted public attention as a next-generation therapeutic reagent. In the present study, we isolated tissue-specific stem cells from the human submandibular salivary gland (hSGSCs). To efficiently isolate and amplify hSGSCs in large amounts, we developed a culture system (lasting 4-5 weeks) without any selection. After five passages, we obtained adherent cells that expressed mesenchymal stem cell surface antigen markers, such as CD44, CD49f, CD90 and CD105, but not the hematopoietic stem cell markers, CD34 and CD45, and that were able to undergo adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. In addition, hSGSCs were differentiated into amylase-expressing cells by using a two-step differentiation method. Transplantation of hSGSCs to radiation-damaged rat salivary glands rescued hyposalivation and body weight loss, restored acinar and duct cell structure, and decreased the amount of apoptotic cells. These data suggest that the isolated hSGSCs, which may have characteristics of mesenchymal-like stem cells, could be used as a cell therapy agent for the damaged salivary gland. PMID:24232257

  16. Genetic regulation of salivary gland development in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirraglia, Carolyn; Myat, Monn Monn

    2010-01-01

    Studies of salivary gland development in the Drosophila embryo have revealed the morphogenic events by which the salivary gland tubes are formed, and identified the genes and genetic networks that regulate these events. Invagination of the salivary gland primordium occurs by an apical constriction mechanism regulated by the tyrosine kinase, Tec29, the transcription factors, Fork head and Huckebein, and Rho GTPase-mediated actomyosin contraction. After invagination is complete, transcriptional control of the apical membrane protein, Crumbs, by the transcription factors, Hairy, Hkb and Ribbon, and downregulation of Moesin-dependent apical stiffness promotes elongation of the salivary gland lumen. Integrin-mediated adhesion between the gland and surrounding mesoderm, coupled with Rho GTPase-mediated contraction of the proximal gland cells and downregulation of E-cadherin-based cell-cell adhesion by the Rac GTPases, allow turning and posterior migration of the salivary gland. Further posterior migration of the salivary gland is dependent on axon guidance cues, such as Robo and Slit, and close association with surrounding tissues. Many of the genes identified as regulators of salivary gland invagination and migration also control invagination of other epithelial tissues and migration of diverse cell types. Thus, studies of Drosophila salivary gland morphogenesis continue to illuminate the conserved mechanisms by which cells give rise to three-dimensional tissues and organs during embryogenesis. PMID:20428010

  17. Direct salivary cortisol radio-immunoassay determination. Clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salivary cortisol levels reflect the biologically active free fraction of blood cortisol. The authors describe the results obtained with the aim of a radio-immunoassay commercial serum cortisol kit, without prealable extraction in different physiological and pathological situations. Salivary cortisol determination appears performant both in nycthemeral studies and in stimulation or freination tests

  18. Direct salivary cortisol radio-immunoassay determination. Clinical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, C.; Cherfan, J.; Kurtz, F.; Vignon, F.; Schlienger, J.L.; Chabrier, G.; Sapin, R.

    1987-04-01

    Salivary cortisol levels reflect the biologically active free fraction of blood cortisol. The authors describe the results obtained with the aim of a radio-immunoassay commercial serum cortisol kit, without prealable extraction in different physiological and pathological situations. Salivary cortisol determination appears performant both in nycthemeral studies and in stimulation or freination tests.

  19. Intimate Partner Violence Exposure, Salivary Cortisol, and Childhood Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair-Merritt, Megan H.; Johnson, Sara B.; Okelo, Sande; Page, Gayle

    2012-01-01

    Parents were given supplies to collect 3 child salivary cortisol samples (awakening, 30-min after awakening, bedtime) at home on a typical day, and return them via mail. Medical records also were abstracted. Results: Fifty-three percent (n = 29) returned child salivary samples. Families who returned samples typically returned them within 2 weeks,…

  20. Determinación de los niveles de cortisol salival en una muestra de sujetos de Santiago de Chile Salivary cortisol among subjects with and without Cushing syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MACARENA LÉPEZ

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Salivary cortisol measurement is recommended as a screening mea-sure when a Cushing Syndrome is suspected. Theproposed cut-offpointfor aprobable diagnosis is 0.16 ug/dL. Aim: To determine salivary cortisol concentrations during the day inpatients with and without Cushing syndrome and with depression. Material and Methods: Salivary cortisol was measured by competitive enzyme immuno assay (EIA, in samples obtained at 8:00,15:00 and 23:00 h in 78 patients without Cushing syndrome, aged 40 ± 15years (28 males, 30 patients with depression aged 40 ± 12years (nine males and four jemales with Cushing syndrome aged 42 ± 17 years. Results: Salivary cortisol was higher among patients with Cushing syndrome than the rest of patients. A salivary cortisol over the cut-off value of O.16 ug/dL was found in 42% of subjects without Cushing syndrome and in 33% of patients with depression. Median values among patients without Cushing syndrome, depression and with Cushing syndrome were 0.21 (range < 0.1-1.42, 0.2 (range 0,12-0.9 and 0.58 (range 0.37-1.1 ug/dL, respectively Conclusions: Salivary cortisol measured by EIA method was higher among patients with Cushing syndrome but there was a great overlap with values obtained in subjects without the syndrome.

  1. Evaluation of anxiety and salivary chromogranin a secretion in women receiving breast conserving surgery followed by radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We conducted a prospective study to assess the anxiety and salivary Chromogranin A (CgA), which is considered to be a biomarker of the stress response, in outpatients receiving breast conserving surgery followed by radiation therapy (RT) to the whole breast. Fifty consecutive patients who received whole-breast RT were enrolled in this study. The anxiety levels were measured by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) at the beginning of RT (baseline), 30 Gy, completion of RT, and 1 and 3 months after RT. Salivary CgA levels were also measured at the same time. The mean state anxiety score for all patients was 46.16 with a standard error (SE) of 1.57 at the beginning of RT (baseline) which continued to decline during and after RT. It reached its lowest score with 36.34±1.56 at 3 months after RT (p<0.0001). The mean trait anxiety score for all patients was 43.10±1.54 at baseline and remained constant during RT but began to decline after completion of RT and reached a low level at 3 months after RT (p=0.0021). The mean salivary CgA concentration for all patients demonstrated no consistent trends over time, but at 30 Gy the concentration showed a significant decreasing pattern (p=0.0473). Salivary CgA concentrations and state anxiety and trait anxiety scores at all time points showed no correlation. The mean anxiety scores measured by State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) showed no positive correlation with salivary CgA concentration for breast cancer patients undergoingon for breast cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy following breast conserving surgery. (author)

  2. Identifying sources and estimating glandular output of salivary TIMP-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten-Andersen, L; Beier Jensen, S

    2008-01-01

    Objective. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1) has been identified as a potential biomarker in diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Since TIMP-1 resides in most tissues and bodily fluids, we evaluated the potential of using saliva to obtain reproducible TIMP-1 measurements in a non-invasive manner. Material and methods. Samples of unstimulated and stimulated whole saliva and saliva collected from individual glands were analysed for TIMP-1 content. A TIMP-1 ELISA was validated for use in saliva testing and the most optimal sampling and handling procedures for reproducible measurements identified. Western blotting and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry were used for confirmatory analyses. Results. The TIMP-1 ELISA was found suitable for saliva measurements. All saliva secretions contained TIMP-1, but in different concentrations ranging from 2.81 ng/mL in submandibular/sublingual saliva to 173.88 ng/mL in parotid saliva. TIMP-1 concentrations were influenced to a varying degree by fluctuations in flow. We found the lowest output in submandibular/sublingual saliva stimulated with 0.5 % citric acid (3.56 ng/min) and highest output in chewing-stimulated whole saliva (267.01 ng/min). Conclusion. This study shows that saliva contains authentic TIMP-1, the concentration of which was found to depend on gland type and salivary flow. Stimulated whole saliva is suggested as a reliable and easily accessible source for TIMP-1 determinations in bodily fluids.

  3. Can we rescue salivary gland function after irradiation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jielin; Coppes, Robert P

    2008-01-01

    Hyposalivation induced by exposure of the salivary gland to radiation while treating head and neck cancer patients, can result in xerostomia (dry mouth syndrome), which burdens the patient with oral dryness or pain, dental caries, reduced taste and smell, increased risk for oral infections, hampered speech, and problems with food mastication. Stem cell therapy may be an option to reduce radiation-induced damage to the salivary glands permanently. This Directions in Science article reviews a recent study (Lombaert et al, 2008) using tissue stem cells to regenerate the salivary glands from cells that originate from putative stem cells residing in the ductal compartment. Lombaert et al showed restoration of function of irreversibly damaged mouse submandibular glands after intraglandular injection of an in vitro cultured c-Kit+ cell population containing salivary gland stem cells. The findings raise the prospect of clinical autologous salivary gland stem cell transplantation after radiotherapy. PMID:18836667

  4. Evaluation of the Effects of Quercetin on Damaged Salivary Secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Ayako; Inoue, Hiroko; Mishima, Kenji; Ide, Fumio; Nakayama, Ryoko; Hasaka, Ayaka; Ryo, Koufuchi; Ito, Yumi; Sakurai, Takashi; Hasegawa, Yoshinori; Saito, Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    With the aim of discovering an effective method to treat dry mouth, we analyzed the effects of quercetin on salivary secretion and its mechanism of action. We created a mouse model with impaired salivary secretion by exposure to radiation and found that impaired secretion is suppressed by quercetin intake. Moreover, secretion levels were enhanced in quercetin-fed normal mice. To elucidate the mechanisms of these effects on salivary secretion, we conducted an analysis using mouse submandibular gland tissues, a human salivary gland epithelial cell line (HSY), and mouse aortic endothelial cells (MAECs). The results showed that quercetin augments aquaporin 5 (AQP5) expression and calcium uptake, and suppresses oxidative stress and inflammatory responses induced by radiation exposure, suggesting that quercetin intake may be an effective method to treat impaired salivary secretion. PMID:25629520

  5. Evaluation of the effects of quercetin on damaged salivary secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Ayako; Inoue, Hiroko; Mishima, Kenji; Ide, Fumio; Nakayama, Ryoko; Hasaka, Ayaka; Ryo, Koufuchi; Ito, Yumi; Sakurai, Takashi; Hasegawa, Yoshinori; Saito, Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    With the aim of discovering an effective method to treat dry mouth, we analyzed the effects of quercetin on salivary secretion and its mechanism of action. We created a mouse model with impaired salivary secretion by exposure to radiation and found that impaired secretion is suppressed by quercetin intake. Moreover, secretion levels were enhanced in quercetin-fed normal mice. To elucidate the mechanisms of these effects on salivary secretion, we conducted an analysis using mouse submandibular gland tissues, a human salivary gland epithelial cell line (HSY), and mouse aortic endothelial cells (MAECs). The results showed that quercetin augments aquaporin 5 (AQP5) expression and calcium uptake, and suppresses oxidative stress and inflammatory responses induced by radiation exposure, suggesting that quercetin intake may be an effective method to treat impaired salivary secretion. PMID:25629520

  6. Assessment of salivary gland dysfunction following chemoradiotherapy using quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose:To assess chemoradiotherapy-induced salivary gland dysfunction using quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy (QSGS), and whether QSGS is capable of predicting the grade of persistent salivary dysfunction after chemoradiotherapy. Methods: From a time-activity curve using a stimulation test, the washout rate (WR) calculated was assessed. All glands (n = 155) were classified into four groups: a no-therapy group (n = 18), a chemotherapy alone group (n = 31), a radiotherapy alone group (n = 50), and a chemoradiotherapy group (n = 56). Subjective descriptions of xerostomia were recorded 1 year after the completion of the treatment period, and the 32 glands subjected to irradiation with or without chemotherapy were assessed. Results: The WR values were significantly lower in glands that received chemoradiotherapy than in glands treated with radiotherapy alone (mean: 0.75 x 10-3, n = 40 vs. 0.22, n = 36, p < 0.015), but there was no significant difference in the WR values between the no-therapy group and the chemotherapy alone group. The mean values of WR were lower in the chemoradiotherapy glands than in the radiotherapy alone glands in each of cumulative dose ranges of 1-20, 21-30, and 31-60 Gy. With regard to recovery from xerostomia, the WR values at a cumulative dose range of 20 to 40 Gy were significantly lower in the not improved group (-0.418, n = 16) than in the improved group (0.245, n = 16) (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Chemotherapy per se has no or Conclusion: Chemotherapy per se has no or little adverse effect on salivary function, but combination chemotherapy can deteriorate radiation-induced injury of the salivary glands. QSGS appears useful in predicting the grade of persistent xerostomia following chemoradiotherapy

  7. TP53 mutations in salivary gland neoplasms

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciana Fasanella, Matizonkas-Antonio; Ricardo Alves de, Mesquita; Suzana C. Orsini Machado de, Souza; Fabio Daumas, Nunes.

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Vários estudos mostram que a perda da função do gene TP53 desempenha um importante papel na gênese de diversas neoplasias, incluindo as neoplasias de glândula salivar. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a presença de mutações no gene TP53 em neoplasias de glândula salivar. Para isso, DNA gen [...] ômico foi extraído de casos de adenoma pleomórfico (AP), carcinoma em adenoma pleomórfico (CAP), carcinoma mucoepidermóide (CME), carcinoma adenóide cístico (CAC) e adenocarcinoma polimorfo de baixo grau de malignidade (APBG) emblocados em parafina. Foi realizada amplificação pela técnica da PCR dos exons 5 a 8 e em seguida a SSCP (análise de conformação de fita simples). Foi observada alteração na mobilidade das bandas em 9 das 18 neoplasias estudadas, principalmente nos exons 5 e 8. Esses achados sugerem que mutações no gene TP53 estão relacionadas à patogênese das neoplasias de glândula salivar e que os exons 5 e 8 estão mais freqüentemente envolvidos. Abstract in english Many studies have demonstrated that loss of TP53 gene function has an important role in the genesis of many neoplasms, including salivary gland neoplasms. The purpose of this study was to examine the mutation profile of the TP53 gene in salivary gland neoplasms. Genomic DNA was extracted from paraff [...] in-embedded tissues of pleomorphic adenoma, carcinoma in pleomorphic adenoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma and polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma. Exons 5 to 8 of the TP53 gene were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to perform single-stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. Band shifting was observed in exons 5, 6 and 8 in 9 out of 18 neoplasms. The results of this study suggest that mutations in TP53 gene are related to salivary gland neoplasms pathogenesis and that exons 5 and 8 are most frequently involved.

  8. Assessment of salivary gland function in patients after successful kidney transplantation using (99m)Tc-pertechnetate salivary gland scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsal, Ebru; Seven, Bedri; Keles, Mustafa; Ayan, Arif Kursad; Cankaya, Erdem; Ozkan, Ozalkan

    2013-01-01

    Chronic renal failure and its treatment can induce oral health problems and salivary glands dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to assess salivary glands function in patients with kidney transplantation using technetium-99m pertechnetate ((99m)Tc-P) salivary glands scintigraphy. We prospectively studied 34 patients with kidney transplantation (30 males and 4 females,mean age 39.76±11.6 years) and 28 healthy controls (12 males and 16 females, mean age 36.1±9.5 years). Salivary gland scintigraphy was performed nearly 4.4±2.9 years after successful kidney transplantation. Dynamic salivary glands scintigraphy was performed during 25min after the intravenous administration of 185MBq of (99m)Tc-P. Time-activity curves and glands functional parameters were calculated for the parotid and submandibular salivary glands: uptake ratio, maximum accumulation of the radionuclide, and excretion fraction. Statistical analysis of the functional parameters showed no significant differences between patients with kidney transplantation and healthy controls (P>0.05). In conclusion, this study showed that using (99m)Tc-P salivary gland scintigraphy, salivary glands function of patients with successful kidney transplantation do not differ statistically from those in healthy controls. PMID:23865083

  9. Salivary Secretory Immunoglobulin a secretion increases after 4-weeks ingestion of chlorella-derived multicomponent supplement in humans: a randomized cross over study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iemitsu Motoyuki

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlorella, a unicellular green alga that grows in fresh water, contains high levels of proteins, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fibers. Some studies have reported favorable immune function-related effects on biological secretions such as blood and breast milk in humans who have ingested a chlorella-derived multicomponent supplement. However, the effects of chlorella-derived supplement on mucosal immune functions remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether chlorella ingestion increases the salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA secretion in humans using a blind, randomized, crossover study design. Methods Fifteen men took 30 placebo and 30 chlorella tablets per day for 4 weeks separated by a 12-week washout period. Before and after each trial, saliva samples were collected from a sterile cotton ball that was chewed after overnight fasting. Salivary SIgA concentrations were measured using ELISA. Results Compliance rates for placebo and chlorella ingestions were 97.0 ± 1.0% and 95.3 ± 1.6%, respectively. No difference was observed in salivary SIgA concentrations before and after placebo ingestion (P = 0.38. However, salivary SIgA concentrations were significantly elevated after chlorella ingestion compared to baseline (P P = 0.36, it significantly increased after 4-week chlorella ingestion than before intake (P Conclusions These results suggest 4-week ingestion of a chlorella-derived multicomponent supplement increases salivary SIgA secretion and possibly improves mucosal immune function in humans.

  10. Salivary expression of soluble HER2 in breast cancer patients with positive and negative HER2 status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laidi F

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fatna Laidi,1 Amal Bouziane,2 Amina Lakhdar,3 Samira Khabouze,3 Brahim Rhrab,3 Fatima Zaoui1 1Oral Biomechanics and Biotechnology Research Unit, Faculty of Dental Medicine, 2Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Biostatistical, Clinical and Epidemiological Research Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ibn Sina University Hospital, Rabat, Morocco Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between salivary concentration of the soluble fragment of the HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor protein and its status in mammary tissues. Methods: This case-control study was done in 27 breast cancer patients with no visible metastatic disease treated at the gynecology service, Maternity Souissi Hospital, Rabat, Morocco. Two groups were selected, ie, patients with positive and negative HER2 status in mammary tissue. The salivary HER2 protein concentration was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The salivary HER2 concentration was compared between the HER2-positive and HER2-negative groups using the Mann-Whitney U test. A P-value <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: No statistically significant difference in salivary HER2 protein expression was found between the case and control groups. There was also no significant difference in clinical characteristics according to positive and negative HER2 status (P>0.05, except for the progesterone hormone receptor which was statistically significant in both the case and control groups (P=0.047. Conclusion: According to our data, salivary expression of the HER2 receptor may not be a reliable alternative to tissue assessment. Keywords: breast cancer, HER2, saliva, diagnosis

  11. Salivary gland function after concurrent chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concurrent chemoradiotherapy for cancer of head and neck is becoming more and more prevalent. In fact, it is considered to better maintain quality of life (QOL) of patients than operative treatment in terms of preserving the functions, organs, and structures, but recently I seems that it does not maintain the QOL of patients better than operative treatment because its complications after therapy disturb daily life. We previously conducted a questionnaire survey that investigated the complications experienced by patients who received concurrent chemoradiotherapy, and reported that xerostomia was markedly reduced QOL in these patients. In this study, we divided patients who were exposed to radiation in both major salivary glands into two groups: 20 patients who received a 36 Gy dose of radiation (36 Gy group) and 15 patients who underwent radiation therapy alone at a dose of 40 Gy (radiotherapy (RT) group). The gum test was conducted with the following results (mean volume of saliva): 11.2 ml in the 36 Gy group, 6.0 ml in the RT group. There was no significant difference between the 36 Gy group and RT group. Our findings suggest that there is no significant difference in the extent of salivary gland dysfunction even after chemotherapy is carried out concurrently with radiotherapy. (author)

  12. The Comparison of Salivary IgA and IgE Levels in Children with Breast- and Formula- Feeding During Infancy Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jafarzadeh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral local immune factors may play a protective role against oral diseases and defend against microbial agents. Salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA is a major factor for the local host defence against caries and periodontal disease. The aims of this study were to determine the concentrations of salivary IgA and IgE levels in breast-fed and formula-fed children in infancy period.Methods and Materials: Totally, 80 healthy 5 years old children were included in the study. According to type of feeding in infancy period, the children divided into two groups: 50 breast-fed and 30 formula-fed. One milliliter of saliva was collected from each participant, centrifuged, and stored at -70 C. The salivary IgA and IgE concentrations were measured, using ELISA technique.Results: In breast-fed children, the salivary IgA level (39.6 mg/l ± 17.3 was significantly higher than that in formula-fed children (26.9 mg/l ± 14 (P=0.0001. However, the salivary IgE level was significantly lower in breast-fed children, comparing with formula fed ones (5.01 IU/ml ± 19.70 vs. 11.74 IU/ml ± 39.40 (P=0.047.Discussion: These results suggest that breast feeding enhances salivary IgA level in the early period of life which may contribute in oral cavity immunity. Higher salivary IgE level observed in formula-fed subjects may have a potential role in development of allergic or inflammatory reactions.

  13. Modeling neuroendocrine stress reactivity in salivary cortisol: adjusting for peak latency variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Duran, Nestor L; Mayer, Stefanie E; Abelson, James L

    2014-07-01

    In this report, we present growth curve modeling (GCM) with landmark registration as an alternative statistical approach for the analysis of time series cortisol data. This approach addresses an often-ignored but critical source of variability in salivary cortisol analyses: individual and group differences in the time latency of post-stress peak concentrations. It allows for the simultaneous examination of cortisol changes before and after the peak while controlling for timing differences, and thus provides additional information that can help elucidate group differences in the underlying biological processes (e.g., intensity of response, regulatory capacity). We tested whether GCM with landmark registration is more sensitive than traditional statistical approaches (e.g., repeated measures ANOVA--rANOVA) in identifying sex differences in salivary cortisol responses to a psychosocial stressor (Trier Social Stress Test--TSST) in healthy adults (mean age 23). We used plasma ACTH measures as our "standard" and show that the new approach confirms in salivary cortisol the ACTH finding that males had longer peak latencies, higher post-stress peaks but a more intense post-peak decline. This finding would have been missed if only saliva cortisol was available and only more traditional analytic methods were used. This new approach may provide neuroendocrine researchers with a highly sensitive complementary tool to examine the dynamics of the cortisol response in a way that reduces risk of false negative findings when blood samples are not feasible. PMID:24754834

  14. Influence of menstrual cycle and salivary ß-estradiol on volatile sulfur compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahla Kakoei DDS, MSc

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: ß -estradiol is a steroid sex hormone that plays important role in oral physiology. The aim of this studywas to determin the association of the menstrual cycle and salivary ß-estradiol with the production of volatile sulfurcompounds (VSC.METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, twenty female dental students in good oral and general health were recruited forevaluation of VSC, salivary flow, ß-estradiol concentration, oral dryness feeling and dysmenorrhea. Data were analyzedby marginal homogeneity test and xtgee model.RESULTS: The only covariates that significantly related to VSC were being at the follicular phase (B = -0.21, P = 0.02,being at the pre-menstrual phase (B = -0.25, P = 0.01, stressfulness (B = 0.02, P = 0.01 and oral dryness feeling(B = 0.34, P = 0.02. Salivary ß-estradiol was at the level of 59.7 ? 31.2 in those having halitosis (VSC ? 75 while inthe others (VSC < 75 it was about 40.8 ? 18.0 (P < 0.009. This difference was not statistically significant in multivariateanalysis.CONCLUSIONS: The menstrual cycle, stress and oral dryness were the most important determinants of halitosis. Thesalivary ß-estradiol level could not explain such relationship as its effect was eliminated considering the other factors.

  15. Update on late-night salivary cortisol for the diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome: methodological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raff, Hershel

    2013-10-01

    Late-night salivary cortisol (LNSC) is now considered the best approach to screen patients suspected of having endogenous hypercortisolism (Cushing's syndrome). As the use of LNSC increases, new preanalytic and analytic issues have arisen. The routine immunoassay for salivary cortisol seems to have better diagnostic performance than liquid chromatograph/tandem mass spectrometry, although measurement of normal salivary cortisone concentrations with the latter technique is very useful in identifying samples contaminated with topical hydrocortisone. LNSC is very useful in screening for Cushing's syndrome in women with increased corticosteroid-binding globulin resulting from estrogen therapy or pregnancy. Two LNSCs from each patient is recommended for routine screening, although one adequate saliva sample seems to perform well. The overnight dexamethasone suppression test remains superior to LNSC in the evaluation of potential subclinical hypercortisolism in patients with adrenal incidentalomas. Periodic assessment of LNSC is extremely useful in monitoring patients for recurrence of Cushing's disease after pituitary surgery. With the large increase in the number LNSCs being ordered around the world, it is likely that more preanalytic and analytic issues will arise, which laboratorians and clinical chemists will need to resolve. PMID:23839587

  16. Lack of correlation between salivary Streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli counts and caries in IDDM children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canepari, P; Zerman, N; Cavalleri, G

    1994-11-01

    In a previous clinical study regarding the incidence of caries and the periodontal health, a group of young patients with various levels of glyco-metabolic control was studied and the results showed that the decayed-missing-filled teeth (DMFT) index was higher in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) type 1 patients with a poor glyco-metabolic balance than in a control group or in IDDM patients with sufficient glyco-metabolic balance. In light of these results, the purpose of this study was to find an explanation for these clinical observations by searching at a microbiological level. The results indicate that salivary counts of Streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli were higher in patients with active caries whether or not they be diabetic, than in people with no active caries, but the count of S. mutans was not directly correlated to the DMFT index. No significant alterations were found in salivary flow, pH, buffer capacity and glucose concentration in all the groups in this study. We conclude that the salivary count of S. mutans is not sufficient alone to account for the higher susceptibility to active caries of young IDDM patients with poor glyco-metabolic control. PMID:7739481

  17. Evolution of the salivary apyrases of blood-feeding arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Austin L

    2013-09-15

    Phylogenetic analyses of three families of arthropod apyrases were used to reconstruct the evolutionary relationships of salivary-expressed apyrases, which have an anti-coagulant function in blood-feeding arthropods. Members of the 5'nucleotidase family were recruited for salivary expression in blood-feeding species at least five separate times in the history of arthropods, while members of the Cimex-type apyrase family have been recruited at least twice. In spite of these independent events of recruitment for salivary function, neither of these families showed evidence of convergent amino acid sequence evolution in salivary-expressed members. On the contrary, in the 5'-nucleotide family, salivary-expressed proteins conserved ancestral amino acid residues to a significantly greater extent than related proteins without salivary function, implying parallel evolution by conservation of ancestral characters. This unusual pattern of sequence evolution suggests the hypothesis that purifying selection favoring conservation of ancestral residues is particularly strong in salivary-expressed members of the 5'-nucleotidase family of arthropods because of constraints arising from expression within the vertebrate host. PMID:23791653

  18. Estimation of Absorbed Dose of Salivary Glands in Radioiodine Therapy and Its Reduction Using Pilocarpine

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    Daryoush Shahbazi-Gahrouei

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:  The use of radioactive iodine (131I has become an important adjunct to the treatment of thyroid cancer and hyperthyroidism. Salivary gland has the ability to concentrate radioactive iodine under normal circumstances. Salivary gland dysfunction and dry mouth are the common side effects of high-dose radioiodine therapy. The purpose of this study was to determine the absorbed dose of salivary glands. Methods: Twenty patients who were divided into two groups of 10 were studied (A group without pilocarpine and the B group received pilocarpine during treatment. The absorbed dose of parotid glands and the submandibular glands of patients was measured using thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD at three different times (24 hours, 8 days and 3 months after treatment. The attenuation coefficient of patients and the effects of pilocarpine were also determined. Results: In group A total attenuation coefficient was 0.335, 0.323, and 0.357 for parotid glands and the right and left submandibular glands, respectively. In group B total attenuation coefficient was 0.462, 0.482, and 0.514 for parotid glands and the right and left submandibular glands, respectively. The results also showed the dose decreases to 1 cGy after 3 and 2 half life for A and B group, respectively. Conclusion: The findings showed that the dose decreases to 1 cGy after 3 half life of Iodine therapy. The exponential coefficient attenuation of salivary glands varied 3% to 4%.  Pilocarpine appears to be effective in increasing excretion of radioactive iodine and enhancing coefficient attenuation (up to 1.5 to 2 times.

  19. Pleomorphic adenoma of minor salivary gland in the parapharyngeal space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Elizabeth K

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Majority of tumours occurring in minor salivary gland are malignant. Pleomorphic adenoma is of rare occurrence in parapharangeal space. Case presentation A rare case of a minor salivary gland pleomorphic adenoma of the parapharyngeal space is reported. Review of literature, clinical features, pathology, radiological findings and treatment of these tumours are discussed. Conclusions Parapharangeal salivary tumours presents as a painless progressive swelling with majority of these being malignant. Pleomorphic adenoma in parapharangeal space is of rare occurrence. Complete surgical excision is the treatment of choice.

