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Sample records for salivary cotinine concentrations

  1. Smokeless Tobacco Use and Salivary Cotinine Concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Ferketich, Amy K; WEE, Alvin G.; Shultz, Jennifer; Wewers, Mary Ellen

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to examine demographic, tobacco-related, and psychosocial factors associated with cotinine concentration in a group of 256 male smokeless tobacco (ST) users living in the Ohio Appalachian region. Participants completed a survey that included questions on: 1) current and past tobacco use behaviors; 2) demographics; 3) tobacco dependence; 4) decisional balance; 5) health behaviors; and 6) perceived stress and depressive symptoms. Saliva samples were obtain...

  2. Salivary cotinine concentration versus self-reported cigarette smoking: Three patterns of inconsistency in adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Kandel, Denise B.; Schaffran, Christine; Griesler, Pamela C.; HU, MEI-CHEN; Davies, Mark; Benowitz, Neal

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined the extent and sources of discrepancies between self-reported cigarette smoking and salivary cotinine concentration among adolescents. The data are from household interviews with a cohort of 1,024 adolescents from an urban school system. Histories of tobacco use in the last 7 days and saliva samples were obtained. Logistic regressions identified correlates of three inconsistent patterns: (a) Pattern 1—self-reported nonsmoking among adolescents with cotinine concentr...

  3. Salivary cotinine concentrations in daily smokers in Barcelona, Spain: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Pascual José A; Martínez-Sánchez Jose M; Fernandez Esteve; Fu Marcela; Schiaffino Anna; Agudo Antoni; Ariza Carles; Borràs Josep M; Samet Jonathan M.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Characterizing and comparing the determinant of cotinine concentrations in different populations should facilitate a better understanding of smoking patterns and addiction. This study describes and characterizes determinants of salivary cotinine concentration in a sample of Spanish adult daily smoker men and women. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out between March 2004 and December 2005 in a representative sample of 1245 people from the general population of Ba...

  4. Passive smoking, salivary cotinine concentrations, and middle ear effusion in 7 year old children.

    OpenAIRE

    Strachan, D P; Jarvis, M.J.; Feyerabend, C.

    1989-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the contribution of passive exposure to tobacco smoke to the development of middle ear underpressure and effusion. DESIGN--Cross sectional observational study. SETTING--One third of the primary schools in Edinburgh. SUBJECTS--892 Children aged 6 1/2 to 7 1/2 were examined, and satisfactory tympanograms were obtained in 872. Results of assay of salivary cotinine concentrations were available for 770 children, and satisfactory tympanograms were available for 736 of these. E...

  5. Utility and Cutoff Value of Hair Nicotine as a Biomarker of Long-Term Tobacco Smoke Exposure, Compared to Salivary Cotinine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungroul Kim

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available While hair samples are easier to collect and less expensive to store and transport than biological fluids, and hair nicotine characterizes tobacco exposure over a longer time period than blood or urine cotinine, information on its utility, compared with salivary cotinine, is still limited. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 289 participants (107 active smokers, 105 passive smokers with self-reported secondhand smoke (SHS exposure, and 77 non-smokers with no SHS exposure in Baltimore (Maryland, USA. A subset of the study participants (n = 52 were followed longitudinally over a two-month interval.  Median baseline hair nicotine concentrations for active, passive and non-smokers were 16.2, 0.36, and 0.23 ng/mg, respectively, while those for salivary cotinine were 181.0, 0.27, and 0.27 ng/mL, respectively. Hair nicotine concentrations for 10% of passive or non-smokers were higher than the 25th percentile value for active smokers while all corresponding salivary cotinine concentrations for them were lower than the value for active smokers. This study showed that hair nicotine concentration values could be used to distinguish active or heavy passive adult smokers from non-SHS exposed non-smokers. Our results indicate that hair nicotine is a useful biomarker for the assessment of long-term exposure to tobacco smoke.

  6. Determinants of salivary cotinine level: a population-based study in Brazil / Determinantes dos níveis de cotinina salivar: um estudo de base populacional no Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Valeska Carvalho, Figueiredo; Moyses, Szklo; André Salem, Szklo; Neal, Benowitz; José Azevedo, Lozana; Leticia, Casado; Elaine, Masson; Jonathan, Samet.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Realizou-se um estudo transversal para analisar a relação entre número de cigarros fumados e outras características com a concentração de cotinina salivar entre fumantes. MÉTODOS: Fumantes ativos de 15 anos ou mais foram selecionados por meio de amostra probabilística em múltiplos estágios [...] no ano 2000, município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. O estudo incluiu 401 fumantes. A concentração de cotinina salivar foi determinada utilizando-se cromatografia gasosa com detector de nitrogênio/fósforo. Coletaram-se informações demográficas e sobre o comportamento tabágico utilizando-se questionário padronizado. A relação entre o número de cigarros fumados nas últimas 24h e o nível de cotinina foi analisada utilizando técnica não paramétrica baseada em regressões robustas locais ponderadas. RESULTADOS: O nível médio ajustado de cotinina foi significativamente (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted to assess, in active smokers, the relationship of number of cigarettes smoked and other characteristics to salivary cotinine concentrations. METHODS: A random sample of active smokers aged 15 years or older was selected using a stepwi [...] se cluster sample strategy, in the year 2000 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The study included 401 subjects. Salivary cotinine concentration was determined using gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detection. A standard questionnaire was used to collect demographic and smoking behavioral data. The relation between the number of cigarettes smoked in the last 24h and cotinine level was examined by means of a nonparametric fitting technique of robust locally weighted regression. RESULTS: Significantly (p40 ng/mL per cigarette were excluded. CONCLUSIONS: There was found a positive association between self-reporting smoking five minutes after waking up, and inhaling more than ½ the time are consistent and higher cotinine levels. These can be markers of dependence and higher nicotine intake. Salivary cotinine proved to be a useful biomarker of recent smoking and can be used in epidemiological studies and smoking cessation programs.

  7. Cotinine Concentration in Serum Correlates with Tobacco Smoke-Induced Emphysema in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Xu,Xin; Su, Yunchao; Fan, Z. Hugh

    2014-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) has been associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes in nonsmokers, including emphysema (a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). One way to detect SHS exposure is to measure the concentration of cotinine, the primary metabolite of nicotine, in bodily fluids. We have developed a method for cotinine analysis by combining micellar electrokinetic chromatography with enrichment techniques. We employed the method to measure cotinine concentrations in serum samples ...

  8. MEASURING NICOTINE INTAKE AMONG HIGHLY DEPENDENT ADOLESCENT SMOKERS: COMPARABILITY OF SALIVA AND PLASMA COTININE CONCENTRATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Parzynski, Craig S.; Jaszyna-Gasior, Maria; Franken, Frederick H.; Moolchan, Eric T.

    2007-01-01

    Cotinine is the most common biomarker used to assess nicotine exposure and abstinence. It can be measured in various matrices including saliva, plasma, and urine. Previous research with adults has shown high correlations between saliva and plasma cotinine concentrations. However, research has not examined this relationship in adolescents. Additionally, variability in saliva flow and metabolism across gender, ethnicity, and age may impact the relationship between saliva and plasma cotinine con...

  9. Utility and Cutoff Value of Hair Nicotine as a Biomarker of Long-Term Tobacco Smoke Exposure, Compared to Salivary Cotinine

    OpenAIRE

    Sungroul Kim; Apelberg, Benjamin J; Erika Avila-Tang; Lisa Hepp; Dongmin Yun; Samet, Jonathan M.; Breysse, Patrick N

    2014-01-01

    While hair samples are easier to collect and less expensive to store and transport than biological fluids, and hair nicotine characterizes tobacco exposure over a longer time period than blood or urine cotinine, information on its utility, compared with salivary cotinine, is still limited. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 289 participants (107 active smokers, 105 passive smokers with self-reported secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure, and 77 non-smokers with no SHS exposure) in Baltimore...

  10. Cotinine Concentration in Serum Correlates with Tobacco Smoke-Induced Emphysema in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Su, Yunchao; Fan, Z. Hugh

    2014-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) has been associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes in nonsmokers, including emphysema (a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). One way to detect SHS exposure is to measure the concentration of cotinine, the primary metabolite of nicotine, in bodily fluids. We have developed a method for cotinine analysis by combining micellar electrokinetic chromatography with enrichment techniques. We employed the method to measure cotinine concentrations in serum samples of mice exposed to tobacco smoke for 12 or 24 weeks and found that it was 3.1-fold or 4.8-fold higher than those exposed to room air for the same period. Further, we investigated the morphological changes in lungs of mice and observed tobacco smoke induced emphysema. Our results indicate that the method can be used to measure cotinine and there is an association between the serum cotinine concentration and tobacco smoke-induced emphysema in mice.

  11. Increased Saliva Cotinine Concentrations in Smokers during Rapid Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaura, Raymond; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined association between saliva cotinine levels and weight loss in nine obese female smokers during participation in protein-sparing modified fast. A significant weight loss was noted at three and six months, yet cotinine level increased significantly during this time. Results suggest that smoking-related health risks may increase during…

  12. Punto de corte óptimo de la concentración de cotinina en saliva para discriminar entre fumadores y no fumadores en la población adulta de Barcelona / Optimal cut-point of salivary cotinine concentration to discriminate smoking status in the adult population in Barcelona

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jose M., Martínez-Sánchez; Marcela, Fu; Carles, Ariza; María J., López; Esteve, Saltó; José A., Pascual; Anna, Schiaffino; Josep M., Borràs; Mercè, Peris; Antonio, Agudo; Manel, Nebot; Esteve, Fernández.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar el punto de corte óptimo de la concentración de cotinina en saliva para discriminar el consumo de tabaco en la población adulta de Barcelona. Métodos: Estudio transversal de una muestra representativa (n=1117) de la población adulta (>16 años) de la ciudad de Barcelona (2004-2005). [...] El estudio recogió información sobre tabaquismo (activo y pasivo) mediante cuestionario y una muestra de saliva para la determinación de cotinina. Se realizó un análisis de sensibilidad y especificidad estratificado por sexo, edad, tipo de consumo (diario y ocasional) y exposición al humo ambiental del tabaco en el hogar. Se calcularon las curvas ROC y el área bajo la curva. Resultados: La prevalencia de fumadores (diarios y ocasionales) fue del 27,8% (intervalo de confianza del 95%: 25,2-30,4%). El punto de corte óptimo que separa a los no fumadores de los fumadores es 9,2ng/ml (sensibilidad del 88,7% y especificidad del 89,0%). El área bajo la curva ROC fue 0,952. El punto de corte fue 12,2ng/ml para los hombres y 7,6 para las mujeres, y aumentaba en los grupos de edad con mayor prevalencia de tabaquismo. Los fumadores diarios tenían un punto de corte superior al de los fumadores ocasionales. Conclusiones: El punto de corte óptimo que discrimina fumadores de no fumadores en la población adulta es 9,2ng/ml, con sensibilidad y especificidad cercanas al 90%. El punto de corte es más alto en los hombres y en los grupos de menor edad, y aumenta cuanto mayor es la prevalencia de consumo diario. Abstract in english Objective: To assess the optimal cut-point for salivary cotinine concentration to identify smoking status in the adult population of Barcelona. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of a representative sample (n=1,117) of the adult population (>16 years) in Barcelona (2004-2005). This study [...] gathered information on active and passive smoking by means of a questionnaire and a saliva sample for cotinine determination. We analyzed sensitivity and specificity according to sex, age, smoking status (daily and occasional), and exposure to second-hand smoke at home. ROC curves and the area under the curve were calculated. Results: The prevalence of smokers (daily and occasional) was 27.8% (95% CI: 25.2-30.4%). The optimal cut-point to discriminate smoking status was 9.2ng/ml (sensitivity=88.7% and specificity=89.0%). The area under the ROC curve was 0.952. The optimal cut-point was 12.2ng/ml in men and 7.6ng/ml in women. The optimal cut-point was higher at ages with a greater prevalence of smoking. Daily smokers had a higher cut-point than occasional smokers. Conclusions: The optimal cut-point to discriminate smoking status in the adult population is 9.2ng/ml, with sensitivities and specificities around 90%. The cut-point was higher in men and in younger people. The cut-point increases with higher prevalence of daily smokers.

  13. Punto de corte óptimo de la concentración de cotinina en saliva para discriminar entre fumadores y no fumadores en la población adulta de Barcelona Optimal cut-point of salivary cotinine concentration to discriminate smoking status in the adult population in Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M. Martínez-Sánchez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar el punto de corte óptimo de la concentración de cotinina en saliva para discriminar el consumo de tabaco en la población adulta de Barcelona. Métodos: Estudio transversal de una muestra representativa (n=1117 de la población adulta (>16 años de la ciudad de Barcelona (2004-2005. El estudio recogió información sobre tabaquismo (activo y pasivo mediante cuestionario y una muestra de saliva para la determinación de cotinina. Se realizó un análisis de sensibilidad y especificidad estratificado por sexo, edad, tipo de consumo (diario y ocasional y exposición al humo ambiental del tabaco en el hogar. Se calcularon las curvas ROC y el área bajo la curva. Resultados: La prevalencia de fumadores (diarios y ocasionales fue del 27,8% (intervalo de confianza del 95%: 25,2-30,4%. El punto de corte óptimo que separa a los no fumadores de los fumadores es 9,2ng/ml (sensibilidad del 88,7% y especificidad del 89,0%. El área bajo la curva ROC fue 0,952. El punto de corte fue 12,2ng/ml para los hombres y 7,6 para las mujeres, y aumentaba en los grupos de edad con mayor prevalencia de tabaquismo. Los fumadores diarios tenían un punto de corte superior al de los fumadores ocasionales. Conclusiones: El punto de corte óptimo que discrimina fumadores de no fumadores en la población adulta es 9,2ng/ml, con sensibilidad y especificidad cercanas al 90%. El punto de corte es más alto en los hombres y en los grupos de menor edad, y aumenta cuanto mayor es la prevalencia de consumo diario.Objective: To assess the optimal cut-point for salivary cotinine concentration to identify smoking status in the adult population of Barcelona. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of a representative sample (n=1,117 of the adult population (>16 years in Barcelona (2004-2005. This study gathered information on active and passive smoking by means of a questionnaire and a saliva sample for cotinine determination. We analyzed sensitivity and specificity according to sex, age, smoking status (daily and occasional, and exposure to second-hand smoke at home. ROC curves and the area under the curve were calculated. Results: The prevalence of smokers (daily and occasional was 27.8% (95% CI: 25.2-30.4%. The optimal cut-point to discriminate smoking status was 9.2ng/ml (sensitivity=88.7% and specificity=89.0%. The area under the ROC curve was 0.952. The optimal cut-point was 12.2ng/ml in men and 7.6ng/ml in women. The optimal cut-point was higher at ages with a greater prevalence of smoking. Daily smokers had a higher cut-point than occasional smokers. Conclusions: The optimal cut-point to discriminate smoking status in the adult population is 9.2ng/ml, with sensitivities and specificities around 90%. The cut-point was higher in men and in younger people. The cut-point increases with higher prevalence of daily smokers.

  14. [Cotinine concentration in the saliva in relation to oral hygiene procedures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachanek, Teresa; Nakonieczna-Rudnicka, Marta; Piekarczyk, Wanda

    2014-01-01

    Cotinine is a biomarker of the exposure to the tobacco smoke, nicotine metabolite with half-life in the saliva which is 17 hours. Assessment of cotinine concentration enables among others verification of the questionnaire data as well as evaluation of both smokers and non-smokers exposure to the tobacco smoke. Practicing proper oral hygiene procedures is an essential factor of the prophylaxis of dental caries and periodontal diseases which influence general health state. The removal of dental calculus is achieved by proper teeth brushing and the use of additional oral aids. The aim of the study was evaluation of cotinine concentration in non-stimulated saliva in order to verify questionnaire data (smoker/non-smoker) and analysis of practicing oral hygiene procedures in relation to the status of cigarette smoking. Questionnaire and biochemical studies were conducted in the group of 116 people aged 20-54. In questionnaire survey 53 people (45.69%) confirmed cigarette smoking, 63 (54.31%) declared they had never smoked and never tried to smoke. Non-stimulated saliva was collected between 9(30) and 11(30), 1,5-2 hours after meal. Cotinine concentration was assayed with the use of Cotinine ELISA (Calbiotech, USA). Obtained study results were submitted to statistic analysis with the use of Chi2. Statistically essential test values were those with pdental floss less frequently (X2=10.64, pdental surgeons to conduct oral hygiene instructions in smokers as well as realization of health threats resulting from cigarette smoking. PMID:25799856

  15. Passive smoking in the home: plasma cotinine concentrations in non-smokers with smoking partners

    OpenAIRE

    Jarvis, M.; Feyerabend, C.; Bryant, A.; Hedges, B.; Primatesta, P

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Risks of lung cancer and of heart disease attributable to passive smoking have been evaluated mainly in non-smokers married to smokers, but there has been little quantitative assessment of the extent of exposure in marriage partners as indicated by markers of inhaled smoke dose.?OBJECTIVE—To relate plasma cotinine concentrations in non-smoking English adults to the smoking behaviour of their partners and to demographic and other factors.?DATA—Population survey. Data from two years ...

  16. Evaluating the Accuracy of Self-Reported Exposure to Secondhand Smoke during Pregnancy by Measuring Umbilical Cord Blood Cotinine Concentration

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    Seyed Zahra Banihosseini

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS during pregnancy leads to fetal and neonatal complications. Since the effect of exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy on maternal self-reporting may not be accurate, this study design to evaluate the validity and accuracy of maternal self- reported SHS exposure, using the cord blood cotinine as a biomarker of exposure to tobacco at delivery. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted on 108 non-smoking pregnant women. They were divided into two groups based on their reports; smoke exposed (54 and non-exposed groups (54. Exposure to tobacco smoke was assessed during pregnancy by measuring cord blood cotinine and using questionnaires. The umbilical cord blood of newborns was obtained at delivery room to evaluate the amount of cotinine (main metabolite of nicotine and for estimation of the accuracy of maternal self-reported to SHS exposure, cut-off point Cotinine level of umbilical cord serum that more than 2 ng/ml was considered as positive exposed. Result: The geometric mean cotinine of umbilical cord serum in the exposed group (3.71±1.22 ng/ml was significantly higher than the non-exposed (0.404±0.63 ng/ml (P<0.0001. There was a strong association between maternal reported SHS exposure and umbilical cord cotinine (Kappa= 98%, P<0.0001. In addition, the reported SHS exposure had 98% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive and 98% negative predictive value in comparison to umbilical cord cotinine concentration. Conclusion: This study shows that maternal self-reported SHS exposure is highly accurate .Moreover it seems valid questionnaire. Should be considered as an alternative method for measuring chemical biomarkers, such as cotinine; if the structured questionnaires and accurate interviewing techniques is used.

  17. [Kindergartners' indoor exposition to tobacco smoke and its influence on cotinine concentration in children's urine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomo?ka, Ewa; Bielska, Dorota; Nazarko, Katarzyna; Bielska, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to study kindergarteners' exposition to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in houses. Social and economical factors were checked for the improper behavior of grown-up household. Material for the research were data collected from questionnaires filled by children's parents. 272 three years old children were studied (57.7% boys and 42.3% girls). Cotinine--marker of exposition to ETS was measured in the children's urine. In 32.4% houses at least one resident was a tobacco smoker. The most often it was father (22.3%) or mother (10.6%). Most of them (78.7%) affirmed tobacco smoking out of houses. Tobacco smoking correlated to parents education (mothers--college graduate and fathers--high-school graduate smoked tobacco the most often). Tobacco smoking by the parents correlated to low household income (less than 1000 zl), many house occupants (4-5 persons), small house area (less than 15 m2/person). A part of studied group of children (11%) was exposed to ETS out of house. Mean cotinine concentration in urine of children exposed and unexposed to ETS in house were not significantly different an were respectively: 25.60 and 21.22 ng/mg creatinine. Propagation of right behavior among people smoking tobacco in houses and education of small children parents is important. PMID:24501803

  18. Quantitation of Cotinine in Nonsmoker Saliva Using Chip Based Nanoelectrospray Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomkins, Bruce A [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL; Jenkins, Roger A [ORNL; Counts, Richard Wayne [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    A new analytical procedure was developed for the quantitation of nonsmoker salivary cotinine. Small volumes of saliva were diluted with water, fortified with cotinine-d{sub 3} (internal standard), then passed through small extraction columns. The analyte and internal standard were eluted with 0.1% (v/v) acetic acid/acetonitrile. Aliquots of each extract were analyzed directly, without chromatographic separation, using chip-based (NanoMate{sup TM}) nanospray tandem mass spectrometry. The calculated detection limit was 0.49 ng cotinine/mL saliva. This method was used to quantify salivary cotinine collected from nonsmoking human subjects living in one of three environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure categories or 'cells': 1. smoking home/smoking workplace; 2. smoking home/nonsmoking workplace; and 3. nonsmoking home/smoking workplace. Samples were collected during five sequential days, including Saturday, as part of a larger study to evaluate potential variability in exposure to ETS. Salivary cotinine measurements were made for the purpose of excluding misclassified smokers and for comparison with known levels of exposure to airborne nicotine in each exposure category. The concentrations observed were consistent with those reported from other large studies reported elsewhere. A non-parametric statistical test was applied to the data within each cell. No statistically significant differences were found between the mean cotinine concentrations collected on a weekday as compared to those collected on a weekend day. When the non-parametric test was applied to the three cells, a statistically significant difference was observed between cell 1 compared to cells 2 and 3. The salivary cotinine concentrations were thus statistically invariant over a five-day exposure period, and they were greatest under the conditions of smoking home and smoking workplace.

  19. COTININE CONCENTRATIONS IN SEMEN, URINE AND BLOOD OF SMOKERS AND NONSMOKERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The extent to which ambient exposures to environmental chemicals results in exposures to human genetic material is poorly understood. he purpose of the current study is to document the presence of cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine but not a known mutagen, in the semen of men exp...

  20. Passive exposure to tobacco smoke: saliva cotinine concentrations in a representative population sample of non-smoking schoolchildren.

    OpenAIRE

    Jarvis, M.J.; Russell, M. A.; Feyerabend, C.; Eiser, J R; Morgan, M.; Gammage, P; Gray, E M

    1985-01-01

    Saliva cotinine concentrations in 569 non-smoking schoolchildren were strongly related to the smoking habits of their parents. When neither parent smoked the mean concentration was 0.44 ng/ml, rising to 3.38 ng/ml when both parents were cigarette smokers. Mothers' smoking had a stronger influence than did fathers' (p less than 0.01). In addition, there was a small independent effect of number of siblings who smoked (p less than 0.01). The dose of nicotine received from fathers' smoking was es...

  1. Biomonitoring of Urinary Cotinine Concentrations Associated with Plasma Levels of Nicotine Metabolites after Daily Cigarette Smoking in a Male Japanese Population

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    Hiroshi Yamazaki

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Human biomonitoring of plasma and urinary levels of nicotine, cotinine, and 3?-hydroxycotinine was conducted after daily cigarette smoking in a population of 92 male Japanese smokers with a mean age of 37 years who had smoked an average of 23 cigarettes per day for 16 years. Members of the population were genotyped for the nicotine-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6. The mean levels of nicotine, the levels of its metabolites cotinine and 3?-hydroxycotinine, and the sum of these three levels in subjects one hour after smoking the first cigarette on the sampling day were 20.1, 158, 27.7, and 198 ng/mL in plasma and 846, 1,020, 1,010, and 2,870 ng/mL in urine under daily smoking conditions. Plasma levels of 3'-hydroxycotinine and urinary levels of nicotine and 3?-hydroxycotinine were dependent on the CYP2A6 phenotype group, which was estimated from the CYP2A6 genotypes of the subjects, including those with whole gene deletion. Plasma cotinine levels were significantly correlated with the number of cigarettes smoked on the day before sampling (r = 0.71, the average number of cigarettes smoked daily (r = 0.58, and the Brinkman index (daily cigarettes × years, r = 0.48 under the present conditions. The sum of nicotine, cotinine, and 3?-hydroxycotinine concentrations in plasma showed a similar relationship to that of the plasma cotinine levels. Urinary concentrations of cotinine and the sum of nicotine metabolite concentrations also showed significant correlations with the plasma levels and the previous day’s and average cigarette consumption. The numbers of cigarettes smoked per day by two subjects with self-reported light smoking habits were predicted by measuring the urinary cotinine concentrations and using linear regression equations derived from above-mentioned data. These results indicate that biomonitoring of the urinary cotinine concentration is a good, easy-to-use marker for plasma levels of cotinine and the sum of nicotine metabolites in smokers independent of genetic polymorphism of CYP2A6.

  2. Decrease in the urine cotinine concentrations of Korean non-smokers between 2009 and 2011 following implementation of stricter smoking regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ju Hyoung; Lee, Chae Kwan; Kim, Kun Hyung; Son, Byung Chul; Kim, Jeong Ho; Suh, Chun Hui; Kim, Se Yeong; Yu, Seung Do; Kim, Sue Jin; Choi, Wook Hee; Kim, Dae Hwan; Park, Yeong Beom; Park, Seok Hwan; Lee, Soo Woong

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine if there was an association between the implementation of smoking regulation policies and the urine cotinine concentrations of Korean non-smokers. The subjects of this study were 4612 non-smoking Korean citizens (aged 19 or older) selected from the first stage of the Korean National Environmental Health Survey conducted by the National Institute of Environmental Research from 2009 to 2011. Cotinine concentrations in urine were measured by GC-MS (limit of detection: 0.05ng/mL). Changes in the urine cotinine concentration were analyzed using a weighted general linear model and linear regression and values were shown as geometric mean (GM). The GM urine cotinine concentration decreased over time (2.92ng/mL in 2009, 1.93ng/mL in 2010, and 1.25ng/mL in 2011). The total decrease in the subjects' urine cotinine concentration between 2009 and 2011 was 2.79ng/mL, representing a relative decrease of 54.7%. The decrease in GM urine cotinine concentration in each subgroup ranged from 2.17ng/mL to 3.29ng/mL (relative decreases of 46.4% and 62.8%, respectively), with the largest absolute reductions in subjects in the following groups: females, aged 40-49 years, detached residence type, no alcohol consumption, employed, secondhand smoke exposure. All groups had negative regression coefficients, all of which were significant (p<0.001). Our results provide indirect indicators of the effectiveness of smoking regulation policies including the revision of the National Health Promotion Act in Korea. PMID:26507969

  3. Comparison of Expired Carbon Monoxide and Plasma Cotinine as Markers of Cigarette Abstinence

    OpenAIRE

    Jatlow, Peter; Toll, Benjamin A.; Leary, Vanessa; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; O’Malley, Stephanie S

    2008-01-01

    The clinical pharmacology of biochemical measures of nicotine exposure has been thoroughly reviewed with regard to usefulness and limitations in detecting abstinence from cigarette smoking. While plasma nicotine concentration measures only acute nicotine exposure, plasma, salivary, and urine cotinine concentrations reflect exposure over an extended period of time. Although, expired carbon monoxide (CO) is frequently used to confirm self reports, it has a relatively short half life, calling in...

  4. Passive exposure to tobacco smoke: saliva cotinine concentrations in a representative population sample of non-smoking schoolchildren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, M.J.; Russell, M.A.; Feyerabend, C.; Eiser, J.R.; Morgan, M.; Gammage, P.; Gray, E.M.

    1985-10-05

    Saliva cotinine concentrations in 569 non-smoking schoolchildren were strongly related to the smoking habits of their parents. When neither parent smoked the mean concentration was 0.44 ng/ml, rising to 3.38 ng/ml when both parents were cigarette smokers. Mothers smoking had a stronger influence than did fathers (p less than 0.01). In addition, there was a small independent effect of number of siblings who smoked (p less than 0.01). The dose of nicotine received from fathers smoking was estimated as equivalent to the active smoking of 30 cigarettes a year, that from mothers smoking as equivalent to smoking 50 cigarettes a year, and that from both parents smoking as equivalent to smoking 80 cigarettes a year. This unsolicited burden may be prolonged throughout childhood and poses a definite risk to health.

  5. Human Blood Concentrations of Cotinine, a Biomonitoring Marker for Tobacco Smoke, Extrapolated from Nicotine Metabolism in Rats and Humans and Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Kitajima

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study defined a simplified physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK model for nicotine and its primary metabolite cotinine in humans, based on metabolic parameters determined in vitro using relevant liver microsomes, coefficients derived in silico, physiological parameters derived from the literature, and an established rat PBPK model. The model consists of an absorption compartment, a metabolizing compartment, and a central compartment for nicotine and three equivalent compartments for cotinine. Evaluation of a rat model was performed by making comparisons with predicted concentrations in blood and in vivo experimental pharmacokinetic values obtained from rats after oral treatment with nicotine (1.0 mg/kg, a no-observed-adverse-effect level for 14 days. Elimination rates of nicotine in vitro were established from data from rat liver microsomes and from human pooled liver microsomes. Human biomonitoring data (17 ng nicotine and 150 ng cotinine per mL plasma 1 h after smoking from pooled five male Japanese smokers (daily intake of 43 mg nicotine by smoking revealed that these blood concentrations could be calculated using a human PBPK model. These results indicate that a simplified PBPK model for nicotine/cotinine is useful for a forward dosimetry approach in humans and for estimating blood concentrations of other related compounds resulting from exposure to low chemical doses.

  6. Effect of Pilocarpine and Angiotensin II on Salivary Flow, Total Protein and Electrolyte Concentrations of Saliva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Abrao Saad

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Present studies have focused on the effect of intraperitonially i.p. injection of angiotensin II (ANG II and pilocarpine on the salivary secretion, salivary amylase, saliva total proteins, saliva calcium sodium and potassium. Rats were anesthetized with urethane (1.25 g kg < SUP>-1 < /SUP> b. wt.. The amount of saliva secretion was studied over a 5 min period. Male Holtzman rats (250-300 g were housed in individual metabolic cages, with free access to food pellets and tap water ad libitum. The basal salivary flow after i.p saline 0.15 M NaCl as control was 17?1 mg/5 min. Angiotensin II (120 ng/0.5 mL, increased the salivary flow. The previous application of losartan (AT < SUB>1 < /SUB> ANG II receptors antagonist blocked the sialogogue effect of ANG II. PD123319 (AT < SUB>2 < /SUB>ANG II receptors antagonist blocked with smaller intensity the effect of ANG II. Animals treated with ANG II showed no change in the concentration of total protein, salivary amylase and calcium. The same happened when treated with losartan or PD123319. ANG II increased the concentration of sodium and decreased the concentration of potassium. Losartan blocked the effect of ANG II on sodium and potassium concentration. Pilocarpine increased the salivary flow. Losartan and PD123319 produced no change in salivary flow stimulated by pilocarpine. Pilocarpine did not alter the total protein, salivary amylase and calcium. Previous application of losartan and PD123319 produced no change in this pilocarpine effect. Pilocarpine decreased sodium and potassium concentration. Losartan and PD123319 produced no change in these effects of pilocarpine. In conclusion the results of the present study showed the importance of ANG II and pilocarpine in the control of the mechanism of salivary secretion and in the sodium and potassium-saliva concentration.

  7. Blood Cotinine Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    This indicator describes the presence of cotinine in the blood of the U.S. population from 1999 to 2008. Blood cotinine levels from this period are also compared to those measured during earlier surveys (1988 to 1991). Blood cotinine is a chemical that forms inside the body af...

  8. Salivary pH as a marker of plasma adiponectin concentrations in Women

    OpenAIRE

    Tremblay Monique; Loucif Yacine; Methot Julie; Brisson Diane; Gaudet Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Plasma adiponectin is a significant correlate of the pro-inflammatory cardiometabolic risk profile associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Salivary pH is influenced by several cardiometabolic risk components such as inflammation, oxidation and numerous oral and systemic health modulators, including the menopausal status. This study aimed to assess the association between plasma adiponectin concentrations and salivary pH in women according to the menopausal status. Met...

  9. Salivary pH as a marker of plasma adiponectin concentrations in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tremblay Monique

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasma adiponectin is a significant correlate of the pro-inflammatory cardiometabolic risk profile associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Salivary pH is influenced by several cardiometabolic risk components such as inflammation, oxidation and numerous oral and systemic health modulators, including the menopausal status. This study aimed to assess the association between plasma adiponectin concentrations and salivary pH in women according to the menopausal status. Method Unstimulated saliva collection was performed in 151 Caucasian women of French-Canadian origin (53 premenopausal women (PMW and 98 menopausal women (MW. Student's t test, ANOVA and linear regression models were used to assess the association between plasma adiponectin concentrations and salivary pH. Results Plasma adiponectin levels increased as a function of salivary pH in the whole sample and among MW (r = 0.29 and r = 0.36, p 2 was 10.8% (p Conclusions These results suggest that salivary pH is a significant correlate of plasma adiponectin levels in women. With the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes and obesity, new technologies should be developed to more easily monitor health status, disease onset and progression. Salivary pH, a simple, inexpensive and non-invasive measure, could be a very promising avenue.

  10. Diurnal salivary cortisol concentrations in Parkinson’s disease: increased total secretion and morning cortisol concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skogar Ö

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Ö Skogar1,4, P-A Fall2, G Hallgren3, J Lökk4, B Bringer2, M Carlsson1, U Lennartsson3, H Sandbjork3, C-J Törnhage51Department of Geriatrics, Ryhov Hospital, Jonkoping, 2Department of Geriatrics, University Hospital, Linkoping, 3Department of Neurology, Skaraborg Hospital, Skovde, 4Institute of Neurobiology, Care Sciences, and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, 5Department of Pediatrics, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, SwedenBackground: Parkinson’s disease (PD is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder. There is limited knowledge about the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in PD. The primary aim of this prospective study was to analyze diurnal salivary cortisol concentrations in patients with PD and correlate these with age, gender, body mass index (BMI, duration of PD, and pain. The secondary aim was to compare the results with a healthy reference group.Methods: Fifty-nine PD patients, 35 women and 24 men, aged 50–79 years, were recruited. The reference group comprised healthy individuals matched for age, gender, BMI, and time point for sampling. Salivary cortisol was collected at 8 am, 1 pm, and 8 pm, and 8 am the next day using cotton-based Salivette® tubes and analyzed using Spectria® Cortisol I125. A visual analog scale was used for estimation of pain.Results: The median cortisol concentration was 16.0 (5.8–30.2 nmol/L at 8 am, 5.8 (3.0–16.4 at 1 pm, 2.8 (1.6–8.0 at 8 pm, and 14.0 (7.5–28.7 at 8 am the next day. Total secretion and rate of cortisol secretion during the day (8 am–8 pm and the concentration of cortisol on the next morning were lower (12.5 nmol/L in the reference group. No significant correlations with age, gender, BMI, duration of PD, Hoehn and Yahr score, Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale III score, gait, pain, or cortisol concentrations were found.Conclusion: The neurodegenerative changes in PD does not seem to interfere with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Salivary cortisol concentrations in PD patients were increased in the morning compared with the reference group, and were not influenced by motor dysfunction, duration of disease, or coexistence of chronic or acute pain.Keywords: cortisol, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, Parkinson's disease

  11. Relation of passive smoking as assessed by salivary cotinine concentration and questionnaire to spirometric indices in children.

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, D.G.; Whincup, P.H.; Papacosta, O.; Strachan, D P; Jarvis, M.J.; Bryant, A.

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies of the effects of passive exposure to smoke on spirometric indices in children have largely relied on questionnaire measures of exposure. This may have resulted in underestimation of the true effect of passive smoking. Biochemical measures offer the opportunity to estimate recent exposure directly. METHODS: The relation between spirometric indices and passive exposure to tobacco smoke was examined in a large population sample of 5-7 year old children from 10 towns...

  12. Cotinine Concentrations in Follicular Fluid as a Measure of Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Women Undergoing In Vitro Fertilization: Inter-matrix Comparisons with Urine and Temporal Variability

    OpenAIRE

    Benedict, Merle D.; Missmer, Stacey A; Vitonis, Allison F.; Cramer, Daniel W; MEEKER, JOHN D.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the relationship between cotinine measures in follicular fluid (FF) and urine to inform our exposure assessment strategy for an ongoing epidemiological study of secondhand tobacco smoke (STS) exposure and early pregnancy loss. Among subjects undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF), we compared cotinine levels in paired urine and FF samples from the same women and examined FF cotinine levels over time. We found a weak rank-order relationship (Spearman r

  13. Saliva cotinine and recent smoking--evidence for a nonlinear relationship.

    OpenAIRE

    G.E. Swan; Habina, K; Means, B; Jobe, J B; Esposito, J L

    1993-01-01

    Cotinine concentration in various body fluids is considered to be among the most useful markers of nicotine exposure currently available. Despite the prevailing consensus concerning cotinine's usefulness, cotinine's large intrasubject variability has led some to question the value of a single-point measurement. Several individual differences (for example, age, race, sex, and so forth) may affect cotinine excretion, and a peculiar nonlinearity between the number of cigarettes smoked and cotini...

  14. A surrogate method for comparison analysis of salivary concentrations of Xylitol-containing products

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou Lingmei; Tolentino Ernie; Hagstrom Mary K; Mueller Gregory; Rothen Marilynn; Ly Kiet A; Milgrom Peter; Riedy Christine A; Roberts Marilyn C

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Xylitol chewing gum has been shown to reduce Streptococcus mutans levels and decay. Two studies examined the presence and time course of salivary xylitol concentrations delivered via xylitol-containing pellet gum and compared them to other xylitol-containing products. Methods A within-subjects design was used for both studies. Study 1, adults (N = 15) received three xylitol-containing products (pellet gum (2.6 g), gummy bears (2.6 g), and commercially available stick gum (...

  15. Toxicokinetics and correlation of carbamazepine salivary and serum concentrations in acute poisonings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?or?evi? Snežana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Saliva is a body fluid which, like serum, can be used for determination of concentrations of certain drugs, both in pharmacotherapy as well as in acute poisonings. The aim of this study was to determine carbamazepine concentrations in both saliva and serum in acute poisoning in order to show if there is a correlation between the obtained values, as well as to monitor toxicokinetics of carbamazepine in body fluides. Methods. Saliva and serum samples were obtained from 26 patients treated with carbamazepine and 20 patients acutely poisoned by the drug immediately after their admission in the Emergency Toxicology Unit. Determination of salivary and serum carbamazepine concentrations was performed by the validated high pressure liquid chromatographyultraviolet (HPLC-UV method. Results. A significant correlation of salivary and serum carbamazepine concentrations in both therapeutic application and acute poisoning (r = 0.9481 and 0.9117, respectively was confirmed. In acute poisonings the mean ratio between salivary and serum concentrations of carbamazepine (0.43 was similar to the mean ratio after its administration in therapeutic doses (0.39, but there were high inter-individual variations in carbamazepine concentrations in the acutely poisoned patients, as a consequence of different ingested doses of the drug. In acute poisoning the halftime of carbamazepine in saliva and serum was 12.57 h and 6.76 h, respectively. Conclusion. Our results suggest a possible use of saliva as an alternative biological material for determination of carbamazepine concentrations in therapeutic application and acute poisoning as well, and a possible extrapolation of the results obtained in saliva to serum concentrations of carbamazepine.

  16. Investigation of The Association between Salivary Procalcitonin Concentration and Chronic Periodontitis

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    Hojatollah Yousefimanesh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Chronic periodontitis is the most common form of periodontal disease. Changes in biomarkers seem to be associated with the disease progression. Procalcitonin (PCT is one of these biomarkers that are altered during infection. This study was established to investigate the relationship between periodontitis as an infectious disease and salivary PCT. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was performed on 30 patients with generalized chronic periodontitis and 30 health individuals as control group who were referred to Dental School, Jundishapur University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran at Feb to Apr 2014. The saliva samples were collected and analyzed by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA method. Data analysis was performed using t test with the SPSS (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA version 13. Results: In both groups, age and sex distribution values were not significantly different. The concentrations of salivary PCT in controls and patients ranged from 0.081 pg/ mL to 0.109 pg/mL and from 0.078 pg/mL to 0.114 pg/mL, respectively. The statistically significant differences between the two groups were not observed (P=0.17. Conclusion: It seems that salivary PCT concentration is not affected by disease progression. Therefore, PCT is not a valuable marker for the existence of periodontal disease.

  17. The relationship between salivary cortisol concentrations and anxiety in adolescent and non-adolescent pregnant women

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P.H.C., Rondó; A.J., Vaz; F., Moraes; A., Tomkins.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between salivary cortisol concentrations and self-report anxiety in 50 adolescent and 178 non-adolescent women during the last month of pregnancy. The subjects were randomly selected from a previous study involving women who att [...] ended antenatal care from September 1997 to August 2000 at 17 health services in Southeast Brazil. Salivary cortisol was measured with an enzyme immunoassay kit, and anxiety was assessed by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventories (STAI) of Spielberger. After saliva collection, the participants completed the STAI. Mean concentrations of cortisol for both pregnant adolescents (14.17 ± 6.78 nmol/l) and non-adolescents (13.81 ± 8.51 nmol/l) were similar (P = 0.89). Forty-three percent of the pregnant adolescents and 30.5% of the non-adolescents felt anxious at the time of being questioned (State Anxiety Inventory (SAI) scores >40; P = 0.06). Cortisol concentrations in adolescents were negatively related to the SAI scores (r = -0.39; P = 0.01) which assess a temporary condition of anxiety. There was a statistically significant difference in mean cortisol concentrations between adolescents with low (40) SAI scores (P = 0.03, t-test), but no differences for non-adolescents. The negative relationship between salivary cortisol concentrations and anxiety scores in adolescents may be due to puberty-related hormone differences during this period of life. Pregnant adolescents may possess unique biological or psychological characteristics compared to adults and non-pregnant adolescents. Thus, we need to know more about the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis of pregnant adolescents.

  18. Salivary testosterone concentrations in pubertal ICSI boys compared with spontaneously conceived boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belva, F; Bonduelle, M; Schiettecatte, J; Tournaye, H; Painter, R C; Devroey, P; De Schepper, J

    2011-02-01

    BACKGROUND To date, no data exist about Leydig cell function of pubertal boys born after ICSI. To evaluate a potential risk of gonadal dysfunction in children born from fathers with compromised fertility, testicular function was assessed by the measurement of salivary testosterone. METHODS Morning salivary testosterone levels at the age of 14 years were compared between 58 ICSI teenagers who are part of the oldest ICSI cohort, and 62 boys born after spontaneous conception (SC). RESULTS Salivary testosterone levels were comparable between ICSI (113 ± 42 pg/ml) and SC (123 ± 56 pg/ml) teenagers at the age of 14 years. In the ICSI group, testosterone levels in boys from fathers with severe oligozoospermia were not different from concentrations in boys from fathers without severe oligozoospermia (115.5 ± 43 and 109 ± 41 pg/ml, respectively). CONCLUSIONS At the age of 14 years, pubertal ICSI boys show testosterone levels comparable to their peers born after SC. ICSI adolescents fathered from men with severely compromised spermatogenesis show testosterone levels comparable to those from fathers with normal spermatogenesis. This notwithstanding, further follow-up of ICSI teenagers into adulthood is mandatory to confirm a normal gonadal function. PMID:21138905

  19. Biomonitoring of Urinary Cotinine Concentrations Associated with Plasma Levels of Nicotine Metabolites after Daily Cigarette Smoking in a Male Japanese Population

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroshi Yamazaki; Fumiaki Shono; Tetsuya Kamataki; Ryohji Takano; Norie Murayama; Taku Nagano; Makiko Shimizu; Kazuma Kiyotani

    2010-01-01

    Human biomonitoring of plasma and urinary levels of nicotine, cotinine, and 3?-hydroxycotinine was conducted after daily cigarette smoking in a population of 92 male Japanese smokers with a mean age of 37 years who had smoked an average of 23 cigarettes per day for 16 years. Members of the population were genotyped for the nicotine-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6). The mean levels of nicotine, the levels of its metabolites cotinine and 3?-hydroxycotinine, and the sum of these ...

  20. Salivary protein concentration, flow rate, buffer capacity and pH estimation: A comparative study among young and elderly subjects, both normal and with gingivitis and periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulki Shaila

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To evaluate the salivary protein concentration in gingivitis and periodontitis patients and compare the parameters like salivary total protein, salivary albumin, salivary flow rate, pH, buffer capacity and flow rate in both young and elderly patients with simple methods. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty subjects were grouped based on their age as young and elderly. Each group was subgrouped (20 subjects as controls, gingivitis and periodontitis. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from patients and flow rate was noted down during collection of the sample. Salivary protein estimation was done using the Biuret method and salivary albumin was assessed using the Bromocresol green method. pH was estimated with a pHmeter and buffering capacity was analyzed with the titration method. Student?s t-test, Fisher?s test (ANOVA and Tukey HSD (ANOVA tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: A very highly significant rise in the salivary total protein and albumin concentration was noted in gingivitis and periodontitis subjects of both young and elderly. An overall decrease in salivary flow rate was observed among the elderly, and also the salivary flow rate of women was significantly lower than that of men. Conclusion: S ignificant associations between salivary total protein and albumin in gingivitis and periodontitis were found with simple biochemical tests. A decrease in salivary flow rate among elderly and among women was noted.

  1. Are cotinine assays of value in predicting adverse pregnancy outcome?

    OpenAIRE

    Mathews, F; Smith, R.; Yukdin, P; Neil, A.

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the utility of maternal cotinine concentration as a predictor of preterm and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) deliveries. Subjects were randomly selected from antenatal clinics, and their serum cotinine concentrations at approximately 16 weeks' gestation were compared with self-reports of smoking. The value of these measures in predicting preterm and SGA deliveries was examined, using likelihood ratios and logistic regression, for 845 women with singleton, live births. Smoking ...

  2. Serum cotinine as a measure of tobacco smoke exposure in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pattishall, E.N.; Strope, G.L.; Etzel, R.A.; Helms, R.W.; Haley, N.J.; Denny, F.W.

    1985-11-01

    To document passive smoke exposure, the authors measured concentrations of serum cotinine, a major metabolite of nicotine, in 38 young children and compared the results with the smoking histories of home residents. Cotinine was detected in 26 children (68%), of which ten had no household exposure according to a questionnaire. The serum cotinine concentration was significantly elevated in blacks compared with whites after controlling for the number of smokers in the home. After stratifying by race, there was a significant direct correlation between the serum cotinine concentration and the number of smokers in the home, the amount smoked by the mother, and the amount smoked by others in the home. We conclude that the serum cotinine concentration is a useful indicator of the actual exposure of young children to tobacco smoke and that unexplained racial differences in cotinine levels exist.

  3. A two-year follow-up study of salivary cortisol concentration and the risk of depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grynderup, Matias BrØdsgaard; Kolstad, Henrik A.

    2013-01-01

    Stress is a suspected cause of depression. High cortisol concentration, a biomarker of an activated stress response, has been found in depressed patients. The aim of this study was to determine if a high level of salivary cortisol is a risk factor of depression. In 2007, we enrolled 4467 public employees. Morning and evening salivary cortisol concentration were measured for each participant. Participants reporting high levels of depressive, burnout, or stress symptoms, assessed by questionnaires were assigned to a psychiatric interview. In this interview 98 participants were diagnosed with depression and subsequently excluded. Two years later in 2009, 2920 participants who had provided at least one valid saliva cortisol measurement at baseline participated at follow up. The psychiatric interviews were repeated and 62 cases of newly onset depression were diagnosed. Odds ratios of depression were estimated for every 1.0nmol/l increase in morning, evening, and daily mean cortisol concentration, as well as for the difference between morning and evening cortisol concentration. The risk of depression decreased by increasing daily mean cortisol concentration and by increasing difference between morning and evening concentrations, while morning and evening cortisol concentrations were not significantly associated with depression. The adjusted odds ratios for 1.0nmol/l increase in morning, evening, and daily mean cortisol concentration were 0.69 (95% CI: 0.45, 1.05), 0.87 (95% CI: 0.59, 1.28), and 0.53 (95% CI: 0.32, 0.90), respectively. The adjusted odds ratio for 1.0nmol/l increase in difference between morning and evening concentration were 0.64 (95% CI: 0.45, 0.90). This study did not support the hypothesis that high salivary cortisol concentration is a risk factor of depression, but indicate that low mean salivary cortisol concentration and a small difference between morning and evening cortisol concentration may be risk factors of depression.

  4. Human Blood Concentrations of Cotinine, a Biomonitoring Marker for Tobacco Smoke, Extrapolated from Nicotine Metabolism in Rats and Humans and Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Masato Kitajima; Norie Murayama; Makiko Shimizu; Taku Nagano; Ryohji Takano; Kana Horiuchi; Hiroshi Yamazaki; Fumiaki Shono

    2010-01-01

    The present study defined a simplified physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for nicotine and its primary metabolite cotinine in humans, based on metabolic parameters determined in vitro using relevant liver microsomes, coefficients derived in silico, physiological parameters derived from the literature, and an established rat PBPK model. The model consists of an absorption compartment, a metabolizing compartment, and a central compartment for nicotine and three equivalent compar...

  5. A surrogate method for comparison analysis of salivary concentrations of Xylitol-containing products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Lingmei

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Xylitol chewing gum has been shown to reduce Streptococcus mutans levels and decay. Two studies examined the presence and time course of salivary xylitol concentrations delivered via xylitol-containing pellet gum and compared them to other xylitol-containing products. Methods A within-subjects design was used for both studies. Study 1, adults (N = 15 received three xylitol-containing products (pellet gum (2.6 g, gummy bears (2.6 g, and commercially available stick gum (Koolerz, 3.0 g; Study 2, a second group of adults (N = 15 received three xylitol-containing products (pellet gum, gummy bears, and a 33% xylitol syrup (2.67 g. For both studies subjects consumed one xylitol product per visit with a 7-day washout between each product. A standardized protocol was followed for each product visit. Product order was randomly determined at the initial visit. Saliva samples (0.5 mL to 1.0 mL were collected at baseline and up to 10 time points (~16 min in length after product consumption initiated. Concentration of xylitol in saliva samples was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. Area under the curve (AUC for determining the average xylitol concentration in saliva over the total sampling period was calculated for each product. Results In both studies all three xylitol products (Study 1: pellet gum, gummy bears, and stick gum; Study 2: pellet gum, gummy bears, and syrup had similar time curves with two xylitol concentration peaks during the sampling period. Study 1 had its highest mean peaks at the 4 min sampling point while Study 2 had its highest mean peaks between 13 to 16 minutes. Salivary xylitol levels returned to baseline at about 18 minutes for all forms tested. Additionally, for both studies the total AUC for the xylitol products were similar compared to the pellet gum (Study 1: pellet gum – 51.3 ?g.min/mL, gummy bears – 59.6 ?g.min/mL, and stick gum – 46.4 ?g.min/mL; Study 2: pellet gum – 63.0 ?g.min/mL, gummy bears – 55.9 ?g.min/mL, and syrup – 59.0 ?g.min/mL. Conclusion The comparison method demonstrated high reliability and validity. In both studies other xylitol-containing products had time curves and mean xylitol concentration peaks similar to xylitol pellet gum suggesting this test may be a surrogate for longer studies comparing various products.

  6. Absence of chronic effect of exposure to short-wave radio broadcast signal on salivary melatonin concentrations in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stärk, K D; Krebs, T; Altpeter, E; Manz, B; Griot, C; Abelin, T

    1997-05-01

    A pilot study was conducted to investigate the influence of electromagnetic fields in the short-wave range (3-30 MHz) radio transmitter signals on salivary melatonin concentration in dairy cattle. The hypothesis to be tested was whether EMF exposure would lower salivary melatonin concentrations, and whether removal of the EMF source would be followed by higher concentration levels. For this pilot study, a controlled intervention trial was designed. Two commercial dairy herds at two farms were compared, one located at a distance of 500 m (exposed), the other at a distance of 4,000 m (unexposed) from the transmitter. At each farm, five cows were monitored with respect to their salivary melatonin concentrations over a period of ten consecutive days. Saliva samples were collected at two-hour intervals during the dark phase of the night. As an additional intervention, the short-wave transmitter was switched off during three of the ten days (off phase). The samples were analyzed using a radioimmunoassay. The average nightly field strength readings were 21-fold greater on the exposed farm (1.59 mA/m) than on the control farm (0.076 mA/m). The mean values of the two initial nights did not show a statistically significant difference between exposed and unexposed cows. Therefore, a chronic melatonin reduction effect seemed unlikely. However, on the first night of re-exposure after the transmitter had been off for three days, the difference in salivary melatonin concentration between the two farms (3.89 pg/ml, CI: 2.04, 7.41) was statistically significant, indicating a two- to seven-fold increase of melatonin concentration. Thus, a delayed acute effect of EMF on melatonin concentration cannot completely be excluded. However, results should be interpreted with caution and further trials are required in order to confirm the results. PMID:9247202

  7. Effect of Pilocarpine and Angiotensin II on Salivary Flow, Total Protein and Electrolyte Concentrations of Saliva

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson Abrao Saad; Laura Izabel Gutierrez; Regina Celia Vendramini; Andre Henrique Freiria de Oliveira; Luiz Antonio de Arruda Camargo; Gustavo Garcia

    2005-01-01

    Present studies have focused on the effect of intraperitonially i.p. injection of angiotensin II (ANG II) and pilocarpine on the salivary secretion, salivary amylase, saliva total proteins, saliva calcium sodium and potassium. Rats were anesthetized with urethane (1.25 g kg < SUP>-1 < /SUP> b. wt.). The amount of saliva secretion was studied over a 5 min period. Male Holtzman rats (250-300 g) were housed in individual metabolic cages, with free access to food pellets and tap water...

  8. Salivary oxytocin concentrations in response to running, sexual self-stimulation, breastfeeding and the TSST: The Regensburg Oxytocin Challenge (ROC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, Trynke R de; Menon, Rohit; Bludau, Anna; Grund, Thomas; Biermeier, Verena; Klampfl, Stefanie M; Jurek, Benjamin; Bosch, Oliver J; Hellhammer, Juliane; Neumann, Inga D

    2015-12-01

    Intranasal oxytocin (OXT) application is emerging as a potential treatment for socio-emotional disorders associated with abnormalities in OXT system (re-) activity. The crucial identification of patients with such abnormalities could be streamlined by the assessment of basal and stimulus-induced OXT concentrations in saliva, using a simple, stress-free sampling procedure (i.e. an OXT challenge test). We therefore established the Regensburg Oxytocin Challenge (ROC) test to further validate salivary OXT concentrations as a practical, reliable and sensitive biomarker. OXT concentrations were quantified by radioimmunoassay in samples collected at home by healthy adult male and female volunteers before and after running ("Run") or sexual self-stimulation ("Sex"). In lactating women, salivary OXT concentrations were quantified before, during and after breastfeeding. Salivary OXT along with salivary cortisol and heart rate were monitored in healthy adult participants undergoing the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). The home-based "Run" and "Sex" challenges as well as the laboratory-based TSST caused quantifiable, rapid, and consistent increases in salivary OXT (approximately 2.5-fold after 10-15min), which were similar for men and women. Breastfeeding did not result in measurably increased salivary OXT levels, probably because the short pulses of OXT release characteristic for lactation were missed. Taken together, ROC tests reliably assess the responsiveness of the OXT system (i.e., the increase in salivary OXT concentrations as compared to basal levels) to challenges such as "Run" and "Sex" at home or psychosocial stress (TSST) in the laboratory. Further studies with larger sample numbers are essentially needed in order to reveal individual differences in ROC test outcomes depending on, for example, genetic or environmental factors. PMID:26385109

  9. Automated homogeneous immunoassay analysis of cotinine in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedbala, R Sam; Haley, Nancy; Kardos, Stephanie; Kardos, Keith

    2002-04-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the performance comparison of a homogeneous enzyme immunoassay (EIA) designed to detect cotinine in urine and carbon monoxide (CO) breath measurements to determine smoking status. The clinical comparison was done using urine and breath specimens from 218 volunteers. Urine samples were analyzed by immunoassay and confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Breath carbon monoxide was determined by a commercial analyzer. Using cutoffs of 10 ppm for CO and 500 ng/mL for urinary cotinine, the relative sensitivity/specificity was 93.6%/74.0%. The positive predictive value was 86.8%, and the negative predictive value was 86.5%. However, comparison of the EIA to GC-MS showed a sensitivity/specificity of 96.2%/98.4% and a positive predictive value of 99.3%. The EIA was also evaluated non-clinically for precision, stability, recovery, and interferences. In addition, the non-clinical evaluation demonstrated coefficients of variation from 0.37 to 1.09% across cotinine concentrations ranging from 0 to 5000 ng/mL. The assay was found to be highly specific for cotinine and cross-reacted to a limited degree with 3-hydroxycotinine. Finally, multiple freeze-thaw cycles of urines containing cotinine showed no degradation of the drug in the specimen when tested in the EIA. Thus, the EIA tested is a rapid, lab-based test that can reliably determine cotinine levels and their relation to smoking status. PMID:11991533

  10. Validation of self reported smoking by serum cotinine measurement in a community-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Vartiainen, E; Seppala, T; Lillsunde, P; Puska, P

    2002-01-01

    Study objective: The validity of self reported smoking in population surveys remains an important question. An associated question is what would be the value of measuring serum cotinine concentrations in such surveys to obtain validated smoking data.

  11. Cotinine Levels in Asthmatic Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Delpisheh

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Asthmatic children are more at risk to environmental tobacco smoke exposure (ETS due to impaired lower airway function. Objective: To investigate the association of low socio-economic status and ETS exposure in asthmatic children. Design: A cross-sectional study on 425 primary school children (aged 5-11years in Merseyside, using a parent completed questionnaire and childrens’ saliva samples. Results: 25.9 % of children had doctor diagnosed asthma and 12 % had a history of hospital admission for respiratory illnesses. The symptom triad of cough, wheeze and breathlessness were reported for 8.5% of children. Mean cotinine level was 2.1 ng/ml (±0.6 SD. 45.6% of children were ETS exposed (cotinine levels >1.0 ng/ml. Asthmatic children and those from disadvantaged households were more likely to be ETS exposed, compared to non-asthmatic and those from advantaged households [OR=1.7 (95%CI=1.1-2.4] and [OR=2.1(1.8-3.2 respectively]. A synergic effect of parental asthma, deprivation and high cotinine levels on childhood asthma was observed in multivariate analysis. Conclusions: A high cotinine level was significantly associated with an increased risk of asthma in children particularly amongst disadvantaged households. Interventions aimed at limiting ETS exposure particularly among disadvantaged groups with asthmatic children are needed.

  12. Flujo y concentración de proteínas en saliva total humana Salivary flow rate and protein concentration in human whole saliva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ ANTONIO BANDERAS-TARABAY

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar los promedios de flujo salival y la concentración de proteínas totales en una población joven del Estado de México. Material y métodos. Se seleccionaron 120 sujetos a quienes se les colectó saliva total humana (STH no estimulada y estimulada, la cual se analizó por medio de gravimetría y espectrofotometría (LV/LU; se calcularon medidas de tendencia central y de dispersión; posteriormente, se correlacionaron estos datos con los índices CPOD y CPITN. Resultados. Los sujetos estudiados mostraron un promedio de flujo salival (ml/min ± DE en STH no estimulada de 0.397±.26, y en STH estimulada, de 0.973±.53. El promedio en la concentración de proteínas (mg/ml ± DE fue de 1.374±.45 en STH no estimulada y de 1.526±.44 en STH estimulada. Las mujeres presentaron un menor porcentaje de flujo salival y mayor concentración de proteínas. No se observaron correlaciones entre el flujo y la concentración de proteínas totales y el CPOD y CPITN; sin embargo, sí las hubo con otras variables. Conclusiones. Estos hallazgos podrían estar asociados con el grado de nutrición, las características genéticas y los niveles de salud bucal en nuestra población. El presente estudio representa la fase inicial de la creación de una base de datos en sialoquímica, cuya meta será identificar los parámetros que indiquen el riesgo de enfermedades sistémicas o bucodentales.Objective. To determine the average salivary flow rates and total protein concentrations in a population of the State of Mexico. Material and methods. A gravimetric and spectrophotometric analysis was applied to 120 subjects in total resting and stimulated whole saliva and results were correlated with the DMFT and CPITN indexes. Results. Subjects allowed average salivary flow rate (ml/min ± SD in non-stimulated human whole saliva (HWS of 0.397±.26 and in stimulated HWS of 0.973±.53. Average protein concentration was (mg/ml ± SD 1.374±.45 in non-stimulated HWS and 1.526±.44 in stimulated HWS. Females showed a lower percentage of salivary flow and greater protein concentrations. No correlations were observed between flow and total protein concentration, and DMFT and CPITN; however, correlations were present with other variables. Conclusions. These findings could be associated to degree of nutrition, genetic characteristics and level of oral disease in our population. Present results represent the first step to create a database in sialochemistry to identify risk indicators of specific oral and systemic diseases.

  13. Flujo y concentración de proteínas en saliva total humana / Salivary flow rate and protein concentration in human whole saliva

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    JOSÉ ANTONIO, BANDERAS-TARABAY; MIREYA, GONZÁLEZ-BEGNÉ; MARTHA, SÁNCHEZ-GARDUÑO; ELVA, MILLÁN-CORTÉZ; ARACELI, LÓPEZ-RODRÍGUEZ; ARACELI, VILCHIS-VELÁZQUEZ.

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar los promedios de flujo salival y la concentración de proteínas totales en una población joven del Estado de México. Material y métodos. Se seleccionaron 120 sujetos a quienes se les colectó saliva total humana (STH) no estimulada y estimulada, la cual se analizó por medio de gra [...] vimetría y espectrofotometría (LV/LU); se calcularon medidas de tendencia central y de dispersión; posteriormente, se correlacionaron estos datos con los índices CPOD y CPITN. Resultados. Los sujetos estudiados mostraron un promedio de flujo salival (ml/min ± DE) en STH no estimulada de 0.397±.26, y en STH estimulada, de 0.973±.53. El promedio en la concentración de proteínas (mg/ml ± DE) fue de 1.374±.45 en STH no estimulada y de 1.526±.44 en STH estimulada. Las mujeres presentaron un menor porcentaje de flujo salival y mayor concentración de proteínas. No se observaron correlaciones entre el flujo y la concentración de proteínas totales y el CPOD y CPITN; sin embargo, sí las hubo con otras variables. Conclusiones. Estos hallazgos podrían estar asociados con el grado de nutrición, las características genéticas y los niveles de salud bucal en nuestra población. El presente estudio representa la fase inicial de la creación de una base de datos en sialoquímica, cuya meta será identificar los parámetros que indiquen el riesgo de enfermedades sistémicas o bucodentales. Abstract in english Objective. To determine the average salivary flow rates and total protein concentrations in a population of the State of Mexico. Material and methods. A gravimetric and spectrophotometric analysis was applied to 120 subjects in total resting and stimulated whole saliva and results were correlated wi [...] th the DMFT and CPITN indexes. Results. Subjects allowed average salivary flow rate (ml/min ± SD) in non-stimulated human whole saliva (HWS) of 0.397±.26 and in stimulated HWS of 0.973±.53. Average protein concentration was (mg/ml ± SD) 1.374±.45 in non-stimulated HWS and 1.526±.44 in stimulated HWS. Females showed a lower percentage of salivary flow and greater protein concentrations. No correlations were observed between flow and total protein concentration, and DMFT and CPITN; however, correlations were present with other variables. Conclusions. These findings could be associated to degree of nutrition, genetic characteristics and level of oral disease in our population. Present results represent the first step to create a database in sialochemistry to identify risk indicators of specific oral and systemic diseases.

  14. Passive smoking and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke: prospective study with cotinine measurement.

    OpenAIRE

    Whincup, PH; Gilg, JA; Emberson, JR; Jarvis, MJ; Feyerabend, C.; Bryant, A.; Walker, M.; Cook, DG

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between a biomarker of overall passive exposure to tobacco smoke (serum cotinine concentration) and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. DESIGN: Prospective population based study in general practice (the British regional heart study). PARTICIPANTS: 4729 men in 18 towns who provided baseline blood samples (for cotinine assay) and a detailed smoking history in 1978-80. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Major coronary heart disease and stroke events (fatal and n...

  15. Time to first cigarette after waking predicts cotinine levels

    OpenAIRE

    Muscat, Joshua E; Stellman, Steven D.; Caraballo, Ralph S.; Richie, John P.

    2009-01-01

    There is wide variability in cotinine levels per cigarette smoked. We hypothesized that in addition to smoking frequency, other behavioral measures of nicotine dependence such as the time to first cigarette after waking are associated with cotinine levels. To test this hypothesis, we measured plasma and urinary cotinine in a community-based study of 252 black and white daily cigarette smokers. Results: Among one pack per day smokers, plasma cotinine levels varied from 16 to 1180 (ng/ml), a 74...

  16. Effect of casein phosphopeptide - amorphous calcium phosphate containing chewing gum on salivary concentration of calcium and phosphorus: An in-vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B P Santhosh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Caries clinical trials of sugar-free chewing gum have shown that the gum is noncariogenic and in fact has anticariogenic effect through the stimulation of saliva. Sugar-free gums, therefore, may be an excellent delivery vehicle for safe and effective additive, capable of promoting enamel remineralization. Casein phosphopeptide - amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP nanocomplexes incorporated into sugar-free chewing gum have shown to remineralize enamel subsurface lesions in situ. So this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of CPP-ACP containing sugar-free chewing gum on salivary concentration of calcium and phosphorous. Materials and Methods : Unstimulated saliva from each 24 selected subjects was collected. Then each subject was given two pellets of chewing gum containing CPP-ACP and asked to chew for a period of 20 min, after which saliva samples were collected from each individual. Once all the samples were collected they were assessed for calcium and phosphorous concentration using affiliated reagent kits and photometer. Statistical Analysis Used: Data obtained were analyzed using student?s paired t test. Results: Significant difference was found in the calcium and phosphorus concentration of saliva before and after chewing CPP-ACP containing chewing gum. Conclusions: Chewing of CPP-ACP containing chewing gum showed a significant increase in the salivary concentration of calcium for a prolonged period of time hence it may help in the remineralization of tooth surfaces.

  17. Variation of serum and urine cotinine in passive and active smokers and applicability in preconceptional smoking cessation counseling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study assessed the applicability of serum and urine cotinine as a biochemical marker of self-reported smoking habits for use in a preconception smoking cessation program. The variation of serum and urine cotinine over the course of the day was investigated in a sample of 21 smokers and 8 passive smokers who reported their smoking habits and exposure to smoke daily in a questionnaire for 10 consecutive days. Blood and urine samples were collected on two sampling days, 1 week apart. Both serum and urine cotinine assay could distinguish between passive and active smokers, but not between higher categories of smokers (1019 and ?20 cigarettes per ay) due to significant intersubject overlap. In serum, no significant differences were found between morning and afternoon cotinine concentrations in either day, in contrast to urine cotinine (with lower excretions observed n the morning). An overall coefficient of variation of 22- was observed for both specimens in smokers. Because serum cotinine is subject to lower variability over the course of the day, it is more practical for use in a clinical setting where appointments are scheduled throughout the day in order o confirm smoking status

  18. Determinants of serum cotinine and hair cotinine as biomarkers of childhood secondhand smoke exposure

    OpenAIRE

    KALKBRENNER, AMY E.; Hornung, Richard W; Bernert, John T.; Hammond, S Katherine; Braun, Joe M.; LANPHEAR, BRUCE P.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the determinants of childhood secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is important in measuring and preventing exposure to this widespread environmental contaminant. We evaluated the ability of a broad set of factors to explain variability in serum cotinine, reflecting recent exposure, and hair cotinine, reflecting longer-term exposure. We included repeated measures from 223 elementary-school-age asthmatic children residing with a smoker. We used a manual model-building approach and lik...

  19. Deuterium isotope effects in the in vivo metabolism of cotinine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an attempt to further understanding of the molecular mechanisms associated with the mammalian oxidative metabolism of foreign substances, the deuterium isotope effect involved in the in vivo metabolism of the tobacco alkaloid cotinine was investigated. Mixtures of cotinine-d0 and cotinine-3,3-d2 in varying ratios were administered to Rhesus monkeys. Unchanged drug and several of its oxidized metabolites including trans-3-hydroxycotinine were isolated from the 24-hr urine collection. The deuterium contents of these isolated compounds were found to be greater than that present in the administered cotinine except for trans-3-hydroxycotinine which showed a substantial decrease in the deuterium to proton ratio. On the basis of these determinations the deuterium isotope effect for the 3-hydroxylation of cotinine was calculated to be between 6 and 7, indicating that carbon--hydrogen bond cleavage is likely to be involved in the rate-determining step in this metabolic conversion. (U.S.)

  20. Racial Differences in Serum Cotinine Levels of Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Signorello, Lisa B.; Qiuyin Cai; Tarone, Robert E; McLaughlin, Joseph K; BLOT, WILLIAM J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate black/white differences in cotinine levels for current smokers of both sexes, and to explore the potential contribution of mentholated cigarettes to these differences. Sera from 255 current smokers sampled from Southern Community Cohort Study participants (65 black men, 65 black women, 63 white men, 62 white women) were analyzed for cotinine, and linear regression was used to model the effect of race on cotinine level, adjusting for the number of ciga...

