WorldWideScience

Sample records for saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes

  1. Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, Rasmus K; Andersen, Kaj Scherz; Regenberg, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    Microbial biofilms can be defined as multi-cellular aggregates adhering to a surface and embedded in an extracellular matrix (ECM). The nonpathogenic yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, follows the common traits of microbial biofilms with cell-cell and cell-surface adhesion. S. cerevisiae is shown t...... cues, cell-to-cell variation and niches in S. cerevisiae biofilm. Being closely related to Candida species, S. cerevisiae is a model to investigate biofilms of pathogenic yeast.......Microbial biofilms can be defined as multi-cellular aggregates adhering to a surface and embedded in an extracellular matrix (ECM). The nonpathogenic yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, follows the common traits of microbial biofilms with cell-cell and cell-surface adhesion. S. cerevisiae is shown to...... produce an ECM and respond to quorum sensing, and multi-cellular aggregates have lowered susceptibility to antifungals. Adhesion is mediated by a family of cell surface proteins of which Flo11 has been shown to be essential for biofilm development. FLO11 expression is regulated via a number of regulatory...

  2. Regulation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae EKI1-encoded Ethanolamine Kinase by Zinc Depletion*

    OpenAIRE

    Kersting, Michael C.; CARMAN, George M.

    2006-01-01

    Ethanolamine kinase catalyzes the committed step in the synthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine via the CDP-ethanolamine branch of the Kennedy pathway. Regulation of the EKI1-encoded ethanolamine kinase by the essential nutrient zinc was examined in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The level of ethanolamine kinase activity increased when zinc was depleted from the growth medium. This regulation correlated with increases in the CDP-ethanolamine pathway intermediates phosphoethanolamine and CDP-ethanola...

  3. YLR209c Encodes Saccharomyces cerevisiae Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase

    OpenAIRE

    Lecoq, K; Belloc, I.; C. Desgranges; Konrad, M.; Daignan-Fornier, B

    2001-01-01

    The yeast YLR209c (PNP1) gene encodes a protein highly similar to purine nucleoside phosphorylases. This protein specifically metabolized inosine and guanosine. Disruption of PNP1 led to inosine and guanosine excretion in the medium, thus showing that PNP1 plays an important role in the metabolism of these purine nucleosides in vivo.

  4. AGT1, Encoding an ?-Glucoside Transporter Involved in Uptake and Intracellular Accumulation of Trehalose in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Plourde-Owobi, Lucile; Durner, Sophie; Parrou, Jean-Luc; Wieczorke, Roman; Goma, Gerard; François, Jean

    1999-01-01

    The trehalose content in Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be significantly manipulated by including trehalose at an appropriate level in the growth medium. Its uptake is largely dependent on the expression of AGT1, which encodes an ?-glucoside transporter. The trehalose found in a tps1 mutant of trehalose synthase may therefore largely reflect its uptake from the enriched medium that was employed.

  5. Bacterial XylRs and synthetic promoters function as genetically encoded xylose biosensors in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Wei Suong; Chang, Matthew Wook

    2015-02-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a sustainable and abundant starting material for biofuel production. However, lignocellulosic hydrolysates contain not only glucose, but also other sugars including xylose which cannot be metabolized by the industrial workhorse Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Hence, engineering of xylose assimilating S. cerevisiae has been much studied, including strain optimization strategies. In this work, we constructed genetically encoded xylose biosensors that can control protein expression upon detection of xylose sugars. These were constructed with the constitutive expression of heterologous XylR repressors, which function as protein sensors, and cloning of synthetic promoters with XylR operator sites. Three XylR variants and the corresponding synthetic promoters were used: XylR from Tetragenococcus halophile, Clostridium difficile, and Lactobacillus pentosus. To optimize the biosensor, two promoters with different strengths were used to express the XylR proteins. The ability of XylR to repress yEGFP expression from the synthetic promoters was demonstrated. Furthermore, xylose sugars added exogenously to the cells were shown to regulate gene expression. We envision that the xylose biosensors can be used as a tool to engineer and optimize yeast that efficiently utilizes xylose as carbon source for growth and biofuel production. PMID:24975936

  6. Genes regulation encoding ADP/ATP carrier in yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida parapsilosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genes encoding a mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier (AAC) in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida parapsilosis were investigated. AAC2 is coding for the major AAC isoform in S. cerevisiae. We suggest that AAC2 is a member of a syn-expression group of genes encoding oxidative phosphorylation proteins. Within our previous studies on the regulation of the AAC2 transcription an UAS (-393/-268) was identified that is essential for the expression of this gene. Two functional regulatory cis-elements are located within this UAS -binding sites for an ABFl factor and for HAP2/3/4/5 heteromeric complex. We examined relative contributions and mutual interactions of the ABFl and HAP2/3/4/5 factors in the activation of transcription from the UAS of the AAC2 gene. The whole UAS was dissected into smaller sub-fragments and tested for (i) the ability to form DNA-protein complexes with cellular proteins in vitro, (ii) the ability to confer heterologous expression using AAC3 gene lacking its own promoter, and (iii) the expression of AAC3-lacZ fusion instead of intact AAC3 gene. The obtained results demonstrated that: a) The whole UAS as well as sub-fragment containing only ABF1-binding site are able to form DNA-protein complexes with cellular proteins in oxygen- and heme- dependent manner. The experiments with antibody against the ABF1 showed that the ABF1 factor is one of the proteins binding to AAC2 promoter. We have been unsuccessful to prove the binding of cellular proteins to the HAP2/3/4/5-binding site. However, the presence of HAP2/3/4/5-binding site is necessary to drive a binding of cellular proteins to the ABF1-binding site in carbon source-dependent manner. b) The presence of both ABF1- and HAP2/3/4/5-binding sites and original spacing between them is necessary to confer the growth of Aaac2 mutant strain on non- fermentable carbon source when put in front of AAC3 gene introduced on centromeric vector to Aaac2 mutant strain. c) For the activation of AAC3-lacZ expression on both fermentable and non-fermentable carbon sources the only presence of two copies of HAP2/3/4/5-binding site is sufficient. However, activation of AAC3-lacZ expression by two copies of HAP2/3/4/5-binding site is very low. We can conclude that the presence of both ABF1- and HAP2/3/4/5-binding sites and original spacing between them is necessary to get strong activation of AAC2 gene. A gene homologous to Saccharomyces cerevisiae AAC genes coding for mitochondrial ADP/ATP carriers has been cloned from pathogenic yeast Candida parapsilosis. The cloned gene was sequenced and found to encode a polypeptide of 303 amino acids that shows homology with other yeast and mammal mitochondrial ADP/ATP carriers. The gene was designed CpAAC1 and was able to complement the growth phenotype of S. cerevisiae double deletion mutant (?aac2?aac3). The expression of the CpAAC1 gene was affected at normal aerobic conditions by the nature of carbon source used for growth. The concentration of oxygen had no effect to the expression of this gene. Hybridization experiments indicate that C. parapsilosis possesses a single gene encoding a mitochondrial ADP/ ATP carrier. (author)

  7. Proline biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: analysis of the PRO3 gene, which encodes delta 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase.

    OpenAIRE

    Brandriss, M C; Falvey, D A

    1992-01-01

    The PRO3 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes the 286-amino-acid protein delta 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase [L-proline:NAD(P+) 5-oxidoreductase; EC 1.5.1.2], which catalyzes the final step in proline biosynthesis. The protein has substantial similarity to the pyrroline carboxylate reductases of diverse bacterial species, soybean, and humans. Using RNA hybridization and measurements of enzyme activity, we have determined that the expression of the PRO3 gene appears to be constitutiv...

  8. POS5 Gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Encodes a Mitochondrial NADH Kinase Required for Stability of Mitochondrial DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Strand, Micheline K.; Stuart, Gregory R.; Longley, Matthew J.; Graziewicz, Maria A; Dominick, Olivia C.; Copeland, William C.

    2003-01-01

    In a search for nuclear genes that affect mutagenesis of mitochondrial DNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, an ATP-NAD (NADH) kinase, encoded by POS5, that functions exclusively in mitochondria was identified. The POS5 gene product was overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified without a mitochondrial targeting sequence. A direct biochemical assay demonstrated that the POS5 gene product utilizes ATP to phosphorylate both NADH and NAD+, with a twofold preference for NADH. Disruption of POS5 inc...

  9. CDC19 encoding pyruvate kinase is important for high-temperature tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjaphokee, Suthee; Koedrith, Preeyaporn; Auesukaree, Choowong; Asvarak, Thipa; Sugiyama, Minetaka; Kaneko, Yoshinobu; Boonchird, Chuenchit; Harashima, Satoshi

    2012-01-15

    Use of thermotolerant strains is a promising way to reduce the cost of maintaining optimum temperatures in the fermentation process. Here we investigated genetically a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain showing a high-temperature (41°C) growth (Htg(+)) phenotype and the result suggested that the Htg(+) phenotype of this Htg(+) strain is dominant and under the control of most probably six genes, designated HTG1 to HTG6. As compared with a Htg(-) strain, the Htg(+) strain showed a higher survival rate after exposure to heat shock at 48°C. Moreover, the Htg(+) strain exhibited a significantly high content of trehalose when cultured at high temperature and stronger resistance to Congo Red, an agent that interferes with cell wall construction. These results suggest that a strengthened cell wall in combination with increased trehalose accumulation can support growth at high temperature. The gene CDC19, encoding pyruvate kinase, was cloned as the HTG2 gene. The CDC19 allele from the Htg(+) strain possessed five base changes in its upstream region, and two base changes resulting in silent mutations in its coding region. Interestingly, the latter base changes are probably responsible for the increased pyruvate kinase activity of the Htg(+) strain. The possible mechanism leading to this increased activity and to the Htg(+) phenotype, which may lead to the activation of energy metabolism to maintain cellular homeostasis, is discussed. PMID:21459167

  10. Mutational Analysis of the Gal4-Encoded Transcriptional Activator Protein of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, M.; Dover, J

    1988-01-01

    The GAL4 protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae binds to DNA upstream of each of six genes and stimulates their transcription. To locate regions of the protein responsible for these processes, we identified and characterized 88 gal4 mutations selected in vivo to reduce the ability to GAL4 protein to activate transcription. These mutations alter two regions of GAL4 protein: the DNA binding domain, and the transcription activation domain. Some mutations in the DNA binding domain that abolish the a...

  11. GIT1, a gene encoding a novel transporter for glycerophosphoinositol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Patton-Vogt, J L; Henry, S A

    1998-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol catabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells cultured in media containing inositol results in the release of glycerophosphoinositol (GroPIns) into the medium. As the extracellular concentration of inositol decreases with growth, the released GroPIns is transported back into the cell. Exploiting the ability of the inositol auxotroph, ino1, to use exogenous GroPIns as an inositol source, we have isolated mutants (Git-) defective in the uptake and metabolism of GroPIns. One ...

  12. Expression in Escherichia coli of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CCT gene encoding cholinephosphate cytidylyltransferase.

    OpenAIRE

    Tsukagoshi, Y; Nikawa, J; Hosaka, K; Yamashita, S

    1991-01-01

    The coding region of the CCT gene from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was cloned into the pUC18 expression vector. The plasmid directed the synthesis of an active cholinephosphate cytidylyltransferase in Escherichia coli, confirming that CCT is the structural gene for this enzyme. The enzyme produced in E. coli efficiently utilized cholinephosphate and N,N-dimethylethanolaminephosphate, but N-methylethanolamine-phosphate and ethanolaminephosphate were poor substrates. Consistently, disrup...

  13. Saccharomyces cerevisiae aldolase mutants.

    OpenAIRE

    Lobo, Z

    1984-01-01

    Six mutants lacking the glycolytic enzyme fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase have been isolated in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by inositol starvation. The mutants grown on gluconeogenic substrates, such as glycerol or alcohol, and show growth inhibition by glucose and related sugars. The mutations are recessive, segregate as one gene in crosses, and fall in a single complementation group. All of the mutants synthesize an antigen cross-reacting to the antibody raised against yeast aldol...

  14. New Insights into Trehalose Metabolism by Saccharomyces cerevisiae: NTH2 Encodes a Functional Cytosolic Trehalase, and Deletion of TPS1 Reveals Ath1p-Dependent Trehalose Mobilization? †

    OpenAIRE

    Jules, Matthieu; Beltran, Gemma; François, Jean; Parrou, Jean Luc

    2007-01-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the synthesis of endogenous trehalose is catalyzed by a trehalose synthase complex, TPS, and its hydrolysis relies on a cytosolic/neutral trehalase encoded by NTH1. In this work, we showed that NTH2, a paralog of NTH1, encodes a functional trehalase that is implicated in trehalose mobilization. Yeast is also endowed with an acid trehalase encoded by ATH1 and an H+/trehalose transporter encoded by AGT1, which can together sustain assimilation of exogenous...

  15. Enhancement of Acetic Acid Tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Overexpression of the HAA1 Gene, Encoding a Transcriptional Activator

    OpenAIRE

    TANAKA, koichi; Ishii, Yukari; Ogawa, Jun; Shima, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Haa1 is a transcriptional activator required for Saccharomyces cerevisiae adaptation to weak acids. Here we show that the constitutive HAA1-overexpressing strain acquired a higher level of acetic acid tolerance. Under conditions of acetic acid stress, the intracellular level of acetic acid was significantly lower in HAA1-overexpressing cells than in the wild-type cells.

  16. Identification and isolation of the gene encoding the small subunit of ribonucleotide reductase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: DNA damage-inducible gene required for mitotic viability.

    OpenAIRE

    Elledge, S.J.; Davis, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    Ribonucleotide reductase catalyzes the first step in the pathway for the production of deoxyribonucleotides needed for DNA synthesis. The gene encoding the small subunit of ribonucleotide reductase was isolated from a Saccharomyces cerevisiae genomic DNA expression library in lambda gt11 by a fortuitous cross-reaction with anti-RecA antibodies. The cross-reaction was due to an identity between the last four amino acids of each protein. The gene has been named RNR2 and is centromere linked on ...

  17. PET genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Tzagoloff, A; Dieckmann, C L

    1990-01-01

    We describe a collection of nuclear respiratory-defective mutants (pet mutants) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae consisting of 215 complementation groups. This set of mutants probably represents a substantial fraction of the total genetic information of the nucleus required for the maintenance of functional mitochondria in S. cerevisiae. The biochemical lesions of mutants in approximately 50 complementation groups have been related to single enzymes or biosynthetic pathways, and the corresponding ...

  18. Saccharomyces cerevisiae YOR071C encodes the high affinity nicotinamide riboside transporter Nrt1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belenky, Peter A; Moga, Tiberiu G; Brenner, Charles

    2008-03-28

    NAD(+) is an essential coenzyme for hydride transfer enzymes and a substrate of sirtuins and other NAD(+)-consuming enzymes. Nicotinamide riboside is a recently discovered eukaryotic NAD(+) precursor converted to NAD(+) via the nicotinamide riboside kinase pathway and by nucleosidase activity and nicotinamide salvage. Nicotinamide riboside supplementation of yeast extends replicative life span on high glucose medium. The molecular basis for nicotinamide riboside uptake was unknown in any eukaryote. Here, we show that deletion of a single gene, YOR071C, abrogates nicotinamide riboside uptake without altering nicotinic acid or nicotinamide import. The gene, which is negatively regulated by Sum1, Hst1, and Rfm1, fully restores nicotinamide riboside import and utilization when resupplied to mutant yeast cells. The encoded polypeptide, Nrt1, is a predicted deca-spanning membrane protein related to the thiamine transporter, which functions as a pH-dependent facilitator with a K(m) for nicotinamide riboside of 22 microm. Nrt1-related molecules are conserved in particular fungi, suggesting a similar basis for nicotinamide riboside uptake. PMID:18258590

  19. The maltose permease encoded by the MAL61 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae exhibits both sequence and structural homology to other sugar transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Q; Michels, C A

    1989-11-01

    The MAL61 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes maltose permease, a protein required for the transport of maltose across the plasma membrane. Here we report the nucleotide sequence of the cloned MAL61 gene. A single 1842 bp open reading frame is present within this region encoding the 614 residue putative MAL61 protein. Hydropathy analysis suggests that the secondary structure consists of two blocks of six transmembrane domains separated by an approximately 71 residue intracellular region. The N-terminal and C-terminal domains of 100 and 67 residues in length, respectively, also appear to be intracellular. Significant sequence and structural homology is seen between the MAL61 protein and the Saccharomyces high-affinity glucose transporter encoded by the SNF3 gene, the Kluyveromyces lactis lactose permease encoded by the LAC12 gene, the human HepG2 glucose transporter and the Escherichia coli xylose and arabinose transporters encoded by the xylE and araE genes, indicating that all are members of a family of sugar transporters and are related either functionally or evolutionarily. A mechanism for glucose-induced inactivation of maltose transport activity is discussed. PMID:2689282

  20. Fungal genomics beyond Saccharomyces cerevisiae?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, Gerald; Mcintyre, Mhairi; Nielsen, Jens

    2003-01-01

    Fungi are used extensively in both fundamental research and industrial applications. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been the model organism for fungal research for many years, particularly in functional genomics. However, considering the diversity within the fungal kingdom, it is obvious that the application of the existing methods of genome, transcriptome, proteome and metabolome analysis to other fungi has enormous potential, especially for the production of food and food ingredients. The develo...

  1. Glucose repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kayikci, Omur; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Glucose is the primary source of energy for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although yeast cells can utilize a wide range of carbon sources, presence of glucose suppresses molecular activities involved in the use of alternate carbon sources as well as it represses respiration and gluconeogenesis. This dominant effect of glucose on yeast carbon metabolism is coordinated by several signaling and metabolic interactions that mainly regulate transcriptional activity but are also effective...

  2. Sequencing and heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae of a Cryptococcus neoformans cDNA encoding a plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgojo, B; Portillo, F; Martínez-Suárez, J V

    2000-12-20

    A cDNA containing an open reading frame encoding a putative plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase in the human pathogenic basidiomycetous yeast Cryptococcus neoformans was cloned and sequenced by means of PCR and cDNA library hybridization. The cloned cDNA is 3475 bp in length, containing a 2994 bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 997 amino acids. As in the case of another basidiomycetous fungus (Uromyces fabae), the deduced amino acid sequence of CnPMA1 was found to be more homologous to those of P-type H(+)-ATPases from higher plants than to those from ascomycetous fungi. In order to prove the sequenced cDNA corresponds to a H(+)-ATPase, it was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and found to functionally replace its own H(+)-ATPase. Kinetic studies of CnPMA1 compared to ScPMA1 show differences in V(max) values and H(+)-pumping in reconstituted vesicles. The pH optimum and K(m) values are similar in both enzymes. PMID:11118522

  3. Glycolipids of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renuka Malhotra

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Total lipids of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were isolated by chloroform and methanol (2:1. Glycolipids were separated from total lipids by silicic acid chromatography. Glycolipid’s constituent sugars and fatty acids were analyzed by using Gas Liquid Chromatography. Galactose was the prominent sugar followed by mannose. Relative concentrations of fucose, mannose, galactose and glucose in the glycolipid were 5.3, 35.2, 55.1 and 4.2%. 16:0, 18:0, 18:1, 18:2 and 18:3 were the major fatty acids of the total glycolipids. Oleic acid was the dominating fatty acid followed by linoliec acid. They were separated into different fractions by using DEAE-Sephadex ion exchange chromatography. Glycolipids were fractionated and identified as cerebrosides, ceramide polyhexosides, sulfatides, monoglucosyldiglycerides and diglucosyldiglycerides. Ceramide polyhexosides were present in higher concentration as compared to other fractions.

  4. Acetylation dynamics and stoichiometry in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weinert, Brian Tate; Iesmantavicius, Vytautas; Moustafa, Tarek; Schölz, Christian; Wagner, Sebastian A; Magnes, Christoph; Zechner, Rudolf; Choudhary, Chuna Ram

    2014-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a frequently occurring posttranslational modification; however, little is known about the origin and regulation of most sites. Here we used quantitative mass spectrometry to analyze acetylation dynamics and stoichiometry in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that acetylation...

  5. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae YLL012/YEH1, YLR020/YEH2, and TGL1 Genes Encode a Novel Family of Membrane-Anchored Lipases That Are Required for Steryl Ester Hydrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Köffel, René; Tiwari, Rashi; Falquet, Laurent; Schneiter, Roger

    2005-01-01

    Sterol homeostasis in eukaryotic cells relies on the reciprocal interconversion of free sterols and steryl esters. The formation of steryl esters is well characterized, but the mechanisms that control steryl ester mobilization upon cellular demand are less well understood. We have identified a family of three lipases of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that are required for efficient steryl ester mobilization. These lipases, encoded by YLL012/YEH1, YLR020/YEH2, and TGL1, are paralogues of the mammali...

  6. Endogenous Xylose Pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Toivari, Mervi H.; Salusjärvi, Laura; Ruohonen, Laura; Penttilä, Merja

    2004-01-01

    The baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is generally classified as a non-xylose-utilizing organism. We found that S. cerevisiae can grow on d-xylose when only the endogenous genes GRE3 (YHR104w), coding for a nonspecific aldose reductase, and XYL2 (YLR070c, ScXYL2), coding for a xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH), are overexpressed under endogenous promoters. In nontransformed S. cerevisiae strains, XDH activity was significantly higher in the presence of xylose, but xylose reductase (XR) activit...

  7. Positive and negative transcriptional control by heme of genes encoding 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Thorsness, M; Schafer, W.; D'Ari, L; RINE, J.

    1989-01-01

    Responses of the yeast genes encoding 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, HMG1 and HMG2, to in vivo changes in heme concentrations were investigated. Expression of the genes was determined by direct measurement of the mRNA transcribed from each gene, by direct assay of the enzyme activity encoded by each gene, and by measurement of the expression of lacZ fusions to the control regions of each gene. These studies indicated that expression of HMG1 was stimulated by heme, whereas ex...

  8. Metabolic Engineering of Glycerol Production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae:

    OpenAIRE

    Overkamp, K.M.; Bakker, B.M.; Kotter, P.; Luttik, M.A.H.; van Dijken, J P; Pronk, J T

    2002-01-01

    Inactivation of TPI1, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae structural gene encoding triose phosphate isomerase, completely eliminates growth on glucose as the sole carbon source. In tpi1-null mutants, intracellular accumulation of dihydroxyacetone phosphate might be prevented if the cytosolic NADH generated in glycolysis by glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase were quantitatively used to reduce dihydroxyacetone phosphate to glycerol. We hypothesize that the growth defect of tpi1-null mutants is c...

  9. Mating-Type Genes and MAT Switching in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Haber, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Mating type in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is determined by two nonhomologous alleles, MATa and MAT?. These sequences encode regulators of the two different haploid mating types and of the diploids formed by their conjugation. Analysis of the MATa1, MAT?1, and MAT?2 alleles provided one of the earliest models of cell-type specification by transcriptional activators and repressors. Remarkably, homothallic yeast cells can switch their mating type as often as every generation by a highly choreograp...

  10. Suppressor analysis of temperature-sensitive mutations of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase I in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a suppressor gene encodes the second-largest subunit of RNA polymerase I.

    OpenAIRE

    Yano, R; Nomura, M

    1991-01-01

    The SRP3-1 mutation is an allele-specific suppressor of temperature-sensitive mutations in the largest subunit (A190) of RNA polymerase I from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Two mutations known to be suppressed by SRP3-1 are in the putative zinc-binding domain of A190. We have cloned the SRP3 gene by using its suppressor activity and determined its complete nucleotide sequence. We conclude from the following evidence that the SRP3 gene encodes the second-largest subunit (A135) of RNA polymerase I....

  11. Ferrofluid modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells for biocatalysis.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šafa?íková, Miroslava; Mad?rová, Zde?ka; Šafa?ík, Ivo

    2009-01-01

    Ro?. 42, - (2009), s. 521-524. ISSN 0963-9969 R&D Projects: GA MPO 2A-1TP1/094; GA MŠk(CZ) OC 157 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Saccharomyces cerevisiae * magnetic fluid * hydrogen peroxide Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 2.414, year: 2009

  12. Genetic characterization of genes encoding enzymes catalyzing addition of phospho-ethanolamine to the glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh-e, Akio; Oguchi, Tomoko

    2002-10-01

    MPC1/GPI13/YLL031C, one of the genes involved in the addition of phospho-ethanolamine to the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor core, is an essential gene. Three available temperature-sensitive mutant alleles, mpc1-3, mpc1-4, and mpc1-5, displayed different phenotypes to each other and, correspondingly, these mutants were found to have different mutations in the MPC1 ORF. Temperature-sensitivity of mpc1-5 mutants was suppressed by 5 mM ZnSO(4) and by 5 mM MnCl(2). Multicopy suppressors were isolated from mpc1-5 mutant. Suppressors commonly effective to mpc1-4 and mpc1-5 mutations are PSD1, encoding phosphatidylserine decarboxylase, and ECM33, which were found to suppress the temperature-sensitive phenotype shown by the fsr2-1 and las21delta mutants, those of which have defects in the GPI anchor synthesis. PSD2, encoding another phosphatidylserine decarboxylase that is localized in Golgi/vacuole, was found to be able to serve as a multicopy suppressor of mpc1 and fsr2-1 mutants but not of the las21 delta mutant. In contrast to psd1delta, psd2delta showed a synthetic growth defect with mpc1 mutants but not with fsr2-1 or las21delta. Furthermore, psd1delta psd2delta mpc1 triple mutants did not form colonies on nutrient medium unless ethanolamine was supplied to the medium, whereas psd1delta psd2 delta fsr2-1 or psd1delta psd2 delta las21delta triple mutants grew on nutrient medium without supplementation of ethanolamine. These observations suggest that Mpc1 preferentially utilizes phosphatidylethanolamine produced by Psd2 that is localized in Golgi/vacuole. fsr2-1 dpl1 Delta psd1delta strains showed slower growth than fsr2-1 dpl1delta psd2 delta, suggesting that Fsr2 enzyme depends more on Dpl1 and Psd1 for production of phosphatidylethanolamine. Las21 did not show preference for the metabolic pathway to produce phosphatidylethanolamine. PMID:12441642

  13. Nitrogen Catabolite Repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofman-Bang, H Jacob Peider

    1999-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae the expression of all known nitrogen catabolite pathways are regulated by four regulators known as Gln3, Gat1, Da180, and Deh1. This is known as nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR). They bind to motifs in the promoter region to the consensus sequence S' GATAA 3'. Gln3 and Gat1 act positively on gene expression whereas :Da180 and Deh1 act negatively. Expression of nitrogen catabolite pathway genes known to be regulated by these four regulators are glutamine, glutamate, proline, urea, arginine, GABA, and allantoine. In addition, the expression of the genes encoding the general amino acid permease and the ammonium permease are also regulated by these four regulatory proteins. Another group of genes whose expression is also regulated by Gln3, Gat1, Da180, and Deh1 are some proteases, CPS1, PRB1, LAP1, and PEP4, responsible for the degradation of proteins into amino acids thereby providing a nitrogen source to the cell.In this review, all known promoter sequences related to expression of nitrogen catabolite pathways are discussed as well as other regulatory proteins. Overview of metabolic pathways and promoters are presented.

  14. Acid excreting mutants of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants acidifying glucose medium containing bromocresol purple were shown to excrete protons when placed in unbuffered water in the absence of any external carbon source. The mutants belong to 16 different complementation groups. Most of them do not grow on glycerol and the excreted protons are associated to particular sets of organic anions such as citrate, aconitate, succinate, fumarate or malate. These novel types of respiratory mutations seem to be located in genes operating in the Krebs or glyoxylate cycle

  15. PRODUCTION OF ERGOSTEROL BY SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

    OpenAIRE

    Blažena Lavová; Andrea Hároniková; Ivana Márová; Dana Urminská

    2013-01-01

    Ergosterol is an essential component of yeast cells that maintains the integrity of the membrane. In this study the production of ergosterol by yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains Kolín, Gyöng and 612 was investigated. Ergosterol was isolated by multilevel extraction associated with saponification and analyzed by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography with PDA detector. It was found that the highest content of ergosterol (7055.53 ?g.g-1 d.w.) was reached after 52 hours of str...

  16. Transformation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by electroporation.

    OpenAIRE

    Delorme, E

    1989-01-01

    A method for introducing heterologous DNA into Saccharomyces cerevisiae rapidly and efficiently by electroporation was developed. Transformant colonies appeared somewhat sooner than by the LiCl or spheroplast transformation method, and the time spent in manipulation was much less than for these two methods. The pores in the cell membrane formed by the high voltage of electroporation were resealed within 6 to 7 min after electroporation. At a capacitance of 25 microF, the optimum voltage was 2...

  17. Characterisation of microencapsulation process in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Ciamponi, Federica

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1970’s there has been industrial interest in using microorganisms as microcapsules. The encapsulation of actives (e.g. flavours, drugs, perfumes) is a necessary process for pharmaceutical and food companies because the precious and often expensive ingredients must be protected from degradation and also released in a specific site or under a specific stimulus. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, baker’s yeast, represents a first choice microorganism for the encapsulation of active ingredients....

  18. Cell Wall Assembly in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Lesage, Guillaume; Bussey, Howard

    2006-01-01

    An extracellular matrix composed of a layered meshwork of ?-glucans, chitin, and mannoproteins encapsulates cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This organelle determines cellular morphology and plays a critical role in maintaining cell integrity during cell growth and division, under stress conditions, upon cell fusion in mating, and in the durable ascospore cell wall. Here we assess recent progress in understanding the molecular biology and biochemistry of cell wall synthesis and it...

  19. Myo-inositol transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Nikawa, J; Nagumo, T; Yamashita, S

    1982-01-01

    myo-Inositol uptake in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was dependent on temperature, time, and substrate concentration. The transport obeyed saturation kinetics with an apparent Km for myo-inositol of 0.1 mM, myo-Inositol analogs, such as scyllo-inositol, 2-inosose, mannitol, and 1,2-cyclohexanediol, had no effect on myo-inositol uptake, myo-Inositol uptake required metabolic energy. Removal of D-glucose resulted in a loss of activity, and azide and cyanide ions were inhibitory. In the presence of D...