  20. Simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens in major salivary glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, M H; Mandel, U

    1994-01-01

    Simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens Tn, sialosyl-Tn and T are often markers of neoplastic transformation and have very limited expression in normal tissues. We performed an immunohistological study of simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens, including H and A variants, with well-defined monoclonal antibodies (MAb) on frozen and paraffin-embedded normal salivary gland tissue from 22 parotid, 14 submandibular, six sublingual, and 13 labial glands to elucidate the simple mucin-type glycosylation pattern in relation to cyto- and histodifferentiation. The investigated carbohydrate structures were predominantly observed in the cell cytoplasm, most often in the supranuclear area, suggesting localization to the Golgi region, whereas ductal contents were unstained. Mucous acinar cells expressed Tn, sialosyl-Tn, and H and A antigens, regardless of glandular location. Serous acinar cells, on the other hand, expressed A, H, and inconstantly sialosyl-T, Tn, and sialosyl-Tn antigens in major salivary glands, whereas serous cells of minor (labial) salivary glands expressed H exclusively, Tn and sialosyl-T antigens inconstantly, but never sialosyl-Tn and A antigens. The difference may be related to a more simple cytodifferentiation of serous cells of minor (labial) salivary glands as compared with major salivary glands. Duct cells in major salivary glands expressed A, H, and inconstantly T, sialosyl-T, and Tn antigens, whereas minor (labial) salivary glands ducts exclusively expressed H, T and sialosyl-T antigens, differences that may be related to dissimilarities in the duct system. Myoepithelial cells and basal cells exclusively expressed T and sialosyl-T antigens, which may prove useful in studies of salivary gland tumors, since these cells are known to play a key role in the histological characteristics of some salivary gland tumors. The results indicate a similar glycosylation pattern in the different major salivary glands, whereas minor (labial) salivary gland differ slightly in serous and duct cells. The limited and exclusive intracellular expression of the immature Tn, sialosyl-Tn, and T antigens indicates that these structures may be of value as markers of salivary gland tumors.

  1. Mucocele: An unusual presentation of the minor salivary gland lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, B; Mahabob, M Nazargi

    2012-08-01

    A mucocele is a benign, mucus-containing cystic lesion of the minor salivary gland. This type of lesion is most commonly referred to as mucocele. The more common is a mucus extravasation cyst; the other is a mucus retention cyst. Other three clinical variants are: Superficial mucocele that is located directly under the mucosa, classic variant located in the upper submucosa, and deep mucocele located in the lower cornium. Mucocele occurs either due to rupture of salivary gland duct or by blockade of salivary gland duct. The common site of occurrence of mucocele is lower lip followed by tongue, floor of mouth (ranula), and the buccal mucosa. PMID:23066247

  2. Current concepts in diagnosis of unusual salivary gland tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Bansal, Ajay Kumar; Bindal, Ruchi; Kapoor, Charu; Vaidya, Sharad; Singh, Harkanwal Preet

    2012-01-01

    Salivary gland tumors are relatively uncommon and account for approximately 3-6% of all neoplasms of the head and neck. Tumors mostly involve the major salivary glands, 42.9-90% of which occur in the parotid glands and 8-19.5% in the sub-mandibular glands; tumors in the sub-lingual glands being uncommon. Despite the plethora of different malignant salivary gland tumor presented to pathologists for diagnosis, there is consensus on a limited number of pathologic observations that determine trea...

  3. Significant correlation between salivary and serum Ca 15-3 in healthy women and breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidi, Fatna; Bouziane, Amal; Lakhdar, Amina; Khabouze, Samira; Amrani, Mariam; Rhrab, Brahim; Zaoui, Fatima

    2014-01-01

    The tumor marker CA 15-3 is one of the most import reliable for metastatic breast cancer monitoring. While it is generally assessed in serum of patients, blood sampling is an invasive method compared to saliva sampling which is simple and could be an alternative to blood according to many studies. The aim of this investigation was to assess the relationship between serum and salivary concentrations of the protein CA 15-3 in patients with breast cancer and healthy asymptomatic volunteers. A case-control study was conducted with 60 women: 29 breast cancer patients from the Maternity Hospital Souissi Rabat (Morocco) and 31 healthy asymptomatic women. The CA 15-3 concentrations in saliva and serum samples were assessed using an enzyme immune assay (EIA kits) and comparison between cases and controls was made by the Mann-Whitney test. The correlation between serum and saliva CA 15-3 concentration was tested using Pearson correlation. The comparison result of CA15-3 concentration in saliva and serum level in cases and controls was not statistically significant (p>0.05). However, the correlation between salivary and serum CA 15-3 concentration was positive and statistically significant (r=0.27, p=0.03). In conclusion, the positive correlation between salivary and serum expression found in our study suggests that saliva could be an alternative to blood sampling to help breast cancer monitoring. PMID:24969900

  4. Effect of two mouthwashes on salivary ph

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paola A, Belardinelli; Rosana A, Morelatto; Tomás E, Benavidez; Ana M, Baruzzi; Silvia A, López de Blanc.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se diseno un estudio clinico cruzado fase IV, con tres grupos etarios de adultos voluntarios sanos, para analizar el efecto de dos colutorios sobre el pH salival y relacionarlo con la edad la capacidad buffer y el flujo salival. Se utilizaron dos marcas comerciales de colutorios (MW), ListerineCoolM [...] intR (MWa) y PeriobacterR (MWb). Primero se caracterizo la saliva sin estimular de cada individuo, se le midio el volumen minuto, el pH y la capacidad buffer. El pH salival se evaluo antes del buche con cada MW, inmediatamente despues del enjuague bucal, 5 minutos despues y luego cada 10 minutos (a los 15, 25, 35 min) hasta que el pH inicial se recupero. Para el analisis estadistico de los datos se utilizaron: ANOVA en bloque, test t apareado y el test de correlacion de Pearson. Al caracterizar la saliva, se obtuvieron los siguientes valores promedio: 0.63 mL/min, 7.06 y 0.87 de volumen minuto,pH, y capacidad buffer. Luego del enjuague se observo un incremento inmediato y significativo del pH salival alcanzando valores de 7.24 (MWb) y 7.30 (MWa) para descender a un valor estable luego de 15 minutos. El importante incremento del pH salival luego del uso del colutorio, muestra que la saliva es un sistema dinamico y que el organismo es capaz de responder a estimulos con cambios en su composicion. Se hace evidente que el pH del agente externo, no es un buen indicador de su potencial erosivo sobre los elementos dentarios ya que los sistemas biologicos tienden a neutralizarlo. Los presentes resultados ponen de manifiesto la importancia de las mediciones en vivo y refuerzan el concepto de la funcion protectora de la saliva. Abstract in english To analyze the effect of two mouthwashes on salivary pH and correlate it with age, buffer capacity and saliva flow rate in healthy volunteers, a crossover phase IV clinical study involving three age-based groups was designed. Two commercial mouthwashes (MW), Cool Mint ListerineR (MWa) and Periobacte [...] r R (MWb) were used. The unstimulated saliva of each individual was first characterized by measuring flow rate, pH, and buffer capacity. Salivary pH was evaluated before rinsing with a given MW, immediately after rinsing, 5 minutes later, and then every 10 min (at 15, 25, 35 min) until the baseline pH was recovered. Paired t-test, ANOVA with a randomized block design, and Pearson correlation tests were used. Averages were 0.63 mL/min, 7.06, and 0.87 for flow rate, pH, and buffer capacity, respectively. An immediate significant increase in salivary pH was observed after rinsing, reaching average values of 7.24 (MWb) and 7.30 (MWa), which declined to an almost stable value 15 minutes. The great increase in salivary pH, after MW use shows that saliva is a dynamic system, and that the organism is capable of responding to a stimulus with changes in its composition. It is thus evident that pH of the external agent alone is not a good indicator for its erosive potential because biological systems tend to neutralize it. The results of this study enhance the importance of in vivo measurements and reinforce the concept of the protective action of saliva.

  5. In vitro hydroxyapatite adsorbed salivary proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In spite of the present knowledge about saliva components and their respective functions, the mechanism(s) of pellicle and dental plaque formation have hitherto remained obscure. This has prompted recent efforts on in vitro studies using hydroxyapatite (HA) as an enamel model. In the present study salivary proteins adsorbed to HA were extracted with TFA and EDTA and resolved by 2D electrophoresis over a pH range between 3 and 10, digested, and then analysed by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry. Nineteen different proteins were identified using automated MS and MS/MS data acquisition. Among them, cystatins, amylase, carbonic anhydrase, and calgranulin B, were identified

  6. Salivary gland scintigraphy in sjögren syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betancourt-Piñeres Aiken Felipe

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Sjögren syndrome is a systemic autoimmune disease that mainly affects exocrineglands, such as the salivary and lacrimal glands, causing a decline in their secretions.This disease is also known as Sicca Syndrome. It is reported a clinical case of a womanwho fulfill all diagnostic criteria of European-American Consensus of Sjogren Syndrome2002.RESUMEN:El Síndrome de Sjögren es una enfermedad sistémica autoinmune que afectaprincipalmente las glándulas exocrinas del organismo, como las salivales y las lacrimalesprovocando una disminución de sus secreciones, por lo que también se denominasíndrome seco. Se presenta caso clínico de una paciente de sexo femenino la cualcumple todos los criterios clasificatorios del Consenso Europeo Americano 2002 para elSíndrome de Sjogren.

  7. Salivary duct carcinoma in the mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shuang; Fang, Qi-Gen; Sun, Changfu

    2014-11-01

    We reported 1 case of salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) in the mandible. The patient complained of pain and a growing mass in the right submandibular area for approximately 2 months. On clinical examination, there was a mass under the right angle of the mandible with a size of approximately 3 × 3 cm, a smooth surface, a poor activity, and a hard texture. Panoramic radiograph revealed poorly circumscribed area. Computed tomography presented mandible central destruction. Biopsy examination showed a malignant tumor that originated in the central epithelium of the mandible. An operation of unilateral selective neck dissection and mandible subtotal ectomy was performed. Postoperative pathology reported SDC. The patient received postoperative radiation and stayed alive at last follow-up without disease recurrence. Ablative resection and postoperative radiotherapy were the standard treatment stratagem for SDC, but trastuzumab therapy might play a key role in treating the disease in future. PMID:25377985

  8. Urinary cotinine levels and environmental tobacco smoke in mothers and children of Romania, Portugal and Poland within the European human biomonitoring pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lupsa, Ioana-Rodica; Nunes, Baltazar

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore data from the DEMOCOPHES study population for Romania, Portugal and Poland, in order to assess smoking patterns and the extent of ETS exposure and compare the national study samples with reference to the respective anti-smoking laws. The subset of the DEMOCOPHES study sample consisted of 360 children and their mothers (120 in each of the three countries - Romania (RO), Portugal (PT) and Poland (PL). Smoking was assessed using a detailed questionnaire for the participants, which addresses both active and passive smoking. This assessment uses exposure-relevant questionnaire data, in particular on the home environment and residence, socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle such as nutrition, smoking behavior, other exposure-relevant behavior and occupational history, as well as urinary cotinine and creatinine measurements. We performed general statistical analysis and innovative receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses. Smoking prevalence as evaluated by thequestionnaire was generally high, and higher than official statistics, which suggests some under-reporting in the countries, particularly in Romania. Urinary cotinine levels provided biochemical confirmation of the high and similar smoking prevalence for the three countries. Concerning ETS exposure, Romania presented significantly higher levels, for children as well as for non-smoking mothers, with Portugal showing significantly lower levels. Compared to non-smoking mothers, the children showed relatively higher ETS exposure levels in all three countries. The established country-specific optimal cut-off values in urinary cotinine to distinguish smokers from non-smokers vary more than those to discriminate ETS exposure extent in non-smoking mothers and children. Although different between countries, these values are a valuable output to monitor effectiveness of both national antismoking laws and educational programs in the three countries. The findings of this study point to the urgent need for stronger, moreeffective and well enforced smoke-free legislation in the three countries.

  9. Calcium, amylase, glucose, total protein concentrations, flow rate, pH and buffering capacity of saliva in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hellen Soares, Teixeira; Stella Maris Oliveira, Kaulfuss; Jucienne Salgado, Ribeiro; Betina do Rosário, Pereira; João Armando, Brancher; Elisa Souza, Camargo.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate qualitative and quantitative changes in the saliva of individuals undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. METHODS: Salivary samples were collected from 50 individuals divided in two groups: Experimental Group - patients with fixed orthodontic appliances (n=25); [...] and Control Group - subjects with no orthodontic appliances (n=25). Salivary flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, amylase activity, concentrations of total proteins, calcium and glucose were measured in all salivary samples. RESULTS: There was a reduction in salivary pH and buffering capacity and an increase in the concentration of calcium ions in the experimental group (p

  10. Elevada concentración de metabolitos de cotinina en hijos de padres fumadores High levels of cotinine metabolite in smoker's parents children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Lazcano-Ponce

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: La exposición al humo de tabaco de segunda mano (HTSM en niños y adultos puede ser común en oficinas gubernamentales, lugares de trabajo, vehículos y espacios públicos, pero es de particular importancia en el hogar. Los grados de exposición elevados en niños pueden constituirse como la principal justificación para restringir el tabaquismo dentro del hogar. El objetivo fue determinar los valores de HTSM mediante biomarcadores séricos en binomios padres- hijos menores de cinco años, en México, participantes de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud 2000. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se seleccionaron 76 binomios padres-hijos de hogares con adultos no fumadores y 83 binomios similares pero con adultos fumadores en el hogar. La selección se restringió a hogares donde hubiera presencia de niños menores de cinco años de edad. Las muestras séricas se analizaron por cromatografía líquida. Se construyeron modelos de correlación de exposición entre los binomios padres-hijos estratificados por el antecedente de tabaquismo en los padres. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de individuos con más de 15 ng/mL de cotinina en suero en los fumadores fue de 100%; la cuantificación mínima fue 18.50 y la máxima de 221.5 ng/mL. En los adultos, los valores séricos de cotinina fueron 50 veces mayores en los fumadores (107.4 ng/mL que en los no fumadores (1.99 ng/mL; similar observación a la referida tuvo la exposición a 3’-hidroxicotinina (0.69 en no fumadores vs. 33.59 ng/mL en adultos fumadores. Hubo una diferencia significativa tres veces mayor de valores de cotinina (0.19 vs. 0.60 ng/mL y de 3’-hidroxicotinina (0.06 vs. 0.19 ng/mL en los hijos de fumadores. CONCLUSIONES: A pesar de que existe diferencia significativa de HTSM en niños de padres fumadores, la exposición observada de HTSM en niños menores de cinco años de padres no fumadores también es relevante. En México se documenta por primera vez una elevada exposición al HTSM en niños, no sólo de padres fumadores sino también de padres no fumadores. Esto pone de relevancia que la exposición al HTSM no es sólo un problema de salud pública que se presenta en hogares de padres fumadores, sino que la exposición en niños mexicanos es frecuente en diversos lugares públicos. Es necesario implementar estudios adicionales en México para evaluar el impacto de intervenciones que garanticen hogares y espacios libres de humo de tabaco.INTRODUCTION: Children and adult exposure to SecondHand Smoke (SHS may occur in government offices, work and public places as well as in vehicles. Nevertheless, SHS is particularly important at home. High exposure levels in children may be the main reason to prevent parents and other family members from smoking at home. This study aims at establishing SHS levels by measuring biomakers in serum in pairs of parents and their younger than five years old children in Mexico, included in the 2000 National Health Survey. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventy-six parents-children pairs were taken from households with non smokers adults, as well as 83 pairs with adult smokers at home. Selection was limited to the adult population in households with children under five years old. Serum samples were analyzed through liquid chromatographic. Correlation exposure models between parents-children pairs were built and stratified according to parents’ background concerning smoking. RESULTS: In the smokers group, people with more than 15ng/mL of cotinine metabolites in serum showed prevalence of 100%. Minimum quantification was 18.50 and maximum 221.5ng/mL. In adults, cotinine metabolite levels in serun were 50 times higher in smokers (107.4ng/mL, than in non smokers (1.99 ng/mL. Concerning 3-hydroxycotinine, something similar was observed (0.60 in non smokers vs. 33.50 ng/mL in smokers. A significant difference three times higher in cotinine levels (0.10 vs. 0.60ng/mL and 3-hydroxycotinine (0.06 vs. 0.19ng/mL was found in those children with, at least, one of both parents who smoked. CONCLUSIONS: It is worthwhile noting that although ther

  11. First screening of Aedes albopictus immunogenic salivary proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucoure, S; Cornelie, S; Patramool, S; Mouchet, F; Demettre, E; Seveno, M; Dehecq, J S; Rutee, H; Herve, J P; Favier, F; Missé, D; Gasque, P; Remoue, F

    2013-08-01

    Study of the human antibody (Ab) response to Aedes salivary proteins can provide new biomarkers to evaluate human exposure to vector bites. The identification of genus- and/or species-specific proteins is necessary to improve the accuracy of biomarkers. We analysed Aedes albopictus immunogenic salivary proteins by 2D immunoproteomic technology and compared the profiles according to human individual exposure to Ae. albopictus or Ae. aegypti bites. Strong antigenicity to Ae.?albopictus salivary proteins was detected in all individuals whatever the nature of Aedes exposure. Amongst these antigenic proteins, 68% are involved in blood feeding, including D7 protein family, adenosine deaminase, serpin and apyrase. This study provides an insight into the repertoire of Ae.?albopictus immunogenic salivary proteins for the first time. PMID:23714164

  12. Estimation of Cutoff Values of Cotinine in Urine and Saliva for Pregnant Women in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Stragierowicz; Ajewska, Karolina Miko Amp X.; Marta Zawadzka-Stolarz; Ska, Kinga Pola Amp X.; Danuta Ligocka

    2013-01-01

    Setting appropriate cutoff values and the use of a highly sensitive analytical method allow for correct classification of the smoking status. Urine-saliva pairs samples of pregnant women in the second and third trimester, and saliva only in the first trimester were collected. Offline SPE and LC-ESI-MS/MS method was developed in the broad concentration range (saliva 0.4–1000?ng/mL, urine 0.8–4000?ng/mL). The mean recoveries were 3.7 ± 7.6% for urine and 99.1 ± 2.6% for saliva. LOD fo...

  13. Characterization of salivary alpha-amylase binding to Streptococcus sanguis.

    OpenAIRE

    Scannapieco, F. A.; Bergey, E. J.; Reddy, M. S.; Levine, M. J.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the major salivary components which interact with oral bacteria and to determine the mechanism(s) responsible for their binding to the bacterial surface. Strains of Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, and Actinomyces viscosus were incubated for 2 h in freshly collected human submandibular-sublingual saliva (HSMSL) or parotid saliva (HPS), and bound salivary components were eluted with 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate. By sodium ...

  14. Salivary Microbiota and Metabolome Associated with Celiac Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Francavilla, Ruggiero; Ercolini, Danilo; Piccolo, Maria; Vannini, Lucia; Siragusa, Sonya; Filippis, Francesca; Pasquale, Ilaria; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Di Toma, Michele; Gozzi, Giorgia; Serrazanetti, Diana I.; Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the salivary microbiota and metabolome of 13 children with celiac disease (CD) under a gluten-free diet (treated celiac disease [T-CD]). The same number of healthy children (HC) was used as controls. The salivary microbiota was analyzed by an integrated approach using culture-dependent and -independent methods. Metabolome analysis was carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry–solid-phase microextraction. Compared to HC, the number of some cultivable...

  15. Minor salivary gland tumors in a south American population

    OpenAIRE

    Conceição Barros Adna; Gurgel Silva Araújo Clarissa; Gomes Caymmi Mário; Agra Gonçalves Marcelo Ivan; Kruschewsky de Souza Leonardo; Dos Santos Nunes Jean

    2010-01-01

    Background: Salivary gland tumors are uncommon. This study aimed to investigate both clinical and epidemiological aspects of minor salivary gland tumors in a Brazilian population. Methods: From 1976 to 2007, data obtained from clinical records and histological diagnoses were reviewed according to the WHO. Results: A total of 217 MSGTs were identified. Pleomorphic adenomas (83%) and adenoid cystic carcinomas (28.8%) were the most frequent ones. The mean age of patients with benign and ma...

  16. Acute reboxetine administration increases plasma and salivary cortisol.

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Sa; Taylor, Mj; Harmer, Cj; Cowen, Pj

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the effect of a single oral dose of the selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, reboxetine (4 mg), on plasma and salivary cortisol in 24 healthy volunteers in a randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group design. Reboxetine significantly increased both plasma and salivary cortisol, although the correlation between the responses in plasma and saliva was modest. Our results are consistent with previous neuroendocrine challenge studies showing that potentiation of brain no...

  17. Neurotrophic factor GDNF promotes survival of salivary stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Nan; Lin, Yuan; Cao, Hongbin; Sirjani, Davud; Giaccia, Amato J.; Koong, Albert C.; Kong, Christina S.; Diehn, Maximilian; Le, Quynh-thu

    2014-01-01

    Stem cell–based regenerative therapy is a promising treatment for head and neck cancer patients that suffer from chronic dry mouth (xerostomia) due to salivary gland injury from radiation therapy. Current xerostomia therapies only provide temporary symptom relief, while permanent restoration of salivary function is not currently feasible. Here, we identified and characterized a stem cell population from adult murine submandibular glands. Of the different cells isolated from the submandibula...

  18. Mucocele: An unusual presentation of the minor salivary gland lesion

    OpenAIRE

    Senthilkumar, B.; Mahabob, M. Nazargi

    2012-01-01

    A mucocele is a benign, mucus-containing cystic lesion of the minor salivary gland. This type of lesion is most commonly referred to as mucocele. The more common is a mucus extravasation cyst; the other is a mucus retention cyst. Other three clinical variants are: Superficial mucocele that is located directly under the mucosa, classic variant located in the upper submucosa, and deep mucocele located in the lower cornium. Mucocele occurs either due to rupture of salivary gland duct or by block...

  19. Early morning salivary cortisol is not associated with extraversion

    OpenAIRE

    Munafo, MR; Lee, L.; Ayres, R.; Flint, J.; Goodwin, G.; Harmer, Cj

    2006-01-01

    An association between salivary cortisol levels and neuroticism has recently been reported, but it is unclear whether this association is unique to neuroticism or extends to other personality measures. The present study investigated early morning salivary cortisol levels in individuals selected for high and low extraversion. Thirty-three healthy volunteers were selected on the basis of their score on the extraversion sub-scale of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, and provided fasting sal...

  20. Neural control of salivary glands in ixodid ticks

    OpenAIRE

    S?imo, Ladislav; Z?itn?an, Dus?an; Park, Yoonseong

    2011-01-01

    Studies of tick salivary glands (SGs) and their components have produced a number of interesting discoveries over the last four decades. However, the precise neural and physiological mechanisms controlling SG secretion remain enigmatic. Major studies of SG control have identified and characterized many pharmacological and biological compounds that activate salivary secretion, including dopamine (DA), octopamine, ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA), ergot alkaloids, pilocarpine (PC), and their pharmac...

  1. Salivary uric acid as a noninvasive biomarker of metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soukup Maria

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated serum uric acid is associated with obesity, hypertension and metabolic syndrome. Because a linear relationship exists between serum and salivary uric acid (SUA concentration, saliva testing may be a useful noninvasive approach for monitoring cardiometabolic risk. The goal of this pilot study was to determine if SUA is increased in patients with metabolic syndrome and to investigate correlations between SUA and individual cardiometabolic risk factors. Findings Volunteers between the ages of 18 and 65 without conditions known to affect serum uric acid levels were recruited. Height, weight, blood pressure and waist circumference were measured and a full lipid panel along with fasting blood glucose was obtained. Saliva samples were collected and uric acid levels were determined. 78 volunteers, 35% of whom had metabolic syndrome, completed the study. SUA was significantly elevated in patients with metabolic syndrome (p=.002. The incidence of metabolic syndrome in the 4th quartile for SUA was 67% compared to 25% in quartiles1-3 combined. Significant correlations were seen between SUA and systolic blood pressure (r=.440, p=.000, diastolic blood pressure ( r=.304, p=.007, waist circumference (r=.332, p=.003, BMI ( r=.269, p=.018, fasting blood glucose ( r=.341, p=.002, triglycerides (r=.410, p=.000, HDL ( r=.237, p=.036 and the number of cardiometabolic risk factors present (r=0.257, p=.023. Conclusions These results suggest that SUA may be a useful biomarker for noninvasive monitoring of cardiometabolic risk. Larger studies are needed to validate this approach.

  2. Response of salivary markers of autonomic activity to elite competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, M M; Bocanegra, O L; Teixeira, R R; Soares, S S; Espindola, F S

    2012-09-01

    We investigated the response of salivary total protein (TP), alpha-amylase (sAA) and chromogranin A (CgA) to sporting competition and their relation with positive and negative affect. 11 professional swimmers were examined during the first day of a national contest and on a recreated event that matched time-of-the-day and day-of-the-week assessments 2 weeks later. Total protein was determined by the Bradford method and sAA and CgA by Western blotting upon awakening, 30 and 60 min post awakening, immediately before warming up for competition and 5, 20 and 60 min after competition. Psychometric instruments included the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule-X. The concentrations of TP, sAA and CgA differed from controls only prior to and 5 min after the event. We observed positive correlations between higher negative affect scores with higher levels of TP, sAA and CgA prior to the event on the competition day. All 3 markers showed a similar reactivity to sporting competition, which may be attributed to the mechanisms responsible for protein secretion into saliva when collection is performed with no exogenous stimulation. TP is an attractive marker in sports psychology since its determination is faster and cheaper than traditional kinetic or immune assays. PMID:22581684

  3. Salivary cortisol and sleep problems among civil servants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ase Marie; Thomsen, Jane FrØlund

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The present study used information from a field study conducted among 4489 civil servants (70% women) in Denmark in 2007. The purpose was to examine the association between sleep problems and salivary cortisol by using a cross-sectional design with repeated measures in a subsample three-month later. METHODS: Sleep problems during the past night and the past 4 weeks were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire on overall sleep quality, disturbed sleep, sleep length and awakening problems. Saliva samples were collected in a single day, using cotton tubes, 30min after awakening and again at 2000h. A subsample of 387 participants collected saliva samples three-month later at awakening, +20min and +40min after awakening and at 2000h. We adjusted for confounders related to sampling time, life style and personal characteristics, socioeconomic status and work aspects. RESULTS: Sleep problems during the past four weeks were associated with low morning and evening saliva cortisol concentrations: [-3.1%per score of disturbed sleep (p=.009); and -4.7% per score of awakening problems (p

  4. Salivary hypofunction: an update on aetiology, diagnosis and therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Jamil; Figueiredo, Maria Antonia Zancanaro; Cherubini, Karen; Salum, Fernanda Gonçalves

    2015-02-01

    Saliva is of paramount importance for the maintenance of oral and general homeostasis. Salivary hypofunction predispose patients to disorders such as dysgeusia, pain and burning mouth, caries and other oral infectious diseases, dysphagia and dysphonia. The aim of this study was to provide an update on the aetiology, diagnostic methods and therapeutic strategies for the management of hyposalivation and xerostomia. The present paper describes subjective and objective methods for the diagnosis of salivary dysfunctions; moreover a number of drugs, and systemic disorders associated with decreased salivary flow rate are listed. We also focused on the underlying mechanisms to radiotherapy-induced salivary damage. Therapeutics for hyposalivation and xerostomia were discussed and classified as preventive, symptomatic, topical and systemic stimulants, disease-modifying agents, and regenerative. New therapeutic modalities have been studied and involve stem cells transplantation, with special attention to regeneration of damage caused by ionizing radiation to the salivary glands. More studies in this area are needed to provide new perspectives in the treatment of patients with salivary dysfunctions. PMID:25463902

  5. Detection of Salivary Interleukin 2 and Interleukin 6 in Patients With Burning Mouth Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Jelena Horvat; Gordana Brumini; Amp, Renata Gr Amp I.; Sonja Pezelj-Ribari?; Amp, Daria Sim Amp I.; Miranda Muhvi?-Urek

    2006-01-01

    The etiology of BMS remains unknown. Role of various cytokines has been implicated in the development of BMS. The aim of this study was to evaluate levels of salivary IL-2 and IL-6 in patients with BMS, compared with age-matched healthy volunteers (control group). Whole saliva from 30 patients with BMS, age range 55–65, was tested for the presence of IL-6 and IL-2 by enzyme immunoassay. Control group consisted of 30 healthy participants, aged 55–65 years. Saliva IL-2 concentrations in ...

  6. Inverted-U function between salivary cortisol and retrieval of verbal memory after hydrocortisone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domes, Gregor; Rothfischer, Julia; Reichwald, Ursula; Hautzinger, Martin

    2005-04-01

    The present study investigated the effect of a single oral dose of hydrocortisone (cortisol) on retrieval of verbal and nonverbal declarative memory. Fifty-nine healthy participants were randomly assigned to either receive 25 mg cortisol or a placebo 45 min before retrieval in a standardized memory test procedure. There was no global effect of cortisol on either verbal or nonverbal memory. However, a specific negative effect on free recall of associative verbal material appeared. In addition, high responders (salivary cortisol concentration>68.25 nmol/L) exhibited impaired verbal memory compared with low responders (cortisol on declarative memory retrieval, which appear to be more pronounced for verbal material. PMID:15839797

  7. Characterization of the in vitro kinetic interaction of chlorpyrifos-oxon with rat salivary cholinesterase: a potential biomonitoring matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kousba, A A; Poet, T S; Timchalk, Charles

    2003-06-30

    The primary mechanism of action for organophosphorus (OP) insecticides such as chlorpyrifos (CPF) involves the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by their active oxon metabolites resulting in a wide range of neurotoxic effects. These oxons also inhibit other cholinesterases (ChE) such as butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), which represents a detoxification mechanism and a potential biomarker for OP insecticide exposure/response. Salivary biomonitoring has recently been explored as a practical method for examination of chemical exposure, however, there are few studies exploring the use of saliva for OP insecticides. To evaluate the use of salivary ChE as a biological monitor for OP insecticide exposure, a modified Ellman assay in conjunction with a pharmacodynamic model was used to characterize salivary ChE in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Comparison of rat saliva, brain, and plasma ChE activity in the presence of selective inhibitors of AChE and BuChE (BW284C51 and iso-OMPA, respectively) with different ChE substrates indicated that rat salivary ChE activity is primarily associated with BuChE (>95%). Further characterization of rat salivary BuChE kinetics yielded an average total BuChE active site concentration of 1.20+/-0.13 fmol ml(-1) saliva, an average reactivation rate constant (Kr) of 0.070+/-0.008 h(-1), and an inhibitory rate constant (Ki) of approximately 9 nM(-1) h(-1). The pharmacodynamic model successfully described the in vitro BuChE activity profile as well as the kinetic parameters. These results support the potential utility of saliva as a biomonitoring matrix for evaluating occupational and environmental exposure to CPF and other OP insecticides. PMID:12767693

  8. The Salivary Secretome of the Tsetse Fly Glossina pallidipes (Diptera: Glossinidae) Infected by Salivary Gland Hypertrophy Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Kariithi, H. M.; Ince, I. A.; Boeren, S.; Abd-alla, A. M. M.; Parker, A. G.; Aksoy, S.; Vlak, J. M.; Oers, M. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background The competence of the tsetse fly Glossina pallidipes (Diptera; Glossinidae) to acquire salivary gland hypertrophy virus (SGHV), to support virus replication and successfully transmit the virus depends on complex interactions between Glossina and SGHV macromolecules. Critical requisites to SGHV transmission are its replication and secretion of mature virions into the fly's salivary gland (SG) lumen. However, secretion of host proteins is of equal importance for successful transmiss...