  1. Serum cotinine level as predictor of lung cancer risk.

    OpenAIRE

    P. Boffetta; Clark, S.; Shen, M; Gislefoss, R; Peto, R; Andersen, A.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: No prospective studies are available on serum cotinine level as a marker of lung cancer risk. METHODS: We analyzed serum cotinine level among 1,741 individuals enrolled since the 1970s in a prospective study of Norwegian volunteers who developed lung cancer during the follow-up and 1,741 matched controls free from lung cancer. Serum cotinine was measured with a competitive immunoassay. Regression dilution was corrected for based on repeated measures on samples from 747 subjects. R...

  2. Comparación de la concentración total de proteínas salivales de adultos y adultos mayores Comparison of total salivary protein concentration in adults and older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RJ Castro

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Entre las moléculas orgánicas que componen la saliva se han descrito un gran número de proteínas. No existe evidencia suficiente que permita especular sobre los cambios en el contenido proteico salival asociados al envejecimiento normal. El objetivo fue determinar si existen diferencias en la concentración total de proteínas en saliva de adultos y adultos mayores. Método: Se obtuvieron muestras de saliva estimulada y no estimulada de individuos pertenecientes a dos grupos etarios, adultos (A (n=30 (edad promedio: 25 años y adultos mayores (AM (n=30 (edad promedio: 68 años. Se excluyeron aquellos sujetos que presentaron alguna patología oral/sistémica o consumo de fármacos/sustancias relacionados con alteraciones del flujo o composición salival. Cada muestra fue centrifugada. A 10 µl del sobrenadante se agregaron 190 µl de solución de Bradford. Se realizó el recuento mediante lectura con espectrofotómetro (595 nm. La concentración de proteínas fue comparada entre los grupos en estudio utilizando la prueba t de Student (pObjective: A high number of proteins has been described in saliva. Scarce evidence allows to speculate about the variations on protein content associated with aging. The aim was to determine if there is a difference in total protein concentration between adults and older adults. Methods: Samples were collected from unstimulated and stimulated saliva of individuals from two age groups, adults (A (n=30 (mean age 25 years and older adults (OA (n=30(mean age: 68 years. Subjects with oral/systemic diseases or consuming medications that alter salivary flow were excluded from the study. Each sample was centrifuged and 10 ?l of the supernatant was added to 190 ?l of Bradford solution. Protein concentration was obtained by spectrophotometry (595 nm Protein concentration was compared between the groups using student’s t test (p<0.05. Results: Total protein concentration from unstimulated saliva was higher in OA (5.5±2.6 ug/ul than in A (3.2 ± 1.7 ug/ul (p<0.05. Total protein concentration of stimulated saliva was higher in OA (4.9±0.4 ug/ul than in A (4.0±0.3 ug/ul (p<0.05. Conclusion: Salivary protein concentration increases in older adults. Further studies are suggested to characterize these changes.

  3. Determination of a saliva cotinine cut-off to distinguish pregnant smokers from pregnant non-smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne

    2007-01-01

    Objective validation of smoking status is necessary. Earlier studies have used saliva cotinine concentrations between 14.2 and 30 ng/ml as cut-off values to distinguish pregnant smokers from non-smokers. However, these cut-offs derive from studies including men and non-pregnant women. This constitutes a problem, as recent studies have reported an accelerated metabolism in pregnant smokers. The aim of this study was to determine the optimum cut-off cotinine level distinguishing pregnant smokers from pregnant non-smokers.

  4. Determination of a saliva cotinine cut-off to distinguish pregnant smokers from pregnant non-smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F; Wachmann, Carsten Henrik; Ottesen, Bent

    2007-01-01

    Objective validation of smoking status is necessary. Earlier studies have used saliva cotinine concentrations between 14.2 and 30 ng/ml as cut-off values to distinguish pregnant smokers from non-smokers. However, these cut-offs derive from studies including men and non-pregnant women. This constitutes a problem, as recent studies have reported an accelerated metabolism in pregnant smokers. The aim of this study was to determine the optimum cut-off cotinine level distinguishing pregnant smokers f...

  5. TUMORS OF SALIVARY GLANDS

    OpenAIRE

    Gaurav Solanki

    2012-01-01

    The glands are divided into major and minor salivary gland categories. The major salivary glands are the parotid, the submandibular, and the sublingual glands. The minor glands are dispersed throughout the upper aerodigestive submucosa. Salivary gland tumors are abnormal cells growing in the ducts that drain the salivary glands. Salivary glands tumors are uncommon and are subdivided into benign neoplasms, tumor-like conditions, and malignant neoplasms. They can be removed surgically or one ca...

  6. Oral vs. salivary diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Joana; Corby, Patricia M.; Barber, Cheryl A.; Abrams, William R.; Malamud, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    The field of "salivary diagnostics" includes studies utilizing samples obtained from a variety of sources within the oral cavity. These samples include; whole unstimulated saliva, stimulated whole saliva, duct saliva collected directly from the parotid, submandibular/sublingual glands or minor salivary glands, swabs of the buccal mucosa, tongue or tonsils, and gingival crevicular fluid. Many publications state "we collected saliva from subjects" without fully describing the process or source of the oral fluid. Factors that need to be documented in any study include the time of day of the collection, the method used to stimulate and collect the fluid, and how much fluid is being collected and for how long. The handling of the oral fluid during and post-collection is also critical and may include addition of protease or nuclease inhibitors, centrifugation, and cold or frozen storage prior to assay. In an effort to create a standard protocol for determining a biomarker's origin we carried out a pilot study collecting oral fluid from 5 different sites in the mouth and monitoring the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines detected using MesoScaleDiscovery (MSD) electrochemiluminesence assays. Our data suggested that 3 of the cytokines are primarily derived from the submandibular gland, while 7 of the cytokines come from a source other than the major salivary glands such as the minor salivary glands or cells in the oral mucosae. Here we review the literature on monitoring biomarkers in oral samples and stress the need for determining the blood/saliva ratio when a quantitative determination is needed and suggest that the term oral diagnostic be used if the source of an analyte in the oral cavity is unknown.

  7. A receiver operated curve-based evaluation of change in sensitivity and specificity of cotinine urinalysis for detecting active tobacco use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatan Pal Singh Balhara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco use has been associated with various carcinomas including lung, esophagus, larynx, mouth, throat, kidney, bladder, pancreas, stomach, and cervix. Biomarkers such as concentration of cotinine in the blood, urine, or saliva have been used as objective measures to distinguish nonusers and users of tobacco products. A change in the cut-off value of urinary cotinine to detect active tobacco use is associated with a change in sensitivity and sensitivity of detection. Aim: The current study aimed at assessing the impact of using different cut-off thresholds of urinary cotinine on sensitivity and specificity of detection of smoking and smokeless tobacco product use among psychiatric patients. Settings and Design: All the male subjects attending the psychiatry out-patient department of the tertiary care multispecialty teaching hospital constituted the sample frame for the current study in a cross-sectionally. Materials and Methods: Quantitative urinary cotinine assay was done by using ELISA kits of Calbiotech. Inc., USA. We used the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve to assess the sensitivity and specificity of various cut-off values of urinary cotinine to identify active smokers and users of smokeless tobacco products. Results: ROC analysis of urinary cotinine levels in detection of self-reported smoking provided the area under curve (AUC of 0.434. Similarly, the ROC analysis of urinary cotinine levels in detection of self-reported smoking revealed AUC of 0.44. The highest sensitivity and specificity of 100% for smoking were detected at the urinary cut-off value greater than or equal to 2.47 ng/ml. Conclusions: The choice of cut-off value of urinary cotinine used to distinguish nonusers form active users of tobacco products impacts the sensitivity as well as specificity of detection.

  8. [Microanalysis of salivary calculi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, J; Vignoles, M; Bonel, G; Lodter, J P

    1986-09-01

    Eight salivary calculi were sectioned along a plane of symmetry and the sections studied by microanalysis. Three different regions were observed: a central region with one or several strongly mineralized nuclei, a stratified, less mineralized region with a lower Ca/P ratio and finally a peripheral weakly calcified region. Although inclusions with high silicium or sulfur concentrations were found in all samples, their role in the genesis of calculus is not clear. Most often filamentous mineralized bacteria were observed by scanning electron microscopy on the external stone surface. PMID:3464590

  9. Urea concentration in minor mucous gland secretions and the effect of salivary film velocity on urea metabolism by Streptococcus vestibularis in an artificial plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, L M; Dawes, C

    1991-09-01

    Our purpose was to determine the urea concentration in minor mucous gland (MMG) secretions and the pH at proximal and distal aspects of the lower surface of artificial plaque in vitro during infusion of urea solutions over the surface, at different film velocities. Saliva is present in the mouth as a slowly moving film (ca. 0.1 mm thick) with an estimated velocity in the range of 0.8-8.0 mm/min. At low velocities, due to the accumulation of bacterial products, a progressive increase in their concentration may occur in both the plaque and the overlying salivary film at the distal edge (where the film leaves the plaque). S. vestibularis, an oral micro-organism possessing ureolytic activity, was combined with 1% agarose, to give a urease Vmax similar to that of natural plaque. The artificial plaque was in the chamber (6.0 x 6.0 square and 0.5 or 1.5 mm deep) of a diffusion apparatus, and a urea-containing artificial saliva (3.3 or 13.2 mmol/l) was infused over the surface, as a film 0.1 mm deep, at velocities of 0.8, 8.2 and 86.2 mm/min. At the lower (physiologically normal) urea concentration and the two lower film velocities, most urea appeared to be metabolized at the proximal end of the plaque, which developed a higher pH. At the higher urea concentration, and a film velocity of 8 mm/min, a higher pH was found at the distal end. This was probably due to the combination of greater urea availability and a reduced rate of ammonia loss distally. At a film velocity of 86.2 mm/min, proximal/distal pH gradients did not develop.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1832451

  10. Comparación de la concentración total de proteínas salivales de adultos y adultos mayores / Comparison of total salivary protein concentration in adults and older adults

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    RJ, Castro; G, Guzmán; RA, Giacaman.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Entre las moléculas orgánicas que componen la saliva se han descrito un gran número de proteínas. No existe evidencia suficiente que permita especular sobre los cambios en el contenido proteico salival asociados al envejecimiento normal. El objetivo fue determinar si existen diferencias en [...] la concentración total de proteínas en saliva de adultos y adultos mayores. Método: Se obtuvieron muestras de saliva estimulada y no estimulada de individuos pertenecientes a dos grupos etarios, adultos (A) (n=30) (edad promedio: 25 años) y adultos mayores (AM) (n=30) (edad promedio: 68 años). Se excluyeron aquellos sujetos que presentaron alguna patología oral/sistémica o consumo de fármacos/sustancias relacionados con alteraciones del flujo o composición salival. Cada muestra fue centrifugada. A 10 µl del sobrenadante se agregaron 190 µl de solución de Bradford. Se realizó el recuento mediante lectura con espectrofotómetro (595 nm). La concentración de proteínas fue comparada entre los grupos en estudio utilizando la prueba t de Student (p Abstract in english Objective: A high number of proteins has been described in saliva. Scarce evidence allows to speculate about the variations on protein content associated with aging. The aim was to determine if there is a difference in total protein concentration between adults and older adults. Methods: Samples wer [...] e collected from unstimulated and stimulated saliva of individuals from two age groups, adults (A) (n=30) (mean age 25 years) and older adults (OA) (n=30)(mean age: 68 years). Subjects with oral/systemic diseases or consuming medications that alter salivary flow were excluded from the study. Each sample was centrifuged and 10 ?l of the supernatant was added to 190 ?l of Bradford solution. Protein concentration was obtained by spectrophotometry (595 nm) Protein concentration was compared between the groups using student’s t test (p

  11. Relationship between Caregivers’ Smoking at Home and Urinary Levels of Cotinine in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the impact of different smoking behaviors of caregivers on environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure in children aged 5–6 years in Changsha, China. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, random digit-dial telephone survey of caregivers (n = 543 between August and October 2013. Caregivers’ smoking behaviors were collected by a questionnaire. Exposure assessment was based upon determination of urinary cotinine levels in children employing gas chromatography–triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS. Results: In children not living with a smoker, children living with one smoker, and children living with more than one smoker at home, median urinary cotinine concentrations (ng/mL were 0.72, 2.97, and 4.46, respectively. For children living with one smoker, median urinary cotinine levels of children exposed to ETS were associated with caregiver smoking behaviors, i.e., if a caregiver consumed more cigarettes (>20 compared with ?10; 7.73 versus 2.29 ng/mL, respectively. Conclusions: The magnitude of ETS exposure in children is correlated with the smoking behaviors of the caregiver. Counseling for smoking cessation and educational interventions are needed urgently for smoking caregivers to increase their awareness about ETS exposure and to encourage smoking cessation at home or to take precautions to protect children’s health.

  12. The detection of cotinine in hydrolyzed meconium samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, D; Moore, C; Deitermann, D; Lewis, D; Feeley, B; Niedbala, R S

    1999-06-28

    To date, the screening of meconium for the determination of tobacco exposure in newborns has proven difficult. It was hypothesized that cotinine forms reversible Schiff base bonds with free amino functions on proteins, therefore, hydrolysis of meconium would be necessary for the detection of 'free' cotinine. One-hundred-and-two (102) meconium samples received into our laboratory were extracted using a routine non-hydrolysis screening procedure for drugs of abuse. Separate aliquots of the specimens were hydrolyzed and re-extracted according to the same procedure. The results of the two methods were compared using a highly specific cotinine micro-plate enzyme immunoassay procedure (EIA). Of the non-hydrolyzed samples, 33% were positive for cotinine, while 79% of the hydrolyzed samples were cotinine-positive. Common drugs of abuse did not interfere with the analysis. Micro-plate EIA provides a rapid, simple and reliable screening method for the determination of cotinine in meconium following hydrolysis and extraction. In general, the meconium specimens received into our laboratory are from newborns considered to be at risk for post-natal problems due to suspected drug and/or alcohol abuse during pregnancy. PMID:10464932

  13. Environmental tobacco smoke and canine urinary cotinine level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidemiologic studies of companion animals such as dogs have been established as models for the relationship between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and cancer risk in humans. While results from these studies are provocative, pet owner report of a dog's ETS exposure has not yet been validated. We have evaluated the relationship between dog owner's report of household smoking by questionnaire and dog's urinary cotinine level. Between January and October 2005, dog owners presenting their pet for non-emergency veterinary care at the Foster Hospital for Small Animals at Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, were asked to complete a 10-page questionnaire measuring exposure to household ETS in the previous 24 h and other factors. A free-catch urine sample was also collected from dogs. Urinary cotinine level was assayed for 63 dogs, including 30 whose owners reported household smoking and 33 unexposed dogs matched on age and month of enrollment. Urinary cotinine level was significantly higher in dogs exposed to household smoking in the 24 h before urine collection compared to unexposed dogs (14.6 ng/ml vs. 7.4 ng/ml; P=0.02). After adjustment for other factors, cotinine level increased linearly with number of cigarettes smoked by all household members (P=0.004). Other canine characteristics including age, body composition and nose length were also associated with cotinine level. Findings from our study suggest that household smoking levels as assessed by questionnaire are significantly associated with canine cotinine levels

  14. The influence of parental smoking and family type on saliva cotinine in UK ethnic minority children: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harding Seeromanie

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the United Kingdom, there has been an increase in cigarette smoking in ethnic minority adults since the 1970s; in some groups levels are now similar to that of White British people. We aimed to examine the determinants of exposure to secondhand smoke in ethnic minority children. We hypothesised that exposure to secondhand smoke in children will vary across ethnic groups, but that the correlates of exposure would be similar to that of Whites. Methods The Determinants of Adolescent Social well-being and Health sample comprises 3468 White United Kingdom and ethnic minority (Black Caribbean, Black African, Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi pupils aged 11-13 yrs. Outcome was saliva cotinine concentration. Explanatory variables collected by self-complete questionnaire included ethnicity, child reported household smoking and socio-economic circumstances. Data were analysed using linear regression models with a random intercept function. Results Ethnic minority children had lower saliva cotinine than Whites, partly explained by less smoking among parents. White and Black Caribbean children had higher cotinine levels if they lived in a household with a maternal smoker only, than with a paternal smoker only. Living in a lone compared to a dual parent household was associated with increased cotinine concentration of 45% (95%CI 5, 99% in Whites, 27% (95%CI 5,53% in Black Caribbeans and 21% (95%CI 1, 45% in Black Africans after adjusting for household smoking status. Material disadvantage was a significant correlate only for White children (40% (95%CI 1, 94% increase in cotinine in least compared to most advantaged group. Conclusions Ethnic minority children were less exposed to secondhand smoke than Whites, but the variations within groups were similarly patterned. These findings suggest that it is important not to be complacent about low smoking prevalence in some minority groups.

  15. Effects of administration of potassium- and sodiumchlorides on faecal excretions and salivary and alimentary concentrations of, Na, K, 134Cs, Ca, Mg and P in reindeer fed a lichen diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Staaland

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of the effects of administration of 350 mmol d-1 of KC1 or NaCl on faecal excretions, salivary concentrations and concentrations and pools of Na, K, 134Cs, Ca, Mg, P, and water in the alimentary tract of reindeer was carried out using three groups of three 10 months old reindeer fed a lichen diet. One group was used as a control group with no mineral supplementation. The level of K supplementation mimicked K intakes from summer pastures. NaCl was given at a rate which would mimic intake from salt licks by domestic ruminants of similar body size. Treatment with KC1 increased the salivary and alimentary concentrations and the alimentary pool sizes of K and faecal excretion of K increased. A decrease in l34Cs concentrations in all parts of the gastrointestinal tract indicated greater absorption of 134Cs during the KC1 treatment than in NaCl treated and control animals. Increased intake of Na or K had no significant effect on the digestibility of the lichen diet, but urine production increased. Little effects on pools or concentrations of Ca, Mg and P were observed. NaCl treatment increased urinary and faecal excretion of Na, but did not affect the metabolism of any of the other studied minerals.

  16. Salivary acetylcholinesterase activity is increased in Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedorova, Tatyana; Knudsen, Cindy Soendersoe; Mouridsen, Kim; Nexo, Ebba; Borghammer, Per

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Decreased salivary flow and xerostomia are frequent findings in Parkinson's disease (PD), possibly caused by alterations in the parasympathetic tonus. Here we explore salivary acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity as a potential biomarker in PD. Methods. We measured salivary flow, AChE activity, and total protein concentration in 30 PD patients and 49 healthy controls. We also performed exploratory correlation analyses with disease duration, motor symptom severity, autonomic complai...

  17. In Vitro Inhibition of Human Sperm Creatine Kinase by Nicotine,Cotinine and Cadmium, as a Mechanism in Smoker Men Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Ghaffari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nicotine, cotinine and cadmium are harmful components of cigarettes that have aneffect on human reproductive function. Although the effects of cigarette smoke on male reproductivefunction is characterized in several articles its mechanism of action is still unknown.In the present study, we investigate the effect of nicotine, cotinine and cadmium on human spermcreatine kinase activity in vitro.Materials and Methods: Total creatine kinase activity is measured in sperm homogenates afterchromatography on a diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-32 column.Results: We show that creatine kinase activity is significantly inhibited by nicotine (44%, cotinine(39% and cadmium (65% at a concentration of 60 ?g/ml. Kinetic studies reveal that the inhibitoryeffect of nicotine, cotinine and cadmium are competitive in relation to creatine phosphate.Conclusion: Considering the importance of creatine kinase activity for normal sperm energymetabolism, our results suggest that inhibition of this enzyme by nicotine, cotinine and cadmium maybe an important mechanism in infertility amongst male smokers. However, further investigationsare needed to elucidate the exact mechanism of cigarette effect on male reproductive function atthe molecular level.

  18. Prevalence of Smoking Assessed Biochemically in an Urban Public Hospital: A Rationale for Routine Cotinine Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Neal L. Benowitz; Schultz, Katherine E.; Haller, Christine A.; Wu, Alan H.B; Dains, Katherine M; Jacob, Peyton

    2009-01-01

    Cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine, has been used to study tobacco smoke exposure in population studies, but the authors are unaware of its use to screen hospitalized patients. The authors measured serum cotinine levels in 948 patients admitted to an urban public hospital in San Francisco, California, between September 2005 and July 2006. On the basis of cotinine levels, they classified patients as active smokers (cotinine ? 14 ng/mL), recent smokers or significantly exposed to secondhand smo...

  19. Salivary concentrations of urea released from a chewing gum containing urea and how these affect the urea content of gel-stabilized plaques and their pH after exposure to sucrose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, C; Dibdin, G H

    2001-01-01

    The objectives were to: (1) determine the salivary concentrations of urea during 20 min chewing of a sugar-free gum containing 30 mg of urea; (2) measure the degree to which this urea would diffuse into a gel-stabilized plaque; (3) study the effect of the urea on the fall and subsequent rise in pH (Stephan curve) on exposure to 10% sucrose for 1 min; (4) model the measurements 2 and 3 mathematically. In point 1, the salivary urea concentration of the 12 subjects peaked at 47 mmol/l in the first 2 min of gum chewing, falling within 15 min to the unstimulated salivary concentration of 3.4 mmol/l. Recovery of urea from the saliva averaged 81.5%. 'Plaques' of 1% agarose or 67% dead bacteria in agarose accumulated urea from the saliva roughly as expected, whereas those plaques containing 8% live and 59% dead Streptococcus vestibularis showed negligible accumulation. Computer modelling showed this difference to be due to urease of live bacteria breaking down the urea as rapidly as it entered the plaque. Simulation of the effect of gum chewing subsequent to initiation of a Stephan curve in the latter type of plaque showed a rapid rise in pH but then a fall again on return to unstimulated conditions. This fall had not been seen in previous studies, with Streptococcus oralis, nor was it predicted by the computer modelling. Neither experimental simulation nor computer modelling suggested that chewing urea-containing gum before exposure to sucrose would have any effect on a subsequent Stephan curve. Thus chewing gum is only likely to inhibit caries when it is chewed after consumption of fermentable carbohydrate, rather than before. PMID:11641570

  20. Estudo da concentração salivar do fator de crescimento epidérmico em indivíduos com laringite crônica por refluxo laringofaríngeo / Salivary EGF concentration in adults with chronic laryngitis caused by laryngopharyngeal reflux

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Claudia A., Eckley; Henrique O., Costa.

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A Doença do Refluxo Gastroesofágico (DRGE), chegando até a faringe e laringe, pode cursar com intensa inflamação local e rica sintomatologia (Refluxo Laringofaríngeo RLF). Os estudos atuais não foram capazes de provar que o ácido refluído é o causador das alterações visualizadas na larin [...] gite crônica. O Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico (EGF) é um polipeptídeo produzido pelas glândulas salivares, sendo implicado na indução do crescimento epitelial, na inibição da secreção gástrica e na aceleração da cicatrização. Deficiência salivar deste fator foi encontrada na esofagite de refluxo, mas não há relatos sobre a concentração salivar de EGF em indivíduos com RLF. OBJETIVO: Determinar a concentração salivar do EGF em indivíduos com RLF. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Caso controle. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODO: A concentração salivar de EGF de 39 indivíduos com RLF e 20 controles normais foi estudada pela técnica de ELISA. O RLF foi diagnosticado por história e exame videolaringoscópico característicos. Os 39 pacientes com RLF foram estratificados de acordo com os achados de endoscopia digestiva (com ou sem esofagite associada) e de acordo com a intensidade da laringite crônica. Foram, também, submetidos a manometria esofágica e pH-metria esofágica de 24 horas com dois canais. RESULTADOS: Constatou-se uma concentração de EGF significativamente menor nos indivíduos com RLF quando comparados aos controles normais (p=0,002). Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante na concentração salivar de EGF entre os indivíduos com RLF, nem em relação à presença de esofagite, nem quanto à intensidade da laringite. CONCLUSÕES: Este estudo sugere que uma deficiência na concentração salivar do Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico pode estar associada à patogenia da DRGE, e que este polipeptídeo poderia ser um co-fator na gênese do RLF. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) may cause intense inflammation and symptoms in the larynx and pharynx (Laryngopharyngeal Reflux LPR). Studies have not been able to establish a direct link between the refluxed acid and the typical laryngeal findings in LPR. The Epidermal Growth F [...] actor (EGF) is a polypeptide produced by the salivary glands and shown to induce epithelial development, inhibit gastric acid secretion and accelerate wound healing. This factor is decreased in the saliva of patients with reflux esophagitis, but there are no reports of its behavior in LPR. AIM: The objective of this study was to determine the salivary concentration of EGF in adults with LPR compared to normal controls. STUDY DESIGN: Control study. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The salivary EGF concentration of 39 patients with LPR and 20 healthy controls was determined using a commercially available ELISA kit. LPR was diagnosed based on history and typical laryngopharyngeal signs. The 39 patients with LPR were graded according to endoscopic (presence of associated esophagitis) and laryngoscopic criteria (severity of laryngitis). Patients with LPR were also submitted to esophageal manometry and 24-hour double probe pH-metry. RESULTS: Salivary EGF concentration was significantly lower in the LPR group when compared to controls (p= 0,002). No correlation between the severity of laryngeal findings or presence/absence of esophagitis and salivary EGF concentration could be determined. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that a decreased salivary concentration of Epidermal Growth Factor could be associated to the pathogenesis of GERD and that this same deficiency could also be related to LPR.

  1. Intracerebellar behavioral interactions between nicotine, cotinine and ethanol in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dar, M.S.; Li, C. (East Carolina Univ., Greenville, NC (United States))

    1992-02-26

    Using ethanol-induced motor incoordination as the test response as evaluated by rotorod, possible behavioral interactions between ethanol and (-)-nicotine in the cerebellum, one of the key motor area, were investigated. (-)-Nicotine, 5, 1.25, 0.625 ng/100nL intracerebellarly significantly attenuated motor incoordination due to ethanol in a dose-dependent manner. Similarly, (-)-cotinine, a major metabolite of nicotine, 5, 2.5, and 1.25 ng/100nL, significantly but less marked compared to (-)-nicotine attenuated ethanol-induced motor incoordination. The highest, 5 ng/100nL, dose of (-)-nicotine or (-)-cotinine followed by saline instead of ethanol did not alter normal motor coordination. The attenuation of ethanol-induced motor incoordination by (-)-nicotine and (-)- cotinine was blocked by intracerebellar hexamethonium 1 ug/100nL, a purported nicotinic cholinergic antagonist. The data obtained strongly suggest participation of cerebellar nicotinic cholinergic receptor in the ethanol-induced motor incoordination.

  2. Cotinine and trans 3'-Hydroxycotinine in Dried Blood Spots as Biomarkers of Tobacco Exposure and Nicotine Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Sharon E; Wickham, Katherine M.; Lindgren, Bruce R; Spector, Logan G; Joseph, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco use is the major preventable cause of premature death in the United States. Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure also contributes to a number of premature deaths as well as other negative health outcomes. An accurate assessment of tobacco smoke exposure is critical to understanding these disease processes. The plasma concentration of cotinine, the primary metabolite of nicotine, is widely accepted as a quantitative measure of tobacco and SHS exposure. However, it is not always feasible to ...

  3. Short- and long-term effects of tactile massage on salivary cortisol concentrations in Parkinson’s disease: a randomised controlled pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Törnhage, Carl-Johan; Skogar, Örjan; Borg, Astrid; Larsson, Birgitta; Robertsson, Laila; Andersson, Lena; Backström, Paulina; Fall, Per-Arne; Hallgren, Gunnar; Bringer, Birgitta; Carlsson, Miriam; Lennartsson, Ulla Birgitta; Sandbjörk, Håkan; Lökk, Johan

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder with limited knowledge about the normal function and effects of non-pharmacological therapies on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The aim of the study was to analyse the basal diurnal and total secretion of salivary cortisol in short- and long-term aspects of tactile massage (TM). METHODS: Design: Prospective, Controlled and Randomised Multicentre Trial.Setting and interventions: Forty-five women and me...

  4. Salivary Gland Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Salivary gland cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. It is rare. It may not cause any ... pain in your face Doctors diagnose salivary gland cancer using a physical exam, imaging tests, and a ...

  5. An efficient microwave-assisted synthesis of cotinine and iso-cotinine analogs from an Ugi-4CR approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polindara-García, Luis A; Montesinos-Miguel, Dario; Vazquez, Alfredo

    2015-09-14

    A convenient base-mediated two-step synthesis of cotinine analogs and a one-pot base-free synthesis of iso-cotinine derivatives featuring an Ugi-4CR/cyclization protocol are reported. These approaches exploit the reactivity of the peptidyl position present in the Ugi adducts, allowing the facile construction of the ?-lactam core, as well as the introduction of a N-substituted methyl group into the analogs in a straightforward manner. A plausible mechanism for the cyclization step is discussed. PMID:26220292

  6. Detection by radioimmunoassay of nicotinamide nucleotide analogues in tissues of rabbits injected with nicotine and cotinine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The formation of the NAD and NADP analogues of nicotine and cotinine in vitro by the NAD glycohydrolase-catalyzed exchange reaction suggested that such compounds (and the related mononucleotides) might also be produced in animals receiving the alkaloid or its metabolite. Since only sensitive and specific analytical methods could detect small amounts of the nicotine and cotinine analogues in the presence of the naturally occurring and abundant NMN, NAD and NADP compounds, radioimmunoassays were developed and used for this purpose. In rabbits injected with cotinine, cotinine nucleotide analogues were found at pmole levels/g of wet tissue in extracts from liver, kidney and lung. In both liver and lung extracts, cotinine mononucleotide was identified as the major product. Cotinine nucleotides were also found in the tissues of rabbits injected with nicotine. The rapid metabolism of nicotine to cotinine in vivo probably contributes to the sparsity of the nicotine analogues in tissue extracts from these animals. (author)

  7. Menthol attenuates respiratory irritation and elevates blood cotinine in cigarette smoke exposed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Michael A; Smith, Gregory J; Cichocki, Joseph A; Fan, Lu; Liu, Yi-Shiuan; Caceres, Ana I; Jordt, Sven Eric; Morris, John B

    2015-01-01

    Addition of menthol to cigarettes may be associated with increased initiation of smoking. The potential mechanisms underlying this association are not known. Menthol, likely due to its effects on cold-sensing peripheral sensory neurons, is known to inhibit the sensation of irritation elicited by respiratory irritants. However, it remains unclear whether menthol modulates cigarette smoke irritancy and nicotine absorption during initial exposures to cigarettes, thereby facilitating smoking initiation. Using plethysmography in a C57Bl/6J mouse model, we examined the effects of L-menthol, the menthol isomer added to cigarettes, on the respiratory sensory irritation response to primary smoke irritants (acrolein and cyclohexanone) and smoke of Kentucky reference 2R4 cigarettes. We also studied L-menthol's effect on blood levels of the nicotine metabolite, cotinine, immediately after exposure to cigarette smoke. L-menthol suppressed the irritation response to acrolein with an apparent IC?? of 4 ppm. Suppression was observed even at acrolein levels well above those necessary to produce a maximal response. Cigarette smoke, at exposure levels of 10 mg/m³ or higher, caused an immediate and marked sensory irritation response in mice. This response was significantly suppressed by L-menthol even at smoke concentrations as high as 300 mg/m³. Counterirritation by L-menthol was abolished by treatment with a selective inhibitor of Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 8 (TRPM8), the neuronal cold/menthol receptor. Inclusion of menthol in the cigarette smoke resulted in roughly a 1.5-fold increase in plasma cotinine levels over those observed in mice exposed to smoke without added menthol. These findings document that, L-menthol, through TRPM8, is a strong suppressor of respiratory irritation responses, even during highly noxious exposures to cigarette smoke or smoke irritants, and increases blood cotinine. Therefore, L-menthol, as a cigarette additive, may promote smoking initiation and nicotine addiction. PMID:25679525

  8. Elevated salivary C-reactive protein levels are associated with active and passive smoking in healthy youth: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azar Rima

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined salivary C-reactive protein (CRP levels in the context of tobacco smoke exposure (TSE in healthy youth. We hypothesized that there would be a dose-response relationship between TSE status and salivary CRP levels. Methods This work is a pilot study (N = 45 for a larger investigation in which we aim to validate salivary CRP against serum CRP, the gold standard measurement of low-grade inflammation. Participants were healthy youth with no self-reported periodontal disease, no objectively measured obesity/adiposity, and no clinical depression, based on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II. We assessed tobacco smoking and confirmed smoking status (non-smoking, passive smoking, and active smoking with salivary cotinine measurement. We measured salivary CRP by the ELISA method. We controlled for several potential confounders. Results We found evidence for the existence of a dose-response relationship between the TSE status and salivary CRP levels. Conclusions Our preliminary findings indicate that salivary CRP seems to have a similar relation to TSE as its widely used serum (systemic inflammatory biomarker counterpart.

  9. Salivary phenytoin radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple, specific and rapid radioimmunoassay method for the assessment of non-protein bound ('free') phenytoin concentrations in mixed saliva using 125I-labelled phenytoin is described. Epileptic patients on maintenance phenytoin therapy have mixed saliva phenytoin concentrations similar to 'free' drug levels measured directly in serum or cerebrospinal fluid. Salivary phenytoin levels are approximately 10% of the total serum level in treated epileptic patients and in normal subjects after ingestion of a single oral dose. The half time of disappearance of phenytoin after 100 or 300 mg doses is 12.2 +- 3.0 h in serum and 12. 3 +- 3.2 h in saliva. This method of assessing the biologically active fraction of the drug may be particularly valuable in situations where serum protein binding is abnormal or in drug interactions. It is also non-invasive and requires small sample volumes (20?l) and may therefore be valuable in paediatric practice and in pharmacokinetic studies in which multiple venepunctures would otherwise be required. (orig./MG)

  10. Salivary Hsp72 does not track exercise stress and caffeine-stimulated plasma Hsp72 responses in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Fortes, Matthew B.; Whitham, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72) has been detected within saliva, and its presence may contribute to oral defence. It is currently unknown how physiological stress affects salivary Hsp72 or if salivary Hsp72 concentrations reflect plasma Hsp72 concentrations. We studied the effect of exercise upon salivary Hsp72 expression, and using caffeine administration, investigated the role of sympathetic stimulation upon salivary Hsp72 expression. Six healthy males performed two treadmill running exercise...

  11. Pediatric salivary gland imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of lesions occur in the pediatric salivary glands. With modern imaging techniques such as Doppler sonography, helical CT, and MRI, identification of a specific etiology is often possible. Knowledge of clinical information, normal anatomy, and imaging characteristics of salivary gland pathology are essential for appropriate radiologic evaluation. This review illustrates the various congenital, neoplastic, and inflammatory entities that can occur within the parotid, submandibular, and sublingual spaces. (orig.)

  12. Toward improved statistical methods for analyzing Cotinine-Biomarker health association data

    OpenAIRE

    Clark John D; Koru-Sengul Tulay; Fleming Lora E; Lee David J

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Serum cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine, is frequently used in research as a biomarker of recent tobacco smoke exposure. Historically, secondhand smoke (SHS) research uses suboptimal statistical methods due to censored serum cotinine values, meaning a measurement below the limit of detection (LOD). Methods We compared commonly used methods for analyzing censored serum cotinine data using parametric and non-parametric techniques employing data from the 1999-2004 National H...

  13. Active and passive exposure status to tobacco smoke of department store employees measured by cotinine ELISA

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshioka, Nobuo; Yonemasu, Kunio; Dohi, Yoshiko; Sakanashi, Teruko; Mizutani, Rika; Kurumatani, Norio; Zheng, Yan; Ohkado, Takashi

    1998-01-01

    Quantitation of urinary cotinine, a major metabolite of nicotine, by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), was performed in parallel with questionnaires containing items on smoking status, such as active and/or passive smokers, the number of cigarettes smoked, and the presence or absence of active smokers in the surroundings in a department store (517 employees). The cotinine values corrected by creatinine (cotinine-creatinine ratios, CCRs) approximately conformed to the extent of sel...

  14. Assessment of smoking status based on cotinine levels in nasal lavage fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Cowart Beverly J; McDermott Ryan; Yee Karen K; Ozdener Mehmet; Vainius Aldona A; Dalton Pamela; Rawson Nancy E

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Cotinine is a principal metabolite of nicotine with a substantially longer half-life, and cotinine levels in saliva, urine or serum are widely used to validate self-reported smoking status. The nasal cavity and olfactory system are directly exposed to tobacco smoke in smokers and in non-smokers who live with or work around smokers. However, despite the potential for a direct impact of tobacco smoke on the nasal epithelium and olfactory neurons, no prior studies have assessed cotinine...

  15. Synthesis of [pyrrolidine-14C]-cotinine from 14C-nicotine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis and purification of 14C-cotinine is reported. 14C-nicotine is converted into 14C-dibromocotinine. Debromination of the latter results in 14C-cotinine which is purified by high performance liquid chromatography. The total radioactive yield of the synthesis is 44.8%. Starting from 500 ?Ci 14C-nicotine, 224 ?Ci 14C-cotinine is obtained with a specific activity of 0,23 mCi/mmol. (Author)

  16. Genome-wide Linkage of Cotinine Pharmacokinetics Suggests Candidate Regions on Chromosomes 9 and 11

    OpenAIRE

    He, Yungang; Bergen, Andrew W; Hops, Hyman; Andrews, Judy A; Tildesley, Elizabeth; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N.; Webster, Cris; Benowitz, Neal; Swan, Gary E

    2009-01-01

    Characterizing cotinine pharmacokinetics is a useful way to study nicotine metabolism because the same liver enzyme is primarily responsible for the metabolism of both, and the clearances of nicotine and cotinine are highly correlated. We conducted a whole-genome linkage analysis to search for candidate regions influencing quantitative variation in cotinine pharmacokinetics in a large-scale pharmacokinetic study with 61 families containing 224 healthy adult participants. The strongest linkage...

  17. Varying results for immunoassay screening kits for cotinine level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alterman, Arthur I; Gariti, Peter; Niedbala, R Sam

    2002-09-01

    Our earlier study found that although enzyme-linked immunosorbent analysis (ELISA) screening assays for urine cotinine indicated use in former smoking treatment patients who reported abstinence, this finding was sometimes incorrect when validated against gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/ MS; P. Gariti, A. I. Alterman, R. Ehrmann, F. D. Mulvaney, & C. P. O'Brien, 2002). In the current validation study, separate urine samples of 71 of these same patients were reanalyzed by an independent laboratory in blinded fashion using a screening enzyme immunoassay (EIA) analysis and GC/MS confirmation. EIA results showed almost total agreement with confirmatory testing. The findings indicate that use of screening ELISA/EIA for urine cotinine can detect unreported cases of smoking in former patients, but that care is needed in selecting a laboratory for conducting these tests. PMID:12236461

  18. Environmental tobacco smoke and canine urinary cotinine level

    OpenAIRE

    Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R.; Procter-Gray, Elizabeth; Gollenberg, Audra L.; Bundga, Michele E.; Barber, Lisa G.

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of companion animals such as dogs have been established as models for the relationship between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and cancer risk in humans. While results from these studies are provocative, pet owner report of a dog’s ETS exposure has not yet been validated. We have evaluated the relationship between dog owner’s report of household smoking by questionnaire and dog’s urinary cotinine level. Between January and October, 2005, dog owners presenti...

  19. Serum Cotinine Levels and Prehypertension in Never Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Omayma Alshaarawy; Jie Xiao; Andrew, Michael E; Cecil Burchfiel; Anoop Shankar

    2013-01-01

    Background. Few studies have shown that self-reported secondhand smoke exposure in never smokers is associated with high blood pressure. However, there are no studies investigating the relationship between secondhand smoke exposure, measured objectively by serum cotinine levels, and high blood pressure in never smokers. Methods. We examined never smokers (n = 2027) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2008. Our exposure of interest was the secondhand smoke exposu...

  20. The Relationship between Serum Cotinine Levels and Periodontal Status

    OpenAIRE

    Fouad H. Al-Bayaty; Noor A. Baharuddin; Abdulla, Mahmood A.

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Smoking plays a significant role in the development of periodontal disease. Quantitative relation between smoking and increased severity of periodontal disease, by means of biochemical marker has not been described in Malaysian population. The present study was designed to apply serum cotinine measurement as a quantitative method to evaluate smoking levels in Malaysian patients and to correlate these levels with the severity of periodontal disease. Approach: The study group...

  1. Breast feeding and smoking hygiene: major influences on cotinine in urine of smokers' infants.

    OpenAIRE

    Woodward, A; Grgurinovich, N; Ryan, P.

    1986-01-01

    The determinants of urine cotinine levels were studied in a group of 101 infants aged 3 months, including 79 infants whose mothers were current smokers. At a pre-arranged home visit the infants' mothers completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire, and samples of maternal urine and breast milk and infants' urine were collected. Cotinine and nicotine levels were determined by gas-liquid chromatography. Infant urine cotinine levels ranged from 0 to 140 micrograms/l (0-1120 ng cotinine/mg...

  2. Cotinine-conjugated aptamer/anti-cotinine antibody complexes as a novel affinity unit for use in biological assays

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sunyoung; Hwang, Dobin; Chung, Junho

    2012-01-01

    Aptamers are synthetic, relatively short (e.g., 20-80 bases) RNA or ssDNA oligonucleotides that can bind targets with high affinity and specificity, similar to antibodies, because they can fold into unique, three-dimensional shapes. For use in various assays and experiments, aptamers have been conjugated with biotin or digoxigenin to form complexes with avidin or anti-digoxigenin antibodies, respectively. In this study, we developed a method to label the 5' ends of aptamers with cotinine, whi...

  3. Gender differences in cadmium and cotinine levels in prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucic, A; Plavec, D; Casteleyn, L; Aerts, D; Biot, P; Katsonouri, A; Cerna, M; Knudsen, L E; Castano, A; Rudnai, P; Gutleb, A; Ligocka, D; Lupsa, I-R; Berglund, M; Horvat, M; Halzlova, K; Schoeters, G; Koppen, G; Hadjipanayis, A; Krskova, A; Középesy, S; Arendt, M; Fischer, M E; Janasik, B; Gurzau, A E; Gurzau, E S; Grandér, M; Larsson, K; Jajcaj, M; Kolossa-Gehring, M; Sepai, O; Exley, K; Bartolome, M; Cutanda, F; Mazej, D; Nielsen, J K S; Snoj-Tratnik, J; Schwedler, G; Fiddicke, U; Seiwert, M; Govarts, E; Den Hond, E; Koch, H M; Lopez, A; Joas, A; Joas, R

    2015-08-01

    Susceptibility to environmental stressors has been described for fetal and early childhood development. However, the possible susceptibility of the prepubertal period, characterized by the orchestration of the organism towards sexual maturation and adulthood has been poorly investigated and exposure data are scarce. In the current study levels of cadmium (Cd), cotinine and creatinine in urine were analyzed in a subsample 216 children from 12 European countries within the DEMOCOPHES project. The children were divided into six age-sex groups: boys (6-8 years, 9-10 years and 11 years old), and girls (6-7 years, 8-9 years, 10-11 years). The number of subjects per group was between 23 and 53. The cut off values were set at 0.1µg/L for Cd, and 0.8µg/L for cotinine defined according to the highest limit of quantification. The levels of Cd and cotinine were adjusted for creatinine level. In the total subsample group, the median level of Cd was 0.180µg/L (range 0.10-0.69µg/L), and for cotinine the median wet weight value was 1.50µg/L (range 0.80-39.91µg/L). There was no significant difference in creatinine and cotinine levels between genders and age groups. There was a significant correlation between levels of cadmium and creatinine in all children of both genders. This shows that even at such low levels the possible effect of cadmium on kidney function was present and measurable. An increase in Cd levels was evident with age. Cadmium levels were significantly different between 6-7 year old girls, 11 year old boys and 10-11 year old girls. As there was a balanced distribution in the number of subjects from countries included in the study, bias due to data clustering was not probable. The impact of low Cd levels on kidney function and gender differences in Cd levels needs further investigation. PMID:25529752

  4. Gender differences in cadmium and cotinine levels in prepubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fucic, A; Plavec, D

    2015-01-01

    Susceptibility to environmental stressors has been described for fetal and early childhood development. However, the possible susceptibility of the prepubertal period, characterized by the orchestration of the organism towards sexual maturation and adulthood has been poorly investigated and exposure data are scarce. In the current study levels of cadmium (Cd), cotinine and creatinine in urine were analyzed in a subsample 216 children from 12 European countries within the DEMOCOPHES project. The children were divided into six age-sex groups: boys (6-8 years, 9-10 years and 11 years old), and girls (6-7 years, 8-9 years, 10-11 years). The number of subjects per group was between 23 and 53. The cut off values were set at 0.1µg/L for Cd, and 0.8µg/L for cotinine defined according to the highest limit of quantification. The levels of Cd and cotinine were adjusted for creatinine level. In the total subsample group, the median level of Cd was 0.180µg/L (range 0.10-0.69µg/L), and for cotinine the median wet weight value was 1.50µg/L (range 0.80-39.91µg/L). There was no significant difference in creatinine and cotinine levels between genders and age groups. There was a significant correlation between levels of cadmium and creatinine in all children of both genders. This shows that even at such low levels the possible effect of cadmium on kidney function was present and measurable. An increase in Cd levels was evident with age. Cadmium levels were significantly different between 6-7 year old girls, 11 year old boys and 10-11 year old girls. As there was a balanced distribution in the number of subjects from countries included in the study, bias due to data clustering was not probable. The impact of low Cd levels on kidney function and gender differences in Cd levels needs further investigation.

  5. Undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbst, H.; Hamilton-Dutoit, S.

    2004-01-01

    Undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas may be divided into small cell and large cell types. Among large cell undifferentiated carcinomas, lymphoepithelial carcinomas have to be distinguished, the latter of which are endemic in the Arctic regions and southern China where virtually all cases of these tumors are associated with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Association with EBV may also be observed in sporadic cases, and detection of EBV gene products may aid their diagnosis. Immunohistology may be employed to resolve the differential diagnosis of undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas, comprising malignant lymphomas, amelanotic melanomas, Merkel cell carcinomas, and adenoid cystic carcinomas, in particular in small biopsy materials. Because of the rarity of undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas, the differential diagnosis should always include metastases of undifferentiated carcinomas arising at other primary sites, particularly when expressing the thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) Udgivelsesdato: 2004

  6. Comparison of salivary cortisol concentrations in Jaguars kept in captivity with differences in exposure to the public / Comparação das concentrações de cortisol salivar em onças-pintadas criadas em cativeiro com diferenças de exposição ao público

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Julio César, Montanha; Sérgio Leme, Silva; Vanner, Boere.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Em geral, onças-pintadas criadas em cativeiro são usadas para fins educacionais e de recreação. No entanto, o impacto da exposição ao público sobre esses animais não tem sido avaliado. Neste estudo, foi comparado o impacto de dois diferentes níveis de exposição ao público em sete onças-pintadas, alo [...] jadas em dois criadouros, por meio da avaliação de um dos hormônios indicadores de estresse, o cortisol salivar. A saliva foi coletada usando um material absorvente que foi mastigado pelos animais e subsequentemente analisado por imunoenzimoensaio. As concentrações de cortisol salivar foram significativamente maiores em onças-pintadas com maior exposição ao público. Esses resultados sugerem que onças-pintadas, normalmente solitárias e esquivas na natureza, podem ter seu bem-estar consideravelmente diminuído pelo aumento de exposição ao público. Este estudo é o primeiro relato de mensuração de cortisol salivar em onças-pintadas. Abstract in english For the most part, jaguars kept in captivity are used for educational and recreational purposes and it hasn't been determined the different impacts that public exposure would have on these animals. In this study, we compared the salivary cortisol, one of the stress indicator hormones, in seven capti [...] ve jaguars exposed to the high and low public visitation. Saliva was collected using an absorbent material that was chewed by the animals and subsequently analyzed through an immunoenzymatic assay. Salivary cortisol concentrations were significantly higher in the jaguars with higher public exposure, which suggest a more hormonal stress response. These results indicated that jaguars, animals usually of solitary and secretive behavior, may have their welfare considerably diminished by increased public exposure. Additionally, design of the enclosures, without refuges and proximity of people, could predispose jaguars to psychological stress.

  7. Comparison of salivary cortisol concentrations in Jaguars kept in captivity with differences in exposure to the public Comparação das concentrações de cortisol salivar em onças-pintadas criadas em cativeiro com diferenças de exposição ao público

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Montanha

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available For the most part, jaguars kept in captivity are used for educational and recreational purposes and it hasn't been determined the different impacts that public exposure would have on these animals. In this study, we compared the salivary cortisol, one of the stress indicator hormones, in seven captive jaguars exposed to the high and low public visitation. Saliva was collected using an absorbent material that was chewed by the animals and subsequently analyzed through an immunoenzymatic assay. Salivary cortisol concentrations were significantly higher in the jaguars with higher public exposure, which suggest a more hormonal stress response. These results indicated that jaguars, animals usually of solitary and secretive behavior, may have their welfare considerably diminished by increased public exposure. Additionally, design of the enclosures, without refuges and proximity of people, could predispose jaguars to psychological stress.Em geral, onças-pintadas criadas em cativeiro são usadas para fins educacionais e de recreação. No entanto, o impacto da exposição ao público sobre esses animais não tem sido avaliado. Neste estudo, foi comparado o impacto de dois diferentes níveis de exposição ao público em sete onças-pintadas, alojadas em dois criadouros, por meio da avaliação de um dos hormônios indicadores de estresse, o cortisol salivar. A saliva foi coletada usando um material absorvente que foi mastigado pelos animais e subsequentemente analisado por imunoenzimoensaio. As concentrações de cortisol salivar foram significativamente maiores em onças-pintadas com maior exposição ao público. Esses resultados sugerem que onças-pintadas, normalmente solitárias e esquivas na natureza, podem ter seu bem-estar consideravelmente diminuído pelo aumento de exposição ao público. Este estudo é o primeiro relato de mensuração de cortisol salivar em onças-pintadas.

  8. Electrochemical Immunoassay of Cotinine in Serum Based on Nanoparticle Probe and Immunochromatographic Strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nian, Hung-Chi; Wang, Jun; Wu, Hong J.; Lo, Jiunn-Guang; Chiu, Kong-Hwa; Pounds, Joel G.; Lin, Yuehe

    2012-02-03

    A disposable sensor for the determination of cotinine in human serum was developed based on immunochromatographic test strip and quantum dot label. In this assay, cotinine modified on quantum dot competes with cotinine in sample to bind to anti-cotinine antibody in the test strip and the quantum dots serve as signal vehicles for electrochemical readout. Some parameters governing the performance of the sensor were optimized. The sensor shows a wide linear range from 1 ng mL-1 to 100 ng mL-1 cotinine with a detection limit of 1.0 ng mL-1. The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) of the sensor was less than 2% for cotinine. The sensor was validated with spiked human serum samples and it was found that this method was reliable in measuring cotinine in human serum with average recovery of 100.99%. The results demonstrate that this sensor is a rapid, clinically accurate, and less expensive and has the potential for point of care (POC) detection of cotinine and fast screening of tobacco smoke exposure.

  9. A convenient synthesis of 14C-cotinine from 14C-nicotine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A convenient synthesis with analytical monitoring of 14C-cotinine is reported. 14C-Nicotine was converted into 14C-dibromocotinine hydrobromide perbromide. Debromination, achieved by using Zn dust/acetic acid, resulted in high yields (71%) of 14C-cotinine. (author)

  10. Electrochemical immunoassay of cotinine in serum based on nanoparticle probe and immunochromatographic strip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Using nanoparticle probe in immunochromatographic strip. ? Enhanced sensitivity by using nanoparticle label. ? Rapid and sensitive detection of cotinine in serum. - Abstract: A disposable sensor for the determination of cotinine in human serum was developed based on immunochromatographic test strip and quantum dot label. In this assay, cotinine linked with quantum dot competes with cotinine in sample to bind to anti-cotinine antibody in the test strip and the quantum dots serve as signal vehicles for electrochemical readout. Some parameters governing the performance of the sensor were optimized. The sensor shows a wide linear range from 1 ng mL?1 to 100 ng mL?1 cotinine with a detection limit of 1.0 ng mL?1. The sensor was validated with spiked human serum samples and it was found that this method was reliable in measuring cotinine in human serum. The results demonstrate that this sensor is rapid, accurate, and less expensive and has the potential for point of care (POC) detection of cotinine and fast screening of tobacco smoke exposure.

  11. Electrochemical immunoassay of cotinine in serum based on nanoparticle probe and immunochromatographic strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nian Hungchi [Pacific Norwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, 30013, Taiwan (China); Wang Jun; Wu Hong [Pacific Norwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Lo, Jiunn-Guang [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, 30013, Taiwan (China); Chiu, Kong-Hwa [Department of Applied Science, National DongHwa University, Hualien, 970, 30013, Taiwan (China); Pounds, Joel G. [Pacific Norwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Lin Yuehe, E-mail: yuehe.lin@pnnl.gov [Pacific Norwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2012-02-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using nanoparticle probe in immunochromatographic strip. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enhanced sensitivity by using nanoparticle label. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rapid and sensitive detection of cotinine in serum. - Abstract: A disposable sensor for the determination of cotinine in human serum was developed based on immunochromatographic test strip and quantum dot label. In this assay, cotinine linked with quantum dot competes with cotinine in sample to bind to anti-cotinine antibody in the test strip and the quantum dots serve as signal vehicles for electrochemical readout. Some parameters governing the performance of the sensor were optimized. The sensor shows a wide linear range from 1 ng mL{sup -1} to 100 ng mL{sup -1} cotinine with a detection limit of 1.0 ng mL{sup -1}. The sensor was validated with spiked human serum samples and it was found that this method was reliable in measuring cotinine in human serum. The results demonstrate that this sensor is rapid, accurate, and less expensive and has the potential for point of care (POC) detection of cotinine and fast screening of tobacco smoke exposure.

  12. A convenient synthesis of sup 14 C-cotinine from sup 14 C-nicotine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, D.H.; Djordjevic, M.V.; Amin, S. (American Health Foundation, Valhalla, NY (USA). Naylor Dana Inst. for Disease Prevention)

    1991-03-01

    A convenient synthesis with analytical monitoring of {sup 14}C-cotinine is reported. {sup 14}C-Nicotine was converted into {sup 14}C-dibromocotinine hydrobromide perbromide. Debromination, achieved by using Zn dust/acetic acid, resulted in high yields (71%) of {sup 14}C-cotinine. (author).

  13. HOME AIR NICOTINE LEVELS AND URINE COTININE-CREATININE RATIOS IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Science.gov (United States)

    We studied urine cotinine excretion in 27 children who attended a research day care center to determine the extent of correlation between urine cotinine-creatinine ratios (CCR) and intensity of nicotine exposure in the home. verage nicotine levels in home air were determined by a...

  14. Cotinine – metabolism, application as a biomarker and the effects on the organism 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Marcin Nowak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This review presents the current state of knowledge on cotinine, the major metabolite of nicotine. Special attention is paid to the formation of this compound in the organism, its metabolism, application in diagnostic procedures and evaluation of its in vitro and in vivo activities. For many years, cotinine has been used as a biomarker of exposure to tobacco smoke. Currently, this compound is applied in many other studies including the use of cotinine in the treatment of various diseases. Several years ago, Scott et al. patented therapeutic applications of cotinine in chronic and acute inflammation. Cotinine is an interesting compound with a well-known metabolism; therefore there are suggestions for its application in the diagnosis and treatment of certain diseases. 

  15. Decrease in salivary lactoferrin output in chronically intoxicated alcohol-dependent patients

    OpenAIRE

    Napoleon Waszkiewicz; Beata Zalewska-Szajda; Anna Zalewska; Magdalena Waszkiewicz; S?awomir Dariusz Szajda; Bernadeta Repka; Agata Szulc; Alina K?pka; Alina Minarowska; Sylwia Chojnowska; Beata Konarzewska; Jerzy Robert ?adny; Urszula Kowzan; Krzysztof Zwierz

    2012-01-01

    Salivary lactoferrin is a glycoprotein involved in the elimination of pathogens and the prevention of massive overgrowth of microorganisms that affect oral and general health. A high concentration of lactoferrin in saliva is often considered to be a marker of damage to the salivary glands, gingivitis, or leakage through inflamed or damaged oral mucosa, infiltrated particularly by neutrophils. We conducted a study to determine the effect of chronic alcohol intoxication on salivary lac...

  16. Determinación de cotinina y exposición a tabaco Cotinine detection and tobacco smoke exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Noemí Vacchino

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available La exposición a tabaco es una de las causas prevenibles de morbilidad y mortalidad prematura más importante. Se describe un método simple y rápido de detección de cotinina (principal metabolito de nicotina en orina humana. Se utilizó cromatografía gas-líquido (CGL con un detector de ionización de llama (FID. Se realizó una extracción líquido-líquido con cloroformo en medio alcalino; el extracto fue secado a 37 °C y redisuelto en 100 µL de solución alcohólica con estándar interno piridina. Se analizó la orina de personas que declararon ser fumadoras y no fumadoras. Mediante la construcción de dos curvas de calibración se cubrió un rango de linealidad de 3 a 5.000 ng/mL. Los fumadores presentaron una mediana y cuartiles (Q de concentración de cotinina: 255,4 ng/mL, 15,9 ng/mL (Q1 - 1.050,2 ng/mL (Q3, respectivamente, y los no fumadores 15,8 ng/mL, 4,1 ng/mL (Q1 - 38,4 ng/mL (Q3. Wilcoxon sumrank: z = 4,865 p Tobacco is one of the major preventable causes of morbidity and premature mortality in the world. A simple, rapid method for determination of cotinine, major metabolite of nicotine in urine, is described. The assay involves a fast liquid-liquid extraction with chloroform as a solvent in alkaline environment. The extract was dried at 37 °C and the residue was dissolved in 100 µL of standard internal of pyridine in methanol solution, and an aliquot was analyzed by gas-liquid chromatograph equipped with a flame -ionization detector. This technique was performed to test urine of a sample of smokers and non-smokers who were previously asked about their smoking habit. The limit of detection was 3.1 ng/mL, and using two calibration curves, a linearity range from 3 a 5.000 ng/mL was covered. The median and quartiles (Q of cotinine in smokers were 255.4 ng/mL, 15.9 ng/mL (Q1 -1050.2 ng/mL (Q3 ng/mL and in non-smokers 15.8 ng/mL, 4.1 ng/mL (Q1 - 38.4 ng/mL (Q3. Wilcoxon sumrank: z = 4.865 p < 0.01. There was a relationship between cotinine concentration in urine and number of smoked cigarettes. Spearman's rho = 0.5672 (p < 0.001. This technique could identify smokers, second hand smokers and non-smokers using cut-off of 10-15 ng/mL of cotinine in urine, usually adopted in epidemiological studies.

  17. The physiology of salivary secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Gordon B

    2016-02-01

    Saliva in the mouth is a biofluid produced mainly by three pairs of major salivary glands - the submandibular, parotid and sublingual glands - along with secretions from many minor submucosal salivary glands. Salivary gland secretion is a nerve-mediated reflex and the volume of saliva secreted is dependent on the intensity and type of taste and on chemosensory, masticatory or tactile stimulation. Long periods of low (resting or unstimulated) flow are broken by short periods of high flow, which is stimulated by taste and mastication. The nerve-mediated salivary reflex is modulated by nerve signals from other centers in the central nervous system, which is most obvious as hyposalivation at times of anxiety. An example of other neurohormonal influences on the salivary reflex is the circadian rhythm, which affects salivary flow and ionic composition. Cholinergic parasympathetic and adrenergic sympathetic autonomic nerves evoke salivary secretion, signaling through muscarinic M3 and adrenoceptors on salivary acinar cells and leading to secretion of fluid and salivary proteins. Saliva gland acinar cells are chloride and sodium secreting, and the isotonic fluid produced is rendered hypotonic by salivary gland duct cells as it flows to the mouth. The major proteins present in saliva are secreted by salivary glands, creating viscoelasticity and enabling the coating of oral surfaces with saliva. Salivary films are essential for maintaining oral health and regulating the oral microbiome. Saliva in the mouth contains a range of validated and potential disease biomarkers derived from epithelial cells, neutrophils, the microbiome, gingival crevicular fluid and serum. For example, cortisol levels are used in the assessment of stress, matrix metalloproteinases-8 and -9 appear to be promising markers of caries and periodontal disease, and a panel of mRNA and proteins has been proposed as a marker of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Understanding the mechanisms by which components enter saliva is an important aspect of validating their use as biomarkers of health and disease. PMID:26662479

  18. SALIVARY ANTIMICROBIAL PROTEIN RESPONSE TO PROLONGED RUNNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Schneider

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged exercise may compromise immunity through a reduction of salivary antimicrobial proteins (AMPs. Salivary IgA (IgA has been extensively studied, but little is known about the effect of acute, prolonged exercise on AMPs including lysozyme (Lys and lactoferrin (Lac. Objective: To determine the effect of a 50-km trail race on salivary cortisol (Cort, IgA, Lys, and Lac. Methods: 14 subjects: (6 females, 8 males completed a 50km ultramarathon. Saliva was collected pre, immediately after (post and 1.5 hrs post race ( 1.5. Results: Lac concentration was higher at 1.5 hrs post race compared to post exercise (p0.05. IgA concentration, secretion rate, and IgA/Osm were lower 1.5 hrs post compared to pre race (p<0.05. Cort concentration was higher at post compared to 1.5 (p<0.05, but was unaltered from pre race levels. Subjects finished in 7.81 ± 1.2 hrs. Saliva flow rate did not differ between time points. Saliva Osm increased at post (p<0.05 compared to pre race. Conclusions: The intensity could have been too low to alter Lys and Lac secretion rates and thus, may not be as sensitive as IgA to changes in response to prolonged running. Results expand our understanding of the mucosal immune system and may have implications for predicting illness after prolonged running.

  19. Improved 125I radioimmunoassay for cotinine by selective removal of bridge antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe an 125I-based RIA for cotinine, the major metabolite of nicotine. The slope of the dose-response curve was quite shallow (6-8% change in binding per doubling dose), resulting in between-assay CVs of 15 to 20%. This effect occurred because the radioligand formed by linking a cotinine derivative to tyramine manifested greater affinity for the anti-cotinine antibodies than did cotinine itself. We absorbed the serum with a derivative of nicotine coupled to the carrier protein via a chemical bridge similar to that used to form the cotinine/carrier protein immunogen. An RIA in which we used such absorbed serum showed a significantly increased slope of the dose-response curve (11-13% change in binding per doubling dose), and between-assay CVS were only 6 to 8%. We suggest that this improvement results because absorption removes anti-bridge antibodies directed against the chemical-bond common to the cotinine/carrier-protein immunogen and to the cotinine/tyramine radioligand

  20. Improved /sup 125/I radioimmunoassay for cotinine by selective removal of bridge antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, G.J.; Wylie, P.; Holman, M.S.; Haddow, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    We describe an /sup 125/I-based RIA for cotinine, the major metabolite of nicotine. The slope of the dose-response curve was quite shallow (6-8% change in binding per doubling dose), resulting in between-assay CVs of 15 to 20%. This effect occurred because the radioligand formed by linking a cotinine derivative to tyramine manifested greater affinity for the anti-cotinine antibodies than did cotinine itself. We absorbed the serum with a derivative of nicotine coupled to the carrier protein via a chemical bridge similar to that used to form the cotinine/carrier protein immunogen. An RIA in which we used such absorbed serum showed a significantly increased slope of the dose-response curve (11-13% change in binding per doubling dose), and between-assay CVS were only 6 to 8%. We suggest that this improvement results because absorption removes anti-bridge antibodies directed against the chemical-bond common to the cotinine/carrier-protein immunogen and to the cotinine/tyramine radioligand.

  1. Cotinine level is associated with asthma severity in passive smoker children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzad, Maryam; Khalilzadeh, Soheila; Eslampanah Nobari, Shabnam; Bloursaz, Mohammadreza; Sharifi, Hooman; Mohajerani, Seyed Amir; Tashayoie Nejad, Sabereh; Velayati, Ali Akbar

    2015-02-01

    Asthma environmental triggers play important roles in severity of disease. Passive smoking could exacerbate asthma symptoms and enhance the decrease in lung function. Cotinine levels could be a reflection of passive exposure to the cigarette both in adults and pediatrics. The aim of this study was to determine degree of association of asthma severity and cotinine level as a marker of passive smoking. In a cross-sectional study, 100 pediatric patients (under 10 years old) with asthma were enrolled, 50 of whom, had been exposed to passive smoking and 50 others included as controls. A complete clinical history, lab exam, and spirometry were performed. A sample of urine, serum and saliva was collected from all attendant patients and controls in the study after confirmation of diagnosis and determination of severity of asthma. The results revealed that age, sex, age of onset of asthma, family history and allergic history were not significantly different between two groups of patients. According to GINA classification, percentage of patients with severe asthma was significantly higher in passive smoker group (p=0.001). Cotinine was significantly higher in passive smoker group compared to control group in serum (p=001), saliva (p=0.001), and urine (p=0.0014). In passive smoker group, cotinine levels were significantly higher in serum (p=0.001), urine (p=0.007), and saliva (p=0.01) of patients with severe asthma than moderate and mild asthma. Serum cotinine (OR: 1.81, 95% CI: 1.35-2.32, p=0.024), urine cotinine (OR: 3.56,95% CI = 1.29-5.53, p=0.01) and saliva cotinine (OR: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.23-1.98, p=0.031) were also significantly associated with higher risk of severe asthma. Cotinine levels were higher in passive smokers compared to non-passive smokers. Besides, cotinine was a predictive risk factor for severe asthma. PMID:25530141

  2. Synthesis of [pyrrolidine-[sup 14]C]-cotinine from [sup 14]C-nicotine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeters, R.; Daenens, P. (Catholic Univ. of Louvain (Belgium). Dept. of Toxicology)

    1989-05-01

    The synthesis and purification of [sup 14]C-cotinine is reported. 14C-nicotine is converted into [sup 14]C-dibromocotinine. Debromination of the latter results in [sup 14]C-cotinine which is purified by high performance liquid chromatography. The total radioactive yield of the synthesis is 44.8%. Starting from 500 [mu]Ci [sup 14]C-nicotine, 224 [mu]Ci [sup 14]C-cotinine is obtained with a specific activity of 0,23 mCi/mmol. (Author).

  3. Comparison of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies to cotinine in nonisotopic and isotopic immunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monoclonal antibodies (McAb) were used to develop nonisotopic and radioimmunoassays (RIA) for quantitative determination of the major nicotine metabolite, cotinine, in physiological fluids. Cotinine levels in saliva, serum and plasma from smokers and non-smokers determined with McAb-based assays showed a strong correlation with values obtained by RIA using rabbit antisera or by gas chromatography. Properly selected McAb offer distinct advantages over conventional antisera in non-isotopic immunoassays and RIAs for cotinine as a biochemical marker of active or passive smoking. (Auth.)

  4. Salivary acetylcholinesterase activity is increased in Parkinson's disease : a potential marker of parasympathetic dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedorova, Tatyana; Knudsen, Cindy Soendersoe

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Decreased salivary flow and xerostomia are frequent findings in Parkinson's disease (PD), possibly caused by alterations in the parasympathetic tonus. Here we explore salivary acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity as a potential biomarker in PD. Methods. We measured salivary flow, AChE activity, and total protein concentration in 30 PD patients and 49 healthy controls. We also performed exploratory correlation analyses with disease duration, motor symptom severity, autonomic complaints, and other nonmotor symptoms. Results. PD patients displayed significantly decreased salivary flow rate, significantly increased salivary AChE activity, and total protein concentration. Importantly, the AChE activity/total protein ratio was significantly increased in PD patients, suggesting that increased AChE activity cannot be explained solely by upconcentration of saliva. The Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS) score displayed significant correlation with total salivary protein (P = 0.002) and near-significant correlation with salivary flow (P = 0.07). Color vision test scores were also significantly correlated with AChE activity (P = 0.04) and total protein levels (P = 0.002). Conclusion. Salivary AChE activity is increased in PD patients compared to healthy controls. Future studies are needed to elucidate whether this parameter reflects the extent of neuronal damage and parasympathetic denervation in the salivary glands of PD patients.

  5. Correlation between Cigarette Smoking and Urine Cotinine Level in Gastric Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Babhadiashar, Nima; Sotoudeh, Masoud; Azizi, Ebrahim; Bashiri, jafar; Didevar, Reza; MALEKZADEH, Reza; Ghahremani, Mohammad Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Various substances in cigarette smoke including nicotine have been shown to promote/induce cancer cell proliferation. Since cotinine has a longer half life and stability in the blood, it has become the preferred biomarker for cigarette smoking exposure.