  20. Excision repair in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two approaches, the first to detect endogenous single-strand (ss) breaks in cellular DNA and the second to detect dimers after low fluences, were used to investigate events during excision repair in wild-type and radiation-sensitive strains of S. cerevisiae. With a modification of the alkaline sucrose gradient sedimentation procedure of McGrath and Williams (Nature 212:534-535, 1966), ss-breaks were found to appear in yeast nuclear DNA after the uv irradiation of cells. In the haploid, wild-type strain S288C the number of ss-breaks was found first to increase to a maximum value proportional to the incident fluence and then to decrease during post-irradiation incubation in potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) at 280C. Both the maximum number observed and the length of incubation required before the number of ss-breaks again reached a minimum increased with fluence, and were decreased by photoreactivating treatment in the wild-type strain. Single-strand breaks were also detected in haploid, radiation-sensitive strains carrying mutations at rad1, rad2, rad3, and rad4, but the number of breaks was not found to decrease again as in the wild-type strain. A sensitive and quantitative technique was also developed for the detection of dimers in yeast nuclear DNA. This assay employed a dimer-specific endonuclease found in extracts of Micrococcus luteus and the sensitivity of alkaline sucrose gradient sedimentation to small numbers of ss-breaks

  1. Prezygotic reproductive isolation between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces paradoxus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greig Duncan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Matings between different Saccharomyces sensu stricto yeast species produce sexually sterile hybrids, so individuals should avoid mating with other species. Any mechanism that reduces the frequency of interspecific matings will confer a selective advantage. Here we test the ability of two closely-related Saccharomyces sensu stricto species to select their own species as mates and avoid hybridisation. Results We set up mate choice tests, using five independently isolated pairs of species, in which individual germinating spores were presented with the opportunity to mate either with a germinating spore of their own species or with a germinating spore of the other species. For all five strain pairs, whether a S. cerevisiae or S. paradoxus occupies the role of "chooser" strain, the level of hybridisation that is observed between the two species is significantly lower than would be expected if mates were selected at random. We also show that, overall, S. cerevisiae exhibited a stronger own-species preference than S. paradoxus. Conclusion Prezygotic reproductive isolation is well known in higher organisms but has been largely overlooked in yeast, an important model microbe. Here we present the first report of prezygotic reproductive isolation in Saccharomyces. Prezygotic reproductive isolation may be important in yeast speciation or yeast species cohesion, and may have evolved to prevent wasted matings between different species. Whilst yeast has long been used as a genetic model system, little is known about yeast in the wild. Our work sheds light on an interesting aspect of yeast natural behaviour: their ability to avoid costly interspecific matings.

  2. Enhancing sesquiterpene production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae through in silico driven metabolic engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asadollahi, Mohammadali; Maury, Jerome; Patil, Kiran Raosaheb; schalk, Michel; Clark, Anthony; Nielsen, Jens

    2009-01-01

    A genome-scale metabolic model was used to identify new target genes for enhanced biosynthesis of sesquiterpenes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The effect of gene deletions on the flux distributions in the metabolic model of S. cerevisiae was assessed using OptGene as the modeling framework and minimization of metabolic adjustments (MOMA) as objective function. Deletion of NADPH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase encoded by GDH1 was identified as the best target gene for the improvement o...

  3. Spk1, a new kinase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, phosphorylates proteins on serine, threonine, and tyrosine.

    OpenAIRE

    Stern, D. F.; Zheng, P.; Beidler, D R; Zerillo, C

    1991-01-01

    A Saccharomyces cerevisiae lambda gt11 library was screened with antiphosphotyrosine antibodies in an attempt to identify a gene encoding a tyrosine kinase. A subclone derived from one positive phage was sequenced and found to contain an 821-amino-acid open reading frame that encodes a protein with homology to protein kinases. We tested the activity of the putative kinase by constructing a vector encoding a glutathione-S-transferase fusion protein containing most of the predicted polypeptide....

  4. Electrical stimulation of saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures Estimulação elétrica de células de Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Ofelia Q.F. Araújo; Maria Alice Z Coelho; Isabel C.P. Margarit; Carlos A. Vaz-Junior; Maria Helena M. Rocha-Leão

    2004-01-01

    Modulation of cell endogenous membrane potential by an external electrical field influences the structure and function of membrane compartments, proteins and lipid bi-layer. In this work, the effects of applied potential on Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth were characterized through simple yet conclusive experiments. Cell growth time profile and cell division were investigated as macroscopic response to the electrical stimulation. Control experiments were conducted under identical conditions e...

  5. Expression of the E.coli pntA and pntB genes encoding nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its effect on product formation during anaerobic glucose fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderlund, M.; Nissen, Torben Lauesgaard; Nielsen, Jens Bredal; Villadsen, John; Rydström, J.; Hahn-Hägerdal, B.; Kielland-Brandt, M.C.

    1999-01-01

    We studied the physiological effect of the interconversion between the NAD(H) and NADP(H) coenzyme systems in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing the membrane-bound transhydrogenase from Escherichia coli. Our objective was to determine if the membrane-bound transhydrogenase could work in reoxidation of NADH to NAD(+) in S. cerevisiae and thereby reduce glycerol formation during anaerobic fermentation. Membranes isolated from the recombinant strains exhibited reduction of 3-acetylpyri...

  6. Synchronization of the Budding Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltman, Magdalena; Molist, Iago; Sanchez-Diaz, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    A number of model organisms have provided the basis for our understanding of the eukaryotic cell cycle. These model organisms are generally much easier to manipulate than mammalian cells and as such provide amenable tools for extensive genetic and biochemical analysis. One of the most common model organisms used to study the cell cycle is the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This model provides the ability to synchronise cells efficiently at different stages of the cell cycle, which in turn opens up the possibility for extensive and detailed study of mechanisms regulating the eukaryotic cell cycle. Here, we describe methods in which budding yeast cells are arrested at a particular phase of the cell cycle and then released from the block, permitting the study of molecular mechanisms that drive the progression through the cell cycle. PMID:26519319

  7. Acetylation dynamics and stoichiometry in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weinert, Brian Tate; Iesmantavicius, Vytautas; Moustafa, Tarek; Schölz, Christian; Wagner, Sebastian A; Magnes, Christoph; Zechner, Rudolf; Choudhary, Chuna Ram

    2014-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a frequently occurring posttranslational modification; however, little is known about the origin and regulation of most sites. Here we used quantitative mass spectrometry to analyze acetylation dynamics and stoichiometry in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that acetylation...... acetylation stoichiometry and found that the vast majority of mitochondrial and cytoplasmic acetylation had a very low stoichiometry. However, mitochondrial acetylation occurred at a significantly higher basal level than cytoplasmic acetylation, consistent with the distinct acetylation dynamics and higher...... acetyl-CoA concentration in mitochondria. High stoichiometry acetylation occurred mostly on histones, proteins present in histone acetyltransferase and deacetylase complexes, and on transcription factors. These data show that a majority of acetylation occurs at very low levels in exponentially growing...

  8. Expression of the rgMT gene, encoding for a rice metallothionein-like protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Arabidopsis thaliana

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shumei Jin; Dan Sun; Ji Wang; Ying Li; Xinwang Wang; Shenkui Liu

    2014-12-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are cysteine-rich proteins of low molecular weight with many attributed functions, such as providing protection against metal toxicity, being involved in regulation of metal ions uptake that can impact plant physiology and providing protection against oxidative stress. However, the precise function of the metallothionein-like proteins such as the one coded for rgMT gene isolated from rice (Oryza sativa L.) is not completely understood. The whole genome analysis of rice (O. sativa) showed that the rgMT gene is homologue to the Os11g47809 on chromosome 11 of O. sativa sp. japonica genome. This study used the rgMT coding sequence to create transgenic lines to investigate the subcellular localization of the protein, as well as the impact of gene expression in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and Arabidopsis thaliana under heavy metal ion, salt and oxidative stresses. The results indicate that the rgMT gene was expressed in the cytoplasm of transgenic cells. Yeast cells transgenic for rgMT showed vigorous growth compared to the nontransgenic controls when exposed to 7mM CuCl2, 10 mM FeCl2, 1 M NaCl, 24 mM NaHCO3 and 3.2 mM H2O2, but there was no significant difference for other stresses tested. Similarly, Arabidopsis transgenic for rgMT displayed significantly improved seed germination rates over that of the control when the seeds were stressed with 100 M CuCl2 or 1 mM H2O2. Increased biomass was observed in the presence of 100 M CuCl2, 220 M FeCl2, 3 mM Na2CO3, 5 mM NaHCO3 or 1 mM H2O2. These results indicate that the expression of the rice rgMT gene in transgenic yeast and Arabidopsis is implicated in improving their tolerance for certain salt and peroxide stressors.

  9. Probing glycolytic and membrane potential oscillations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Allan K.; Andersen, Ann Zahle; Brasen, Jens Christian; Scharff-Poulsen, Anne Marie; Olsen, Lars Folke

    2008-01-01

    We have investigated glycolytic oscillations under semi-anaerobic conditions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by means of NADH fluorescence, measurements of intracellular glucose concentration, and mitochondrial membrane potential. The glucose concentration was measured using an optical nanosensor, wh...

  10. Phenotypical signs and chemical composition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae – mannoprotein producers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agafia USATII

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Phenotypical signs and chemical composition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNMN-Y-18 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNMN-Y-19 yeast strains are described in this article. The presence of protein complexes with high content of irreplaceable amino acids and antioxidant enzymes, as well as polysaccharides with predominance of mannoproteins allow to recommend these yeast strains for the utilization in biotechnology. Results are of interest for the standard description of yeast strains offered as object for industrial appointment.

  11. Phenotypical signs and chemical composition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae – mannoprotein producers

    OpenAIRE

    Agafia USATII; Elena MOLODOI; Nadejda EFREMOVA; Natalia CHISELITA; Tamara BORISOVA; Ludmila FULGA

    2012-01-01

    Phenotypical signs and chemical composition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNMN-Y-18 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNMN-Y-19 yeast strains are described in this article. The presence of protein complexes with high content of irreplaceable amino acids and antioxidant enzymes, as well as polysaccharides with predominance of mannoproteins allow to recommend these yeast strains for the utilization in biotechnology. Results are of interest for the standard description of yeast strains offered as objec...

  12. Response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to cadmium stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Luciana Mara Costa; Ribeiro, Frederico Haddad; Neves, Maria Jose [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia], e-mail: luamatu@uol.com.br; Porto, Barbara Abranches Araujo; Amaral, Angela M.; Menezes, Maria Angela B.C. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Ativacao Neutronica], e-mail: menezes@cdtn.br; Rosa, Carlos Augusto [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Microbiologia], e-mail: carlrosa@icb.ufmg

    2009-07-01

    The intensification of industrial activity has been greatly contributing with the increase of heavy metals in the environment. Among these heavy metals, cadmium becomes a serious pervasive environmental pollutant. The cadmium is a heavy metal with no biological function, very toxic and carcinogenic at low concentrations. The toxicity of cadmium and several other metals can be mainly attributed to the multiplicity of coordination complexes and clusters that they can form. Some aspects of the cellular response to cadmium were extensively investigated in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The primary site of interaction between many toxic metals and microbial cells is the plasma membrane. Plasma-membrane permeabilisation has been reported in a variety of microorganisms following cadmium exposure, and is considered one mechanism of cadmium toxicity in the yeast. In this work, using the yeast strain S. cerevisiae W303-WT, we have investigated the relationships between Cd uptake and release of cellular metal ions (K{sup +} and Na{sup +}) using neutron activation technique. The neutron activation was an easy, rapid and suitable technique for doing these metal determinations on yeast cells; was observed the change in morphology of the strains during the process of Cd accumulation, these alterations were observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) during incorporation of cadmium. (author)

  13. Response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to cadmium stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intensification of industrial activity has been greatly contributing with the increase of heavy metals in the environment. Among these heavy metals, cadmium becomes a serious pervasive environmental pollutant. The cadmium is a heavy metal with no biological function, very toxic and carcinogenic at low concentrations. The toxicity of cadmium and several other metals can be mainly attributed to the multiplicity of coordination complexes and clusters that they can form. Some aspects of the cellular response to cadmium were extensively investigated in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The primary site of interaction between many toxic metals and microbial cells is the plasma membrane. Plasma-membrane permeabilisation has been reported in a variety of microorganisms following cadmium exposure, and is considered one mechanism of cadmium toxicity in the yeast. In this work, using the yeast strain S. cerevisiae W303-WT, we have investigated the relationships between Cd uptake and release of cellular metal ions (K+ and Na+) using neutron activation technique. The neutron activation was an easy, rapid and suitable technique for doing these metal determinations on yeast cells; was observed the change in morphology of the strains during the process of Cd accumulation, these alterations were observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) during incorporation of cadmium. (author)

  14. Membrane Trafficking in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Feyder

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the best characterized eukaryotic models. The secretory pathway was the first trafficking pathway clearly understood mainly thanks to the work done in the laboratory of Randy Schekman in the 1980s. They have isolated yeast sec mutants unable to secrete an extracellular enzyme and these SEC genes were identified as encoding key effectors of the secretory machinery. For this work, the 2013 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine has been awarded to Randy Schekman; the prize is shared with James Rothman and Thomas Südhof. Here, we present the different trafficking pathways of yeast S. cerevisiae. At the Golgi apparatus newly synthesized proteins are sorted between those transported to the plasma membrane (PM, or the external medium, via the exocytosis or secretory pathway (SEC, and those targeted to the vacuole either through endosomes (vacuolar protein sorting or VPS pathway or directly (alkaline phosphatase or ALP pathway. Plasma membrane proteins can be internalized by endocytosis (END and transported to endosomes where they are sorted between those targeted for vacuolar degradation and those redirected to the Golgi (recycling or RCY pathway. Studies in yeast S. cerevisiae allowed the identification of most of the known effectors, protein complexes, and trafficking pathways in eukaryotic cells, and most of them are conserved among eukaryotes.

  15. Expression of the E.coli pntA and pntB genes encoding nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its effect on product formation during anaerobic glucose fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderlund, M.; Nissen, Torben Lauesgaard; Nielsen, Jens Bredal; Villadsen, John; Rydström, J.; Hahn-Hägerdal, B.; Kielland-Brandt, M.C.

    1999-01-01

    We studied the physiological effect of the interconversion between the NAD(H) and NADP(H) coenzyme systems in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing the membrane-bound transhydrogenase from Escherichia coli. Our objective was to determine if the membrane-bound transhydrogenase could work...

  16. The Acyl-CoA synthetases encoded within FAA1 and FAA4 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae function as components of the fatty acid transport system linking import, activation, and intracellular Utilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Færgeman, Nils J.; Black, P N; Zhao, X D; Knudsen, J; DiRusso, C C

    2001-01-01

    Exogenous long-chain fatty acids are activated to coenzyme A derivatives prior to metabolic utilization. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the activation of these compounds prior to metabolic utilization proceeds through the fatty acyl-CoA synthetases Faa1p and Faa4p. Faa1p or Faa4p are esse...

  17. Snf1-Dependent and Snf1-Independent Pathways of Constitutive ADH2 Expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Voronkova, Valentina; Kacherovsky, Nataly; Tachibana, Christine; Yu, Diana; Young, Elton T.

    2006-01-01

    The transcription factor Adr1 directly activates the expression of genes encoding enzymes in numerous pathways that are upregulated after the exhaustion of glucose in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ADH2, encoding the alcohol dehydrogenase isozyme required for ethanol oxidation, is a highly glucose-repressed, Adr1-dependent gene. Using a genetic screen we isolated >100 mutants in 12 complementation groups that exhibit ADR1-dependent constitutive ADH2 expression on glucose. Temperature-sen...

  18. Specific distribution of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae linker histone homolog HHO1p in the chromatin

    OpenAIRE

    Freidkin, Ilya; Katcoff, Don J.

    2001-01-01

    In virtually all eukaryotic organisms, linker DNA between nucleosomes is associated with a histone termed linker histone or histone H1. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, HHO1 encodes a putative linker histone with very significant homology to histone H1. The encoded protein is expressed in the nucleus, but has not been shown to affect global chromatin structure, nor has its deletion shown any detectable phenotype. In vitro chromatin assembly experiments with recombinant HHO1p have shown that it is...

  19. Acetylation dynamics and stoichiometry in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weinert, Brian Tate; Iesmantavicius, Vytautas

    2014-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a frequently occurring posttranslational modification; however, little is known about the origin and regulation of most sites. Here we used quantitative mass spectrometry to analyze acetylation dynamics and stoichiometry in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that acetylation accumulated in growth-arrested cells in a manner that depended on acetyl-CoA generation in distinct subcellular compartments. Mitochondrial acetylation levels correlated with acetyl-CoA concentration in vivo and acetyl-CoA acetylated lysine residues nonenzymatically in vitro. We developed a method to estimate acetylation stoichiometry and found that the vast majority of mitochondrial and cytoplasmic acetylation had a very low stoichiometry. However, mitochondrial acetylation occurred at a significantly higher basal level than cytoplasmic acetylation, consistent with the distinct acetylation dynamics and higher acetyl-CoA concentration in mitochondria. High stoichiometry acetylation occurred mostly on histones, proteins present in histone acetyltransferase and deacetylase complexes, and on transcription factors. These data show that a majority of acetylation occurs at very low levels in exponentially growing yeast and is uniformly affected by exposure to acetyl-CoA.

  20. Local Regulatory Variation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Naturally occurring sequence variation that affects gene expression is an important source of phenotypic differences among individuals within a species. We and others have previously shown that such regulatory variation can occur both at the same locus as the gene whose expression it affects (local regulatory variation and elsewhere in the genome at trans-acting factors. Here we present a detailed analysis of genome-wide local regulatory variation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We used genetic linkage analysis to show that nearly a quarter of all yeast genes contain local regulatory variation between two divergent strains. We measured allele-specific expression in a diploid hybrid of the two strains for 77 genes showing strong self-linkage and found that in 52%-78% of these genes, local regulatory variation acts directly in cis. We also experimentally confirmed one example in which local regulatory variation in the gene AMN1 acts in trans through a feedback loop. Genome-wide sequence analysis revealed that genes subject to local regulatory variation show increased polymorphism in the promoter regions, and that some but not all of this increase is due to polymorphisms in predicted transcription factor binding sites. Increased polymorphism was also found in the 3' untranslated regions of these genes. These findings point to the importance of cis-acting variation, but also suggest that there is a diverse set of mechanisms through which local variation can affect gene expression levels.

  1. Redox balancing in recombinant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderlund, M.

    1998-09-01

    In metabolically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing Pichia stipitis XYL1 and XYL2 genes, encoding xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH), respectively, xylitol is excreted as the major product during anaerobic xylose fermentation and only low yields of ethanol are produced. This has been interpreted as a result of the dual cofactor dependence of XR and the exclusive use of NAD{sup +} by XDH. The excretion of xylitol was completely stopped and the formation of glycerol and acetic acid were reduced in xylose utilising S. cerevisiae strains cultivated in oxygen-limited conditions by expressing lower levels of XR than of XDH. The expression level of XYL1 and XYL2 were controlled by changing the promoters and transcription directions of the genes. A new functional metabolic pathway was established when Thermus thermophilus xylA gene was expressed in S. cerevisiae. The recombinant strain was able to ferment xylose to ethanol when cultivated on a minimal medium containing xylose as only carbon source. In order to create a channeled metabolic transfer in the two first steps of the xylose metabolism, XYL1 and XYL2 were fused in-frame and expressed in S. cerevisiae. When the fusion protein, containing a linker of three amino acids, was co expressed together with native XR and XDH monomers, enzyme complexes consisting of chimeric and native subunits were formed. The total activity of these complexes exhibited 10 and 9 times higher XR and XDH activity, respectively, than the original conjugates, consisting of only chimeric subunits. This strain produced less xylitol and the xylitol yield was lower than with strains only expressing native XR and XDH monomers. In addition, more ethanol and less acetic acid were formed. A new gene encoding the cytoplasmic transhydrogenase from Azotobacter vinelandii was cloned. The enzyme showed high similarity to the family of pyridine nucleotide-disulphide oxidoreductase. To analyse the physiological effect of transhydrogenation between the two coenzyme systems NADP(H) and NAD(H) during anaerobic growth, S. cerevisiae was transformed with a plasma membrane bound AB-transhydrogenase from E. coli and with a cytoplasmic BB-transhydrogenase from A. vinelandii. Expression of both types changed the intracellular nucleotide levels. The NADPH/NADP{sup +} ratio was reduced while the NADH/NAD{sup +} ratio was almost constant. An increased formation of 2-oxoglutarate, glycerol and acetate was observed during anaerobic glucose fermentation 206 refs, 8 figs, 3 tabs

  2. Evolutionary engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for efficient aerobic xylose consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scalcinati, Gionata; Otero, José Manuel; Van Vleet, Jennifer R. H.; Jeffries, Thomas W.; Olsson, Lisbeth; Nielsen, Jens

    2012-01-01

    flux to biomass production. Such a platform may then be enhanced with complementary metabolic engineering strategies that couple biomass production with high value-added chemical. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, expressing xylose reductase, xylitol dehydrogenase and xylulose kinase, from the native xylose-metabolizing......Industrial biotechnology aims to develop robust microbial cell factories, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to produce an array of added value chemicals presently dominated by petrochemical processes. Xylose is the second most abundant monosaccharide after glucose and the most prevalent pentose...... sugar found in lignocelluloses. Significant research efforts have focused on the metabolic engineering of S. cerevisiae for fast and efficient xylose utilization. This study aims to metabolically engineer S. cerevisiae, such that it can consume xylose as the exclusive substrate while maximizing carbon...

  3. Switching the mode of sucrose utilization by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miletti Luiz C

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overflow metabolism is an undesirable characteristic of aerobic cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during biomass-directed processes. It results from elevated sugar consumption rates that cause a high substrate conversion to ethanol and other bi-products, severely affecting cell physiology, bioprocess performance, and biomass yields. Fed-batch culture, where sucrose consumption rates are controlled by the external addition of sugar aiming at its low concentrations in the fermentor, is the classical bioprocessing alternative to prevent sugar fermentation by yeasts. However, fed-batch fermentations present drawbacks that could be overcome by simpler batch cultures at relatively high (e.g. 20 g/L initial sugar concentrations. In this study, a S. cerevisiae strain lacking invertase activity was engineered to transport sucrose into the cells through a low-affinity and low-capacity sucrose-H+ symport activity, and the growth kinetics and biomass yields on sucrose analyzed using simple batch cultures. Results We have deleted from the genome of a S. cerevisiae strain lacking invertase the high-affinity sucrose-H+ symporter encoded by the AGT1 gene. This strain could still grow efficiently on sucrose due to a low-affinity and low-capacity sucrose-H+ symport activity mediated by the MALx1 maltose permeases, and its further intracellular hydrolysis by cytoplasmic maltases. Although sucrose consumption by this engineered yeast strain was slower than with the parental yeast strain, the cells grew efficiently on sucrose due to an increased respiration of the carbon source. Consequently, this engineered yeast strain produced less ethanol and 1.5 to 2 times more biomass when cultivated in simple batch mode using 20 g/L sucrose as the carbon source. Conclusion Higher cell densities during batch cultures on 20 g/L sucrose were achieved by using a S. cerevisiae strain engineered in the sucrose uptake system. Such result was accomplished by effectively reducing sucrose uptake by the yeast cells, avoiding overflow metabolism, with the concomitant reduction in ethanol production. The use of this modified yeast strain in simpler batch culture mode can be a viable option to more complicated traditional sucrose-limited fed-batch cultures for biomass-directed processes of S. cerevisiae.

  4. Accumulation of gold using Baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Authors have reported preconcentration of 152Eu, a long-lived fission product, by yeast cells, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Gold being a precious metal is used in electroplating, hydrogenation catalyst, etc. Heterogeneous composition of samples and low concentration offers renewed interest in its selective extraction of gold using various extractants. Gold can be recovered from different solutions using various chemical reagents like amines, organophosphorus compounds, and extractants containing sulphur as donor atom, etc. In the present work, two different strains of baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been used to study the preconcentration of gold at various experimental conditions

  5. Invasive Saccharomyces cerevisiae infection: a friend turning foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Unnikrishnan; Devasahayam, Joe; Kurup, Aparna Narayana; Lacasse, Alexandre

    2014-11-01

    We report a very rare case of acute pyelonephritis in a 51-year-old female with a history of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diabetes caused by a normally benign and a well-known human commensal organism, Saccharomyces cerevisiae that is very often prescribed as a probiotic in modern medical practice. The causal role of S. cerevisiae was confirmed by its isolation in blood, urine, stool as well as vaginal swabs thus proving its virulent nature in suitable situations. PMID:25394448

  6. Adaptive evolution of a lactose-consuming saccharomyces cerevisiae recombinant

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, Pedro M. R.; François, J.; Parrou, J. L.; Teixeira, J. A.; Domingues, Lucília

    2007-01-01

    The construction of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with the ability to efficiently ferment lactose has biotechnological interest, particularly for the alcoholic fermentation of cheese whey (a high pollutant by-product of dairy industries). A flocculent lactoseconsuming S. cerevisiae recombinant expressing the LAC12 (lactose permease) and LAC4 (beta-galactosidase) genes of Kluyveromyces lactis was previously constructed, but presented poor efficiency in the fermentation of lactose. Thus, it ...

  7. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for lactose/whey fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Domingues, Lucília; Guimarães, Pedro M. R.; Oliveira, Carla Cristina Marques de

    2010-01-01

    Lactose is an interesting carbon source for the production of several bio-products by fermentation, primarily because it is the major component of cheese whey, the main by-product of dairy activities. However, the microorganism more widely used in industrial fermentation processes, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, does not have a lactose metabolization system. Therefore, several metabolic engineering approaches have been used to construct lactose-consuming S. cerevisiae strains, particular...

  8. Regulation of xylose metabolism in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Penttilä Merja; Pitkänen Juha-Pekka; Soliymani Rabah; Kankainen Matti; Salusjärvi Laura; Ruohonen Laura

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Considerable interest in the bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass into ethanol has led to metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for fermentation of xylose. In the present study, the transcriptome and proteome of recombinant, xylose-utilising S. cerevisiae grown in aerobic batch cultures on xylose were compared with those of glucose-grown cells both in glucose repressed and derepressed states. The aim was to study at the genome-wide level how signalling and ...

  9. Genomic Evolution of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under Chinese Rice Wine Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yudong; Zhang, Weiping; Zheng, Daoqiong; Zhou, Zhan; Yu, Wenwen; Zhang, Lei; Feng, Lifang; Liang, Xinle; Guan, Wenjun; Zhou, Jingwen; Chen, Jian; Lin, Zhenguo

    2014-01-01

    Rice wine fermentation represents a unique environment for the evolution of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To understand how the selection pressure shaped the yeast genome and gene regulation, we determined the genome sequence and transcriptome of a S. cerevisiae strain YHJ7 isolated from Chinese rice wine (Huangjiu), a popular traditional alcoholic beverage in China. By comparing the genome of YHJ7 to the lab strain S288c, a Japanese sake strain K7, and a Chinese industrial bio...

  10. Inositol and Phosphate Regulate GIT1 Transcription and Glycerophosphoinositol Incorporation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Almaguer, C.; Mantella, D.; Perez, E.; Patton-Vogt, J.

    2003-01-01

    Glycerophosphoinositol is produced through deacylation of the essential phospholipid phosphatidylinositol. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the glycerophosphoinositol produced is excreted from the cell but is recycled for phosphatidylinositol synthesis when inositol is limiting. To be recycled, glycerophosphoinositol enters the cell through the permease encoded by GIT1. The transport of exogenous glycerophosphoinositol through Git1p is sufficiently robust to support the growth of an inositol auxo...

  11. DNA polymerases delta and epsilon are required for chromosomal replication in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Budd, M E; Campbell, J. L.

    1993-01-01

    Three DNA polymerases, alpha, delta, and epsilon are required for viability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have investigated whether DNA polymerases epsilon and delta are required for DNA replication. Two temperature-sensitive mutations in the POL2 gene, encoding DNA polymerase epsilon, have been identified by using the plasmid shuffle technique. Alkaline sucrose gradient analysis of DNA synthesis products in the mutant strains shows that no chromosomal-size DNA is formed after shift of an a...

  12. Engineering and Analysis of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain That Uses Formaldehyde as an Auxiliary Substrate?

    OpenAIRE

    Baerends, Richard J.S.; de Hulster, Erik; Geertman, Jan-Maarten A.; Daran, Jean-Marc; van Maris, Antonius J.A.; Veenhuis, Marten; van der Klei, Ida J; Pronk, Jack T

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrated that formaldehyde can be efficiently coutilized by an engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain that expresses Hansenula polymorpha genes encoding formaldehyde dehydrogenase (FLD1) and formate dehydrogenase (FMD), in contrast to wild-type strains. Initial chemostat experiments showed that the engineered strain coutilized formaldehyde with glucose, but these mixed-substrate cultures failed to reach steady-state conditions and did not exhibit an increased biomass yield on gluco...

  13. Spermidine or spermine is essential for the aerobic growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Balasundaram, D; Tabor, C W; Tabor, H.

    1991-01-01

    A null mutation in the SPE2 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, encoding S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase, results in cells with no detectable S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase, spermidine, and spermine. This mutant has an absolute requirement for spermidine or spermine for growth; this requirement is not satisfied by putrescine. Polyamine-depleted cells show a number of microscopic abnormalities that are similar to those reported for several cell division cycle (cdc) and actin mutants. Thes...

  14. New Plasmid System To Select for Saccharomyces cerevisiae Purine-Cytosine Permease Affinity Mutants

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Renaud; Straub, Marie-Laure; Souciet, Jean-Luc; Potier, Serge; De Montigny, Jacky

    2001-01-01

    The FCY2 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a purine-cytosine permease (PCP) that mediates the active transport of purines and cytosine. A structure-function model for this PCP has been recently proposed. In this study, we developed a plasmid-based system that generated a number of affinity-mutated alleles, enabling us to define new amino acids critical for permease function.

  15. Intracellular expression of toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Deresiewicz, R L; Flaxenburg, J A; Chan, M.; R.W. Finberg; Kasper, D L

    1994-01-01

    In order to search for an occult cytotoxic enzymatic activity of the toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1), we placed the gene encoding TSST-1 (tstH) under the control of an inducible promoter in the eukaryotic yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Under similar circumstances, the known bacterial enzymatic cytotoxins Shiga-like toxin and diphtheria toxin are both highly lethal to the yeast host. Although full-length stable TSST-1 was demonstrated within the yeast cells and although it retained mito...

  16. Dual Luciferase Assay System for Rapid Assessment of Gene Expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    McNabb, David S.; Reed, Robin; Robert A. Marciniak

    2005-01-01

    A new reporter system has been developed for quantifying gene expression in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The system relies on two different reporter genes, Renilla and firefly luciferase, to evaluate regulated gene expression. The gene encoding Renilla luciferase is fused to a constitutive promoter (PGK1 or SPT15) and integrated into the yeast genome at the CAN1 locus as a control for normalizing the assay. The firefly luciferase gene is fused to the test promoter and integrated into t...