  9. Salivary Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor Is Associated with Reduced Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 through Breast Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Farquhar, Carey; Vancott, Thomas C.; Mbori-ngacha, Dorothy A.; Horani, Lena; Bosire, Rose K.; Kreiss, Joan K.; Richardson, Barbra A.; John-stewart, Grace C.

    2002-01-01

    Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), a protein found in saliva, breast milk, and genital secretions, is capable of inhibiting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 in vitro. The aim of this study was to determine whether SLPI in infant saliva provides protection against mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission. In total, 602 saliva specimens were collected from 188 infants at birth and at ages 1, 3, and 6 months. Infants’ median salivary SLPI concentrations were higher at birth than...

  10. Determinación de los niveles de cortisol salival en una muestra de sujetos de Santiago de Chile / Salivary cortisol among subjects with and without Cushing syndrome

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    MACARENA, LÉPEZ; EGARDO, CAAMAÑO; CARMEN, ROMERO; JENNY, FIEDLER; VERÓNICA, ARAYA.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Background: Salivary cortisol measurement is recommended as a screening mea-sure when a Cushing Syndrome is suspected. Theproposed cut-offpointfor aprobable diagnosis is 0.16 ug/dL. Aim: To determine salivary cortisol concentrations during the day inpatients with and without Cushing syndrome and wit [...] h depression. Material and Methods: Salivary cortisol was measured by competitive enzyme immuno assay (EIA), in samples obtained at 8:00,15:00 and 23:00 h in 78 patients without Cushing syndrome, aged 40 ± 15years (28 males), 30 patients with depression aged 40 ± 12years (nine males) and four jemales with Cushing syndrome aged 42 ± 17 years. Results: Salivary cortisol was higher among patients with Cushing syndrome than the rest of patients. A salivary cortisol over the cut-off value of O.16 ug/dL was found in 42% of subjects without Cushing syndrome and in 33% of patients with depression. Median values among patients without Cushing syndrome, depression and with Cushing syndrome were 0.21 (range

  11. Efficacy of Scopolamine patch on the Secretory Function of salivary Glands by TC-99m Pertechnetate Salivary Scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seok, Ju Won; Son, Bong Hyung; Kim, In Ju; Kim, Yong Ki; Wang, Soo Geun [College of Medicine, Univ. of Busan National, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate quantitatively the reducing effect of the anticholinergics (scopolamine patch) on the salivary glands by dynamic salivary scintigraphy. Eleven normal volunteers were studied by salivary gland scintigraphy. After injection of 370 MBq Tc-99m pertechnetate, dynamic salivary scintigraphy with citric acid stimulation was performed for 30 minutes. After 5 days, they were administrated the scopolamine patch. The salivary scintigraphy were performed by same method after 2 days. Functional parameters for the parotid and submandibular glands, that is uptake radio(UR), Tmax, Tmin, maximum accumulation(MA), and maximum secretion(MS), were calculated. In submandibular glands, there was no statistical significance in UR, Tmax, Tmin and MA between before and after the scopolamine patch(p>0.05). The MS of submandibular gland after the scopolamine patch was significantly higher than before patch(p>0.05). In parotid glands, there was no statistical significance in UR, Tmax, Tmin, MA, and MS between before and after patch(p>0.05). It seems that is not satisfied the reducing effect of the scopolamine patch on the secretory function of salivary glands.

  12. Efficacy of Scopolamine patch on the Secretory Function of salivary Glands by TC-99m Pertechnetate Salivary Scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate quantitatively the reducing effect of the anticholinergics (scopolamine patch) on the salivary glands by dynamic salivary scintigraphy. Eleven normal volunteers were studied by salivary gland scintigraphy. After injection of 370 MBq Tc-99m pertechnetate, dynamic salivary scintigraphy with citric acid stimulation was performed for 30 minutes. After 5 days, they were administrated the scopolamine patch. The salivary scintigraphy were performed by same method after 2 days. Functional parameters for the parotid and submandibular glands, that is uptake radio(UR), Tmax, Tmin, maximum accumulation(MA), and maximum secretion(MS), were calculated. In submandibular glands, there was no statistical significance in UR, Tmax, Tmin and MA between before and after the scopolamine patch(p>0.05). The MS of submandibular gland after the scopolamine patch was significantly higher than before patch(p>0.05). In parotid glands, there was no statistical significance in UR, Tmax, Tmin, MA, and MS between before and after patch(p>0.05). It seems that is not satisfied the reducing effect of the scopolamine patch on the secretory function of salivary glands

  13. Salivary nitric oxide and alpha-amylase as indexes of training intensity and load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, M M; Bocanegra, O L; Teixeira, R R; Soares, S S; Espindola, F S

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the variation in salivary nitric oxide (NO), alpha-amylase (sAA) and serum markers of muscle injury during 21 weeks of training in elite swimmers. Samples of saliva and blood were collected once a month during 5 months from 11 male professional athletes during their regular training season. The variation in each marker throughout the 21 weeks was compared with the dynamics of training volume, intensity and load. Unstimulated whole saliva was assessed for NO and sAA whereas venous blood was assessed for lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and ?-glutamyltransferase. Nitric oxide and sAA showed a proportional response to the intensity of training. However, whereas the concentration of NO increased across the 21 weeks, the activity of sAA decreased. Similar variations in the concentration of NO and the markers of muscle injury were also observed. The higher concentration of NO might be attributed to changes in haemodynamics and muscle regenerative processes. On the other hand, autonomic regulation towards parasympathetic predominance might have been responsible for the decrease in sAA activity. These findings provide appealing evidence for the utilization of salivary constituents in sports medicine to monitor training programmes. PMID:22960992

  14. The binding of calcium to a salivary phosphoprotein, protein C, and comparison with calcium binding to protein A, a related salivary phosphoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennick, A

    1977-05-01

    The binding of Ca2+ to a salivary phosphoprotein, protein C, was studied by equilibrium dialysis. In 5mM-Tris/HCl buffer, pH 7.5, protein C bound 190 nmol of Ca2+/mg of protein. The apparent dissociation constant, K, was determined to be 1.9 x 10(-4)M and the binding of Ca2+ to the protein was non-co-operative. The binding of Ca2+ to protein C apparently depends on groups which ionize above pH 5.0. Ca2+ binding decreased with increased concentration of the dialysis buffer and on addition of SrCL2, MgCl2 and MnCl2 to the dialysis buffer. Digestion of protein C with trypsin or collagenase or heating of the protein to 60 degrees or 100 degrees C had little or no effect on the Ca2+ binding. Digestion of protein C with alkaline phosphatase caused a decrease in the amount of protein-bound Ca2+. This was also found for another salivary phosphoprotein, protein A. In the absence of Ca2+ the S020,w for protein C was 1.29 S and in the presence of Ca2+ it was 1.46S. Ca2+ may cause a conformational change in the protein or an aggregation of the protein molecules. No conformational changes of protein C in the presence of Ca2+ could be detected by circular dichroism or nuclear magnetic resonance. PMID:17396

  15. Relationship of salivary cortisol and anxiety in recurrent aphthous stomatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadendla, Lakshmi Kavitha; Meduri, Venkateswarlu; Paramkusam, Geetha; Pachava, Koteswara Rao

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is one of the most frequently encountered oral mucosal disorders. Despite extensive amount of research, the etiology of RAS remains unclear. Psychological-emotional factors were considered as one of the major predisposing factors. The aim of the study was to assess the levels of anxiety and salivary cortisol levels in patients with RAS and also to determine the association and relationship of salivary cortisol levels to variations of stress. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 patients suffering with RAS, along with the same number of age and sex matched healthy controls were included in the study. Saliva was collected from all the subjects at 9.00 am to avoid diurnal variations of cortisol levels. Salivary cortisol levels were measured by competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Anxiety levels of both groups were measured by using Hamilton's anxiety scale. Student's t-test was used to compare the anxiety and salivary cortisol levels between both groups. Results: The mean salivary cortisol level of the RAS group showed a very highly significant difference (P = 0.000) from the controls. The mean anxiety scores of the RAS group showed a very highly significant difference (P = 0.000) from the controls. The values of Pearson correlation coefficient between anxiety and salivary cortisol was 0.980 and one with a P value of 0.000 showing that there is a highly positive correlation between anxiety and salivary cortisol. Conclusion: Results suggest that anxiety may be involved in the pathogenesis of RAS. Thus besides traditional treatment of RAS patients, our findings suggest that psychological support is also needed. PMID:25593827

  16. Biomacromolecule conjugated nanofiber scaffold for salivary gland tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayarathanam, Kavitha

    Xerostomia or dry mouth, resulting from loss of salivary gland secretion can be alleviated by tissue engineering approaches to restore glandular cell function. Engineering an artificial salivary gland structure requires closely mimicking the natural environment, both physically and functionally, to promote epithelial cell proliferation, monolayer formation and apico-basal polarization. While the physical structure of the salivary gland extracellular matrix (ECM) can be reconstructed using biocompatible nanofiber scaffolds, the chemical signals from ECM macromolecules are equally involved in the gland morphogenesis. In these glands, Hyaluronic acid (HA), a biomacromolecule that is a major component of the ECM, plays a crucial role in recruiting growth factors to improve cell viability and growth in these glands. Another molecule of interest that improved salivary epithelial cell viability and apico-basal differentiation is laminin, a major protein found in the basement membrane. We hypothesize that these biomacromolecules, when conjugated nanofiber scaffolds, will provide the essential chemical signals that promote cell viability, proliferation, polarity in the salivary cell line of interest. These morphological changes will in turn promote the secretory function (salivary production). The nanofiber scaffold consisting of poly(lactic-co-glycolic)acid is conjugated with HA using a polyethylene glycol (PEG) diamine crosslinker. This conjugation was confirmed using fluorescence spectrometry, water contact angle test and immunocytochemistry analysis using confocal microscopy. The effect of HA in promoting cell survival in-vitro was established with MTT assay using SIMS (mouse submandibular immortalized ductal SIMS cells) cells. The effect of HA in improving the apico - basal polarity of SIMS cells will be assessed. Chemical modification of synthetic nanopolymeric scaffolds with ECM molecules e.g., HA, laminin are the next step towards developing "smart scaffolds", that can be used to specifically induce proper salivary gland function. These scaffolds can potentially be used to provide a viable approach for creating future artificial tissue engineered glands.

  17. Unstimulated salivary flow rate, pH and buffer capacity of saliva in healthy volunteers / Débito basal, pH y capacidad tampón de la secreción salivar en sujetos sanos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C., Fenoll-Palomares; J. V., Muñoz-Montagud; V., Sanchiz; B., Herreros; V., Hernández; M., Mínguez; A., Benages.

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in spanish Objetivos: conocer el débito, pH y capacidad tampón de la saliva en sujetos sanos y sus relaciones con edad, sexo, obesidad y hábitos tabáquico y alcohólico, así como establecer la definición de hiposialia. Métodos: estudio observacional prospectivo en 159 voluntarios sanos (> 18 años, sin factores [...] conocidos que disminuyan la secreción salivar). Se ha recogido la saliva total, sin estímulo, durante 10 minutos, determinando su débito (ml/min), pH y capacidad tampón (concentración de bicarbonato en mmol/l) mediante autoanalizador Radiometer ABL 520. Se han calculado los límites inferiores del débito salivar y concentración de bicarbonato por el percentil 5. Resultados: la mediana del débito salivar es 0,48 ml/min (rango 0,1-2). La mayor edad condiciona una disminución del débito salivar; los sujetos con edad Abstract in english Objectives: to assess the salivary flow rate, pH, and buffer capacity of healthy volunteers, and their relationships with age, gender, obesity, smoking, and alcohol consumption, and to establish the lower-end value of normal salivary flow (oligosialia). Methods: a prospective study was conducted in [...] 159 healthy volunteers (age > 18 years, absence of medical conditions that could decrease salivary flow). Unstimulated whole saliva was collected during ten minutes, and salivary flow rate (ml/min), pH, and bicarbonate concentration (mmol/l) were measured using a Radiometer ABL 520. The 5 percentile of salivary flow rate and bicarbonate concentration was considered the lower limit of normality. Results: median salivary flow rate was 0.48 ml/min (range: 0.1-2 ml/min). Age younger than 44 years was associated with higher flow rates (OR 2.10). Compared with women, men presented a higher flow rate (OR 3.19) and buffer capacity (OR 2.81). Bicarbonate concentration correlated with salivary flow rate. The lower-end values of normal flow rate and bicarbonate concentration were 0.15 ml/min and 1.800 mmol/l, respectively. The presence of obesity, smoking, and alcohol consumption did not influence salivary parameters. Conclusions: in healthy volunteers, salivary flow rate depends on age and gender, and correlates with buffer capacity. Obesity, smoking, and alcohol use do not influence salivary secretion.

  18. Use of Salivary Cortisol Measurements in Young Infants: A Note of Caution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnano, Catherine L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Findings indicate that high cortisol levels and interfering substances in formula and breast milk could contaminate salivary cortisol measurements in young infants. To insure accurate results, appropriate controls should be taken for salivary cortisol measurements of young infants. (RH)

  19. (S)- and (R)-[11C]nicotine and the metabolite (R/S)-[11C]cotinine. Preparation, metabolite studies and in vivo distribution in the human brain using PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate [11C]nicotine binding and metabolism in the living human brain by PET, routine protocols were developed for the preparation and purification of (S)-and (R)-[11C]nicotine and the metabolite (R/S)-[11C]cotinine. (S)- and (R)-[11C]nicotine were prepared by N-methylation with [11C]methyl iodide of the appropriate secondary amine, which was liberated in situ by 2,2,6,6,-tetramethylpiperidine (TMP) from its corresponding biscamsylate-salt. (R/S)-[11C]Cotinine was prepared by N-methylation of the amide precursor using tetrabutylammonium hydroxide as a phase transfer catalyst. Straight-phase semipreparative HPLC was in all purifications found to be superior to reversed-phase since the contamination by the norcompounds was eliminated. Reaction in acetonitrile for both (S)- and (R)-[11C]nicotine and (R/S)-[11C]cotinine with subsequent straight-phase HPLC purification resulted in 35-45% radiochemical yield with a total synthesis time of 30-35 min, a specific radioactivity of 1000-1500 Ci/mmol (37-55 GBq/?mol, EOS) and a radiochemical purity >99%. The uptake and distribution of these tracers in the human brain was studied in healthy volunteers by PET. The metabolite (R/S)-[11C]cotinine did not cross the blood-brain barrier to any significant degree. (author)

  20. Low salivary testosterone levels in patients with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsigginou Alexandra

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Correlation between circulating sex steroid levels and breast cancer has been controversial, with measurement of free, or bioavailable hormone rarely available. Salivary hormone levels represent the bioavailable fraction. To further elucidate the role of endogenous hormones in breast cancer, we aimed to assess correlation between salivary sex steroid levels and breast cancer prevalence. Methods Salivary hormone levels of testosterone (T, Estradiol (E2, Progesterone (P, Estriol (E3, Estrone (E1, DHEAS and Cortisol (C were measured by Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA in 357 women with histologically verified breast cancer and 184 age-matched control women. Results Salivary T and DHEAS levels were significantly lower in breast cancer cases vs. controls (27.2+13.9 vs. 32.2+17.5 pg/ml, p Conclusions Salivary T levels, representing the bioavailable hormone, are significantly lower in women with breast cancer compared to age-matched control women. These findings support the protective role of biovailable testosterone in counteracting the proliferative effects of estrogens on mammary tissue.

  1. Maspin and MCM2 immunoprofiling in salivary gland carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmy Iman M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathogenesis of salivary gland carcinomas is very complex and prognostic markers are difficult to find in these carcinomas of which the different subtypes have varying malignant potential. The study was conducted to examine the cellular distribution of maspin and MCM2 in salivary gland carcinomas and their value to predict lymph node metastasis. Materials and methods Fifty three paraffin blocks of different lesions (15 muco-epidermoid carcinoma, 14 adenoid cystic carcinoma, 3 epi-myoepithelial carcinoma, 5 salivary duct carcinoma, 5 malignant pleomorphic adenoma, 6 polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma and 5 acinic cell carcinoma were prepared for immunohistochemical staining with maspin and MCM2 antibodies. ANOVA and Pearson correlation tests were used for the statistical analysis of the results. Results All salivary gland carcinomas express maspin and MCM2 with variable cellular localization. There was a significant difference in the expression of each antibody between mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma and polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma. No association was found between examined markers and lymph node metastasis. Conclusions Salivary gland carcinomas express maspin and MCM2 with variable levels and cellular localization, consisting important markers of biological behavior in these tumors. The level of MCM2 expression can be used in the differential diagnosis of adenoid cystic carcinoma and polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma. Further study with large sample size is recommended to assess their value in prediction of lymph node metastasis.

  2. Quantification of salivary gland Scintigraphy by means of factor analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Knoll

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In this study the automatic separation of oral and salivary gland activity and spontaneous secretion by means of factor analysis for quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy is introduced. Methods: After intravenous administration of 99mTc sodium pertechnetate, dynamis scintigraphy was performed using a128x128 matrix, acquisition time 30 min, 2 frame/min. 20 minutes after tracer application 2 ml of lemon juice was delivered to stimulate the glands. Applying elliptical regions of interest (ROIs for oral cavity and four major salivary gland and factor analysis of  medical image sequences results in factor image and factor curves, which are used for quantification of the pre- and post-stimulatory oral activity index, and for the four major glands and the sublingual gland, the maximum accumulation (MA, the maximum secretion (MS and the secretion velocity (SV. Results: With FAMIS it is possible to fully separate automatic separate the three superimposed processes we have in salivary gland scintigraphy: glandular and oral activity and spontaneous secretion. Comparing our quantitative results obtained by FAMIS with ROI analysis we found significant different values that are due to the fact that the spontaneous secretion in the oral cavity superimposes the true oral and glandular activity curves. Conclusion: The application of factor analysis improves the results of salivary gland scintigraphy by separation of superimposed dynamic processes of oral and glandular activity and spontaneous secretion

  3. Acute Short-Term Mental Stress Does Not Influence Salivary Flow Rate Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Naumova, Ella A.; Sandulescu, Tudor; Al Khatib, Philipp; Thie, Michael; Lee, Wing-kee; Zimmer, Stefan; Arnold, Wolfgang H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Results of studies that address the influence of stress on salivary flow rate and composition are controversial. The aim of this study was to reveal the influence of stress vulnerability and different phases of stress reactivity on the unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rate. We examined that acute mental stress does not change the salivary flow rate. In addition, we also examined the salivary cortisol and protein level in relation to acute mental stress stimuli. Methods: S...

  4. Anopheles salivary gland proteomes from major malaria vectors

    OpenAIRE

    Fontaine Albin; Fusaï Thierry; Briolant Sébastien; Buffet Sylvain; Villard Claude; Baudelet Emilie; Pophillat Mathieu; Granjeaud Samuel; Rogier Christophe; Almeras Lionel

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Antibody responses against Anopheles salivary proteins can indicate individual exposure to bites of malaria vectors. The extent to which these salivary proteins are species-specific is not entirely resolved. Thus, a better knowledge of the diversity among salivary protein repertoires from various malaria vector species is necessary to select relevant genus-, subgenus- and/or species-specific salivary antigens. Such antigens could be used for quantitative (mosquito density)...

  5. Comparison of labial and sublingual salivary gland biopsies in the diagnosis of Sjögren's syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Pennec, Y. L.; Leroy, J. P.; Jouquan, J.; Lelong, A.; Katsikis, P.; Youinou, P.

    1990-01-01

    This study was designed to compare labial and sublingual salivary gland biopsies in the diagnosis of Sjögren's syndrome (SS). Fourteen labial and 29 sublingual specimens were considered positive. There was a better correlation between infiltration of the ductal structure and the focus score in the sublingual salivary gland biopsy than in the labial salivary gland biopsy. Use of sublingual salivary gland biopsy as an additional diagnostic tool in SS is therefore suggested.

  6. Source, topography and excitatory effects of GABAergic innervation in cockroach salivary glands

    OpenAIRE

    Blenau, Wolfgang; Rotte, Cathleen; Witte, Jeannine; Baumann, Otto; Walz, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    Cockroach salivary glands are innervated by dopaminergic and serotonergic neurons. Both transmitters elicit saliva secretion. We studied the distribution pattern of neurons containing gamma-aminobutyric acid ( GABA) and their physiological role. Immunofluorescence revealed a GABA-immunoreactive axon that originates within the subesophageal ganglion at the salivary neuron 2 (SN2) and this extends within the salivary duct nerve towards the salivary gland. GABA-positive fibers form a network on ...

  7. A paper strip based non-invasive glucose biosensor for salivary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Anuradha; Jha, Sandeep Kumar

    2015-05-15

    In our present study, we developed an optical biosensor for direct determination of salivary glucose by using immobilized glucose oxidase enzyme on filter paper strip (specific activity 1.4 U/strip) and then reacting it with synthetic glucose samples in presence of co-immobilized color pH indicator. The filter paper changed color based on concentration of glucose in reaction media and hence, by scanning this color change (using RGB profiling) through an office scanner and open source image processing software (GIMP) the concentration of glucose in the reaction medium could be deduced. Once the biosensor was standardized, the synthetic glucose sample was replaced with human saliva from donors. The individual's blood glucose level at the time of obtaining saliva was also measured using an Accuchek(™) active glucometer (Roche Inc.). In this preliminary study, a correlation of nearly 0.64 was found between glucose levels in saliva and blood of healthy individuals and in diabetic patients it was nearly in the order of 0.95, thereby validating the importance of salivary analysis. The RGB profiling method obtained a detection range of 9-1350 mg/dL glucose at a response time of 45 s and LOD of 22.2 mg/dL. PMID:25282078

  8. Measurement of salivary cortisol--effects of replacing polyester with cotton and switching antibody

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ase Marie; Garde, Anne Helene

    2008-01-01

    Stable performance between-runs are essential in longitudinal studies and when different studies are being compared. However, changes in analytical kits and laboratory material occur and have the potential to threaten analytical stability. In the present case, we examined how salivary cortisol measurements in our laboratory were affected by: 1) changes in the tampon material and 2) changes in the antibody of the analytical kit. In study 1, saliva from healthy subjects (n = 19) was split and spiked to Salivette polyester and cotton tampons, respectively, and treated as ordinary samples before being analysed for cortisol using a Spectria RIA kit for cortisol. In study 2, 68 anonymous saliva samples were analysed with the Spectria Cortisol RIA kit both before and after the manufacturer changed the antibody. The change from polyester to cotton tampons reduced the measured concentration of salivary cortisol by 62 %. A difference of 12 % between the two runs with different antibodies could not be attributed to differences in storage or in thawing and freezing of samples. To conclude, both a change in the material of the Salivette used for collecting saliva samples as well as a change of antibody in a kit can have a major impact on measurements, as illustrated here for concentrations of cortisol in saliva. It is therefore recommended always to check that the analysis stays in statistical control in one's own laboratory when changes are made, even if the manufacturer reports that the changes should have no effects.

  9. Seasonal rhythms of salivary cortisol secretion in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menargues Marcilla, Asunción; Urios, Vicente; Limiñana, Rubén

    2012-04-01

    Salivary cortisol has been recently used to assess welfare of captive and free-ranging animals. However, rhythms of cortisol secretion may vary annually and thus, it is necessary to take into account these rhythms when evaluating the physiological significance of fluctuations of this hormone throughout the year as stress indicator in animals. Here, we analyze monthly differences in cortisol secretion in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) during a year. Saliva samples of eight adult female Asian elephants were collected and analyzed using Radioimmunoassay. Results revealed an overall seasonal pattern of salivary cortisol secretion and significant differences in cortisol concentration among months were found. Overall, the highest cortisol levels were recorded in October, and then decreased until reaching the lowest concentration in April. However, some individual variations were found respect this annual overall trend. The occurrence of this annual pattern of cortisol secretion should be taken into account when using cortisol as a tool to assess animal welfare in captive animal at zoological parks, as well as it opens new questions to further analyze this pattern and its variations, as well as the endogenous mechanisms controlling it. PMID:22366473

  10. Salivary levels of hyaluronic acid in female patients with dry mouth compared with age-matched controls: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Yasushi; Ansai, Toshihiro; Awano, Shuji; Soh, Inho; Yoshida, Akihiro; Hamasaki, Tomoko; Kakinoki, Yasuaki; Takehara, Tadamichi

    2009-02-01

    Little is known regarding the association between the level of hyaluronic acid (HA) in saliva and dry mouth status. The aim of this study was to evaluate the salivary levels of HA in female patients with dry mouth (perceived xerostomia and hyposalivation) and compare them with age-matched controls. We studied 46 females, and classified them into two groups based on perceived xerostomia and salivary flow rate, as well as a control group without symptoms. HA concentrations in unstimulated whole saliva were determined and a significant difference was found between the groups. The statistical association was stronger in patients (perceived xerostomia, normosalivation) administrated xerogenic drugs, while the HA levels in that group were significantly lower than those in the controls when converted to absolute amount of saliva per min. Within the limitations of the present study, patients with dry mouth had lower HA levels in saliva, which may serve as a marker of local dryness or oral mucosa lubrication. PMID:19265265

  11. Short-term salivary acetaldehyde increase due to direct exposure to alcoholic beverages as an additional cancer risk factor beyond ethanol metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monakhova Yulia B

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasing body of evidence now implicates acetaldehyde as a major underlying factor for the carcinogenicity of alcoholic beverages and especially for oesophageal and oral cancer. Acetaldehyde associated with alcohol consumption is regarded as 'carcinogenic to humans' (IARC Group 1, with sufficient evidence available for the oesophagus, head and neck as sites of carcinogenicity. At present, research into the mechanistic aspects of acetaldehyde-related oral cancer has been focused on salivary acetaldehyde that is formed either from ethanol metabolism in the epithelia or from microbial oxidation of ethanol by the oral microflora. This study was conducted to evaluate the role of the acetaldehyde that is found as a component of alcoholic beverages as an additional factor in the aetiology of oral cancer. Methods Salivary acetaldehyde levels were determined in the context of sensory analysis of different alcoholic beverages (beer, cider, wine, sherry, vodka, calvados, grape marc spirit, tequila, cherry spirit, without swallowing, to exclude systemic ethanol metabolism. Results The rinsing of the mouth for 30 seconds with an alcoholic beverage is able to increase salivary acetaldehyde above levels previously judged to be carcinogenic in vitro, with levels up to 1000 ?M in cases of beverages with extreme acetaldehyde content. In general, the highest salivary acetaldehyde concentration was found in all cases in the saliva 30 sec after using the beverages (average 353 ?M. The average concentration then decreased at the 2-min (156 ?M, 5-min (76 ?M and 10-min (40 ?M sampling points. The salivary acetaldehyde concentration depends primarily on the direct ingestion of acetaldehyde contained in the beverages at the 30-sec sampling, while the influence of the metabolic formation from ethanol becomes the major factor at the 2-min sampling point. Conclusions This study offers a plausible mechanism to explain the increased risk for oral cancer associated with high acetaldehyde concentrations in certain beverages.

