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1

Characterization of KEX2-encoded endopeptidase from yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae KEX2 gene previously isolated was characterized as the gene encoding an endopeptidase required for proteolytic processing of precursors of alpha-factor and killer toxin. In this study, the cloned KEX2 gene was introduced into the kex2 mutant cells and the KEX2 gene product expressed in these cells was partially purified from their membrane fraction. The enzyme preparation exhibits a calcium-dependent endopeptidase activity with a substrate specificity toward the carboxyl side of Lys-Arg, Arg-Arg and Pro-Arg sequences. The enzyme activity was inhibited by serine-protease inhibitors, such as DFP and PMSF, indicating that the KEX2 endopeptidase belongs to a serine-protease family. The optimal pH was determined to be around 5.5. Thus, the KEX2 endopeptidase was found to be a unique calcium-dependent serine-protease distinct from calpain and trypsin.

Mizuno K; Nakamura T; Ohshima T; Tanaka S; Matsuo H

1989-02-01

2

Identification and analysis of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae copper homeostasis gene encoding a homeodomain protein.  

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Yeast metallothionein, encoded by the CUP1 gene, and its copper-dependent transcriptional activator ACE1 play a key role in mediating copper resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using an ethyl methanesulfonate mutant of a yeast strain in which CUP1 and ACE1 were deleted, we isolated a gene, desig...

Knight, SA; Tamai, KT; Kosman, DJ; Thiele, DJ

3

Two functional alpha-tubulin genes of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae encode divergent proteins.  

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Two alpha-tubulin genes from the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were identified and cloned by cross-species DNA homology. Nucleotide sequencing studies revealed that the two genes, named TUB1 and TUB3, encoded gene products of 447 and 445 amino acids, respectively, that are highly homologous...

Schatz, P J; Pillus, L; Grisafi, P; Solomon, F; Botstein, D

4

Molecular cloning of a gene encoding an ARS binding factor from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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We report the isolation of the gene for origin binding factor 1 (OBF1) from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by screening a yeast genomic DNA library in lambda gt11 with an ARS-specific oligonucleotide probe. One recombinant encoded a fusion protein of approximately 180 kDa that bound ARS-specific...

Biswas, E E; Stefanec, M J; Biswas, S B

5

The Saccharomyces cerevisiae enolase-related regions encode proteins that are active enolases.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In addition to two genes (ENO1 and ENO2) known to code for enolase (EC4.2.1.11), the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome contains three enolase-related regions (ERR1, ERR2 and ERR3) which could potentially encode proteins with enolase function. Here, we show that products of these genes (Err2p and Err3p) have secondary and quaternary structures similar to those of yeast enolase (Eno1p). In addition, Err2p and Err3p can convert 2-phosphoglycerate to phosphoenolpyruvate, with kinetic parameters similar to those of Eno1p, suggesting that these proteins could function as enolases in vivo. To address this possibility, we overexpressed the ERR2 and ERR3 genes individually in a double-null yeast strain lacking ENO1 and ENO2, and showed that either ERR2 or ERR3 could complement the growth defect in this strain when cells are grown in medium with glucose as the carbon source. Taken together, these data suggest that the ERR genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae encode a protein that could function in glycolysis as enolase. The presence of these enolase-related regions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and their absence in other related yeasts suggests that these genes may play some unique role in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Further experiments will be required to determine whether these functions are related to glycolysis or other cellular processes.

Kornblatt MJ; Richard Albert J; Mattie S; Zakaib J; Dayanandan S; Hanic-Joyce PJ; Joyce PB

2013-02-01

6

Saccharomyces cerevisiae MPS2 Encodes a Membrane Protein Localized at the Spindle Pole Body and the Nuclear Envelope  

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The MPS2 (monopolar spindle two) gene is one of several genes required for the proper execution of spindle pole body (SPB) duplication in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Winey et al., 1991). We report here that the MPS2 gene encodes an essential 44-kDa protein with two putative coiled-co...

Muñoz-Centeno, María de la Cruz; McBratney, Susan; Monterrosa, Antonio; Byers, Breck; Mann, Carl; Winey, Mark

7

The PXL1 Gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Encodes a Paxillin-like Protein Functioning in Polarized Cell Growth  

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The Saccharomyces cerevisiae open reading frame YKR090w encodes a predicted protein displaying similarity in organization to paxillin, a scaffolding protein that organizes signaling and actin cytoskeletal regulating activities in many higher eucaryotic cell types. We found that YKR090w functions in ...

Mackin, Nancy A.; Sousou, Tarek J.; Erdman, Scott E.

8

RAD3 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a DNA-dependent ATPase  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The RAD3 gene of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is required for excision repair of damaged DNA and for cell viability. A protein of approx. = 89 kDa was purified to near homogeneity from yeast strains harboring multicopy plasmids that overproduce RAD3 protein; this protein corresponds closely to the expected size of the RAD3 protein and crossreacts with the antiserum raised against a truncated RAD3 protein produced in Escherichia coli. The purified RAD3 protein shows a single-stranded DNA-dependent ATPase activity that catalyzes hydrolysis of ATP to ADP and P/sub i/. The ATPase activity was coincident with the RAD3 protein during purification and is inhibited by anti-RAD3 antibodies, indicating that the RAD3 gene encodes this activity

Sung, P.; Prakash, L.; Weber, S.; Prakash, S.

1987-09-01

9

RAD3 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a DNA-dependent ATPase  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The RAD3 gene of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is required for excision repair of damaged DNA and for cell viability. A protein of ? 89 kDa was purified to near homogeneity from yeast strains harboring multicopy plasmids that overproduce RAD3 protein; this protein corresponds closely to the expected size of the RAD3 protein and crossreacts with the antiserum raised against a truncated RAD3 protein produced in Escherichia coli. The purified RAD3 protein shows a single-stranded DNA-dependent ATPase activity that catalyzes hydrolysis of ATP to ADP and P/sub i/. The ATPase activity was coincident with the RAD3 protein during purification and is inhibited by anti-RAD3 antibodies, indicating that the RAD3 gene encodes this activity

1987-01-01

10

Genomic Analysis of the Genes Encoding Ribosomal Proteins in Eight Eubacterial Species and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The complete genomic nucleotide sequence data of more than 10 unicellular organisms have become available. During the past years, we have been focusing our attention to the analysis of the structure and function of the ribosome and its protein components. By making use of the genomic sequence data, our work can now be extended to comparative analysis of the ribosomal components at the genomic level. Such analysis will contribute to our understanding of the structure-function relationship of the ribosome that is vital to the expression of genetic information. Bearing these in mind, the ribosomal protein genes of organisms whose genomic sequence data are available were analyzed, which included Aquifex aeolicus; Archaeoglobus fulgidus; Borrelia burgdorferi; Bacillus subtilis; Escherichia coli; Haemophilus influenzae; Helicobacter pylori; Methanococcus jannaschii; Mycoplasma genitalium; Mycoplasma pneumoniae; Synechosystis sp., and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In addition, the amino acid sequence data of Bacillus stearothermophilus ribosomal proteins were used in the evolutionary evaluation. The results indicate that, in eubacteria including two species of Mycoplasma, the operon structure of ribosomal protein genes is well conserved, while their relative orientation and chromosomal location are diverged into several classes. The operon structure in M. jannaschii on the other hand is quite different from the eubacterial one and we noticed that its many genes show similarity to rat ribosomal protein genes. The degrees of sequence conservation differ from one ribosomal protein gene to another, but several genes encoding proteins that are considered to be of structural importance are conserved throughout the bacterial species including archaebacteria and further in S. cerevisiae.

Fujita K; Baba T; Isono K

1998-01-01

11

Genes regulation encoding ADP/ATP carrier in yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida parapsilosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Genes encoding a mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier (AAC) in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida parapsilosis were investigated. AAC2 is coding for the major AAC isoform in S. cerevisiae. We suggest that AAC2 is a member of a syn-expression group of genes encoding oxidative phosphorylation proteins. Within our previous studies on the regulation of the AAC2 transcription an UAS (-393/-268) was identified that is essential for the expression of this gene. Two functional regulatory cis-elements are located within this UAS -binding sites for an ABFl factor and for HAP2/3/4/5 heteromeric complex. We examined relative contributions and mutual interactions of the ABFl and HAP2/3/4/5 factors in the activation of transcription from the UAS of the AAC2 gene. The whole UAS was dissected into smaller sub-fragments and tested for (i) the ability to form DNA-protein complexes with cellular proteins in vitro, (ii) the ability to confer heterologous expression using AAC3 gene lacking its own promoter, and (iii) the expression of AAC3-lacZ fusion instead of intact AAC3 gene. The obtained results demonstrated that: a) The whole UAS as well as sub-fragment containing only ABF1-binding site are able to form DNA-protein complexes with cellular proteins in oxygen- and heme- dependent manner. The experiments with antibody against the ABF1 showed that the ABF1 factor is one of the proteins binding to AAC2 promoter. We have been unsuccessful to prove the binding of cellular proteins to the HAP2/3/4/5-binding site. However, the presence of HAP2/3/4/5-binding site is necessary to drive a binding of cellular proteins to the ABF1-binding site in carbon source-dependent manner. b) The presence of both ABF1- and HAP2/3/4/5-binding sites and original spacing between them is necessary to confer the growth of Aaac2 mutant strain on non- fermentable carbon source when put in front of AAC3 gene introduced on centromeric vector to Aaac2 mutant strain. c) For the activation of AAC3-lacZ expression on both fermentable and non-fermentable carbon sources the only presence of two copies of HAP2/3/4/5-binding site is sufficient. However, activation of AAC3-lacZ expression by two copies of HAP2/3/4/5-binding site is very low. We can conclude that the presence of both ABF1- and HAP2/3/4/5-binding sites and original spacing between them is necessary to get strong activation of AAC2 gene. A gene homologous to Saccharomyces cerevisiae AAC genes coding for mitochondrial ADP/ATP carriers has been cloned from pathogenic yeast Candida parapsilosis. The cloned gene was sequenced and found to encode a polypeptide of 303 amino acids that shows homology with other yeast and mammal mitochondrial ADP/ATP carriers. The gene was designed CpAAC1 and was able to complement the growth phenotype of S. cerevisiae double deletion mutant (?aac2?aac3). The expression of the CpAAC1 gene was affected at normal aerobic conditions by the nature of carbon source used for growth. The concentration of oxygen had no effect to the expression of this gene. Hybridization experiments indicate that C. parapsilosis possesses a single gene encoding a mitochondrial ADP/ ATP carrier. (author)

2000-09-27

12

Molecular analysis of GPH1, the gene encoding glycogen phosphorylase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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In yeast cells, the activity of glycogen phosphorylase is regulated by cyclic AMP-mediated phosphorylation of the enzyme. We have previously cloned the gene for glycogen phosphorylase (GPH1) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To assess the role of glycogen and phosphorylase-catalyzed glycogenolysis in the...

Hwang, P K; Tugendreich, S; Fletterick, R J

13

Cloning and characterization of ERG8, an essential gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that encodes phosphomevalonate kinase.  

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Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that contain the ery8-1 mutation are temperature sensitive for growth due to a defect in phosphomevalonate kinase, an enzyme of isoprene and ergosterol biosynthesis. A plasmid bearing the yeast ERG8 gene was isolated from a YCp50 genomic library by functional complem...

Tsay, Y H; Robinson, G W

14

Genomic Analysis of the Genes Encoding Ribosomal Proteins in Eight Eubacterial Species and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The complete genomic nucleotide sequence data of more than 10 unicellular organisms have become available. During the past years, we have been focusing our attention to the analysis of the structure and function of the ribosome and its protein components. By making use of the genomic sequence data, our work can now be extended to comparative analysis of the ribosomal components at the genomic level. Such analysis will contribute to our understanding of the structure-function relationship of the ribosome that is vital to the expression of genetic information. Bearing these in mind, the ribosomal protein genes of organisms whose genomic sequence data are available were analyzed, which included Aquifex aeolicus; Archaeoglobus fulgidus; Borrelia burgdorferi; Bacillus subtilis; Escherichia coli; Haemophilus influenzae; Helicobacter pylori; Methanococcus jannaschii; Mycoplasma genitalium; Mycoplasma pneumoniae; Synechosystis sp., and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In addition, the amino acid sequence data of Bacillus stearothermophilus ribosomal proteins were used in the evolutionary evaluation. The results indicate that, in eubacteria including two species of Mycoplasma, the operon structure of ribosomal protein genes is well conserved, while their relative orientation and chromosomal location are diverged into several classes. The operon structure in M. jannaschii on the other hand is quite different from the eubacterial one and we noticed that its many genes show similarity to rat ribosomal protein genes. The degrees of sequence conservation differ from one ribosomal protein gene to another, but several genes encoding proteins that are considered to be of structural importance are conserved throughout the bacterial species including archaebacteria and further in S. cerevisiae. PMID:11072316

Fujita; Baba; Isono

1998-01-01

15

Regulation of pyc1 encoding pyruvate carboxylase isozyme I by nitrogen sources in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the existence of PYC1 and PYC2 encoding cytosolic pyruvate carboxylase isoform I and II is rather puzzling, owing to the lack of potent differential gene regulation by the carbon sources. We report several findings indicating that these two genes are differentially regulated by the nature of the nitrogen source. In wild-type cells, the activity of pyruvate carboxylase, which is the sum of pyruvate carboxylase isoform I and II, was two- to fivefold lower in carbon medium containing aspartate, asparagine, glutamate or glutamine instead of ammonium as the nitrogen source, whereas it was 1.5- to threefold higher when the ammonium source was substituted by arginine, methionine, threonine or leucine. These enzymatic changes were independent of the nature of the carbon source and closely correlated to the changes in beta-galactosidase from PYC1-lacZ gene fusion and in PYC1 transcripts. Transfer of exponentially growing cells of the pyc2 mutant from an aspartate or a glutamate medium to an ammonium medium caused a fivefold increase in PYC1 mRNA in less than 30 min, whereas in the inverse experiment, PYC1 transcripts returned within 30 min to the low levels found in aspartate/glutamate medium. By contrast, these conditions affected neither the pyruvate carboxylase activity encoded by PYC2 nor PYC2 mRNA. Considering that changes in PYC1 expression inversely correlated with changes in alpha-ketoglutarate concentration or in alpha-ketoglutarate/glutamate ratio following the nitrogen shift experiments, and taking into account the pivotal role of this metabolite in ammonium assimilation, it is suggested that changes in alpha-ketoglutarate or in the alpha-ketoglutarate/glutamate ratio might be implicated in triggering the nitrogen effects on PYC1 expression. The physiological significance of the differential sensitivity of PYC1 and PYC2 genes with respect to the nitrogen source in the growth medium is also discussed.

Huet C; Menendez J; Gancedo C; François JM

2000-12-01

16

Regulation of pyc1 encoding pyruvate carboxylase isozyme I by nitrogen sources in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the existence of PYC1 and PYC2 encoding cytosolic pyruvate carboxylase isoform I and II is rather puzzling, owing to the lack of potent differential gene regulation by the carbon sources. We report several findings indicating that these two genes are differentially regulated by the nature of the nitrogen source. In wild-type cells, the activity of pyruvate carboxylase, which is the sum of pyruvate carboxylase isoform I and II, was two- to fivefold lower in carbon medium containing aspartate, asparagine, glutamate or glutamine instead of ammonium as the nitrogen source, whereas it was 1.5- to threefold higher when the ammonium source was substituted by arginine, methionine, threonine or leucine. These enzymatic changes were independent of the nature of the carbon source and closely correlated to the changes in beta-galactosidase from PYC1-lacZ gene fusion and in PYC1 transcripts. Transfer of exponentially growing cells of the pyc2 mutant from an aspartate or a glutamate medium to an ammonium medium caused a fivefold increase in PYC1 mRNA in less than 30 min, whereas in the inverse experiment, PYC1 transcripts returned within 30 min to the low levels found in aspartate/glutamate medium. By contrast, these conditions affected neither the pyruvate carboxylase activity encoded by PYC2 nor PYC2 mRNA. Considering that changes in PYC1 expression inversely correlated with changes in alpha-ketoglutarate concentration or in alpha-ketoglutarate/glutamate ratio following the nitrogen shift experiments, and taking into account the pivotal role of this metabolite in ammonium assimilation, it is suggested that changes in alpha-ketoglutarate or in the alpha-ketoglutarate/glutamate ratio might be implicated in triggering the nitrogen effects on PYC1 expression. The physiological significance of the differential sensitivity of PYC1 and PYC2 genes with respect to the nitrogen source in the growth medium is also discussed. PMID:11082192

Huet, C; Menendez, J; Gancedo, C; François, J M

2000-12-01

17

ATR1, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene encoding a transmembrane protein required for aminotriazole resistance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (aminotriazole) competitively inhibits the activity of imidazoleglycerolphosphate dehydratase, the product of the HIS3 gene. Wild-type strains are able to grow in the presence of 10 mM aminotriazole because they induce the level of imidazoleglycerolphosphate dehydratase. However, strains containing gcn4 mutations are unable to grow in medium containing aminotriazole because they lack the GCN4 transcriptional activator protein necessary for the coordinate induction of HIS3 and other amino acid biosynthetic genes. Here, we isolated a new gene, designated ATR1, which when present in multiple copies per cell allowed gcn4 mutant strains to grow in the presence of aminotriazole. In wild-type strains, multiple copies of ATR1 permitted growth at extremely high concentrations of aminotriazole (80 mM), whereas a chromosomal deletion of ATR1 caused growth inhibition at very low concentrations (5 mM). When radioactive aminotriazole was added exogenously, cells with multiple copies of ATR1 accumulated less aminotriazole than wild-type cells, whereas cells with the atr1 deletion mutation retained more aminotriazole. Unlike the mammalian mdr or yeast PDR genes that confer resistance to many drugs, ATR1 appears to confer resistance only to aminotriazole. Genetic analysis, mRNA mapping, and DNA sequencing revealed that (i) the primary translation product of ATR1 contains 547 amino acids, (ii) ATR1 transcription is induced by aminotriazole, and (iii) the ATR1 promoter region contains a binding site for the GCN4 activator protein. The deduced amino acid sequence suggests that ATR1 protein is very hydrophobic with many membrane-spanning regions, has several potential glycosylation sites, and may contain an ATP-binding site. We suggest that ATR1 encodes a membrane-associated component of the machinery responsible for pumping aminotriazole (and possibly other toxic compounds) out of the cell.

Kanazawa S; Driscoll M; Struhl K

1988-02-01

18

Transgenic Saccharomyces Cerevisiae and Method for Bioremediation.  

Science.gov (United States)

An isolated and purified transgenic Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cell comprising a disrupted ACR3 gene and an isolated DNA sequence comprising a promoter operably linked to a nucleic acid molecule encoding yeast cadmium factor resistance protein Ycf1p, ...

B. Rosen M. Ghosh

2004-01-01

19

Mitochondrially-encoded protein Var1 promotes loss of respiratory function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae under stressful conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Stressed Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells easily lose respiratory function due to deletions in mitochondrial DNA, and this increases their general stress resistance. Is the loss active? We found that erythromycin (an inhibitor of mitochondrial translation) prevents the loss in control cells but not in the ones expressing mitochondrially-encoded protein Var1 in the nucleus. Var1 is a component of mitochondrial ribosomes; it is hydrophilic, positively charged, and prone to aggregation. Addition of DNase altered Var1 content in a preparation of mitochondrial nucleoids. Our data indicate that Var1 physically interacts with mitochondrial DNA and under stress negatively regulates its maintenance. PMID:23523087

Litvinchuk, Alexandra V; Sokolov, Svyatoslav S; Rogov, Anton G; Markova, Olga V; Knorre, Dmitry A; Severin, Fedor F

2013-03-13

20

Mitochondrially-encoded protein Var1 promotes loss of respiratory function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae under stressful conditions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Stressed Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells easily lose respiratory function due to deletions in mitochondrial DNA, and this increases their general stress resistance. Is the loss active? We found that erythromycin (an inhibitor of mitochondrial translation) prevents the loss in control cells but not in the ones expressing mitochondrially-encoded protein Var1 in the nucleus. Var1 is a component of mitochondrial ribosomes; it is hydrophilic, positively charged, and prone to aggregation. Addition of DNase altered Var1 content in a preparation of mitochondrial nucleoids. Our data indicate that Var1 physically interacts with mitochondrial DNA and under stress negatively regulates its maintenance.

Litvinchuk AV; Sokolov SS; Rogov AG; Markova OV; Knorre DA; Severin FF

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
21

The Schizosaccharomyces pombe pla1 gene encodes a poly(A) polymerase and can functionally replace its Saccharomyces cerevisiae homologue.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We have isolated the poly(A) polymerase (PAP) encoding gene pla1 [for poly(A) polymerase] from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Protein sequence alignments with other poly(A) polymerases reveal that pla1 is more closely related to Saccharomyces cerevisiae PAP than to bovine PAP. The two yeast poly(A) polymerases share significant sequence homology not only in the generally conserved N-terminal part but also in the C-terminus. Furthermore, pla1 rescues a S. cerevisiae PAP1 disruption mutant. An extract from the complemented strain is active in the specific in vitro polyadenylation assay. In contrast, recombinant PLA1 protein can not replace bovine PAP in the mammalian in vitro polyadenylation assay. These results indicate a high degree of conservation of the polyadenylation machinery among the evolutionary diverged budding and fission yeasts.

Ohnacker M; Minvielle-Sebastia L; Keller W

1996-07-01

22

One of two genes encoding glycyl-tRNA synthetase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae provides mitochondrial and cytoplasmic functions.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two genes (GRS1 and GRS2) encode glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GlyRS1 and GlyRS2, respectively). 59% of the sequence of GlyRS2 is identical to that of GlyRS1. Others have proposed that GRS1 and GRS2 encode the cytoplasmic and mitochondrial enzymes, respectively. In this work, we show that GRS1 encodes both functions, whereas GRS2 is dispensable. In addition, both cytoplasmic and mitochondrial phenotypes of the knockout allele of GRS1 in S. cerevisiae are complemented by the expression of the only known gene for glycyl-tRNA synthetase in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Thus, a single gene for glycyl-tRNA synthetase likely encodes both cytoplasmic and mitochondrial activities in most or all yeast. Phylogenetic analysis shows that GlyRS2 is a predecessor of all yeast GlyRS homologues. Thus, GRS1 appears to be the result of a duplication of GRS2, which itself is pseudogene-like. PMID:10874035

Turner, R J; Lovato, M; Schimmel, P

2000-09-01

23

One of two genes encoding glycyl-tRNA synthetase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae provides mitochondrial and cytoplasmic functions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two genes (GRS1 and GRS2) encode glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GlyRS1 and GlyRS2, respectively). 59% of the sequence of GlyRS2 is identical to that of GlyRS1. Others have proposed that GRS1 and GRS2 encode the cytoplasmic and mitochondrial enzymes, respectively. In this work, we show that GRS1 encodes both functions, whereas GRS2 is dispensable. In addition, both cytoplasmic and mitochondrial phenotypes of the knockout allele of GRS1 in S. cerevisiae are complemented by the expression of the only known gene for glycyl-tRNA synthetase in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Thus, a single gene for glycyl-tRNA synthetase likely encodes both cytoplasmic and mitochondrial activities in most or all yeast. Phylogenetic analysis shows that GlyRS2 is a predecessor of all yeast GlyRS homologues. Thus, GRS1 appears to be the result of a duplication of GRS2, which itself is pseudogene-like.

Turner RJ; Lovato M; Schimmel P

2000-09-01

24

Cloning and characterization of ERG8, an essential gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that encodes phosphomevalonate kinase.  

Science.gov (United States)

Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that contain the ery8-1 mutation are temperature sensitive for growth due to a defect in phosphomevalonate kinase, an enzyme of isoprene and ergosterol biosynthesis. A plasmid bearing the yeast ERG8 gene was isolated from a YCp50 genomic library by functional complementation of the erg8-1 mutant strain. Genetic analysis demonstrated that integrated copies of an ERG8 plasmid mapped to the erg8 locus, confirming the identity of this clone. Southern analysis showed that ERG8 was a single-copy gene. Subcloning and DNA sequencing defined the functional ERG8 regulon as an 850-bp upstream region and an adjacent 1,272-bp open reading frame. The deduced 424-amino-acid ERG8 protein showed no homology to known proteins except within a putative ATP-binding domain present in many kinases. Disruption of the chromosomal ERG8 coding region by integration of URA3 or HIS3 marker fragments was lethal in haploid cells, indicating that this gene is essential. Expression of the ERG8 gene in S. cerevisiae from the galactose-inducible galactokinase (GAL1) promoter resulted in 1,000-fold-elevated levels of phosphomevalonate kinase enzyme activity. Overproduction of a soluble protein with the predicted 48-kDa size for phosphomevalonate kinase was also observed in the yeast cells. PMID:1846667

Tsay, Y H; Robinson, G W

1991-02-01

25

Cloning and characterization of ERG8, an essential gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that encodes phosphomevalonate kinase.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that contain the ery8-1 mutation are temperature sensitive for growth due to a defect in phosphomevalonate kinase, an enzyme of isoprene and ergosterol biosynthesis. A plasmid bearing the yeast ERG8 gene was isolated from a YCp50 genomic library by functional complementation of the erg8-1 mutant strain. Genetic analysis demonstrated that integrated copies of an ERG8 plasmid mapped to the erg8 locus, confirming the identity of this clone. Southern analysis showed that ERG8 was a single-copy gene. Subcloning and DNA sequencing defined the functional ERG8 regulon as an 850-bp upstream region and an adjacent 1,272-bp open reading frame. The deduced 424-amino-acid ERG8 protein showed no homology to known proteins except within a putative ATP-binding domain present in many kinases. Disruption of the chromosomal ERG8 coding region by integration of URA3 or HIS3 marker fragments was lethal in haploid cells, indicating that this gene is essential. Expression of the ERG8 gene in S. cerevisiae from the galactose-inducible galactokinase (GAL1) promoter resulted in 1,000-fold-elevated levels of phosphomevalonate kinase enzyme activity. Overproduction of a soluble protein with the predicted 48-kDa size for phosphomevalonate kinase was also observed in the yeast cells.

Tsay YH; Robinson GW

1991-02-01

26

Deletion of FPS1, encoding aquaglyceroporin Fps1p, improves xylose fermentation by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Accumulation of xylitol in xylose fermentation with engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae presents a major problem that hampers economically feasible production of biofuels from cellulosic plant biomass. In particular, substantial production of xylitol due to unbalanced redox cofactor usage by xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) leads to low yields of ethanol. While previous research focused on manipulating intracellular enzymatic reactions to improve xylose metabolism, this study demonstrated a new strategy to reduce xylitol formation and increase carbon flux toward target products by controlling the process of xylitol secretion. Using xylitol-producing S. cerevisiae strains expressing XR only, we determined the role of aquaglyceroporin Fps1p in xylitol export by characterizing extracellular and intracellular xylitol. In addition, when FPS1 was deleted in a poorly xylose-fermenting strain with unbalanced XR and XDH activities, the xylitol yield was decreased by 71% and the ethanol yield was substantially increased by nearly four times. Experiments with our optimized xylose-fermenting strain also showed that FPS1 deletion reduced xylitol production by 21% to 30% and increased ethanol yields by 3% to 10% under various fermentation conditions. Deletion of FPS1 decreased the xylose consumption rate under anaerobic conditions, but the effect was not significant in fermentation at high cell density. Deletion of FPS1 resulted in higher intracellular xylitol concentrations but did not significantly change the intracellular NAD(+)/NADH ratio in xylose-fermenting strains. The results demonstrate that Fps1p is involved in xylitol export in S. cerevisiae and present a new gene deletion target, FPS1, and a mechanism different from those previously reported to engineer yeast for improved xylose fermentation.

Wei N; Xu H; Kim SR; Jin YS

2013-05-01

27

The PDE1-encoded Low-Affinity Phosphodiesterase in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Has a Specific Function in Controlling Agonist-induced cAMP Signaling  

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The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains two genes, PDE1 and PDE2, which respectively encode a low-affinity and a high-affinity cAMP phosphodiesterase. The physiological function of the low-affinity enzyme Pde1 is unclear. We show that deletion of PDE1, but not PDE2, results in a much higher cAMP...

Ma, Pingsheng; Wera, Stefaan; Van Dijck, Patrick; Thevelein, Johan M.

28

SPK1 is an essential S-phase-specific gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that encodes a nuclear serine/threonine/tyrosine kinase.  

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SPK1 was originally discovered in an immunoscreen for tyrosine-protein kinases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have used biochemical and genetic techniques to investigate the function of this gene and its encoded protein. Hybridization of an SPK1 probe to an ordered genomic library showed that SPK1 ...

Zheng, P; Fay, D S; Burton, J; Xiao, H; Pinkham, J L; Stern, D F

29

The general amino acid control regulates MET4, which encodes a methionine-pathway-specific transcriptional activator of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

A met4 mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was unable to transcribe a number of genes encoding enzymes of the methionine biosynthetic pathway. The sequence of the cloned MET4 gene allowed the previously sequenced flanking LEU4 and POL1 genes to be linked to MET4 into a 10,327 bp contiguous region of chromosome XIV. From the sequence and mapping of the transcriptional start points, MET4 is predicted to encode a protein of 634 amino acids (as opposed to 666 amino acids published by others) with a leucine zipper domain at the C-terminus, preceded by both acidic and basic regions. Thus, MET4 belongs to the family of basic leucine zipper trans-activator proteins. Disruption of MET4 resulted in methionine auxotrophy with no other phenotype. Transcriptional studies showed that MET4 was regulated by the general amino acid control and hence by another bZIP protein encoded by GCN4. GCN4 binding sequences are present between the divergently transcribed MET4 and LEU4 genes. Over-expression of MET4 resulted in leaky expression from the otherwise tightly regulated MET3 promoter under its control. The presence of consensus sequences for other potential regulatory elements in the MET4 promoter suggests a complex regulation of this gene. PMID:8446029

Mountain, H A; Byström, A S; Korch, C

1993-01-01

30

The general amino acid control regulates MET4, which encodes a methionine-pathway-specific transcriptional activator of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A met4 mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was unable to transcribe a number of genes encoding enzymes of the methionine biosynthetic pathway. The sequence of the cloned MET4 gene allowed the previously sequenced flanking LEU4 and POL1 genes to be linked to MET4 into a 10,327 bp contiguous region of chromosome XIV. From the sequence and mapping of the transcriptional start points, MET4 is predicted to encode a protein of 634 amino acids (as opposed to 666 amino acids published by others) with a leucine zipper domain at the C-terminus, preceded by both acidic and basic regions. Thus, MET4 belongs to the family of basic leucine zipper trans-activator proteins. Disruption of MET4 resulted in methionine auxotrophy with no other phenotype. Transcriptional studies showed that MET4 was regulated by the general amino acid control and hence by another bZIP protein encoded by GCN4. GCN4 binding sequences are present between the divergently transcribed MET4 and LEU4 genes. Over-expression of MET4 resulted in leaky expression from the otherwise tightly regulated MET3 promoter under its control. The presence of consensus sequences for other potential regulatory elements in the MET4 promoter suggests a complex regulation of this gene.

Mountain HA; Byström AS; Korch C

1993-01-01

31

Proline biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: molecular analysis of the PRO1 gene, which encodes gamma-glutamyl kinase.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The PRO1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes the 428-amino-acid protein gamma-glutamyl kinase (ATP:L-glutamate 5-phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.2.11), which catalyzes the first step in proline biosynthesis. Amino acid sequence comparison revealed significant homology between the yeast and Escherichia coli gamma-glutamyl kinases throughout their lengths. Four close matches to the consensus sequence for GCN4 protein binding and one close match to the RAP1 protein-binding site were found in the PRO1 upstream region. The response of the PRO1 gene to changes in the growth medium was analyzed by measurement of steady-state mRNA levels and of beta-galactosidase activity encoded by a PRO1-lacZ gene fusion. PRO1 expression was not repressed by exogenous proline and was not induced by the presence of glutamate in the growth medium. Although expression of the PRO1 gene did not change in response to histidine starvation, both steady-state PRO1 mRNA levels and beta-galactosidase activities were elevated in a gcd1 strain and reduced in a gcn4 strain. In addition, a pro1 bradytrophic strain became completely auxotrophic for proline in a gcn4 strain background. These results indicate that PRO1 is regulated by the general amino acid control system.

Li W; Brandriss MC

1992-06-01

32

Proline biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: molecular analysis of the PRO1 gene, which encodes gamma-glutamyl kinase.  

Science.gov (United States)

The PRO1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes the 428-amino-acid protein gamma-glutamyl kinase (ATP:L-glutamate 5-phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.2.11), which catalyzes the first step in proline biosynthesis. Amino acid sequence comparison revealed significant homology between the yeast and Escherichia coli gamma-glutamyl kinases throughout their lengths. Four close matches to the consensus sequence for GCN4 protein binding and one close match to the RAP1 protein-binding site were found in the PRO1 upstream region. The response of the PRO1 gene to changes in the growth medium was analyzed by measurement of steady-state mRNA levels and of beta-galactosidase activity encoded by a PRO1-lacZ gene fusion. PRO1 expression was not repressed by exogenous proline and was not induced by the presence of glutamate in the growth medium. Although expression of the PRO1 gene did not change in response to histidine starvation, both steady-state PRO1 mRNA levels and beta-galactosidase activities were elevated in a gcd1 strain and reduced in a gcn4 strain. In addition, a pro1 bradytrophic strain became completely auxotrophic for proline in a gcn4 strain background. These results indicate that PRO1 is regulated by the general amino acid control system. PMID:1350780

Li, W; Brandriss, M C

1992-06-01

33

[Saccharomyces cerevisiae Infections.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Saccharomyces cerevisiae is ubiquitous yeast widely used in industry and it is also a common colonizer of the human mucosae. However, the incidence of invasive infection by these fungi has significantly increased in the last decades. AIMS: To evaluate the infection by S. cerevisiae in a hospital in southern Brazil during a period of 10 years (2000-2010). METHODS: Review of medical records of patients infected by this fungus. RESULTS: In this period, 6 patients were found to be infected by S. cerevisiae. The age range of the patients was from 10 years to 84. Urine, blood, ascitic fluid, peritoneal dialysis fluid, and esophageal biopsy samples were analyzed. The most common predisposing factors were cancer, transplant, surgical procedures, renal failure, use of venous catheters, mechanical ventilation, hospitalization in intensive care, diabetes mellitus, chemotherapy, corticosteroid use, and parenteral nutrition. Amphotericin B and fluconazole were the treatments of choice. Three of the patients died and the other three were discharged from hospital. CONCLUSIONS: We must take special precautions in emerging infections, especially when there are predisposing conditions such as immunosuppression or patients with serious illnesses. The rapid and specific diagnosis of this yeast is important for therapeutic decision. Furthermore, epidemiological and efficacy studies of antifungal agents are necessary for a better therapeutic approach.

Souza Goebel C; DE Mattos Oliveira F; Severo LC

2013-04-01

34

Purification and Properties of an Esterase from the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Identification of the Encoding Gene  

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We purified an intracellular esterase that can function as an S-formylglutathione hydrolase from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Its molecular mass was 40 kDa, as determined by gel filtration and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The isoelectric point was 5.0 by isoelect...

Degrassi, Giuliano; Uotila, Lasse; Klima, Raffaella; Venturi, Vittorio

35

21 CFR 866.5785 - Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems. 866.5785...Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae ) antibody (ASCA) test systems. (a) Identification...Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae ) antibody (ASCA) test system is an in...

2009-04-01

36

VMA7 encodes a novel 14-kDa subunit of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae vacuolar H(+)-ATPase complex.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Saccharomyces cerevisiae vacuolar proton-translocating ATPase (V-ATPase) is composed of at least 10 subunits belonging to either the peripheral V1 or integral membrane V0 subcomplex. We have characterized a novel 14-kDa V-ATPase subunit (Vma7p), encoded by the VMA7 gene, which exhibits features common to both V1 and V0 subunit proteins. Vma7p is a hydrophilic protein of 118 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 13,452 Da. Vacuolar membranes isolated from a vma7 delta null mutant contained no V-ATPase activity. Western analysis of vma7 delta cells revealed greatly reduced levels of the remaining V0 complex V-ATPase subunits, but normal levels of the V1 subunits. However, the V1 subunits failed to associate with the vacuolar membrane. Unlike the integral membrane subunits of the V0 complex, Vma7p was easily stripped from vacuolar membranes. Density gradient fractionation revealed that Vma7p associated only with the fully assembled V-ATPase and did not associate with a separate lower density V0 subcomplex fraction. The unique properties of the Vma7p may reflect a critical role in stabilizing the V0 complex and bridging the V1 and V0 complexes to form a functional V-ATPase complex.

Graham LA; Hill KJ; Stevens TH

1994-10-01

37

YET1, YET2 and YET3 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Encode BAP31 Homologs with Partially Overlapping Functions  

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Full Text Available BAP31 is a polytopic integral membrane protein of the endoplasmic reticulum in mammalian cells. It has been shown to participate in various cellular functions such as protein transport and apoptosis. Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome contains three open reading frames YKL065C, YMR040W and YDL072C, which encode BAP31 homologs. We named these YET1 (for Yeast ER Transmembrane protein), YET2 and YET3, respectively. Similar to mammalian BAP31, Yet1p was shown to be an integral membrane protein localized to the endoplasmic reticulum. YET genes were not essential for viability, but disruption of YET1 increased and YET3 decreased the cell growth in liquid cultures. In the yet1? yet3? and yet2? yet3? double disruptant cells the growth was restored to the level observed in the wild type cells. The results suggest that Yet proteins have partially specialized, but overlapping functions. Furthermore, yet3? cells showed a defect in invertase secretion. The possible role of the yeast BAP31 homologs in the ER export is discussed.

Jaana H. Toikkanen; Netta Fatal; Pekka Hilden; Marja Makarow; Esa Kuismanen

2006-01-01

38

Epigenetics in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Saccharomyces cerevisiae provides a well-studied model system for heritable silent chromatin, in which a nonhistone protein complex--the SIR complex--represses genes by spreading in a sequence-independent manner, much like heterochromatin in higher eukaryotes. The ability to study mutations in histones and to screen genome-wide for mutations that impair silencing has yielded an unparalleled depth of detail about this system. Recent advances in the biochemistry and structural biology of the SIR-chromatin complex bring us much closer to a molecular understanding of how Sir3 selectively recognizes the deacetylated histone H4 tail and demethylated histone H3 core. The existence of appropriate mutants has also shown how components of the silencing machinery affect physiological processes beyond transcriptional repression.

Grunstein M; Gasser SM

2013-07-01

39

21 CFR 866.5785 - Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody...Test Systems § 866.5785 Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae ...a) Identification. The Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S....

2009-04-01

40

Elution of Exocellular Enzymes from Saccharomyces fragilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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Weimberg, Ralph (Northern Regional Research Laboratory, Peoria, Ill.), and William L. Orton. Elution of exocellular enzymes from Saccharomyces fragilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J. Bacteriol. 91:1–13. 1966.—Invertase and acid phosphatase are repressible exocellular enzymes in Saccharomyces fragi...

Weimberg, Ralph; Orton, William L.

 
 
 
 
41

Saccharomyces cerevisiae YOR071C encodes the high affinity nicotinamide riboside transporter Nrt1.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

NAD(+) is an essential coenzyme for hydride transfer enzymes and a substrate of sirtuins and other NAD(+)-consuming enzymes. Nicotinamide riboside is a recently discovered eukaryotic NAD(+) precursor converted to NAD(+) via the nicotinamide riboside kinase pathway and by nucleosidase activity and nicotinamide salvage. Nicotinamide riboside supplementation of yeast extends replicative life span on high glucose medium. The molecular basis for nicotinamide riboside uptake was unknown in any eukaryote. Here, we show that deletion of a single gene, YOR071C, abrogates nicotinamide riboside uptake without altering nicotinic acid or nicotinamide import. The gene, which is negatively regulated by Sum1, Hst1, and Rfm1, fully restores nicotinamide riboside import and utilization when resupplied to mutant yeast cells. The encoded polypeptide, Nrt1, is a predicted deca-spanning membrane protein related to the thiamine transporter, which functions as a pH-dependent facilitator with a K(m) for nicotinamide riboside of 22 microm. Nrt1-related molecules are conserved in particular fungi, suggesting a similar basis for nicotinamide riboside uptake.

Belenky PA; Moga TG; Brenner C

2008-03-01

42

Saccharomyces cerevisiae YOR071C encodes the high affinity nicotinamide riboside transporter Nrt1.  

Science.gov (United States)

NAD(+) is an essential coenzyme for hydride transfer enzymes and a substrate of sirtuins and other NAD(+)-consuming enzymes. Nicotinamide riboside is a recently discovered eukaryotic NAD(+) precursor converted to NAD(+) via the nicotinamide riboside kinase pathway and by nucleosidase activity and nicotinamide salvage. Nicotinamide riboside supplementation of yeast extends replicative life span on high glucose medium. The molecular basis for nicotinamide riboside uptake was unknown in any eukaryote. Here, we show that deletion of a single gene, YOR071C, abrogates nicotinamide riboside uptake without altering nicotinic acid or nicotinamide import. The gene, which is negatively regulated by Sum1, Hst1, and Rfm1, fully restores nicotinamide riboside import and utilization when resupplied to mutant yeast cells. The encoded polypeptide, Nrt1, is a predicted deca-spanning membrane protein related to the thiamine transporter, which functions as a pH-dependent facilitator with a K(m) for nicotinamide riboside of 22 microm. Nrt1-related molecules are conserved in particular fungi, suggesting a similar basis for nicotinamide riboside uptake. PMID:18258590

Belenky, Peter A; Moga, Tiberiu G; Brenner, Charles

2008-02-06

43

Arabidopsis thaliana and Saccharomyces cerevisiae NHX1 genes encode amiloride sensitive electroneutral Na+/H+ exchangers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sodium at high millimolar levels in the cytoplasm is toxic to plant and yeast cells. Sequestration of Na(+) ions into the vacuole is one mechanism to confer Na(+)-tolerance on these organisms. In the present study we provide direct evidence that the Arabidopsis thaliana At-NHX1 gene and the yeast NHX1 gene encode low-affinity electroneutral Na(+)/H(+) exchangers. We took advantage of the ability of heterologously expressed At-NHX1 to functionally complement the yeast nhx1-null mutant. Experiments on vacuolar vesicles isolated from yeast expressing At-NHX1 or NHX1 provided direct evidence for pH-gradient-energized Na(+) accumulation into the vacuole. A major difference between NHX1 and At-NHX1 is the presence of a cleavable N-terminal signal peptide (SP) in the former gene. Fusion of the SP to At-NHX1 resulted in an increase in the magnitude of Na(+)/H(+) exchange, indicating a role for the SP in protein targeting or regulation. Another distinguishing feature between the plant and yeast antiporters is their sensitivity to the diuretic compound amiloride. Whereas At-NHX1 was completely inhibited by amiloride, NHX1 activity was reduced by only 20-40%. These results show that yeast as a heterologous expression system provides a convenient model to analyse structural and regulatory features of plant Na(+)/H(+) antiporters.

Darley CP; van Wuytswinkel OC; van der Woude K; Mager WH; de Boer AH

2000-10-01

44

Arabidopsis thaliana and Saccharomyces cerevisiae NHX1 genes encode amiloride sensitive electroneutral Na+/H+ exchangers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sodium at high millimolar levels in the cytoplasm is toxic to plant and yeast cells. Sequestration of Na(+) ions into the vacuole is one mechanism to confer Na(+)-tolerance on these organisms. In the present study we provide direct evidence that the Arabidopsis thaliana At-NHX1 gene and the yeast NHX1 gene encode low-affinity electroneutral Na(+)/H(+) exchangers. We took advantage of the ability of heterologously expressed At-NHX1 to functionally complement the yeast nhx1-null mutant. Experiments on vacuolar vesicles isolated from yeast expressing At-NHX1 or NHX1 provided direct evidence for pH-gradient-energized Na(+) accumulation into the vacuole. A major difference between NHX1 and At-NHX1 is the presence of a cleavable N-terminal signal peptide (SP) in the former gene. Fusion of the SP to At-NHX1 resulted in an increase in the magnitude of Na(+)/H(+) exchange, indicating a role for the SP in protein targeting or regulation. Another distinguishing feature between the plant and yeast antiporters is their sensitivity to the diuretic compound amiloride. Whereas At-NHX1 was completely inhibited by amiloride, NHX1 activity was reduced by only 20-40%. These results show that yeast as a heterologous expression system provides a convenient model to analyse structural and regulatory features of plant Na(+)/H(+) antiporters. PMID:10998367

Darley, C P; van Wuytswinkel, O C; van der Woude, K; Mager, W H; de Boer, A H

2000-10-01

45

"Malonate Uptake and Metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae".  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Malonyl-CoA plays an important role in the synthesis and elongation of fatty acids in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Malonyl-CoA is at a low concentration inside the cell and is produced mainly from acetyl-CoA through the enzyme acetyl-CoA carboxylase. It would be beneficial to find an alternative source of malonyl-CoA to increase its intracellular concentration and overall synthesis of the fatty acids. MatB gene from the bacteria Rhizobium leguminosarium bv. trifolii encodes for a malonyl-CoA synthetase which catalyzes the formation of the malonyl-CoA directly from malonate and CoA. However, results from high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) proved that Saccharomyces cerevisiae itself does not contain enough cytoplasmic malonate within them and is unable to uptake exogenously supplied malonate in the form of malonic acid. A dicarboxylic acid plasma membrane transporter with the ability to uptake exogenous malonic acid was identified from another species of yeast known as Schizosaccharomyces pombe and the gene encoding this transporter is identified as the mae1 gene. From the experiments thus far, the mae1 gene had been successfully cloned and transformed into Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The expression and functional ability of the encoded plasma membrane dicarboxylic acid transporter were also demonstrated and verified using specialized technologies such as RT-PCR, yeast immunofluorescence, HPLC, and LC-MS.

Chen WN; Tan KY

2013-09-01

46

Molecular genetic diversity of the Saccharomyces yeasts in Taiwan: Saccharomyces arboricola, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces kudriavzevii.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Genetic hybridization, sequence and karyotypic analyses of natural Saccharomyces yeasts isolated in different regions of Taiwan revealed three biological species: Saccharomyces arboricola, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces kudriavzevii. Intraspecies variability of the D1/D2 and ITS1 rDNA sequences was detected among S. cerevisiae and S. kudriavzevii isolates. According to molecular and genetic analyses, the cosmopolitan species S. cerevisiae and S. kudriavzevii contain local divergent populations in Taiwan, Malaysia and Japan. Six of the seven known Saccharomyces species are documented in East Asia: S. arboricola, S. bayanus, S. cerevisiae, S. kudriavzevii, S. mikatae, and S. paradoxus.

Naumov GI; Lee CF; Naumova ES

2013-01-01

47

Regulatory regions in the promoters of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae PYC1 and PYC2 genes encoding isoenzymes of pyruvate carboxylase.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have identified regions in the promoters of the PYC1 and PYC2 genes from Saccharomyces cerevisiae involved in their regulation in different culture conditions. In the case of PYC1, a UAS in the region between -330/-297 and three repressing sequences with the common central core CCGCC at positions -457, -432 and -399 were identified. Specific binding of nuclear proteins to the -330/-214 DNA fragment was abolished in rtg mutants suggesting a role for the RTG genes in the control of PYC1 expression. In the case of the PYC2 promoter, elimination of a fragment from -417 to -291 brings about a two-fold decrease in the expression in repressed conditions and a similar increase in derepression. PMID:9682484

Menéndez, J; Gancedo, C

1998-07-15

48

Regulatory regions in the promoters of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae PYC1 and PYC2 genes encoding isoenzymes of pyruvate carboxylase.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We have identified regions in the promoters of the PYC1 and PYC2 genes from Saccharomyces cerevisiae involved in their regulation in different culture conditions. In the case of PYC1, a UAS in the region between -330/-297 and three repressing sequences with the common central core CCGCC at positions -457, -432 and -399 were identified. Specific binding of nuclear proteins to the -330/-214 DNA fragment was abolished in rtg mutants suggesting a role for the RTG genes in the control of PYC1 expression. In the case of the PYC2 promoter, elimination of a fragment from -417 to -291 brings about a two-fold decrease in the expression in repressed conditions and a similar increase in derepression.

Menéndez J; Gancedo C

1998-07-01

49

Apurinic endonucleases from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three endonuclease activities have been partially purified from Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the basis of their activity against x-irradiated closed-circular supercoiled bacteriophage PM2 DNA. These endonucleases also nick apurinic DNA and two out of the three activities incise DNA UV-irradiated with high doses. The endonuclease activities have also been distinguished on the basis of their magnesium requirement and sensitivity to EDTA. PMID:360170

Armel, P R; Wallace, S S

1978-09-01

50

The Saccharomyces cerevisiae SPR1 gene encodes a sporulation-specific exo-1,3-beta-glucanase which contributes to ascospore thermoresistance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A number of genes have been shown to be transcribed specifically during sporulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, yet their developmental function is unknown. The SPR1 gene is transcribed during only the late stages of sporulation. We have sequenced the SPR1 gene and found that it has extensive DNA and protein sequence homology to the S. cerevisiae EXG1 gene which encodes an exo-1,3-beta-glucanase expressed during vegetative growth (C. R. Vasquez de Aldana, J. Correa, P. San Segundo, A. Bueno, A. R. Nebrada, E. Mendez, and F. del Ray, Gene 97:173-182, 1991). We show that spr1 mutant cells do not hydrolyze p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucoside or laminarin in a whole-cell assay for exo-1,3-beta-glucanases. In addition to the absence of this enzymatic activity, spr1 mutant spores exhibit reduced thermoresistance relative to isogenic wild-type spores. These observations are consistent with the notion that SPR1 encodes a sporulation-specific exo-1,3-beta-glucanase.