  6. TRPV1 in Salivary Gland Epithelial Cells Is Not Involved in Salivary Secretion via Transcellular Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seulki; Shin, Yong-Hwan; Namkoong, Eun; Hwang, Sung-Min; Cong, Xin; Yu, Guangyan; Park, Kyungpyo

    2014-12-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) was originally found in sensory neurons. Recently, it has been reported that TRPV1 is expressed in salivary gland epithelial cells (SGEC). However, the physiological role of TRPV1 in salivary secretion remains to be elucidated. We found that TRPV1 is expressed in mouse and human submandibular glands (SMG) and HSG cells, originated from human submandibular gland ducts at both mRNA and protein levels. However, capsaicin (CAP), TRPV1 agonist, had little effect on intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in these cells, although carbachol consistently increased [Ca(2+)]i. Exposure of cells to high temperature (>43?) or acidic bath solution (pH5.4) did not increase [Ca(2+)]i, either. We further examined the role of TRPV1 in salivary secretion using TRPV1 knock-out mice. There was no significant difference in the pilocarpine (PILO)-induced salivary flow rate between wild-type and TRPV1 knock-out mice. Saliva flow rate also showed insignificant change in the mice treated with PILO plus CAP compared with that in mice treated with PILO alone. Taken together, our results suggest that although TRPV1 is expressed in SGEC, it appears not to play any direct roles in saliva secretion via transcellular pathway. PMID:25598668

  7. Responses of salivary cortisol and ?-amylase to official competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMMAD A. AZARBAYJANI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the relationship between salivary cortisol, ?-amylase and total protein response in the official football players during the course of a game. Nine young amateur football players agreed to participate in the study. Saliva samples were collected from each player 30 min and 5 min before the start of the competition, at half time, and then again 5 and 30 min after the end of competition. A significant increase in cortisol (p=0.04 in response to playing the competition was observed including a significantly higher concentration 30 min after match as compared to half time (p=0.016. In contrast, changes in salivary ?-amylase changes were irregular, but there was significant decline 5 min after end of match as compared to the 5 min before the beginning of match (p<0.019. No significant difference in total protein concentration was observed. Though salivary cortisol, ?-amylase and total protein changes were observed concomitantly, but there no significant relationship between them. We conclude that participation in competition has an accumulative effect on salivary cortisol concentration, but this was not related changes in salivary ?-amylase.

  8. Plasma cotinine levels and pancreatic cancer in the EPIC cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leenders, Max; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Dahm, Christina C; Overvad, Kim; Ueland, Per Magne; Midttun, Oivind; Vollset, Stein Emil; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjaer, Jytte; Jenab, Mazda; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Kaaks, Rudolf; Canzian, Federico; Boeing, Heiner; Weikert, Cornelia; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Naska, Androniki; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Duijnhoven, Fränzel Jb van; Peeters, Petra Hm; Gils, Carla H van; Lund, Eiliv; Rodriguez, Laudina; Duell, Eric J; Pérez, María-José Sánchez; Molina-Montes, Esther; Castaño, José María Huerta; Barricarte, Aurelio; Larrañaga, Nerea; Johansen, Dorthe; Lindkvist, Björn; Sund, Malin; Ye, Weimin; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Michaud, Dominique S; Riboli, Elio; Xun, Wei W; Allen, Naomi E; Crowe, Francesca L; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Vineis, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Smoking is an established risk factor for pancreatic cancer, previously investigated by the means of questionnaires. Using cotinine as a biomarker for tobacco exposure allows more accurate quantitative analyses to be performed. This study on pancreatic cancer, nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC cohort), included 146 cases and 146 matched controls. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, plasma cotinine levels were analyzed on average 8.0 y...

  9. Cotinine Selectively Activates a Subpopulation of ?3/?6?2* Nicotinic Receptors in Monkey Striatum

    OpenAIRE

    O’Leary, Kathryn; Parameswaran, Neeraja; McIntosh, J. Michael; Quik, Maryka

    2008-01-01

    The nicotine metabolite cotinine is an abundant long-lived bio-active compound that may contribute to the overall physiological effects of tobacco use. Although its mechanism of action in the central nervous system has not been extensively investigated, cotinine is known to evoke dopamine release in the nigrostriatal pathway through an interaction at nicotinic receptors (nAChRs). Because considerable evidence now demonstrates the presence of multiple nAChRs in the striatum, the present experi...

  10. Assessment of smoking status based on cotinine levels in nasal lavage fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cowart Beverly J

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cotinine is a principal metabolite of nicotine with a substantially longer half-life, and cotinine levels in saliva, urine or serum are widely used to validate self-reported smoking status. The nasal cavity and olfactory system are directly exposed to tobacco smoke in smokers and in non-smokers who live with or work around smokers. However, despite the potential for a direct impact of tobacco smoke on the nasal epithelium and olfactory neurons, no prior studies have assessed cotinine levels in nasal mucus. We sought to determine whether cotinine levels in nasal lavage fluid (NLF would provide a reasonable estimate of smoke exposure. We assayed cotinine using a competitive immunoassay in NLF from 23 smokers, 10 non-smokers exposed to tobacco smoke (ETS and 60 non-smokers who did not report smoke exposure. NLF cotinine levels were significantly higher in smokers than in non-smokers, regardless of their exposure to ambient tobacco smoke. Cotinine levels in this small group of exposed non-smokers were not significantly different than those of non-exposed non-smokers. A cutoff of 1 ng/ml provided a sensitivity of 91% and a specificity of 99% for smoking status in this sample. Data were consistent with self-reported smoking status, and a cutoff of 1.0 ng/ml NLF cotinine may be used to classify smoking status. While saliva is the most easily obtained body fluid, NLF can be used to provide an objective and precise indication of smoking status and more directly reflects smoke exposure in the nasal and olfactory mucosa.

  11. Cotinine in Human Placenta Predicts Induction of Gene Expression in Fetal Tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Vyhlidal, Carrie A.; Riffel, Amanda K.; Haley, Kathleen J.; Sharma, Sunita; Dai, Hongying; Tantisira, Kelan G; Weiss, Scott T.; Leeder, J Steven

    2013-01-01

    Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of perinatal morbidity and mortality. However, the mechanisms underlying adverse birth outcomes following prenatal exposure to cigarette smoke remain unknown due, in part, to the absence or unreliability of information regarding maternal cigarette smoke exposure during pregnancy. Our goal was to determine if placental cotinine could be a reliable biomarker of fetal cigarette smoke exposure during pregnancy. Cotinine...

  12. Plasma cotinine levels and pancreatic cancer in the EPIC cohort study.

    OpenAIRE

    Leenders, M.; Chuang, SC; Dahm, CC; Overvad, K.; Ueland, PM; Midttun, O.; Vollset, SE; Tjønneland, A; Halkjaer, J.; Jenab, M.; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Boutron-Ruault, MC; Kaaks, R.; Canzian, F.; Boeing, H

    2012-01-01

    Smoking is an established risk factor for pancreatic cancer, previously investigated by the means of questionnaires. Using cotinine as a biomarker for tobacco exposure allows more accurate quantitative analyses to be performed. This study on pancreatic cancer, nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC cohort), included 146 cases and 146 matched controls. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, plasma cotinine levels were analyzed on average 8....

  13. Plasma cotinine levels and pancreatic cancer in the EPIC cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leenders, Max; Chuang, Shu-Chun

    2012-01-01

    Smoking is an established risk factor for pancreatic cancer, previously investigated by the means of questionnaires. Using cotinine as a biomarker for tobacco exposure allows more accurate quantitative analyses to be performed. This study on pancreatic cancer, nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC cohort), included 146 cases and 146 matched controls. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, plasma cotinine levels were analyzed on average 8.0 years before cancer onset (5-95% range: 2.8-12.0 years). The relation between plasma cotinine levels and pancreatic cancer was analyzed with conditional logistic regression for different levels of cotinine in a population of never and current smokers. This was also done for the self-reported number of smoked cigarettes per day at baseline. Every increase of 350 nmol/L of plasma cotinine was found to significantly elevate risk of pancreatic cancer (odds ratio (OR): 1.33, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11-1.60). People with a cotinine level over 1187.8 nmol/L, a level comparable to smoking 17 cigarettes per day, have an elevated risk of pancreatic cancer, compared to people with cotinine levels below 55 nmol/L (OR: 3.66, 95% CI: 1.44-9.26). The results for self-reported smoking at baseline also show an increased risk of pancreatic cancer from cigarette smoking based on questionnaire information. People who smoke more than 30 cigarettes per day showed the highest risk compared to never smokers (OR: 4.15, 95% CI: 1.02-16.42). This study is the first to show that plasma cotinine levels are strongly related to pancreatic cancer. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Gene-Centric Analysis of Serum Cotinine Levels in African and European American Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Hamidovic, Ajna; Goodloe, Robert J.; Bergen, Andrew W; Neal L. Benowitz; Styn, Mindi A.; Kasberger, Jay L; Choquet, Helene; Young, Taylor R; Meng, Yan; Palmer, Cameron; Pletcher, Mark; Kertesz, Stefan; Hitsman, Brian; Spring, Bonnie; Jorgenson, Eric

    2011-01-01

    To date, most genetic association studies of tobacco use have been conducted in European American subjects using the phenotype of smoking quantity (cigarettes per day). However, smoking quantity is a very imprecise measure of exposure to tobacco smoke constituents. Analyses of alternate phenotypes and populations may improve our understanding of tobacco addiction genetics. Cotinine is the major metabolite of nicotine, and measuring serum cotinine levels in smokers provides a more objective me...

  15. Parotid salivary parameters in bulimic patients – a controlled clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El?bieta Paszy?ska

    2015-08-01

    Erosive-abrasive tooth surface loss seems to be a significant diagnostic tool of bulimia nervosa. The presence of pathological changes in teeth structure indicates the loss of protective properties of saliva, which is proved by pH value and concentration of buffer ions. It is advisable to monitor salivary parameters, such as salivary flow rate, pH and the concentration of buffer ions in long-term treatment with SI-5-HT drugs in case of patients with purging-type bulimia. There is also a need for regular dental check-ups of the oral cavity tissues.

  16. Cotinine: beyond that expected, more than a biomarker of tobacco consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ValentinaEcheverria Moran

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A greater incidence of tobacco consumption occurs among individuals with psychiatric conditions including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, bipolar disorder, major depression and schizophrenia, compared with the general population. Even when still controversial, it has been postulated that smoking is a form of self-medication that reduces psychiatric symptoms among individuals with these disorders. To better understand the component(s of tobacco-inducing smoking behavior, greater attention has been directed toward nicotine. However, in recent years, new evidence has shown that cotinine, the main metabolite of nicotine, exhibits beneficial effects over psychiatric symptoms and may therefore promote smoking within this population. Some of the behavioral effects of cotinine compared to nicotine are discussed here. Cotinine, which accumulates in the body as a result of tobacco exposure, crosses the blood-brain barrier and has different pharmacological properties compared with nicotine. Cotinine has a longer plasma half-life than nicotine and showed no addictive or cardiovascular effects in humans. In addition, at the preclinical level, cotinine facilitated the extinction of fear memory and anxiety after fear conditioning, improved working memory in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD and in a monkey model of schizophrenia. Altogether, the new evidence suggests that the pharmacological and behavioral effects of cotinine may play a key role in promoting tobacco smoking in individuals that suffer from psychiatric conditions and represents a new potential therapeutic agent against psychiatric conditions such as AD and PTSD.

  17. Exercise upregulates salivary amylase in humans (Review)

    OpenAIRE

    KOIBUCHI, ERI; SUZUKI, YOSHIO

    2014-01-01

    The secretion of salivary ?-amylase is influenced by adrenergic regulation of the sympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis; thus, exercise affects the levels of salivary ?-amylase. Granger et al published a review in 2007 that focused attention on salivary ?-amylase. In addition, a portable system for monitoring salivary ?-amylase activity was launched in Japan at the end of 2005. The correlation between exercise and salivary ?-amylase has since been extensively ...

  18. Radioimmunoassay of salivary steroid hormones for easy diagnosis of and adrenal functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The salivary levels of progesterone, estradiol and cortisol were determined by radioimmunoassay in fertile and infertile women. progesterone concentration was also determined in sera of both groups. Results have shown salivary progesterone to be promising in the assessment of ovarian function. Positive and significant correlation was obtained between serum and salivary progesterone for both considered groups. Although, concentrations of estradiol in saliva seems to be useful in predicting the time of ovulation onset however, further evaluations, are still needed. High levels of salivary cortisol were obtained reflecting stress during menses, ovulation and awaiting for the onset of the next cycle. Consequently, salivary cortisol is a good monitor for adrenal function. 6 figs., 5 tabs

  19. Immunochromatographic assay using gold nanoparticles for measuring salivary secretory IgA in dogs as a stress marker

    OpenAIRE

    Aki Takahashi, Shigeru Uchiyama, Yuya Kato, Teruko Yuhi, Hiromi Ushijima, Makoto Takezaki, Toshihiro Tominaga, Yoshiko Moriyama, Kunio Takeda, Toshiro Miyahara and Naoki Nagatani

    2009-01-01

    The concentration of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) is a well-known stress marker for humans. The concentration of salivary sIgA in dogs has also been reported as a useful stress marker. In addition, salivary sIgA in dogs has been used to determine the adaptive ability of dogs for further training. There are conventional procedures based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs. However, ELISA requires long assay time, complicated operations...

  20. CYP2A6 Genotype but not Age Determines Cotinine Half-life in Infants and Children

    OpenAIRE

    Dempseyl, Delia A.; Sambol, Nancy C.; Jacob, Peyton; Hoffmann, E; Tyndale, Rachel F.; Fuentes-Afflick, Elena; Neal L. Benowitz

    2013-01-01

    The formation of cotinine, the main proximate metabolite and a biomarker of nicotine exposure, is mediated primarily by CYP2A6. Our aim was to determine if higher cotinine levels in young children exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) are a result of age-related differences in pharmacokinetics. Forty-nine participants, 2 to 84 months old, received oral deuterium-labeled cotinine, with daily urine samples for up to 10 days for cotinine half-life measurement. DNA from saliva was used for CYP2A6 gen...

  1. Circulating immune complexes, immunoglobulin G, salivary proteins and salivary immunoglobulin A in patients with Sjögren's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadži-Mihailovi? Miloš

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sjögren's syndrome (SS is a chronic autoimmune disorder, with its major clinical manifestations resulting from changes in exocrine glands. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate serum concentrations of circulating immune complexes (CIC and immunoglobulin G (IgG, and salivary proteins (SP and salivary immunoglobulin A (sIgA in 40 patients with SS, and to correlate these values among themselves, as well as with the unstimulated salivary flow rate (USFR and the duration of disease. Methods. The total of 40 patients were included in this research. CIC was determined using the solution of polyethylene glycol and IgG with the standard procedure of radial immunodiffusion. SP was investigated by the method of Lowry and sIgA was separated from the whole saliva using the method of immune chromatography. Results. The values of most of the studied parameters exceeded the normal range in a high degree: CIC 72.5%, IgG 70%, SP 80%. The concentrations of CIC were significantly higher in the patients with the duration of disease less than 10 years. With the decrease of USFR, the concentration of sIgA and IgG were increased with statistical significance. Conclusion The increased prevalence of abnormal values of CIC, IgG and SP indicate that the patients with SS have developed a higher level of immune reactivity. These results could be useful in diagnosis and disease activity monitoring.

  2. Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Request Permissions Print to PDF Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 08/ ... menu on the side of your screen. A risk factor is anything that increases a person’s chance of ...

  3. Efecto de la Cotinina en la Viabilidad de Fibroblastos / EFFECT OF COTININE ON THE VIABILITY OF FIBROBLASTS.

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aurora E., Traverso Martínez; Karina, Gonzales Silvério; Carlos, Rossa Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar "in vitro" el efecto de la cotinina en la viabilidad celular utilizando un linaje continuo de fibroblastos. Fueron formados grupos experimentales según las concentraciones de cotinina : 0 (control), 50ng, 100ng, 500ng, 1ug/ml. y tiempo de condicionamento (1, 24, 4 [...] 8 horas). Cada uno de los 12 orificios de una placa para cultivo celular recibió 1 mL de medio de Eagle y 1mL de cotinina en las diferentes concentraciones, inmediatamente fue acrescentado 1ml de medio de cultivo conteniendo 1x10(5) cels/mL. Después del condicionamento con la droga, en los 3 períodos ensayados, las células fueron teñidas con azul de tripan 0,4% y observadas en un microscopio invertido, por un examinador ciego para los grupos experimentales. Los experimentos fueron repetidos 5 vezes. Los resultados mostraron que las dos concentraciones mayores de cotinina presentaron los menores porcentajes de células viables, sin embargo, esta diferencia fue reducida. La viabilidad celular presentó una pequeña disminución con el aumento del tiempo de condicionamiento. Concluimos que la cotinina puede afectar la viabilidad celular solo en las dos mayores concentraciones ensayadas. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate, in vitro, the effect of cotinine on the viability of fibroblasts from a continuous lineage. Experimental groups were formed according to drug dosage: 0 (control), 50ng, 100ng, 500ng, 1ug/ml, and time of exposure: (1, 24, 48 horas).Twelve wells microplates were [...] used. Each well received 1ml of Eagle medium and 1ml of a solution containing 1x10(5) cells/ml. Cotinine at the tested concentrations was then added to the wells. After the incubation period, cells viability was assessed by using trypan blue 0,4%. Cell viabylity were assessed on a inverted micorscope, by the single examiner who was blend to the experimentals groups. The experiment was repeated 5 times. Results demostrated that the two greater concentrations presented the more non viable cells, but these diferences were minimal. The cells viability presented minimal decreased with the increased of time exposure. Cotinine affect fibroblasts for the high tested dose.

  4. Direct radioimmunoassay (RIA) of salivary testosterone: correlation with free and total serium testosterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simple and sensitive direct RIA for determination of salivary testosterone was developed by using RSL NOSOLVEX TM (125 1) kit produced by Radioassay System Laboratories (Carcon, California). In addition, a relationship between salivary and serum free and total testosterone concentrations was studied in randomly selected 45 healthy subjects, 5 females on oral contraceptive pills and 28 hypertensive patients on various treatment regimens. The lowest weight of testosterone detectable by the modified method was equivalent to 1 pg/ml of saliva, taking into account analytical variability. Intra- and interassay coefficients of variation were 5.09 +/- 2.7% and 8.2 +/- 5.9% respectively. Statistically significant correlations were found between salivary and serum free testosterone (r = 0.97) and salivary and serum total testosterone concentrations (r = 0.70 - 0.87). The exception to this was a group of hypertensive females in which no correlation (r = 0.14) between salivary and total serum testosterone was found. It is also of interest that, while salivary testosterone was significantly increased in subjects taking oral contraceptives and most of the hypertensive patients, the total serum testosterone concentration was in normal range. These findings suggest that the determination of salivary testosterone is a reliable method to detect changes in the concentration of available biologically active hormone in the circulation. 21 references, 4 figures, 1 table

  5. Adrenergic effects on secretion of amylase from the rat salivary glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier; NexØ, Ebba

    1988-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of adrenergic agents on secretion of amylase from the salivary glands in vivo. Saliva was collected from the distal oesophagus in conscious rats. Adrenaline increased the concentration of amylase in saliva and serum significantly. The result of infusion of alpha- and beta-adrenergic antagonists as well as noradrenaline and isoproterenol showed that secretion of salivary amylase is predominantly mediated by stimulation of beta-adrenergic receptors, especially of the beta 1-subtype. Investigation of the isoenzyme pattern in saliva, pancreatic juice and serum demonstrated that the major component in serum is salivary amylase. This study has shown that beta-adrenergic agents stimulate secretion of amylase from the salivary glands in rats. Though the secretion is mainly exocrine small amounts of amylase is found in serum, which seems to originate from the salivary glands.

  6. The nicotine metabolite, cotinine, alters the assembly and trafficking of a subset of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Ashley M; Moonschi, Faruk H; Richards, Christopher I

    2015-10-01

    Exposure to nicotine alters the trafficking and assembly of nicotinic receptors (nAChRs), leading to their up-regulation on the plasma membrane. Although the mechanism is not fully understood, nicotine-induced up-regulation is believed to contribute to nicotine addiction. The effect of cotinine, the primary metabolite of nicotine, on nAChR trafficking and assembly has not been extensively investigated. We utilize a pH-sensitive variant of GFP, super ecliptic pHluorin, to differentiate between intracellular nAChRs and those expressed on the plasma membrane to quantify changes resulting from cotinine and nicotine exposure. Similar to nicotine, exposure to cotinine increases the number of ?4?2 receptors on the plasma membrane and causes a redistribution of intracellular receptors. In contrast to this, cotinine exposure down-regulates ?6?2?3 receptors. We also used single molecule fluorescence studies to show that cotinine and nicotine both alter the assembly of ?4?2 receptors to favor the high sensitivity (?4)2(?2)3 stoichiometry. PMID:26269589

  7. Dynamic radioisotopic study of the salivary glands. Quantification test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantified dynamic radioisotopic exploration, a new and rational examination, should find its place in a thorough check-up of the salivary glands together with clinical, immunological, anatomopathological and sialographic investigations. The object of this work was to standardise the test procedure with a view to routine use on patients and to define certain quantified parameters representing objectively the different aspects of the salivary functions. Our procedure through reeding sophisticated equipment, is simple to perform and relies on use of: radiotechnetium employed at activities which allow repetitive exlorations whereby pathological changes may be followed; the gamma camera and its data processing system which records all radioactive information obtained on the patient's head. These results will supply the data needed to judge the salivary functions as a whole. The apparatus used provides a remarkable pictorial record made up not only of morphological and functional images at each stage of the examination but also of ciphered radioactivity versus time curves for each of the main salivary glands and for any other zone of interest. From these curves it is then possible to define quantified parameters, reproducible and expressing functional activity. This procedure, safe and painless, seems to suit the patients who lie still without complaint for 60 minutes, 45 minutes for the concentration study and 15 minutes for the post-stimulus excretion study. The dynamic radioisotopic examination of the salivary glands, by the comparison of concentration and excretion images and by the study of parameters, separately and as a whole, is thus a useful complement to other paraclinical examinations and contributes essential information in most salivary diseases

  8. Single gas chromatography method with nitrogen phosphorus detector for urinary cotinine determination in passive and active smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusiane Malafatti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Nicotine is a major addictive compound in cigarettes and is rapidly and extensively metabolized to several metabolites in humans, including urinary cotinine, considered a biomarker due to its high concentration compared to other metabolites. The aim of this study was to develop a single method for determination of urinary cotinine, in active and passive smokers, by gas chromatography with a nitrogen phosphorus detector (GC-NPD. Urine (5.0 mL was extracted with 1.0 mL of sodium hydroxide 5 mol L-1, 5.0 mL of chloroform, and lidocaine used as the internal standard. Injection volume was 1 ?L in GC-NPD. Limit of quantification was 10 ng mL-1. Linearity was evaluated in the ranges 10-1000 ng mL-1 and 500-6000 ng mL-1, with determination coefficients of 0.9986 and 0.9952, respectively. Intra- and inter-assay standard relative deviations were lower than 14.2 %, while inaccuracy (bias was less than +11.9%. The efficiency of extraction was greater than 88.5%. Ruggedness was verified, according to Youden's test. Means of cotinine concentrations observed were 2,980 ng mL-1 for active smokers and 132 ng mL-1, for passive smokers. The results revealed that satisfactory chromatographic separation between the analyte and interferents was obtained with a ZB-1 column. This method is reliable, precise, linear and presented ruggedness in the range evaluated. The results suggest that it can be applied in routine analysis for passive and active smokers, since it is able to quantify a wide range of cotinine concentrations in urine.A nicotina é uma substância presente no cigarro capaz de causar dependência, sendo biotransformada em vários metabólitos nos seres humanos, dentre eles a cotinina urinária, que é considerada um indicador biológico de exposição à nicotina, devido a suas altas concentrações, comparado a outras matrizes. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um único método para determinação de cotinina urinária, em amostras de urina de fumantes ativos e passivos, através de cromatografia em fase gasosa com detector de nitrogênio- fósforo (CG-DNF. Para o preparo de amostras foram utilizados 5 mL de urina, 1 mL de hidróxido de sódio 5 mol L-1, 5 mL de clorofórmio, tendo como padrão interno a lidocaína. Na faixa de concentrações de 10-1000 ng mL-1 e 500- 6000 ng mL-1, o coeficiente de determinação foi 0,9986 e 0,9952, respectivamente e, o limite de quantificação foi 10 ng mL-1. A precisão intra- e interensaio apresentou desvio padrão relativo (% menor que 14,2% e a inexatidão foi menor que +11,9%, com uma eficiência de extração de 88,5%. O método apresentou robustez, de acordo com o teste de Youden. As concentrações médias de cotinina observadas foram 2980 ng mL-1, para fumantes ativos e 132 ng mL-1, para fumantes passivos. Os resultados sugerem que o método é confiável, preciso, linear e apresentou robustez, na faixa avaliada, podendo ser aplicado na rotina para análises de amostras de fumantes ativos e passivos, pois é capaz de quantificar uma ampla faixa de concentrações de cotinina urinária.

  9. Single gas chromatography method with nitrogen phosphorus detector for urinary cotinine determination in passive and active smokers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lusiane, Malafatti; Patrícia Penido, Maia; Matheus Coutinho Gonçalves, Martins; Maria Elisa Pereira Bastos de, Siqueira; Isarita, Martins.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A nicotina é uma substância presente no cigarro capaz de causar dependência, sendo biotransformada em vários metabólitos nos seres humanos, dentre eles a cotinina urinária, que é considerada um indicador biológico de exposição à nicotina, devido a suas altas concentrações, comparado a outras matrize [...] s. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um único método para determinação de cotinina urinária, em amostras de urina de fumantes ativos e passivos, através de cromatografia em fase gasosa com detector de nitrogênio- fósforo (CG-DNF). Para o preparo de amostras foram utilizados 5 mL de urina, 1 mL de hidróxido de sódio 5 mol L-1, 5 mL de clorofórmio, tendo como padrão interno a lidocaína. Na faixa de concentrações de 10-1000 ng mL-1 e 500- 6000 ng mL-1, o coeficiente de determinação foi 0,9986 e 0,9952, respectivamente e, o limite de quantificação foi 10 ng mL-1. A precisão intra- e interensaio apresentou desvio padrão relativo (%) menor que 14,2% e a inexatidão foi menor que +11,9%, com uma eficiência de extração de 88,5%. O método apresentou robustez, de acordo com o teste de Youden. As concentrações médias de cotinina observadas foram 2980 ng mL-1, para fumantes ativos e 132 ng mL-1, para fumantes passivos. Os resultados sugerem que o método é confiável, preciso, linear e apresentou robustez, na faixa avaliada, podendo ser aplicado na rotina para análises de amostras de fumantes ativos e passivos, pois é capaz de quantificar uma ampla faixa de concentrações de cotinina urinária. Abstract in english Nicotine is a major addictive compound in cigarettes and is rapidly and extensively metabolized to several metabolites in humans, including urinary cotinine, considered a biomarker due to its high concentration compared to other metabolites. The aim of this study was to develop a single method for d [...] etermination of urinary cotinine, in active and passive smokers, by gas chromatography with a nitrogen phosphorus detector (GC-NPD). Urine (5.0 mL) was extracted with 1.0 mL of sodium hydroxide 5 mol L-1, 5.0 mL of chloroform, and lidocaine used as the internal standard. Injection volume was 1 ?L in GC-NPD. Limit of quantification was 10 ng mL-1. Linearity was evaluated in the ranges 10-1000 ng mL-1 and 500-6000 ng mL-1, with determination coefficients of 0.9986 and 0.9952, respectively. Intra- and inter-assay standard relative deviations were lower than 14.2 %, while inaccuracy (bias) was less than +11.9%. The efficiency of extraction was greater than 88.5%. Ruggedness was verified, according to Youden's test. Means of cotinine concentrations observed were 2,980 ng mL-1 for active smokers and 132 ng mL-1, for passive smokers. The results revealed that satisfactory chromatographic separation between the analyte and interferents was obtained with a ZB-1 column. This method is reliable, precise, linear and presented ruggedness in the range evaluated. The results suggest that it can be applied in routine analysis for passive and active smokers, since it is able to quantify a wide range of cotinine concentrations in urine.

  10. Quantitative PCR analysis of salivary pathogen burden in periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, Aino; Kopra, K. A. Elisa; Hyvärinen, Kati; Paju, Susanna; Mäntylä, Päivi; Buhlin, Kåre; Nieminen, Markku S.; Sinisalo, Juha; Pussinen, Pirkko J.

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the value of salivary concentrations of four major periodontal pathogens and their combination in diagnostics of periodontitis. The Parogene study included 462 dentate subjects (mean age 62.9 ± 9.2 years) with coronary artery disease (CAD) diagnosis who underwent an extensive clinical and radiographic oral examination. Salivary levels of four major periodontal bacteria were measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Median salivary concentrations of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Prevotella intermedia, as well as the sum of the concentrations of the four bacteria, were higher in subjects with moderate to severe periodontitis compared to subjects with no to mild periodontitis. Median salivary Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans concentrations did not differ significantly between the subjects with no to mild periodontitis and subjects with moderate to severe periodontitis. In logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, diabetes, and the number of teeth and implants, high salivary concentrations of P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, and P. intermedia were significantly associated with moderate to severe periodontitis. When looking at different clinical and radiographic parameters of periodontitis, high concentrations of P. gingivalis and T. forsythia were significantly associated with the number of 4–5 mm periodontal pockets, ?6 mm pockets, and alveolar bone loss (ABL). High level of T. forsythia was associated also with bleeding on probing (BOP). The combination of the four bacteria, i.e., the bacterial burden index, was associated with moderate to severe periodontitis with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.40 (95% CI 1.39–4.13). When A. actinomycetemcomitans was excluded from the combination of the bacteria, the OR was improved to 2.61 (95% CI 1.51–4.52). The highest OR 3.59 (95% CI 1.94–6.63) was achieved when P. intermedia was further excluded from the combination and only the levels of P. gingivalis and T. forsythia were used. Salivary diagnostics of periodontitis has potential especially in large-scale population studies and health promotion. The cumulative strategy appears to be useful in the analysis of salivary bacteria as markers of periodontitis. PMID:26484315

  11. Interactions between developing nerves and salivary glands

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, João N; Hoffman, Matthew P.

    2013-01-01

    Our aim is to provide a summary of the field of salivary gland development and regeneration from the perspective of what is known about the function of nerves during these processes. The primary function of adult salivary glands is to produce and secrete saliva. Neuronal control of adult salivary gland function has been a focus of research ever since Pavlov’s seminal experiments on salivation in dogs. Less is known about salivary gland innervation during development and how the developing ner...

  12. Anatomy, biogenesis, and regeneration of salivary glands

    OpenAIRE

    Holmberg, Kyle V.; Hoffman, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    An overview of the anatomy and biogenesis of salivary glands is important in order to understand the physiology, functions and disorders associated with saliva. A major disorder of salivary glands is salivary hypofunction and resulting xerostomia, or dry mouth, which affects hundreds of thousands of patients per year who suffer from salivary gland diseases or undergo head and neck cancer treatment. There is currently no curative therapy for these patients. To improve these patients’ quality o...

  13. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke measured by cotinine sup 125 I-radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, G.J.; Palomaki, G.E.; Lea, D.H.; Haddow, J.E. (Foundation for Blood Research, Scarborough, ME (USA))

    1989-06-01

    We describe a polyclonal-antiserum-based {sup 125}I-radioimmunoassay for cotinine that is suitable for measuring nonsmokers' passive exposure to tobacco smoke in the environment. The standard curve ranged from 0.25 to 12.0 micrograms/L, with an estimated lower limit of sensitivity of 0.2 microgram/L (95% B/Bo = 0.2 microgram/L; 50% B/Bo = 4.0 micrograms/L). The median within-assay CVs for patients' samples with cotinine values from 0.4 to 1.3, 1.4 to 2.4, 2.5 to 4.6, and 4.7 to 15.6 micrograms/L were 13.9%, 7.2%, 5.1%, and 5.7%, respectively. Between-assay CVs for two quality-control sera with average values of 1.53 and 3.68 micrograms/L were 14.3% and 7.8%, respectively. Analytical recoveries of cotinine from smokers' sera diluted in zero calibrant ranged from 91% to 116%. Cotinine values determined on 79 paired sera and urines from nonsmokers showed significant correlation with self-reported exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (r = 0.49, P less than 0.001 for sera; r = 0.57, P less than 0.001 for urine). The log of the values for serum and urine cotinine were also significantly correlated (r = 0.85, P less than 0.001). Evidently, polyclonal antiserum can be used to develop a cotinine assay for measuring exposure to environmental tobacco smoke that compares well with that described for monoclonal-based assays.

  14. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke measured by cotinine 125I-radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a polyclonal-antiserum-based 125I-radioimmunoassay for cotinine that is suitable for measuring nonsmokers' passive exposure to tobacco smoke in the environment. The standard curve ranged from 0.25 to 12.0 micrograms/L, with an estimated lower limit of sensitivity of 0.2 microgram/L (95% B/Bo = 0.2 microgram/L; 50% B/Bo = 4.0 micrograms/L). The median within-assay CVs for patients' samples with cotinine values from 0.4 to 1.3, 1.4 to 2.4, 2.5 to 4.6, and 4.7 to 15.6 micrograms/L were 13.9%, 7.2%, 5.1%, and 5.7%, respectively. Between-assay CVs for two quality-control sera with average values of 1.53 and 3.68 micrograms/L were 14.3% and 7.8%, respectively. Analytical recoveries of cotinine from smokers' sera diluted in zero calibrant ranged from 91% to 116%. Cotinine values determined on 79 paired sera and urines from nonsmokers showed significant correlation with self-reported exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (r = 0.49, P less than 0.001 for sera; r = 0.57, P less than 0.001 for urine). The log of the values for serum and urine cotinine were also significantly correlated (r = 0.85, P less than 0.001). Evidently, polyclonal antiserum can be used to develop a cotinine assay for measuring exposure to environmental tobacco smoke that compares well with that described for monoclonal-based assays

  15. Toward improved statistical methods for analyzing Cotinine-Biomarker health association data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark John D

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serum cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine, is frequently used in research as a biomarker of recent tobacco smoke exposure. Historically, secondhand smoke (SHS research uses suboptimal statistical methods due to censored serum cotinine values, meaning a measurement below the limit of detection (LOD. Methods We compared commonly used methods for analyzing censored serum cotinine data using parametric and non-parametric techniques employing data from the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES. To illustrate the differences in associations obtained by various analytic methods, we compared parameter estimates for the association between cotinine and the inflammatory marker homocysteine using complete case analysis, single and multiple imputation, "reverse" Kaplan-Meier, and logistic regression models. Results Parameter estimates and statistical significance varied according to the statistical method used with censored serum cotinine values. Single imputation of censored values with either 0, LOD or LOD/?2 yielded similar estimates and significance; multiple imputation method yielded smaller estimates than the other methods and without statistical significance. Multiple regression modelling using the "reverse" Kaplan-Meier method yielded statistically significant estimates that were larger than those from parametric methods. Conclusions Analyses of serum cotinine data with values below the LOD require special attention. "Reverse" Kaplan-Meier was the only method inherently able to deal with censored data with multiple LODs, and may be the most accurate since it avoids data manipulation needed for use with other commonly used statistical methods. Additional research is needed into the identification of optimal statistical methods for analysis of SHS biomarkers subject to a LOD.

  16. The ability of plasma cotinine to predict nicotine and carcinogen exposure is altered by differences in CYP2A6: the influence of genetics, race and sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Andy Z.X.; Renner, Caroline C.; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Swan, Gary E.; Lerman, Caryn; Benowitz, Neal L.; Tyndale, Rachel F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cotinine, a nicotine metabolite, is a biomarker of tobacco, nicotine and carcinogen exposure. However a given cotinine level may not represent the same tobacco exposure; for example, African Americans have higher cotinine levels than Caucasians after controlling for exposure. Methods Cotinine levels are determined by the amount of cotinine formation and the rate of cotinine removal which are both mediated by the enzyme CYP2A6. Since CYP2A6 activity differs by sex (estrogen induces CYP2A6) and genotype, their effect on cotinine formation and removal were measured in non-smoking Caucasians (Study 1, n=181) infused with labeled nicotine and cotinine. The findings were then extended to ad libitum smokers (Study 2, n=163). Results Study 1: Reduced CYP2A6 activity altered cotinine formation less than cotinine removal resulting in ratios of formation to removal of 1.31 and 1.12 in CYP2A6 reduced and normal metabolizers (P=0.01), or 1.39 and 1.12 in males and females (P=0.001), suggesting an overestimation of tobacco exposure in slower metabolizers. Study 2: Cotinine again overestimated tobacco and carcinogen exposure by ?25% in CYP2A6 reduced metabolizers (?2 fold between some genotypes) and in males. Conclusions In people with slower, relative to faster, CYP2A6 activity cotinine accumulates resulting in substantial differences in cotinine levels for a given tobacco exposure. Impact Cotinine levels may be misleading when comparing those with differing CYP2A6 genotypes within a race, between races with differing frequencies of CYP2A6 gene variants (i.e. African Americans have higher frequencies of reduced function variants contributing to their higher cotinine levels) or between the sexes. PMID:23371292

  17. Treatment Options for Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... than half of all salivary gland tumors are benign (not cancerous ) and do not spread to other tissues . Salivary gland cancer is a type of head and neck cancer . Being exposed to certain types of radiation may increase the risk of salivary cancer. Anything ...

  18. Salivary gland development and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattingly, Aaron; Finley, Jennifer K; Knox, Sarah M

    2015-11-01

    Mammalian salivary glands synthesize and secrete saliva via a vast interconnected network of epithelial tubes attached to secretory end units. The extensive morphogenesis required to establish this organ is dependent on interactions between multiple cell types (epithelial, mesenchymal, endothelial, and neuronal) and the engagement of a wide range of signaling pathways. Here we describe critical regulators of salivary gland development and discuss how mutations in these impact human organogenesis. In particular, we explore the genetic contribution of growth factor pathways, nerve-derived factors and extracellular matrix molecules to salivary gland formation in mice and humans. WIREs Dev Biol 2015, 4:573-590. doi: 10.1002/wdev.194 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:25970268

  19. ELIMINATION OF URINARY COTININE IN CHILDREN EXPOSED TO KNOWN LEVELS OF SIDE-STREAM CIGARETTE SMOKE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The establishment of a quantitative personal marker of side-stream smoke exposure in children is important in the study of potential health effects in the group. Cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine, has been shown to exhibit a dose-response relationship to side-stream smoke exposu...

  20. SALIVARY CARBONIC ANHYDRASE VI, ZINC SULFATE TASTE ACUITY AND FREQUENCY OF ILLNESS: A PILOT STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew J. Zdilla; Leah D. Starkey

    2014-01-01

    Salivary Carbonic Anhydrase VI (CA6) is a zinc-dependent metalloenzyme which may be important for normal taste function. Though many taste assessment methods exist, the assessment of zinc sulfate taste acuity is a method that has been suggested to have diverse relationships to human health. A double-blinded pilot study was conducted among 21 individuals to analyze the relationships between salivary CA6 concentrations, zinc sulfate taste acuity and self-reported frequency of illness. ELISA was...

  1. Adrenergic effects on secretion of amylase from the rat salivary glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier; Nexø, Ebba

    1988-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of adrenergic agents on secretion of amylase from the salivary glands in vivo. Saliva was collected from the distal oesophagus in conscious rats. Adrenaline increased the concentration of amylase in saliva and serum significantly. The result of infusion of alpha- and beta-adrenergic antagonists as well as noradrenaline and isoproterenol showed that secretion of salivary amylase is predominantly mediated by stimulation of beta-adrenergic ...

  2. Cognitive Function and Salivary DHEA Levels in Physically Active Elderly African American Women

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Greggory R.; Gallien, Gabrielle J.; Moody, Kaitlyn M.; LeBlanc, Nina R.; Smoak, Peter R.; Bellar, David

    2015-01-01

    Serum and plasma dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) concentration has been associated with several health parameters associated with aging including cognitive function, bone mineral density, and muscular strength. However, the effectiveness of salivary DHEA for the prediction of cognitive function, bone mineral density, and muscular strength in older adults is currently unknown. Thirty elderly African American females provided early morning salivary samples and DHEA levels were determined...

  3. Caries correlates strongly to salivary levels of matrix metalloproteinase-8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedenbjörk-Lager, Anders; BjØrndal, Lars

    2015-01-01

    The caries process in dentin involves the degradation of both mineral and organic matrix. The demineralization has been demonstrated to be caused by bacterial acids. However, the collagen degradation is considered to be initiated by endogenous proteolytic enzymes, mainly collagenolytic matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). This paper aims to relate salivary MMP-8 (or salivary collagenase-2) and tissue inhibitor of MMP (TIMP-1) levels to manifest caries in a large number of subjects. A random sample of 451 adults (aged 18-87 years) living in the south of Sweden was included in this study. Standard clinical examinations were performed, and stimulated saliva was collected and analyzed for concentrations of MMP-8, TIMP-1 and total protein, using an immunofluorometric assay, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the Bradford assay, respectively. Salivary numbers of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli were determined using a chair-side kit. Subjects with manifest caries lesions presented with elevated levels of MMP-8 (p < 0.001) as well as total protein, MMP-8/TIMP-1 ratio, bleeding on probing and plaque index (p = 0.05) compared with subjects without manifest caries. Multiple linear regression analysis with caries as the dependent variable revealed MMP-8 as the only significant explanatory variable (p < 0.001). TIMP-1 was not significant in any case. Using MMP-8 as the dependent variable revealed total protein concentration, caries lesions (p ? 0.001) and salivary secretion rate (p = 0.05) as explanatory variables. In conclusion, our data reveal that subjects with manifest caries lesions have elevated levels of salivary MMP-8 relative to subjects with no caries lesions.

  4. Cotinine and interferon-gamma levels in pre-school children exposed to household tobacco smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Kalalo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Environmental tobacco smoke has been consistently linked to negative health outcomes, especially in children, including an increased susceptibility to infections. Cigarette smoking has a depressive effect on interferon-? (IFN-?. Serum cotinine is a marker of exposure to smoke. Objective To determine the association between serum cotinine and interferon-? (IFN-? levels in children with household tobacco smoke exposure. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study at the Tumumpa and Singkil Districts of Manado, Indonesia, from February to May 2012. Subjects were collected by consecutively sampling of healthy children aged 1-3 years who came to the integrated health posts. Seventy-four children were recruited and consisted of two groups of 37 subjects each, the tobacco smoke exposure group and the non-tobacco smoke exposure group. Blood specimens were collected from all subjects for laboratory blood tests of cotinine and IFN-? levels. Results were analyzed by T-test and Pearson’s correlation analysis with a P<0.05 is considered as statistically significant. Results There was no significant correlation between serum cotinine and interferon-? levels in the tobacco smoke exposure group. However, the interferon-? level in the tobacco smoke exposure group was significantly lower than that of the non-tobacco smoke exposure group (P<0.0001. Conclusion Cotinine is not related to the interferon-? level in children exposed to tobacco smoke, however, the interferon-? level in children with tobacco smoke exposure is lower than in the non-tobacco smoke exposure group. [Paediatr Indones. 2013;53:287-90.].

  5. The Danish contribution to the European DEMOCOPHES project: A description of cadmium, cotinine and mercury levels in Danish mother-child pairs and the perspectives of supplementary sampling and measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mørck, Thit A; Nielsen, Flemming; Nielsen, Jeanette K S; Jensen, Janne F; Hansen, Pernille W; Hansen, Anne K; Christoffersen, Lea N; Siersma, Volkert D; Larsen, Ida H; Hohlmann, Linette K; Skaanild, Mette T; Frederiksen, Hanne; Biot, Pierre; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Schwedler, Gerda; Castaño, Argelia; Angerer, Jürgen; Koch, Holger M; Esteban, Marta; Schoeters, Greet; Den Hond, Elly; Exley, Karen; Sepai, Ovnair; Bloemen, Louis; Joas, Reinhard; Joas, Anke; Fiddicke, Ulrike; Lopez, Ana; Cañas, Ana; Aerts, Dominique; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2015-08-01

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) is an important tool, increasingly used for measuring true levels of the body burdens of environmental chemicals in the general population. In Europe, a harmonized HBM program was needed to open the possibility to compare levels across borders. To explore the prospect of a harmonized European HBM project, DEMOCOPHES (DEMOnstration of a study to COordinate and Perform Human biomonitoring on a European Scale) was completed in 17 European countries. The basic measurements performed in all implemented countries of DEMOCOPHES included cadmium, cotinine and phthalate metabolites in urine and mercury in hair. In the Danish participants, significant correlations between mothers and children for mercury in hair and cotinine in urine were found. Mercury in hair was further significantly associated with intake of fish and area of residence. Cadmium was positively associated with BMI in mothers and an association between cadmium and cotinine was also found. As expected high cotinine levels were found in smoking mothers. For both mercury and cadmium significantly higher concentrations were found in the mothers compared to their children. In Denmark, the DEMOCOPHES project was co-financed by the Danish ministries of health, environment and food safety. The co-financing ministries agreed to finance a number of supplementary measurements of substances of current toxicological, public and regulatory interest. This also included blood sampling from the participants. The collected urine and blood samples were analyzed for a range of other persistent and non-persistent environmental chemicals as well as two biomarkers of effect. The variety of supplementary measurements gives the researchers further information on the exposure status of the participants and creates a basis for valuable knowledge on the pattern of exposure to various chemicals. PMID:25440293

  6. The Danish contribution to the European DEMOCOPHES project : A description of cadmium, cotinine and mercury levels in Danish mother-child pairs and the perspectives of supplementary sampling and measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MØrck, Thit A; Nielsen, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) is an important tool, increasingly used for measuring true levels of the body burdens of environmental chemicals in the general population. In Europe, a harmonized HBM program was needed to open the possibility to compare levels across borders. To explore the prospect of a harmonized European HBM project, DEMOCOPHES (DEMOnstration of a study to COordinate and Perform Human biomonitoring on a European Scale) was completed in 17 European countries. The basic measurements performed in all implemented countries of DEMOCOPHES included cadmium, cotinine and phthalate metabolites in urine and mercury in hair. In the Danish participants, significant correlations between mothers and children for mercury in hair and cotinine in urine were found. Mercury in hair was further significantly associated with intake of fish and area of residence. Cadmium was positively associated with BMI in mothers and an association between cadmium and cotinine was also found. As expected high cotinine levels were found in smoking mothers. For both mercury and cadmium significantly higher concentrations were found in the mothers compared to their children. In Denmark, the DEMOCOPHES project was co-financed by the Danish ministries of health, environment and food safety. The co-financing ministries agreed to finance a number of supplementary measurements of substances of current toxicological, public and regulatory interest. This also included blood sampling from the participants. The collected urine and blood samples were analyzed for a range of other persistent and non-persistent environmental chemicals as well as two biomarkers of effect. The variety of supplementary measurements gives the researchers further information on the exposure status of the participants and creates a basis for valuable knowledge on the pattern of exposure to various chemicals.

  7. Dynamic uptake of radioactive substance in rat salivary gland following 3H-melatonin administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamics of radioactive accumulation in rat greater salivary gland following systemic administration of 3H-melatonin was studied to determine a possible action of the hormone in the gland. Progressive decline of 3H-melatonin concentrations was found in the serum, lung, skeletal muscle, liver, kidney, and salivary gland during 60 min following the administration. On the contrary, there was a progressive accumulation of radioactive substance other than 3H-melatonin in the salivary gland but not in other tissues mentioned. The radioactivity was also progressively and preferentially localized in the nuclear fraction of the gland cells. These results suggest a possible direct action of melatonin derivative in rat salivary gland

  8. Understanding Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Effects in Asthmatic Children through Determination of Urinary Cotinine and Targeted Metabolomics of Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Effects in Asthmatic Children through Determination of Urinary Cotinine and Targeted Metabolomics of Plasma Introduction Asthma is a complex disease with multiple triggers and causal factors, Exposure to environmental tob...

  9. Salivary paracetamol elimination kinetics during the menstrual cycle.

    OpenAIRE

    Somaja, L; Thangam, J

    1987-01-01

    Studies were done to examine the influence of the menstrual cycle on the elimination kinetics of paracetamol. Salivary concentrations of paracetamol were determined after oral administration of 1 g of paracetamol on day 3, 10, 14, 20 and 25 of the menstrual cycle in normal healthy women volunteers with regular menstrual cycles. There was no significant difference in elimination half-life (t 1/2) or metabolic clearance rate (CL) between the various days of the menstrual cycle. The result sugge...

  10. Immunosensor with Fluid Control Mechanism for Salivary Cortisol Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi, Masaki; Matsuda, Yohei; Sasaki, Shohei; Sasaki, Makoto; Kadoma, Yoshihiro; Imai, Yoshikatsu; Niwa, Daisuke; Shetty, Vivek

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to demonstrate a new design for a cortisol immunosensor for the noninvasive and quantitative analysis of salivary cortisol. We propose a cortisol immunosensor with a fluid control mechanism which has both a vertical flow and a lateral flow. The detected current resulting from a competitive reaction between the sample cortisol and a glucose oxidase (GOD)-labeled cortisol conjugate was found to be inversely related to the concentration of cortisol in the sample s...

  11. Quantitative evaluation of Streptococcus mutans and Candida sp and salivary factors in the oral cavity of patients submitted to radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to quantify the microorganisms Streptococcus mutans and Candida sp in the oral cavity of patients with oropharynx carcinoma, before, during and after radiotherapy, and to correlate the results with salivary factors such as pH, buffer capacity and flow rate. Saliva samples were collected, diluted and inoculated in SB-20 agar and in Sabouraud agar, for Streptococcus mutans and Candida sp, respectively. Previously to dilution, the concentrated saliva was analyzed, and the salivary factors were determined. After the growth of colonies, the number of microorganisms was determined in CFU/ml. The analysis of the results allowed to conclude that the salivary factors are related to the presence of microorganisms, and that the number of CFU/ml increased as salivary flow rate decreased. The effects of radiation compromised salivary homeostasis and favored the increase of infection by yeasts and bacteria. (author)

  12. Genetic polymorphisms in 15q25 and 19q13 loci, cotinine levels, and risk of lung cancer in EPIC

    OpenAIRE

    Timofeeva, MN; McKay, JD; Smith, GD; Johansson, M; Byrnes, GB; Chabrier, A.; Relton, C; Ueland, PM; Vollset, SE; Midttun, Ø; Nygård, O; Slimani, N.; Romieu, I; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Boutron-Ruault, M-C

    2011-01-01

    Backgrounds: Multiple polymorphisms affecting smoking behavior have been identified through genomewide association studies. Circulating levels of the nicotine metabolite cotinine is a marker of recent smoking exposure. Hence, genetic variants influencing smoking behavior are expected to be associated with cotinine levels. Methods: We conducted an analysis in a lung cancer case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. We invest...

  13. Genetic polymorphisms in 15q25 and 19q13 loci, cotinine levels, and risk of lung cancer in EPIC.

    OpenAIRE

    Timofeeva, MN; McKay, JD; Smith, GD; Johansson, M; Byrnes, GB; Chabrier, A.; Relton, C; Ueland, PM; Vollset, SE; Midttun, Ø; Nygård, O; Slimani, N.; Romieu, I; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Boutron-Ruault, MC

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUNDS: Multiple polymorphisms affecting smoking behavior have been identified through genome-wide association studies. Circulating levels of the nicotine metabolite cotinine is a marker of recent smoking exposure. Hence, genetic variants influencing smoking behavior are expected to be associated with cotinine levels. METHODS: We conducted an analysis in a lung cancer case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. We inves...

  14. Menthol smoking in relation to time to first cigarette and cotinine: Results from a community-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Muscat, Joshua E; Liu, Hsiao-Pin; Stellman, Steven D.; Richie, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Smokers who have their first cigarette shortly after waking, an indicator of nicotine dependence, have substantially higher cotinine levels. There is controversy regarding the role of menthol in nicotine dependence. We hypothesized that menthol smokers have a shorter time to first cigarette (TTFC), and tested whether any statistical association actually reflects increased dependence by measuring nicotine uptake (e.g. cotinine) in the same group of smokers. A cross-sectional community-based st...

  15. Cotinine halts the advance of Alzheimer's disease-like pathology and associated depressive-like behavior in Tg6799 mice

    OpenAIRE

    Valentina Echeverria Moran; J Alex Grizzell; Takashi Mori

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is associated with cognitive and non-cognitive symptoms for which there are currently no effective therapies. We have previously reported that cotinine, a natural product obtained from tobacco leaves, prevented memory loss and diminished amyloid-? (A?) plaque pathology in the transgenic 6799 mice (Tg6799 mice) when treated prior to the development of the pathology. We have also shown that cotinine reduces depressive-like behavior in normal and chronically stressed C...

  16. Relationships of Cotinine and Self-Reported Cigarette Smoking With Hemoglobin \\(A_{1c}\\) in the U.S.

    OpenAIRE

    Clair, Carole; Bitton, Asaf; Meigs, James Benjamin; Rigotti, Nancy Ann

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Whether nicotine leads to a persistent increase in blood glucose levels is not clear. Our objective was to assess the relationship between cotinine, a nicotine metabolite, and glycated hemoglobin (Hb\\(A_{1c}\\)), an index of recent glycemia. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We used cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1999 to 2008. We limited our analysis to 17,287 adults without diabetes. We created three cotinine categories:

  17. Inflammatory conditions of the salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Gitta; Beale, Timothy

    2006-12-01

    Inflammatory conditions are the most common pathology to affect the salivary glands, of which sialolithiasis is the most frequent etiology. This article reviews the role of all imaging modalities in the management of inflammatory salivary disease. The technique for performing salivary gland ultrasound is described with some common pitfalls. The typical features of a comprehensive range of pathology including obstructive and infective sialadenitis, Sjogren's syndrome, sarcoidosis, HIV sialopathy, and their complications are described. PMID:17233227

  18. Salivary gland carcinomas of the larynx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Troels Krogh; Bjørndal, Kristine; Krogdahl, Annelise; Primdahl, Hanne; Kristensen, Claus Andrup; Andersen, Elo Verner; Godballe, Christian

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Salivary gland carcinomas of the larynx are rare. The purpose of this study is to present a national series of laryngeal salivary gland carcinoma patients and to bring a review of recent literature. METHODS: By merging The Danish Cancer Registry, The National Pathology Registry and The National Patient Registry all registered patients with laryngeal salivary carcinomas diagnosed from 1990 to 2007 were identified. The histological slides were reviewed and data concerning age, sex, symp...

  19. Protective effects of Chinese herbal medicine Huqi extractum on salivary glands against radiation in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-li Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the protective effects of Huqi extractum, a compound Chinese herbal medicine, on salivary glands against radiation in Wistar rats. Methods: One hundred Wistar rats were randomly divided into sham-exposure group, untreated group, and low-, medium- and high-dose Huqi groups. Local irradiation of 60Co gamma-rays with a single dose of 15 Gy was applied to the salivary glands of the Wistar rats except the sham-exposure group. After 3- and 40-day treatment, saliva was collected. Colorimetric method, iodine-amylase colorimetric method and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to detect concentrations of sodium (Na+, potassium (K+ and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA and activity of salivary amylase. Pathological changes of salivary gland tissues were observed by hematoxylin-eosin straining. Results: After 3-day administration, radiation-induced salivary gland injuries were obvious and prevalent in irradiated rats. Comparing with the sham-exposure group, saliva concentration of sIgA and body weight were reduced in other irradiated groups, except those in the high-dose Huqi group, while salivary amylase level was increased. At 3-day phase, pathologic changes of the salivary glands were featured as swelling acinus plasm and vacuolation. At 40-day phase, atrophy of gland cells was dominant. After 40-day administration, there were no significant differences between the high-dose Huqi group and sham-exposure group in sIgA and amylase levels and body weight, and according to the histological examination, no significant difference was revealed under the optical microscope.Conclusion: Chinese herbal medicine is helpful for the recovery of the salivary glands from the radiation injury, morphologically and functionally in rats.

  20. The Development of Conductive Elements for the Selective Detection of Formaldehyde and Cotinine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antwi-Boampong, Sadik

    The development of new materials and techniques presents an opportunity to revisit old problems. Innovations in materials engineering revolutionize the status quo by expanding the tool kit needed to develop robust solutions to complex problems. Challenges that had hitherto been intractable become surmountable; previously established methods are significantly enhanced; fresh impetus is injected into the materials design engine. In one way or another, every scientist contributes to this dynamic creative process where ideas are incubated and developed through fundamental research that culminates in compelling findings applicable in various realms of science. The work presented herein embodies this ethos. Our investigations have applied the relatively nascent technology of molecular imprinting to develop sensing elements for detection of cotinine and formaldehyde. Additionally, we have used different polymer systems to address the inherent limitations of conventional materials using a simple, cost-effective and efficient materials approach. Specifically, in Part I, we investigate molecular imprinting of nylon-6, polyvinylphenol and ElvamideRTM, with cotinine. We examine the capacity of these materials as polymer hosts for molecular imprinting by studying the effect of cotinine imprinting on their nanomechanical properties. By monitoring variations in mechanical properties induced by cotinine templating, we determine the factors critical for effective imprinting and ultimately demonstrate that polyvinylphenol is the most suitable polymer host. Based on these results, we develop a cotinine-imprinted polyvinylphenol-single walled carbon nanotube sensor that readily detects cotinine. Using electrical, spectral and chromatographic characterization, we rigorously demonstrate the enhanced affinity programmed into the sensing layer via molecular imprinting. Part II is dedicated to a familiar problem: formaldehyde sensing. While this challenge has been a trope of the electrochemical sensor industry for years, there still remains a clear need for an affordable device with heightened sensitivity. We achieve this goal in two different ways. The first sensing system is a polyaniline-polyethylenimine composite film that exhibits a profound sensitivity to formaldehyde, but discriminates against a number of selected molecules. This transducing layer complements polyaniline's tunable conductivity with the formaldehyde-binding reactivity of polyethylenimine, to detect formaldehyde. The second approach still relies on the excellent electrical properties of polyaniline but, unlike the polyaniline-polyethylenimine system where the polymers are blended, two separate films in a bilayer assembly are applied for sensing. The top layer, fluoral-p reacts with formaldehyde to form a lutidine compound along with ammonia that tempers the conductivity of the sensor. We articulate the importance of molecular imprinting in optimizing analyte detection by showing that imprinting the underlying polyaniline layer in this bilayer system further enhances the sensor's sensitivity. Findings are summarized at the end of each chapter along with potential opportunities for future work based on the experimental results.

  1. Salivary alterations in type 1 diabetes mellitus patients: Salivary glucose could be noninvasive tool for monitoring diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Shahbaz

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: There are definite changes in salivary composition with increased levels of salivary glucose, total protein and albumin in T1DM patients compared with healthy controls. Salivary glucose could be used for monitoring of DM.

  2. Biological Markers and Salivary Cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Gunnarsson, Lars-Gunnar; Harris, Anette; Eller, Nanne Hurwitz; Garvin, Peter; Garde, Anne Helene

    2011-01-01

    This chapter focuses on salivary cortisol in relation to biological markers. Specifically, associations with conventional cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic abnormalities (body mass index, waist circumference, waist/hip ratio, lipid status, glucose, blood pressure, heart rate and heart rate variability), markers related to inflammation (C-reactive protein, cytokines and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) and other stress hormones (adrenaline and noradrenaline) were studied. The focus was on hea...

  3. Salivary Diagnostics: A Brief Review

    OpenAIRE

    Narasimhan Malathi; Sabesan Mythili; Vasanthi, Hannah R.

    2014-01-01

    Early detection of disease plays a crucial role for treatment planning and prognosis. Saliva has great potential as a diagnostic fluid and offers advantage over serum and other biological fluids by an economic and noninvasive collection method for monitoring of systemic health and disease progression. The plethora of components in this fluid can act as biomarkers for diagnosis of various systemic and local diseases. In this review paper, we have emphasized the role of salivary biomarkers as d...

  4. Salivary Lysozyme and Prevalent Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Qvarnstrom, M.; Janket, S.; Jones, J.A.; Nuutinen, P; Baird, A.E.; Nunn, M.E.; Van Dyke, T E; Meurman, J. H.

    2008-01-01

    Although the etiology of essential hypertension is not clearly understood, endothelial dysfunction from chronic infection and/or impaired glucose metabolism may be involved. We hypothesized that salivary lysozyme, a marker for oral infection and hyperglycemia, might display a significant relationship with hypertension, an early stage of cardiovascular disease. Logistic regression analyses of the Kuopio Oral Health and Heart Study demonstrated that persons with higher lysozyme levels were more...

  5. Ultrasonography in salivary gland disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Eun Young; Cha, Soon Joo; Cha, Sang Hoon; Seol, Hae Young; Chung, Kyoo Byung; Suh, Won Hyuck [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1984-12-15

    Recently, CT scan, CT sialogram, radionuclide imaging and ultrasonogram are widely applicated in conjunction with conventional studies such as plain film, sialogram and arteriogram for the diagnosis of sailvary gland disease. Among them, ultrasonogram provides safe, noninvasive, and reliable way to diagnosis salivary gland disease. Authors evaluated ultrasonographic and sialographic findings of patients with suspected salivary gland disease in 16 cases at Korea University Hospital for 8 months. (from Dec. 1983 to Aug. 1984). The following results are observed. 1. final diagnosis of 16 cases were 2 cases of stone, 1 case of pleomorphic adenoma, 2 cases of neurilemmoma, 3 cases of chronic sialademitis, 1 case of abscess, 2 cases of Retention cyst, 1 case of pseudocyst, 1 case of tuberculous lymphadenopathy, and 3 cases of normal finding. 2. Diagnosis ultrasonogram provides accurate information of the size, location and character of the lesion, and differentiates intraglandular lesion from extraglandular ones. 3. Ultrasonogram is one of convenient, reliable and initial modality for the diagnosis of salivary gland disease.

  6. Ultrasonography in salivary gland disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, CT scan, CT sialogram, radionuclide imaging and ultrasonogram are widely applicated in conjunction with conventional studies such as plain film, sialogram and arteriogram for the diagnosis of sailvary gland disease. Among them, ultrasonogram provides safe, noninvasive, and reliable way to diagnosis salivary gland disease. Authors evaluated ultrasonographic and sialographic findings of patients with suspected salivary gland disease in 16 cases at Korea University Hospital for 8 months. (from Dec. 1983 to Aug. 1984). The following results are observed. 1. final diagnosis of 16 cases were 2 cases of stone, 1 case of pleomorphic adenoma, 2 cases of neurilemmoma, 3 cases of chronic sialademitis, 1 case of abscess, 2 cases of Retention cyst, 1 case of pseudocyst, 1 case of tuberculous lymphadenopathy, and 3 cases of normal finding. 2. Diagnosis ultrasonogram provides accurate information of the size, location and character of the lesion, and differentiates intraglandular lesion from extraglandular ones. 3. Ultrasonogram is one of convenient, reliable and initial modality for the diagnosis of salivary gland disease.

  7. Role of amylase, mucin, IgA and albumin on salivary protein buffering capacity: A pilot study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zeinab Cheaib; Adrian Lussi

    2013-06-01

    It has been suggested that proteins serve as major salivary buffers below pH5. It remains unclear, however, which salivary proteins are responsible for these buffering properties. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the correlation between salivary concentration of total protein, amylase, mucin, immunoglobulin A (IgA), albumin and total salivary protein buffering capacity at a pH range of 4–5. In addition, the buffering capacity and the number of carboxylic acid moieties of single proteins were assessed. Stimulated saliva samples were collected at 9:00, 13:00 and 17:00 from 4 healthy volunteers on 3 successive days. The buffering capacities were measured for total salivary protein or for specific proteins. Also, the concentration of total protein, amylase, mucin, IgA and albumin were analysed. Within the limits of the current study, it was found that salivary protein buffering capacity was highly positively correlated with total protein, amylase and IgA concentrations. A weak correlation was observed for both albumin and mucin individually. Furthermore, the results suggest that amylase contributed to 35% of the salivary protein buffering capacity in the pH range of 4–5.

  8. The nicotine metabolite, cotinine, attenuates glutamate (NMDA) antagonist-related effects on the performance of the five choice serial reaction time task (5C-SRTT) in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Terry, Alvin V.; Buccafusco, Jerry J; Schade, R. Foster; Vandenhuerk, Leah; Callahan, Patrick M.; Beck, Wayne D.; Hutchings, Elizabeth J.; Chapman, James M.; Li, Pei; Bartlett, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Cotinine, the most predominant metabolite of nicotine in mammalian species, has a pharmacological half-life that greatly exceeds its precursor. However, until recently, relatively few studies had been conducted to systematically characterize the behavioral pharmacology of cotinine. Our previous work indicated that cotinine improves prepulse inhibition of the auditory startle response in rats in pharmacological impairment models and that it improves working memory in non-human primates. Here w...

  9. Performance evaluation of salivary amylase activity monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Masaki; Kanemori, Takahiro; Kanemaru, Masashi; Takai, Noriyasu; Mizuno, Yasufumi; Yoshida, Hiroshi

    2004-10-15

    In order to quantify psychological stress and to distinguish eustress and distress, we have been investigating the establishment of a method that can quantify salivary amylase activity (SMA). Salivary glands not only act as amplifiers of a low level of norepinephrine, but also respond more quickly and sensitively to psychological stress than cortisol levels. Moreover, the time-course changes of the salivary amylase activity have a possibility to distinguish eustress and distress. Thus, salivary amylase activity can be utilized as an excellent index for psychological stress. However, in dry chemistry system, a method for quantification of the enzymatic activity still needs to be established that can provide with sufficient substrate in a testing tape as well as can control enzymatic reaction time. Moreover, it is necessary to develop a method that has the advantages of using saliva, such as ease of collection, rapidity of response, and able to use at any time. In order to establish an easy method to monitor the salivary amylase activity, a salivary transcription device was fabricated to control the enzymatic reaction time. A fabricated salivary amylase activity monitor consisted of three devices, the salivary transcription device, a testing-strip and an optical analyzer. By adding maltose as a competitive inhibitor to a substrate Ga1-G2-CNP, a broad-range activity testing-strip was fabricated that could measure the salivary amylase activity with a range of 0-200 kU/l within 150 s. The calibration curve of the monitor for the salivary amylase activity showed R2=0.941, indicating that it was possible to use this monitor for the analysis of the salivary amylase activity without the need to determine the salivary volume quantitatively. In order to evaluate the assay variability of the monitor, salivary amylase activity was measured using Kraepelin psychodiagnostic test as a psychological stressor. A significant difference of salivary amylase activity was recognized between the pre-stress and mid-stress periods. This study demonstrated that broad-range salivary amylase activity monitor was developed that could be used with only 5 microl of saliva. PMID:15494230

  10. Estimation of salivary nitric oxide in oral precancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metgud, R; Anandani, C; Singh, K

    2015-05-01

    The role of nitric oxide (NO) in the initiation, promotion and progression of cancer has been the subject of speculation and conflicting reports in the literature. The high incidence of oral cancer and precancer has been linked to tobacco chewing and smoking habits; NO is considered an indicator of tobacco-related diseases. We compared salivary NO levels in oral precancer and normal patients. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from 15 patients with oral precancer (group 1) and 15 healthy age and sex matched subjects (group 2). Salivary nitrite levels were estimated using a colorimetric method and a spectrophotometer. The salivary nitrite concentration of group 2 (median = 4.21 ?g/ml) was significantly less than for group 1 (median = 12.91 ?g/ml). We have added evidence concerning involvement of NO in the pathogenesis of oral cancer, but whether it is a potentially carcinogenic agent at the concentration at which it is present in oral precancer patients requires further evaluation. PMID:25831210

  11. Synthesis of optically pure deuterium-labelled nicotine, nornicotine and cotinine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe methods for the synthesis of enantiomerically pure (S)-nicotine-3',3'-d2, (S)-nornicotine-3',3-d2, and (S)-cotinine-4',4'-d2. The key intermediate was 5-bromomyosmine, which underwent base catalyzed exchange with deuterium oxide to give 5-bromomyosmine-3',3'- d2 with >99% incorporation of label. This intermediate was reduced to (±)-5-bromo-nornicotine-3',3'-d2 with sodium borohydride, resolved, and converted to (S)-nornicotine-3',3'-d(sub)2 by reductive debromination with hydrogen and a palladium catalyst. Reductive alkylation with formaldehyde and sodium borohydride provided (S)-nicotine-3',3'-d2, which was converted to (S)-cotinine-4',4'-d2 by reaction with bromine followed by zinc reduction. The deuterium label is located at positions that are not attacked in the major routes of mammalian metabolism of these alkaloids. Syntheses of tetradeuterated analogs of nicotine and cotinine and a pentadeuterated analog of nicotine, in which additional deuterium atoms are incorporated in the methyl groups, are also reported. (author)

  12. Unravelling the Conformational Landscape of Nicotinoids: the Structure of Cotinine by Broadband Rotational Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uriarte, Iciar; Ecija, Patricia; Cocinero, Emilio J.; Perez, Cristobal; Caballero-Mancebo, Elena; Lesarri, Alberto

    2015-06-01

    Alkaloids such as nicotine, cotinine or anabasine share a common floppy structural motif consisting of a two-ring assembly with a 3-pyridil methylamine skeleton. In order to investigate the structure-activity relationship of these biomolecules, structural studies with rotational resolution have been carried out for nicotine and anabasine in the gas phase, where these molecules can be probed in an "interaction-free" environment (no solvent or crystal-packing interactions). We hereby present a structural investigation of cotinine in a jet expansion using the chirped-pulse Fourier-transform microwave (CP-FTMW) spectrometer recently built at the University of the Basque Country (UPV-EHU). The rotational spectrum (6-18 GHz) reveals the presence of two different conformations. The conformational preferences of cotinine originate from the internal rotation of the two ring moieties, the detected species differing in a near 180° rotation of pyridine. The final structure is modulated by steric effects. J.-U. Grabow, S. Mata, J. L. Alonso, I. Peña, S. Blanco, J. C. López, C. Cabezas, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2011, 13, 21063. A. Lesarri, E. J. Cocinero, L. Evangelisti, R. D. Suenram, W. Caminati, J.-U. Grabow, Chem. Eur. J. 2010, 16, 10214.