  12. Serum cotinine and urinary 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanonol levels among non-Hispanic Asian American smokers and nonsmokers as compared to other race/ethnicities: data from NHANES 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ram B

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate serum cotinine and total urinary 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanonol (NNAL) levels from a nationally representative sample of non-Hispanic Asian Americans as compared with other racial/ethnic groups. Data from the latest National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2011-2012 were used for this purpose. The total sample size used was 4580. Regression models were fitted to estimate serum cotinine and urinary NNAL levels for smokers and nonsmokers aged 20 years and older adjusted for other factors that affect these levels. For nonsmokers, exposure to second hand smoke at home was associated with about 30 times higher serum cotinine levels when compared to those without such exposure (0.717 ng mL(-1) vs. 0.024 ng mL(-1), plevels among nonsmokers with second hand smoke exposure at home were about twenty times what they were in those without such exposure (9 pg mL(-1) vs. 109 pg mL(-1), plevels occurred in non-Hispanic Asian smokers (92.6 ng mL(-1)) and Hispanics (84.5 ng mL(-1)) as compared to non-Hispanic whites (143.8 ng mL(-1)) and non-Hispanic blacks (158.4 ng mL(-1)). Urinary NNAL levels for smokers were in the order: non-Hispanic Asian (0.121 ng mL(-1))substantially higher levels of serum cotinine but substantially lower levels of urinary NNAL irrespective of smoking status thus pointing towards differences in elimination kinetics of nicotine/cotinine and NNAL. PMID:25462301

  13. Repeated bouts of eccentrically biased endurance exercise stimulate salivary IgA secretion rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKune, Aj; Starzak, D; Semple, Sj

    2015-03-01

    To determine the salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) response to repeated bouts of unaccustomed, downhill running (eccentrically biased) and examine potential protective immunological adaption from a repeated bout effect. Eleven active but untrained males (age: 19.7±0.4 years; VO2peak: 47.8± 3.6 ml · kg(-1) · min (-1)) performed two 60 min bouts (Run 1 and Run 2) of downhill running (-13.5% gradient), separated by 14 days, at a speed eliciting 75% of their VO2peak on a level grade. Saliva samples were collected before (baseline), immediately post exercise (IPE), and every hour for 12 h and every 24 h for 6 days after each run. Salivary sIgA concentration was measured and sIgA secretion rate was calculated. Results were analysed using repeated measures ANOVA (12 h period: 2x14; 24 h intervals: 2x7; p ? 0.05) with Tukey post-hoc tests where appropriate. Results are reported as means ± SE. There was a significant (p < 0.0001) interaction effect for sIgA secretion rate, IPE, with higher values after Run 2, as well as a significant (p < 0.01) time effect with elevated levels IPE and between 24 h and 144 h. There was a run effect (p < 0.0001), with the sIgA secretion rate significantly higher after Run 2. Repeated bouts of unaccustomed, eccentrically biased exercise induced alterations in the salivary sIgA secretion rate. This may serve as a protective mucosal adaptation to exercise-induced tissue damage. PMID:25729146

  14. Salivary defense factors and oral health in patients with common variable immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirstilä, V; Tenovuo, J; Ruuskanen, O; Nikoskelainen, J; Irjala, K; Vilja, P

    1994-07-01

    Studies of oral health in patients with common variable immunodeficiency have given controversial results. Obviously, one major factor modifying the oral health of these patients is saliva, in which the antibody-mediated defense is remarkably impaired compared to that of healthy subjects. However, the occurrence of nonimmunoglobulin (innate) antimicrobial agents in saliva of these patients is virtually unknown. Therefore, we analyzed both immune (total IgA, IgG, IgM, anti-Streptococcus mutans IgA, IgG, and IgM antibodies) and nonimmune (lysozyme, lactoferrin, salivary peroxidase, myeloperoxidase, hypothiocyanite, thiocyanate, and agglutinins) factors in whole saliva of 15 patients with common variable immunodeficiency. All patients were on Ig-replacement therapy (median duration, 10 years; range, 2-25 years), which had normalized their IgG but not their IgA or IgM levels both in serum and in saliva. Also, comprehensive clinical and microbiological analyses were made. The control group comprised 15 age- and sex-matched immunologically healthy subjects. The results showed no notable differences in dental caries, periodontal diseases, or salivary microorganisms but the patients had a history of more frequent oral mucosal lesions and respiratory infections. All innate, nonimmune salivary defense factors were equally abundant in the patients as in the controls, in many cases even at somewhat higher concentrations. These findings suggest that in spite of immunodeficiency, patients with common variable immunodeficiency display normal, perhaps even slightly elevated, levels of nonimmunoglobulin defense factors in whole saliva.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7929697

  15. The relationship between psychological distress with salivary ?-amylase and stress related symptoms among breast cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. W. Yong

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: This study examined the stress levels, the stressors and biomarker such as Alpha (?-Amylase enzyme which is secreted under distress conditions. The aim was to determine the relationship between these three variables. Methods: The study respondents were made up of cancer outpatients from 3 hospitals namely the Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Seberang Jaya and Johor Baru, Pantai Ipoh and Putrajaya. The Personal Stress Inventory (PSI questionnaire was used to identify stressors, while the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS were used to determine the psychological distress levels. The Salimentary Oral Swab (SOS Technique was used to collect the saliva and then the Salivary ?-Amylase Assay Kit was used to analyse for ? amylase. Results: The majority of respondents were stressed due to their sensitive emotion and nervousness in their daily lives (68.7%, they had poor memory and short attention spans of carrying out job tasks (67.3% as well as they were emotionally depressed (65.3%. Their poor memory and short attention span (p = 0.037, heavy work load and poor task delivery (p = 0.008 were predictors for distress using HADS. The salivary ?-amylase concentration was significantly related to the stress levels (p = 0.002. Conclusion: Breast cancer respondents with musculoskeletal system related symptoms, with heavy work load and poor task delivery, as well as had poor memory and short attention span were at higher risk of experiencing psychological distress. The salivary ?-amylase which had significant relationships with psychological distress was therefore, a potential biological indicator for distress, while the musculoskeletal system related symptoms from the PSI questionnaire were predictors for distress.

  16. Sjoegren's syndrome. A functional scintigraphic study of salivary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One-hundred and twenty patients with sicca syndrome, connective tissue disease or chronic graft-versus-host disease were investigated in the Saint-Louis Hospital Department of Nuclear Medicine. Technetium scanning of the salivary glands was performed in all patients. The results of the scintigraphic study were closely correlated with clinical and histological data in patients with Sjoegren's syndrome. This method, which accurately quantifies the salivary function without danger nor discomfort to the patients, has a number of advantages: (a) it is sensitive enough to detect minimal salivary gland dysfunction; (b) it differentiates between parotid gland and submandibular gland involvement demonstrates assymetry in pathological processes; (c) it helps in following up patients with Sjoegren's disease and in assessing the results of immunosuppressive or anti-inflammatory treatment

  17. HIV-associated salivary gland enlargement: a clinical review

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S, Ebrahim; B, Singh; SS, Ramklass.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Salivary gland disease is well established as an important HIV associated oral lesion. It manifests as salivary gland swelling involving one or both parotid glands with or without xerostomia. In the context of HIV, the swelling may be due to a wide spectrum of pathological conditions that include re [...] active or inflammatory disorders, acute and chronic infections, and neoplasms. This paper reviews the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, aspects of diagnosis and management of HIV associated salivary gland enlargement, in particular parotid gland enlargement, due to benign lymphoepithelial cysts (BLEC). Parotid gland enlargement is typically an early manifestation in the HIV-positive patient and should alert healthcare professionals to the likelihood of HIV infection. FNAC of the parotid gland is required to confirm the diagnosis and instituting HAART forms an important part of the management. There is a shift away from surgery in the treatment of this essentially ‘benign’ condition.

  18. Ultrasonographic changes of major salivary glands in primary Sjoegren's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of our study was to determine the reproducibility of a new semi-quantitative scoring system based on ultrasonographic (US) evaluation of structural changes of salivary glands in primary Sjoegren's syndrome (SS). US evaluation of parotid and submandibular glands was performed in 28 SS patients and 29 control subjects independently by two blinded observers. Echogenicity, delineation of glandular borders and sonographic structure (homogeneity, hypoechoic areas, hyperechoic foci) of salivary glands were semi-quantitatively assessed and the final US score calculated. Inter-observer variability was determined by Cohen's test. A high degree of inter-observer agreement was found regarding the final US score (0.90) and in the assessment of glandular homogeneity (0.90), echogenicity (0.88) and hypoechoic areas (0.88). This study showed good reproducibility of the US evaluation of salivary glands using our novel scoring system. This may have important implications on the diagnostic algorithm in patients with SS

  19. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the minor salivary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a malignant salivary gland tumor with typical histologic patterns. The majority of the se tumors occurs in the minor salivary glands, especially mucosa of the hard palate. The authors experienced the patients, who complained the tumor-like soft tissue masses on the palatal and mouth floor area. After careful analysis of clinical, radiological and histopathological findings, we diagnosed them as adenoid cystic carcinomas in the minor salivary glands, obtained results were as follows : 1. Main clinical symptoms were a slow growing soft tissue mass with normal intact mucosa on the palatal area, and soft tissue mass with mild pain on the mouth floor area. 2. In the radiographic examinations, soft tissue masses were observed with invasion to adjacent structures, and moderate defined, heterogeneous soft tissue mass with enhanced margin, respectively. 3. In the histopathologic examinations, dark-stained, small uniform ballad's cells in the hyaline or fibrous stroma were observed as solid and cribriform patterns, respectively.

  20. A study on salivary cortisol level in patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis during both ulceration and ulcer free periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parichehr Ghaliani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis (RAS is one of the most common oral mucosal disorders. RAS patients show a decline in oral tolerance which leads to epithelial damage. Cortisol secretion in such patients may not be enough to suppress cytotoxic reactions against oral epithelium. The aim of this study was to measure salivary cortisol level during both ulceration and ulcer free phases of the disease. Materials and Methods: In this analytic-descriptive study, a total of 20 patients having minor oral aphthi with a history of at least three times oral ulceration in one year were included.Saliva samples were collected through spitting. The salivary concentration level of cortisol was measured on the first and 7th days from the appearance of aphthous ulcers, every patient was considered as both case and control. Sampling was repeated when ulcers were completely healed. The saliva samples were collected between 9 and 10 am and were analyzed via Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. The collected data were statistically analyzed on a computer through repeated measurement ANOVA and paired t-tests using SPSS software.(? = 0.05Results: The mean concentration of salivary cortisol on the first day of aphthous appearance was 2.72 . However after complete healing of the ulcers, it rose to 3.37 . The difference these values were shown to be statistically significant (p value=0.002. The mean concentration level of salivary cortisol on the 7th day from aphthous appearance (2.6 was also significantly different from the aphthous Free State. (p value = 0.001. Mean cortisol concentration level on the first and 7th days from the appearance of aphthous ulcer did not show a significant difference (p value = 0.304.Conclusion: The results showed that the mean salivary cortisol level at the beginning of the disease as well as during its active ulcerative period (acute phase were significantly lower than in aphthous free periods. It seems that cortisol plays a key role in reducing aphthous ulcer inflammation. Impaired cortisol secretion in RAS patients may cause an increased rate of incidence and severity of aphthous ulcers. Key words: Recurrent aphthous ulcer, Saliva, Hydrocortisone

  1. Studies On Quantitative Analysis Of Salivary Gland Using Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to calculate the size and CT number of both normal parotid and submandibular gland, and evaluate its relation to sex, age and obesity using computed tomography. The computed tomography was performed parallel to the Frankfurt plane in 46 subjects with healthy salivary gland. The subjects were divided into the three groups (young, middle, old) according to their ages. The size of salivary gland was determined as maximum cross-sectional area and the CT number of salivary gland was determined as the mean CT number of three ROI's. The body mass index was calculated from weight and height. The mean maximum cross-sectional area was 7.79 (+/-1.26) cm2 on parotid gland and 4.12 (+/-0.83) cm2 on submandibular gland. The mean CT number was -4.43 (+/-23.87) HU on parotid gland and 50.01 (+/-15.63) HU on submandibular gland. There were decreasing pattern of the maximum cross-sectional area of submandibular gland and the CT number of both parotid and submandibular gland according to age (p<0.05). As the body mass index increased, the maximum cross-sectional area of parotid gland increased and CT number of both parotid and submandibular gland decreased (p<0.05). The maximum cross-sectional area of submandibular gland in male was larger than that in female (p<0.05). As the maximum cross-sectional area and CT number of left salivary gland increased, those of right gland increased (p<0.05). Intra-individual differences in salivary glatra-individual differences in salivary gland size and CT number is considered in the age and individual obesity.

  2. Effect of adsorption time on the adhesion strength between salivary pellicle and human tooth enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y F; Zheng, J; Zheng, L; Zhou, Z R

    2015-02-01

    Salivary pellicle is a biofilm that is formed by the selective adsorption of salivary proteins. Almost all the functions of the salivary pellicle (lubricating properties, anti-caries properties, etc.) are closely associated with its adhesion strength to tooth surface. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of adsorption time on the adhesion strength between salivary pellicle and human tooth enamel, aiming to understand what act as the determinant of the interfacial adhesion. In this study, human tooth enamel samples were immersed in human whole saliva in vitro to obtain a salivary pellicle on the surface of enamel. Immersion treatments lasting up to 1, 3, 10 and 60 min were conducted, respectively. Nano-scratch tests were conducted on the surface of enamel after different adsorption times. The wettability of enamel surface was measured through water contact angle. Results showed that the shear energy between salivary pellicle and enamel surface increased exponentially with the adsorption time. The adhesion force between salivary pellicle and bare enamel surface was more than twice that between salivary pellicle and salivary pellicle. It was found that both the wettability and zeta potential of enamel increased obviously after 1 min saliva-adsorption treatment, and then they almost kept stable as the adsorption time further increased. In summary, the adhesion strength between initial salivary pellicle and enamel surface was much higher than that between initial salivary pellicle and outer salivary pellicle. It seemed that electrostatic interaction contributed to the adhesion between the initial salivary pellicle and enamel surface, but not to the adhesion between the initial and outer salivary pellicle. The results would be helpful to extend the understanding of the adhesion mechanism of salivary pellicle and then to develop new artificial saliva and dental restorative materials. PMID:25498298

  3. Comparative salivary gland transcriptomics of sandfly vectors of visceral leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seitz Amy E

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immune responses to sandfly saliva have been shown to protect animals against Leishmania infection. Yet very little is known about the molecular characteristics of salivary proteins from different sandflies, particularly from vectors transmitting visceral leishmaniasis, the fatal form of the disease. Further knowledge of the repertoire of these salivary proteins will give us insights into the molecular evolution of these proteins and will help us select relevant antigens for the development of a vector based anti-Leishmania vaccine. Results Two salivary gland cDNA libraries from female sandflies Phlebotomus argentipes and P. perniciosus were constructed, sequenced and proteomic analysis of the salivary proteins was performed. The majority of the sequenced transcripts from the two cDNA libraries coded for secreted proteins. In this analysis we identified transcripts coding for protein families not previously described in sandflies. A comparative sandfly salivary transcriptome analysis was performed by using these two cDNA libraries and two other sandfly salivary gland cDNA libraries from P. ariasi and Lutzomyia longipalpis, also vectors of visceral leishmaniasis. Full-length secreted proteins from each sandfly library were compared using a stand-alone version of BLAST, creating formatted protein databases of each sandfly library. Related groups of proteins from each sandfly species were combined into defined families of proteins. With this comparison, we identified families of salivary proteins common among all of the sandflies studied, proteins to be genus specific and proteins that appear to be species specific. The common proteins included apyrase, yellow-related protein, antigen-5, PpSP15 and PpSP32-related protein, a 33-kDa protein, D7-related protein, a 39- and a 16.1- kDa protein and an endonuclease-like protein. Some of these families contained multiple members, including PPSP15-like, yellow proteins and D7-related proteins suggesting gene expansion in these proteins. Conclusion This comprehensive analysis allows us the identification of genus- specific proteins, species-specific proteins and, more importantly, proteins common among these different sandflies. These results give us insights into the repertoire of salivary proteins that are potential candidates for a vector-based vaccine.

  4. Radionuclide salivary imaging usefulness in a private otolaryngology practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide salivary gland scans were performed on 44 patients using sodium pertechnetate Tc 99m. The accuracy of the scans and their usefulness in the clinical treatment of the patients were reviewed. The scan provided helpful information in 31 of 38 cases in which adequate follow-up data were available, although it proved diagnostic in only six patients. It was particularly useful in the evaluation of primary salivary gland neoplasms, acute and chronic sialadenitis, and sialolithiasis, as well as in the differential diagnosis of xerostomia. The value of this procedure in the elucidation of a variety of morphologic and functional diseases of these glands warrants its greater application in private otolaryngologic practices

  5. Regeneration of irradiated salivary glands by stem cell therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Lombaert, Isabelle Madeleine Armand

    2008-01-01

    Yearly, worldwide more than 500.000 new head and neck cancer patients are treated with radiotherapy. Co-irradiation of salivary glands may lead to xerostomia (=dry mouth syndrome), resulting in permanent loss of saliva production. This loss of gland function after radiation is thought to be due to a loss of stem cells that are no longer able to replenish saliva-producing acinar cells. Therefore, stem cell therapy could be utilized to prevent radiation-induced damage to the salivary gland. ...

  6. Current status of the development of an artificial salivary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aframian, Doron J; Palmon, Aaron

    2008-06-01

    Salivary glands (SGs) secrete more than half a liter of saliva daily. Saliva has many functions in maintaining the normal homeostasis of the oral cavity. Several causes underlie salivary impairment, where irradiation therapy to head and neck cancer patients is one of the most debilitating causes leading to considerable decrease in the patients' quality of life. In the last decade, others and we have focused on implementing tissue engineering principles combined with gene transfer and stem cell methodologies to develop an artificial SG device. This manuscript provides an overview of the current status of engineering an artificial SG. PMID:18471085

  7. [Rhabdomyosarcoma of the salivary glands. Report of 3 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    BenJelloun, H; Jouhadi, H; Maazouzi, A; Benchakroun, N; Acharki, A; Tawfiq, N; Sahraoui, S; Benider, A

    2005-09-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma of the salivary glands is rare. Tumours develop mostly in children and young patients but can be diagnosed in older people. We report three new cases in women 7, 14 and 75 years old. Tumefaction of the parotid region and facial paralysis were the principle clinical symptoms. Two patients underwent a total parotidectomy and radiotherapy. The third patient had a locally advanced tumour and received chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy. Loco-regional recurrence was observed in all cases and median survival was 12 months. Rhabdomyosarcoma of the salivary glands is locally aggressive. Treatments include surgery and radiotherapy. The role of chemotherapy remains to be discussed. PMID:15953749

  8. Lymphoid lesions of salivary glands: Malignant and Benign

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gary L., Ellis.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in english Lesions of salivary glands with a prominent lymphoid component are a heterogeneous group of diseases that include benign reactive lesions and malignant neoplasms. Occasionally, these pathologic entities present difficulties in the clinical and pathological diagnosis and prognosis. Lymphoepithelial s [...] ialadenitis, HIV-associated salivary gland disease, chronic sclerosing sialadenitis, Warthin tumor, and extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma are examples of this pathology that are sometimes problematic to differentiate from one another. In this paper the author reviewed the main clinical, pathological and prognostic features of these lesions.

  9. Raman spectroscopic investigation of urinary calculi and salivary stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The capabilities and limitations of determining the composition of urinary calculi (34 patients) and salivary stones (27 patients) by Raman spectroscopy have been investigated by analysing Raman spectra obtained with 1064 nm laser excitation, and comparing them with Raman spectra both from specific reference substances and from a commercial Raman database. The composition results were also compared with those obtained by other analytical methods e.g. powder diffraction. Raman spectroscopy proves to be an analytical method which provides reliable results on the composition of urinary calculi and salivary stones quickly, non-destructively and without any need of sample preparation. (author)

  10. Characterization of the In Vitro Kinetic Interaction of Chlorpyrifos-Oxon with Rat Salivary Cholinesterase: A Potential Biomonitoring Matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kousba, Ahmed A.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Poet, Torka S.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Timchalk, Charles (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

    2003-02-12

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a commonly used organophosphate insecticide (OP). The primary mechanism of action for CPF involves the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by the active metabolite, CPF-oxon, with subsequent accumulation of acetylcholine (ACh) resulting in a wide range of neutotoxicity. CPF-oxon, can likewise inhibit other non-target cholinesterases (ChE) such as butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), which represents a detoxification mechanism and a potential biomarker of exposure/response. Biological monitoring for OPs has focused on measuring parent chemical or metabolite in blood and urine or blood ChE inhibition. Salivary biomonitoring has recently been explored as a practical method for examination of chemical exposure; however, there are a limited number of studies exploring its use for OPs. To evaluate the use of salivary ChE as a biological monitor for OP exposure, the current study characterized salivary ChE activity in Sprague-Dawley rats through its comparison with brain and plasma ChE using BW284C51 and iso-OMPA as selective inhibitors of AChE and BuChE, respectively. The study also estimated the kinetic constants describing BuChE interaction with CPF-oxon. A modified Ellman assay in conjunction with pharmacodynamic (PD) modeling was used to characterize the in vitro titration of diluted rat salivary ChE enzyme with CPF-oxon. The results indicated that, more than 95% of rat salivary ChE activity was associated with BuChE activity, total BuChE active site concentration was 0.0012 0.00013 nmol/ml saliva, reactivation rate constant (Kr) was 0.068 0.008 h-1 and inhibitory (Ki) rate constant of 8.825 and 9.80 nM-1h-1 determined experimentally and using model optimization respectively. These study results would be helpful for further evaluating the potential utility of salivary ChE as a practical tool for biological monitor of OP exposures.

  11. Modulatory effect of esophageal intraluminal mechanical and chemical stressors on salivary prostaglandin E2 in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namiot, Z; Yu, Z J; Piascik, R; Hetzel, D P; McCallum, R W; Sarosiek, J

    1997-02-01

    As has been demonstrated, infusion of hydrochloric acid (HCl) and pepsin into the human esophageal lumen, which mimics the natural gastroesophageal reflux, results in a significant increase in salivary volume, salivary bicarbonate and epidermal growth factor. However, the impact of intraluminal acid/pepsin solution on salivary prostaglandin E2 (sPGE2), the major protective factor of the upper alimentary tract, has never been explored. Therefore, using the newly developed esophageal perfusion model, the impact of both mechanical and chemical stimuli of the esophagus on sPGE2 secretion in humans was studied. Salivary PGE2 was assessed in saliva collected during basal conditions, chewing of parafilm, placement of intraesophageal tubing, inflation of intraesophageal balloons, and perfusion with sodium chloride, HCl, or HCl/pepsin solutions. The concentration of sPGE2 was measured using the RIA kit from Amersham (Arlington Heights, IL) after the solid-phase extraction and derivatization. The concentration of sPGE2 in the basal saliva was (mean +/- standard error of mean) 186 +/- 31 pg/mL and was similar during the chewing of parafilm (171 +/- 32 pg/mL). The placement of intraesophageal tubing, however, resulted in a significant decline of sPGE2 concentration to the value of 91 +/- 22 pg/mL (P < 0.01). This decline was maintained when intraesophageal balloons, which compartmentalized a 7.5 cm perfused segment of the esophagus, were inflated (86 +/- 17 pg/mL; P < 0.01). This decline was potentiated further when subsequent perfusion with saline was implemented to reach the lowest value of 46 +/- 17 pg/mL (P < 0.001 versus basal and P < 0.05 versus tubing and balloon evoked values) at the end of the perfusing procedure. Esophageal perfusion with acid and acid/pepsin solution, however, partly restored the significant decline in sPGE2 concentration observed during prolonged perfusion with saline. The sPGE2 output during basal conditions was 89 +/- 13 pg/min and increased dramatically during stimulation by placement of intraesophageal tubing (241 +/- 48 pg/min; P < 0.01) and inflation of intraesophageal balloons (244 +/- 48 pg/min; P < 0.01). Subsequent esophageal perfusion with saline resulted in a gradual decline of sPGE2 output evoked by mechanical stimuli that reached the final value of 178 +/- 39, which was not significantly different from that observed in the basal condition (P < 0.1 versus basal value). Introduction of HCl and pepsin into the perfusing solution significantly prevented the decline of sPGE2 output observed during perfusion with saline (252 +/- 36 pg/min; P < 0.01 versus basal). The modulatory impact of mechanical and chemical stimulation on sPGE2, demonstrated for the first time in humans, may suggest the potential contribution of salivary prostanoids to the maintenance of the integrity of the esophageal mucosa. PMID:9030674

  12. Oral tumor resection and salivary duct relocation with an ultrasonic surgical aspirator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yura, Shinya; Kato, Takumi; Ooi, Kazuhiro; Izumiyama, Yuri

    2009-07-01

    We describe a procedure of oral tumor resection and salivary duct relocation with an ultrasonic surgical aspirator. After mucosal incision, resection of the underlying musculature was performed using an ultrasonic surgical aspirator. Using the apparatus, the salivary duct was easily exposed without damaging or cutting the duct. After identification of the salivary duct, salivary duct relocation was performed. After resection of the tumor, the artificial dermis was trimmed and sutured to the mucosal edges of the surgical defect. This method is a reliable and simple procedure that can be used to avoid postoperative complications such as salivary fistula or swelling of the gland. PMID:19625841

  13. Breast Cancer Exosome-like Microvesicles and Salivary Gland Cells Interplay Alters Salivary Gland Cell-Derived Exosome-like Microvesicles In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Chang S.; Wong, David T. W.

    2012-01-01

    Saliva is a useful biofluid for the early detection of disease, but how distal tumors communicate with the oral cavity and create disease-specific salivary biomarkers remains unclear. Using an in vitro breast cancer model, we demonstrated that breast cancer-derived exosome-like microvesicles are capable of interacting with salivary gland cells, altering the composition of their secreted exosome-like microvesicles. We found that the salivary gland cells secreted exosome-like microvesicles enca...

  14. Studies of the effects of radiation or surgery on the salivary amylase activity and the isoamylase composition in salivary gland tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The total amylase activity and the isoamylase composition of saliva were studied in patients with salivary gland tumours before and after treatment to evaluate the efficiency of treatment in terms of its ability to restore normal or nearly normal salivary function. The material for the study comprised 35 normal subjects, one case of mumps and eight cases of histologically proved salivary gland tumours, three of which received radiation treatment and one was subjected to total parotidectomy. It is observed that there is a marked deviation from normal in the total salivary amylase activity and the isoamylase pattern in mumps and untreated salivary gland tumours and some increase in amylase activity is noticeable after treatment of these tumours, the increase being more marked after surgery. The salivary isoamylase pattern restored to normal in case of mumps after recovery and in salivary gland tumour after surgery but not after irradiation. These findings suggest that in view of the deleterious effects of radiaton on salivary gland function, surgery is preferable to radiation as the treatment of choice. Further studies are underway to assess the utility of the heat labile salivary amylase fraction obseved in these cases in detecting recurrences. (author)

  15. Plasma amylase activity as a biochemical indicator of radiation injury to salivary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation of the salivary glands produces a rapid increase of salivary amylase in serum, released by the highly radiation sensitive serous cells of the glands. Serial assays of salivary amylase in serum were performed in patients treated by radiation to the upper neck region. The changes observed were compared with the amount of salivary gland mass irradiated and with the dose fractionation modality used. The irradiated volume included either the entire salivary gland mass or less than 50 per cent of the gland. Two fractionation modalities were used: a conventional fractionation of 2 Gy per day, 5 times a week, or a multiple daily fractionation of 2 Gy, 3 times a day in two series of 4 days with a 4-day interval. Both parameters (salivary gland mass irradiated and fractionation modality used) significantly influenced the shape of the amylase curve in the serum. Serum amylase may therefore be considered a reliable biologic indicator of early injury to the salivary glands. (Auth.)

  16. Research on plasma and saliva levels of some bivalent cations in patients with chronic periodontitis (salivary cations in chronic periodontitis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manea, A; Nechifor, M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether chronic periodontitis can stand behind modifications in the salivary and blood concentration of some bivalent cations (Calcium, Magnesium, Zinc and Copper). For this purpose, we formed a group of 30 adult patients with clinically onset chronic periodontitis, and another one of 30 healthy patients as control. Both groups were free from acute oral pathology and general illnesses. The groups were divided again according to the habit of smoking. Total saliva samples were obtained as "first time in the morning", then weighed and processed. Cations were read on Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer and by Ion Chromatography (Magnesium). The same patients were required to undergo laboratory blood tests for Calcium, Magnesium and Zinc. Data obtained was normalised, then statistically interpreted using two-tailed heteroscedastic t-Student tests. Our data confirmed the existence of a connection between salivary calcium, magnesium, zinc and copper, and of blood magnesium, and chronic periodontitis. Salivary calcium and magnesium are affected by smoking. PMID:25076713

  17. INFLUENCE OF MUSIC TYPE LISTENING ON ANAEROBIC PERFORMANCE AND SALIVARY CORTISOL IN MALES ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ghaderi.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Music has been widely recommended as a technique to enhance the psychophysical state of participants in sport and exercise. However, there is scant scientific evidence to clarify its proposed benefits. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of fast and slow rhythm of music on anaerobic performance and salivary cortisol concentration in trained men. Thirty male physical education college students (ages: 25.66±3.89 yr, height: 176.65 ± 7.66 cm, body mass: 78.45±16.20 kg voluntary participated in this study and divided to three groups: fast music, slow music, and no music(control. All subjects performed the coninghum test following a 20% grate and 14.3km/h speed on the treadmill. For measuring of cortisol, not stimulated samples of saliva collected, 15 minutes befor and immediately 5 and 30 minute after the exercise. No significant differences were found in anaerobic performance among the three groups in pretest indicating homogeneity of the groups. However, salivary cortisol no significant in anaerobic performance 5 and 30 minute after exercise as well. Summarily, Music doed not have a positive effect on performance, this study provided some support for the hypothesis that listening fast and slow music not significantly impacted during supramaximal exercise.