Muthukumar G; Suhng SH; Magee PT; Jewell RD; Primerano DA

1993-01-01

51

Co-regulation with genes of phospholipid biosynthesis of the CTR/HNM1-encoded choline/nitrogen mustard permease in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An 815 bp region of the promoter of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene CTR/HNM1, encoding choline permease was sequenced and its regulatory function analysed by deletion studies in an in-frame promoter-lacZ construct. In addition to the TATA box, a 10 bp motif (consensus 5'-CATGTGAAAT-3') was found to be mandatory for CTR/HNM1 expression. This 'decamer' motif is located between nucleotides -262 and -271 and is identical in 9 of 10 bp with the regulatory motif found in the S. cerevisiae INO1 and CHO1 genes. Constructs with the 10 bp sequence show high constitutive expression, while elimination or alterations at three nucleotide positions, of the decamer motif in the context of an otherwise unchaged promoter leads to total loss of beta-galactosidase production. Expression of the CTR/HNM1 gene in wild-type cells is regulated by the phospholipid precursors inositol and choline; no such influence is seen in cells bearing mutations in the phospholipid regulatory genes INO2, INO4, and OPI1. There is no regulation by INO2 and OPI1 in the absence of the decamer motif. However constructs not containing this sequence (promoter intact to positions -213 or -152) are still controlled by INO4. Other substrates of the choline permease, i.e. ethanolamine, nitrogen mustard and nitrogen half mustard do not regulate expression of CTR/HNM1.

Li Z; Brendel M

1993-12-01

52

Structure and regulation of a Candida albicans RP10 gene which encodes an immunogenic protein homologous to Saccharomyces cerevisiae ribosomal protein 10.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Candida albicans clone cDNA10 was isolated on the basis that it encodes a protein which is immunogenic during infections in humans (R. K. Swoboda, G. Bertram, H. Hollander, D. Greenspan, J. S. Greenspan, N. A. R. Gow, G. W. Gooday, and A. J. P. Brown, Infect. Immun. 61:4263-4271, 1993). cDNA10 was used to isolate its cognate gene, and both the cDNA and gene were sequenced, revealing a major open reading frame with the potential to encode a basic protein of 256 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 29 kDa. Over its entire length, the open reading frame showed strong homology at both the nucleic acid (75 to 78%) and amino acid (79 to 81%) levels to two Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes encoding the 40S ribosomal protein, Rp10. Therefore, our C. albicans gene was renamed RP10. Northern (RNA) analyses in C. albicans 3153 revealed that RP10 expression is regulated in a manner very similar to that of S. cerevisiae ribosomal genes. The level of the RP10 mRNA decreased upon heat shock (from 25 to 45 degrees C) and was tightly regulated during growth. Maximal levels of the mRNA were reached during mid-exponential phase before they decreased to negligible levels in stationary phase. The level of the RP10 mRNA was induced only transiently during the yeast-to-hyphal morphological transition but did not appear to respond to hyphal development per se.

Swoboda RK; Broadbent ID; Bertram G; Budge S; Gooday GW; Gow NA; Brown AJ

1995-03-01

53

Filamentous growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Filamentação em Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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Full Text Available Fungal dimorphism is a complex phenomenon triggered by a large variety of environmental factors and consists of a reversible alternating pattern of growth between different elliptical and filamentous forms of cells. Understanding the mechanisms that regulate these events is of major interest because of their implications in fungal pathogenesis, cell differentiation and industry. Diploid cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae transform from budding yeast to pseudohyphae when starved for nitrogen, giving the cells an advantage in food foraging, which is sensed by at least two signal transduction pathways: the MAP kinase (MAPK) and the PKA (cAMP-dependent protein kinase A) pathways. The output of these signalling pathways is the expression of pseudohypha-specific genes, whose expression profiles change and is accompanied by a G2 delay in the cell cycle and a prolonged period of polarized growth. Haploid yeast strains show a similar growth type after prolonged incubation on rich medium plates. The cells form chains and invade the agar on the edge of the colony, but they do not become elongated. This growth type is referred to as haploid invasive growth. Alcohols can also induce filamentous growth in S. cerevisiae, promoting aberrant and elongated morphology. The three forms of filamentous growth are revised in this article and also the pathways involved in sensing, signaling and signal transduction during filamentous growth.O dimorfismo em fungos é um fenômeno complexo acionado por um grande número de fatores ambientais e consiste num padrão alternante e reversível de crescimento, oscilando entre formas elípticas e filamentosas de células. É de grande importância o entendimento dos mecanismos que regulam esses eventos devido as suas implicações na patogenicidade, diferenciação celular e indústria. Células diplóides de Saccharomyces cerevisiae mudam de células brotantes para pseudohifas quando em condições limitantes de nitrogênio, o que confere às células uma vantagem na procura por alimento. A deficiência de nitrogênio é 'percebida' por pelo menos dois caminhos sinalizadores: 'MAP kinase' (MAPK) e 'PKA' (cAMP-dependent protein kinase A). O resultado dessa sinalização é a expressão de genes específicos para filamentação, cujos perfis de expressão mudam e são acompanhados por um retardo da fase G2 do ciclo celular e um período prolongado de crescimento polarizado. Células haplóides mostram um tipo de crescimento similar após prolongada incubação em meio rico. As células formam cadeias e invadem o ágar na borda da colônia, mas não se tornam alongadas. Esse tipo de crescimento é conhecido como crescimento invasivo haplóide. Os álcoois podem também induzir crescimento filamentoso em S. cerevisiae, ocasionando uma morfologia alongada e aberrante. Nesse artigo revisamos as três formas de crescimento filamentoso incluindo os caminhos envolvidos na percepção, sinalização e transdução do sinal durante o crescimento filamentoso.

Sandra Regina Ceccato-Antonini; Peter Edwin Sudbery

2004-01-01

54

Viruses and prions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been a key experimental organism for the study of infectious diseases, including dsRNA viruses, ssRNA viruses, and prions. Studies of the mechanisms of virus and prion replication, virus structure, and structure of the amyloid filaments that are the basis of yeast prions have been at the forefront of such studies in these classes of infectious entities. Yeast has been particularly useful in defining the interactions of the infectious elements with cellular components: chromosomally encoded proteins necessary for blocking the propagation of the viruses and prions, and proteins involved in the expression of viral components. Here, we emphasize the L-A dsRNA virus and its killer-toxin-encoding satellites, the 20S and 23S ssRNA naked viruses, and the several infectious proteins (prions) of yeast.

Wickner RB; Fujimura T; Esteban R

2013-01-01

55

Mutations in a gene encoding the. cap alpha. subunit of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae G protein indicate a role in mating pheromone signaling  

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Mutations which allowed conjugation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells lacking a mating pheromone receptor gene were selected. One of the genes defined by such mutations was isolated from a yeast genomic library by complementation of a temperature-sensitive mutation and is identically to the gene GPA1 (also known as SCG1), recently shown to be highly homologous to gene encoding the ..cap alpha.. subunits of mammalian G proteins. Physiological analysis of temperature-sensitive gpal mutations suggests that the encoded G protein is involved in signaling in response to mating pheromones. Mutational disruption of G-protein activity causes cell-cycle arrest in G/sub 1/, deposition of mating-specific cell surface aggultinins, and induction of pheromone-specific mRNa, all of which are responses to pheromone in wild-type cells. In addition, mutants can conjugate without the benefit of mating pheromone or pheromone receptor. A model is presented where the activated G protein has a negative impact on a constitutive signal which normally keeps the pheromone response repressed.

Jahng, K.Y.; Ferguson, J.; Reed, S.I.

1988-06-01

56

VMA11 and VMA16 encode second and third proteolipid subunits of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae vacuolar membrane H+-ATPase.  

Science.gov (United States)

The vacuolar membrane H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is composed of peripheral catalytic (V1) and integral membrane (V0) domains. The 17-kDa proteolipid subunit (VMA3 gene product; Vma3p) is predicted to constitute at least part of the proton translocating pore of V0. Recently, two VMA3 homologues, VMA11 and VMA16 (PPA1), have been identified in yeast, and VMA11 has been shown to be required for the V-ATPase activity. Cells disrupted for the VMA16 gene displayed the same phenotypes as those lacking either Vma3p or Vma11p; the mutant cells lost V-ATPase activity and failed to assemble V-ATPase subunits onto the vacuolar membrane. Epitope-tagged Vma11p and Vma16p were detected on the vacuolar membrane by immunofluorescence microscopy. Density gradient fractionation of the solubilized vacuolar proteins demonstrated that the tagged proteins copurified with the V-ATPase complex. We conclude that Vma11p and Vma16p are essential subunits of the V-ATPase. Vma3p contains a conserved glutamic acid residue (Glu137) whose carboxyl side chain is predicted to be important for proton transport activity. Mutational analysis of Vma11p and Vma16p revealed that both proteins contain a glutamic acid residue (Vma11p Glu145 and Vma16p Glu108) functionally similar to Vma3p Glu137. These residues could only be functionally substituted by an aspartic acid residue, because other mutations we examined inactivated the enzyme activity. Assembly and vacuolar targeting of the enzyme complex was not inhibited by these mutations. These results suggest that the three proteolipid subunits have similar but not redundant functions, each of which is most likely involved in proton transport activity of the enzyme complex. Yeast cells contain V0 and V1 subcomplexes in the vacuolar membrane and in the cytosol, respectively, that can be assembled into the active V0V1 complex in vivo. Surprisingly, loss-of-function mutations of either Vma11p Glu145 or Vma16p Glu108 resulted in a higher degree of assembly of the V1 subunits onto the V0 subcomplex in the vacuolar membrane. PMID:9030535

Hirata, R; Graham, L A; Takatsuki, A; Stevens, T H; Anraku, Y

1997-02-21

57

VMA11 and VMA16 encode second and third proteolipid subunits of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae vacuolar membrane H+-ATPase.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The vacuolar membrane H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is composed of peripheral catalytic (V1) and integral membrane (V0) domains. The 17-kDa proteolipid subunit (VMA3 gene product; Vma3p) is predicted to constitute at least part of the proton translocating pore of V0. Recently, two VMA3 homologues, VMA11 and VMA16 (PPA1), have been identified in yeast, and VMA11 has been shown to be required for the V-ATPase activity. Cells disrupted for the VMA16 gene displayed the same phenotypes as those lacking either Vma3p or Vma11p; the mutant cells lost V-ATPase activity and failed to assemble V-ATPase subunits onto the vacuolar membrane. Epitope-tagged Vma11p and Vma16p were detected on the vacuolar membrane by immunofluorescence microscopy. Density gradient fractionation of the solubilized vacuolar proteins demonstrated that the tagged proteins copurified with the V-ATPase complex. We conclude that Vma11p and Vma16p are essential subunits of the V-ATPase. Vma3p contains a conserved glutamic acid residue (Glu137) whose carboxyl side chain is predicted to be important for proton transport activity. Mutational analysis of Vma11p and Vma16p revealed that both proteins contain a glutamic acid residue (Vma11p Glu145 and Vma16p Glu108) functionally similar to Vma3p Glu137. These residues could only be functionally substituted by an aspartic acid residue, because other mutations we examined inactivated the enzyme activity. Assembly and vacuolar targeting of the enzyme complex was not inhibited by these mutations. These results suggest that the three proteolipid subunits have similar but not redundant functions, each of which is most likely involved in proton transport activity of the enzyme complex. Yeast cells contain V0 and V1 subcomplexes in the vacuolar membrane and in the cytosol, respectively, that can be assembled into the active V0V1 complex in vivo. Surprisingly, loss-of-function mutations of either Vma11p Glu145 or Vma16p Glu108 resulted in a higher degree of assembly of the V1 subunits onto the V0 subcomplex in the vacuolar membrane.

Hirata R; Graham LA; Takatsuki A; Stevens TH; Anraku Y

1997-02-01

58

Expression of an ATP-binding cassette transporter-encoding gene (YOR1) is required for oligomycin resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report identifies a new target gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae called YOR1 which is important for oligomycin resistance. It discusses the relationship of the expression of this gene and others responsible for resistance to cyclohexamide. 51 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Katzmann, D.J.; Hallstrom, T.C.; Moye-Rowley, W.S. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)] [and others

1995-12-01

59

Interactions of TLC1 (Which Encodes the RNA Subunit of Telomerase), TEL1, and MEC1 in Regulating Telomere Length in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, chromosomes terminate with a repetitive sequence [poly(TG1–3)] 350 to 500 bp in length. Strains with a mutation of TEL1, a homolog of the human gene (ATM) mutated in patients with ataxia telangiectasia, have short but stable telomeric repeats. Mutations of TLC1...

Ritchie, Kim B.; Mallory, Julia C.; Petes, Thomas D.

60

SSN genes that affect transcriptional repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae encode SIN4, ROX3, and SRB proteins associated with RNA polymerase II.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The RNA polymerase II of Saccharomyces cerevisiae exists in holoenzyme forms containing a complex, known as the mediator, associated with the carboxyl-terminal domain. The mediator includes several SRB proteins and is required for transcriptional activation. Previous work showed that a cyclin-depend...

Song, W; Treich, I; Qian, N; Kuchin, S; Carlson, M

 
 
 
 
61

Glycolipids of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cell  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Total lipids of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were isolated by chloroform and methanol (2:1). Glycolipids were separated from total lipids by silicic acid chromatography. Glycolipid’s constituent sugars and fatty acids were analyzed by using Gas Liquid Chromatography. Galactose was the prominent sugar followed by mannose. Relative concentrations of fucose, mannose, galactose and glucose in the glycolipid were 5.3, 35.2, 55.1 and 4.2%. 16:0, 18:0, 18:1, 18:2 and 18:3 were the major fatty acids of the total glycolipids. Oleic acid was the dominating fatty acid followed by linoliec acid. They were separated into different fractions by using DEAE-Sephadex ion exchange chromatography. Glycolipids were fractionated and identified as cerebrosides, ceramide polyhexosides, sulfatides, monoglucosyldiglycerides and diglucosyldiglycerides. Ceramide polyhexosides were present in higher concentration as compared to other fractions.

Renuka Malhotra; Balwant Singh

2005-01-01

62

Genetic analysis of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RHO3 gene, encoding a rho-type small GTPase, provides evidence for a role in bud formation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

RHO3 encodes a Rho-type small GTPase of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We isolated temperature-sensitive alleles and a dominant active allele of RHO3. Ts{sup -} rho3 cells lost cell polarity during bud formation and grew more isotropically than wild-type cells at nonpermissive temperatures. In contrast, cells carrying a dominant active mutant RHO3 displayed cold sensitivity, and the cells became elongated and bent, often at the position where actin patches were concentrated. These phenotypes of the rho3 mutants strongly suggest that RHO3 is involved in directing the growing points during bud formation. In addition, we found that SRO6, previously isolated as a multicopy suppressor of rho3, is the same as SEC4. The sec4-2 mutation was synthetic lethal with temperature-sensitive rho3 mutations and suppressed the cold sensitivity caused by a dominant active mutant RHO3. The genetic interactions between RHO3 and SEC4, taken together with the fact that the Rab-type GTPase Sec4p is required to fuse secretory vesicles together with plasma membrane for exocytosis, support a model in which the Rho3p pathway modulates morphogenesis during bud growth via directing organization of the actin cytoskeleton and the position of the secretory machinery for exocytosis. 59 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

Imai, Jun; Toh-e, Akio; Matsui, Yashushi [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)

1996-02-01

63

A genetically encoded probe for the identification of proteins that form sulfenic acid in response to H2O2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It is widely known that reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as hydrogen peroxide, play important roles in cellular signaling and initiation of oxidative stress responses via thiol modifications. Identification of the targets of these modifications will provide a better understanding of the relationship between ROS and human diseases, such as cancer and atherosclerosis. Sulfenic acid is the principle product of a reaction between hydrogen peroxide and a reactive protein cysteine. This reversible post-translational modification plays an important role in enzyme active sites, signaling transduction via disulfide bond formation, as well as an intermediate to overoxidation products during oxidative stress. By re-engineering the C-terminal cysteine rich domain (cCRD) of the Yap1 transcription factor, we were able to create a genetically encoded probe for the general detection and identification of proteins that form sulfenic acid in vivo. The Yap1-cCRD probe has been used previously in the identification of proteins that form sulfenic acid in Escherichia coli. Here we demonstrate the successful use of the Yap1-cCRD probe in the identification of proteins that form sulfenic acid in response to hydrogen peroxide in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Takanishi CL; Wood MJ

2011-06-01

64

Filamentous growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae/ Filamentação em Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O dimorfismo em fungos é um fenômeno complexo acionado por um grande número de fatores ambientais e consiste num padrão alternante e reversível de crescimento, oscilando entre formas elípticas e filamentosas de células. É de grande importância o entendimento dos mecanismos que regulam esses eventos devido as suas implicações na patogenicidade, diferenciação celular e indústria. Células diplóides de Saccharomyces cerevisiae mudam de células brotantes para (more) pseudohifas quando em condições limitantes de nitrogênio, o que confere às células uma vantagem na procura por alimento. A deficiência de nitrogênio é 'percebida' por pelo menos dois caminhos sinalizadores: 'MAP kinase' (MAPK) e 'PKA' (cAMP-dependent protein kinase A). O resultado dessa sinalização é a expressão de genes específicos para filamentação, cujos perfis de expressão mudam e são acompanhados por um retardo da fase G2 do ciclo celular e um período prolongado de crescimento polarizado. Células haplóides mostram um tipo de crescimento similar após prolongada incubação em meio rico. As células formam cadeias e invadem o ágar na borda da colônia, mas não se tornam alongadas. Esse tipo de crescimento é conhecido como crescimento invasivo haplóide. Os álcoois podem também induzir crescimento filamentoso em S. cerevisiae, ocasionando uma morfologia alongada e aberrante. Nesse artigo revisamos as três formas de crescimento filamentoso incluindo os caminhos envolvidos na percepção, sinalização e transdução do sinal durante o crescimento filamentoso. Abstract in english Fungal dimorphism is a complex phenomenon triggered by a large variety of environmental factors and consists of a reversible alternating pattern of growth between different elliptical and filamentous forms of cells. Understanding the mechanisms that regulate these events is of major interest because of their implications in fungal pathogenesis, cell differentiation and industry. Diploid cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae transform from budding yeast to pseudohyphae when st (more) arved for nitrogen, giving the cells an advantage in food foraging, which is sensed by at least two signal transduction pathways: the MAP kinase (MAPK) and the PKA (cAMP-dependent protein kinase A) pathways. The output of these signalling pathways is the expression of pseudohypha-specific genes, whose expression profiles change and is accompanied by a G2 delay in the cell cycle and a prolonged period of polarized growth. Haploid yeast strains show a similar growth type after prolonged incubation on rich medium plates. The cells form chains and invade the agar on the edge of the colony, but they do not become elongated. This growth type is referred to as haploid invasive growth. Alcohols can also induce filamentous growth in S. cerevisiae, promoting aberrant and elongated morphology. The three forms of filamentous growth are revised in this article and also the pathways involved in sensing, signaling and signal transduction during filamentous growth.

Ceccato-Antonini, Sandra Regina; Sudbery, Peter Edwin

2004-09-01

65

Thiamine Biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Is Regulated by the NAD+-Dependent Histone Deacetylase Hst1? †  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Genes encoding thiamine biosynthesis enzymes in microorganisms are tightly regulated such that low environmental thiamine concentrations activate transcription and high concentrations are repressive. We have determined that multiple thiamine (THI) genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are also regulated...

Li, Mingguang; Petteys, Brian J.; McClure, Julie M.; Valsakumar, Veena; Bekiranov, Stefan; Frank, Elizabeth L.

66

Physiolgical Roles of Pyruvate Decarboxylase in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contents: Pyruvate decarboxylase: in indispensable enzyme for growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on glucose; Growth requirements of pyruvate-decarboxylase-negative Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains; Metabolic responses of pyruvate-decarboxylase-negative Sa...

M. Filkweert

1999-01-01

67

SCMD: Saccharomyces cerevisiae Morphological Database  

Science.gov (United States)

To study the global regulation of cell morphology, a number of groups have recently reported genome-wide screening data for yeast mutants with abnormal morphology. Despite the relatively simple ellipsoidal shape of yeast cells, in the past, cell morphology researchers have processed information on cells manually. These time-consuming, entirely subjective tasks motivated us to develop image-processing software that automatically extracts yeast cells from micrographs and processes them to measure key morphological characteristics such as cell size, roundness, bud neck position angle, nuclear DNA localization and actin localization. To date, we have retrieved 960 609 cells from 52 988 micrographs of 2531 mutants using our software, and we have published the results in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Morphological Database (SCMD), which facilitates the analysis of abnormal cells. Our system provides quantitative data for shapes of the daughter and mother cells, localization of the nuclear DNA and morphology of the actin patches. To search for mutants with similar morphological traits, the system outputs a list of mutants ranked by similarity of average morphological parameters. The SCMD is available at http://yeast.gi.k.u-tokyo.ac.jp/.

Saito, Taro L.; Ohtani, Miwaka; Sawai, Hiroshi; Sano, Fumi; Saka, Ayaka; Watanabe, Daisuke; Yukawa, Masashi; Ohya, Yoshikazu; Morishita, Shinichi

2004-01-01

68

SCMD: Saccharomyces cerevisiae Morphological Database.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To study the global regulation of cell morphology, a number of groups have recently reported genome-wide screening data for yeast mutants with abnormal morphology. Despite the relatively simple ellipsoidal shape of yeast cells, in the past, cell morphology researchers have processed information on cells manually. These time-consuming, entirely subjective tasks motivated us to develop image-processing software that automatically extracts yeast cells from micrographs and processes them to measure key morphological characteristics such as cell size, roundness, bud neck position angle, nuclear DNA localization and actin localization. To date, we have retrieved 960,609 cells from 52,988 micrographs of 2531 mutants using our software, and we have published the results in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Morphological Database (SCMD), which facilitates the analysis of abnormal cells. Our system provides quantitative data for shapes of the daughter and mother cells, localization of the nuclear DNA and morphology of the actin patches. To search for mutants with similar morphological traits, the system outputs a list of mutants ranked by similarity of average morphological parameters. The SCMD is available at http://yeast. gi.k.u-tokyo.ac.jp/.

Saito TL; Ohtani M; Sawai H; Sano F; Saka A; Watanabe D; Yukawa M; Ohya Y; Morishita S

2004-01-01

69

SCUD: Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Ubiquitination Database  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Ubiquitination is an important post-translational modification involved in diverse biological processes. Therefore, genomewide representation of the ubiquitination system for a species is important. Description SCUD is a web-based database for the ubiquitination system in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker's yeast). We first searched for all the known enzymes involved in the ubiquitination process in yeast, including E1, E2, E3, and deubiquitination enzymes. Then, ubiquitinated substrates were collected by literature search. Especially, E3 and deubiquitination enzymes are classified into classes and subclasses by their shared domains and unique functions. As a result, 42 different E3 enzymes were grouped into corresponding classes and subclasses, and 940 ubiquitinated substrates including mutant substrates were identified. All the enzyme and substrate information are interconnected by hyperlinks, which makes it easy to view the enzyme-specific ubiquitination information. Conclusion This database aims to represent a comprehensive yeast ubiquitination system, and is easily expandable with the further experimental data. We expect that this database will be useful for the research on the ubiquitination systems of other higher organisms. SCUD is accessible at http://scud.kaist.ac.kr

Lee Won-Chul; Lee Minho; Jung Jin Woo; Kim Kwang Pyo; Kim Dongsup

2008-01-01

70

Molecular characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae TFIID.  

Science.gov (United States)

We previously defined Saccharomyces cerevisiae TFIID as a 15-subunit complex comprised of the TATA binding protein (TBP) and 14 distinct TBP-associated factors (TAFs). In this report we give a detailed biochemical characterization of this general transcription factor. We have shown that yeast TFIID efficiently mediates both basal and activator-dependent transcription in vitro and displays TATA box binding activity that is functionally distinct from that of TBP. Analyses of the stoichiometry of TFIID subunits indicated that several TAFs are present at more than 1 copy per TFIID complex. This conclusion was further supported by coimmunoprecipitation experiments with a systematic family of (pseudo)diploid yeast strains that expressed epitope-tagged and untagged alleles of the genes encoding TFIID subunits. Based on these data, we calculated a native molecular mass for monomeric TFIID. Purified TFIID behaved in a fashion consistent with this calculated molecular mass in both gel filtration and rate-zonal sedimentation experiments. Quite surprisingly, although the TAF subunits of TFIID cofractionated as a single complex, TBP did not comigrate with the TAFs during either gel filtration chromatography or rate-zonal sedimentation, suggesting that TBP has the ability to dynamically associate with the TFIID TAFs. The results of direct biochemical exchange experiments confirmed this hypothesis. Together, our results represent a concise molecular characterization of the general transcription factor TFIID from S. cerevisiae. PMID:12138208

Sanders, Steven L; Garbett, Krassimira A; Weil, P Anthony

2002-08-01

71

Mating Pheromones of Saccharomyces kluyveri: Pheromone Interactions Between Saccharomyces kluyveri and Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Saccharomyces kluyveri is a heterothallic yeast with two allelic mating types denoted as a-k and ?-k by analogy with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and from the work described here. S. kluyveri produces mating pheromones analogous to those of S. cerevisiae, but which appear to have different specificity. ...

McCullough, John; Herskowitz, Ira

72

Evidence that Synthesis of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mitochondrially Encoded Ribosomal Protein Var1p May Be Membrane Localized  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The 5?-untranslated leaders of mitochondrial mRNAs appear to localize translation within the organelle. VAR1 is the only yeast mitochondrial gene encoding a major soluble protein. A chimeric mRNA bearing the VAR1 untranslated regions and the coding sequence for pre-Cox2p appears to be translated at ...

Fiori, Alessandro; Mason, Thomas L.; Fox, Thomas D.

73

Recombinationless meiosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We have utilized the single equational meiotic division conferred by the spo13-1 mutation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. Klapholtz and R. E. Esposito, Genetics 96:589-611, 1980) as a technique to study the genetic control of meiotic recombination and to analyze the meiotic effects of several radiation-sensitive mutations (rad6-1, rad50-1, and rad52-1) which have been reported to reduce meiotic recombination (Game et al., Genetics 94:51-68, 1980); Prakash et al., Genetics 94:31-50, 1980). The spo13-1 mutation eliminates the meiosis I reductional segregation, but does not significantly affect other meiotic events (including recombination). Because of the unique meiosis it confers, the spo13-1 mutation provides an opportunity to recover viable meiotic products in a Rec- background. In contrast to the single rad50-1 mutant, we found that the double rad50-1 spo13-1 mutant produced viable ascospores after meiosis and sporulation. These spores were nonrecombinant: meiotic crossing-over was reduced at least 150-fold, and no increase in meiotic gene conversion was observed over mitotic background levels. The rad50-1 mutation did not, however, confer a Rec- phenotype in mitosis; rather, it increased both spontaneous crossing-over and gene conversion. The spore inviability conferred by the single rad6-1 and rad52-1 mutations was not eliminated by the presence of the spo13-1 mutation. Thus, only the rad50 gene has been unambiguously identified by analysis of viable meiotic ascospores as a component of the meiotic recombination system.

Malone RE; Esposito RE

1981-10-01

74

Biosynthesis of Natural Flavanones in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A four-step flavanone biosynthetic pathway was constructed and introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The recombinant yeast strain was fed with phenylpropanoid acids and produced the flavanones naringenin and pinocembrin 62 and 22 times more efficiently compared to previously reported recombinant...

Yan, Yajun; Kohli, Abhijeet; Koffas, Mattheos A. G.

75

Tangential Ultrafiltration of Aqueous "Saccharomyces Cerevisiae" Suspensions  

Science.gov (United States)

Experimental work on ultrafiltration is presented to illustrate the practical and theoretical principles of this separation technique. The laboratory exercise comprises experiments with pure water and with aqueous "Saccharomyces cerevisiae" (from commercial Baker's yeast) suspensions. With this work students detect the characteristic phenomena…

Silva, Carlos M.; Neves, Patricia S.; Da Silva, Francisco A.; Xavier, Ana M. R. B.; Eusebio, M. F. J.

2008-01-01

76

Excision repair and mutagenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This and succeeding letters discuss the James and Kilbey (1977 and 1978) model for the initiation of u.v. mutagenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its application to include a number of chemical mutagens. The Baranowska et al (1987) results indicating the role of DNA replication, the differing mechanisms in Escherichia coli, are all discussed. (UK).

1987-01-01

77

Mechanisms of Ethanol Tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Science.gov (United States)

Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a superb ethanol producer, yet is also sensitive to higher ethanol concentrations especially under high gravity or very high gravity fermentation conditions. Ethanol tolerance is associated with interplay of complex networks at the genome level. Although significant eff...

78

Excision repair and mutagenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This and succeeding letters discuss the James and Kilbey (1977 and 1978) model for the initiation of u.v. mutagenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its application to include a number of chemical mutagens. The Baranowska et al (1987) results indicating the role of DNA replication, the differing mechanisms in Escherichia coli, are all discussed.

Kilbey, Brian

1987-07-01

79

Regulation of Biotin Transport in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The metabolic control of biotin transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated. Nonproliferating cells harvested from cultures grown in excess biotin (25 ng/ml) took up small amounts of biotin, whereas cells grown in biotin-sufficient medium (0.25...

T. O. Rogers H. C. Lichstein

1969-01-01

80

Phosphorylase phosphatase activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae 257.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A phosphatase, active towards phosphorylase a and phosphorylated proteins casein and histone II-A, was isolated from Saccharomyces cerevisiae 257. The enzyme dephosphorylated glycogen phosphorylase from commercial yeast rendering it inactive. The protein phosphatase activity was not influenced by any metal ions. Phosphorylase phosphatase activity was slightly stimulated by p-nitrophenyl phosphate and inhibited by heparin.

Christova N; Galabova D

1998-11-01

 
 
 
 
81

Phosphorylase phosphatase activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae 257.  

Science.gov (United States)

A phosphatase, active towards phosphorylase a and phosphorylated proteins casein and histone II-A, was isolated from Saccharomyces cerevisiae 257. The enzyme dephosphorylated glycogen phosphorylase from commercial yeast rendering it inactive. The protein phosphatase activity was not influenced by any metal ions. Phosphorylase phosphatase activity was slightly stimulated by p-nitrophenyl phosphate and inhibited by heparin. PMID:9933962

Christova, N; Galabova, D

82

Stationary phase in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Growth and proliferation of microorganisms such as the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are controlled in part by the availability of nutrients. When proliferating yeast cells exhaust available nutrients, they enter a stationary phase characterized by cell cycle arrest and specific physiological, bioc...

Werner-Washburne, M; Braun, E; Johnston, G C; Singer, R A

83

Deletion of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae TRR1 gene encoding thioredoxin reductase inhibits p53-dependent reporter gene expression.  

Science.gov (United States)

The prevalence of p53 gene mutations in many human tumors implies that p53 protein plays an important role in preventing cancers. Central among the activities ascribed to p53 is its ability to stimulate transcription of other genes that inhibit cells from entering S phase with damaged DNA. Human p53 can be studied in yeast where genetic tools can be used to identify proteins that affect its ability to stimulate transcription. Although p53 strongly stimulated reporter gene expression in wild type yeast, it only weakly stimulated reporter gene expression in Deltatrr1 yeast that lacked the gene encoding thioredoxin reductase. Furthermore, ectoptic expression of TRR1 in Deltatrr1 yeast restored p53-dependent reporter gene activity to high levels. Immunoblot assays established that the Deltatrr1 mutation affected the activity and not the level of p53 protein. The results suggest that p53 can form disulfides and that these disulfides must be reduced in order for the protein to function as a transcription factor. PMID:9488661

Pearson, G D; Merrill, G F

1998-03-01

84

Deletion of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae TRR1 gene encoding thioredoxin reductase inhibits p53-dependent reporter gene expression.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The prevalence of p53 gene mutations in many human tumors implies that p53 protein plays an important role in preventing cancers. Central among the activities ascribed to p53 is its ability to stimulate transcription of other genes that inhibit cells from entering S phase with damaged DNA. Human p53 can be studied in yeast where genetic tools can be used to identify proteins that affect its ability to stimulate transcription. Although p53 strongly stimulated reporter gene expression in wild type yeast, it only weakly stimulated reporter gene expression in Deltatrr1 yeast that lacked the gene encoding thioredoxin reductase. Furthermore, ectoptic expression of TRR1 in Deltatrr1 yeast restored p53-dependent reporter gene activity to high levels. Immunoblot assays established that the Deltatrr1 mutation affected the activity and not the level of p53 protein. The results suggest that p53 can form disulfides and that these disulfides must be reduced in order for the protein to function as a transcription factor.

Pearson GD; Merrill GF

1998-03-01

85

Missense translation errors in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We describe the development of a novel plasmid-based assay for measuring the in vivo frequency of misincorporation of amino acids into polypeptide chains in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The assay is based upon the measurement of the catalytic activity of an active site mutant of type III chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CATIII) expressed in S. cerevisiae. A His195(CAC)-->Tyr195(UAC) mutant of CATIII is completely inactive, but catalytic activity can be restored by misincorporation of histidine at the mutant UAC codon. The average error frequency of misincorporation of histidine at this tyrosine UAC codon in wild-type yeast strains was measured as 0. 5x10(-5) and this frequency was increased some 50-fold by growth in the presence of paromomycin, a known translational-error-inducing antibiotic. A detectable frequency of misincorporation of histidine at a mutant Ala195 GCU codon was also measured as 2x10(-5), but in contrast to the Tyr195-->His195 misincorporation event, the frequency of histidine misincorporation at Ala195 GCU was not increased by paromomycin, inferring that this error did not result from miscognate codon-anticodon interaction. The His195 to Tyr195 missense error assay was used to demonstrate increased frequencies of missense error at codon 195 in SUP44 and SUP46 mutants. These two mutants have previously been shown to exhibit a translation termination error phenotype and the sup44+ and sup46+ genes encode the yeast ribosomal proteins S4 and S9, respectively. These data represent the first accurate in vivo measurement of a specific mistranslation event in a eukaryotic cell and directly confirm that the eukaryotic ribosome plays an important role in controlling missense errors arising from non-cognate codon-anticodon interactions.

Stansfield I; Jones KM; Herbert P; Lewendon A; Shaw WV; Tuite MF

1998-09-01

86

Genetic and biochemical characterization of the UGP1 gene encoding the UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We report here that the open reading frame YKL248, previously identified during the systematic sequencing of yeast chromosome XI [Purnelle B., Skala, J., Van Dijck, L. & Goffeau, A. (1992) Yeast 8, 977-986] encodes UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGPase), the enzyme which catalyses the reversible formation of UDP-Glc from glucose 1-phosphate and UTP. Proof for this function come from sequence alignment of the YKL248 product with UGPase of other species, from complementation studies of an Escherichia coli galU mutant deficient in UGPase activity, and from overexpression studies. In particular, the amino acid sequence motifs involved in the binding of glucose 1-phosphate and UDP-Glc are entirely conserved between the yeast, bovine, human and potato tuber UGPases, and multi-copy expression of YKL248 resulted in a 40-fold increase in UGPase activity. This gene was, therefore, renamed UGP1. Gene disruption at the UGP1 locus in a diploid strain, followed by tetrad analysis, showed that UGPase is essential for cell viability. Functional analysis of UGP1 was, therefore, carried out by generating strains in which UGPase could be either overexpressed or depleted. This was done by generating haploid strains carrying either UGP1 on a multicopy vector or the chromosomal deletion of UGP1, and rescued by a vector bearing the wild-type gene under the control of the glucose-repressible galactose-inducible promoter. The effects of overproducing UGPase on the cell metabolism and morphology were carbon-source dependent. On glucose medium, the 40-fold increase of UGPase activity was restricted to a twofold increase in the concentration of glycogen and UDP-Glc, with no significant effect on growth. In contrast, on galactose, the 40-fold increase in UGPase activity was accompanied by several effects, including a threefold reduction of the growth rate, a 3-5-fold increase in the concentrations of UDP-Glc, UDP-Gal and galactose 1-phosphate, a higher sensitivity to calcofluor white and an increase in the degree of protein glycosylation. Depletion of UGPase activity was performed by transferring the mutant strains from galactose to glucose medium. Unexpectedly, growth of these mutants on glucose was as efficient as that of the control, although the mutants contained only 5-10% wild-type UGPase activity, and a growth defect could never been obtained, even after serial transfers of the mutants to a 10% glucose medium. However, the 10-fold reduction of UGPase activity induced a multi-budding pattern, a higher resistance to zymolyase, a slight increase in the calcofluor sensitivity and a decrease in the cell-wall beta-glucan content. All these alterations, induced by manipulating the UGP1 gene, are discussed in the context of the strategic position of UDP-Glc in yeast metabolism.

Daran JM; Dallies N; Thines-Sempoux D; Paquet V; François J

1995-10-01

87

Genetic and biochemical characterization of the UGP1 gene encoding the UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report here that the open reading frame YKL248, previously identified during the systematic sequencing of yeast chromosome XI [Purnelle B., Skala, J., Van Dijck, L. & Goffeau, A. (1992) Yeast 8, 977-986] encodes UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGPase), the enzyme which catalyses the reversible formation of UDP-Glc from glucose 1-phosphate and UTP. Proof for this function come from sequence alignment of the YKL248 product with UGPase of other species, from complementation studies of an Escherichia coli galU mutant deficient in UGPase activity, and from overexpression studies. In particular, the amino acid sequence motifs involved in the binding of glucose 1-phosphate and UDP-Glc are entirely conserved between the yeast, bovine, human and potato tuber UGPases, and multi-copy expression of YKL248 resulted in a 40-fold increase in UGPase activity. This gene was, therefore, renamed UGP1. Gene disruption at the UGP1 locus in a diploid strain, followed by tetrad analysis, showed that UGPase is essential for cell viability. Functional analysis of UGP1 was, therefore, carried out by generating strains in which UGPase could be either overexpressed or depleted. This was done by generating haploid strains carrying either UGP1 on a multicopy vector or the chromosomal deletion of UGP1, and rescued by a vector bearing the wild-type gene under the control of the glucose-repressible galactose-inducible promoter. The effects of overproducing UGPase on the cell metabolism and morphology were carbon-source dependent. On glucose medium, the 40-fold increase of UGPase activity was restricted to a twofold increase in the concentration of glycogen and UDP-Glc, with no significant effect on growth. In contrast, on galactose, the 40-fold increase in UGPase activity was accompanied by several effects, including a threefold reduction of the growth rate, a 3-5-fold increase in the concentrations of UDP-Glc, UDP-Gal and galactose 1-phosphate, a higher sensitivity to calcofluor white and an increase in the degree of protein glycosylation. Depletion of UGPase activity was performed by transferring the mutant strains from galactose to glucose medium. Unexpectedly, growth of these mutants on glucose was as efficient as that of the control, although the mutants contained only 5-10% wild-type UGPase activity, and a growth defect could never been obtained, even after serial transfers of the mutants to a 10% glucose medium. However, the 10-fold reduction of UGPase activity induced a multi-budding pattern, a higher resistance to zymolyase, a slight increase in the calcofluor sensitivity and a decrease in the cell-wall beta-glucan content. All these alterations, induced by manipulating the UGP1 gene, are discussed in the context of the strategic position of UDP-Glc in yeast metabolism. PMID:7588797

Daran, J M; Dallies, N; Thines-Sempoux, D; Paquet, V; François, J

1995-10-15

88

Fungal ?-glucosidase expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains expressing ?-glucosidases from Thermoascus aurantiacus (Tabgl1) and Phanerochaete chrysosporium (PcbglB and Pccbgl1) were constructed and compared to S. cerevisiae Y294[SFI], previously identified as the best ?-glucosidase-producing strain. The PcbglB was also intracellularly expressed in combination with the lac12 lactose permease of Kluyveromyces lactis in S. cerevisiae Y294[PcbglB + Lac12]. The recombinant extracellular ?-glucosidases indicated maximum activity in the pH range 4-5 and temperature optima varying from 50 to 75 °C. The S. cerevisiae Y294[Pccbgl1] strain performed best under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, producing 2.6 times more ?-glucosidase activity than S. cerevisiae Y294[SFI] and an ethanol concentration of 4.8 g l(-1) after 24 h of cultivation on cellobiose as sole carbohydrate source. S. cerevisiae Y294[Tabgl1] was unable to grow on cellobiose (liquid medium), whereas S. cerevisiae Y294[PcbglB + Lac12] exhibited limited growth.

Njokweni AP; Rose SH; van Zyl WH

2012-10-01

89

Acid excreting mutants of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants acidifying glucose medium containing bromocresol purple were shown to excrete protons when placed in unbuffered water in the absence of any external carbon source. The mutants belong to 16 different complementation groups. Most of them do not grow on glycerol and the excreted protons are associated to particular sets of organic anions such as citrate, aconitate, succinate, fumarate or malate. These novel types of respiratory mutations seem to be located in genes operating in the Krebs or glyoxylate cycle

2004-12-17

90

Saccharomyces cerevisiae IRE2/HAC1 is involved in IRE1-mediated KAR2 expression.  

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The Saccharomyces cerevisiae IRE1 gene, encoding a putative receptor-type protein kinase, is known to be required for inositol prototrophy and for the induction of a chaperon molecule, BiP, encoded by KAR2, under stress conditions such as tunicamycin addition. We have characterized a yeast gene, IRE...

Nikawa, J; Akiyoshi, M; Hirata, S; Fukuda, T

91

Spk1, a new kinase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, phosphorylates proteins on serine, threonine, and tyrosine.  

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A Saccharomyces cerevisiae lambda gt11 library was screened with antiphosphotyrosine antibodies in an attempt to identify a gene encoding a tyrosine kinase. A subclone derived from one positive phage was sequenced and found to contain an 821-amino-acid open reading frame that encodes a protein with ...

Stern, D F; Zheng, P; Beidler, D R; Zerillo, C

92

Specific distribution of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae linker histone homolog HHO1p in the chromatin  

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In virtually all eukaryotic organisms, linker DNA between nucleosomes is associated with a histone termed linker histone or histone H1. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, HHO1 encodes a putative linker histone with very significant homology to histone H1. The encoded protein is expressed in the nucleus, b...

Freidkin, Ilya; Katcoff, Don J.

93

Xylose fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have performed a comparative study of xylose utilization in Saccaromyces cerevisiae transformants expressing two key enzymes in xylose metabolism, xylose reductase (XR) and xylithol dehydrogenase (XDH), and in a prototypic xylose-utilizing yeast, Pichia stipitis. In the absence of respiration (see text), baker's yeast cells convert half of the xylose to xylitol and ethanol, whereas P. stipitis cells display rather a homofermentative conversion of xylose to ethanol. Xylitol production by baker's yeast is interpreted as a result of the dual cofactor dependence of the XR and the generation of NADPH by the pentose phosphate pathway. Further limitations of xylose utilization in S. cerevisiae cells are very likely caused by an insufficient capacity of the non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, as indicated by accumulation of sedoheptulose-7-phosphate and the absence of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and pyruvate accumulation. By contrast, uptake at high substrate concentrations probably does not limit xylose conversion in S. cerevisiae XYL1/XYL2 transformants. (orig.).

Koetter, P.; Ciriacy, M. (Institut fuer Mikrobiologie, Univ. Duesseldorf (Germany))

1993-03-01

94

Mating-type gene switching in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Saccharomyces cerevisiae can change its mating type as often as every generation by a highly choreographed, site-specific recombination event that replaces one MAT allele with different DNA sequences encoding the opposite allele. The study of this process has yielded important insights into the control of cell lineage, the silencing of gene expression, and the formation of heterochromatin, as well as the molecular events of double-strand break-induced recombination. In addition, MAT switching provides a remarkable example of a small locus control region--the Recombination Enhancer--that controls recombination along an entire chromosome arm.

Haber JE

1998-01-01

95

Chimeric Genomes of Natural Hybrids of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces kudriavzevii  

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Printed version published Apr 2009. , Recently, a new type of hybrid resulting from the hybridization between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces kudriavzevii was described. These strains exhibit physiological properties of potential biotechnolog...

Belloch, Carmela; Pérez Torrado, Roberto; González, Sara S.; Pérez Ortín, José E.; García Martínez, José; Querol, Amparo

96

Chimeric Genomes of Natural Hybrids of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces kudriavzevii? †  

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Recently, a new type of hybrid resulting from the hybridization between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces kudriavzevii was described. These strains exhibit physiological properties of potential biotechnological interest. A preliminary characterization of these hybrids showed a trend to redu...

Belloch, Carmela; Pérez-Torrado, Roberto; González, Sara S.; Pérez-Ortín, José E.; García-Martínez, José; Querol, Amparo

97

Boundaries of transcriptionally silent chromatin in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, heterochromatic gene silencing has been found within HMR and HML silent mating type loci, the telomeres, and the rRNA-encoding DNA. There may be boundary elements that regulate the spread of silencing to protect genes adjacent to silenced domains from this epigenetic repressive effect. Many assays show that specific DNA regulatory elements separate a euchromatic locus from a neighboring heterochromatic domain and thereby function as a boundary. Alternatively, DNA-independent mechanisms such as competition between acetylated and deacetylated histones are also reported to contribute to gene insulation. However, the mechanism by which boundaries are formed is not clear. Here, the characteristics and functions of boundaries at silenced domains in S. cerevisiae are discussed.

Sun JQ; Hatanaka A; Oki M

2011-01-01

98

The saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA repair gene RAD23 encodes a nuclear protein containing a ubiquitin-like domain required for biological function  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In eukaryotes, the posttranslational conjugation of ubiquitin to various cellular proteins marks them for degradation. Interestingly, several proteins have been reported to contain ubiquitin-like (ub-like) domains that are in fact specified by the DNA coding sequences of the proteins. The biological role of the ub-like domain in these proteins is not known; however, it has been proposed that this domain functions as a degradation signal rendering the proteins unstable. Here, we report that the product of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD23 gene, which is involved in excision repair of UV-damaged DNA, bears a ub-like domain at its amino terminus. This finding has presented an opportunity to define the functional significance of this domain. We show that deletion of the ub-like domain impairs the DNA repair function of RAD23 and that this domain can be functionally substituted by the authentic ubiquitin sequence. Surprisingly, RAD23 is highly stable, and the studies reported herein indicate that its ub-like domain does not mediate protein degradation. Thus, in RAD23 at least, the ub-like domain affects protein function in a nonproteolytic manner. 34 refs., 9 figs.

Watkins, J.F.; Sung, P.; Prakash, L.; Prakash, S. (Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States))

1993-12-01

99

TOTAL ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF YEAST SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Antioxidants are health beneficial compounds that can protect cells and macromolecules (e.g. fats, lipids, proteins and DNA) from the damage of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Sacchamomyces cerevisiae are know as organisms with very important antioxidative enzyme systems such as superoxide dismutase or catalase. The total antioxidant activity (mmol Trolox equivalent – TE.g-1 d.w.) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was measured by 2,2´-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) during the yeast cultivation. It was found that the total antioxidant activity was the highest (1.08 mmol TE.g-1 d.w.) in the strain Kolín after 32 hours of cultivation and the lowest (0.26 mmol TE.g-1 d.w.) in the strain Gyöng after 12 hours of cultivation.

Blažena Lavová; Dana Urminská

2013-01-01

100

Biosorption of americium-241 by Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The biosorption of radionuclide 241Am from solution by Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae), and the effects of experimental conditions on the adsorption were investigated. The preliminary results showed that S. cerevisiae is a very efficient biosorbent. An average of more than 99% of the total 241Am could be removed by S. cerevisiae of 2.1 g/l (dry weight) from 241Am solutions of 17.54-4386.0 ?g/l (2.22 MBq/l-555 MBq/l) with adsorption capacities of 7.45-1880.0 ?g/g biomass (dry weight) (0.94 MBq/g-237.9 MBq/g). The adsorption equilibrium was achieved within 1 hour and the optimum pH ranged 1-3. No significant differences on 241Am adsorption were observed at 10-45 deg C, or in solutions containing Au3+ or Ag+, even 2000 times above 241Am concentration. The relationship between concentrations and adsorption capacities of 241Am indicated the biosorption process should be described by the Freundlich adsorption isotherm. (author)

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Assessing chronological aging in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the most studied model organisms for the identification of genes and mechanisms that affect aging. The chronological lifespan (CLS) assay, which monitors the survival of a non-dividing population, is one of the two methods to study aging in yeast. To eliminate potential artifacts and identify genes and signaling pathways that may also affect aging in higher eukaryotes, it is important to determine CLS by multiple methods. Here, we describe these methods as well as the assays to study macromolecular damage during aging in yeast, with a focus on genomic instability.

Hu J; Wei M; Mirisola MG; Longo VD

2013-01-01

102

UV-inducible transcripts in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Differential colony hybridization has been used to identify DNA sequences in Saccharomyces cerevisiae corresponding to RNA transcripts whose levels increase 5-10 fold following UV-irradiation. Four sequences have been identified, three of which share sequence homology and hybridize to the same set of genomic DNA fragments. The fourth sequence appears to be distinct, however each DNA sequence hybridizes to a similar sized RNA transcript which is approximately 4.0 kb long. The relationships between these DNA sequences and their potential protein products is discussed.