  13. Immunochromatographic assay using gold nanoparticles for measuring salivary secretory IgA in dogs as a stress marker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Aki; Kato, Yuya; Takezaki, Makoto; Tominaga, Toshihiro; Moriyama, Yoshiko; Takeda, Kunio; Miyahara, Toshiro; Nagatani, Naoki [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Okayama University of Science, 1-1 Ridai-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-0005 (Japan); Uchiyama, Shigeru [Okayama University of Science Specialized Training College, 8-3 Handa-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-0003 (Japan); Yuhi, Teruko; Ushijima, Hiromi, E-mail: nagatani@dac.ous.ac.j [Biodevicetechnology Ltd. 2-13 Asahidai, Nomi-City, Ishikawa 923-1211 (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    The concentration of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) is a well-known stress marker for humans. The concentration of salivary sIgA in dogs has also been reported as a useful stress marker. In addition, salivary sIgA in dogs has been used to determine the adaptive ability of dogs for further training. There are conventional procedures based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs. However, ELISA requires long assay time, complicated operations and is costly. In the present study, we developed an immunochromatographic assay for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs using a dilution buffer containing a non-ionic surfactant. We determined 2500-fold dilution as the optimum condition for dog saliva using a phosphate buffer (50 mM, pH 7.2) containing non-ionic surfactant (3 wt% Tween 20). The results obtained from the saliva samples of three dogs using immunochromatographic assay were compared with those obtained from ELISA. It was found that the immunochromatographic assay is applicable to judge the change in salivary sIgA in each dog. The immunochromatographic assay for salivary sIgA in dogs is a promising tool, which should soon become commercially available for predicting a dog's psychological condition and estimating adaptive ability for training as guide or police dogs.

  14. Immunochromatographic assay using gold nanoparticles for measuring salivary secretory IgA in dogs as a stress marker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) is a well-known stress marker for humans. The concentration of salivary sIgA in dogs has also been reported as a useful stress marker. In addition, salivary sIgA in dogs has been used to determine the adaptive ability of dogs for further training. There are conventional procedures based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs. However, ELISA requires long assay time, complicated operations and is costly. In the present study, we developed an immunochromatographic assay for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs using a dilution buffer containing a non-ionic surfactant. We determined 2500-fold dilution as the optimum condition for dog saliva using a phosphate buffer (50 mM, pH 7.2) containing non-ionic surfactant (3 wt% Tween 20). The results obtained from the saliva samples of three dogs using immunochromatographic assay were compared with those obtained from ELISA. It was found that the immunochromatographic assay is applicable to judge the change in salivary sIgA in each dog. The immunochromatographic assay for salivary sIgA in dogs is a promising tool, which should soon become commercially available for predicting a dog's psychological condition and estimating adaptive ability for training as guide or police dogs.

  15. Immunochromatographic assay using gold nanoparticles for measuring salivary secretory IgA in dogs as a stress marker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Aki; Uchiyama, Shigeru; Kato, Yuya; Yuhi, Teruko; Ushijima, Hiromi; Takezaki, Makoto; Tominaga, Toshihiro; Moriyama, Yoshiko; Takeda, Kunio; Miyahara, Toshiro; Nagatani, Naoki

    2009-06-01

    The concentration of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) is a well-known stress marker for humans. The concentration of salivary sIgA in dogs has also been reported as a useful stress marker. In addition, salivary sIgA in dogs has been used to determine the adaptive ability of dogs for further training. There are conventional procedures based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs. However, ELISA requires long assay time, complicated operations and is costly. In the present study, we developed an immunochromatographic assay for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs using a dilution buffer containing a non-ionic surfactant. We determined 2500-fold dilution as the optimum condition for dog saliva using a phosphate buffer (50 mM, pH 7.2) containing non-ionic surfactant (3 wt% Tween 20). The results obtained from the saliva samples of three dogs using immunochromatographic assay were compared with those obtained from ELISA. It was found that the immunochromatographic assay is applicable to judge the change in salivary sIgA in each dog. The immunochromatographic assay for salivary sIgA in dogs is a promising tool, which should soon become commercially available for predicting a dog's psychological condition and estimating adaptive ability for training as guide or police dogs.

  16. Immunochromatographic assay using gold nanoparticles for measuring salivary secretory IgA in dogs as a stress marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aki Takahashi, Shigeru Uchiyama, Yuya Kato, Teruko Yuhi, Hiromi Ushijima, Makoto Takezaki, Toshihiro Tominaga, Yoshiko Moriyama, Kunio Takeda, Toshiro Miyahara and Naoki Nagatani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA is a well-known stress marker for humans. The concentration of salivary sIgA in dogs has also been reported as a useful stress marker. In addition, salivary sIgA in dogs has been used to determine the adaptive ability of dogs for further training. There are conventional procedures based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs. However, ELISA requires long assay time, complicated operations and is costly. In the present study, we developed an immunochromatographic assay for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs using a dilution buffer containing a non-ionic surfactant. We determined 2500-fold dilution as the optimum condition for dog saliva using a phosphate buffer (50 mM, pH 7.2 containing non-ionic surfactant (3 wt% Tween 20. The results obtained from the saliva samples of three dogs using immunochromatographic assay were compared with those obtained from ELISA. It was found that the immunochromatographic assay is applicable to judge the change in salivary sIgA in each dog. The immunochromatographic assay for salivary sIgA in dogs is a promising tool, which should soon become commercially available for predicting a dog's psychological condition and estimating adaptive ability for training as guide or police dogs.

  17. Osteopontin expression in salivary gland carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    BjØrndal, Kristine; Larsen, Stine R

    2011-01-01

    J Oral Pathol Med (2010) Background:? In several cancer types, osteopontin (OPN) expression has been correlated with tumor progression and prognosis. Two earlier studies have examined OPN expression in salivary gland carcinomas with contradictory results. Methods:? One hundred and seventy-five patients with a primary salivary gland carcinoma diagnosed from January 1, 1990 to December 31, 2005 were identified in the local pathology register, Odense University Hospital. Criteria as documented by Allred et al. were used to assess OPN immunostaining that was performed on surgical specimens. Results:? Osteopontin was expressed in all salivary gland carcinomas. Adenoid cystic carcinomas had the highest mean sum score (7.3) and a significantly higher proportion of carcinomas with high OPN sum score than both mucoepidermoid carcinoma and acinic cell carcinoma. Correlation of OPN expression with known prognostic factors in salivary gland carcinomas was insignificant. Conclusions:? Salivary gland carcinomas express OPN. The expression does not correlate with known prognostic factors.

  18. Salivary gland dysfunction and xerostomia in Sjögren's syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Siri Beier; Vissink, Arjan

    2014-01-01

    In this article, salivary gland dysfunction and xerostomia in Sjögren's syndrome (SS) are discussed, with a focus on the pathophysiology of salivary dysfunction in SS, the clinical presentation of dry mouth in SS, how to assess salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia in SS, and the impact of salivary gland dysfunction on quality of life in patients with SS

  19. Primary culture of Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) salivary gland cells

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernanda F, Rocha; Ricardo N, Araujo; Luciana M, Silva; Nelder F, Gontijo; Marcos H, Pereira.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, we developed a primary culture of Rhodnius prolixus salivary gland and main salivary canal cells. Cells remained viable in culture for 30 days. Three types of cells were indentified in the salivary gland cultures, with binuclear cells being the most abundant. The supernatants o [...] f salivary cultures contained mainly 16-24 kDa proteins and presented anticoagulant and apyrase activities. Secretion vesicles were observed budding from the cellular monolayer of the main salivary canal cells. These results indicate that R. prolixus salivary proteins may be produced in vitro and suggest that the main salivary canal may have a possible secretory role.

  20. Salivary biomarkers for dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoli; Jiang, Shan; Koh, David; Hsu, Chin-Ying Stephen

    2016-02-01

    As a highly prevalent multifactorial disease, dental caries afflicts a large proportion of the world's population. As teeth are constantly bathed in saliva, the constituents and properties of this oral fluid play an essential role in the occurrence and progression of dental caries. Various inorganic (water and electrolytes) and organic (proteins and peptides) components may protect teeth from dental caries. This occurs via several functions, such as clearance of food debris and sugar, aggregation and elimination of microorganisms, buffering actions to neutralize acid, maintaining supersaturation with respect to tooth mineral, participation in formation of the acquired pellicle and antimicrobial defense. Modest evidence is available on the associations between dental caries and several salivary parameters, including flow rate, buffering capacity and abundance of mutans streptococci. Despite some controversial findings, the main body of the literature supports an elevated caries prevalence and/or incidence among people with a pathologically low saliva flow rate, compromised buffering capacity and early colonization or high titer of mutans streptococci in saliva. The evidence remains weak and/or inconsistent on the association between dental caries and other saliva parameters, such as other possible cariogenic species (Lactobacillus spp., Streptococcus sanguis group, Streptococcus salivarius, Actinomyces spp. and Candida albicans), diversity of saliva microbiomes, inorganic and organic constituents (electrolytes, immunoglobulins, other proteins and peptides) and some functional properties (sugar clearance rate, etc.). The complex interactions between salivary components and functions suggest that saliva has to be considered in its entirety to account for its total effects on teeth. PMID:26662487

  1. Parotid gland is the main source of human salivary epidermal growth factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To clarify the production of human epidermal growth factor (EGF) by different salivary glands, the authors measured its concentration by radioimmunoassay separately in whole saliva, in parotid gland (PG) saliva and in mixed submandibular (SMG) and sublingual gland (SLG) saliva. Also, they studied the presence of EGF in PG and SMG by immunohistochemistry. The mean concentrations of EDG in PG saliva was higher than in whole saliva, which in turn was higher than in mixed SMG + SLG saliva. No sex difference existed in any salivary gland EGF. Immunohistochemistry revealed EGF in the acinar cells of both PG and SMG, buy only in PG there were prominent EDG deposits in luminal spaces. Their data suggest that EDG is produced by both PG and SMG, but that more of it is secreted from the PG. This result is new and challenges the general view that human salivary EDG is mainly from SMG

  2. Iatrogenic causes of salivary gland dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saliva is important for maintaining oral health and function. There are instances when medical therapy is intended to decrease salivary flow, such as during general anesthesia, but most instances of iatrogenic salivary gland dysfunction represent untoward or unavoidable side-effects. The clinical expression of the salivary dysfunction can range from very minor transient alteration in saliva flow to a total loss of salivary function. The most common forms of therapy that interfere with salivation are drug therapies, cancer therapies (radiation or chemotherapy), and surgical therapy. These therapies can affect salivation by a number of different mechanisms that include: disruption of autonomic nerve function related to salivation, interference with acinar or ductal cell functions related to salivation, cytotoxicity, indirect effects (vasoconstriction/dilation, fluid and electrolyte balance, etc.), and physical trauma to salivary glands and nerves. A wide variety of drugs is capable of increasing or decreasing salivary flow by mimicking autonomic nervous system actions or by directly acting on cellular processes necessary for salivation: drugs can also indirectly affect salivation by altering fluid and electrolyte balance or by affecting blood flow to the glands. Ionizing radiation can cause permanent damage to salivary glands, damage that is manifest as acinar cell destruction with subsequent atrophy and fibrosis of the glands. Cancer chemotherapy can cause changes in salivation, but the changes are usually much less severe and only transient. Finally, surgical and traumatic injuries interfere with salivation because of either disruption of gland innervation or gross physical damage (or removal) of glandular tissue (including ducts)

  3. Ornithodoros brasiliensis (mouro tick) salivary gland homogenates inhibit in vivo wound healing and in vitro endothelial cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reck, José; Marks, Fernanda S; Termignoni, Carlos; Guimarães, Jorge A; Martins, João Ricardo

    2013-04-01

    Ornithodoros brasiliensis is a nidicolous tick only found in the southern Brazilian highlands region. O. brasiliensis parasitism is frequently associated with toxicosis syndrome, which can lead to severe reactions, ranging from local pruritus and pain to systemic disturbances both in humans and dogs. One of the most frequent findings associated with an O. brasiliensis bite is a slow healing lesion at the site of tick attachment, which can take several weeks to heal. This work tested the hypothesis that an O. brasiliensis salivary gland homogenate is able to modulate the skin wound-healing process in vivo, using a model of excisional skin lesion in rats, which are divided into two groups: (1) control group and (2) treated group, which topically received salivary gland homogenate equivalent to the protein amount of one whole salivary gland (?5 ?g protein). The hypothesis that O. brasiliensis salivary gland homogenates interfere with endothelial cell proliferation, a key role phenomenon in wound healing, was also tested. O. brasiliensis salivary gland homogenates significantly delay skin wound healing. The time to full healing of skin lesions in control rats was 15 days, contrasting with 24 days in rats topically treated with O. brasiliensis salivary gland homogenates. The calculated HT50 (healing time to recover 50% of the wound area) for control groups was 3.6 days (95% CI, 3.2-3.9) and for salivary gland treated rats was 7.7 days (95% CI, 7.0-8.4). Salivary gland homogenates have a strong cytotoxic activity on cultured endothelial cells (LC50, 13.6 mg/ml). Also, at sublethal concentrations (?3 mg/ml), salivary gland homogenates have a remarkable anti-proliferative activity (IC50 0.7 mg/ml) on endothelial cells, equivalent to ?0.03 salivary gland pairs, an activity which seems to be much greater than reported for any other tick species. This is the first report about the biological activities of O. brasiliensis salivary compounds and provides the first in vivo evidence to support the concept of wound-healing modulation by tick salivary secretions. Results shown here contribute to an understanding of O. brasiliensis tick toxicosis syndrome, and also increase our knowledge of tick salivary bioactive compounds. PMID:23397378

  4. Effect of sensory stimulation on salivary IgA secretion rate in karate players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Baralic

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Secretory IgA is predominant immunoglobulin in secretions of the mucosal immune system. Low concentration of salivary IgA is associated with a higher risk of respiratory tract infections episodes in athletes during the training season. The purpose of this study was to determine whether orange-flavored whey based drink has beneficial effect on level of IgA in saliva after the training. Methods: Twenty healthy, young karate players participated in this study. They were divided into two groups. One group rinsed a mouth with 20 ml of liquid whey, two times in 30-min period: 15 and 30 min after training. Second group rinsed a mouth with 20 ml of whey based orange flavored soft drink, at the same time. Saliva was collected before the training, just after the training and after application of fluids. Results: We observed decrease in salivary flow after physical activity. The salivary flow was higher after the application of flavored drink compared to salivary flow after the application of whey. The absolute concentration of sIgA and sIgA secretion rate decreased just after exercise compared to pre exercise values. Application of whey elevated sIgA levels on day 1, while application of flavored drink caused increasing in sIgA levels on day 3. In all other cases sIgA level was decreasing even after applied stimuli. Conclusions: The exercise induces decreasing in salivary flow, sIgA absolute concentration and sIgA secretion rate. Application of fluid whey and flavored whey-based drink elevated salivary flow, but had little effect on absolute concentration of sIgA and sIgA secretion rate in young karate players.

  5. Salivary characteristics of diabetic children

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María Elena, López; María Eugenia, Colloca; Rafael Gustavo, Páez; Judit Nora, Schallmach; Myriam Adriana, Koss; Amalia, Chervonagura.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Os componentes salivares podem sofrer variações que podem ser detectadas por análise química. O objetivo desse trabalho foi determinar as características físicas e bioquímicas da saliva de um grupo de crianças diabéticas comparadas a um grupo controle. A relação com a saúde oral também foi determina [...] da. Vinte crianças diabéticas (3-15 anos) e 21 crianças do grupo controle (5-12 anos) foram incluídas nesse estudo. Quantidade total de proteínas, açúcares e cálcio foram determinadas por métodos colorimétricos e glicose, uréia, a-amilase e ácido fosfórico por métodos enzimáticos. Nossos resultados demonstraram que o pH ácido diminuiu o fluxo salivar e o excesso de espuma são normalmente encontrados na saliva de crianças diabéticas. O total de açúcares, glucose, uréia e proteínas foram maiores em pacientes diabéticos do que no controle enquanto o cálcio diminuiu. Essas diferenças foram confirmadas pelo teste de discriminação. As crianças diabéticas têm maiores valores de DMFT-dmft-deft and DMFS-dmfs-defs quando comparadas àquelas do grupo controle apesar do menor consumo de açúcar. Alguns componentes salivares e a diminuição do fluxo salivar podem estar envolvidos na caracterização da saúde oral das crianças diabéticas. Abstract in english Salivary components may suffer variations that can be detected by chemical determinations. The aim of this work was to determine physical and biochemical characteristics of the saliva of a group of diabetic children compared to those of a control group. Relation to oral health indices was also deter [...] mined. Twenty diabetic children (3-15-years-old) and 21 control children (5-12-years-old) were included in this study. Total proteins, sugars and calcium were determined by colorimetric methods, and glucose, urea, alpha-amylase and acid phosphatase by enzymatic methods. Our results demonstrated that acidic pH, diminished salivary flow rate and excess foam are usually present in saliva of diabetic children. Total sugars, glucose, urea and total proteins were greater in diabetic patients than controls, while calcium values were decreased. These differences were confirmed by the discrimination test. Diabetic children have higher DMFT-dmft-deft and DMFS-dmfs-defs values compared to those of the control children despite their lower sugar intake. Some salivary components in addition to the diminished flow rate could be involved in the characterization of the oral health state of diabetic children.

  6. Gene-Centric Analysis of Serum Cotinine Levels in African and European American Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidovic, Ajna; Goodloe, Robert J; Bergen, Andrew W; Benowitz, Neal L; Styn, Mindi A; Kasberger, Jay L; Choquet, Helene; Young, Taylor R; Meng, Yan; Palmer, Cameron; Pletcher, Mark; Kertesz, Stefan; Hitsman, Brian; Spring, Bonnie; Jorgenson, Eric

    2012-01-01

    To date, most genetic association studies of tobacco use have been conducted in European American subjects using the phenotype of smoking quantity (cigarettes per day). However, smoking quantity is a very imprecise measure of exposure to tobacco smoke constituents. Analyses of alternate phenotypes and populations may improve our understanding of tobacco addiction genetics. Cotinine is the major metabolite of nicotine, and measuring serum cotinine levels in smokers provides a more objective measure of nicotine dose than smoking quantity. Previous genetic association studies of serum cotinine have focused on individual genes. We conducted a genetic association study of the biomarker in African American (N=365) and European American (N=315) subjects from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study using a chip containing densely-spaced tag SNPs in ?2100 genes. We found that rs11187065, located in the non-coding region (intron 1) of insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE), was the most strongly associated SNP (p=8.91 × 10?6) in the African American cohort, whereas rs11763963, located on chromosome 7 outside of a gene transcript, was the most strongly associated SNP in European Americans (p=1.53 × 10?6). We then evaluated how the top variant association in each population performed in the other group. We found that the association of rs11187065 in IDE was also associated with the phenotype in European Americans (p=0.044). Our top SNP association in European Americans, rs11763963 was non-polymorphic in our African American sample. It has been previously shown that psychostimulant self-administration is reduced in animals with lower insulin because of interference with dopamine transmission in the brain reward centers. Our finding provides a platform for further investigation of this, or additional mechanisms, involving the relationship between insulin and self-administered nicotine dose. PMID:22089314

  7. Novel method for the isolation and quantitative analysis of nicotine and cotinine in biological fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maskarinec, M.P.; Harvey, R.W.; Caton, J.E.

    1978-07-01

    A rapid quantitative method has been developed for the estimation of nicotine and cotinine in blood and urine. Isolation is accomplished by adsorption of the alkaloids on Amberlite XAD-2 resin and subsequent elution with chloroform/methanol. No solvent extraction or further purification is required. The final determination is made by high performance liquid chromatography using uv detection. Absolute recovery of nicotine was at least 80% in all samples. The accuracy of the method is estimated to be +-5% on standard addition measurements. Detection limits of 2 ng/ml urine may be routinely obtained.

  8. Biotransformation of caffeine, cotinine, and nicotine in stream sediments: Implications for use as wastewater indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, P.M.; Barber, L.B.; Kolpin, D.W.; McMahon, P.B.; Chapelle, F.H.

    2007-01-01

    Microbially catalyzed cleavage of the imadazole ring of caffeine was observed in stream sediments collected upstream and downstream of municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in three geographically separate stream systems. Microbial demethylation of the N-methyl component of cotinine and its metabolic precursor, nicotine, also was observed in these sediments. These findings indicate that stream sediment microorganisms are able to substantially alter the chemical structure and thus the analytical signatures of these candidate waste indicator compounds. The potential for in situ biotransformation must be considered if these compounds are employed as markers to identify the sources and track the fate of wastewater compounds in surface-water systems. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  9. New Anthocyanin-Human Salivary Protein Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Gallego, Raúl; Soares, Susana; Mateus, Nuno; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa; de Freitas, Victor

    2015-08-01

    The interaction between phenolic compounds and salivary proteins is considered the basis of the poorly understood phenomenon of astringency. Furthermore, this interaction is an important factor in relation to their bioavailability. In this work, interactions between anthocyanin and human salivary protein fraction were studied by mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS and FIA-ESI-MS) and saturation-transfer difference (STD) NMR spectroscopy. Anthocyanins were able to interact with saliva proteins. The dissociation constant (KD) between malvidin 3-glucoside and salivary proline-rich proteins was 1.92 mM for the hemiketal form (pH 3.4) and 1.83 mM for the flavylium cation (pH 1.0). New soluble complexes between these salivary proteins and malvidin 3-glucoside were identified for the first time. PMID:26162056

  10. Salivary secretion during meals in lactating dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beauchemin, K.A.; Eriksen, L.

    2008-01-01

    Four multiparous Holstein cows in midlactation were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square to evaluate whether source of forage influenced salivary secretion during eating in lactating dairy cows. The forages were allocated separately from the pelleted concentrates. Cows were offered 1 of 4 forages each period: barley silage, alfalfa silage, long-stemmed alfalfa hay, or chopped barley straw. Saliva secretion was measured during the morning meal by collecting masticates through the rumen cannula at the cardia of each cow. Rate of salication (213 g/min) was not affected by forage source. However, the forage sources differed in eating rate (g og DM/min), which led to differences in ensalivation of forages (g of saliva/g of DM and g of saliva/g of NDF). On the basis of DM, ensalivation (g of saliva/g of DM) was greatest for straw (7.23) and similar for barley sialge, alfalfa silage, and alfalfa hay (4.15, 3.40, and 4.34 g/g of DM, respectively). Higher ensalivation of straw could be accounted for by its higher neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content; ensalivation of NDF (g of saliva/g of NDF) was actually greatest for long-stemmed alfalfa hay (12.4) and similar for the other chopped forages (8.9). Cows consumed concentrate about 3 to 12 times faster than the various forages (DM basis), and ensalivation of concentrate was much lower (1.12 g of saliva/g of DM) than for forages. Feed characteristics such as particle size, DM, and NDF content affect salivary output during eating by affecting the eating rate. Slower eating rate and greater time spent eating may help prevent ruminal acidosis by increasing the total daily salivary secretion in dairy cows.

  11. Alternations in salivary glucose during ramadan fasting

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Erfani; Reyhaneh Sariri; Abdolali Varasteh

    2010-01-01

    During the holly month of Ramadan, Muslims fast every day from dawn to sunset. Although the effect of Ramadan fasting on general health has been widely studied, the impact of fasting on oral health and possible changes in salivary biochemicals, such as glucose, has not received much attentiom. The aim of our study was to evaluate the influence of fasting on the level of glucose in the saliva of healthy individuals. Salivary glucose was measured using an enzymatic method based on oxidation of ...

  12. Increased salivary cortisol after waking in depression.

    OpenAIRE

    Bhagwagar, Z; Hafizi, S; Cowen, PJ

    2005-01-01

    RATIONALE: Cortisol hypersecretion is regarded as important in the pathophysiology of major depression. However, recent studies in community-based samples have been inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether acutely depressed, medication-free subjects show an exaggerated release of cortisol in saliva in relation to awakening. METHODS: We studied the pattern of waking salivary cortisol in 20 unmedicated acutely depressed subjects and 40 healthy controls. RESULTS: In both groups, salivary co...

  13. Effect of Pre-Analytical Conditions on Salivary Nitrite Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Rosana Andrea Morelatto; Tomás Enrique Benavidez; Ana María Baruzzi; Velia Matilde Solís; Silvia Adriana López de Blanc

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present paper was to analyze the influence of sampling and storage procedures on nitrite con- centration values in the saliva of healthy persons. The samples were obtained and stored under varied condi- tions, and processed using the Griess method. Results: when the salivary nitrite concentration was measured immediately after collection a significant dependence on the collection time was observed. A mean value of 94 µmol/L (range 3 - 625) was obtained at 8:30 am. This value de...

  14. Stress among nurses: an examination of salivary cortisol levels on work and day off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecilia Pires da Rocha

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the use of salivary cortisol concentration as a physiological index of the stress level among nurses on their work day and day off and correlates it with the questionnaire used to measure occupational stress in nurses (Inventário de Estresse em Enfermeiros - IEE. This is a comparative, cross-sectional descriptive study in which sociodemographic data, IEE results and salivary cortisol levels were used. Fifty-seven nurses participated in the study (80.7% females and a mean age of 37.1 years old. The IEE average score was 124.5. The average cortisol level was 564.1 ng/m on work day and 354.1 ng/mL on day off. Nurses who had double workdays presented high values of salivary cortisol during the work day (638.1 ng/mL. In conclusion, salivary cortisol identified the nurses’ stress level, and differences were found between a work day and day off. On the nurses’ day off, their salivary cortisol levels and stress scores were lower.

  15. Salivary cortisol assessment in the evaluation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple, short and sensitive direct radio-immunoassay technique for the determination of salivary cortisol concentration was employed to assess saliva as a medium for evaluating cortisol response during endocrine testing in 9 controls and 40 patients. Results in controls suggested that an adequate salivary cortisol response to insulin hypoglycaemia was an increase of 150% above the basal value with a minimum peak of 15 nmol/l. Thirty-three patients were classified as being either good or poor responders to insulin hypoglycaemia on the basis of criteria for plasma cortisol levels. When the defined salivary cortisol response was used for assessment, all 33 patients were correctly categorized into the same response groups. The salivary cortisol response to intramuscular tetracosactin in 3 patients and an intravenous dexamethasone infusion in 4 patients confirmed the value of saliva as an assay medium. These studies show that the salivary cortisol response parallels that of total plasma cortisol in all cases. However, with sampling at short intervals a lag in secretion of the free fraction from the plasma into the saliva becomes apparent. The relative change in cortisol levels from the basal value is greater in saliva than in plasma

  16. Ultradian rhythmicity and induced changes in salivary testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaven, C Martyn; Ingram, John R; Gill, Nicholas D; Hopkins, Will G

    2010-09-01

    Testosterone and cortisol respond to exercise stimuli and modulate adaptation. Episodic basal secretion of these hormones may modify the responsiveness of these hormones. We sought to identify episodic steroid secretion via frequent salivary sampling and investigate any interaction between ultradian rhythmicity and induced changes in testosterone. Salivary testosterone and cortisol concentrations of seven males (age 20-40 years) were measured every 10 min between 0800 and 1600 h on three consecutive days. On either the second or third day, three interventions designed to elicit a hormonal response were randomly assigned: sprint exercise (two 30-s maximal efforts on a cycle ergometer); boxing (two 30-s maximal punching efforts); and a violent video game (10 min of player vs. player combat). On the other days subjects were inactive. Testosterone data on non-intervention days suggested pulsatile secretion with a pulse interval of 47 +/- 9 min (mean +/- SD). The sprint intervention substantially affected hormones: it elicited a small transient elevation in testosterone (by a factor of 1.21; factor 90% confidence limits x/ divided by 1.21) 10 min after exercise, and a moderate elevation in cortisol peaking 50 min post-exercise (factor 2.3; x/ divided by 2.6). The testosterone response correlated with the change in testosterone concentration in the 10 min prior to the sprint (r = 0.78; 90% CL 0.22-0.95) and with a measure of randomness in testosterone fluctuations (r = 0.83; 0.35-0.96). Thus, the salivary testosterone response to exercise may be dependent on the underlying ultradian rhythm and aspects of its regulation. This interaction may have important implications for adaptation to exercise. PMID:20512500

  17. SALIVARY GLYCOCONJUGATES AS BIOMARKERS OF CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roopa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Periodontitis is the major cause of tooth loss and is significantly associated with an increased risk of stroke, type 2 diabetes and heart diseases. Glycoconjugates are expressed on the cell surface as components of glycoproteins, glycosphingo lipids and proteoglycans and plays a vital role in infection and disease. The objective of the study was to assess the changes in salivary glycoconjugates levels in chronic periodontitis (CP and in healthy individuals without periodontitis. This study was undertaken as a preliminary step towards the use of salivary glycoconjugates as reliable markers of CP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 150 subjects took part in the study. 75 patients with CP (aged 30-55 and 75 age and sex matched healthy controls. Salivary glycoconjugates – sialic acid both – free (FSA and protein bound (PBSA, L- Fucose (Fuc and Total protein (Tp were assessed in both cases and in controls by standard methods. RESULTS: The salivary glycoconjugate levels were significantly higher in CP compared to normal healthy controls. Salivary FSA, Fuc and Tp in CP were elevated with mean ± SD values being 25.9±4.02, 46.9±5.65 and 178.4±23.1 mg/L respectively when compared to healthy controls 19.69±4.53, 42.1±3.2, 90.62±15.8 mg/ L respectively which was found to be statistically significant (p<.001. The values of salivary PBSA were significantly lowered when compared to healthy controls. (p <.01 CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study indicate that salivary glycoconjugates could be sensitive biochemical markers of chronic periodontitis.

  18. Does cotinine act upon reactive oxygen species and peroxidases? / A cotinina age sobre espécies reativas do oxigênio e peroxidases?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J.C.R., Vellosa; N.M., Khalil; L.M., Fonseca; I.L., Brunetti; O.M.M.F., Oliveira.

    Full Text Available A nicotina, um agente oxidante, é certamente um dos alcalóides mais amplamente utilizados no mundo. Juntamente com seu principal metabolito, a cotinina, a nicotina é responsável pela tabaco-dependência. O uso de tabaco está intimamente associado a doenças pulmonares, modificações morfológicas em leu [...] cócitos e a geração de espécies oxidantes. O principal objetivo deste estudo foi identificar uma possível relação entre cotinina, geração de espécies reativas do oxigênio e processos oxidativos. Após o estudo da ação da cotinina em diferentes modelos químicos e em cinéticas enzimáticas com peroxidases (mieloperoxidase e peroxidase de raiz forte), conclui-se que a cotinina não age diretamente sobre H2O2, HOCl, taurine cloramina, peroxidase de raiz forte ou mieloperoxidase. Abstract in english Nicotine, an oxidizing agent, is certainly one of the most widely used alkaloids in the world. It is, together with its main metabolite, cotinine, responsible for tobacco-dependence. The use of tobacco is closely associated with lung disease, morphological leukocyte modification and generation of ox [...] idant species. The aim of this study was to look for a possible relationship between cotinine, oxidant species generation and oxidative processes. After studying the action of cotinine in some chemical oxidation models and on the enzymatic kinetics of peroxidases (myeloperoxidase and horseradish peroxidase), we concluded that cotinine does not act directly upon H2O2, HOCl, taurine chloramines, horseradish peroxidase or myeloperoxidase.

  19. Cotinine inhibits the pro-inflammatory response initiated by multiple cell surface Toll-like receptors in monocytic THP cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagaitkar Juhi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The primary, stable metabolite of nicotine [(S-3-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl pyridine] in humans is cotinine [(S-1-methyl-5-(3-pyridinyl-2-pyrrolidinone]. We have previously shown that cotinine exposure induces convergence and amplification of the GSK3?-dependent PI3 kinase and cholinergic anti-inflammatory systems. The consequence is reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion by human monocytes responding to bacteria or LPS, a TLR4 agonist. Findings Here we show that cotinine-induced inflammatory suppression may not be restricted to individual Toll-like receptors (TLRs. Indeed, in monocytic cells, cotinine suppresses the cytokine production that is normally resultant upon agonist-specific engagement of all of the major surface exposed TLRs (TLR 2/1; 2/6; 4 and 5, although the degree of suppression varies by TLR. Conclusions These results provide further mechanistic insight into the increased susceptibility to multiple bacterial infections known to occur in smokers. They also establish THP-1 cells as a potentially suitable model with which to study the influence of tobacco components and metabolites on TLR-initiated inflammatory events.

  20. The role of nicotine, cotinine and caffeine on the electrochemical behavior and bacterial colonization to cp-Ti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barão, Valentim A R; Ricomini-Filho, Antonio P; Faverani, Leonardo P; Del Bel Cury, Altair A; Sukotjo, Cortino; Monteiro, Douglas R; Yuan, Judy Chia-Chun; Mathew, Mathew T; do Amaral, Regiane C; Mesquita, Marcelo F; da Silva, Wander J; Assunção, Wirley G

    2015-11-01

    Although smoking promotes deleterious effect to bone healing, there is a lack of study investigating its role on the implant structure and biofilm growth. We hypothesized that nicotine, cotinine and caffeine would impair the corrosion resistance of commercially-pure titanium (cp-Ti) and would enhance Streptococcus sanguinis biofilm growth. Neither the smoking products nor the caffeine affected the corrosion tendency (P>.05) and the oxide layer resistance (P=.762) of cp-Ti. Lower capacitance values were noted in the presence of nicotine (P=.001) and cotinine (P=.0006). SEM showed no pitting corrosion, and the EDS spectra did not differ among groups. Nicotine (300?g/mL) induced higher surface roughness (P=.03) and greater surface change of cp-Ti. Nicotine at 3?g/mL, and cotinine at 0.3 and 3?g/mL increased the number of viable cells (Pnicotine (0.3, 3 and 30?g/mL) (P=.025, .030, .040, respectively) and cotinine (3 and 30?g/mL) (P=.027, .049, respectively) enhanced carbohydrate content. Biofilm biomass and protein content were similar among groups (P>.05). These findings suggest a greater biofilm accumulation in smokers, a risk factor that may lead to peri-implantitis. PMID:26249572

  1. Effect of competitional stress on salivary dehydroepiandrosterone, cortisol in female handballists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Farzanegi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hormonal responses to competitions and their relationships have been extensively examined in male athletes, but there are few studies in women. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of competition stress on salivary dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA and cortisol in female handballists. Materials and Method: Ten female handballists of Islamic Azad University (Sari Branch (age 21.5±2.5 years participated in this study. Salivary samples were collected 30 min and 5 min before competition, between two half times and immediately after four competitions. The salivary DHEA and cortisol concentrations were measured by ELISA method. Results: The results of one-way ANOVA with repeated measures have shown a significant (p=0.001 increases for DHEA concentration after four competitions, however, cortisol and DHEA/cortisol ratio did not show any changes after four competition (p>0.05. Conclusion: These results indicate that salivary DHEA is more sensitive to competition situations than cortisol concentration. We suggested that androgens maybe more affected by competition

  2. Research on the evaluation of salivary gland function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assessment of salivary gland function plays an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of salivary gland disease. Currently, there are several ways to evaluate the salivary gland function including sialography, salivary gland flowmetry, radionuclide imaging,ultrasonography Doppler and MRI. The pros and cons of these different methods were reviewed and analysed. Nowadays, sialography and salivary gland flowmetry are less commonly used clinically. Doppler can be used for screening of salivary gland diseases. Radionuclide imaging is the clinically preferred method, and MRI is one of the most rapidly developing methods for the evaluation of salivary gland function. Proper selection of these methods can provide valuable information for the diagnosis and treatment of salivary gland diseases. (authors)

  3. Who Is Exposed to Secondhand Smoke? Self-Reported and Serum Cotinine Measured Exposure in the U.S., 1999-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanling Shi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents self-reported and serum cotinine measures of exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS for nonsmoking children, adolescents, and adults. Estimates are disaggregated by time periods and sociodemographic characteristics based on analyses of the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Self-reported exposure rates are found to be highest for children, followed by adolescents and adults. Important differences in exposure are found by socioeconomic characteristics. Using serum cotinine to measure exposure yields much higher prevalence rates than self-reports. Rates of SHS exposure remain high, but cotinine levels are declining for most groups.

  4. A kinetic compartment model for evaluating salivary gland scintigraphies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzelius, Pia; Fuglsang, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The semi-quantitative analysis of salivary gland scintigraphy with (99m) Tc-pertechnetate has been used to evaluate salivary gland function. However, no objective parameters distinguishing abnormal from normal functions have been established thus far. We propose using a simple kinetic model applied to the four major salivary glands. This kinetic model is based on a two-compartment model and the assumption of first-order kinetics to characterize normal salivary gland function and other selected p...

  5. Salivary gland transplantation: a canine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, A; Nitzan, D W; Shiloni, E; Neuman, A; Marmary, Y

    1997-09-15

    Impaired salivary function with resultant severe dryness of the mouth, or xerostomia, may occur in association with a variety of systemic disorders or therapies. No adequate treatment exists for this debilitating condition, which impedes normal oral function, in particular alimentation and phonation. This study explores the feasibility of salivary gland autotransplantation, using a canine model. A salivary gland with its duct and surrounding blood vessels still attached was excised and reimplanted in the dog's thigh by anastomosing the graft's blood vessels to the femoral artery and vein. The duct was sutured to an artificial orifice cut in the thigh's skin, from which the saliva was collected. Salivary secretion was induced by a single intravenous bolus of pilocarpine (5 mg). Preoperative (normal) salivation was measured by collecting saliva from the gland in situ. Periodic functional studies showed normal saliva production during the first month after grafting, after which the salivary flow was reduced by 35% over the next 2 months. This reduction was interpreted as a sign of disuse atrophy resulting from the lack of autonomic innervation. To overcome this impediment, oral pilocarpine (5 mg/day) was administered to the recipient dog, after which normal levels of saliva were excreted through the graft during the 3-month follow-up period. The quality of the graft saliva was assessed by its protein and electrolyte levels, which showed close to normal values. PMID:9311702

  6. The Case for Primary Salivary Rhabdomyosarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geltzeiler, Mathew; Li, Guangheng; Abraham, Jinu; Keller, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcomas of the parotid and submandibular glands have the histological appearance of a skeletal muscle tumor yet can be found in tissue with no striated muscular elements. We examine the potential cell-of-origin for rhabdomyosarcoma and whether salivary tumors represent primary malignancy or metastasis. We have previously established genetically engineered mouse models of rhabdomyosarcoma. In these mice, rhabdomyosarcoma is only induced when a Pax3:Foxo1 fusion oncogene is activated with concurrent loss of p53 function (for alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma) or loss of p53 function alone (for embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma) using Cre-lox technology. These mutations are only activated under the control of promoters specific for selected cell lineages, previously thought to be myogenesis-restricted. RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry for lineage-specific promoter gene products reveal these promoters are active in wild-type mouse salivary gland. Given that mouse rhabdomyosarcoma frequently originates in the salivary glands and these myogenic-related promoters are normally expressed in salivary tissue, a high likelihood exists that the salivary gland contains a cell-of-origin of this muscle-related cancer. PMID:25883905

  7. Mercuric dichloride induces DNA damage in human salivary gland tissue cells and lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Katharina; Kroemer, Susanne [University of Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany); Sassen, Andrea [University of Regensburg, Department of Pathology, Regensburg (Germany); Staudenmaier, Rainer [Technical University of Munich, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Munich (Germany); Reichl, Franz-Xaver [University of Munich, Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Munich (Germany); Harreus, Ulrich [University of Munich, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Munich (Germany); Hagen, Rudolf; Kleinsasser, Norbert [University of Wuerzburg, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2007-11-15

    Amalgam is still one of the most frequently used dental filling materials. However, the possible adverse effects especially that of the mercuric component have led to continued controversy. Considering that mercury may be released from amalgam fillings into the oral cavity and also reach the circulating blood after absorption and resorption, it eventually may contribute to tumorigenesis in a variety of target cells. The present investigation focuses on genotoxic effects below a cytotoxic dose level of mercuric dichloride (HgCl{sub 2}) in human samples of salivary glands and lymphocytes to elucidate a possible role in tumor initiation. DNA migration due to single strand breaks, alkali labile sites and incomplete excision repair was quantified with the aid of the single cell microgel electrophoresis (Comet) assay. The concepts of Olive Tail Moment, percentage of DNA in the Tail and Tail Length were used as measures of DNA damage. To control for cytotoxic effects, the trypan blue exclusion test was applied. Human samples of the parotid salivary gland and lymphocytes of ten donors were exposed to HgCl{sub 2} concentrations from 1 to 50 {mu}M. N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) served as controls. Increasing dose-dependent DNA migration could be demonstrated after exposure to HgCl{sub 2} in cells of the salivary glands and lymphocytes. In both cell types a significant increase in DNA migration could be shown starting from HgCl{sub 2} concentrations of 5 {mu}M in comparison to the negative control. The viability of the cell systems was not affected except at the highest concentration (50 {mu}M) tested. These data indicate genotoxic effects of mercuric dichloride in human salivary glands and lymphocytes at concentrations not leading to cytotoxic effects or cell death. Consequently, a contributory role in oral salivary gland tumor initiation warrants further investigation. (orig.)

  8. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the submandibular salivary gland

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, G. Mallikarjuna; Ranga Reddy, S. V.; Janaki, M.; Reddy, K. Lakshmi

    2004-01-01

    Malignant tumors of the submandibular salivary glands are rare in occurrence, among which primary squamous cell carcinoma of the submandibular salivary gland is unusual and the documented evidence is 2 to 5% among malignant tumors A case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of submandibular salivary gland is being presented for its rarity

  9. Immunolocalization and distribution of functional temperature-sensitive TRP channels in salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhan, Ubaidus; Sato, Masaki; Shinomiya, Takashi; Okubo, Migiwa; Tsumura, Maki; Muramatsu, Takashi; Kawaguchi, Mitsuru; Tazaki, Masakazu; Shibukawa, Yoshiyuki

    2013-11-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channels are unique cellular sensors involved in multiple cellular functions. Their role in salivary secretion remains to be elucidated. The expression and localization of temperature-sensitive TRP channels in salivary (submandibular, sublingual and parotid) glands were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time reverse transcription plus the polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The effects of various TRP channel agonists on carbachol (CCh)-induced salivary secretion in the submandibular gland and on the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in a submandibular epithelial cell line were also investigated. Immunohistochemistry revealed the expression of TRP-melastatin subfamily member 8 (TRPM8) and TRP-ankyrin subfamily member 1 (TRPA1) in myoepithelial, acinar and ductal cells in the sublingual, submandibular and parotid glands. In addition, TRP-vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1), TRPV3 and TRPV4 were also expressed in myoepithelial, acinar and ductal cells in all three types of gland. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR results demonstrated the mRNA expression of TRPV1, TRPV3, TRPV4, TRPM8 and TRPA1 in acinar and ductal cells in these salivary glands. Perfusion of the entire submandibular gland with the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin (1 ?M) via the submandibular artery significantly increased CCh-induced salivation, whereas perfusion with TRPM8 and TRPA1 agonists (0.5 ?M WS12 and 100 ?M allyl isothiocyanate) decreased it. Application of agonists for each of the thermosensitive TRP channels increased [Ca(2+)]i in a submandibular epithelial cell line. These results indicate that temperature-sensitive TRP channels are localized and distributed in acinar, ductal and myoepithelial cells in salivary glands and that they play a functional role in the regulation and/or modulation of salivary secretion. PMID:23942896

  10. Chlorella intake attenuates reduced salivary SIgA secretion in kendo training camp participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otsuki Takeshi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The green alga Chlorella contains high levels of proteins, vitamins, and minerals. We previously reported that a chlorella-derived multicomponent supplement increased the secretion rate of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA in humans. Here, we investigated whether intake of this chlorella-derived supplement attenuated the reduced salivary SIgA secretion rate during a kendo training camp. Methods Ten female kendo athletes participated in inter-university 6-day spring and 4-day summer camps. They were randomized into two groups; one took placebo tablets during the spring camp and chlorella tablets during the summer camp, while the other took chlorella tablets during the spring camp and placebo tablets during the summer camp. Subjects took these tablets starting 4 weeks before the camp until post-camp saliva sampling. Salivary SIgA concentrations were measured by ELISA. Results All subjects participated in nearly all training programs, and body-mass changes and subjective physical well-being scores during the camps were comparable between the groups. However, salivary SIgA secretion rate changes were different between these groups. Salivary SIgA secretion rates decreased during the camp in the placebo group (before vs. second, middle, and final day of camp, and after the camp: 146 ± 89 vs. 87 ± 56, 70 ± 45, 94 ± 58, and 116 ± 71 ?g/min, whereas no such decreases were observed in the chlorella group (121 ± 53 vs. 113 ± 68, 98 ± 69,115 ± 80, and 128 ± 59 ?g/min. Conclusion Our results suggest that a use of a chlorella-derived dietary supplement attenuates reduced salivary SIgA secretion during a training camp for a competitive sport.

  11. Primary tuberculosis of submandibular salivary gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Francis Tauro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis of the submandibular salivary gland is a rare condition and only a few cases have been reported in literature. Tubercular sialadenitis is most frequently seen in immunosuppressed patients. Diagnosis of this disease is difficult. Although fine needle aspiration cytology is useful in diagnosis, excisional biopsy is often required. Polymerase chain reaction for mycobacterium tuberculosis is a reliable diagnostic tool, and if available, it should be performed before surgical intervention to enable differential diagnosis of a salivary gland tumor. We report two cases of the submandibular salivary gland tuberculosis from South India (Mangalore located in the coastal belt of Karnataka that proved diagnostically challenging. Both patients responded well to antitubercular therapy and surgery was avoided.

  12. Salivary gland tumours in Congo (Zaire).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayembe, M K A; Kalengayi, M M R

    2002-09-01

    From the files of the Department of Pathology of Kinshasa University Hospital, a retrospective study on salivary gland tumours in Congo (Zaire) had been carried out in order to determine their histological and epidemiological profile. Salivary gland tumours are rare in Congo, with a relative frequency of 1.8%. Pleomorphic adenoma (55.1%) and adenoid cystic carcinoma (15.9%) are the most common tumours. Parotid gland (36.6%) is the most frequent location of salivary gland tumours in this country. People aged between 30 and 39 years (19.9%) (Mean: 37.4 +/- 16.2 years) and females (M/F = 0.8/1) are most affected. No case of adenolymphoma is recorded in this series. PMID:12430350

  13. Salivary Defense Proteins: Their Network and Role in Innate and Acquired Oral Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Fábián

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous defense proteins present in the saliva. Although some of these molecules are present in rather low concentrations, their effects are additive and/or synergistic, resulting in an efficient molecular defense network of the oral cavity. Moreover, local concentrations of these proteins near the mucosal surfaces (mucosal transudate, periodontal sulcus (gingival crevicular fluid and oral wounds and ulcers (transudate may be much greater, and in many cases reinforced by immune and/or inflammatory reactions of the oral mucosa. Some defense proteins, like salivary immunoglobulins and salivary chaperokine HSP70/HSPAs (70 kDa heat shock proteins, are involved in both innate and acquired immunity. Cationic peptides and other defense proteins like lysozyme, bactericidal/permeability increasing protein (BPI, BPI-like proteins, PLUNC (palate lung and nasal epithelial clone proteins, salivary amylase, cystatins, prolin-rich proteins, mucins, peroxidases, statherin and others are primarily responsible for innate immunity. In this paper, this complex system and function of the salivary defense proteins will be reviewed.

  14. Salivary Output in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Radhika

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes Mellitus (DM is a common but complex metabolic disorder affecting various systems in the body. Oral cavity is no exception as this chronic condition exerts a huge impact on oral health. Salivary dysfunction has been reported to be a frequent oral complication in Type 2 diabetics which in turn leads to an array of oral complications because oral health is to a greater extent dependent on the quality and quantity of saliva. Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the salivary flow rate and prevalence of subjective symptoms of xerostomia in diabetics and non-diabetics. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 100 type 2 diabetic patients and 50 non-diabetic subjects. Random non-fasting plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels were used to determine the diabetic status of the individuals. Unstimulated saliva was collected using “Spit technique”. Stimulated saliva was collected using 2% citric acid. Unstimulated and Stimulated Salivary Flow Rate (USFR and SSFR was calculated for every patient and expressed as ml/min. Xerostomia was evaluated using a multi-item inventory comprising 19 questions. Results: In our study, both whole unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rates were decreased in diabetics compared to non-diabetics and this difference was statistically significant (p = 0.000. A greater percentage of diabetic patients perceived xerostomia symptoms compared to non-diabetics. Conclusion: Type 2 diabetics have higher prevalence of xerostomia and significantly reduced salivary flow rate compared to non-diabetics. Alterations in salivary flow create an imbalance in the homeostasis of oral environment leading to spectrum of oral ailments in these individuals

  15. Histopathological audit of salivary gland neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salivary gland neoplasms are uncommon but important presentation to general surgeons. Objective: To analyze the relative frequency and distribution of Salivary gland neoplasms in our division. Setting: Department of surgery and pathology, Peoples Medical University hospital and GMMMC hospital Sukkur. Study design: Descriptive (case series) Subjects and methods: A total of 40 patients registered for salivary gland tumors from oct 2008 to 0ct 2013 were included in the study. A thorough history, clinical examination, routine haematological and biochemical studies were done in all patients. FNAC was done in all cases. All patients were subjected to surgical intervention on standard rules. Each resected specimen was sent for histopathology. Information about age, gender and tumor location was obtained from clinical record and frequency of different neoplasms was studied from histopathological report. All data was collected on especially designed proforma. Data analysis was done using spss version 17. Results: A total of 40 patients were registered for salivary gland neoplasms. 28 patients (70%) had parotid lesions, 10 patients (25%) had submandibular gland involvement and 2 patients ( 5%) had minor salivary gland tumors. Patients were between 15 - 80 years of age( mean age =34.7 years) 24 patients(60%) were male and 16 (40%) were female,with male to female ratio of 1.5:1.32 . 22 (80%) had benign lesions and 8 patients (20%) had malignant lesions. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common benign tumor affecting the parotid gland. Adenocarcinoma represented as the most prevelant parotid malignancy. Benign neoplasms occurred in third and fourth decades of life and malignant neoplasms were diagnosed in sixth and seventh decades of life. Conclusion:Salivary gland neoplasms are uncommon but they have occasioned much interest and debate because of broad histological spectrum. The data presented in this study is corroborated with most of the studied literature worldwide. (author)

  16. The incorporation of radio-labelled nucleic acid precursors by Theileria parva in bovine blood and salivary glands of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uptake of radio-labelled nucleic acid precursors by blood and tick salivary gland forms of Theileria parva was studied. Piroplasms took up tritiated purines, particularly hypoxanthine, but not pyrimidines. Similar uptake was recorded by T. parva, both in tick saliva and in salivary glands maintained in vitro. Intermediate parasite stages were those most readily labelled in glands; this reflected active nucleic acid synthesis associated with rapid parasite division. Radio-labelling of T. parva in tick salivary glands could be of value in procedures used for concentrating and purifying theilerial sporozoites. (author)

  17. Incorporation of radio-labelled nucleic acid precursors by Theileria parva in bovine blood and salivary glands of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irvin, A.D.; Boarer, C.D.H.; Kurtti, T.J.; Ocama, J.G.R. (International Lab. for Research on Animal Diseases, Nairobi (Kenya))

    1981-12-01

    The uptake of radio-labelled nucleic acid precursors by blood and tick salivary gland forms of Theileria parva was studied. Piroplasms took up tritiated purines, particularly hypoxanthine, but not pyrimidines. Similar uptake was recorded by T. parva, both in tick saliva and in salivary glands maintained in vitro. Intermediate parasite stages were those most readily labelled in glands; this reflected active nucleic acid synthesis associated with rapid parasite division. Radio-labelling of T. parva in tick salivary glands could be of value in procedures used for concentrating and purifying theilerial sporozoites.

  18. Global diversity in the human salivary microbiome

    OpenAIRE

    Nasidze, Ivan; LI, Jing; Quinque, Dominique; Tang, Kun; Stoneking, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The human salivary microbiome may play a role in diseases of the oral cavity and interact with microbiomes from other parts of the human body (in particular, the intestinal tract), but little is known about normal variation in the salivary microbiome. We analyzed 14,115 partial (?500 bp) 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequences from saliva samples from 120 healthy individuals (10 individuals from each of 12 worldwide locations). These sequences could be assigned to 101 known bacterial genera, of wh...

  19. Levels of Cotinine in Dried Blood Specimens from Newborns as a Biomarker of Maternal Smoking Close to the Time of Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    YANG, JUAN; Pearl, Michelle; Jacob, Peyton; DeLorenze, Gerald N.; Neal L. Benowitz; Yu, Lisa; Havel, Christopher; Kharrazi, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The precise quantitation of smoking during pregnancy is difficult in retrospective studies. Routinely collected blood specimens from newborns, stored as dried blood spots, may provide a low-cost method to objectively measure maternal smoking close to the time of delivery. This article compares cotinine levels in dried blood spots to those in umbilical cord blood to assess cotinine in dried blood spots as a biomarker of maternal smoking close to the time of delivery. The California Genetic Dis...

  20. In Vitro Inhibition of Human Sperm Creatine Kinase by Nicotine,Cotinine and Cadmium, as a Mechanism in Smoker Men Infertility

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Ali Ghaffari; Mohammad Abromand; Behrooz Motlagh

    2009-01-01

    Background: Nicotine, cotinine and cadmium are harmful components of cigarettes that have aneffect on human reproductive function. Although the effects of cigarette smoke on male reproductivefunction is characterized in several articles its mechanism of action is still unknown.In the present study, we investigate the effect of nicotine, cotinine and cadmium on human spermcreatine kinase activity in vitro.Materials and Methods: Total creatine kinase activity is measured in sperm homogenates af...

  1. Measuring environmental tobacco smoke exposure in infants and young children through urine cotinine and memory-based parental reports: empirical findings and discussion

    OpenAIRE

    Matt, G; WAHLGREN, D.; Hovell, M.; Zakarian, J.; Bernert, J.; Meltzer, S.; Pirkle, J; Caudill, S.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—This study examined the reliability and potential biases of two urine collection methods from which cotinine measures were obtained and the validity of memory-based parental reports of their children's exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS).?DESIGN—Structured interviews were conducted with mothers of infants and young children to obtain memory-based estimates of recent ETS exposure. Urine samples were collected through standard and cotton roll collection methods for cotinine ...

  2. Saliva versus plasma pharmacokinetics: theory and application of a salivary excretion classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idkaidek, Nasir; Arafat, Tawfiq

    2012-08-01

    The aims of this work were to study pharmacokinetics of randomly selected drugs in plasma and saliva samples in healthy human volunteers, and to introduce a Salivary Excretion Classification System. Saliva and plasma samples were collected for 3-5 half-life values of sitagliptin, cinacalcet, metformin, montelukast, tolterodine, hydrochlorothiazide (HCT), lornoxicam, azithromycin, diacerhein, rosuvastatin, cloxacillin, losartan and tamsulosin after oral dosing. Saliva and plasma pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by noncompartmental analysis using the Kinetica program. Effective intestinal permeability (Peff) values were estimated by the Nelder-Mead algorithm of the Parameter Estimation module using the SimCYP program. Peff values were optimized to predict the actual average plasma profile of each drug. All other physicochemical factors were kept constant during the minimization processes. Sitagliptin, cinacalcet, metformin, tolterodine, HCT, azithromycin, rosuvastatin and cloxacillin had salivary excretion with correlation coefficients of 0.59-0.99 between saliva and plasma concentrations. On the other hand, montelukast, lornoxicam, diacerhein, losartan and tamsulosin showed no salivary excretion. Estimated Peff ranged 0.16-44.16 × 10(-4) cm/s, while reported fraction unbound to plasma proteins (fu) ranged 0.01-0.99 for the drugs under investigation. Saliva/plasma concentrations ratios ranged 0.11-13.4, in agreement with drug protein binding and permeability. A Salivary Excretion Classification System (SECS) was suggested based on drug high (H)/low (L) permeability and high (H)/low (L) fraction unbound to plasma proteins, which classifies drugs into 4 classes. Drugs that fall into class I (H/H), II (L/H) or III (H/L) are subjected to salivary excretion, while those falling into class IV (L/L) are not. Additional data from literature was also analyzed, and all results were in agreement with the suggested SECS. Moreover, a polynomial relationship with correlation coefficient of 0.99 is obtained between S* and C*, where S* and C* are saliva and concentration dimensionless numbers respectively. The proposed Salivary Excretion Classification System (SECS) can be used as a guide for drug salivary excretion. Future work is planned to test these initial findings, and demonstrate SECS robustness across a range of carefully selected (based on physicochemical properties) drugs that fall into classes I, II or III. PMID:22784220

  3. TRPV1 in Salivary Gland Epithelial Cells Is Not Involved in Salivary Secretion via Transcellular Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Seulki; Shin, Yong-Hwan; Namkoong, Eun; Hwang, Sung-Min; Cong, Xin; Yu, Guangyan; Park, Kyungpyo

    2014-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) was originally found in sensory neurons. Recently, it has been reported that TRPV1 is expressed in salivary gland epithelial cells (SGEC). However, the physiological role of TRPV1 in salivary secretion remains to be elucidated. We found that TRPV1 is expressed in mouse and human submandibular glands (SMG) and HSG cells, originated from human submandibular gland ducts at both mRNA and protein levels. However, capsaicin (CAP), TRPV1 agoni...

  4. Computed tomography of the major salivary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study a comparison is made between computed tomography without contrast medium in the salivary ducts (BCT), computed tomography with contrast medium in the salivary ducts (CTS) and conventional sialography (CS). For this purpose 124 patients with clinical signs of salivary gland disease were examined with one or more of these techniques. This study aimed at answering five questions. 1. Which disease can be diagnosed best with which of the three diagnostic methods? 2. To what extent is it possible to differentiate benign from malignant tumors with one of the diagnostic methods? 3. With which method it can best be established whether a tumor lies in within or outside the salivary gland. 4. Is it possible to ascertain with one of the three methods whether a tumor in the parotid gland is located medial or lateral to the facial nerve? 5. Is it possible to make by means of CT a further diffferentiation in the group of benign and malignant lesions? The study was divided into two parts. In the first part to answer the first three questions, a comparison was made between the three techniques. This comparison was based on the results in seventy-four patients in whom all three studies were of adequate quality. To answer the fo0190 question the results from the total group of 124 patients were taken in account. In the second part attention was paid to the computed tomographic image of different diseases. (Auth.)

  5. Salivary testosterone and immunoglobulin A were increased by resistance training in adults with Down syndrome

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    G., Fornieles; M.A., Rosety; S., Elosegui; J.M., Rosety; J.R., Alvero-Cruz; N., Garcia; M., Rosety; T., Rodriguez-Pareja; R., Toro; M., Rosety-Rodriguez; F.J., Ordonez; I., Rosety.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to assess the influence of resistance training on salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels and hormone profile in sedentary adults with Down syndrome (DS). A total of 40 male adults with DS were recruited for the trial through different community support groups for people with [...] intellectual disabilities. All participants had medical approval for participation in physical activity. Twenty-four adults were randomly assigned to perform resistance training in a circuit with six stations, 3 days per week for 12 weeks. Training intensity was based on functioning in the eight-repetition maximum (8RM) test for each exercise. The control group included 16 age-, gender-, and BMI-matched adults with DS. Salivary IgA, testosterone, and cortisol levels were measured by ELISA. Work task performance was assessed using the repetitive weighted-box-stacking test. Resistance training significantly increased salivary IgA concentration (P=0.0120; d=0.94) and testosterone levels (P=0.0088; d=1.57) in the exercising group. Furthermore, it also improved work task performance. No changes were seen in the controls who had not exercised. In conclusion, a short-term resistance training protocol improved mucosal immunity response as well as salivary testosterone levels in sedentary adults with DS.

  6. Salivary testosterone and immunoglobulin A were increased by resistance training in adults with Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Fornieles

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to assess the influence of resistance training on salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA levels and hormone profile in sedentary adults with Down syndrome (DS. A total of 40 male adults with DS were recruited for the trial through different community support groups for people with intellectual disabilities. All participants had medical approval for participation in physical activity. Twenty-four adults were randomly assigned to perform resistance training in a circuit with six stations, 3 days per week for 12 weeks. Training intensity was based on functioning in the eight-repetition maximum (8RM test for each exercise. The control group included 16 age-, gender-, and BMI-matched adults with DS. Salivary IgA, testosterone, and cortisol levels were measured by ELISA. Work task performance was assessed using the repetitive weighted-box-stacking test. Resistance training significantly increased salivary IgA concentration (P=0.0120; d=0.94 and testosterone levels (P=0.0088; d=1.57 in the exercising group. Furthermore, it also improved work task performance. No changes were seen in the controls who had not exercised. In conclusion, a short-term resistance training protocol improved mucosal immunity response as well as salivary testosterone levels in sedentary adults with DS.

  7. Modern management of obstructive salivary diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capaccio, P; Torretta, S; Ottavian, F; Sambataro, G; Pignataro, L

    2007-08-01

    Over the last fifteen years, increasing public demand for minimally-invasive surgery and recent technological advances have led to the development of a number of conservative options for the therapeutic management of obstructive salivary disorders such as calculi and duct stenosis. These include extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy, sialoendoscopy, laser intra-corporeal lithotripsy, interventional radiology, the video-assisted conservative surgical removal of parotid and sub-mandibular calculi and botulinum toxin therapy. Each of these techniques may be used as a single therapeutic modality or in combination with one or more of the above-mentioned options, usually in day case or one-day case under local or general anaesthesia. The multi-modal approach is completely successful in about 80% of patients and reduces the need for gland removal in 3%, thus justifying the combination of, albeit, time-consuming and relatively expensive techniques as part of the modern and functional management of salivary calculi. With regard to the management of salivary duct anomalies, such as strictures and kinkings, interventional radiology with fluoroscopically controlled balloon ductoplasty seems to be the most suitable technique despite the use of radiation. Operative sialoendoscopy alone is the best therapeutic option for all mobile intra-luminal causes of obstruction, such as microliths, mucous plugs or foreign bodies, or for the local treatment of inflammatory conditions such as recurrent chronic parotitis or autoimmune salivary disorders. Finally, in the case of failure of one of the above techniques and regardless of the cause of obstruction, botulinum toxin injection into the parenchyma of the salivary glands using colour Doppler ultrasonographic monitoring should be considered before deciding on surgical gland removal. PMID:17957846

  8. Cord serum cotinine as a biomarker of fetal exposure to cigarette smoke at the end of pregnancy.

    OpenAIRE

    PICHINI, S.; Basagaña, X B; Pacifici, R; Garcia, O.; Puig, C.; VALL, O.; Harris, J.; Zuccaro, P; Segura, J.; Sunyer, J

    2000-01-01

    This study investigated the association between biomarkers of fetal exposure to cigarette smoke at the end of pregnancy, cotinine in cord serum and in maternal and newborn urine samples, and quantitative measurement of smoking intake and exposure evaluated by maternal self-reported questionnaire. Study subjects were 429 mothers and their newborns from a hospital in Barcelona, Spain. A questionnaire including smoking habits was completed in the third trimester of pregnancy and on the day of de...

  9. Combined Analysis of the Tobacco Metabolites Cotinine and 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol in Human Urine

    OpenAIRE

    Kotandeniya, Delshanee; Carmella, Steven G.; Ming, Xun; Murphy, Sharon E; Hecht, Stephen S.

    2015-01-01

    Two of the most widely measured compounds in the urine of people who use tobacco products are cotinine, a major metabolite of the addictive constituent nicotine, and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), a metabolite of the powerful lung carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). Thousands of analyses have been reported in the literature, carried out exclusively – to the best of our knowledge – by separate methods. In the study reported here, we have deve...

  10. THE EFFECT OF SPORT COMPETITION ON SALIVARY STEROIDS IN AMATEUR FEMALE KARATE ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Azarbayjani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of present study was to investigate the impact of repeated competition on salivary cortisol and DHEA-S in amateur women karate athletes. We recruited 20 young elite female karate fighters [height 158 ± 7 cm (mean ± S.D., weight 59.5 ± 10.9 kg, age 21.1 ± 3.0 years], who were placed first till fourth in the Iranian championship tournament. Five ml of unstimulated whole saliva was collected 30-min before and 5 - min after first and last match in competition and analyzed for cortisol and DHEA-S concentrations. The results showed that participation in competition resulted in significantly increased saliva cortisol level (p 0.05. Significant differences insalivary steroids were not different between winners and losers (p > 0.05. The results of present study show that salivary cortisol concentration is a suitable index for showing competing stress.

  11. Reduced salivary flow and colonization by mutans streptococci in children with Down syndrome

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cristina, Areias; Benedita, Sampaio-Maia; Maria de Lurdes, Pereira; Alvaro, Azevedo; Paulo, Melo; Casimiro, Andrade; Crispian, Scully.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Although individuals with Down syndrome have considerable oral disease, the prevalence of dental caries in this group is low. The present study aimed to compare known risk factors for dental caries development in children with Down syndrome and a matched population (siblings). In both po [...] pulations, the number of acidogenic microorganisms, such as mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and Candida species, and the paraffin-stimulated pH, flow rate and IgA concentration in whole saliva were evaluated and compared. METHOD: Saliva was collected, and the caries index was evaluated in 45 sibling pairs aged between 6 and 18 years old. The salivary IgA concentration was determined by immunoturbidimetry. Salivary mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and Candida species were quantified on mitis salivarius agar containing bacitracin and 20% sucrose, rogosa agar supplemented with glacial acetic acid and sabouraud agar supplemented with chloramphenicol, respectively. RESULTS: Down syndrome children had a higher caries-free rate (p

  12. Cotinine halts the advance of Alzheimer’s disease-like pathology and associated depressive-like behavior in Tg6799 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Alex Grizzell

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is associated with cognitive and non-cognitive symptoms for which there are currently no effective therapies. We have previously reported that cotinine, a natural product obtained from tobacco leaves, prevented memory loss and diminished amyloid-? (A? plaque pathology in the transgenic 6799 mice (Tg6799 mice when treated prior to the development of the pathology. We have also shown that cotinine reduces depressive-like behavior in normal and chronically stressed C57BL/6 mice. Here, we extend our previous studies by investigating the effects of cotinine on the progression of AD-like pathology, depressive-like behavior, and the mechanisms underlying its beneficial effects in the Tg6799 mice when left untreated until after a more advanced stage of the disease’s development. The results show that vehicle-treated Tg6799 mice displayed an accentuated loss of working memory and an abundant A? plaque pathology that were accompanied by higher levels of depressive-like behavior as compared to control littermates. By contrast, prolonged daily cotinine treatment, withheld until after a mid-level progression of AD-like pathology, reduced A? levels, A? plaques, and depressive-like behavior as well as dramatically improved working memory in Tg6799 mice to levels no different from control littermates. The beneficial effects of cotinine were accompanied by an increase in the expression of the active form of protein kinase B (Akt and the postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95 in the hippocampi and frontal cortices of Tg6799 mice. This suggests that cotinine halts the progression of AD-like pathology while reducing depressive-like behavior by stimulating signaling pathways supporting synaptic plasticity in Tg6799 mice. The potential use of cotinine to treat cognitive and non-cognitive symptoms of AD is discussed.