  18. Diurnal patterns of salivary cortisol and DHEA in adolescent anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskis, Andrea; Loveday, Catherine; Hucklebridge, Frank; Thorn, Lisa; Clow, Angela

    2012-11-01

    Although there is well-documented evidence for hyperactivity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function in anorexia nervosa (AN), there has been little research into secretory patterns of salivary cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in this condition. The cortisol awakening response (CAR), a prominent and discrete feature of the cortisol cycle, has not been extensively explored in adolescent AN. Saliva samples were collected at awakening, 30 min and 12 h post-awakening on two consecutive weekdays from eight female adolescents with clinically diagnosed AN and 41 healthy control (HC) age-matched females. Adolescent AN patients had greater salivary cortisol and DHEA concentrations than HC girls at all points. Increased hormone secretion was unrelated to body mass index. However, despite hypersecretion of both hormones, the circadian pattern including the CAR paralleled that of the HC group. Findings from this preliminary study confirm dysregulation of HPA axis function in adolescent AN as evidenced by hypersecretion of both cortisol and DHEA, which share the common secretagogue adrenocorticotropic hormone. However, the parallel diurnal profiles for AN and HC participants, including the CAR, may indicate hypersecretion per se rather than differential regulation of the diurnal pattern of these two adrenal steroids in AN. PMID:22356124

  19. Pouteria ramiflora extract inhibits salivary amylolytic activity and decreases glycemic level in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gouveia, Neire M; De Albuquerque, Cibele L; Espindola, Laila S; Espindola, Foued S

    2013-09-01

    In this study, extracts of plant species from the Cerrado biome were assessed in order to find potential inhibitors of human salivary alpha-amylase. The plants were collected and extracts were obtained from leaves, bark, and roots. We performed a preliminary phytochemical analysis and a screening for salivar alpha-amylase inhibitory activity. Only three botanical families (Sapotaceae, Sapindaceae and Flacourtiaceae) and 16 extracts showed a substantial inhibition (>75%) of alpha-amylase. The ethanolic extracts of Pouteria ramiflora obtained from stem barks and root barks decreased amylolytic activity above 95% at a final concentration of 20 µg/mL. Thus, adult male Swiss mice were treated orally with P. ramiflora in acute toxicity and glycemic control studies. Daily administration with 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg of aqueous extract of P. ramiflora for eight days can reduce significantly body weight and blood glucose level in mice. These data suggest that the crude polar extract of P. ramiflora decreases salivary amylolytic activity while lowering the blood levels of glucose. PMID:24068095

  20. Salivary cortisol responses to household tasks among couples with unexplained chronic fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmaling, Karen B; Romano, Joan M; Jensen, Mark P; Wilkinson, Charles W; McPherson, Sterling

    2015-04-01

    This study examined salivary cortisol levels in couples in which one member had unexplained chronic fatigue (CF). The couples completed questionnaires and seven household activities in a laboratory setting and provided salivary cortisol samples prior to and immediately after the activities, as well as again after completing additional questionnaires and debriefing. The couples rated their interactions as similar to those at home, suggesting ecological validity, and patients with CF experienced the activities as involving more exertion than did their partners. The multilevel model results indicated that patients with CF had overall lower cortisol levels and flatter slopes across repeated measurements than did their significant others. Patients' and significant others' cortisol concentrations were significantly associated with each other over time. Furthermore, significant others' cortisol was associated with greater relationship satisfaction and greater observed rates of patients' illness/pain behaviors per minute, but patients' levels of cortisol were not associated with relationship variables. This study is the first to examine cortisol in couples with CF; the results are discussed in terms of implications for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25844497

  1. Radioimmunoassay method suitable for analysis of salivary cortisol in patients with breast cancer in treatment by teletherapy - a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determination of salivary cortisol using radioimmunoassay and the relationship between stress levels were investigated before and after of the psychological intervention of 21 patients during teletherapy treatment of breast cancer. The benefits of psychological intervention during cancer treatment has been observed in some studies and evidence show that the patient's emotional state directly influences adherence to treatment, good prognosis and under stress. Thus, in present study 21 patients aged 50-70 years, females in the treatment of breast cancer at the Radiotherapy Service of Santa Casa de Misericordia in Belo Horizonte, were divided randomly into two groups: control (without psychological intervention) and Group TCC (with psychological intervention). Salivary cortisol concentrations are reportedly about 5.10% of those in serum, the levels has been used as an objective marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and avoided the confounding effects of venepuncture stress on cortisol levels. The assessment of cortisol in saliva has proven a valid and reliable measure of unbound steroid in the circulation. The salivary cortisol measured by radioimmunoassay in control patients and TCC showed no significant differences. The radioimmunoassay method show be suitable for analysis of salivary cortisol because allows measure low detection limits and have high sensibility. The values of TCC group and Control group were higher than reference values, except for one patient of the control group. At the beginning of treatment, both groups were homogeneous for Teletherapy. Both the TCC group as the control group had . 80% of participants in phase with stress. It was observed in the TCC group after radiotherapy showing a reversal 60% of participants without stress. The data show that cognitive-behavioral therapy has benefits for the control of psychological stress and enhance relevance of the psychologist to provide reduction or stress control during radiation treatment without interfering with the integrity of the participants. (author)

  2. Radioimmunoassay method suitable for analysis of salivary cortisol in patients with breast cancer in treatment by teletherapy - a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Kellen Verena S. [Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear. Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Pampulha, MG (Brazil); Santos, Jane Lima dos [Departamento de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilheus, BA (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Determination of salivary cortisol using radioimmunoassay and the relationship between stress levels were investigated before and after of the psychological intervention of 21 patients during teletherapy treatment of breast cancer. The benefits of psychological intervention during cancer treatment has been observed in some studies and evidence show that the patient's emotional state directly influences adherence to treatment, good prognosis and under stress. Thus, in present study 21 patients aged 50-70 years, females in the treatment of breast cancer at the Radiotherapy Service of Santa Casa de Misericordia in Belo Horizonte, were divided randomly into two groups: control (without psychological intervention) and Group TCC (with psychological intervention). Salivary cortisol concentrations are reportedly about 5.10% of those in serum, the levels has been used as an objective marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and avoided the confounding effects of venepuncture stress on cortisol levels. The assessment of cortisol in saliva has proven a valid and reliable measure of unbound steroid in the circulation. The salivary cortisol measured by radioimmunoassay in control patients and TCC showed no significant differences. The radioimmunoassay method show be suitable for analysis of salivary cortisol because allows measure low detection limits and have high sensibility. The values of TCC group and Control group were higher than reference values, except for one patient of the control group. At the beginning of treatment, both groups were homogeneous for Teletherapy. Both the TCC group as the control group had . 80% of participants in phase with stress. It was observed in the TCC group after radiotherapy showing a reversal 60% of participants without stress. The data show that cognitive-behavioral therapy has benefits for the control of psychological stress and enhance relevance of the psychologist to provide reduction or stress control during radiation treatment without interfering with the integrity of the participants. (author)

  3. The role of salivary proteins in the mechanism of astringency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Catherine A; Ismail, Baraem; Vickers, Zata M

    2012-04-01

    Understanding astringency has focused on the interaction of tannins with the salivary proline-rich proteins (PRPs), although it remains unclear if other astringents precipitate the PRPs or how this interaction relates to sensory perceptions of astringency. We used 2 approaches to compare how distinct classes of astringent compounds interacted with the salivary PRPs and mucins. Using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, we evaluated protein patterns and characterized the salivary proteins present in the supernatants and pellets of pooled saliva assayed with tannin, alum, and hydrochloric acid solutions. Tannins and alum precipitated many of the PRPs, but acid did not. Mucins were precipitated by both the acid and alum, but not by the tannins. From our research, it appears that the precipitation of salivary proteins may be involved in the mechanism of astringency, but the precipitation of PRPs is not requisite for the development of astringency. We also measured mucin and deoxyribonucleic acid content of expectorated solutions of astringents that panelists swished in their mouths to determine if astringency was associated with a loss of oral lubricating films. PMID:22515235

  4. Measuring Salivary Cortisol in the Behavioral Neuroscience Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian A. Kalman, Ruth E. Grahn (Conneticut College; )

    2004-05-07

    This article descibes an ethical experimental module of human biological parameters. The enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kit measures human salivary cortisol levels, which can rise due to circadian and environmental changes. This easy to use sampling kit is described as an ideal procedure for students in behavioral neurobiology or physiological psychology laboratory class to examine cortisol levels.

  5. Approaches to salivary cortisol collection and analysis in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryphonopoulos, Panagiota D; Letourneau, Nicole; Azar, Rima

    2014-10-01

    Salivary cortisol is becoming more commonly utilized as a biologic marker of stress in observational studies and intervention research. However, its use with infants (12 months of age or younger) is less widespread and poses some special challenges to researchers. In order to decide on the most suitable collection procedure for salivary cortisol in infants, a number of criteria should be considered. This article will aid investigators interested in integrating salivary cortisol measurement into their research studies by presenting (1) an overview of the patterns of cortisol secretion in infancy including the development of diurnal rhythm and response to stress; (2) a comparison of the most commonly used approaches for collecting salivary cortisol samples in infants including cotton rope, syringe aspiration technique, filter paper, hydrocellulose microsponge, and the Salimetrics children's swab; (3) a discussion of the factors contributing to heightened cortisol variability in infancy and how these can be limited; (4) analytical issues associated with cortisol measurement; and (5) examples of criteria to consider when choosing a saliva sampling method and lab for conducting assays. PMID:24136995

  6. Mena, a new available marker in tumors of salivary glands?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gurzu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Mena (mammalian Ena is an actin regulatory protein involved in cell motility and adhesion. Based on its potential role in malignant transformation revealed in other organs, we analyzed the Mena expression in normal salivary glands (SG and salivary tumors. Mena expression was determined in normal SG (n=10 and also benign (n=20 and malignant (n=35 lesions of SG. For the immunohistochemical staining we used the anti-Mena antibody. All normal SG and the benign lesions (10 pleomorphic adenomas, 10 Warthin’s tumors were Mena negative. Salivary duct carcinomas (n=5, carcinomas in pleomorphic adenoma (n=5, acinic cell carcinomas (n=5, squamous cell carcinomas (n=10 and high-grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas (n=2 were positive. The lymphomas (n=5 and low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas (n=1 were Mena negative. In one case the lymphoblastic cells stained positive for Mena. Some of the endothelial cells, in the peritumoral vessels, were Mena positive. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in the literature about Mena expression in salivary tumors. Our study suggests that Mena protein seems to play a role in malignant transformation and its intensity is correlated with the type and grade of tumor and also with vascular invasion. Its positivity in endothelial cells may suggest its potential role in tumor angiogenesis.

  7. Tissue tropism of the Musca domestica salivary gland hypertrophy virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietze, Verena-Ulrike; Salem, Tamer Z; Prompiboon, Pannipa; Boucias, Drion G

    2011-01-01

    The tissue tropism of Musca domestica salivary gland hypertrophy virus (MdSGHV) infecting adult house flies was examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and quantitative real-time PCR. TEM demonstrated that characteristic MdSGHV-induced nuclear and cellular hypertrophy was restricted to the salivary glands. Both nucleocapsids and enveloped virions were present in salivary gland cells. In contrast, thin sections of midguts, ovaries, abdominal fat body, crops, air sacs and brains showed the presence of enveloped virions in vacuoles of tracheal cells associated with these tissues. However, no sites of viral morphogenesis were detected in the tracheal cells. Quantitative analysis of MdSGHV DNA and transcript titers revealed that viral DNA was present in all hemolymph and tissue samples collected from MdSGHV-infected flies. Average numbers of MdSGHV genome copies per 50 ng of DNA varied significantly between examined tissues and ranged from 3.83 × 10(8) (±3.75 × 10(7)) in salivary gland samples to 7.98 × 10(5) (±2.91 × 10(5)) in hemolymph samples. High levels of viral genome copies were detected in midgut, fat body and brain samples. Viral transcripts were present in all examined samples, and transcript abundance was also at the highest level in salivary glands and at the lowest level in hemolymph. However, over the range of different tissues that were analyzed, there was no correlation between estimated quantities of genome copies and viral transcripts. The function of viral transcripts in host tissues that do not show sites of viral morphogenesis remains to be elucidated. PMID:20600389

  8. Ixodes scapularis salivary gland protein P11 facilitates migration of Anaplasma phagocytophilum from the tick gut to salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Narasimhan, Sukanya; Dai, Jianfeng; Zhang, Lili; Cheng, Gong; Fikrig, Erol

    2011-11-01

    Ixodes ticks harbour several human pathogens belonging to the order Rickettsiales, including Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the agent of human anaplasmosis. When ticks feed on A. phagocytophilum-infected mice, the pathogen enters the ticks' gut. The bacteria then migrate from the gut to infect the salivary glands of the ticks and are transmitted to the next host via the saliva. The molecular mechanisms that enable the migration of A. phagocytophilum from the gut to the salivary glands are poorly understood. Here we show that a secreted tick protein, P11, is important in this process. We show that P11 enables A. phagocytophilum to infect tick haemocytes, which are required for the migration of A. phagocytophilum from the gut to the salivary glands. Silencing of p11 impaired the A. phagocytophilum infection of tick haemocytes in vivo and consequently decreased pathogen infection of the salivary glands. In vitro experiments showed that P11 could bind to A. phagocytophilum and thus facilitate its infection of tick cells. This report provides new insights into A. phagocytophilum infection of ticks and reveals new avenues to interrupt the life cycle of Anaplasma and related Rickettsial pathogens. PMID:21921936

  9. Evidence for the presence of carbonic anhydrase 29-kDa isoenzyme in salivary secretions of three ruminating species and the gelada baboon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mau, Marcus; Kaiser, Thomas M; Südekum, Karl-Heinz

    2009-04-01

    Salivary glands are highly variable in composition of their secretions and thus could be one of the primary ways by which species adapt or react to their environments. It has been hypothesized that feeding adaptation correlates with saliva composition. Hence, animals of different families using identical feeding niches should possess similar salivary proteins. For the first time, salivary secretions of grass-eating cattle, goat, camel and gelada baboon were compared by SDS-gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting. Salivary protein patterns were similar among individuals of the same species but varied largely among species. However, all samples showed proteins of apparently 29 and 42 kDa, identified as carbonic anhydrases (CA) by immunoblotting. The CA-VI (42 kDa) was highly expressed in cattle and camel saliva, but showed lower expression in goat saliva and could not be detected in gelada baboons. The CA-II (29 kDa) was found in saliva of all species tested and was shown in ruminating animals not to originate from cellular debris of the oral mucosa or ingested food. The results demonstrate that besides CA-VI, CA-II is another CA isoform secreted especially in ruminant saliva. Furthermore, the two CA isoenzymes detected may form a complementary system, protecting mucosa from acidity and helping to maintain a constant bicarbonate concentration in the animal's mouth and digestive tract. PMID:19159864

  10. Accumulation of radioactivity in rat brain and peripheral tissues including salivary gland after intravenous administration of 14C-D-aspartic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the intravenous administration of 14C-D-aspartic acid (Asp) into Sprague-Dawley rats (male, 7-week-old), the distribution and elimination of radioactivity was investigated by the whole body autoradiography. High radioactivities were detected in pineal gland, pituitary gland and salivary gland at 30 min after administration. The other tissues detected were liver, lung, adrenal gland, pancreas and spleen where D-Asp was reported to occur naturally. After 24 hr, the radioactivities were still detected at high levels in the pineal, pituitary and salivary glands. The data suggested the natural occurrence of D-Asp in salivary gland. After careful examination utilizing fluorescent derivatization and chiral separation by high-performance liquid chromatography, the presence of D-Asp was, for the first time, demonstrated in salivary gland in situ, the concentration of which was 7.85 ± 1.0 nmol/g. The administration of 14C-L-Asp was also carried out. The data suggested that D-Asp in the circulating blood is one of the sources of the tissue D-Asp. (author)

  11. Salivary duct carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the palate: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourell, Lauren G; Chan, King Chong; Hirsch, David L

    2015-02-01

    Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma is a rare malignancy of the head and neck, particularly in the minor salivary glands. Most cases arise in the major salivary glands, most commonly in the parotid gland, followed by the submandibular gland. The malignant component of the tumor varies, but can be salivary duct carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, or adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified. Primary salivary duct carcinoma is also a rare malignancy of the head and neck. Similar to carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma, it is more common in the major salivary glands, with the parotid gland accounting for 88% and the submandibular gland for 10% of cases. To date, only 25 known cases of primary salivary duct carcinoma arising in the minor salivary glands have been documented, with most arising in the palate. Salivary duct carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the minor salivary glands appears to be even rarer. Our case of salivary duct carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the palate is the first complete report, to our knowledge, in the English-language scientific literature. PMID:25579019

  12. Nuclear hBD-1 accumulation in malignant salivary gland tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merkelbach-Bruse S

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whereas the antimicrobial peptides hBD-2 and -3 are related to inflammation, the constitutively expressed hBD-1 might function as 8p tumour suppressor gene and thus play a key role in control of transcription and induction of apoptosis in malignant epithelial tumours. Therefore this study was conducted to characterise proteins involved in cell cycle control and host defence in different benign and malignant salivary gland tumours in comparison with healthy salivary gland tissue. Methods 21 paraffin-embedded tissue samples of benign (n = 7, and malignant (n = 7 salivary gland tumours as well as healthy (n = 7 salivary glands were examined immunohistochemically for the expression of p53, bcl-2, and hBD-1, -2, -3. Results HBD-1 was distributed in the cytoplasm of healthy salivary glands and benign salivary gland tumours but seems to migrate into the nucleus of malignant salivary gland tumours. Pleomorphic adenomas showed cytoplasmic as well as weak nuclear hBD-1 staining. Conclusion HBD-1, 2 and 3 are traceable in healthy salivary gland tissue as well as in benign and malignant salivary gland tumours. As hBD-1 is shifted from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in malignant salivary gland tumours, we hypothesize that it might play a role in the oncogenesis of these tumours. In pleomorphic adenomas hBD-1 might be connected to their biologic behaviour of recurrence and malignant transformation.

  13. Interaction between Trypanosoma rangeli and the Rhodnius prolixus salivary gland depends on the phosphotyrosine ecto-phosphatase activity of the parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos-Santos, André L A; Dick, Claudia F; Alves-Bezerra, Michele; Silveira, Thaís S; Paes, Lisvane Silva; Gondim, Katia C; Meyer-Fernandes, José R

    2012-08-01

    Trypanosoma rangeli is the trypanosomatid that colonizes the salivary gland of its insect vector, with a profound impact on the feeding capacity of the insect. In this study we investigated the role of the phosphotyrosine (P-Tyr) ecto-phosphatase activity of T. rangeli in its interaction with Rhodnius prolixus salivary glands. Long but not short epimastigotes adhered to the gland cells and the strength of interaction correlated with the enzyme activity levels in different strains. Differential interference contrast microscopy demonstrated that clusters of parasites are formed in most cases, suggesting cooperative interaction in the adhesion process. The tightness of the correlation was evidenced by modulating the P-Tyr ecto-phosphatase activity with various concentrations of inhibitors. Sodium orthovanadate, ammonium molybdate and zinc chloride decreased the interaction between T. rangeli and R. prolixus salivary glands in parallel. Levamisole, an inhibitor of alkaline phosphatases, affected neither process. EDTA strongly inhibited adhesion and P-Tyr ecto-phosphatase activity to the same extent, an effect that was no longer seen if the parasites were pre-incubated with the chelator and then washed. When the P-Tyr ecto-phosphatase of living T. rangeli epimastigotes was irreversibly inactivated with sodium orthovanadate and the parasite cells were then injected into the insect thorax, colonization of the salivary glands was greatly depressed for several days after blood feeding. Addition of P-Tyr ecto-phosphatase substrates such as p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP) and P-Tyr inhibited the adhesion of T. rangeli to salivary glands, but P-Ser, P-Thr and ?-glycerophosphate were completely ineffective. Immunoassays using anti-P-Tyr-residues revealed a large number of P-Tyr-proteins in extracts of R. prolixus salivary glands, which could be potentially targeted by T. rangeli during adhesion. These results indicate that dephosphorylation of structural P-Tyr residues on the gland cell surfaces, mediated by a P-Tyr ecto-phosphatase of the parasite, is a key event in the interaction between T. rangeli and R. prolixus salivary glands. PMID:22749957

  14. Assessment of prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke by cotinine in cord blood for the evaluation of smoking control policies in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puig Carme

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last few years a decreasing trend in smoking has occurred not only in the general population but also during pregnancy. Several countries have implemented laws requiring all enclosed workplace and public places to be free of second hand smoke (SHS. In Spain, legislation to reduce SHS was implemented in 2005. The present study examines the possible effect of this legislation on prenatal SHS exposure. Methods Mothers and newborns were recruited from 3 independent studies performed in Hospital del Mar (Barcelona and approved by the local Ethics Committee: 415 participated in a study in 1996-1998, 283 in 2002-2004 and 207 in 2008. A standard questionnaire, including neonatal and sociodemographic variables,tobacco use and exposure during pregnancy, was completed at delivery for all the participants in the three study groups. Fetal exposure to tobacco was studied by measuring cotinine in cord blood by radioimmunoassay (RIA. Results 32.8% of the pregnant women reported to smoke during pregnancy in 1996-1998, 25.9% in 2002-2004 and 34.1% in 2008. In the most recent group, the percentage of no prenatal SHS exposure (cord blood cotinine 0.2-1 ng/mL showed an increase compared to the previous groups while the percentages of both: low (1.1-14 ng/mL and very high (> 100 ng/mL prenatal SHS exposure showed a decrease. Discussion The results of the three study periods (1996-2008 demonstrated a significant increase in the percentage of newborns free from SHS exposure and a decrease in the percentage of newborns exposed to SHS during pregnancy, especially at the very high levels of exposure. A significant maternal smoking habit was noted in this geographical area with particular emphasis on immigrant pregnant smoking women. Conclusions Our study indicates that there is a significant maternal smoking habit in this geographical area. Our recommendation is that campaigns against smoking should be directed more specifically towards pregnant women with particular emphasis on non-native pregnant smokers due to the highest prevalence of tobacco consumption in the immigrant women.

  15. Fast neutrons in the treatment of salivary gland tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast neutrons were used in the management of 30 patients with advanced salivary gland tumors. Twenty-two patients are the subject of this analysis. Neutrons were used as the primary mode of management in only seven patients. The remaining patients either had recurrent disease after surgery and/or radiation, or received post-operative treatment with neutrons. After a minimum follow-up of one year, 66% of the patients are alive with no evidence of disease. Control in the treatment volume is as high as 72%, which suggests a significant improvement in the local control of advanced salivary gland tumors. However, longer periods of observation are necessary for more definitive conclusions

  16. Fast neutron radiotherapy for advanced malignant salivary gland tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, B R; Laramore, G E; Russell, K J; Griffin, T W; Eenmaa, J

    1988-06-01

    Thirty-two patients with inoperable, recurrent, or gross residual malignant salivary gland tumors received fast neutron radiotherapy at the University of Washington. Eleven patients were treated with low energy neutrons alone, four received a combined photon-low energy neutron treatment regimen ("mixed beam"), and 17 were treated with high energy neutrons alone. Patients treated for microscopic residual tumor after a surgical resection were excluded from this study. With a minimum follow-up period of one year, (maximum 12 years), the overall locoregional tumor control rate for the entire series was 81%. The 5-year locoregional tumor control rate was 69%. The overall 5-year survival rate was 33% (50% for T3 tumors and 0% for T4 tumors). Compared to results obtained with conventional photon and/or electron treatment for advanced salivary gland tumors, fast neutron radiotherapy appears to offer a significant advantage. PMID:3406455

  17. Salivary cortisol as a tool for physiological studies and diagnostic strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Castro M.; Elias P.C.L.; Martinelli Jr. C.E.; Antonini S.R.R.; Santiago L.; Moreira A.C.

    2000-01-01

    Salivary cortisol is an index of plasma free cortisol and is obtained by a noninvasive procedure. We have been using salivary cortisol as a tool for physiological and diagnostic studies, among them the emergence of circadian rhythm in preterm and term infants. The salivary cortisol circadian rhythm in term and premature infants was established between 8 and 12 postnatal weeks. In the preterm infants the emergence of circadian rhythm was parallel to the onset of sleep rhythm. We also studied t...

  18. Rescue of Salivary Gland Function after Stem Cell Transplantation in Irradiated Glands

    OpenAIRE

    Lombaert, Isabelle M. A.; Brunsting, Jeanette F.; Wierenga, Pieter K.; Faber, Hette; Stokman, Monique A.; Kok, Tineke; Visser, Willy H.; Kampinga, Harm H.; Haan, Gerald; Coppes, Robert P.

    2008-01-01

    Head and neck cancer is the fifth most common malignancy and accounts for 3% of all new cancer cases each year. Despite relatively high survival rates, the quality of life of these patients is severely compromised because of radiation-induced impairment of salivary gland function and consequential xerostomia (dry mouth syndrome). In this study, a clinically applicable method for the restoration of radiation-impaired salivary gland function using salivary gland stem cell transplantation was de...

  19. Improved Quantification of Salivary Gland Scintigraphy by Means of Factor Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Karl Koriska; Brigitte Bastati; Gabriela Krotla; Peter Knoll; Siroos Mirzaei

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: In this study the automatic separation of oral and salivary gland activity and spontaneous secretion by means of factor analysis for quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy is introduced. Methods: After intravenous administration of 99mTc sodium pertechnetate, dynamic scintigraphy was performed. 20 minutes after tracer application 2 ml of lemon juice was delivered to stimulate the glands. Applying elliptical regions of interest for oral cavity and four major salivary glands and...

  20. Structure of the salivary glands of the unfed male tick Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius) (Acarina: Ixodidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolau Maués Serra-Freire; José Antonio Olivieri

    1993-01-01

    Acini in the salivary glands of unfed male Amblyomma cajennense of different ages, were studied. The salivary glands consist of one agranular and three granular acini types. The agranular acini are directly attached to the medial and anterior portion of the main salivary duct, and to some branches of the secondary ducts. A large, clear, central cell occupies the centre and this cell is in contact with the acinar lumen. There is no valve to the lumen. Granular acini consist of approximately si...

  1. Structure of the salivary glands of the unfed female tick Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius) (Acarina: Ixodidae)

    OpenAIRE

    José Antonio Olivieri; Nicolau Maués da Serra-Freire

    1992-01-01

    Acini in in the salivary glands of female tick specimens of Amblyomma ajennense unfed at both postnymphal and adult phases, were studied. The salivary glands are consisted by three acini, one agranular and two granular. The agranular acini are directly attached to the anterior portion of the main salivary duct, consisting of cells without valve. A relatively large, clear, central cell occupies most of the alveolar midsection. The central cell is in contact with the acini lumen. Granular acini...

  2. Morphogenesis of normal human salivary gland cells in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Azuma, M.; Sato, M.

    1994-01-01

    Primary cultured human salivary gland cells were transfected with ori-defective mutant DNA of SV40. Following 2-3 weeks of transfection, slowly expanding colonies consisting of small compact cells emerged, while mock-transfected cells did not grow any more and eventually entered crisis, followed by cell death. Using limited dilution technique, we isolated 4 cell clones with distinct morphology from a single colony. Morphological observation of cells cultured on...

  3. Salivary duct carcinoma with striking neutrophil-tumor cell cannibalism

    OpenAIRE

    Arya, Payam; Khalbuss, Walid E.; Monaco, Sara E.; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2011-01-01

    Cannibalism of neutrophils by tumor cells has previously been reported in certain carcinomas, lymphoma and melanoma. Tumor cannibalism is believed to serve as a tumor-immune escape mechanism, associated with high-grade aggressive cancers with a significantly increased metastatic potential. This interesting phenomenon has not been previously documented in association with salivary gland tumors. We report, for the first time, striking neutrophil-tumor cell cannibalism associated with a high gra...

  4. Contrasting effects of citalopram and reboxetine on waking salivary cortisol.

    OpenAIRE

    Harmer, Cj; Bhagwagar, Z.; Shelley, N.; Cowen, Pj

    2003-01-01

    RATIONALE: Acute administration of antidepressants which potentiate serotonin (5-HT) and noradrenaline (NA) function stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and increases salivary free cortisol in healthy subjects. The effects of repeated antidepressant administration have been less studied, but the ability of such treatment to modulate HPA axis activity may be relevant to therapeutic effects. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to assess the effect of short-term treatm...

  5. DETERMINATION OF SALIVARY CORTISOL IN HEALTHY CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Safarzadeh, E.; Mostafavi, F.; Haghi Ashtiani, M. T.

    2005-01-01

    Recognized as a reliable tool for assessing the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, measurement of salivary cortisol plays an important role in both the clinical and research settings. To establish a normative data, which forms the basis for the usage of this valuable parameter, we gathered 8:00 h saliva samples from 94 healthy individuals aged 6-14 years. Cortisol levels were measured by radioimmunoassay technique, using Orion Diagnostica's coated tube technology. Based on mean±...

  6. Pharmacology of serotonin-induced salivary secretion in Periplaneta americana

    OpenAIRE

    Blenau, Wolfgang; Troppmann, Britta; Walz, Bernd

    2007-01-01

    The acinar salivary gland of the cockroach, Periplaneta americana, is innervated by dopaminergic and serotonergic nerve fibers. Stimulation of the glands by serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) results in the production of a protein-rich saliva, whereas stimulation by dopamine results in saliva that is protein-free. Thus, dopamine acts selectively on ion-transporting peripheral cells within the acini, and 5-HT acts on protein-producing central cells. We have investigated the pharmacology of ...

  7. Levels of salivary lysozyme, lactoperoxidase, and lactoferrin in diabetic hamsters.

    OpenAIRE

    Muratsu, K.; Morioka, T.