Rolfe, M.

1985-01-01

103

Mitochondrial fission facilitates mitophagy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

As a highly dynamic organelle, mitochondria undergo constitutive fusion and fission as well as biogenesis and degradation. Mitophagy, selective mitochondrial degradation through autophagy, is a conserved cellular process used for the elimination of excessive and damaged mitochondria in eukaryotes. Despite the significance of mitophagy in cellular physiology and pathophysiologies, the underlying mechanism of this process is far from clear. In this report, we studied the role of mitochondrial fission during mitophagy, and uncover a direct link between the fission complex and mitophagy machinery in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Mao K; Klionsky DJ

2013-09-01

104

UV-inducible proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two UV-inducible proteins have been detected in the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The proteins have molecular weights of 78,000 Daltons and 23,000 Daltons. This induction is specific for UV-irradiation as exposure to X-rays, mitomycin C and heat shock does not result in the synthesis of the proteins. The larger (78 kD) protein is induced in various rad strains and in a rho degree cir degree strain. Attempts are being made to isolate the genes coding for these inducible proteins.

Rolfe, M.

1985-01-01

105

PRODUCTION OF ERGOSTEROL BY SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ergosterol is an essential component of yeast cells that maintains the integrity of the membrane. In this study the production of ergosterol by yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains Kolín, Gyöng and 612 was investigated. Ergosterol was isolated by multilevel extraction associated with saponification and analyzed by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography with PDA detector. It was found that the highest content of ergosterol (7055.53 ?g.g-1 d.w.) was reached after 52 hours of strain Gyöng cultivation.

Blažena Lavová; Andrea Hároniková; Ivana Márová; Dana Urminská

2013-01-01

106

Isolation and characterization of KIUBP2, a ubiquitin hydrolase gene of Kluyveromyces lactis that can suppress a ts-mutation in CBF2, a gene encoding a centromeric protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Kluyveromyces lactis UBP2 gene was isolated as a suppressor of a temperature-sensitive mutation in CBF2, a gene coding for a centromere-binding protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The UBP genes are hydrolases than can cleave a ubiquitin moiety from a protein substrate. KlUBP2 is not essential for growth since a disruption of the KlUBP2 gene had little effect, except for a slight decrease in the growth rate. The stability of centromere-containing plasmids was not influenced either. In addition to KlUBP2, five S. cerevisiae genes involved in the ubiquitination pathway could suppress the ts-mutation in the CBF2 gene, namely UBA1, UBA2, UBP1, UBP2 and YUH1, although YUH1 was the only one that could do this like KlUBP2 from a single-copy plasmid. Surprisingly, these genes encode proteins with antagonistic activity as two, UBA1 and UBA2, are ubiquitin-activating enzymes whereas the other three are de-ubiquitinating hydrolases. PMID:10953877

Winkler, A A; Korstanje, R; Zonneveld, B J; Hooykaas, P J; Steensma, H Y

2000-07-01

107

Isolation and characterization of KIUBP2, a ubiquitin hydrolase gene of Kluyveromyces lactis that can suppress a ts-mutation in CBF2, a gene encoding a centromeric protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Kluyveromyces lactis UBP2 gene was isolated as a suppressor of a temperature-sensitive mutation in CBF2, a gene coding for a centromere-binding protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The UBP genes are hydrolases than can cleave a ubiquitin moiety from a protein substrate. KlUBP2 is not essential for growth since a disruption of the KlUBP2 gene had little effect, except for a slight decrease in the growth rate. The stability of centromere-containing plasmids was not influenced either. In addition to KlUBP2, five S. cerevisiae genes involved in the ubiquitination pathway could suppress the ts-mutation in the CBF2 gene, namely UBA1, UBA2, UBP1, UBP2 and YUH1, although YUH1 was the only one that could do this like KlUBP2 from a single-copy plasmid. Surprisingly, these genes encode proteins with antagonistic activity as two, UBA1 and UBA2, are ubiquitin-activating enzymes whereas the other three are de-ubiquitinating hydrolases.

Winkler AA; Korstanje R; Zonneveld BJ; Hooykaas PJ; Steensma HY

2000-07-01

108

Catalase enzyme in mitochondria of Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities have been explored in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during batchwise growth experiment. During the diauxic growth in YPD medium high Ys values were obtained (0.415 - 0.423) and correlation between the total activities of both enzymes has been found. A mitochondrial fraction from three type strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been isolated. The purity of this fraction was proved through different enzyme assays: hexokina (more) se, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, D-amino acid oxidase, isocitric lyase, succinate dehydrogenase. Then the catalase, peroxidase, Mn and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase activities were evaluated in the mitochondrial fraction. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis separations allowed to identify a mitochondrial catalase as a band of 0.239 Rm value. It differed from the two catalase specific bands with Rm values 0.218 and 0.257 obtained from the crude extract. It was proved that the three catalase proteins are charge isomers. A positive correlation between the activity of mitochondrial catalase and Mn superoxide dismutase also takes place. Molecular weight of mitochonrial catalase protein has been determined as 240 kD.

Petrova, Ventsislava Yankova; Rasheva, Tanya Vassileva; Kujumdzieva, Anna V.

2002-04-01

109

SPT10 and SPT21 are required for transcription of particular histone genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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The Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome contains four loci that encode histone proteins. Two of these loci, HTA1-HTB1 and HTA2-HTB2, each encode histones H2A and H2B. The other two loci, HHT1-HHF1 and HHT2-HHF2, each encode histones H3 and H4. Because of their redundancy, deletion of any one histone loc...

Dollard, C; Ricupero-Hovasse, S L; Natsoulis, G; Boeke, J D; Winston, F

110

Adaption of Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing a heterologous protein  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Production of the heterologous protein, bovine aprotinin, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was shown to affect the metabolism of the host cell to various extent depending on the strain genotype. Strains with different genotypes, industrial and laboroatory, respectively, were investigated. The maximal specific growth rate of the strains was reduced by 54% and 33%, respectively, upon the introduction of the gene encoding aprotinin. Growing the strains in sequential shake flask cultivations for 250 generations led to an increased maximal specific growth rate and a decrease in the yield of aprotinin as a result of the adaptation. Determination of the level of mRNA encoding aprotinin and the plasmid copy number pointed to different mechanisms responsible for the decline in aprotinin yield in the different strains. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Krogh, Astrid MØrkeberg; Beck, Vibe

2008-01-01

111

Control of Adaptation to Mating Pheromone by G Protein ? Subunits of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae  

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The STE4 gene of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes the ? subunit of a heterotrimeric G protein that mediates response to mating pheromones and influences recovery from pheromone-induced growth arrest. To explore how G(?) subunits regulate response and recovery (adaptation), we isolated and ...

Grishin, A. V.; Weiner, J. L.; Blumer, K. J.

112

GAL2 codes for a membrane-bound subunit of the galactose permease in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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The gene encoding the galactose permease of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (GAL2) was cloned. The clone restores galactose permease activity to gal2 yeasts and is regulated by galactose in a manner similar to other GAL gene products (GAL1, -7, and -10). Experiments with temperature-conditional secretory m...

Tschopp, J F; Emr, S D; Field, C; Schekman, R

113

Inositol polyphosphate multikinase (ArgRIII) determines nuclear mRNA export in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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The ARGRIII gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a transcriptional regulator that also has inositol polyphosphate multikinase (ipmk) activity [Saiardi et al. (1999) Curr. Biol. 9, 1323-1326]. To investigate how inositol phosphates regulate gene expression, we disrupted the ARGRIII gene. This mut...

Saiardi, A; Caffrey, JJ; Snyder, SH; Shears, SB

114

PRIMARY STRUCTURE OF THE P450 LANOSTEROL DEMETHYLASE GENE FROM SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE  

Science.gov (United States)

We have sequenced the structural gene and flanking regions for lanosterol 14oc-demethylase (14DM) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. n open reading fram of 530 codons encodes a 60.7-kDa protein. hen this gene is disrupted by integrative transformation, the resulting strain requires e...

115

Spermidine or spermine is essential for the aerobic growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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A null mutation in the SPE2 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, encoding S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase, results in cells with no detectable S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase, spermidine, and spermine. This mutant has an absolute requirement for spermidine or spermine for growth; this requirement...

Balasundaram, D; Tabor, C W; Tabor, H

116

Bul1, a new protein that binds to the Rsp5 ubiquitin ligase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We characterized a temperature-sensitive mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in which a mini-chromosome was unstable at a high temperature and cloned a new gene which encodes a basic and hydrophilic protein (110 kDa). The disruption of this gene caused the same temperature-sensitive growth as the ori...

Yashiroda, H; Oguchi, T; Yasuda, Y; Toh-E, A; Kikuchi, Y

117

Ribosomal protein L30 is dispensable in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, L30 is one of many ribosomal proteins that is encoded by two functional genes. We have cloned and sequenced RPL30B, which shows strong homology to RPL30A. Use of mRNA as a template for a polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that RPL30B contains an intron in i...

Baronas-Lowell, D M; Warner, J R

118

Complementary transcripts from two genes necessary for normal meiosis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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The SPO12 gene, which is required for meiosis I chromosome division during sporulation of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has been isolated. DNA sequencing has identified an open reading frame of 173 codons that encodes the putative SPO12 protein and has no significant sequence similarities to k...

Malavasic, M J; Elder, R T

119

A vaccine grade of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing mammalian myostatin  

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Abstract Background Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a widely-used system for protein expression. We previously showed that heat-killed whole recombinant yeast vaccine expressing mammalian myostatin can modulate myostatin function in mice, resulting in increase of body wei...

Zhang Tingting; Sun Lin; Xin Ying; Ma Lixia; Zhang Youyou; Wang Xin; Xu Kun; Ren Chonghua; Zhang Cunfang; Chen Zhilong

120

Mechanisms of gene conversion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In red-white sectored colonies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, derived from mitotic cells grown to stationary phase and irradiated with a light dose of x-rays, all of the segregational products of gene conversion and crossing over can be ascertained. Approximately 80% of convertants are induced in G1, the remaining 20% in G2. Crossing over, in the amount of 20%, is found among G1 convertants but most of the crossovers are delayed until G2. About 20% of all sectored colonies had more than one genotype in one or the other sector, thus confirming the hypothesis that conversion also occurs in G2. The principal primary event in G2 conversion is a single DNA heteroduplex. It is suggested that the close contact that this implies carries over to G2 when crossing over and a second round of conversion occurs.

1990-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Checkpoint-control in Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Eukaryotic cells have evolved a network of control mechanisms, known as checkpoints, which coordinate cell-cycle progression in response to internal and external cues. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been invaluable in dissecting genetically the DNA damage checkpoint pathway. DNA damage activates a set of proteins whose job is to delay the cell cycle until the damage is repaired. This process was thought to involve the detection of damage by sensor proteins, which transmit a signal to a key protein kinase and thence to downstream targets. Checkpoint mechanisms are interesting because of their link with cancer and we have the eternal hope that checkpoints may somehow present a therapeutic opportunity. (author)

2000-03-04

122

Phenotypical signs and chemical composition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae – mannoprotein producers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Phenotypical signs and chemical composition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNMN-Y-18 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNMN-Y-19 yeast strains are described in this article. The presence of protein complexes with high content of irreplaceable amino acids and antioxidant enzymes, as well as polysaccharides with predominance of mannoproteins allow to recommend these yeast strains for the utilization in biotechnology. Results are of interest for the standard description of yeast strains offered as object for industrial appointment.

Agafia USATII; Elena MOLODOI; Nadejda EFREMOVA; Natalia CHISELITA; Tamara BORISOVA; Ludmila FULGA

2012-01-01

123

PGM2 overexpression improves anaerobic galactose fermentation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In Saccharomyces cerevisiae galactose is initially metabolized through the Leloir pathway after which glucose 6-phosphate enters glycolysis. Galactose is controlled both by glucose repression and by galactose induction. The gene PGM2 encodes the last enzyme of the Leloir pathway, phosphoglucomutase 2 (Pgm2p), which catalyses the reversible conversion of glucose 1-phosphate to glucose 6-phosphate. Overexpression of PGM2 has previously been shown to enhance aerobic growth of S. cerevisiae in galactose medium. Results In the present study we show that overexpression of PGM2 under control of the HXT7'promoter from an integrative plasmid increased the PGM activity 5 to 6 times, which significantly reduced the lag phase of glucose-pregrown cells in an anaerobic galactose culture. PGM2 overexpression also increased the anaerobic specific growth rate whereas ethanol production was less influenced. When PGM2 was overexpressed from a multicopy plasmid instead, the PGM activity increased almost 32 times. However, this increase of PGM activity did not further improve aerobic galactose fermentation as compared to the strain carrying PGM2 on the integrative plasmid. Conclusion PGM2 overexpression in S. cerevisiae from an integrative plasmid is sufficient to reduce the lag phase and to enhance the growth rate in anaerobic galactose fermentation, which results in an overall decrease in fermentation duration. This observation is of particular importance for the future development of stable industrial strains with enhanced PGM activity.

Garcia Sanchez Rosa; Hahn-Hägerdal Bärbel; Gorwa-Grauslund Marie F

2010-01-01

124

Aberrant splicing of Drosophila alcohol dehydrogenase transcripts in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We have investigated the ability of transcripts of the Drosophila melanogaster alcohol dehydrogenase gene to be spliced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The alcohol dehydrogenase gene was cloned in S. cerevisiae on a 2 micron DNA-based vector and a hybrid yeast actin-Drosophila alcohol dehydrogenase gene was constructed to demonstrate that transcripts encoded on a 2 micron plasmid could be accurately and efficiently spliced. Transcription of the Drosophila gene occurred in yeast with and without a yeast promoter. The transcripts were polyadenylated and terminated approximately 600 nucleotides distal to the polyadenylation site used in Drosophila. In yeast no splicing of the two introns within the alcohol dehydrogenase coding sequence was detected. However, the leader sequence was apparently spliced using the same 3' splice site as is used in adult flies, but a different 5' splice site. This result may be partly explained by the existence in the Drosophila gene of a sequence which is believed to be required for splicing in S. cerevisiae.

Watts F; Castle C; Beggs J

1983-01-01

125

40 CFR 180.1246 - Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement of a...  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement...1246 Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement...pesticide Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae on all food...

2010-07-01

126

Response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to cadmium stress  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The intensification of industrial activity has been greatly contributing with the increase of heavy metals in the environment. Among these heavy metals, cadmium becomes a serious pervasive environmental pollutant. The cadmium is a heavy metal with no biological function, very toxic and carcinogenic at low concentrations. The toxicity of cadmium and several other metals can be mainly attributed to the multiplicity of coordination complexes and clusters that they can form. Some aspects of the cellular response to cadmium were extensively investigated in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The primary site of interaction between many toxic metals and microbial cells is the plasma membrane. Plasma-membrane permeabilisation has been reported in a variety of microorganisms following cadmium exposure, and is considered one mechanism of cadmium toxicity in the yeast. In this work, using the yeast strain S. cerevisiae W303-WT, we have investigated the relationships between Cd uptake and release of cellular metal ions (K+ and Na+) using neutron activation technique. The neutron activation was an easy, rapid and suitable technique for doing these metal determinations on yeast cells; was observed the change in morphology of the strains during the process of Cd accumulation, these alterations were observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) during incorporation of cadmium. (author)

2009-10-02

127

Killer systems of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The killer systems of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are an unusual class of cytoplasmic symbionts of primitive eukaryotes. The genetic material of these symbionts is double-stranded RNA. They are characterized by the linearity of the genome, its fragmentation into a major and a minor fraction, which replicate separately, and their ability to control the synthesis of secretory mycocin proteins possessing a toxic action on closely related strains. The secretion of mycocins at the same time ensures acquiring of resistance to them. Strains containing killer symbionts are toxigenic and resistant to the action of their own toxin, but strains that are free of killer double-stranded RNAs are sensitive to the action of mycocins. The killer systems of S. cerevisiae have retained features relating them to viruses and are apparently the result of evolution of infectious viruses. The occurrences of such systems among monocellular eukaryotic organisms is an example of complication of the genome by means of its assembly from virus-like components. We discuss the unusual features of replication and the expression of killer systems and their utilization in the construction of vector molecules.

Nesterova, G.F.

1989-01-01

128

Primary structure of the RAD52 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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The RAD52 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is involved in genetic recombination and DNA repair, was cloned by transformation of rad52-1 mutant cells to methyl methanesulfonate resistance with BamHI fragments of Rad+ genomic DNA inserted into the Escherichia coli-S. cerevisiae shuttle vector Y...

Adzuma, K; Ogawa, T; Ogawa, H

129

Redox balancing in recombinant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In metabolically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing Pichia stipitis XYL1 and XYL2 genes, encoding xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH), respectively, xylitol is excreted as the major product during anaerobic xylose fermentation and only low yields of ethanol are produced. This has been interpreted as a result of the dual cofactor dependence of XR and the exclusive use of NAD{sup +} by XDH. The excretion of xylitol was completely stopped and the formation of glycerol and acetic acid were reduced in xylose utilising S. cerevisiae strains cultivated in oxygen-limited conditions by expressing lower levels of XR than of XDH. The expression level of XYL1 and XYL2 were controlled by changing the promoters and transcription directions of the genes. A new functional metabolic pathway was established when Thermus thermophilus xylA gene was expressed in S. cerevisiae. The recombinant strain was able to ferment xylose to ethanol when cultivated on a minimal medium containing xylose as only carbon source. In order to create a channeled metabolic transfer in the two first steps of the xylose metabolism, XYL1 and XYL2 were fused in-frame and expressed in S. cerevisiae. When the fusion protein, containing a linker of three amino acids, was co expressed together with native XR and XDH monomers, enzyme complexes consisting of chimeric and native subunits were formed. The total activity of these complexes exhibited 10 and 9 times higher XR and XDH activity, respectively, than the original conjugates, consisting of only chimeric subunits. This strain produced less xylitol and the xylitol yield was lower than with strains only expressing native XR and XDH monomers. In addition, more ethanol and less acetic acid were formed. A new gene encoding the cytoplasmic transhydrogenase from Azotobacter vinelandii was cloned. The enzyme showed high similarity to the family of pyridine nucleotide-disulphide oxidoreductase. To analyse the physiological effect of transhydrogenation between the two coenzyme systems NADP(H) and NAD(H) during anaerobic growth, S. cerevisiae was transformed with a plasma membrane bound AB-transhydrogenase from E. coli and with a cytoplasmic BB-transhydrogenase from A. vinelandii. Expression of both types changed the intracellular nucleotide levels. The NADPH/NADP{sup +} ratio was reduced while the NADH/NAD{sup +} ratio was almost constant. An increased formation of 2-oxoglutarate, glycerol and acetate was observed during anaerobic glucose fermentation 206 refs, 8 figs, 3 tabs

Anderlund, M.

1998-09-01

130

Directed Evolution towards Increased Isoprenoid Production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Due to declining drug discovery rates from organic synthetic libraries, pharmaceutical companies are turning their attention towards secondary metabolites. Isoprenoids, also known as terpenoids, constitute the largest known group of secondary metabolites isolated to date, encompassing more than 55,000 different compounds including several blockbuster drugs such as paclitaxel and artemisinin. All molecules within this group are biosynthesized from the same precursor called isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP), which is repeatedly polymerized and diversified giving rise to enormous chemical and structural diversity. The most common way of producing these compounds is by organic synthesis. Organic synthesis does however have several disadvantages for production of secondary metabolites such as low yields due to the complex structures, which makes this way of production economically unfeasible. Microbial production can easily be scaled to meet current demands and it is also an environmental benign production method compared to organic synthesis. Thus it would be attractive to engineer a microorganism to produce high amounts of IPP and other immediate prenyl precursors such as geranyl pyrophosphate, farnesyl pyrophosphate and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate for large-scale microbial production of terpenoids. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was chosen as production platform due to its widespread use in industrial production and the waste number of molecular biology tools which is available for its manipulation. The effort for discovering new genetic perturbations, which would results in and increased production of isoprenoids by S. cerevisiae has been very limited. This project is focus on creating diversity within a lycopene producing S. cerevisiae strain by construction of gDNA-, cDNA-, and transposon-libraries. The diversified population of S. cerevisiae clones will afterwards be screened using the isoprenoid molecule lycopene as a model compound, hereby enabling the isolation of phenotypes producing higher amounts of isoprenoid. The property making lycopene ideal for screening is its system of 11 conjugated double bonds, which absorbs light within the visible range resulting in the red color of lycopene. This feature is the cause for the orange/red phenotype of S. cerevisiae strains transformed with the genes encoding lycopene and enables visual screening of yeast colonies, by searching for colonies with more intense red colony coloration which is the result of higher amount of lycopene is being produced and hence high amount of isoprenoid precursor being available. This will elucidate novel genetic targets for increasing isoprenoid production in S. cerevisiae

Carlsen, Simon; Nielsen, Michael Lynge

131

Mitochondrial transcription complex from Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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A DNA protein complex has been isolated from the mitochondria of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The complex transcribes RNA complementary to mtDNA in a nonrandom manner. The RNA polymerase activity contained in the transcription complex is not dependent on the addition of exogenous template. The activity is rendered template-dependent by autolysis and can be further purified by heparin-Sepharose 4B chromatography. The activity is inhibited by heparin, Mn/sup 2 +/, and increasing ionic strength. The activity requires Mg/sup 2 +/ and ribonucleotides. The preferred template for the template dependent activity is poly(d(AT)). The majority of the RNA synthesized by the transcription complex from endogenous DNA is complementary to the DNA strands directing the synthesis of the large and small ribosomal RNA. In yeast the 21 S and 14 S rRNA genes are widely separated, therefore the transcription of these two regions but not of the intervening regions by the transcription complex suggests the existence of at least two transcriptional promoters on the yeast mitochondrial genome.

Levens, D.; Morimoto, R.; Rabinowitz, M.

1981-02-10

132

Copper transport in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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Biochemical processes involved in the movement of copper (Cu) into and out of the yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae have been investigated. Overall uptake of Cu was measured by disappearance of Cu from the reaction mixture by atomic absorption sensitive to 10/sup -10/M. The process of Cu influx is composed of a prerequisite binding and subsequent transport. The binding is non-energetic but is competitively inhibited by zinc(Zn). Transport is energetic as shown by an increased influx in the presence of added glucose. This process is prevented by 2,4-dinitrophenol(DNP). Cu influx is accompanied by an exchange for potassium(K) in a ratio of K:Cu=2:1. The process of Cu efflux involves a second type of binding site, probably of low affinity but large capacity. The presence of glucose causes the binding of extracellular Cu to these sites in a non-energy-dependent mechanism which prevents Cu efflux. Zn does not compete. DNP has no effect. The K:Cu ratio of 4:1 observed in the absence of glucose suggests a lowered net Cu uptake as a result of concomitant efflux activity. Finally, in the absence but not the presence of glucose, the pH of the extracellular solution increases. These observations are consistent with the idea that (a) yeast membrane has two Cu-binding sites, one of which participates in influx and one in efflux; (b) Cu exchanges with K during influx and with protons during efflux.

Martinez, L.D.; Connelly, J.L.

1987-05-01

133

A biochemically structured model for Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

A biochemically structured model for the aerobic growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on glucose and ethanol is presented. The model focuses on the pyruvate and acetaldehyde branch points where overflow metabolism occurs when the growth changes from oxidative to oxido-reductive. The model is designed to describe the onset of aerobic alcoholic fermentation during steady-state as well as under dynamical conditions, by triggering an increase in the glycolytic flux using a key signalling component which is assumed to be closely related to acetaldehyde. An investigation of the modelled process dynamics in a continuous cultivation revealed multiple steady states in a region of dilution rates around the transition between oxidative and oxido-reductive growth. A bifurcation analysis using the two external variables, the dilution rate, D, and the inlet concentration of glucose, S(f), as parameters, showed that a fold bifurcation occurs close to the critical dilution rate resulting in multiple steady-states. The region of dilution rates within which multiple steady states may occur depends strongly on the substrate feed concentration. Consequently a single steady state may prevail at low feed concentrations, whereas multiple steady states may occur over a relatively wide range of dilution rates at higher feed concentrations. PMID:11434967

Lei, F; Rotbøll, M; Jørgensen, S B

2001-07-12

134

A biochemically structured model for Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A biochemically structured model for the aerobic growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on glucose and ethanol is presented. The model focuses on the pyruvate and acetaldehyde branch points where overflow metabolism occurs when the growth changes from oxidative to oxido-reductive. The model is designed to describe the onset of aerobic alcoholic fermentation during steady-state as well as under dynamical conditions, by triggering an increase in the glycolytic flux using a key signalling component which is assumed to be closely related to acetaldehyde. An investigation of the modelled process dynamics in a continuous cultivation revealed multiple steady states in a region of dilution rates around the transition between oxidative and oxido-reductive growth. A bifurcation analysis using the two external variables, the dilution rate, D, and the inlet concentration of glucose, S(f), as parameters, showed that a fold bifurcation occurs close to the critical dilution rate resulting in multiple steady-states. The region of dilution rates within which multiple steady states may occur depends strongly on the substrate feed concentration. Consequently a single steady state may prevail at low feed concentrations, whereas multiple steady states may occur over a relatively wide range of dilution rates at higher feed concentrations.

Lei F; Rotbøll M; Jørgensen SB

2001-07-01

135

Local Regulatory Variation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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Full Text Available Naturally occurring sequence variation that affects gene expression is an important source of phenotypic differences among individuals within a species. We and others have previously shown that such regulatory variation can occur both at the same locus as the gene whose expression it affects (local regulatory variation) and elsewhere in the genome at trans-acting factors. Here we present a detailed analysis of genome-wide local regulatory variation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We used genetic linkage analysis to show that nearly a quarter of all yeast genes contain local regulatory variation between two divergent strains. We measured allele-specific expression in a diploid hybrid of the two strains for 77 genes showing strong self-linkage and found that in 52%-78% of these genes, local regulatory variation acts directly in cis. We also experimentally confirmed one example in which local regulatory variation in the gene AMN1 acts in trans through a feedback loop. Genome-wide sequence analysis revealed that genes subject to local regulatory variation show increased polymorphism in the promoter regions, and that some but not all of this increase is due to polymorphisms in predicted transcription factor binding sites. Increased polymorphism was also found in the 3' untranslated regions of these genes. These findings point to the importance of cis-acting variation, but also suggest that there is a diverse set of mechanisms through which local variation can affect gene expression levels.

Ronald; Brem; Whittle; Kruglyak

2005-01-01

136

Localization of nuclear retained mRNAs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a common conditional phenotype associated with deletion or mutation of genes encoding mRNA export factors is the rapid accumulation of mRNAs in intranuclear foci, suggested to be near transcription sites. The nuclear RNA exosome has been implicated in retaining RNAs in these foci; on deletion of the exosome component Rrp6p, the RNA is released. To determine the exact nuclear location of retained as well as released mRNAs, we have used mRNA export mutant strains to analyze the spatial relationship between newly synthesized heat shock mRNA, the chromosomal site of transcription, and known S. cerevisiae nuclear structures such as the nucleolus and the nucleolar body. Our results show that retained SSA4 RNA localizes to an area in close proximity to the SSA4 locus. On deletion of Rrp6p and release from the genomic locus, heat shock mRNAs produced in the rat7–1 strain colocalize predominantly with nucleolar antigens. Bulk poly(A)+ RNA, on the other hand, is localized primarily to the nuclear rim. Interestingly, the RNA binding nucleocytoplasmic shuttle protein Npl3p shows strong colocalization with bulk poly(A)+ RNA, regardless of its nuclear location. Taken together, our data show that retention occurs close to the gene and indicate distinct nuclear fates of different mRNAs.

Thomsen, Rune; Libri, Domenico

2003-01-01

137

Mating-type genes and MAT switching in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mating type in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is determined by two nonhomologous alleles, MATa and MAT?. These sequences encode regulators of the two different haploid mating types and of the diploids formed by their conjugation. Analysis of the MATa1, MAT?1, and MAT?2 alleles provided one of the earliest models of cell-type specification by transcriptional activators and repressors. Remarkably, homothallic yeast cells can switch their mating type as often as every generation by a highly choreographed, site-specific homologous recombination event that replaces one MAT allele with different DNA sequences encoding the opposite MAT allele. This replacement process involves the participation of two intact but unexpressed copies of mating-type information at the heterochromatic loci, HML? and HMRa, which are located at opposite ends of the same chromosome-encoding MAT. The study of MAT switching has yielded important insights into the control of cell lineage, the silencing of gene expression, the formation of heterochromatin, and the regulation of accessibility of the donor sequences. Real-time analysis of MAT switching has provided the most detailed description of the molecular events that occur during the homologous recombinational repair of a programmed double-strand chromosome break.

Haber JE

2012-05-01

138

Effects of Fusariotoxin T-2 on Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces carlsbergensis  

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A Fusarium metabolite, T-2 toxin, inhibits the growth of Saccharomyces carlsbergensis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The growth inhibitory concentrations of T-2 toxin were 40 and 100 ?g/ml, respectively, for exponentially growing cultures of the two yeasts. S. carlsbergensis was more sensitive to the...

Schappert, Keith T.; Khachatourians, George G.

139

Cloning and expression of a Saccharomyces diastaticus glucoamylase gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A recombinant plasmid pool of the Saccharomyces diastaticus genome was constructed in plasmid YEp13 and used to transform a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Six transformants were obtained which expressed amylolytic activity. The plasmids each contained a 3.9-kilobase (kb) BamHI fragment, and all...

Erratt, J A; Nasim, A

140

Xylose utilizing recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.  

Science.gov (United States)

Through metabolic engineering, S. cerevisiae was provided with the necessary enzymes required for xylose utilisation during ethanolic fermentation of xylose-rich lignocellulose raw materials. For xylitol production, S. cerevisiae was provided with the Pic...

M. Walfridsson

1996-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Regulation of cation balance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

All living organisms require nutrient minerals for growth and have developed mechanisms to acquire, utilize, and store nutrient minerals effectively. In the aqueous cellular environment, these elements exist as charged ions that, together with protons and hydroxide ions, facilitate biochemical reactions and establish the electrochemical gradients across membranes that drive cellular processes such as transport and ATP synthesis. Metal ions serve as essential enzyme cofactors and perform both structural and signaling roles within cells. However, because these ions can also be toxic, cells have developed sophisticated homeostatic mechanisms to regulate their levels and avoid toxicity. Studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have characterized many of the gene products and processes responsible for acquiring, utilizing, storing, and regulating levels of these ions. Findings in this model organism have often allowed the corresponding machinery in humans to be identified and have provided insights into diseases that result from defects in ion homeostasis. This review summarizes our current understanding of how cation balance is achieved and modulated in baker's yeast. Control of intracellular pH is discussed, as well as uptake, storage, and efflux mechanisms for the alkali metal cations, Na(+) and K(+), the divalent cations, Ca(2+) and Mg(2+), and the trace metal ions, Fe(2+), Zn(2+), Cu(2+), and Mn(2+). Signal transduction pathways that are regulated by pH and Ca(2+) are reviewed, as well as the mechanisms that allow cells to maintain appropriate intracellular cation concentrations when challenged by extreme conditions, i.e., either limited availability or toxic levels in the environment.

Cyert MS; Philpott CC

2013-03-01

142

Study on biosorption of uranium by alginate immobilized saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Saccharomyces cerevisiae has great capability of biosorption of uranium. The maxium uptake is 172.4 mg/g according to this study. To adapt to the application of the biomass in the field, the biosorption of uranium by cross-linked and alginate calcium immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae is studied. Results indicate the maxium uptake is 185.2 mg/g by formaldehyde cross-linked biomass, and it is 769.2 mg/g by alginate calcium immobilized biomass. (authors)

2005-01-01

143

Accumulation of gold using Baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Authors have reported preconcentration of 152Eu, a long-lived fission product, by yeast cells, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Gold being a precious metal is used in electroplating, hydrogenation catalyst, etc. Heterogeneous composition of samples and low concentration offers renewed interest in its selective extraction of gold using various extractants. Gold can be recovered from different solutions using various chemical reagents like amines, organophosphorus compounds, and extractants containing sulphur as donor atom, etc. In the present work, two different strains of baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been used to study the preconcentration of gold at various experimental conditions

2006-01-01

144

Recovery of Saccharomyces cerevisiae from ethanol - induced growth inhibition  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ethanol caused altered mobility of the lipophilic probe 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene in plasma membrane preparations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Because lipids had been shown to protect yeast cells against ethanol toxicity, sterols, fatty acids, proteins, and combinations of these were tested; however, protection from growth inhibition was not seen. Ethanol-induced, prolonged lag periods and diminished growth rates in S. cerevisiae were reduced by an autoconditioning of the medium by the inoculum.

Walker-Caprioglio, H.M.; Rodriguez, R.J.; Parks, L.W.

1985-09-01

145

Research on biosorption of uranium by saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of pH and the granularity of S. cerevisiae on the biosorption capacity were examined in order to study the properties of the biosorption of uranium from effluent by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The isotherm was drawn. From the isotherm, the equations of Langmuir and Freundlich were achieved. The results showed the highest biosorption capacity was obtained when the pH value was about 6 and the granularity was 0.15-0.13 mm

2003-01-01

146

Modelling neurodegeneration in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: why cook with baker's yeast?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In ageing populations, neurodegenerative diseases increase in prevalence, exacting an enormous toll on individuals and their communities. Multiple complementary experimental approaches are needed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying these complex diseases and to develop novel therapeutics. Here, we describe why the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has a unique role in the neurodegeneration armamentarium. As the best-understood and most readily analysed eukaryotic organism, S. cerevisiae is delivering mechanistic insights into cell-autonomous mechanisms of neurodegeneration at an interactome-wide scale.

Khurana V; Lindquist S

2010-06-01

147

A global topology map of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae membrane proteome  

Science.gov (United States)

The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is, arguably, the best understood eukaryotic model organism, yet comparatively little is known about its membrane proteome. Here, we report the cloning and expression of 617 S. cerevisiae membrane proteins as fusions to a C-terminal topology reporter and present experimentally constrained topology models for 546 proteins. By homology, the experimental topology information can be extended to 15,000 membrane proteins from 38 fully sequenced eukaryotic genomes. membrane proteins | membrane proteomics | yeast

Kim, Hyun; Melén, Karin; Österberg, Marie; von Heijne, Gunnar

2006-07-01

148

Tandemly arranged variant 5S ribosomal RNA genes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most of the ribosomal RNA genes of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are about 9 kilobases (kb) in size and encode both the 35S rRNA (processed to produce the 25S, 18S, and 5.8S species) and 5S rRNA. These genes are arranged in a single tandem array of 100 repeats. Below, we present evidence that a...

McMahon, M E; Stamenkovich, D; Petes, T D

149

Phylogenetic portrait of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae functional genome.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The genome of budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) contains approximately 5800 protein-encoding genes, the majority of which are associated with some known biological function. Yet the extent of amino acid sequence conservation of these genes over all phyla has only been partially examined. Here we provide a more comprehensive overview and visualization of the conservation of yeast genes and a means for browsing and exploring the data in detail, down to the individual yeast gene, at http://yeast-phylogroups.princeton.edu. We used data from the OrthoMCL database, which has defined orthologs from approximately 150 completely sequenced genomes, including diverse representatives of the archeal, bacterial, and eukaryotic domains. By clustering genes based on similar patterns of conservation, we organized and visualized all the protein-encoding genes in yeast as a single heat map. Most genes fall into one of eight major clusters, called "phylogroups." Gene ontology analysis of the phylogroups revealed that they were associated with specific, distinct trends in gene function, generalizations likely to be of interest to a wide range of biologists.

Gibney PA; Hickman MJ; Bradley PH; Matese JC; Botstein D

2013-08-01

150

Phylogenetic portrait of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae functional genome.  

Science.gov (United States)

The genome of budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) contains approximately 5800 protein-encoding genes, the majority of which are associated with some known biological function. Yet the extent of amino acid sequence conservation of these genes over all phyla has only been partially examined. Here we provide a more comprehensive overview and visualization of the conservation of yeast genes and a means for browsing and exploring the data in detail, down to the individual yeast gene, at http://yeast-phylogroups.princeton.edu. We used data from the OrthoMCL database, which has defined orthologs from approximately 150 completely sequenced genomes, including diverse representatives of the archeal, bacterial, and eukaryotic domains. By clustering genes based on similar patterns of conservation, we organized and visualized all the protein-encoding genes in yeast as a single heat map. Most genes fall into one of eight major clusters, called "phylogroups." Gene ontology analysis of the phylogroups revealed that they were associated with specific, distinct trends in gene function, generalizations likely to be of interest to a wide range of biologists. PMID:23749449

Gibney, Patrick A; Hickman, Mark J; Bradley, Patrick H; Matese, John C; Botstein, David

2013-08-07

151

Identification of genes affecting hydrogen sulfide formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

A screen of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion strain set was performed to identify genes affecting hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) production. Mutants were screened using two assays: colony color on BiGGY agar, which detects the basal level of sulfite reductase activity, and production of H(2)S in a synthetic juice medium using lead acetate detection of free sulfide in the headspace. A total of 88 mutants produced darker colony colors than the parental strain, and 4 produced colonies significantly lighter in color. There was no correlation between the appearance of a dark colony color on BiGGY agar and H(2)S production in synthetic juice media. Sixteen null mutations were identified as leading to the production of increased levels of H(2)S in synthetic juice using the headspace analysis assay. All 16 mutants also produced H(2)S in actual juices. Five of these genes encode proteins involved in sulfur containing amino acid or precursor biosynthesis and are directly associated with the sulfate assimilation pathway. The remaining genes encode proteins involved in a variety of cellular activities, including cell membrane integrity, cell energy regulation and balance, or other metabolic functions. The levels of hydrogen sulfide production of each of the 16 strains varied in response to nutritional conditions. In most cases, creation of multiple deletions of the 16 mutations in the same strain did not lead to a further increase in H(2)S production, instead often resulting in decreased levels. PMID:18192430

Linderholm, Angela L; Findleton, Carrie L; Kumar, Gagandeep; Hong, Yeun; Bisson, Linda F

2008-01-11

152

Genetic engineering of taxol biosynthetic genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Baccatin III, an intermediate of Taxol biosynthesis and a useful precursor for semisynthesis of the anti-cancer drug, is produced in yew (Taxus) species by a sequence of 15 enzymatic steps from primary metabolism. Ten genes encoding enzymes of this extended pathway have been described, thereby permitting a preliminary attempt to reconstruct early steps of taxane diterpenoid (taxoid) metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a microbial production host. Eight of these taxoid biosynthetic genes were functionally expressed in yeast from episomal vectors containing one or more gene cassettes incorporating various epitope tags to permit protein surveillance and differentiation of those pathway enzymes of similar size. All eight recombinant proteins were readily detected by immunoblotting using specific monoclonal antibodies and each expressed protein was determined to be functional by in vitro enzyme assay, although activity levels differed considerably between enzyme types. Using three plasmids carrying different promoters and selection markers, genes encoding five sequential pathway steps leading from primary isoprenoid metabolism to the intermediate taxadien-5alpha- acetoxy-10beta-ol were installed in a single yeast host. Metabolite analysis showed that yeast isoprenoid precursors could be utilized in the reconstituted pathway because products accumulated from the first two engineered pathway steps (leading to the committed intermediate taxadiene); however, a pathway restriction was encountered at the first cytochrome P450 hydroxylation step. The means of overcoming this limitation are described in the context of further development of this novel approach for production of Taxol precursors and related taxoids in yeast.

Dejong JM; Liu Y; Bollon AP; Long RM; Jennewein S; Williams D; Croteau RB

2006-02-01

153

Exploring the genetic control of glycolytic oscillations in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background A well known example of oscillatory phenomena is the transient oscillations of glycolytic intermediates in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, their regulation being predominantly investigated by mathematical modeling. To our knowledge there has not been a genetic approach to elucidate the regulatory role of the different enzymes of the glycolytic pathway. Results We report that the laboratory strain BY4743 could also be used to investigate this oscillatory phenomenon, which traditionally has been studied using S. cerevisiae X2180. This has enabled us to employ existing isogenic deletion mutants and dissect the roles of isoforms, or subunits of key glycolytic enzymes in glycolytic oscillations. We demonstrate that deletion of TDH3 but not TDH2 and TDH1 (encoding glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase: GAPDH) abolishes NADH oscillations. While deletion of each of the hexokinase (HK) encoding genes (HXK1 and HXK2) leads to oscillations that are longer lasting with lower amplitude, the effect of HXK2 deletion on the duration of the oscillations is stronger than that of HXK1. Most importantly our results show that the presence of beta (Pfk2) but not that of alpha subunits (Pfk1) of the hetero-octameric enzyme phosphofructokinase (PFK) is necessary to achieve these oscillations. Furthermore, we report that the cAMP-mediated PKA pathway (via some of its components responsible for feedback down-regulation) modulates the activity of glycoytic enzymes thus affecting oscillations. Deletion of both PDE2 (encoding a high affinity cAMP-phosphodiesterase) and IRA2 (encoding a GTPase activating protein- Ras-GAP, responsible for inactivating Ras-GTP) abolished glycolytic oscillations. Conclusions The genetic approach to characterising the glycolytic oscillations in yeast has demonstrated differential roles of the two types of subunits of PFK, and the isoforms of GAPDH and HK. Furthermore, it has shown that PDE2 and IRA2, encoding components of the cAMP pathway responsible for negative feedback regulation of PKA, are required for glycolytic oscillations, suggesting an enticing link between these cAMP pathway components and the glycolysis pathway enzymes shown to have the greatest role in glycolytic oscillation. This study suggests that a systematic genetic approach combined with mathematical modelling can advance the study of oscillatory phenomena.

Williamson Thomas; Adiamah Delali; Schwartz Jean-Marc; Stateva Lubomira

2012-01-01

154

HcRed, a Genetically Encoded Fluorescent Binary Cross-Linking Agent for Cross-Linking of Mitochondrial ATP Synthase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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Genetically encoded fluorescent cross-linking agents represent powerful tools useful both for visualising and modulating protein interactions in living cells. The far-red fluorescent protein HcRed, which is fluorescent only in a dimer form, can be used to promote the homo-dimerisation of target prot...

Gong, Lan; Ramm, Georg; Devenish, Rodney J.; Prescott, Mark

155

Structure and regulation of a Candida albicans RP10 gene which encodes an immunogenic protein homologous to Saccharomyces cerevisiae ribosomal protein 10.  

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The Candida albicans clone cDNA10 was isolated on the basis that it encodes a protein which is immunogenic during infections in humans (R. K. Swoboda, G. Bertram, H. Hollander, D. Greenspan, J. S. Greenspan, N. A. R. Gow, G. W. Gooday, and A. J. P. Brown, Infect. Immun. 61:4263-4271, 1993). cDNA10 w...

Swoboda, R K; Broadbent, I D; Bertram, G; Budge, S; Gooday, G W; Gow, N A; Brown, A J

156

Identification of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae Glucosidase That Hydrolyzes Flavonoid Glucosides? †  

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Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) whole-cell bioconversions of naringenin 7-O-?-glucoside revealed considerable ?-glucosidase activity, which impairs any strategy to generate or modify flavonoid glucosides in yeast transformants. Up to 10 putative glycoside hydrolases annotated in the S. cere...

Schmidt, Sabine; Rainieri, Sandra; Witte, Simone; Matern, Ulrich; Martens, Stefan

157

Analysis of the RNA Content of the Yeast "Saccharomyces Cerevisiae"  

Science.gov (United States)

|In this article, the authors describe an interconnected set of relatively simple laboratory experiments in which students determine the RNA content of yeast cells and use agarose gel electrophoresis to separate and analyze the major species of cellular RNA. This set of experiments focuses on RNAs from the yeast "Saccharomyces cerevisiae", a…

Deutch, Charles E.; Marshall, Pamela A.

2008-01-01

158

Analysis of the RNA Content of the Yeast "Saccharomyces Cerevisiae"  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, the authors describe an interconnected set of relatively simple laboratory experiments in which students determine the RNA content of yeast cells and use agarose gel electrophoresis to separate and analyze the major species of cellular RNA. This set of experiments focuses on RNAs from the yeast "Saccharomyces cerevisiae", a…

Deutch, Charles E.; Marshall, Pamela A.

2008-01-01

159

A Role for Ubiquitination in Mitochondrial Inheritance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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The smm1 mutation suppresses defects in mitochondrial distribution and morphology caused by the mdm1-252 mutation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cells harboring only the smm1 mutation themselves display temperature-sensitive growth and aberrant mitochondrial inheritance and morphology at th...

Fisk, Harold A.; Yaffe, Michael P.

160

The influence of microgravity on invasive growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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This study investigates the effects of microgravity on colony growth and the morphological transition from single cells to short invasive filaments in the model eukaryotic organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Two-dimensional spreading of the yeast colonies grown on semi-solid agar medium was reduced u...

Van Mulders, Sebastiaan E; Stassen, Catherine; Daenen, Luk; Devreese, Bart; Siewers, Verena; van Eijsden, Rudy GE

 
 
 
 
161

Transcriptional Response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Desiccation and Rehydration†  

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A transcriptional analysis of the response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain BY4743 to controlled air-drying (desiccation) and subsequent rehydration under minimal glucose conditions was performed. Expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and the glyoxylate cycle was observed to increas...

Singh, Jatinder; Kumar, Deept; Ramakrishnan, Naren; Singhal, Vibha; Jervis, Jody; Garst, James F.; Slaughter, Stephen M.

162

Slow growth, stress response and aging in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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The unicellular organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used as a modelsystem to study aging at the cellular level. It is known that limiting the amount of calories used by cells can lead to an extension of lifespan. This thesis shows that by applying controlled slow growth circumstances, cells increa...

Winter, Victor Jacob

163

An efficient purification system for native minichromosome from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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We have recently established a system for purifying minichromosomes in a native state from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This system is extremely efficient, and a single-step purification yields samples with sufficient purity and quantity for mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of histones and non-histone p...

Unnikrishnan, A; Akiyoshi, B; Biggins, S; Tsukiyama, T

164

Effects of mycotoxins on the fermenting activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The rate of fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is partially inhibited by different mycotoxins. This effect is remarkable with T2-toxin and diacetoxyscirpenol, slight with aflatoxin-B1, penicillic acid and patulin. On the contrary, the butenolide appears as a stimulator of the alcoholic fermentation. (Refs. 17).

Lafont, J.; Romand, A.; Lafont, P.

1981-05-01

165

The phenotypic heterogeneity of saccharomyces cerevisiae strains from natural environments  

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Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the model organism par excellence and stands today at the forefront of molecular biology, genetics and genomics. However, as for many other laboratory model organisms, understanding of the ecological, evolutionary and population genetic features that shaped the biology o...

Duarte, Ricardo Franco; Casal, Margarida; Schuller, Dorit

166

Kinetics of formation of induced mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

UV and ?-radiation mutagenic effect an various strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was studied by analyzing formation kinetics of induced mutants at the period of postirradiation incubation. Mechanisms of induced reverse formation was suggested. The presented analysis is considered to be differential taking account of more subtle aspects of induced mutagenesis. 8 refs.; 10 figs.; 3 tabs

1990-01-01

167

A Screen for Germination Mutants in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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Spore germination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a process in which a quiescent cell begins to divide. During germination, the cell undergoes dramatic changes in cell wall and membrane composition, as well as in gene expression. To understand germination in greater detail, we screened the S. cerevis...

Kloimwieder, Anne; Winston, Fred Marshall

168

Glycerol production by immobilized cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were immobilized in K-Carrageenan. Addition of sodium sulfite to the fermentation medium up to four percent led to glycerol yields of 25 to 27 g/l at temperatures below 31/sup 0/C. These results demonstrate that it is possible to direct the metabolism of immobilized cells from ethanol fermentation to glycerol fermentation by sulfite.

Bisping, B.; Rehm, H.J.

1982-01-01

169

Sensitivity of polyamine-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae to elevated temperatures.  

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Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells that cannot synthesize spermidine or spermine because of a deletion in the gene coding for S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase are very sensitive to elevated temperatures when incubated in a polyamine-deficient medium; i.e., growth is inhibited and the cells are killed....

Balasundaram, D; Tabor, C W; Tabor, H

170

Size and Scar Distributions of the Yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

A model for the growth of populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is formulated and analyzed. The probability of bud emergence is assumed to depend on the size of the cell. Under certain conditions on birth size the model can be reduced to a single renewa...

M. Gyllenberg

1985-01-01

171

Analysis of Meiotic Recombination Pathways in the Yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae  

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In the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, several genes appear to act early in meiotic recombination. HOP1 and RED1 have been classified as such early genes. The data in this paper demonstrate that neither a red1 nor a hop1 mutation can rescue the inviable spores produced by a rad52 spo13 strain; this...

Mao-Draayer, Y.; Galbraith, A. M.; Pittman, D. L.; Cool, M.; Malone, R. E.

172

Molecular mechanisms of ethanol tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Science.gov (United States)

The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a superb ethanol producer, yet sensitive to ethanol at higher concentrations especially under high gravity or very high gravity fermentation conditions. Although significant efforts have been made to study ethanol-stress response in past decades, molecular mecha...