  13. Determinación de cotinina y exposición a tabaco / Cotinine detection and tobacco smoke exposure

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marta Noemí, Vacchino; Susana María, Velurtas; Guillermo Pablo, Salinas; Héctor Hugo, Garcialoredo.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available La exposición a tabaco es una de las causas prevenibles de morbilidad y mortalidad prematura más importante. Se describe un método simple y rápido de detección de cotinina (principal metabolito de nicotina) en orina humana. Se utilizó cromatografía gas-líquido (CGL) con un detector de ionización de [...] llama (FID). Se realizó una extracción líquido-líquido con cloroformo en medio alcalino; el extracto fue secado a 37 °C y redisuelto en 100 µL de solución alcohólica con estándar interno piridina. Se analizó la orina de personas que declararon ser fumadoras y no fumadoras. Mediante la construcción de dos curvas de calibración se cubrió un rango de linealidad de 3 a 5.000 ng/mL. Los fumadores presentaron una mediana y cuartiles (Q) de concentración de cotinina: 255,4 ng/mL, 15,9 ng/mL (Q1) - 1.050,2 ng/mL (Q3), respectivamente, y los no fumadores 15,8 ng/mL, 4,1 ng/mL (Q1) - 38,4 ng/mL (Q3). Wilcoxon sumrank: z = 4,865 p Abstract in english Tobacco is one of the major preventable causes of morbidity and premature mortality in the world. A simple, rapid method for determination of cotinine, major metabolite of nicotine in urine, is described. The assay involves a fast liquid-liquid extraction with chloroform as a solvent in alkaline env [...] ironment. The extract was dried at 37 °C and the residue was dissolved in 100 µL of standard internal of pyridine in methanol solution, and an aliquot was analyzed by gas-liquid chromatograph equipped with a flame -ionization detector. This technique was performed to test urine of a sample of smokers and non-smokers who were previously asked about their smoking habit. The limit of detection was 3.1 ng/mL, and using two calibration curves, a linearity range from 3 a 5.000 ng/mL was covered. The median and quartiles (Q) of cotinine in smokers were 255.4 ng/mL, 15.9 ng/mL (Q1) -1050.2 ng/mL (Q3) ng/mL and in non-smokers 15.8 ng/mL, 4.1 ng/mL (Q1) - 38.4 ng/mL (Q3). Wilcoxon sumrank: z = 4.865 p

  14. Factors affecting antimicrobial activity of MUC7 12-mer, a human salivary mucin-derived peptide

    OpenAIRE

    Bobek Libuse A; Campagna Alexander N; Wei Guo-Xian

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background MUC7 12-mer (RKSYKCLHKRCR), a cationic antimicrobial peptide derived from the human low-molecular-weight salivary mucin MUC7, possesses potent antimicrobial activity in vitro. In order to evaluate the potential therapeutic application of the MUC7 12-mer, we examined the effects of mono- and divalent cations, EDTA, pH, and temperature on its antimicrobial activity. Methods Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) were determined using a liquid growth inhibition assay in 96-...

  15. Plasma, Salivary, and Urinary Oxytocin in Anorexia Nervosa: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffman, Elizabeth R; BROWNLEY, KIMBERLY A; Robert M. Hamer; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2012-01-01

    While oxytocin (OT) has the potential to be an informative biomarker of social functioning in patients with eating disorders, the burden of invasive blood draws or lumbar punctures limits OT study. Salivary and urinary OT measurements may be advantageous, as they require less invasive sampling techniques which could be conducted in a wider variety of settings. Yet, the degree to which the concentration of OT in these fluids is correlated with blood levels is uncertain, as is the impact of vom...

  16. The Correlation of Different Cotinine Levels With Questionnaire Results: A Comparative Study for Different Measurement Methods of the Adolescent Smoking Rate in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myung Bae; Nam, Eun Woo; Lee, Seon Kui; Kim, Chun-Bae; Ranabhat, Chhabi

    2015-07-01

    This study compares the results of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (Self-Reported; KNHANEs [SR]) survey with urine-cotinine concentration (UCC) and the official index issued by the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBS). We established standard cutoffs of 20 ng/mL, 30 ng/mL, 50 ng/mL, and 100 ng/mL to compare the results of UCC testing with those of self-reporting methods. The KYRBS demonstrated an overall current smoking rate of 12.25%, while the KNHANEs measured an overall rate of 9.63%. The UCC20 reported the highest current smoking rate at 25.6% overall. Methods that detected a lower prevalence of current smoking, in declining order, were the UCC30, UCC50, UCC100, online survey, and the KNHANEs (SR). The results of this study show that online surveys on smoking administered to adolescents have fewer false responses compared with the KNHANEs (SR). However, compared with UCC testing, online surveys still significantly underreport adolescent smoking rates. PMID:25556217

  17. Estimation and comparison of salivary secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor in human immunodeficiency virus patients and healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Pushpanshu

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The salivary anti-HIV factor, SLPI, is not only preserved in HIV infection but its concentration may even get enhanced in the infection. However, the clinical significance of SLPI levels and disease severity should be investigated further with a larger sample of patients.

  18. Lifestyle, mental health status and salivary secretion rates

    OpenAIRE

    Toda, Masahiro; Morimoto, Kanehisa; Fukuda, Sanae; Hayakawa, Kazuo

    2002-01-01

    The relations between salivary variables, lifestyle and mental health status were investigated for 61 healthy female university students. The salivary secretion rates were significantly higher in the good lifestyle groups compared with the poor lifestyle groups. Among the 8 lifestyle items tested. “eating breakfast” and “mental stress” were significantly related to the salivary secretion rates. The present findings suggest that the acquisition of a good lifestyle is also very important from t...

  19. Scintigraphy of the salivary glands in Sjögen's syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Arrago, J P; Rain, J D; Brocheriou, C; Rocher, F

    1987-01-01

    Scintigraphy of the salivary glands with technetium-sodium pertechnetate (99mTc) was undertaken on 320 patients with oral dryness or connective tissue disease using a computer assisted method that gave quantitative results about the major salivary gland function. Compared with clinical and histological data, scintigraphy provides a sensitive method, even though it is not specific, for detecting minimal injuries to salivary glands in patients suspected of having Sjögen's syndrome. Moreover, it...

  20. Decrease in salivary lactoferrin output in chronically intoxicated alcohol-dependent patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napoleon Waszkiewicz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Salivary lactoferrin is a glycoprotein involved in the elimination of pathogens and the prevention of massive overgrowth of microorganisms that affect oral and general health. A high concentration of lactoferrin in saliva is often considered to be a marker of damage to the salivary glands, gingivitis, or leakage through inflamed or damaged oral mucosa, infiltrated particularly by neutrophils. We conducted a study to determine the effect of chronic alcohol intoxication on salivary lactoferrin concentration and output. The study included 30 volunteers consisting of ten non-smoking male patients after chronic alcohol intoxication (group A, and 20 control nonsmoking male social drinkers (group C with no history of alcohol abuse. Resting whole saliva was collected 24 to 48 hours after a chronic alcohol intoxication period. Lactoferrin was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. For all participants, the DMFT index (decayed, missing, or filled teeth, gingival index (GI and papilla bleeding index (PBI were assessed. The differences between groups were evaluated using the Mann–Whitney U test. We noticed significantly decreased salivary flow (SF in alcohol dependent patients after chronic alcohol intoxication (A, compared to the control group (C. Although there was no significant difference in salivary lactoferrin concentration between the alcohol dependent group A and the control group C, we found significantly decreased lactoferrin output in group A compared to group C. We found a significant correlation between the amount of daily alcohol use and a decrease in lactoferrin output. There was a significant increase in GI and a tendency of PBI to increase in group A compared to group C. We demonstrated that chronic alcohol intoxication decreases SF and lactoferrin output. The decreased lactoferrin output in persons chronically intoxicated by alcohol may be the result of lactoferrin exhaustion during drinking (due to its alcohol-related lower biosynthesis or higher catabolism or to decreased function of neutrophils affected by the ethanol. The poorer periodontal state in alcohol dependent persons compared to controls may be a result of lower salivary flow and decreased protection of the oral cavity by lactoferrin.

  1. Oxidative DNA damage and repair in children exposed to low levels of arsenic in utero and during early childhood: Application of salivary and urinary biomarkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinhumpatch, Pantip; Navasumrit, Panida [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, Chulabhorn Research Institute, Laksi, Bangkok (Thailand); Chulabhorn Graduate Institute, Laksi, Bangkok (Thailand); Center of Excellence on Environmental Health and Toxicology, CHE, Ministry of Education (Thailand); Chaisatra, Krittinee; Promvijit, Jeerawan [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, Chulabhorn Research Institute, Laksi, Bangkok (Thailand); Mahidol, Chulabhorn [Laboratory of Chemical Carcinogenesis, Chulabhorn Research Institute, Laksi, Bangkok (Thailand); Ruchirawat, Mathuros, E-mail: mathuros@cri.or.th [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, Chulabhorn Research Institute, Laksi, Bangkok (Thailand); Chulabhorn Graduate Institute, Laksi, Bangkok (Thailand); Center of Excellence on Environmental Health and Toxicology, CHE, Ministry of Education (Thailand); Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Phayathai, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2013-12-15

    The present study aimed to assess arsenic exposure and its effect on oxidative DNA damage and repair in young children exposed in utero and continued to live in arsenic-contaminated areas. To address the need for biological specimens that can be acquired with minimal discomfort to children, we used non-invasive urinary and salivary-based assays for assessing arsenic exposure and early biological effects that have potentially serious health implications. Levels of arsenic in nails showed the greatest magnitude of difference between exposed and control groups, followed by arsenic concentrations in saliva and urine. Arsenic levels in saliva showed significant positive correlations with other biomarkers of arsenic exposure, including arsenic accumulation in nails (r = 0.56, P < 0.001) and arsenic concentration in urine (r = 0.50, P < 0.05). Exposed children had a significant reduction in arsenic methylation capacity indicated by decreased primary methylation index and secondary methylation index in both urine and saliva samples. Levels of salivary 8-OHdG in exposed children were significantly higher (? 4-fold, P < 0.01), whereas levels of urinary 8-OHdG excretion and salivary hOGG1 expression were significantly lower in exposed children (? 3-fold, P < 0.05), suggesting a defect in hOGG1 that resulted in ineffective cleavage of 8-OHdG. Multiple regression analysis results showed that levels of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in saliva and urine had a significant positive association with salivary 8-OHdG and a significant negative association with salivary hOGG1 expression. - Highlights: • The effects of arsenic exposure in utero and through early childhood were studied. • Arsenic-exposed children had a reduction in arsenic methylation capacity. • Exposed children had more DNA damage, observed as elevated salivary 8-OHdG. • Lower salivary hOGG1 in exposed children indicated impairment of 8-OHdG repair. • Salivary and urinary 8-OHdG levels were discordant.

  2. Oxidative DNA damage and repair in children exposed to low levels of arsenic in utero and during early childhood: Application of salivary and urinary biomarkers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study aimed to assess arsenic exposure and its effect on oxidative DNA damage and repair in young children exposed in utero and continued to live in arsenic-contaminated areas. To address the need for biological specimens that can be acquired with minimal discomfort to children, we used non-invasive urinary and salivary-based assays for assessing arsenic exposure and early biological effects that have potentially serious health implications. Levels of arsenic in nails showed the greatest magnitude of difference between exposed and control groups, followed by arsenic concentrations in saliva and urine. Arsenic levels in saliva showed significant positive correlations with other biomarkers of arsenic exposure, including arsenic accumulation in nails (r = 0.56, P < 0.001) and arsenic concentration in urine (r = 0.50, P < 0.05). Exposed children had a significant reduction in arsenic methylation capacity indicated by decreased primary methylation index and secondary methylation index in both urine and saliva samples. Levels of salivary 8-OHdG in exposed children were significantly higher (? 4-fold, P < 0.01), whereas levels of urinary 8-OHdG excretion and salivary hOGG1 expression were significantly lower in exposed children (? 3-fold, P < 0.05), suggesting a defect in hOGG1 that resulted in ineffective cleavage of 8-OHdG. Multiple regression analysis results showed that levels of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in saliva and urine had a significant positive association with salivary 8-OHdG and a significant negative association with salivary hOGG1 expression. - Highlights: • The effects of arsenic exposure in utero and through early childhood were studied. • Arsenic-exposed children had a reduction in arsenic methylation capacity. • Exposed children had more DNA damage, observed as elevated salivary 8-OHdG. • Lower salivary hOGG1 in exposed children indicated impairment of 8-OHdG repair. • Salivary and urinary 8-OHdG levels were discordant

  3. Translational and clinical applications of salivary diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannobile, W V; McDevitt, J T; Niedbala, R S; Malamud, D

    2011-10-01

    There have been significant advances in techniques for the detection of biomarker signals in the oral cavity (e.g., ELISAs for proteins, PCR for RNA and DNA) as well as the engineering and development of microfluidic approaches to make oral-based point-of-care (POC) methods for the diagnosis for both local and systemic conditions a reality. In this section, we focus on three such approaches, namely, periodontal disease management, early markers for systemic diseases, and salivary markers useful for pharmacogenomic studies. Novel approaches using non-invasive, salivary samples and user-friendly devices offer results that are as sensitive and specific as laboratory-based analyses using blood or urine. PMID:21917748

  4. The emerging landscape of salivary diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Sun, Jie; Lin, Chien-Chung; Abemayor, Elliot; Wang, Marilene B; Wong, David T W

    2016-02-01

    Saliva contains a variety of biomolecules, including DNA, coding and noncoding RNA, proteins, metabolites and microbiota. The changes in the salivary levels of these molecular constituents can be used to develop markers for disease detection and risk assessment. Use of saliva as an early-detection tool is a promising approach because collection of saliva is easy and noninvasive. Here, we review recent developments in salivary diagnostics, accomplished using salivaomics approaches, including genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolomic and microbiomic technologies. Additionally, we illustrate the mechanisms of how diseases distal from the oral cavity can lead to the appearance of discriminatory biomarkers in saliva, and discuss the relevance of these markers for translational and clinical applications. PMID:26662481

  5. Salivary IL-21 and IgA responses to a competitive match in elite basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, A; Bacurau, R F P; Napimoga, M H; Arruda, A F S; Freitas, C G; Drago, G; Aoki, M S

    2013-12-01

    Athletes engaged in strenuous training might experience transient immune suppression that could lead to greater incidence of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI). Since interleukin 21 (IL-21) stimulates immunoglobulin A (IgA) secreting cells and a low level of this immunoglobulin is associated with increased incidence of URTI, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of a basketball match on salivary cortisol (sC), salivary IL-21 (sIL-21) and salivary IgA (sIgA) levels. Twenty male basketball players participated in an official game in two teams (10 players in each team). The saliva samples were collected before the warm-up and approximately 10-15 min after the end of the match and were analysed by ELISA methods. sC concentration increased significantly after the match while sIL-21 level was reduced (p stressful to elevate sC concentration and attenuates the sIL-21 output without compromising the sIgA level. It is reasonable to speculate that the stability of sIgA acute responses to the match, despite the decrement in sIL-21, indicates that other mechanisms rather than IL-21 stimulating B cell proliferation/differentiation might modulate IgA concentration and secretion rate. PMID:24744495

  6. Evaluation of the Relationship between Salivary Albumin Level and Dental Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Abdolsamadi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Recently, it has been suggested that there might be an association between oral diseases such as dental caries, as well as periodontitis and general health . Re-garding the fact that albumin is an indicator of general health, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship of salivary albumin concentration with dental caries. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study 108 patients aged 13-19 years old who had teeth caries were placed in 3 groups with mild, moderate and severe dental caries according to their DMFT value (n=36. Five ml of unstimulated saliva were taken from each participant via Navazesh method and their albumin concentrations were assessed by nephelometery method. Data were analyzed by t-test and ANOVA. Results: The mean concentration of salivary albumin in three experimental groups was 84.442±42.915, 97.964±66.717 and 89.850±33.003, respectively. ANOVA showed that the difference among the mean values was not significant (P=0.09 but the relationship between salivary albumins and sex was significant (P=0.009. Conclusion: According to the results of the present study there was no significant relationship between albumin and dental caries in 13-19 year old individuals. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2013; 20 (2:101-106

  7. Anti-apoptotic gene transcription signature of salivary gland neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of accurate therapeutic approaches to salivary gland neoplasms depends on better understanding of their molecular pathogenesis. Tumour growth is regulated by the balance between proliferation and apoptosis. Few studies have investigated apoptosis in salivary tumours relying almost exclusively on immunohistochemistry or TUNEL assay. Furthermore, there is no information regarding the mRNA expression profile of apoptotic genes in salivary tumors. Our objective was to investigate the quantitative expression of BCL-2 (anti-apoptotic), BAX and Caspase3 (pro-apoptotic genes) mRNAs in salivary gland neoplasms and examine the association of these data with tumour size, proliferative activity and p53 staining (parameters associated with a poor prognosis of salivary tumours patients). We investigated the apoptotic profile of salivary neoplasms in twenty fresh samples of benign and seven samples of malignant salivary neoplasms, using quantitative real time PCR. We further assessed p53 and ki-67 immunopositivity and obtained clinical tumour size data. We demonstrated that BCL-2 mRNA is overexpressed in salivary neoplasms, leading to an overall anti-apoptotic profile. We also found an association between the anti-apoptotic index (BCL-2/BAX) with p53 immunoexpression. A higher proliferative activity was found in the malignant tumours. In addition, tumour size was associated with cell proliferation but not with the transcription of apoptotic genes. In conclusion, we show an anti-apoptotic gene expression profile in salivary neoplasms in association with p53 staining, but independent of cell proliferation and tumour size

  8. PLASMACYTOID MYOEPITHELIOMA OF MINOR SALIVARY GLANDS: A RARE CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jha Rohit Kumar, Sinkar Prachi, Karadi RN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Myoepithelioma of the salivary glands is a rare benign neoplasm with incidence of less than 1% of all salivary gland neoplasms. The most common site is the parotid gland followed by minor salivary glands. These tumors occur at any age with peak incidence in the third & fourth decade. Here we report a case of plasmacytoid myoepithelioma of the minor salivary glands of soft palate which was conclusively diagnosed on FNAC and further confirmed by histopathological studies. The rarity of the tumor and the site has been emphasized.

  9. Aphasia Severity and Salivary Cortisol over Time

    OpenAIRE

    Laures-Gore, Jacqueline S.

    2012-01-01

    The current study explored the complicated interplay between aphasia and the stress biomarker, cortisol, in left hemisphere (LH) and right hemisphere (RH) stroke patients. Nineteen LH patients and 12 RH patients began the study between one to six months post-stroke and were followed for three months. During this time, language skills were assessed monthly while afternoon salivary cortisol samples were collected biweekly. The LH and RH groups showed improvements in language test scores over th...

  10. Salivary Cortisol Lower in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Wahbeh, Helané; Oken, Barry S.

    2013-01-01

    Altered cortisol has been demonstrated to be lower in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in most studies. This cross-sectional study evaluated salivary cortisol at waking, 30 minutes after, and bedtime in 51 combat veterans with PTSD compared to 20 veterans without PTSD. It also examined the relationship of cortisol to PTSD symptoms using two classifications: DSM-IV and the more recent four-factor classification proposed for DSM-V. The PTSD group had lower cortisol values than the control g...

  11. Modern management of obstructive salivary diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Capaccio, P; TORRETTA, S.; OTTAVIANI, F.; Sambataro, G; Pignataro, L

    2007-01-01

    Over the last fifteen years, increasing public demand for minimally-invasive surgery and recent technological advances have led to the development of a number of conservative options for the therapeutic management of obstructive salivary disorders such as calculi and duct stenosis. These include extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy, sialoendoscopy, laser intra-corporeal lithotripsy, interventional radiology, the video-assisted conservative surgical removal of parotid and sub-mandibular calcu...

  12. Translational and Clinical Applications of Salivary Diagnostics

    OpenAIRE

    Giannobile, W.V.; McDevitt, J T; Niedbala, R.S.; Malamud, D

    2011-01-01

    There have been significant advances in techniques for the detection of biomarker signals in the oral cavity (e.g., ELISAs for proteins, PCR for RNA and DNA) as well as the engineering and development of microfluidic approaches to make oral-based point-of-care (POC) methods for the diagnosis for both local and systemic conditions a reality. In this section, we focus on three such approaches, namely, periodontal disease management, early markers for systemic diseases, and salivary markers usef...

  13. The Case for Primary Salivary Rhabdomyosarcoma

    OpenAIRE

    Geltzeiler, Mathew; Li, Guangheng; Abraham, Jinu; Keller, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcomas of the parotid and submandibular glands have the histological appearance of a skeletal muscle tumor yet can be found in tissue with no striated muscular elements. We examine the potential cell-of-origin for rhabdomyosarcoma and whether salivary tumors represent primary malignancy or metastasis. We have previously established genetically engineered mouse models of rhabdomyosarcoma. In these mice, rhabdomyosarcoma is only induced when a Pax3:Foxo1 fusion oncogene is activated ...

  14. Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of Minor Salivary Glands

    OpenAIRE

    Tinoco, Paulo; Pereira, José Carlos Oliveira; Lourenço Filho, Rodolfo Caldas; Brito, Thiego Silveira Cajubá; Pereira, Betina Mameri; Carrara, Vânia Lúcia; Godoy, Sueliana Marta F.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The Mucoepidermoid Carcinomas (MEC) represent about 5% of all tumors in the salivary glands. It is an aggressive lesion and must be considered as a diagnosis hypothesis in the oral mucosa proliferative lesions. The early diagnosis and the correct management of this neoplasm are key factors for the prognosis. Wide local resection and eventually postoperative radiotherapy is the choice treatment. Objective: To report the case of a patient with mucoepidermoid carcinoma of oral cavi...

  15. Beneficial effects of nicotine, cotinine and its metabolites as potential agents for Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E. Barreto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, which is characterized by neuroinflammation, dopaminergic neuronal cell death and motor dysfunction, and for which there are no proven effective treatments. The negative correlation between tobacco consumption and PD suggests that tobacco-derived compounds can be beneficial against PD. Nicotine, the more studied alkaloid derived from tobacco, is considered to be responsible for the beneficial behavioral and neurological effects of tobacco use in PD. However, several metabolites of nicotine such as cotinine also increase in the brain after nicotine administration. The effect of nicotine and some of its derivatives on dopaminergic neurons viability, neuroinflammation, and motor and memory functions, have been investigated using cellular and rodent models of PD. Current evidence shows that nicotine, and some of its derivatives diminish oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in the brain and improve synaptic plasticity and neuronal survival of dopaminergic neurons. In vivo these effects resulted in improvements in mood, motor skills and memory in subjects suffering from PD pathology. In this review, we discuss the potential benefits of nicotine and its derivatives for treating PD.

  16. Salivary Gland Cancers: Biology and Systemic Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Gaurav; Mehdi, Syed A; Ganti, Apar Kishor

    2015-10-15

    Salivary gland tumors are a relatively rare and heterogeneous group of tumors with variable pathologic and phenotypic characteristics. The lack of clinical outcomes data and randomized controlled trials pertaining to them makes it difficult to formulate definitive treatment protocols that could help with making decisions regarding choice of therapy. Most studies involving systemic chemotherapy have not shown promising patient outcome results. With recent advances in molecular technology, however, it is now possible to identify specific genetic alterations and biomarkers as possible targets for therapeutic purposes. For example, in mucoepidermoid carcinomas, one of the most common types of malignant salivary gland tumors, a commonly seen genetic translocation [t(11;19)(q21;p13), which involves the CRTC1 and MAML2 genes] has been found to be associated with improved survival, making it a possible prognostic marker. Also, this translocation gives rise to a fusion protein that appears to render tumors highly sensitive to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibition. However, the results of phase II trials of EGFR inhibitors-as well as other targeted agents-in salivary gland tumors have been disappointing: there has been some disease stabilization but no objective responses. There remains a need for well-designed prospective clinical studies to improve management of these tumors. PMID:26470903

  17. Salivary Microbiota Associated with Immunoglobulin A Nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccolo, Maria; De Angelis, Maria; Lauriero, Gabriella; Montemurno, Eustacchio; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Gesualdo, Loreto; Gobbetti, Marco

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed at investigating the salivary microbiota of 28 patients affected by immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN). Fourteen healthy volunteers (HC) were used as control. Compared to HC, the number of some cultivable bacteria groups (e.g., total anaerobes) significantly (P??0.05) differences of alpha-diversity parameters (OTU, ACE, Chao1, and Shannon index) between the salivary samples of HC and IgAN patients. The difference for the community structure was further analyzed using three phylogeny-based beta-diversity measures. Compared to HC, the ratio between Firmicutes/Proteobacteria markedly decreased in IgAN patients. Gemella haemolysins, Granulicatella adiacens, and Veillonella parvula were positively associated (P?salivary samples of HC and IgAN patients. PMID:25763757

  18. Cancer of the thyroid and salivary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1960, A-bomb radiation related thyroid cancer has been studied with the Adult Health Study (AHS) sample at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commision-Radiation Effects Research Foundation (ABCC-RERF). The number of A-bomb survivors developing thyroid cancer has increased with time. The observations have led to the conclusion that the incidence of thyroid cancer is high among A-bomb survivors, especially those exposed within 1,500 m from ground zero. Similar findings were observed among patients from the Hiroshima University School of Medicine and from the national health insurance program. Ezaki has studied the incidence of clinical and occult thyroid cancer in Hiroshima during 1958 - 79 using the ABCC-RERF Life Span Study sample consisting of 75,493 subjects. The incidence of clinical cancer was higher with increasing radiation doses, especially in females under the age of 20 when exposed. The incidence of occult cancer was significantly higher in survivors with 50+ rad than in the control group. Studies for cancer of the salivary glands have been commenced in the 1970s. Takeichi et al. and Belsky et al. have reported a high incidence of salivary gland cancer among A-bomb survivors. The subsequent study with the AHS sample has revealed that the overall incidence of benign and malignant salivary gland tumors and the incidence of malignant tumors were 9.3 times and 21.8 times higher, respectively, in the group with 300+ rad than in the control group. (Namekawa, K.)

  19. The Role of Salivary Gland Scintigraphy in the Evaluation of Salivary Gland Dysfunction in Uncontrolled Type II Diabetic Patients

    OpenAIRE

    B. Senthilkumar; Sathasivasubramanian, S.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the salivary gland dysfunction in patients with uncontrolled type II diabetes using salivary gland scintigraphy and then to compare these ratios with quantitative whole salivary secretion rates. Using a gamma camera (siemens-diacam) equipped with a low energy all-purpose collimator, 32 uncontrolled type II diabetic patients and 30 normal healthy patients were studied by injecting a radio isotope (technetium 99m pertechnetate) about 5 mCi was inject...

  20. Stellate Ganglion Block Reduces the Radicular Pain and Salivary Alpha-Amylase Activity in Patients with Cervical Spondylosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Egashira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The effects of stellate ganglion block (SGB on radicular pain associated with cervical spondylosis remain to be clarified. So we measured salivary alpha-amylase which reflects sympathetic nerve activity under psychological stress after SGB block or trigger points injection (TPI. Study Design A randomized, prospective, controlled trial Setting After institutional approval and informed consent, 40 patients who was suffered from neck-shoulder pain associated with cervical radiculopathy were randomly divided into two groups according to nerve block treatment. Group A (n=20, male 10 patients, female 10 patients, 50±8yr, mean±SD received SGB and group B (n=20, male 10 patients, female 10 patients, 52±6yr received TPI. SGB or TPI was produced by 6 ml of 1% mepivacaine a total of 5 times (twice per week. Visual analogue scale (VAS and the concentration of salivary alpha-amylase were measured before (T0 each nerve block and 3 days (T1, 6 days (T2, 9 days (T3, 12 days (T4 and 15days (T5 after each nerve block. The consumption of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID was measured at T0 and T5 in each group. Results In group A, VAS was median 74 (range 60, 78 at T0 and showed a significant decrease at T3 [53 (48, 65, p<0.05], T4 [50 (42, 66, p<0.05] and T5 [48 (26,57, p<0.05]. The concentration of salivary alpha-amylase was median 116 (range 96, 144 KU/ml at T0 and showed a significant decrease at T3 [86 (79, 105, p<0.05], T4 [79 (68, 88] and T5 [70 (55, 84, p<0.05]. In group B, VAS and the concentration of salivary alpha-amylase showed no change throughout the time course. VAS in group A was significant lower than that in group B at T3, T4 and T5. The concentration of salivary alpha-amylase was significant lower than that in group B at T4 and T5. The consumption of NSAID in group A was significantly lower than that in group B at T5. Limitations Subjects are out patients. Patients include radicular pain due to different pathogenesis, e.g., cervical herniated intervertebral disc, disc bulging, and neuro-foramen narrowing. Conclusion The results indicate that SGB shows the reduction of VAS scale and the concentration of salivary alpha-amylase in patients with cervical spondylosis. These results show that salivary alpha-amylase activity could reflect the physical stress with radicular pain.

  1. Determinación de los niveles de cortisol salival en una muestra de sujetos de Santiago de Chile Salivary cortisol among subjects with and without Cushing syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MACARENA LÉPEZ

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Salivary cortisol measurement is recommended as a screening mea-sure when a Cushing Syndrome is suspected. Theproposed cut-offpointfor aprobable diagnosis is 0.16 ug/dL. Aim: To determine salivary cortisol concentrations during the day inpatients with and without Cushing syndrome and with depression. Material and Methods: Salivary cortisol was measured by competitive enzyme immuno assay (EIA, in samples obtained at 8:00,15:00 and 23:00 h in 78 patients without Cushing syndrome, aged 40 ± 15years (28 males, 30 patients with depression aged 40 ± 12years (nine males and four jemales with Cushing syndrome aged 42 ± 17 years. Results: Salivary cortisol was higher among patients with Cushing syndrome than the rest of patients. A salivary cortisol over the cut-off value of O.16 ug/dL was found in 42% of subjects without Cushing syndrome and in 33% of patients with depression. Median values among patients without Cushing syndrome, depression and with Cushing syndrome were 0.21 (range < 0.1-1.42, 0.2 (range 0,12-0.9 and 0.58 (range 0.37-1.1 ug/dL, respectively Conclusions: Salivary cortisol measured by EIA method was higher among patients with Cushing syndrome but there was a great overlap with values obtained in subjects without the syndrome.

  2. Simple and Rapid Assay Method for Simultaneous Quantification of Urinary Nicotine and Cotinine using Micro-Extraction by Packed Sorbent and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HIROSHI SENO

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A simple and rapid method for determination of nicotine and cotinine levels in urine was developed using samples prepared by micro-extraction by packed sorbent (MEPS and subjected to gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis. This method provided good reproducibility, as well as good linearity of calibration curves in the range of 1–100 and 50–1000 ng/mL for quality control samples spiked with nicotine and cotinine, respectively. The detection limit of nicotine and cotinine was as low as 0.25 and 20 ng/mL, respectively. An evaporation procedure is not suitable for nicotine determination, thus an advantage of the present MEPS assay method is direct testing with GC-MS without the need for evaporation to a dry solvent. Our findings show that it may be useful for determining nicotine levels in various types of research studies.

  3. Direct salivary cortisol radio-immunoassay determination. Clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salivary cortisol levels reflect the biologically active free fraction of blood cortisol. The authors describe the results obtained with the aim of a radio-immunoassay commercial serum cortisol kit, without prealable extraction in different physiological and pathological situations. Salivary cortisol determination appears performant both in nycthemeral studies and in stimulation or freination tests

  4. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the soft palate salivary gland.

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Zaifullah SYED HAMZAH; Mohd Razif MOHAMAD YUNUS

    2012-01-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma is a malignant epithelial tumour of glandular tissue, usually of the major salivary glands. However it can present in the minor salivary glands, especially in the soft palate. We report the case of a 72-year-old Malay female after presentation with sore throat, fever and odynophagia, was diagnosed with mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the soft palate.

  5. Intimate Partner Violence Exposure, Salivary Cortisol, and Childhood Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair-Merritt, Megan H.; Johnson, Sara B.; Okelo, Sande; Page, Gayle

    2012-01-01

    Parents were given supplies to collect 3 child salivary cortisol samples (awakening, 30-min after awakening, bedtime) at home on a typical day, and return them via mail. Medical records also were abstracted. Results: Fifty-three percent (n = 29) returned child salivary samples. Families who returned samples typically returned them within 2 weeks,…

  6. The prevalence of self-reported smoking and validation with urinary cotinine among commercial drivers in major parks in Lagos, Nigeria

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    Obianuju B. Ozoh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The validity of self-reported smoking is questionable because smokers are inclined to deny smoking. We aimed to determine the prevalence of self-reported smoking among intra-city commercial drivers in Lagos, and assess its validity based on urinary cotinine assessment. This study was conducted at three major motor parks in Lagos, Nigeria. Information on smoking status and habits was obtained from 500 consecutive male drivers using a structured questionnaire during a face-to-face interview. Eighty-one self-reported smokers and non-smokers were selected by systematic random sampling for urinary cotinine assessment using cotinine strips. The prevalence of self-reported smoking was compared to the prevalence of smoking based on urinary cotinine and the specificity and positive predictive values of self-reported smoking was determined. Prevalence of self-reported current smoking was 32% and 17.9% of nonsmokers were passive smokers. Among 81 drivers in whom urinary cotinine assessment was performed, the prevalence of smoking based on self-report was 34 (42% compared to 41 (50.6% when based on urinary cotinine, (X2=38.56, P<0.001. The rate of misclassification among self-reported non-smokers as smokers was 21.3% and misclassification rate for self-reported smokers as non-smokers was 8.8%. The sensitivity of self-reported smoking in accurately classifying smoking status was 91.2% and the specificity was 78.7%. The prevalence of self-reported cigarette smoking among commercial drivers in Lagos is high and a significant proportion of self-reported non-smokers are passive smokers. Self-reported smoking status obtained during face-to-face interview appears unreliable in obtaining accurate smoking data in our locality.

  7. Molecular structure of cotinine studied by gas electron diffraction combined with theoretical calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshima, Tsuguhide; Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Egawa, Toru; Konaka, Shigehiro

    2007-09-01

    The molecular structure of cotinine (( S)-1-methyl-5-(3-pyridinyl)-2-pyrrolidinone), the major metabolite of nicotine, has been determined at about 182 °C by gas electron diffraction combined with MP2 and DFT calculations. The diffraction data are consistent with the existence of the (ax, sc), (ax, ap), (eq, sp) and (eq, ap) conformers, where ax and eq indicate the configuration of the pyrrolidinone ring by means of the position (axial and equatorial) of the pyridine ring, and sc, sp and ap distinguish the isomers arising from the internal rotation around the bond connecting the two rings. The (CH 3)NCCC(N) dihedral angles, ?, of the (ax, sc) and (eq, sp) conformers were determined independently to be 158(12)° and 129(13)°, respectively, where the numbers in parentheses are three times the standard errors, 3 ?. According to the MP2 calculations, the corresponding dihedral angles for the (ax, ap) and (eq, ap) conformers were assumed to differ by 180° from their syn counterparts. The ratios x(ax, sc)/ x(ax, ap) and x(eq, sp)/ x(eq, ap) were taken from the theoretically estimated free energy differences, ? G, where x is the abundance of the conformer. The resultant abundances of (ax, sc), (ax, ap), (eq, sp) and (eq, ap) conformers are 34(6)%, 21% (d.p.), 28% (d.p.), and 17% (d.p.), respectively, where d.p. represents dependent parameters. The determined structural parameters ( rg (Å) and ? ? (°)) of the most abundant conformer, (ax, sc), are as follows: r(N sbnd C) pyrrol = 1.463(5); r(N sbnd C methyl) = 1.457(?); r(N sbnd C( dbnd O)) = 1.384(12); r(C dbnd O) = 1.219(5); = 1.541(3); r(C pyrrolsbnd C pyrid) = 1.521(?); = 1.396(2); = 1.343(?); ?(CNC) pyrrol = 113.9(11); ?CCC pyrrol(-C pyrid) = 103.6(?); ?NCO = 124.1(13); ?NC pyrrolC pyrid = 113.1(12); ?C pyrrolC pyrrolC pyrid = 113.3(?); ?(CNC) pyrid = 117.1(2); = 124.4(?); ?C methylNC( dbnd O) = ?C methylNC(-C pyrid) = 122.8(d.p.); ?NC( dbnd O)C = 107.1(d.p.); ?NC pyrrol(-C pyrid)C pyrrol = 103.0(d.p.) and ?CCC( dbnd O) = 105.2(d.p.), where ? in the parentheses means that the parameter is bound to the preceding one and denote average values. The puckering angle, ?, of the pyrrolidinone ring is 26(3)°. The N⋯N distances of the (ax, sc) and (eq, sp) conformers, which are 4.844(5) and 4.740(5) Å, respectively, are close to that of the most stable conformer of nicotine, 4.885(6) Å and the corresponding one of arecoline, 4.832(13) Å. It is concluded that the weak nicotinic activity of cotinine cannot be ascribed to such a small difference in the N⋯N distances.

  8. Salivary gland accumulation of meta-[131I]iodobenzylguanidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intense uptake of m-[131I]iodobenzylguanidine (I-131 MIBG) has been observed in the salivary glands of patients undergoing scintigraphy for the location of suspected pheochromocytomas. This uptake of radioativity was not due to free I-131 derived from the I-131 MIBG but rather to uptake of I-131 MIBG by sympathetic neuronal elements in the salivary glands. In keeping with this, administration of tricycle antidepressants reversibly blocked salivary uptake of I-131 MIBG. Furthermore, I-131 MIBG uptake was markedly diminished by the ipsilateral salivary glands in a patient with Horner's syndrome, and was bilaterally diminished in a patient with severe idiopathic sympathetic autonomic neuropathy. The salivary gland uptake of I-131 MIBG may provide a means for the study of sympathetic innervation of these organs, and thus for the study of generalized disorders of autonomic innervation

  9. Cotinine versus questionnaire: early-life environmental tobacco smoke exposure and incident asthma

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    Carlsten Chris

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of biomarkers has expanded considerably, as an alternative to questionnaire-based metrics of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS; few studies have assessed the affect of such alternative metrics on diverse respiratory outcomes in children, and we aimed to do so. Methods We evaluated various measures of birth-year ETS, in association with multiple respiratory endpoints early years of life, in the novel context of a birth cohort at high risk for asthma. We administered questionnaires to parents, both at the end of pregnancy and at one year of life, and measured cotinine in cord blood (CCot; in 275 children and in urine (UCot; obtained at 12 months in 365 children, each by radioimmunoassay. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess the association of the various metrics with recurrent wheeze at age 2 and with bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR and asthma at age 7. Results Self-reported 3rd trimester maternal smoking was associated with significantly increased risk for recurrent wheeze at age 2 (odds ratio 3.5 [95% confidence interval = 1.2,10.7]; the risks associated with CCot and 3rd trimester smoking in any family member were similar (OR 2.9 [1.2,7.0] and 2.6 [1.0,6.5], respectively. No metric of maternal smoking at 12 months appeared to significantly influence the risk of recurrent wheeze at age 2, and no metric of ETS at any time appeared to significantly influence risk of asthma or BHR at age 7. Conclusions Biomarker- and questionnaire-based assessment of ETS in early life lead to similar estimates of ETS-associated risk of recurrent wheeze and asthma.

  10. Development of simple HPLC/UV with a column-switching method for the determination of nicotine and cotinine in hair samples

    OpenAIRE

    Masayoshi Tsuji; Yayoi Mori; Hideyuki Kanda; Teruna Ito; Tomoo Hidaka; Takeyasu Kakamu; Tomohiro Kumagai; Takehito Hayakawa; Yoneatsu Osaki; Tetsuhito Fukushima

    2013-01-01

    Nicotine and cotinine in hair are good biomarkers for assessing long-term exposure to smoking. However, analytical devices such as GC/MS are associated with high cost and are not widely used. HPLC/UV is used widely in laboratories, but is unsuitable for measurement of minor constituents, except when using the column-switching method. Thus, we aimed to establish a simple, inexpensive and sensitive method based on HPLC/UV with column switching for measuring nicotine and cotinine in hair. First...

  11. Association of serum cotinine level with a cluster of three nicotinic acetylcholine receptor genes (CHRNA3/CHRNA5/CHRNB4) on chromosome 15

    OpenAIRE

    Keskitalo, Kaisu; Broms, Ulla; Heliövaara, Markku; Ripatti, Samuli; Surakka, Ida; Perola, Markus; Pitkäniemi, Janne; Peltonen, Leena; Aromaa, Arpo; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2009-01-01

    A cluster of three nicotinic acetylcholine receptor genes on chromosome 15 (CHRNA5/CHRNA3/CHRNB4) has been shown to be associated with nicotine dependence and smoking quantity. The aim of this study was to clarify whether the variation at this locus regulates nicotine intake among smokers by using the level of a metabolite of nicotine, cotinine, as an outcome. The number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) and immune-reactive serum cotinine level were determined in 516 daily smokers (age 30–75...

  12. The Ratio of a Urinary Tobacco-Specific Lung Carcinogen Metabolite to Cotinine is Significantly Higher in Passive than in Active Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Vogel, Rachel Isaksson; Carmella, Steven G.; Stepanov, Irina; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Hecht, Stephen S.

    2011-01-01

    4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol plus its glucuronides (total NNAL), metabolites of the lung carcinogen NNK, and total cotinine, metabolites of nicotine, are biomarkers of active and passive cigarette smoking. We calculated the total NNAL: total cotinine (× 103) ratio in 408 passive (infants, children, adults) and 1088 active smokers. The weighted averages were 0.73 (95% CI 0.71, 0.76) for passive smokers and 0.07 (0.06, 0.08) for active smokers (p

  13. Salivary Secretory Immunoglobulin a secretion increases after 4-weeks ingestion of chlorella-derived multicomponent supplement in humans: a randomized cross over study

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    Iemitsu Motoyuki

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlorella, a unicellular green alga that grows in fresh water, contains high levels of proteins, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fibers. Some studies have reported favorable immune function-related effects on biological secretions such as blood and breast milk in humans who have ingested a chlorella-derived multicomponent supplement. However, the effects of chlorella-derived supplement on mucosal immune functions remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether chlorella ingestion increases the salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA secretion in humans using a blind, randomized, crossover study design. Methods Fifteen men took 30 placebo and 30 chlorella tablets per day for 4 weeks separated by a 12-week washout period. Before and after each trial, saliva samples were collected from a sterile cotton ball that was chewed after overnight fasting. Salivary SIgA concentrations were measured using ELISA. Results Compliance rates for placebo and chlorella ingestions were 97.0 ± 1.0% and 95.3 ± 1.6%, respectively. No difference was observed in salivary SIgA concentrations before and after placebo ingestion (P = 0.38. However, salivary SIgA concentrations were significantly elevated after chlorella ingestion compared to baseline (P P = 0.36, it significantly increased after 4-week chlorella ingestion than before intake (P Conclusions These results suggest 4-week ingestion of a chlorella-derived multicomponent supplement increases salivary SIgA secretion and possibly improves mucosal immune function in humans.

  14. The role of salivary gland scintigraphy in detection of salivary gland dysfunction in type 2 diabetic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the salivary gland dysfunction in a patient with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes using salivary gland scintigraphy. patients included in the study were 32 uncontrolled type 2 diabetic and 30 normal healthy individuals. Patients having any other systemic(or) nervous illness(or) taking medications that could affect the normal functioning of the salivary gland were excluded from the study. The salivary gland scintigraphy was performed, with radioactivity measured at 1st, 20th, and 40th minutes. Twenty minutes after the injection, vitamin C chewable tablet was given to stimulate the secretion and continued until the end of the study period (40min). The data were replayed and regions of interest were chosen over four salivary glands to obtain the uptake ratio (UR) and excretory ratio(ER) of the salivary glands. Result: The scintigraphic total URand ER in diabetic and control groups was compared. The values in these two categories showed decrease in both UR and ER in diabetic patients, when compared to control patients. The result of this study suggests that salivary gland scintigraphy plays a significant role in the evaluation of salivary gland dysfunction in type 2 diabetic patients

  15. Genomic landscape of salivary gland tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Shumei; Elkin, Sheryl K; Schwaederle, Maria; Tomson, Brett N; Helsten, Teresa; Carter, Jennifer L; Kurzrock, Razelle

    2015-09-22

    Effective treatment options for advanced salivary gland tumors are lacking. To better understand these tumors, we report their genomic landscape. We studied the molecular aberrations in 117 patients with salivary gland tumors that were, on physician request, tested in a Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) laboratory (Foundation Medicine, Cambridge, MA) using next-generation sequencing (182 or 236 genes), and analyzed by N-of-One, Inc. (Lexington, MA). There were 354 total aberrations, with 240 distinct aberrations identified in this patient population. Only 10 individuals (8.5%) had a molecular portfolio that was identical to any other patient (with four different portfolios amongst the ten patients). The most common abnormalities involved the TP53 gene (36/117 [30.8% of patients]), cyclin pathway (CCND1, CDK4/6 or CDKN2A/B) (31/117 [26.5%]) and PI3K pathway (PIK3CA, PIK3R1, PTEN or AKT1/3) (28/117 [23.9%]). In multivariate analysis, statistically significant co-existing aberrations were observed as follows: TP53 and ERBB2 (p = 0.01), cyclin pathway and MDM2 (p = 0.03), and PI3K pathway and HRAS (p = 0.0001). We were able to identify possible cognate targeted therapies in most of the patients (107/117 [91.5%]), including FDA-approved drugs in 80/117 [68.4%]. In conclusion, salivary gland tumors were characterized by multiple distinct aberrations that mostly differed from patient to patient. Significant associations between aberrations in TP53 and ERBB2, the cyclin pathway and MDM2, and HRAS and the PI3K pathway were identified. Most patients had actionable alterations. These results provide a framework for tailored combinations of matched therapies. PMID:26247885

  16. The Comparison of Salivary IgA and IgE Levels in Children with Breast- and Formula- Feeding During Infancy Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jafarzadeh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral local immune factors may play a protective role against oral diseases and defend against microbial agents. Salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA is a major factor for the local host defence against caries and periodontal disease. The aims of this study were to determine the concentrations of salivary IgA and IgE levels in breast-fed and formula-fed children in infancy period.Methods and Materials: Totally, 80 healthy 5 years old children were included in the study. According to type of feeding in infancy period, the children divided into two groups: 50 breast-fed and 30 formula-fed. One milliliter of saliva was collected from each participant, centrifuged, and stored at -70 C. The salivary IgA and IgE concentrations were measured, using ELISA technique.Results: In breast-fed children, the salivary IgA level (39.6 mg/l ± 17.3 was significantly higher than that in formula-fed children (26.9 mg/l ± 14 (P=0.0001. However, the salivary IgE level was significantly lower in breast-fed children, comparing with formula fed ones (5.01 IU/ml ± 19.70 vs. 11.74 IU/ml ± 39.40 (P=0.047.Discussion: These results suggest that breast feeding enhances salivary IgA level in the early period of life which may contribute in oral cavity immunity. Higher salivary IgE level observed in formula-fed subjects may have a potential role in development of allergic or inflammatory reactions.

  17. Cognitive Function and Salivary DHEA Levels in Physically Active Elderly African American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Greggory R; Gallien, Gabrielle J; Moody, Kaitlyn M; LeBlanc, Nina R; Smoak, Peter R; Bellar, David

    2015-01-01

    Serum and plasma dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) concentration has been associated with several health parameters associated with aging including cognitive function, bone mineral density, and muscular strength. However, the effectiveness of salivary DHEA for the prediction of cognitive function, bone mineral density, and muscular strength in older adults is currently unknown. Thirty elderly African American females provided early morning salivary samples and DHEA levels were determined using a commercially available immunoassay. Participants completed testing for psychomotor and executive function via Trail Making Tests (TMT) A and B, respectively. Bone ultrasound attenuation (BUA) was used to bone density and an isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP) was used to determine isometric strength. Age significantly correlated with time on TMT A (r=0.328) and B (r=0.615) but was not related to DHEA, BUA, or IMTP outcomes. Elevated DHEA was associated with longer time to completion for TMT A (? (2) = 5.14) but not to TMT B. DHEA levels were not associated with BUA or IMTP outcomes. While elevated levels of DHEA were correlated with impaired psychomotor function, salivary DHEA is not associated with executive function, bone mineral density, or isometric strength in elderly African American women. PMID:26064106

  18. Immunohistochemical evaluation of transforming growth factor (TGF-b1 in malignant salivary gland tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionisios Fotopoulos, Nikolaos Papadogeorgakis, Ioannis Iatrou, Sofia Tseleni, Alexandra Sklavounou, Constantinos Alexandridis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of malignant tumours is defined by interactions between tumour cells and the stroma through cell membrane proteins and the release of cytokines. ?t has been indicated that high concentrations of transforming growth factor (TGF-b1 inaggressive tumours of the breast, prostate etc. can promotecarcinogenesis. Aim: The aim of this study is to examine TGF-b1expression in malignant salivary gland tumours and correlateit with clinical parameters. Material and methods: 54 specimens of malignant salivary gland tumours obtained between 1996 and 2008(12 years were the material of the study. 54 cases were evaluated 29 male and 25 female, 16-75 years of age. Results: TGF-b1 expression was weak and focal, locatedin neoplastic cells, as well as in the stroma. A positive correlation to tumour staging was also detected. Conclusions: TGF-b1 expression in malignant salivary gland tumours and its positive correlation with tumour staging provide a useful basis for the further investigation of its potential role as a prognostic index.

  19. Damage to salivary glands by radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Functional scintiscans of 113 thyroidectomized patients have been investigated. 37 patients had not received radioiodine, 76 patients at least 170 mCi I-131. Criteria of damage employed in the study were, on the one hand, a lack of Tc-99m-pertechnetate secretion in the glands and, on the other hand, non-measurable activity excretion after stimulation with lemon juice. Damage of at least one salivary gland increased from 5% of all cases before radioiodine administration to 28% after radioiodine administration. The parotid glands were more frequently affected than the submandibular glands, mainly with regard to impaired secretion. For a longitudinal study of dose dependence, course control by functional scintiscanning was carried out in 20 thyroidectomized patients. The patients were examined before and after 170 mCi I-131; 12 patients were re-examined after 270 mCi I-131. A continuous deterioration of the secretion and excretion characteristics of the salivary glands was found which was easy to quantify. (orig./MG)

  20. 0268?Is perceived stress related to an increase in salivary cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, Samuel; Peter Bonde, Jens

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Perceived Stress is a suspected cause of many psychological and physical illnesses. However it remains to be discovered what physiological measures are involved. While it is widely known that acute stress leads to an increase in cortisol levels, the findings in prolonged stress research have not been consistent. This study explores the association between Perceived Stress and salivary cortisol levels using the largest population ever used in this field. METHOD: 4467 public employees in the PRISME cohort in 2007. 3217 of those did a similar follow up study in 2009. A 4-item Danish version of the PSS-scale was used to measure perceived stress and operationalized as the average score. Salivary cortisol samples were taken at 30 min post awakening and at 8 pm. A mean value of cortisol was calculated. In our analysis we applied logarithmic transformation to the concentrations. RESULTS: Linear regression analysis done for the association between PSS-score and salivary cortisol levels showed no significant association between the two. For cortisol mean the regression resulted in ?=-0.005(Cl: -0.036-0.026) in 2007 and -0.010(Cl: -0.047-0.028) in 2009. Cortisol morning analysis resulted in ?= -0.013(Cl: -0.050-0.023) in 2007 and ?= -0.003(Cl: -0.048-0.042) in 2009. Cortisol evening analysis resulted in in ?= -0.000(Cl: -0.042-0.042) in 2007 and ?= -0.007(Cl: -0.047-0.061) in 2009. CONCLUSIONS: Overall this study does not provide any evidence that perceived stress is associated with salivary cortisol.

  1. Studies on the Ig response from human peripheral mononuclear cells in the presence of environmental agents - Effect of nicotine and cotinine and respiratory syncytial virus on non specific and specific immune response; Die Modulation der primaeren und sekundaeren in vitro Immunantwort humaner Lymphozyten durch Umweltschadstoffe - Einfluss von Nikotin und Cotinin sowie RSV auf Parameter der unspezifischen und spezifischen Immunantwort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, W. [Ruhr-Universitaet, Bochum (Germany). Med. Mikrobiologie und Immunologie, Arbeitsgruppe fuer Infektabwehrmechanismen; Arnold, R. [Ruhr-Universitaet, Bochum (Germany). Med. Mikrobiologie und Immunologie, Arbeitsgruppe fuer Infektabwehrmechanismen; Fischer, A. [Ruhr-Universitaet, Bochum (Germany). Med. Mikrobiologie und Immunologie, Arbeitsgruppe fuer Infektabwehrmechanismen; Kasimir-Bauer, S. [Ruhr-Universitaet, Bochum (Germany). Med. Mikrobiologie und Immunologie, Arbeitsgruppe fuer Infektabwehrmechanismen

    1994-04-01

    The cell- and molecularbiological mechanisms of the Ig-response (G,A,E) was studied with human peripheral mononuclear cells and the effect of RSV (respiratory syncytial virus), nicotine and cotinine alone as well as combined were analysed. In addition to the mononuclear cells bronchial epithelial cells (cell lines) were used and the effect of RSV, nicotine and cotinine were studied. Using this two compartment system (bronchial epithelial cells, cell lines) and human immunoeffector cells (coculture and transwell) the in vivo situation can be experimentally mimicked in vitro. Our results show that RSV modulates the Ig-response and the conditions of (polyclonal) IgE-induction with RSV are established. Nicotine and cotinine (10{sup -5} M - 10{sup -10} M) induce mRNA expression for various cytokines in PBMC and also modulate the cytokine induced Ig-response. Nicotine and cotinine prime bronchial epithelial cells so that a subsequent microbial interaction (RSV, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) leads to an exaggerated inflammatory (cytokines, leukotrienes) response. It is suggested that proinflammatory mediators from epithelial cells modulate the Ig-response of cytokine primed B-cells thus affecting secondarily the mucosa barrier. This system will be used to study the effects of environmental agents on the non specific and specific immune response and will be challenged with additional agents. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es wurden die zell- und molekularbiologischen Mechanismen der primaeren und sekundaeren Ig-(G,A,E,M) Antwort unter dem Einfluss von RSV (repiratory syncytial virus) sowie Nikotin und Cotinin bearbeitet. Neben peripheren mononukleaeren Zellen wurden Bronchialepithelzellen (Zellinien) analysiert und die Einwirkung von RSV, Nikotin und Cotinin ueberprueft. Das System wurde benutzt, um die Wechselwirkung mit Immuneffektorzellen unter dem Einfluss der Schadstoffe zu analysieren. Es wird gezeigt, dass RSV als Infektionsstimulus die primaere und sekundaere Ig-Antwort in unterschiedlichem Masse fuer sich allein als auch unter dem Einfluss von Zytokinen (IL-2, IL-4) moduliert. Die Bedingungen der polyklonalen Ig(E)-Synthese unter dem Einfluss von Interleukin 2 und RSV wurden erarbeitet. Nikotin und Cotinin induzieren die mRNA Expression fuer verschiedene Zytokine. Nikotin und Cotinin ``primen`` Immuneffektorzellen, so dass ein nachfolgender mikrobieller Stimulus (RSV, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) zu einer verstaerkten Mediatorfreisetzung (IL-8) fuehrt. RSV loest die Freisetzung proinflammatorischer Mediatoren (IL-1, IL-6, IL-8) aus Bronchialepithelzellen aus, die ihrerseits unter dem Einfluss von Nikotin und Cotinin Immuneffektorzellen aktivieren und damit die Ig-Synthese und den Mukosaschutz veraendern. Das in vitro Zweikomponentensystem (Bronchialepithelzellen + periphere mononukleaere Zellen) in Kokultur oder Transwellkultur erweist sich als ein gutes in vitro Modell, um den Einfluss von Umweltschadstoffen an humanen Effektorzellen funktionell zu analysieren. (orig.)

  2. Comparison of salivary and serum glucose levels in diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shruti; Sandhu, Simarpreet Virk; Bansal, Himanta; Sharma, Deepti

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a noncommunicable disease with a rising prevalence worldwide and in developing countries. The most commonly used diagnostic biofluid for detection of glucose levels is blood, but sample collection is an invasive and painful procedure. Thus, there arises a need for a noninvasive and painless technique to detect glucose levels. The objectives of the present study were to estimate the glucose levels of saliva, to assess if any significant correlation existed between the serum and salivary glucose levels, and to correlate salivary glucose levels with regard to duration of diabetes, age, and gender. In the present study, serum and salivary glucose levels of 200 subjects (100 diabetic subjects and 100 nondiabetic subjects) were estimated by glucose oxidase method. Glycosylated hemoglobin levels were also measured in randomly selected 40 diabetic subjects. The findings of present study revealed a significant correlation between salivary and serum glucose levels in both diabetic and nondiabetic subjects. No significant relationship was observed between salivary glucose levels and gender or age in both diabetics and nondiabetics and between salivary glucose levels and duration of diabetes in diabetics. On the basis of the findings, it was concluded that salivary glucose levels could serve as a potentially noninvasive adjunct to monitor glycemic control in diabetic patients. PMID:25294888

  3. The Role of Salivary Gland Scintigraphy in the Evaluation of Salivary Gland Dysfunction in Uncontrolled Type II Diabetic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, B; Sathasivasubramanian, S

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the salivary gland dysfunction in patients with uncontrolled type II diabetes using salivary gland scintigraphy and then to compare these ratios with quantitative whole salivary secretion rates. Using a gamma camera (siemens-diacam) equipped with a low energy all-purpose collimator, 32 uncontrolled type II diabetic patients and 30 normal healthy patients were studied by injecting a radio isotope (technetium 99m pertechnetate) about 5 mCi was injected intravenously in to anticubital vein and the activity was measured for the 1(st), 20(th) and 40(th) min. At 20 min after injection, vitamin C chewable tablet was given to stimulate the secretion and continued until the end of the study period (40 min). Before scintigraphy, salivary sampling was carried out in both diabetic and normal individuals in a quiet room, saliva was allowed to accumulate and was expectorated into the collecting vessel approximately once a minute for 15 min and the volume was recorded as Unstimulated salivary flow rate and after 5 min break vitamin C chewable tablet was given to stimulate the secretion and the patient was asked to expectorate the saliva in the collecting vessel for 5 min. The expectorated volume was recorded as stimulated salivary flow rate. The mean of the measurements of scintigraphic ratio and salivary secretion rates were compared using the paired Student's t-test. The scintigraphic mean uptake and excretory ratio (ER) and the salivary flow rates were correlated. The result shows that there was a significant correlation between salivary flow rate and scintigraphic uptake and ER. However, statistically significant result could not be derived as it may be due to smaller sample size and marginal difference in the scintigraphic values between the groups. Salivary gland scintigraphy plays a significant role in the evaluation of salivary gland dysfunction. However, its role as an independent investigative procedure in the evaluation of salivary gland dysfunction requires a study with a larger sample size, may yield a statistical significant result and it can also act as an adjunct along with salivary flow rate procedure. PMID:25214812

  4. Radioisotopic methods in the study of salivary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results achieved by dynamic and static salivary gland scintigraphy in 272 patients over a ten year time (January 1976-December 1985) are reported. On the basis of a semi-quantitative assessment of time/activity curves, dynamic studies prove to be the most suitable method for studying functional disorders (phlogosis, facial paralisis, etc.). Harmlesness, easy execution and functional results are the mains advantages of radioisotope techniques. Salivary gland scintigraphy has some limits in the study of space occupying lesions (SOL): however, ultrasounds, CT and sialography represent the methods of choice in this field of salivary gland pathology

  5. SALIVARY CARBONIC ANHYDRASE VI, ZINC SULFATE TASTE ACUITY AND FREQUENCY OF ILLNESS: A PILOT STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Zdilla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Salivary Carbonic Anhydrase VI (CA6 is a zinc-dependent metalloenzyme which may be important for normal taste function. Though many taste assessment methods exist, the assessment of zinc sulfate taste acuity is a method that has been suggested to have diverse relationships to human health. A double-blinded pilot study was conducted among 21 individuals to analyze the relationships between salivary CA6 concentrations, zinc sulfate taste acuity and self-reported frequency of illness. ELISA was performed to quantify CA6 concentrations, the Bryce-Smith and Simpson “Zinc Taste Test” (BS-ZTT protocol and a Taste Intensity Visual Analog Scale (TI-VAS were utilized to assess zinc sulfate taste acuity and a health history questionnaire was used to determine the frequency of illness. A statistically significant correlation existed between CA6 concentration and zinc sulfate taste acuity determined via the BS-ZTT (rs = 0.62; p = 0.03. A moderate statistically significant negative correlation was found between self-reported frequency of illness and BS-ZTT scores (rs = -0.64, p = 0.034. Likewise, a strong statistically significant negative correlation was found between self-reported frequency of illness and TI-VAS scores (rs = -0.81, p = 0.003. The results of this pilot study suggest that zinc sulfate taste acuity may be reflective of salivary CA6 concentration in addition to being a retrospective indicator of illness frequency.

  6. A benign salivary gland tumor of minor salivary gland mimicking an epithelial malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pleomorphic adenoma (PA is the most common benign tumor of major or minor salivary glands. Microscopically, PA exhibits a great diversity of morphological aspects. Here, we present an unusual case of PA with extensive squamous metaplasia and keratin-filled cysts in the left retromolar region of a 50-year-old edentulous person whose microscopic finding may represent a diagnostic dilemma for pathologists.

  7. Diurnal trajectories of salivary cortisol, salivary ?-amylase and psychological profiles in oral lichen planus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pippi, R; Patini, R; Ghiciuc, C M; Sandu, R B; Pasquali, V; Scaccianoce, S; Dima-Cozma, L C; Patacchioli, F R

    2014-01-01

    Although many reports have been published on the link between oral lichen planus (OLP) and the stress-related neuro-psycho-endocrine clinical features of the disease over the last 20 years, the data still remain controversial. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the personality traits of OLP subjects and assess the subjects' capability of coping with stress challenges. Cortisol and alpha-amylase were measured as reliable markers of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and autonomic nervous system (ANS) activities in salivary samples collected by the participants at their home during the sampling day (07:30, 12:00, and 19:30). Compared with the healthy controls, the OLP patients demonstrated a less effective coping ability, had higher scores in stress perception and loneliness, and had no significant variation in their anxiety and depressive symptoms. The OLP patients also showed dysregulation of the HPA axis activity with a significant reduction of diurnal salivary cortisol production, which was particularly significant in the morning hours. No significant variation was found in the OLP salivary alpha-amylase diurnal fluctuation and production, which was measured at the same time point as that for cortisol. In conclusion, we report that OLP subjects had a reduced capability of coping with stress events and presented a dysregulation of HPA axis activity with hypocortisolism detected in the morning hours. PMID:24750801

  8. Human Salivary Micro-RNA in Patients with Parotid Salivary Gland Neoplasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, Janice; Wang, Xiaoyan; Elashoff, David; Leemans, C. René; Pegtel, Michiel D.; Wong, David T. W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Currently, clinical examination, ultrasound scanning (with or without fine needle aspiration cytology), preoperative CT-scan and MRI are available for the differential diagnosis of parotid gland swelling. A preliminary non-invasive salivary diagnostic tool may be helpful in the clinical decision making process. Altered salivary micro-RNA (miRNA) expression levels have been observed in saliva from patients with various cancers. Therefore, we investigated miRNA expression levels in saliva samples from patients with a parotid gland neoplasm using Human miRNA cards in comparison to controls. Results In the discovery phase, eight miRNAs were identified having different expression levels in patients compared to controls. In the validation phase, the differences in miRNA expression levels between patients and controls were confirmed for seven out of eight discovered miRNAs (p < 0.001). A combination of two miRNAs yielded a receiver-operator-characteristics curve with an AUC of 0.94 (95% CI: 0.87–1.00; sensitivity 91%; specificity 86%). Validation of discovered miRNAs in segregated collected parotid saliva revealed that expression of these miRNAs differ between whole saliva and parotid saliva. Conclusions A two miRNA combination can predict the presence of a parotid gland neoplasm. Furthermore, this study suggested that the identified, patient-specific, salivary miRNAs were not derived from the parotid gland itself. PMID:26544193

  9. Calcium, amylase, glucose, total protein concentrations, flow rate, pH and buffering capacity of saliva in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hellen Soares, Teixeira; Stella Maris Oliveira, Kaulfuss; Jucienne Salgado, Ribeiro; Betina do Rosário, Pereira; João Armando, Brancher; Elisa Souza, Camargo.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate qualitative and quantitative changes in the saliva of individuals undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. METHODS: Salivary samples were collected from 50 individuals divided in two groups: Experimental Group - patients with fixed orthodontic appliances (n=25); [...] and Control Group - subjects with no orthodontic appliances (n=25). Salivary flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, amylase activity, concentrations of total proteins, calcium and glucose were measured in all salivary samples. RESULTS: There was a reduction in salivary pH and buffering capacity and an increase in the concentration of calcium ions in the experimental group (p

  10. Imunoglobulina A secretora, proteínas totais e fluxo de saliva nas ulcerações aftosas recorrentes / Secretory A immunoglobulin, total proteins and salivary flow in Recurrent Aphthous Ulceration

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Kennedy de Oliveira, Martinez; Lauro Lúcio, Mendes; José Bento, Alves.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available De etiologia discutível, as ulcerações aftosas recorrentes (UAR) são, na maioria das vezes, consideradas em um quadro de deficiência imunológica. OBJETIVOS: Este trabalho baseia-se na revisão de literatura e em investigações clínico-laboratoriais dos títulos salivares de imunoglobulina A secretora ( [...] IgA-s), proteínas totais e fluxo de saliva (em repouso) de pacientes nos períodos de atividade e quiescência das Ulcerações aftosas recorrentes. Forma de Estudo: Estudo clínico e experimental. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Empregou-se a Nefelometria na quantificação das IgA-s salivares, o vermelho de Pirogalol para as proteínas totais salivares e a análise gravimétrica para a determinação do fluxo de saliva. RESULTADOS: Os resultados demonstraram aumento estatisticamente significativo das IgA-s salivares nos períodos de lesão ativa em relação aos de quiescência. Não houve diferença estatística nas concentrações de proteínas totais e no fluxo de saliva. CONCLUSÃO: Sugere-se que a IgA-s pode ser usada como parâmetro do status imune da mucosa oral. Abstract in english Clinical and experimental study. Introduction. Of debatable etiology, Recurrent Aphthous Ulcerations (R.A.U), is most of the time considered an immunological deficiency. AIM: The aim of this paper is to review the literature and clinical investigations regarding IgA-s, total proteins salivary concen [...] tration and basal salivary flow of patients with R.A.U. during activity and quiescence. METHODOLOGY: Nephelometry was used to measure salivary IgA-s; Pyrogallol red was used for total salivary proteins and the gravimetrical analysis for salivary flow measurement. RESULTS: Results demonstrated a significant increase in salivary IgA-s in active lesions in relation to quiescence. On the other hand, protein concentration rates were similar in both periods. CONCLUSION: Salivary IgA-s can be used as a parameter to study the immune status of the oral mucosa.

  11. The Effect of Calcium Pre-Rinse on Salivary Fluoride After 900 ppm Fluoride Mouthwash: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Ramazani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Calcium fluoride deposit during fluoride application. Uptake and retention of fluoride by saliva depends generally on the concentration of calcium. In this study, the ef-fect of calcium pre-rinse on salivary fluoride concentration after a 900 ppm fluoride mouthwash was investigated.Materials and Methods: This cross-over double-blind randomized clinical trial was con-ducted in a girls' dormitory in Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, southeast Iran. In this study, 42 female dental students were chosen using simple randomization. During the first phase, 21 subjects (group A used fluoride rinse (F regimen and the remaining (group B used calcium pre-rinse followed immediately by fluoride rinse (Ca + F regi-men. In the second phase, participants rinsed using the mouthwashes not previously used. Prior to each phase prophylaxis was performed and no fluoridated product was used dur-ing a two-week interval between the phases. Salivary samples were taken immediately be-fore (baseline, 1 and 12 hours after rinsing. The salivary fluoride concentration was de-termined using fluoride sensitive electrode. Repeated measures ANOVA was used for sta-tistical analysis and the significance level was set at P<0.05.Results: There was significant difference between fluoride concentrations at different time points (P< 0.001. Significant differences were observed when the different time points of two regimens were examined. In contrast to this, the baseline before using F regimen and the baseline before using Ca + F regimen did not show any significance (P= 0.070.Conclusion: Pre-rinsing with calcium before fluoride is recommended because of signifi-cant increases in salivary fluoride concentration.

  12. Scintigraphy of the salivary glands in Sjögen's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrago, J P; Rain, J D; Brocheriou, C; Rocher, F

    1987-01-01

    Scintigraphy of the salivary glands with technetium-sodium pertechnetate (99mTc) was undertaken on 320 patients with oral dryness or connective tissue disease using a computer assisted method that gave quantitative results about the major salivary gland function. Compared with clinical and histological data, scintigraphy provides a sensitive method, even though it is not specific, for detecting minimal injuries to salivary glands in patients suspected of having Sjögen's syndrome. Moreover, it might differentiate between the Sjögen-like syndrome and the sequelae of radiotherapy in patients with bone marrow graft. Scintigraphy of the major salivary glands could therefore form part of the routine investigation of patients with Sjögen's syndrome. PMID:2828435

  13. Salivary Gland Biopsy Shows Promise to Helping to Diagnose Parkinson's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... alike — in PDF's new scientific journal. Browse Now Parkinson's HelpLine Learn More Science News Salivary Gland Biopsy Shows Promise to Helping to Diagnose Parkinson’s - Mar 20 2014 A simple outpatient procedure that ...