    1985-01-01

    In an attempt to clarify the mechanism(s) of increased susceptibility to oral infection in diabetics, we examined the levels of salivary antibacterial factors, including lysozyme, lactoperoxidase, and lactoferrin, in diabetic hamsters whose condition was induced with streptozotocin. Saliva was collected from these hamsters periodically for 19 weeks after the administration of streptozotocin. Diabetes persisted with significant hyperglycemia throughout the experiment after a single injection o...

  8. Tick salivary secretion as a source of antihemostatics.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chmela?, Jind?ich; Calvo, E.; Pedra, J. H. F.; Francischetti, I.M.B.; Kotsyfakis, Michalis

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 75, ?. 13 (2012), s. 3842-3854. ISSN 1874-3919 R&D Projects: GA ?R GAP502/12/2409 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Tick * Salivary gland * Hemostasis * Coagulation * Platelet aggregation * Thrombin Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.088, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S187439191200245X

  9. Salivary function in patients with chronic renal failure undergoing hemodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in salivary gland function in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) undergoing hemodialysis. The group consisted of 23 patients with CRF (13 female, 10 male; mean age: 40±13 yr) and 14 healthy control subjects (mean age: 40±13 yr). All underwent dynamic salivary gland scintigraphy with gustatory stimulation. After intravenous administration of 99mTc pertechnetate, first, perfusion images at 2 seconds per frame were acquired for 1 minute, then dynamic images at 1 minute per frame were acquired for 45 minutes. At 30 minutes after injection , 10 ml lemon juice was given for 15 minutes as a gustatory stimulus. We obtained time-activity curves derived from regions of interest centered over the four major salivary glands. The following functional indices were calculated for each gland: the time of maximum radioactivity (Tmax) for the prestimulated period, the time of minimum radioactivity (Tmin), as an indicator of velocity of secretion after stimulation, and the Lem E5% value as an indicator of the secretion function. When the patients with CRF undergoing hemodialysis were compared to the controls, there were statistically significant differences in Tmax, Tmin and Lem E5% values for bilateral parotid glands, and Tmin values for bilateral submandibular glands (pmaxlly significant differences in Tmax and Lem E5% values for bilateral submandibular glands. There were also significant differences in Tmax and Lem E5% values for bilateral parotid glands between mild oral problems and severe oral problems in patients with CRF (undergoing hemodialysis). In this study, prolonged Tmax and Tmin values, and decreased Lem E5% values for parotid glands and prolonged Tmin values for submandibular glands on salivary scintigraphy pointed out decreased parenchymatous and excretory function in patients with CRF undergoing hemodialysis. (author)

  10. Influence of mirtazapine on salivary cortisol in depressed patients

    OpenAIRE

    Laakmann, G.; Hennig, J.; Baghai, Thomas C.; Schule, C.

    2003-01-01

    Unlike other antidepressants, mirtazapine does not inhibit the reuptake of norepinephrine or serotonin but acts as an antagonist at presynaptic alpha(2)-receptors, at postsynaptic 5-HT2 and 5-HT3 receptors, and at histaminergic H1 receptors. Furthermore, mirtazapine has been shown to acutely inhibit cortisol secretion in healthy subjects. In the present study, the impact of mirtazapine treatment on salivary cortisol secretion was investigated in 12 patients (4 men, 8 women) suffering from maj...

  11. Wetting the whistle: neurotropic factor improves salivary function

    OpenAIRE

    Swick, Adam; Kimple, Randall J.

    2014-01-01

    Xerostomia, or dry mouth, is a common side effect of head and neck radiotherapy, Sjögren syndrome, diabetes, old age, and numerous medications. In this issue of the JCI, Xiao and colleagues identified glial cell line–derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) as a potential stimulus for salivary stem cell growth. Due to its ability to promote neuronal growth, differentiation, and survival, GDNF is currently being used in clinical trials as a treatment for Parkinson disease; therefore, the findings...

  12. Inhaled fluticasone propionate does not influence salivary cortisol when measured with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veen, Betty S; Appelhof, Maaike; de Vries, Tjalling W

    2012-01-01

    Long-term treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) may potentially lead to adrenal insufficiency in children with asthma. A sufficient adrenal response can be tested using protocols involving salivary cortisol measurements. In this study, we investigated in healthy volunteers whether inhalation of fluticasone propionate, a frequently prescribed ICS, interferes with salivary cortisol measurement (with tandem mass spectrometry as well as an immuno-assay). We found that inhalation of fluticasone propionate immediately before saliva collection does not interfere with the salivary cortisol measurement when measured by mass spectrometry. These results suggest that patients with asthma using ICS can be included in research protocols based on salivary cortisol mass spectrometry measurements. PMID:23329775

  13. Characterization of salivary alpha-amylase binding to Streptococcus sanguis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scannapieco, F.A.; Bergey, E.J.; Reddy, M.S.; Levine, M.J. (State Univ. of New York, Buffalo (USA))

    1989-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the major salivary components which interact with oral bacteria and to determine the mechanism(s) responsible for their binding to the bacterial surface. Strains of Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, and Actinomyces viscosus were incubated for 2 h in freshly collected human submandibular-sublingual saliva (HSMSL) or parotid saliva (HPS), and bound salivary components were eluted with 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate. By sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western transfer, alpha-amylase was the prominent salivary component eluted from S. sanguis. Studies with {sup 125}I-labeled HSMSL or {sup 125}I-labeled HPS also demonstrated a component with an electrophoretic mobility identical to that of alpha-amylase which bound to S. sanguis. Purified alpha-amylase from human parotid saliva was radiolabeled and found to bind to strains of S. sanguis genotypes 1 and 3 and S. mitis genotype 2, but not to strains of other species of oral bacteria. Binding of ({sup 125}I)alpha-amylase to streptococci was saturable, calcium independent, and inhibitable by excess unlabeled alpha-amylases from a variety of sources, but not by secretory immunoglobulin A and the proline-rich glycoprotein from HPS. Reduced and alkylated alpha-amylase lost enzymatic and bacterial binding activities. Binding was inhibited by incubation with maltotriose, maltooligosaccharides, limit dextrins, and starch.

  14. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE FACIAL ARTERY AND SUB MANDIBULAR SALIVARY GLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V.Venugopal,

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of relationship between the facial artery and submandibular salivary gland is essential for the surgeon operating in the submandibular region. This study has been under taken to have the knowledge of this relationship. Submandibular region has been dissected on 20 male cadavers in the Department of Anatomy, Sree Narayana Institute of Medical Sciences, Kerala. The course of the facial artery and its relationship to submandibular salivary gland has been followed carefully. The standard description of ascent of the facial artery along the entire length of posterior border of the submandibular salivary gland was seen in 15 out of the 20 sides studied. In 4 out of 20 sides dissected the facial artery reached only the upper part of the posterior border of the gland. The facial artery arose high on the external carotid artery near the angle of the mandible in one specimen. It reached the gland only at its postero-superior angle, pierced through the gland and emerged on the upper part of the lateral surface of the gland. Our study shows that only 1/5 of instances facial artery courses along the posterior border of the gland. In 4/5 of instances it reaches only the upper part of the posterior border.

  15. Characterization of salivary alpha-amylase binding to Streptococcus sanguis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to identify the major salivary components which interact with oral bacteria and to determine the mechanism(s) responsible for their binding to the bacterial surface. Strains of Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, and Actinomyces viscosus were incubated for 2 h in freshly collected human submandibular-sublingual saliva (HSMSL) or parotid saliva (HPS), and bound salivary components were eluted with 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate. By sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western transfer, alpha-amylase was the prominent salivary component eluted from S. sanguis. Studies with 125I-labeled HSMSL or 125I-labeled HPS also demonstrated a component with an electrophoretic mobility identical to that of alpha-amylase which bound to S. sanguis. Purified alpha-amylase from human parotid saliva was radiolabeled and found to bind to strains of S. sanguis genotypes 1 and 3 and S. mitis genotype 2, but not to strains of other species of oral bacteria. Binding of [125I]alpha-amylase to streptococci was saturable, calcium independent, and inhibitable by excess unlabeled alpha-amylases from a variety of sources, but not by secretory immunoglobulin A and the proline-rich glycoprotein from HPS. Reduced and alkylated alpha-amylase lost enzymatic and bacterial binding activities. Binding was inhibited by incubation with maltotriose, maltooligosaccharides, limit dextrins, and starchigosaccharides, limit dextrins, and starch

  16. Evidence for interphase death in irradiated primate salivary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In radiotherapy patients, exposure of the salivary glands to ionizing radiation produces acute swelling and can result in chronic hypofunction which predisposes to oral infections and dental caries. Because the pathogenesis or the acute reaction is unknown, sequential biopsies were taken from irradiated rhesus monkey parotid and mandibular salivary glands at 1,3,6,9,12,24,48 and 72 hrs postirradiation (PI). Singe /sup 60/Co ?-ray doses of 250,500,750,1000,1250 and 1500 rads were used. At 1-24 hrs PI there was a classical acute inflammatory reaction. This reaction subsided 24-72 hrs PI changing to a lymphoplasmacytic response at the doses of 750 to 1500 rad. At doses above 750 rad there were necrosis of serous acinar cells but relative sparing of mucous cells, ducts and blood vessels. Study at 20 and 40 mos PI confirmed that there was significant serous cell loss in a dose related fashion at 750 through 1500 rad. Below 750 rad no residual damage was evident. Normal tissues with long cell turnover times are usually slow to manifest radiation injury, since this is classically linked to mitotic division. The acute lysis of serous salivary cells is an exception to this rule, and indicates a unique sensitivity of these cells to interphase death

  17. Noisy spit: parental noncompliance with child salivary cortisol sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Victoria C; Dougherty, Lea R

    2014-05-01

    Studies assessing hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning in young children commonly involve parental collection of salivary cortisol in ambulatory settings. However, no data are available on the compliance of parents in collecting ambulatory measures of children's salivary cortisol. This study examined the effects of parental compliance on the cortisol awakening response (CAR) and diurnal cortisol slopes in a sample of preschool-age children (ages 3-5). Eighty-one parents were instructed to collect their child's salivary cortisol samples upon their child's waking, 30 and 45?min post-waking and before bedtime on two weekdays. Subjective parental compliance was assessed using parent-report, and objective parental compliance was assessed using an electronic monitoring device. Rates of compliance were higher based on parent-report than electronic monitoring. Parental noncompliance as indicated by electronic monitoring was associated with higher waking cortisol and lower CAR. Findings suggest the need to incorporate electronic monitoring of parental compliance into developmental neuroendocrine research, especially when assessing the CAR. PMID:23754778

  18. [Rabies virus isolation in the salivary glands of insectivorous bats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gury Dohmen, F; Beltrán, F

    2009-12-01

    This study determined the presence of the rabies virus in salivary glands, as well as its titre and antigenic characterisation and the level of exposure to the virus from contact between domestic animals and humans. Twenty-six positive brain samples were selected, 80% of which were from the Brazilian free-tailed bat, Tadarida brasiliensis, corresponding to the period 1999-2005. Antigenic characterisation was conducted on a panel of 19 monoclonal antibodies targeting the rabies virus nucleoprotein supplied by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta in the United States of America. The results revealed a high percentage of isolations in salivary glands (76.9%). Their average titres were compared in a batch of positive samples of brain and salivary glands, giving values of 4.75 and 3.81 respectively (expressed as log LD50/0.03 ml). The isolated viruses corresponded principally to variant 4 associated with T brasiliensis and variant 6 associated with the hoary bat, Lasiurus cinereus, and the red bat, L. borealis, and their respective subvariants. The level of exposure in domestic animals and humans was 50% during the period under study. PMID:20462155

  19. Salivary Extracellular Noncoding RNA: Emerging Biomarkers for Molecular Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, David T W

    2015-03-01

    Saliva is a complex body fluid that comprises secretions from the major and minor salivary glands, nourished by body's vasculature. Although many circulatory molecules (DNA, RNA, and proteins) can also be present in saliva, saliva harbors unique molecular constituents that can be discriminatory for oral and systemic disease screening and detection. Many studies have reported that salivary constituents can discriminate oral diseases (oral cancer and Sjögren's syndrome) and also systemic diseases (lung cancer, breast cancer, pancreatic cancer, and ovarian cancer). Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) are emerging new regulators of diverse biological functions, playing important roles in oncogenesis and tumor progression. Indeed, the short size of these molecules makes them stable in different body fluids such as urine, blood, and saliva, being not as susceptible as mRNAs to degradation by RNases. Here, the current status and clinical implications of the ncRNAs present in human saliva are reviewed for translational applications and basic biological research. The development of noninvasive salivary test (based on ncRNAs profiles) for disease detection could have effective applications into the clinical context with a translational significance as emerging molecular biomarkers for non-invasively disease detection, not only by reducing the cost to the health care system but also by benefitting patients. PMID:25795433

  20. Comparative analyses of salivary proteins from three aphid species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandermoten, S; Harmel, N; Mazzucchelli, G; De Pauw, E; Haubruge, E; Francis, F

    2014-02-01

    Saliva is a critical biochemical interface between aphids and their host plants; however, the biochemical nature and physiological functions of aphid saliva proteins are not fully elucidated. In this study we used a multidisciplinary proteomics approach combining liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis/matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/mass spectrometry to compare the salivary proteins from three aphid species including Acyrthosiphon pisum, Megoura viciae and Myzus persicae. Comparative analyses revealed variability among aphid salivary proteomes. Among the proteins that varied, 22% were related to DNA-binding, 19% were related to GTP-binding, and 19% had oxidoreductase activity. In addition, we identified a peroxiredoxin enzyme and an ATP-binding protein that may be involved in the modulation of plant defences. Knowledge of salivary components and how they vary among aphid species may reveal how aphids target plant processes and how the aphid and host plant interact. PMID:24382153

  1. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the minor salivary glands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Kyung Yun; Lee, Kyung Ho; Kim, Dong Youn; Choi, Karp Shik [Dept. of Dental Radiology, College of Dentistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-02-15

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a malignant salivary gland tumor with typical histologic patterns. The majority of the se tumors occurs in the minor salivary glands, especially mucosa of the hard palate. The authors experienced the patients, who complained the tumor-like soft tissue masses on the palatal and mouth floor area. After careful analysis of clinical, radiological and histopathological findings, we diagnosed them as adenoid cystic carcinomas in the minor salivary glands, obtained results were as follows : 1. Main clinical symptoms were a slow growing soft tissue mass with normal intact mucosa on the palatal area, and soft tissue mass with mild pain on the mouth floor area. 2. In the radiographic examinations, soft tissue masses were observed with invasion to adjacent structures, and moderate defined, heterogeneous soft tissue mass with enhanced margin, respectively. 3. In the histopathologic examinations, dark-stained, small uniform ballad's cells in the hyaline or fibrous stroma were observed as solid and cribriform patterns, respectively.

  2. Salivary Transcriptomic Biomarkers for Detection of Resectable Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Farrell, James J.; Zhou, Hui; Elashoff, David; Akin, David; Park, No-Hee; Chia, David; Wong, David T.

    2009-01-01

    Background & Aims Lack of detection technology for early pancreatic cancer invariably leads to a typical clinical presentation of incurable disease at initial diagnosis. New strategies and biomarkers for early detection are sorely needed. In this study, we have conducted a prospective sample collection and retrospective blinded validation to evaluate the performance and translational utilities of salivary transcriptomic biomarkers for the non-invasive detection of resectable pancreatic cancer. Methods The Affymetrix HG U133 Plus 2.0 Array was used to profile transcriptomes and discover altered gene expression in saliva supernatant. Biomarkers discovered from the microarray study were subjected to clinical validation using an independent sample set of 30 pancreatic cancer, 30 chronic pancreatitis and 30 healthy controls. Results Twelve mRNA biomarkers were discovered and validated. The logistic regression model with the combination of four mRNA biomarkers (KRAS, MBD3L2, ACRV1 and DPM1) could differentiate pancreatic cancer patients from non-cancer subjects (chronic pancreatitis and healthy control), yielding a ROC-plot AUC value of 0.971 with 90.0% sensitivity and 95.0% specificity. Conclusions The salivary biomarkers possess discriminatory power for the detection of resectable pancreatic cancer, with high specificity and sensitivity. This report provides the proof of concept of salivary biomarkers for the non-invasive detection of a systemic cancer and paves the way for prediction model validation study followed by pivotal clinical validation. PMID:19931263

  3. Differential expression of salivary glycoproteins in aggressive and chronic periodontitis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daniela de Morais, Rocha; Elton Gonçalves, Zenóbio; Thomas, Van Dyke; Karine Simões, Silva; Fernando Oliveira, Costa; Rodrigo Villamarim, Soares.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES:The aim of this study was to compare the pattern of secretion and the expression of mucin glycoprotein-2 (MG2) and lactoferrin in individuals with or without periodontitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five individuals with aggressive periodontitis (APG), 5 with generalized chronic periodontitis [...] (CPG) and 5 without periodontitis (CG) were enrolled after informed consent. Non-stimulated and stimulated submandibular and sublingual saliva was collected and samples analyzed by Western blot probed with specific antibodies. RESULTS: Stimulated and non-stimulated salivary flow rates did not differ among groups. Western blot analysis revealed that stimulation led to: an increase in MG2 expression in all groups, and to lactoferrin expression in APG and CPG. In non-stimulated saliva, CG exhibited the highest expression of both glycoproteins. In stimulated saliva, CG exhibited the highest expression of MG2, whereas APG the highest of lactoferrin. CONCLUSIONS: The pattern of secretion of MG2 and lactoferrin in health and disease is complex. Although the present study analyzed samples from a limited number of participants, the reduced expression of MG2 and lactoferrin in APG and CPG under non-stimulated condition, the predominant circumstance of salivary secretion during the day, suggests that these salivary constituents may play a role in the etiopathogenesis of these diseases.

  4. Therapeutic effects of isoflavones on impaired salivary secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryo, Koufuchi; Takahashi, Ayako; Tamaki, Yoh; Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mayumi; Inoue, Hiroko; Saito, Ichiro

    2014-11-01

    Dry mouth, which is characterized by decreased salivation, has a number of causes; the involvement of estrogen has been suggested as symptoms typically develop in middle-aged females. However, there is a lack of consensus regarding the treatment of this condition. Soy isoflavones, a subgroup of flavonoids, are abundantly found in the soy germ. They are thought to exert a number of effects by specifically binding to estrogen receptors due to their structural similarity to estrogen. Recently, soy isoflavones have been found to exert antioxidant effects, ameliorating disorders caused by reactive oxygen/free radicals. Based on these observations, the effects of soybean isoflavones on impaired salivary secretion were studied in patients with dry mouth. Soy isoflavone aglycones were administered at 25 mg per day to 15 subjects with an average age of 67.9 ± 8.0 years for 2 months, and salivary secretion was analyzed. The results showed a significant improvement based on the saliva flow rate and self-completed questionnaire, thus suggesting the usefulness of isoflavones in improving the symptoms of salivary gland hypofunction. PMID:25411521

  5. Six months of daily high-dose xylitol in high-risk schoolchildren: a randomized clinical trial on plaque pH and salivary mutans streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campus, G; Cagetti, M G; Sacco, G; Solinas, G; Mastroberardino, S; Lingström, P

    2009-01-01

    A randomized clinical trial was designed to evaluate the effect of daily high-dose xylitol chewing gum on plaque pH and salivary mutans streptococci (MS) in a sample of schoolchildren at high risk of caries. The study was performed on 204 subjects (acceptance rate 88.3%). Inclusion criteria were: >1 and 10(5) CFU/ml. Subjects were randomly assigned to the xylitol or control group. Study design included one examination at baseline (t(0)), one after 3 months of chewing (t(1)), one after 6 months of chewing (t(2)) and the last 3 months after the end of chewing period (t(3)). Plaque pH was assessed using the MicroTouch technique, following a sucrose challenge. The area under the curve (AUC(5.7) and AUC(6.2)) was recorded. Whole saliva was collected in sterile vials and MS CFU/ml were counted. Data were analysed using repeated-measures ANOVA. The main result was that plaque acidogenicity was reduced in both groups. The differences between treatments were statistically significant both for plaque pH and MS concentration; the interaction term for treatment and time was statistically significant (p xylitol group children with a salivary MS concentration >10(5) and those with xylitol chewing gums, both on plaque pH and MS salivary concentration. PMID:20016175

  6. Salivary a-amylase protects enamel surface against acid induced softening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazovic, Maja Bruvo; Moe, Dennis

    Objectives: Recently we have demonstrated individual differences in protection against acid-induced enamel softening offered by experimentally developed saliva pellicles. Although ethnicity seemed to be related to protection level, the saliva proteins responsible for the differences were not identified. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to identify the proteins responsible. Methods: Sour taste stimulated parotid saliva was collected from 20 subjects (23±1 years) comprising ten Scandinavians (Sc) and ten non-Scandinavians (NSc) including two Arabs, two Persians, four Pakistanis, one Indian, and one Chinese. After collection, saliva was dialysed and lyophilised and re-dissolved at 0.5% in Type I water. Next, four polished bovine enamel specimens were immersed into each sample under gentle and constant shaking for 12 hours. Last, specimens were exposed to an erosive challenge of pH 2.3 for 4 min along with measurements of surface microhardness (SMH). Changes in SMH from before to after exposure were used tocalculate the protective effect of each saliva sample. Quantification and identification of salivary proteins was performed by dual wavelength HPLC at various conditions and MALDI-TOF mass fingerprinting following trypsin digestion. Each persistent peak in the HPLC chromatograms was related to the protective effect against acid-induced enamel softening obtained by the corresponding saliva sample by multiple regression analysis. Results: One peak identified as a-amylase had an explanatory power of 39% in the analysis with high concentrations being most protective (p<0.001). In addition, a smaller peak retrieved later in the chromatograms also had a strong protective effect. Inclusion of this peak in the analysis increased the explanatory power of amylase on protective effect to 65% (p<0.001). However, due to shortness of sample the second peak was not identified. Conclusion: Protective effects of experimentally developed salivary pellicles can be related to their protein composition, although, not all proteins could be identified in this study.

  7. An investigation of plasma and salivary oxytocin responses in breast- and formula-feeding mothers of infants

    OpenAIRE

    Grewen, Karen M.; Davenport, Russell E.; Light, Kathleen C.

    2010-01-01

    Oxytocin (OT) is a peptide increasingly studied in relation to human social interactions, affiliation, and clinical disorders. Studies are constrained by use of invasive blood draws and would benefit from a reliable salivary OT assay. Our goals were to examine feasibility of salivary OT measurement, compare salivary to plasma OT responses in 12 breast- and 8 formula-feeding mothers, and assess the degree of correlation between plasma and salivary OT. Using a commercial EIA kit, we measured OT...

  8. Sialome of a Generalist Lepidopteran Herbivore: Identification of Transcripts and Proteins from Helicoverpa armigera Labial Salivary Glands

    OpenAIRE

    Celorio-mancera, Maria La Paz; Courtiade, Juliette; Muck, Alexander; Heckel, David G.; Musser, Richard O.; Vogel, Heiko

    2011-01-01

    Although the importance of insect saliva in insect-host plant interactions has been acknowledged, there is very limited information on the nature and complexity of the salivary proteome in lepidopteran herbivores. We inspected the labial salivary transcriptome and proteome of Helicoverpa armigera, an important polyphagous pest species. To identify the majority of the salivary proteins we have randomly sequenced 19,389 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from a normalized cDNA library of salivary g...

  9. A survey of schoolchildren's exposure to secondhand smoke in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turner Stephen W

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a lack of data describing the exposure of Malaysian schoolchildren to Secondhand Smoke (SHS. The aim of this study is to identify factors influencing schoolchildren's exposures to SHS in Malaysia. Method This cross-sectional study was carried out to measure salivary cotinine concentrations among 1064 schoolchildren (10-11 years attending 24 schools in Malaysia following recent partial smoke-free restrictions. Parents completed questionnaires and schoolchildren provided saliva samples for cotinine assay. Results The geometric mean (GM salivary cotinine concentrations for 947 non-smoking schoolchildren stratified by household residents' smoking behaviour were: for children living with non-smoking parents 0.32 ng/ml (95% CI 0.28-0.37 (n = 446; for children living with a smoker father 0.65 ng/ml (95% CI 0.57-0.72 (n = 432; for children living with two smoking parents 1.12 ng/ml (95% CI 0.29-4.40 (n = 3; for children who live with an extended family member who smokes 0.62 ng/ml (95% CI 0.42-0.89 (n = 33 and for children living with two smokers (father and extended family member 0.71 ng/ml (95% CI 0.40-0.97 (n = 44. Parental-reported SHS exposures showed poor agreement with children's self-reported SHS exposures. Multiple linear regression demonstrated that cotinine levels were positively associated with living with one or more smokers, urban residence, occupation of father (Armed forces, parental-reported exposure to SHS and education of the father (Diploma/Technical certificate. Conclusions This is the first study to characterise exposures to SHS using salivary cotinine concentrations among schoolchildren in Malaysia and also the first study documenting SHS exposure using salivary cotinine as a biomarker in a South-East Asian population of schoolchildren. Compared to other populations of similarly aged schoolchildren, Malaysian children have higher salivary cotinine concentrations. The partial nature of smoke-free restrictions in Malaysia is likely to contribute to these findings. Enforcement of existing legislation to reduce exposure in public place settings and interventions to reduce exposure at home, especially to implement effective home smoking restriction practices are required.

  10. Determination of the lactate threshold by means of salivary biomarkers: chromogranin A as novel marker of exercise intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocanegra, Olga L; Diaz, Miguel M; Teixeira, Renata R; Soares, Silvio S; Espindola, Foued S

    2012-09-01

    This study examined intra-individual variations in salivary lactate (sLac), alpha-amylase (sAA) and chromogranin A (sCgA) with reference to the accumulation of blood lactate (bLac) during incremental maximal exercise in swimmers. Samples of blood and saliva were collected simultaneously from 12 male professional athletes during an incremental test that consisted of eight series of 100 m in front crawl with increasing velocity (0.03 m s(-1) each) and 70-s intervals. The concentration of blood and salivary lactate was determined by an electro-enzymatic assay, whereas sAA and CgA were analysed by Western blotting. Inflection points in the concentration of bLAc, sLac, sAA and CgA were found in all subjects. The accumulation of lactate in saliva followed the same pattern observed in blood with a high correlation between the two (r = 0.91). Similar results were observed between the dynamics of sAA (r = 0.81) and sCgA (r = 0.82) in relation to bLac. These findings support the usefulness of saliva for the determination of the lactate threshold and provide the first demonstration of sCgA as a novel marker of exercise intensity in well-trained men. PMID:22227853

  11. Localization of lysozyme mRNA in the labial salivary glands by in situ hybridization in Sjoegren's syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konttinen, Y.T.; Segerberg-Konttinen, M.; Nordstroem, D.; Groenblad, M. (Fourth Department of Medicine, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland)); Kulomaa, M.; Keinaenen, R. (Department of Biochemical Sciences, University of Tampere, Tampere (Finland)); Malmstroem, M. (Institute of Dentistry, Department of Oral Surgery, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland))

    1990-01-01

    In this study, lysozyme mRNA in labial salivary glands has been localized with in situ hybridization technique using 35S-labeled hen lysozyme cDNA (cDNALZM) as a hybridization probe in normals and in patients with Sjoegren's syndrome. 35S-DNALZM:mRNA hybrids were detected only in acinar serous cells, although lysozyme was identified in ductal cells using immunohistochemical techniques. Our results suggest that the serous acinar cells are the only site of lysozyme synthesis in small salivary glands. The presence of lysozyme in ductal cells may be a result of reabsorption from the saliva or concentration from the blood or surrounding tissues. (author).

  12. Daytime Secretion of Salivary Cortisol and Alpha-Amylase in Preschool-Aged Children with Autism and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Sharon A.; Corbett, Blythe A.; Granger, Douglas A.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Anders, Thomas F.; Tager, Ira B.

    2012-01-01

    We examined daytime salivary cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) secretion levels and variability in preschool-aged children with autism (AUT) and typically developing children (TYP). Fifty-two subjects (26 AUT and 26 TYP) were enrolled. Salivary samples were obtained at waking, midday, and bedtime on two consecutive days at three phases…

  13. Autocrine/paracrine dopamine in the salivary glands of the blacklegged tick Ixodes scapularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko?i, Juraj; Simo, Ladislav; Park, Yoonseong

    2014-03-01

    Dopamine (DA) is known to be the most potent activator of tick salivary secretion, which is an essential component of successful tick feeding. We examined the quantitative changes of catecholamines using a method coupling high-pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD). We also investigated the levels of catecholamines conjugated to other molecules utilising appropriate methods to hydrolyse the conjugates. Three different biological samples, salivary glands, synganglia, ovaries and haemolymph were compared, and the largest quantity of DA was detected in salivary gland extracts (up to ?100pg/tick), supporting the hypothesis that autocrine/paracrine dopamine activates salivary secretion. Quantitative changes of catecholamines in the salivary glands over the entire blood feeding duration were examined. The amount of dopamine in the salivary glands increased until the day 5 of feeding, at which the rapid engorgement phase began. We also detected a small but significant amount of norepinephrine in the salivary glands. Interestingly, saliva collected after induction of salivary secretion by the cholinergic agonist pilocarpine contained a large amount of DA sulphate with a trace amount of DA, suggesting a potential biological role of DA sulphate in tick saliva. PMID:24503219

  14. Sex Differences in Salivary Cortisol, Alpha-Amylase, and Psychological Functioning Following Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigil, Jacob M.; Geary, David C.; Granger, Douglas A.; Flinn, Mark V.