173

Regulation of cell size in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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For cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the size at initiation of budding is proportional to growth rate for rates from 0.33 to 0.23 h-1. At growth rates lower than 0.23 h-1, cells displayed a minimum cell size at bud initiation independent of growth rate. Regardless of growth rate, cells d...

Johnston, G C; Ehrhardt, C W; Lorincz, A; Carter, B L

174

Transcriptional regulation by ergosterol in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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Sterol biosynthesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an energy-expensive, aerobic process, requiring heme and molecular oxygen. Heme, also synthesized exclusively during aerobic growth, not only acts as an enzymatic cofactor but also is directly and indirectly responsible for the transcripti...

Smith, S J; Crowley, J H; Parks, L W

175

Vps1p, a member of the dynamin GTPase family, is necessary for Golgi membrane protein retention in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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The KEX2-encoded endoprotease of Saccharomyces cerevisiae resides in the Golgi complex where it participates in the maturation of alpha-factor mating pheromone precursor. Clathrin heavy chain gene disruptions cause mislocalization of Kex2p to the cell surface and reduce maturation of the alpha-facto...

Wilsbach, K; Payne, G S

176

Mot3 is a transcriptional repressor of ergosterol biosynthetic genes and is required for normal vacuolar function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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The Saccharomyces cerevisiae MOT3 gene encodes a nuclear protein implicated in both repression and activation of transcription. However, a mot3? mutation causes only mild phenotypes under normal growth conditions. To learn more about Mot3 function, we have performed a synthetic lethal screen. This s...

Hongay, Cintia; Jia, Nan; Bard, Martin; Winston, Fred

177

Unlinked Noncomplementation: Isolation of New Conditional-Lethal Mutations in Each of the Tubulin Genes of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae  

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Mutations in genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that code for proteins that interact with ?-tubulin were sought by screening for unlinked mutations that fail to complement mutations in the single ?-tubulin-encoding gene (TUB2). Among the first three noncomplementing mutations examined, two are linked...

Stearns, T.; Botstein, D.

178

Yeast intragenic transcriptional control: activation and repression sites within the coding region of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae LPD1 gene.  

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Though widely recognized in higher eukaryotes, the regulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes transcribed by RNA polymerase II by proteins that bind within the coding sequence remains largely speculative. We have shown for the LPD1 gene, encoding lipoamide dehydrogenase, that the coding sequence b...

Sinclair, D A; Kornfeld, G D; Dawes, I W

179

Construction of an opal suppressor by oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae tRNA(Trp) gene.  

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In vitro mutagenesis was used to create putative opal suppressor alleles of a tRNA(Trp) gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The construct with the requisite anticodon change did not result in an active suppressor, whereas when a second change was introduced into the portion of the gene encoding the in...

Atkin, A L; Roy, K L; Bell, J B

180

The Sodium/Proton Exchanger Nhx1p Is Required for Endosomal Protein Trafficking in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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We show that the vacuolar protein sorting gene VPS44 is identical to NHX1, a gene that encodes a sodium/proton exchanger. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein Nhx1p shows high homology to mammalian sodium/proton exchangers of the NHE family. Nhx1p is thought to transport sodium ions into the pr...

Bowers, Katherine; Levi, Boaz P.; Patel, Falguny I.; Stevens, Tom H.

 
 
 
 
181

The Synthetic Genetic Network around PKC1 Identifies Novel Modulators and Components of Protein Kinase C Signaling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae?  

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Budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains one protein kinase C (PKC) isozyme encoded by the essential gene PKC1. Pkc1 is activated by the small GTPase Rho1 and plays a central role in the cell wall integrity (CWI) signaling pathway. This pathway acts primarily to remodel the cell surface throu...

Krause, Sue A.; Xu, Hong; Gray, Joseph V.

182

Isolation and characterization of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae peptide transport gene.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We have cloned and characterized a Saccharomyces cerevisiae peptide transport gene (PTR2) isolated from a genomic DNA library by directly selecting for functional complementation of a peptide transport-deficient mutant. Deletion and frameshift mutageneses were used to localize the complementing activity to a 3.1-kbp region on the transforming plasmid. DNA sequencing of the complementing region identified an open reading frame spanning 1,803 bp. The deduced amino acid sequence predicts a hydrophobic peptide consisting of 601 amino acids, having a molecular mass of 68.1 kDa, composed in part of 12 hydrophobic segments, and sharing significant similarities with a nitrate transport protein encoded by the CHL1 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana. Northern (RNA) hybridization experiments demonstrated a single transcript that was 1.8 kb in length and that was transiently induced by the addition of L-leucine to the growth medium. The PTR2 gene was localized to the right arm of chromosome XI by contour-clamped homogeneous electric field gel chromosome blotting and by hybridization to known chromosome XI lambda phage clones of S. cerevisiae DNA. PTR2 was tightly linked to the UBI2 gene, with the coding sequences being separated by a 466-bp region and oriented so that the genes were transcribed convergently. A chromosomal disruption of the PTR2 gene in a haploid strain was not lethal under standard growth conditions. The cloning of PTR2 represents the first example of the molecular genetic characterization of a eucaryotic peptide transport gene.

Perry JR; Basrai MA; Steiner HY; Naider F; Becker JM

1994-01-01

183

V-ATPase dysfunction suppresses polyphosphate synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae accumulates the high levels of inorganic polyphosphates (polyPs) performing in the cells numerous functions, including phosphate and energy storage. The effects of vacuolar membrane ATPase (V-ATPase) dysfunction were studied on polyP accumulation under short-term cultivation in the P(i)-excess media after P(i) starvation. The addition of bafilomycin A1, a specific inhibitor of V-ATPase, to the medium with glucose resulted in strong inhibition of the synthesis of long-chain polyP and in substantial suppression of short-chain polyP. The addition of bafilomycin to the medium with ethanol resulted in decreased accumulation of high-molecular polyP, while the accumulation of low-molecular polyP was not affected. The levels of polyP synthesis in the mutant strain with a deletion in the vma2 gene encoding a V-ATPase subunit were significantly lower than in the parent strain in the media with glucose and with ethanol. The synthesis of the longest chain polyP was not observed in the mutant cells. The synthesis of only the low-polymer acid-soluble polyP fraction occurred in the cells of the mutant strain. However, the level of polyP1 was nearly tenfold lower than compared to the cells of the parent strain. Both bafilomycin A1 and the mutation in vacuolar ATPase subunit vma2 lead to a considerable decrease of cellular polyP accumulation. Thus, the defects in ??H(+) formation on the vacuolar membrane resulted in the decrease of polyP biosynthesis in S. cerevisiae.

Trilisenko L; Tomashevsky A; Kulakovskaya T; Kulaev I

2013-02-01

184

V-ATPase dysfunction suppresses polyphosphate synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae accumulates the high levels of inorganic polyphosphates (polyPs) performing in the cells numerous functions, including phosphate and energy storage. The effects of vacuolar membrane ATPase (V-ATPase) dysfunction were studied on polyP accumulation under short-term cultivation in the Pi-excess media after Pi starvation. The addition of bafilomycin A1, a specific inhibitor of V-ATPase, to the medium with glucose resulted in strong inhibition of the synthesis of long-chain polyP and in substantial suppression of short-chain polyP. The addition of bafilomycin to the medium with ethanol resulted in decreased accumulation of high-molecular polyP, while the accumulation of low-molecular polyP was not affected. The levels of polyP synthesis in the mutant strain with a deletion in the vma2 gene encoding a V-ATPase subunit were significantly lower than in the parent strain in the media with glucose and with ethanol. The synthesis of the longest chain polyP was not observed in the mutant cells. The synthesis of only the low-polymer acid-soluble polyP fraction occurred in the cells of the mutant strain. However, the level of polyP1 was nearly tenfold lower than compared to the cells of the parent strain. Both bafilomycin A1 and the mutation in vacuolar ATPase subunit vma2 lead to a considerable decrease of cellular polyP accumulation. Thus, the defects in ??H(+) formation on the vacuolar membrane resulted in the decrease of polyP biosynthesis in S. cerevisiae. PMID:23371743

Trilisenko, Ludmila; Tomashevsky, Alexander; Kulakovskaya, Tatiana; Kulaev, Igor

2013-02-02

185

[New aspects of the pleiotropic action of the genes coding Saccharomyces cerevisiae exopolyphosphatases].  

Science.gov (United States)

Inactivation of the key genes, which are responsible for the enzymes of polyphosphates degradation, exopolyphosphatases ppx1 and ppn1, caused both an increase of polyphosphates content in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells and an increase in chain length of acid-soluble and alkali-soluble fractions. It had no effect on the frequency of volutine granules metachromasy that was based on the interaction of dye molecules with ionic groups of polyphosphates. At the same time, a mutant strain reaction to nystatin differed from the reaction of the parental and wild-type strains when the metachromasy was absent. Obtained data may indicate a pleiotropic effect of ppx1 and ppn1 genes, which encode the major exopolyphosphatase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and affect the reaction of cells to external factors through changes in the metabolism of polyphosphates. PMID:23120983

Gromosova, E N; Kachur, T L; Bo?chuk, S I; Riazanova, L P; Kulakovskaia, T V

186

[New aspects of the pleiotropic action of the genes coding Saccharomyces cerevisiae exopolyphosphatases].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Inactivation of the key genes, which are responsible for the enzymes of polyphosphates degradation, exopolyphosphatases ppx1 and ppn1, caused both an increase of polyphosphates content in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells and an increase in chain length of acid-soluble and alkali-soluble fractions. It had no effect on the frequency of volutine granules metachromasy that was based on the interaction of dye molecules with ionic groups of polyphosphates. At the same time, a mutant strain reaction to nystatin differed from the reaction of the parental and wild-type strains when the metachromasy was absent. Obtained data may indicate a pleiotropic effect of ppx1 and ppn1 genes, which encode the major exopolyphosphatase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and affect the reaction of cells to external factors through changes in the metabolism of polyphosphates.

Gromosova EN; Kachur TL; Bo?chuk SI; Riazanova LP; Kulakovskaia TV

2012-09-01

187

kem mutations affect nuclear fusion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We have identified mutations in three genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, KEM1, KEM2 and KEM3, that enhance the nuclear fusion defect of kar1-1 yeast during conjugation. The KEM1 and KEM3 genes are located on the left arm of chromosome VII. Kem mutations reduce nuclear fusion whether the kem and the kar1-1 mutations are in the same or in different parents (i.e., in both kem kar1-1 X wild-type and kem X kar 1-1 crosses). kem 1 X kem 1 crosses show a defect in nuclear fusion, but kem 1 X wild-type crosses do not. Mutant kem 1 strains are hypersensitive to benomyl, lose chromosomes at a rate 10-20-fold higher than KEM+ strains, and lose viability upon nitrogen starvation. In addition, kem 1/kem 1 diploids are unable to sporulate. Cells containing a kem 1 null allele grow very poorly, have an elongated rod-shape and are defective in spindle pole body duplication and/or separation. The KEM 1 gene, which is expressed as a 5.5-kb mRNA transcript, contains a 4.6-kb open reading frame encoding a 175-kD protein.

Kim J; Ljungdahl PO; Fink GR

1990-12-01

188

Host factors that affect Ty3 retrotransposition in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The retrovirus-like element Ty3 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae integrates at the transcription initiation region of RNA polymerase III. To identify host genes that affect transposition, a collection of insertion mutants was screened using a genetic assay in which insertion of Ty3 activates expression of a tRNA suppressor. Fifty-three loci were identified in this screen. Corresponding knockout mutants were tested for the ability to mobilize a galactose-inducible Ty3, marked with the HIS3 gene. Of 42 mutants tested, 22 had phenotypes similar to those displayed in the original assay. The proteins encoded by the defective genes are involved in chromatin dynamics, transcription, RNA processing, protein modification, cell cycle regulation, nuclear import, and unknown functions. These mutants were induced for Ty3 expression and assayed for Gag3p protein, integrase, cDNA, and Ty3 integration upstream of chromosomal tDNA(Val(AAC)) genes. Most mutants displayed differences from the wild type in one or more intermediates, although these were typically not as severe as the genetic defect. Because a relatively large number of genes affecting retrotransposition can be identified in yeast and because the majority of these genes have mammalian homologs, this approach provides an avenue for the identification of potential antiviral targets.

Aye M; Irwin B; Beliakova-Bethell N; Chen E; Garrus J; Sandmeyer S

2004-11-01

189

Vacuolar Cation/H+ Antiporters of Saccharomyces cerevisiae*  

Science.gov (United States)

We previously demonstrated that Saccharomyces cerevisiae vnx1? mutant strains displayed an almost total loss of Na+ and K+/H+ antiporter activity in a vacuole-enriched fraction. However, using different in vitro transport conditions, we were able to reveal additional K+/H+ antiporter activity. By disrupting genes encoding transporters potentially involved in the vnx1 mutant strain, we determined that Vcx1p is responsible for this activity. This result was further confirmed by complementation of the vnx1?vcx1? nhx1? triple mutant with Vcx1p and its inactivated mutant Vcx1p-H303A. Like the Ca2+/H+ antiporter activity catalyzed by Vcx1p, the K+/H+ antiporter activity was strongly inhibited by Cd2+ and to a lesser extend by Zn2+. Unlike as previously observed for NHX1 or VNX1, VCX1 overexpression only marginally improved the growth of yeast strain AXT3 in the presence of high concentrations of K+ and had no effect on hygromycin sensitivity. Subcellular localization showed that Vcx1p and Vnx1p are targeted to the vacuolar membrane, whereas Nhx1p is targeted to prevacuoles. The relative importance of Nhx1p, Vnx1p, and Vcx1p in the vacuolar accumulation of monovalent cations will be discussed.

Cagnac, Olivier; Aranda-Sicilia, Maria Nieves; Leterrier, Marina; Rodriguez-Rosales, Maria-Pilar; Venema, Kees

2010-01-01

190

Vacuolar cation/H+ antiporters of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We previously demonstrated that Saccharomyces cerevisiae vnx1? mutant strains displayed an almost total loss of Na(+) and K(+)/H(+) antiporter activity in a vacuole-enriched fraction. However, using different in vitro transport conditions, we were able to reveal additional K(+)/H(+) antiporter activity. By disrupting genes encoding transporters potentially involved in the vnx1 mutant strain, we determined that Vcx1p is responsible for this activity. This result was further confirmed by complementation of the vnx1?vcx1? nhx1? triple mutant with Vcx1p and its inactivated mutant Vcx1p-H303A. Like the Ca(2+)/H(+) antiporter activity catalyzed by Vcx1p, the K(+)/H(+) antiporter activity was strongly inhibited by Cd(2+) and to a lesser extend by Zn(2+). Unlike as previously observed for NHX1 or VNX1, VCX1 overexpression only marginally improved the growth of yeast strain AXT3 in the presence of high concentrations of K(+) and had no effect on hygromycin sensitivity. Subcellular localization showed that Vcx1p and Vnx1p are targeted to the vacuolar membrane, whereas Nhx1p is targeted to prevacuoles. The relative importance of Nhx1p, Vnx1p, and Vcx1p in the vacuolar accumulation of monovalent cations will be discussed.

Cagnac O; Aranda-Sicilia MN; Leterrier M; Rodriguez-Rosales MP; Venema K

2010-10-01

191

Vacuolar cation/H+ antiporters of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

We previously demonstrated that Saccharomyces cerevisiae vnx1? mutant strains displayed an almost total loss of Na(+) and K(+)/H(+) antiporter activity in a vacuole-enriched fraction. However, using different in vitro transport conditions, we were able to reveal additional K(+)/H(+) antiporter activity. By disrupting genes encoding transporters potentially involved in the vnx1 mutant strain, we determined that Vcx1p is responsible for this activity. This result was further confirmed by complementation of the vnx1?vcx1? nhx1? triple mutant with Vcx1p and its inactivated mutant Vcx1p-H303A. Like the Ca(2+)/H(+) antiporter activity catalyzed by Vcx1p, the K(+)/H(+) antiporter activity was strongly inhibited by Cd(2+) and to a lesser extend by Zn(2+). Unlike as previously observed for NHX1 or VNX1, VCX1 overexpression only marginally improved the growth of yeast strain AXT3 in the presence of high concentrations of K(+) and had no effect on hygromycin sensitivity. Subcellular localization showed that Vcx1p and Vnx1p are targeted to the vacuolar membrane, whereas Nhx1p is targeted to prevacuoles. The relative importance of Nhx1p, Vnx1p, and Vcx1p in the vacuolar accumulation of monovalent cations will be discussed. PMID:20709757

Cagnac, Olivier; Aranda-Sicilia, Maria Nieves; Leterrier, Marina; Rodriguez-Rosales, Maria-Pilar; Venema, Kees

2010-08-13

192

Biosorption of 241Am by immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Americium-241 is one of the most serious radioactive contaminating nuclides due to its high toxicity and long half-life. The encouraging biosorption of 241Am from aqueous solutions by free Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) has been observed in our previous experiments. 241Am biosorption by immobilized S. cerevisiae and the effect of the various experimental conditions on the adsorption were investigated. The results indicated that the 241Am biosorption by immobilized S. cerevisiae is still very efficient, and immobilized S. cerevisiae can be used repeatedly or continuously. The biosorption equilibrium was achieved within 2 hours, and more than 92% of 241Am was removed by immobilized S. cerevisiae in the pH 1-4 range. No significant differences in 241Am biosorption were observed at 15-45 deg C. The immobilized S. cerevisiae, even after used repeatedly for 6 times, still could adsorb more than 90% of 241Am in solutions of 1.08 MBq/l (8.5 ?g/l). At this moment, the total adsorption capacity for 241Am was more than 63.3 KBq/g globe (0.5 ?g/g), but has not reached saturation yet. The 241Am left in solutions with initial concentration of 1.08 MBq/l (8.5 ?g/l) was noted as low as ?10 Bq/l (?8.0 x 10-5 ?g/l) after adsorption by the immobilized S. cerevisiae for 3 times. (author)

2003-01-01

193

Fumaric acid production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by in silico aided metabolic engineering.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fumaric acid (FA) is a promising biomass-derived building-block chemical. Bio-based FA production from renewable feedstock is a promising and sustainable alternative to petroleum-based chemical synthesis. Here we report on FA production by direct fermentation using metabolically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae with the aid of in silico analysis of a genome-scale metabolic model. First, FUM1 was selected as the target gene on the basis of extensive literature mining. Flux balance analysis (FBA) revealed that FUM1 deletion can lead to FA production and slightly lower growth of S. cerevisiae. The engineered S. cerevisiae strain obtained by deleting FUM1 can produce FA up to a concentration of 610±31 mg L(-1) without any apparent change in growth in fed-batch culture. FT-IR and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra confirmed that FA was synthesized by the engineered S. cerevisiae strain. FBA identified pyruvate carboxylase as one of the factors limiting higher FA production. When the RoPYC gene was introduced, S. cerevisiae produced 1134±48 mg L(-1) FA. Furthermore, the final engineered S. cerevisiae strain was able to produce 1675±52 mg L(-1) FA in batch culture when the SFC1 gene encoding a succinate-fumarate transporter was introduced. These results demonstrate that the model shows great predictive capability for metabolic engineering. Moreover, FA production in S. cerevisiae can be efficiently developed with the aid of in silico metabolic engineering.

Xu G; Zou W; Chen X; Xu N; Liu L; Chen J

2012-01-01

194

Fumaric acid production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by in silico aided metabolic engineering.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fumaric acid (FA) is a promising biomass-derived building-block chemical. Bio-based FA production from renewable feedstock is a promising and sustainable alternative to petroleum-based chemical synthesis. Here we report on FA production by direct fermentation using metabolically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae with the aid of in silico analysis of a genome-scale metabolic model. First, FUM1 was selected as the target gene on the basis of extensive literature mining. Flux balance analysis (FBA) revealed that FUM1 deletion can lead to FA production and slightly lower growth of S. cerevisiae. The engineered S. cerevisiae strain obtained by deleting FUM1 can produce FA up to a concentration of 610±31 mg L(-1) without any apparent change in growth in fed-batch culture. FT-IR and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra confirmed that FA was synthesized by the engineered S. cerevisiae strain. FBA identified pyruvate carboxylase as one of the factors limiting higher FA production. When the RoPYC gene was introduced, S. cerevisiae produced 1134±48 mg L(-1) FA. Furthermore, the final engineered S. cerevisiae strain was able to produce 1675±52 mg L(-1) FA in batch culture when the SFC1 gene encoding a succinate-fumarate transporter was introduced. These results demonstrate that the model shows great predictive capability for metabolic engineering. Moreover, FA production in S. cerevisiae can be efficiently developed with the aid of in silico metabolic engineering. PMID:23300594

Xu, Guoqiang; Zou, Wei; Chen, Xiulai; Xu, Nan; Liu, Liming; Chen, Jian

2012-12-26

195

Genetic diversity study of the yeast Saccharomyces bayanus var. uvarum reveals introgressed subtelomeric Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intraspecies polymorphism of the yeast Saccharomyces bayanus var. uvarum was studied using the polymerase chain reaction with a microsatellite primer (GTG)(5). Sixty-nine strains of different origins were analyzed. There existed a correlation between PCR patterns of the strains and the source of their isolation: the type of wine and the particular winemaking region. Southern hybridization analysis revealed for the first time introgression between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S. bayanus var. uvarum. Two strains isolated from alcoholic beverages in Hungary and identified by genetic analysis as S. bayanus var. uvarum were found to harbor a number of S. cerevisiae subtelomeric sequences: Y', SUC, RTM and MAL. PMID:21112388

Naumova, Elena S; Naumov, Gennadi I; Michailova, Yulia V; Martynenko, Nikolay N; Masneuf-Pomarède, Isabelle

2010-11-26

196

Genetic diversity study of the yeast Saccharomyces bayanus var. uvarum reveals introgressed subtelomeric Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Intraspecies polymorphism of the yeast Saccharomyces bayanus var. uvarum was studied using the polymerase chain reaction with a microsatellite primer (GTG)(5). Sixty-nine strains of different origins were analyzed. There existed a correlation between PCR patterns of the strains and the source of their isolation: the type of wine and the particular winemaking region. Southern hybridization analysis revealed for the first time introgression between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S. bayanus var. uvarum. Two strains isolated from alcoholic beverages in Hungary and identified by genetic analysis as S. bayanus var. uvarum were found to harbor a number of S. cerevisiae subtelomeric sequences: Y', SUC, RTM and MAL.

Naumova ES; Naumov GI; Michailova YV; Martynenko NN; Masneuf-Pomarède I

2011-02-01

197

Electrical stimulation of saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures Estimulação elétrica de células de Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Modulation of cell endogenous membrane potential by an external electrical field influences the structure and function of membrane compartments, proteins and lipid bi-layer. In this work, the effects of applied potential on Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth were characterized through simple yet conclusive experiments. Cell growth time profile and cell division were investigated as macroscopic response to the electrical stimulation. Control experiments were conducted under identical conditions except for the absence of applied potential. Through comparative analysis, electrical stimulation was verified to alter cell cycle as smaller sized population was observed, suggesting that a synchrony in cell division was promoted. Power spectral analysis was employed to sustain synchrony enhancement, and mathematical modeling was conducted for determining kinetic growth changes. Monod type kinetic parameters for growth were determined by non-linear regression. The affinity constant (namely kS) presented a dependence on applied potential suggesting changes on transport across cell membrane. Electrochemically promoted stress was also verified to inhibit growth as well as to induce changes on cell viability.Modulação do potencial de membrana celular endógeno por um campo elétrico externo influencia a estrutura e função dos compartimentos da membrana, de suas proteínas e da bi-camada lipídica. Neste trabalho, os efeitos da aplicação de potencial no crescimento de Saccharomyces cerevisiae foram caracterizados por experimentos simples, mas conclusivos. O perfil temporal de crescimento celular e a divisão celular foram investigados como respostas macroscópicas ao estímulo elétrico. Experimentos controle foram conduzidos em condições idênticas, exceto pela ausência de potencial aplicado. Através de análise comparativa, verificou-se que o estímulo elétrico alterou o ciclo celular como foi possível observar através da medida da dispersão de tamanho celular de cada população, sugerindo um possível sincronismo na divisão celular. Análise do espectro de potência foi empregada para sustentar o aumento no sincronismo, e uma modelagem matemática foi conduzida para determinar mudanças na cinética de crescimento celular. Parâmetros cinéticos do modelo tipo Monod para crescimento foram determinados por regressão não-linear. A constante de afinidade (a saber, K S) apresentou uma dependência com o potencial aplicado, sugerindo mudanças no transporte através da membrana celular. Verificou-se, também, que o estresse promovido eletroquimicamente inibiu o crescimento e induziu mudanças na viabilidade celular.

Ofelia Q.F. Araújo; Maria Alice Z. Coelho; Isabel C.P. Margarit; Carlos A. Vaz-Junior; Maria Helena M. Rocha-Leão

2004-01-01

198

Electrical stimulation of saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures/ Estimulação elétrica de células de Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Modulação do potencial de membrana celular endógeno por um campo elétrico externo influencia a estrutura e função dos compartimentos da membrana, de suas proteínas e da bi-camada lipídica. Neste trabalho, os efeitos da aplicação de potencial no crescimento de Saccharomyces cerevisiae foram caracterizados por experimentos simples, mas conclusivos. O perfil temporal de crescimento celular e a divisão celular foram investigados como respostas macroscópicas ao est (more) ímulo elétrico. Experimentos controle foram conduzidos em condições idênticas, exceto pela ausência de potencial aplicado. Através de análise comparativa, verificou-se que o estímulo elétrico alterou o ciclo celular como foi possível observar através da medida da dispersão de tamanho celular de cada população, sugerindo um possível sincronismo na divisão celular. Análise do espectro de potência foi empregada para sustentar o aumento no sincronismo, e uma modelagem matemática foi conduzida para determinar mudanças na cinética de crescimento celular. Parâmetros cinéticos do modelo tipo Monod para crescimento foram determinados por regressão não-linear. A constante de afinidade (a saber, K S) apresentou uma dependência com o potencial aplicado, sugerindo mudanças no transporte através da membrana celular. Verificou-se, também, que o estresse promovido eletroquimicamente inibiu o crescimento e induziu mudanças na viabilidade celular. Abstract in english Modulation of cell endogenous membrane potential by an external electrical field influences the structure and function of membrane compartments, proteins and lipid bi-layer. In this work, the effects of applied potential on Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth were characterized through simple yet conclusive experiments. Cell growth time profile and cell division were investigated as macroscopic response to the electrical stimulation. Control experiments were conducted under i (more) dentical conditions except for the absence of applied potential. Through comparative analysis, electrical stimulation was verified to alter cell cycle as smaller sized population was observed, suggesting that a synchrony in cell division was promoted. Power spectral analysis was employed to sustain synchrony enhancement, and mathematical modeling was conducted for determining kinetic growth changes. Monod type kinetic parameters for growth were determined by non-linear regression. The affinity constant (namely kS) presented a dependence on applied potential suggesting changes on transport across cell membrane. Electrochemically promoted stress was also verified to inhibit growth as well as to induce changes on cell viability.

Araújo, Ofelia Q.F.; Coelho, Maria Alice Z.; Margarit, Isabel C.P.; Vaz-Junior, Carlos A.; Rocha-Leão, Maria Helena M.

2004-06-01

199

Preparation of Genomic DNA from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The ability to isolate genomic DNA rapidly and effectively for analysis by PCR, Southern blotting, or other methods is an essential skill. This protocol provides a fast and efficient method for obtaining genomic DNA from S. cerevisiae.

Dymond JS

2013-01-01

200

Preparation of Genomic DNA from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability to isolate genomic DNA rapidly and effectively for analysis by PCR, Southern blotting, or other methods is an essential skill. This protocol provides a fast and efficient method for obtaining genomic DNA from S. cerevisiae. PMID:24011043

Dymond, Jessica S

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

The Acyl-CoA synthetases encoded within FAA1 and FAA4 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae function as components of the fatty acid transport system linking import, activation, and intracellular Utilization  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Exogenous long-chain fatty acids are activated to coenzyme A derivatives prior to metabolic utilization. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the activation of these compounds prior to metabolic utilization proceeds through the fatty acyl-CoA synthetases Faa1p and Faa4p. Faa1p or Faa4p are essential for long-chain fatty acid import, suggesting that one or both of these enzymes are components of the fatty acid transport system, which also includes Fat1p. By monitoring the intracellular accumulation of the fluorescent long-chain fatty acid analogue 4,4-difluoro-5-methyl-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene-3-dodecanoic acid, long-chain fatty acid transport was shown to be severely restricted in a faa1 Delta faa4 Delta strain. These data established for the first time a mechanistic linkage between the import and activation of exogenous fatty acids in yeast. To investigate this linkage further, oleoyl CoA levels were defined following incubation of wild type and mutant cells with limiting concentrations of exogenous oleate. These studies demonstrated oleoyl CoA levels were reduced to less than 10% wild-type levels in faa1 Delta and faa1 Delta faa4 Delta strains. Defects in metabolic utilization and intracellular trafficking were also found in the fatty acyl-CoA synthetase-deficient strains. The faa1 Delta faa4 Delta strain had a marked reduction in endogenous acyl-CoA pools, suggesting these enzymes play a role in maintenance of endogenous acyl-CoA pools, metabolism and trafficking. In addition, this strain had levels of in vivo beta-oxidation of exogenous oleate reduced 3-fold when compared with the isogenic parent. Northern analyses demonstrated an additional defect in fatty acid trafficking as FAA1 or FAA4 were required for the transcriptional regulation of the genes encoding the peroxisomal enzymes acyl-CoA oxidase (POX1) and medium-chain acyl-CoA synthetase (FAA2). These data support the hypothesis that fatty acyl-CoA synthetase (Faa1p or Faa4p) functions as a component of the fatty acid import system by linking import and activation of exogenous fatty acids to intracellular utilization and signaling.

Færgeman, Nils J.; Black, P N

2001-01-01

202

Candida albicans SSD1 can suppress multiple mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The SSD1 gene of Saccharomyces encodes a 160 kDa cytoplasmic protein that can suppress mutations in a number of other genes. A functional homologue of SSD1 from the human pathogen Candida albicans was isolated on the basis of its ability to restore viability at the restrictive temperature in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae swi4 ssd1-d strain. The C. albicans gene, designated CaSSD1, encodes a 1262 aa protein which has 47% identity overall to S. cerevisiae SSD1 as well as significant identity to Schizosaccharomyces pombe dis3 and sts5 products. It is shown that CaSSD1 expression is constitutive through the mitotic cell cycle, which is consistent with a role for the protein in cell growth. CaSSD1 rescues the swi4ts defect in an ssd1-d background when expressed from its own promoter on a single-copy plasmid and under the same conditions can rescue mutations in genes encoding protein phosphatase type 2A catalytic subunits. These data suggest that CaSSD1, like its S. cerevisiae homologue, can limit the effect of mutations on a variety of cellular processes. PMID:9846729

Chen, C Y; Rosamond, J

1998-11-01

203

Candida albicans SSD1 can suppress multiple mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The SSD1 gene of Saccharomyces encodes a 160 kDa cytoplasmic protein that can suppress mutations in a number of other genes. A functional homologue of SSD1 from the human pathogen Candida albicans was isolated on the basis of its ability to restore viability at the restrictive temperature in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae swi4 ssd1-d strain. The C. albicans gene, designated CaSSD1, encodes a 1262 aa protein which has 47% identity overall to S. cerevisiae SSD1 as well as significant identity to Schizosaccharomyces pombe dis3 and sts5 products. It is shown that CaSSD1 expression is constitutive through the mitotic cell cycle, which is consistent with a role for the protein in cell growth. CaSSD1 rescues the swi4ts defect in an ssd1-d background when expressed from its own promoter on a single-copy plasmid and under the same conditions can rescue mutations in genes encoding protein phosphatase type 2A catalytic subunits. These data suggest that CaSSD1, like its S. cerevisiae homologue, can limit the effect of mutations on a variety of cellular processes.

Chen CY; Rosamond J

1998-11-01

204

Evolutionary engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for efficient aerobic xylose consumption.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Industrial biotechnology aims to develop robust microbial cell factories, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to produce an array of added value chemicals presently dominated by petrochemical processes. Xylose is the second most abundant monosaccharide after glucose and the most prevalent pentose sugar found in lignocelluloses. Significant research efforts have focused on the metabolic engineering of S. cerevisiae for fast and efficient xylose utilization. This study aims to metabolically engineer S. cerevisiae, such that it can consume xylose as the exclusive substrate while maximizing carbon flux to biomass production. Such a platform may then be enhanced with complementary metabolic engineering strategies that couple biomass production with high value-added chemical. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, expressing xylose reductase, xylitol dehydrogenase and xylulose kinase, from the native xylose-metabolizing yeast Pichia stipitis, was constructed, followed by a directed evolution strategy to improve xylose utilizationrates. The resulting S. cerevisiae strain was capable of rapid growth and fast xylose consumption producing only biomass and negligible amount of byproducts. Transcriptional profiling of this strain was employed to further elucidate the observed physiology confirms a strongly up-regulated glyoxylate pathway enabling respiratory metabolism. The resulting strain is a desirable platform for the industrial production of biomass-related products using xylose as a sole carbon source.

Scalcinati, Gionata; Otero, José Manuel

2012-01-01

205

Modelling neurodegeneration in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: why cook with baker's yeast?  

Science.gov (United States)

In ageing populations, neurodegenerative diseases increase in prevalence, exacting an enormous toll on individuals and their communities. Multiple complementary experimental approaches are needed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying these complex diseases and to develop novel therapeutics. Here, we describe why the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has a unique role in the neurodegeneration armamentarium. As the best-understood and most readily analysed eukaryotic organism, S. cerevisiae is delivering mechanistic insights into cell-autonomous mechanisms of neurodegeneration at an interactome-wide scale. PMID:20424620

Khurana, Vikram; Lindquist, Susan

2010-04-28

206

Effect of caffeine on ozone-sensitivity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The addition of 0.1% caffeine to the plating medium markedly reduced the ozone-survival of the wild-type and the rad1 and rad6 mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, whereas no effect was observed in the rad52 mutant. Since, in S. cerevisiae, caffeine has been reported to interfere with the recombinational repair pathway under the control of the RAD52 gene, these results support previous observations suggesting that this pathway is involved in the repair of ozone-induced DNA damage.

Dubeau, H.; Chung, Y.S.

1984-01-01

207

Saccharomyces Cerevisiae as a Genetic Model in Anticancer Therapy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

With the recent sequencing of its entire genome, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has gained considerable interest in the field of anticancer research. The genetic properties of the yeast allow easy selection of a variety of mutants, as their related phenotypes provide valuable information on anticancer drugs effects in vivo. Moreover, the yeast has been extensively studied as a model system to decipher basic cellular processes that are well conserved from yeast to human and implicated in cancer establishment and progression. We discuss the advantages of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for investigating the metabolism of pyrimidines, a major target for anticancer chemotherapy. We also emphasize the links between basic science in the pyrimidine metabolism and new anticancer antimetabolites as well as future prospects in this field.

Kurtz JE; Dufour P; Bergerat JP; Exinger F

2005-03-01

208

Method of constructing transfer cellulose enzyme gene saccharomyces cerevisiae  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention discloses a method of changing cellulose gene Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which comprises the following steps: getting the cellulose gene from the animals fusing the gene to the genom of saccharomyces cerevisiae with the carrier. The invention designs the cellulose gene sequence primer two sides of which doesn't provide BamHI and EcoRI enzymethe tangential point in the sequence with code area as a form according to the fu shou snail cellulose gene sequence report and design philosophy of general primer synthesizing the first chain cDNA firstly, augmentating the code area sequence the total fu shou snail cellulose gene by upward primer and downstream primer with cDNA as the former. The method provides a steady fermentation reaction, a short cycle, a high yield rate of alcohol, which reduces the cost.

WANG WANNENG

209

ISOTERMAS DE ADSORÇÃO DE CÁDMIO POR Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Com o objetivo de determinar as isotermas de adsorção de cádmio por Saccharomyces cerevisiae, foram utilizados os sais cloreto e nitrato de cádmio nas concentrações de 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80 e 100mg L-1. A biomassa foi produzida a partir de uma cultura "starter"de Saccharomyces cerevisiae IZ 1904. Após o contato de 16h entre o microrganismo e as soluções em estudo, a biomassa foi separada por centrifugação e o teor de cádmio residual foi determinado no sobrenadante por espectrofotometria de absorção atômica. Para os dois sais empregados foi observado um acúmulo crescente de cádmio nas concentrações de 5, 10, 20 e 40mg L-1. Nas concentrações de 60, 80 e 100mg L-1 foi observado que a levedura acumulou teores menores do metal, evidenciando danos na parede celular, nem sempre acompanhados de iguais danos da membrana citoplasmática, tais alterações da parede visualizadas por microscopia eletrônica de varredura.

ALBERTINI Silvana; CARMO Leandro Francisco do; PRADO FILHO Luiz Gonzaga do

2001-01-01

210

Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a sexy yeast with a prion problem.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Yeast prions are infectious proteins that spread exclusively by mating. The frequency of prions in the wild therefore largely reflects the rate of spread by mating counterbalanced by prion growth slowing effects in the host. We recently showed that the frequency of outcross mating is about 1% of mitotic doublings with 23-46% of total matings being outcrosses. These findings imply that even the mildest forms of the [PSI+], [URE3] and [PIN+] prions impart > 1% growth/survival detriment on their hosts. Our estimate of outcrossing suggests that Saccharomyces cerevisiae is far more sexual than previously thought and would therefore be more responsive to the adaptive effects of natural selection compared with a strictly asexual yeast. Further, given its large effective population size, a growth/survival detriment of > 1% for yeast prions should strongly select against prion-infected strains in wild populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Kelly AC; Wickner RB

2013-05-01

211

Purification of Arp2/3 complex from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Much of the cellular control over actin dynamics comes through regulation of actin filament initiation. At the molecular level, this is accomplished through a collection of cellular protein machines, called actin nucleation factors, which position actin monomers to initiate a new actin filament. The Arp2/3 complex is a principal actin nucleation factor used throughout the eukaryotic family tree. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has proven to be not only an excellent genetic platform for the study of the Arp2/3 complex, but also an excellent source for the purification of endogenous Arp2/3 complex. Here we describe a protocol for the preparation of endogenous Arp2/3 complex from wild type Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This protocol produces material suitable for biochemical study and yields milligram quantities of purified Arp2/3 complex.

Doolittle LK; Rosen MK; Padrick SB

2013-01-01

212

Influence of organic acids and organochlorinated insecticides on metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae is exposed to different stress factors during the production: osmotic, temperature, oxidative. The response to these stresses is the adaptive mechanism of cells. The raw materials Saccharomyces cerevisiae is produced from, contain metabolism products of present microorganisms and protective agents used during the growth of sugar beet for example the influence of acetic and butyric acid and organochlorinated insecticides, lindan and heptachlor, on the metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated and presented in this work. The mentioned compounds affect negatively the specific growth rate, yield, content of proteins, phosphorus, total ribonucleic acids. These compounds influence the increase of trechalose and glycogen content in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells.

Pejin Dušanka J.; Vasi? Vesna M.

2005-01-01

213

Cell surface display of cellulase activity-free xylanase enzyme on Saccharomyces Cerevisiae EBY100.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cellulase-free xylanase has potential for its application in the selective removal of hemicellulose from kraft pulp to give good strength to paper. In this study, a gene (xyn) encoding cellulase activity-free xylanase enzyme (Xyn) was isolated from Paenibacillus polymyxa PPL-3. The xyn gene encoded a protein of 221 amino acids, and the purified Xyn was about 22.5 kDa measured by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Moreover, the cellulase activity-free xylanase enzyme (Xyn) was displayed on the cell surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae EBY100 using Aga2p as an anchor protein. Cell surface display of xylanase enzyme (Xyn) on S. cerevisiae EBY100 was confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy. Optimum cell surface display of xylanase enzyme (Xyn) was observed at pH 7 and 40 °C. Therefore, cell surface-displayed xylanase enzyme (Xyn) can be used in the paper industry. PMID:21161608

Yeasmin, Shabina; Kim, Chul Hawn; Park, Hyeon Jin; Sheikh, Mominul Islam; Lee, Ji Yong; Kim, Jae Won; Back, Kyung Kil; Kim, Sung Ho

2010-12-15

214

Physical analysis of the COR region: a cluster of six genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Six genes, CYC1, UTR1, UTR3, OSM1, tRNAGly, and RAD7, have been localized within an 8-kilobase region on chromosome X of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The physical structures and the transcripts of these genes were identified by analyzing a normal strain and six deletion mutants by genomic blotting, transcriptional analysis, and gene disruption procedures. The well-studied CYC1 gene encodes iso-1-cytochrome c; the tRNAGly gene encodes a tRNA; deletion of OSM1 and RAD7 causes sensitivity to hypertonic medium and UV irradiation, respectively. There were no observable phenotypes in strains having deletions of the UTR1, UTR3, and tRNAGly gene. The high density of transcripts, with little or almost no intragenic regions, indicates that the chromosomal organization of S. cerevisiae resembles the chromosomal organization of procaryotes rather than higher eucaryotes.

Barry, K.; Stiles, J.I.; Pietras, D.F.; Melnick, L.; Sherman, F.

1987-02-01

215

Oligoadenylate is present in the mitochondrial RNA of Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors examined Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondrial RNA for polyadenylate. Using hybridization to [/sup 3/H]polyuridylate as the assay for adenylate sequences, they found adenylate-rich oligonucleotides approximately 8 residues long. Longer polyadenylate was not detected. Most of the adenylate-rich sequence is associated with the large mitochondrial rRNA. The remainder is associated with the 10-12S group of transcripts

1982-01-01

216

Mutagenic effects of sulfur dioxide on Saccharomyces cerevisiae diploid strains  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In resting cells of diploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains sulfur dioxide induces at very high frequency: (a) respiratory deficient mutants; (b) mutants with altered methionine metabolism. In growing cells the following kinds of mutants appear: (a) revertants for respiration; (b) mutants altered in the methionine metabolism; (c) SO/sub 2/-resistants. It is suggested that sulfur dioxide acts as a selective agent through the induction of SO/sub 2/-resistant mutants. 17 references, 2 figures.

Guerra, D.; Romano, P.; Zambonelli, C.

1981-01-01

217

Preparation of Cell-Free Splicing Extracts from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Much of our understanding of the mechanism of splicing comes from the analysis of cell extracts able to carry out splicing complex formation and splicing reactions in vitro using exogenously added synthetic model pre-mRNA transcripts. This protocol describes the preparation of whole-cell extracts from the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These extracts can be used to dissect the biochemical steps of the splicing reaction and to determine the macromolecules, cofactors, and substrate features necessary for successful splicing.

Ares M Jr

2013-01-01

218

Second photoreactivation-deficient mutation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was isolated which has a low capability for photoreactivating UV-induced lethal damage. The DNA photolyase activity of the cell-free extract is much less than in a wild-type strain. In vivo complementation of photoreactivation was demonstrated in crosses with phr 1 mutant strains. Tetrad analysis and backcrosses suggest that this new mutation defines a second chromosomal gene PHR 2 which is loosely linked to the PHR 1 gene.

MacQuillan, A.M.; Herman, A.; Coberly, J.S.; Green, G. (Maryland Univ., College Park (USA))

1981-12-01

219

Mutagenicity of N-nitrosopiperazine derivatives in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The mutagenic properties of 8 N-nitrosopiperazines were examined in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Forward mutations to canavanine resistance and reversions of his 1-7 were induced by N'-methyl-N-nitrosopiperazine, dinitrosopiperazine, 2-methyldinitrosopiperazine, 2,5-dimethyldinitrosopiperazine, and 2,6-dimethyldinitrosopiperazine, in the presence of rat-liver homogenate. N-nitrosopiperazine, 2,3,5,6-tetramethyldinitrosopiperazine, and 4-benzoyl-3,5-dimethyldinitrosopiperazine were non-mutagenic.

Larimer, F.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN); Hardigree, A.A.; Lijinsky, W.; Epler, J.L.

1980-01-01

220

Oligoadenylate is present in the mitochondrial RNA of Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors examined Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondrial RNA for polyadenylate. Using hybridization to (/sup 3/H)polyuridylate as the assay for adenylate sequences, they found adenylate-rich oligonucleotides approximately 8 residues long. Longer polyadenylate was not detected. Most of the adenylate-rich sequence is associated with the large mitochondrial rRNA. The remainder is associated with the 10-12S group of transcripts.

Yuckenberg, P.D.; Phillips, S.L.

1982-04-01

 
 
 
 
221

The enantioselective b-keto ester reductions by Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The enantioselective yeast reduction of aromatic b-keto esters, by use of potassium dihydrogen phosphate, calcium phosphate (monobasic), magnesium sulfate and ammonium tartrate (diammonium salt) (10:1:1:50) in water at pH 7 as a buffer for 72–120 h with 45–90 % conversion to the corresponding aromatic -hydroxy esters was achieved by means of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

--- HASSAN TAJIK; KHALIL TABATABAEIAN; MAHMOOD SHAHBAZI

2006-01-01

222

TOTAL ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF YEAST SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Antioxidants are health beneficial compounds that can protect cells and macromolecules (e.g. fats, lipids, proteins and DNA) from the damage of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Sacchamomyces cerevisiae are know as organisms with very important antioxidative enzyme systems such as superoxide dismutase...

Blažena Lavová; Dana Urminská

223

A Saccharomyces cerevisiae-based bioassay for assessing pesticide toxicity.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluates the toxic effect of three pesticides (Azoxystrobin, Cymoxanil, and Diuron) on the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the development of a new bioassay based on inhibition of S. cerevisiae metabolic activity at the level of adenosine-5-triphosphate (ATP) synthesis, as compared with two different toxicity tests based on inhibition of Daphnia magna mobility (NF EN ISO 6341) and inhibition of Vibrio fisheri activity (NF EN ISO 11348). The S. cerevisiae bioassay is cheaper and 96 times faster than the D. magna toxicity bioassay, but has lower sensitivity. It is as fast as the V. fisheri bioassay and more sensitive. Thus, this new toxicity test can be proposed for rapid detection of pesticide residues in environmental samples as a complement to the more expensive and time-consuming D. magna toxicity test. PMID:19856193

Estève, Karine; Poupot, C; Dabert, P; Mietton-Peuchot, M; Milisic, V

2009-10-25

224

Antimutagenic and antioxidant activity of Lisosan G in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the present study the antimutagenic and antioxidant effects of a powder of grain (Lisosan G) in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were studied. Results showed that Lisosan G treatment decreased significantly the intracellular ROS concentration and mutagenesis induced by hydrogen peroxide in S. cerevisiae D7 strain. The effect of Lisosan G was then evaluated by using superoxide dismutase (SOD) proficient and deficient strains of S. cerevisiae. Lisosan G showed protective activity in sod1? and sod2? mutant strains, indicating an in vivo antioxidant effect. A high radical scavenging activity of Lisosan G was also demonstrated in vitro using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. The obtained results showed a protective effect of Lisosan G in yeast cells, indicating that its antioxidant capacity contributes to its antimutagenic action.

Frassinetti S; Della Croce CM; Caltavuturo L; Longo V

2012-12-01

225

Antimutagenic and antioxidant activity of Lisosan G in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the present study the antimutagenic and antioxidant effects of a powder of grain (Lisosan G) in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were studied. Results showed that Lisosan G treatment decreased significantly the intracellular ROS concentration and mutagenesis induced by hydrogen peroxide in S. cerevisiae D7 strain. The effect of Lisosan G was then evaluated by using superoxide dismutase (SOD) proficient and deficient strains of S. cerevisiae. Lisosan G showed protective activity in sod1? and sod2? mutant strains, indicating an in vivo antioxidant effect. A high radical scavenging activity of Lisosan G was also demonstrated in vitro using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. The obtained results showed a protective effect of Lisosan G in yeast cells, indicating that its antioxidant capacity contributes to its antimutagenic action.

Frassinetti S; Della Croce CM; Caltavuturo L; Longo V

2012-12-01

226

Genome-scale reconstruction of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolic network  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The metabolic network in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was reconstructed using currently available genomic, biochemical, and physiological information. The metabolic reactions were compartmentalized between the cytosol and the mitochondria, and transport steps between the compartments and the environment were included. A total of 708 structural open reading frames (ORFs) were accounted for in the reconstructed network, corresponding to 1035 metabolic reactions. Further, 140 reactions were included on the basis of biochemical evidence resulting in a genome-scale reconstructed metabolic network containing 1175 metabolic reactions and 584 metabolites. The number of gene functions included in the reconstructed network corresponds to similar to16% of all characterized ORFs in S. cerevisiae. Using the reconstructed network, the metabolic capabilities of S. cerevisiae were calculated and compared with Escherichia coli. The reconstructed metabolic network is the first comprehensive network for a eukaryotic organism, and it may be used as the basis for in silico analysis of phenotypic functions.

Förster, Jochen; Famili, I.