  14. Effect of two mouthwashes on salivary ph

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paola A, Belardinelli; Rosana A, Morelatto; Tomás E, Benavidez; Ana M, Baruzzi; Silvia A, López de Blanc.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Se diseno un estudio clinico cruzado fase IV, con tres grupos etarios de adultos voluntarios sanos, para analizar el efecto de dos colutorios sobre el pH salival y relacionarlo con la edad la capacidad buffer y el flujo salival. Se utilizaron dos marcas comerciales de colutorios (MW), ListerineCoolM [...] intR (MWa) y PeriobacterR (MWb). Primero se caracterizo la saliva sin estimular de cada individuo, se le midio el volumen minuto, el pH y la capacidad buffer. El pH salival se evaluo antes del buche con cada MW, inmediatamente despues del enjuague bucal, 5 minutos despues y luego cada 10 minutos (a los 15, 25, 35 min) hasta que el pH inicial se recupero. Para el analisis estadistico de los datos se utilizaron: ANOVA en bloque, test t apareado y el test de correlacion de Pearson. Al caracterizar la saliva, se obtuvieron los siguientes valores promedio: 0.63 mL/min, 7.06 y 0.87 de volumen minuto,pH, y capacidad buffer. Luego del enjuague se observo un incremento inmediato y significativo del pH salival alcanzando valores de 7.24 (MWb) y 7.30 (MWa) para descender a un valor estable luego de 15 minutos. El importante incremento del pH salival luego del uso del colutorio, muestra que la saliva es un sistema dinamico y que el organismo es capaz de responder a estimulos con cambios en su composicion. Se hace evidente que el pH del agente externo, no es un buen indicador de su potencial erosivo sobre los elementos dentarios ya que los sistemas biologicos tienden a neutralizarlo. Los presentes resultados ponen de manifiesto la importancia de las mediciones en vivo y refuerzan el concepto de la funcion protectora de la saliva. Abstract in english To analyze the effect of two mouthwashes on salivary pH and correlate it with age, buffer capacity and saliva flow rate in healthy volunteers, a crossover phase IV clinical study involving three age-based groups was designed. Two commercial mouthwashes (MW), Cool Mint ListerineR (MWa) and Periobacte [...] r R (MWb) were used. The unstimulated saliva of each individual was first characterized by measuring flow rate, pH, and buffer capacity. Salivary pH was evaluated before rinsing with a given MW, immediately after rinsing, 5 minutes later, and then every 10 min (at 15, 25, 35 min) until the baseline pH was recovered. Paired t-test, ANOVA with a randomized block design, and Pearson correlation tests were used. Averages were 0.63 mL/min, 7.06, and 0.87 for flow rate, pH, and buffer capacity, respectively. An immediate significant increase in salivary pH was observed after rinsing, reaching average values of 7.24 (MWb) and 7.30 (MWa), which declined to an almost stable value 15 minutes. The great increase in salivary pH, after MW use shows that saliva is a dynamic system, and that the organism is capable of responding to a stimulus with changes in its composition. It is thus evident that pH of the external agent alone is not a good indicator for its erosive potential because biological systems tend to neutralize it. The results of this study enhance the importance of in vivo measurements and reinforce the concept of the protective action of saliva.

  15. In vitro hydroxyapatite adsorbed salivary proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In spite of the present knowledge about saliva components and their respective functions, the mechanism(s) of pellicle and dental plaque formation have hitherto remained obscure. This has prompted recent efforts on in vitro studies using hydroxyapatite (HA) as an enamel model. In the present study salivary proteins adsorbed to HA were extracted with TFA and EDTA and resolved by 2D electrophoresis over a pH range between 3 and 10, digested, and then analysed by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry. Nineteen different proteins were identified using automated MS and MS/MS data acquisition. Among them, cystatins, amylase, carbonic anhydrase, and calgranulin B, were identified

  16. Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of Minor Salivary Glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinoco, Paulo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Mucoepidermoid Carcinomas (MEC represent about 5% of all tumors in the salivary glands. It is an aggressive lesion and must be considered as a diagnosis hypothesis in the oral mucosa proliferative lesions. The early diagnosis and the correct management of this neoplasm are key factors for the prognosis. Wide local resection and eventually postoperative radiotherapy is the choice treatment. Objective: To report the case of a patient with mucoepidermoid carcinoma of oral cavity, exteriorizing through the mouth and being submitted to surgical exeresis and radiotherapy that evolved to death on the fourth month from beginning of the treatment. Case Report: CT, 47 years old, white woman was forwarded to the ORL service of the HSJA after a critical bleeding episode in oral cavity. She reported the appearing of a mass with fast and expansive growth in a topography of canine fossa for +/- 06 months, associated to the loss of 10 kg. Patient dehydrated, pale with pediculated tumoration of +/- 06 cm, firm consistency, painless upon palpation and bleeding. Chronic alcoholic and smoker. Non-palpable cervical lymph nodes. Faced with the case we opted for a surgical resection of the tumor and the performance of histopathological exam that confirmed mucoepidermoid carcinoma of minor salivary glands. The patient was sent to the radiotherapy service; but she abandoned the treatment and evolved with death 4 months after. Final Comments: In this case, the fast and aggressive growth of the lesion, the size of the tumor and the abandonment of the proposed treatment was determinant for the patient's prognosis.

  17. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy for salivary gland dysfunction and xerostomia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, David Hebbelstrup; Oliveri, Roberto Stefan; Trojahn Kølle, Stig-Frederik; Fischer-Nielsen, Anne; Specht, Lena; Bardow, Allan; Buchwald, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The most severe forms of xerostomia and salivary gland dysfunction, as well as a severely reduced quality of life, are seen in Sjögren syndrome (SS) and after radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. For both conditions, no effective regenerative therapies yet exist. Thus, the aim of this article was to assess, through systematic review, the potential benefit of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy in radiation-induced and SS-related salivary gland dysfunction and xerostomia. We searched PubMed/MED...

  18. Acute reboxetine administration increases plasma and salivary cortisol.

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, SA; Taylor, MJ; Harmer, CJ; Cowen, PJ

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the effect of a single oral dose of the selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, reboxetine (4 mg), on plasma and salivary cortisol in 24 healthy volunteers in a randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group design. Reboxetine significantly increased both plasma and salivary cortisol, although the correlation between the responses in plasma and saliva was modest. Our results are consistent with previous neuroendocrine challenge studies showing that potentiation of brain no...

  19. Salivary proteins as predictors and controls for oral health

    OpenAIRE

    Vukosavljevic, Dusa; CUSTODIO, William; Walter L. Siqueira

    2011-01-01

    We will provide a translational view of using the recent technological advances in dental research for predicting, monitoring, and preventing the development of oral diseases by investigating the diagnostic and therapeutic role of salivary proteins. New analytical state-of-the-art technologies such as mass spectrometry and atomic force microscopy have revolutionized the field of oral biology. These novel technologies open avenues for a comprehensive characterization of the salivary proteins f...

  20. In Vitro Identification of Histatin 5 Salivary Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffa, Eduardo B.; Machado, Maria A. A. M.; Mussi, Maria C. M.; Xiao, Yizhi; Garrido, Saulo S.; Giampaolo, Eunice T.; Siqueira, Walter L.

    2015-01-01

    With recent progress in the analysis of the salivary proteome, the number of salivary proteins identified has increased dramatically. However, the physiological functions of many of the newly discovered proteins remain unclear. Closely related to the study of a protein’s function is the identification of its interaction partners. Although in saliva some proteins may act primarily as single monomeric units, a significant percentage of all salivary proteins, if not the majority, appear to act in complexes with partners to execute their diverse functions. Coimmunoprecipitation (Co-IP) and pull-down assays were used to identify the heterotypic complexes between histatin 5, a potent natural antifungal protein, and other salivary proteins in saliva. Classical protein–protein interaction methods in combination with high-throughput mass spectrometric techniques were carried out. Co-IP using protein G magnetic Sepharose TM beads suspension was able to capture salivary complexes formed between histatin 5 and its salivary protein partners. Pull-down assay was used to confirm histatin 5 protein partners. A total of 52 different proteins were identified to interact with histatin 5. The present study used proteomic approaches in conjunction with classical biochemical methods to investigate protein–protein interaction in human saliva. Our study demonstrated that when histatin 5 is complexed with salivary amylase, one of the 52 proteins identified as a histatin 5 partner, the antifungal activity of histatin 5 is reduced. We expected that our proteomic approach could serve as a basis for future studies on the mechanism and structural-characterization of those salivary protein interactions to understand their clinical significance. PMID:26544073

  1. Salivary cortisol in depressed patients versus control persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knorr, Ulla; Vinberg, Maj; Kessing, Lars V; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2010-01-01

    The pathophysiology of depression has been associated to dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the use of salivary cortisol measures is increasingly being incorporated into research. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether salivary cortisol differs for patients with depression and control persons. We did a systematic review with sequential meta-analysis and meta-regression according to the PRISMA Statement based on comprehensive database searches for studie...

  2. Interaction of Helicobacter pylori with glycosylated salivary proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Walz, Anke

    2006-01-01

    Since the discovery of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in 1983 enormous progress has been made in determining the pathogenesis of this microbe in gastric disease. While the way of transmission is still under dispute, it is generally accepted that H. pylori must reach the stomach via the oral cavity. During this passage it comes into contact with salivary components. However, there are only few studies about interactions of H. pylori with salivary components and no study about the influence of...

  3. Salivary cortisol and sleep problems among civil servants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ase Marie; Thomsen, Jane FrØlund

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The present study used information from a field study conducted among 4489 civil servants (70% women) in Denmark in 2007. The purpose was to examine the association between sleep problems and salivary cortisol by using a cross-sectional design with repeated measures in a subsample three-month later. METHODS: Sleep problems during the past night and the past 4 weeks were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire on overall sleep quality, disturbed sleep, sleep length and awakening problems. Saliva samples were collected in a single day, using cotton tubes, 30min after awakening and again at 2000h. A subsample of 387 participants collected saliva samples three-month later at awakening, +20min and +40min after awakening and at 2000h. We adjusted for confounders related to sampling time, life style and personal characteristics, socioeconomic status and work aspects. RESULTS: Sleep problems during the past four weeks were associated with low morning and evening saliva cortisol concentrations: [-3.1%per score of disturbed sleep (p=.009); and -4.7% per score of awakening problems (p

  4. Wearable salivary uric acid mouthguard biosensor with integrated wireless electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jayoung; Imani, Somayeh; de Araujo, William R; Warchall, Julian; Valdés-Ramírez, Gabriela; Paixão, Thiago R L C; Mercier, Patrick P; Wang, Joseph

    2015-12-15

    This article demonstrates an instrumented mouthguard capable of non-invasively monitoring salivary uric acid (SUA) levels. The enzyme (uricase)-modified screen printed electrode system has been integrated onto a mouthguard platform along with anatomically-miniaturized instrumentation electronics featuring a potentiostat, microcontroller, and a Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) transceiver. Unlike RFID-based biosensing systems, which require large proximal power sources, the developed platform enables real-time wireless transmission of the sensed information to standard smartphones, laptops, and other consumer electronics for on-demand processing, diagnostics, or storage. The mouthguard biosensor system offers high sensitivity, selectivity, and stability towards uric acid detection in human saliva, covering the concentration ranges for both healthy people and hyperuricemia patients. The new wireless mouthguard biosensor system is able to monitor SUA level in real-time and continuous fashion, and can be readily expanded to an array of sensors for different analytes to enable an attractive wearable monitoring system for diverse health and fitness applications. PMID:26276541

  5. Salivary Secretory Disorders, Inducing Drugs, and Clinical Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Rius, Jaume; Brunet-Llobet, Lluís; Lahor-Soler, Eduard; Farré, Magí

    2015-01-01

    Background: Salivary secretory disorders can be the result of a wide range of factors. Their prevalence and negative effects on the patient's quality of life oblige the clinician to confront the issue. Aim: To review the salivary secretory disorders, inducing drugs and their clinical management. Methods: In this article, a literature search of these dysfunctions was conducted with the assistance of a research librarian in the MEDLINE/PubMed Database. Results: Xerostomia, or dry mouth syndrome, can be caused by medication, systemic diseases such as Sjögren's Syndrome, glandular pathologies, and radiotherapy of the head and neck. Treatment of dry mouth is aimed at both minimizing its symptoms and preventing oral complications with the employment of sialogogues and topical acting substances. Sialorrhea and drooling, are mainly due to medication or neurological systemic disease. There are various therapeutic, pharmacologic, and surgical alternatives for its management. The pharmacology of most of the substances employed for the treatment of salivary disorders is well-known. Nevertheless, in some cases a significant improvement in salivary function has not been observed after their administration. Conclusion: At present, there are numerous frequently prescribed drugs whose unwanted effects include some kind of salivary disorder. In addition, the differing pathologic mechanisms, and the great variety of existing treatments hinder the clinical management of these patients. The authors have designed an algorithm to facilitate the decision making process when physicians, oral surgeons, or dentists face these salivary dysfunctions. PMID:26516310

  6. Ixodes scapularis salivary gland protein P11 facilitates migration of Anaplasma phagocytophilum from the tick gut to salivary glands

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Lei; Narasimhan, Sukanya; Dai, Jianfeng; Zhang, Lili; Cheng, Gong; FIKRIG, EROL

    2011-01-01

    Here it is shown that the human pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum uses a secreted tick protein to infect haemocytes—the blood cells of the deer tick—and that infection of the haemocytes is a prerequisite for salivary gland infection.

  7. Determinación de los niveles de cortisol salival en una muestra de sujetos de Santiago de Chile / Salivary cortisol among subjects with and without Cushing syndrome

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    MACARENA, LÉPEZ; EGARDO, CAAMAÑO; CARMEN, ROMERO; JENNY, FIEDLER; VERÓNICA, ARAYA.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Background: Salivary cortisol measurement is recommended as a screening mea-sure when a Cushing Syndrome is suspected. Theproposed cut-offpointfor aprobable diagnosis is 0.16 ug/dL. Aim: To determine salivary cortisol concentrations during the day inpatients with and without Cushing syndrome and wit [...] h depression. Material and Methods: Salivary cortisol was measured by competitive enzyme immuno assay (EIA), in samples obtained at 8:00,15:00 and 23:00 h in 78 patients without Cushing syndrome, aged 40 ± 15years (28 males), 30 patients with depression aged 40 ± 12years (nine males) and four jemales with Cushing syndrome aged 42 ± 17 years. Results: Salivary cortisol was higher among patients with Cushing syndrome than the rest of patients. A salivary cortisol over the cut-off value of O.16 ug/dL was found in 42% of subjects without Cushing syndrome and in 33% of patients with depression. Median values among patients without Cushing syndrome, depression and with Cushing syndrome were 0.21 (range

  8. Evaluation of Salivary Levels of Pyridinoline Cross Linked Carboxyterminal Telopeptide of Type I Collagen (ICTP) in Periodontal Health and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Debasish; Gopalakrishnan, Sivaram; Arun, K.V.; Kumar, Tirunveli Saravanan Subu; Devanathan, Santosh

    2015-01-01

    Background Traditional parameters (Pocket depth, bleeding on probing, clinical attachment loss, radiographic findings) have been used for a long time for the assessment of periodontal disease conditions. However, these parameters only indicate towards the periodontal damage that has already taken place but do not give any idea regarding the current status of the periodontal health or disease. Hence, the present study is aimed at evaluating the concentration of the bone biomarker ICTP in saliva, which can give a better real time assessment of periodontal health and disease. Materials and Methods Forty three patients were selected and divided into three groups based on the recorded clinical parameters of probing pocket depth, attachment loss and bleeding on probing. Group I (Healthy, n = 11), Group II (Gingivitis, n = 17), Group III (Periodontitis. n = 15). Salivary samples were collected before scaling and root planning to avoid contamination by blood. ICTP levels were evaluated in the salivary samples by using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Statistical analysis used Kruskal Wallis test was used to compare the mean ICTP level of the three groups. Results ICTP was detected in all the samples. Highest mean ICTP concentrations in saliva were obtained for group III (periodontitis group) and the lowest mean ICTP concentrations were seen in group I (healthy group). This suggests that the level of ICTP in saliva increases proportionally from periodontal health to diseased conditions (gingivitis & periodontitis). Conclusion There is a substantial increase in the salivary concentration of ICTP in chronic periodontitis patients than in gingivitis and healthy patients. Salivary ICTP levels were the maximum in chronic periodontitis patients followed by gingivitis patients and the least in healthy individuals. ICTP may be considered as a biomarker in periodontal disease progression. PMID:26501013

  9. Quantitative evaluation of Streptococcus mutans and Candida sp and salivary factors in the oral cavity of patients submitted to radiotherapy; Avaliacao quantitativa de Streptococcus do grupo mutans e Candida sp e fatores salivares na cavidade bucal de pacientes submetidos a radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spolidorio, Denise Madalena Palomari; Spolidorio, Luis Carlos; Barbeiro, Roberto Henrique; Bernardo, Wagner Luis Carvalho; Pavan, Sabrina [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia; Hoefling, Jose Francisco [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia

    2001-12-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the microorganisms Streptococcus mutans and Candida sp in the oral cavity of patients with oropharynx carcinoma, before, during and after radiotherapy, and to correlate the results with salivary factors such as pH, buffer capacity and flow rate. Saliva samples were collected, diluted and inoculated in SB-20 agar and in Sabouraud agar, for Streptococcus mutans and Candida sp, respectively. Previously to dilution, the concentrated saliva was analyzed, and the salivary factors were determined. After the growth of colonies, the number of microorganisms was determined in CFU/ml. The analysis of the results allowed to conclude that the salivary factors are related to the presence of microorganisms, and that the number of CFU/ml increased as salivary flow rate decreased. The effects of radiation compromised salivary homeostasis and favored the increase of infection by yeasts and bacteria. (author)

  10. Prenatal Exposure to Cadmium and Cotinine and CpG island DNA methylation in Mother-Infant Pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gona, Saideep; Sanders, Alison P.; Miranda, Marie Lynn; Fry, Rebecca C.

    2015-01-01

    A precise biological mechanism by which cadmium acts as a developmental toxicant is unknown but is suggested to include an epigenetic basis. In prior work, we analyzed CpG island methylation levels within gene promoters (n=16,421) in leukocytes collected from mothers and their infants from a pregnancy cohort in Durham County, North Carolina. The CpG methylation levels were examined in relationship to prenatal exposure to cadmium and/or cotinine to identify genes and pathways influenced by in utero exposure. In the present article, we provide an enhanced description of the data collection and processing to facilitate cross-study comparisons. Data are available within the Gene Expression Omnibus database (GSE67976). PMID:26295018

  11. Disruption of the salivary gland muscle in tsetse, Glossina pallidipes Austen, as a result of salivary gland hypertrophy virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, L; Stoffolano, J G; Belardinelli, M C; Gambellini, G; Taddei, A R; Laghezza Masci, V; Fausto, A M

    2015-12-01

    The secretory region of the salivary glands in Glossina pallidipes Austen (Diptera: Glossinidae) is characterized by an external muscle layer. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy investigations provide a detailed description of the longitudinal muscle fibres and a comparison of their structure when affected by salivary gland hypertrophy virus. The virus is responsible for hypertrophy of the salivary glands in symptomatic flies, specifically of the muscle fibres, the cytoarchitecture of which is completely altered. Although observations did not reveal viral particles in the muscle cells of either asymptomatic or symptomatic flies, muscle fibres were enlarged and detached from one another and their associated basement membrane only in symptomatic flies. A decrease in type IV collagen labelling in the basement membrane of the muscles in symptomatic flies is reported and is considered a potential cause of the salivary gland muscle alteration and, possibly, myopathy. The maintenance of an organized muscular layer is essential for the normal secretion of saliva and hence its pathology in symptomatic tsetse flies could affect the normal transmission of the trypanosome that develops inside the salivary gland epithelium. Therefore, a better understanding of the possible role of the virus is essential in order to elucidate its impact on salivary deployment in symptomatic flies. PMID:26177673

  12. Salivary cortisol and immunoglobulin A responses to simulated and official Jiu-Jitsu matches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Alexandre; Franchini, Emerson; de Freitas, Camila Gobo; Schultz de Arruda, Ademir F; de Moura, Nivaldo Ribeiro; Costa, Eduardo Caldas; Aoki, Marcelo Saldanha

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the salivary cortisol (sC) and the salivary immunoglobulin A (sIgA) responses to simulated and official Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu (BJJ) matches. Saliva samples were collected from 9 male BJJ athletes before (pre) and after (post) 2 simulated matches (SMs) and 2 official matches (OMs) performed during 2 different competitions. Salivary cortisol and sIgA concentrations (absolute concentration of sIgA [sIgAabs] and the secretion rate of sIgA [sIgArate]) were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. For sC, there was an effect of condition (SM vs. OM) (p < 0.05) and a time effect (pre and post) (p < 0.05). The sC was lower during SMs as compared with that during OMs and lower at premeasurement when compared with postmeasurement. No changes were observed for sIgA measurements. In summary, both SMs and official BJJ matches can increase sC levels. Moreover, the higher sC resting levels, observed before OMs, suggest that psychological factors associated with high physical-physiological demands from official BJJ competitions maximize stress hormone responses. In addition, the present findings suggest that the acute effect of BJJ matches on mucosal immunity is minimal, and it seems unlikely that changes in cortisol play a major role in the alterations in sIgA levels in response to BJJ matches. The findings of this study suggest that the use of sC can provide valuable information for coaches regarding athletes' responses to competition. In addition, psychological strategies should be implemented before events, to improve the manner in which BJJ athletes cope with the stress inherent to official matches. PMID:22027851

  13. Biomacromolecule conjugated nanofiber scaffold for salivary gland tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayarathanam, Kavitha

    Xerostomia or dry mouth, resulting from loss of salivary gland secretion can be alleviated by tissue engineering approaches to restore glandular cell function. Engineering an artificial salivary gland structure requires closely mimicking the natural environment, both physically and functionally, to promote epithelial cell proliferation, monolayer formation and apico-basal polarization. While the physical structure of the salivary gland extracellular matrix (ECM) can be reconstructed using biocompatible nanofiber scaffolds, the chemical signals from ECM macromolecules are equally involved in the gland morphogenesis. In these glands, Hyaluronic acid (HA), a biomacromolecule that is a major component of the ECM, plays a crucial role in recruiting growth factors to improve cell viability and growth in these glands. Another molecule of interest that improved salivary epithelial cell viability and apico-basal differentiation is laminin, a major protein found in the basement membrane. We hypothesize that these biomacromolecules, when conjugated nanofiber scaffolds, will provide the essential chemical signals that promote cell viability, proliferation, polarity in the salivary cell line of interest. These morphological changes will in turn promote the secretory function (salivary production). The nanofiber scaffold consisting of poly(lactic-co-glycolic)acid is conjugated with HA using a polyethylene glycol (PEG) diamine crosslinker. This conjugation was confirmed using fluorescence spectrometry, water contact angle test and immunocytochemistry analysis using confocal microscopy. The effect of HA in promoting cell survival in-vitro was established with MTT assay using SIMS (mouse submandibular immortalized ductal SIMS cells) cells. The effect of HA in improving the apico - basal polarity of SIMS cells will be assessed. Chemical modification of synthetic nanopolymeric scaffolds with ECM molecules e.g., HA, laminin are the next step towards developing "smart scaffolds", that can be used to specifically induce proper salivary gland function. These scaffolds can potentially be used to provide a viable approach for creating future artificial tissue engineered glands.

  14. Unstimulated salivary flow rate, pH and buffer capacity of saliva in healthy volunteers / Débito basal, pH y capacidad tampón de la secreción salivar en sujetos sanos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C., Fenoll-Palomares; J. V., Muñoz-Montagud; V., Sanchiz; B., Herreros; V., Hernández; M., Mínguez; A., Benages.

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: conocer el débito, pH y capacidad tampón de la saliva en sujetos sanos y sus relaciones con edad, sexo, obesidad y hábitos tabáquico y alcohólico, así como establecer la definición de hiposialia. Métodos: estudio observacional prospectivo en 159 voluntarios sanos (> 18 años, sin factores [...] conocidos que disminuyan la secreción salivar). Se ha recogido la saliva total, sin estímulo, durante 10 minutos, determinando su débito (ml/min), pH y capacidad tampón (concentración de bicarbonato en mmol/l) mediante autoanalizador Radiometer ABL 520. Se han calculado los límites inferiores del débito salivar y concentración de bicarbonato por el percentil 5. Resultados: la mediana del débito salivar es 0,48 ml/min (rango 0,1-2). La mayor edad condiciona una disminución del débito salivar; los sujetos con edad Abstract in english Objectives: to assess the salivary flow rate, pH, and buffer capacity of healthy volunteers, and their relationships with age, gender, obesity, smoking, and alcohol consumption, and to establish the lower-end value of normal salivary flow (oligosialia). Methods: a prospective study was conducted in [...] 159 healthy volunteers (age > 18 years, absence of medical conditions that could decrease salivary flow). Unstimulated whole saliva was collected during ten minutes, and salivary flow rate (ml/min), pH, and bicarbonate concentration (mmol/l) were measured using a Radiometer ABL 520. The 5 percentile of salivary flow rate and bicarbonate concentration was considered the lower limit of normality. Results: median salivary flow rate was 0.48 ml/min (range: 0.1-2 ml/min). Age younger than 44 years was associated with higher flow rates (OR 2.10). Compared with women, men presented a higher flow rate (OR 3.19) and buffer capacity (OR 2.81). Bicarbonate concentration correlated with salivary flow rate. The lower-end values of normal flow rate and bicarbonate concentration were 0.15 ml/min and 1.800 mmol/l, respectively. The presence of obesity, smoking, and alcohol consumption did not influence salivary parameters. Conclusions: in healthy volunteers, salivary flow rate depends on age and gender, and correlates with buffer capacity. Obesity, smoking, and alcohol use do not influence salivary secretion.

  15. Study on Salivary Glands ?-amylase In Wheat Bug Eurygaster maura (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Mehrabadi; Ali R. Bandani

    2009-01-01

    ?-amylase activity in the salivary glands of Eurygaster maura was determined by biochemical experiments. Some of adult insect was collected and their salivary glands isolated and characterized. Enzyme samples from salivary glands of adults were prepared by the method of Cohen with slight modifications. ?-Amylase activity was assayed based on Bernfeld method by the dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) procedure. The activity of ?-amylase in salivary glands was 0.050 U/insect. The optimum...

  16. Effects of sucrose on salivary flow and composition: differences between real and sham intake

    OpenAIRE

    Harthoorn, L.F.; Brattinga, C.R.; Kekem, C., van; Neyraud, E.; Dransfield, E

    2009-01-01

    Human saliva contains numerous salivary components that are fundamental for a healthy oral environment and the oral processing of foods. To study a possible differential influence of orosensory stimulation and metabolic activation on salivary composition, human parotid salivary flow, pH, A280, and agr-amylase activity were measured before, during and after real or sham (sip-and-spit) sucrose intakes. Variations in these salivary characteristics were related to perceived satiety. Sucrose, as e...

  17. Knowledge of dental caries and salivary factors related to the disease: influence of the teaching-learning process

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Naiara de Paula, FERREIRA-NÓBILO; Cínthia Pereira Machado, TABCHOURY; Maria da Luz Rosário de, SOUSA; Jaime Aparecido, CURY.

    Full Text Available Knowledge of factors related to caries and the possible consequences in controlling the disease may show the use of education as a relevant tool for achieving success in terms of dental health maintenance. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between acquired k [...] nowledge and salivary factors related to dental caries for freshmen students (n = 44) and trainees (n = 32) of the Piracicaba Dental School. Knowledge about dental caries was evaluated by a discursive questionnaire analyzed by the content analysis technique. Salivary flow and pH, buffer capacity, salivary sucrase activity, microbiological counts (total microorganisms, mutans, and lactobacilli) and inorganic concentration of calcium, phosphorus, and fluoride in saliva were evaluated and compared between groups using the Mann–Whitney test, with a significance of 5%. Trainees demonstrated knowledge of the disease, whereas freshmen showed unspecific and confusing concepts. Among the factors analyzed, statistically significant differences were observed for pH, buffer capacity, sucrase activity, total microorganisms, and calcium and fluoride concentrations in saliva. Knowledge about the disease increases and improves over time during the undergraduate program (highest among trainees); although the students from the final year of the program consume more sugar than those from the previous one, they try to balance this activity with greater exposure to fluorides.

  18. Contribution and advantages of scintigraphy in salivary pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent technical improvements, especially the use of the scintillation camera, enable kinetic studies to be carried out by isotopic exploration and salivary scintigraphy has become an easy, fast and painless method of functional investigation of the main salivary glands. This work outlines the results obtained by Tc 99m scintigraphy with a scintillation camera, relative to the most important salivary gland diseases. After an account of the anatomy and general pathology of the parotid glands and submaxillaries the chief characteristics of the tracer, the detection techniques and the method employed here are described briefly. The elementary scintigraphic aspects found in the different observations are reported, then discussed in connection with results already published. The conclusion drawn from this work is that it is possible in the vast majority of cases, by comparing and combining the morphological and kinetic study of the salivary glands by technetium 99m scintigraphy with the clinical context, to obtain very valuable information which no other complementary examination has so far been able to supply satisfactorily. Now that scintigraphy has become a method of functional and not only morphological exploration it occupies a vital place in the study of the salivary glands

  19. Experimental salivary pellicles on the surface of orthodontic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S J; Kho, H S; Lee, S W; Yang, W S

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to define the composition of salivary pellicles that form on the surfaces of orthodontic materials and to further investigate whether qualitative differences exist between the composition of adsorbed salivary pellicles that form on 3 different orthodontic materials: stainless steel bracket metal, elastomeric ligature ring, and bracket bonding resin. Experimental pellicles were formed by incubating these materials in fresh human parotid or submandibular-sublingual saliva for 2 hours. Pellicles were extracted with sodium dodecyl sulfate buffer and lyophilized. They were then subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting to identify the adsorbed salivary components. Remarkable differences in the profiles of pellicle components were found, dependent on the type of orthodontic materials. The pellicle components on the bracket metal were almost the same as those found on the elastomeric ligature ring. Salivary protein adsorption patterns to bonding resin showed different features. Distinct differences were also found between the surface-binding affinities of the same salivary proteins from different glandular salivas. These results may be explained on the basis that binding sites for specific proteins on the surfaces of the materials are covered by molecules of submandibular-sublingual saliva, probably mucins. The results of this study provide valuable information concerning initial bacterial adhesion to the surfaces of orthodontic materials, as well as information that could be used in the development of orthodontic materials with enhanced surface properties. PMID:11174541

  20. Applications of and limitations to salivary gland scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salivary gland functional imaging is a simple, non-invasive procedure which requires little in terms of time and money to clarify disorders of saliva production and elimination. With relatively low levels of radiation exposure, there is no reason to expect side effects to the patient, provided that a physiological taste stimulant such as lemon juice is used to stimulate saliva production. From a dynamic study we derived functional curves for the parotides and the submandibular glands using the ROI-technique. Typical curves allow to differentiate between inflammatory, degenerative and obstructive diseases of the salivary glands. In cases of salivary gland tumours, additional information of pre- or posttherapeutic relevance may be expected e.g. concerning the saliva flow patterns. However, for primary diagnosis, other imaging procedures are more useful. In combination with sonography, swellings and pain of the salivary glands may be reliably clarified. Except for time activity curves for the salivary glands, quantitative analysis of pertechnetate uptake is only of secondary importance. This is due to methodological problems (e.g. definition of ROI) on the one hand and to a considerable inter- and intra-individual variability of the secretory gland outputs of the parotides and submandibular glands on the other hand. (orig.)

  1. Salivary testosterone and cortisol responses to four different rugby training exercise protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaviglio, Christopher M; Osborne, Mark; Kelly, Vincent G; Kilduff, Liam P; Cook, Christian J

    2015-09-01

    This study assessed the acute response of salivary testosterone and cortisol concentrations to four exercise protocols in 27 elite male rugby players. Each athlete completed four protocols in random order on separate in-season weeks. Two protocols were resistance training based consisting of four exercises (high pull, bench press, squat and chin-ups/prone row): Protocol 1 consisted of 5 sets of 15 repetitions at 55% of 1 repetition maximum (1 RM) with 1-minute rest (5 × 15-55%). Protocol 2 consisted of three sets of five repetitions at 85% 1 RM with 2-minute rest (3 × 5-85%). Protocol 3 was a strongman (STRNG) session consisting of three stations within a circuit of exercises that included exercises such as battling ropes, prowler push, farmer's walk and tyre flips. Protocol 4 was based on boxing and wrestling inspired exercises (combative - COMB). Salivary testosterone and cortisol concentrations were measured before (PRE) and immediately after exercise (POST). Testosterone did not significantly change as a result of any intervention, whereas cortisol declined and the testosterone to cortisol (T/C) ratio increased significantly in both the 5 × 15-55% and 3 × 5-85% protocol. When results were retrospectively grouped and analysed according to the protocol that demonstrated the greatest absolute testosterone response, significant (P importance of recognising a protocol-dependent approach to training athletes. Furthermore this study also highlights a potential usefulness of employing STRNG and COMB training protocols as an alternative stimulus to resistance training. PMID:25743223

  2. A paper strip based non-invasive glucose biosensor for salivary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Anuradha; Jha, Sandeep Kumar

    2015-05-15

    In our present study, we developed an optical biosensor for direct determination of salivary glucose by using immobilized glucose oxidase enzyme on filter paper strip (specific activity 1.4 U/strip) and then reacting it with synthetic glucose samples in presence of co-immobilized color pH indicator. The filter paper changed color based on concentration of glucose in reaction media and hence, by scanning this color change (using RGB profiling) through an office scanner and open source image processing software (GIMP) the concentration of glucose in the reaction medium could be deduced. Once the biosensor was standardized, the synthetic glucose sample was replaced with human saliva from donors. The individual's blood glucose level at the time of obtaining saliva was also measured using an Accuchek(™) active glucometer (Roche Inc.). In this preliminary study, a correlation of nearly 0.64 was found between glucose levels in saliva and blood of healthy individuals and in diabetic patients it was nearly in the order of 0.95, thereby validating the importance of salivary analysis. The RGB profiling method obtained a detection range of 9-1350 mg/dL glucose at a response time of 45 s and LOD of 22.2 mg/dL. PMID:25282078

  3. Short-term salivary acetaldehyde increase due to direct exposure to alcoholic beverages as an additional cancer risk factor beyond ethanol metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monakhova Yulia B

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasing body of evidence now implicates acetaldehyde as a major underlying factor for the carcinogenicity of alcoholic beverages and especially for oesophageal and oral cancer. Acetaldehyde associated with alcohol consumption is regarded as 'carcinogenic to humans' (IARC Group 1, with sufficient evidence available for the oesophagus, head and neck as sites of carcinogenicity. At present, research into the mechanistic aspects of acetaldehyde-related oral cancer has been focused on salivary acetaldehyde that is formed either from ethanol metabolism in the epithelia or from microbial oxidation of ethanol by the oral microflora. This study was conducted to evaluate the role of the acetaldehyde that is found as a component of alcoholic beverages as an additional factor in the aetiology of oral cancer. Methods Salivary acetaldehyde levels were determined in the context of sensory analysis of different alcoholic beverages (beer, cider, wine, sherry, vodka, calvados, grape marc spirit, tequila, cherry spirit, without swallowing, to exclude systemic ethanol metabolism. Results The rinsing of the mouth for 30 seconds with an alcoholic beverage is able to increase salivary acetaldehyde above levels previously judged to be carcinogenic in vitro, with levels up to 1000 ?M in cases of beverages with extreme acetaldehyde content. In general, the highest salivary acetaldehyde concentration was found in all cases in the saliva 30 sec after using the beverages (average 353 ?M. The average concentration then decreased at the 2-min (156 ?M, 5-min (76 ?M and 10-min (40 ?M sampling points. The salivary acetaldehyde concentration depends primarily on the direct ingestion of acetaldehyde contained in the beverages at the 30-sec sampling, while the influence of the metabolic formation from ethanol becomes the major factor at the 2-min sampling point. Conclusions This study offers a plausible mechanism to explain the increased risk for oral cancer associated with high acetaldehyde concentrations in certain beverages.

  4. Who Is Exposed to Secondhand Smoke? Self-Reported and Serum Cotinine Measured Exposure in the U.S., 1999–2006

    OpenAIRE

    Yanling Shi; Hai-Yen Sung; Wendy Max

    2009-01-01

    This study presents self-reported and serum cotinine measures of exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) for nonsmoking children, adolescents, and adults. Estimates are disaggregated by time periods and sociodemographic characteristics based on analyses of the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Self-reported exposure rates are found to be highest for children, followed by adolescents and adults. Important differences in exposure are found by socioeconomic characteristics. ...

  5. The prevalence of self-reported smoking and validation with urinary cotinine among commercial drivers in major parks in Lagos, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Obianuju B. Ozoh; Dania, Michelle G.; Irusen, Elvis M

    2014-01-01

    The validity of self-reported smoking is questionable because smokers are inclined to deny smoking. We aimed to determine the prevalence of self-reported smoking among intra-city commercial drivers in Lagos, and assess its validity based on urinary cotinine assessment. This study was conducted at three major motor parks in Lagos, Nigeria. Information on smoking status and habits was obtained from 500 consecutive male drivers using a structured questionnaire during a face-to-face interview. Ei...

  6. Analysis of [3?,3?-d2]-nicotine and [3?,3?-d2]-cotinine by capillary liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Sharon E; Villalta, Peter; Ho, Sing-Wei; von Weymarn, Linda B.

    2007-01-01

    A selective and sensitive LC/MS/MS assay was developed for the quantification of d2-nicotine and d2-cotinine in plasma of current and past smokers administered d2-nicotine. After solid phase extraction and liquid liquid extraction, HPLC separation was achieved on a capillary hydrophilic interaction chromatography phase column. The analytes were monitored by tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray positive ionization. Linear calibration curves were generated for d2-nicotine (0.03 to 6.0 ng/...

  7. Programmed cell death in the larval salivary glands of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera, Apidae)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E C M Silva-Zacarin; G A Tomaino; M R Brocheto-Braga; S R Taboga; R L M Silva De Moraes

    2007-03-01

    The morphological and histochemical features of degeneration in honeybee (Apis mellifera) salivary glands were investigated in 5th instar larvae and in the pre-pupal period. The distribution and activity patterns of acid phosphatase enzyme were also analysed. As a routine, the larval salivary glands were fixed and processed for light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Tissue sections were subsequently stained with haematoxylin–eosin, bromophenol blue, silver, or a variant of the critical electrolyte concentration (CEC) method. Ultrathin sections were contrasted with uranyl acetate and lead citrate. Glands were processed for the histochemical and cytochemical localization of acid phosphatase, as well as biochemical assay to detect its activity pattern. Acid phosphatase activity was histochemically detected in all the salivary glands analysed. The cytochemical results showed acid phosphatase in vesicles, Golgi apparatus and lysosomes during the secretory phase and, additionally, in autophagic structures and luminal secretion during the degenerative phase. These findings were in agreement with the biochemical assay. At the end of the 5th instar, the glandular cells had a vacuolated cytoplasm and pyknotic nuclei, and epithelial cells were shed into the glandular lumen. The transition phase from the 5th instar to the pre-pupal period was characterized by intense vacuolation of the basal cytoplasm and release of parts of the cytoplasm into the lumen by apical blebbing; these blebs contained cytoplasmic RNA, rough endoplasmic reticule and, occasionally, nuclear material. In the pre-pupal phase, the glandular epithelium showed progressive degeneration so that at the end of this phase only nuclei and remnants of the cytoplasm were observed. The nuclei were pyknotic, with peripheral chromatin and blebs. The gland remained in the haemolymph and was recycled during metamorphosis. The programmed cell death in this gland represented a morphological form intermediate between apoptosis and autophagy.

  8. A study on salivary cortisol level in patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis during both ulceration and ulcer free periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parichehr Ghaliani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis (RAS is one of the most common oral mucosal disorders. RAS patients show a decline in oral tolerance which leads to epithelial damage. Cortisol secretion in such patients may not be enough to suppress cytotoxic reactions against oral epithelium. The aim of this study was to measure salivary cortisol level during both ulceration and ulcer free phases of the disease. Materials and Methods: In this analytic-descriptive study, a total of 20 patients having minor oral aphthi with a history of at least three times oral ulceration in one year were included.Saliva samples were collected through spitting. The salivary concentration level of cortisol was measured on the first and 7th days from the appearance of aphthous ulcers, every patient was considered as both case and control. Sampling was repeated when ulcers were completely healed. The saliva samples were collected between 9 and 10 am and were analyzed via Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. The collected data were statistically analyzed on a computer through repeated measurement ANOVA and paired t-tests using SPSS software.(? = 0.05Results: The mean concentration of salivary cortisol on the first day of aphthous appearance was 2.72 . However after complete healing of the ulcers, it rose to 3.37 . The difference these values were shown to be statistically significant (p value=0.002. The mean concentration level of salivary cortisol on the 7th day from aphthous appearance (2.6 was also significantly different from the aphthous Free State. (p value = 0.001. Mean cortisol concentration level on the first and 7th days from the appearance of aphthous ulcer did not show a significant difference (p value = 0.304.Conclusion: The results showed that the mean salivary cortisol level at the beginning of the disease as well as during its active ulcerative period (acute phase were significantly lower than in aphthous free periods. It seems that cortisol plays a key role in reducing aphthous ulcer inflammation. Impaired cortisol secretion in RAS patients may cause an increased rate of incidence and severity of aphthous ulcers. Key words: Recurrent aphthous ulcer, Saliva, Hydrocortisone

  9. Sjoegren's syndrome. A functional scintigraphic study of salivary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One-hundred and twenty patients with sicca syndrome, connective tissue disease or chronic graft-versus-host disease were investigated in the Saint-Louis Hospital Department of Nuclear Medicine. Technetium scanning of the salivary glands was performed in all patients. The results of the scintigraphic study were closely correlated with clinical and histological data in patients with Sjoegren's syndrome. This method, which accurately quantifies the salivary function without danger nor discomfort to the patients, has a number of advantages: (a) it is sensitive enough to detect minimal salivary gland dysfunction; (b) it differentiates between parotid gland and submandibular gland involvement demonstrates assymetry in pathological processes; (c) it helps in following up patients with Sjoegren's disease and in assessing the results of immunosuppressive or anti-inflammatory treatment

  10. HIV-associated salivary gland enlargement: a clinical review

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S, Ebrahim; B, Singh; SS, Ramklass.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Salivary gland disease is well established as an important HIV associated oral lesion. It manifests as salivary gland swelling involving one or both parotid glands with or without xerostomia. In the context of HIV, the swelling may be due to a wide spectrum of pathological conditions that include re [...] active or inflammatory disorders, acute and chronic infections, and neoplasms. This paper reviews the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, aspects of diagnosis and management of HIV associated salivary gland enlargement, in particular parotid gland enlargement, due to benign lymphoepithelial cysts (BLEC). Parotid gland enlargement is typically an early manifestation in the HIV-positive patient and should alert healthcare professionals to the likelihood of HIV infection. FNAC of the parotid gland is required to confirm the diagnosis and instituting HAART forms an important part of the management. There is a shift away from surgery in the treatment of this essentially ‘benign’ condition.

  11. Sialolithiasis of minor salivary glands / Sialolitíase de glândulas salivares menores

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Isabela Fernandes, SOUZA; Michele Montini, KAWATAKE; Andresa Borges, SOARES; Paulo de Camargo, MORAES; Vera Cavalcanti de, ARAÚJO; Fabrício, PASSADOR-SANTOS.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A sialolitíase, ou cálculo salivar é uma doença de glândulas salivares, caracterizada pela formação de estrutura mineralizada no interior dos ductos salivares excretores ou no próprio parênquima glandular. A glândula submandibular é acometida em aproximadamente 80% dos casos seguida das glândulas pa [...] rótida e sublingual. Embora raro o cálculo salivar também pode ocorrer em glândulas salivares menores. O lábio superior e a mucosa oral são os sítios de envolvimento de maior frequência, embora possam desenvolver-se em qualquer região da cavidade oral que contenha glândulas salivares menores. O tratamento baseia-se na remoção cirurgia, com prognóstico favorável. Este artigo apresenta três casos raros de sialolitíase de glândula salivar menor localizados em lábio superior e inferior, abordando as características clínicas e sua relação com os achados microscópicos, diagnóstico e formas de tratamento. A etiologia da lesão e fatores que devem ser considerados para o diagnóstico, tratamento adequado e um melhor prognóstico são discutidos neste estudo. Abstract in english Sialolithiasis, or salivary calculus, is a disease of the salivary glands, characterized by the formation of mineralized structures within the excretory salivary ducts or the glandular parenchyma. Approximately 80% occur in the submandibular gland, followed by the parotid and sublingual glands. Alth [...] ough rare, sialolithiasis can also occur in the minor salivary glands. Although the oral cavity and upper lip are the most common sites, they can develop in any region of the oral cavity that contains minor salivary glands. Treatment is based on surgical excision of the lesion, with a favorable prognosis. This study presents three cases of sialolithiasis of minor salivary glands of the upper and lower lip, addresses their clinical characteristics and correlation with microscopic findings, diagnosis and treatment plans. Etiology and factors that should be considered during diagnosis, appropriate treatment and improved prognosis are discussed in this study.

  12. Salivary proteins of plant-feeding hemipteroids - implication in phytophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, A; Khan, A N; Subrahmanyam, S; Raman, A; Taylor, G S; Fletcher, M J

    2014-04-01

    Many hemipteroids are major pests and vectors of microbial pathogens, infecting crops. Saliva of the hemipteroids is critical in enabling them to be voracious feeders on plants, including the economically important ones. A plethora of hemipteroid salivary enzymes is known to inflict stress in plants, either by degrading the plant tissue or by affecting their normal metabolism. Hemipteroids utilize one of the following three strategies of feeding behaviour: salivary sheath feeding, osmotic-pump feeding and cell-rupture feeding. The last strategy also includes several different tactics such as lacerate-and-flush, lacerate-and-sip and macerate-and-flush. Understanding hemipteroid feeding mechanisms is critical, since feeding behaviour directs salivary composition. Saliva of the Heteroptera that are specialized as fruit and seed feeders, includes cell-degrading enzymes, auchenorrhynchan salivary composition also predominantly consists of cell-degrading enzymes such as amylase and protease, whereas that of the Sternorhyncha includes a variety of allelochemical-detoxifying enzymes. Little is known about the salivary composition of the Thysanoptera. Cell-degrading proteins such as amylase, pectinase, cellulase and pectinesterase enable stylet entry into the plant tissue. In contrast, enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase, laccase and trehalase detoxify plant chemicals, enabling the circumvention of plant-defence mechanisms. Salivary enzymes such as M1-zinc metalloprotease and CLIP-domain serine protease as in Acyrthosiphon pisum (Aphididae), and non-enzymatic proteins such as apolipophorin, ficolin-3-like protein and 'lava-lamp' protein as in Diuraphis noxia (Aphididae) have the capacity to alter host-plant-defence mechanisms. A majority of the hemipteroids feed on phloem, hence Ca++-binding proteins such as C002 protein, calreticulin-like isoform 1 and calmodulin (critical for preventing sieve-plate occlusion) are increasingly being recognized in hemipteroid-plant interactions. Determination of a staggering variety of proteins shows the complexity of hemipteroid saliva: effector proteins localized in hemipteran saliva suggest a similarity to the physiology of pathogen-plant interactions. PMID:24280006

  13. A kinetic compartment model for evaluating salivary gland scintigraphies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzelius, Pia; Fuglsang, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: The semi-quantitative analysis of salivary gland scintigraphy with (99m) Tc-pertechnetate has been used to evaluate salivary gland function. However, no objective parameters distinguishing abnormal from normal functions have been established thus far. We propose using a simple kinetic model applied to the four major salivary glands. This kinetic model is based on a two-compartment model and the assumption of first-order kinetics to characterize normal salivary gland function and other selected parameters to evaluate the normal function of salivary glands. METHODS: Thirty patients referred for (99m) Tc-pertechnetate thyroid scintigraphy were studied. Dynamic imaging of the head in a fixed anterior projection was performed after an intravenous bolus injection of 150 MBq (99m) Tc-pertechnetate using a gamma scintillation camera. After 30 min, lemon juice was orally administered through a syringe. Time activity curves were generated for each of the four major salivary glands (i.e. the right and left submandibular and right and left parotid glands). Excretion fractions (the fraction of mobilizable radioactivity after administering lemon juice) and the gland activity-to-thyroid activity ratio were calculated. The data were fitted to both a one- and two-phase uptake model. RESULTS: The median uptake slope and maximal activity were significantly higher in the parotid glands than the submandibular glands (P<0·0001). The gland-to-thyroid ratio was higher in the parotid glands than the submandibular glands (P<0·0001), and the ejection fractions were higher in the parotid glands (P<0·0001). No difference was found in functional contributions of the parotid and submandibular glands. CONCLUSIONS: Tracer accumulation can be represented by a one-phase simple uptake model. The background regions that have been previously recommended in the literature are acceptable.

  14. Effects of evening light conditions on salivary melatonin of Japanese junior high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Tetsuo

    2004-08-11

    BACKGROUND: In a previous study, when adult subjects were exposed to a level of 400 lux light for more than 30 min or a level of 300 lux light for more than 2 hours, salivary melatonin concentration during the night dropped lower than when the subjects were exposed to dim illumination. It was suggested that such light exposure in adolescents or children during the first half of subjective night in normal life might decrease the melatonin level and prevent the falling into sleep. However, there has been no actual study on the effects of light exposure in adolescents. METHODS: Effects of exposure to the bright light (2000 lux) from fluorescent light bulbs during a period of three hours from 19:30 to 22:30 in one evening were examined on evening salivary melatonin concentrations from 19:45 to 23:40. The control group was exposed to dim light (60 lux) during these three hours. Both the dim light control group [DLCG] and the bright light experimental group [BLEG] consisted of two female and three male adolescent participants aged 14-15 y. RESULTS: The salivary melatonin level increased rapidly from 3.00 pg/ml at 21:45 to 9.18 pg/ml at 23:40 in DLCG, whereas it remained at less than 1.3 pg/ml for the three hours in BLEG. Melatonin concentration by BLEG at 22:30 of the experimental day was lower than that at the same time on the day before the experimental day, whereas it was significantly higher in the experimental day than on the day before the experimental day in DLCG. CONCLUSIONS: Bright lights of 2000 lux and even moderate lights of 200-300 lux from fluorescent light bulbs can inhibit nocturnal melatonin concentration in adolescents. Ancient Japanese lighting from a traditional Japanese hearth, oil lamp or candle (20-30 lux) could be healthier for children and adolescents because rapid and clear increase in melatonin concentration in blood seems to occur at night under such dim light, thus facilitating a smooth falling into night sleep. PMID:15304196

  15. Malt lymphoma of the parotid salivary gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasi? Dragan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma was described for the first time in 1983 by Isaacson and Wright. It was classified into extranodal non-Hodkin's lymphomas of B-cell lymphocytes of the marginal zone of reactive lymphe follicles. It is characterized by both hyperplasia and colonization of plasmocytic, centrocytoid and monocytoid cells, by the infiltration of interfollicular and parafollicular parts of interstitium, as well as by the invasion of clusters of neoplastic lymphoid cells of the glandular epithelium, forming the pathognomic lymphoepithelial MALT limphoma lesions. Case report. In this paper we presented the two female patients, 59 and 75 years of age, with MALT lymphomas, associated with Miculicz's and Sjögren's syndromes. The paper also underlined rather manymonth- long, indolent clinical course, evalution of both tumors, massive in size, as well as two-sided localization in the case of the Miculicz's syndrome. After the subtotal parotidectomy, using conservation of nerve facialis, the tissue blocks were fixed in 10% formaldehyde. The paraffine sections were stained by routine histochemical and an immunohistochemical method by using monoclonal antibodies for both B-cell and T-cell lymphomas, due to the verification of lymphoepithelial lesions. The MALT lymphoma diagnosis was based on the histological criteria and confirmed by an immunohistochemical method. After the surgical therapy accompanied by chemotherapy, the patients were controlled at regular intervals, and residual MALT lymphoma did not appear. Conclusion. MALT lymphoma is a rare tumor of the salivary glands, with the most frequent localization in the parotide gland. It had a slow clinical course, without metastases in both patients. The diagnosis was made pathohistologically and confirmed immunohistochemically. The surgical therapy was accompained by adjuvant chemotherapy.

  16. Raman spectroscopic investigation of urinary calculi and salivary stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The capabilities and limitations of determining the composition of urinary calculi (34 patients) and salivary stones (27 patients) by Raman spectroscopy have been investigated by analysing Raman spectra obtained with 1064 nm laser excitation, and comparing them with Raman spectra both from specific reference substances and from a commercial Raman database. The composition results were also compared with those obtained by other analytical methods e.g. powder diffraction. Raman spectroscopy proves to be an analytical method which provides reliable results on the composition of urinary calculi and salivary stones quickly, non-destructively and without any need of sample preparation. (author)

  17. Congenital salivary gland anlage tumor - in utero and postnatal imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhakrishnan, Rupa; Calvo-Garcia, Maria A.; Koch, Bernadette L. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Lim, Foong-Yen [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Pediatric Surgery, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Elluru, Ravindhra G. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Pediatric Otolaryngology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2015-03-01

    We present a case of an infant with congenital salivary gland anlage tumor, with fetal and postnatal imaging. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case describing the in utero imaging findings of salivary gland anlage tumor. A fetal MRI was performed secondary to the clinical finding of polyhydramnios, which identified a nasopharyngeal mass. Because findings were concerning for airway obstruction, the fetus was delivered by ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) to airway procedure. A postnatal CT confirmed the findings of the fetal MRI. The lesion was resected when the baby was 4 days old and recovery was uneventful. (orig.)

  18. Parotid salivary gland of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana): structure and composition of saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raubenheimer, E J; Dauth, J; Dreyer, M J; de Vos, V

    1988-12-01

    Specimens from parotid salivary glands of full-grown elephant (Loxodonta africana) a (n=6) and saliva aspirated from their main excretory ducts were examined macroscopically and microscopically and analyzed biochemically. The composition of the saliva was compared to that of the blood. The parotids (n=12; mean = 7.4 kg) are homocrine and of a seromucous nature. Myoepithelial cells are well-developed along intercalated ducts and their processes extend to proximal portions of allied acini. The saliva is hypotonic and contains relatively low concentrations of sodium and glucose and high concentrations of potassium, urea, calcium and phosphorus. Absence of detectable levels of alpha-amylase negates a digestive role and the voluminous secrete evidently aids swallowing by moisturising and lubricating the large mass of ingested leaves, grass and bark. PMID:3210214

  19. INFLUENCE OF MUSIC TYPE LISTENING ON ANAEROBIC PERFORMANCE AND SALIVARY CORTISOL IN MALES ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ghaderi.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Music has been widely recommended as a technique to enhance the psychophysical state of participants in sport and exercise. However, there is scant scientific evidence to clarify its proposed benefits. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of fast and slow rhythm of music on anaerobic performance and salivary cortisol concentration in trained men. Thirty male physical education college students (ages: 25.66±3.89 yr, height: 176.65 ± 7.66 cm, body mass: 78.45±16.20 kg voluntary participated in this study and divided to three groups: fast music, slow music, and no music(control. All subjects performed the coninghum test following a 20% grate and 14.3km/h speed on the treadmill. For measuring of cortisol, not stimulated samples of saliva collected, 15 minutes befor and immediately 5 and 30 minute after the exercise. No significant differences were found in anaerobic performance among the three groups in pretest indicating homogeneity of the groups. However, salivary cortisol no significant in anaerobic performance 5 and 30 minute after exercise as well. Summarily, Music doed not have a positive effect on performance, this study provided some support for the hypothesis that listening fast and slow music not significantly impacted during supramaximal exercise.

  20. Silk formation mechanisms in the larval salivary glands of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Elaine C M Silva-Zacarin; Regina L M Silva De Moraes; S R Taboga

    2003-12-01

    The mechanism of silk formation in Apis mellifera salivary glands, during the 5th instar, was studied. Larval salivary glands were dissected and prepared for light and polarized light microscopy, as well as for scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that silk formation starts at the middle of the 5th instar and finishes at the end of the same instar. This process begins in the distal secretory portion of the gland, going towards the proximal secretory portion; and from the periphery to the center of the gland lumen. The silk proteins are released from the secretory cells as a homogeneous substance that polymerizes in the lumen to form compact birefringent tactoids. Secondly, the water absorption from the lumen secretion, carried out by secretory and duct cells, promotes aggregation of the tactoids that form a spiral-shape filament with a zigzag pattern. This pattern is also the results of the silk compression in the gland lumen and represents a high concentration of macromolecularly well-oriented silk proteins.

  1. Clinical evaluation of Sjoegren's syndrome by salivary gland scintigraphy. Comparison of sialogram and histo-pathological finding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Hidetoshi; Ishii, Yasuo; Shimizu, Yasutomo; Hitomi, Gonjiro; Ono, Takatoki (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Yoshitake, Kazusada

    1983-05-01

    In 20 cases of Sjoegren's syndrome which was diagnosed according to the criteria directed by Ministry of Health Welfare, salivary scintigraphy revealed decreased RI uptake of the major salivary glands (the parotid gland, submandibular gland) (75%), difference between right and left RI uptakes (80%), residual image after salivation (94%), suggesting remarkable decrease in salivary secretory function. The results of salivary scintigraphy correlated with those of sialography in advanced cases. There was a correlation between histopathological findings and salivary scintigram.

  2. Radioimmunoassay method suitable for analysis of salivary cortisol in patients with breast cancer in treatment by teletherapy - a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determination of salivary cortisol using radioimmunoassay and the relationship between stress levels were investigated before and after of the psychological intervention of 21 patients during teletherapy treatment of breast cancer. The benefits of psychological intervention during cancer treatment has been observed in some studies and evidence show that the patient's emotional state directly influences adherence to treatment, good prognosis and under stress. Thus, in present study 21 patients aged 50-70 years, females in the treatment of breast cancer at the Radiotherapy Service of Santa Casa de Misericordia in Belo Horizonte, were divided randomly into two groups: control (without psychological intervention) and Group TCC (with psychological intervention). Salivary cortisol concentrations are reportedly about 5.10% of those in serum, the levels has been used as an objective marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and avoided the confounding effects of venepuncture stress on cortisol levels. The assessment of cortisol in saliva has proven a valid and reliable measure of unbound steroid in the circulation. The salivary cortisol measured by radioimmunoassay in control patients and TCC showed no significant differences. The radioimmunoassay method show be suitable for analysis of salivary cortisol because allows measure low detection limits and have high sensibility. The values of TCC group and Control group were higher than reference values, except for one patient of the control group. At the beginning of treatment, both groups were homogeneous for Teletherapy. Both the TCC group as the control group had . 80% of participants in phase with stress. It was observed in the TCC group after radiotherapy showing a reversal 60% of participants without stress. The data show that cognitive-behavioral therapy has benefits for the control of psychological stress and enhance relevance of the psychologist to provide reduction or stress control during radiation treatment without interfering with the integrity of the participants. (author)

  3. Radioimmunoassay method suitable for analysis of salivary cortisol in patients with breast cancer in treatment by teletherapy - a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Kellen Verena S. [Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear. Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Pampulha, MG (Brazil); Santos, Jane Lima dos [Departamento de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilheus, BA (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Determination of salivary cortisol using radioimmunoassay and the relationship between stress levels were investigated before and after of the psychological intervention of 21 patients during teletherapy treatment of breast cancer. The benefits of psychological intervention during cancer treatment has been observed in some studies and evidence show that the patient's emotional state directly influences adherence to treatment, good prognosis and under stress. Thus, in present study 21 patients aged 50-70 years, females in the treatment of breast cancer at the Radiotherapy Service of Santa Casa de Misericordia in Belo Horizonte, were divided randomly into two groups: control (without psychological intervention) and Group TCC (with psychological intervention). Salivary cortisol concentrations are reportedly about 5.10% of those in serum, the levels has been used as an objective marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and avoided the confounding effects of venepuncture stress on cortisol levels. The assessment of cortisol in saliva has proven a valid and reliable measure of unbound steroid in the circulation. The salivary cortisol measured by radioimmunoassay in control patients and TCC showed no significant differences. The radioimmunoassay method show be suitable for analysis of salivary cortisol because allows measure low detection limits and have high sensibility. The values of TCC group and Control group were higher than reference values, except for one patient of the control group. At the beginning of treatment, both groups were homogeneous for Teletherapy. Both the TCC group as the control group had . 80% of participants in phase with stress. It was observed in the TCC group after radiotherapy showing a reversal 60% of participants without stress. The data show that cognitive-behavioral therapy has benefits for the control of psychological stress and enhance relevance of the psychologist to provide reduction or stress control during radiation treatment without interfering with the integrity of the participants. (author)

  4. Sarcoidosis with salivary gland involvement: biochemical studies on parotid saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeley, J A; Chisholm, D M

    1976-08-01

    Parotid saliva from a patient suffering from sarcoidosis with salivary gland involvement has been shown to have a decreased level of alpha-amylase but increased levels of albumin and lysozyme. These observations suggest that in addition to impaired gland function, gland damage as a result of inflammation had occurred which permitted increased passage of constituents from serum into the gland secretion. PMID:956685

  5. Mena, a new available marker in tumors of salivary glands?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gurzu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Mena (mammalian Ena is an actin regulatory protein involved in cell motility and adhesion. Based on its potential role in malignant transformation revealed in other organs, we analyzed the Mena expression in normal salivary glands (SG and salivary tumors. Mena expression was determined in normal SG (n=10 and also benign (n=20 and malignant (n=35 lesions of SG. For the immunohistochemical staining we used the anti-Mena antibody. All normal SG and the benign lesions (10 pleomorphic adenomas, 10 Warthin’s tumors were Mena negative. Salivary duct carcinomas (n=5, carcinomas in pleomorphic adenoma (n=5, acinic cell carcinomas (n=5, squamous cell carcinomas (n=10 and high-grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas (n=2 were positive. The lymphomas (n=5 and low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas (n=1 were Mena negative. In one case the lymphoblastic cells stained positive for Mena. Some of the endothelial cells, in the peritumoral vessels, were Mena positive. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in the literature about Mena expression in salivary tumors. Our study suggests that Mena protein seems to play a role in malignant transformation and its intensity is correlated with the type and grade of tumor and also with vascular invasion. Its positivity in endothelial cells may suggest its potential role in tumor angiogenesis.

  6. Distribution of Dendritic Cells in Normal Human Salivary Glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dendritic cells (DC) are believed to contribute to development of autoimmune sialadenitis, but little is known about their distribution in normal salivary glands. In this study, DC were identified and their distribution was determined in normal human parotid and submandibular glands. For light microscopy, salivary gland sections were stained with H&E or immunocytochemically using antibodies to DC markers. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to evaluate the ultrastructural characteristics of DC. In H&E sections, elongated, irregularly shaped nuclei were occasionally seen in the striated and excretory duct epithelium. Immunolabeling with anti-HLA-DR, anti-CD11c and anti-S100 revealed DC with numerous processes extending between ductal epithelial cells, often close to the lumen. Morphometric analyses indicated that HLA-DR-positive DC occupied approximately 4–11% of the duct wall volume. Similar reactive cells were present in acini, intercalated ducts and interstitial tissues. TEM observations revealed cells with indented nuclei containing dense chromatin, pale cytoplasm with few organelles, and lacking junctional attachments to adjacent cells. These results indicate that DC are abundant constituents of normal human salivary glands. Their location within ductal and acinar epithelium suggests a role in responding to foreign antigens and/or maintaining immunological tolerance to salivary proteins

  7. Ultrasonography-histopathology correlation in major salivary glands lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovan, Cecilia; Nekula, Diana Maria; Mocan, Simona Liliana; Void?zan, Toader Septimiu; Co?arc?, Adina

    2015-01-01

    Major salivary glands display a various and complex pathology, showing different evolution and prognosis, depending on the histopathological form. The choice of an appropriate treatment plan for the best outcome, therefore the proper surgical approach, would imply preoperative knowledge of the histopathological diagnosis. However, any core-biopsy performed prior to surgery presents the risk of a false result and increases the difficulty of latter surgery. Therefore, some complementary examinations are used, among these, ultrasonography. The retrospective study (April 2010-March 2013) conducted in the Clinic of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Emergency County Hospital, Tirgu Mures, Romania, aims to evaluate the relevance of the ultrasonography by itself in leading towards a proper preoperative assessment and diagnosis, and thus, in choosing the proper treatment plan. The study included 33 lesions of the major salivary glands, undergoing first ultrasonography, then curative surgery. Different characteristics (shape, dimension, consistency, vascularization, homogeneity, delimitation) were assessed on ultrasonography as well as on histopathology; finally, the correlation between those two examinations was evaluated, by comparing diagnoses. The results of our study are similar to others, showing that ultrasonography can diagnose preoperatively the majority lesions of major salivary glands. The conclusions of the study sustain the importance of ultrasonography as a routine examination in major salivary glands lesions. PMID:26193218

  8. Status of salivary lipid peroxidation in oral cancer and precancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shishir Ram Shetty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lipid oxidation gives rise to number of secondary by-products. Malondialdehyde (MDA is the principal and most widely studied product of polyunsaturated fatty acid peroxidation. This aldehyde is a highly toxic molecule and should be considered as more than just a marker of lipid peroxidation in oral carcinogenesis. Materials and Methods: Salivary malondiadldehyde was evaluated in 65 healthy controls (HC, 115 subjects with oral, potentially malignant disorders (PMD and 50 subjects with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC using the Thiobarbituric-Trichloroacetitic acid (TBA-TCA method. Results: A consistent elevation in the levels of salivary MDA was observed in HC with tobacco related habits, subjects with PMD and subjects with OSCC. The elevation in the salivary MDA was significant (P = 0.001 in the groups PMD and OSCC and group OSCC when compared to HC. Conclusion: The significant and encouraging findings of this study thus validate and reinforce that salivary malodialdehyde analysis can be used as an efficient, noninvasive tool for the early diagnosis of PMD and OSCC for planning comprehensive treatment protocol.