    2010-01-01

    The study examines group and individual differences in psychological functioning and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity among adolescents displaced by Hurricane Katrina and living in a U.S. government relocation camp (n = 62, ages 12-19 years) 2 months postdisaster. Levels of salivary cortisol, salivary

  15. Salivary Creatinine Estimation as an Alternative to Serum Creatinine in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatapathy, Ramesh; Govindarajan, Vasupradha; Oza, Nirima; Parameswaran, Sreejith; Pennagaram Dhanasekaran, Balamurali; Prashad, Karthikshree V.

    2014-01-01

    Context. Sampling blood for serum analysis is an invasive procedure. A noninvasive alternative would be beneficial to patients and health care professionals. Aim. To correlate serum and salivary creatinine levels and evaluate the role of saliva as a noninvasive alternative to serum for creatinine estimation in chronic kidney disease patients. Study Design. Case-control study. Methods. Blood and saliva samples were collected from 37 healthy individuals and 105 chronic kidney disease patients. Serum and salivary creatinine levels were estimated using automatic analyser. Statistical Analysis. The serum and salivary creatinine levels between controls and cases were compared using t-test. Correlation between serum and salivary creatinine was obtained in controls and cases using Pearson correlation coefficient. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was done to assess the diagnostic performance of salivary creatinine. Cut-off values were established for salivary creatinine. Results. Serum and salivary creatinine levels were significantly higher in CKD patients than controls. The correlation was negative in controls and positive in cases. Area under the curve for salivary creatinine was found to be 0.967. A cut-off value of 0.2?mg/dL gave a sensitivity of 97.1% and specificity of 86.5%. Conclusion. Saliva can be used as a noninvasive alternative to serum for creatinine estimation. PMID:24818023

  16. Salivary Biomarkers May Be Useful to Assess Stress State in Patients with Lung Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiko Kitajima

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: As it is important for medical staff to understand the stress state of patients with cancer, this study investigated the stress state in patients with lung cancer undergoing chemotherapy using salivary biomarkers and questionnaires. Materials and Methods: The subjects included 19 men and 9 women, with a mean age of 66.1 ± 7.1 years who received chemotherapy for lung cancer. Salivary samples of the participants were collected before and the 7 day after chemotherapy. Simultaneously, they completed the POMS (profile of mood states and QOL (quality of life questionnaires. The salivary cortisol and secretory IgA as stress markers were measured by enzyme immunoassay. Results: The salivary secretory IgA level was significantly higher at the 7th day after chemotherapy than before chemotherapy (p < 0.05, although the salivary cortisol level did not change. The tension-anxiety score, which is one of POMS subclasses, and total mood disturbance score were lower at day 7 of chemotherapy than before chemotherapy (p < 0.05, although no correlations were observed between POMS scores and salivary markers. However, a negative correlation was observed between the salivary cortisol level and the QOL full score (r= -0.411, p < 0.05. Conclusion: Measurement of salivary stress markers is noninvasive and may be useful for assessing the stress state of the patients.

  17. Radiation-Induced Salivary Gland Dysfunction Results From p53-Dependent Apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer causes adverse secondary side effects in the salivary glands and results in diminished quality of life for the patient. A previous in vivo study in parotid salivary glands demonstrated that targeted head-and-neck irradiation resulted in marked increases in phosphorylated p53 (serine18) and apoptosis, which was suppressed in transgenic mice expressing a constitutively active mutant of Akt1 (myr-Akt1). Methods and Materials: Transgenic and knockout mouse models were exposed to irradiation, and p53-mediated transcription, apoptosis, and salivary gland dysfunction were analyzed. Results: The proapoptotic p53 target genes PUMA and Bax were induced in parotid salivary glands of mice at early time points after therapeutic radiation. This dose-dependent induction requires expression of p53 because no radiation-induced expression of PUMA and Bax was observed in p53-/- mice. Radiation also induced apoptosis in the parotid gland in a dose-dependent manner, which was p53 dependent. Furthermore, expression of p53 was required for the acute and chronic loss of salivary function after irradiation. In contrast, apoptosis was not induced in p53-/- mice, and their salivary function was preserved after radiation exposure. Conclusions: Apoptosis in the salivary glands after therapeutic head-and-neck irradiation is mediated by p53 and corresponds to salivary gland dysfunction in vivo

  18. Reduction of radiation-induced damage to salivary gland by bone marrow derived stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation of the salivary glands can result in severe side effects that reduce the patient's quality of life. Late damage to the salivary glands is mainly caused by exhaustion of the tissue's stem cells. Post-irradiation replacement of salivary gland stem cells with healthy donor stem cells may reduce complications. Bone marrow derived stem cells (BMSC) have been show to be multipotent and engraft in many tissue after injury. In this study we assessed the potential of BMSC to reduce irradiation-induced salivary gland damage. The salivary glands of wild type C57Bl/6 mice were locally irradiated with 20 Gy. Thirty days later, BMSC from transgenic eGFP+ C57Bl/6 mice were transplanted by i.v. injection or by direct injection into the salivary glands. In addition, animals were transplanted with eGFP + bone marrow after 9.5 Gy TBI excluding the salivary glands. Subsequently, the animals were locally irradiated to the salivary gland with 20 Gy. Thirty days later i.v. G-CSF mobilised eGFP + bone marrow derived stem cells to the peripheral blood. Again thirty days after mobilisation, the salivary gland were harvested. eGFP + cells were detected by confocal laser fluorescence scanning microscopy and flow cytometry and H and E histology was performed. eGFP + cells were detected in the salivary gland after all protocols. The number of eGFP + cells in irradiated salivary glands was highest in animals treated with G-CSF. Intraglandular transplantation, in contrast, was successfulansplantation, in contrast, was successful only in 1 out of 8 attempts. Immuno-histochemistry using a-SM-actin antibodies showed the close vicinity of actin and eGFP within the cells, demonstrating the occurrence of BMSC derived myoepithelial cells in irradiated salivary gland. Further, cell-type specific antibodies will reveal the nature of all eGFP + cells. H and E histology revealed improved gland morphology in animals treated with G-CSF after irradiation when compared to the non-treated animals. These preliminary results indicate that bone marrow-derived cells home to severely damaged salivary glands after transplantation/mobilisation. Hence, BMSC transplantation could become a promising modality to ameliorate radiation-induced complications in salivary glands after radiotherapy

  19. Measurement of salivary metabolite biomarkers for early monitoring of oral cancer with ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qihui; Gao, Pan; Cheng, Fei; Wang, Xiaoyi; Duan, Yixiang

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to set-up an ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS) method for the determination of salivary L-phenylalanine and L-leucine for early diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). In addition, the diagnostic accuracy for both biomarkers was established by using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Mean recoveries of l-phenylalanine and L-leucine ranged from 88.9 to 108.6% were obtained. Intra- and inter-day precision for both amino acids was less than 7%, with acceptable accuracy. Linear regression coef?cients of both biomarkers were greater than 0.99. The diagnostic accuracy for both biomarkers was established by analyzing 60 samples from apparently healthy individuals and 30 samples from OSCC patients. Both potential biomarkers demonstrated significant differences in concentrations in distinguishing OSCC from control (P<0.05). As a single biomarker, L-leucine might have better predictive power in OSCC with T1-2 (early stage of OSCC including stage I and II), and L-phenylalanine might be used for screening and diagnosis of OSCC with T3-4 (advanced stage of OSCC including stage III and IV). The combination of L-phenylalanine and L-leucine will improve the sensitivity (92.3%) and specificity (91.7%) for early diagnosis of OSCC. The possibility of salivary metabolite biomarkers for OSCC diagnosis is successfully demonstrated in this study. This developed method shows advantages with non-invasive, simple, reliable, and also provides lower detection limits and excellent precision and accuracy. These non-invasive salivary biomarkers may lead to a simple clinical tool for the early diagnosis of OSCC. PMID:24401418

  20. Amino-methyl-?-carboline-induced DNA modification in rat salivary glands and pancreas detected by 32P-postlabeling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential carcinogenecity of 2-amino-3-methyl-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (MeA?C) and 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (A?C) was investigated in seven-week-old F344 female rats. MeA?C acetate and A?C acetate were added to the basal powder diet each at a concentration of 0.08 %. After one week, the animals were killed and major organs were excised, immediately frozen and kept at -80 deg C until DNA isolation. Analysis of DNA adducts were performed according to the 32P-postlabeling method. MeA?C formed adducts with DNA in the salivary glands and pancreas of rats to a much greater extent than A?C. These results correlated very well with the observation of the atrophy of these organs by MeA?C but not by A?C. These DNA modifications may eventually lead to cell killing and atrophy of these organs. In the liver the level of adduct formation by MeA?C was comparable to that in the salivary glands. DNA modification in various organs by MeA?C and that in the liver by A?C suggest the possibility of the carcinogenecity of these compounds in rats. DNA modification and atrophy of the salivary glands and pancreas by MeA?C further suggest that low but continuous exposure to this chemical may also cause disorders of these organs such as diabetes or Sjoegren's disease. (Namekawa, K.)

  1. Inhibition of dental plaque acid production by the salivary lactoperoxidase antimicrobial system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenovuo, J; Mansson-Rahemtulla, B; Pruitt, K M; Arnold, R

    1981-10-01

    Resting human whole saliva inhibited acid production by glucose-stimulated, homologous plaque. The degree of inhibition of plaque acid production correlated positively with the concentration of hypothiocyanite (OSCN-) ions in saliva. Supplementation of saliva with an appropriate combination of thiocyanate and hydrogen peroxide resulted in a significant increase in the concentration of OSCN- ions and in more effective inhibition of plaque acid production. In most cases, the inhibition was complete when the supplements were added directly to saliva-plaque mixtures. Acid production resumed when the inhibitory effect of OSCN- was reversed by addition of thiols. Among the oral defense factors, the salivary lactoperoxidase system seems to play an important role by producing highly reactive antibacterial products (including OSCN-) which can regulate bacterial metabolism in the human mouth. The concentration of OSCN- in normal human whole saliva seems to be just below the threshold level required for plaque inhibition. Therefore, enhancement of this system in vivo may be effective in the regulation of plaque acid production. PMID:7298182

  2. Comparison of salivary cortisol as measured by different immunoassays and tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert; Plessow, Franziska; Rauh, Manfred; Gröschl, Michael; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2013-01-01

    Assessing the amount of bioavailable cortisol in saliva with immunoassays and thus sampling an endocrine marker of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity is of major interest in both research and clinical practice. However, absolute cortisol concentrations obtained with different immunoassays (IAs) are barely comparable precluding direct comparison between studies or individuals whenever cortisol analyses were not based on the same IA. The present technical report aims to solve this problem by evaluating the validity of, as well as agreement between the most commonly used immunoassays in psychoneuroendocrinological research (i.e., IBL, DRG, Salimetrics, DSL, and DELFIA) and a reference method (LC-MS/MS) in a sample of 195 saliva specimen covering the whole range of cortisol concentrations in adults. A structural equation modelling framework is applied to decompose systematic assay variance and estimate cortisol reference values, which are adjusted for measurement error and interference of salivary cortisone. Our findings reveal nonlinear relations between IAs and LC-MS/MS, which are discussed in terms of IA cross-reactivity with saliva matrix components. Finally guidelines for converting cortisol concentrations being obtained by these immunoassays into comparable reference values are proposed by providing conversion functions, a conversion table, and an online conversion tool. PMID:22641005

  3. Clinical Performance of a Salivary Amylase Activity Monitor During Hemodialysis Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru Shimazaki

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The hemodialysis procedure is thought to be a physical stressor in the majority of hemodialyzed patients. Previous studies suggest that elevated salivary amylase level may correlate with increased plasma norepinephrine level under psychological and physical stress conditions. In this study, we investigated biological stress reactivity during hemodialysis treatment using salivary amylase activity as a biomarker. Seven patients (male/female = 5/2, age:67.7+ /? 5.9 years who had been receiving regular 4 h hemodialysis were recruited. Salivary amylase activity was measured using a portable analyzer every hour during the hemodialysis session. Salivary amylase activity was shown to be relatively stable and constant throughout hemodialysis, whereas there were significant changes in systolic blood pressure and pulse rate associated with blood volume reduction. Our results show that hemodialysis treatment per se dose not affect salivary amylase activity.

  4. Sarcomatoid salivary duct carcinoma of the palate: a rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomihara, Kei; Hamashima, Takeru; Nagao, Toshitaka; Nakamori, Kenji; Sasahara, Masakiyo; Noguchi, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) is an uncommon neoplasm that most commonly occurs in major salivary glands, mainly the parotid gland. SDC is rarely found in the minor salivary glands of the oral cavity. This report presents an extremely rare case of sarcomatoid SDC originating in a minor salivary gland of the palate. The tumor was histologically characterized by the presence of both carcinomatous and sarcomatoid components. The patient presented with a painless mass in the right palate, which slowly increased in size over 20 years. The clinical course of the present case suggests that the tumor most probably developed as a result of malignant transformation of a preexisting benign tumor of the palatal salivary gland. This report describes the clinical and histologic features of this extremely rare case of sarcomatoid SDC with reference to the relevant literature. PMID:25443810

  5. Improved Quantification of Salivary Gland Scintigraphy by Means of Factor Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Koriska

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In this study the automatic separation of oral and salivary gland activity and spontaneous secretion by means of factor analysis for quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy is introduced. Methods: After intravenous administration of 99mTc sodium pertechnetate, dynamic scintigraphy was performed. 20 minutes after tracer application 2 ml of lemon juice was delivered to stimulate the glands. Applying elliptical regions of interest for oral cavity and four major salivary glands and using factor analysis of medical image sequences (FAMIS results in factor images and curves, which are used for quantification of the oral, sublingual and glandular activity indexes. Results: With FAMIS it is possible to automatically separate the three superimposed processes seen in salivary gland scintigraphy: glandular and oral activity and spontaneous secretion that results in significant different quantitative results. Conclusion: The application of factor analysis improves the results of salivary gland scintigraphy by separation of superimposed dynamic processes of oral and glandular activity and spontaneous secretion.

  6. Saliva, salivary gland, and hemolymph collection from Ixodes scapularis ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Toni G; Dietrich, Gabrielle; Brandt, Kevin; Dolan, Marc C; Piesman, Joseph; Gilmore, Robert D

    2012-01-01

    Ticks are found worldwide and afflict humans with many tick-borne illnesses. Ticks are vectors for pathogens that cause Lyme disease and tick-borne relapsing fever (Borrelia spp.), Rocky Mountain Spotted fever (Rickettsia rickettsii), ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia chaffeensis and E. equi), anaplasmosis (Anaplasma phagocytophilum), encephalitis (tick-borne encephalitis virus), babesiosis (Babesia spp.), Colorado tick fever (Coltivirus), and tularemia (Francisella tularensis) (1-8). To be properly transmitted into the host these infectious agents differentially regulate gene expression, interact with tick proteins, and migrate through the tick (3,9-13). For example, the Lyme disease agent, Borrelia burgdorferi, adapts through differential gene expression to the feast and famine stages of the tick's enzootic cycle (14,15). Furthermore, as an Ixodes tick consumes a bloodmeal Borrelia replicate and migrate from the midgut into the hemocoel, where they travel to the salivary glands and are transmitted into the host with the expelled saliva (9,16-19). As a tick feeds the host typically responds with a strong hemostatic and innate immune response (11,13,20-22). Despite these host responses, I. scapularis can feed for several days because tick saliva contains proteins that are immunomodulatory, lytic agents, anticoagulants, and fibrinolysins to aid the tick feeding (3,11,20,21,23). The immunomodulatory activities possessed by tick saliva or salivary gland extract (SGE) facilitate transmission, proliferation, and dissemination of numerous tick-borne pathogens (3,20,24-27). To further understand how tick-borne infectious agents cause disease it is essential to dissect actively feeding ticks and collect tick saliva. This video protocol demonstrates dissection techniques for the collection of hemolymph and the removal of salivary glands from actively feeding I. scapularis nymphs after 48 and 72 hours post mouse placement. We also demonstrate saliva collection from an adult female I. scapularis tick. PMID:22371172

  7. No Detectable Hypoxia in Malignant Salivary Gland Tumors: Preliminary Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Hypoxia is detected in most solid tumors and is associated with malignant progression and adverse treatment outcomes. However, the oxygenation status of malignant salivary gland tumors has not been previously studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential clinical relevance of hypoxia in this tumor type. Methods and Materials: Twelve patients scheduled for surgical resection of a salivary gland tumor were preoperatively injected with the hypoxia marker pimonidazole and the proliferation marker iododeoxyuridine. Tissue samples of the dissected tumor were immunohistochemically stained for blood vessels, pimonidazole, carbonic anhydrase-IX, glucose transporters-1 and -3 (Glut-1, Glut-3), hypoxia-inducible factor-1?, iododeoxyuridine, and epidermal growth factor receptor. The tissue sections were quantitatively assessed by computerized image analysis. Results: The tissue material from 8 patients was of sufficient quality for quantitative analysis. All tumors were negative for pimonidazole binding, as well as for carbonic anhydrase-IX, Glut-1, Glut-3, and hypoxia-inducible factor-1?. The vascular density was high, with a median value of 285 mm-2 (range, 209-546). The iododeoxyuridine-labeling index varied from <0.1% to 12.2% (median, 2.2%). Epidermal growth factor receptor expression levels were mostly moderate to high. In one-half of the cases, nuclear expression of epidermal growth factor receptor was observed. Conclusion: The absenptor was observed. Conclusion: The absence of detectable pimonidazole binding, as well as the lack of expression of hypoxia-associated proteins in all tumors, indicates that malignant salivary gland tumors are generally well oxygenated. It is unlikely that hypoxia is a relevant factor for their clinical behavior and treatment responsiveness.

  8. Salivary cortisol levels as a predictor of preeclampsia in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Ramírez-Aranda

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the usefulness of salivary cortisol as a predictor of preeclampsia in adolescents.Methods: We carried out a nested case- control study. Somatometric, clinical, and biochemical data were obtained from 100 healthy pregnant adolescents and salivary cortisol was measured at 8:00, 12:00, and 20:00 hours on two occasions during pregnancy, before 20 weeks, and after 30 weeks of gestation. The cortisol values between the groupof healthy pregnant women and the group that developed preeclampsia were compared by using the Student’s t, Mann-Whitney, and Wilcoxon tests. Also, the ROC curve of cortisol values and the Positive and Negative Predictive values of cortisol were estimated.Results: Values >14.9 nmol/L of cortisol were observed in the group that developed preeclampsia, providing a positive predictive value of 1 (100%. Values <10.1 nmol/L were observed in the control group, the negative predictive value was 1 (100%. The cutoff point of the ROC curve -before 20 weeks of gestation- in the members of the cohort was 13.9 nmol/L.Conclusions: The salivary cortisol values observed in the two evaluations made to each of the groups showed statistically significant differences between the groups at 8 and 12 hours of the day. The values obtained enable establishing gradients that allow separating the group of healthy women that got ill with preeclampsia from the group that did not develop the illness before week 20. After week 30, the cortisol gradients are established more clearly in the group with preeclampsia and in the control group. The validation of these findings in larger samples would allow implementing this procedure as a screening test for preeclampsia in groups of pregnant adolescents.

  9. Assessment of the Effect of Interferon-Beta1a Therapy on Thyroid and Salivary Gland Functions in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis Using Quantitative Salivary Gland Scintigraphy

    OpenAIRE

    Erhamamc?, Seval; Horasanl?, Bahriye; Aktas?, Ays?e

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Interferon-beta (IFN-?) is widely used in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. High incidence of thyroid dysfunction has been reported after administration of IFN-? in MS patients. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of IFN-?1a therapy on simultaneous thyroid and salivary gland function in patients with MS using quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy (QSGS).

  10. Salivary function in patients with chronic renal failure undergoing hemodialysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, M.; Cermik, T.F.; Uestuen, F.; Sen, S.; Berkarda, S. [Trakya Univ., Edirne (Turkey). Medical Faculty

    2002-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in salivary gland function in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) undergoing hemodialysis. The group consisted of 23 patients with CRF (13 female, 10 male; mean age: 40{+-}13 yr) and 14 healthy control subjects (mean age: 40{+-}13 yr). All underwent dynamic salivary gland scintigraphy with gustatory stimulation. After intravenous administration of {sup 99m}Tc pertechnetate, first, perfusion images at 2 seconds per frame were acquired for 1 minute, then dynamic images at 1 minute per frame were acquired for 45 minutes. At 30 minutes after injection , 10 ml lemon juice was given for 15 minutes as a gustatory stimulus. We obtained time-activity curves derived from regions of interest centered over the four major salivary glands. The following functional indices were calculated for each gland: the time of maximum radioactivity (T{sub max}) for the prestimulated period, the time of minimum radioactivity (T{sub min}), as an indicator of velocity of secretion after stimulation, and the Lem E{sub 5}% value as an indicator of the secretion function. When the patients with CRF undergoing hemodialysis were compared to the controls, there were statistically significant differences in T{sub max}, T{sub min} and Lem E{sub 5}% values for bilateral parotid glands, and T{sub min} values for bilateral submandibular glands (p<0.05), there were no statistically significant differences in T{sub max} and Lem E{sub 5}% values for bilateral submandibular glands. There were also significant differences in T{sub max} and Lem E{sub 5}% values for bilateral parotid glands between mild oral problems and severe oral problems in patients with CRF (undergoing hemodialysis). In this study, prolonged T{sub max} and T{sub min} values, and decreased Lem E{sub 5}% values for parotid glands and prolonged T{sub min} values for submandibular glands on salivary scintigraphy pointed out decreased parenchymatous and excretory function in patients with CRF undergoing hemodialysis. (author)

  11. Glucose estimation in the salivary secretion of diabetes mellitus patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abikshyeet P

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abikshyeet Panda,1 Ramesh Venkatapathy,2 Nirima Oza21Department of Oral Pathology, Kalinga Institute of Dental Sciences, Kalinga Institute of Industrial Technology University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, 2Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Mahatma Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Dental Sciences, Puducherry, IndiaAim: Saliva is one of the most abundant secretions in the human body and its collection is easy and noninvasive. The aim of this study was to find a medium that can be used to diagnose and monitor diabetes. In this, saliva could play a major role. To substantiate the role of saliva as a diagnostic tool, we compared saliva samples with blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c in healthy and diabetic subjects.Materials and methods: Included in the study were 106 patients, newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 15 healthy control subjects. The patients and control subjects were asked to come to the clinic in the morning, after an 8-hour fast. At that time, 5 mL of venous blood was collected, 2 mL of which was collected in an ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA-containing blood collection tube and sent for HbA1c estimation. Unstimulated saliva was collected from both groups as well. The saliva and sera from the blood samples were subjected to glucose estimation.Results: The correlation coefficient between serum glucose and salivary glucose in the control group was calculated and the r value was found to be 0.5216, which was statistically significant (P < 0.05. The correlation coefficient between serum glucose and salivary glucose in the patient group was also calculated and the r value was found to be 0.7686, which was highly significant (P < 0.01. Finally, the correlation coefficient between HbA1c level and salivary glucose in the patient group was calculated and the r value was found to be 0.5662, which was also highly significant (P < 0.01.Keywords: saliva, salivary glucose, serum glucose, insulin, hyperglycemia

  12. Computer tomography and diagnosis of diseases of the salivary gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeiffer, K.

    1987-06-01

    A comparative study was made of the diagnostic value of sialography and sialo-CT in 36 patients with diseases of the parotid and submandibular region. Apart from tumours, which are the main indication, also inflammatory diseases of the salivary glands are considered. Computerized sialography (CTS) as a rule confirms the diagnosis of conventional sialography but may yield additional information. Imaging of the deep parotid lobe and of the parapharyngeal space ('3rd level') is of utmost importance in diagnosis and in therapy planning.

  13. Apophysomyces elegans causing acute otogenic cervicofacial zygomycosis involving salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit; Tyagi, Isha; Syal, Rajan; Marak, R S K; Singh, Jagdeep

    2007-08-01

    Zygomycosis is an invasive, life threatening fungal infection that usually affects immunocompromised hosts. In the head and neck region, rhino-orbito-cerebral zygomycosis is more common than the cervicofacial variety. We report the first case of otogenic cervicofacial zygomycosis caused by Apophysomyces elegans involving the salivary glands, an uncommon site of infection. The case began after a trivial trauma in a diabetic patient and despite surgical debridement and liposomal amphotericin B therapy, the patient died due to extensive involvement and metabolic/hemodynamic complications. PMID:17654273

  14. Wetting the whistle: neurotropic factor improves salivary function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swick, Adam; Kimple, Randall J

    2014-08-01

    Xerostomia, or dry mouth, is a common side effect of head and neck radiotherapy, Sjögren syndrome, diabetes, old age, and numerous medications. In this issue of the JCI, Xiao and colleagues identified glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) as a potential stimulus for salivary stem cell growth. Due to its ability to promote neuronal growth, differentiation, and survival, GDNF is currently being used in clinical trials as a treatment for Parkinson disease; therefore, the findings of Xiao and colleagues may initiate a potential treatment for the millions of patients who suffer from xerostomia each year. PMID:25036702

  15. Factors associated with second-hand smoke exposure in non-smoking pregnant women in Spain: self-reported exposure and urinary cotinine levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurrekoetxea, Juan J; Murcia, Mario; Rebagliato, Marisa; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Castilla, Ane Miren; Guxens, Mònica; López, María José; Lertxundi, Aitana; Espada, Mercedes; Tardón, Adonina; Ballester, Ferran; Santa-Marina, Loreto

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the main sources of and sociodemographic factors associated with second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure, assessed both by questionnaire and by urinary cotinine (UC) levels, in non-smoking pregnant women. We conducted a cross-sectional study in pregnant women from 4 different regions in Spain. A total of 1783 non-smoking pregnant women completed a questionnaire about their previous smoking habit and SHS exposure in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy and provided a urine sample for measuring UC levels. We used logistic regression models to assess the relationship between several sociodemographic variables and some potential sources of SHS exposure. In addition, we analysed the association of several sociodemographic variables and the SHS exposure according to UC levels, using Tobit regression analysis. More than half of women (55.5%) were exposed to SHS in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. The following variables were associated with SHS exposure: having smoked previously, low educational level, and being primiparous. Data collection after the first law banning smoking in public places was associated with lower risk of SHS exposure in restaurants and at work. UC levels were higher among women exposed to more than one source. Having a partner who smoked at home was the source of SHS with the greatest impact on UC levels, followed by having a partner who smoked but not at home, other people smoking in the household, being exposed during leisure time, at work and at restaurants. The most important source of SHS exposure was exposure at home. Prevention of SHS exposure should be addressed not only with pregnant women but also with their families. PMID:24246942

  16. Biochemical markers of smoke absorption and self reported exposure to passive smoking.

    OpenAIRE

    Jarvis, M.; Tunstall-pedoe, H.; Feyerabend, C.; Vesey, C.; Salloojee, Y.

    1984-01-01

    One hundred non-smoking patients attending hospital outpatient clinics reported their degree of passive exposure to tobacco smoke over the preceding three days and provided samples of blood, expired air, saliva, and urine. Although the absolute levels were low, the concentration of cotinine in all body compartments surveyed was systematically related to self reported exposure. Salivary nicotine concentration also showed a linear increase with degree of reported exposure, although this measure...

  17. Total, unbound plasma and salivary phenytoin levels in critically ill patients / Níveis totais, livres em plasma, e salivares de fenitoína em doentes graves

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M., Ibarra; Marta, Vázquez; P., Fagiolino; F., Mutilva; A., Canale.

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a confiabilidade de concentrações salivares de fenitoina (PHT) e níveis livres de PHT pronosticado por equação de Sheiner-Tozer, o efeito da substituição das concentrações medidas livres de PHT em doentes graves. MÉTODO: Vinte e quatro doentes adultos que recebem PHT intravenoso fo [...] rem incluídos no estudo. Análises de PHT total, livre em plasma e saliva foram realizadas por uma técnica de imune fluorescência polarizassem. Os níveis de albumina em plasma foram também determinados. RESULTADOS: Concentrações livres de PHT em plasma e saliva correlacionam melhor ao efeito clínico que concentrações de fármaco total. Análise de regressão lineal mostrou uma correlação forte entre concentrações livres de PHT estimadas por Sheiner-Tozer e os níveis livres de PHT medidos (r=0.835; p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To assess the reliability of salivary phenytoin (PHT) concentrations and predicted free PHT levels by Sheiner-Tozer equation in order to substitute measured free PHT concentrations in critically ill patients. METHODOLOGY: Twenty-four neurocritically ill adult patients receiving intravenou [...] s PHT were included in the study. Analyses of total, free plasma and saliva PHT concentrations were performed by fluorescence polarization immunoassay. Plasma albumin levels were also determined. RESULTS: Free PHT concentrations as well as salivary levels better correlate to clinical effect than total drug concentrations. Linear regression analysis showed a strong correlation between estimated free PHT concentrations by Sheiner-Tozer and measured free PHT levels (r=0.835; p

  18. A review of Salivary gland Neoplasms and its management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiagarajan Shivakumar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Salivary gland neoplasm are a diverse group of tumors which are often benign and commonly arise from the parotid gland. PubMed search engine was used to search for relevant articles. The main challenge in the management of these tumours is to distinguish them between benign and malignant types and treat them accordingly. FNAC is a very useful investigation in this regard with high accuracy. MRI or CT scan are also useful, in knowing the extent of lesion especially when the tumour involves the deep lobe or extends to parapharyngeal space. Most of the low grade tumours and benign lesions can be managed by surgery alone whereas high grade and advanced lesions will require adjuvant treatment in the form of radiotherapy. Chemotherapy is mostly used in the palliative set up, whereas molecular targeted therapy is still in experimental stage only. In this article, we review the literature to highlight the current understanding in the evaluation and management of salivary gland neoplasms.