2003-01-01

227

Saccharomyces cerevisiae en la fabricación del licor Cocuy./ Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the manufacturing of Cocuy liquor  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El licor "cocuy" es una bebida artesanal, producida por las comunidades rurales en el occidente de Venezuela mediante un proceso de fermentación y destilación del mosto extraído del Agave cocui. Este estudio fue enmarcado en el "Programa Agave" con el propósito de contribuir a rescatar esta actividad productiva tradicional. En vista de la falta de información en relación al proceso autóctono se hicieron estudios de las levaduras fermentadoras, la optimización de l (more) a producción de etanol y la utilización del residuo de la destilación (vinaza) como medio de cultivo. Los aislados con mayor capacidad fermentativa fueron seleccionados e identificados mediante parámetros morfológicos y metabólicos. Se compararon los niveles de consumo de azúcar de las levaduras con mayor capacidad fermentativa. Se estudió el efecto de la adición del azúcar blanca comercial y/o del fosfato de amonio y en la producción de alcohol en el proceso artesanal. Las concentraciones de azúcares en el mosto se evaluaron por refractometría, y el contenido de alcohol del licor por hidrometría. La utilización de la vinaza para la producción de biomasa como un componente del medio de cultivo fue comparada con un medio sintético mediante medidas del peso seco de la biomasa. Se confirma el papel de Saccharomyces cerevisiae en el proceso fermentativo espontáneo. Los resultados in situ evidenciaron un efecto favorable de la elevación del contenido de azúcar (11 a 18°Brix) y de la adición de fosfato de amonio dibásico (0,2 g/l). En estas condiciones, el tiempo de fermentación del mosto se acortó y la producción de licor aumentó hasta un 92%. Se demostró la posibilidad de utilizar la vinaza como un componente para un medio de cultivo de esta levadura, para iniciar la fermentación y para la producción de biomasa como una fuente de nutrientes de alto valor nutritivo para aves de corral o caprinos. Se recomienda apoyar los esfuerzos para desarrollar de esta importante fuente de ingresos para los campesinos que habitan las zonas semi-áridas de los estados Falcón y Lara. Abstract in english Liquor cocuy is an alcoholic beverage produced by fermentation and a subsequent distillation process of Agave cocui juice by the communities northwest Venezuela. This study was included in the "Agave cocui Program", which purpose was to rescue this traditional productive activity. Due to the lack of information about this native product fermentative yeasts, alcohol production optimization, and use of distillation residue (nasty wine) as culture medium was investigated. Is (more) olates with the best fermentative capacity were selected and identified by morphological and metabolic studies. Sugars consumption of the yeast with highest fermentative capacity were compared. Effect of white commercial sugar and/or ammonium phosphate dibasic addition to juice was evaluated during the process. Sugars concentration was estimated with a refractometer, measurement of alcohol content of liquor with an hidrometer. The production of yeasts biomass grown in a broth with nasty wine was compared to that in a synthetic one by dry biomass weight determinations. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae role in the spontaneous fermentative process was confirmed. The results in situ proved the favorable effect of extra sugar (11 to 18°Brix) and ammonium phosphate (0,2 g/l). Fermentative period was reduced and liquor production was enhanced to 92%. Use of nasty wine was proposed to obtain yeasts biomass, as fermentation starter or as a source of high nutritive value for poultry and goat feeding. We recommend to support efforts to improve this local activity which represent an important source of income for the farmer at the semi-arid zone at the states of Falcón and Lara.

Yegres, F; Fernández-Zeppenfeldt, G; Padin, CG; Rovero, L; Richard-Yegres, N

2003-01-01

228

The GTS1 gene, which contains a Gly-Thr repeat, affects the timing of budding and cell size of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A gene with an open reading frame encoding a protein of 417 amino acid residues with a Gly-Thr repeat was isolated from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by using synthetic oligonucleotides encoding three Gly-Thr dimers as probes. The deduced amino acid sequence showed partial homology to the clock...

Mitsui, K; Yaguchi, S; Tsurugi, K

229

Dispersion analysis of productivity of different yeast strains. [Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces oviformis, Saccharomyces uvarium, Saccharomyces chodati  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Several saccharomycetes (S. cerevisiae, S. oviformis, S. uvarium, S. chodati) were subjected to dispersion analysis in order to determine the factors of primary importance in the production of different metabolites. Analysis of the fermentation processes demonstrated that strain selection is of primary importance over other factors in the production of glycerol and ethanol. However, strain selection was of secondary importance in the production of aldehydes and volatile acids, where the importance of temperature was preeminent. 8 references.

Karklinya, D.Ya.; Lielpetere, A.Ya.

1985-11-01

230

Expression of the Escherichia coli pntA and pntB genes, encoding nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its effect on product formation during anaerobic glucose fermentation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors studied the physiological effect of the interconversion between the NAD(H) and NADP(H) coenzyme systems in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing the membrane-bound transhydrogenase from Escherichia coli. Their objective was to determine if the membrane-bound transhydrogenase could work in reoxidation of NADH to NAD{sup +} in S. cerevisiae and thereby reduce glycerol formation during anaerobic fermentation. Membranes isolated from the recombinant strains exhibited reduction of 3-acetylpyridine-NAD{sup +} by NADPH and by NADH in the presence of NADP{sup +}, which demonstrated that an active enzyme was present. Unlike the situation in E. coli, however, most of the transhydrogenase activity was not present in the yeast plasma membrane; rather, the enzyme appeared to remain localized in the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum. During anaerobic glucose fermentation the authors observed an increase in the formation of 2-oxoglutarate, glycerol, and acetic acid in a strain expressing a high level of transhydrogenase, which indicated that increased NADPH consumption and NADH production occurred. The intracellular concentrations of NADH, NAD{sup +}, NADPH, and NADP{sup +} were measured in cells expressing transhydrogenase. The reduction of the NADPH pool indicated that the transhydrogenase transferred reducing equivalents from NADPH to NAD{sup +}.

Anderlund, M. [Carlsberg Lab., Copenhagen Valby (Denmark). Dept. of Yeast Genetics]|[Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Applied Microbiology; Nissen, T.L. [Carlsberg Lab., Copenhagen Valby (Denmark). Dept. of Yeast Genetics]|[Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Biotechnology; Nielsen, J.; Villadsen, J. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Biotechnology; Rydstroem, J. [Goeteborg Univ. and Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Hahn-Haegerdal, B. [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Applied Microbiology; Kielland-Brandt, M.C. [Carlsberg Lab., Copenhagen Valby (Denmark). Dept. of Yeast Genetics

1999-06-01

231

N myristylation of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gag polyprotein precursor in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A semisynthetic gene precisely encoding the 502 amino acids of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gag precursor (Pr53gag) was expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Amino acid sequence analysis of the recombinant Pr53gag showed that the amino terminus was fully blocked. Labeling of Pr53gag with [3H]myristic acid demonstrated that, as with Pr53gag isolated from virus-infected cells, the yeast-derived protein was demethionylated and N myristylated on glycine, the second amino acid residue

1989-01-01

232

Metabolic alterations during ascosporogenesis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sporulation of S. cerevisiae has been shown to alter the profiles of enzymes involved in gluconeogenesis and glycolysis. The enhancement in the levels of total cellular carbohydrates could be correlated with the enhancement in fructose 1,6-diphosphatase and trehalose-phosphate synthetase. The latter activity could account for the 15-fold increase in trehalose levels in sporulating cells. Glucose-6-phosphatase, pyruvate kinase and phosphofructokinase showed continuous decline during ascosporogenesis. The relative incorporation of radioactivity from possible precursors of gluconeogenesis indicated that acetate-2-14C alone could contribute to carbohydrate synthesis. (author)

1977-01-01

233

SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE STRAINS WITH PHYTOSANITARY CAPABILITIES  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisae characterized in that it is selected from strain No. I-3936 deposited on Mar. 4 2008 at the CNCM, strain No. I-3937 deposited on Mar. 4 2008 at the CNCM, strain No. I-3938 deposited on Mar. 4 2008 at the CNCM, and strain No. I-3939 deposited on Mar. 4 2008 at the CNCM. The invention also relates to a phytosanitary composition and to a method for treating or protecting plants against diseases caused by pathogens, using said strain.

PUJOS PHILIPPE; COLAVIZZA DIDIER; VANDEKERCKOVE PASCAL

234

Ultrastructural changes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in response to ethanol stress.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the fermentative process using Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce bioethanol, the performance of cells is often compromised by the accumulation of ethanol. However, the mechanism of how S. cerevisiae responds against ethanol stress remains elusive. In the current study, S. cerevisiae cells were cultured in YPD (yeast extract - peptone - dextrose) medium containing various concentrations of ethanol (0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, 10%, and 15% (v/v)). Compared with the control group without ethanol, the mean cell volume of S. cerevisiae decreased significantly in the presence of 7.5% and 10% ethanol after incubation for 16 h (P < 0.05), and in the presence of 15% ethanol at all 3 sampling time points (1, 8, and 16 h) (P < 0.05). The exposure of S. cerevisiae cells to ethanol also led to an increase in malonyldialdehyde content (P < 0.05) and a decrease in sulfhydryl group content (P < 0.05). Moreover, the observations through transmission electron microscopy enabled us to relate ultrastructural changes elicited by ethanol with the cellular stress physiology. Under ethanol stress, the integrity of the cell membrane was compromised. The swelling or distortion of mitochondria together with the occurrence of a single and large vacuole was correlated with the addition of ethanol. These results suggested that the cell membrane is one of the targets of ethanol, and the degeneration of mitochondria promoted the accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species.

Ma M; Han P; Zhang R; Li H

2013-09-01

235

Ethanol production by immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces uvarum, and Zymomonas mobilis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL Y-2034, Saccharomyces uvarum NRRL Y-1347, and Zymomonas mobilis NRRL B-806 each were separately immobilized in a Ca-alginate matrix and incubated in the presence of a free-flowing and continuous 1,3,5, 10, or 20% (w/w) glucose solution. In general, the yeast cells converted 100% of the 1,3, and 5% glucose to alcohol within 48 h and maintained such a conversion rate for at least two weeks. The bacterium converted ca. 90% (w/w) of the 1,3, and 5% glucose to alcohol continuously for one week. However, both the yeast and bacterium were inhibited in the highest glucose (20% w/w) solution. All of the immobilized cultures produced some alcohol for at least 14 days. Immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the best alcohol producer of all of the glucose concentrations; the yeast yielded 4.7 g ethanol/100 g solution within 72 h in the 10% glucose solution. After 7-8 days in the 10% solution, Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced ethanol at 100% of theoretical yield (5.0 g ethanol/100g solution), with a gradual decrease in alcohol production by 14 days. Immobilized Saccharomyces uvarum produced a maximum of 4.0 g ethanol/100 g solution within 2 days and then declined to ca. 1.0 g ethanol/100g solution after 7 days continuous fermentation in the 10% glucose solution. Zymomonas mobilis reached its maximum ethanol production at 4 days (4.7 g/100 g solution), and then diminished similarly to Saccharomyces uvarum. The development of a multiple disk shaft eliminated the problem both of uneven distribution of alginate-encapsulated cells and of glucose channeling within the continuous-flow fermentor column. This invention improved alcohol production about threefold for the yeast cells. (Refs. 13).

McGhee, J.E.; St. Julian, G.; Detroy, R.W.; Bothast, R.J.

1982-05-01

236

Ultradian oscillators of the circadian clock in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has an ENOX1 activity with a period length of 24 min similar to that of other eukaryotes. In contrast to other eukaryotes, however, Saccharomyces cerevisiae has a second ENOX1-like activity with a period length of 25 min. The latter is distinguishable from the traditional ENOX1 on the basis of the longer period length along with resistance to an ENOX1 inhibitor, simalikalactone D, and failure to be phased by melatonin. In addition, two periods are apparent in measurements of oxygen consumption indicating that the consumption of oxygen to water occurs independently by homodimers of both of the two forms of ENOX. Based on the measurements of glyceraldehyde-3- phosphate dehydrogenase, S. cerevisiae exhibits circadian activity maxima at 24 and 25 h together with a 40 h period possibly representing the 40 min metabolic rhythm of yeast not observed in our measurement of oxygen consumption and normally observed only with continuous cultures. The findings are indicative of at least three independent time-keeping systems being operative in a single cell. 

Sara S. Dick; Aya Ryuzoji; Dorothy M. Morré; D. James Morré

2013-01-01

237

Construction of killer industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAU-1 and its fermentation performance  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAU-1, a time tested industrial yeast possesses most of the desirable fermentation characteristics like fast growth and fermentation rate, osmotolerance, high ethanol tolerance, ability to ferment molasses, and to ferment at elevated temperatures etc. However, this yeast was found to be sensitive against the killer strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the present study, killer trait was introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAU-1 by protopla (more) st fusion with Saccharomyces cerevisiae MTCC 475, a killer strain. The resultant fusants were characterized for desirable fermentation characteristics. All the technologically important characteristics of distillery yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAU-1 were retained in the fusants, and in addition the killer trait was also introduced into them. Further, the killer activity was found to be stably maintained during hostile conditions of ethanol fermentations in dextrose or molasses, and even during biomass recycling.

Bajaj, Bijender K.; Sharma, S.

2010-06-01

238

Construction of killer industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAU-1 and its fermentation performance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAU-1, a time tested industrial yeast possesses most of the desirable fermentation characteristics like fast growth and fermentation rate, osmotolerance, high ethanol tolerance, ability to ferment molasses, and to ferment at elevated temperatures etc. However, this yeast was found to be sensitive against the killer strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the present study, killer trait was introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAU-1 by protoplast fusion with Saccharomyces cerevisiae MTCC 475, a killer strain. The resultant fusants were characterized for desirable fermentation characteristics. All the technologically important characteristics of distillery yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAU-1 were retained in the fusants, and in addition the killer trait was also introduced into them. Further, the killer activity was found to be stably maintained during hostile conditions of ethanol fermentations in dextrose or molasses, and even during biomass recycling.

Bijender K. Bajaj; S. Sharma

2010-01-01

239

Cloning and DNA sequence analysis of the glucose transporter gene2 from Iranian Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Saccharomyces cerevisiae has 20 genes that encode hexose transporter proteins including HXT1 to HXT17, GAL2, SNF3 and RGT2. Among these gene families, seven genes (HXT1-HXT7) have important role in alcohol production. The aim of this study was the identification and isolation of HXT2 gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome by PCR technique and cloning into vector containing suitable expression promoter in order to design expression vector as a basis to produce recombinant yeast by transformation.Materials and Methods: After designing specific oligonucleotides primers, fragment gene amplified by PCR. Gene HXT2 inserted into pTZ57R vector by restriction enzymes EcoRI and HindIII and T4 ligase. After transformation of pTZ57R/THXT2 into E.coli, plasmid recombinant analysis considered. The final further analysis by restriction enzymes digestion and software were evaluated.Results: HXT2 gene isolated from pTZ57R/THXT2 has correct size in agarose gel electrophoresis. Electrophoresis analysis showed that this gene has correct size on agarose gel. Software study showed that this gene encode proteins with 59.84 KDa molecular weight having 541 amino acids with isoelectric point 8.3.Conclusion: HXT2 gene by PCR optimization from saccharomyces cerevisiae was isolated and cloned into prokaryotic host. This is the first report of isolation and cloning of this gene by using genetic engineering technique in IRAN that can be used for cloning into suitable expression vector to improve alcohol fermentation yield.

Saleh Amiri; AliReza Tarinejad; Gholamreza Sharifi Sirchi

2012-01-01

240

The Ashbya gossypii genome as a tool for mapping the ancient Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have sequenced and annotated the genome of the filamentous ascomycete Ashbya gossypii. With a size of only 9.2 megabases, encoding 4718 protein-coding genes, it is the smallest genome of a free-living eukaryote yet characterized. More than 90% of A. gossypii genes show both homology and a particular pattern of synteny with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Analysis of this pattern revealed 300 inversions and translocations that have occurred since divergence of these two species. It also provided compelling evidence that the evolution of S. cerevisiae included a whole genome duplication or fusion of two related species and showed, through inferred ancient gene orders, which of the duplicated genes lost one copy and which retained both copies. PMID:15001715

Dietrich, Fred S; Voegeli, Sylvia; Brachat, Sophie; Lerch, Anita; Gates, Krista; Steiner, Sabine; Mohr, Christine; Pöhlmann, Rainer; Luedi, Philippe; Choi, Sangdun; Wing, Rod A; Flavier, Albert; Gaffney, Thomas D; Philippsen, Peter

2004-03-04

 
 
 
 
241

Production of Recombinant Vaccine Cb Peritrophin-42 of Screwworm Fly in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The screwworm fly (Chrysomya bezziana) larva is an obligate parasite which causes myasis in mammals. Vaccination is thought to be a protective and an enviromentally friendly method for combating the pest. A gene encoding a peritrophic membrane protein Cb peritrophin-42 of C. bezziana was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cb peritrophin-42 fused with the outer membrane protein A signal sequence was produced as an aggregate in E. coli. Expression of an Cb peritrophin-42 gene fused with oligonucleotide of the invertase signal sequence in S. cerevisiae allowed the production of 14.4 mg L-1 soluble extracellular Cb peritrophin-42. Sheep vaccinated with recombinant Cb peritrophin-42 showed a strong immunological reaction. In vivo assay following vaccination with the recombinant Cb peritrophin-42 showed a 27% reduction in the weight of recovered larvae.

DESSY NATALIA; SRI MUHARSINI; FIFI FITRIAH MASDUKI; APRIL HARI WARDHANA; SAVIRA EKA WARDANI; ELIZABETH MARIA; JOOP VAN DEN HEUVE

2007-01-01

242

ISOTERMAS DE ADSORÇÃO DE CÁDMIO POR Saccharomyces cerevisiae ISOTHERMS OF CADMIUM ADSORPTION BY Saccharomyces cerevisae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Com o objetivo de determinar as isotermas de adsorção de cádmio por Saccharomyces cerevisiae, foram utilizados os sais cloreto e nitrato de cádmio nas concentrações de 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80 e 100mg L-1. A biomassa foi produzida a partir de uma cultura "starter"de Saccharomyces cerevisiae IZ 1904. Após o contato de 16h entre o microrganismo e as soluções em estudo, a biomassa foi separada por centrifugação e o teor de cádmio residual foi determinado no sobrenadante por espectrofotometria de absorção atômica. Para os dois sais empregados foi observado um acúmulo crescente de cádmio nas concentrações de 5, 10, 20 e 40mg L-1. Nas concentrações de 60, 80 e 100mg L-1 foi observado que a levedura acumulou teores menores do metal, evidenciando danos na parede celular, nem sempre acompanhados de iguais danos da membrana citoplasmática, tais alterações da parede visualizadas por microscopia eletrônica de varredura.With the objective of determining the isotherms of cadmium the adsorption by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the chloride and nitrate salts were used in the concentrations of 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100mg L-1. The biomass was produced from a starter culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae IZ 1904. After a 16h contact between the microrganism and solutions of study the biomass was separated by a centrifuge and the cadmium residue content was determined at the supernatant by atomic adsorption spectrophotometry. For the two salts used a growing accumulation of cadmium was observed at concentrations of 5, 10, 20, and 40mg L-1. In the concentrations of 60, 80 and 100mg L-1 a decreasing of the accumulation of the metal was observed, evidencing damages of the cellular wall, which they're not accompanied always by damages of the citoplasmatic membrane, visualized by scanning electron microscopy.

Silvana ALBERTINI; Leandro Francisco do CARMO; Luiz Gonzaga do PRADO FILHO

2001-01-01

243

ISOTERMAS DE ADSORÇÃO DE CÁDMIO POR Saccharomyces cerevisiae/ ISOTHERMS OF CADMIUM ADSORPTION BY Saccharomyces cerevisae  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Com o objetivo de determinar as isotermas de adsorção de cádmio por Saccharomyces cerevisiae, foram utilizados os sais cloreto e nitrato de cádmio nas concentrações de 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80 e 100mg L-1. A biomassa foi produzida a partir de uma cultura "starter"de Saccharomyces cerevisiae IZ 1904. Após o contato de 16h entre o microrganismo e as soluções em estudo, a biomassa foi separada por centrifugação e o teor de cádmio residual foi determinado no sobrenad (more) ante por espectrofotometria de absorção atômica. Para os dois sais empregados foi observado um acúmulo crescente de cádmio nas concentrações de 5, 10, 20 e 40mg L-1. Nas concentrações de 60, 80 e 100mg L-1 foi observado que a levedura acumulou teores menores do metal, evidenciando danos na parede celular, nem sempre acompanhados de iguais danos da membrana citoplasmática, tais alterações da parede visualizadas por microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Abstract in english With the objective of determining the isotherms of cadmium the adsorption by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the chloride and nitrate salts were used in the concentrations of 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100mg L-1. The biomass was produced from a starter culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae IZ 1904. After a 16h contact between the microrganism and solutions of study the biomass was separated by a centrifuge and the cadmium residue content was determined at the supernatant by atomi (more) c adsorption spectrophotometry. For the two salts used a growing accumulation of cadmium was observed at concentrations of 5, 10, 20, and 40mg L-1. In the concentrations of 60, 80 and 100mg L-1 a decreasing of the accumulation of the metal was observed, evidencing damages of the cellular wall, which they're not accompanied always by damages of the citoplasmatic membrane, visualized by scanning electron microscopy.

ALBERTINI, Silvana; CARMO, Leandro Francisco do; PRADO FILHO, Luiz Gonzaga do

2001-08-01

244

Protein expression of saccharomyces cerevisiae in response to uranium exposure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Protein expression of Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown in the medium containing 238U (VI) and 233U (VI) was examined by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Saccharomyces cerevisiae of BY4743 was grown in yeast nitrogen base medium containing glucose and glycerol 2-phosphate and 238U of 0, 2.0, and 5.0 x 10-4 M or 233U of 2.5 x 10-6 M (radioactivity was higher by 350 times than 2.0 x 10-4 M 238U) and 5.0 x 10-6 M for 112 h at 30 degC. The growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was monitored by measuring OD600 at 112 h after the inoculation. Uranium concentrations in the media also were measured by radiometry using a liquid scintillation counter. The growths of the yeast grown in the above media were in the following order: control>2.5 x 10-6 M 233U>2.0 x 10-4 M 238U>5.0 x 10-6 M 233U>5.0 x 10-4 M 238U. This result indicated that not only radiological but also chemical effect of U reduced the growth of the yeast. The concentrations of U in the medium containing 238U or 233U decreased, suggesting U accumulation by the yeast cells. The 2-D gel electrophoresis analysis showed the appearance of several spots after exposure to 238U or to 233U but not in the control containing no uranium. These results show that the yeast cells exposed to U express several specific proteins. (author)

2007-01-01

245

Fermentation capacity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work aimed at the assessment of fermentative capacity of original diploid, monocellular haploid and recuperated diploid cultures of S. cerevisiae in sterilized sugar-cane wort. Twenty eight cultures were analyzed, four being original diploids (URM-4420, Itaiquara Ferment FIT, Lallemand Ferment FLA and Wild Ferment SEL); 12 monocellular haploids from original ones and 12 recuperated diploids from the monocells. The ethanol percentage ranged from 1.7 to 6.2% and the unfermentable reducing sugars from 0.45 to 0.50g/100mL. The highest ethanol percentages were produced by the monocellular cultures URM-MH3 (4.8%) in 12 h and SEL-MH1 (6.2%) in 24 h, corresponding to the productivity values of 3.15 and 2.03 g.L-1.h-1, respectively. The recuperated diploids did not present detectable ethanol content by the method used. The results showed that depending on the physiological state of the yeasts, being in the diploid or monocellular haploid form, different percentages of ethanol could be produced.Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar culturas de S. cerevisiae diplóides originais, haplóides monocelulares e diplóides recuperados, quanto à capacidade de fermentar em mosto de cana-deaçúcar esterilizado. Vinte e oito culturas foram analisadas, sendo 4 diplóides originais (URM-4420, Fermento Itaiquara FIT, Fermento Lallemand FLA e Fermento Selvagem SEL); 12 haplóides monocelulares provenientes das originais e 12 diplóides recuperados a partir das monocelulares. O percentual de etanol produzido variou de 1,70% a 6,20% e os açúcares redutores infermentescíveis de 0,45 g/100mL a 0,50 g/100mL. Os maiores percentuais de etanol foram produzidos pelas culturas haplóides monocelulares URM-MH3 (4,80%), em 12 horas e SEL-MH1 (6,20%), em 24 horas, correspondendo a valores de produtividade 3,15g.L-1.h-1 e 2,03 g.L-1.h-1 , respectivamente. Os diplóides recuperados não apresentaram teores de etanol detectáveis pelo método utilizado. Os resultados mostram que, dependendo do estado fisiológico das leveduras, seja na forma diplóide ou haplóide monocelular, podem ser produzidos diferentes percentuais de etanol.

Elvira Maria Bezerra de Alencar; Cristina Maria de Souza-Motta; Bruno Souza Walter; Rejane Maria Pessoa Santos; Olga Martins Marques; Lusinete Aciole de Queiroz

2009-01-01

246

Influence of dough freezing on Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The need to freeze dough is increasing in bakery production. Frozen dough can be stored for a long time without quality change. The capacity of bakery production can be increased in this way, and in the same time, the night shifts can be decreased. Yeast cells can be damaged by freezing process resulting in poor technological quality of dough after defrostation (longer fermentation of dough). The influence of frozen storage time of dough on survival percentage of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated. Dough samples were taken after 1, 7, 14 and 28 days of frozen storage at -20°C. After defrosting, at room temperature, samples were taken from the surface and the middle part of dough (under aseptic conditions), and the percentage of living S. cerevisiae cells was determined. During frozen storage of dough, the number of living S. cerevisiae decreased. After 28 days of frozen storage, the percentage of live cells on the surface and inside the dough was 53,1% and 54,95%, respectively. The addition of k-carragenan to dough increased the percentage of living cells in the middle part of dough up to 64,63%. Pure cultures, isolated from survived S. cerevisia cells in frozen dough by agar plates method (Koch's method), were multiplied in optimal liquid medium for yeasts. The content of cytochromes in S. cerevisiae cells was determined by spectrophotometric method. The obtained results showed that the content of cytochromes in survived S. cerevisiae cells was not affected by dough freezing process. Growth rate and fermentative activity (Einchor's method) were determined in multiplied cells.

Pejin Dušanka J.; Došanovi? Irena S.; Popov Stevan D.; Suturovi? Zvonimir J.; Rankovi? Jovana A.; Dodi? Siniša N.; Dodi? Jelena M.; Vu?urovi? Vesna M.

2007-01-01

247

Effect of environmental stress on radiation response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have investigated the effect of pH shock and oxidative stress (H2O2 effect) both separately and together on the response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae exposed to UV and gamma radiations for one hour. Exposure to these environmental stresses resulted in S. cerevisiae cells acquiring resistance to UV radiation. Presence of cycloheximide (a know protein synthesis inhibitor) during stress inhibited the acquired UV resistance. The increased UV resistance is apparently mediated through nucleotide excision repair as the stress exposure to rad3 mutants (defective in nucleotide excision repair) do not have any effect on UV response. Both types of stresses used probably follow the same path of induction of radioresistance as the effect of both of them is nonadditive. In the strains used in our study stress exposure dose not have any significant effect on gamma radiation response. (author)

1999-01-01

248

Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion strains with complex DNA content profiles.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To identify Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes required for the proper timing of cell cycle transitions, we previously reported a systematic examination of the DNA content of homozygous diploid deletion strains. However, deletion strains with complex DNA content profiles were not examined in that study. Here, we report S. cerevisiae genes that when deleted give rise to DNA content profiles consistent with roles of the corresponding gene products during DNA replication. We also identified a set of genes whose deletion leads to increased DNA content, consistent with defects in mitosis, cytokinesis, or cell separation. Finally, we examined known interactions between the gene products of each group, placing these gene products in functional networks. Taken together, the data we present further validate the roles of the corresponding gene products in these processes, facilitating efforts to delineate gene function critical for genome replication, maintenance, and segregation.

Hoose SA; Trinh JT; Leitch MC; Kelly MM; McCormick RF; Spyrou CL; Smith R 3rd; Polymenis M

2013-08-01

249

Applied systems biology - vanillin production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Vanillin is the most important aroma compound based on market value, and natural vanillin is extracted from the cured seed pods of the Vanilla orchid. Most of the world’s vanillin, however, is obtained by chemical synthesis from petrochemicals or wood pulp lignins. As an alternative, de novo biosynthesis of vanillin in baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was recently demonstrated by successfully introducing the metabolic pathway for vanillin production in yeast. Nevertheless, the amount of vanillin produced in this S. cerevisiae strain is insufficient for commercial production and improvements need to be done. We have introduced the genes necessary for vanillin production in an identical manner in two different yeast strains S288c and CEN.PK,where comprehensive – omics datasets are available, hence, allowing vanillin production in the two strain backgrounds to be evaluated and compared in a systems biology setting.

Strucko, Tomas; Eriksen, Carsten

2012-01-01

250

Use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in radioactive waste treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Waste management plays an important role in reducing the volume of radioactive waste streams, minimizing the cost of the final disposal and the impact on the environment. In this context, new research should focus on the development of simpler and cheaper techniques which may improve the waste processing. The use of biomass in processes concerned with the removal of heavy metals and radionuclides offers significant potential in the treatment of waste-liquid streams. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is well known for its capacity of heavy metals biosorption and it also has the additional advantages such as easy availability and the possibility of genetic manipulation. The aim of this work is to study the potential of the free cell and immobilized S. cerevisiae in bentonite in the removal Americium-241 from radioactive liquid streams produced by Radioactive Waste Laboratory of Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN-CNEN/SP). (author)

2007-10-05

251

Advanced biofuel production by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Replacement of conventional transportation fuels with biofuels will require production of compounds that can cover the complete fuel spectrum, ranging from gasoline to kerosene. Advanced biofuels are expected to play an important role in replacing fossil fuels because they have improved properties compared with ethanol and some of these may have the energy density required for use in heavy duty vehicles, ships, and aviation. Moreover, advanced biofuels can be used as drop-in fuels in existing internal combustion engines. The yeast cell factory Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be turned into a producer of higher alcohols (1-butanol and isobutanol), sesquiterpenes (farnesene and bisabolene), and fatty acid ethyl esters (biodiesel), and here we discusses progress in metabolic engineering of S. cerevisiae for production of these advanced biofuels.

Buijs NA; Siewers V; Nielsen J

2013-06-01

252

Strain engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for enhanced xylose metabolism.  

Science.gov (United States)

Efficient and rapid fermentation of all sugars present in cellulosic hydrolysates is essential for economic conversion of renewable biomass into fuels and chemicals. Xylose is one of the most abundant sugars in cellulosic biomass but it cannot be utilized by wild type Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which has been used for industrial ethanol production. Therefore, numerous technologies for strain development have been employed to engineer S. cerevisiae capable of fermenting xylose rapidly and efficiently. These include i) optimization of xylose-assimilating pathways, ii) perturbation of gene targets for reconfiguring yeast metabolism, and iii) simultaneous co-fermentation of xylose and cellobiose. In addition, the genetic and physiological background of host strains is an important determinant to construct efficient and rapid xylose-fermenting S. cerevisiae. Vibrant and persistent researches in this field for the last two decades not only led to the development of engineered S. cerevisiae strains ready for industrial fermentation of cellulosic hydrolysates, but also deepened our understanding of operational principles underlying yeast metabolism. PMID:23524005

Kim, Soo Rin; Park, Yong-Cheol; Jin, Yong-Su; Seo, Jin-Ho

2013-03-21

253

Reactions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zygosaccharomyces bailii to sulphite.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sulphite inhibited growth of all four yeasts studied, Zygosaccharomyces bailii NCYC 563 being most sensitive and Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCYC 431 the least. Vertical Woolf-Eadie plots were obtained for initial velocities of 35S accumulation by all four yeasts suspended in high concentrations of sulphite. Equilibrium levels of 35S accumulation were reached somewhat faster with strains of S. cerevisiae than with those of Z. bailii. With all four yeasts, the greater the extent of 35S accumulation, the larger was the decline in internal pH value. Growth of S. cerevisiae TC8 and Z. bailii NCYC 563, but to a lesser extent of S. cerevisiae NCYC 431 and Z. bailii NCYC 1427, was inhibited when mid exponential-phase cultures were supplemented with 1.0 or 2.0 mM-sulphite, the decrease in growth being accompanied by a decline in ethanol production. Unless growth was completely inhibited, the sulphite-induced decline in growth was accompanied by production of acetaldehyde and additional glycerol.

Pilkington BJ; Rose AH

1988-10-01

254

A mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae defective for nuclear fusion.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A mutant unable to fuse nuclei during mating has been isolated from standard wild-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Tetrad analysis of the mutation responsible for this defect (kar1-1) shows that it segregates as a single Mendelian factor. The defect kn kaf1-1 appears to be nuclear limited. Cytological and genetic evidence shows that in this mutant the events associated with zygote formation are normal until the point of nuclear fusion. The consequence of this defect is the formation of a multinucleate zygote which in subsequent divisions can segregate heterokaryons and haploid heterplasmons.

Conde J; Fink GR

1976-10-01

255

Studies of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cultivation under Oscillatory Mixing Conditions  

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Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae was cultivated under non-aerated conditions in a 5 l laboratory bioreactor. Using the experimental data and the regression analysis method, some mathematical correlations for stirrer rotational speed oscillation frequency and the reaction of the yeast were established. It has been found that different growth parameters are influenced variously by stirrer rotational speed and stirrer rotational speed oscillation frequency. Stirring oscillations can be among the methods for stimulation of biotechnological processes. The obtained results can be used for designing bioreactors and optimizing working conditions.

Andr?js B?rzi??; Uldis Viesturs; M?ris Rikmanis; Stoyan Tzonkov

2005-01-01

256

Magnetically altered ethanol fermentation capacity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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Full Text Available We studied the effect of static magnetic fields on ethanol production by yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 424A (LNH-ST) using sugar cane molasses during the fermentation in an enclosed bioreactor. Two static NdFeB magnets were attached to a cylindrical tube reactor with their opposite poles (north to south), creating 150 mT magnetic field inside the reactor. Comparable differences emerged between the results of these two experimental conditions. We found ethanol productivity to be 15% higher in the samples exposed to 150 mT magnetic field.

Galonja-Corghill Tamara; Kostadinovi? Ljiljana M.; Bojat Nenad C.

2009-01-01

257

Isobutanol production from D-xylose by recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Simultaneous overexpression of an optimized, cytosolically localized valine biosynthesis pathway together with overexpression of xylose isomerase XylA from Clostridium phytofermentans, transaldolase Tal1 and xylulokinase Xks1 enabled recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells to complement the valine auxotrophy of ilv2,3,5 triple deletion mutants for growth on D-xylose as the sole carbon source. Moreover, after additional overexpression of ketoacid decarboxylase Aro10 and alcohol dehydrogenase Adh2, the cells were able to ferment D-xylose directly to isobutanol.

Brat D; Boles E

2013-03-01

258

Immobilized cell cross-flow reactor. [Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A cross-current flow reactor was operated using sodium alginate gel entrapped yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) under growth conditions. Micron-sized silica, incorporated into the biocatalyst particles (1 mm mean diameter) improved mechanical strength and internal surface adhesion. The process showed decreased productivity and stability at 35/sup 0/C compared to the normal study done at 30/sup 0/C. The increased number of cross flows diminish the product inhibition effect. The residence time distribution shows that the cross-flow bioreactor system can be approximated to either a train of backmixed fermentors in series or a plug flow fermentor with moderate axial dispersion.

Chotani, G.K.; Constantinides, A.

1984-01-01

259

mRNA decapping enzyme from ribosomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

By use of (/sup 3/H)methyl-5'-capped (/sup 14/C)mRNA from yeast as a substrate, a decapping enzyme activity has been detected in enzyme fractions derived from a high salt wash of ribosomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The product of the decapping reaction is (/sup 3/H)m/sup 7/GDP. That the enzyme is not a non-specific pyrophosphatase is suggested by the finding that the diphosphate product, m/sup 7/GpppA(G), and UDP-glucose are not hydrolyzed.

Stevens, A.

1980-10-16

260

Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae response to UV and gamma irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The investigation of UV-C and ? radiation and the dose effect on budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell vital regulation process including cell sensitivity analysis at different stages of the cell cycle was carried out. Detailed calculations of the deposited UV-C and ? radiation doses and analysis of secondary electrons produced by ? rays in the sample were done using the simulation code MCNPX. Viability of cells of the yeast strains with different activity of Ras proteins and cyclic adenosine monophosphate signal pathway after irradiation was chosen as the criterion of yeast sensitivity. Depending on their genetic background, yeast cells possessed different response to ionizing radiation. (author)

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Rapid identification of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Zygosaccharomyces bailii and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Most strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Zygosaccharomyces bailii and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii have been found to contain plasmid DNA. The sequences of the plasmids from these three yeasts are known to be different. We have used two primers within the plasmid from each yeast species in a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to discriminate between these three yeasts. The primers were designed to give easily distinguishable fragment sizes when run on a simple agarose gel. Due to the sensitivity of PCR, crude cells can be used with no need to isolate DNA. The method is rapid when compared with current methods.

Pearson BM; McKee RA

1992-05-01

262

Competition for glucose between the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida utilis.  

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The competition between the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae CBS 8066 and Candida utilis CBS 621 for glucose was studied in sugar-limited chemostat cultures. Under aerobic conditions, C. utilis always successfully completed against S. cerevisiae. Only under anaerobic conditions did S. cerevisiae beco...

Postma, E; Kuiper, A; Tomasouw, W F; Scheffers, W A; van Dijken, J P

263

Construction of an amylolytic industrial strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae containing the Schwanniomyces occidentalis alpha-amylase gene.  

Science.gov (United States)

The gene encoding Schwanniomyces occidentalis alpha-amylase (AMY) was introduced into the chromosomal delta sequences of an industrial strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To obtain a strain suitable for commercial use, an delta-integrative cassette devoid of bacterial DNA sequences was constructed that contains the AMY gene and aureobasidin A resistance gene (AUR1-C) as the selection marker. The AMY gene was expressed under the control of the alcohol dehydrogenase gene promoter (ADC1p). The alpha-amylase activity of Sacc. cerevisiae transformed with this integrative cassette was 6 times higher than that of Sch. occidentalis. The transformants (integrants) were mitotically stable after 100 generations in nonselective medium. PMID:14677710

Kang, Na-Young; Park, Jeong-Nam; Chin, Jong-Eon; Lee, Hwanghee Blaise; Im, Suhn-Young; Bai, Suk

2003-11-01

264

Identification of the constitutive ultradian oscillator of the circadian clock (ENOX1) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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Full Text Available A yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) deletion library was screened based on NADH fluorescence using a 384 well plate assay and robotics to identify a yeast isolate lacking the 24 min periodic cell surface oxidase. The oxidase was shown previously to be a candidate ultradian oscillator of the yeast’s biological clock. The cDNA was cloned from a yeast overexpression library and the encoded protein was expressed in bacteria and characterized. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity was used as the cellular circadian indicator. The identified gene was YML117W which encodes a ca 126 kDa putative RNA-binding protein. The candidate ENOX1 activity from yeast had functional characteristics similar to those of other constitutive ENOX1 proteins of eukaryotes exhibiting oscillating activities with a temperature independent period length of 24 min phased by melatonin and low frequency electromagnetic fields and susceptible to inhibition by the ENOX1 inhibitor, simalikalactone D. The YML117W deletion mutant cells lacked the ENOX1 clock output present in wild type yeast. The findings identify YML117W as the ENOX1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and support its proposed function as an ultradian oscillator of the yeast biological clock.

Sara S. Dick; Aya Ryuzoji; Dorothy M. Morré; D. James Morré

2013-01-01

265

Evaluation of cytochrome P-450 concentration in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Linhagens de Saccharomyces cerevisiae tem sido amplamente empregadas em testes de mutagenicidade devido à presença de um sistema citocromo P-450 capaz de metabolizar substâncias pró-mutagênicas à sua forma ativa. Devido à grande variedade de linhagens de S. cerevisiae com diferentes capacidades de produção de citocromo P-450, torna-se necessária a seleção de cepas, bem como a definição das condições ideais de cultivo. Neste trabalho, foram comparados os n? (more) ?veis de citocromo P-450 em quatro diferentes linhagens de S. cerevisiae e avaliadas as condições de cultivo necessárias para obtenção de altas concentrações deste sistema enzimático. O maior nível enzimático foi encontrado na linhagem NCYC 240 em presença de 20 % de glicose (p/v). A adição de etanol ao meio de cultura também produziu um aumento na síntese de citocromo P-450. Estes resultados indicam que as condições de cultivo devem ser específicas e bem definidas para a linhagem selecionada, garantindo assim elevados níveis de citocromo P-450 e, conseqüentemente, a confiabilidade nos testes de mutagenicidade. Abstract in english Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been widely used in mutagenicity tests due to the presence of a cytochrome P-450 system, capable of metabolizing promutagens to active mutagens. There are a large number of S. cerevisiae strains with varying abilities to produce cytochrome P-450. However, strain selection and ideal cultivation conditions are not well defined. We compared cytochrome P-450 levels in four different S. cerevisiae strains and evaluated the cultivation conditions ne (more) cessary to obtain the highest levels. The amount of cytochrome P-450 produced by each strain varied, as did the incubation time needed to reach the maximum level. The highest cytochrome P-450 concentrations were found in media containing fermentable sugars. The NCYC 240 strain produced the highest level of cytochrome P-450 when grown in the presence of 20 % (w/v) glucose. The addition of ethanol to the media also increased cytochrome P-450 synthesis in this strain. These results indicate cultivation conditions must be specific and well-established for the strain selected in order to assure high cytochrome P-450 levels and reliable mutagenicity results.

Matuo, Míriam Cristina Sakuragui; Kikuchi, Irene Satiko; Pinto, Terezinha de Jesus Andreoli

2010-09-01

266

Evaluation of cytochrome P-450 concentration in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been widely used in mutagenicity tests due to the presence of a cytochrome P-450 system, capable of metabolizing promutagens to active mutagens. There are a large number of S. cerevisiae strains with varying abilities to produce cytochrome P-450. However, strain selection and ideal cultivation conditions are not well defined. We compared cytochrome P-450 levels in four different S. cerevisiae strains and evaluated the cultivation conditions necessary to obtain the highest levels. The amount of cytochrome P-450 produced by each strain varied, as did the incubation time needed to reach the maximum level. The highest cytochrome P-450 concentrations were found in media containing fermentable sugars. The NCYC 240 strain produced the highest level of cytochrome P-450 when grown in the presence of 20 % (w/v) glucose. The addition of ethanol to the media also increased cytochrome P-450 synthesis in this strain. These results indicate cultivation conditions must be specific and well-established for the strain selected in order to assure high cytochrome P-450 levels and reliable mutagenicity results.Linhagens de Saccharomyces cerevisiae tem sido amplamente empregadas em testes de mutagenicidade devido à presença de um sistema citocromo P-450 capaz de metabolizar substâncias pró-mutagênicas à sua forma ativa. Devido à grande variedade de linhagens de S. cerevisiae com diferentes capacidades de produção de citocromo P-450, torna-se necessária a seleção de cepas, bem como a definição das condições ideais de cultivo. Neste trabalho, foram comparados os níveis de citocromo P-450 em quatro diferentes linhagens de S. cerevisiae e avaliadas as condições de cultivo necessárias para obtenção de altas concentrações deste sistema enzimático. O maior nível enzimático foi encontrado na linhagem NCYC 240 em presença de 20 % de glicose (p/v). A adição de etanol ao meio de cultura também produziu um aumento na síntese de citocromo P-450. Estes resultados indicam que as condições de cultivo devem ser específicas e bem definidas para a linhagem selecionada, garantindo assim elevados níveis de citocromo P-450 e, conseqüentemente, a confiabilidade nos testes de mutagenicidade.

Míriam Cristina Sakuragui Matuo; Irene Satiko Kikuchi; Terezinha de Jesus Andreoli Pinto

2010-01-01

267

Acquisition of tolerance against oxidative damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Living cells constantly sense and adapt to redox shifts by the induction of genes whose products act to maintain the cellular redox environment. In the eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae, while stationary cells possess a degree of constitutive resistance towards oxidants, treatment of exponential phase cultures with sub-lethal stresses can lead to the transient induction of protection against subsequent lethal oxidant conditions. The sensors of oxidative stress and the corresponding transcription factors that activate gene expression under these conditions have not yet been completely identified. Results We report the role of SOD1, SOD2 and TPS1 genes (which encode the cytoplasmic Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase, the mitochondrial Mn-isoform and trehalose-6-phosphate synthase, respectively) in the development of resistance to oxidative stress. In all experimental conditions, the cultures were divided into two parts, one was immediately submitted to severe stress (namely: exposure to H2O2, heat shock or ethanol stress) while the other was initially adapted to 40°C for 60 min. The deficiency in trehalose synthesis did not impair the acquisition of tolerance to H2O2, but this disaccharide played an essential role in tolerance against heat and ethanol stresses. We also verified that the presence of only one Sodp isoform was sufficient to improve cellular resistance to 5 mM H2O2. On the other hand, while the lack of Sod2p caused high cell sensitivity to ethanol and heat shock, the absence of Sod1p seemed to be beneficial to the process of acquisition of tolerance to these adverse conditions. The increase in oxidation-dependent fluorescence of crude extracts of sod1 mutant cells upon incubation at 40°C was approximately 2-fold higher than in sod2 and control strain extracts. Furthermore, in Western blots, we observed that sod mutants showed a different pattern of Hsp104p and Hsp26p expression also different from that in their control strain. Conclusions Trehalose seemed not to be essential in the acquisition of tolerance to H2O2 stress, but its absence was strongly felt under water stress conditions such as heat and alcoholic stresses. On the other hand, Sod1p could be involved in the control of ROS production; these reactive molecules could signal the induction of genes implicated within cell tolerance to heat and ethanol. The effects of this deletion needs further investigation.

Pereira Marcos D; Eleutherio Elis CA; Panek Anita D

2001-01-01

268

The Saccharomyces cerevisiae YFR041C/ERJ5 gene encoding a type I membrane protein with a J domain is required to preserve the folding capacity of the endoplasmic reticulum  

Science.gov (United States)

YFR041C/ERJ5 was identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a gene regulated by the unfolded protein response pathway (UPR). The open reading frame of the gene has a J domain characteristic of the DnaJ chaperone family of proteins that regulate the activity of Hsp70 chaperones. We determined the expression and topology of Erj5p, a type I membrane protein with a J domain in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that colocalizes with Kar2p, the major Hsp70 in the yeast ER. We identified synthetic interactions of ?erj5 with mutations in genes involved in protein folding in the ER (kar2-159, ?scj1?jem1) and in the induction of the unfolded protein response (?ire1). Loss of Erj5p in yeast cells with impaired ER protein folding capacity increased sensitivity to agents that cause ER stress. We identified the ERJ5 mRNA and confirmed that agents that promote accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER regulate its abundance. We found that loss of the non-essential ERJ5 gene leads to a constitutively induced UPR, indicating that ERJ5 is required for maintenance of an optimal folding environment in the yeast ER.

Fama, M. Carla; Raden, David; Zacchi, Nicolas; Lemos, Dario R.; Robinson, Anne S.; Silberstein, Susana

2007-01-01

269

Improved polyhydroxybutyrate production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae through the use of the phosphoketolase pathway.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The metabolic pathways of the central carbon metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are well studied and consequently S. cerevisiae has been widely evaluated as a cell factory for many industrial biological products. In this study, we investigated the effect of engineering the supply of precursor, acetyl-CoA, and cofactor, NADPH, on the biosynthesis of the bacterial biopolymer polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), in S. cerevisiae. Supply of acetyl-CoA was engineered by over-expression of genes from the ethanol degradation pathway or by heterologous expression of the phophoketolase pathway from Aspergillus nidulans. Both strategies improved the production of PHB. Integration of gapN encoding NADP(+) -dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Streptococcus mutans into the genome enabled an increased supply of NADPH resulting in a decrease in glycerol production and increased production of PHB. The strategy that resulted in the highest PHB production after 100?h was with a strain harboring the phosphoketolase pathway to supply acetyl-CoA without the need of increased NADPH production by gapN integration. The results from this study imply that during the exponential growth on glucose, the biosynthesis of PHB in S. cerevisiae is likely to be limited by the supply of NADPH whereas supply of acetyl-CoA as precursor plays a more important role in the improvement of PHB production during growth on ethanol.

Kocharin K; Siewers V; Nielsen J

2013-08-01

270

Propionate metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: implications for the metabolon hypothesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aerobic, glucose-limited chemostat of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CBS 8066 co-metabolized propionate when this compound was added to the reservoir medium. Co-metabolism of propionate led to an increase of the biomass and protein yields. Attempts to grow S. cerevisiae on propionate as a sole source of carbon and energy were not successful. Activities of propionyl-CoA synthetase in cell-free extracts were sufficient to account for the rates of propionate consumption observed in the chemostat cultures. Activities of propionyl-CoA carboxylase, a key enzyme of the methylmalonyl-CoA pathway of propionate metabolism, were negligible. In contrast, activities of 2-methylcitrate synthase, a key enzyme activity of the 2-methylcitrate pathway of propionate metabolism, increased substantially with increasing propionate-to-glucose ratios in the reservoir media, and were sufficient to account for the propionate consumption rates observed in the chemostat cultures. This suggested that the 2-methylcitrate pathway is the major pathway of propionate metabolism in S. cerevisiae. In the literature, labelling patterns observed after incubation of this yeast with [3-13C]propionate have been interpreted as evidence for channelling of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates, possibly as a consequence of the organization of TCA cycle enzymes in a metabolon. However, this interpretation of 13C-labelling patterns rested on the assumption that propionate metabolism in S. cerevisiae occurs via the methylmalonyl-CoA pathway. Since the distribution of 13C in alanine reported in the literature is fully compatible with a major role of the 2-methylcitrate pathway in propionate metabolism, it cannot be interpreted as evidence for the existence of a TCA cycle metabolon in S. cerevisiae. PMID:7912143

Pronk, J T; van der Linden-Beuman, A; Verduyn, C; Scheffers, W A; van Dijken, J P

1994-04-01

271

Analysis of the Proteome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Methylarginine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Arginine methylation is a post-translational modification that has been implicated in a plethora of cellular processes. In the present manuscript, using two antimethylarginine antibodies and combinatorial deletion mutants of arginine methyltransferases, we found evidence of widespread arginine methylation in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteome. Immunoprecipitation was used for enrichment of methylarginine-containing proteins, which were identified via tandem mass spectrometry. From this, we identified a total of 90 proteins, of which 5 were previously known to be methylated. The proteins identified were involved in known methylarginine-associated biological functions such as RNA processing, nuclear transport, carbohydrate metabolic process, GMP biosynthetic process and protein folding. Through in vivo methylation by the incorporation of [(3)H]-methyl groups, we validated the methylation of 7 proteins (Ded1, Imd4, Lhp1, Nop1, Cdc11, Gus1, Pob3). By LC-MS/MS, we then confirmed a total of 15 novel methylarginine sites on 5 proteins (Ded1, Lhp1, Nop1, Pab1, and Ugp1). By examination of methylation on proteins from the triple knockout of methyltransferases Hmt1, Hsl7, Rmt2, we present evidence for the existence of additional unidentified arginine methyltransferases in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteome.