  17. In vitro screening of probiotic properties of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii and food-borne Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Aa Kuhle, Alis; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Jespersen, Lene

    2005-01-01

    The probiotic potential of IS Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains used for production of foods or bevel-ages or isolated from such, and eight strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii, was investigated. All strains included were able to withstand pH 2.5 and 0.3% Ox-all. Adhesion to the...... effects hence indicating that food-borne strains of S. cerevisiae may possess probiotic properties in spite of low adhesiveness. © 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....... nontumorigenic porcine jejunal epithelial cell line (IPEC-J2) was investigated by incorporation of H-3-methionine into the yeast cells and use of liquid scintillation counting. Only few of the food-borne S. cerevisiae strains exhibited noteworthy adhesiveness with the strongest levels of adhesion (13...

  18. Regulation of xylose metabolism in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penttilä Merja

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considerable interest in the bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass into ethanol has led to metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for fermentation of xylose. In the present study, the transcriptome and proteome of recombinant, xylose-utilising S. cerevisiae grown in aerobic batch cultures on xylose were compared with those of glucose-grown cells both in glucose repressed and derepressed states. The aim was to study at the genome-wide level how signalling and carbon catabolite repression differ in cells grown on either glucose or xylose. The more detailed knowledge whether xylose is sensed as a fermentable carbon source, capable of catabolite repression like glucose, or is rather recognised as a non-fermentable carbon source is important for further engineering this yeast for more efficient anaerobic fermentation of xylose. Results Genes encoding respiratory proteins, proteins of the tricarboxylic acid and glyoxylate cycles, and gluconeogenesis were only partially repressed by xylose, similar to the genes encoding their transcriptional regulators HAP4, CAT8 and SIP1-2 and 4. Several genes that are repressed via the Snf1p/Mig1p-pathway during growth on glucose had higher expression in the cells grown on xylose than in the glucose repressed cells but lower than in the glucose derepressed cells. The observed expression profiles of the transcription repressor RGT1 and its target genes HXT2-3, encoding hexose transporters suggested that extracellular xylose was sensed by the glucose sensors Rgt2p and Snf3p. Proteome analyses revealed distinct patterns in phosphorylation of hexokinase 2, glucokinase and enolase isoenzymes in the xylose- and glucose-grown cells. Conclusion The results indicate that the metabolism of yeast growing on xylose corresponds neither to that of fully glucose repressed cells nor that of derepressed cells. This may be one of the major reasons for the suboptimal fermentation of xylose by recombinant S. cerevisiae strains. Phosphorylation of different isoforms of glycolytic enzymes suggests that regulation of glycolysis also occurred at a post-translational level, supporting prior findings.

  19. A Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA 5'-triphosphatase related to mRNA capping enzyme.

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, C R; Takagi, T; Cho, E. J.; Buratowski, S.

    1999-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae mRNA capping enzyme consists of two subunits: the RNA 5'-triphosphatase (Cet1) and the mRNA guanylyltransferase (Ceg1). Using computer homology searching, a S. cerevisiae gene was identified that encodes a protein resembling the C-terminal region of Cet1. Accordingly, we designated this gene CTL1 (capping enzyme RNAtriphosphatase-like 1). CTL1 is not essential for cell viability and no genetic or physical interactions with the capping enzyme genes were observed. T...

  20. In vitro screening of probiotic properties of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii and food-borne Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Aa Kuhle, Alis; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Jespersen, Lene

    2005-01-01

    The probiotic potential of IS Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains used for production of foods or bevel-ages or isolated from such, and eight strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii, was investigated. All strains included were able to withstand pH 2.5 and 0.3% Ox-all. Adhesion to the nontumorigenic porcine jejunal epithelial cell line (IPEC-J2) was investigated by incorporation of H-3-methionine into the yeast cells and use of liquid scintillation counting. Only few of the food-borne S. ...

  1. Interaction between Hanseniaspora uvarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunxiao; Mas, Albert; Esteve-Zarzoso, Braulio

    2015-08-01

    During wine fermentation, Saccharomyces clearly dominate over non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts, and several factors could be related to this dominance. However, the main factor causing the reduction of cultivable non-Saccharomyces populations has not yet been fully established. In the present study, various single and mixed fermentations were performed to evaluate some of the factors likely responsible for the interaction between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Hanseniaspora uvarum. Alcoholic fermentation was performed in compartmented experimental set ups with ratios of 1:1 and 1:9 and the cultivable population of both species was followed. The cultivable H. uvarum population decreased sharply at late stages when S. cerevisiae was present in the other compartment, similarly to alcoholic fermentations in non-compartmented vessels. Thus, cell-to-cell contact did not seem to be the main cause for the lack of cultivability of H. uvarum. Other compounds related to fermentation performance (such as sugar and ethanol) and/or certain metabolites secreted by S. cerevisiae could be related to the sharp decrease in H. uvarum cultivability. When these factors were analyzed, it was confirmed that metabolites from S. cerevisiae induced lack of cultivability in H. uvarum, however ethanol and other possible compounds did not seem to induce this effect but played some role during the process. This study contributes to a new understanding of the lack of cultivability of H. uvarum populations during the late stages of wine fermentation. PMID:25956738

  2. Analysis of the RNA Content of the Yeast "Saccharomyces Cerevisiae"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutch, Charles E.; Marshall, Pamela A.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe an interconnected set of relatively simple laboratory experiments in which students determine the RNA content of yeast cells and use agarose gel electrophoresis to separate and analyze the major species of cellular RNA. This set of experiments focuses on RNAs from the yeast "Saccharomyces cerevisiae", a…

  3. Hydrogen peroxide removal with magnetically responsive Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šafa?ík, Ivo; Mad?rová, Zde?ka; Šafa?íková, Miroslava

    2008-01-01

    Ro?. 56, - (2008), s. 7925-7928. ISSN 0021-8561 R&D Projects: GA MPO 2A-1TP1/094; GA MŠk OC 157 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : magnetic alginate beads * catalase * magnetic separation * Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells * hydrogen peroxide Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 2.562, year: 2008

  4. Improving biomass sugar utilization by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficient utilization of all available sugars in lignocellulosic biomass, which is more abundant than available commodity crops and starch, represents one of the most difficult technological challenges for the production of bioethanol. The well-studied yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has played a...

  5. The nucleotide sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome XII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, M; Hillier, L; Riles, L; Albermann, K; André, B; Ansorge, W; Benes, V; Brückner, M; Delius, H; Dubois, E; Düsterhöft, A; Entian, K D; Floeth, M; Goffeau, A; Hebling, U; Heumann, K; Heuss-Neitzel, D; Hilbert, H; Hilger, F; Kleine, K; Kötter, P; Louis, E J; Messenguy, F; Mewes, H W; Hoheisel, J D

    1997-05-29

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the pre-eminent organism for the study of basic functions of eukaryotic cells. All of the genes of this simple eukaryotic cell have recently been revealed by an international collaborative effort to determine the complete DNA sequence of its nuclear genome. Here we describe some of the features of chromosome XII. PMID:9169871

  6. Prezygotic reproductive isolation between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces paradoxus

    OpenAIRE

    Greig Duncan; Maclean Calum J

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Matings between different Saccharomyces sensu stricto yeast species produce sexually sterile hybrids, so individuals should avoid mating with other species. Any mechanism that reduces the frequency of interspecific matings will confer a selective advantage. Here we test the ability of two closely-related Saccharomyces sensu stricto species to select their own species as mates and avoid hybridisation. Results We set up mate choice tests, using five independently isolated pa...

  7. Cooperative Regulation of DOG2, Encoding 2-Deoxyglucose-6-Phosphate Phosphatase, by Snf1 Kinase and the High-Osmolarity Glycerol–Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Cascade in Stress Responses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Tsujimoto, Yoshiyuki; Izawa, Shingo; Inoue, Yoshiharu

    2000-01-01

    We screened the genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the genes responsive to oxidative stress by using the lacZ transposon-insertion library. As a result, we found that expression of the DOG2 gene coding for 2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate phosphatase was induced by oxidative stress. The expression of DOG2 was also induced by osmotic stress. We found a putative cis element (STRE, a stress response element) in the DOG2 promoter adjacent to a consensus sequence to which the Mig1p repressor is know...

  8. Biosorption of 241Am by immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Americium-241 is one of the most serious radioactive contaminating nuclides due to its high toxicity and long half-life. The encouraging biosorption of 241Am from aqueous solutions by free Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) has been observed in our previous experiments. 241Am biosorption by immobilized S. cerevisiae and the effect of the various experimental conditions on the adsorption were investigated. The results indicated that the 241Am biosorption by immobilized S. cerevisiae is still very efficient, and immobilized S. cerevisiae can be used repeatedly or continuously. The biosorption equilibrium was achieved within 2 hours, and more than 92% of 241Am was removed by immobilized S. cerevisiae in the pH 1-4 range. No significant differences in 241Am biosorption were observed at 15-45 deg C. The immobilized S. cerevisiae, even after used repeatedly for 6 times, still could adsorb more than 90% of 241Am in solutions of 1.08 MBq/l (8.5 ?g/l). At this moment, the total adsorption capacity for 241Am was more than 63.3 KBq/g globe (0.5 ?g/g), but has not reached saturation yet. The 241Am left in solutions with initial concentration of 1.08 MBq/l (8.5 ?g/l) was noted as low as ?10 Bq/l (?8.0 x 10-5 ?g/l) after adsorption by the immobilized S. cerevisiae for 3 times. (author)

  9. Electrical stimulation of saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures / Estimulação elétrica de células de Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ofelia Q.F., Araújo; Maria Alice Z., Coelho; Isabel C.P., Margarit; Carlos A., Vaz-Junior; Maria Helena M., Rocha-Leão.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Modulação do potencial de membrana celular endógeno por um campo elétrico externo influencia a estrutura e função dos compartimentos da membrana, de suas proteínas e da bi-camada lipídica. Neste trabalho, os efeitos da aplicação de potencial no crescimento de Saccharomyces cerevisiae foram caracteri [...] zados por experimentos simples, mas conclusivos. O perfil temporal de crescimento celular e a divisão celular foram investigados como respostas macroscópicas ao estímulo elétrico. Experimentos controle foram conduzidos em condições idênticas, exceto pela ausência de potencial aplicado. Através de análise comparativa, verificou-se que o estímulo elétrico alterou o ciclo celular como foi possível observar através da medida da dispersão de tamanho celular de cada população, sugerindo um possível sincronismo na divisão celular. Análise do espectro de potência foi empregada para sustentar o aumento no sincronismo, e uma modelagem matemática foi conduzida para determinar mudanças na cinética de crescimento celular. Parâmetros cinéticos do modelo tipo Monod para crescimento foram determinados por regressão não-linear. A constante de afinidade (a saber, K S) apresentou uma dependência com o potencial aplicado, sugerindo mudanças no transporte através da membrana celular. Verificou-se, também, que o estresse promovido eletroquimicamente inibiu o crescimento e induziu mudanças na viabilidade celular. Abstract in english Modulation of cell endogenous membrane potential by an external electrical field influences the structure and function of membrane compartments, proteins and lipid bi-layer. In this work, the effects of applied potential on Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth were characterized through simple yet conclu [...] sive experiments. Cell growth time profile and cell division were investigated as macroscopic response to the electrical stimulation. Control experiments were conducted under identical conditions except for the absence of applied potential. Through comparative analysis, electrical stimulation was verified to alter cell cycle as smaller sized population was observed, suggesting that a synchrony in cell division was promoted. Power spectral analysis was employed to sustain synchrony enhancement, and mathematical modeling was conducted for determining kinetic growth changes. Monod type kinetic parameters for growth were determined by non-linear regression. The affinity constant (namely kS) presented a dependence on applied potential suggesting changes on transport across cell membrane. Electrochemically promoted stress was also verified to inhibit growth as well as to induce changes on cell viability.

  10. Transcription of hexose transporters of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is affected by change in oxygen provision

    OpenAIRE

    Ruohonen Laura; Tamminen Anu; Wiebe Marilyn G; Rintala Eija; Penttilä Merja

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The gene family of hexose transporters in Saccharomyces cerevisiae consists of 20 members; 18 genes encoding transporters (HXT1-HXT17, GAL2) and two genes encoding sensors (SNF3, RGT2). The effect of oxygen provision on the expression of these genes was studied in glucose-limited chemostat cultivations (D = 0.10 h-1, pH 5, 30°C). Transcript levels were measured from cells grown in five steady state oxygen levels (0, 0.5, 1, 2.8 and 20.9% O2), and from cells under condition...

  11. Sit4p protein phosphatase is required for sensitivity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Kluyveromyces lactis zymocin.

    OpenAIRE

    Jablonowski, D; Butler, A.R.; Fichtner, L; Gardiner, D; Schaffrath, R; Stark, M J

    2001-01-01

    We have identified two Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes that, in high copy, confer resistance to Kluyveromyces lactis zymocin, an inhibitor that blocks cells in the G(1) phase of the cell cycle prior to budding and DNA replication. One gene (GRX3) encodes a glutaredoxin and is likely to act at the level of zymocin entry into sensitive cells, while the other encodes Sap155p, one of a family of four related proteins that function positively and interdependently with the Sit4p protein phosphatase....

  12. Evolutionary engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for efficient aerobic xylose consumption.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scalcinati, Gionata; Otero, José Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Industrial biotechnology aims to develop robust microbial cell factories, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to produce an array of added value chemicals presently dominated by petrochemical processes. Xylose is the second most abundant monosaccharide after glucose and the most prevalent pentose sugar found in lignocelluloses. Significant research efforts have focused on the metabolic engineering of S. cerevisiae for fast and efficient xylose utilization. This study aims to metabolically engineer S. cerevisiae, such that it can consume xylose as the exclusive substrate while maximizing carbon flux to biomass production. Such a platform may then be enhanced with complementary metabolic engineering strategies that couple biomass production with high value-added chemical. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, expressing xylose reductase, xylitol dehydrogenase and xylulose kinase, from the native xylose-metabolizing yeast Pichia stipitis, was constructed, followed by a directed evolution strategy to improve xylose utilizationrates. The resulting S. cerevisiae strain was capable of rapid growth and fast xylose consumption producing only biomass and negligible amount of byproducts. Transcriptional profiling of this strain was employed to further elucidate the observed physiology confirms a strongly up-regulated glyoxylate pathway enabling respiratory metabolism. The resulting strain is a desirable platform for the industrial production of biomass-related products using xylose as a sole carbon source.

  13. Evidence for Domesticated and Wild Populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae is predominantly found in association with human activities, particularly the production of alcoholic beverages. S. paradoxus, the closest known relative of S. cerevisiae, is commonly found on exudates and bark of deciduous trees and in associated soils. This has lead to the idea that S. cerevisiae is a domesticated species, specialized for the fermentation of alcoholic beverages, and isolates of S. cerevisiae from other sources simply represent migrants from these fermentations. We have surveyed DNA sequence diversity at five loci in 81 strains of S. cerevisiae that were isolated from a variety of human and natural fermentations as well as sources unrelated to alcoholic beverage production, such as tree exudates and immunocompromised patients. Diversity within vineyard strains and within saké strains is low, consistent with their status as domesticated stocks. The oldest lineages and the majority of variation are found in strains from sources unrelated to wine production. We propose a model whereby two specialized breeds of S. cerevisiae have been created, one for the production of grape wine and one for the production of saké wine. We estimate that these two breeds have remained isolated from one another for thousands of years, consistent with the earliest archeological evidence for winemaking. We conclude that although there are clearly strains of S. cerevisiae specialized for the production of alcoholic beverages, these have been derived from natural populations unassociated with alcoholic beverage production, rather than the opposite.

  14. Understanding the 3-hydroxypropionic acid tolerance mechanism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildegaard, Kanchana Rueksomtawin; Juncker, Agnieszka; Hallstrom, Bjorn; Jensen, Niels Bjerg; Maury, Jerome; Nielsen, Jen; Förster, Jochen; Borodina, Irina

    sustainable alternative for production of acrylic acid from renewable feedstocks. We are establishing Saccharomyces cerevisiae as an alternative host for 3HP production. However, 3HP also inhibits yeast grow th at level well below what is desired for commercial applications. Therefore, we are aiming to...... improve 3HP tolerance in S. cerevisiae by applying adaptive evolution approach. We have generated yeast strains with sign ificantly improved capacity for tolerating 3HP when compared to the wild-type. We will present physiolo gical characterization, genome re-sequencing, and transcriptome analysis of the...... evolved strains. Conseq uently, mechanism underlying 3HP tolerance will be investigated....

  15. Development of a system for multicopy gene integration in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semkiv, Marta V; Dmytruk, Kostyantyn V; Sibirny, Andriy A

    2016-01-01

    In this study we describe construction and evaluation of a vector for multicopy integration in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this vector a modified selective marker and a reporter gene PHO8 (encoding alkaline phosphatase) were flanked with delta sequences of the Ty1 transposon. Modified by error-prone PCR version of selection marker kanMX4 was obtained from Escherichia coli clone with impaired geneticin (G418) resistance. The attenuation of kanMX4 gene provides an opportunity to select for explicitly multicopy integration of the module in S. cerevisiae using moderate (200mgL(-1)) antibiotic concentrations. The developed system provided integration of 3-10 copies of the module in the genome of S. cerevisiae. High copy integration events were confirmed by qRT-PCR, Southern hybridization and reporter enzyme activity measurements. PMID:26529647

  16. Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a versatile eukaryotic system in virology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breinig Tanja

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a well-established model system for understanding fundamental cellular processes relevant to higher eukaryotic organisms. Less known is its value for virus research, an area in which Saccharomyces cerevisiae has proven to be very fruitful as well. The present review will discuss the main achievements of yeast-based studies in basic and applied virus research. These include the analysis of the function of individual proteins from important pathogenic viruses, the elucidation of key processes in viral replication through the development of systems that allow the replication of higher eukayotic viruses in yeast, and the use of yeast in antiviral drug development and vaccine production.

  17. Construction of Killer Industrial Yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Hau-1 and its Fermentation Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Bajaj, Bijender K.; Sharma, S.

    2010-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAU-1, a time tested industrial yeast possesses most of the desirable fermentation characteristics like fast growth and fermentation rate, osmotolerance, high ethanol tolerance, ability to ferment molasses, and to ferment at elevated temperatures etc. However, this yeast was found to be sensitive against the killer strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the present study, killer trait was introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAU-1 by protoplast fusion with Saccha...

  18. Construction of killer industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAU-1 and its fermentation performance

    OpenAIRE

    Bajaj, Bijender K.; Sharma, S.

    2010-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAU-1, a time tested industrial yeast possesses most of the desirable fermentation characteristics like fast growth and fermentation rate, osmotolerance, high ethanol tolerance, ability to ferment molasses, and to ferment at elevated temperatures etc. However, this yeast was found to be sensitive against the killer strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the present study, killer trait was introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAU-1 by protoplast fusion with Saccha...

  19. Defective Interference in the Killer System of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Ridley, Susan Porter; Wickner, Reed B.

    1983-01-01

    The K1 killer virus (or plasmid) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a noninfectious double-stranded RNA genome found intracellularly packaged in an icosahedral capsid. This genome codes for a protein toxin and for resistance to that toxin. Defective interfering virus mutants are deletion derivatives of the killer virus double-stranded RNA genome; such mutants are called suppressive. Unlike strains carrying the wild-type genome, strains with these deletion derivatives are neither toxin producers n...

  20. Genes Required for Vacuolar Acidity in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Preston, R. A.; Reinagel, P. S.; Jones, E.W.

    1992-01-01

    Mutations that cause loss of acidity in the vacuole (lysosome) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were identified by screening colonies labeled with the fluorescent, pH-sensitive, vacuolar labeling agent, 6-carboxyfluorescein. Thirty nine vacuolar pH (Vph(-)) mutants were identified. Four of these contained mutant alleles of the previously described PEP3, PEP5, PEP6 and PEP7 genes. The remaining mutants defined eight complementation groups of vph mutations. No alleles of the VAT2 or TFP1 genes (know...

  1. Cloning and heterologous expression of glycosidase genes from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Kuranda, M J; Robbins, P W

    1987-01-01

    Genomic clones were isolated that code for three glycosidases proposed to be involved in the catabolism of cell wall components in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. alpha-Mannosidase (AMS1), exoglucanase (BGL1), and endochitinase (CTS1) genes were isolated with the aid of filter assays based on the hydrolysis of 4-methylumbelliferyl glycosides, which permitted the in situ monitoring of these glycosidase activities in yeast colonies. Uracil prototrophs resulting from transformation with a multicopy YE...

  2. Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a nomadic yeast with no niche?

    OpenAIRE

    Goddard, Matthew R; Greig, Duncan

    2015-01-01

    Different species are usually thought to have specific adaptations, which allow them to occupy different ecological niches. But recent neutral ecology theory suggests that species diversity can simply be the result of random sampling, due to finite population sizes and limited dispersal. Neutral models predict that species are not necessarily adapted to specific niches, but are functionally equivalent across a range of habitats. Here, we evaluate the ecology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, one o...

  3. Shuttle mutagenesis: a method of transposon mutagenesis for Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Seifert, H S; Chen, E Y; So, M.; Heffron, F

    1986-01-01

    We have extended the method of transposon mutagenesis to the eukaryote, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A bacterial transposon containing a selectable yeast gene can be transposed into a cloned fragment of yeast DNA in Escherichia coli, and the transposon insertion can be returned to the yeast genome by homologous recombination. Initially, the cloned yeast DNA fragment to be mutagenized was transformed into an E. coli strain containing an F factor derivative carrying the transposable element. The c...

  4. Genome-scale reconstruction of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolic network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Förster, Jochen; Famili, I.; Fu, P.; Palsson, B.O.; Nielsen, Jens

    2003-01-01

    The metabolic network in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was reconstructed using currently available genomic, biochemical, and physiological information. The metabolic reactions were compartmentalized between the cytosol and the mitochondria, and transport steps between the compartments and the environment were included. A total of 708 structural open reading frames (ORFs) were accounted for in the reconstructed network, corresponding to 1035 metabolic reactions. Further, 140 reactions were i...

  5. Modelling Neurodegeneration in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae: Why Cook with Baker's Yeast?

    OpenAIRE

    Khurana, Vikram; Lindquist, Susan

    2010-01-01

    In ageing populations, neurodegenerative diseases increase in prevalence, exacting an enormous toll on individuals and their communities. Multiple complementary experimental approaches are needed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying these complex diseases and to develop novel therapeutics. Here, we describe why the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has a unique role in the neurodegeneration armamentarium. As the best-understood and most readily analysed eukaryotic organism, S. cerevisi...

  6. Isolation and characterization of a dinucleoside triphosphatase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Brevet, A.; Chen, J.; Fromant, M; Blanquet, S.; Plateau, P

    1991-01-01

    An enzyme able to cleave dinucleoside triphosphates has been purified 3,750-fold from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Contrary to the enzymes previously shown to catabolize Ap4A in yeast, this enzyme is a hydrolase rather than a phosphorylase. The dinucleoside triphosphatase molecular ratio estimated by gel filtration is 55,000. Dinucleoside triphosphatase activity is strongly stimulated by the presence of divalent cations. Mn2+ displays the strongest stimulating effect, followed by Mg2+, Co2+, Cd2...

  7. Comparative Genomics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Natural Isolates for Bioenergy Production

    OpenAIRE

    Wohlbach, Dana J.; Rovinskiy, Nikolay; Lewis, Jeffrey A.; Sardi, Maria; Schackwitz, Wendy S.; Martin, Joel A.; Deshpande, Shweta; Daum, Christopher G.; Lipzen, Anna; Sato, Trey K.; Gasch, Audrey P.

    2014-01-01

    Lignocellulosic plant material is a viable source of biomass to produce alternative energy including ethanol and other biofuels. However, several factors—including toxic byproducts from biomass pretreatment and poor fermentation of xylose and other pentose sugars—currently limit the efficiency of microbial biofuel production. To begin to understand the genetic basis of desirable traits, we characterized three strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with robust growth in a pretreated lignocellulos...

  8. Alcoholic fermentation of lactose by engineered flocculent Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, Pedro M. R.; Teixeira, J. A.; Domingues, Lucília

    2008-01-01

    The construction of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with the ability to ferment lactose has biotechnological interest, particularly for cheese whey fermentation to ethanol. Direct fermentation of whey to ethanol is generally not economically feasible because the low lactose content (ca. 5% w/v) results in low ethanol titre (2 – 3% v/v), making the distillation process too expensive. Concentration of whey lactose (e.g. by ultrafiltration) prior to fermentation is an option to obtain higher et...

  9. Understanding the 3-hydroxypropionic acid tolerance mechanism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildegaard, Kanchana Rueksomtawin; Juncker, Agnieszka; Hallstrom, Bjorn; Jensen, Niels Bjerg; Maury, Jerome; Nielsen, Jen; Förster, Jochen; Borodina, Irina

    2013-01-01

    3-Hydroxypropionic acid (3HP) is an important platform chemical that can be converted into other valuable chemicals such as acrylic acid and its derivatives that are used in baby diap ers, various plastics, and paints. With the oil and gas resources becoming limiting, biotechnolo gy offers a sustainable alternative for production of acrylic acid from renewable feedstocks. We are establishing Saccharomyces cerevisiae as an alternative host for 3HP production. However, 3HP also inhibits yeast grow...

  10. Genetic Analysis of Default Mating Behavior in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Dorer, R.; Boone, C (Christophe); Kimbrough, T.; Kim, J; Hartwell, L H

    1997-01-01

    Haploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells find each other during conjugation by orienting their growth toward each other along pheromone gradients (chemotropism). However, when their receptors are saturated for pheromone binding, yeast cells must select a mate by executing a default pathway in which they choose a mating partner at random. We previously demonstrated that this default pathway requires the SPA2 gene. In this report we show that the default mating pathway also requires the AXL1, FUS...

  11. Sensitivity of polyamine-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae to elevated temperatures.

    OpenAIRE

    Balasundaram, D; Tabor, C W; Tabor, H.

    1996-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells that cannot synthesize spermidine or spermine because of a deletion in the gene coding for S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase are very sensitive to elevated temperatures when incubated in a polyamine-deficient medium; i.e., growth is inhibited and the cells are killed. This sensitivity is very pronounced at 39 degrees C, but a moderate effect is noted even at 33 to 34 degrees C. These findings support findings from other studies from our laboratory on the import...

  12. Expression of bacterial mercuric ion reductase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Rensing, C; Kües, U; Stahl, U.; Nies, D H; Friedrich, B

    1992-01-01

    The gene merA coding for bacterial mercuric ion reductase was cloned under the control of the yeast promoter for alcohol dehydrogenase I in the yeast-Escherichia coli shuttle plasmid pADH040-2 and transformed into Saccharomyces cerevisiae AH22. The resulting transformant harbored stable copies of the merA-containing hybrid plasmid, displayed a fivefold increase in the MIC of mercuric chloride, and synthesized mercuric ion reductase activity.

  13. P bodies promote stress granule assembly in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Buchan, J. Ross; Muhlrad, Denise; Parker, Roy

    2008-01-01

    Recent results indicate that nontranslating mRNAs in eukaryotic cells exist in distinct biochemical states that accumulate in P bodies and stress granules, although the nature of interactions between these particles is unknown. We demonstrate in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that RNA granules with similar protein composition and assembly mechanisms as mammalian stress granules form during glucose deprivation. Stress granule assembly is dependent on P-body formation, whereas P-body assembly is inde...

  14. Effect of growth phase on phospholipid biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Homann, M J; Poole, M A; Gaynor, P M; Ho, C.T.; Carman, G. M.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of growth phase on the membrane-associated phospholipid biosynthetic enzymes CDP-diacylglycerol synthase, phosphatidylserine synthase, phosphatidylinositol synthase, and the phospholipid N-methyltransferases in wild-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae was examined. Maximum activities were found in the exponential phase of cells grown in complete synthetic medium. As cells entered the stationary phase of growth, the activities of the CDP-diacylglycerol synthase, phosphatidylserine synthas...

  15. Supply of phosphatidylethanolamine to peroxisomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberger, Sabine; Zellnig, Günther; Daum, Günther

    2007-01-01

    Phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn) is an essential component of biological membranes. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, PtdEtn is synthesized by three different pathways including decarboxylation of PtdSer by the mitochondrial phosphatidylserine decarboxylase Psd1p, or by Psd2p in a Golgi/vacuolar compartment. The third pathway, the so-called CDP- ethanolamine pathway, is located to the endoplasmic reticulum. After synthesis, PtdEtn is translocated to its proper destin...

  16. The mannoprotein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an effective bioemulsifier.

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, D R; Cooper, D. G.; Neufeld, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    The mannoprotein which is a major component of the cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an effective bioemulsifier. Mannoprotein emulsifier was extracted in a high yield from whole cells of fresh bakers' yeast by two methods, by autoclaving in neutral citrate buffer and by digestion with Zymolase (Miles Laboratories; Toronto, Ontario, Canada), a beta-1,3-glucanase. Heat-extracted emulsifier was purified by ultrafiltration and contained approximately 44% carbohydrate (mannose) and 17% prot...

  17. The enantioselective b-keto ester reductions by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HASSAN TAJIK

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The enantioselective yeast reduction of aromatic b-keto esters, by use of potassium dihydrogen phosphate, calcium phosphate (monobasic, magnesium sulfate and ammonium tartrate (diammonium salt (10:1:1:50 in water at pH 7 as a buffer for 72–120 h with 45–90 % conversion to the corresponding aromatic -hydroxy esters was achieved by means of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  18. Reversal of PCNA Ubiquitylation by Ubp10 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Gallego-Sánchez, Alfonso; Andrés, Sonia; Conde, Francisco; San Segundo, Pedro; Bueno, Avelino

    2012-01-01

    Regulation of PCNA ubiquitylation plays a key role in the tolerance to DNA damage in eukaryotes. Although the evolutionary conserved mechanism of PCNA ubiquitylation is well understood, the deubiquitylation of ubPCNA remains poorly characterized. Here, we show that the histone H2B K123 ubiquitin protease Ubp10 also deubiquitylates ubPCNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our results sustain that Ubp10-dependent deubiquitylation of the sliding clamp PCNA normally takes place during S phase, likely ...

  19. Genetic Basis for Saccharomyces cerevisiae Biofilm in Liquid Medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kaj Scherz; Bojsen, Rasmus Kenneth; Gro Rejkjær Sørensen, Laura; Weiss Nielsen, Martin; Lisby, Michael; Folkesson, Sven Anders; Regenberg, Birgitte

    2014-01-01

    Biofilm-forming microorganisms switch between two forms: free-living planktonic and sessile multicellular. Sessile communities of yeast biofilms in liquid medium provide a primitive example of multicellularity and are clinically important because biofilms tend to have other growth characteristics than free-living cells. We investigated the genetic basis for yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, biofilm on solid surfaces in liquid medium by screening a comprehensive deletion mutant collection in the S...