  9. Adenocarcinoma of the parotid salivary gland in a cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Breno S; Monteiro, Lidianne N; Grandi, Fabrizio; Nonogaki, Suely; Rocha, Rafael M; Rocha, Noeme S

    2012-09-01

    A 6-year-old Girolando dairy cow was presented for evaluation of a large subcutaneous facial mass. Fine-needle aspirates of the mass contained many neoplastic cells with high nuclear:cytoplasmic ratios arranged in sheets and loosely cohesive clusters with streaming erythrocytes and neutrophils in the background. Neoplastic cells were 13-25 ?m in diameter and were round to cuboidal with variably distinct borders. Based on the signalment, anatomic location, and cytologic findings, differential diagnoses included salivary adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and mucoepidermoid carcinoma. The cow was euthanized and a necropsy was performed. The primary neoplasm arose from the left parotid salivary gland and meastatic tumor was found in the regional lymph nodes and lung. Histologically, the tumor was composed of anastomosing and irregular solid islets surrounded by scant stroma. Cells were negative for periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), PAS-diastase, and Alcian blue pH 2.5 stains, used to detect mucin. On immunohistochemical analysis, neoplastic luminal salivary gland cells expressed cytokeratin, but not S100, ?-smooth muscle actin, or vimentin. Peripheral cells of neoplastic islets were immunoreactive for p63. The final diagnosis was nonsecretory adenocarcinoma of the parotid salivary gland. PMID:22954300

  10. Titratable acidity of beverages influences salivary pH recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenuta, Livia Maria Andaló; Fernández, Constanza Estefany; Brandão, Ana Carolina Siqueira; Cury, Jaime Aparecido

    2015-01-01

    A low pH and a high titratable acidity of juices and cola-based beverages are relevant factors that contribute to dental erosion, but the relative importance of these properties to maintain salivary pH at demineralizing levels for long periods of time after drinking is unknown. In this crossover study conducted in vivo, orange juice, a cola-based soft drink, and a 10% sucrose solution (negative control) were tested. These drinks differ in terms of their pH (3.5 ± 0.04, 2.5 ± 0.05, and 5.9 ± 0.1, respectively) and titratable acidity (3.17 ± 0.06, 0.57 ± 0.04 and buffering capacity kept 15 mL of each beverage in their mouth for 10 s, expectorated it, and their saliva was collected after 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 s. The salivary pH, determined using a mini pH electrode, returned to the baseline value at 30 s after expectoration of the cola-based soft drink, but only at 90 s after expectoration of the orange juice. The salivary pH increased to greater than 5.5 at 15 s after expectoration of the cola drink and at 30 s after expectoration of the orange juice. These findings suggest that the titratable acidity of a beverage influences salivary pH values after drinking acidic beverages more than the beverage pH. PMID:25715032

  11. Accumulation of radioactivity in rat brain and peripheral tissues including salivary gland after intravenous administration of {sup 14}C-D-aspartic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imai, Kazuhiro; Fukushima, Takeshi; Santa, Tomofumi; Homma, Hiroshi [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences; Sugihara, Juko; Kodama, Hirohiko; Yoshikawa, Masayoshi

    1997-03-01

    After the intravenous administration of {sup 14}C-D-aspartic acid (Asp) into Sprague-Dawley rats (male, 7-week-old), the distribution and elimination of radioactivity was investigated by the whole body autoradiography. High radioactivities were detected in pineal gland, pituitary gland and salivary gland at 30 min after administration. The other tissues detected were liver, lung, adrenal gland, pancreas and spleen where D-Asp was reported to occur naturally. After 24 hr, the radioactivities were still detected at high levels in the pineal, pituitary and salivary glands. The data suggested the natural occurrence of D-Asp in salivary gland. After careful examination utilizing fluorescent derivatization and chiral separation by high-performance liquid chromatography, the presence of D-Asp was, for the first time, demonstrated in salivary gland in situ, the concentration of which was 7.85 {+-} 1.0 nmol/g. The administration of {sup 14}C-L-Asp was also carried out. The data suggested that D-Asp in the circulating blood is one of the sources of the tissue D-Asp. (author)

  12. Accumulation of radioactivity in rat brain and peripheral tissues including salivary gland after intravenous administration of 14C-D-aspartic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the intravenous administration of 14C-D-aspartic acid (Asp) into Sprague-Dawley rats (male, 7-week-old), the distribution and elimination of radioactivity was investigated by the whole body autoradiography. High radioactivities were detected in pineal gland, pituitary gland and salivary gland at 30 min after administration. The other tissues detected were liver, lung, adrenal gland, pancreas and spleen where D-Asp was reported to occur naturally. After 24 hr, the radioactivities were still detected at high levels in the pineal, pituitary and salivary glands. The data suggested the natural occurrence of D-Asp in salivary gland. After careful examination utilizing fluorescent derivatization and chiral separation by high-performance liquid chromatography, the presence of D-Asp was, for the first time, demonstrated in salivary gland in situ, the concentration of which was 7.85 ± 1.0 nmol/g. The administration of 14C-L-Asp was also carried out. The data suggested that D-Asp in the circulating blood is one of the sources of the tissue D-Asp. (author)

  13. Evaluation of serum and salivary lipid profile: A correlative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simranjit Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The correlation of serum and salivary lipid profile has been poorly characterized. The most commonly used laboratory diagnostic procedures for lipid profile involve analysis of cellular and chemical constituents of blood/plasma. As a diagnostic aid, saliva offers many advantages over serum. Aims: To evaluate and compare the serum and salivary lipid profile levels in healthy individuals and to validate the role of saliva as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for assessing lipid profile. Settings and Design: The present study was a prospective study. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 healthy study subjects who had no complaint or any major illness in recent past were selected. The parameters assessed included serum and salivary: total cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDLC, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDLC, very low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDLC and triglycerides (TGL. Statistical Analysis Used: Evaluation of results and statistical analysis was carried out using descriptive, correlation and regression analysis. Results: There was a moderate level of correlation between serum and salivary TC, TGL, HDLC and VLDLC and there was a low and quite small correlation between serum and salivary LDLC. For all the five parameters assessed as a part of lipid profile, the correlation coefficients were highly significant statistically and also, with an increase in the serum mean values, corresponding increase in the saliva mean values for all the five parameters was noted. Conclusions: From the present study we conclude that saliva can be used as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for assessing lipid profile.

  14. Nuclear hBD-1 accumulation in malignant salivary gland tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whereas the antimicrobial peptides hBD-2 and -3 are related to inflammation, the constitutively expressed hBD-1 might function as 8p tumour suppressor gene and thus play a key role in control of transcription and induction of apoptosis in malignant epithelial tumours. Therefore this study was conducted to characterise proteins involved in cell cycle control and host defence in different benign and malignant salivary gland tumours in comparison with healthy salivary gland tissue. 21 paraffin-embedded tissue samples of benign (n = 7), and malignant (n = 7) salivary gland tumours as well as healthy (n = 7) salivary glands were examined immunohistochemically for the expression of p53, bcl-2, and hBD-1, -2, -3. HBD-1 was distributed in the cytoplasm of healthy salivary glands and benign salivary gland tumours but seems to migrate into the nucleus of malignant salivary gland tumours. Pleomorphic adenomas showed cytoplasmic as well as weak nuclear hBD-1 staining. HBD-1, 2 and 3 are traceable in healthy salivary gland tissue as well as in benign and malignant salivary gland tumours. As hBD-1 is shifted from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in malignant salivary gland tumours, we hypothesize that it might play a role in the oncogenesis of these tumours. In pleomorphic adenomas hBD-1 might be connected to their biologic behaviour of recurrence and malignant transformation

  15. Urinary cotinine levels and environmental tobacco smoke in mothers and children of Romania, Portugal and Poland within the European human biomonitoring pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lupsa, Ioana-Rodica; Nunes, Baltazar

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore data from the DEMOCOPHES study population for Romania, Portugal and Poland, in order to assess smoking patterns and the extent of ETS exposure and compare the national study samples with reference to the respective anti-smoking laws. The subset of the DEMOCOPHES study sample consisted of 360 children and their mothers (120 in each of the three countries - Romania (RO), Portugal (PT) and Poland (PL). Smoking was assessed using a detailed questionnaire for the participants, which addresses both active and passive smoking. This assessment uses exposure-relevant questionnaire data, in particular on the home environment and residence, socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle such as nutrition, smoking behavior, other exposure-relevant behavior and occupational history, as well as urinary cotinine and creatinine measurements. We performed general statistical analysis and innovative receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses. Smoking prevalence as evaluated by the questionnaire was generally high, and higher than official statistics, which suggests some under-reporting in the countries, particularly in Romania. Urinary cotinine levels provided biochemical confirmation of the high and similar smoking prevalence for the three countries. Concerning ETS exposure, Romania presented significantly higher levels, for children as well as for non-smoking mothers, with Portugal showing significantly lower levels. Compared to non-smoking mothers, the children showed relatively higher ETS exposure levels in all three countries. The established country-specific optimal cut-off values in urinary cotinine to distinguish smokers from non-smokers vary more than those to discriminate ETS exposure extent in non-smoking mothers and children. Although different between countries, these values are a valuable output to monitor effectiveness of both national antismoking laws and educational programs in the three countries. The findings of this study point to the urgent need for stronger, more effective and well enforced smoke-free legislation in the three countries.

  16. Urinary cotinine levels and environmental tobacco smoke in mothers and children of Romania, Portugal and Poland within the European human biomonitoring pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupsa, Ioana-Rodica; Nunes, Baltazar; Ligocka, Danuta; Elena Gurzau, Anca; Jakubowski, Marek; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Aerts, Dominique; Biot, Pierre; Den Hond, Elly; Castaño, Argelia; Esteban, Marta; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Fiddicke, Ulrike; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Schoeters, Greet; Fátima Reis, M

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore data from the DEMOCOPHES study population for Romania, Portugal and Poland, in order to assess smoking patterns and the extent of ETS exposure and compare the national study samples with reference to the respective anti-smoking laws. The subset of the DEMOCOPHES study sample consisted of 360 children and their mothers (120 in each of the three countries - Romania (RO), Portugal (PT) and Poland (PL). Smoking was assessed using a detailed questionnaire for the participants, which addresses both active and passive smoking. This assessment uses exposure-relevant questionnaire data, in particular on the home environment and residence, socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle such as nutrition, smoking behavior, other exposure-relevant behavior and occupational history, as well as urinary cotinine and creatinine measurements. We performed general statistical analysis and innovative receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses. Smoking prevalence as evaluated by the questionnaire was generally high, and higher than official statistics, which suggests some under-reporting in the countries, particularly in Romania. Urinary cotinine levels provided biochemical confirmation of the high and similar smoking prevalence for the three countries. Concerning ETS exposure, Romania presented significantly higher levels, for children as well as for non-smoking mothers, with Portugal showing significantly lower levels. Compared to non-smoking mothers, the children showed relatively higher ETS exposure levels in all three countries. The established country-specific optimal cut-off values in urinary cotinine to distinguish smokers from non-smokers vary more than those to discriminate ETS exposure extent in non-smoking mothers and children. Although different between countries, these values are a valuable output to monitor effectiveness of both national antismoking laws and educational programs in the three countries. The findings of this study point to the urgent need for stronger, more effective and well enforced smoke-free legislation in the three countries. PMID:25841796

  17. Asociación de la severidad de la periodontitis con niveles de cotinina y Porphyromonas gingivalis / Association between the severity of periodontitis with cotinine levels and Porphyromonas gingivalis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos Martín, Ardila Medina; Isabel Cristina, Guzmán Zuluaga; Maria Adelaida, Vélez Echeverri.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: la cotinina aumenta los efectos de las toxinas producidas por los periodontopatógenos y se ha observado que el hábito de fumar altera la respuesta humoral e incrementa la infectividad de la Porphyromonas gingivalis. Objetivo: investigar la asociación entre los niveles de cotinina, la sev [...] eridad y la extensión de la periodontitis, entre los niveles de cotinina y presencia de P. gingivalis. Método: en el presente estudio de corte transversal, el universo estuvo constituido por 108 sujetos. Los parámetros periodontales se midieron en seis sitios por diente en todos los dientes, se excluyó el tercer molar. Se tomaron muestras de P. gingivalis en las bolsas periodontales. Resultados: al comparar fumadores y no fumadores se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en la profundidad de sondaje y en el nivel de inserción clínica, con peores condiciones periodontales en los fumadores (p Abstract in english Background: cotinine increases the effects of the toxins produced by periodontopathogens and it has been observed that the smoking habit alters the humoral response and decreases the effectiveness of Porphyromonas gingivalis. Objective: to investigate the association between the cotinine levels and [...] the severity and extent of periodontitis; as well as between the cotinine levels and the presence of Porphyromonas gingivalis. Method: in the present cross-sectional study, the universe was composed of 108 individuals. The periodontal parameters were measured in six sites per tooth in all the teeth; the third molar was excluded. Some samples of Porphyromonas gingivalis in the periodontal pocket were taken. Results: when comparing smokers and non-smokers, differences statistically significant in the probing depth and in the clinical attachment level were observed with worse periodontal conditions in smokers (p

  18. Technical note: A method for quantification of saliva secretion and salivary flux of metabolites in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Adam Christian; Kristensen, Niels Bastian; Røjen, Betina Amdisen; Larsen, Mogens

    2013-01-01

    Salivary flow and net jugular flux of metabolites were studied during resting and rumination in 3 lactating dairy cows (BW 548 ± 17.2 kg, days in milk 113 ± 4 d). The method was based on the concentration difference between arterial and jugular blood, and jugular blood flow measured by downstream dilution of p-aminohippuric acid (pAH). Cows were surgically prepared with a permanent arterial catheter in A. intercostales dorsales before the trial. On sampling days, cows were prepared with left and...

  19. Elevada concentración de metabolitos de cotinina en hijos de padres fumadores / High levels of cotinine metabolite in smoker's parents children

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo, Lazcano-Ponce; Luisa María, Sánchez-Zamorano; Neil, Benowitz; Larissa, Barbosa-Sánchez; Mauricio, Hernández-Ávila.

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: La exposición al humo de tabaco de segunda mano (HTSM) en niños y adultos puede ser común en oficinas gubernamentales, lugares de trabajo, vehículos y espacios públicos, pero es de particular importancia en el hogar. Los grados de exposición elevados en niños pueden constituirse como l [...] a principal justificación para restringir el tabaquismo dentro del hogar. El objetivo fue determinar los valores de HTSM mediante biomarcadores séricos en binomios padres- hijos menores de cinco años, en México, participantes de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud 2000. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se seleccionaron 76 binomios padres-hijos de hogares con adultos no fumadores y 83 binomios similares pero con adultos fumadores en el hogar. La selección se restringió a hogares donde hubiera presencia de niños menores de cinco años de edad. Las muestras séricas se analizaron por cromatografía líquida. Se construyeron modelos de correlación de exposición entre los binomios padres-hijos estratificados por el antecedente de tabaquismo en los padres. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de individuos con más de 15 ng/mL de cotinina en suero en los fumadores fue de 100%; la cuantificación mínima fue 18.50 y la máxima de 221.5 ng/mL. En los adultos, los valores séricos de cotinina fueron 50 veces mayores en los fumadores (107.4 ng/mL) que en los no fumadores (1.99 ng/mL); similar observación a la referida tuvo la exposición a 3’-hidroxicotinina (0.69 en no fumadores vs. 33.59 ng/mL en adultos fumadores). Hubo una diferencia significativa tres veces mayor de valores de cotinina (0.19 vs. 0.60 ng/mL) y de 3’-hidroxicotinina (0.06 vs. 0.19 ng/mL) en los hijos de fumadores. CONCLUSIONES: A pesar de que existe diferencia significativa de HTSM en niños de padres fumadores, la exposición observada de HTSM en niños menores de cinco años de padres no fumadores también es relevante. En México se documenta por primera vez una elevada exposición al HTSM en niños, no sólo de padres fumadores sino también de padres no fumadores. Esto pone de relevancia que la exposición al HTSM no es sólo un problema de salud pública que se presenta en hogares de padres fumadores, sino que la exposición en niños mexicanos es frecuente en diversos lugares públicos. Es necesario implementar estudios adicionales en México para evaluar el impacto de intervenciones que garanticen hogares y espacios libres de humo de tabaco. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Children and adult exposure to SecondHand Smoke (SHS) may occur in government offices, work and public places as well as in vehicles. Nevertheless, SHS is particularly important at home. High exposure levels in children may be the main reason to prevent parents and other family members [...] from smoking at home. This study aims at establishing SHS levels by measuring biomakers in serum in pairs of parents and their younger than five years old children in Mexico, included in the 2000 National Health Survey. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventy-six parents-children pairs were taken from households with non smokers adults, as well as 83 pairs with adult smokers at home. Selection was limited to the adult population in households with children under five years old. Serum samples were analyzed through liquid chromatographic. Correlation exposure models between parents-children pairs were built and stratified according to parents’ background concerning smoking. RESULTS: In the smokers group, people with more than 15ng/mL of cotinine metabolites in serum showed prevalence of 100%. Minimum quantification was 18.50 and maximum 221.5ng/mL. In adults, cotinine metabolite levels in serun were 50 times higher in smokers (107.4ng/mL), than in non smokers (1.99 ng/mL). Concerning 3-hydroxycotinine, something similar was observed (0.60 in non smokers vs. 33.50 ng/mL in smokers). A significant difference three times higher in cotinine levels (0.10 vs. 0.60ng/mL) and 3-hydroxycotinine (0.06 vs. 0.19ng/mL) was found in those children with, at least, one of both parents who smoked. CONCLUSIO

  20. Elevada concentración de metabolitos de cotinina en hijos de padres fumadores High levels of cotinine metabolite in smoker's parents children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Lazcano-Ponce

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: La exposición al humo de tabaco de segunda mano (HTSM en niños y adultos puede ser común en oficinas gubernamentales, lugares de trabajo, vehículos y espacios públicos, pero es de particular importancia en el hogar. Los grados de exposición elevados en niños pueden constituirse como la principal justificación para restringir el tabaquismo dentro del hogar. El objetivo fue determinar los valores de HTSM mediante biomarcadores séricos en binomios padres- hijos menores de cinco años, en México, participantes de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud 2000. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se seleccionaron 76 binomios padres-hijos de hogares con adultos no fumadores y 83 binomios similares pero con adultos fumadores en el hogar. La selección se restringió a hogares donde hubiera presencia de niños menores de cinco años de edad. Las muestras séricas se analizaron por cromatografía líquida. Se construyeron modelos de correlación de exposición entre los binomios padres-hijos estratificados por el antecedente de tabaquismo en los padres. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de individuos con más de 15 ng/mL de cotinina en suero en los fumadores fue de 100%; la cuantificación mínima fue 18.50 y la máxima de 221.5 ng/mL. En los adultos, los valores séricos de cotinina fueron 50 veces mayores en los fumadores (107.4 ng/mL que en los no fumadores (1.99 ng/mL; similar observación a la referida tuvo la exposición a 3’-hidroxicotinina (0.69 en no fumadores vs. 33.59 ng/mL en adultos fumadores. Hubo una diferencia significativa tres veces mayor de valores de cotinina (0.19 vs. 0.60 ng/mL y de 3’-hidroxicotinina (0.06 vs. 0.19 ng/mL en los hijos de fumadores. CONCLUSIONES: A pesar de que existe diferencia significativa de HTSM en niños de padres fumadores, la exposición observada de HTSM en niños menores de cinco años de padres no fumadores también es relevante. En México se documenta por primera vez una elevada exposición al HTSM en niños, no sólo de padres fumadores sino también de padres no fumadores. Esto pone de relevancia que la exposición al HTSM no es sólo un problema de salud pública que se presenta en hogares de padres fumadores, sino que la exposición en niños mexicanos es frecuente en diversos lugares públicos. Es necesario implementar estudios adicionales en México para evaluar el impacto de intervenciones que garanticen hogares y espacios libres de humo de tabaco.INTRODUCTION: Children and adult exposure to SecondHand Smoke (SHS may occur in government offices, work and public places as well as in vehicles. Nevertheless, SHS is particularly important at home. High exposure levels in children may be the main reason to prevent parents and other family members from smoking at home. This study aims at establishing SHS levels by measuring biomakers in serum in pairs of parents and their younger than five years old children in Mexico, included in the 2000 National Health Survey. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventy-six parents-children pairs were taken from households with non smokers adults, as well as 83 pairs with adult smokers at home. Selection was limited to the adult population in households with children under five years old. Serum samples were analyzed through liquid chromatographic. Correlation exposure models between parents-children pairs were built and stratified according to parents’ background concerning smoking. RESULTS: In the smokers group, people with more than 15ng/mL of cotinine metabolites in serum showed prevalence of 100%. Minimum quantification was 18.50 and maximum 221.5ng/mL. In adults, cotinine metabolite levels in serun were 50 times higher in smokers (107.4ng/mL, than in non smokers (1.99 ng/mL. Concerning 3-hydroxycotinine, something similar was observed (0.60 in non smokers vs. 33.50 ng/mL in smokers. A significant difference three times higher in cotinine levels (0.10 vs. 0.60ng/mL and 3-hydroxycotinine (0.06 vs. 0.19ng/mL was found in those children with, at least, one of both parents who smoked. CONCLUSIONS: It is worthwhile noting that although ther

  1. Estimation of Cutoff Values of Cotinine in Urine and Saliva for Pregnant Women in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Stragierowicz; Karolina Miko?ajewska; Marta Zawadzka-Stolarz; Kinga Pola?ska; Danuta Ligocka

    2013-01-01

    Setting appropriate cutoff values and the use of a highly sensitive analytical method allow for correct classification of the smoking status. Urine-saliva pairs samples of pregnant women in the second and third trimester, and saliva only in the first trimester were collected. Offline SPE and LC-ESI-MS/MS method was developed in the broad concentration range (saliva 0.4–1000?ng/mL, urine 0.8–4000?ng/mL). The mean recoveries were 3.7 ± 7.6% for urine and 99.1 ± 2.6% for saliva. LOD for saliva w...

  2. Pleomorphic Adenoma (Benign Mixed Tumour) of the Minor Salivary Glands of the Upper Lip

    OpenAIRE

    Debnath, Subhas Chandra; Adhyapok, A. K.

    2010-01-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma is the benign tumor of salivary glands, which originates from the myoepithelial cells and intercalated duct cells. This tumor is more common in major salivary glands. This case report describes a rare and unusual lesion in a 55-year-old female, which was diagnosed as pleomorphic adenoma of the minor salivary glands in the upper lip. The tumor was a circumscribed, submucosal nodule, about 2.0 cm in diameter and was characterized by slow growth and rubbery consistency. Compl...

  3. Serial Analysis of Gene Expression in Plasmodium berghei salivary gland sporozoites

    OpenAIRE

    Ménard Robert; Couble Pierre; Briolay Jérôme; Bischoff Emmanuel; Perrot Sylvie; Boisson Bertrand; Chertemps Thomas; Rosinski-Chupin Isabelle; Brey Paul; Baldacci Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The invasion of Anopheles salivary glands by Plasmodium sporozoites is an essential step for transmission of the parasite to the vertebrate host. Salivary gland sporozoites undergo a developmental programme to express genes required for their journey from the site of the mosquito bite to the liver and subsequent invasion of, and development within, hepatocytes. A Serial Analysis of Gene Expression was performed on Anopheles gambiae salivary glands infected or not with Plas...

  4. Molecular Interactions of Surface Protein Peptides of Streptococcus gordonii with Human Salivary Components

    OpenAIRE

    Hamada, Tomoyuki; Kawashima, Masatsugu; Watanabe, Haruo; Tagami, Junji; Senpuku, Hidenobu

    2004-01-01

    Oral streptococci play a large role in dental biofilm formation, and several types interact as early colonizers with the enamel salivary pellicle to form the primary biofilm, as well as to incorporate other bacteria on tooth surfaces. Interactions of surface molecules of individual streptococci with the salivary pellicle on the tooth surface have an influence on the etiological properties of an oral biofilm. To elucidate the molecular interactions of streptococci with salivary components, bin...

  5. Chikungunya Virus Replication in Salivary Glands of the Mosquito Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Rúa, Anubis; Schmitt, Christine; Bonne, Isabelle; Krijnse Locker, Jacomine; Failloux, Anna-Bella

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an emerging arbovirus transmitted to humans by mosquitoes such as Aedes albopictus. To be transmitted, CHIKV must replicate in the mosquito midgut, then disseminate in the hemocele and infect the salivary glands before being released in saliva. We have developed a standardized protocol to visualize viral particles in the mosquito salivary glands using transmission electron microscopy. Here we provide direct evidence for CHIKV replication and storage in Ae. albopictus salivary glands. PMID:26593936

  6. Chikungunya Virus Replication in Salivary Glands of the Mosquito Aedes albopictus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anubis Vega-Rúa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is an emerging arbovirus transmitted to humans by mosquitoes such as Aedes albopictus. To be transmitted, CHIKV must replicate in the mosquito midgut, then disseminate in the hemocele and infect the salivary glands before being released in saliva. We have developed a standardized protocol to visualize viral particles in the mosquito salivary glands using transmission electron microscopy. Here we provide direct evidence for CHIKV replication and storage in Ae. albopictus salivary glands.

  7. P2X7 receptor activation induces inflammatory responses in salivary gland epithelium

    OpenAIRE

    Woods, Lucas T.; Camden, Jean M.; Batek, Josef M.; Petris, Michael J.; Erb, Laurie; Weisman, Gary A

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation of the salivary gland is a well-documented aspect of salivary gland dysfunction that occurs in Sjogren's syndrome (SS), an autoimmune disease, and in ?-radiation-induced injury during treatment of head and neck cancers. Extracellular nucleotides have gained recognition as key modulators of inflammation through activation of cell surface ionotropic and metabotropic receptors, although the contribution of extracellular nucleotides to salivary gland inflammation is not well understo...

  8. Differential responses of serum and salivary interleukin-6 to acute strenuous exercise

    OpenAIRE

    ANGELI, Alberto; Minetto, Marco Alessandro; Terzolo, Massimo; PACCOTTI, Piero; Rainoldi, Alberto

    2005-01-01

    Physical exercise is associated with elevation of serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) because of its production in the muscles. The use of IL-6 measurements in saliva has been proposed in the field of immunopathology, mainly involving salivary gland disease. We evaluated the responses of serum and salivary IL-6 in two different groups of athletes submitted to different types of controlled strenuous exercise (spinning activity and maximal isokinetic test). Serum and salivary samples for IL-6 ...

  9. Minor Salivary Glands Morphology in Xerostomia Patients Morfología de las Glándulas Salivales Menores en Pacientes Xerostomizados

    OpenAIRE

    Bianca Maria Liquidato; Mirna Duarte Barros; Ivo Bussoloti Filho; Celina Siqueira Barbosa Pereira; Maria Inêz Marcondes Macéa

    2006-01-01

    The minor salivary glands are found scattered throughout the oral mucosa, especially in the lips and soft palate mucosa. Several factors can cause xerostomia, whereas the salivary glands histological characteristics are also considered as factors for defining the etiology. Thus, the minor salivary glands biopsy represents an essential tool for attending the required diagnosis criterion in the classification of Sjögren's Syndrome patients, since it does not present risk for the patient. The ob...

  10. Imaging of the salivary glands in children and adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In children and adolescents, imaging of the salivary glands is a valuable supplement to clinical examination in various diseases. The choice of the most appropriate radiological technique depends on patient compliance, the necessity of avoiding radiation exposure as far as possible, and the tentative diagnosis made on the basis of the clinical examination. Ultrasonography (US) is the method of choice for the detection of both acute inflammatory disease and masses in the salivary gland and the adjacent tissue. US can also be implemented as a screening method for calculi, though sialography is superior for this purpose. Sialography is the only technique that allows diagnosis and evaluation of the degree of chronic inflammation. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are required for more deeply located neoplasms of the parotid region. (orig.)

  11. Six months of daily high-dose xylitol in high-risk schoolchildren: a randomized clinical trial on plaque pH and salivary mutans streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campus, G; Cagetti, M G; Sacco, G; Solinas, G; Mastroberardino, S; Lingström, P

    2009-01-01

    A randomized clinical trial was designed to evaluate the effect of daily high-dose xylitol chewing gum on plaque pH and salivary mutans streptococci (MS) in a sample of schoolchildren at high risk of caries. The study was performed on 204 subjects (acceptance rate 88.3%). Inclusion criteria were: >1 and 10(5) CFU/ml. Subjects were randomly assigned to the xylitol or control group. Study design included one examination at baseline (t(0)), one after 3 months of chewing (t(1)), one after 6 months of chewing (t(2)) and the last 3 months after the end of chewing period (t(3)). Plaque pH was assessed using the MicroTouch technique, following a sucrose challenge. The area under the curve (AUC(5.7) and AUC(6.2)) was recorded. Whole saliva was collected in sterile vials and MS CFU/ml were counted. Data were analysed using repeated-measures ANOVA. The main result was that plaque acidogenicity was reduced in both groups. The differences between treatments were statistically significant both for plaque pH and MS concentration; the interaction term for treatment and time was statistically significant (p xylitol group children with a salivary MS concentration >10(5) and those with xylitol chewing gums, both on plaque pH and MS salivary concentration. PMID:20016175

  12. Comparison of salivary flow and candidal carriage in patients with oral submucous fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavana Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF is a high-risk precancerous condition that predominantly affects Indians due to prevalent gutka chewing. Changes in the salivary flow rate and its effect on candidal carriage in patients suffering from OSMF have not been extensively explored. Aim: The aim of this study is to compare the salivary flow rate and salivary candidal carriage in OSMF patients and healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: This pilot study included a total of 30 OSMF patients and 30 healthy individuals. Salivary flow was estimated using preweighed cotton rolls placed at the openings of major salivary duct for 5 min. The cotton rolls were then removed from the oral cavity and weighed again. The difference in weight was recorded. Salivary samples were collected by the oral rinse technique and cultured on Sabouraud agar medium. The cultured yeast colonies were identified based on Gram?s staining, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS and germ tube formation. Result: There was statistically significant (P < 0.001 decreased salivary flow rate in OSMF individuals as compared to the control. Salivary flow rates constantly reduced with different grades of OSMF patients, although candidal carriage was seen in grade II and grade III OSMF patients. Conclusion: A higher incidence of Candida was observed in OSMF patients when compared to the healthy individuals. The results of our study suggest that a higher candidal carriage in grade II and grade III OSMF patients could be related to decreased salivary flow rate.

  13. Salivary biomarkers associated with academic assessment stress among dental undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Vivian; Koh, David; Mok, Betty Y Y; Chia, Sin-Eng; Lim, Lum-Peng

    2003-10-01

    This study aims to assess the difference in self-perceived stress before and after an academic assessment and its association with the marks scored and to study the association of salivary cortisol, Immunoglobulin A (IgA), and chromogranin A (CgA) with stress levels before and after the assessment. Thirty-one third-year dental undergraduates indicated how stressed they felt on a 5-point rating scale just prior to and immediately after a one-hour written test. Five-minute unstimulated whole saliva samples were also collected at those times to measure salivary cortisol, IgA, and CgA. Students rated significantly higher stress scores before (median [inter quartile range]: 3[1]), compared to after the test (2[2]) (p = 0.015). Higher cortisol levels (mean: 6.32 nmol/l) were observed before than after the exam (mean: 5.16 nmol/l) (p = 0.015). No significant differences were noted between the pre- and post-test saliva samples for salivary IgA and CgA levels. A negative correlation was seen between post-test stress scores and test marks (Spearman's r = -0.325, p = 0.07). Dental students perceived a higher level of stress prior to the test, which declined after that. Pre-test stress scores were associated with raised salivary cortisol, but not IgA or CgA. Students who perceived higher levels of stress after the test generally had poorer results. PMID:14587673

  14. Salivary function in patients with chronic renal failure undergoing hemodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in salivary gland function in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) undergoing hemodialysis. The group consisted of 23 patients with CRF (13 female, 10 male; mean age: 40±13 yr) and 14 healthy control subjects (mean age: 40±13 yr). All underwent dynamic salivary gland scintigraphy with gustatory stimulation. After intravenous administration of 99mTc pertechnetate, first, perfusion images at 2 seconds per frame were acquired for 1 minute, then dynamic images at 1 minute per frame were acquired for 45 minutes. At 30 minutes after injection , 10 ml lemon juice was given for 15 minutes as a gustatory stimulus. We obtained time-activity curves derived from regions of interest centered over the four major salivary glands. The following functional indices were calculated for each gland: the time of maximum radioactivity (Tmax) for the prestimulated period, the time of minimum radioactivity (Tmin), as an indicator of velocity of secretion after stimulation, and the Lem E5% value as an indicator of the secretion function. When the patients with CRF undergoing hemodialysis were compared to the controls, there were statistically significant differences in Tmax, Tmin and Lem E5% values for bilateral parotid glands, and Tmin values for bilateral submandibular glands (pmax and Lem E5% values for bilateral submandibular glands. There were also significant differences in Tmax and Lem E5% values for bilateral parotid glands between mild oral problems and severe oral problems in patients with CRF (undergoing hemodialysis). In this study, prolonged Tmax and Tmin values, and decreased Lem E5% values for parotid glands and prolonged Tmin values for submandibular glands on salivary scintigraphy pointed out decreased parenchymatous and excretory function in patients with CRF undergoing hemodialysis. (author)

  15. Clinical management of salivary deficiency: A review article

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physical, chemical and antibacterial properties of saliva provide protection to human dentition against dental diseases, Therefore, salivary deficiency has to be managed carefully. The causes of saliva deficiency are many and varied. It is worth mentioning that saliva flow rate is normally affected by physiologic condition, such as eating, resting, sleeping, cold or hot season etc. In this paper the protective role of saliva, etiologiy of saliva deficiency and its clinical management are discussed. (author

  16. Wetting the whistle: neurotropic factor improves salivary function

    OpenAIRE

    Swick, Adam; Kimple, Randall J

    2014-01-01

    Xerostomia, or dry mouth, is a common side effect of head and neck radiotherapy, Sjögren syndrome, diabetes, old age, and numerous medications. In this issue of the JCI, Xiao and colleagues identified glial cell line–derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) as a potential stimulus for salivary stem cell growth. Due to its ability to promote neuronal growth, differentiation, and survival, GDNF is currently being used in clinical trials as a treatment for Parkinson disease; therefore, the findings of...

  17. Tick salivary secretion as a source of antihemostatics.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chmela?, Jind?ich; Calvo, E.; Pedra, J. H. F.; Francischetti, I.M.B.; Kotsyfakis, Michalis

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 75, ?. 13 (2012), s. 3842-3854. ISSN 1874-3919 R&D Projects: GA ?R GAP502/12/2409 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Tick * Salivary gland * Hemostasis * Coagulation * Platelet aggregation * Thrombin Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.088, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S187439191200245X

  18. An Update on Grading of Salivary Gland Carcinomas

    OpenAIRE

    Raja R. Seethala

    2009-01-01

    Histologic grade is a significant predictor of outcome in salivary gland carcinomas. However, the sheer variety of tumor type and the rarity of these tumors pose challenges to devising highly predictive grading schemes. As our knowledge base has evolved, it is clear that carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma is not automatically a high grade tumor as is traditionally suggested. These tumors should be further qualified as to type/grade of carcinoma and extent, since intracapsular and minimally inva...

  19. Classification of salivary gland tumours - a brief histopathological review

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, R H W

    1995-01-01

    Tumours of the salivary glands display a wide variety of histological appearances, and vary in behaviour from totally benign to high grade and usually fatal malignancies. Over the past 40 years several classification schemes have been proposed, of which the most comprehensive and accurate are those of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP) and the World Health Organization (WHO) which were both revised in 1991. They are readily applicable by practis...

  20. Possible salivary and serum biomarkers for oral lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totan, A; Miricescu, D; Parlatescu, I; Mohora, M; Greabu, M

    2015-10-01

    There are few reports concerning the potential for clinical application of oxidative stress (OS) and collagen degradation markers in oral lichen planus (OLP) patients. We investigated the possibility of using some disease-related biomarkers in saliva and serum of OLP patients. Our study included 30 patients with OLP and 30 controls. We evaluated serum and salivary OS biomarkers including 8-OHdG, MDA, uric acid, TAC and GPx. We also investigated collagen degradation markers such as CTX I and MMP-8. We found significantly increased salivary levels of MMP-8 and CTX I in the OLP group compared to controls and significant differences between the OLP and control groups in serum and saliva for 8-OHdG, MDA (significantly increased), uric acid, TAC and GPx (significantly reduced). Currently there are no criteria for evaluating which OLP patients have a greater risk of malignant transformation. In addition to clinical surveillance, the serum and salivary biomarkers that we evaluated may be useful biomarkers for monitoring OLP patients in the future. PMID:25839238

  1. Salivary IgA is a weak stress marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouton, C; Fillion, L; Tawadros, E; Tessier, R

    1989-01-01

    Several studies support the hypothesis that psychological stress may negatively affect immunocompetence. The present study sought to determine whether a relationship can be established between a measure of psychological state of stress and level of immunoglobulin of the A class (IgA) in saliva. To this end, 44 dentistry students were tested on four occasions; two occasions were stress inductive (examination situation), and two occasions were free of any academic stressor. At each session, the participants were asked to fill out the stress rating instrument, and unstimulated whole saliva samples were obtained. Salivary IgA was measured by a microplate Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). A significant difference in the level of salivary IgA was observed only for the most polarized contrast, ie, between final exam and end of summer vacation (p less than .01). A weak negative correlation between the level of salivary IgA and the stress rating was observed (r = -0.25) only at the final exam. Our results suggest that assaying immunoglobulin A in saliva to measure stress may not be as useful in psychophysiological research as expected. PMID:2597782

  2. Prognostic significance of Ki-67 in salivary gland carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Stine Rosenkilde; BjØrndal, Kristine

    2012-01-01

    J Oral Pathol Med (2012) Background:? Salivary gland carcinomas are a heterogeneous group of tumors with varying malignant potential. In this study, we evaluated the proliferative marker Ki-67 in salivary gland carcinomas and related the Ki-67 index to clinical data. Methods:? A total of 176 salivary gland carcinomas of 13 different subtypes were stained immunohistochemically for Ki-67. The number of Ki-67 positive cells was counted and the Ki-67 index was calculated as the percentage of positive tumor cells. Results:? The Ki-67 median value was 26 (range 1-99). The median follow-up time was 6.9?years (range 0-19?years). The 5- and 10-year crude survival was 70% and 59%, respectively. In univariate analysis, Ki-67 index, stage, vascular invasion and tumor grade were significantly related to crude survival, but in multivariate analysis only Ki-67 index, age, and stage were independent prognostic factors. Conclusion:? We showed that irrespective of subtyping, grading or morphological appearance of tumor, the Ki-67 index is an important and independent prognosticator. Clinical and histo-pathological data must be considered, when planning the treatment of the individual patient. We have shown that besides stage and age of the patient, Ki-67 is a strong, independent prognostic factor.

  3. Do waking salivary cortisol levels correlate with anesthesiologist's job involvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Moti; Weksler, Natan; Gidron, Yori; Heldman, Eliyahu; Gurski, Eugen; Smith, Otto Robert F; Gurman, Gabriel M

    2012-12-01

    Anesthetists' work carries great responsibility and can be very stressful. Cognitive appraisal plays a central role in stress responses; however, little is known about the relationship between stress appraisal and biological markers of stress, particularly among anesthesiologists. Stress response may be associated with increased levels of systemic cortisol, which can be conveniently measured in saliva and used as a marker for the extent of stress. The objective of this study was to examine the correlation between work-related cognitive variables and waking salivary cortisol, a possible stress marker, in anesthesiologists. Thirty-eight anesthesiologists were assessed for work-related thought intrusions and perceived "mental distance" between themselves and their work, using the pictorial representation of illness self-measure (PRISM), and underwent an implicit association test reflecting implicit job-stress associations. Salivary cortisol was measured twice upon awakening and an hour later, in saliva samples, using a kit based on chemoluminescence competition assay. Only implicit job-stress associations were correlated with waking cortisol (r = 0.35, p job-stress was related to elevated cortisol only among anesthesiologists reporting large "mental distance" from work, which may represent limited job involvement related to burnout. Anesthesiologists with a low degree of job involvement who have high implicit job-stress associations have higher levels of waking salivary cortisol. Further studies are necessary to assess the impact of stress management techniques on anesthesiologists' personal and professional behavior as well as on the quality of medical care. PMID:22592182

  4. Salivary markers of oxidative stress in oral diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóthová, L'ubomíra; Kamodyová, Natália; ?ervenka, Tomáš; Celec, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Saliva is an interesting alternative diagnostic body fluid with several specific advantages over blood. These include non-invasive and easy collection and related possibility to do repeated sampling. One of the obstacles that hinders the wider use of saliva for diagnosis and monitoring of systemic diseases is its composition, which is affected by local oral status. However, this issue makes saliva very interesting for clinical biochemistry of oral diseases. Periodontitis, caries, oral precancerosis, and other local oral pathologies are associated with oxidative stress. Several markers of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and DNA damage induced by reactive oxygen species can be measured in saliva. Clinical studies have shown an association with oral pathologies at least for some of the established salivary markers of oxidative stress. This association is currently limited to the population level and none of the widely used markers can be applied for individual diagnostics. Oxidative stress seems to be of local oral origin, but it is currently unclear whether it is caused by an overproduction of reactive oxygen species due to inflammation or by the lack of antioxidants. Interventional studies, both, in experimental animals as well as humans indicate that antioxidant treatment could prevent or slow-down the progress of periodontitis. This makes the potential clinical use of salivary markers of oxidative stress even more attractive. This review summarizes basic information on the most commonly used salivary markers of oxidative damage, antioxidant status, and carbonyl stress and the studies analyzing these markers in patients with caries or periodontitis. PMID:26539412

  5. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE FACIAL ARTERY AND SUB MANDIBULAR SALIVARY GLAND

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    S.V.Venugopal,

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of relationship between the facial artery and submandibular salivary gland is essential for the surgeon operating in the submandibular region. This study has been under taken to have the knowledge of this relationship. Submandibular region has been dissected on 20 male cadavers in the Department of Anatomy, Sree Narayana Institute of Medical Sciences, Kerala. The course of the facial artery and its relationship to submandibular salivary gland has been followed carefully. The standard description of ascent of the facial artery along the entire length of posterior border of the submandibular salivary gland was seen in 15 out of the 20 sides studied. In 4 out of 20 sides dissected the facial artery reached only the upper part of the posterior border of the gland. The facial artery arose high on the external carotid artery near the angle of the mandible in one specimen. It reached the gland only at its postero-superior angle, pierced through the gland and emerged on the upper part of the lateral surface of the gland. Our study shows that only 1/5 of instances facial artery courses along the posterior border of the gland. In 4/5 of instances it reaches only the upper part of the posterior border.

  6. Characterization of salivary alpha-amylase binding to Streptococcus sanguis

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    Scannapieco, F.A.; Bergey, E.J.; Reddy, M.S.; Levine, M.J. (State Univ. of New York, Buffalo (USA))

    1989-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the major salivary components which interact with oral bacteria and to determine the mechanism(s) responsible for their binding to the bacterial surface. Strains of Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, and Actinomyces viscosus were incubated for 2 h in freshly collected human submandibular-sublingual saliva (HSMSL) or parotid saliva (HPS), and bound salivary components were eluted with 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate. By sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western transfer, alpha-amylase was the prominent salivary component eluted from S. sanguis. Studies with {sup 125}I-labeled HSMSL or {sup 125}I-labeled HPS also demonstrated a component with an electrophoretic mobility identical to that of alpha-amylase which bound to S. sanguis. Purified alpha-amylase from human parotid saliva was radiolabeled and found to bind to strains of S. sanguis genotypes 1 and 3 and S. mitis genotype 2, but not to strains of other species of oral bacteria. Binding of ({sup 125}I)alpha-amylase to streptococci was saturable, calcium independent, and inhibitable by excess unlabeled alpha-amylases from a variety of sources, but not by secretory immunoglobulin A and the proline-rich glycoprotein from HPS. Reduced and alkylated alpha-amylase lost enzymatic and bacterial binding activities. Binding was inhibited by incubation with maltotriose, maltooligosaccharides, limit dextrins, and starch.

  7. Sialolipoma of the parotid gland: Case report with literature review comparing major and minor salivary gland sialolipomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qayyum, Sohail; Meacham, Ryan; Sebelik, Merry; Zafar, Nadeem

    2013-01-01

    Sialolipoma is a rare tumor found within both major and minor salivary glands. Here we discuss sialolipoma of the parotid gland and briefly review the English literature. Including our case, a total of 35 sialolipomas have been reported, 18 within major salivary glands and 17 within minor salivary glands. Major gland sialolipomas most often are presented in the parotid gland (77%) and those from minor glands were most often seen in the palate (41%). All lesions were well circumscribed and contained mature adipose tissue intimately admixed with benign salivary gland components. Ductal dilatation was found in 100% of minor salivary gland sialolipomas but in only 28% of major salivary gland tumors. Nerve entrapment has also rarely been noted in major salivary glands (14%) whereas myxoid degeneration has been identified in rare minor salivary glands tumors (13%). Treatment is surgical excision and is curative with no reports of recurrence. PMID:23798838

  8. Sialolipoma of the parotid gland: Case report with literature review comparing major and minor salivary gland sialolipomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohail Qayyum

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sialolipoma is a rare tumor found within both major and minor salivary glands. Here we discuss sialolipoma of the parotid gland and briefly review the English literature. Including our case, a total of 35 sialolipomas have been reported, 18 within major salivary glands and 17 within minor salivary glands. Major gland sialolipomas most often are presented in the parotid gland (77% and those from minor glands were most often seen in the palate (41%. All lesions were well circumscribed and contained mature adipose tissue intimately admixed with benign salivary gland components. Ductal dilatation was found in 100% of minor salivary gland sialolipomas but in only 28% of major salivary gland tumors. Nerve entrapment has also rarely been noted in major salivary glands (14% whereas myxoid degeneration has been identified in rare minor salivary glands tumors (13%. Treatment is surgical excision and is curative with no reports of recurrence.

  9. (S)- and (R)-[11C]nicotine and the metabolite (R/S)-[11C]cotinine. Preparation, metabolite studies and in vivo distribution in the human brain using PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate [11C]nicotine binding and metabolism in the living human brain by PET, routine protocols were developed for the preparation and purification of (S)-and (R)-[11C]nicotine and the metabolite (R/S)-[11C]cotinine. (S)- and (R)-[11C]nicotine were prepared by N-methylation with [11C]methyl iodide of the appropriate secondary amine, which was liberated in situ by 2,2,6,6,-tetramethylpiperidine (TMP) from its corresponding biscamsylate-salt. (R/S)-[11C]Cotinine was prepared by N-methylation of the amide precursor using tetrabutylammonium hydroxide as a phase transfer catalyst. Straight-phase semipreparative HPLC was in all purifications found to be superior to reversed-phase since the contamination by the norcompounds was eliminated. Reaction in acetonitrile for both (S)- and (R)-[11C]nicotine and (R/S)-[11C]cotinine with subsequent straight-phase HPLC purification resulted in 35-45% radiochemical yield with a total synthesis time of 30-35 min, a specific radioactivity of 1000-1500 Ci/mmol (37-55 GBq/?mol, EOS) and a radiochemical purity >99%. The uptake and distribution of these tracers in the human brain was studied in healthy volunteers by PET. The metabolite (R/S)-[11C]cotinine did not cross the blood-brain barrier to any significant degree. (author)

  10. Daytime Secretion of Salivary Cortisol and Alpha-Amylase in Preschool-Aged Children with Autism and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Sharon A.; Corbett, Blythe A.; Granger, Douglas A.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Anders, Thomas F.; Tager, Ira B.

    2012-01-01

    We examined daytime salivary cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) secretion levels and variability in preschool-aged children with autism (AUT) and typically developing children (TYP). Fifty-two subjects (26 AUT and 26 TYP) were enrolled. Salivary samples were obtained at waking, midday, and bedtime on two consecutive days at three phases…

  11. Unraveling dual feeding associated molecular complexity of salivary glands in the mosquito Anopheles culicifacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Punita; Sharma, Swati; Mishra, Ashwani Kumar; Thomas, Tina; Das De, Tanwee; Rohilla, Suman Lata; Singh, Namita; Pandey, Kailash C; Valecha, Neena; Dixit, Rajnikant

    2015-01-01

    Mosquito salivary glands are well known to facilitate meal acquisition, however the fundamental question on how adult female salivary gland manages molecular responses during sugar versus blood meal uptake remains unanswered. To investigate these responses, we analyzed a total of 58.5 million raw reads generated from two independent RNAseq libraries of the salivary glands collected from 3-4?day-old sugar and blood fed Anopheles culicifacies mosquitoes. Comprehensive functional annotation analysis of 10,931 contigs unraveled that salivary glands may encode diverse nature of proteins in response to distinct physiological feeding status. Digital gene expression analysis and PCR validation indicated that first blood meal significantly alters the molecular architecture of the salivary glands. Comparative microscopic analysis also revealed that first blood meal uptake not only causes an alteration of at least 12-22% of morphological features of the salivary glands but also results in cellular changes e.g. apoptosis, confirming together that adult female salivary glands are specialized organs to manage meal specific responses. Unraveling the underlying mechanism of mosquito salivary gene expression, controlling dual feeding associated responses may provide a new opportunity to control vector borne diseases. PMID:26163527

  12. Sex Differences in Salivary Cortisol, Alpha-Amylase, and Psychological Functioning Following Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigil, Jacob M.; Geary, David C.; Granger, Douglas A.; Flinn, Mark V.

    2010-01-01

    The study examines group and individual differences in psychological functioning and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity among adolescents displaced by Hurricane Katrina and living in a U.S. government relocation camp (n = 62, ages 12-19 years) 2 months postdisaster. Levels of salivary cortisol, salivary

  13. Vitamin E protects salivary glands dysfunction induced by ionizing radiation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi, Seyed Mohammad; Yarmand, Fateme; Motallebnejad, Mina; Seyedmajidi, Maryam; Moslemi, Dariush; Ashrafpour, Manouchehr; Bijani, Ali; Moghadamnia, Aliakbar; Mardanshahi, Alireza; Hosseinimehr, Seyed Jalal

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the radioprotective effect of vitamin E as a natural product. Vitamin E protects the salivary glands dysfunction that is induced by ionizing radiation. It was analysed with radioisotope scintigraphy and then salivary gland to background counts ratio was calculated. Histopathological evaluation was performed. The rats were treated with vitamin E at dose of 400IU/kg 48, 24, and 1h before 15Gy gamma rays irradiation. The rats were evaluated for the salivary gland function through nuclear medicine protocol. Radiation causes significant salivary glands dysfunction at the 3rd and the 70th days with a reduction in radioactivity uptake in the salivary glands. Ratios of salivary gland to background radioactivities were 1.99±0.11, 1.58±0.08 and 1.92±0.04 for control, radiation, and vitamin E plus radiation groups, respectively. Vitamin E significantly improved salivary gland dysfunction induced by ionizing radiation in the rats. In conclusion, our results indicate protective effects of vitamin E against salivary gland dysfunction induced by gamma radiation. Thus, vitamin E is a promising radioprotective agent for patients who receive radiation in head and neck cancer therapy. PMID:26150230

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of Pathogenic Guinea Pig Cytomegalovirus from Salivary Gland Homogenates of Infected Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Dongmei; Tamburro, Kristen; Dittmer, Dirk; Cui, Xiaohong; McVoy, Michael A; Hernandez-Alvarado, Nelmary; Mark R Schleiss

    2013-01-01

    The sequence of guinea pig cytomegalovirus (GPCMV) was determined by direct sequencing of salivary gland homogenates obtained following sustained, serial in vivo passage of pathogenic virus in guinea pigs. The 233,501-nucleotide salivary gland (SG) genome was noted to have 11 differences compared to the tissue culture-passaged virus, although no variations were noted in putative protein coding sequences.

  15. Morphology and Proteome Characterization of the Salivary Glands of the Western Chinch Bug (Hemiptera: Blissidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramm, Crystal; Wayadande, Astri; Baird, Lisa; Nandakumar, Renu; Madayiputhiya, Nandakumar; Amundsen, Keenan; Donze-Reiner, Teresa; Baxendale, Frederick; Sarath, Gautam; Heng-Moss, Tiffany

    2015-08-01

    The western chinch bug, Blissus occiduus Barber, is a serious pest of buffalograss, Buchloe dactyloides (Nuttall) due to physical and chemical damage caused during the feeding process. Although previous work has investigated the feeding behaviors of chinch bugs in the Blissus complex, no study to date has explored salivary gland morphology and the associated salivary complex of this insect. Whole and sectioned B. occiduus salivary glands were visualized using light and scanning electron microscopy to determine overall structure and cell types of the salivary glands and their individual lobes. Microscopy revealed a pair of trilobed principal glands and a pair of tubular accessory glands of differing cellular types. To link structure with function, the salivary gland proteome was characterized using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The salivary proteome analysis resulted in B. occiduus sequences matching 228 nonhomologous protein sequences of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris), with many specific to the proteins present in the salivary proteome of A. pisum. A number of sequences were assigned the molecular function of hydrolase and oxido-reductase activity, with one specific protein sequence revealing a peroxidase-like function. This is the first study to characterize the salivary proteome of B. occiduus and the first of any species in the family Blissidae. PMID:26470353

  16. Salivary Markers of Oxidative Stress and Their Relation to Periodontal and Dental Status in Children

    OpenAIRE

    L’ubomíra Tóthová; Viera Celecová; Peter Celec

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown that salivary thiobarbituric acid reactive substances are related to the periodontal status in adults. Such an analysis has not been done on children yet. The aim of our study was to analyze salivary markers of oxidative stress in relation to periodontal and dental status in children.

  17. Rabies virus in the salivary glands and nasal mucosa of naturally infected skunks.

    OpenAIRE

    Charlton, K.M.; Casey, G. A.; Webster, W A

    1984-01-01

    Several salivary glands and the nasal mucosa of rabid skunks (Mephitis mephitis) contained rabies virus. Generally titers were high in the submandibular, moderate in the parotid and low to moderate in the zygomatic, molar and sublingual salivary glands. The nasal mucosa (glands and epithelium) contained virus at low to moderate titers that occasionally were equal to titers in brain.

  18. Salivary and serum biomarkers for the study of side effects of aripiprazole coprescribed with mirtazapine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdan, Maria; Silosi, Isabela; Surlin, Petra; Tica, Andrei Adrian; Tica, Oana Sorina; Balseanu, Tudor-Adrian; Rauten, Anne-Marie; Camen, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the co-administration of aripiprazole and mirtazapine could determine weight gain and lipid metabolism disorders in Wistar rats, compared to the same side effects produced by mirtazapine alone, and the risk of hepatotoxicity due to the combination of the two substances. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP/FABP1) and repulsive guidance molecule C/hemojuvelin (RGM-C/HJV) levels were determined in serum and in saliva. Also, serum levels for total cholesterol (TC), low and high-density lipoprotein (LDL, HDL), triglycerides (TG), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT) and alanine amino transferase (ALAT) were assessed. We found positive and statistically significant correlations between serum and salivary levels of TNF-?, L-FABP/FABP1 and RGM-C/HJV. Mirtazapine determined significantly differences of TNF-? and L-FABP serum levels; final body weight; TC and LDL levels, leading to higher concentrations than its association with aripiprazole. Although not statistically significant, mirtazapine group experienced higher values for salivary levels of TNF-?, TG and ASAT, and lower values for HDL, compared to aripiprazole + mirtazapine group. The results suggest that aripiprazole might improve some of the disturbances caused by mirtazapine, and that the two drugs combination cause no additional alterations in liver function. Also, the findings indicate that TNF-?, L-FABP/FABP1 and RGM-C/HJV levels can be helpful as biomarkers for metabolic disturbances and impaired function of hepatocytes, and that their salivary determination can replace serum determination. PMID:26221370

  19. Comparison of salivary cortisol as measured by different immunoassays and tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert; Plessow, Franziska; Rauh, Manfred; Gröschl, Michael; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2013-01-01

    Assessing the amount of bioavailable cortisol in saliva with immunoassays and thus sampling an endocrine marker of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity is of major interest in both research and clinical practice. However, absolute cortisol concentrations obtained with different immunoassays (IAs) are barely comparable precluding direct comparison between studies or individuals whenever cortisol analyses were not based on the same IA. The present technical report aims to solve this problem by evaluating the validity of, as well as agreement between the most commonly used immunoassays in psychoneuroendocrinological research (i.e., IBL, DRG, Salimetrics, DSL, and DELFIA) and a reference method (LC-MS/MS) in a sample of 195 saliva specimen covering the whole range of cortisol concentrations in adults. A structural equation modelling framework is applied to decompose systematic assay variance and estimate cortisol reference values, which are adjusted for measurement error and interference of salivary cortisone. Our findings reveal nonlinear relations between IAs and LC-MS/MS, which are discussed in terms of IA cross-reactivity with saliva matrix components. Finally guidelines for converting cortisol concentrations being obtained by these immunoassays into comparable reference values are proposed by providing conversion functions, a conversion table, and an online conversion tool. PMID:22641005

  20. Clinical Performance of a Salivary Amylase Activity Monitor During Hemodialysis Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru Shimazaki

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The hemodialysis procedure is thought to be a physical stressor in the majority of hemodialyzed patients. Previous studies suggest that elevated salivary amylase level may correlate with increased plasma norepinephrine level under psychological and physical stress conditions. In this study, we investigated biological stress reactivity during hemodialysis treatment using salivary amylase activity as a biomarker. Seven patients (male/female = 5/2, age:67.7+ /? 5.9 years who had been receiving regular 4 h hemodialysis were recruited. Salivary amylase activity was measured using a portable analyzer every hour during the hemodialysis session. Salivary amylase activity was shown to be relatively stable and constant throughout hemodialysis, whereas there were significant changes in systolic blood pressure and pulse rate associated with blood volume reduction. Our results show that hemodialysis treatment per se dose not affect salivary amylase activity.

  1. Incidence of symptomatic salivary disease in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer treated with radioactive iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The radioactive iodine therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer can produce severe and frequent salivary symptoms, during the treatment or later. Aim: To analyze the incidence, severity and characteristics of the salivary signs and symptoms in these patients. Patients and Method: Retrospective and descriptive anal isis of 106 patients with confirmed diagnosis of differentiated thyroid cancer, treated with surgery and radioactive iodine, that completed a telephonic survey for the evaluation of salivary symptoms. Results: 26 (24.52%) patients presented with salivary symptoms or signs after the radioactive iodine therapy (mean 5 months). The average doses of I 131 was 128,5 mCi. Xerostomy, pain, xeroftalmy, inflammation, sialoadenitis and dysgeusia, were the most frequent clinical symptoms. Conclusions: After radioactive iodine therapy the salivary symptoms and signs incidence is high. We conclude that the indication for this treatment must be selective, but in accordance with the oncological risk of each patient

  2. Normal values of 99mTc-pertechnetate uptake and excretion fraction by major salivary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uptake and excretion fraction of 99mTc-pertechnetate by salivary glands have been assessed in the scintigraphic evaluation of xerostomia. Several quantitative methods derived from standard dynamic scintigraphy have been suggested. However, the indices proposed are quite variable and unlikely to be useful in clinical practice. Aims: To determine the normal values of major salivary glands uptake and excretion fraction with 99mTc-pertechnetate in healthy subjects and the normal ratio of 99mTc-pertechnetate uptake by major salivary glands to the thyroid gland uptake. Materials and Methods: Twenty five volunteers without clinical evidence of xerostomia underwent salivary glands scintigraphy. They were previously placed on a low iodine diet and discontinued any medications, food supplements or skin ointments that could interfere with the 99mTc-pertechnetate thyroid uptake. After intravenous administration of 555 MBq of 99mTc-pertechnetate, sequential dynamic images of the head and neck, at 15 seconds per frame, were obtained for 20 minutes. Static images were obtained at 20 minutes and then at 3 minutes after oral stimulation with lemon juice. Images of the syringe before and after tracer injection were also performed to calculate the administered dose and the percent uptake by the salivary glands and thyroid. The normal excretion fraction rates were also calculated for the parotids and the submandibular glands. Results: The mean uptake, as percent of the injected dose of 99mTc-pertechnetate, by the parotid and submandibular glands, the salivary glands to thyroid uptake ratio, and the mean excretion fractions for the major salivary glands are presented. Conclusion: Salivary glands scintigraphy with uptake and excretion fraction calculation is an easy to perform, non-invasive and objective method to investigate salivary glands function. Our findings help the nuclear physician to interpret salivary gland scintigraphy more objectively in patients with thyroid gland dysfunction in whom 99mTc-pertechnetate thyroid uptake may be abnormal

  3. Salivary glyco-sialylation changes monitors oral carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajaria, Bhairavi N; Patel, Kinjal R; Begum, Rasheedunnisa; Patel, Jayendra B; Shah, Franky D; Joshi, Geeta M; Patel, Prabhudas S

    2014-12-01

    Alterations in cell membrane glycosylation play important role in oral carcinogenesis. The present study evaluated salivary sialylation changes i.e. total sialic acid (TSA), sialidase activity, linkage specific (?2-3 and ?2-6) sialoproteins and sialyl transferase (ST) activity in controls, patients with oral precancerous conditions (OPC) and oral cancer. Subjects enrolled included 100 controls, 50 patients with OPC, 100 oral cancer patients, and 30 post treatment follow-ups. TSA was estimated by spectrophotometric method, sialidase activity by spectrofluorometric assay and linkage specific biotinylated lectins (?2-3: sambucus nigra agglutinin and ?2-6: maackia amurensis agglutinin) were used to detect ?-2,3 and ?-2,6 STs and sialoproteins by ELISA and dot blot respectively. An increasing trend of salivary TSA/TP ratio, sialidase activity, ?2-3 sialoproteins, ?-2,3 and ?-2,6 ST activities was observed from controls to patients with OPC to oral cancer patients and levels were significantly elevated in oral cancer patients as compared to the controls. Sialidase activity exhibited significant association with metastasis and infiltration. Sialidase activity, TSA/TP ratio, ?-2,3 and ?-2,6 ST activities were found to be higher in patients with metastasis as compared to patients without metastasis. A progressive increase in TSA/TP ratio, sialidase activity, ?2-3 and ?2-6 sialoproteins was observed from controls to early to advanced stage of the disease. Sialidase activity, ?2-3 and ?2-6 sialoproteins and ST activities were found to be decreased in complete responders; while levels were elevated in non-responders. The results documented utility of salivary sialylation endpoints, a non invasive tool in monitoring of oral carcinogenesis. PMID:25318700

  4. No Detectable Hypoxia in Malignant Salivary Gland Tumors: Preliminary Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Hypoxia is detected in most solid tumors and is associated with malignant progression and adverse treatment outcomes. However, the oxygenation status of malignant salivary gland tumors has not been previously studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential clinical relevance of hypoxia in this tumor type. Methods and Materials: Twelve patients scheduled for surgical resection of a salivary gland tumor were preoperatively injected with the hypoxia marker pimonidazole and the proliferation marker iododeoxyuridine. Tissue samples of the dissected tumor were immunohistochemically stained for blood vessels, pimonidazole, carbonic anhydrase-IX, glucose transporters-1 and -3 (Glut-1, Glut-3), hypoxia-inducible factor-1?, iododeoxyuridine, and epidermal growth factor receptor. The tissue sections were quantitatively assessed by computerized image analysis. Results: The tissue material from 8 patients was of sufficient quality for quantitative analysis. All tumors were negative for pimonidazole binding, as well as for carbonic anhydrase-IX, Glut-1, Glut-3, and hypoxia-inducible factor-1?. The vascular density was high, with a median value of 285 mm-2 (range, 209-546). The iododeoxyuridine-labeling index varied from <0.1% to 12.2% (median, 2.2%). Epidermal growth factor receptor expression levels were mostly moderate to high. In one-half of the cases, nuclear expression of epidermal growth factor receptor was observed. Conclusion: The absence of detectable pimonidazole binding, as well as the lack of expression of hypoxia-associated proteins in all tumors, indicates that malignant salivary gland tumors are generally well oxygenated. It is unlikely that hypoxia is a relevant factor for their clinical behavior and treatment responsiveness.

  5. Salivary Flow and Xerostomia in Premenopausal and Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Emília Figueiredo de OLIVEIRA

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To analyze quantitatively and comparatively the salivary flow and the occurrence of xerostomia in premenopausal and postmenopausal women by a case-control study.Method: The sample was composed by 40 women allocated in a group of 20 premenopausal women aged 35 to 44 years, and a group of 20 postmenopausal women aged 51 to 80 years. All patients underwent a clinical interview by means of a questionnaire arguing on xerostomia and were submitted to total stimulated sialometry. Sialometry was performed in the morning and the patients were instructed not to brush their teeth, eat, drink or smoke and to avoid exaggerated exercises at least 1 hour before sample collection. Salivary flow rate was expressed in milliliters per minute (mL/min. The values were ranked as follows: normal flow = 1.0 to 3.0 mL/min; low flow = 0.7 to 1.0 mL/min; hyposalivation = less than 0.7 mL/min. The non-use of hormone reposition therapy was considered as an inclusion criterion, while previous or current radiotherapy was considered as an exclusion criterion. Chi-square test was applied to verify the association between the variables (p<0.05.Results: There was no statistically significant association (p=0.1967 between menopause and xerostomia, whereas positive association (p= 0.0127 was found between menopause and salivary flow, this association being evident between normal flow and hyposalivation (p=0.0058.Conclusion: There seems to be no relationship between menopause and xerostomia, though hyposalivation was significantly associated to menopause in the examined women.

  6. Salivary cortisol levels as a predictor of preeclampsia in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Ramírez-Aranda

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the usefulness of salivary cortisol as a predictor of preeclampsia in adolescents.Methods: We carried out a nested case- control study. Somatometric, clinical, and biochemical data were obtained from 100 healthy pregnant adolescents and salivary cortisol was measured at 8:00, 12:00, and 20:00 hours on two occasions during pregnancy, before 20 weeks, and after 30 weeks of gestation. The cortisol values between the groupof healthy pregnant women and the group that developed preeclampsia were compared by using the Student’s t, Mann-Whitney, and Wilcoxon tests. Also, the ROC curve of cortisol values and the Positive and Negative Predictive values of cortisol were estimated.Results: Values >14.9 nmol/L of cortisol were observed in the group that developed preeclampsia, providing a positive predictive value of 1 (100%. Values <10.1 nmol/L were observed in the control group, the negative predictive value was 1 (100%. The cutoff point of the ROC curve -before 20 weeks of gestation- in the members of the cohort was 13.9 nmol/L.Conclusions: The salivary cortisol values observed in the two evaluations made to each of the groups showed statistically significant differences between the groups at 8 and 12 hours of the day. The values obtained enable establishing gradients that allow separating the group of healthy women that got ill with preeclampsia from the group that did not develop the illness before week 20. After week 30, the cortisol gradients are established more clearly in the group with preeclampsia and in the control group. The validation of these findings in larger samples would allow implementing this procedure as a screening test for preeclampsia in groups of pregnant adolescents.

  7. Cortisol, DHEA, and testosterone concentrations in saliva in response to an international powerlifting competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Panse, B; Vibarel-Rebot, N; Parage, G; Albrings, D; Amiot, V; De Ceaurriz, J; Collomp, K

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine salivary cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and testosterone responses to the bench press in an international powerlifting competition and to determine whether these salivary hormone concentrations could be used to predict performance. Twenty-six elite athletes (13 females and 13 males) provided saliva samples during the official weighing-in and after the last attempt at the bench press, as well as at baseline on a non-competition day. Performance index was determined with the Wilks formula, which adjusts powerlifting scores according to body mass. Salivary cortisol concentrations were significantly increased in all subjects after the bench press (p powerlifting competition, these hormone concentrations alone are not predictors of bench press performance in elite powerlifting athletes. PMID:20666655

  8. Interparental Aggression and Parent-Adolescent Salivary Alpha Amylase Symmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Gordis, Elana B.; Margolin, Gayla; Spies, Lauren; Susman, Elizabeth J; Granger, Douglas A.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), a putative marker of adrenergic activity, in family members engaging in family conflict discussions. We examined symmetry among family members' sAA levels at baseline and in response to a conflict discussion. The relation between a history of interparental aggression on parent-adolescent sAA symmetry also was examined. Participants were 62 families with a mother, father, and biological child age 13-18 (n = 29 girls). After engaging in a...

  9. Responses of salivary cortisol and ?-amylase to official competition

    OpenAIRE

    MOHAMMAD A. AZARBAYJANI; HOSEYN DALVAND; HOSEYN FATOLAHI; Hoseini, Seyed A.; PARVIN FARZANEGI; STEFAN R. STANNARD

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the relationship between salivary cortisol, ?-amylase and total protein response in the official football players during the course of a game. Nine young amateur football players agreed to participate in the study. Saliva samples were collected from each player 30 min and 5 min before the start of the competition, at half time, and then again 5 and 30 min after the end of competition. A significant increase in cortisol (p=0.04) in response to playing the c...