Low JK; Hart-Smith G; Erce MA; Wilkins MR

2013-09-01

272

A vaccine grade of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing mammalian myostatin  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a widely-used system for protein expression. We previously showed that heat-killed whole recombinant yeast vaccine expressing mammalian myostatin can modulate myostatin function in mice, resulting in increase of body weight and muscle composition in these animals. Foreign DNA introduced into yeast cells can be lost soon unless cells are continuously cultured in selection media, which usually contain antibiotics. For cost and safety concerns, it is essential to optimize conditions to produce quality food and pharmaceutical products. Results We developed a simple but effective method to engineer a yeast strain stably expressing mammalian myostatin. This method utilized high-copy-number integration of myostatin gene into the ribosomal DNA of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the final step, antibiotic selection marker was removed using the Cre-LoxP system to minimize any possible side-effects for animals. The resulting yeast strain can be maintained in rich culture media and stably express mammalian myostatin for two years. Oral administration of the recombinant yeast was able to induce immune response to myostatin and modulated the body weight of mice. Conclusions Establishment of such yeast strain is a step further toward transformation of yeast cells into edible vaccine to improve meat production in farm animals and treat human muscle-wasting diseases in the future.

Zhang Tingting; Sun Lin; Xin Ying; Ma Lixia; Zhang Youyou; Wang Xin; Xu Kun; Ren Chonghua; Zhang Cunfang; Chen Zhilong; Yang Hanjiang; Zhang Zhiying

2012-01-01

273

Characterization of an MMS sensitive mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] We have characterized a methyl methanesulfonate sensitive mutant of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in order to learn more about DNA repair and mutagenesis in this organism. The mutation, designated mms3-1, also confers sensitivity to ultraviolet light and to ethyl methanesulfonate in both haploids and homozygous diploids. Its effect on ?-ray sensitivity, however, is a function of the ploidy of the cell and its effect on induced mutation is a function of both the ploidy of the cell and the nature of the inducing agent. Our major findings are discussed. Our data indicate that: (1) Saccharomyces cerevisiae has an error prone pathway for the repair of uv damage controlled by the MMS3 gene product operating in and only in, and possibly induced by conditions present only in, a/? diploids; (2) in diploids, at least, there exists at least one step in the error prone repair of uv induced damage which is different from a step in the error prone repair of EMS induced damage; (3) a/? mms3-1/mms3-1 diploids may be defective in a step common to the repair of mutagenic lesions following uv irradiation and lethal lesions following ? irradiation; and (4) there are steps in the repair of MMS induced lethal damage that are different from steps in the repair of EMS induced lethal damage

1979-01-01

274

[Construction of integrative vector for xylulokinase gene and its overexpression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: An integrative vector of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for xylulokinase gene expression was constructed to overexpress xylulokinase activity. METHODS: On the basis of plasmid p406ADH1, 4 components were integrated, which were KanR gene as G418 resistant marker, ADH1 terminator fragment, xylulokinase gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae W5 and 18S rDNA sequence for homologous recombination. After enzyme digestion and ligation, high copy recombinant expression vector pCXS-RKTr was constructed. pCXS-RKTr was linearized and transferred into Saccharomyces cerevisiae W5 , then xylulokinase activity was detected to determine the expression of pCXS-RKTr. RESULTS: Xylulokinase gene located on pCXS-RKTr was highly expressed in W5. The xylulokinase activity was 2. 87 times of the original strain. CONCLUSION: An integrative vector of industry strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae is successfully constructed and xylulokinase gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae itself was over expressed by this vector. This intergrative vector can efficiently raise the xylulokinase activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This system laid a foundation for the construction of gene engineering Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain which can ferment xylose to ethanol.

Ge J; Cao X; Song G; Ling H; Ping W

2010-06-01

275

Characterization of fungal RTG2 genes in retrograde signaling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Changes in the functional status of mitochondria result in the transcriptional activation of a subset of nuclear-encoded genes in a process referred to as retrograde signaling. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, this molecular link between mitochondria and the nuclear genome is controlled by three key signaling proteins: Rtg1p, Rtg2p, and Rtg3p. Although the retrograde signaling response has been well characterized in S. cerevisiae, very little is known about this pathway in other fungi. In this study, we selected four species having uncharacterized open reading frames (ORFs) with more than 66% amino acid identity to Rtg2p for further analysis. To determine whether these putative RTG2 ORFs encoded bona fide regulators of retrograde signaling, we tested their ability to complement the defects associated with the S. cerevisiae rtg2? mutant. Specifically, we tested for complementation of citrate synthase (CIT2) and aconitase (ACO1) at the transcript and protein levels, glutamate auxotrophy, and changes in the interaction between Rtg2p and the negative regulator Mks1p. Our findings show that all four Rtg2p homologs are functional upon activation of retrograde signaling, although their degree of complementation varied. In addition, all Rtg2p homologs showed a marked reduction in Mks1p binding, which may contribute to their altered responses to retrograde signaling.

Ünlü ES; Narayanan L; Gordon DM

2013-08-01

276

Biogeographical characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast by molecular methods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biogeography is the descriptive and explanatory study of spatial patterns and processes involved in the distribution of biodiversity. Without biogeography, it would be difficult to study the diversity of microorganisms because there would be no way to visualize patterns in variation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, "the wine yeast," is the most important species involved in alcoholic fermentation, and in vineyard ecosystems, it follows the principle of "everything is everywhere." Agricultural practices such as farming (organic versus conventional) and floor management systems have selected different populations within this species that are phylogenetically distinct. In fact, recent ecological and geographic studies highlighted that unique strains are associated with particular grape varieties in specific geographical locations. These studies also highlighted that significant diversity and regional character, or 'terroir,' have been introduced into the winemaking process via this association. This diversity of wild strains preserves typicity, the high quality, and the unique flavor of wines. Recently, different molecular methods were developed to study population dynamics of S. cerevisiae strains in both vineyards and wineries. In this review, we will provide an update on the current molecular methods used to reveal the geographical distribution of S. cerevisiae wine yeast. PMID:23805132

Tofalo, Rosanna; Perpetuini, Giorgia; Schirone, Maria; Fasoli, Giuseppe; Aguzzi, Irene; Corsetti, Aldo; Suzzi, Giovanna

2013-06-24

277

Polymorphisms of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes involved in wine production.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The setting up of new molecular methods for Saccharomyces cerevisiae typing is valuable in enology. Actually, the ability to discriminate different strains in wine making can have a benefit both for the control of the fermentation process and for the preservation of wine typicity. This study focused on the screening of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in genes involved in wine production that could evolve rapidly considering the selective pressure of the isolation environment. Preliminary screening of 30 genes in silico was performed, followed by the selection of 10 loci belonging to 8 genes. The sequence analysis showed a low polymorphism and a degree of heterozygosity. However, a new potential molecular target was recognized in the TPS1 gene coding for the trehalose-6-phosphate synthase enzyme involved in the ethanol resistance mechanism. This gene showed a 1.42% sequence diversity with seven different nucleotide substitutions. Moreover, classic techniques were applied to a collection of 50 S. cerevisiae isolates, mostly with enologic origin. Our results confirmed that the wine making was not carried out only by the inoculated commercial starter because indigenous strains of S. cerevisiae present during fermentation were detected. In addition, a high genetic relationship among some commercial cultures was found, highlighting imprecision or fraudulent practices by starter manufacturers.

Vigentini I; Fracassetti D; Picozzi C; Foschino R

2009-03-01

278

Protein Enrichment of Cassava Pulp Fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine intestinal digestibility of residual components of cassava pulp solid state fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae for animal feed. Three ruminally cannulated animal were used to measure in situ rumen Dry Matter (DM) and Crude Protein (CP) degradability characteristics of cassava pulp solid state fermentation by S. cerevisiae. Nylon bags containing 3 g (as fed basis) of each feed was immersed in duplicate at each time point in the ventral rumen of each goat for 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h. Rumen feed residues from bags of 16 h incubation were used for estimation of lower gut digestibility by the technique of in vitro pepsin-pancreatin digestion. The results of the chemical analysis indicated that fermentation was slightly improved Ruminal Undegradable Protein (RUP) of cassava pulp. The highest value of RUP was significantly differ (pS. cerevisiae in cassava pulp. The present results indicate that fermented cassava pulp can improve protein content and ruminal undegradable protein content.

W. Kaewwongsa; S. Traiyakun; C. Yuangklang; C. Wachirapakorn; P. Paengkoum

2011-01-01

279

Multilocus sequence typing of oenological Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study describes the application of a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis for molecular discrimination at the strain level of Spanish wine yeast strains. The discrimination power of MLST is compared to mitochondrial RFLP analysis. Fragments of the ADP1, ACC1, RPN2, GLN4, and ALA1 genes were amplified by PCR from chromosomal DNA of 18 wine Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. Ten polymorphic sites were found in the five loci analyzed showing 13 different genotypes, with 11 of them represented by only one strain. RFLP analysis of the same 18 wine yeast strains showed seventeen different mitochondrial patterns. Phylogenetic relationships among the strains analyzed, inferred by MLST data, showed wine isolates of S. cerevisiae as a rather homogeneous group. The discrimination potential of mitochondrial RFLP analysis was superior to the MLST scheme used in this work. However, MLST analysis allowed an easy construction of reliable phylogenetic trees. MLST analysis offers the possibility of typing wine S. cerevisiae strains simultaneously to the study of the genetic relationship among them.

Muñoz R; Gómez A; Robles V; Rodríguez P; Cebollero E; Tabera L; Carrascosa AV; Gonzalez R

2009-12-01

280

Irradiation effects on the alcohol fermentation ability of saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Irradiation effects on the alcohol fermentation ability of saccharomyces cerevisiae. S. cerevisiae suspensions of 1.5x108 clls/ml were exposed to single and fractionated doses of gamma irradiation, i.e. 0; 0.30; 0.60; 0.90; and 1.20 kGy in aerobic condition at dose rate of 1.63 kGy/hour. The fractionated doses were given with time interval of 15, 30 and 45 minutes. The fermentation was held at 300C for 40 hours. It is seen that an increase of alcohol production was obtained when cells were irradiated at 0.60 kGy, although the result has no significant difference statistically with control. At the dose of 1.20 kGy the alcohol fermentation ability of S. cerevisiae decreased drastically as compared to control. Irradiation using single or fractionated doses with time interval of 15-45 minutes did not influence the alcohol production. Comparing the time interval of 45 minutes at 0.60 kGy and at 1.20 kGy, it appeared that the yield of alcohol was different. (author). 17 refs.; 4 figs

1987-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

An assay for functional xylose transporters in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been considered that more efficient uptake of xylose could promote increased xylose metabolic capacity of several microorganisms. In this study, an assay to screen xylose transporters was established in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, which expresses the xylosidase gene of Bacillus pumilus intracellularly. The absorbed xylose analog p-nitrophenyl-?-d-xylopyranoside (pNPX) rapidly hydrolyzed to p-nitrophenol (pNP), which displayed a yellow tint when exposed to xylosidase in vivo. The xylose transporter activities of the strain were computed using the pNP production rate, which was detected extracellularly. This method could be used for both high-throughput screening and smaller scale investigations. AraEp, which is a pentose transporter of Corynebacterium glutamicum, was expressed in S. cerevisiae and exhibited better transport capacity than the endogenous transporters Hxt7p and Gal2p. Moreover, a mutant of AraEp with 103% greater transport capacity was screened out, and the computer simulation suggested that transmembrane domain 5 was an important factor for the transport capacity of AraEp in S. cerevisiae. PMID:23928049

Wang, Chengqiang; Shen, Yu; Hou, Jin; Suo, Fan; Bao, Xiaoming

2013-08-06

282

An assay for functional xylose transporters in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It has been considered that a more efficient uptake of xylose could promote an increased xylose metabolic capacity of several microorganisms. In this study, an assay to screen xylose transporters was established in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, which expresses the xylosidase gene of Bacillus pumilus intracellularly. The absorbed xylose analog p-nitrophenyl-?-D-xylopyranoside (pNPX) rapidly hydrolyzed to p-nitrophenol (pNP), which displayed a yellow tint when exposed to xylosidase in vivo. The xylose transporter activities of the strain were computed using the pNP production rate, which was detected extracellularly. This method could be used for both high-throughput screening and smaller-scale investigations. AraEp, which is a pentose transporter of Corynebacterium glutamicum, was expressed in S. cerevisiae and exhibited a better transport capacity than the endogenous transporters Hxt7p and Gal2p. Moreover, a mutant of AraEp with 103% greater transport capacity was screened out, and the computer simulation suggested that transmembrane domain 5 was an important factor for the transport capacity of AraEp in S. cerevisiae.

Wang C; Shen Y; Hou J; Suo F; Bao X

2013-08-01

283

Osmo-, thermo- and ethanol- tolerances of Saccharomyces cerevisiae S1  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae S1, which is a locally isolated and improved strain showed viability at 40, 45 and 50ºC and produced ethanol at 40, 43 and 45ºC. When the cells were given heat shock at 45ºC for 30min and grown at 40ºC, 100% viability was observed for 60h, and addition of 200gl-1 ethanol has led to complete cell death at 30h. Heat shock given at 45ºC (for 30min) has improved the tolerance to temperature induced ethanol shock leading to 37% viability at 30h. when the cells were subjected to ethanol (200gl-1 for 30 min) and osmotic shock (sorbitol 300gl-1), trehalose contents in the cells were increased. The heat shocked cells showed better viability in presence of added ethanol. Soy flour supplementation has improved the viability of S. cerevisiae S1 to 80% in presence of 100gl-1 added ethanol and to 60% in presence of 300gl-1 sorbitol. In presence of sorbitol (200gl-1) and ethanol (50gl-1) at 40ºC, 46% viability was retained by S. cerevisiae S1 at 48h and it was improved to 80% by soy flour supplementation.

Sandrasegarampillai Balakumar; Vasanthy Arasaratnam

2012-01-01

284

Osmo-, thermo- and ethanol- tolerances of Saccharomyces cerevisiae S1  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Saccharomyces cerevisiae S1, which is a locally isolated and improved strain showed viability at 40, 45 and 50ºC and produced ethanol at 40, 43 and 45ºC. When the cells were given heat shock at 45ºC for 30min and grown at 40ºC, 100% viability was observed for 60h, and addition of 200gl-1 ethanol has led to complete cell death at 30h. Heat shock given at 45ºC (for 30min) has improved the tolerance to temperature induced ethanol shock leading to 37% viability at 30h. w (more) hen the cells were subjected to ethanol (200gl-1 for 30 min) and osmotic shock (sorbitol 300gl-1), trehalose contents in the cells were increased. The heat shocked cells showed better viability in presence of added ethanol. Soy flour supplementation has improved the viability of S. cerevisiae S1 to 80% in presence of 100gl-1 added ethanol and to 60% in presence of 300gl-1 sorbitol. In presence of sorbitol (200gl-1) and ethanol (50gl-1) at 40ºC, 46% viability was retained by S. cerevisiae S1 at 48h and it was improved to 80% by soy flour supplementation.

Balakumar, Sandrasegarampillai; Arasaratnam, Vasanthy

2012-03-01

285

The postmitotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae after spaceflight showed higher viability  

Science.gov (United States)

The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been proposed as an ideal model organism for clarifying the biological effects caused by spaceflight conditions. The postmitotic S. cerevisiae cells onboard Practice eight recoverable satellite were subjected to spaceflight for 15 days. After recovery, the viability, the glycogen content, the activities of carbohydrate metabolism enzymes, the DNA content and the lipid peroxidation level in yeast cells were analyzed. The viability of the postmitotic yeast cells after spaceflight showed a three-fold increase as compared with that of the ground control cells. Compared to the ground control cells, the lipid peroxidation level in the spaceflight yeast cells markedly decreased. The spaceflight yeast cells also showed an increase in G2/M cell population and a decrease in Sub-G1 cell population. The glycogen content and the activities of hexokinase and succinate dehydrogenase significantly decreased in the yeast cells after spaceflight. In contrast, the activity of malate dehydrogenase showed an obvious increase after spaceflight. These results suggested that microgravity or spaceflight could promote the survival of postmitotic S. cerevisiae cells through regulating carbohydrate metabolism, ROS level and cell cycle progression.

Yi, Zong-Chun; Li, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Yan; Wang, Jie; Sun, Yan; Zhuang, Feng-Yuan

2011-06-01

286

Ciclohexadespipeptide beauvericin degradation by different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The interaction between the mycotoxin beauvericin (BEA) and 9 yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae named LO9, YE-2, YE5, YE-6, YE-4, A34, A17, A42 and A08 was studied. The biological degradations were carried out under aerobic conditions in the liquid medium of Potato Dextrose Broth (PDB) at 25°C for 48h and in a food/feed system composed of corn flour at 37°C for 3days, respectively. BEA present in fermented medium and corn flour was determined using liquid chromatography coupled to the mass spectrometry detector in tandem (LC-MS/MS) and the BEA degradation products produced during the fermentations were determined using the technique of the liquid chromatography coupled to a linear ion trap (LIT). Results showed that the S. cerevisiae strains reduced meanly the concentration of the BEA present in PDB by 86.2% and in a food system by 71.1%. All the S. cerevisiae strains used in this study showed a significant BEA reduction during the fermentation process employed. PMID:23791659

Meca, G; Zhou, T; Li, X Z; Ritieni, A; Mañes, J

2013-06-19

287

Ciclohexadespipeptide beauvericin degradation by different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The interaction between the mycotoxin beauvericin (BEA) and 9 yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae named LO9, YE-2, YE5, YE-6, YE-4, A34, A17, A42 and A08 was studied. The biological degradations were carried out under aerobic conditions in the liquid medium of Potato Dextrose Broth (PDB) at 25°C for 48h and in a food/feed system composed of corn flour at 37°C for 3days, respectively. BEA present in fermented medium and corn flour was determined using liquid chromatography coupled to the mass spectrometry detector in tandem (LC-MS/MS) and the BEA degradation products produced during the fermentations were determined using the technique of the liquid chromatography coupled to a linear ion trap (LIT). Results showed that the S. cerevisiae strains reduced meanly the concentration of the BEA present in PDB by 86.2% and in a food system by 71.1%. All the S. cerevisiae strains used in this study showed a significant BEA reduction during the fermentation process employed.

Meca G; Zhou T; Li XZ; Ritieni A; Mañes J

2013-09-01

288

Transformations of inorganic mercury by Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans were incubated with 0.25, 0.5, or 0.75 {mu}g of Hg (as HgCl{sub 2}) per ml of Nelson's medium in the presence of trace amounts of oxygen at 28{degree}C for 12 days. Two control media were used, one without added Hg and one without yeast inoculum. Yeast cell growth was estimated after 1, 2, 3, and 8 days of incubation. The contents of organomercury in the system and of elemental mercury released from the media and collected in traps were determined at the end of the experiments. The results were as follows: (1) C. albicans was the more mercury-resistant species, but both yeast species failed to grown in the media containing 0.75 {mu}g of Hg per ml.; (2) The amounts of organomercury produced by the two species were proportional to the amount of HgCl{sub 2} added to the medium. In all cases C. albicans produced considerably larger amounts of methylmercury than S. cerevisiae; (3) The amounts of elemental Hg produced were inversely proportional to the HgCl{sub 2} level added in the case of S. cerevisiae but were all similar in the case of C. albicans;and (4) Neither organomercury nor elemental Hg was produced in any of the control media.

Yannai, S.; Berdicevsky, I.; Duek, L. (Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa (Israel))

1991-01-01

289

Production of aromatics in Saccharomyces cerevisiae--a feasibility study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Aromatics are amongst the most important bulk feedstocks for the chemical industry, however, no viable bioprocess exists today and production is still dependent on petro-chemistry. In this article the production of aromatic precursors such as p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHBA) and p-amino benzoic acid (PABA) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was evaluated using metabolic network analysis. Theoretical mass yields for PHBA and for PABA obtained by metabolic network analysis were 0.58 and 0.53 g g(glucose)?¹, respectively. A major setback for microbial production of aromatics is the high toxicity of the products. Therefore, PHBA and PABA toxicity was evaluated in S. cerevisiae. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of 38.3 g L?¹ for PHBA and 0.62 g L?¹ for PABA were observed. However, PABA toxicity could be alleviated in adaptation experiments. Finally, metabolic engineering was used to create proof of principle first generation strains of S. cerevisiae. Overall accumulation of 650 ?M PHBA and 250 ?M PABA could be achieved.

Krömer JO; Nunez-Bernal D; Averesch NJ; Hampe J; Varela J; Varela C

2013-01-01

290

Antimicrobial action of palmarosa oil (Cymbopogon martinii) on Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The essential oil extracted from palmarosa (Cymbopogon martinii) has proven anti-microbial properties against cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Low concentrations of the oil (0.1%) inhibited the growth of S. cerevisiae cells completely. The composition of the sample of palmarosa oil was determined as 65% geraniol and 20% geranyl acetate as confirmed by GC-FTIR. The effect of palmarosa oil in causing K(+) leakage from yeast cells was attributed mainly to geraniol. Some leakage of magnesium ions was also observed. Blocking potassium membrane channels with caesium ions before addition of palmarosa oil did not change the extent of K(+) ion leakage, which was equal to the total sequestered K(+) in the cells. Palmarosa oil led to changes in the composition of the yeast cell membrane, with more saturated and less unsaturated fatty acids in the membrane after exposure of S. cerevisiae cells to the oil. Some of the palmarosa oil was lost by volatilization during incubation of the oil with the yeast cells. The actual concentration of the oil components affecting the yeast cells could not therefore be accurately determined.

Prashar A; Hili P; Veness RG; Evans CS

2003-07-01

291

Antimicrobial action of palmarosa oil (Cymbopogon martinii) on Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The essential oil extracted from palmarosa (Cymbopogon martinii) has proven anti-microbial properties against cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Low concentrations of the oil (0.1%) inhibited the growth of S. cerevisiae cells completely. The composition of the sample of palmarosa oil was determined as 65% geraniol and 20% geranyl acetate as confirmed by GC-FTIR. The effect of palmarosa oil in causing K(+) leakage from yeast cells was attributed mainly to geraniol. Some leakage of magnesium ions was also observed. Blocking potassium membrane channels with caesium ions before addition of palmarosa oil did not change the extent of K(+) ion leakage, which was equal to the total sequestered K(+) in the cells. Palmarosa oil led to changes in the composition of the yeast cell membrane, with more saturated and less unsaturated fatty acids in the membrane after exposure of S. cerevisiae cells to the oil. Some of the palmarosa oil was lost by volatilization during incubation of the oil with the yeast cells. The actual concentration of the oil components affecting the yeast cells could not therefore be accurately determined. PMID:12809717

Prashar, Anjali; Hili, Pauline; Veness, Robert G; Evans, Christine S

2003-07-01

292

Increasing NADH oxidation reduces overflow metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Respiratory metabolism plays an important role in energy production in the form of ATP in all aerobically growing cells. However, a limitation in respiratory capacity results in overflow metabolism, leading to the formation of byproducts, a phenomenon known as ‘‘overflow metabolism’’ or ‘‘the Crabtree effect.’’ The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has served as an important model organism for studying the Crabtree effect. When subjected to increasing glycolytic fluxes under aerobic conditions, there is a threshold value of the glucose uptake rate at which the metabolism shifts from purely respiratory to mixed respiratory and fermentative. It is well known that glucose repression of respiratory pathways occurs at high glycolytic fluxes, resulting in a decrease in respiratory capacity. Despite many years of detailed studies on this subject, it is not known whether the onset of the Crabtree effect is due to limited respiratory capacity or is caused by glucose-mediated repression of respiration. When respiration inS. cerevisiae was increased by introducing a heterologous alternative oxidase, we observed reduced aerobic ethanol formation. In contrast, increasing nonrespiratory NADH oxidation by overexpression of a water-forming NADH oxidase reduced aerobic glycerol formation. The metabolic response to elevated alternative oxidase occurred predominantly in the mitochondria, whereas NADH oxidase affected genes that catalyze cytosolic reactions. Moreover, NADH oxidase restored the deficiency of cytosolic NADH dehydrogenases in S. cerevisiae. These results indicate that NADH oxidase localizes in the cytosol, whereas alternative oxidase is directed to the mitochondria.

Vemuri, Goutham; Eiteman, M.A

2007-01-01

293

Biogeographical characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast by molecular methods.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Biogeography is the descriptive and explanatory study of spatial patterns and processes involved in the distribution of biodiversity. Without biogeography, it would be difficult to study the diversity of microorganisms because there would be no way to visualize patterns in variation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, "the wine yeast," is the most important species involved in alcoholic fermentation, and in vineyard ecosystems, it follows the principle of "everything is everywhere." Agricultural practices such as farming (organic versus conventional) and floor management systems have selected different populations within this species that are phylogenetically distinct. In fact, recent ecological and geographic studies highlighted that unique strains are associated with particular grape varieties in specific geographical locations. These studies also highlighted that significant diversity and regional character, or 'terroir,' have been introduced into the winemaking process via this association. This diversity of wild strains preserves typicity, the high quality, and the unique flavor of wines. Recently, different molecular methods were developed to study population dynamics of S. cerevisiae strains in both vineyards and wineries. In this review, we will provide an update on the current molecular methods used to reveal the geographical distribution of S. cerevisiae wine yeast.

Tofalo R; Perpetuini G; Schirone M; Fasoli G; Aguzzi I; Corsetti A; Suzzi G

2013-01-01

294

TRIPLES: a database of gene function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Science.gov (United States)

Using a novel multipurpose mini-transposon, we have generated a collection of defined mutant alleles for the analysis of disruption phenotypes, protein localization, and gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To catalog this unique data set, we have developed TRIPLES, a Web-accessible database of TRansposon-Insertion Phenotypes, Localization and Expression in Saccharomyces. Encompassing over 250 000 data points, TRIPLES provides convenient access to information from nearly 7800 transposon-mutagenized yeast strains; within TRIPLES, complete data reports of each strain may be viewed in table format, or if desired, downloaded as tab-delimited text files. Each report contains external links to corresponding entries within the Saccharomyces Genome Database and International Nucleic Acid Sequence Data Library (GenBank). Unlike other yeast databases, TRIPLES also provides on-line order forms linked to each clone report; users may immediately request any desired strain free-of-charge by submitting a completed form. In addition to presenting a wealth of information for over 2300 open reading frames, TRIPLES constitutes an important medium for the distribution of useful reagents throughout the yeast scientific community. Maintained by the Yale Genome Analysis Center, TRIPLES may be accessed at http://ycmi.med.yale.edu/ygac/triples.htm

Kumar, Anuj; Cheung, Kei-Hoi; Ross-Macdonald, Petra; Coelho, Paulo S. R.; Miller, Perry; Snyder, Michael

2000-01-01

295

Novel physiological roles for glutathione in sequestering acetaldehyde to confer acetaldehyde tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this work, we identified novel physiological functions of glutathione in acetaldehyde tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Strains deleted in the genes encoding the enzymes involved in glutathione synthesis and reduction, GSH1, GSH2 and GLR1, exhibited severe growth defects compared to wild-type under acetaldehyde stress, although strains deleted in the genes encoding glutathione peroxidases or glutathione transferases did not show any growth defects. On the other hand, intracellular levels of reduced glutathione decreased in the presence of acetaldehyde in response to acetaldehyde concentration. Moreover, we show that glutathione can trap a maximum of four acetaldehyde molecules within its molecule in a non-enzymatic manner. Taken together, these findings suggest that glutathione has an important role in acetaldehyde tolerance, as a direct scavenger of acetaldehyde in the cell.

Matsufuji Y; Yamamoto K; Yamauchi K; Mitsunaga T; Hayakawa T; Nakagawa T

2013-01-01

296

Exploring the northern limit of the distribution of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces paradoxus in North America.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We examined the northern limit of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces paradoxus in northeast America. We collected 876 natural samples at 29 sites and applied enrichment methods for the isolation of mesophilic yeasts. We uncovered a large diversity of yeasts, in some cases associated with specific substrates. Sequencing of the ITS1, 5.8S and ITS2 loci allowed to assign 226 yeast strains at the species level, including 41 S. paradoxus strains. Our intensive sampling suggests that if present, S. cerevisiae is rare at these northern latitudes. Our sampling efforts spread across several months of the year revealed that successful sampling increases throughout the summer and diminishes significantly at the beginning of the fall. The data obtained on the ecological context of yeasts corroborate what was previously reported on Pichiaceae, Saccharomycodaceae, Debaryomycetaceae and Phaffomycetaceae yeast families. We identified 24 yeast isolates that could not be assigned to any known species and that may be of taxonomic, medical, or biotechnological importance. Our study reports new data on the taxonomic diversity of yeasts and new resources for studying the evolution and ecology of Saccharomyces paradoxus. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Charron G; Leducq JB; Bertin C; Dubé AK; Landry CR

2013-10-01

297

METHOD AND COMPOSITION FOR PRODUCING ETHANOL FROM FRUCTAN USING SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: A method for producing ethanol from Saccharomyces cerevisiae using fructan is provided to simplify process and to save production cost. CONSTITUTION: A composition for producing ethanol contains Saccharomyces cerevisiae KCCM50549 strain and fructan. Fructan is isolated from Jerusalem artichoke, chicory, dahlia, yacon, or industrial dandelion. A medium composition for producing ethanol contains the fructan. The medium is used for culturing Saccharomyces cerevisiae KCCM 50549 strain. A method for preparing ethanol comprises: a step of culturing the strain in the medium containing frcutan and a step of collecting ethanol from the medium.

CHOI EUI SUNG; LEE HONG WEON; JEON JAE HEUNG; RYU BEUNG TAE; CHOUNG DONG HO

298

Uranium removal from acidic aqueous solutions by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Debaryomyces hansenii, Kluyveromyces marxianus and Candida colliculosa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The sorption of uranium from acidic aqueous solutions (pH 4.5, Cinit = 10 to 1000 mg U/L) by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Debaryomyces hansenii, Kluyveromyces marxianus and Candida colliculosa was investigated using a batch technique. The U-sorption onto Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Debaryomyces hansenii followed a Langmuir, while that onto Kluyveromyces marxianus and Candida colliculosa a Freundlich isotherm. The results demonstrated that all investigated biomasses could effectively remove uranium from acidic aqueous solutions. From all sorbents, Saccharomyces cerevisiae appeared to be the most effective with a maximum sorption capacity of 127.7 mg U/g dry biomass. (author)

2009-01-01

299

Capacidade fermentativa de Saccharomyces cerevisiae enriquecida com ácidos graxos/ Fermentative capacity of (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) enriched with fatty acids  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Levedura de panificaçao (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) foi obtida anaerobicamente (sem e com adição dos ácidos graxos palmítico, oleico e linoleico) e aerobicamente e utilizada em ensaios de fermentação com 14% e 16% de sacarose a 32°C. Não houve diferenças significativas, quanto a viabilidade celular, entre os tratamentos das leveduras com ácido oleico, ácido linoleico e aerobicamente (as quais foram ricas em palmitoleico e oleico). As leveduras enriquecidas com (more) ácido palmítico e anaeróbicas apresentaram maior redução na viabilidade do que com ácidos graxos insaturados. Foi observado um aumento na produção de ácido pirúvico e uma redução nos álcoois superiores com a redução da viabilidade celular. Abstract in english Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was obtained anaerobically (with and without the addition of following fatty acids: palmitic, oleic and linoleic) aerobically and utilised infermentation trials with 14 and 16% of sucrose in the medium at 32°C. There were no significant differences among oleic acid, linoleic acid and aerobic treatments (which were rich in palmitoleic and oleic acids) in relation to cellular viability. Yeasts enriched with palmitic acid and under a (more) naerobic conditions showed a higher reduction on viability than those treated with unsaturated fatty acids. An increased production of pyruvic acid and a reduction in higher alcohols with a reduction on cellular viability were observed.

Gutierrez, L.E.; Annicchino, A.V.K.O.; Lucatti, L.

1990-01-01

300

Links between replication and recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A hypersensitive requirement for homologous recombination in the absence of Rad27 activity  

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The RAD27 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a 5?-3? flap exo/endonuclease, which plays an important role during DNA replication for Okazaki fragment maturation. Genetic studies have shown that RAD27 is not essential for growth, although rad27? mutants are temperature sensitive. Moreover, they...

Debrauwère, Hélène; Loeillet, Sophie; Lin, Waka; Lopes, Judith; Nicolas, Alain

 
 
 
 
301

Stp1p, Stp2p and Abf1p are involved in regulation of expression of the amino acid transporter gene BAP3 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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Expression of the BAP3 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, encoding a branched chain amino acid permease, is induced in response to the availability of several naturally occurring amino acids in the medium. This induction is mediated via an upstream activating sequence (called UASaa) in the BAP3 promo...

Boer, Marco de; Nielsen, Peter S.; Bebelman, Jan-Paul; Heerikhuizen, Harm van; Andersen, Helge A.; Planta, Rudi J.

302

Compensatory activation of the multidrug transporters Pdr5p, Snq2p, and Yor1p by Pdr1p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the transcription factors Pdr1p and Pdr3p activate the expression of several genes, including PDR5, SNQ2, and YOR1, which encode ATP-binding cassette transporters that extrude dozens of antifungals with overlapping but distinct specificity. In this study, it was observed...

Kolaczkowska, Anna; Kolaczkowski, Marcin; Goffeau, André; Moye-Rowley, W Scott

303

Ribosomal acidic phosphoproteins P1 and P2 are not required for cell viability but regulate the pattern of protein expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with either three inactivated genes (triple disruptants) or four inactivated genes (quadruple disruptants) encoding the four acidic ribosomal phosphoproteins, YP1 alpha, YP1 beta, YP2 alpha, and YP2 beta, present in this species have been obtained. Ribosomes from the...

Remacha, M; Jimenez-Diaz, A; Bermejo, B; Rodriguez-Gabriel, M A; Guarinos, E; Ballesta, J P

304

The Sup35 Omnipotent Suppressor Gene Is Involved in the Maintenance of the Non-Mendelian Determinant [Psi(+)] in the Yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae  

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The SUP35 gene of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a 76.5-kD ribosome-associated protein (Sup35p), the C-terminal part of which exhibits a high degree of similarity to EF-1? elongation factor, while its N-terminal region is unique. Mutations in or overexpression of the SUP35 gene can generate ...

Ter-Avanesyan, M. D.; Dagkesamanskaya, A. R.; Kushnirov, V. V.; Smirnov, V. N.

305

Unigenic Evolution: A Novel Genetic Method Localizes a Putative Leucine Zipper That Mediates Dimerization of the Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Regulator Gcr1p  

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The GCR1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a transcriptional activator that complexes with Rap1p and, through UAS(RPG) elements (Rap1p DNA binding sites), stimulates efficient expression of glycolytic and translational component genes. To map the functionally important domains in Gcr1p, we co...

Deminoff, S. J.; Tornow, J.; Santangelo, G. M.

306

Comparison between two selected Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains as fermentation starters in the production of traditional cachaça  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were tested as the starter yeasts in a traditional cachaça distillery. The strains used were S. cerevisiae UFMG-A829, isolated from a cachaça fermentation process, and S. cerevisiae K1-V1116, obtained from the wine industry. The permanence of each strain in the fermentation must was determined by RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA)-PCR, with primer M13. Both yeast strains were prevalent in the vats for approximately 30 days. Indigenous non-Saccharomyces and indigenous S. cerevisiae strains were isolated in lower counts during the fermentation period. Indigenous S. cerevisiae strains were molecularly distinct when compared to the starter yeasts. The two yeasts appeared promising starter yeasts in the fermentation process to produce traditional cachaça.Duas linhagens de Saccharomyces cerevisiae foram testadas como iniciadoras em uma destilaria de cachaça. Foram utilizadas as linhagens de S. cerevisiae UFMG-A829, isolada de fermentação de cachaça, e S. cerevisiae K1-V1116, de origem vinícola. A permanência de cada linhagem durante a fermentação foi determinada por RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA)-PCR, utilizando o iniciador M13. As duas linhagens predominaram nas dornas de fermentação por aproximadamente 30 dias. Leveduras não-Saccharomyces e S. cerevisiae indígenas foram isoladas em menor proporção durante o experimento. As linhagens de S. cerevisiae indígenas apresentaram perfis moleculares distintos em relação às linhagens iniciadoras. As duas linhagens foram promissoras para serem utilizadas como iniciadoras do processo fermentativo para a produção da cachaça.

Fátima de Cássia Oliveira Gomes; Roberta Amália de Carvalho Araújo; Patrícia Silva Cisalpino; Elizabeth Spangler Andrade Moreira; Carlos Leomar Zani; Carlos Augusto Rosa

2009-01-01

307

Comparison of heterologous xylose transporters in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) has been engineered for xylose utilization to enable production of fuel ethanol from lignocellulose raw material. One unresolved challenge is that S. cerevisiae lacks a dedicated transport system for pentose sugars, which means that xylose is transported by non-specific Hxt transporters with comparatively low transport rate and affinity for xylose. Results In this study, we compared three heterologous xylose transporters that have recently been shown to improve xylose uptake under different experimental conditions. The transporters Gxf1, Sut1 and At5g59250 from Candida intermedia, Pichia stipitis and Arabidopsis thaliana, respectively, were expressed in isogenic strains of S. cerevisiae and the transport kinetics and utilization of xylose was evaluated. Expression of the Gxf1 and Sut1 transporters led to significantly increased affinity and transport rates of xylose. In batch cultivation at 4 g/L xylose concentration, improved transport kinetics led to a corresponding increase in xylose utilization, whereas no correlation could be demonstrated at xylose concentrations greater than 15 g/L. The relative contribution of native sugar transporters to the overall xylose transport capacity was also estimated during growth on glucose and xylose. Conclusions Kinetic characterization and aerobic batch cultivation of strains expressing the Gxf1, Sut1 and At5g59250 transporters showed a direct relationship between transport kinetics and xylose growth. The Gxf1 transporter had the highest transport capacity and the highest xylose growth rate, followed by the Sut1 transporter. The range in which transport controlled the growth rate was determined to between 0 and 15 g/L xylose. The role of catabolite repression in regulation of native transporters was also confirmed by the observation that xylose transport by native S. cerevisiae transporters increased significantly during cultivation in xylose and at low glucose concentration.

Runquist David; Hahn-Hägerdal Bärbel; Rådström Peter

2010-01-01

308

Transcriptional profiling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae exposed to propolis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Propolis is a natural product of plant resins collected by honeybees (Apis mellifera) from various plant sources. Our previous studies indicated that propolis sensitivity is dependent on the mitochondrial function and that vacuolar acidification and autophagy are important for yeast cell death caused by propolis. Here, we extended our understanding of propolis-mediated cell death in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by applying systems biology tools to analyze the transcriptional profiling of cells exposed to propolis. METHODS: We have used transcriptional profiling of S. cerevisiae exposed to propolis. We validated our findings by using real-time PCR of selected genes. Systems biology tools (physical protein-protein interaction [PPPI] network) were applied to analyse the propolis-induced transcriptional bevavior, aiming to identify which pathways are modulated by propolis in S. cerevisiae and potentially influencing cell death. RESULTS: We were able to observe 1,339 genes modulated in at least one time point when compared to the reference time (propolis untreated samples) (t-test, p-value 0.01). Enrichment analysis performed by Gene Ontology (GO) Term finder tool showed enrichment for several biological categories among the genes up-regulated in the microarray hybridization such as transport and transmembrane transport and response to stress. Real-time RT-PCR analysis of selected genes showed by our microarray hybridization approach was capable of providing information about S. cerevisiae gene expression modulation with a considerably high level of confidence. Finally, a physical protein-protein (PPPI) network design and global topological analysis stressed the importance of these pathways in response of S. cerevisiae to propolis and were correlated with the transcriptional data obtained thorough the microarray analysis. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, our data indicate that propolis is largely affecting several pathways in the eukaryotic cell. However, the most prominent pathways are related to oxidative stress, mitochondrial electron transport chain, vacuolar acidification, regulation of macroautophagy associated with protein target to vacuole, cellular response to starvation, and negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. Our work emphasizes again the importance of S. cerevisiae as a model system to understand at molecular level the mechanism whereby propolis causes cell death in this organism at the concentration herein tested. Our study is the first one that investigates systematically by using functional genomics how propolis influences and modulates the mRNA abundance of an organism and may stimulate further work on the propolis-mediated cell death mechanisms in fungi.

de Castro PA; Savoldi M; Bonatto D; Malavazi I; Goldman MH; Berretta AA; Goldman GH

2012-01-01

309

Heterologous production of non-ribosomal peptide LLD-ACV in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Non-ribosomal peptides (NRPs) are a diverse family of secondary metabolites with a broad range of biological activities. We started to develop an eukaryotic microbial platform based on the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for heterologous production of NRPs using ?-(l-?-aminoadipyl)–l-cysteinyl–d-valine (ACV) as a model NRP. The Penicillium chrysogenum gene pcbAB encoding ACV synthetase was expressed in S. cerevisiae from a high-copy plasmid together with phosphopantetheinyl transferase (PPTase) encoding genes from Aspergillus nidulans, P. chrysogenum and Bacillus subtilis, and in all the three cases production of ACV was observed. To improve ACV synthesis, several factors were investigated. Codon optimization of the 5? end of pcbAB did not significantly increase ACV production. However, a 30-fold enhancement was achieved by lowering the cultivation temperature from 30 to 20 °C. When ACVS and PPTase encoding genes were integrated into the yeast genome, a 6-fold decrease in ACV production was observed indicatingthat gene copy number was one of the rate-limiting factors for ACV production in yeast.

Siewers, Verena; Chen, Xiao

2009-01-01

310

Robust industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for very high gravity bio-ethanol fermentations  

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The application and physiological background of two industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, isolated from harsh industrial environments, were studied in Very High Gravity (VHG) bio-ethanol fermentations. VHG laboratory fermentations, mimicking industrially relevant conditions, were performed wi...

Pereira, Francisco B.; Guimarães, Pedro M. R.; Teixeira, J. A.; Domingues, Lucília

311

Effects of Furfural on the Respiratory Metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Glucose-Limited Chemostats  

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Effects of furfural on the aerobic metabolism of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were studied by performing chemostat experiments, and the kinetics of furfural conversion was analyzed by performing dynamic experiments. Furfural, an important inhibitor present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, was ...

Sárvári Horváth, Ilona; Franzén, Carl Johan; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.; Niklasson, Claes; Lidén, Gunnar

312

Effects of furfural on the respiratory metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in glucose-limited chemostats,  

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Effects of furfural on the aerobic metabolism of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were studied by performing chemostat experiments, and the kinetics of furfural conversion was analyzed by performing dynamic experiments. Furfural, an important inhibitor present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, was ...

Sarvari Horvath, I; Franzén, C J; Taherzadeh, M J; Niklasson, C; Lidén, Gunnar

313

Modeling and optimization of ethanol fermentation using Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Response surface methodology and artificial neural network  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study, the capabilities of response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural networks (ANN) for modeling and optimization of ethanol production from glucoseusing Saccharomyces cerevisiae in batch fermentation process were investigated. Effect of three independent variables in a de...

Esfahanian Mehri; Nikzad Maryam; Najafpour Ghasem; Ghoreyshi Asghar Ali

314

Heterologous expression and purification of wheat storage proteins in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the context of the subproject “Expression und Produktion von Weizenspeicherproteinen in der Hefe Saccharomyces cerevisiae“ of the BMBF project „Entwicklung von Weizen-, Roggen- und Gerstenproteinen ohne Zöliakietoxizität und deren Verwendung zur Herstellung von Lebensmitteln“ (Förderkennzeichen 0...

Matthäus, Falk

315

Propranolol, atenolol, and trifluoperazine reduce the spontaneous occurrence of meiotic diploid products in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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The effect of atenolol, propranolol, trifluoperazine, and caffeine on the occurrence of meiotic diploid and disomic products in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated. We demonstrated that atenolol, propranolol, and trifluoperazine reduce the occurrence of meiotic diploid products and that propra...

Sora, S; Bianchi, M

316

Modulation of Promoter and Secretion Efficiency for Improved Heterologous Gene Expression in the Yeast 'Saccharomyces cerevisiae'.  

Science.gov (United States)

The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has certain advantages as a host for the production of heterologous proteins. It is a eukaryote, in which the production of proteins of higher eukaryotes may be more successful than in bacterial cells. Specific posttrans...

L. Ruohonen

1995-01-01

317

Isolation and Characterization of Omnipotent Suppressors in the Yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae  

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Approximately 290 omnipotent suppressors, which enhance translational misreading, were isolated in strains of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae containing the ?(+) extrachromosomal determinant. The suppressors could be assigned to 8 classes by their pattern of suppression of five nutritional marker...

Wakem, L. P.; Sherman, F.

318

Yap1: a DNA damage responder in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Activation of signaling pathways in response to genotoxic stress is crucial for cells to properly repair DNA damage. In response to DNA damage, intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species increase. One important function of such a response could be to initiate signal transduction processes. We have employed the model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae to delineate DNA damage sensing mechanisms. We report a novel, unanticipated role for the transcription factor Yap1 as a DNA damage responder, providing direct evidence that reactive oxygen species are an important component of the DNA damage signaling process. Our findings reveal an epistatic link between Yap1 and the DNA base excision repair pathway. Corruption of the Yap1-mediated DNA damage response influences cell survival and genomic stability in response to exposure to genotoxic agents.

Rowe LA; Degtyareva N; Doetsch PW

2012-04-01

319

Adsorption isotherm for uranyl biosorption by Saccharomyces cerevisiae biomass  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Biosorption of uranyl ions from aqueous solution by Saccharomyces cerevisiae was studied in a batch system. The influence of contact time, initial pH, temperature and initial concentration was investigated. The optimal conditions were found to be 3.5 h of contact time and pH = 4.5. Temperature had no significant effect on adsorption. The uptake of uranyl ions was relatively fast and 85 % of the sorption was completed within 10 min. The experimental data were well fitted with Langmuir isotherm model and pseudo-second order kinetic model. According to this kinetic model, the sorption capacity and the rate constant were 0.455 mmol UO22+/g dry biomass and 1.89 g mmol-1 min-1, respectively. The Langmuir isotherm indicated high affinity and capacity of the adsorbent for uranyl biosorption with the maximum loading of 0.477 mmol UO22+/g dry weight. (author)

2012-01-01

320

Phenotypic effects of membrane protein overexpression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Science.gov (United States)

Large-scale protein overexpression phenotype screens provide an important complement to the more common gene knockout screens. Here, we have targeted the so far poorly understood Saccharomyces cerevisiae membrane proteome and report growth phenotypes for a strain collection overexpressing 600 C-terminally tagged integral membrane proteins grown both under normal and three different stress conditions. Although overexpression of most membrane proteins reduce the growth rate in synthetic defined medium, we identify a large number of proteins that, when overexpressed, confer specific resistance to various stress conditions. Our data suggest that regulation of glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor biosynthesis and the Na+/K+ homeostasis system constitute major downstream targets of the yeast PKA/RAS pathway and point to a possible connection between the early secretory pathway and the cells' response to oxidative stress. We also have quantified the expression levels for >550 membrane proteins, facilitating the choice of well expressing proteins for future functional and structural studies. caffeine | paraquat | salt tolerance | yeast

Melén, Karin; Blomberg, Anders; von Heijne, Gunnar

2006-07-01

 
 
 
 
321

Structural properties of Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein complex network  

CERN Multimedia

Recent studies indicate that protein complexes rather than individual proteins are the functional units of the cell. A first step in the understanding of integration and coordination of these cellular functions is a comprehensive study of the structural features of the network of connections between these complexes. We use the recently obtained data based on tandem-affinity purification (TAP) and mass spectrometry, to study the structural features of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein complex network. We find striking similarities and differences between the structural properties of the networks of proteins and protein complexes. The network of complexes is still a small world network with scale free distributions for many of its properties (e.g. connectivity and size of complexes). However in contrast to the protein network, we find no correlations between the degrees of neighbouring complexes. There is also no correlation between the size of neighbouring complexes. Finally we propose a simple evolut...