  20. Plasmid Accumulation Reduces Life Span in Saccharomyces cerevisiae*

    OpenAIRE

    Falcón, Alaric A.; Aris, John P.

    2003-01-01

    Aging in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is under the control of multiple pathways. The production and accumulation of extrachromosomal rDNA circles (ERCs) is one pathway that has been proposed to bring about aging in yeast. To test this proposal, we have developed a plasmid-based model system to study the role of DNA episomes in reduction of yeast life span. Recombinant plasmids containing different replication origins, cis-acting partitioning elements, and selectable marker genes were co...

  1. Distributive Disjunction of Authentic Chromosomes in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Guacci, V; Kaback, D B

    1991-01-01

    Distributive disjunction is defined as the first division meiotic segregation of either nonhomologous chromosomes that lack homologs or homologous chromosomes that have not recombined. To determine if chromosomes from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were capable of distributive disjunction, we constructed a strain that was monosomic for both chromosome I and chromosome III and analyzed the meiotic segregation of the two monosomic chromosomes. In addition, we bisected chromosome I into two ...

  2. Regulation of phospholipid synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by zinc depletion

    OpenAIRE

    CARMAN, George M.; Han, Gil-Soo

    2006-01-01

    The synthesis of phospholipids in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is regulated by zinc, an essential mineral required for growth and metabolism. Cells depleted of zinc contain increased levels of phosphatidylinositol and decreased levels of phosphatidylethanolamine. In addition to the major phospholipids, the levels of the minor phospholipids phosphatidate and diacylglycerol pyrophosphate decrease in the vacuole membrane of zinc-depleted cells. Alterations in phosphatidylinositol and phosp...

  3. Heterologous Expression of Syntaxin 6 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    MARTIN GÖTTE; ANDREA STADTBÄUMER

    2002-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms of vesicular protein transport in eukaryotic cells are highly conserved. Members of the syntaxin family play a pivotal role in the membrane fusion process. We have expressed rat syntaxin 6 and its cytoplasmic domain in wild-type and pep12 mutant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to elucidate the role of the syntaxin 6-dependent vesicular trafficking step in yeast. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed a punctate, Golgi-like staining pattern for syntaxin 6, which on...

  4. Impact of systems biology on metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens; Jewett, Michael Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Industrial biotechnology is a rapidly growing field. With the increasing shift towards a bio-based economy, there is rising demand for developing efficient cell factories that can produce fuels, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, materials, nutraceuticals, and even food ingredients. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is extremely well suited for this objective. As one of the most intensely studied eukaryotic model organisms, a rich density of knowledge detailing its genetics, biochemistry, physiology, ...

  5. Data mining tools for the Saccharomyces cerevisiae morphological database

    OpenAIRE

    Saito, Taro L.; Sese, Jun; Nakatani, Yoichiro; Sano, Fumi; Yukawa, Masashi; Ohya, Yoshikazu; Morishita, Shinichi

    2005-01-01

    For comprehensive understanding of precise morphological changes resulting from loss-of-function mutagenesis, a large collection of 1 899 247 cell images was assembled from 91 271 micrographs of 4782 budding yeast disruptants of non-lethal genes. All the cell images were processed computationally to measure ?500 morphological parameters in individual mutants. We have recently made this morphological quantitative data available to the public through the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Morphological D...

  6. The phenotypic landscape of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain collection

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes, In??s; Duarte, Ricardo Franco; Umek, Lan; Fonseca, Elza; Neves, J. Drumonde; Dequin, Sylvie; Zupan, Blaz; Schuller, Dorit

    2012-01-01

    Within our previous work [1] we developed computational models to predict strains with specific phenotypes (e.g. low ethanol resistance, growth at 30??C and growth in media containing galactose, raffinose or urea) from microsatellite allelic patterns. The objective of the present work was to gain deeper understanding of the phenotypic diversity of a heterogeneous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain collection, using a large battery of tests with biotechnological relevance, and apply computational...

  7. Influence of organic acids and organochlorinated insecticides on metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejin Dušanka J.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae is exposed to different stress factors during the production: osmotic, temperature, oxidative. The response to these stresses is the adaptive mechanism of cells. The raw materials Saccharomyces cerevisiae is produced from, contain metabolism products of present microorganisms and protective agents used during the growth of sugar beet for example the influence of acetic and butyric acid and organochlorinated insecticides, lindan and heptachlor, on the metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated and presented in this work. The mentioned compounds affect negatively the specific growth rate, yield, content of proteins, phosphorus, total ribonucleic acids. These compounds influence the increase of trechalose and glycogen content in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells.

  8. Sequence of the GLN1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: role of the upstream region in regulation of glutamine synthetase expression.

    OpenAIRE

    Minehart, P L; Magasanik, B

    1992-01-01

    The GLN1 gene, encoding glutamine synthetase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was sequenced, and its encoded polypeptide was shown to have significant homology to other eukaryotic glutamine synthetases. S1 analysis has defined the transcriptional start site of the gene. Upstream analysis of the gene using lacZ fusions has verified transcriptional control of the gene and has identified a nitrogen upstream activation sequence which is required for the increased transcription of GLN1 seen when gluta...

  9. An apoptotic cell cycle mutant in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Ingrid

    1996-01-01

    The simple eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae has proved to be a useful organism for elucidating the mechanisms that govern cell cycle progression in eukaryotic cells. The excellent in vivo system permits a cell cycle study using temperature sensitive mutants. In addition, it is possible to study many genes and gene products from higher eukaryotes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae because many genes and biological processes are homologous or similar in lower and in higher eukaryotes. The highly developed methods of genetics and molecular biology greatly facilitates studies of higher eukaryotic processes.Programmmed cell death with apoptosis plays a major role in development and homeostatis in most, if not all, animal cells. Apoptosis is a morphologically distinct form of death, that requires the activation of a highly regulated suicide program. Saccharomyces cerevisiae provides a new system in which apoptosis can be studied using the novel, temperature sensitive mutant, cdc77. The cdc77 cells are defective in a G1 process, and die show the characteristc signs of apoptosis: condensation of the chromatin, degradation of the inner nuclear membrane, dilation of the space between the nuclear membranes, condensation of the cytoplasm and degradation of DNA to 50kb fragmensts. It should be noted that in yeast, in contrast to higher eukaryotes, the nuclear membrane remain intact and the chromosomes remain uncondensed and invisible during mitosis. The cdc77 mutant exhibit a defect in initiation of DNA synthesis and a much prolonged DNA synthesis under semirestrictive conditions.

  10. Saccharomyces cerevisiae en la fabricación del licor Cocuy. / Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the manufacturing of Cocuy liquor

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F, Yegres; G, Fernández-Zeppenfeldt; CG, Padin; L, Rovero; N, Richard-Yegres.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El licor "cocuy" es una bebida artesanal, producida por las comunidades rurales en el occidente de Venezuela mediante un proceso de fermentación y destilación del mosto extraído del Agave cocui. Este estudio fue enmarcado en el "Programa Agave" con el propósito de contribuir a rescatar esta activida [...] d productiva tradicional. En vista de la falta de información en relación al proceso autóctono se hicieron estudios de las levaduras fermentadoras, la optimización de la producción de etanol y la utilización del residuo de la destilación (vinaza) como medio de cultivo. Los aislados con mayor capacidad fermentativa fueron seleccionados e identificados mediante parámetros morfológicos y metabólicos. Se compararon los niveles de consumo de azúcar de las levaduras con mayor capacidad fermentativa. Se estudió el efecto de la adición del azúcar blanca comercial y/o del fosfato de amonio y en la producción de alcohol en el proceso artesanal. Las concentraciones de azúcares en el mosto se evaluaron por refractometría, y el contenido de alcohol del licor por hidrometría. La utilización de la vinaza para la producción de biomasa como un componente del medio de cultivo fue comparada con un medio sintético mediante medidas del peso seco de la biomasa. Se confirma el papel de Saccharomyces cerevisiae en el proceso fermentativo espontáneo. Los resultados in situ evidenciaron un efecto favorable de la elevación del contenido de azúcar (11 a 18°Brix) y de la adición de fosfato de amonio dibásico (0,2 g/l). En estas condiciones, el tiempo de fermentación del mosto se acortó y la producción de licor aumentó hasta un 92%. Se demostró la posibilidad de utilizar la vinaza como un componente para un medio de cultivo de esta levadura, para iniciar la fermentación y para la producción de biomasa como una fuente de nutrientes de alto valor nutritivo para aves de corral o caprinos. Se recomienda apoyar los esfuerzos para desarrollar de esta importante fuente de ingresos para los campesinos que habitan las zonas semi-áridas de los estados Falcón y Lara. Abstract in english Liquor cocuy is an alcoholic beverage produced by fermentation and a subsequent distillation process of Agave cocui juice by the communities northwest Venezuela. This study was included in the "Agave cocui Program", which purpose was to rescue this traditional productive activity. Due to the lack of [...] information about this native product fermentative yeasts, alcohol production optimization, and use of distillation residue (nasty wine) as culture medium was investigated. Isolates with the best fermentative capacity were selected and identified by morphological and metabolic studies. Sugars consumption of the yeast with highest fermentative capacity were compared. Effect of white commercial sugar and/or ammonium phosphate dibasic addition to juice was evaluated during the process. Sugars concentration was estimated with a refractometer, measurement of alcohol content of liquor with an hidrometer. The production of yeasts biomass grown in a broth with nasty wine was compared to that in a synthetic one by dry biomass weight determinations. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae role in the spontaneous fermentative process was confirmed. The results in situ proved the favorable effect of extra sugar (11 to 18°Brix) and ammonium phosphate (0,2 g/l). Fermentative period was reduced and liquor production was enhanced to 92%. Use of nasty wine was proposed to obtain yeasts biomass, as fermentation starter or as a source of high nutritive value for poultry and goat feeding. We recommend to support efforts to improve this local activity which represent an important source of income for the farmer at the semi-arid zone at the states of Falcón and Lara.

  11. Growth of non-Saccharomyces yeasts affects nutrient availability for Saccharomyces cerevisiae during wine fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Karina; Boido, Eduardo; Dellacassa, Eduardo; Carrau, Francisco

    2012-07-01

    Yeast produces numerous secondary metabolites during fermentation that impact final wine quality. Although it is widely recognized that growth of diverse non-Saccharomyces (NS) yeast can positively affect flavor complexity during Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine fermentation, the inability to control spontaneous or co-fermentation processes by NS yeast has restricted their use in winemaking. We selected two NS yeasts from our Uruguayan native collection to study NS-S. cerevisiae interactions during wine fermentation. The selected strains of Hanseniaspora vineae and Metschnikowia pulcherrima had different yeast assimilable nitrogen consumption profiles and had different effects on S. cerevisiae fermentation and growth kinetics. Studies in which we varied inoculum size and using either simultaneous or sequential inoculation of NS yeast and S. cerevisiae suggested that competition for nutrients had a significant effect on fermentation kinetics. Sluggish fermentations were more pronounced when S. cerevisiae was inoculated 24h after the initial stage of fermentation with a NS strain compared to co-inoculation. Monitoring strain populations using differential WL nutrient agar medium and fermentation kinetics of mixed cultures allowed for a better understanding of strain interactions and nutrient addition effects. Limitation of nutrient availability for S. cerevisiae was shown to result in stuck fermentations as well as to reduce sensory desirability of the resulting wine. Addition of diammonium phosphate (DAP) and a vitamin mix to a defined medium allowed for a comparison of nutrient competition between strains. Addition of DAP and the vitamin mix was most effective in preventing stuck fermentations. PMID:22687186

  12. A Saccharomyces cerevisiae-based bioassay for assessing pesticide toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estève, Karine; Poupot, C; Dabert, P; Mietton-Peuchot, M; Milisic, V

    2009-12-01

    This study evaluates the toxic effect of three pesticides (Azoxystrobin, Cymoxanil, and Diuron) on the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the development of a new bioassay based on inhibition of S. cerevisiae metabolic activity at the level of adenosine-5-triphosphate (ATP) synthesis, as compared with two different toxicity tests based on inhibition of Daphnia magna mobility (NF EN ISO 6341) and inhibition of Vibrio fisheri activity (NF EN ISO 11348). The S. cerevisiae bioassay is cheaper and 96 times faster than the D. magna toxicity bioassay, but has lower sensitivity. It is as fast as the V. fisheri bioassay and more sensitive. Thus, this new toxicity test can be proposed for rapid detection of pesticide residues in environmental samples as a complement to the more expensive and time-consuming D. magna toxicity test. PMID:19856193

  13. Mechanisms of DNA repair, recombination and mutagenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text. 1. It was confirmed that from the six DNA polymerases discovered in yeast cells, only DNA polymerases ?, ? and ? are engaged in dark repair of lesions caused by UV-light and MMS. DNA polymerase ? is involved in the repair of both types of lesions, while DNA polymerase ? and ? only in lesions caused by UV and MMS, respectively. Other polymerases are not involved or play only a minor role in repair. The results obtained are being prepared for publication. 2. Studies on the involvement of the three replicative DNA polymerases in mitotic gene conversion induced by mono- and bifunctional psoralens (and also by UV- light or MMS) revealed that DNA polymerases ? and ? are the main polymerases responsible for induced intragenic conversion. DNA polymerase ? seems to play minor role in this process. It is possible that DNA polymerase ? may also be involved in DNA repair synthesis but only in cases when the opening of new replication forks is necessary for repair. 3. Studies on the influence of mutations in the replicative and nonreplicative DNA polymerases on adaptive mutations in the cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were continued. We found that thermosensitive mutation in the POL2 gene encoding DNA polymerase ? increased the frequency of adaptive mutation in a similar manner as found earlier for DNA polymerase ?. A similar effect was observed also in strains with deletions in the MSH3 gene responsible for mismatch repair. Mutations in other DNA polymerases, including the essential DNA polymerase ? and the inessential DNA polymerases ? and ? revealed no effect on this process. Analysis of DNA sequences in the revertants showed that in all cases the obtained reversions resulted from a single nucleotide deletion most often in sequences having short homopolymer tracts. The results obtained suggest that errors arising during DNA elongation and their persistence in mutants deficient in mismatch repair activity seem to be the source of the adaptive mutation appearance in studied cells. (author)

  14. Dihydroxyacetone detoxification in Saccharomyces cerevisiae involves formaldehyde dissimilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molin, Mikael; Blomberg, Anders

    2006-05-01

    To investigate Saccharomyces cerevisiae physiology during growth on the conditionally toxic triose dihydroxyacetone (DHA), protein expression was studied in strains overexpressing either of the two dihydroxyacetone kinase isogenes, DAK1 or DAK2, that grow well utilizing DHA as a carbon and energy source. DHA metabolism was found mostly similar to ethanol utilization, involving a strong component of glucose derepression, but also involved DHA-specific regulatory changes. A specific and strong (10- to 30-fold induction of formaldehyde dehydrogenase, Fdhlp, indicated activation of the formaldehyde dissimilation pathway in DHA medium. The importance of this pathway was further supported by impaired adaptation to DHA growth and DHA survival in a glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase (SFA1) deletion mutant. Glutathione synthase (GSH1) deletion led to decreased DHA survival in agreement with the glutathione cofactor requirement for the SFA1-encoded activity. DHA toxicity did, however, not solely appear related to formaldehyde accumulation, because SFA1 overexpression only enhanced formaldehyde but not DHA tolerance. In further agreement with a low DHA-to-formaldehyde flux, GSH supplements in the low microM range also fully suppressed the DHA sensitivity of a gsh1Delta strain. Under growth reduction on high (100 mM) DHA medium we report increased levels of advanced glycation end-product (AGE) formation on total protein. Under these high-DHA conditions expression of several stress-related proteins, e.g. a heat-shock protein (Hsp104p) and the oxidative stress indicator, alkyl hydroperoxide reductase (Ahp1p) was also found induced. However, hallmark determinants of oxidative stress tolerance (e.g. YAP1, SKN7, HYR1/GPX3 and SOD2) were redundant for DHA tolerance, thus indicating mechanisms of DHA toxicity largely independent of central oxidative stress defence mechanisms. We conclude that mechanisms for DHA growth and detoxification appear complex and that the evolutionary strive to minimize detrimental effects of this intracellular metabolite links to both formaldehyde and glutathione metabolism. PMID:16677304

  15. The Acyl-CoA synthetases encoded within FAA1 and FAA4 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae function as components of the fatty acid transport system linking import, activation, and intracellular Utilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Færgeman, Nils J.; Black, P N; Zhao, X D; Knudsen, J; DiRusso, C C

    2001-01-01

    Exogenous long-chain fatty acids are activated to coenzyme A derivatives prior to metabolic utilization. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the activation of these compounds prior to metabolic utilization proceeds through the fatty acyl-CoA synthetases Faa1p and Faa4p. Faa1p or Faa4p are...... peroxisomal enzymes acyl-CoA oxidase (POX1) and medium-chain acyl-CoA synthetase (FAA2). These data support the hypothesis that fatty acyl-CoA synthetase (Faa1p or Faa4p) functions as a component of the fatty acid import system by linking import and activation of exogenous fatty acids to intracellular...

  16. Metabolic alterations during ascosporogenesis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sporulation of S. cerevisiae has been shown to alter the profiles of enzymes involved in gluconeogenesis and glycolysis. The enhancement in the levels of total cellular carbohydrates could be correlated with the enhancement in fructose 1,6-diphosphatase and trehalose-phosphate synthetase. The latter activity could account for the 15-fold increase in trehalose levels in sporulating cells. Glucose-6-phosphatase, pyruvate kinase and phosphofructokinase showed continuous decline during ascosporogenesis. The relative incorporation of radioactivity from possible precursors of gluconeogenesis indicated that acetate-2-14C alone could contribute to carbohydrate synthesis. (author)

  17. Biosorption of cesium by saccharomyces cerevisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristics of Cs+ biosorption by Saccharornyces cerevisia was investigated, including the biosorption kinetics, biosorption equilibrium, isotherm as well as the IR spectrum of biomass pre- and post-biosorption. The experimental results show that the process of Cs+ biosorption onto the biomass of Saccharornyces cerevisia can be devided into two stages, the first stage is physical sorption and the sorption equilibrium is very quickly reached (within 20 min). The biosorption kinetics can be described by the pseudo second-order equation quite well (R2=0.989), the kinetic parameters k2 and qe are 3.56 x 10-3 g/(mg·min) and 7.18 mg/g, respectively. The equilibrium isotherm data can be fitted with Langmuir and Freundlich models, with the maximum biosorptive capacity of 10.13 mg/g. Both the IR spectra of the biomass pre- and post-biosorption almost are same, and it indicates that the biosorption of Cs+ does not change the structure of the biomass, however, some adsorptive peaks shift. (authors)

  18. Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a nomadic yeast with no niche?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Matthew R; Greig, Duncan

    2015-05-01

    Different species are usually thought to have specific adaptations, which allow them to occupy different ecological niches. But recent neutral ecology theory suggests that species diversity can simply be the result of random sampling, due to finite population sizes and limited dispersal. Neutral models predict that species are not necessarily adapted to specific niches, but are functionally equivalent across a range of habitats. Here, we evaluate the ecology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, one of the most important microbial species in human history. The artificial collection, concentration and fermentation of large volumes of fruit for alcohol production produce an environment in which S. cerevisiae thrives, and therefore it is assumed that fruit is the ecological niche that S. cerevisiae inhabits and has adapted to. We find very little direct evidence that S. cerevisiae is adapted to fruit, or indeed to any other specific niche. We propose instead a neutral nomad model for S. cerevisiae, which we believe should be used as the starting hypothesis in attempting to unravel the ecology of this important microbe. PMID:25725024

  19. Genetic mapping of quantitative phenotypic traits in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinnen, Steve; Thevelein, Johan M; Nevoigt, Elke

    2012-03-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has become a favorite production organism in industrial biotechnology presenting new challenges to yeast engineers in terms of introducing advantageous traits such as stress tolerances. Exploring subspecies diversity of S. cerevisiae has identified strains that bear industrially relevant phenotypic traits. Provided that the genetic basis of such phenotypic traits can be identified inverse engineering allows the targeted modification of production strains. Most phenotypic traits of interest in S. cerevisiae strains are quantitative, meaning that they are controlled by multiple genetic loci referred to as quantitative trait loci (QTL). A straightforward approach to identify the genetic basis of quantitative traits is QTL mapping which aims at the allocation of the genetic determinants to regions in the genome. The application of high-density oligonucleotide arrays and whole-genome re-sequencing to detect genetic variations between strains has facilitated the detection of large numbers of molecular markers thus allowing high-resolution QTL mapping over the entire genome. This review focuses on the basic principle and state of the art of QTL mapping in S. cerevisiae. Furthermore we discuss several approaches developed during the last decade that allow down-scaling of the regions identified by QTL mapping to the gene level. We also emphasize the particular challenges of QTL mapping in nonlaboratory strains of S. cerevisiae. PMID:22150948

  20. Regulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae kinetochores by the type 1 phosphatase Glc7p

    OpenAIRE

    Sassoon, Ingrid; Fedor F. Severin; Andrews, Paul D.; Taba, Maria-Rita; Kaplan, Ken B.; Ashford, Anthony J.; Stark, Michael J.R.; Sorger, Peter K.; Hyman, Anthony A

    1999-01-01

    We have investigated the role of protein phosphorylation in regulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae kinetochores. By use of phosphatase inhibitors and a type 1 protein phosphatase mutant (glc7-10), we show that the microtubule binding activity, but not the centromeric DNA-binding activity, of the kinetochore complex is regulated by a balance between a protein kinase and the type 1 protein phosphatase (PP1) encoded by the GLC7 gene. glc7-10 mutant cells exhibit low kinetochore-microtubule bindi...

  1. A DNA Helicase Required for Maintenance of the Functional Mitochondrial Genome in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Sedman, Tiina; Kuusk, Silja; Kivi, Sirje; Sedman, Juhan

    2000-01-01

    A novel DNA helicase, a homolog of several prokaryotic helicases, including Escherichia coli Rep and UvrD proteins, is encoded by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae nuclear genome open reading frame YOL095c on the chromosome XV. Our data demonstrate that the helicase is localized in the yeast mitochondria and is loosely associated with the mitochondrial inner membrane during biochemical fractionation. The sequence of the C-terminal end of the 80-kDa helicase protein is similar to a typical N-termin...

  2. Ribosomal protein L30 is dispensable in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Baronas-Lowell, D M; Warner, J R

    1990-01-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, L30 is one of many ribosomal proteins that is encoded by two functional genes. We have cloned and sequenced RPL30B, which shows strong homology to RPL30A. Use of mRNA as a template for a polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that RPL30B contains an intron in its 5' untranslated region. This intron has an unusual 5' splice site, C/GUAUGU. The genomic copies of RPL30A and RPL30B were disrupted by homologous recombination. Growth rates, primer extension, a...

  3. Cloning and Characterization of a Sulfonate/α-Ketoglutarate Dioxygenase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Hogan, Deborah A; Auchtung, Thomas A.; Hausinger, Robert P.

    1999-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae open reading frame YLL057c is predicted to encode a gene product with 31.5% amino acid sequence identity to Escherichia coli taurine/α-ketoglutarate dioxygenase and 27% identity to Ralstonia eutropha TfdA, a herbicide-degrading enzyme. Purified recombinant yeast protein is shown to be an Fe(II)-dependent sulfonate/α-ketoglutarate dioxygenase. Although taurine is a poor substrate, a variety of other sulfonates are utilized, with the best natural substrates being is...

  4. Intron mutations affect splicing of Saccharomyces cerevisiae SUP53 precursor tRNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Strobel, M C; Abelson, J.

    1986-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae amber suppressor tRNA gene SUP53 (a tRNALeu3 allele) was used to investigate the role of intron structure and sequence on precursor tRNA splicing in vivo and in vitro. This gene encodes a pre-tRNA which contains a 32-base intervening sequence. Two types of SUP53 intron mutants were constructed: ones with an internal deletion of the natural SUP53 intron and ones with a novel intron. These mutant genes were transcribed in vitro, and the end-processed transcripts wer...

  5. Localization of nuclear retained mRNAs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rune; Libri, Domenico; Boulay, Jocelyne; Rosbash, Michael; Jensen, Torben Heick

    2003-01-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a common conditional phenotype associated with deletion or mutation of genes encoding mRNA export factors is the rapid accumulation of mRNAs in intranuclear foci, suggested to be near transcription sites. The nuclear RNA exosome has been implicated in...... retaining RNAs in these foci; on deletion of the exosome component Rrp6p, the RNA is released. To determine the exact nuclear location of retained as well as released mRNAs, we have used mRNA export mutant strains to analyze the spatial relationship between newly synthesized heat shock mRNA, the chromosomal...

  6. Molecular Genetics of Cryptopleurine Resistance in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae: Expression of a Ribosomal Protein Gene Family

    OpenAIRE

    Paulovich, A G; Thompson, J. R.; Larkin, J C; Li, Z.; Woolford-Jr., J. L.

    1993-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae CRY1 gene encodes the 40S ribosomal subunit protein rp59 and confers sensitivity to the protein synthesis inhibitor cryptopleurine. A yeast strain containing the cry1-?1::URA3 null allele is viable, cryptopleurine sensitive (Cry(S)), and expresses rp59 mRNA, suggesting that there is a second functional CRY gene. The CRY2 gene has been isolated from a yeast genomic library cloned in bacteriophage ?, using a CRY1 DNA probe. The DNA sequence of the CRY2 gene contains...

  7. Label-Free Proteomic Analysis of Flavohemoglobin Deleted Strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panja, Chiranjit; Setty, Rakesh K S; Vaidyanathan, Gopal; Ghosh, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Yeast flavohemoglobin, YHb, encoded by the nuclear gene YHB1, has been implicated in the nitrosative stress responses in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It is still unclear how S. cerevisiae can withstand this NO level in the absence of flavohemoglobin. To better understand the physiological function of flavohemoglobin in yeast, in the present study a label-free differential proteomics study has been carried out in wild-type and YHB1 deleted strains of S. cerevisiae grown under fermentative conditions. From the analysis, 417 proteins in Y190 and 392 proteins in ?YHB1 were identified with high confidence. Interestingly, among the differentially expressed identified proteins, 40 proteins were found to be downregulated whereas 41 were found to be upregulated in ?YHB1 strain of S. cerevisiae (p value < 0.05). The differentially expressed proteins were also classified according to gene ontology (GO) terms. The most enriched and significant GO terms included nitrogen compound biosynthesis, amino acid biosynthesis, translational regulation, and protein folding. Interactions of differentially expressed proteins were generated using Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes (STRING) database. This is the first report which offers a more complete view of the proteome changes in S. cerevisiae in the absence of flavohemoglobin. PMID:26881076

  8. Construction of killer industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAU-1 and its fermentation performance

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Bijender K., Bajaj; S., Sharma.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAU-1, a time tested industrial yeast possesses most of the desirable fermentation characteristics like fast growth and fermentation rate, osmotolerance, high ethanol tolerance, ability to ferment molasses, and to ferment at elevated temperatures etc. However, this yeast was [...] found to be sensitive against the killer strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the present study, killer trait was introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAU-1 by protoplast fusion with Saccharomyces cerevisiae MTCC 475, a killer strain. The resultant fusants were characterized for desirable fermentation characteristics. All the technologically important characteristics of distillery yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAU-1 were retained in the fusants, and in addition the killer trait was also introduced into them. Further, the killer activity was found to be stably maintained during hostile conditions of ethanol fermentations in dextrose or molasses, and even during biomass recycling.

  9. Construction of killer industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAU-1 and its fermentation performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijender K. Bajaj

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAU-1, a time tested industrial yeast possesses most of the desirable fermentation characteristics like fast growth and fermentation rate, osmotolerance, high ethanol tolerance, ability to ferment molasses, and to ferment at elevated temperatures etc. However, this yeast was found to be sensitive against the killer strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the present study, killer trait was introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAU-1 by protoplast fusion with Saccharomyces cerevisiae MTCC 475, a killer strain. The resultant fusants were characterized for desirable fermentation characteristics. All the technologically important characteristics of distillery yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAU-1 were retained in the fusants, and in addition the killer trait was also introduced into them. Further, the killer activity was found to be stably maintained during hostile conditions of ethanol fermentations in dextrose or molasses, and even during biomass recycling.

  10. ISOTERMAS DE ADSORÇÃO DE CÁDMIO POR Saccharomyces cerevisiae ISOTHERMS OF CADMIUM ADSORPTION BY Saccharomyces cerevisae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana ALBERTINI

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de determinar as isotermas de adsorção de cádmio por Saccharomyces cerevisiae, foram utilizados os sais cloreto e nitrato de cádmio nas concentrações de 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80 e 100mg L-1. A biomassa foi produzida a partir de uma cultura "starter"de Saccharomyces cerevisiae IZ 1904. Após o contato de 16h entre o microrganismo e as soluções em estudo, a biomassa foi separada por centrifugação e o teor de cádmio residual foi determinado no sobrenadante por espectrofotometria de absorção atômica. Para os dois sais empregados foi observado um acúmulo crescente de cádmio nas concentrações de 5, 10, 20 e 40mg L-1. Nas concentrações de 60, 80 e 100mg L-1 foi observado que a levedura acumulou teores menores do metal, evidenciando danos na parede celular, nem sempre acompanhados de iguais danos da membrana citoplasmática, tais alterações da parede visualizadas por microscopia eletrônica de varredura.With the objective of determining the isotherms of cadmium the adsorption by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the chloride and nitrate salts were used in the concentrations of 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100mg L-1. The biomass was produced from a starter culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae IZ 1904. After a 16h contact between the microrganism and solutions of study the biomass was separated by a centrifuge and the cadmium residue content was determined at the supernatant by atomic adsorption spectrophotometry. For the two salts used a growing accumulation of cadmium was observed at concentrations of 5, 10, 20, and 40mg L-1. In the concentrations of 60, 80 and 100mg L-1 a decreasing of the accumulation of the metal was observed, evidencing damages of the cellular wall, which they're not accompanied always by damages of the citoplasmatic membrane, visualized by scanning electron microscopy.

  11. ISOTERMAS DE ADSORÇÃO DE CÁDMIO POR Saccharomyces cerevisiae / ISOTHERMS OF CADMIUM ADSORPTION BY Saccharomyces cerevisae

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Silvana, ALBERTINI; Leandro Francisco do, CARMO; Luiz Gonzaga do, PRADO FILHO.