  10. Wetting the whistle: neurotropic factor improves salivary function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swick, Adam; Kimple, Randall J

    2014-08-01

    Xerostomia, or dry mouth, is a common side effect of head and neck radiotherapy, Sjögren syndrome, diabetes, old age, and numerous medications. In this issue of the JCI, Xiao and colleagues identified glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) as a potential stimulus for salivary stem cell growth. Due to its ability to promote neuronal growth, differentiation, and survival, GDNF is currently being used in clinical trials as a treatment for Parkinson disease; therefore, the findings of Xiao and colleagues may initiate a potential treatment for the millions of patients who suffer from xerostomia each year. PMID:25036702

  11. Eight-month test-retest agreement in morning salivary cortisol, self- and parent-rated anxiety in boys with an Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpley, Christopher F; Bitsika, Vicki; Agnew, Linda L; Andronicos, Nicholas M

    2015-11-01

    The agreement over time in morning salivary cortisol concentrations and also self- and parent-rated anxiety was investigated in a sample of 16 boys with an ASD. Cortisol and anxiety data were collected eight months apart. Results indicated that there were significant correlations between each pair of measures from the two occasions, suggesting that cortisol concentrations and anxiety did not vary much at all over that time, challenging the assumption that cortisol needs to be measured over multiple days to obtain reliable data from children with an ASD. Implications for research into the ways these children respond to chronic stressors are discussed. PMID:26220465

  12. Development of Indirect Competitive Immuno-Assay Method Using SPR Detection for Rapid and Highly Sensitive Measurement of Salivary Cortisol Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahara, Yusuke; Huang, Zhe; Kiritoshi, Tetsuro; Onodera, Takeshi; Toko, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    The monitoring of salivary cortisol as a key biomarker of an individual's stress response has been increasingly focused on. This paper describes the development of a novel cortisol immuno-assay method based on an indirect competitive method using a commercially available surface plasmon resonance instrument. The surface of an Au chip was modified with PEG6-COOH aromatic dialkanethiol self-assembled monolayers and hydrocortisone 3-(O-carboxymethyl) oxime (hydrocortisone 3-CMO) as a cortisol analog. A detection limit of 38?ppt range with a measurement range of 10?ppt-100?ppb was accomplished without the incubation of a mixing solution consisting of standard cortisol and an anti-cortisol antibody, and the time for quantification of cortisol concentration was 8?min from the sample injection. We experimentally compared our immuno-assay with a commercialized salivary cortisol enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit using human saliva samples. It was found that the results obtained by the cortisol immuno-assay had a good correlation with those obtained by ELISA assay (R?=?0.96). Our findings indicate the potential utility of the cortisol immuno-assay for measurements of human salivary cortisol levels. PMID:25152888

  13. Kinetics of the phosphotransferase reaction of the catalytic subunit of the tick salivary gland cAMP-dependent protein kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The catalytic subunit of the cAMP dependent protein kinase was purified 100-fold from tick salivary glands. The enzyme mechanism of the phosphotransferase reaction catalyzed by this subunit was investigated. Highly purified enzyme did not show ATP-ase activity in the absence of protein substrates. Initial velocities were measured using histone H-1 or a synthetic heptapeptide, Kemptide, as P/sub i/ acceptors and (?-32P) ATP as a phosphodonor. Patterns were consistent with a sequential, but not a ping pong mechanism. At high concentration (>2Km), histone showed substrate inhibition which was noncompetitive versus ATP. Product inhibition by Mg.ADP was competitive versus ATP and noncompetitive with respect to H-1. Phosphohistone on the other hand was noncompetitive with respect to H-1, but gave parabolic competitive inhibition against ATP. Dead-end inhibition by AMP-PNP, an analogue of ATP, was competitive and noncompetitive against ATP and H-1, respectively. The inhibitory of cAMP dependent protein kinase was noncompetitive with ATP and competitive with histone. These studies strongly suggest that the tick salivary gland protein kinase has a sequential mechanism with primarily ordered addition of ATP followed by protein substrate and ordered release of phosphoprotein and ADP, but some random character

  14. Group B Streptococcus pili mediate adherence to salivary glycoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittan, Jane L; Nobbs, Angela H

    2015-05-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of neonatal sepsis, pneumonia and meningitis, and is responsible for a rising number of severe invasive infections in adults. For all disease manifestations, colonisation is a critical first step. GBS has frequently been isolated from the oropharynx of neonates and adults. However, little is understood about the mechanisms of GBS colonisation at this site. In this study it is shown that three GBS strains (COH1, NEM316, 515) have capacity to adhere to human salivary pellicle. Heterologous expression of GBS pilus island (PI) genes in Lactococcus lactis to form surface-expressed pili demonstrated that GBS PI-2a and PI-1 pili bound glycoprotein-340 (gp340), a component of salivary pellicle. By contrast, PI-2b pili did not interact with gp340. The variation was attributable to differences in capacities for backbone and ancillary protein subunits of each pilus to bind gp340. Furthermore, while GBS strains were aggregated by fluid-phase gp340, this mechanism was not mediated by pili, which displayed specificity for immobilised gp340. Thus pili may enable GBS to colonise the soft and hard tissues of the oropharynx, while evading an innate mucosal defence, with implications for risk of progression to severe diseases such as meningitis and sepsis. PMID:25576026

  15. Characteristics of salivary gland tumours in the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Sarraj, Yasir; Nair, Satish Chandrasekhar; Al Siraj, Ammar; AlShayeb, Maher

    2015-01-01

    Salivary gland tumours (SGT) are relatively rare cancers characterised by striking morphological diversity and wide variation in the global distribution of SGT incidence. Given the proximity to the head and neck structures, management of SGT has been clinically difficult. To the best of our knowledge, there are no epidemiological studies on SGT from the United Arab Emirates (UAE) or the Gulf Cooperation Council Countries (GCC). Patient charts (N = 314) and associated pathological records were systematically reviewed between the years 1998–2014. Predominance of benign (74%) compared with malignant (26%) SGT was observed. Among the 83 malignant SGT identified, frequency was higher in males (61%) than in females (39%) and peak occurrence was in the fifth decade of life. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma was the most common type of tumour (35%) followed by adenoid cystic carcinoma (18.1%) and acinar cell carcinoma (10.8%). A similar pattern of tumour distribution was seen in patients from GCC, Asian, and Middle East countries. This is the first report to address the distribution of salivary gland tumours in a multiethnic, multicultural population of the Gulf. The results suggest that the development of an SGT registry will help clinicians and researchers to better understand, manage, and treat this rare disease. PMID:26557881

  16. Identification of the hydroxyapatite-binding domain of salivary agglutinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikker, Floris J; Cukkemane, Nivedita; Nazmi, Kamran; Veerman, Enno C I

    2013-02-01

    The salivary agglutinin glycoprotein (SAG) is present in saliva but is also part of the salivary pellicle, playing a seemingly paradoxical role with regard to bacterial homeostasis. On the one hand, SAG aggregates bacteria in solution, thereby preventing bacterial colonization. On the other hand, when bound to the tooth surface, SAG facilitates bacterial colonization and microbial growth. The protein part of SAG is predominantly composed of conserved scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) domains. Previously it was found that bacterial binding and aggregation is mediated via a single peptide loop, designated SRCRP2 (P2), within the SRCR domains of SAG. The current data suggest that the SRCR domains also harbour a hydroxyapatite (HA)-binding moiety, SRCRP3 (P3). The observation that P2 and P3 individually play unique roles in the function of SAGs contributes to our understanding of the dual role of SAGs in bacterial binding. Inspired by the bacterial-modulating capacity of SAGs, we created a P3-polyethylene glycol (PEG) conjugate. It was found that a P3 coating resulted in an increased antifouling activity of 20% compared with the uncoated surface in vitro. An additional PEG moiety resulted in an antifouling activity of up to 40% and 30% for Streptococcus mutans and Staphylococcus epidermidis, respectively. PMID:23331418

  17. Unstimulated salivary flow rate, pH and buffer capacity of saliva in healthy volunteers Débito basal, pH y capacidad tampón de la secreción salivar en sujetos sanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Fenoll-Palomares

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: to assess the salivary flow rate, pH, and buffer capacity of healthy volunteers, and their relationships with age, gender, obesity, smoking, and alcohol consumption, and to establish the lower-end value of normal salivary flow (oligosialia. Methods: a prospective study was conducted in 159 healthy volunteers (age > 18 years, absence of medical conditions that could decrease salivary flow. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected during ten minutes, and salivary flow rate (ml/min, pH, and bicarbonate concentration (mmol/l were measured using a Radiometer ABL 520. The 5 percentile of salivary flow rate and bicarbonate concentration was considered the lower limit of normality. Results: median salivary flow rate was 0.48 ml/min (range: 0.1-2 ml/min. Age younger than 44 years was associated with higher flow rates (OR 2.10. Compared with women, men presented a higher flow rate (OR 3.19 and buffer capacity (OR 2.81. Bicarbonate concentration correlated with salivary flow rate. The lower-end values of normal flow rate and bicarbonate concentration were 0.15 ml/min and 1.800 mmol/l, respectively. The presence of obesity, smoking, and alcohol consumption did not influence salivary parameters. Conclusions: in healthy volunteers, salivary flow rate depends on age and gender, and correlates with buffer capacity. Obesity, smoking, and alcohol use do not influence salivary secretion.Objetivos: conocer el débito, pH y capacidad tampón de la saliva en sujetos sanos y sus relaciones con edad, sexo, obesidad y hábitos tabáquico y alcohólico, así como establecer la definición de hiposialia. Métodos: estudio observacional prospectivo en 159 voluntarios sanos (> 18 años, sin factores conocidos que disminuyan la secreción salivar. Se ha recogido la saliva total, sin estímulo, durante 10 minutos, determinando su débito (ml/min, pH y capacidad tampón (concentración de bicarbonato en mmol/l mediante autoanalizador Radiometer ABL 520. Se han calculado los límites inferiores del débito salivar y concentración de bicarbonato por el percentil 5. Resultados: la mediana del débito salivar es 0,48 ml/min (rango 0,1-2. La mayor edad condiciona una disminución del débito salivar; los sujetos con edad < 44 años presentan mayor flujo salivar respecto a edad superior (OR 2,10. Los hombres presentan mayor secreción salivar respecto a las mujeres (OR 3,19. La concentración de bicarbonato se correlaciona positivamente con el débito salivar; los hombres presentan una mayor capacidad tampón respecto a las mujeres (OR 2,81. Los límites inferiores de la normalidad del débito y concentración de bicarbonato son 0,15 ml/min y 1,800 mmol/l, respectivamente. La obesidad y los hábitos tabáquico y alcohólico no modifican las características de la secreción salivar. Conclusiones: la edad y sexo influyen sobre el débito salivar; la capacidad tampón se relaciona positivamente con el débito salivar. Los hábitos tabáquico y alcohólico, así como la obesidad no modifican la secreción salivar.

  18. Oral intake of Lactobacillus pentosus strain b240 accelerates salivary immunoglobulin A secretion in the elderly: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotani Yoshifumi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immunoglobulin A (IgA secretion in saliva decreases with age and may be the cause of increased vulnerability of the elderly to respiratory infections. The effect of oral intake of lactic acid bacteria on salivary secretory IgA (SIgA in the elderly has not been reported. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the acceleration of salivary SIgA secretion by oral intake of Lactobacillus pentosus strain b240 (b240 in the elderly. Results A total of 80 healthy elderly individuals were randomly allocated to either an intervention (i.e., b240 or a control (i.e., placebo group. The elderly individuals in the b240 group were given a sterile water beverage (125 mL containing heat-killed b240 (4 × 109 cells, while those in the placebo group were given only a sterile water beverage (125 mL; both groups received their respective beverages once daily for 12 weeks. Saliva was collected before initiation of the study and every 2 weeks thereafter. Saliva flow rate and SIgA concentration were determined, and the SIgA secretion rate was calculated. The mean salivary SIgA secretion rate in the b240 group steadily increased until week 4 (exhibiting a 20% elevation relative to that at week 0, and then remained stable until week 12. Changes in SIgA secretion rate over the intervention period were significantly greater in the b240 group than in the placebo group. The treatment groups exhibited no significant differences in adverse events. Conclusions Oral intake of L. pentosus strain b240 for 12 weeks significantly accelerated salivary SIgA secretion, thereby indicating its potential utility in the improvement of mucosal immunity and resistance against infection in the elderly.

  19. Oncocytoma of minor salivary gland involving the retromolar region: A rare entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhasini Gotur Palakshappa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oncocytic neoplasms comprise a group of rare tumors of salivary glands. Histologically, World Health Organization (WHO (1991 classified them into three distinct types: Oncocytosis, oncocytoma and oncocytic carcinoma. Oncocytoma is also known by the more descriptive and less confusing terms of oxyphilic adenoma and oxyphilic granular cell adenoma. Oncocytoma is a rare benign salivary gland neoplasm composed of large epithelial cells with characteristic bright eosinophilic granular cytoplasm (oncocytic cells. It accounts for approximately 0.4-1% of all salivary gland neoplasms, occurring primarily in parotid glands, with only a small percentage occurring in minor salivary glands of palate, tonsillar fossi, larynx, nasal cavity, maxillary sinus and the lacrimal gland. It occurs primarily in persons older than 50 years of age. According to some authors, the biologic behavior of oncocytomas arising from minor salivary glands is that of an aggressive nature and should be considered as low-grade malignancies. Only 17 cases of histologically verified oncocytoma of an intraoral minor salivary gland are reported in literature, , the current case being the 18th. Owing to the lack of large series, assiduous study of the cases reported in the literature may lead to better understanding of this rare entity. We herein describe a rare and probably the first case of minor salivary gland oncocytoma involving retromolar area in a 32-year-old female patient with a brief review of literature.

  20. Detection of saliva-range glucose concentrations using organic thin-film transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the development of a glucose sensor through direct incorporation of an enzyme (glucose oxidase) into the gate of an organic thin film transistor (OTFT). We show that glucose diffusion is the key determinant of the device response time and present a mechanism of glucose sensing in these devices that involves protonic doping of the transistor channel via enzymatic oxidation of glucose. The integrated OTFT sensor is sensitive across 4 decades of glucose concentration; a range that encompasses both the blood and salivary glucose concentration levels. As such, this work acts as a proof-of-concept for low-cost printed biosensors for salivary glucose.

  1. Detection of saliva-range glucose concentrations using organic thin-film transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkington, D.; Belcher, W. J.; Dastoor, P. C.; Zhou, X. J. [Centre for Organic Electronics, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales 2308 (Australia)

    2014-07-28

    We describe the development of a glucose sensor through direct incorporation of an enzyme (glucose oxidase) into the gate of an organic thin film transistor (OTFT). We show that glucose diffusion is the key determinant of the device response time and present a mechanism of glucose sensing in these devices that involves protonic doping of the transistor channel via enzymatic oxidation of glucose. The integrated OTFT sensor is sensitive across 4 decades of glucose concentration; a range that encompasses both the blood and salivary glucose concentration levels. As such, this work acts as a proof-of-concept for low-cost printed biosensors for salivary glucose.

  2. A survey of schoolchildren's exposure to secondhand smoke in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turner Stephen W

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a lack of data describing the exposure of Malaysian schoolchildren to Secondhand Smoke (SHS. The aim of this study is to identify factors influencing schoolchildren's exposures to SHS in Malaysia. Method This cross-sectional study was carried out to measure salivary cotinine concentrations among 1064 schoolchildren (10-11 years attending 24 schools in Malaysia following recent partial smoke-free restrictions. Parents completed questionnaires and schoolchildren provided saliva samples for cotinine assay. Results The geometric mean (GM salivary cotinine concentrations for 947 non-smoking schoolchildren stratified by household residents' smoking behaviour were: for children living with non-smoking parents 0.32 ng/ml (95% CI 0.28-0.37 (n = 446; for children living with a smoker father 0.65 ng/ml (95% CI 0.57-0.72 (n = 432; for children living with two smoking parents 1.12 ng/ml (95% CI 0.29-4.40 (n = 3; for children who live with an extended family member who smokes 0.62 ng/ml (95% CI 0.42-0.89 (n = 33 and for children living with two smokers (father and extended family member 0.71 ng/ml (95% CI 0.40-0.97 (n = 44. Parental-reported SHS exposures showed poor agreement with children's self-reported SHS exposures. Multiple linear regression demonstrated that cotinine levels were positively associated with living with one or more smokers, urban residence, occupation of father (Armed forces, parental-reported exposure to SHS and education of the father (Diploma/Technical certificate. Conclusions This is the first study to characterise exposures to SHS using salivary cotinine concentrations among schoolchildren in Malaysia and also the first study documenting SHS exposure using salivary cotinine as a biomarker in a South-East Asian population of schoolchildren. Compared to other populations of similarly aged schoolchildren, Malaysian children have higher salivary cotinine concentrations. The partial nature of smoke-free restrictions in Malaysia is likely to contribute to these findings. Enforcement of existing legislation to reduce exposure in public place settings and interventions to reduce exposure at home, especially to implement effective home smoking restriction practices are required.

  3. The effects of a three-week resistance exercise plus whole body vibration (WBV on the testosterone-free cortisole ratio differences and activity of the ?-salivary amylase enzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MohammadAli Fathi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Researchers have already reported the hormonal responses of the effects of isolated resistance exercise or whole body vibration (WBV. However, no documents are available on the combination of the resistance exercise plus WBV on biomarkers, particularly salivary ?-amylase activity as well as free testosterone to cortisol ratio (FTCR. Materials and Methods: To discover this, thirty young football players were randomly allocated into three WBV (n=10, resistance exercise (n=10, and a combination of both (n=10. The subjects took nine sessions of exercise during a three-week period. The WBV included one minute exercise followed by one minute rest for 10 minutes with 50 Hz frequency, four mm. transverse translation and in semi-squat standing condition. The resistive exercise included three-period exercises with 70% one-maximal repetition with a two-minute rest interval. The third group carried out the resistance exercise firstly and then WBV. The pre / post salivary samples were collected. Results: It showed that the concentration of the cortisol and the salivary ?-amylaseactivity increased significantly. The testosterone increased among all groups following the first session, but significantly decreased at the last session. The statistical analysis showed a significant increase in cortisol concentration only in WBV group (p=0.004. Conclusion: The results confirmed that hormone secretion requires an acceptable threshold of both intensity and duration of training. In addition, secretion of the ?-salivary amylase responses to various physiologic stresses immediately. In submaximal exercises, there is probably no difference among training techniques, WHB and strengthening exercises. The current study also emphasizes on salivary ?-amylaseactivity immediately following physiological stresses.

  4. Salivary duct cyst on lower lip: A rare entity and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Tandon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucocele forms because of salivary gland mucous extravasation or retention and is usually related to trauma in the area of the lower lips. Salivary duct cyst, however, is a type of mucous retention cyst which is almost never located on the lower lip. The aim of this paper is to report this extremely rare salivary duct cyst present on the lower lip and to critically review the literature to build important concepts that would help clinicians in the diagnosis and treatment of this pathology.

  5. Morphological and physiological aspects of the salivary gland chromosomes of Rhynchosciara in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behavior of the salivary gland chromosomes of Rhynchosciara americana was investigated under in vitro conditions for different periods of time. The salivary glands were incubated in a chemically defined medium supplemented with calf serum. The incubation of the salivary glands lasted from a few minutes to 30 days. RNA synthesis was studied by means of autoradiography and the DNA synthesis was studied both by autoradiography and liquid scintillation spectrometry. Puffing activity under in vitro conditions was studied as well as the activity of the nucleolus. The results suggest that the activity of the nucleolus and that of some of the RNA puffs studied is cyclical under in vitro conditions. (Author)

  6. Growth Arrest-Specific 6 Protein in Patients with Sjögren Syndrome: Determination of the Plasma Level and Expression in the Labial Salivary Gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen-Hung; Chen, Hsiang-Cheng; Chang, Chi-Ching; Peng, Yi-Jen; Lee, Chien-Hsing; Shieh, Yi-Shing

    2015-01-01

    Aims Growth arrest-specific protein 6 (Gas6) is a vitamin K-dependent protein expressed by endothelial cells and leukocytes that are involved in cell survival, migration, and proliferation in response to inflammatory processes. The aim of this study was to assess the implications of Gas6 in Sjögren syndrome (SS) and its expression in the labial salivary gland. Methods and Results A total of 254 adults, including 159 with primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS), 34 with secondary Sjögren syndrome (sSS), and 61 normal controls, were recruited. Plasma Gas6 concentrations were determined, and Gas6 expressions in labial salivary gland (LSG) tissues from controls and pSS and sSS patients were also evaluated. Plasma Gas6 concentrations were significantly lower among patients with pSS than normal controls (13.5 ± 8.6 vs. 19.9 ± 13.4 ng/ml, p < 0.001). There were, however, no significant differences in plasma Gas6 levels between pSS and sSS patients (13.5 ± 8.6 vs. 16.9 ± 11.2 ng/ml, p = 0.068). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, after adjustment for white blood cell count, hemoglobin level, platelet count, lymphocyte count, and C3 and C4 levels, lower plasma Gas6 concentrations were significantly associated with an increased risk of SS. Moreover, by using a semi-quantitative scale to evaluate Gas6 expression in LSG tissues, Gas6 expression was found to be markedly lower in LSG tissues from pSS patients than in tissues from normal controls. Conclusions Decreased plasma Gas6 concentration and LSG expression were associated with pSS. As such, Gas6 may represent a novel independent risk factor for pSS, with a potential role in salivary gland inflammation and dysfunction. PMID:26445266

  7. Relación entre los niveles de cortisol salival y la presencia de xerostomía en mujeres menopaúsicas: Estudio preliminar / The relationship between the levels of salivary cortisol and the presence of xerostomia in menopausal women: A preliminary study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Begoña, Rivera Gómez; Gonzalo, Hernández Vallejo; Lorenzo, Arriba de la Fuente; Margarita, López Cantor; Milagros, Díaz; Rosa Mª, López-Pintor.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available La xerostomía es un síntoma especialmente frecuente en las mujeres en torno a la menopausia, que se asocia en muchas ocasiones con estados depresivos. Objetivos: Valorar la relación entre las cifras del flujo salival total no estimulado y la presencia de xerostomía, y determinar los niveles de corti [...] sol salival y su relación con la misma. Diseño del estudio: Se seleccionaron 30 mujeres de los pacientes que acuden al Departamento de Medicina y Cirugía Bucofacial y se formaron dos grupos, estudio y control. Se recogieron muestras de flujo salival total no estimulado y mediante técnica de ELISA se determinaron las cifras de cortisol salival. Resultados: Las medias de flujo salival total no estimulado para el grupo control y estudio fueron de 0.37± 0.28 ml/min. y de 0.24± 0.18 ml/min. respectivamente. La concentración de cortisol salival fue de 3.47± 1.64 ng/ml. para el grupo control y de 2.29± 2.60 ng/ml. para el grupo estudio. Las pruebas estadísticas aplicadas no mostraron diferencias significativas entre los dos grupos del estudio para ambas variables. Conclusiones: Los resultados del presente estudio indican que no existe relación entre las variaciones en el flujo salival total no estimulado y las concentraciones de cortisol correspondientes. Abstract in english Xerostomia is a particularly frequent occurrence among menopausal women, and is often associated with depression. Objectives: To evaluate the relationship between unstimulated salivary flow rate and the presence of xerostomia, and to determine the levels of salivary cortisol and its relationship wit [...] h xerostomia. Study design: Thirty women were selected from patients attending the Department of Medicine and Buccofacial surgery, and formed into two groups, study and control. Samples of unstimulated salivary flow were collected, and the amounts of salivary cortisol determined using the ELISA technique (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). Results: The mean unstimulated salivary flow rates for the control and study group were 0.37 ± 0.28 ml/min and 0.24 ± 0.18 ml/min, respectively. The concentration of salivary cortisol was 3.47 ± 1.64 ng/ml for the control group and 2.29 ± 2.60 ng/ml for the study group. The statistical tests applied showed no significant differences for either variable between the two groups in the study. Conclusions: The results of the present study indicate that there is no relationship between variations in the rates of unstimulated salivary flow and the corresponding concentration of cortisol.

  8. Calcium, amylase, glucose, total protein concentrations, flow rate, pH and buffering capacity of saliva in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances

    OpenAIRE

    Hellen Soares Teixeira; Stella Maris Oliveira Kaulfuss; Jucienne Salgado Ribeiro; Betina do Rosário Pereira; João Armando Brancher; Elisa Souza Camargo

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate qualitative and quantitative changes in the saliva of individuals undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. METHODS: Salivary samples were collected from 50 individuals divided in two groups: Experimental Group - patients with fixed orthodontic appliances (n=25); and Control Group - subjects with no orthodontic appliances (n=25). Salivary flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, amylase activity, concentrations of total proteins, calcium and glucose were measure...

  9. Testing and analysis on total protein, albumin and A/G of salivary in radiation exposure persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the oral health effect of long term low dose radiation on exposure personnel and to provide a basis for further improving the protection ability. Methods: Testing method, which was based on APT and HSA interactions induced by synchronous fluorescence specific changes, and intensity and concentrations of HSA in the solution in the system of synchronous fluorescence showed a good linear relations. the establishment of a APT as a molecular probe was used to test concentration of salivary total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), globulin (GLO) and albumin by synchronous fluorescence spectrum analysis. The information was analyzed in Foxpro 6.0 and SPSS 16.0 software. Result: Protein (TP) Mean Value was 3.904 ±1.369 g/L, Minimum Value was 0.30 g/L and Maximum Value was 7.50 g/L. Albumin (ALB) Mean Value was 0.965±0.665 g/L, Minimum Value was 0.09 g/L and Maximum Value was 3.98 g/L. Globulin (GLO) Mean Value was 2.895±0.947 g/L, Minimum Value was 0.01 g/L and Maximum Value was 5.81 g/L. A/G Mean Value was 0.327. Conclusion: Long term and low dose of radiation would break the chronic physiological balance and concentration of salivary total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), globulin (GLO) and albumin and globulin ratio (A/G) changed obviously. It was necessary to do more special oral health care, further improve the individual protection consciousness, strengthen the radiation monitoring and protection measures, improve the regulation system, and reduce radiation damage on special personnel health significantly. (authors)

  10. Continuous Metabolic Syndrome Scores for Children Using Salivary Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ping; Goodson, J. Max; Hartman, Mor-Li; Hasturk, Hatice; Yaskell, Tina; Vargas, Jorel; Cugini, Maryann; Barake, Roula; Alsmadi, Osama; Al-Mutawa, Sabiha; Ariga, Jitendra; Soparkar, Pramod; Behbehani, Jawad; Behbehani, Kazem; Welty, Francine

    2015-01-01

    Background Binary definitions of the metabolic syndrome based on the presence of a particular number of individual risk factors are limited, particularly in the pediatric population. To address this limitation, we aimed at constructing composite and continuous metabolic syndrome scores (cmetS) to represent an overall measure of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a large cohort of metabolically at-risk children, focusing on the use of the usual clinical parameters (waist circumference (WC) and systolic blood pressure (SBP), supplemented with two salivary surrogate variables (glucose and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC). Two different approaches used to create the scores were evaluated in comparison. Methods Data from 8,112 Kuwaiti children (10.00 ± 0.67 years) were used to construct two cmetS for each subject. The first cmetS (cmetS-Z) was created by summing standardized residuals of each variable regressed on age and gender; and the second cmetS (cmetS-PCA) was defined as the first principal component from gender-specific principal component analysis based on the four variables. Results There was a graded relationship between both scores and the number of adverse risk factors. The areas under the curve using cmetS-Z and cmetS-PCA as predictors for severe metabolic syndrome (defined as the presence of ?3 metabolic risk factors) were 0.935 and 0.912, respectively. cmetS-Z was positively associated with WC, SBP, and glucose, but inversely associated with HDLC. Except for the lack of association with glucose, cmetS-PCA was similar to cmetS-Z in boys, but had minimum loading on HDLC in girls. Analysis using quantile regression showed an inverse association of fitness level with cmetS-PCA (p = 0.001 for boys; p = 0.002 for girls), and comparison of cmetS-Z and cmetS-PCA suggested that WC and SBP were main contributory components. Significant alterations in the relationship between cmetS and salivary adipocytokines were demonstrated in overweight and obese children as compared to underweight and normal-weight children. Conclusion We have derived continuous summary scores for MetS from a large-scale pediatric study using two different approaches, incorporating salivary measures as surrogate for plasma measures. The derived scores were viable expressions of metabolic risk, and can be utilized to study the relationships of MetS with various aspects of the metabolic disease process. PMID:26418011

  11. (S)- and (R)-[[sup 11]C]nicotine and the metabolite (R/S)-[[sup 11]C]cotinine. Preparation, metabolite studies and in vivo distribution in the human brain using PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halldin, C.; Swahn, C.-G.; Nybaeck, H. (Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)); Naagren, K. (Turku Univ. (Finland). Medical Cyclotron-PET Centre/Radiochemistry Lab.); Laangstroem, B. (Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Organic Chemistry)

    1992-11-01

    In order to investigate [[sup 11]C]nicotine binding and metabolism in the living human brain by PET, routine protocols were developed for the preparation and purification of (S)-and (R)-[[sup 11]C]nicotine and the metabolite (R/S)-[[sup 11]C]cotinine. (S)- and (R)-[[sup 11]C]nicotine were prepared by N-methylation with [[sup 11]C]methyl iodide of the appropriate secondary amine, which was liberated in situ by 2,2,6,6,-tetramethylpiperidine (TMP) from its corresponding biscamsylate-salt. (R/S)-[[sup 11]C]Cotinine was prepared by N-methylation of the amide precursor using tetrabutylammonium hydroxide as a phase transfer catalyst. Straight-phase semipreparative HPLC was in all purifications found to be superior to reversed-phase since the contamination by the norcompounds was eliminated. Reaction in acetonitrile for both (S)- and (R)-[[sup 11]C]nicotine and (R/S)-[[sup 11]C]cotinine with subsequent straight-phase HPLC purification resulted in 35-45% radiochemical yield with a total synthesis time of 30-35 min, a specific radioactivity of 1000-1500 Ci/mmol (37-55 GBq/[mu]mol, EOS) and a radiochemical purity >99%. The uptake and distribution of these tracers in the human brain was studied in healthy volunteers by PET. The metabolite (R/S)-[[sup 11]C]cotinine did not cross the blood-brain barrier to any significant degree. (author).

  12. Salivary DJ-1 could be an indicator of Parkinson’s disease progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-na Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Conclusions: According to the investigation in a large cohort, we reported for the first time the prognostic potential of the salivary DJ-1 as a biomarker for evaluating nigrostriatal dopaminergic function in PD.

  13. Salivary gland dysfunction and nasolacrimal duct obstruction: stenotic changes following I-131 therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Mack W; Sobel, Rachel K; Hoffman, Henry T; Carter, Keith D; Finkelstein, Michael W; Shriver, Erin M

    2015-01-01

    Radioactive iodine has long been used in the treatment of cancers of the thyroid. While salivary complications secondary to I-131 therapy in association with xerophthalmia are well documented, there is little in the literature addressing simultaneous nasolacrimal duct obstruction with salivary gland dysfunction. The authors present 2 patients with epiphora from bilateral nasolacrimal duct obstruction and concurrent sialadenitis following I-131 ablation therapy for papillary thyroid carcinoma. These cases highlight the lacrimal and salivary duct complications resulting from I-131 therapy, introduce the possibility of a shared mechanism of damage, and demonstrate the availability of effective treatments for both conditions. Ophthalmologists see patients with epiphora from I-131 therapy and should be aware of the possible concurrent symptoms caused by salivary duct stenosis to make timely and appropriate referrals. PMID:24836449

  14. Comparison between the sialographic and scintigraphic findings in salivary gland disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to aid in diagnosis of salivary gland disease by comparing the sialogram with the scintigram. In this study, 47 patients (52 glands) who had taken the sialography and the scintigraphy were examined. The result of two methods was compared with the clinical and operative diagnosis. The following results are obtained: 1. In inflammatory diseases of the salivary gland, the scintigraphy can be a valuable substitution for a sialography. 2. In inflammatory diseases of the salivary gland, we can get more information in case of the combined use of the sialography and the scintigraphy. 3. In tumorous lesion of the salivary gland, the sialography is superior to the scintigraphy. But both methods are less valuable in diagnosing the extraglandular tumors.

  15. Comparison between the sialographic and scintigraphic findings in salivary gland disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Ho; Ahn, Hyung Kyu [Department of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to aid in diagnosis of salivary gland disease by comparing the sialogram with the scintigram. In this study, 47 patients (52 glands) who had taken the sialography and the scintigraphy were examined. The result of two methods was compared with the clinical and operative diagnosis. The following results are obtained: 1. In inflammatory diseases of the salivary gland, the scintigraphy can be a valuable substitution for a sialography. 2. In inflammatory diseases of the salivary gland, we can get more information in case of the combined use of the sialography and the scintigraphy. 3. In tumorous lesion of the salivary gland, the sialography is superior to the scintigraphy. But both methods are less valuable in diagnosing the extraglandular tumors.

  16. Value of sialography and salivary gland scintigraphy in the evaluation of rheumatoid polyarthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aims to establish the frequency and severity of salivary gland disease. Very many techniques are available for the exploration of these glands. Each patient was subjected to: a parotid sialograph, a technetium 99m exploration of the salivary glands and mouth cavity. These two methods of salivary gland exploration should be carried out together, since sialographic data are largely static and anatomical while scintigraphy mainly supplies dynamic, functional data. The scintigraphic examinations were carried out with a Picker Dyna Camera II coupled to data processing units (NUKAB system with recorded programmes). The radiotracer used is technetium 99m. 2 millicuries of technetium as pertechnetate are injected intraveinously and reach the salivary glands through their vascular networks, thus being available to the different tissues of each gland: interstitial tissue, acini, intralobular ducts, efferent ducts

  17. Sialoendoscopy for diagnosis and treatment of non-neoplastic obstruction in the salivary glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danquart, Jacob; Wagner, Niels; Arndal, Helge; Homøe, Preben

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate our experience with sialoendoscopies for diagnosis and treatment of obstructive disease in the large salivary glands in Eastern Denmark and to broaden awareness of the procedure.

  18. Study on Salivary Glands ?-amylase In Wheat Bug Eurygaster maura (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehrabadi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available ?-amylase activity in the salivary glands of Eurygaster maura was determined by biochemical experiments. Some of adult insect was collected and their salivary glands isolated and characterized. Enzyme samples from salivary glands of adults were prepared by the method of Cohen with slight modifications. ?-Amylase activity was assayed based on Bernfeld method by the dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS procedure. The activity of ?-amylase in salivary glands was 0.050 U/insect. The optimum pH and temperature for the enzyme activity was determined to be 6.5-7 and 30-35°C, respectively. The enzyme activity was inhibited by addition of EDTA (Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid urea, CaCl2, MgCl2 and SDS but Mg2+, NaCl and KCl enhanced enzyme activity.

  19. Dispatches from the Interface of Salivary Bioscience and Neonatal Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KristinVoegtline

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of the interdisciplinary field of salivary bioscience has created opportunity for neonatal researchers to measure multiple components of biological systems non-invasively in oral fluids. The implications are profound and potentially high impact. From a single oral fluid specimen, information can be obtained about a vast array of biological systems (e.g., endocrine, immune, autonomic nervous system and the genetic polymorphisms related to individual differences in their function. The purpose of this review is to describe the state of the art for investigators interested in integrating these unique measurement tools into the current and next generation of research on gonadal steroid exposure during the prenatal and neonatal developmental periods

  20. Retrovirus-mediated gene transfer into salivary glands in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barka, T; Van der Noen, H M

    1996-03-20

    In the present report, we show prolonged expression of beta-galactosidase (beta-Gal) in the acinar cells of the submandibular and sublingual glands of rats following retrograde ductal injection of the retroviral vector BAG. To facilitate integration of viral DNA, cell division in the gland was induced by the administration of the beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol prior to the delivery of the vector. The frequency of cells stained for beta-Gal was higher if the virus was injected 4-20 hr after the two injections of isoproterenol given 24 hr apart than after the injection of only one dose of the drug. Without stimulation of cell division, no integration of the viral DNA was observed. Expression of the marker enzyme was observed up to 43 days, the limit of the observation period. The data indicate that salivary glands are potential targets of retrovirus-mediated gene transfer for somatic gene therapy. PMID:8845386

  1. Salivary ?-Amylase And Chromogranin A In Anxiety-Related Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tananska Valeria T.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Salivary ?-amylase (sAA and chromogranin A (sCgA are at the forefront of current biochemical research on anxiety. Their use is being driven by the sudden surge of interest in “salivaomics,” a new field in medicine studying saliva’s genetic code, proteome and methabolom. Interestingly, it is not the primary functions of the enzyme and the protein, but the ingenious capture of their secondary ones (maintenance of the acid-alkaline balance and bactericidal / antifungal action that allows for a swift, precise and pain-free measurement under physical and mental duress. Upon stimulation, sAA and sCgA are almost simultaneously released. Studying them allows a closer look at the autonomic nervous system (ANS as opposed to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA, which involves a long cascade of complex, hard to measure and interpret bio-chemical reactions.

  2. Sonography and cytology in the evaluation of salivary gland masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contribution of the combined use of US and cytology is evaluated in the diagnosis of masses in yhe salivary glands and adjacent structures. US had 87.2% sensitivity in locating the mass; its accuracy in defining both phisical structure and benign/malignant nature of the lesion was 91% and 74% respectively. Thus US, after demonstrating a lesion, does not always allow the exact definition of its characteristic. In many of these cases, other imaging modalities do not help either. In our series of cases, cytology allowed an unquestionable diagnosis to be made in 87.2% of cases, and the combined use of US and cytology rose the figure to 97%. The only limitation is the evaluation of the deep extent of large masses: in such cases CT or, if available, MR imaging are recommended

  3. Titratable acidity of beverages influences salivary pH recovery

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Livia Maria Andaló, TENUTA; Constanza Estefany, FERNÁNDEZ; Ana Carolina Siqueira, BRANDÃO; Jaime Aparecido, CURY.

    Full Text Available A low pH and a high titratable acidity of juices and cola-based beverages are relevant factors that contribute to dental erosion, but the relative importance of these properties to maintain salivary pH at demineralizing levels for long periods of time after drinking is unknown. In this crossover stu [...] dy conducted in vivo, orange juice, a cola-based soft drink, and a 10% sucrose solution (negative control) were tested. These drinks differ in terms of their pH (3.5 ± 0.04, 2.5 ± 0.05, and 5.9 ± 0.1, respectively) and titratable acidity (3.17 ± 0.06, 0.57 ± 0.04 and

  4. SURGICAL TREATMENT OF SALIVARY FISTULA IN A BULLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asit Kumar Maji

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A non-descript bullock of six years of age and 225 kg of body weight was suffering from left parotid salivary fistula with huge loss of saliva. The loss of saliva was reduced (from 11ml/minute to 5ml/min. by pre-operative management of housing in silent area as well as withholding of food in addition to the use of antibiotic and other supportive therapy. Under Xylazine (0.1mg/kg I/M and local infiltration of 2% Lignocaine hydrochloride, following standard surgical protocol, the Stenson’s duct was identified and ligated after infusion of diluted Tincture Iodine into the duct (7mm in diameter towards the parotid gland. Post-operative follow up with antibiotics, withholding of feed with intravenous and successive oral fluid administration and management for a week hastened the healing and inactivation of the gland. The bullock was able to work normally afterwards.

  5. Effort Reward Imbalance, and Salivary Cortisol in the Morning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eller, Nanna Hurwitz; Nielsen, SØren Feodor

    2012-01-01

    Background Effort reward imbalance (ERI) is suggested to increase risk for stress and is hypothesized to increase cortisol levels, especially the awakening cortisol response, ACR. Methods In 2006 and 2008, 480 individuals collected saliva samples at awakening and 30 min post-awakening. Mixed effects models with subject as a random effect and appropriate covariates were used to evaluate associations between the Effort Reward Model, and salivary cortisol at awakening (S0), and ACR. Results ERI was negatively and significantly associated with S0 for women and positively associated with ACR. S0 and ACR increased significantly from 2006 to 2008. Conclusion ERI was significantly associated with cortisol levels at awakening (inverse association) for women, and positively associated with ACR. The population experienced a significant increase in morning cortisol levels and ACR from 2006 to 2008, which may originate in a re-organization of the included work places.

  6. Salivary markers of inflammation in response to acute stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavish, Danica C; Graham-Engeland, Jennifer E; Smyth, Joshua M; Engeland, Christopher G

    2015-02-01

    There is burgeoning interest in the ability to detect inflammatory markers in response to stress within naturally occurring social contexts and/or across multiple time points per day within individuals. Salivary collection is a less invasive process than current methods of blood collection and enables intensive naturalistic methodologies, such as those involving extensive repeated measures per day over time. Yet the reliability and validity of saliva-based to blood-based inflammatory biomarkers in response to stress remains unclear. We review and synthesize the published studies that have examined salivary markers of inflammation following exposure to an acute laboratory stressor. Results from each study are reviewed by analyte (IL-1?, TNF-?, IL-6, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, CRP) and stress type (social-cognitive and exercise-physical), after which methodological issues and limitations are addressed. Although the literature is limited, several inflammatory markers (including IL-1?, TNF-?, and IL-6) have been reliably determined from saliva and have increased significantly in response to stress across multiple studies, with effect sizes ranging from very small to very large. Although CRP from saliva has been associated with CRP in circulating blood more consistently than other biomarkers have been associated with their counterparts in blood, evidence demonstrating it reliably responds to acute stress is absent. Although the current literature is presently too limited to allow broad assertion that inflammatory biomarkers determined from saliva are valuable for examining acute stress responses, this review suggests that specific targets may be valid and highlights specific areas of need for future research. PMID:25205395

  7. Salivary microbiota and metabolome associated with celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francavilla, Ruggiero; Ercolini, Danilo; Piccolo, Maria; Vannini, Lucia; Siragusa, Sonya; De Filippis, Francesca; De Pasquale, Ilaria; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Di Toma, Michele; Gozzi, Giorgia; Serrazanetti, Diana I; De Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the salivary microbiota and metabolome of 13 children with celiac disease (CD) under a gluten-free diet (treated celiac disease [T-CD]). The same number of healthy children (HC) was used as controls. The salivary microbiota was analyzed by an integrated approach using culture-dependent and -independent methods. Metabolome analysis was carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-solid-phase microextraction. Compared to HC, the number of some cultivable bacterial groups (e.g., total anaerobes) significantly (P < 0.05) differed in the saliva samples of the T-CD children. As shown by community-level catabolic profiles, the highest Shannon's diversity and substrate richness were found in HC. Pyrosequencing data showed the highest richness estimator and diversity index values for HC. Levels of Lachnospiraceae, Gemellaceae, and Streptococcus sanguinis were highest for the T-CD children. Streptococcus thermophilus levels were markedly decreased in T-CD children. The saliva of T-CD children showed the largest amount of Bacteroidetes (e.g., Porphyromonas sp., Porphyromonas endodontalis, and Prevotella nanceiensis), together with the smallest amount of Actinobacteria. T-CD children were also characterized by decreased levels of some Actinomyces species, Atopobium species, and Corynebacterium durum. Rothia mucilaginosa was the only Actinobacteria species found at the highest level in T-CD children. As shown by multivariate statistical analyses, the levels of organic volatile compounds markedly differentiated T-CD children. Some compounds (e.g., ethyl-acetate, nonanal, and 2-hexanone) were found to be associated with T-CD children. Correlations (false discovery rate [FDR], <0.05) were found between the relative abundances of bacteria and some volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The findings of this study indicated that CD is associated with oral dysbiosis that could affect the oral metabolome. PMID:24657864

  8. The Evaluation of Psychological Factor and Salivary Cortisol and IgA Levels in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Arbabi-Kalati

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral lichen planus (OLP is a chronic immunological disorder with unknown etiology. The aim of this study was to determine psychological factors and salivary cortisol, IgA level in patients with oral lichen planus. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study 20 patients with OLP and healthy person were admitted to this study. Saliva samples were collected between ?-?? Am. saliva cortisol, IgA level was detected by ELIZA method. In this study, patients with anxiety and depression were measured using the SCL-90 questionnaire. Data analyzed by t-test. Results: The mean salivary cortisol level in patients with OLP was 3.2±1.9 ng/mL and the mean saliva cortisol level in healthy person was 3.5±1.9 ng/mL. Significant difference was observed in the salivary cortisol levels in the 2 study groups (p=0.04. The mean salivary IgA level in patients with OLP was 0.69±0.29 ng/mL and the mean saliva IgA level in healthy person was 0.9±0.43 ng/mL but no significant difference was observed in the salivary cortisol levels in the 2 study groups. Results showed that anxiety levels in patients with oral lichen planus were slightly higher than controls but there was no significant difference between healthy subjects. Conclusion: Finding revealed the mean salivary cortisol level in patient with OLP less than healthy persons. Significant difference was observed in the salivary cortisol levels in the 2 study groups. Based on the t-student test, no significant difference was observed in the salivary IgA levels in the 2 study groups. Anxiety levels in patients with oral lichen planus were slightly higher than controls.

  9. Dental erosive wear and salivary flow rate in physically active young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Mulic Aida; Tveit Anne; Songe Dag; Sivertsen Hanne; Skaare Anne B

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Little attention has been directed towards identifying the relationship between physical exercise, dental erosive wear and salivary secretion. The study aimed i) to describe the prevalence and severity of dental erosive wear among a group of physically active young adults, ii) to describe the patterns of dietary consumption and lifestyle among these individuals and iii) to study possible effect of exercise on salivary flow rate. Methods Young members (age range 18-32 years...

  10. Salivary Cortisol as a Biomarker to Explore the Role of Maternal Stress in Early Childhood Caries

    OpenAIRE

    Sharat Chandra Pani; Deena Abuthuraya; AlShammery, Hadia M.; Dalal AlShammery; Hind AlShehri

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To compare salivary cortisol levels of children with ECC and their mothers with those of caries free children from a similar sociodemographic cohort. Design. Sixty-four college-educated, working mothers from middle income families with no history of anxiety disorders and their first born children aged between 48 and 71 months were included in the study. Salivary cortisol levels were analyzed using electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunoassay. Statistical Analyses. Significance of dif...

  11. Stress Evaluation in Adult Patients with Atopic Dermatitis Using Salivary Cortisol

    OpenAIRE

    Tadamichi Shimizu; Masaki Yamaguchi; Chieko Ueda; Teruhiko Makino; Megumi Mizawa

    2013-01-01

    The symptoms of atopic dermatitis (AD) are often aggravated by stress, and AD can also lead to psychological stress due to social isolation and discrimination. The salivary cortisol level reflects psychological stress, and it is a good index to assess chronic stress. In this study, we measured the salivary cortisol levels in patients with AD (n = 30) and compared them with those of healthy control subjects (n = 42). AD patients were also evaluated for general disease severity using the Scorin...

  12. Polyethylenimine-mediated expression of transgenes in the acinar cells of rats salivary glands in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Sramkova, Monika; Parente, Laura; Wigand, Timothy; Aye, Myo-Pale'; Shitara, Akiko; Weigert, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Non viral-mediated transfection of plasmid DNA provides a fast and reliable way to express various transgenes in selected cell populations in live animals. Here, we show an improvement of a previously published method that is based on injecting plasmid DNA into the ductal system of the salivary glands in live rats. Specifically, using complexes between plasmid DNA and polyethyleneimine (PEI) we show that the expression of the transgenes is directed selectively to the salivary acinar cells. PE...

  13. Isolation of serotonin from the accessory salivary glands of the marine snail Nucella lapillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, D J; Andrews, E B; McVean, A R; Osborne, D J; Thorndyke, M C

    1994-10-01

    We report here the presence of a bioactive compound in the secretion of the accessory salivary glands (ASGs) of Nucella lapillus. We have purified the compound using HPLC and identified it as serotonin by mass spectrometry, UV spectroscopy, HPLC and capillary electrophoresis. Serotonin was not found in the secretions of the acinous salivary glands or the hypobranchial gland. The amount of serotonin in the secretion of the ASGs does not show seasonal or regional variation. PMID:7846696

  14. Salivary cortisol determination in patients from the Basque Country with recurrent aphthous stomatitis. A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Eguia-del Valle, Asier; Martínez-Conde-Llamosas, Rafael; López-Vicente, José; Uribarri-Etxebarria, Agurne; Aguirre-Urizar, José M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Stress and anxiety are controversial factors involved in the complex pathogenesis of Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis (RAS). The determination of salivary cortisol is a useful, simple and safe test to detect states of high stress or anxiety. The aim of this study is to check for changes in salivary cortisol levels in patients with RAS during periods of active disease. Study design: A measurement of cortisol employing Enzyme-Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA) was carried out in s...

  15. Salivary gland anlage tumour - a rare cause of congenital nasal obstruction

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    T, Daniller; J, Goedhals; R Y, Seedat.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Salivary gland anlage tumour, also known as congenital pleomorphic adenoma, is a rare salivary hamartoma that presents in the nasopharynx of neonates. It is important to distinguish this lesion from other causes of neonatal respiratory distress. Treatment usually involves simple excision, and recurr [...] ence is rare. No cases of malignant progression have been reported in the literature. We report an interesting case referred to our unit a day after birth with respiratory distress.

  16. Effects of relaxing music on salivary cortisol level after psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalfa, Stephanie; Bella, Simone Dalla; Roy, Mathieu; Peretz, Isabelle; Lupien, Sonia J

    2003-11-01

    The goal of the present study was to determine whether relaxing music (as compared to silence) might facilitate recovery from a psychologically stressful task. To this aim, changes in salivary cortisol levels were regularly monitored in 24 students before and after the Trier Social Stress Test. The data show that in the presence of music, the salivary cortisol level ceased to increase after the stressor, whereas in silence it continued to increase for 30 minutes. PMID:14681158

  17. Infection by chikungunya virus modulates the expression of several proteins in Aedes aegypti salivary glands.

    OpenAIRE

    Tchankouo-Nguetcheu Stephane; Bourguet Edouard; Lenormand Pascal; Rousselle Jean-Claude; Namane Abdelkader; Choumet Valerie

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Arthropod-borne viral infections cause several emerging and resurging infectious diseases. Among the diseases caused by arboviruses, chikungunya is responsible for a high level of severe human disease worldwide. The salivary glands of mosquitoes are the last barrier before pathogen transmission. We undertook a proteomic approach to characterize the key virus/vector interactions and host protein modifications that occur in the salivary glands that could be responsible for...

  18. Salivary amylase induction by tannin-enriched diets as a possible countermeasure against tannins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Costa, G; Lamy, E; Capela e Silva, F; Andersen, Jens S.; Sales Baptista, E; Coelho, A V

    2008-01-01

    Tannins are characterized by protein-binding affinity. They have astringent/bitter properties that act as deterrents, affecting diet selection. Two groups of salivary proteins, proline-rich proteins and histatins, are effective precipitators of tannin, decreasing levels of available tannins. The possibility of other salivary proteins having a co-adjuvant role on host defense mechanisms against tannins is unknown. In this work, we characterized and compared the protein profile of mice whole saliv...

  19. Rigid swelling of sublingual caruncle area due to the salivary gland duct obstruction by a sialolith

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fred, Bernardes Filho; Gustavo, Martins; Andreia Oliveira, Alves; José Ronaldo Vieira da, Costa; David Rubem, Azulay; Luna, Azulay-Abulafia.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sialolithiasis is the presence of calculus within the ductal system of a salivary gland. Among the diagnostic methods are inspection, palpation, checking the amount of saliva secreted and the identification of a sialolith. The authors present the case of a 37-year-old female patient with edema of th [...] e submandibular area and a bulging sublingual caruncle due to a calculus that obstructed the salivary gland ostium.

  20. Lymphoepithelial carcinoma of the salivary gland: in situ detection of Epstein-Barr virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, S. Y.; Chung, L P; Yuen, S.T.; Ho, C. M.; Wong, M. P.; Chan, S. Y.

    1995-01-01

    Aim - To examine the role of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in lymphoepithelial carcinoma of the salivary gland in Hong Kong Chinese. Methods - Ten cases of lymphoepithelial carcinoma of the salivary gland (eight parotid and two submandibular) were examined. In situ hybridisation was used to localise EBER RNA, immunohistochemical methods to detect expression of latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1) in EBV positive tumours, and Southern blot analysis to examine the clonality of EBV in the two cases wher...

  1. Salivary Cortisol in an Extreme Non-Competitive Sport Exercise: Winter Swimming

    OpenAIRE

    Patrizia Loria; Stefano Ottoboni; Luigi Michelazzi; Roberto Giuria; Paola Ghisellini; Cristina Rando; Roberto Eggenhöffner

    2014-01-01

    Salivary cortisol role in response to strong stressors implied in extreme exercises and in sport practice was investigated with the aim to verify the claimed benefits that steers winter swimmers to self-prescribe the trials. Specific biochemical data allow to study a variety of stressors in sports and physical exercises, including extreme ones as winter swimming. Salivary cortisol behavior was examined in winter swimmers trials and canoe, canoe-polo competitions and com...

  2. Investigation of Salivary Function and Oral Microbiota of Radiation Caries-Free People with Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jingyang; Liu, HongLing; Liang, Xue; ZHANG Min; Wang, Renke; Peng, Guang; Li, Jiyao

    2015-01-01

    Radiation caries have been reported to be correlated with radiotherapy-induced destruction of salivary function and changes in oral microbiota. There have been no published reports detailing patients who have remained radiation caries-free following radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between salivary function, oral microbiota and the absence of radiation caries. Twelve radiation caries-free patients and nine patients exhibiting...

  3. Central Nifedipine-induced Alterations in Salivary Flow and Compounds: Role of Nitric Oxide

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson Abrao Saad; Ismael Francisco Motta Siqueira Guarda; Luiz Antonio de Arruda Camargo; Talmir Augusto Faria Brizola dos Santos; Sylvio Simoes; William Abrao Saad

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the role of nifedipine and Nitric Oxide (NO) on salivary flow and compounds (salivary amylase, saliva total proteins, saliva calcium, sodium and potassium). Male Holtzman rats weighting 200-250 g were anesthetized with zoletil 50 mg kg-1 (tiletamine chloridrate 125.0 mg and zolazepan chloridrate 125.0 mg) into quadriceps muscle and stainless steel cannulas were implanted into their lateral ventricle of the brain (LV). Animals in divided group were injected...

  4. Comparison of Salivary IgA Secretion Rate Collected by the Aspiration Method and Swab Method

    OpenAIRE

    Hamuro, Koji; Kotani, Yoshifumi; Toba, Masamichi; KAKUMOTO, Keiji; Kohda, Noriyuki

    2013-01-01

    Salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) is used as an immunity marker, as saliva can be easily collected, noninvasively with little stress. However, several saliva collection methods can be used. Our comparison between samples collected using different methods demonstrated that the salivary IgA secretion rate in samples collected using an aspiration method was significantly correlated with that in samples collected using a swab method. Moreover, the significant circadian variation in s...

  5. Clinical Performance of a Salivary Amylase Activity Monitor During Hemodialysis Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Masaru Shimazaki; Takayuki Matsuki; Kazuaki Yamauchi; Michihiro Iwata; Hiroshi Takahashi; Kenichi Sakamoto; Junichi Ohata; Yuichi Nakamura; Yusuke Okazaki

    2008-01-01

    The hemodialysis procedure is thought to be a physical stressor in the majority of hemodialyzed patients. Previous studies suggest that elevated salivary amylase level may correlate with increased plasma norepinephrine level under psychological and physical stress conditions. In this study, we investigated biological stress reactivity during hemodialysis treatment using salivary amylase activity as a biomarker. Seven patients (male/female = 5/2, age:67.7+ /? 5.9 years) who had been receiving...

  6. Salivary cortisol levels in Parkinson's disease and its correlation to risk behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Djamshidian, A.; O'Sullivan, S.S.; Papadopoulos, A.; Bassett, P.; Shaw, K; Averbeck, B. B.; Lees, A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate salivary cortisol samples in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) with and without impulsive compulsive behaviours (ICB) during a risk task.Methods Salivary cortisol levels were measured in 13 PD patients without ICB (PD-ICB) and in 15 PD patients with ICB (PD+ICB) before, after medication and throughout the day, and were compared with results with 14 healthy controls. All participants also performed a gambling task to assess risk taking behaviour.Results Significan...

  7. Salivary Phosphate-Binding Chewing Gum Reduces Hyperphosphatemia in Dialysis Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Savica, Vincenzo; Calò, Lorenzo A; Monardo, Paolo; Davis, Paul A; Granata, Antonio; Santoro, Domenico; Savica, Rodolfo; Musolino, Rosa; Comelli, Maria Cristina; Bellinghieri, Guido

    2009-01-01

    In uremic patients, hyperphosphatemia is associated with cardiovascular calcification and increased cardiovascular mortality. Despite the use of phosphate binders, only half of hemodialysis (HD) patients achieve recommended serum phosphate levels. A hyperphosphoric salivary content, which correlates linearly with serum phosphate, has been reported in HD patients. We hypothesized that binding salivary phosphate during periods of fasting in addition to using phosphate binders with meals could i...

  8. Experimental rabies in skunks: mechanisms of infection of the salivary glands.

    OpenAIRE

    Charlton, K.M.; Casey, G. A.; Campbell, J B

    1983-01-01

    Striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) were inoculated into the right submandibular salivary gland with street rabies virus. They were killed at various times after inoculation and several tissues were examined by immunofluorescence and light microscopy. Right and left superior cervical, nodose and trigeminal ganglia, medulla oblongata and at least three regions of right and left submandibular salivary glands were examined by the fluorescent antibody technique. Intracerebral titrations of salivar...

  9. Chlorella intake attenuates reduced salivary SIgA secretion in kendo training camp participants

    OpenAIRE

    Otsuki Takeshi; Shimizu Kazuhiro; Iemitsu Motoyuki; Kono Ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The green alga Chlorella contains high levels of proteins, vitamins, and minerals. We previously reported that a chlorella-derived multicomponent supplement increased the secretion rate of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) in humans. Here, we investigated whether intake of this chlorella-derived supplement attenuated the reduced salivary SIgA secretion rate during a kendo training camp. Methods Ten female kendo athletes participated in inter-university 6-day sprin...

  10. Immunoreactivity of alpha smooth muscle actin in salivary gland tumours: a comparison with S100 protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, H.; Moshtael, F; Simpson, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    Antibodies against alpha smooth muscle actin (ASMA) and S100 protein were applied to paraffin wax embedded sections from 40 salivary gland tumours and seven normal salivary glands. The results indicate that ASMA is useful in the diagnosis of epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma, but is otherwise only of limited use in diagnostic practice. An unexpected finding was the failure of ASMA to react with myoepitheliomas.

  11. Suppression of plant defenses by a Myzus persicae (green peach aphid) salivary effector protein

    OpenAIRE

    Elzinga, Dezi A.; de Vos, Martin; Jander, Georg

    2014-01-01

    The complex interactions between aphids and their host plant are species-specific and involve multiple layers of recognition and defense. Aphid salivary proteins, which are released into the plant during phloem feeding, are a likely mediator of these interactions. In an approach to identify aphid effectors that facilitate feeding from host plants, eleven Myzus persicae (green peach aphid) salivary proteins and the GroEL protein of Buchnera aphidicola, a bacterial endosymbiont of this aphid sp...

  12. HIV lymphadenitis of the salivary gland: A case with cytological and histological correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiwari Avani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus infection associated lymphadenitis of the salivary glands (HIVLSG and benign lymphoepithelial cysts are described as early events in HIV patients. The diagnosis is not usually made clinically as it mimics a salivary gland tumor. We present here a patient with two painless nodules in the right parotid and submandibular glands. The cytological diagnosis was florid reactive lymphoid hyperplasia. Histopathology revealed features of HIVLSG with multiple, small, cystic, benign lymphoepithelial lesions.

  13. Salivary gland scintigraphy with 99mTc-pertechnetate in Sjoegren's syndro Relationship to clinicopathologic features of salivary and lacrimal glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salivary gland scintigraphy was performed on 52 patients who were suspected of having Sjoegren's syndrome (SS), and the results were compared with clinicopathologic features of the salivary and lacrimal glands. The time-activity curves which were obtained from computer-assisted analysis of 99mTc-pertechnetate (99mTc) scintigraphy were classified into four types (normal, median, flat and sloped types). The stimulated parotid flow rate decreased and the incidence of SS-related sialographic and histopathologic findings increased significantly as the scintigraphic abnormality advanced. In addition, the lacrimal gland function decreased and the proportion of patients diagnosed as having keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) increased significantly as the scintigraphic abnormality advanced. These results indicate that the results of scintigraphy are related not only to the clinicopathologic features of the salivary glands but also to the lacrimal gland functions in SS. (au) 25 refs

  14. Pouteria ramiflora extract inhibits salivary amylolytic activity and decreases glycemic level in mice

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    NEIRE M. DE, GOUVEIA; CIBELE L. DE, ALBUQUERQUE; LAILA S., ESPINDOLA; FOUED S., ESPINDOLA.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, extratos de espécies de plantas do bioma Cerrado foram avaliados em busca de um potencial inibidor da enzima alfa-amilase salivar humana. As plantas foram coletadas e os extratos obtidos das folhas, da casca e da raiz. Nós realizamos uma análise fitoquímica preliminar e uma triagem des [...] tas plantas utilizando um ensaio de inibição da alfa-amilase salivar. Inicialmente, somente três famílias botânicas (Sapotaceae, Sapindaceae e Flacourtiaceae) e 16 extratos apresentaram inibição da alfa-amilase maior que 75% sendo que os extratos etanólicos da casca do caule e da raiz de Pouteria ramiflora tiveram mais de 95% de inibição para a concentração final de 20 µg/mL. Assim, camundongos Swiss adultos machos foram oralmente tratados com extrato aquoso de P. ramiflora para avaliar a toxicidade aguda e o controle glicêmico. A administração diária do extrato de P. ramiflora nas doses de 25, 50 e 100 mg/kg, por oito dias, foi capaz de reduzir o peso corporal e o nível glicêmico nos animais. Esses dados sugerem que o extrato polar de P. ramiflora diminui a atividade amilolítica da saliva, além disso, reduz os níveis de glicose sanguínea. Abstract in english In this study, extracts of plant species from the Cerrado biome were assessed in order to find potential inhibitors of human salivary alpha-amylase. The plants were collected and extracts were obtained from leaves, bark, and roots. We performed a preliminary phytochemical analysis and a screening fo [...] r salivar alpha-amylase inhibitory activity. Only three botanical families (Sapotaceae, Sapindaceae and Flacourtiaceae) and 16 extracts showed a substantial inhibition (>75%) of alpha-amylase. The ethanolic extracts of Pouteria ramiflora obtained from stem barks and root barks decreased amylolytic activity above 95% at a final concentration of 20 µg/mL. Thus, adult male Swiss mice were treated orally with P. ramiflora in acute toxicity and glycemic control studies. Daily administration with 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg of aqueous extract of P. ramiflora for eight days can reduce significantly body weight and blood glucose level in mice. These data suggest that the crude polar extract of P. ramiflora decreases salivary amylolytic activity while lowering the blood levels of glucose.

  15. Immunoregulation of bovine macrophages by factors in the salivary glands of Rhipicephalus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brake Danett K

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alternative strategies are required to control the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, due to evolving resistance to commercially available acaricides. This invasive ectoparasite is a vector of economically important diseases of cattle such as bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis. An understanding of the biological intricacies underlying vector-host-pathogen interactions is required to innovate sustainable tick management strategies that can ultimately mitigate the impact of animal and zoonotic tick-borne diseases. Tick saliva contains molecules evolved to impair host innate and adaptive immune responses, which facilitates blood feeding and pathogen transmission. Antigen presenting cells are central to the development of robust T cell responses including Th1 and Th2 determination. In this study we examined changes in co-stimulatory molecule expression and cytokine response of bovine macrophages exposed to salivary gland extracts (SGE obtained from 2-3 day fed, pathogen-free adult R. microplus. Methods Peripheral blood-derived macrophages were treated for 1 hr with 1, 5, or 10 ?g/mL of SGE followed by 1, 6, 24 hr of 1 ?g/mL of lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Real-time PCR and cytokine ELISA were used to measure changes in co-stimulatory molecule expression and cytokine response. Results Changes were observed in co-stimulatory molecule expression of bovine macrophages in response to R. microplus SGE exposure. After 6 hrs, CD86, but not CD80, was preferentially up-regulated on bovine macrophages when treated with 1 ?g/ml SGE and then LPS, but not SGE alone. At 24 hrs CD80, CD86, and CD69 expression was increased with LPS, but was inhibited by the addition of SGE. SGE also inhibited LPS induced upregulation of TNF?, IFN? and IL-12 cytokines, but did not alter IL-4 or CD40 mRNA expression. Conclusions Molecules from the salivary glands of adult R. microplus showed bimodal concentration-, and time-dependent effects on differential up-regulation of CD86 in bovine macrophages activated by the TLR4-ligand, LPS. Up regulation of proinflammatory cytokines and IL-12, a Th1 promoting cytokine, were inhibited in a dose-dependent manner. The co-stimulatory molecules CD80, as well as the cell activation marker, CD69, were also suppressed in macrophages exposed to SGE. Continued investigation of the immunomodulatory factors will provide the knowledge base to research and develop therapeutic or prophylactic interventions targeting R. microplus-cattle interactions at the blood-feeding interface.

  16. Purification and biochemical properties of a salivary ?-amylase in Andrallus spinidens Fabricius (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Fazeli-Dinan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available ?-amylase is one of the enzymes that has crucial role in extra-oral digestion (EOD of hemipteran insects. An ?-amylase was purified and biochemically characterized from the salivary glands of Andrallus spinidens showing its considerable role in EOD process. It was found an enzyme by specific activity of 4.22 U/mg protein, recovery of 14.67 % and purification fold of 13.83-fold as well as molecular weight of 26 kDa. By using two buffer solutions, optimal pH of the purified ?-amylase was found to be 9 for both universal and Tris-HCl buffers. Our findings revealed that the purified ?-amylase had the highest activity at the temperatures of 35 and 40 °C, and were stable for 96 h at these temperatures. Kinetic parameters of the purified enzyme show that both starch and glycogen, are the suitable substrates for the enzymatic assay, but a lower Km demonstrated glycogen as a more appropriate substrate. Among the cations used to show their possible involvement in active site of the enzyme, Ca2+2+, Mg and one concentration of Cu2+ increased the ?-amylase activity but Na+ decreased the enzyme activity. Triton X-100 increased the enzyme activity but SDS, EDTA, EGTA and TTHA decreased it, indicating involvement of metal ions in the active site of the purified ?-amylase.

  17. Smartphone-based point-of-care testing of salivary ?-amylase for personal psychological measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Yang, Wentao; Yang, Yuankui; Liu, Hong; Gu, Zhongze

    2015-10-12

    Here we report a smartphone-based potentiometric biosensor for point-of-care testing of salivary ?-amylase (sAA), which is one of the most sensitive indices of autonomic nervous system activity, and therefore a promising non-invasive biomarker for mental health. The biosensing system includes a smartphone having a sAA-detection App, a potentiometric reader and a sensing chip with preloaded reagents. The saliva sample wicks into the reaction zone on the sensing chip so that the sAA reacts with the preloaded reagents, resulting in conversion of an electron mediator Fe(CN)6(3-) to Fe(CN)6(4-). The sensing chip is then pressed by fingers to push the reaction mixture into the detection zone for the potentiometric measurement. The potential measured by the smartphone-powered potentiometric reader is sent to the smartphone App via the USB port, and converted into sAA concentration based on a calibration curve. Using our method, sAA in real human sample is quantitatively analyzed within 5 min. The results are in good agreement with that obtained using a reference method, and correlated to psychological states of the subjects. PMID:26415134

  18. Localization of extracellular matrix components in developing mouse salivary glands by confocal microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, P.; Spooner, B. S.

    1992-01-01

    The importance of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in developing organisms is well established. Proteoglycans and interstitial collagens are required for the growth, morphogenesis, and differentiation of epithelial organs and the distribution of these molecules has been described. However, much less is known about other ECM macromolecules in developing epithelial organs. We used confocal microscopy to examine the distribution of laminin, heparan sulfate (BM-1) proteoglycan, fibronectin, and collagen types I, IV, and V, in mouse embryonic salivary glands. Organ rudiments were isolated from gestational day 13 mouse embryos and cultured for 24, 48, or 72 hours. Whole mounts were stained by indirect immunofluorescence and then examined using a Zeiss Laser Scan Microscope. We found that each ECM component examined had a distinct distribution and that the distribution of some molecules varied with culture time. Laminin was mainly restricted to the basement membrane. BM-1 proteoglycan was concentrated in the basement membrane and also formed a fine network throughout the mesenchyme. Type IV collagen was mainly located in the basement membrane of the epithelium, but it was also present throughout the mesenchyme. Type V collagen was distributed throughout the mesenchyme at 24 hours, but at 48 hours was principally located in the basement membrane. Type I collagen was distributed throughout the mesenchyme at all culture times, and accumulated in the clefts and particularly at the epithelial-mesenchymal interface as time in culture increased. Fibronectin was observed throughout the mesenchyme at all times.

  19. Psychosocial Stress Increases Salivary Alpha-Amylase Activity Independently from Plasma Noradrenaline Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakova, Liubov; Doering, Bettina K; Vits, Sabine; Engler, Harald; Rief, Winfried; Schedlowski, Manfred; Grigoleit, Jan-Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Salivary alpha-amylase activity (sAA) and plasma noradrenaline (NA) concentrations are often considered to be surrogate markers of sympathetic activation in response to stress. However, despite accumulating evidence for a close association between sAA and noradrenaline and other indicators of sympathetic activity, reliability and generality of this relation remains unclear. We employed the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in order to directly compare the responses in sAA and NA to psychological stress in healthy volunteers (n = 23). The TSST significantly increased sAA and NA plasma levels with no significant differences in females and males. However, when subjects were divided according to their NA responses into low versus high responders, both groups did not significantly differ in their sAA before, during or after stress exposure. These data suggest that in response to acute psychological stress both plasma NA levels and sAA reflect sympathetic activity, however seemed to increase independently from each other. PMID:26247781

  20. Antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of Myrtus communis. L leaves against salivary Mutans streptococci

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of ethanolic extract of Myrtus communis (myrtle) leaves in the selective reduction of Mutans streptococci count in saliva compared to chlorhexidine through in vitro and in vivo experiments. Ethanolic extract (2%) was prepared and screened by UV-visible spectrophotometer to detect peaks of active compounds. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of myrtle extract as well as chlorhexidine (0.12%) were determined against Mutans streptococci isolated from human saliva and identified bacteriologically in vivo experiments, the effect of single mouth rinse of myrtle extract or chlorhexidine was investigated against the number of colony forming unit (CFU) of Mutans streptococci for two hours after rinse. The results showed the presence of one large peak at ?266.5 nm and a small one at ?672 of the extract in UV-visible spectra suggesting the presence of flavanoid. The MIC of myrtle was 106.6 ?g/mL compared with 3.3 ?g/mL of chlorhexidine. Single mouth rinse of myrtle extract significantly reduced the number of CFU of salivary Mutans streptococci but its effect was significantly less than that of chlorhexidine. It was concluded that the antibacterial effect of myrtle on Mutans streptococci was due to its flavanoid content. Therefore, ethanolic extract of myrtle could be a potential remedy for the prevention of colonization by Mutans streptococci thereby preventing or retarding development of dental caries. (author)