  19. Salivary microbiota and metabolome associated with celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francavilla, Ruggiero; Ercolini, Danilo; Piccolo, Maria; Vannini, Lucia; Siragusa, Sonya; De Filippis, Francesca; De Pasquale, Ilaria; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Di Toma, Michele; Gozzi, Giorgia; Serrazanetti, Diana I; De Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the salivary microbiota and metabolome of 13 children with celiac disease (CD) under a gluten-free diet (treated celiac disease [T-CD]). The same number of healthy children (HC) was used as controls. The salivary microbiota was analyzed by an integrated approach using culture-dependent and -independent methods. Metabolome analysis was carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-solid-phase microextraction. Compared to HC, the number of some cultivable bacterial groups (e.g., total anaerobes) significantly (P Rothia mucilaginosa was the only Actinobacteria species found at the highest level in T-CD children. As shown by multivariate statistical analyses, the levels of organic volatile compounds markedly differentiated T-CD children. Some compounds (e.g., ethyl-acetate, nonanal, and 2-hexanone) were found to be associated with T-CD children. Correlations (false discovery rate [FDR], <0.05) were found between the relative abundances of bacteria and some volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The findings of this study indicated that CD is associated with oral dysbiosis that could affect the oral metabolome. PMID:24657864

  20. Fatty acid acylation of salivary mucin in rat submandibular glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The acylation of salivary mucin with fatty acids and its biosynthesis was investigated by incubating rat submandibular salivary gland cells with [3H]palmitic acid and [3H]proline. The elaborated extracellular and intracellular mucus glycoproteins following delipidation, Bio-Gel P-100 chromatography, and CsCl equilibrium density gradient centrifugation were analyzed for the distribution of the labeled tracers. The incorporation of both markers into mucus glycoprotein increased steadily with time up to 4 h, at which time about 65% of [3H]palmitate and [3H]proline were found in the extracellular glycoprotein and 35% in the intracellular glycoprotein. The incorporation ratio of proline/palmitate, while showing an increase with incubation time in the extracellular glycoprotein, remained essentially unchanged with time in the intracellular glycoprotein and at 4 h reached respective values of 0.14 and 1.12. The fact that the proline/palmitate incorporation ratio in the intracellular glycoprotein at 1 h of incubation was 22 times higher than in the extracellular and 8 times higher after 4 h suggests that acylation occurs intracellularly and that fatty acids are added after apomucin polypeptide synthesis. As the incorporation of palmitate within the intracellular mucin was greater in the mucus glycoprotein subunit, it would appear that fatty acid acylation of mucin subunits preceeds their assembly into the mucus glycoprotein polymerembly into the mucus glycoprotein polymer

  1. Visualization of the salivary glands. CT and MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the evaluation of diseases of salivary origin, ultrasound and/or sialography is recommended instead of MRI. In cases of salivary tumor, ultrasound may be helpful in delineating superficial tumors. For small tumors no further imaging is needed. When dealing with a large tumor or a tumor in the deep lobe of the parotid gland, MRI is the preferred imaging method. Not only does MRI provide a large variety of soft tissue signal differences, but also the multiplanar facilities are helpful in delineating the extent of the tumor, whether located in the submandibular, sublingual, or parotid gland. Skull base invasion is often well seen by MRI. Subtle changes may be missed and in those cases CT is recommended to exclude or prove destruction of the skull base. For the evaluation of patients presenting with a recurrent pleomorphic adenoma, MRI is recommended in all patients. MRI delineates the extent and number of recurrent tumors better than palpation in most cases. No other imaging technique is as accurate in depicting recurrent pleomorphic adenomas as MRI at present. The use of an intravenous contrast medium remains controversial whether for primary or recurrent disease. (orig.)

  2. Complement activation by salivary agglutinin is secretor status dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunput, Sabrina T G; Ligtenberg, Antoon J M; Terlouw, Bas; Brouwer, Mieke; Veerman, Enno C I; Wouters, Diana

    2015-01-01

    After mucosal damage or gingival inflammation, complement proteins leak into the oral cavity and mix with salivary proteins such as salivary agglutinin (SAG/gp-340/DMBT1). This protein is encoded by the gene Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 (DMBT1), and it aggregates bacteria, viruses and fungi, and activates the lectin pathway of the complement system. In the lectin pathway, carbohydrate structures on pathogens or altered self cells are recognized. SAG is highly glycosylated, partly on the basis of the donor's blood group status. Whereas secretors express Lewis b, Lewis y, and antigens from the ABO-blood group system on SAG, non-secretors do not. Through mannose-binding lectin (MBL) binding and C4 deposition assays, we aimed to identify the chemical structures on SAG that are responsible for complement activation. The complement-activating properties of SAG were completely abolished by oxidation of its carbohydrate moiety. SAG-mediated activation of complement was also inhibited in the presence of saccharides such as fucose and Lewis b carbohydrates, and also after pretreatment with the fucose-binding lectin, Anguilla anguilla agglutinin. Complement activation was significantly (p<0.01) higher in secretors than in non-secretors. Our results suggest that fucose-rich oligosaccharide sidechains, such as Lewis b antigens, are involved in the activation of complement by SAG. PMID:25153235

  3. The effects of irradiation to salivary glands of rats, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    48 rats were subdivided to 6 groups and irradiated to salivary glands by means of 60Co. The dose was planned as amount as 400 rads (200 r x 2), 1000 rads (200 r x 5), 1800 rads (300 r x 6), 2000 rads (200 r x 10) and 2900 rads (500 r x 1 + 200 r x 12) to each grouped rats. As control, the 6th group was not irradiated. On 4 days, 2 and 5 weeks after the irradiation, each rat was killed and salivary glands were obtained for observation under microscope. The obtained material was stained with H-E, Azan, PAS, Hansen, Toluidin and Alcian blue. The effects of the irradiation was most dominant in the 2900 and 1800 rads group. The histologic findings were as follows: serous acinic cells showed severe degeneration that nuclei were picnotic and some had decreased chromatin, and that cytoplasma became confused each others and strongly reacted to PAS stain. Intralobular ducts such as striated and granular one also showed so strong damage that striations and granules were disappeared, and that vacuolization and increased PAS reaction could be found. On the other hand, mucous cells and goblet cells did not showed visible degenerations. About to stroma, new formation of collagen fiber was found by Hansen and Azan stains at the around of interlobular ducts and blood vessels, but inflammatory cells infiltrated slightly. 1000r-group was showed only very slight influence and the damage of 2000r-group was thought as moderates. (auth.)

  4. Identification of the hydroxyapatite-binding domain of salivary agglutinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikker, Floris J; Cukkemane, Nivedita; Nazmi, Kamran; Veerman, Enno C I

    2013-02-01

    The salivary agglutinin glycoprotein (SAG) is present in saliva but is also part of the salivary pellicle, playing a seemingly paradoxical role with regard to bacterial homeostasis. On the one hand, SAG aggregates bacteria in solution, thereby preventing bacterial colonization. On the other hand, when bound to the tooth surface, SAG facilitates bacterial colonization and microbial growth. The protein part of SAG is predominantly composed of conserved scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) domains. Previously it was found that bacterial binding and aggregation is mediated via a single peptide loop, designated SRCRP2 (P2), within the SRCR domains of SAG. The current data suggest that the SRCR domains also harbour a hydroxyapatite (HA)-binding moiety, SRCRP3 (P3). The observation that P2 and P3 individually play unique roles in the function of SAGs contributes to our understanding of the dual role of SAGs in bacterial binding. Inspired by the bacterial-modulating capacity of SAGs, we created a P3-polyethylene glycol (PEG) conjugate. It was found that a P3 coating resulted in an increased antifouling activity of 20% compared with the uncoated surface in vitro. An additional PEG moiety resulted in an antifouling activity of up to 40% and 30% for Streptococcus mutans and Staphylococcus epidermidis, respectively. PMID:23331418

  5. Development of Indirect Competitive Immuno-Assay Method Using SPR Detection for Rapid and Highly Sensitive Measurement of Salivary Cortisol Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahara, Yusuke; Huang, Zhe; Kiritoshi, Tetsuro; Onodera, Takeshi; Toko, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    The monitoring of salivary cortisol as a key biomarker of an individual’s stress response has been increasingly focused on. This paper describes the development of a novel cortisol immuno-assay method based on an indirect competitive method using a commercially available surface plasmon resonance instrument. The surface of an Au chip was modified with PEG6-COOH aromatic dialkanethiol self-assembled monolayers and hydrocortisone 3-(O-carboxymethyl) oxime (hydrocortisone 3-CMO) as a cortisol analog. A detection limit of 38?ppt range with a measurement range of 10?ppt–100?ppb was accomplished without the incubation of a mixing solution consisting of standard cortisol and an anti-cortisol antibody, and the time for quantification of cortisol concentration was 8?min from the sample injection. We experimentally compared our immuno-assay with a commercialized salivary cortisol enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit using human saliva samples. It was found that the results obtained by the cortisol immuno-assay had a good correlation with those obtained by ELISA assay (R?=?0.96). Our findings indicate the potential utility of the cortisol immuno-assay for measurements of human salivary cortisol levels. PMID:25152888

  6. Kinetics of the phosphotransferase reaction of the catalytic subunit of the tick salivary gland cAMP-dependent protein kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The catalytic subunit of the cAMP dependent protein kinase was purified 100-fold from tick salivary glands. The enzyme mechanism of the phosphotransferase reaction catalyzed by this subunit was investigated. Highly purified enzyme did not show ATP-ase activity in the absence of protein substrates. Initial velocities were measured using histone H-1 or a synthetic heptapeptide, Kemptide, as P/sub i/ acceptors and (?-32P) ATP as a phosphodonor. Patterns were consistent with a sequential, but not a ping pong mechanism. At high concentration (>2Km), histone showed substrate inhibition which was noncompetitive versus ATP. Product inhibition by Mg.ADP was competitive versus ATP and noncompetitive with respect to H-1. Phosphohistone on the other hand was noncompetitive with respect to H-1, but gave parabolic competitive inhibition against ATP. Dead-end inhibition by AMP-PNP, an analogue of ATP, was competitive and noncompetitive against ATP and H-1, respectively. The inhibitory of cAMP dependent protein kinase was noncompetitive with ATP and competitive with histone. These studies strongly suggest that the tick salivary gland protein kinase has a sequential mechanism with primarily ordered addition of ATP followed by protein substrate and ordered release of phosphoprotein and ADP, but some random character

  7. Immunodetection of a brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål) salivary catalase-like protein into tissues of rice, Oryza sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, A; Smith, C M

    2014-02-01

    Saliva plays an important role in host plant-phloem-feeding insect molecular interactions. To better elucidate the role of insect saliva, a series of experiments were conducted to establish if catalase from the salivary glands of the brown planthopper (BPH; Nilaparvata lugens Stål) was secreted into rice host plant tissue during feeding. Catalase is the main enzyme that decomposes hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at high concentrations. H2O2 is a part of the free radicals system that mediates important physiological roles including signalling and defence. Previous studies have suggested that H2O2 is involved in the rice endogenous response to BPH feeding. If, the BPH secretes catalase into host plant tissue this will counter the effects of H2O2, from detoxification to interfering with plant signalling and defence mechanisms. When BPHs were fed on a hopper-resistant rice variety for 24 h, catalase activity in the salivary glands increased 3.5-fold compared with hoppers fed on a susceptible rice variety. Further supporting evidence of the effects of BPH catalase was demonstrated by immunodetection analyses where results from two independent sources: BPH-infested rice tissue and BPH-probed artificial diets, suggest that the BPH secretes catalase-like protein during feeding. The possible physiological roles of BPH-secreted catalase are discussed. PMID:24164290

  8. Possible Impact of Salivary Influence on Cytokine Analysis in Exhaled Breath Condensate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ichikawa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exhaled breath condensate (EBC is thought to contain substances of the lower airway epithelial lining fluid (ELF aerosolized by turbulent flow. However, contamination by saliva may affect the EBC when collected orally.Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the cytokine expression levels in EBC with those in saliva, and to clarify the influence of saliva on cytokine measurements of EBC.Methods: EBC and saliva samples were obtained from 10 adult subjects with stable asthma. To estimate differences in the contents of substances between EBC and saliva, the total protein concentration of each sample was measured. Further, we also measured the total protein concentration of ELF obtained from another patient group with suspected lung cancer using a micro sampling probe during bronchoscopic examination and roughly estimated the dilution of EBC by comparing the total protein concentration of EBC and ELF from those two patient groups. The cytokine expression levels of EBC and saliva from asthmatic group were assessed by a cytokine protein array.Results: The mean total protein concentrations in EBC, saliva and ELF were 4.6 ?g/ml, 2,398 ?g/ml and 14,111 ?g/ml, respectively. The dilution of EBC could be estimated as 1:3000. Forty cytokines were analyzed by a cytokine protein array and each cytokine expression level of EBC was found to be different from that of saliva. Corrected by the total protein concentration, all cytokine expression levels of EBC were significantly higher than those of saliva.Conclusion: These results suggest that the salivary influence on the cytokine assessment in EBC may be negligible.

  9. Detection of Salivary Interleukin 2 and Interleukin 6 in Patients With Burning Mouth Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The etiology of BMS remains unknown. Role of various cytokines has been implicated in the development of BMS. The aim of this study was to evaluate levels of salivary IL-2 and IL-6 in patients with BMS, compared with age-matched healthy volunteers (control group. Whole saliva from 30 patients with BMS, age range 55–65, was tested for the presence of IL-6 and IL-2 by enzyme immunoassay. Control group consisted of 30 healthy participants, aged 55–65 years. Saliva IL-2 concentrations in BMS were significantly increased in patients compared to healthy subjects: mean 34.1 ± 9.7 versus 7.3 ± 3.0 pg/mL; P < .001 . Patients with BMS had significantly higher concentrations of IL-6 compared to control: mean 30.8 ± 5.6 versus 5.2 ± 2.8 pg/mL; P < .001 . In patients with BMS, IL-2 and IL-6 levels in saliva are elevated, correlating with the severity of illness.

  10. Pyrosequencing analysis of the salivary microbiota of healthy Chinese children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Zongxin; Liu, Xia; Wang, Yuezhu; Li, Lanjuan; Xiang, Charlie

    2013-02-01

    Describing the biogeography of bacterial communities within the human body is critical for establishing healthy baselines from which to detect differences associated with diseases. Little is known, however, about the baseline of normal salivary microbiota from healthy Chinese children and adults. With parallel barcoded 454 pyrosequencing, the bacterial diversity and richness of saliva were thoroughly investigated from ten healthy Chinese children and adults. The overall taxonomic distribution of our metagenomic data demonstrated that the diversity of salivary microbiota from children was more complex than adults, while the composition and richness of salivary microbiota were similar in children and adults, especially for predominant bacteria. A large number of bacterial phylotypes were shared by healthy children and adults, indicating the existence of a core salivary microbiome. In children and adults, the vast majority of sequences in salivary microbiota belonged to Streptococcus, Prevotella, Neisseria, Haemophilus, Porphyromonas, Gemella, Rothia, Granulicatella, Fusobacterium, Actinomyces, Veillonella, and Aggregatibacter, which constituted the major components of normal salivary microbiota. With the exception of Actinomyces, the other seven non-predominant bacteria including Moraxella, Leptotrichia, Peptostreptococcus, Eubacterium, and members of Neisseriaceae, Flavobacteriaceae, and SR1 showed significant differences between children and adults (p < 0.05). We first established the framework of normal salivary microbiota from healthy Chinese children and adults. Our data represent a critical step for determining the diversity of healthy microbiota in Chinese children and adults, and our data established a platform for additional large-scale studies focusing on the interactions between health and diseases in the future. PMID:22968328

  11. Radioiodine therapy effects on salivary gland function in patients with differentiated Thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fard Esfahani A

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Salivary gland involvement is one of the radioiodine therapy complications. Salivary gland scintigraphy in quantitative mode can accurately evaluate salivary gland function. Methods: Salivary gland scintigraphy was performed with Tc-99m Pertechnetate, at the time of iodine therapy as a basic study and then 3 weeks and 3 months afterwards. Ejection Fraction (EF of parotid and submandibular glands was obtained at each stage of the study. Results: 36 patients (10 male, 16 female were studied. Mean of EF 3 weeks and 3 months following radioiodine therapy was reduced. There was no significant involvement in 12 patients (33.3%. With increase in radioiodine dose, more salivary gland involvement was noted in 3 weeks (P=0.07, but not after 3 months (P=0.5. No difference was noted between two sexes (P=0.6. Parotid gland involvement was more than submandibular gland (P<0.05, confirming more radiosensitivity of parotid gland. No meaningful relation was noted between salivary gland involvements with age (P=0.1. Parotid gland dysfunction was not related to radioiodine dose, but in submandibular gland, with dosage increase, more involvement was noted (P=0.02. Clinical symptoms were not reliable in evaluating salivary gland dysfunction.

  12. Rescue of salivary gland function after stem cell transplantation in irradiated glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombaert, Isabelle M A; Brunsting, Jeanette F; Wierenga, Pieter K; Faber, Hette; Stokman, Monique A; Kok, Tineke; Visser, Willy H; Kampinga, Harm H; de Haan, Gerald; Coppes, Robert P

    2008-01-01

    Head and neck cancer is the fifth most common malignancy and accounts for 3% of all new cancer cases each year. Despite relatively high survival rates, the quality of life of these patients is severely compromised because of radiation-induced impairment of salivary gland function and consequential xerostomia (dry mouth syndrome). In this study, a clinically applicable method for the restoration of radiation-impaired salivary gland function using salivary gland stem cell transplantation was developed. Salivary gland cells were isolated from murine submandibular glands and cultured in vitro as salispheres, which contained cells expressing the stem cell markers Sca-1, c-Kit and Musashi-1. In vitro, the cells differentiated into salivary gland duct cells and mucin and amylase producing acinar cells. Stem cell enrichment was performed by flow cytrometric selection using c-Kit as a marker. In vitro, the cells differentiated into amylase producing acinar cells. In vivo, intra-glandular transplantation of a small number of c-Kit(+) cells resulted in long-term restoration of salivary gland morphology and function. Moreover, donor-derived stem cells could be isolated from primary recipients, cultured as secondary spheres and after re-transplantation ameliorate radiation damage. Our approach is the first proof for the potential use of stem cell transplantation to functionally rescue salivary gland deficiency. PMID:18446241

  13. Peroxynitrite formation in radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xerostomia frequently arises in patients with head and neck malignancies that are treated by radiation. However, the mechanisms responsible for the destruction of the salivary gland remain unknown. We previously established a xerostomia model of mice and identified the pathway through which nitric oxide (NO) affects the pathogenesis of radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction. Although the toxicity of NO alone is modest, NO with superoxide anion (O2·-) rapidly forms peroxynitrite (ONOO-), a more powerful toxic oxidant. In this study, we used the experimental model to examine: when NO and O2·- production is maximum in the salivary gland after irradiation; whether peroxynitrite, as assessed by nitrotyrosine production, is responsible for salivary gland dysfunction; and the effect of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) selective inhibitor, aminoguanidine (AG), on nitrotyrosine formation. The increases in production of NO and O2·- in the salivary gland peaked on day 7 after irradiation. Nitrotyrosine detected immunohistochemically was significantly reduced by AG in the salivary gland. On the basis of these results, we concluded that NO together with O2·- forms the more reactive ONOO-, which might be an important pathogenic factor in radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction. (author)

  14. Detection of saliva-range glucose concentrations using organic thin-film transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkington, D.; Belcher, W. J.; Dastoor, P. C.; Zhou, X. J. [Centre for Organic Electronics, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales 2308 (Australia)

    2014-07-28

    We describe the development of a glucose sensor through direct incorporation of an enzyme (glucose oxidase) into the gate of an organic thin film transistor (OTFT). We show that glucose diffusion is the key determinant of the device response time and present a mechanism of glucose sensing in these devices that involves protonic doping of the transistor channel via enzymatic oxidation of glucose. The integrated OTFT sensor is sensitive across 4 decades of glucose concentration; a range that encompasses both the blood and salivary glucose concentration levels. As such, this work acts as a proof-of-concept for low-cost printed biosensors for salivary glucose.

  15. Detection of saliva-range glucose concentrations using organic thin-film transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the development of a glucose sensor through direct incorporation of an enzyme (glucose oxidase) into the gate of an organic thin film transistor (OTFT). We show that glucose diffusion is the key determinant of the device response time and present a mechanism of glucose sensing in these devices that involves protonic doping of the transistor channel via enzymatic oxidation of glucose. The integrated OTFT sensor is sensitive across 4 decades of glucose concentration; a range that encompasses both the blood and salivary glucose concentration levels. As such, this work acts as a proof-of-concept for low-cost printed biosensors for salivary glucose.

  16. Oral intake of Lactobacillus pentosus strain b240 accelerates salivary immunoglobulin A secretion in the elderly: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotani Yoshifumi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immunoglobulin A (IgA secretion in saliva decreases with age and may be the cause of increased vulnerability of the elderly to respiratory infections. The effect of oral intake of lactic acid bacteria on salivary secretory IgA (SIgA in the elderly has not been reported. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the acceleration of salivary SIgA secretion by oral intake of Lactobacillus pentosus strain b240 (b240 in the elderly. Results A total of 80 healthy elderly individuals were randomly allocated to either an intervention (i.e., b240 or a control (i.e., placebo group. The elderly individuals in the b240 group were given a sterile water beverage (125 mL containing heat-killed b240 (4 × 109 cells, while those in the placebo group were given only a sterile water beverage (125 mL; both groups received their respective beverages once daily for 12 weeks. Saliva was collected before initiation of the study and every 2 weeks thereafter. Saliva flow rate and SIgA concentration were determined, and the SIgA secretion rate was calculated. The mean salivary SIgA secretion rate in the b240 group steadily increased until week 4 (exhibiting a 20% elevation relative to that at week 0, and then remained stable until week 12. Changes in SIgA secretion rate over the intervention period were significantly greater in the b240 group than in the placebo group. The treatment groups exhibited no significant differences in adverse events. Conclusions Oral intake of L. pentosus strain b240 for 12 weeks significantly accelerated salivary SIgA secretion, thereby indicating its potential utility in the improvement of mucosal immunity and resistance against infection in the elderly.

  17. Environmental survey 1998. Vol. 3: Human biomonitoring. Concentrations of substances in blood and urine of the German population; Umwelt-Survey 1998. Bd. 3: Human-Biomonitoring. Stoffgehalte in Blut und Urin der Bevoelkerung in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, K.; Kaus, S.; Krause, C.; Lepom, P.; Schulz, C.; Seiwert, M.; Seifert, B.

    2002-03-01

    The occurrence of precious metals in the environment is increasing, due primarily to their use in catalytic converters for motor vehicles, and they were therefore integrated into the study programme in 1998. Urine samples of 1080 subjects were analysed for gold, platinum and iridium, resulting in mean concentrations of 46 ng/l, 2.2 ng/l and 0.2 ng/l. The number of dental inlays, crowns and bridge elements has a clear influence on the mean levels of gold and platinum in urine. Road traffic was not found to be a signficant factor. Nicotine and cotinine are common markers for exposure to tobacco smoke. Non-smokers exhibit a mean nicotine level in urine of less than 2 {mu}g/l and a cotinine level of less than 4 {mu}gl. Nicotine and cotinine levels in urine increase as a function of the number of cigarettes smoked per day, reaching values of 1080 {mu}g/l and 2060 {mu}g/l, respectively, when consumption exceeds 20 cigarettes per day. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is also reflected by nicotine and cotinine levels in urine. The present report provides representative data for environmentally related health monitoring and reporting at national level. The data serve as the basis for the formulation of reference values characterising the population's internal exposure to environmental contaminants. The report shows trends over time and regional differences in pollution, and identifies exposure pathways. The results of the Environmental Survey serve inter alia to achieve nationally harmonised methodologies for assessment, health-related environmental reporting, and the development and monitoring of prevention, intervention and abatement strategies within the scope of health and environmental policy actions. (orig.)

  18. The effect of esophageal mechanical and chemical stimuli on salivary mucin secretion in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarosiek, J; Rourk, R M; Piascik, R; Namiot, Z; Hetzel, D P; McCallum, R W

    1994-07-01

    Because of a newly developed model of esophageal perfusion in humans, the authors could study the role of esophago-salivary reflex in salivary neutral and acidic mucin output. The basal rate of neutral mucin output was 0.24 +/- 0.06 mg per minute. Placement of intraesophageal tubing and inflation of balloons resulted in a highly significant increase in salivary mucin output (2.10 +/- 0.22 mg per minute; p < 0.00001). However, implementation of esophageal perfusion with saline resulted in a significant decline of salivary mucin output (1.28 +/- 0.10 mg/mL NaCl4 versus 2.08 +/- 0.24 mg/mL NaCl1; p < 0.001). Esophageal perfusion with hydrochloric acid prevented the decline of salivary mucin output observed during perfusion with saline, whereas infusion of hydrochloric acid/pepsin resulted in a significant enhancement of salivary mucin output (2.89 +/- 0.31 mg per minute; p < 0.01). Therefore, mechanical and chemical stimulations resulted in an overall 9-fold and 12-fold increase in the rate of salivary mucin output over the basal value, respectively. The basal rate of acidic mucin secretion was 0.26 +/- 0.06 mg per minute. After placement of intraesophageal tubing, inflation of balloons, perfusion hydrochloric acid, or hydrochloric acid-pepsin solution, a significant enhancement in the rate of salivary acidic mucin output, similar to that observed during measurement of neutral mucin, was observed. Therefore, during mechanical and chemical stimulation, the rate of salivary acidic mucin output increased 7.3-fold and 11.1-fold over the basal value, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8010333

  19. Measurement of salivary cortisol in 2012 - laboratory techniques and clinical indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inder, Warrick J; Dimeski, Goce; Russell, Anthony

    2012-11-01

    The utility of measuring salivary cortisol has become increasingly appreciated since the early 1980s. Salivary cortisol is a measure of active free cortisol and follows the diurnal rhythm of serum or plasma cortisol. The saliva sample may be collected by drooling or through the use of absorbent swabs which are placed into the mouth until saturated. Salivary cortisol is therefore convenient for patients and research participants to collect noninvasively on an outpatient basis. Several assay techniques have been used to measure salivary cortisol, including radioimmunoassay and more recently liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The analytical sensitivity varies between these assay methods, as does the potential for cross-reactivity with other steroids. The interpretation of salivary cortisol levels relies on rigorous standardization of sampling equipment, sampling protocols and assay technology with establishment of a local reference range. Clinically, the commonest use for salivary cortisol is measuring late-night salivary cortisol as a screening test for Cushing's syndrome. Several studies have shown diagnostic sensitivities and specificities of over 90%, which compares very favourably with other screening tests for Cushing's syndrome such as the 24-h urinary-free cortisol and the 1-mg overnight dexamethasone suppression test. There are emerging roles for the use of salivary cortisol in diagnosing adrenal insufficiency, particularly in conditions associated with low cortisol-binding globulin levels, and in the monitoring of glucocorticoid replacement. Finally, salivary cortisol has been used extensively as a biomarker of stress in a research setting, especially in studies examining psychological stress with repeated measurements. PMID:22812714

  20. Normal values of [99mTc]pertechnetate uptake and excretion fraction by major salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjos, Dalton A; Etchebehere, Elba C S C; Santos, Allan O; Lima, Mariana C L; Ramos, Celso D; Paula, Raquel B; Camargo, Edwaldo E

    2006-04-01

    The assessment of the functional status of the salivary glands has been used in the scintigraphic evaluation of xerostomia. Several quantitative methods derived from standard dynamic scintigraphy have been suggested. However, the indices proposed are quite variable and unlikely to be useful in clinical practice. The objectives of this study were to obtain reference values of major salivary glands uptake and excretion fraction in healthy subjects and to obtain normal ratios of Tc-pertechnetate uptake by the major salivary glands in comparison to the thyroid gland uptake. The standardization of these values has the purpose of making this evaluation faster and more objective. Fifty volunteers without clinical evidence of xerostomia or thyroid disease underwent static salivary glands scintigraphy with Tc-pertechnetate. Static images were obtained at 20 minutes and then at 3 minutes after oral stimulation with lemon juice. Percent uptake, excretion fraction and salivary gland to thyroid ratio rates were calculated for the parotid and the submandibular glands. The mean of the uptake values at 20 minutes for the right and left parotid glands were respectively 0.31% and 0.26%, and for the submandibular glands 0.15%. The excretion fraction of the tracer after the lemon juice stimulation was 70% for the parotids glands, 50% for the right and 49% for the left submandibular glands. The mean+/-SD salivary gland to thyroid count ratio was 0.79+/-0.45 for the right parotid, 0.78+/-0.5 for the left parotid, 0.67+/-0.33 and 0.66+/-0.34 for the right and left submandibular glands, respectively. Salivary glands scintigraphy with uptake and excretion fraction calculation is an easy to perform, non-invasive and objective method to investigate salivary glands function. These findings help the nuclear physician to interpret salivary gland scintigraphy more objectively, even in patients with thyroid gland dysfunction in whom Tc-pertechnetate thyroid uptake may be abnormal. PMID:16531928