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de determinar as isotermas de adsorção de cádmio por Saccharomyces cerevisiae, foram utilizados os sais cloreto e nitrato de cádmio nas concentrações de 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80 e 100mg L-1. A biomassa foi produzida a partir de uma cultura "starter"de Saccharomyces cerevisiae IZ 1904. Ap [...] ós o contato de 16h entre o microrganismo e as soluções em estudo, a biomassa foi separada por centrifugação e o teor de cádmio residual foi determinado no sobrenadante por espectrofotometria de absorção atômica. Para os dois sais empregados foi observado um acúmulo crescente de cádmio nas concentrações de 5, 10, 20 e 40mg L-1. Nas concentrações de 60, 80 e 100mg L-1 foi observado que a levedura acumulou teores menores do metal, evidenciando danos na parede celular, nem sempre acompanhados de iguais danos da membrana citoplasmática, tais alterações da parede visualizadas por microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Abstract in english With the objective of determining the isotherms of cadmium the adsorption by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the chloride and nitrate salts were used in the concentrations of 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100mg L-1. The biomass was produced from a starter culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae IZ 1904. After a [...] 16h contact between the microrganism and solutions of study the biomass was separated by a centrifuge and the cadmium residue content was determined at the supernatant by atomic adsorption spectrophotometry. For the two salts used a growing accumulation of cadmium was observed at concentrations of 5, 10, 20, and 40mg L-1. In the concentrations of 60, 80 and 100mg L-1 a decreasing of the accumulation of the metal was observed, evidencing damages of the cellular wall, which they're not accompanied always by damages of the citoplasmatic membrane, visualized by scanning electron microscopy.

  12. Protein expression of saccharomyces cerevisiae in response to uranium exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protein expression of Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown in the medium containing 238U (VI) and 233U (VI) was examined by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Saccharomyces cerevisiae of BY4743 was grown in yeast nitrogen base medium containing glucose and glycerol 2-phosphate and 238U of 0, 2.0, and 5.0 x 10-4 M or 233U of 2.5 x 10-6 M (radioactivity was higher by 350 times than 2.0 x 10-4 M 238U) and 5.0 x 10-6 M for 112 h at 30 degC. The growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was monitored by measuring OD600 at 112 h after the inoculation. Uranium concentrations in the media also were measured by radiometry using a liquid scintillation counter. The growths of the yeast grown in the above media were in the following order: control>2.5 x 10-6 M 233U>2.0 x 10-4 M 238U>5.0 x 10-6 M 233U>5.0 x 10-4 M 238U. This result indicated that not only radiological but also chemical effect of U reduced the growth of the yeast. The concentrations of U in the medium containing 238U or 233U decreased, suggesting U accumulation by the yeast cells. The 2-D gel electrophoresis analysis showed the appearance of several spots after exposure to 238U or to 233U but not in the control containing no uranium. These results show that the yeast cells exposed to U express several specific proteins. (author)

  13. On cycles in the transcription network of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berman Piotr

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigate the cycles in the transcription network of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Unlike a similar network of Escherichia coli, it contains many cycles. We characterize properties of these cycles and their place in the regulatory mechanism of the cell. Results Almost all cycles in the transcription network of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are contained in a single strongly connected component, which we call LSCC (L for "largest", except for a single cycle of two transcription factors. The fact that LSCC includes almost all cycles is well explained by the properties of a random graph with the same in- and out-degrees of the nodes. Among different physiological conditions, cell cycle has the most significant relationship with LSCC, as the set of 64 transcription interactions that are active in all phases of the cell cycle has overlap of 27 with the interactions of LSCC (of which there are 49. Conversely, if we remove the interactions that are active in all phases of the cell cycle (25% of interactions to transcription factors, the LSCC would have only three nodes and 5 edges, many fewer than expected. This subgraph of the transcription network consists mostly of interactions that are active only in the stress response subnetwork. We also characterize the role of LSCC in the topology of the network. We show that LSCC can be used to define a natural hierarchy in the network and that in every physiological subnetwork LSCC plays a pivotal role. Conclusion Apart from those well-defined conditions, the transcription network of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is devoid of cycles. It was observed that two conditions that were studied and that have no cycles of their own are exogenous: diauxic shift and DNA repair, while cell cycle and sporulation are endogenous. We claim that in a certain sense (slow recovery stress response is endogenous as well.

  14. Cloning and DNA sequence analysis of the glucose transporter gene2 from Iranian Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Amiri

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Saccharomyces cerevisiae has 20 genes that encode hexose transporter proteins including HXT1 to HXT17, GAL2, SNF3 and RGT2. Among these gene families, seven genes (HXT1-HXT7 have important role in alcohol production. The aim of this study was the identification and isolation of HXT2 gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome by PCR technique and cloning into vector containing suitable expression promoter in order to design expression vector as a basis to produce recombinant yeast by transformation.Materials and Methods: After designing specific oligonucleotides primers, fragment gene amplified by PCR. Gene HXT2 inserted into pTZ57R vector by restriction enzymes EcoRI and HindIII and T4 ligase. After transformation of pTZ57R/THXT2 into E.coli, plasmid recombinant analysis considered. The final further analysis by restriction enzymes digestion and software were evaluated.Results: HXT2 gene isolated from pTZ57R/THXT2 has correct size in agarose gel electrophoresis. Electrophoresis analysis showed that this gene has correct size on agarose gel. Software study showed that this gene encode proteins with 59.84 KDa molecular weight having 541 amino acids with isoelectric point 8.3.Conclusion: HXT2 gene by PCR optimization from saccharomyces cerevisiae was isolated and cloned into prokaryotic host. This is the first report of isolation and cloning of this gene by using genetic engineering technique in IRAN that can be used for cloning into suitable expression vector to improve alcohol fermentation yield.

  15. Gains and Losses of Transcription Factor Binding Sites in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces paradoxus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefke, Bernhard; Wang, Tzi-Yuan; Wang, Chuen-Yi; Li, Wen-Hsiung

    2015-08-01

    Gene expression evolution occurs through changes in cis- or trans-regulatory elements or both. Interactions between transcription factors (TFs) and their binding sites (TFBSs) constitute one of the most important points where these two regulatory components intersect. In this study, we investigated the evolution of TFBSs in the promoter regions of different Saccharomyces strains and species. We divided the promoter of a gene into the proximal region and the distal region, which are defined, respectively, as the 200-bp region upstream of the transcription starting site and as the 200-bp region upstream of the proximal region. We found that the predicted TFBSs in the proximal promoter regions tend to be evolutionarily more conserved than those in the distal promoter regions. Additionally, Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains used in the fermentation of alcoholic drinks have experienced more TFBS losses than gains compared with strains from other environments (wild strains, laboratory strains, and clinical strains). We also showed that differences in TFBSs correlate with the cis component of gene expression evolution between species (comparing S. cerevisiae and its sister species Saccharomyces paradoxus) and within species (comparing two closely related S. cerevisiae strains). PMID:26220934

  16. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces yeasts in grape varieties of the São Francisco Valley

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Camila M.P.B.S. de, Ponzzes-Gomes; Dângelly L.F.M. de, Mélo; Caroline A., Santana; Giuliano E., Pereira; Michelle O.C., Mendonça; Fátima C.O., Gomes; Evelyn S., Oliveira; Antonio M., Barbosa Jr; Rita C., Trindade; Carlos A., Rosa.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this work was to characterise indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in the naturally fermented juice of grape varieties Cabernet Sauvignon, Grenache, Tempranillo, Sauvignon Blanc and Verdejo used in the São Francisco River Valley, northeastern Brazil. In this study, 155 S. cerevisi [...] ae and 60 non-Saccharomyces yeasts were isolated and identified using physiological tests and sequencing of the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit of the rRNA gene. Among the non-Saccharomyces species, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa was the most common species, followed by Pichia kudriavzevii, Candida parapsilosis, Meyerozyma guilliermondii, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Kloeckera apis, P. manshurica, C. orthopsilosis and C. zemplinina. The population counts of these yeasts ranged among 1.0 to 19 x 10(5) cfu/mL. A total of 155 isolates of S. cerevisiae were compared by mitochondrial DNA restriction analysis, and five molecular mitochondrial DNA restriction profiles were detected. Indigenous strains of S. cerevisiae isolated from grapes of the São Francisco Valley can be further tested as potential starters for wine production.

  17. Expression of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ?-glucoside transporters under different growth conditions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S. L., Alves Jr.; J. M., Thevelein; B. U., Stambuk.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Important biotechnological processes depend on the efficient fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts of starch hydrolysates rich in maltose and maltotriose. The rate-limiting step for fermentation of these ?-glucosides is the transport across the plasma membrane of the cells. In order to con [...] tribute to a better understanding of maltose and maltotriose metabolism by S. cerevisiae, we analyzed the expression of the main ? glucoside transporter genes in two different yeast strains grown on media with glucose, maltose or maltotriose as carbon source. Although both yeast strains have higher ?glucoside transport activity during growth on maltotriose, our results show similar expression levels of the analyzed genes on either maltose or maltrotriose media. Thus, our results indicate that, although the transport capacity of maltotriose grown cells is higher than that of maltose grown cells, maltotriose cannot be considered a better inducer of ?glucoside transporter genes.

  18. Heat shock response improves heterologous protein secretion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Jin; Österlund, Tobias; Liu, Zihe; Petranovic, Dina; Nielsen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a widely used platform for the production of heterologous proteins of medical or industrial interest. However, heterologous protein productivity is often low due to limitations of the host strain. Heat shock response (HSR) is an inducible, global, cellular...... stress response, which facilitates the cell recovery from many forms of stress, e.g., heat stress. In S. cerevisiae, HSR is regulated mainly by the transcription factor heat shock factor (Hsf1p) and many of its targets are genes coding for molecular chaperones that promote protein folding and prevent the...... accumulation of mis-folded or aggregated proteins. In this work, we over-expressed a mutant HSF1 gene HSF1-R206S which can constitutively activate HSR, so the heat shock response was induced at different levels, and we studied the impact of HSR on heterologous protein secretion. We found that moderate and high...

  19. Understanding the 3-hydroxypropionic acid tolerance mechanism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildegaard, Kanchana Rueksomtawin; Juncker, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    3-Hydroxypropionic acid (3HP) is an important platform chemical that can be converted into other valuable chemicals such as acrylic acid and its derivatives that are used in baby diap ers, various plastics, and paints. With the oil and gas resources becoming limiting, biotechnolo gy offers a sustainable alternative for production of acrylic acid from renewable feedstocks. We are establishing Saccharomyces cerevisiae as an alternative host for 3HP production. However, 3HP also inhibits yeast grow th at level well below what is desired for commercial applications. Therefore, we are aiming to improve 3HP tolerance in S. cerevisiae by applying adaptive evolution approach. We have generated yeast strains with sign ificantly improved capacity for tolerating 3HP when compared to the wild-type. We will present physiolo gical characterization, genome re-sequencing, and transcriptome analysis of the evolved strains. Conseq uently, mechanism underlying 3HP tolerance will be investigated.

  20. Glucose- and nitrogen sensing and regulatory mechanisms in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    RØdkaer, Steven V; Færgeman, Nils J.

    2014-01-01

    Pro- and eukaryotic cells are constantly challenged by varying concentrations of nutrients in their environment. Perceiving and adapting to such changes are therefore crucial for cellular viability. Thus, numerous specialized cellular receptors continuously sense and react to the availability of nutrients such as glucose and nitrogen. When stimulated, these receptors initiate various cellular signaling pathways, which in concert constitute a complex regulatory network. To ensure a highly specific response, these pathways and networks cross-communicate with each other and are regulated at several steps and by numerous different regulators. As numerous of these regulating proteins, biochemical mechanisms, and cellular pathways are evolutionary conserved, complex biochemical information relevant to humans can be obtained by studying simple organisms. Thus, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been recognized as a powerful model system to study fundamental biochemical processes. In the present review, we highlight central signaling pathways and molecular circuits conferring nitrogen- and glucose sensing in S. cerevisiae.

  1. Use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in radioactive waste treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Rafael Vicente de P.; Marumo, Julio T.; Bellini, Maria H.; Potiens Junior, Ademar J.; Takara, Aline S.; Goes, Marcos M. de; Borba, Tania R. de; Nascimento, Carina M. do; Sakata, Solange K. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: rpadua@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    Waste management plays an important role in reducing the volume of radioactive waste streams, minimizing the cost of the final disposal and the impact on the environment. In this context, new research should focus on the development of simpler and cheaper techniques which may improve the waste processing. The use of biomass in processes concerned with the removal of heavy metals and radionuclides offers significant potential in the treatment of waste-liquid streams. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is well known for its capacity of heavy metals biosorption and it also has the additional advantages such as easy availability and the possibility of genetic manipulation. The aim of this work is to study the potential of the free cell and immobilized S. cerevisiae in bentonite in the removal Americium-241 from radioactive liquid streams produced by Radioactive Waste Laboratory of Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN-CNEN/SP). (author)

  2. Radioimmunoassay for yeast killer toxin from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioimmunoassay was developed for the K1 killer toxin from strain T158C/S14a of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Iodine 125-labelled toxin was made to a specific activity of 100 ?Ci/mg of protein. Antibody to purified toxin was prepared in rabbits using toxin cross-linked to itself. These antibodies, partially purified by 50 percent ammonium sulfate precipitation and Sepharose CL-6B column chromatography, produced one precipitation band with killer toxin and bound 125I-labelled toxin in a radioimmunoassay. The antibody preparation also bound with the toxins from another K1 killer, A364A, and three chromosomal superkiller mutants derived from it. (auth)

  3. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Vacuole in Zinc Storage and Intracellular Zinc Distribution? ‡

    OpenAIRE

    Simm, Claudia; Lahner, Brett; Salt, David; LeFurgey, Ann; Ingram, Peter; Yandell, Brian; Eide, David J

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae indicated that the vacuole is a major site of zinc storage in the cell. However, these studies did not address the absolute level of zinc that was stored in the vacuole nor did they examine the abundances of stored zinc in other compartments of the cell. In this report, we describe an analysis of the cellular distribution of zinc by use of both an organellar fractionation method and an electron probe X-ray microanalysis. With these method...

  4. Glycolipids of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Renuka Malhotra; Balwant Singh

    2005-01-01

    Total lipids of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were isolated by chloroform and methanol (2:1). Glycolipids were separated from total lipids by silicic acid chromatography. Glycolipid’s constituent sugars and fatty acids were analyzed by using Gas Liquid Chromatography. Galactose was the prominent sugar followed by mannose. Relative concentrations of fucose, mannose, galactose and glucose in the glycolipid were 5.3, 35.2, 55.1 and 4.2%. 16:0, 18:0, 18:1, 18:2 and 18:3 were the major fatty acids of t...

  5. Magnetically altered ethanol fermentation capacity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galonja-Corghill Tamara

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effect of static magnetic fields on ethanol production by yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 424A (LNH-ST using sugar cane molasses during the fermentation in an enclosed bioreactor. Two static NdFeB magnets were attached to a cylindrical tube reactor with their opposite poles (north to south, creating 150 mT magnetic field inside the reactor. Comparable differences emerged between the results of these two experimental conditions. We found ethanol productivity to be 15% higher in the samples exposed to 150 mT magnetic field.

  6. Cloning of the RNA2 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, M. G.; Young, R. A.; Beggs, J D

    1984-01-01

    The RNA2 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which has been implicated in splicing the transcripts of nuclear protein coding genes, has been cloned by complementation of the temperature-sensitive growth defect of an rna2-1 mutant strain. The cloned sequence also suppresses the accumulation of unspliced precursor transcripts of the actin gene in an rna2-1 mutant. The gene has been localised to a 3.2-kb DNA restriction fragment and the corresponding low abundance 2.8-kb transcript identified and ...

  7. Molecular Mechanism of Terbinafine Resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Leber, Regina; Fuchsbichler, Sandra; Klobu?níková, Vlasta; Schweighofer, Natascha; Pitters, Eva; Wohlfarter, Kathrin; Lederer, Mojca; Landl, Karina; Ruckenstuhl, Christoph; Hapala, Ivan; Turnowsky, Friederike

    2003-01-01

    Ten mutants of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae resistant to the antimycotic terbinafine were isolated after chemical or UV mutagenesis. Molecular analysis of these mutants revealed single base pair exchanges in the ERG1 gene coding for squalene epoxidase, the target of terbinafine. The mutants did not show cross-resistance to any of the substrates of various pleiotropic drug resistance efflux pumps tested. The ERG1 mRNA levels in the mutants did not differ from those in the wild-type paren...

  8. mRNA decapping enzyme from ribosomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By use of [3H]methyl-5'-capped [14C]mRNA from yeast as a substrate, a decapping enzyme activity has been detected in enzyme fractions derived from a high salt wash of ribosomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The product of the decapping reaction is [3H]m7GDP. That the enzyme is not a non-specific pyrophosphatase is suggested by the finding that the diphosphate product, m7GpppA(G), and UDP-glucose are not hydrolyzed

  9. Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD2 gene: isolation, subcloning, and partial characterization.

    OpenAIRE

    Naumovski, L; Friedberg, E. C.

    1984-01-01

    A plasmid (pNF2000) containing a 9.7-kilobase pair DNA insert that complements the UV sensitivity of rad2-1, rad2-2, and rad2-4 mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been isolated from a yeast genomic library. Genetic analysis of strains derived by transformation of rad2 mutants with an integrating plasmid containing a 9.3-kilobase pair fragment from pNF2000 shows that the fragment integrates exclusively at the chromosomal rad2 gene. We therefore conclude that this plasmid contains the RAD2...

  10. Uptake and intracellular compartmentation of thorium in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadd, G M; White, C

    1989-01-01

    When Saccharomyces cerevisiae was cultured in the presence of thorium, the element was accumulated by the cells and was visible in electron micrographs as electron dense granules. When thorium was present during exponential growth, these granules were located mainly in the vacuole, with some present in the cytosol. Where thorium was present only during the stationary phase, there appeared to be greater thorium deposition in the cell wall than during exponential growth and some vacuolar deposits were also evident. Thorium uptake by exponential-phase cells was not stimulated by glucose and was thus independent of metabolic energy. PMID:15092359

  11. Ammonia regulation of amino acid permeases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Courchesne, W E; Magasanik, B

    1983-01-01

    The activities of the proline-specific permease (PUT4) and the general amino acid permease (GAP1) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae vary 70- to 140-fold in response to the nitrogen source of the growth medium. The PUT4 and GAP1 permease activities are regulated by control of synthesis and control of activity. These permeases are irreversibly inactivated by addition of ammonia or glutamine, lowering the activity to that found during steady-state growth on these nitrogen sources. Mutants altered in t...

  12. accumulation and subcellular localisation of metal cations by saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Blackwell, Kevin J.

    1998-01-01

    Uptake of Cd2+ ions m the presence or absence of glucose by a brewing strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was examined in unbuffered, buffered and pH controlled systems. Levels of Cd2+ taken up, and K+ release were influenced by the degree of pH control in each system. A time-dependent component of uptake was observed in the absence of glucose which was attributed to a degree of metabolic activity Subcellulai localisation studies determined that Cd2+ was predominantly bound by insoluble cellul...

  13. Nitrogen catabolite repression of asparaginase II in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Dunlop, P C; Meyer, G.M. de; Roon, R J

    1980-01-01

    The biosynthesis of asparaginase II in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is subject to strong catabolite repression by a variety of nitrogen compounds. In the present study, asparaginase II synthesis was examined in a wild-type yeast strain and in strains carrying gdhA, gdhCR, or gdhCS mutations. The following effects were observed: (i) In the wild-type strain, the biosynthesis of asparaginase II was strongly repressed when either 10 mM ammonium sulfate or various amino acids (10 mM) served as the sou...

  14. Regulation of inorganic phosphate transport systems in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Tamai, Y; Toh-E, A; Oshima, Y

    1985-01-01

    A kinetic study of Pi transport with 32Pi revealed that Saccharomyces cerevisiae has two systems of Pi transport, one with a low Km value (8.2 microM) for external Pi and the other with a high Km value (770 microM). The low-Km system was derepressed by Pi starvation, and the activity was expressed under the control of a genetic system which regulates the repressible acid and alkaline phosphatases. The function of the PHO2 gene, which is essential for the derepression of repressible acid phosp...

  15. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Biyokütlesi ile Remazol Navy Blue Boyar Maddesinin Biyosorpsiyonu

    OpenAIRE

    KORHAN, Hamdullah; HAL?PÇ?, Hatice Nur; KERTMEN, Metin; DI?RAK, Metin

    2012-01-01

    Özet: Dünyada giderek artan nüfusla birlikte geli?en teknoloji ve h?zl? sanayile?me, çok büyük ve çözülmesi giderek zorla?an bir problemi, çevre kirlili?ini de beraberinde getirmi?tir. Bugün bu kirlilik do?an?n dengesini bozar duruma gelmi? ve insan ya?am?n? tehdit eden boyutlara ula?m??t?r. Yeryüzünün büyük bir bölümünü olu?turan su ortam?, geçmi?ten günümüze hava ve topraktan çok daha fazla kirlili?e maruz kalm??t?r. Bu çal??mada Saccharomyces cerevisiae ile Remazol Navy Blue (RNB)'nun adso...

  16. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Biyokütlesi ?le Remazol Turkuaz Blue Boyar Maddesinin Biyosorpsiyonu

    OpenAIRE

    HAL?PÇ?, Hatice Nur; KORHAN, Hamdullah; DI?RAK, Metin; KERTMEN, Metin

    2012-01-01

    Özet: Çe?itli sanayi kurulu?lar?n?n neden oldu?u boyar madde kirlilikleri, çevreyi olumsuz yönde etkilemekte ve özellikle insan sa?l???n? tehdit etmektedir. Günümüzde bu tür çevresel problemler önemli bir yer te?kil ederken, bu amaçla birçok çal??malar yap?lmaktad?r. Bu çal??mada Saccharomyces cerevisiae ile Remazol Turkuaz Blue (RTB)'nun adsorpsiyon tekni?i ile giderilmesi ara?t?r?lm??t?r. Bu amaçla, boyar madde konsantrasyonu, pH ve s?cakl???n adsorpsiyon üzerine etkisi incelenmi?tir. Çal??...

  17. Sucrose and Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a relationship most sweet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Wesley Leoricy; Raghavendran, Vijayendran; Stambuk, Boris Ugarte; Gombert, Andreas Karoly

    2016-02-01

    Sucrose is an abundant, readily available and inexpensive substrate for industrial biotechnology processes and its use is demonstrated with much success in the production of fuel ethanol in Brazil. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which naturally evolved to efficiently consume sugars such as sucrose, is one of the most important cell factories due to its robustness, stress tolerance, genetic accessibility, simple nutrient requirements and long history as an industrial workhorse. This minireview is focused on sucrose metabolism in S. cerevisiae, a rather unexplored subject in the scientific literature. An analysis of sucrose availability in nature and yeast sugar metabolism was performed, in order to understand the molecular background that makes S. cerevisiae consume this sugar efficiently. A historical overview on the use of sucrose and S. cerevisiae by humans is also presented considering sugarcane and sugarbeet as the main sources of this carbohydrate. Physiological aspects of sucrose consumption are compared with those concerning other economically relevant sugars. Also, metabolic engineering efforts to alter sucrose catabolism are presented in a chronological manner. In spite of its extensive use in yeast-based industries, a lot of basic and applied research on sucrose metabolism is imperative, mainly in fields such as genetics, physiology and metabolic engineering. PMID:26658003

  18. Evaluation of cytochrome P-450 concentration in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Míriam Cristina Sakuragui, Matuo; Irene Satiko, Kikuchi; Terezinha de Jesus Andreoli, Pinto.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Linhagens de Saccharomyces cerevisiae tem sido amplamente empregadas em testes de mutagenicidade devido à presença de um sistema citocromo P-450 capaz de metabolizar substâncias pró-mutagênicas à sua forma ativa. Devido à grande variedade de linhagens de S. cerevisiae com diferentes capacidades de p [...] rodução de citocromo P-450, torna-se necessária a seleção de cepas, bem como a definição das condições ideais de cultivo. Neste trabalho, foram comparados os níveis de citocromo P-450 em quatro diferentes linhagens de S. cerevisiae e avaliadas as condições de cultivo necessárias para obtenção de altas concentrações deste sistema enzimático. O maior nível enzimático foi encontrado na linhagem NCYC 240 em presença de 20 % de glicose (p/v). A adição de etanol ao meio de cultura também produziu um aumento na síntese de citocromo P-450. Estes resultados indicam que as condições de cultivo devem ser específicas e bem definidas para a linhagem selecionada, garantindo assim elevados níveis de citocromo P-450 e, conseqüentemente, a confiabilidade nos testes de mutagenicidade. Abstract in english Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been widely used in mutagenicity tests due to the presence of a cytochrome P-450 system, capable of metabolizing promutagens to active mutagens. There are a large number of S. cerevisiae strains with varying abilities to produce cytochrome P-450. However, strain selectio [...] n and ideal cultivation conditions are not well defined. We compared cytochrome P-450 levels in four different S. cerevisiae strains and evaluated the cultivation conditions necessary to obtain the highest levels. The amount of cytochrome P-450 produced by each strain varied, as did the incubation time needed to reach the maximum level. The highest cytochrome P-450 concentrations were found in media containing fermentable sugars. The NCYC 240 strain produced the highest level of cytochrome P-450 when grown in the presence of 20 % (w/v) glucose. The addition of ethanol to the media also increased cytochrome P-450 synthesis in this strain. These results indicate cultivation conditions must be specific and well-established for the strain selected in order to assure high cytochrome P-450 levels and reliable mutagenicity results.

  19. Regulation of the Premiddle and Middle Phases of Expression of the NDT80 Gene during Sporulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Pak, Julia; Segall, Jacqueline

    2002-01-01

    The NDT80 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which encodes a global activator of transcription of middle sporulation-specific genes, is first expressed after the activation of early meiotic genes but prior to activation of middle sporulation-specific genes. Both upstream repression sequence 1 (URS1) and mid-sporulation element (MSE) sites are present in the promoter region of the NDT80 gene; these elements have been shown previously to contribute to the regulation of expression of early and mi...

  20. Mutations that cause threonine sensitivity identify catalytic and regulatory regions of the aspartate kinase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arévalo-Rodríguez, M; Calderón, I L; Holmberg, S

    1999-01-01

    The HOM3 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes aspartate kinase, which catalyses the first step in the branched pathway leading to the synthesis of threonine and methionine from aspartate. Regulation of the carbon flow into this pathway takes place mainly by feedback inhibition of this enzyme by threonine. We have isolated and characterized three HOM3 mutants that show growth inhibition by threonine due to a severe, threonine-induced reduction of the carbon flow into the aspartate pathway, le...

  1. Flavin Mononucleotide-Based Fluorescent Protein as an Oxygen-Independent Reporter in Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae? †

    OpenAIRE

    Tielker, D.; Eichhof, I.; Jaeger, K.-E.; Ernst, J F

    2009-01-01

    Hypoxia is encountered frequently by pathogenic and apathogenic fungi. A codon-adapted gene encoding flavin mononucleotide-based fluorescent protein (CaFbFP) was expressed in Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Both species produced CaFbFP and fluoresced even during hypoxia, suggesting that oxygen-independent CaFbFP is a useful, novel tool for monitoring hypoxic gene expression in fungi.

  2. Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Cho2 Mutants Are Deficient in Phospholipid Methylation and Cross-Pathway Regulation of Inositol Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Summers, E. F.; Letts, V.A.; McGraw, P.; Henry, S A

    1988-01-01

    Five allelic Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants deficient in the methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) have been isolated, using two different screening techniques. Biochemical analysis suggested that these mutants define a locus, designated CHO2, that may encode a methyltransferase. Membranes of cho2 mutant cells grown in defined medium contain approximately 10% phosphatidylcholine (PC) and 40-50% PE as compared to wild-type levels of 40-45% PC and 15-20% PE. In spite of this greatly al...

  3. Effects of Various Physiological Stresses on Transcription of the SUC2Gene in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Türkel, Sezai

    2000-01-01

    Physiological conditions in the growth habitat of yeast cells dramatically changes the gene expression pattern. In this study, it was shown that transcription of the SUC2gene, which encodes the cytoplasmic and secreted enzyme invertase, is modulated according to the environmental conditions in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Hyperosmotic stress and oxidative stress repressed the transcription of the SUC2gene up to 50%. However, preconditioning of the yeast cells prevented the negativ...

  4. Introducing a New Breed of Wine Yeast: Interspecific Hybridisation between a Commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae Wine Yeast and Saccharomyces mikatae

    OpenAIRE

    Bellon, Jennifer R.; Schmid, Frank; Capone, Dimitra L.; Dunn, Barbara L.; Chambers, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Interspecific hybrids are commonplace in agriculture and horticulture; bread wheat and grapefruit are but two examples. The benefits derived from interspecific hybridisation include the potential of generating advantageous transgressive phenotypes. This paper describes the generation of a new breed of wine yeast by interspecific hybridisation between a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast strain and Saccharomyces mikatae, a species hitherto not associated with industrial fermentatio...

  5. Acquisition of tolerance against oxidative damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleutherio Elis CA

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Living cells constantly sense and adapt to redox shifts by the induction of genes whose products act to maintain the cellular redox environment. In the eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae, while stationary cells possess a degree of constitutive resistance towards oxidants, treatment of exponential phase cultures with sub-lethal stresses can lead to the transient induction of protection against subsequent lethal oxidant conditions. The sensors of oxidative stress and the corresponding transcription factors that activate gene expression under these conditions have not yet been completely identified. Results We report the role of SOD1, SOD2 and TPS1 genes (which encode the cytoplasmic Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase, the mitochondrial Mn-isoform and trehalose-6-phosphate synthase, respectively in the development of resistance to oxidative stress. In all experimental conditions, the cultures were divided into two parts, one was immediately submitted to severe stress (namely: exposure to H2O2, heat shock or ethanol stress while the other was initially adapted to 40°C for 60 min. The deficiency in trehalose synthesis did not impair the acquisition of tolerance to H2O2, but this disaccharide played an essential role in tolerance against heat and ethanol stresses. We also verified that the presence of only one Sodp isoform was sufficient to improve cellular resistance to 5 mM H2O2. On the other hand, while the lack of Sod2p caused high cell sensitivity to ethanol and heat shock, the absence of Sod1p seemed to be beneficial to the process of acquisition of tolerance to these adverse conditions. The increase in oxidation-dependent fluorescence of crude extracts of sod1 mutant cells upon incubation at 40°C was approximately 2-fold higher than in sod2 and control strain extracts. Furthermore, in Western blots, we observed that sod mutants showed a different pattern of Hsp104p and Hsp26p expression also different from that in their control strain. Conclusions Trehalose seemed not to be essential in the acquisition of tolerance to H2O2 stress, but its absence was strongly felt under water stress conditions such as heat and alcoholic stresses. On the other hand, Sod1p could be involved in the control of ROS production; these reactive molecules could signal the induction of genes implicated within cell tolerance to heat and ethanol. The effects of this deletion needs further investigation.