Ramezanpour, A; Karimipour, V

2003-01-01

322

Higher-order structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromatin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have developed a method for partially purifying chromatin from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast) to a level suitable for studies of its higher-order folding. This has required the use of yeast strains that are free of the ubiquitous yeast killer virus. Results from dynamic light scattering, electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction show that the yeast chromatin undergoes a cation-dependent folding into 30-nm filaments that resemble those characteristic of higher-cell chromatin; moreover, the packing of nucleosomes within the yeast 30-nm filaments is similar to that of higher cells. These results imply that yeast has a protein or protein domain that serves the role of the histone H 1 found in higher cells; physical and genetic studies of the yeast activity could help elucidate the structure and function of H 1. Images of the yeast 30-nm filaments can be used to test crossed-linker models for 30-nm filament structure.

Lowary, P.T.; Widom, J. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana (USA))

1989-11-01

323

Uranium adsorption by dry and wet immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ISC) was prepared by the sodium alginate-gelatin embedding method after dry cells had been cross-linked by formaldehyde. Adsorption of uranium(VI) by incompletely and completely dry ISC was studied. The results indicated that incompletely dry ISC had greater adsorption capacity for U(VI), with physical adsorption being the primary mechanism, whereas completely dry ISC exhibited much greater rigidity and much smaller volume. Therefore, initial absorption of U(VI) by incompletely dry ISC followed by heating could be compared with glass solidification for disposal of radioactive waste. The influence of solution pH, temperature, and contact time on U(VI) absorption was also studied, with pH being found to be the main influencing factor. The adsorption mechanism of completely dry ISC was explored by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, indicating that the main adsorption mechanism is chemical adsorption. (author)

2012-01-01

324

The Influence of Microgravity on Invasive Growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates the effects of microgravity on colony growth and the morphological transition from single cells to short invasive filaments in the model eukaryotic organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Two-dimensional spreading of the yeast colonies grown on semi-solid agar medium was reduced under microgravity in the ?1278b laboratory strain but not in the CMBSESA1 industrial strain. This was supported by the ?1278b proteome map under microgravity conditions, which revealed upregulation of proteins linked to anaerobic conditions. The ?1278b strain showed a reduced invasive growth in the center of the yeast colony. Bud scar distribution was slightly affected, with a switch toward more random budding. Together, microgravity conditions disturb spatially programmed budding patterns and generate strain-dependent growth differences in yeast colonies on semi-solid medium.

Van Mulders, Sebastiaan E.; Stassen, Catherine; Daenen, Luk; Devreese, Bart; Siewers, Verena; van Eijsden, Rudy G. E.; Nielsen, Jens; Delvaux, Freddy R.; Willaert, Ronnie

2011-01-01

325

Unbiased segregation of yeast chromatids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is characterized by asymmetric cell division and the asymmetric inheritance of spindle components during normal vegetative growth and during certain specialized cell divisions. There has been a longstanding interest in the possibility that yeast chromosomes segregate non-randomly during mitosis and that some of the differences between mother and daughter cells could be explained by selective chromatid segregation. This review traces the history of the experiments to determine if there is biased chromatid segregation in yeast. The special aspects of spindle morphogenesis and behavior in yeast that could accommodate a mechanism for biased segregation are discussed. Finally, a recent experiment demonstrated that yeast chromatids segregate randomly without mother-daughter bias in a common laboratory strain grown under routine laboratory conditions.

Burke DJ

2013-05-01

326

Pyrimidine-specific cleavage by an endoribonuclease of Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An endoribonuclease with pyrimidine cleavage site specificity was isolated from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The enzyme had a pH optimum of 6 to 7 and did not require a divalent cation. It was inhibited by 5 x 10-5 M hetidium bromide, although it appeared to be single strand specific. The enzyme gave a limited cleavage of yeast mRNA and rRNA, yielding products that were terminated with pyrimidine nucleoside 2',3'-cyclic phosphate. The bonds between pyrimidine and A residues constituted more than 90% of the scission sites when the average product size was 50 nucloetides. Homopolyribonucleotides were cleaved poorly. Poly(A,U) was cleaved rapidly, and analysis of the products of poly(A,U) hydrolysis showed a very stringent cleavage of U-A bonds

1985-01-01

327

Mutations in Ran system affected telomere silencing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Ran GTPase system regulates the direction and timing of several cellular events, such as nuclear-cytosolic transport, centrosome formation, and nuclear envelope assembly in telophase. To gain insight into the Ran system's involvement in chromatin formation, we investigated gene silencing at the telomere in several mutants of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which had defects in genes involved in the Ran system. A mutation of the RanGAP gene, rna1-1, caused reduced silencing at the telomere, and partial disruption of the nuclear Ran binding factor, yrb2-?2, increased this silencing. The reduced telomere silencing in rna1-1 cells was suppressed by a high dosage of the SIR3 gene or the SIT4 gene. Furthermore, hyperphosphorylated Sir3 protein accumulated in the rna1-1 mutant. These results suggest that RanGAP is required for the heterochromatin structure at the telomere in budding yeast

2007-11-23

328

Adaptive answer to low ionizing radiation doses in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this work is to verify the existence of the adaptive response phenomenon induced by low doses of ionizing radiation in living cells. It is known that low doses of ionizing radiation, called conditioning doses, may induce resistance in exposed organisms to higher doses, called challenging doses, which are applied after a period of time. The involved mechanisms in this phenomenon, called Adaptive Response, are diverse and complex. Among them, the most important are the activation of DNA-repair enzymes and nuclear recombination process. As the 'target' sample, it was utilized a 'wild type' strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in aqueous suspension. Adaptive Response was verified in a wide range of challenging doses. Conditioning doses, inductors of radio-resistance, were (0.44±0.03) Gy and the waiting time between them and challenging doses was 2 hours at room temperature.(author)

2001-05-04

329

Higher-order structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromatin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have developed a method for partially purifying chromatin from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast) to a level suitable for studies of its higher-order folding. This has required the use of yeast strains that are free of the ubiquitous yeast killer virus. Results from dynamic light scattering, electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction show that the yeast chromatin undergoes a cation-dependent folding into 30-nm filaments that resemble those characteristic of higher-cell chromatin; moreover, the packing of nucleosomes within the yeast 30-nm filaments is similar to that of higher cells. These results imply that yeast has a protein or protein domain that serves the role of the histone H 1 found in higher cells; physical and genetic studies of the yeast activity could help elucidate the structure and function of H 1. Images of the yeast 30-nm filaments can be used to test crossed-linker models for 30-nm filament structure

1989-01-01

330

Functional attributes of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae meiotic recombinase Dmc1.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The role of Dmc1 as a meiosis-specific general recombinase was first demonstrated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Progress in understanding the biochemical mechanism of ScDmc1 has been hampered by its tendency to form inactive aggregates. We have found that the inclusion of ATP during protein purification prevents Dmc1 aggregation. ScDmc1 so prepared is capable of forming D-loops and responsive to its accessory factors Rad54 and Rdh54. Negative staining electron microscopy and iterative helical real-space reconstruction revealed that the ScDmc1-ssDNA nucleoprotein filament harbors 6.5 protomers per turn with a pitch of ?106?. The ScDmc1 purification procedure and companion molecular analyses should facilitate future studies on this recombinase.

Busygina V; Gaines WA; Xu Y; Kwon Y; Williams GJ; Lin SW; Chang HY; Chi P; Wang HW; Sung P

2013-09-01

331

Radioimmunoassay for yeast killer toxin from Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A radioimmunoassay was developed for the K1 killer toxin from strain T158C/S14a of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Iodine 125-labelled toxin was made to a specific activity of 100 ..mu..Ci/mg of protein. Antibody to purified toxin was prepared in rabbits using toxin cross-linked to itself. These antibodies, partially purified by 50 percent ammonium sulfate precipitation and Sepharose CL-6B column chromatography, produced one precipitation band with killer toxin and bound /sup 125/I-labelled toxin in a radioimmunoassay. The antibody preparation also bound with the toxins from another K1 killer, A364A, and three chromosomal superkiller mutants derived from it.

Siddiqui, F.A.; Bussey, H. (McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Biology)

1981-08-01

332

Genetic and molecular analysis of mitotic recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Many systems have been developed for the study of mitotic homologous recombination (HR) in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae at both genetic and molecular levels. Such systems are of great use for the analysis of different features of HR as well as of the effect of mutations, transcription, etc., on HR. Here we describe a selection of plasmid- and chromosome-borne DNA repeat assays, as well as plasmid-chromosome recombination systems, which are useful for the analysis of spontaneous and DSB-induced recombination. They can easily be used in diploid and, most importantly, in haploid yeast cells, which is a great advantage to analyze the effect of recessive mutations on HR. Such systems were designed for the analysis of a number of different HR features, which include the frequency and length of the gene conversion events, the frequency of reciprocal exchanges, the proportion of gene conversion versus reciprocal exchange, or the molecular analysis of sister chromatid exchange.

Gómez-González B; Ruiz JF; Aguilera A

2011-01-01

333

Mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with defective vacuolar function  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mutants of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that have a small vacuolar lysine pool were isolated and characterized. Mutant KL97 (lys1 slp1-1) and strain KL197-1A (slp1-1), a prototrophic derivative of KL97, did not grow well in synthetic medium supplemented with 10 mM lysine. Genetic studies indicated that the slp1-1mutation (for small lysine pool) is recessive and is due to a single chromosomal mutation. Mutant KL97 shows the following pleiotropic defects in vacuolar functions. (i) It has small vacuolar pools for lysine, arginine, and histidine. (ii) Its growth is sensitive to lysine, histidine, Ca/sup 2 +/, heavy metal ions, and antibiotics. (iii) It has many small vesicles but no large central vacuole. (iv) It has a normal amount of the vacuolar membrane marker ..cap alpha..-mannosidase but shows reduced activities of the vacuole sap markers proteinase A, proteinase B, and carboxypeptidase Y.

Kitamoto, K.; Yoshizawa, K.; Ohsumi, Y.; Anraku, Y.

1988-06-01

334

Partial purification of Holliday junction resolvase activity from Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Toward the goal of understanding genetic recombination on a molecular level, we are focusing on the essential final step, resolution of the Holliday junction intermediate. This report describes progress in the purification and characterization of this activity from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Resolvase activity is assayed by conversion of cruciform-containing supercoiled pBR322 dimer DNA or cruciform-containing supercoiled ColE1 DNA to linear forms by cleavage at the base of the cruciform. Resolvase activity, which can be detected in cell-free extracts prepared from haploid and diploid mitotic cells, is dependent on the presence of magnesium, is independent of ATP, and the reaction is inhabited by concentrations of sodium or potassium chloride of 100 mM or greater. Linear DNA is not a substrate for this activity. 6 refs., 8 figs

1987-01-01

335

Clathrin, adaptors and disease: insights from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Since the identification of clathrin as a vesicular coat protein, numerous studies have contributed to our understanding of the role of clathrin and clathrin-mediated trafficking pathways in cell function. The budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, offers a wealth of highly developed approaches that have been applied to study clathrin-mediated trafficking events, most of which are conserved in mammalian cells. Here we review the function of clathrin and clathrin adaptors in yeast. We also discuss the role of these proteins in human disease and how certain pathogens have co-opted trafficking pathways for their own use. These studies highlight the advantages of studying complex trafficking events using yeast as a model.

Myers MD; Payne GS

2013-01-01

336

Impact of systems biology on metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Industrial biotechnology is a rapidly growing field. With the increasing shift towards a bio-based economy, there is rising demand for developing efficient cell factories that can produce fuels, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, materials, nutraceuticals, and even food ingredients. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is extremely well suited for this objective. As one of the most intensely studied eukaryotic model organisms, a rich density of knowledge detailing its genetics, biochemistry, physiology, and large-scale fermentation performance can be capitalized upon to enable a substantial increase in the industrial application of this yeast. Developments in genomics and high-throughput systems biology tools are enhancing one's ability to rapidly characterize cellular behaviour, which is valuable in the field of metabolic engineering where strain characterization is often the bottleneck in strain development programmes. Here, the impact of systems biology on metabolic engineering is reviewed and perspectives on the role of systems biology in the design of cell factories are given.

Nielsen, Jens; Jewett, Michael Christopher

2008-01-01

337

Fermentation kinetics of spent sulfite liquor by Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The growth kinetics of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the production rate of ethanol have been studied in batch fermentation under anaerobic conditions in a 20-liter fermentor. Two substrates were used in fermentation trials: a synthetic mixture of three fermentable sugars, D-glucose, D-mannose, and D-galactose, and a low-yield liquor originating from a bisufite cooking process. The Monod model adequately described the system in relation to the specific growth rate, ..mu..x and the specific product formation rate, ..mu..p. Different fermentation parameters (growth rate, substrate utilization, and product formation) were determined for the synthetic mixture and the bisulfite liquor. It was observed that the specific growth rate is much lower in spent sulfite liquor than in synthetic medium. However, the specific product formation rate remains the same in both media.

Safi, B.F.; Rouleau, D.; Mayer, R.C.; Desrochers, M.

1986-07-01

338

Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a potential biosorbent for biosorption of uranium.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper projects the potential of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in biosorbing U (VI) ion on nonliving biomass of specie in batch system with respect to pH, Biosorbent dose, Initial metal concentration, Contact time and Particle size. From the batch studies, it was found that the fungal biomass exhibited the optimum Uranium uptake at pH 5 and 100 ?m particle size, adsorbent dose of 10g/L and initial metal concentration of 100mg/L. Maximum uptake was observed after the Contact time of 75 minutes. Sorption isotherms were interpreted interms of Langmuir and Freundlich models. Equilibrium data fitted well to Langmuir model and Uptake kinetic followed pseudo-second order model. Base treatment was found to enhance the metal removal ability of untreated biomass. The mechanism of process was gained by FTIR and SEM. IR spectra analysis revealed that Carbonyl and amino groups have played important role in U (VI) biosorption.

PROF. RAJESH DHANKHAR; ANJU HOODA; RADHA SOLANKI; POONAM AHLAWAT SAINGER

2011-01-01

339

Anaplerotic Role for Cytosolic Malic Enzyme in Engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains?  

Science.gov (United States)

Malic enzyme catalyzes the reversible oxidative decarboxylation of malate to pyruvate and CO2. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae MAE1 gene encodes a mitochondrial malic enzyme whose proposed physiological roles are related to the oxidative, malate-decarboxylating reaction. Hitherto, the inability of pyruvate carboxylase-negative (Pyc?) S. cerevisiae strains to grow on glucose suggested that Mae1p cannot act as a pyruvate-carboxylating, anaplerotic enzyme. In this study, relocation of malic enzyme to the cytosol and creation of thermodynamically favorable conditions for pyruvate carboxylation by metabolic engineering, process design, and adaptive evolution, enabled malic enzyme to act as the sole anaplerotic enzyme in S. cerevisiae. The Escherichia coli NADH-dependent sfcA malic enzyme was expressed in a Pyc? S. cerevisiae background. When PDC2, a transcriptional regulator of pyruvate decarboxylase genes, was deleted to increase intracellular pyruvate levels and cells were grown under a CO2 atmosphere to favor carboxylation, adaptive evolution yielded a strain that grew on glucose (specific growth rate, 0.06 ± 0.01 h?1). Growth of the evolved strain was enabled by a single point mutation (Asp336Gly) that switched the cofactor preference of E. coli malic enzyme from NADH to NADPH. Consistently, cytosolic relocalization of the native Mae1p, which can use both NADH and NADPH, in a pyc1,2? pdc2? strain grown under a CO2 atmosphere, also enabled slow-growth on glucose. Although growth rates of these strains are still low, the higher ATP efficiency of carboxylation via malic enzyme, compared to the pyruvate carboxylase pathway, may contribute to metabolic engineering of S. cerevisiae for anaerobic, high-yield C4-dicarboxylic acid production.

Zelle, Rintze M.; Harrison, Jacob C.; Pronk, Jack T.; van Maris, Antonius J. A.

2011-01-01

340

Anaplerotic role for cytosolic malic enzyme in engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malic enzyme catalyzes the reversible oxidative decarboxylation of malate to pyruvate and CO(2). The Saccharomyces cerevisiae MAE1 gene encodes a mitochondrial malic enzyme whose proposed physiological roles are related to the oxidative, malate-decarboxylating reaction. Hitherto, the inability of pyruvate carboxylase-negative (Pyc(-)) S. cerevisiae strains to grow on glucose suggested that Mae1p cannot act as a pyruvate-carboxylating, anaplerotic enzyme. In this study, relocation of malic enzyme to the cytosol and creation of thermodynamically favorable conditions for pyruvate carboxylation by metabolic engineering, process design, and adaptive evolution, enabled malic enzyme to act as the sole anaplerotic enzyme in S. cerevisiae. The Escherichia coli NADH-dependent sfcA malic enzyme was expressed in a Pyc(-) S. cerevisiae background. When PDC2, a transcriptional regulator of pyruvate decarboxylase genes, was deleted to increase intracellular pyruvate levels and cells were grown under a CO(2) atmosphere to favor carboxylation, adaptive evolution yielded a strain that grew on glucose (specific growth rate, 0.06 ± 0.01 h(-1)). Growth of the evolved strain was enabled by a single point mutation (Asp336Gly) that switched the cofactor preference of E. coli malic enzyme from NADH to NADPH. Consistently, cytosolic relocalization of the native Mae1p, which can use both NADH and NADPH, in a pyc1,2? pdc2? strain grown under a CO(2) atmosphere, also enabled slow-growth on glucose. Although growth rates of these strains are still low, the higher ATP efficiency of carboxylation via malic enzyme, compared to the pyruvate carboxylase pathway, may contribute to metabolic engineering of S. cerevisiae for anaerobic, high-yield C(4)-dicarboxylic acid production. PMID:21131518

Zelle, Rintze M; Harrison, Jacob C; Pronk, Jack T; van Maris, Antonius J A

2010-12-03

 
 
 
 
341

Repair of UV-damaged incoming plasmid DNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A whole-cell transformation assay was used for the repair of UV-damaged plasma DNA in highly-transformable haploid strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae having different repair capabilities. The experiments described demonstrate that three epistasis groups (Friedberg 1988) are involved in the repair of UV-incoming DNA and that the repair processes act less efficiently on incoming DNA than they do on chromosomal DNA. The implications of these findings for UV repair in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed. (author)

1990-01-01

342

Repair of UV-damaged incoming plasmid DNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A whole-cell transformation assay was used for the repair of UV-damaged plasma DNA in highly-transformable haploid strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae having different repair capabilities. The experiments described demonstrate that three epistasis groups (Friedberg 1988) are involved in the repair of UV-incoming DNA and that the repair processes act less efficiently on incoming DNA than they do on chromosomal DNA. The implications of these findings for UV repair in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed. (author).

Keszenman-Pereyra, David (Rikkyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Physics)

1990-03-01

343

Water treatment process and system for metals removal using Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A process and a system for removal of metals from ground water or from soil by bioreducing or bioaccumulating the metals using metal tolerant microorganisms Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is tolerant to the metals, able to bioreduce the metals to the less toxic state and to accumulate them. The process and the system is useful for removal or substantial reduction of levels of chromium, molybdenum, cobalt, zinc, nickel, calcium, strontium, mercury and copper in water.

Krauter, Paula A. W. (Livermore, CA); Krauter, Gordon W. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01

344

Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the production of n-butanol  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing energy costs and environmental concerns have motivated engineering microbes for the production of "second generation" biofuels that have better properties than ethanol. Results and conclusion Saccharomyces cerevisiae was engineered with an n-butanol biosynthetic pathway, in which isozymes from a number of different organisms (S. cerevisiae, Escherichia coli, Clostridium beijerinckii, and Ralstonia eutropha) were substituted for the Clostridial enzymes and their effect on n-butanol production was compared. By choosing the appropriate isozymes, we were able to improve production of n-butanol ten-fold to 2.5 mg/L. The most productive strains harbored the C. beijerinckii 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase, which uses NADH as a co-factor, rather than the R. eutropha isozyme, which uses NADPH, and the acetoacetyl-CoA transferase from S. cerevisiae or E. coli rather than that from R. eutropha. Surprisingly, expression of the genes encoding the butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase from C. beijerinckii (bcd and etfAB) did not improve butanol production significantly as previously reported in E. coli. Using metabolite analysis, we were able to determine which steps in the n-butanol biosynthetic pathway were the most problematic and ripe for future improvement.

Steen Eric J; Chan Rossana; Prasad Nilu; Myers Samuel; Petzold Christopher J; Redding Alyssa; Ouellet Mario; Keasling Jay D

2008-01-01

345

Characterizing the effect of nitrosative stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nitrosative stress has various pathophysiological implications. We here present a detailed characterization on the effect of nitrosative stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae wild-type (Y190) and its isogenic flavohemoglobin mutant (Deltayhb1) strain grown in presence of non fermentable carbon source. On addition of sub-toxic dose of nitrosating agent both the strains showed microbiostatic effect. Cellular respiration was found to be significantly affected in both the strains in presence sodium nitroprusside. Although there was no alteration in mitochondrial permeability potential changes and reactive oxygen species production in both the strains but the cellular redox status is differentially regulated in Deltayhb1 strain both in cytosol and in mitochondria indicating cellular glutathione is the major player in absence of flavohemoglobin. We also found important role(s) of various redox active enzymes like glutathione reductase and catalase in protection against nitrosative stress. This is the first report of its kind where the effect of nitrosative stress has been evaluated in S. cerevisiae cytosol as well as in mitochondria under respiratory proficient conditions.

Bhattacharjee A; Majumdar U; Maity D; Sarkar TS; Goswami AM; Sahoo R; Ghosh S

2010-04-01

346

Characterizing the effect of nitrosative stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nitrosative stress has various pathophysiological implications. We here present a detailed characterization on the effect of nitrosative stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae wild-type (Y190) and its isogenic flavohemoglobin mutant (Deltayhb1) strain grown in presence of non fermentable carbon source. On addition of sub-toxic dose of nitrosating agent both the strains showed microbiostatic effect. Cellular respiration was found to be significantly affected in both the strains in presence sodium nitroprusside. Although there was no alteration in mitochondrial permeability potential changes and reactive oxygen species production in both the strains but the cellular redox status is differentially regulated in Deltayhb1 strain both in cytosol and in mitochondria indicating cellular glutathione is the major player in absence of flavohemoglobin. We also found important role(s) of various redox active enzymes like glutathione reductase and catalase in protection against nitrosative stress. This is the first report of its kind where the effect of nitrosative stress has been evaluated in S. cerevisiae cytosol as well as in mitochondria under respiratory proficient conditions. PMID:20153714

Bhattacharjee, Arindam; Majumdar, Uddalak; Maity, Debasis; Sarkar, Tuhin Subhra; Goswami, Achintya Mohan; Sahoo, Rupam; Ghosh, Sanjay

2010-02-12

347

Metabolic fluxes regulate the success of sporulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work we investigated to what extent cellular metabolism and energetics regulate sporulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and which metabolic pathways are involved in such regulation. Sporulation, meiosis, and associated metabolic fluxes in S. cerevisiae strain CH1211 were studied in several experimental protocols involving changes of carbon source (acetate, lactate, or pyruvate) or cell density in sporulation medium, or changing the phase of batch growth at which cells were harvested before transfer to sporulation medium. In acetate-based sporulation medium, the rate at which cells utilized glyoxylate and gluconeogenic pathways correlated positively with the percentage of asci per cell at 72 h. In contrast, in lactate sporulation medium the frequency of sporulation correlated negatively with both the rate of lactate consumption and the fluxes through gluconeogenesis and the pyruvate-carboxylase catalyzed step. In the presence of lactate, the respiratory capacity did correlate positively with the percentage of asci per cell. The experimental data suggest that acetate limits fluxes to anabolic precursors during sporulation. In contrast, sporulation on lactate appears to be influenced by catabolic processes or, even more precisely, by the respiratory capacity of yeast cells. The results obtained are discussed in terms of the hypothesis that an imbalance between anabolic and catabolic fluxes may be required for an efficient sporulation. PMID:8549658

Aon, J C; Rapisarda, V A; Cortassa, S

1996-01-10

348

Generation of aroma compounds from Ditaxis heterantha by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ditaxis heterantha, a plant of the Euphorbiaceae family, is growing wild in the semiarid regions of Mexico. The seed endosperm contains yellow pigments (carotenoids). By high-pressure liquid chromatography the total pigment (TP) was separated into seven fractions: two of them, heterathin (F4) and ditaxin (F5), characterized as apocarotenoids, represent 80% of TP. Both molecules have double bonds, which seem to be the target for degradation and aroma formation. In this work, TP, F4, and F5 were supplied to nine cultures able to degrade lutein. From these strains, only one (identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was able to produce aromas from either TP or F4. Using TP as substrate, the produced aromas were 4-oxo-isophorone (1), isophorone (2), cinnamic aldehyde (6), 3-hydroxy-beta-cyclocitral (7), safranal (8), geranyl (9), 3-oxo-alpha-ionone (10), 3-oxo-alpha-ionol (11), 3-oxo-7,8-dihydro-alpha-ionone (12), and eugenol (13). Of these aromas, only seven were produced from F4: (1), (2), (7), (8), (10), (11), and (12). In both cases, safranal was the main degradation product (30%). The enzymatic activity responsible for this effect was found in the cytosolic fraction and detected only when S. cerevisiae was grown in the presence of TP or F4.

Del Toro-Sánchez L; Sánchez S; Ortiz MA; Villanueva S; Lugo-Cervantes E

2006-08-01

349

Sweet wine production by two osmotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce sweet wine is difficult because yeast is affected by a hyperosmotic stress due to the high sugar concentrations in the fermenting must. One possible alternative could be the coimmobilization of the osmotolerant yeast strains S. cerevisiae X4 and X5 on Penicillium chrysogenum strain H3 (GRAS) for the partial fermentation of raisin musts. This immobilized has been, namely, as yeast biocapsules. Traditional sweet wine (that is, without fermentation of the must) and must partially fermented by free yeast cells were also used for comparison. Partially fermented sweet wines showed higher concentration of the volatile compounds than traditionally produced wines. The wines obtained by immobilized yeast cells reached minor concentrations of major alcohols than wines by free cells. The consumption of specific nitrogen compounds was dependent on yeast strain and the cellular immobilization. A principal component analysis shows that the compounds related to the response to osmotic stress (glycerol, acetaldehyde, acetoin, and butanediol) clearly differentiate the wines obtained with free yeasts but not the wines obtained with immobilized yeasts.

García-Martínez T; de Lerma NL; Moreno J; Peinado RA; Millán MC; Mauricio JC

2013-06-01

350

Generation of aroma compounds from Ditaxis heterantha by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ditaxis heterantha, a plant of the Euphorbiaceae family, is growing wild in the semiarid regions of Mexico. The seed endosperm contains yellow pigments (carotenoids). By high-pressure liquid chromatography the total pigment (TP) was separated into seven fractions: two of them, heterathin (F4) and ditaxin (F5), characterized as apocarotenoids, represent 80% of TP. Both molecules have double bonds, which seem to be the target for degradation and aroma formation. In this work, TP, F4, and F5 were supplied to nine cultures able to degrade lutein. From these strains, only one (identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was able to produce aromas from either TP or F4. Using TP as substrate, the produced aromas were 4-oxo-isophorone (1), isophorone (2), cinnamic aldehyde (6), 3-hydroxy-beta-cyclocitral (7), safranal (8), geranyl (9), 3-oxo-alpha-ionone (10), 3-oxo-alpha-ionol (11), 3-oxo-7,8-dihydro-alpha-ionone (12), and eugenol (13). Of these aromas, only seven were produced from F4: (1), (2), (7), (8), (10), (11), and (12). In both cases, safranal was the main degradation product (30%). The enzymatic activity responsible for this effect was found in the cytosolic fraction and detected only when S. cerevisiae was grown in the presence of TP or F4. PMID:16547703

Del Toro-Sánchez, L; Sánchez, S; Ortiz, M A; Villanueva, S; Lugo-Cervantes, E

2006-03-18

351

Production of 2,3-butanediol by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to produce 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) with a high titer, it is necessary to engineer Saccharomyces cerevisiae by deleting the competing pathway and overexpressing the 2,3-BD biosynthetic pathway. A pyruvate decarboxylase (Pdc)-deficient mutant was constructed and evolved for rapid glucose consumption without ethanol production. Genome re-sequencing of the evolved strain (SOS4) revealed a point mutation (A81P) in MTH1 coding for a transcriptional regulator involved in glucose sensing, unlike the previously reported Pdc-deficient mutant which had internal deletion in MTH1. When alsS and alsD genes from Bacillus subtilis, and endogenous BDH1 gene were overexpressed in SOS4, the resulting strain (BD4) not only produced 2,3-BD efficiently, but also consumed glucose faster than the parental strain. In fed-batch fermentation with optimum aeration, 2,3-BD concentration increased up to 96.2g/L. These results suggest that S. cerevisiae might be a promising host for producing 2,3-BD for industrial applications. PMID:23941711

Kim, Soo-Jung; Seo, Seung-Oh; Jin, Yong-Su; Seo, Jin-Ho

2013-07-24

352

Sweet wine production by two osmotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce sweet wine is difficult because yeast is affected by a hyperosmotic stress due to the high sugar concentrations in the fermenting must. One possible alternative could be the coimmobilization of the osmotolerant yeast strains S. cerevisiae X4 and X5 on Penicillium chrysogenum strain H3 (GRAS) for the partial fermentation of raisin musts. This immobilized has been, namely, as yeast biocapsules. Traditional sweet wine (that is, without fermentation of the must) and must partially fermented by free yeast cells were also used for comparison. Partially fermented sweet wines showed higher concentration of the volatile compounds than traditionally produced wines. The wines obtained by immobilized yeast cells reached minor concentrations of major alcohols than wines by free cells. The consumption of specific nitrogen compounds was dependent on yeast strain and the cellular immobilization. A principal component analysis shows that the compounds related to the response to osmotic stress (glycerol, acetaldehyde, acetoin, and butanediol) clearly differentiate the wines obtained with free yeasts but not the wines obtained with immobilized yeasts. PMID:23601087

García-Martínez, Teresa; de Lerma, Nieves López; Moreno, Juan; Peinado, Rafael A; Millán, M Carmen; Mauricio, Juan C

2013-04-19

353

Coordinated induction of multi-gene pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacterial operons are nature’s tool for regulating and coordinating multi-gene expression in prokaryotes. They are also a gene architecture commonly used in the biosynthesis of many pharmaceutically important compounds and industrially useful chemicals. Despite being an important eukaryotic production host, Saccharomyces cerevisiae has never had such gene architecture. Here, we report the development of a system to assemble and regulate a multi-gene pathway in S. cerevisiae. Full pathways can be constructed using pre-made parts from a plasmid toolbox. Subsequently, through the use of a yeast strain containing a stably integrated gene switch, the assembled pathway can be regulated using a readily available and inexpensive compound—estradiol—with extremely high sensitivity (10 nM). To demonstrate the use of the system, we assembled the five-gene zeaxanthin biosynthetic pathway in a single step and showed the ligand-dependent coordinated expression of all five genes as well as the tightly regulated production of zeaxanthin. Compared with a previously reported constitutive zeaxanthin pathway, our inducible pathway was shown to have 50-fold higher production level.

Liang, Jing; Ning, Jonathan C.; Zhao, Huimin

2013-01-01

354

Coordinated induction of multi-gene pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bacterial operons are nature's tool for regulating and coordinating multi-gene expression in prokaryotes. They are also a gene architecture commonly used in the biosynthesis of many pharmaceutically important compounds and industrially useful chemicals. Despite being an important eukaryotic production host, Saccharomyces cerevisiae has never had such gene architecture. Here, we report the development of a system to assemble and regulate a multi-gene pathway in S. cerevisiae. Full pathways can be constructed using pre-made parts from a plasmid toolbox. Subsequently, through the use of a yeast strain containing a stably integrated gene switch, the assembled pathway can be regulated using a readily available and inexpensive compound-estradiol-with extremely high sensitivity (10 nM). To demonstrate the use of the system, we assembled the five-gene zeaxanthin biosynthetic pathway in a single step and showed the ligand-dependent coordinated expression of all five genes as well as the tightly regulated production of zeaxanthin. Compared with a previously reported constitutive zeaxanthin pathway, our inducible pathway was shown to have 50-fold higher production level.

Liang J; Ning JC; Zhao H

2013-02-01

355

The mannoprotein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an effective bioemulsifier.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The mannoprotein which is a major component of the cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an effective bioemulsifier. Mannoprotein emulsifier was extracted in a high yield from whole cells of fresh bakers' yeast by two methods, by autoclaving in neutral citrate buffer and by digestion with Zymolase (Miles Laboratories; Toronto, Ontario, Canada), a beta-1,3-glucanase. Heat-extracted emulsifier was purified by ultrafiltration and contained approximately 44% carbohydrate (mannose) and 17% protein. Treatment of the emulsifier with protease eliminated emulsification. Kerosene-in-water emulsions were stabilized over a broad range of conditions, from pH 2 to 11, with up to 5% sodium chloride or up to 50% ethanol in the aqueous phase. In the presence of a low concentration of various solutes, emulsions were stable to three cycles of freezing and thawing. An emulsifying agent was extracted from each species or strain of yeast tested, including 13 species of genera other than Saccharomyces. Spent yeast from the manufacture of beer and wine was demonstrated to be a possible source for the large-scale production of this bioemulsifier.

Cameron DR; Cooper DG; Neufeld RJ

1988-06-01

356

Influence of temperature and nutrient strength on the susceptibility of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to heavy metals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Saccharomyces cerevisiae is not only a key microorganism in brewing or fermentation processes, it has also been employed for monitoring aquatic pollutants. The major advantage of using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a bioassay system is that this yeast can be easily obtained as dry pellets from commercial sources at low cost. In addition to its economical aspect, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, like other microorganisms, is easy to handle, grows rapidly, and provides a large number of homogeneous individuals for utilization in toxicity tests. Although cell growth, cell viability, electron transport and mitochondrial respiration of Saccharomyces cerevisiaes have all been selected as parameters for toxicity assessment, measuring cell growth by absorbance is by farm the most convenient and rapid method when large amounts of water samples are to be tested. Mochida et al. (1988), however, reported that Saccharomyces cerevisiae was five to ten times less sensitive than cell culture systems to cadmium, mercury and nickel, when cell growth of both systems was monitored. This relative insensitivity to heavy metals might handicap the practical use of this yeast strain for bioassays. Since previous studies indicated that the susceptibility of microorganisms to environmental toxicants can be influenced by incubation temperature and nutrient strength, we attempted to examine the effect of incubation temperature and nutrient strength on the susceptibility of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to heavy metals in order to obtain the optimum bioassay sensitivity. In this study, we used cadmium and mercury as model toxicants. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Hsu, T.; Lee, L.W.; Chang, T.H. (Development Center for Biotechnology, Taiwan (China))

1992-09-01

357

Heat shock response improves heterologous protein secretion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a widely used platform for the production of heterologous proteins of medical or industrial interest. However, heterologous protein productivity is often low due to limitations of the host strain. Heat shock response (HSR) is an inducible, global, cellular stress response, which facilitates the cell recovery from many forms of stress, e.g., heat stress. In S. cerevisiae, HSR is regulated mainly by the transcription factor heat shock factor (Hsf1p) and many of its targets are genes coding for molecular chaperones that promote protein folding and prevent the accumulation of mis-folded or aggregated proteins. In this work, we over-expressed a mutant HSF1 gene HSF1-R206S which can constitutively activate HSR, so the heat shock response was induced at different levels, and we studied the impact of HSR on heterologous protein secretion. We found that moderate and high level over-expression of HSF1-R206S increased heterologous ?-amylase yield 25 and 70 % when glucose was fully consumed, and 37 and 62 % at the end of the ethanol phase, respectively. Moderate and high level over-expression also improved endogenous invertase yield 118 and 94 %, respectively. However, human insulin precursor was only improved slightly and this only by high level over-expression of HSF1-R206S, supporting our previous findings that the production of this protein in S. cerevisiae is not limited by secretion. Our results provide an effective strategy to improve protein secretion and demonstrated an approach that can induce ER and cytosolic chaperones simultaneously.

Hou J; Osterlund T; Liu Z; Petranovic D; Nielsen J

2013-04-01

358

Physiological adaptations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae evolved for improved butanol tolerance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Butanol is a chemical with potential uses as biofuel and solvent, which can be produced by microbial fermentation. However, the end product toxicity is one of the main obstacles for developing the production process irrespective of the choice of production organism. The long-term goal of the present project is to produce 2-butanol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Therefore, unraveling the toxicity mechanisms of solvents such as butanol and understanding the mechanisms by which tolerant strains of S. cerevisiae adapt to them would be an important contribution to the development of a bio-based butanol production process. RESULTS: A butanol tolerant S. cerevisiae was achieved through a series of sequential batch cultures with gradual increase of 2-butanol concentration. The final mutant (JBA-mut) tolerates all different alcohols tested at higher concentrations compared to the wild type (JBA-wt). Proteomics analysis of the two strains grown under mild butanol-stress revealed 46 proteins changing their expression by more than 1.5-fold in JBA-mut, 34 of which were upregulated. Strikingly, 21 out of the 34 upregulated proteins were predicted constituents of mitochondria. Among the non-mitochondrial up-regulated proteins, the minor isoform of Glycerol-3-phosphatase (Gpp2) was the most notable, since it was the only tested protein whose overexpression was found to confer butanol tolerance. CONCLUSION: The study demonstrates several differences between the butanol tolerant mutant and the wild type. Upregulation of proteins involved in the mitochondrial ATP synthesizing machinery constituents and glycerol biosynthesis seem to be beneficial for a successful adaptation of yeast cells to butanol stress.

Ghiaci P; Norbeck J; Larsson C

2013-01-01

359

Non-Coding RNA Prediction and Verification in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Science.gov (United States)

Non-coding RNA (ncRNA) play an important and varied role in cellular function. A significant amount of research has been devoted to computational prediction of these genes from genomic sequence, but the ability to do so has remained elusive due to a lack of apparent genomic features. In this work, thermodynamic stability of ncRNA structural elements, as summarized in a Z-score, is used to predict ncRNA in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This analysis was coupled with comparative genomics to search for ncRNA genes on chromosome six of S. cerevisiae and S. bayanus. Sets of positive and negative control genes were evaluated to determine the efficacy of thermodynamic stability for discriminating ncRNA from background sequence. The effect of window sizes and step sizes on the sensitivity of ncRNA identification was also explored. Non-coding RNA gene candidates, common to both S. cerevisiae and S. bayanus, were verified using northern blot analysis, rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), and publicly available cDNA library data. Four ncRNA transcripts are well supported by experimental data (RUF10, RUF11, RUF12, RUF13), while one additional putative ncRNA transcript is well supported but the data are not entirely conclusive. Six candidates appear to be structural elements in 5? or 3? untranslated regions of annotated protein-coding genes. This work shows that thermodynamic stability, coupled with comparative genomics, can be used to predict ncRNA with significant structural elements.

Kavanaugh, Laura A.; Dietrich, Fred S.

2009-01-01

360

Heat shock response improves heterologous protein secretion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a widely used platform for the production of heterologous proteins of medical or industrial interest. However, heterologous protein productivity is often low due to limitations of the host strain. Heat shock response (HSR) is an inducible, global, cellular stress response, which facilitates the cell recovery from many forms of stress, e.g., heat stress. In S. cerevisiae, HSR is regulated mainly by the transcription factor heat shock factor (Hsf1p) and many of its targets are genes coding for molecular chaperones that promote protein folding and prevent the accumulation of mis-folded or aggregated proteins. In this work, we over-expressed a mutant HSF1 gene HSF1-R206S which can constitutively activate HSR, so the heat shock response was induced at different levels, and we studied the impact of HSR on heterologous protein secretion. We found that moderate and high level over-expression of HSF1-R206S increased heterologous ?-amylase yield 25 and 70 % when glucose was fully consumed, and 37 and 62 % at the end of the ethanol phase, respectively. Moderate and high level over-expression also improved endogenous invertase yield 118 and 94 %, respectively. However, human insulin precursor was only improved slightly and this only by high level over-expression of HSF1-R206S, supporting our previous findings that the production of this protein in S. cerevisiae is not limited by secretion. Our results provide an effective strategy to improve protein secretion and demonstrated an approach that can induce ER and cytosolic chaperones simultaneously. PMID:23208612

Hou, Jin; Osterlund, Tobias; Liu, Zihe; Petranovic, Dina; Nielsen, Jens

2012-12-04

 
 
 
 
361

High level secretion of cellobiohydrolases by Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The main technological impediment to widespread utilization of lignocellulose for the production of fuels and chemicals is the lack of low-cost technologies to overcome its recalcitrance. Organisms that hydrolyze lignocellulose and produce a valuable product such as ethanol at a high rate and titer could significantly reduce the costs of biomass conversion technologies, and will allow separate conversion steps to be combined in a consolidated bioprocess (CBP). Development of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for CBP requires the high level secretion of cellulases, particularly cellobiohydrolases. Results We expressed various cellobiohydrolases to identify enzymes that were efficiently secreted by S. cerevisiae. For enhanced cellulose hydrolysis, we engineered bimodular derivatives of a well secreted enzyme that naturally lacks the carbohydrate-binding module, and constructed strains expressing combinations of cbh1 and cbh2 genes. Though there was significant variability in the enzyme levels produced, up to approximately 0.3 g/L CBH1 and approximately 1 g/L CBH2 could be produced in high cell density fermentations. Furthermore, we could show activation of the unfolded protein response as a result of cellobiohydrolase production. Finally, we report fermentation of microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel™) to ethanol by CBH-producing S. cerevisiae strains with the addition of beta-glucosidase. Conclusions Gene or protein specific features and compatibility with the host are important for efficient cellobiohydrolase secretion in yeast. The present work demonstrated that production of both CBH1 and CBH2 could be improved to levels where the barrier to CBH sufficiency in the hydrolysis of cellulose was overcome.

Ilmén Marja; den Haan Riaan; Brevnova Elena; McBride John; Wiswall Erin; Froehlich Allan; Koivula Anu; Voutilainen Sanni P; Siika-aho Matti; la Grange Daniël C; Thorngren Naomi; Ahlgren Simon; Mellon Mark; Deleault Kristen; Rajgarhia Vineet; van Zyl Willem H; Penttilä Merja

2011-01-01

362

Engineered production of fungal anticancer cyclooligomer depsipeptides in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two fungal cyclooligomer depsipeptide synthetases(CODSs), BbBEAS (352 kDa) and BbBSLS (348 kDa) from Beauveria bassiana ATCC7159, were reconstituted in Saccharomyces cerevisiae BJ5464-NpgA, leading to the production of the corresponding anticancer natural products, beauvericins and bassianolide, respectively. The titers of beauvericins (33.8 ± 1.4 mg/l) and bassianolide (21.7± 0.1 mg/l) in the engineered S. cerevisiae BJ5464-NpgA strains were comparable to those in the native producer B. bassiana. Feeding D-hydroxyisovaleric acid (D-Hiv) and the corresponding L-amino acid precursors improved the production of beauvericins and bassianolide. However, the high price of D-Hiv limits its application in large-scale production of these cyclooligomer depsipeptides. Alternatively, we engineered another enzyme, ketoisovalerate reductase (KIVR) from B. bassiana, into S. cerevisiae BJ5464-NpgA for enhanced in situ synthesis of this expensive substrate. Co-expression of BbBEAS and KIVR in the yeast led to significant improvement of the production of beauvericins.The total titer of beauvericin and its congeners (beauvericins A-C) was increased to 61.7 ± 3.0 mg/l and reached 2.6-fold of that in the native producer B. bassiana ATCC7159. Supplement of L-Val at 10 mM improved the supply of ketoisovalerate, the substrate of KIVR, which consequently further increased the total titer of beauvericins to 105.8 ± 2.1 mg/l. Using this yeast system,we functionally characterized an unknown CODS from Fusarium venenatum NRRL 26139 as a beauvericin synthetase, which was named as FvBEAS. Our work thus provides a useful approach for functional reconstitution and engineering of fungal CODSs for efficient production of this family of anticancer molecules.

Yu D; Xu F; Zi J; Wang S; Gage D; Zeng J; Zhan J

2013-07-01

363

Endocarditis verrucosa secundaria a Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Caso clínico Saccharomyces cerevisiae endocarditis in a preterm infant: Report of one case  

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Full Text Available We report a preterm infant with 30 weeks of gestation, that received broad spectrum antimicrobials during the first days of life. At nine days of life, the infant appeared with abdominal distension and hematochezia. A systolic murmur with changing auscultatory features also appeared. An echocardiography showed an atrial vegetation. A yeast, that was identified as the emergent pathogen Saccharomyces cerevisiae appeared in two blood cultures. Treatment with amphotericin B was started, the dose was adjusted calculating the minimal inhibitory concentration of amphotericin B, and measuring plasma levels of the antimicrobial. Therefore the minimal effective dose was prescribed, avoiding its deleterious effects. After 14 days of antifungal therapy, a new echocardiography showed a reduction in the size of the atrial vegetation. At 35 days, it disappeared and amphotericin B was discontinued. On the outpatient follow up, the infant has shown a normal growth and a normal cardiac auscultation (Rev Méd Chile 2002; 130: 1165-9)

Fernando Ruiz-Esquide E; María Cristina Díaz J; Elba Wu H; Víctor Silva V

2002-01-01

364

Reconstruction of the biosynthetic pathway for the core fungal polyketide scaffold rubrofusarin in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Fungal polyketides include commercially important pharmaceuticals and food additives, e.g. the cholesterol-lowering statins and the red and orange monascus pigments. Presently, production relies on isolation of the compounds from the natural producers, and systems for heterologous production in easily fermentable and genetically engineerable organisms, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli are desirable. Rubrofusarin is an orange polyketide pigment that is a common intermediate in many different fungal biosynthetic pathways. RESULTS: In this study, we established a biosynthetic pathway for rubrofusarin in S. cerevisiae. First, the Fusarium graminearum gene encoding polyketide synthase 12 (PKS12) was heterologously co-expressed with the Aspergillus fumigatus gene encoding phosphopantetheinyl transferase (npgA) resulting in production of YWA1. This aromatic heptaketide intermediate was converted into nor-rubrofusarin upon expression of the dehydratase gene aurZ from the aurofusarin gene cluster of F. graminearum. Final conversion into rubrofusarin was achieved by expression of the O-methyltransferase encoding gene aurJ, also obtained from the aurofusarin gene cluster, resulting in a titer of 1.1 mg/L. Reduced levels of rubrofusarin were detected when expressing PKS12, npgA, and aurJ alone, presumably due to spontaneous conversion of YWA1 to nor-rubrofusarin. However, the co-expression of aurZ resulted in an approx. six-fold increase in rubrofusarin production. CONCLUSIONS: The reconstructed pathway for rubrofusarin in S. cerevisiae allows the production of a core scaffold molecule with a branch-point role in several fungal polyketide pathways, thus paving the way for production of further natural pigments and bioactive molecules. Furthermore, the reconstruction verifies the suggested pathway, and as such, it is the first example of utilizing a synthetic biological “bottom up” approach for the validation of a complex fungal polyketide pathway.

Rugbjerg, Peter; Naesby, Michael

2013-01-01

365

Reconstruction of the biosynthetic pathway for the core fungal polyketide scaffold rubrofusarin in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Fungal polyketides include commercially important pharmaceuticals and food additives, e.g. the cholesterol-lowering statins and the red and orange monascus pigments. Presently, production relies on isolation of the compounds from the natural producers, and systems for heterologous production in easily fermentable and genetically engineerable organisms, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli are desirable. Rubrofusarin is an orange polyketide pigment that is a common intermediate in many different fungal biosynthetic pathways. RESULTS: In this study, we established a biosynthetic pathway for rubrofusarin in S. cerevisiae. First, the Fusarium graminearum gene encoding polyketide synthase 12 (PKS12) was heterologously co-expressed with the Aspergillus fumigatus gene encoding phosphopantetheinyl transferase (npgA) resulting in production of YWA1. This aromatic heptaketide intermediate was converted into nor-rubrofusarin upon expression of the dehydratase gene aurZ from the aurofusarin gene cluster of F. graminearum. Final conversion into rubrofusarin was achieved by expression of the O-methyltransferase encoding gene aurJ, also obtained from the aurofusarin gene cluster, resulting in a titer of 1.1 mg/L. Reduced levels of rubrofusarin were detected when expressing PKS12, npgA, and aurJ alone, presumably due to spontaneous conversion of YWA1 to nor-rubrofusarin. However, the co-expression of aurZ resulted in an approx. six-fold increase in rubrofusarin production. CONCLUSIONS: The reconstructed pathway for rubrofusarin in S. cerevisiae allows the production of a core scaffold molecule with a branch-point role in several fungal polyketide pathways, thus paving the way for production of further natural pigments and bioactive molecules. Furthermore, the reconstruction verifies the suggested pathway, and as such, it is the first example of utilizing a synthetic biological "bottom up" approach for the validation of a complex fungal polyketide pathway.

Rugbjerg P; Naesby M; Mortensen UH; Frandsen RJ

2013-04-01

366

Estudo do equilíbrio e cinética da biossorção do pb2+ por saccharomyces cerevisiae Equilibrium and kinetic study of pb2+ biosorption by saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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Full Text Available The biosorption, based on the use of biomass for removal of ions is distinguished as an innovative and promising technology when compared with the traditional methods. In this context, the aim of the present work is to use Saccharomyces cerevisiae as biosorbent for the retention of Pb2+ metal ions. Factorial design was used for evaluation of the process. The observed equilibrium data were well described by Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. The maximum adsorption capacity was 1486.88 mg/g. The results indicated that Saccharomyces cerevisiae is suitable for biosorption of Pb2+ metal ions.