  6. Control of 5?,5?-Dinucleoside Triphosphate Catabolism by APH1, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae Analog of Human FHIT

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Josiane; Brevet, Annie; Blanquet, Sylvain; Plateau, Pierre

    1998-01-01

    The putative human tumor suppressor gene FHIT (fragile histidine triad) (M. Ohta et al., Cell 84:587–597, 1996) encodes a protein behaving in vitro as a dinucleoside 5?,5???-P1,P3-triphosphate (Ap3A) hydrolase. In this report, we show that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae APH1 gene product, which resembles human Fhit protein, also hydrolyzes dinucleoside 5?,5?-polyphosphates, with Ap3A being the preferred substrate. Accordingly, disruption of the APH1 gene produced viable S. cerevisiae cells cont...

  7. Control of 5',5'-dinucleoside triphosphate catabolism by APH1, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae analog of human FHIT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J; Brevet, A; Blanquet, S; Plateau, P

    1998-05-01

    The putative human tumor suppressor gene FHIT (fragile histidine triad) (M. Ohta et al., Cell 84:587-597, 1996) encodes a protein behaving in vitro as a dinucleoside 5',5"'-P1,P3-triphosphate (Ap3A) hydrolase. In this report, we show that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae APH1 gene product, which resembles human Fhit protein, also hydrolyzes dinucleoside 5',5'-polyphosphates, with Ap3A being the preferred substrate. Accordingly, disruption of the APH1 gene produced viable S. cerevisiae cells containing reduced Ap3A-hydrolyzing activity and a 30-fold-elevated Ap3N concentration. PMID:9573184

  8. On the fermentative behavior of auxotrophic strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lucia, Paciello; Jesus, Zueco; Carmine, Landi.

    2014-09-15

    Full Text Available Background The selection of new yeast strains could lead to improvements in bioethanol production. Here, we have studied the fermentative capacity of different auxotrophic mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which are routinely used as hosts for the production of heterologous proteins. It has recen [...] tly been found that these strains exhibit physiological alterations and peculiar sensitivities with respect to the parental prototrophic strains from which they derive. In this work the performance of auxotrophic S. cerevisiae CEN.PK strains was compared to the corresponding prototrophic strain, to S. cerevisiae T5bV, a strain isolated from grape must and to another auxotrophic strain, S. cerevisiae BY4741. Results The results indicate that the fermentative capacity of strains grown in 2% glucose was similar in all the strains tested. However, in 15% initial glucose, the auxotrophic strains exhibited a more than doubled ethanol yield on biomass (10 g g- 1dw) compared to the prototrophic strains (less than 5 g g- 1dw). Other tests have also evidenced that in medium depletion conditions, ethanol production continues after growth arrest. Conclusions The results highlight the capacity of auxotrophic yeast strains to produce ethanol per mass unit, in a higher amount with respect to the prototrophic ones. This leads to potential applications for auxotrophic strains of S. cerevisiae in the production of ethanol in both homogeneous and heterogeneous phases (immobilized systems). The higher ethanol yield on biomass would be advantageous in immobilized cell systems, as a reduced yeast biomass could greatly reduce the mass transfer limitations through the immobilization matrix.

  9. Characterization of an MMS sensitive mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have characterized a methyl methanesulfonate sensitive mutant of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in order to learn more about DNA repair and mutagenesis in this organism. The mutation, designated mms3-1, also confers sensitivity to ultraviolet light and to ethyl methanesulfonate in both haploids and homozygous diploids. Its effect on ?-ray sensitivity, however, is a function of the ploidy of the cell and its effect on induced mutation is a function of both the ploidy of the cell and the nature of the inducing agent. Our major findings are discussed. Our data indicate that: (1) Saccharomyces cerevisiae has an error prone pathway for the repair of uv damage controlled by the MMS3 gene product operating in and only in, and possibly induced by conditions present only in, a/? diploids; (2) in diploids, at least, there exists at least one step in the error prone repair of uv induced damage which is different from a step in the error prone repair of EMS induced damage; (3) a/? mms3-1/mms3-1 diploids may be defective in a step common to the repair of mutagenic lesions following uv irradiation and lethal lesions following ? irradiation; and (4) there are steps in the repair of MMS induced lethal damage that are different from steps in the repair of EMS induced lethal damage

  10. A vaccine grade of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing mammalian myostatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Tingting

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a widely-used system for protein expression. We previously showed that heat-killed whole recombinant yeast vaccine expressing mammalian myostatin can modulate myostatin function in mice, resulting in increase of body weight and muscle composition in these animals. Foreign DNA introduced into yeast cells can be lost soon unless cells are continuously cultured in selection media, which usually contain antibiotics. For cost and safety concerns, it is essential to optimize conditions to produce quality food and pharmaceutical products. Results We developed a simple but effective method to engineer a yeast strain stably expressing mammalian myostatin. This method utilized high-copy-number integration of myostatin gene into the ribosomal DNA of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the final step, antibiotic selection marker was removed using the Cre-LoxP system to minimize any possible side-effects for animals. The resulting yeast strain can be maintained in rich culture media and stably express mammalian myostatin for two years. Oral administration of the recombinant yeast was able to induce immune response to myostatin and modulated the body weight of mice. Conclusions Establishment of such yeast strain is a step further toward transformation of yeast cells into edible vaccine to improve meat production in farm animals and treat human muscle-wasting diseases in the future.

  11. Morphogenesis beyond Cytokinetic Arrest in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Javier; Cid, Víctor J.; Cenamor, Rosa; Yuste, María; Molero, Gloria; Nombela, César; Sánchez, Miguel

    1998-01-01

    The budding yeast lyt1 mutation causes cell lysis. We report here that lyt1 is an allele of cdc15, a gene which encodes a protein kinase that functions late in the cell cycle. Neither cdc15-1 nor cdc15-lyt1 strains are able to septate at 37°C, even though they may manage to rebud. Cells lyse after a shmoo-like projection appears at the distal pole of the daughter cell. Actin polarizes towards the distal pole but the septins remain at the mother–daughter neck. This morphogenetic response reflects entry into a new round of the cell cycle: the preference for polarization from the distal pole was lost in bud1 cdc15 double mutants; double cdc15-lyt1 cdc28-4 mutants, defective for START, did not develop apical projections and apical polarization was accompanied by DNA replication. The same phenomena were caused by mutations in the genes CDC14, DBF2, and TEM1, which are functionally related to CDC15. Apical polarization was delayed in cdc15 mutants as compared with budding in control cells and this delay was abolished in a septin mutant. Our results suggest that the delayed M/G1 transition in cdc15 mutants is due to a septin-dependent checkpoint that couples initiation of the cell cycle to the completion of cytokinesis. PMID:9852155

  12. Saccharomyces cerevisiae modulates gut responses to Escherichia coli in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri Salmon

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Galliano Zanello1,2, Mustapha Berri2, Joëlle Dupont3, Pierre-Yves Sizaret4, Claire Chevaleyre2, Sandrine Melo2, Romain D’Inca1, Eric Auclair1, François Meurens2, Henri Salmon2 1 Société Industrielle Lesaffre, Lesaffre Feed Additives, Marcq-en-Baroeul, France. 2 Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA, UR1282, Infectiologie Animale et Santé Publique, F-37380, Nouzilly (Tours, France. 3 Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA, UMR85, Physiologie de la Reproduction et des Comportements, F-37380, Nouzilly (Tours, France. 4 Département des microscopies, plate-forme R.I.O de microscopie électronique, Université François Rabelais, Tours, France. Henri.Salmon@tours.inra.fr Enteritis, mostly caused by Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC adhering to and colonizing enterocytes in the small intestine, results in large economic losses in neonatal and post-weaning farm animals. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is non-commensal and non-pathogenic yeast and some strains are used as dietary yeast or as probiotics to prevent or cure enteritis. To ascertain the role of S. cerevisiae (strain CNCM I-3856 we developed two types of studies. In in vitro studies, using two intestinal epithelial cell lines, IPI-2I (transformed and IPEC-1 (non transformed, differentiated and polarized we showed that S. cerevisiae (strain CNCM I-3856 modulate epithelial cell responses to F4+ E. coli; thus in IPI-2I cells both viable yeast and its culture supernatant decrease the expression of pro-inflammatory transcripts (TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, CXCL2 and CCL20. Similarly, in IPEC-1 cells, viable yeast decreases the pro-inflammatory transcripts (IL-6, IL-8, CCL20, CXCL2 and CXCL10 and apical secretion of both IL-6 and IL-8. Concomitantly, there was a decrease in the mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK1/2 and p38 phosphorylation. In contrast, S. cerevisiae up-regulates mRNA levels of the anti-inflammatory PPAR-? nuclear receptor, the IL-12p35 cytokine and the CCL25 chemokine involved in gut mucosal immunity. However, S. cerevisiae failed to restore the diminished transepithelial electrical resistance in monolayer exposed to F4+ ETEC. In another hand, feeding pregnant sows with the same strain of S. cerevisiae stimulate the passive immunity to piglet with a trend to a lower incidence of non-typed E. coli diarrhea. Thus S. cerevisiae (strain CNCM I-3856 exhibits various probiotic properties, modulating diversely the gut responses to E. coli.

  13. Biogeographical characterisation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast by molecular methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RosannaTofalo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Biogeography is the descriptive and explanatory study of spatial patterns and processes involved in the distribution of biodiversity. Without biogeography, it would be difficult to study the diversity of microorganisms because there would be no way to visualise patterns in variation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, “the wine yeast”, is the most important species involved in alcoholic fermentation, and in vineyard ecosystems, it follows the principle of “everything is everywhere”. Agricultural practices such as farming (organic versus conventional and floor management systems have selected different populations within this species that are phylogenetically distinct. In fact, recent ecological and geographic studies highlighted that unique strains are associated with particular grape varieties in specific geographical locations. These studies also highlighted that significant diversity and regional character, or ‘terroir’, have been introduced into the winemaking process via this association. This diversity of wild strains preserves typicity, the high quality and the unique flavour of wines. Recently, different molecular methods were developed to study population dynamics of S. cerevisiae strains in both vineyards and wineries. In this review, we will provide an update on the current molecular methods used to reveal the geographical distribution of S. cerevisiae wine yeast.

  14. Biogeographical characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast by molecular methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofalo, Rosanna; Perpetuini, Giorgia; Schirone, Maria; Fasoli, Giuseppe; Aguzzi, Irene; Corsetti, Aldo; Suzzi, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    Biogeography is the descriptive and explanatory study of spatial patterns and processes involved in the distribution of biodiversity. Without biogeography, it would be difficult to study the diversity of microorganisms because there would be no way to visualize patterns in variation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, "the wine yeast," is the most important species involved in alcoholic fermentation, and in vineyard ecosystems, it follows the principle of "everything is everywhere." Agricultural practices such as farming (organic versus conventional) and floor management systems have selected different populations within this species that are phylogenetically distinct. In fact, recent ecological and geographic studies highlighted that unique strains are associated with particular grape varieties in specific geographical locations. These studies also highlighted that significant diversity and regional character, or 'terroir,' have been introduced into the winemaking process via this association. This diversity of wild strains preserves typicity, the high quality, and the unique flavor of wines. Recently, different molecular methods were developed to study population dynamics of S. cerevisiae strains in both vineyards and wineries. In this review, we will provide an update on the current molecular methods used to reveal the geographical distribution of S. cerevisiae wine yeast. PMID:23805132

  15. Protein Enrichment of Cassava Pulp Fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Yuangklang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine intestinal digestibility of residual components of cassava pulp solid state fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae for animal feed. Three ruminally cannulated animal were used to measure in situ rumen Dry Matter (DM and Crude Protein (CP degradability characteristics of cassava pulp solid state fermentation by S. cerevisiae. Nylon bags containing 3 g (as fed basis of each feed was immersed in duplicate at each time point in the ventral rumen of each goat for 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h. Rumen feed residues from bags of 16 h incubation were used for estimation of lower gut digestibility by the technique of in vitro pepsin-pancreatin digestion. The results of the chemical analysis indicated that fermentation was slightly improved Ruminal Undegradable Protein (RUP of cassava pulp. The highest value of RUP was significantly differ (pS. cerevisiae in cassava pulp. The present results indicate that fermented cassava pulp can improve protein content and ruminal undegradable protein content.

  16. The postmitotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae after spaceflight showed higher viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Zong-Chun; Li, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Yan; Wang, Jie; Sun, Yan; Zhuang, Feng-Yuan

    2011-06-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been proposed as an ideal model organism for clarifying the biological effects caused by spaceflight conditions. The postmitotic S. cerevisiae cells onboard Practice eight recoverable satellite were subjected to spaceflight for 15 days. After recovery, the viability, the glycogen content, the activities of carbohydrate metabolism enzymes, the DNA content and the lipid peroxidation level in yeast cells were analyzed. The viability of the postmitotic yeast cells after spaceflight showed a three-fold increase as compared with that of the ground control cells. Compared to the ground control cells, the lipid peroxidation level in the spaceflight yeast cells markedly decreased. The spaceflight yeast cells also showed an increase in G2/M cell population and a decrease in Sub-G1 cell population. The glycogen content and the activities of hexokinase and succinate dehydrogenase significantly decreased in the yeast cells after spaceflight. In contrast, the activity of malate dehydrogenase showed an obvious increase after spaceflight. These results suggested that microgravity or spaceflight could promote the survival of postmitotic S. cerevisiae cells through regulating carbohydrate metabolism, ROS level and cell cycle progression.

  17. Multiparameter analysis of apoptosis in puromycin-treated Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citterio, Barbara; Albertini, Maria Cristina; Ghibelli, Lina; Falcieri, Elisabetta; Battistelli, Michela; Canonico, Barbara; Rocchi, Marco B L; Teodori, Laura; Ciani, Maurizio; Piatti, Elena

    2015-08-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a typical apoptotic phenotype is induced by some stress factors such as sugars, acetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, aspirin and age. Nevertheless, no data have been reported for apoptosis induced by puromycin, a damaging agent known to induce apoptosis in mammalian cells. We treated S. cerevisiae with puromycin to induce apoptosis and evaluated the percentage of dead cells by using Hoechst 33342 staining, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Annexin V flow cytometry (FC) analysis. Hoechst 33342 fluorescence images were processed to acquire parameters to use for multiparameter analysis [and perform a principal component analysis, (PCA)]. Cell viability was evaluated by Rhodamine 123 (Rh 123) and Acridine Orange microscope fluorescence staining. The results show puromycin-induced apoptosis in S. cerevisiae, and the PCA analysis indicated that the increasing percentage of apoptotic cells delineated a well-defined graph profile. The results were supported by TEM and FC. This study gives new insights into yeast apoptosis using puromycin as inducer agent, and PCA analysis may complement molecular analysis facilitating further studies to its detection. PMID:25868793

  18. Irradiation effects on the alcohol fermentation ability of saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation effects on the alcohol fermentation ability of saccharomyces cerevisiae. S. cerevisiae suspensions of 1.5x108 clls/ml were exposed to single and fractionated doses of gamma irradiation, i.e. 0; 0.30; 0.60; 0.90; and 1.20 kGy in aerobic condition at dose rate of 1.63 kGy/hour. The fractionated doses were given with time interval of 15, 30 and 45 minutes. The fermentation was held at 300C for 40 hours. It is seen that an increase of alcohol production was obtained when cells were irradiated at 0.60 kGy, although the result has no significant difference statistically with control. At the dose of 1.20 kGy the alcohol fermentation ability of S. cerevisiae decreased drastically as compared to control. Irradiation using single or fractionated doses with time interval of 15-45 minutes did not influence the alcohol production. Comparing the time interval of 45 minutes at 0.60 kGy and at 1.20 kGy, it appeared that the yield of alcohol was different. (author). 17 refs.; 4 figs

  19. De novo synthesis of monoterpenes by Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrau, Francisco M; Medina, Karina; Boido, Eduardo; Farina, Laura; Gaggero, Carina; Dellacassa, Eduardo; Versini, Giuseppe; Henschke, Paul A

    2005-02-01

    This paper reports the production of monoterpenes, which elicit a floral aroma in wine, by strains of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Terpenes, which are typical components of the essential oils of flowers and fruits, are also present as free and glycosylated conjugates amongst the secondary metabolites of certain wine grape varieties of Vitis vinifera. Hence, when these compounds are present in wine they are considered to originate from grape and not fermentation. However, the biosynthesis of monoterpenes by S. cerevisiae in the absence of grape derived precursors is shown here to be of de novo origin in wine yeast strains. Higher concentration of assimilable nitrogen increased accumulation of linalool and citronellol. Microaerobic compared with anaerobic conditions favored terpene accumulation in the ferment. The amount of linalool produced by some strains of S. cerevisiae could be of sensory importance in wine production. These unexpected results are discussed in relation to the known sterol biosynthetic pathway and to an alternative pathway for terpene biosynthesis not previously described in yeast. PMID:15668008

  20. Osmo-, thermo- and ethanol- tolerances of Saccharomyces cerevisiae S1

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sandrasegarampillai, Balakumar; Vasanthy, Arasaratnam.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae S1, which is a locally isolated and improved strain showed viability at 40, 45 and 50ºC and produced ethanol at 40, 43 and 45ºC. When the cells were given heat shock at 45ºC for 30min and grown at 40ºC, 100% viability was observed for 60h, and addition of 200gl-1 ethanol has [...] led to complete cell death at 30h. Heat shock given at 45ºC (for 30min) has improved the tolerance to temperature induced ethanol shock leading to 37% viability at 30h. when the cells were subjected to ethanol (200gl-1 for 30 min) and osmotic shock (sorbitol 300gl-1), trehalose contents in the cells were increased. The heat shocked cells showed better viability in presence of added ethanol. Soy flour supplementation has improved the viability of S. cerevisiae S1 to 80% in presence of 100gl-1 added ethanol and to 60% in presence of 300gl-1 sorbitol. In presence of sorbitol (200gl-1) and ethanol (50gl-1) at 40ºC, 46% viability was retained by S. cerevisiae S1 at 48h and it was improved to 80% by soy flour supplementation.

  1. Osmo-, thermo- and ethanol- tolerances of Saccharomyces cerevisiae S1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrasegarampillai Balakumar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae S1, which is a locally isolated and improved strain showed viability at 40, 45 and 50ºC and produced ethanol at 40, 43 and 45ºC. When the cells were given heat shock at 45ºC for 30min and grown at 40ºC, 100% viability was observed for 60h, and addition of 200gl-1 ethanol has led to complete cell death at 30h. Heat shock given at 45ºC (for 30min has improved the tolerance to temperature induced ethanol shock leading to 37% viability at 30h. when the cells were subjected to ethanol (200gl-1 for 30 min and osmotic shock (sorbitol 300gl-1, trehalose contents in the cells were increased. The heat shocked cells showed better viability in presence of added ethanol. Soy flour supplementation has improved the viability of S. cerevisiae S1 to 80% in presence of 100gl-1 added ethanol and to 60% in presence of 300gl-1 sorbitol. In presence of sorbitol (200gl-1 and ethanol (50gl-1 at 40ºC, 46% viability was retained by S. cerevisiae S1 at 48h and it was improved to 80% by soy flour supplementation.

  2. Engineering cellular redox balance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for improved production of L-lactic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju Young; Kang, Chang Duk; Lee, Seung Hyun; Park, Young Kyoung; Cho, Kwang Myung

    2015-04-01

    Owing to the growing market for the biodegradable and renewable polymer, polylactic acid, world demand for lactic acid is rapidly increasing. However, the very high concentrations desired for industrial production of the free lactic acid create toxicity and low pH concerns for manufacturers. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the most well characterized eukaryote, a preferred microbial cell factory for the largest industrial biotechnology product (bioethanol), and a robust, commercially compatible workhorse to be exploited for the production of diverse chemicals. S. cerevisiae has also been explored as a host for lactic acid production because of its high acid tolerance. Here, we constructed an L-lactic acid-overproducing S. cerevisiae by redirecting cellular metabolic fluxes to the production of L-lactic acid. To this end, we deleted the S. cerevisiae genes encoding pyruvate decarboxylase 1 (PDC1), L-lactate cytochrome-c oxidoreductase (CYB2), and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD1), replacing them with a heterologous L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) gene. Two new target genes encoding isoenzymes of the external NADH dehydrogenase (NDE1 and NDE2), were also deleted from the genome to re-engineer the intracellular redox balance. The resulting strain was found to produce L-lactic acid more efficiently (32.6% increase in final L-lactic acid titer). When tested in a bioreactor in fed-batch mode, this engineered strain produced 117?g/L of L-lactic acid under low pH conditions. This result demonstrates that the redox balance engineering should be coupled with the metabolic engineering in the construction of L-lactic acid-overproducing S. cerevisiae. PMID:25363674

  3. Genetic immobilization of cellulase on the cell surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, T; Ueda, M; Atomi, H; Shibasaki, Y; Kamasawa, N; Osumi, M; Kawaguchi, T; Arai, M; Tanaka, A

    1997-10-01

    We tried genetically to immobilize cellulase protein on the cell surface of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in its active form. A cDNA encoding FI-carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase) of the fungus Aspergillus aculeatus, with its secretion signal peptide, was fused with the gene encoding the C-terminal half (320 amino acid residues from the C terminus) of yeast alpha-agglutinin a protein involved in mating and covalently anchored to the cell wall. The plasmid constructed containing this fusion gene was introduced into S. cerevisiae and expressed under the control of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase promoter from S. cerevisiae. The CMCase activity was detected in the cell pellet fraction. The CMCase protein was solubilized from the cell wall fraction by glucanase treatment but not by sodium dodecyl sulphate treatment, indicating the covalent binding of the fusion protein to the cell wall. The appearance of the fused protein on the cell surface was further confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy and immunoelectron microscopy. These results proved that the CMCase was anchored on the cell wall in its active form. PMID:9390459

  4. The cauliflower mosaic virus open reading frame VII product can be expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae but is not detected in infected plants.

    OpenAIRE

    Wurch, T; Kirchherr, D; Mesnard, J. M.; Lebeurier, G

    1990-01-01

    Antiserum was prepared against a synthetic peptide corresponding to the N-terminal 20 amino acids of the protein encoded by cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) open reading frame VII (ORF VII). This antiserum was used to detect the expression of CaMV ORF VII either in Saccharomyces cerevisiae transformed by an expression vector containing CaMV ORF VII or in CaMV-infected plants. Only in S. cerevisiae has a 14-kilodalton protein been detected.

  5. Metabolic Engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Conversion of d-Glucose to Xylitol and Other Five-Carbon Sugars and Sugar Alcohols?

    OpenAIRE

    Toivari, Mervi H.; Ruohonen, Laura; Miasnikov, Andrei N.; Richard, Peter; Penttilä, Merja

    2007-01-01

    Recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that produce the sugar alcohols xylitol and ribitol and the pentose sugar d-ribose from d-glucose in a single fermentation step are described. A transketolase-deficient S. cerevisiae strain accumulated d-xylulose 5-phosphate intracellularly and released ribitol and pentose sugars (d-ribose, d-ribulose, and d-xylulose) into the growth medium. Expression of the xylitol dehydrogenase-encoding gene XYL2 of Pichia stipitis in the transketolase-deficient...

  6. Histone H1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Inhibits Transcriptional Silencing

    OpenAIRE

    Veron, Marie; Zou, Yanfei; Yu, Qun; Bi, Xin; Selmi, Abdelkader; Gilson, Eric; Defossez, Pierre-Antoine

    2006-01-01

    Eukaryotic genomes contain euchromatic regions, which are transcriptionally active, and heterochromatic regions, which are repressed. These domains are separated by “barrier elements”: DNA sequences that protect euchromatic regions from encroachment by neighboring heterochromatin. To identify proteins that play a role in the function of barrier elements we have carried out a screen in S. cerevisiae. We recovered the gene HHO1, which encodes the yeast ortholog of histone H1, as a high-copy mod...

  7. Uranium removal from acidic aqueous solutions by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Debaryomyces hansenii, Kluyveromyces marxianus and Candida colliculosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sorption of uranium from acidic aqueous solutions (pH 4.5, Cinit = 10 to 1000 mg U/L) by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Debaryomyces hansenii, Kluyveromyces marxianus and Candida colliculosa was investigated using a batch technique. The U-sorption onto Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Debaryomyces hansenii followed a Langmuir, while that onto Kluyveromyces marxianus and Candida colliculosa a Freundlich isotherm. The results demonstrated that all investigated biomasses could effectively remove uranium from acidic aqueous solutions. From all sorbents, Saccharomyces cerevisiae appeared to be the most effective with a maximum sorption capacity of 127.7 mg U/g dry biomass. (author)

  8. Mam33 promotes cytochrome c oxidase subunit I translation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roloff, Gabrielle A.; Henry, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Three mitochondrial DNA–encoded proteins, Cox1, Cox2, and Cox3, comprise the core of the cytochrome c oxidase complex. Gene-specific translational activators ensure that these respiratory chain subunits are synthesized at the correct location and in stoichiometric ratios to prevent unassembled protein products from generating free oxygen radicals. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the nuclear-encoded proteins Mss51 and Pet309 specifically activate mitochondrial translation of the largest subunit, Cox1. Here we report that Mam33 is a third COX1 translational activator in yeast mitochondria. Mam33 is required for cells to adapt efficiently from fermentation to respiration. In the absence of Mam33, Cox1 translation is impaired, and cells poorly adapt to respiratory conditions because they lack basal fermentative levels of Cox1. PMID:26108620

  9. Anaerobic and aerobic batch cultivations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants impaired in glycerol synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Torben Lauesgaard; Hamann, Claus Wendelboe; Kielland-Brandt, M. C.; Nielsen, Jens; Villadsen, John

    2000-01-01

    Glycerol is formed as a by-product in production of ethanol and baker's yeast during fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under anaerobic and aerobic growth conditions, respectively. One physiological role of glycerol formation by yeast is to reoxidize NADH, formed in synthesis of biomass and...... biomass under anaerobic and aerobic growth conditions, respectively. This was done by deletion of GPD1 and GPD2, encoding two isoenzymes of glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and expression of a cytoplasmic transhydrogenase from Azotobacter vinelandii, encoded by cth. In anaerobic batch fermentations of...... secondary fermentation products, to NAD(+). The objective of this study was to evaluate whether introduction of a new pathway for reoxidation of NADH, in a yeast strain where glycerol synthesis had been impaired, would result in elimination of glycerol production and lead to increased yields of ethanol and...

  10. Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a potential biosorbent for biosorption of uranium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PROF. RAJESH DHANKHAR

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper projects the potential of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in biosorbing U (VI ion on nonliving biomass of specie in batch system with respect to pH, Biosorbent dose, Initial metal concentration, Contact time and Particle size. From the batch studies, it was found that the fungal biomass exhibited the optimum Uranium uptake at pH 5 and 100 ?m particle size, adsorbent dose of 10g/L and initial metal concentration of 100mg/L. Maximum uptake was observed after the Contact time of 75 minutes. Sorption isotherms were interpreted interms of Langmuir and Freundlich models. Equilibrium data fitted well to Langmuir model and Uptake kinetic followed pseudo-second order model. Base treatment was found to enhance the metal removal ability of untreated biomass. The mechanism of process was gained by FTIR and SEM. IR spectra analysis revealed that Carbonyl and amino groups have played important role in U (VI biosorption.

  11. ACTIVITY OF SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE ENZYME IN YEAST SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blažena Lavová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS with reactive nitrogen species (RNS are known to play dual role in biological systems, they can be harmful or beneficial to living systems. ROS can be important mediators of damage to cell structures, including proteins, lipids and nucleic acids termed as oxidative stress. The antioxidant enzymes protect the organism against the oxidative damage caused by active oxygen forms. The role of superoxide dismutase (SOD is to accelerate the dismutation of the toxic superoxide radical, produced during oxidative energy processes, to hydrogen peroxide and molecular oxygen. In this study, SOD activity of three yeast strains Saccharomyces cerevisiae was determined. It was found that SOD activity was the highest (23.7 U.mg-1 protein in strain 612 after 28 hours of cultivation. The lowest SOD activity from all tested strains was found after 56 hours of cultivation of strain Gyöng (0.7 U.mg-1 protein.

  12. The Snf1 Protein Kinase in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usaite, Renata

    2008-01-01

    . Failure in the AMPK regulatory cascade leads to metabolic disorders, such as obesity or type 2 diabetes. The knowledge about the Snf1 protein kinase remains to be of much interest in studying yeast carbon metabolism and human biology. To investigate the effect of Snf1 kinase and its regulatory subunit Snf......In yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Snf1 protein kinase is primarily known as a key component of the glucose repression regulatory cascade. The Snf1 kinase is highly conserved among eukaryotes and its mammalian homolog AMPK is responsible for energy homeostasis in cells, organs and whole bodies...... quantitative proteome datasets (2388 proteins) to date was generated using Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology followed by quantitation using stable isotope labeling approach (chapter 3). The stable isotope labeling was compared to the spectral counting quantitative approach and the study showed...

  13. Uranium adsorption by dry and wet immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ISC) was prepared by the sodium alginate-gelatin embedding method after dry cells had been cross-linked by formaldehyde. Adsorption of uranium(VI) by incompletely and completely dry ISC was studied. The results indicated that incompletely dry ISC had greater adsorption capacity for U(VI), with physical adsorption being the primary mechanism, whereas completely dry ISC exhibited much greater rigidity and much smaller volume. Therefore, initial absorption of U(VI) by incompletely dry ISC followed by heating could be compared with glass solidification for disposal of radioactive waste. The influence of solution pH, temperature, and contact time on U(VI) absorption was also studied, with pH being found to be the main influencing factor. The adsorption mechanism of completely dry ISC was explored by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, indicating that the main adsorption mechanism is chemical adsorption. (author)

  14. Structural properties of Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein complex network

    CERN Document Server

    Ramezanpour, A; Karimipour, V

    2003-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that protein complexes rather than individual proteins are the functional units of the cell. A first step in the understanding of integration and coordination of these cellular functions is a comprehensive study of the structural features of the network of connections between these complexes. We use the recently obtained data based on tandem-affinity purification (TAP) and mass spectrometry, to study the structural features of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein complex network. We find striking similarities and differences between the structural properties of the networks of proteins and protein complexes. The network of complexes is still a small world network with scale free distributions for many of its properties (e.g. connectivity and size of complexes). However in contrast to the protein network, we find no correlations between the degrees of neighbouring complexes. There is also no correlation between the size of neighbouring complexes. Finally we propose a simple evolut...

  15. Phenotypic effects of membrane protein overexpression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melén, Karin; Blomberg, Anders; von Heijne, Gunnar

    2006-07-01

    Large-scale protein overexpression phenotype screens provide an important complement to the more common gene knockout screens. Here, we have targeted the so far poorly understood Saccharomyces cerevisiae membrane proteome and report growth phenotypes for a strain collection overexpressing 600 C-terminally tagged integral membrane proteins grown both under normal and three different stress conditions. Although overexpression of most membrane proteins reduce the growth rate in synthetic defined medium, we identify a large number of proteins that, when overexpressed, confer specific resistance to various stress conditions. Our data suggest that regulation of glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor biosynthesis and the Na+/K+ homeostasis system constitute major downstream targets of the yeast PKA/RAS pathway and point to a possible connection between the early secretory pathway and the cells' response to oxidative stress. We also have quantified the expression levels for >550 membrane proteins, facilitating the choice of well expressing proteins for future functional and structural studies. caffeine | paraquat | salt tolerance | yeast

  16. Brazilian propolis protects Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells against oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael A. de Sá

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Propolis is a natural product widely used for humans. Due to its complex composition, a number of applications (antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, anesthetic, cytostatic and antioxidant have been attributed to this substance. Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a eukaryotic model we investigated the mechanisms underlying the antioxidant effect of propolis from Guarapari against oxidative stress. Submitting a wild type (BY4741 and antioxidant deficient strains (ctt1?, sod1?, gsh1?, gtt1? and gtt2? either to 15 mM menadione or to 2 mM hydrogen peroxide during 60 min, we observed that all strains, except the mutant sod1?, acquired tolerance when previously treated with 25 µg/mL of alcoholic propolis extract. Such a treatment reduced the levels of ROS generation and of lipid peroxidation, after oxidative stress. The increase in Cu/Zn-Sod activity by propolis suggests that the protection might be acting synergistically with Cu/Zn-Sod.

  17. Replication of avocado sunblotch viroid in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delan-Forino, Clémentine; Maurel, Marie-Christine; Torchet, Claire

    2011-04-01

    Viroids are the smallest known pathogenic agents. They are noncoding, single-stranded, closed-circular, "naked" RNAs, which replicate through RNA-RNA transcription. Viroids of the Avsunviroidae family possess a hammerhead ribozyme in their sequence, allowing self-cleavage during their replication. To date, viroids have only been detected in plant cells. Here, we investigate the replication of Avocado sunblotch viroid (ASBVd) of the Avsunviroidae family in a nonconventional host, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We demonstrate that ASBVd RNA strands of both polarities are able to self-cleave and to replicate in a unicellular eukaryote cell. We show that the viroid monomeric RNA is destabilized by the nuclear 3' and the cytoplasmic 5' RNA degradation pathways. For the first time, our results provide evidence that viroids can replicate in other organisms than plants and that yeast contains all of the essential cellular elements for the replication of ASBVd. PMID:21270165

  18. Replication of Avocado Sunblotch Viroid in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delan-Forino, Clémentine; Maurel, Marie-Christine; Torchet, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Viroids are the smallest known pathogenic agents. They are noncoding, single-stranded, closed-circular, “naked” RNAs, which replicate through RNA-RNA transcription. Viroids of the Avsunviroidae family possess a hammerhead ribozyme in their sequence, allowing self-cleavage during their replication. To date, viroids have only been detected in plant cells. Here, we investigate the replication of Avocado sunblotch viroid (ASBVd) of the Avsunviroidae family in a nonconventional host, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We demonstrate that ASBVd RNA strands of both polarities are able to self-cleave and to replicate in a unicellular eukaryote cell. We show that the viroid monomeric RNA is destabilized by the nuclear 3? and the cytoplasmic 5? RNA degradation pathways. For the first time, our results provide evidence that viroids can replicate in other organisms than plants and that yeast contains all of the essential cellular elements for the replication of ASBVd. PMID:21270165

  19. Brazilian propolis protects Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells against oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sá, Rafael A; de Castro, Frederico A V; Eleutherio, Elis C A; de Souza, Raquel M; da Silva, Joaquim F M; Pereira, Marcos D

    2013-01-01

    Propolis is a natural product widely used for humans. Due to its complex composition, a number of applications (antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, anesthetic, cytostatic and antioxidant) have been attributed to this substance. Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a eukaryotic model we investigated the mechanisms underlying the antioxidant effect of propolis from Guarapari against oxidative stress. Submitting a wild type (BY4741) and antioxidant deficient strains (ctt1?, sod1?, gsh1?, gtt1? and gtt2?) either to 15 mM menadione or to 2 mM hydrogen peroxide during 60 min, we observed that all strains, except the mutant sod1?, acquired tolerance when previously treated with 25 ?g/mL of alcoholic propolis extract. Such a treatment reduced the levels of ROS generation and of lipid peroxidation, after oxidative stress. The increase in Cu/Zn-Sod activity by propolis suggests that the protection might be acting synergistically with Cu/Zn-Sod. PMID:24516431

  20. Brazilian propolis protects Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells against oxidative stress

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rafael A. de, Sá; Frederico A.V. de, Castro; Elis C.A., Eleutherio; Raquel M. de, Souza; Joaquim F.M. da, Silva; Marcos D., Pereira.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Propolis is a natural product widely used for humans. Due to its complex composition, a number of applications (antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, anesthetic, cytostatic and antioxidant) have been attributed to this substance. Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a eukaryotic model we investigated the me [...] chanisms underlying the antioxidant effect of propolis from Guarapari against oxidative stress. Submitting a wild type (BY4741) and antioxidant deficient strains (ctt1?, sod1?, gsh1?, gtt1? and gtt2?) either to 15 mM menadione or to 2 mM hydrogen peroxide during 60 min, we observed that all strains, except the mutant sod1?, acquired tolerance when previously treated with 25 µg/mL of alcoholic propolis extract. Such a treatment reduced the levels of ROS generation and of lipid peroxidation, after oxidative stress. The increase in Cu/Zn-Sod activity by propolis suggests that the protection might be acting synergistically with Cu/Zn-Sod.

  1. “A comparison between sugar consumption and ethanol production in wort by immobilized Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Saccharomyces Ludwigii and Saccharomyces Rouxii on Brewer’S Spent Grain”

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi, Aniseh; Razavi, Seyyed Hadi; Mousavi, Seyyed Mohammad; Rezaei, Karamatollah

    2011-01-01

    The immobilization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae DSM 70424, Saccharomyces ludwigii DSM 3447 and Saccharomyces rouxii DSM 2531 on brewer’s spent grain and then ethanol production and sugar consumption of these immobilized yeasts were investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the abilities of these three immobilized yeasts for producing alcohol for brewing at two temperatures (7 and 12 °C) using two different sugar levels (one at original level supplied in the brewery and one with 2....

  2. "A comparison between sugar consumption and ethanol production in wort by immobilized Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Saccharomyces Ludwigii and Saccharomyces Rouxii on Brewer's Spent Grain"

    OpenAIRE

    Aniseh Mohammadi; Seyyed Hadi Razavi; Seyyed Mohammad Mousavi; Karamatollah Rezaei

    2011-01-01

    The immobilization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae DSM 70424, Saccharomyces ludwigii DSM 3447 and Saccharomyces rouxii DSM 2531 on brewer's spent grain and then ethanol production and sugar consumption of these immobilized yeasts were investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the abilities of these three immobilized yeasts for producing alcohol for brewing at two temperatures (7 and 12 °C) using two different sugar levels (one at original level supplied in the brewery and one with 2....

  3. Copper Tolerance and Biosorption of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during Alcoholic Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ling-ling; Jia, Bo; Zhao, Fang; Huang, Wei-dong; Zhan, Ji-cheng

    2015-01-01

    At high levels, copper in grape mash can inhibit yeast activity and cause stuck fermentations. Wine yeast has limited tolerance of copper and can reduce copper levels in wine during fermentation. This study aimed to understand copper tolerance of wine yeast and establish the mechanism by which yeast decreases copper in the must during fermentation. Three strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (lab selected strain BH8 and industrial strains AWRI R2 and Freddo) and a simple model fermentation system containing 0 to 1.50 mM Cu2+ were used. ICP-AES determined Cu ion concentration in the must decreasing differently by strains and initial copper levels during fermentation. Fermentation performance was heavily inhibited under copper stress, paralleled a decrease in viable cell numbers. Strain BH8 showed higher copper-tolerance than strain AWRI R2 and higher adsorption than Freddo. Yeast cell surface depression and intracellular structure deformation after copper treatment were observed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy; electronic differential system detected higher surface Cu and no intracellular Cu on 1.50 mM copper treated yeast cells. It is most probably that surface adsorption dominated the biosorption process of Cu2+ for strain BH8, with saturation being accomplished in 24 h. This study demonstrated that Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain BH8 has good tolerance and adsorption of Cu, and reduces Cu2+ concentrations during fermentation in simple model system mainly through surface adsorption. The results indicate that the strain selected from China’s stress-tolerant wine grape is copper tolerant and can reduce copper in must when fermenting in a copper rich simple model system, and provided information for studies on mechanisms of heavy metal stress. PMID:26030864

  4. Global mapping of DNA conformational flexibility on Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menconi, Giulia; Bedini, Andrea; Barale, Roberto; Sbrana, Isabella

    2015-04-01

    In this study we provide the first comprehensive map of DNA conformational flexibility in Saccharomyces cerevisiae complete genome. Flexibility plays a key role in DNA supercoiling and DNA/protein binding, regulating DNA transcription, replication or repair. Specific interest in flexibility analysis concerns its relationship with human genome instability. Enrichment in flexible sequences has been detected in unstable regions of human genome defined fragile sites, where genes map and carry frequent deletions and rearrangements in cancer. Flexible sequences have been suggested to be the determinants of fragile gene proneness to breakage; however, their actual role and properties remain elusive. Our in silico analysis carried out genome-wide via the StabFlex algorithm, shows the conserved presence of highly flexible regions in budding yeast genome as well as in genomes of other Saccharomyces sensu stricto species. Flexibile peaks in S. cerevisiae identify 175 ORFs mapping on their 3'UTR, a region affecting mRNA translation, localization and stability. (TA)n repeats of different extension shape the central structure of peaks and co-localize with polyadenylation efficiency element (EE) signals. ORFs with flexible peaks share common features. Transcripts are characterized by decreased half-life: this is considered peculiar of genes involved in regulatory systems with high turnover; consistently, their function affects biological processes such as cell cycle regulation or stress response. Our findings support the functional importance of flexibility peaks, suggesting that the flexible sequence may be derived by an expansion of canonical TAYRTA polyadenylation efficiency element. The flexible (TA)n repeat amplification could be the outcome of an evolutionary neofunctionalization leading to a differential 3'-end processing and expression regulation in genes with peculiar function. Our study provides a new support to the functional role of flexibility in genomes and a strategy for its characterization inside human fragile sites. PMID:25860149

  5. Optimization of feeding strategy for the ergosterol production by yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Mojmir Rychtera; Josef Cermak; Jaroslav Votruba; Jan Nahlik; Karel Melzoch; Christopher A. Kent; Waldir D. Estela Escalante

    2010-01-01

    Objective of this study was to optimize ergosterol production by yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae with the use of computer controlled feeding of cultivation medium. Baker´s yeasts strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae originally modified and selected as mutant D7 was further applied in an industrial scale and also in this investigation. Composition of cultivation medium was optimized with the use of a modified Rosenbrock´s method with regard to following components: glucose, yeast extract, ...

  6. Influence of organic acids and organochlorinated insecticides on metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Pejin Dušanka J.; Vasi? Vesna M.

    2005-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is exposed to different stress factors during the production: osmotic, temperature, oxidative. The response to these stresses is the adaptive mechanism of cells. The raw materials Saccharomyces cerevisiae is produced from, contain metabolism products of present microorganisms and protective agents used during the growth of sugar beet for example the influence of acetic and butyric acid and organochlorinated insecticides, lindan and heptachlor, on the metabolism of Sac...

  7. Fermentation Temperature Modulates Phosphatidylethanolamine and Phosphatidylinositol Levels in the Cell Membrane of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, Clark M.; Zeno, Wade F.; Lerno, Larry A.; Longo, Marjorie L.; Block, David E.

    2013-01-01

    During alcoholic fermentation, Saccharomyces cerevisiae is exposed to a host of environmental and physiological stresses. Extremes of fermentation temperature have previously been demonstrated to induce fermentation arrest under growth conditions that would otherwise result in complete sugar utilization at “normal” temperatures and nutrient levels. Fermentations were carried out at 15°C, 25°C, and 35°C in a defined high-sugar medium using three Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with diverse fe...

  8. Effect of Reserve Carbohydrates on Oxidative Stress in Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y6210

    OpenAIRE

    Smita Kanwal; R.K. Saharan; Mahmood, A.; Sharma, S.C.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is investigate the role of reserve carbohydrates, trehalose and glycogen in DEM (Diethyl Maleate) induced oxidative stress in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y6210. Trehalose and glycogen accumulated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, when growth conditions deteriorate. Yeast cells were subjected to oxidative stress for different time periods (0, 30, 60 and 120 min) to evaluate the role of trehalose, glycogen and trehalase. There was no change in the level of trehalose while th...

  9. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for itaconic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazeck, John; Miller, Jarrett; Pan, Anny; Gengler, Jon; Holden, Clinton; Jamoussi, Mariam; Alper, Hal S

    2014-10-01

    Renewable alternatives for petroleum-derived chemicals are achievable through biosynthetic production. Here, we utilize Saccharomyces cerevisiae to enable the synthesis of itaconic acid, a molecule with diverse applications as a petrochemical replacement. We first optimize pathway expression within S. cerevisiae through the use of a hybrid promoter. Next, we utilize sequential, in silico computational genome-scanning to identify beneficial genetic perturbations that are metabolically distant from the itaconic acid synthesis pathway. In this manner, we successfully identify three non-obvious genetic targets (?ade3 ?bna2 ?tes1) that successively improve itaconic acid titer. We establish that focused manipulations of upstream pathway enzymes (localized refactoring) and enzyme re-localization to both mitochondria and cytosol fail to improve itaconic acid titers. Finally, we establish a higher cell density fermentation that ultimately achieves itaconic acid titer of 168 mg/L, a sevenfold improvement over initial conditions. This work represents an attempt to increase itaconic acid production in yeast and demonstrates the successful utilization of computationally guided genetic manipulation to increase metabolic capacity. PMID:24997118

  10. Long-chain alkane production by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buijs, Nicolaas A; Zhou, Yongjin J; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-06-01

    In the past decade industrial-scale production of renewable transportation biofuels has been developed as an alternative to fossil fuels, with ethanol as the most prominent biofuel and yeast as the production organism of choice. However, ethanol is a less efficient substitute fuel for heavy-duty and maritime transportation as well as aviation due to its low energy density. Therefore, new types of biofuels, such as alkanes, are being developed that can be used as drop-in fuels and can substitute gasoline, diesel, and kerosene. Here, we describe for the first time the heterologous biosynthesis of long-chain alkanes by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We show that elimination of the hexadecenal dehydrogenase Hfd1 and expression of a redox system are essential for alkane biosynthesis in yeast. Deletion of HFD1 together with expression of an alkane biosynthesis pathway resulted in the production of the alkanes tridecane, pentadecane, and heptadecane. Our study provides a proof of principle for producing long-chain alkanes in the industrial workhorse S. cerevisiae, which was so far limited to bacteria. We anticipate that these findings will be a key factor for further yeast engineering to enable industrial production of alkane based drop-in biofuels, which can allow the biofuel industry to diversify beyond bioethanol. PMID:25545362

  11. The nucleotide sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacq, C; Alt-Mörbe, J; Andre, B; Arnold, W; Bahr, A; Ballesta, J P; Bargues, M; Baron, L; Becker, A; Biteau, N; Blöcker, H; Blugeon, C; Boskovic, J; Brandt, P; Brückner, M; Buitrago, M J; Coster, F; Delaveau, T; del Rey, F; Dujon, B; Eide, L G; Garcia-Cantalejo, J M; Goffeau, A; Gomez-Peris, A; Zaccaria, P

    1997-05-29

    The complete DNA sequence of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome IV has been determined. Apart from chromosome XII, which contains the 1-2 Mb rDNA cluster, chromosome IV is the longest S. cerevisiae chromosome. It was split into three parts, which were sequenced by a consortium from the European Community, the Sanger Centre, and groups from St Louis and Stanford in the United States. The sequence of 1,531,974 base pairs contains 796 predicted or known genes, 318 (39.9%) of which have been previously identified. Of the 478 new genes, 225 (28.3%) are homologous to previously identified genes and 253 (32%) have unknown functions or correspond to spurious open reading frames (ORFs). On average there is one gene approximately every two kilobases. Superimposed on alternating regional variations in G+C composition, there is a large central domain with a lower G+C content that contains all the yeast transposon (Ty) elements and most of the tRNA genes. Chromosome IV shares with chromosomes II, V, XII, XIII and XV some long clustered duplications which partly explain its origin. PMID:9169867

  12. High level secretion of cellobiohydrolases by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahlgren Simon

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main technological impediment to widespread utilization of lignocellulose for the production of fuels and chemicals is the lack of low-cost technologies to overcome its recalcitrance. Organisms that hydrolyze lignocellulose and produce a valuable product such as ethanol at a high rate and titer could significantly reduce the costs of biomass conversion technologies, and will allow separate conversion steps to be combined in a consolidated bioprocess (CBP. Development of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for CBP requires the high level secretion of cellulases, particularly cellobiohydrolases. Results We expressed various cellobiohydrolases to identify enzymes that were efficiently secreted by S. cerevisiae. For enhanced cellulose hydrolysis, we engineered bimodular derivatives of a well secreted enzyme that naturally lacks the carbohydrate-binding module, and constructed strains expressing combinations of cbh1 and cbh2 genes. Though there was significant variability in the enzyme levels produced, up to approximately 0.3 g/L CBH1 and approximately 1 g/L CBH2 could be produced in high cell density fermentations. Furthermore, we could show activation of the unfolded protein response as a result of cellobiohydrolase production. Finally, we report fermentation of microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel™ to ethanol by CBH-producing S. cerevisiae strains with the addition of beta-glucosidase. Conclusions Gene or protein specific features and compatibility with the host are important for efficient cellobiohydrolase secretion in yeast. The present work demonstrated that production of both CBH1 and CBH2 could be improved to levels where the barrier to CBH sufficiency in the hydrolysis of cellulose was overcome.

  13. Heat shock response improves heterologous protein secretion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Jin; Österlund, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a widely used platform for the production of heterologous proteins of medical or industrial interest. However, heterologous protein productivity is often low due to limitations of the host strain. Heat shock response (HSR) is an inducible, global, cellular stress response, which facilitates the cell recovery from many forms of stress, e.g., heat stress. In S. cerevisiae, HSR is regulated mainly by the transcription factor heat shock factor (Hsf1p) and many of its targets are genes coding for molecular chaperones that promote protein folding and prevent the accumulation of mis-folded or aggregated proteins. In this work, we over-expressed a mutant HSF1 gene HSF1-R206S which can constitutively activate HSR, so the heat shock response was induced at different levels, and we studied the impact of HSR on heterologous protein secretion. We found that moderate and high level over-expression of HSF1-R206S increased heterologous ?-amylase yield 25 and 70 % when glucose was fully consumed, and 37 and 62 % at the end of the ethanol phase, respectively. Moderate and high level over-expression also improved endogenous invertase yield 118 and 94 %, respectively. However, human insulin precursor was only improved slightly and this only by high level over-expression of HSF1-R206S, supporting our previous findings that the production of this protein in S. cerevisiae is not limited by secretion. Our results provide an effective strategy to improve protein secretion and demonstrated an approach that can induce ER and cytosolic chaperones simultaneously.

  14. Exploring the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Volatile Metabolome: Indigenous versus Commercial Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Zélia; Melo, André; Figueiredo, Ana Raquel; Coimbra, Manuel A.; Gomes, Ana C.; Rocha, Sílvia M.

    2015-01-01

    Winemaking is a highly industrialized process and a number of commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains are used around the world, neglecting the diversity of native yeast strains that are responsible for the production of wines peculiar flavours. The aim of this study was to in-depth establish the S. cerevisiae volatile metabolome and to assess inter-strains variability. To fulfill this objective, two indigenous strains (BT2652 and BT2453 isolated from spontaneous fermentation of grapes collected in Bairrada Appellation, Portugal) and two commercial strains (CSc1 and CSc2) S. cerevisiae were analysed using a methodology based on advanced multidimensional gas chromatography (HS-SPME/GC×GC-ToFMS) tandem with multivariate analysis. A total of 257 volatile metabolites were identified, distributed over the chemical families of acetals, acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, terpenic compounds, esters, ethers, furan-type compounds, hydrocarbons, pyrans, pyrazines and S-compounds. Some of these families are related with metabolic pathways of amino acid, carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism as well as mono and sesquiterpenic biosynthesis. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used with a dataset comprising all variables (257 volatile components), and a distinction was observed between commercial and indigenous strains, which suggests inter-strains variability. In a second step, a subset containing esters and terpenic compounds (C10 and C15), metabolites of particular relevance to wine aroma, was also analysed using PCA. The terpenic and ester profiles express the strains variability and their potential contribution to the wine aromas, specially the BT2453, which produced the higher terpenic content. This research contributes to understand the metabolic diversity of indigenous wine microflora versus commercial strains and achieved knowledge that may be further exploited to produce wines with peculiar aroma properties. PMID:26600152

  15. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the production of n-butanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myers Samuel

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing energy costs and environmental concerns have motivated engineering microbes for the production of "second generation" biofuels that have better properties than ethanol. Results and conclusion Saccharomyces cerevisiae was engineered with an n-butanol biosynthetic pathway, in which isozymes from a number of different organisms (S. cerevisiae, Escherichia coli, Clostridium beijerinckii, and Ralstonia eutropha were substituted for the Clostridial enzymes and their effect on n-butanol production was compared. By choosing the appropriate isozymes, we were able to improve production of n-butanol ten-fold to 2.5 mg/L. The most productive strains harbored the C. beijerinckii 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase, which uses NADH as a co-factor, rather than the R. eutropha isozyme, which uses NADPH, and the acetoacetyl-CoA transferase from S. cerevisiae or E. coli rather than that from R. eutropha. Surprisingly, expression of the genes encoding the butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase from C. beijerinckii (bcd and etfAB did not improve butanol production significantly as previously reported in E. coli. Using metabolite analysis, we were able to determine which steps in the n-butanol biosynthetic pathway were the most problematic and ripe for future improvement.

  16. Characterization of vacuolar amino acid transporter from Fusarium oxysporum in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunprom, Siriporn; Pongcharoen, Pongsanat; Sekito, Takayuki; Kawano-Kawada, Miyuki; Kakinuma, Yoshimi; Akiyama, Koichi

    2015-12-01

    Fusarium oxysporum causes wilt disease in many plant families, and many genes are involved in its development or growth in host plants. A recent study revealed that vacuolar amino acid transporters play an important role in spore formation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To investigate the role of vacuolar amino acid transporters of this phytopathogenic fungus, the FOXG_11334 (FoAVT3) gene from F. oxysporum was isolated and its function was characterized. Transcription of FoAVT3 was upregulated after rapamycin treatment. A green fluorescent protein fusion of FoAvt3p was localized to vacuolar membranes in both S. cerevisiae and F. oxysporum. Analysis of the amino acid content of the vacuolar fraction and amino acid transport activities using vacuolar membrane vesicles from S. cerevisiae cells heterologously expressing FoAVT3 revealed that FoAvt3p functions as a vacuolar amino acid transporter, exporting neutral amino acids. We conclude that the FoAVT3 gene encodes a vacuolar neutral amino acid transporter. PMID:26083447

  17. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the production of n-butanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steen, EricJ.; Chan, Rossana; Prasad, Nilu; Myers, Samuel; Petzold, Christopher; Redding, Alyssa; Ouellet, Mario; Keasling, JayD.

    2008-11-25

    BackgroundIncreasing energy costs and environmental concerns have motivated engineering microbes for the production of ?second generation? biofuels that have better properties than ethanol.Results& ConclusionsSaccharomyces cerevisiae was engineered with an n-butanol biosynthetic pathway, in which isozymes from a number of different organisms (S. cerevisiae, Escherichia coli, Clostridium beijerinckii, and Ralstonia eutropha) were substituted for the Clostridial enzymes and their effect on n-butanol production was compared. By choosing the appropriate isozymes, we were able to improve production of n-butanol ten-fold to 2.5 mg/L. The most productive strains harbored the C. beijerinckii 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase, which uses NADH as a co-factor, rather than the R. eutropha isozyme, which uses NADPH, and the acetoacetyl-CoA transferase from S. cerevisiae or E. coli rather than that from R. eutropha. Surprisingly, expression of the genes encoding the butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase from C. beijerinckii (bcd and etfAB) did not improve butanol production significantly as previously reported in E. coli. Using metabolite analysis, we were able to determine which steps in the n-butanol biosynthetic pathway were the most problematic and ripe for future improvement.

  18. Estudo do equilíbrio e cinética da biossorção do pb2+ por saccharomyces cerevisiae / Equilibrium and kinetic study of pb2+ biosorption by saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Joelma Morais, Ferreira; Flávio Luiz Honorato da, Silva; Odelsia Leonor Sanchez, Alsina; Líbia de Sousa Conrado, Oliveira; Eliane Bezerra, Cavalcanti; Wolia Costa, Gomes.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english The biosorption, based on the use of biomass for removal of ions is distinguished as an innovative and promising technology when compared with the traditional methods. In this context, the aim of the present work is to use Saccharomyces cerevisiae as biosorbent for the retention of Pb2+ metal ions. [...] Factorial design was used for evaluation of the process. The observed equilibrium data were well described by Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. The maximum adsorption capacity was 1486.88 mg/g. The results indicated that Saccharomyces cerevisiae is suitable for biosorption of Pb2+ metal ions.

  19. Estudo do equilíbrio e cinética da biossorção do pb2+ por saccharomyces cerevisiae Equilibrium and kinetic study of pb2+ biosorption by saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelma Morais Ferreira

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The biosorption, based on the use of biomass for removal of ions is distinguished as an innovative and promising technology when compared with the traditional methods. In this context, the aim of the present work is to use Saccharomyces cerevisiae as biosorbent for the retention of Pb2+ metal ions. Factorial design was used for evaluation of the process. The observed equilibrium data were well described by Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. The maximum adsorption capacity was 1486.88 mg/g. The results indicated that Saccharomyces cerevisiae is suitable for biosorption of Pb2+ metal ions.

  20. Reconstruction of the biosynthetic pathway for the core fungal polyketide scaffold rubrofusarin in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rugbjerg, Peter; Naesby, Michael

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Fungal polyketides include commercially important pharmaceuticals and food additives, e.g. the cholesterol-lowering statins and the red and orange monascus pigments. Presently, production relies on isolation of the compounds from the natural producers, and systems for heterologous production in easily fermentable and genetically engineerable organisms, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli are desirable. Rubrofusarin is an orange polyketide pigment that is a common intermediate in many different fungal biosynthetic pathways. RESULTS: In this study, we established a biosynthetic pathway for rubrofusarin in S. cerevisiae. First, the Fusarium graminearum gene encoding polyketide synthase 12 (PKS12) was heterologously co-expressed with the Aspergillus fumigatus gene encoding phosphopantetheinyl transferase (npgA) resulting in production of YWA1. This aromatic heptaketide intermediate was converted into nor-rubrofusarin upon expression of the dehydratase gene aurZ from the aurofusarin gene cluster of F. graminearum. Final conversion into rubrofusarin was achieved by expression of the O-methyltransferase encoding gene aurJ, also obtained from the aurofusarin gene cluster, resulting in a titer of 1.1 mg/L. Reduced levels of rubrofusarin were detected when expressing PKS12, npgA, and aurJ alone, presumably due to spontaneous conversion of YWA1 to nor-rubrofusarin. However, the co-expression of aurZ resulted in an approx. six-fold increase in rubrofusarin production. CONCLUSIONS: The reconstructed pathway for rubrofusarin in S. cerevisiae allows the production of a core scaffold molecule with a branch-point role in several fungal polyketide pathways, thus paving the way for production of further natural pigments and bioactive molecules. Furthermore, the reconstruction verifies the suggested pathway, and as such, it is the first example of utilizing a synthetic biological “bottom up” approach for the validation of a complex fungal polyketide pathway.

  1. Industrial Systems Biology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Enables Novel Succinic Acid Cell Factory

    OpenAIRE

    Otero, José Manuel; Cimini, Donatella; Patil, Kiran Raosaheb; Poulsen, Simon Guldberg; Olsson, Lisbeth; Nielsen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the most well characterized eukaryote, the preferred microbial cell factory for the largest industrial biotechnology product (bioethanol), and a robust commerically compatible scaffold to be exploitted for diverse chemical production. Succinic acid is a highly sought after added-value chemical for which there is no native pre-disposition for production and accmulation in S. cerevisiae. The genome-scale metabolic network reconstruction of S. cerevisiae enabled in si...

  2. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae microbial cell factories for succinic acid production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otero, José Manuel; Olsson, Lisbeth; Nielsen, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a proven, robust, industrial production platform used for expression of a wide range of therapeutic agents, high added-value chemicals, and commodities. Central carbon metabolism in S. cerevisiae has been extensively investigated using a wide variety of substrates for determination of how glycolytic flux is distributed across C1 (CO2,g), C2 (ethanol, acetate), and C3 (glycerol, pyruvate) products. For the S. cerevisiae CEN.PK113-7D strain cultivated under carbon-limit...

  3. Enhancing sesquiterpene production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae through in silico driven metabolic engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asadollahi, Mohammadali; Maury, Jerome

    2009-01-01

    A genome-scale metabolic model was used to identify new target genes for enhanced biosynthesis of sesquiterpenes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The effect of gene deletions on the flux distributions in the metabolic model of S. cerevisiae was assessed using OptGene as the modeling framework and minimization of metabolic adjustments (MOMA) as objective function. Deletion of NADPH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase encoded by GDH1 was identified as the best target gene for the improvement of sesquiterpene biosynthesis in yeast. Deletion of this gene enhances the available NADPH in the cytosol for other NADPH requiring enzymes, including HMG-CoA reductase. However, since disruption of GDH1 impairs the ammonia utilization, simultaneous over-expression of the NADH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase encoded by GDH2 was also considered in this study. Deletion of GDH1 led to an approximately 85% increase in the final cubebol titer. However, deletion of this gene also caused a significant decrease in the maximum specific growth rate. Over-expression of GDH2 did not show a further effect on the final cubebol titer but this alteration significantly improved the growth rate compared to the GDH1 deleted strain.