Joelma Morais Ferreira; Flávio Luiz Honorato da Silva; Odelsia Leonor Sanchez Alsina; Líbia de Sousa Conrado Oliveira; Eliane Bezerra Cavalcanti; Wolia Costa Gomes

2007-01-01

367

Estudo do equilíbrio e cinética da biossorção do pb2+ por saccharomyces cerevisiae/ Equilibrium and kinetic study of pb2+ biosorption by saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The biosorption, based on the use of biomass for removal of ions is distinguished as an innovative and promising technology when compared with the traditional methods. In this context, the aim of the present work is to use Saccharomyces cerevisiae as biosorbent for the retention of Pb2+ metal ions. Factorial design was used for evaluation of the process. The observed equilibrium data were well described by Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. The maximum adsorpti (more) on capacity was 1486.88 mg/g. The results indicated that Saccharomyces cerevisiae is suitable for biosorption of Pb2+ metal ions.

Ferreira, Joelma Morais; Silva, Flávio Luiz Honorato da; Alsina, Odelsia Leonor Sanchez; Oliveira, Líbia de Sousa Conrado; Cavalcanti, Eliane Bezerra; Gomes, Wolia Costa

2007-10-01

368

Optimization of protein extraction from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae/ Otimização da extração de proteínas da levedura Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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Full Text Available This work aimed to determine the optimum temperature, pH and sodium chloride sodium concentration for protein extraction of yeast cells during autolysis process. The cellular extract was obtained using commercial compressed baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and for statistical analysis and definition of the variation levels of temperature (32,0 to 52,0°C), pH (1,32 to 7,00) and NaCl (2,0 to 75%) the Response Surface Analysis Methodology was used. The result obtained showed that the best extraction conditions were: temperature between 49,0 and 51,0°C combined with pH values between 3,8 and 5,0 and sodium chloride concentration between 10,0 and 12,0% (w/v), however, sodium chloride concentration higher than 12% was not recommended.Este trabalho objetivou determinar os melhores níveis de temperatura, pH e concentração de cloreto de sódio para a extração de proteínas de células de levedura pelo processo de autólise. O extrato celular foi obtido a partir da levedura comercial prensada Saccharomyces cerevisiae e para análise estatística e definição dos níveis das variáveis temperatura (32,0 a 52,0°C), pH (1,32 a 7,00) e NaCl (2,0 a 75,0%) utilizou-se a metodologia da Análise de Superfície de Resposta. Os resultados obtidos por meio desta metodologia mostraram como melhores condições: temperaturas entre 49,0 e 51,0°C combinadas com valores de pH entre 3,8 e 5,0 e concentrações de cloreto de sódio entre 10,0 e 12,0% (p/v), entretanto, concentrações de NaCl superiores a 12,0% não se mostraram favoráveis.

Antonio Martins Oliveira; Raul Jorge Hernan C. Gómez

2005-01-01

369

Cocktail ?-integration of xylose assimilation genes for efficient ethanol production from xylose in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cocktail ?-integration was applied to improve ethanol production from xylose in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Two hundred of recombinant S. cerevisiae strains possessing various copies of XYL1, XYL2, and XKS1 genes were constructed by cocktail ?-integration. Efficient strains with efficient ethanol production from xylose were successfully obtained by the fermentation test.

Kato H; Matsuda F; Yamada R; Nagata K; Shirai T; Hasunuma T; Kondo A

2013-09-01

370

Pat1: a topoisomerase II-associated protein required for faithful chromosome transmission in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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Saccharomyces cerevisiae top2 mutants deficient in topoisomerase II activity are defective in chromosome segregation during both mitotic and meiotic cell divisions. To identify proteins that act in concert with topoisomerase II during chromosome segregation in S.cerevisiae, we have used a two-hybrid...

Wang, X; Watt, PM; Louis, EJ; Borts, RH; Hickson, ID

371

ISOLATION OF A CYTOCHROME P-450 STRUCTURAL GENE FROM SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE  

Science.gov (United States)

We have transformed a Saccharomyces cerevisiae host with an S. cerevisiae genomic library contained in the shuttle vector YEp24 and screened the resultant transformants for resistance to ketoconazole (Kc), an inhibitor of the cytochrome P-450 (P-450) enzyme lanosterol 14-demethyl...

372

Invertase SUC2 Is the key hydrolase for inulin degradation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Specific Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were recently found to be capable of efficiently utilizing inulin, but genetic mechanisms of inulin hydrolysis in yeast remain unknown. Here we report functional characteristics of invertase SUC2 from strain JZ1C and demonstrate that SUC2 is the key enzyme responsible for inulin metabolism in S. cerevisiae.

Wang SA; Li FL

2013-01-01

373

Gene-enzyme relationships in the proline biosynthetic pathway of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The PRO1, PRO2, and PRO3 genes were isolated by functional complementation of pro1, pro2, and pro3 (proline-requiring) strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Independent clones with overlapping inserts were isolated from S. cerevisiae genomic libraries in YEp24 (2 microns) and YCp50 (CEN) plasmids. Th...

Tomenchok, D M; Brandriss, M C

374

Improved extracellular phytase activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by modifications in the PHO system.  

Science.gov (United States)

Myo-inositol hexaphosphate (IP6, phytate) is a potent anti-nutritional compound occurring in many plant-based staple foods, limiting the bioavailability of important nutrients such as iron and zinc. The objective of the present study was to investigate different strategies to achieve high and constitutive extracellular IP6 degradation by Baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. By deleting either of the genes PHO80 and PHO85, encoding negative regulators of the transcription of the repressible acid phosphatases (rAPs), the IP6 degradation became constitutive, and the biomass specific IP6 degradation was increased manyfold. In addition, the genes encoding the transcriptional activator Pho4p and the major rAP Pho5p were overexpressed in both a wild-type and a pho80delta strain, yielding an additional increase in IP6 degradation. It has previously been proved possible to increase human iron bioavailability by degradation of IP6 using microbial phytase. A high-phytase S. cerevisiae strain, without the use of any heterologous DNA, may be a suitable organism for the production of food-grade phytase and for the direct use in food production. PMID:16476497

Veide, Jenny; Andlid, Thomas

2006-02-14

375

Enhancing sesquiterpene production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae through in silico driven metabolic engineering  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A genome-scale metabolic model was used to identify new target genes for enhanced biosynthesis of sesquiterpenes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The effect of gene deletions on the flux distributions in the metabolic model of S. cerevisiae was assessed using OptGene as the modeling framework and minimization of metabolic adjustments (MOMA) as objective function. Deletion of NADPH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase encoded by GDH1 was identified as the best target gene for the improvement of sesquiterpene biosynthesis in yeast. Deletion of this gene enhances the available NADPH in the cytosol for other NADPH requiring enzymes, including HMG-CoA reductase. However, since disruption of GDH1 impairs the ammonia utilization, simultaneous over-expression of the NADH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase encoded by GDH2 was also considered in this study. Deletion of GDH1 led to an approximately 85% increase in the final cubebol titer. However, deletion of this gene also caused a significant decrease in the maximum specific growth rate. Over-expression of GDH2 did not show a further effect on the final cubebol titer but this alteration significantly improved the growth rate compared to the GDH1 deleted strain.

Asadollahi, Mohammadali; Maury, Jerome

2009-01-01

376

Killer toxin of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y500-4L active against Fleischmann and Itaiquara commercial brands of yeast/ Toxina "killer" de Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y500-4L ativa contra leveduras comerciais Fleischmann e Itaiquara  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A linhagem de Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y500-4L com alta capacidade fermentativa e atividade "killer", previamente selecionada de mosto de fermentação de usina de álcool, foi caracterizada quanto ao espectro de atividade e quanto à perda do caracter "killer". A linhagem "killer" de S. cerevisiae Y500-4L, mostrou alta atividade "killer" contra as leveduras comerciais Fleischmann e Itaiquara, e também contra as linhagens "killer" padrões K2 (S. diastaticus NCYC 713), K (more) 4 (Candida glabrata NCYC 388) e K11 (Torulopsis glabrata ATCC 15126) e mostrou ser sensível às toxinas produzidas pelas leveduras padrões "killer" K8 (Hansenula anomala NCYC 435), K9 (Hansenula mrakii NCYC 500), K10 (Kluyveromyces drosophilarum NCYC 575) e K11 (Torulopsis glabrata ATCC 15126). A linhagem de S. cerevisiae Y500-4L não apresentou plasmídio M-dsRNA e, provavelmente, o caracter genético responsável pelo fenótipo "killer" é codificado por genes cromossomais. Em ensaios para a perda do fenótipo, a linhagem S. cerevisiae Y500-4L apresentou maior resistência ao tratamento com cicloheximida e a temperatura elevada (40oC) do que a levedura S. cerevisiae padrão "killer" K1. Abstract in english The strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y500-4L, previously selected from the must of alcohol producing plants and showing high fermentative and killer capacities, was characterized according to the interactions between the yeasts and examined for curing and detection of dsRNA plasmids, which code for the killer character. The killer yeast S. cerevisiae Y500-4L showed considerable killer activity against the Fleischmann and Itaiquara commercial brands of yeast and also agains (more) t the standard killer yeasts K2 (S. diastaticus NCYC 713), K4 (Candida glabrata NCYC 388) and K11 (Torulopsis glabrata ATCC 15126). However S. cerevisiae Y500-4L showed sensitivity to the killer toxin produced by the standard killer yeasts K8 (Hansenula anomala NCYC 435), K9 (Hansenula mrakii NCYC 500), K10 (Kluyveromyces drosophilarum NCYC 575) and K11 (Torulopsis glabrata ATCC 15126). No M-dsRNA plasmid was detected in the S. cerevisiae Y500-4L strain and these results suggest that the genetic basis for toxin production is encoded by chromosomal DNA. The strain S. cerevisiae Y500-4L was more resistant to the loss of the phenotype killer with cycloheximide and incubation at elevated temperatures (40oC) than the standard killer yeast S. cerevisiae K1.

Soares, Giselle A.M.; Sato, Hélia H.

1999-07-01

377

Killer toxin of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y500-4L active against Fleischmann and Itaiquara commercial brands of yeast Toxina "killer" de Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y500-4L ativa contra leveduras comerciais Fleischmann e Itaiquara  

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Full Text Available The strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y500-4L, previously selected from the must of alcohol producing plants and showing high fermentative and killer capacities, was characterized according to the interactions between the yeasts and examined for curing and detection of dsRNA plasmids, which code for the killer character. The killer yeast S. cerevisiae Y500-4L showed considerable killer activity against the Fleischmann and Itaiquara commercial brands of yeast and also against the standard killer yeasts K2 (S. diastaticus NCYC 713), K4 (Candida glabrata NCYC 388) and K11 (Torulopsis glabrata ATCC 15126). However S. cerevisiae Y500-4L showed sensitivity to the killer toxin produced by the standard killer yeasts K8 (Hansenula anomala NCYC 435), K9 (Hansenula mrakii NCYC 500), K10 (Kluyveromyces drosophilarum NCYC 575) and K11 (Torulopsis glabrata ATCC 15126). No M-dsRNA plasmid was detected in the S. cerevisiae Y500-4L strain and these results suggest that the genetic basis for toxin production is encoded by chromosomal DNA. The strain S. cerevisiae Y500-4L was more resistant to the loss of the phenotype killer with cycloheximide and incubation at elevated temperatures (40oC) than the standard killer yeast S. cerevisiae K1.A linhagem de Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y500-4L com alta capacidade fermentativa e atividade "killer", previamente selecionada de mosto de fermentação de usina de álcool, foi caracterizada quanto ao espectro de atividade e quanto à perda do caracter "killer". A linhagem "killer" de S. cerevisiae Y500-4L, mostrou alta atividade "killer" contra as leveduras comerciais Fleischmann e Itaiquara, e também contra as linhagens "killer" padrões K2 (S. diastaticus NCYC 713), K4 (Candida glabrata NCYC 388) e K11 (Torulopsis glabrata ATCC 15126) e mostrou ser sensível às toxinas produzidas pelas leveduras padrões "killer" K8 (Hansenula anomala NCYC 435), K9 (Hansenula mrakii NCYC 500), K10 (Kluyveromyces drosophilarum NCYC 575) e K11 (Torulopsis glabrata ATCC 15126). A linhagem de S. cerevisiae Y500-4L não apresentou plasmídio M-dsRNA e, provavelmente, o caracter genético responsável pelo fenótipo "killer" é codificado por genes cromossomais. Em ensaios para a perda do fenótipo, a linhagem S. cerevisiae Y500-4L apresentou maior resistência ao tratamento com cicloheximida e a temperatura elevada (40oC) do que a levedura S. cerevisiae padrão "killer" K1.

Giselle A.M. Soares; Hélia H. Sato

1999-01-01

378

Four genes responsible for a position effect on expression from HML and HMR in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mating type interconversion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae occurs by transposition of copies of the a or ? mating type cassettes from inactive loci, HML and HMR, to an active locus, MAT. The lack of expression of the a and ? genes at the silent loci results from repression by trans-acting regulators encoded by SIR (Silent Information Regulator) genes. In this paper the authors present evidence for the existence of four SIR genes. Inactivation of any of these genes leads to expression of cassettes at both HML and HMR. Unusual complementation properties are observed for a number of sir mutations. Specifically, some recessive mutations in different genes fail to complement. The correspondence between SIR1, SIR2, SIR3, SIR4 and other genes with similar roles (MAR, CMT, STE8 and STE9) is presented

1987-01-01

379

Four genes responsible for a position effect on expression from HML and HMR in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mating type interconversion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae occurs by transposition of copies of the a or ..cap alpha.. mating type cassettes from inactive loci, HML and HMR, to an active locus, MAT. The lack of expression of the a and ..cap alpha.. genes at the silent loci results from repression by trans-acting regulators encoded by SIR (Silent Information Regulator) genes. In this paper the authors present evidence for the existence of four SIR genes. Inactivation of any of these genes leads to expression of cassettes at both HML and HMR. Unusual complementation properties are observed for a number of sir mutations. Specifically, some recessive mutations in different genes fail to complement. The correspondence between SIR1, SIR2, SIR3, SIR4 and other genes with similar roles (MAR, CMT, STE8 and STE9) is presented.

Rine, J.; Herskowitz, I.

1987-05-01

380

Inositol polyphosphate multikinase (ArgRIII) determines nuclear mRNA export in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The ARGRIII gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a transcriptional regulator that also has inositol polyphosphate multikinase (ipmk) activity [Saiardi et al. (1999) Curr. Biol. 9, 1323-1326]. To investigate how inositol phosphates regulate gene expression, we disrupted the ARGRIII gene. This mutation impaired nuclear mRNA export, slowed cell growth, increased cellular [InsP(3)] 170-fold and decreased [InsP(6)] 100-fold, indicating reduced phosphorylation of InsP(3) to InsP(6). Levels of diphosphoinositol polyphosphates were decreased much less dramatically than was InsP(6). Low levels of InsP(6), and considerable quantities of Ins(1,3,4,5)P(4), were synthesized by an ipmk-independent route. Transcriptional control by ipmk reflects that it is a pivotal regulator of nuclear mRNA export via inositol phosphate metabolism.

Saiardi A; Caffrey JJ; Snyder SH; Shears SB

2000-02-01

 
 
 
 
381

Inositol polyphosphate multikinase (ArgRIII) determines nuclear mRNA export in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ARGRIII gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a transcriptional regulator that also has inositol polyphosphate multikinase (ipmk) activity [Saiardi et al. (1999) Curr. Biol. 9, 1323-1326]. To investigate how inositol phosphates regulate gene expression, we disrupted the ARGRIII gene. This mutation impaired nuclear mRNA export, slowed cell growth, increased cellular [InsP(3)] 170-fold and decreased [InsP(6)] 100-fold, indicating reduced phosphorylation of InsP(3) to InsP(6). Levels of diphosphoinositol polyphosphates were decreased much less dramatically than was InsP(6). Low levels of InsP(6), and considerable quantities of Ins(1,3,4,5)P(4), were synthesized by an ipmk-independent route. Transcriptional control by ipmk reflects that it is a pivotal regulator of nuclear mRNA export via inositol phosphate metabolism. PMID:10683435

Saiardi, A; Caffrey, J J; Snyder, S H; Shears, S B

2000-02-18

382

Effects of ethanol and other alkanols on the general amino acid permease of saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Among the mechanisms that underlie the inhibition by alkanols of growth and fermentation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the noncompetitive exponential inhibition of nutrient transport across the plasma membrane may play a major role. So far this type of inhibition was shown to affect the transport systems of S. cerevisiae for glucose, maltose, and ammonium. The effects of ethanol, isopropanol, propanol, and butanol on the functioning of the general amino acid permease (GAP) of S. cerevisiae are reported.

Leao, C.; Van Uden, N.

1984-01-01

383

Killer toxin of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y500-4L active against Fleischmann and Itaiquara commercial brands of yeast  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y500-4L, previously selected from the must of alcohol producing plants and showing high fermentative and killer capacities, was characterized according to the interactions between the yeasts and examined for curing and detection of dsRNA plasmids, which code for the killer character. The killer yeast S. cerevisiae Y500-4L showed considerable killer activity against the Fleischmann and Itaiquara commercial brands of yeast and also against the standard killer yeasts K2 (S. diastaticus NCYC 713), K4 (Candida glabrata NCYC 388) and K11 (Torulopsis glabrata ATCC 15126). However S. cerevisiae Y500-4L showed sensitivity to the killer toxin produced by the standard killer yeasts K8 (Hansenula anomala NCYC 435), K9 (Hansenula mrakii NCYC 500), K10 (Kluyveromyces drosophilarum NCYC 575) and K11 (Torulopsis glabrata ATCC 15126). No M-dsRNA plasmid was detected in the S. cerevisiae Y500-4L strain and these results suggest that the genetic basis for toxin production is encoded by chromosomal DNA. The strain S. cerevisiae Y500-4L was more resistant to the loss of the phenotype killer with cycloheximide and incubation at elevated temperatures (40oC) than the standard killer yeast S. cerevisiae K1.

Soares Giselle A.M.; Sato Hélia H.

1999-01-01

384

Glycolic acid production in the engineered yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kluyveromyces lactis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Glycolic acid is a C2 hydroxy acid that is a widely used chemical compound. It can be polymerised to produce biodegradable polymers with excellent gas barrier properties. Currently, glycolic acid is produced in a chemical process using fossil resources and toxic chemicals. Biotechnological production of glycolic acid using renewable resources is a desirable alternative. RESULTS: The yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kluyveromyces lactis are suitable organisms for glycolic acid production since they are acid tolerant and can grow in the presence of up to 50 g l-1 glycolic acid. We engineered S. cerevisiae and K. lactis for glycolic acid production using the reactions of the glyoxylate cycle to produce glyoxylic acid and then reducing it to glycolic acid. The expression of a high affinity glyoxylate reductase alone already led to glycolic acid production. The production was further improved by deleting genes encoding malate synthase and the cytosolic form of isocitrate dehydrogenase. The engineered S. cerevisiae strain produced up to about 1 g l-1 of glycolic acid in a medium containing d-xylose and ethanol. Similar modifications in K. lactis resulted in a much higher glycolic acid titer. In a bioreactor cultivation with d-xylose and ethanol up to 15 g l-1 of glycolic acid was obtained. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first demonstration of engineering yeast to produce glycolic acid. Prior this work glycolic acid production through glyoxylate cycle has only been reported in bacteria. The benefit of yeast host is the possibility for glycolic acid production also in low pH which was demonstrated in flask cultivations. Production of glycolic acid was first shown in S. cerevisiae. To test whether a Crabtree negative yeast would be better suited for glycolic acid production we engineered K. lactis in the same way and demonstrated it to be a better host for glycolic acid production.

Koivistoinen OM; Kuivanen J; Barth D; Turkia H; Pitkänen JP; Penttilä M; Richard P

2013-09-01

385

ACÚMULO DE CÁDMIO POR Saccharomyces cerevisiae FERMENTANDO MOSTO DE MELAÇO  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho visou o estudo do acúmulo de cádmio (Cd) por Saccharomyces cerevisiae, fermentando mosto de melaço com contaminações controladas em níveis sub-tóxicos do citado metal. As condições de fermentação foram similares às reinantes na produção industrial de etanol. O mosto, não esterilizado, continha 12% de açúcares redutores totais (ART) e pH 4,5. Para a contaminação controlada empregou-se dois sais de cádmio, cloreto e acetato e, quatro (more) níveis de contaminação 0,5; 1,0; 2,0 e 5,0 mg Cd.kg-1 mosto. A inoculação do mosto foi executada com fermento de panificação (10% p/p). Após a fermentação (4 horas) foram determinados, porcentagem de fermento no vinho centrifugado e teor alcoólico. Na levedura separada foram determinados peso úmido, matéria seca, proteína bruta e teores de cádmio por espectrofotometria de absorção atômica. Em todos os níveis de contaminação estudados houve acúmulo de Cd pela levedura e diminuição do rendimento em etanol. Abstract in english The aim of this paper was to study the cadmium (Cd) accumulation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermenting wort of molasses, under sub-toxic levels of controlled cadmium contamination. Fermentation conditions were similar to industrial alcohol production. Non-sterelized wort had 12% of total reducing sugars (w/w) and pH 4.5. For the controlled contamination, two cadmium salts were used (chloride and acetate), at four levels of contamination: 0.5; 1.0; 2.0 and 5.0 mg Cd.kg-1 (more) wort. The inoculation of the wort was carried out with commercial bread yeast (10% w/w). After fermentation (4 hours), samples were evaluated for cellular viability, alcohol content and yeast percentage in the centrifuged wine. The centrifuged yeast cells were evaluated for total fresh and dry weight, total protein, and cadmium concentration by atomic absortion spectroscopy. In all Cd levels, there was cadmium accumulation by yeast and a decrease in ethanol yield.

PRADO-FILHO, L.G. do; DOMINGOS, R.N.; SILVA, S.M.G. da

1998-01-01

386

ACÚMULO DE CÁDMIO POR Saccharomyces cerevisiae FERMENTANDO MOSTO DE MELAÇO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O presente trabalho visou o estudo do acúmulo de cádmio (Cd) por Saccharomyces cerevisiae, fermentando mosto de melaço com contaminações controladas em níveis sub-tóxicos do citado metal. As condições de fermentação foram similares às reinantes na produção industrial de etanol. O mosto, não esterilizado, continha 12% de açúcares redutores totais (ART) e pH 4,5. Para a contaminação controlada empregou-se dois sais de cádmio, cloreto e acetato e, quatro níveis de contaminação 0,5; 1,0; 2,0 e 5,0 mg Cd.kg-1 mosto. A inoculação do mosto foi executada com fermento de panificação (10% p/p). Após a fermentação (4 horas) foram determinados, porcentagem de fermento no vinho centrifugado e teor alcoólico. Na levedura separada foram determinados peso úmido, matéria seca, proteína bruta e teores de cádmio por espectrofotometria de absorção atômica. Em todos os níveis de contaminação estudados houve acúmulo de Cd pela levedura e diminuição do rendimento em etanol.The aim of this paper was to study the cadmium (Cd) accumulation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermenting wort of molasses, under sub-toxic levels of controlled cadmium contamination. Fermentation conditions were similar to industrial alcohol production. Non-sterelized wort had 12% of total reducing sugars (w/w) and pH 4.5. For the controlled contamination, two cadmium salts were used (chloride and acetate), at four levels of contamination: 0.5; 1.0; 2.0 and 5.0 mg Cd.kg-1 wort. The inoculation of the wort was carried out with commercial bread yeast (10% w/w). After fermentation (4 hours), samples were evaluated for cellular viability, alcohol content and yeast percentage in the centrifuged wine. The centrifuged yeast cells were evaluated for total fresh and dry weight, total protein, and cadmium concentration by atomic absortion spectroscopy. In all Cd levels, there was cadmium accumulation by yeast and a decrease in ethanol yield.

L.G. do PRADO-FILHO; R.N. DOMINGOS; S.M.G. da SILVA

1998-01-01

387

[Preliminary proteome analysis for Saccharomyces cerevisiae under different culturing conditions].  

Science.gov (United States)

For the investigation of the metabolic regulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under different culture conditions, the proteins of cell utilizing various carbon sources were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis with immobilized pH gradients as the first dimension and SDS-PAGE as the second. Samples were taken in the log phase of batch culture using glucose or lactic acid as carbon source, while another sample was taken from the broth when glucose was consumed up and ethanol accumulated in the previous phase was further metabolized. After electrophoresis, the protein spots were detected by silver-stain in a Hoefer Automated Gel Stainer with a protein silver staining kit. Silver-stained gels were scanned and digitized to create computer images. About 500 protein spots were detected by employing the 2D proteome image analysis system Image Master 2D Elite and SWISS-2DPAGE proteome database. Most of the protein expressed and involved in the glycolysis, pentose phosphate (PP) pathway, anaplerotic pathway, as well as TCA cycle were analyzed. The metabolism regulation of protein level for Saccharomyces cerevisiae under various carbon sources, as well as during different phase of growth, was studied. The expression of several glycolytic enzymes (glk, pgi, pgk, eno, pyk) was up-regulated while the expression of enzymes in oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (zwf, gnd) was down-regulated when ethanol and lactic acid were taken as carbon source. Simultaneously, frucotose 1,6-biphosphatase was found to be up-regulated due to the gluconeogenic requirement. Citrate synthase and Malate dehydrogenase do not exhibit significant difference, indicating TCA cycle is necessary when utilizing glucose, ethanol or lactic acid as carbon source. Thus, the NADPH loss due to the repressed pentose phosphate pathway could be compensated by TCA cycle in cases of ethanol and lactic acid. The expression of malic enzyme and isocitrate lyase are activated to a large extent when metabolizing ethanol, indicating glyoxylate shunt is essential in transferring ethanol to generate four carbon precursors for the biosynthesis and the NADP-dependent malic enzyme could also serve as compensation mechanism for NADPH loss in this case. PMID:15971613

Zhang, Hui-Min; Yao, Shan-Jing; Peng, Li-Feng; Shimizu, Kazuyuki

2004-05-01

388

Functional Regulation of the Molecular Chaperone Hsp104 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae Funktionelle Regulation des molekularen Chaperons Hsp104 aus Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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The molecular chaperone Hsp104 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a hexameric AAA+-ATPase which is directly involved in the resolubilisation of protein aggregates and the replication of yeast prions. It was shown that the ATP hydrolysis is highly allosterically regulated within an Hs...

Grimminger, Valerie

389

Introducing a new breed of wine yeast: interspecific hybridisation between a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast and Saccharomyces mikatae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Interspecific hybrids are commonplace in agriculture and horticulture; bread wheat and grapefruit are but two examples. The benefits derived from interspecific hybridisation include the potential of generating advantageous transgressive phenotypes. This paper describes the generation of a new breed of wine yeast by interspecific hybridisation between a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast strain and Saccharomyces mikatae, a species hitherto not associated with industrial fermentation environs. While commercially available wine yeast strains provide consistent and reliable fermentations, wines produced using single inocula are thought to lack the sensory complexity and rounded palate structure obtained from spontaneous fermentations. In contrast, interspecific yeast hybrids have the potential to deliver increased complexity to wine sensory properties and alternative wine styles through the formation of novel, and wider ranging, yeast volatile fermentation metabolite profiles, whilst maintaining the robustness of the wine yeast parent. Screening of newly generated hybrids from a cross between a S. cerevisiae wine yeast and S. mikatae (closely-related but ecologically distant members of the Saccharomyces sensu stricto clade), has identified progeny with robust fermentation properties and winemaking potential. Chemical analysis showed that, relative to the S. cerevisiae wine yeast parent, hybrids produced wines with different concentrations of volatile metabolites that are known to contribute to wine flavour and aroma, including flavour compounds associated with non-Saccharomyces species. The new S. cerevisiae x S. mikatae hybrids have the potential to produce complex wines akin to products of spontaneous fermentation while giving winemakers the safeguard of an inoculated ferment.

Bellon JR; Schmid F; Capone DL; Dunn BL; Chambers PJ

2013-01-01

390

Comparison between two selected Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains as fermentation starters in the production of traditional cachaça  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Duas linhagens de Saccharomyces cerevisiae foram testadas como iniciadoras em uma destilaria de cachaça. Foram utilizadas as linhagens de S. cerevisiae UFMG-A829, isolada de fermentação de cachaça, e S. cerevisiae K1-V1116, de origem vinícola. A permanência de cada linhagem durante a fermentação foi determinada por RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA)-PCR, utilizando o iniciador M13. As duas linhagens predominaram nas dornas de fermentação por aproximadamente (more) 30 dias. Leveduras não-Saccharomyces e S. cerevisiae indígenas foram isoladas em menor proporção durante o experimento. As linhagens de S. cerevisiae indígenas apresentaram perfis moleculares distintos em relação às linhagens iniciadoras. As duas linhagens foram promissoras para serem utilizadas como iniciadoras do processo fermentativo para a produção da cachaça. Abstract in english Two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were tested as the starter yeasts in a traditional cachaça distillery. The strains used were S. cerevisiae UFMG-A829, isolated from a cachaça fermentation process, and S. cerevisiae K1-V1116, obtained from the wine industry. The permanence of each strain in the fermentation must was determined by RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA)-PCR, with primer M13. Both yeast strains were prevalent in the vats for approximately 30 days. Indi (more) genous non-Saccharomyces and indigenous S. cerevisiae strains were isolated in lower counts during the fermentation period. Indigenous S. cerevisiae strains were molecularly distinct when compared to the starter yeasts. The two yeasts appeared promising starter yeasts in the fermentation process to produce traditional cachaça.

Gomes, Fátima de Cássia Oliveira; Araújo, Roberta Amália de Carvalho; Cisalpino, Patrícia Silva; Moreira, Elizabeth Spangler Andrade; Zani, Carlos Leomar; Rosa, Carlos Augusto

2009-04-01

391

A functional autophagy pathway is required for rapamycin-induced degradation of the Sgs1 helicase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the immunosuppressant rapamycin mimics starvation by inhibiting the kinase Tor1. We recently documented that this treatment triggers a rapid degradation of Sgs1, a helicase involved in several biological processes such as the prevention of genomic instability. Herein, we show that yeast strains deleted for genes ATG2, ATG9, and PEP4, encoding components of the autophagy pathway, prevent rapamycin-induced degradation of Sgs1. We propose that defects in the autophagy pathway prevent degradation of key proteins in the rapamycin response pathway and as a consequence cause resistance to the drug.

Marrakchi R; Chouchani C; Poschmann J; Andreev E; Cherif M; Ramotar D

2013-06-01

392

Competition for glucose between the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida utilis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The competition between the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae CBS 8066 and Candida utilis CBS 621 for glucose was studied in sugar-limited chemostat cultures. Under aerobic conditions, C. utilis always successfully completed against S. cerevisiae. Only under anaerobic conditions did S. cerevisiae become the dominant species. The rationale behind these observations probably is that under aerobic glucose-limited conditions, high-affinity glucose/proton symporters are present in C. utilis, whereas in S. cerevisiae, glucose transport occurs via facilitated diffusion with low-affinity carriers. Our results explain the frequent occurrence of infections by Crabtree-negative yeasts during bakers' yeast production. PMID:2694963

Postma, E; Kuiper, A; Tomasouw, W F; Scheffers, W A; van Dijken, J P

1989-12-01

393

Improved ethanol fermentation by heterologous endoinulinase and inherent invertase from inulin by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It is hypothesized that introduction of an endoinulinase gene into Saccharomyces cerevisiae will improve its inulin utilization and ethanol fermentation through collaboration between the heterologous endoinulinase and the inherent invertase SUC2. The aim of this work was to test the hypothesis by introducing the endoinulinase gene inuA from Aspergillus niger into S. cerevisiae. The results showed that heterologous inuA expressed in S. cerevisiae selectively digested long chains of inulin into short fructooligosaccharides and parts of these fructooligosaccharides could be efficiently utilized by the yeast. This study demonstrated that collaboration between heterologous endoinulinase and inherent invertase improved inulin degradation and ethanol fermentation in S. cerevisiae.

Yuan B; Wang SA; Li FL

2013-07-01

394

Improved ethanol fermentation by heterologous endoinulinase and inherent invertase from inulin by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is hypothesized that introduction of an endoinulinase gene into Saccharomyces cerevisiae will improve its inulin utilization and ethanol fermentation through collaboration between the heterologous endoinulinase and the inherent invertase SUC2. The aim of this work was to test the hypothesis by introducing the endoinulinase gene inuA from Aspergillus niger into S. cerevisiae. The results showed that heterologous inuA expressed in S. cerevisiae selectively digested long chains of inulin into short fructooligosaccharides and parts of these fructooligosaccharides could be efficiently utilized by the yeast. This study demonstrated that collaboration between heterologous endoinulinase and inherent invertase improved inulin degradation and ethanol fermentation in S. cerevisiae. PMID:23683966

Yuan, Bo; Wang, Shi-An; Li, Fu-Li

2013-04-28

395

Continuous ethanol fermentation using immobilized yeast cells. [Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Growing cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized in calcium alginate gel beads were employed in fluidized-bed reactors for continuous ethanol fermentation from cane molasses and other sugar sources. Some improvements were made in order to avoid microbial contamination and keep cell viability for stable long run operations. Notably, entrapment of sterol and unsaturated fatty acid into immobilized gel beads enhanced ethanol productivity more than one-half year. Cell concentration in the carrier was estimated over 250 g dry cell/L gel. A pilot plant with a total column volume of 4kL was constructed and has been operated since 1982. As a result, it was confirmed that 8-10% (v/v) ethanol-containing broth was continuously produced from nonsterilized diluted cane molasses for over one-half year. The productivity of ethanol was calculated as 0.6 kL ethanol/kL reactor volume day with a 95% conversion yield versus the maximum theoretical yield for the case of 8.5% (v/v) ethanol broth.

Nagashima, M.; Azuma, M.; Noguchi, S.; Inuzuka, K.; Samejima, H.

1984-01-01

396

BIOTECHNOLOGICAL PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL BY SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE, USING DIFFERENT SUBSTRATES  

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Full Text Available Research efforts are needed to design and improve the process, which would produce sustainable and economically feasible transportation fuel. The present investigation was undertaken to determine the availability of carbohydrates in hydrolysates derived from different substrates Acacia arabica, Delbergia sisso, Peltophorum Pterocarpur and Perkia biglobosa pods, in the production of ethanol. The enzymatic hydrolysis of the substrates has yielded the significant amount of reducing sugar from the substrates by comparing the effect of enzymes on hydrolysis. The Acacia arabica pods has showed the higher production of reducing sugars when treated with 4% a-amylase whereas Peltophorum pterocarpum has produced lowest yield of reducing sugar at 4% a-amylase enzyme. The optimum temperature required for the activity of a-amylase enzyme in the production of reducing sugars using different substrates were revealed that at 30oC the Acacia arabica has yielded maximum sugars whereas the Perkia biglobosa has showed the minimum yield of reducing sugar. The optimum period of enzyme activity in the production of reducing sugars using different substrates was indicted that the Acacia arabica has showed the maximum yield of reducing sugars during the incubation period of 24 hours whereas minimum yield was observed in Perkia biglobosa. The optimum incubation period of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the production of ethanol has showed that the seven days of incubation has yielded maximum amount of ethanol using the substrate Acacia arabica.

Vijaya S. Gulalkayi; Chandrashekhar G. Unakal; B. B. Kaliwal

2012-01-01

397

Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae mannan antibodies in familial Crohn's disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae mannan antibodies (ASCA) are associated with Crohn's disease. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of ASCA in families in which at least two members were affected with Crohn's disease. METHODS: A total of 20 families including two (n=15) or more (n=5) patients with Crohn's disease were tested for ASCA with use of an ELISA method. Overall, 51 affected members, 66 healthy first degree relatives, and 163 healthy control subjects were studied. RESULTS: ASCA were detected in 35 of 51 (69%) patients with Crohn's disease and in 13 of 66 (20%) healthy relatives versus one of 163 healthy control subjects (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.001). ASCA-positive relatives were distributed in 12 of 20 families. ASCA were present in eight healthy parents and four healthy siblings. The prevalence of ASCA in relatives did not depend on the ASCA status of affected members. CONCLUSION: ASCA in 20% of healthy first degree relatives of patients with Crohn's disease suggest that these antibodies might be a subclinical marker for Crohn's disease in families. Whether ASCA reflect environmental or genetic factors or a combination of both is unknown.

Sendid B; Quinton JF; Charrier G; Goulet O; Cortot A; Grandbastien B; Poulain D; Colombel JF

1998-08-01

398

Genes of succinyl-CoA ligase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Succinyl-CoA ligase (succinyl-CoA synthetase) catalyzes the nucleotide-dependent conversion of succinyl-CoA to succinate. This enzyme functions in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and is also involved in ketone-body breakdown in animals. The enzyme is composed of alpha and beta subunits that are required for catalytic activity. Two genes, LSC1 (YOR142W) and LSC2 (YGR244C), with high similarity to succinyl-CoA ligase subunits from other species were isolated from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The expression of these genes was repressed by growth on glucose and was induced threefold to sixfold during growth on nonfermentable carbon sources. The LSC genes were deleted singly and in combination. Unlike other yeast strains with defects in TCA cycle genes, strains lacking either or both LSC genes were able to grow with acetate as a carbon source. However, growth on glycerol or pyruvate was impaired. An antiserum against both subunits of the Escherichia coli enzyme was capable of recognizing the yeast succinyl-CoA ligase alpha subunit, and this band was absent in delta lsc1 deletion strains. Succinyl-CoA ligase activity was absent in mitochondria isolated from strains deleted for one or both LSC genes, but activity was restored by the presence of the appropriate LSC gene on a plasmid. The yeast succinyl-CoA ligase was shown to utilize ATP but not GTP for succinyl-CoA synthesis.

Przybyla-Zawislak B; Dennis RA; Zakharkin SO; McCammon MT

1998-12-01

399

Genes of succinyl-CoA ligase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Succinyl-CoA ligase (succinyl-CoA synthetase) catalyzes the nucleotide-dependent conversion of succinyl-CoA to succinate. This enzyme functions in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and is also involved in ketone-body breakdown in animals. The enzyme is composed of alpha and beta subunits that are required for catalytic activity. Two genes, LSC1 (YOR142W) and LSC2 (YGR244C), with high similarity to succinyl-CoA ligase subunits from other species were isolated from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The expression of these genes was repressed by growth on glucose and was induced threefold to sixfold during growth on nonfermentable carbon sources. The LSC genes were deleted singly and in combination. Unlike other yeast strains with defects in TCA cycle genes, strains lacking either or both LSC genes were able to grow with acetate as a carbon source. However, growth on glycerol or pyruvate was impaired. An antiserum against both subunits of the Escherichia coli enzyme was capable of recognizing the yeast succinyl-CoA ligase alpha subunit, and this band was absent in delta lsc1 deletion strains. Succinyl-CoA ligase activity was absent in mitochondria isolated from strains deleted for one or both LSC genes, but activity was restored by the presence of the appropriate LSC gene on a plasmid. The yeast succinyl-CoA ligase was shown to utilize ATP but not GTP for succinyl-CoA synthesis. PMID:9874242

Przybyla-Zawislak, B; Dennis, R A; Zakharkin, S O; McCammon, M T

1998-12-01

400

Metabolic engineering of the phenylpropanoid pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Flavonoids are valuable natural products derived from the phenylpropanoid pathway. The objective of this study was to create a host for the biosynthesis of naringenin, the central precursor of many flavonoids. This was accomplished by introducing the phenylpropanoid pathway with the genes for phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) from Rhodosporidium toruloides, 4-coumarate:coenzyme A (CoA) ligase (4CL) from Arabidopsis thaliana, and chalcone synthase (CHS) from Hypericum androsaemum into two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, namely, AH22 and a pad1 knockout mutant. Each gene was cloned and inserted into an expression vector under the control of a separate individual GAL10 promoter. Besides its PAL activity, the recombinant PAL enzyme showed tyrosine ammonia lyase activity, which enabled the biosynthesis of naringenin without introducing cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H). 4CL catalyzed the conversion of both trans-cinnamic acid and p-coumaric acid to their corresponding CoA products, which were further converted to pinocembrin chalcone and naringenin chalcone by CHS. These chalcones were cyclized to pinocembrin and naringenin. The yeast AH22 strain coexpressing PAL, 4CL, and CHS produced approximately 7 mg liter(-1) of naringenin and 0.8 mg liter(-1) of pinocembrin. Several by-products, such as 2',4',6'-trihydroxydihydrochalcone and phloretin, were also identified. Precursor feeding studies indicated that metabolic flux to the engineered flavonoid pathway was limited by the flux to the precursor l-tyrosine.

Jiang H; Wood KV; Morgan JA

2005-06-01

 
 
 
 
401

Metabolic engineering of the phenylpropanoid pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Flavonoids are valuable natural products derived from the phenylpropanoid pathway. The objective of this study was to create a host for the biosynthesis of naringenin, the central precursor of many flavonoids. This was accomplished by introducing the phenylpropanoid pathway with the genes for phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) from Rhodosporidium toruloides, 4-coumarate:coenzyme A (CoA) ligase (4CL) from Arabidopsis thaliana, and chalcone synthase (CHS) from Hypericum androsaemum into two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, namely, AH22 and a pad1 knockout mutant. Each gene was cloned and inserted into an expression vector under the control of a separate individual GAL10 promoter. Besides its PAL activity, the recombinant PAL enzyme showed tyrosine ammonia lyase activity, which enabled the biosynthesis of naringenin without introducing cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H). 4CL catalyzed the conversion of both trans-cinnamic acid and p-coumaric acid to their corresponding CoA products, which were further converted to pinocembrin chalcone and naringenin chalcone by CHS. These chalcones were cyclized to pinocembrin and naringenin. The yeast AH22 strain coexpressing PAL, 4CL, and CHS produced approximately 7 mg liter(-1) of naringenin and 0.8 mg liter(-1) of pinocembrin. Several by-products, such as 2',4',6'-trihydroxydihydrochalcone and phloretin, were also identified. Precursor feeding studies indicated that metabolic flux to the engineered flavonoid pathway was limited by the flux to the precursor l-tyrosine. PMID:15932991

Jiang, Hanxiao; Wood, Karl V; Morgan, John A

2005-06-01

402

Production of resveratrol from tyrosine in metabolically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Resveratrol, a polyphenol compound found in grape skins, has been proposed to account for the beneficial effects of red wine against heart disease. To produce resveratrol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, four heterologous genes were introduced: the phenylalanine ammonia lyase gene from Rhodosporidium toruloides, the cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase and 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase genes both from Arabidopsis thaliana, and the stilbene synthase gene from Arachis hypogaea. When this recombinant yeast was cultivated by batch fermentation in YP medium containing 2% galactose, it produced 2.6 mg/L p-coumaric acid and 3.3 mg/L resveratrol. In order to increase the pool of malonyl-CoA, a key precursor in resveratrol biosynthesis, the acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC1) gene was additionally overexpressed in the yeast by replacing the native promoter of the ACC1 gene with the stronger GAL1 promoter and this resulted in enhanced production of resveratrol (4.3 mg/L). Furthermore, when tyrosine was supplemented in the medium, the concentration of resveratrol increased up to 5.8 mg/L. This result illustrates a possible strategy for developing metabolically engineered yeast strain for the economical production of resveratrol from cheap amino acids. PMID:22883555

Shin, So-Yeon; Jung, Sang-Min; Kim, Myoung-Dong; Han, Nam Soo; Seo, Jin-Ho

2012-06-28

403

TOR and RAS pathways regulate desiccation tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Tolerance to desiccation in cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is inducible; only one in a million cells from an exponential culture survive desiccation compared with one in five cells in stationary phase. Here we exploit the desiccation sensitivity of exponentially dividing cells to understand the stresses imposed by desiccation and their stress response pathways. We found that induction of desiccation tolerance is cell autonomous and that there is an inverse correlation between desiccation tolerance and growth rate in glucose-, ammonia-, or phosphate-limited continuous cultures. A transient heat shock induces a 5000-fold increase in desiccation tolerance, whereas hyper-ionic, -reductive, -oxidative, or -osmotic stress induced much less. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the Sch9p-regulated branch of the TOR and Ras-cAMP pathway inhibits desiccation tolerance by inhibiting the stress response transcription factors Gis1p, Msn2p, and Msn4p and by activating Sfp1p, a ribosome biogenesis transcription factor. Among 41 mutants defective in ribosome biogenesis, a subset defective in 60S showed a dramatic increase in desiccation tolerance independent of growth rate. We suggest that reduction of a specific intermediate in 60S biogenesis, resulting from conditions such as heat shock and nutrient deprivation, increases desiccation tolerance.

Welch AZ; Gibney PA; Botstein D; Koshland DE

2013-01-01

404

Enzymatic synthesis of glutathione using engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two single gene cassettes, each containing one of the individual gene (?-glutamylcysteine synthetase gene GSH1 or glutathione synthetase gene GSH2), were constructed under the control of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH1) promoter and their respective native terminators. The recombinant plasmids constructed with Kan (r) or Hyg (r) as the selective markers and were transformed into Saccharomyces cerevisiae separately and jointly. Three engineered strains, GSH1-enhanced strain S.TS013/GSH1, GSH2-enhanced strain S.TS013/GSH2 and GSH1+GSH2 double-enhanced strain S.TS013/GSH1+GSH2, were constructed. Glutathione production using the recombinant strains to improve was then determined. By the cell dosage proportions of two engineered strains (S.TS013/GSH1, S.TS013/GSH2) and a two-stage reaction, GSH productivity increased by 84 and 59 % over that of the host strain and the S.TS013/GSH1+GSH2 strain, respectively.

Chen JL; Xie L; Cai JJ; Yang CS; Duan XH

2013-08-01

405

Endomitotic effect of a cell cycle mutation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A recessive temperature-sensitive mutation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been isolated and shown to cause an increase in ploidy in both haploids and diploids. Genetic analysis revealed that the strain carrying the mutation was an aa diploid, although MNNG mutagenesis had been done on an a haploid strain. When the mutant strain was crossed with an ..cap alpha cap alpha.. diploid and the resultant tetraploid sporulated, some of the meiotic progeny of this tetraploid were themselves tetraploid, as shown by both genetic analysis and DNA measurements, instead of diploid as expected of tetraploid meiosis. The ability of these tetraploids to continue to produce tetraploid meiotic progeny was followed for four generations. It was found that tetraploidization was independent of sporulation temperature, but was dependent on the temperature of germination and the growth of the spores. Increase in ploidy occurred when the spores were germinated and grown at 30/sup 0/, but did not occur at 23/sup 0/. Two cycles of sporulation and growth at 23/sup 0/ resulted in haploids, which were shown to diploidize within 24 hr when grown at 30/sup 0/.

Schild, D.; Ananthaswamy, H.N.; Mortimer, R.K.

1981-03-01

406

Oxygen requirements of yeasts. [Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Candida tropicalis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Type species of 75 yeast genera were examined for their ability to grow anaerobically in complex and mineral media. To define anaerobic conditions, we added a redox indicator, resazurin, to the media to determine low redox potentials. All strains tested were capable of fermenting glucose to ethanol in oxygen-limited shake-flask cultures, even those of species generally regarded as nonfermentative. However, only 23% of the yeast species tested grew under anaerobic conditions. A comparative study with a number of selected strains revealed that Saccharomyces cerevisiae stands out as a yeast capable of rapid growth at low redox potentials. Other yeasts, such as Torulaspora delbrueckii and Candida tropicalis, grew poorly ({mu}{sub max}, 0.03 and 0.05 h{sup {minus}1}, respectively) under anaerobic conditions in mineral medium supplemented with Tween 80 and ergosterol. The latter organisms grew rapidly under oxygen limitation and then displayed a high rate of alcoholic fermentation. It can be concluded that these yeasts have hitherto-unidentified oxygen requirements for growth.

Visser, W.; Scheffers, W.A.; Batenburg-Van Der Vegte, W.H.; Van Dijken, J.P. (Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands))

1990-12-01

407

Ketoconazole and miconazole alter potassium homeostasis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effects of ketoconazole and miconazole uptake on K(+) transport and the internal pH of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were studied. The uptake of both drugs was very fast, linear with concentration and not dependent on glucose, indicating entrance by diffusion and concentrating inside. Low (5.0?M) to intermediate concentrations (40?M) of both drugs produced a glucose-dependent K(+) efflux; higher ones also produced a small influx of protons, probably through a K(+)/H(+) exchanger, resulting in a decrease of the internal pH of the cells and the efflux of material absorbing at 260nm and phosphate. The cell membrane was not permeabilized. The K(+) efflux with miconazole was dependent directly on the medium pH. This efflux results in an increased membrane potential, responsible for an increased Ca(2+) uptake and other effects. These effects were not observed with two triazolic antifungals. A decrease of the Zeta (?) potential was observed at low concentrations of miconazole. Although the main effect of these antifungals is the inhibition of ergosterol synthesis, K(+) efflux is an important additional effect to be considered in their therapeutic use. Under certain conditions, the use of single mutants of several transporters involved in the movements of K(+) allowed to identify the participation of several antiporters in the efflux of the cation.

Calahorra M; Lozano C; Sánchez NS; Peña A

2011-01-01