  4. Systematic identification of protein complexes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ho, Yuen; Gruhler, Albrecht; Heilbut, Adrian; Bader, Gary D; Moore, Lynda; Adams, Sally-Lin; Millar, Anna; Taylor, Paul; Bennett, Keiryn; Boutilier, Kelly; Yang, Lingyun; Wolting, Cheryl; Donaldson, Ian; Schandorff, Søren; Shewnarane, Juanita; Vo, Mai; Taggart, Joanne; Goudreault, Marilyn; Muskat, Brenda; Alfarano, Cris; Dewar, Danielle; Lin, Zhen; Michalickova, Katerina; Willems, Andrew R; Sassi, Holly; Nielsen, Peter A; Rasmussen, Karina J; Andersen, Jens R; Johansen, Lene E; Hansen, Lykke H; Jespersen, Hans; Podtelejnikov, Alexandre; Nielsen, Eva; Crawford, Janne; Poulsen, Vibeke; Sørensen, Birgitte D; Matthiesen, Jesper; Hendrickson, Ronald C; Gleeson, Frank; Pawson, Tony; Moran, Michael F; Durocher, Daniel; Mann, Matthias; Hogue, Christopher W V; Figeys, Daniel; Tyers, Mike

    2002-01-01

    The recent abundance of genome sequence data has brought an urgent need for systematic proteomics to decipher the encoded protein networks that dictate cellular function. To date, generation of large-scale protein-protein interaction maps has relied on the yeast two-hybrid system, which detects...... binary interactions through activation of reporter gene expression. With the advent of ultrasensitive mass spectrometric protein identification methods, it is feasible to identify directly protein complexes on a proteome-wide scale. Here we report, using the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a...... identified, including many new interactions in various signalling pathways and in the DNA damage response. Comparison of the HMS-PCI data set with interactions reported in the literature revealed an average threefold higher success rate in detection of known complexes compared with large-scale two-hybrid...

  5. Identification and analysis of the N(6)-methyladenosine in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Tran, Hong; Liang, Zhiyong; Lin, Hao; Zhang, Liqing

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the distribution of N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) is invaluable for understanding RNA biological functions. However, limitation in experimental methods impedes the progress towards the identification of m(6)A site. As a complement of experimental methods, a support vector machine based-method is proposed to identify m(6)A sites in Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome. In this model, RNA sequences are encoded by their nucleotide chemical property and accumulated nucleotide frequency information. It is observed in the jackknife test that the accuracy achieved by the proposed model in identifying the m(6)A site was 78.15%. For the convenience of experimental scientists, a web-server for the proposed model is provided at http://lin.uestc.edu.cn/server/m6Apred.php. PMID:26343792

  6. ACÚMULO DE CÁDMIO POR Saccharomyces cerevisiae FERMENTANDO MOSTO DE MELAÇO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G. do PRADO-FILHO

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho visou o estudo do acúmulo de cádmio (Cd por Saccharomyces cerevisiae, fermentando mosto de melaço com contaminações controladas em níveis sub-tóxicos do citado metal. As condições de fermentação foram similares às reinantes na produção industrial de etanol. O mosto, não esterilizado, continha 12% de açúcares redutores totais (ART e pH 4,5. Para a contaminação controlada empregou-se dois sais de cádmio, cloreto e acetato e, quatro níveis de contaminação 0,5; 1,0; 2,0 e 5,0 mg Cd.kg-1 mosto. A inoculação do mosto foi executada com fermento de panificação (10% p/p. Após a fermentação (4 horas foram determinados, porcentagem de fermento no vinho centrifugado e teor alcoólico. Na levedura separada foram determinados peso úmido, matéria seca, proteína bruta e teores de cádmio por espectrofotometria de absorção atômica. Em todos os níveis de contaminação estudados houve acúmulo de Cd pela levedura e diminuição do rendimento em etanol.The aim of this paper was to study the cadmium (Cd accumulation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermenting wort of molasses, under sub-toxic levels of controlled cadmium contamination. Fermentation conditions were similar to industrial alcohol production. Non-sterelized wort had 12% of total reducing sugars (w/w and pH 4.5. For the controlled contamination, two cadmium salts were used (chloride and acetate, at four levels of contamination: 0.5; 1.0; 2.0 and 5.0 mg Cd.kg-1 wort. The inoculation of the wort was carried out with commercial bread yeast (10% w/w. After fermentation (4 hours, samples were evaluated for cellular viability, alcohol content and yeast percentage in the centrifuged wine. The centrifuged yeast cells were evaluated for total fresh and dry weight, total protein, and cadmium concentration by atomic absortion spectroscopy. In all Cd levels, there was cadmium accumulation by yeast and a decrease in ethanol yield.

  7. Septins localize to microtubules during nutritional limitation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vázquez de Aldana Carlos R

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, nutrient limitation stimulates diploid cells to undergo DNA replication and meiosis, followed by the formation of four haploid spores. Septins are a family of proteins that assemble a ring structure at the mother-daughter neck during vegetative growth, where they control cytokinesis. In sporulating cells, the septin ring disassembles and septins relocalize to the prospore membrane. Results Here, we demonstrate that nutrient limitation triggers a change in the localization of at least two vegetative septins (Cdc10 and Cdc11 from the bud neck to the microtubules. The association of Cdc10 and Cdc11 with microtubules persists into meiosis, and they are found associated with the meiotic spindle until the end of meiosis II. In addition, the meiosis-specific septin Spr28 displays similar behavior, suggesting that this is a common feature of septins. Septin association to microtubules is a consequence of the nutrient limitation signal, since it is also observed when haploid cells are incubated in sporulation medium and when haploid or diploid cells are grown in medium containing non-fermentable carbon sources. Moreover, during meiosis II, when the nascent prospore membrane is formed, septins moved from the microtubules to this membrane. Proper organization of the septins on the membrane requires the sporulation-specific septins Spr3 and Spr28. Conclusion Nutrient limitation in S. cerevisiae triggers the sporulation process, but it also induces the disassembly of the septin bud neck ring and relocalization of the septin subunits to the nucleus. Septins remain associated with microtubules during the meiotic divisions and later, during spore morphogenesis, they are detected associated to the nascent prospore membranes surrounding each nuclear lobe. Septin association to microtubules also occurs during growth in non-fermentable carbon sources.

  8. Characterization and gene expression profiles of thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates from Thai fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auesukaree, Choowong; Koedrith, Preeyaporn; Saenpayavai, Pornpon; Asvarak, Thipa; Benjaphokee, Suthee; Sugiyama, Minetaka; Kaneko, Yoshinobu; Harashima, Satoshi; Boonchird, Chuenchit

    2012-08-01

    For industrial applications, fermentation of ethanol at high temperature offers advantages such as reduction in cooling costs, reduced risk of microbial contamination and higher efficiency of fermentation processes including saccharification and continuous ethanol stripping. Three thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates (C3723, C3751 and C3867) from Thai fruits were capable of growing and producing 38 g/L ethanol up to 41°C. Based on genetic analyses, these isolates were prototrophic and homothallic, with dominant homothallic and thermotolerant phenotypes. After short-term (30 min) and long-term (12 h) exposure at 37°C, expression levels increased for the heat stress-response genes HSP26, SSA4, HSP82, and HSP104 encoding the heat shock proteins small HSP, HSP70, HSP90 and the HSP100 family, respectively. In isolates C3723 and C3867, expression was significantly higher than that in reference isolates W303 and TISTR5606 for TPS1 encoding trehalose-6-phosphate synthase, NTH1 encoding neutral trehalase and GSY1 encoding glycogen synthase. The results suggested that continuous high expression of heat stress-response genes was important for the long-term, heat stress tolerance of these thermotolerant isolates. PMID:22579450

  9. Structural and Functional Analysis of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Mob1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mrkobrada,S.; Boucher, L.; Tyers, D.; Sicheri, F.

    2006-01-01

    The Mob proteins function as activator subunits for the Dbf2/Dbf20 family of protein kinases. Human and Xenopus Mob1 protein structures corresponding to the most conserved C-terminal core, but lacking the variable N-terminal region, have been reported and provide a framework for understanding the mechanism of Dbf2/Dbf20 regulation. Here, we report the 2.0 {angstrom} X-ray crystal structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mob1 containing both the conserved C-terminal core and the variable N-terminal region. Within the N-terminal region, three novel structural elements are observed; namely, an {alpha}-helix denoted H0, a strand-like element denoted S0 and a short {beta} strand denoted S-1. Helix H0 associates in an intermolecular manner with a second Mob1 molecule to form a Mob1 homodimer. Strand S0 binds to the core domain in an intramolecular manner across a putative Dbf2 binding site mapped by Mob1 temperature-sensitive alleles and NMR binding experiments. In vivo functional analysis demonstrates that Mob1 mutants that target helix H0 or its reciprocal binding site are biologically compromised. The N-terminal region of Mob1 thus contains structural elements that are functionally important.

  10. Towards a genome-wide transcriptogram: the Saccharomyces cerevisiae case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybarczyk-Filho, José Luiz; Castro, Mauro A A; Dalmolin, Rodrigo J S; Moreira, José C F; Brunnet, Leonardo G; de Almeida, Rita M C

    2011-04-01

    Analysis of genome-wide expression data poses a challenge to extract relevant information. The usual approaches compare cellular expression levels relative to a pre-established control and genes are clustered based on the correlation of their expression levels. This implies that cluster definitions are dependent on the cellular metabolic state, eventually varying from one experiment to another. We present here a computational method that order genes on a line and clusters genes by the probability that their products interact. Protein-protein association information can be obtained from large data bases as STRING. The genome organization obtained this way is independent from specific experiments, and defines functional modules that are associated with gene ontology terms. The starting point is a gene list and a matrix specifying interactions. Considering the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome, we projected on the ordering gene expression data, producing plots of transcription levels for two different experiments, whose data are available at Gene Expression Omnibus database. These plots discriminate metabolic cellular states, point to additional conclusions, and may be regarded as the first versions of 'transcriptograms'. This method is useful for extracting information from cell stimuli/responses experiments, and may be applied with diagnostic purposes to different organisms. PMID:21169199

  11. Metabolomic analysis of acid stress response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugroho, Riyanto Heru; Yoshikawa, Katsunori; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2015-10-01

    Acid stress has been reported to inhibit cell growth and decrease productivity during bio-production processes. In this study, a metabolomics approach was conducted to understand the effect of lactic acid induced stress on metabolite pools in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cells were cultured with lactic acid as the acidulant, with or without initial pH control, i.e., at pH 6 or pH 2.5, respectively. Under conditions of low pH, lactic acid led to a decrease in the intracellular pH and specific growth rate; however, these parameters remained unaltered in the cultures with pH control. Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry followed by a statistical principal component analysis was used to identify the metabolites and measure the increased concentrations of ATP, glutathione and proline during severe acid stress. Addition of proline to the acidified cultures improved the specific growth rates. We hypothesized that addition of proline protected the cells from acid stress by combating acid-induced oxidative stress. Lactic acid diffusion into the cell resulted in intracellular acidification, which elicited an oxidative stress response and resulted in increased glutathione levels. PMID:25795572

  12. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to improve 1-hexadecanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xueyang; Lian, Jiazhang; Zhao, Huimin

    2015-01-01

    Fatty alcohols are important components of a vast array of surfactants, lubricants, detergents, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. We have engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce 1-hexadecanol by expressing a fatty acyl-CoA reductase (FAR) from barn owl (Tyto alba). In order to improve fatty alcohol production, we have manipulated both the structural genes and the regulatory genes in yeast lipid metabolism. The acetyl-CoA carboxylase gene (ACC1) was over-expressed, which improved 1-hexadecanol production by 56% (from 45mg/L to 71mg/L). Knocking out the negative regulator of the INO1 gene in phospholipid metabolism, RPD3, further enhanced 1-hexadecanol production by 98% (from 71mg/L to 140mg/L). The cytosolic acetyl-CoA supply was next engineered by expressing a heterologous ATP-dependent citrate lyase, which increased the production of 1-hexadecanol by an additional 136% (from 140mg/L to 330mg/L). Through fed-batch fermentation using resting cells, over 1.1g/L 1-hexadecanol can be produced in glucose minimal medium, which represents the highest titer reported in yeast to date. PMID:25466225

  13. Redundant Regulation of Cdk1 Tyrosine Dephosphorylation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Erin K; Dysart, Michael; Lianga, Noel; Williams, Elizabeth C; Pilon, Sophie; Doré, Carole; Deneault, Jean-Sebastien; Rudner, Adam D

    2016-03-01

    Cdk1 activity drives both mitotic entry and the metaphase-to-anaphase transition in all eukaryotes. The kinase Wee1 and the phosphatase Cdc25 regulate the mitotic activity of Cdk1 by the reversible phosphorylation of a conserved tyrosine residue. Mutation of cdc25 in Schizosaccharomyces pombe blocks Cdk1 dephosphorylation and causes cell cycle arrest. In contrast, deletion of MIH1, the cdc25 homolog in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is viable. Although Cdk1-Y19 phosphorylation is elevated during mitosis in mih1? cells, Cdk1 is dephosphorylated as cells progress into G1, suggesting that additional phosphatases regulate Cdk1 dephosphorylation. Here we show that the phosphatase Ptp1 also regulates Cdk1 dephosphorylation in vivo and can directly dephosphorylate Cdk1 in vitro. Using a novel in vivo phosphatase assay, we also show that PP2A bound to Rts1, the budding yeast B56-regulatory subunit, regulates dephosphorylation of Cdk1 independently of a function regulating Swe1, Mih1, or Ptp1, suggesting that PP2A(Rts1) either directly dephosphorylates Cdk1-Y19 or regulates an unidentified phosphatase. PMID:26715668

  14. Heterologous Expression of Syntaxin 6 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARTIN GÖTTE

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanisms of vesicular protein transport in eukaryotic cells are highly conserved. Members of the syntaxin family play a pivotal role in the membrane fusion process. We have expressed rat syntaxin 6 and its cytoplasmic domain in wild-type and pep12 mutant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to elucidate the role of the syntaxin 6-dependent vesicular trafficking step in yeast. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed a punctate, Golgi-like staining pattern for syntaxin 6, which only partially overlapped with Pep12p in wild-type yeast cells. In contrast to Pep12p, syntaxin 6 was not mislocalized to the vacuole upon expression from 2 micron vectors, which might be attributed to conserved sorting and retention signals. Syntaxin 6 was not capable of complementing the sorting and maturation defects of the vacuolar hydrolase CPY in pep12 null mutants. No dominant negative effects of either syntaxin 6 or syntaxin 6deltaC overexpression on CPY sorting and maturation were observed in wild-type yeast cells. We conclude that syntaxin 6 and Pep12p do not act at the same vesicular trafficking step(s in yeast and higher eukaryotes

  15. Bioflavour production from orange peel hydrolysate using immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalou, Sofia; Mantzouridou, Fani; Paraskevopoulou, Adamantini; Bugarski, Branko; Levic, Steva; Nedovic, Victor

    2013-11-01

    The rising trend of bioflavour synthesis by microorganisms is hindered by the high manufacturing costs, partially attributed to the cost of the starting material. To overcome this limitation, in the present study, dilute-acid hydrolysate of orange peel was employed as a low-cost, rich in fermentable sugars substrate for the production of flavour-active compounds by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. With this purpose, the use of immobilized cell technology to protect cells against the various inhibitory compounds present in the hydrolysate was evaluated with regard to yeast viability, carbon and nitrogen consumption and cell ability to produce flavour active compounds. For cell immobilization the encapsulation in Ca alginate beads was used. The results were compared with those obtained using free-cell system. Based on the data obtained immobilized cells showed better growth performance and increased ability for de novo synthesis of volatile esters of "fruity" aroma (phenylethyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, octanoate, decanoate and dodecanoate) than those of free cells. The potential for in situ production of new formulations containing flavour-active compounds derive from yeast cells and also from essential oil of orange peel (limonene, ?-terpineol) was demonstrated by the fact that bioflavour mixture was found to accumulate within the beads. Furthermore, the ability of the immobilized yeast to perform efficiently repeated batch fermentations of orange peel hydrolysate for bioflavour production was successfully maintained after six consecutive cycles of a total period of 240 h. PMID:23995224

  16. mRNA quality control pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Satarupa Das; Biswadip Das

    2013-09-01

    Efficient production of translation-competent mRNAs involves processing and modification events both in the nucleus and cytoplasm which require a number of complex machineries at both co-transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Mutations in the genomic sequence sometimes result in the formation of mutant non-functional defective messages. In addition, the enormous amounts of complexities involved in the biogenesis of mRNPs in the nucleus very often leads to the formation of aberrant and faulty messages along with their functional counterpart. Subsequent translation of these mutant and defective populations of messenger RNAs could possibly result in the unfaithful transmission of genetic information and thus is considered a threat to the survival of the cell. To prevent this possibility, mRNA quality control systems have evolved both in the nucleus and cytoplasm in eukaryotes to scrutinize various stages of mRNP biogenesis and translation. In this review, we will focus on the physiological role of some of these mRNA quality control systems in the simplest model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  17. In vivo Reconstitution of Algal Triacylglycerol Production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chun-Hsien; Kanehara, Kazue; Nakamura, Yuki

    2016-01-01

    The current fascination with algal biofuel production stems from a high lipid biosynthetic capacity and little conflict with land plant cultivation. However, the mechanisms which enable algae to accumulate massive oil remain elusive. An enzyme for triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, CrDGTT2, can produce a large amount of TAG when expressed in yeast or higher plants, suggesting a unique ability of CrDGTT2 to enhance oil production in a heterologous system. Here, we performed metabolic engineering in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by taking advantage of CrDGTT2. We suppressed membrane phospholipid biosynthesis at the log phase by mutating OPI3, enhanced TAG biosynthetic pathway at the stationary phase by overexpressing PAH1 and CrDGTT2, and suppressed TAG hydrolysis on growth resumption from the stationary phase by knocking out DGK1. The resulting engineered yeast cells accumulated about 70-fold of TAG compared with wild type cells. Moreover, TAG production was sustainable. Our results demonstrated the enhanced and sustainable TAG production in the yeast synthetic platform.

  18. BIOTECHNOLOGICAL PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL BY SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE, USING DIFFERENT SUBSTRATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya S. Gulalkayi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Research efforts are needed to design and improve the process, which would produce sustainable and economically feasible transportation fuel. The present investigation was undertaken to determine the availability of carbohydrates in hydrolysates derived from different substrates Acacia arabica, Delbergia sisso, Peltophorum Pterocarpur and Perkia biglobosa pods, in the production of ethanol. The enzymatic hydrolysis of the substrates has yielded the significant amount of reducing sugar from the substrates by comparing the effect of enzymes on hydrolysis. The Acacia arabica pods has showed the higher production of reducing sugars when treated with 4% a-amylase whereas Peltophorum pterocarpum has produced lowest yield of reducing sugar at 4% a-amylase enzyme. The optimum temperature required for the activity of a-amylase enzyme in the production of reducing sugars using different substrates were revealed that at 30oC the Acacia arabica has yielded maximum sugars whereas the Perkia biglobosa has showed the minimum yield of reducing sugar. The optimum period of enzyme activity in the production of reducing sugars using different substrates was indicted that the Acacia arabica has showed the maximum yield of reducing sugars during the incubation period of 24 hours whereas minimum yield was observed in Perkia biglobosa. The optimum incubation period of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the production of ethanol has showed that the seven days of incubation has yielded maximum amount of ethanol using the substrate Acacia arabica.

  19. Fermentação de trealose e glicogênio endógenos em Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fermentation of endogenous trehalose and glycogen by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. FERREIRA

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available As linhagens PE-2 e VR-1 de Saccharomyces cerevisiae foram submetidas à fermentação das reservas endógenas na temperatura de 40oC. No intervalo de 0 a 24 horas foram recolhidas as amostras para a determinação de etanol, nitrogênio no fermento e no vinho, bem como os carboidratos de reserva (trealose e glicogênio e a viabilidade celular. A trealose foi esgotada durante 24 horas. Os teores de glicogênio sofreram muitas oscilações ao longo do tempo, entre a mobilização e a síntese e embora não esgotado, deve ter contribuído significativamente para a formação de álcool na suspensão. Foi observada a relação proporcional entre a mobilização de trealose e a queda da viabilidade celular. No transcorrer da fermentação das reservas de carboidratos houve aumento nos teores de nitrogênio no fermento até 6 e 8 horas, sendo tal incremento afetado pela linhagem de levedura. No prosseguimento da fermentação ocorreu a autólise celular, que foi percebida pelo aumento brusco de nitrogênio no vinho (de 200 para 1500mg/L e pela queda da viabilidade celular. O ganho alcançado com a fermentação endógena foi de 40 e 68 litros de álcool por tonelada de levedura seca com incremento de 25 e 27% de proteína no fermento para as linhagens PE-2 e VR-1, respectivamente. Este resultado tem reflexos positivos quando da comercialização da levedura seca como proteína microbiana.Two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (PE-2 and VR-1 were subjected to fermentation of its carbohidrate reserve (Trehalose and glycogen at 40oC. During a 24 hours interval samples were collected for determination of ethanol, yeast and wine nitrogen, yeast trehalose, glycogen and cell viability. Trehalose was completely exhausted after 24 hours. Glycogen was not completely consumed, but probably contributes for ethanol formation. As trehalose is consumed yeast cell viability decreases, while yeast nitrogen content increase, reaching a maximum between 6 and 8 hours, depending on the yeast strain. If yeast is maintained under prolonged stressing conditions, cell autolysis occurs and nitrogen is lost to the medium, increasing from 200 to 1500mg/L. Such endogenous fermentation allows a production of 40 to 68L of ethanol per ton of dry yeast, with yeast nitrogen increasing of 25 and 27% for PE-2 and VR-1, respectively.

  20. Fermentação de trealose e glicogênio endógenos em Saccharomyces cerevisiae / Fermentation of endogenous trehalose and glycogen by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L.V., FERREIRA; H.V., AMORIM; L.C., BASSO.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available As linhagens PE-2 e VR-1 de Saccharomyces cerevisiae foram submetidas à fermentação das reservas endógenas na temperatura de 40oC. No intervalo de 0 a 24 horas foram recolhidas as amostras para a determinação de etanol, nitrogênio no fermento e no vinho, bem como os carboidratos de reserva (trealose [...] e glicogênio) e a viabilidade celular. A trealose foi esgotada durante 24 horas. Os teores de glicogênio sofreram muitas oscilações ao longo do tempo, entre a mobilização e a síntese e embora não esgotado, deve ter contribuído significativamente para a formação de álcool na suspensão. Foi observada a relação proporcional entre a mobilização de trealose e a queda da viabilidade celular. No transcorrer da fermentação das reservas de carboidratos houve aumento nos teores de nitrogênio no fermento até 6 e 8 horas, sendo tal incremento afetado pela linhagem de levedura. No prosseguimento da fermentação ocorreu a autólise celular, que foi percebida pelo aumento brusco de nitrogênio no vinho (de 200 para 1500mg/L) e pela queda da viabilidade celular. O ganho alcançado com a fermentação endógena foi de 40 e 68 litros de álcool por tonelada de levedura seca com incremento de 25 e 27% de proteína no fermento para as linhagens PE-2 e VR-1, respectivamente. Este resultado tem reflexos positivos quando da comercialização da levedura seca como proteína microbiana. Abstract in english Two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (PE-2 and VR-1) were subjected to fermentation of its carbohidrate reserve (Trehalose and glycogen) at 40oC. During a 24 hours interval samples were collected for determination of ethanol, yeast and wine nitrogen, yeast trehalose, glycogen and cell viability. Tre [...] halose was completely exhausted after 24 hours. Glycogen was not completely consumed, but probably contributes for ethanol formation. As trehalose is consumed yeast cell viability decreases, while yeast nitrogen content increase, reaching a maximum between 6 and 8 hours, depending on the yeast strain. If yeast is maintained under prolonged stressing conditions, cell autolysis occurs and nitrogen is lost to the medium, increasing from 200 to 1500mg/L. Such endogenous fermentation allows a production of 40 to 68L of ethanol per ton of dry yeast, with yeast nitrogen increasing of 25 and 27% for PE-2 and VR-1, respectively.

  1. Intrachromosomal movement of genetically marked Saccharomyces cerevisiae transposons by gene conversion.

    OpenAIRE

    Roeder, G. S.; Smith, M.; Lambie, E. J.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the movement of a genetically marked Saccharomyces cerevisiae transposon. Ty912(URA3), to new sites in the S. cerevisiae genome. Ty912 is an element present at the HIS4 locus in the his4-912 mutant. To detect movement of Ty912, this element has been genetically marked with the S. cerevisiae URA3 gene. Movement of Ty912(URA3) occurs by recombination between the marked element and homologous Ty elements elsewhere in the S. cerevisiae genome. Ty912(URA3) recombines mos...

  2. Regulation of Lactobacillus plantarum contamination on the carbohydrate and energy related metabolisms of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during bioethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shi-Jun; Lin, Xiang-Hua; Li, Hao

    2015-11-01

    During the industrial bioethanol fermentation, Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells are often stressed by bacterial contaminants, especially lactic acid bacteria. Generally, lactic acid bacteria contamination can inhibit S. cerevisiae cell growth through secreting lactic acid and competing with yeast cells for micronutrients and living space. However, whether are there still any other influences of lactic acid bacteria on yeast or not? In this study, Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 8014 was co-cultivated with S. cerevisiae S288c to mimic the L. plantarum contamination in industrial bioethanol fermentation. The contaminative L. plantarum-associated expression changes of genes involved in carbohydrate and energy related metabolisms in S. cerevisiae cells were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to evaluate the influence of L. plantarum on carbon source utilization and energy related metabolism in yeast cells during bioethanol fermentation. Contaminative L. plantarum influenced the expression of most of genes which are responsible for encoding key enzymes involved in glucose related metabolisms in S. cerevisiae. Specific for, contaminated L. plantarum inhibited EMP pathway but promoted TCA cycle, glyoxylate cycle, HMP, glycerol synthesis pathway, and redox pathway in S. cerevisiae cells. In the presence of L. plantarum, the carbon flux in S. cerevisiae cells was redistributed from fermentation to respiratory and more reducing power was produced to deal with the excess NADH. Moreover, L. plantarum contamination might confer higher ethanol tolerance to yeast cells through promoting accumulation of glycerol. These results also highlighted our knowledge about relationship between contaminative lactic acid bacteria and S. cerevisiae during bioethanol fermentation. PMID:26279142

  3. The level of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity strongly influences xylose fermentation and inhibitor sensitivity in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppsson, M.; Johansson, B.; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Hahn-Hagerdal, B.; Gorwa-Grauslund, M.F.

    2003-01-01

    Disruption of the ZWF1 gene encoding glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) has been shown to reduce the xylitol yield and the xylose consumption in the xylose-utilizing recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain TMB3255. In the present investigation we have studied the influence of different production levels of G6PDH on xylose fermentation. We used a synthetic promoter library and the copper-regulated CUP1 promoter to generate G6PDH-activities between 0% and 179% of the wildtype level. G6P...

  4. Cloning and characterization of hOGG1, a human homolog of the OGG1 gene of Saccharomyces?cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Radicella, J.Pablo; Dherin, Claudine; Desmaze, Chantal; Fox, Maurice S.; Boiteux, Serge

    1997-01-01

    The OGG1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a DNA glycosylase activity that is a functional analog of the Fpg protein from Escherichia coli and excises 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) from damaged DNA. The repair of this ubiquitous kind of oxidative damage is essential to prevent mutations both in bacteria and in yeast. A human cDNA clone carrying an ORF displaying homology to the yeast protein was identified. The predicted protein has 345 amino acids and a molecular mass of 39 kDa. T...

  5. Structure of the DNA damage-inducible gene DDR48 and evidence for its role in mutagenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Treger, J M; McEntee, K

    1990-01-01

    The DDR48 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a member of a set of genes that displays increased transcription in response to treatments that produce DNA lesions or to heat-shock stress. Other members of this group include the DDRA2 and UBI4 genes. DNA sequence analysis of the DDR48 gene demonstrates the presence of two overlapping open reading frames, each of which has the capacity to encode a protein with a molecular mass of approximately 45 kilodaltons. Fusions of the DDR48 coding sequence...

  6. Functional domains of a positive regulatory protein, PHO4, for transcriptional control of the phosphatase regulon in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Ogawa, N.; Oshima, Y

    1990-01-01

    The PHO4 gene encodes a positive regulatory factor involved in regulating transcription of various genes in the phosphatase regulon of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Besides its own coding region, the 1.8-kilobase PHO4 transcript contains a coding region for a mitochondrial protein which does not appear to be translated. Four functional domains were found in the PHO4 protein, which consists of 312 amino acid (aa) residues as deduced from the open reading frame of PHO4. A gel retardation assay with...

  7. Transcriptional and post-transcriptional control of PHO8 expression by PHO regulatory genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Kaneko, Y; Tamai, Y; Toh-E, A; Oshima, Y

    1985-01-01

    A DNA fragment bearing the PHO8 gene, which encodes repressible alkaline phosphatase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was cloned. Northern hybridizations with the PHO8 DNA as probe indicated that the PHO8 transcript is 1.8 kilobases in length and is more abundant in cells grown in low-phosphate medium than in high-phosphate medium. The pho9 mutant, whose phenotype is defective in the activity of repressible alkaline phosphatase, produced as much of the PHO8 transcript as did the PHO9+ cells. Henc...

  8. De novo production of resveratrol from glucose or ethanol by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Mingji; Kildegaard, Kanchana Rueksomtawin

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol is a natural antioxidant compound, used as food supplement and cosmetic ingredient. Microbial production of resveratrol has until now been achieved by supplementation of expensive substrates, p-coumaric acid or aromatic amino acids. Here we engineered the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce resveratrol directly from glucose or ethanol via tyrosine intermediate. First we introduced the biosynthetic pathway, consisting of tyrosine ammonia-lyase from Herpetosiphon aurantiacus, 4-coumaryl-CoA ligase from Arabidopsis thaliana and resveratrol synthase from Vitis vinifera, and obtained 2.73±0.05 mg L?1 resveratrol from glucose. Then we over-expressed feedback-insensitive alleles of ARO4 encoding 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate and ARO7 encoding chorismate mutase, resulting in production of 4.85±0.31 mg L?1 resveratrol from glucose as the sole carbon source. Next we improved the supply of the precursor malonyl-CoA by over-expressing a post-translational de-regulated version of the acetyl-CoA carboxylase encoding gene ACC1; this strategy further increased resveratrol production to 6.39±0.03 mg L?1. Subsequently, we improved the strain by performing multiple-integration of pathway genes resulting in resveratrol production of 235.57±7.00 mg L?1. Finally, fed-batch fermentation of the final strain with glucose or ethanol as carbon source resulted in a resveratrol titer of 415.65 and 531.41 mg L?1, respectively.

  9. SNG1--a new gene involved in nitrosoguanidine resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, M; Pich, C T; Haase, E; Brendel, M

    1995-04-01

    We have molecularly characterized the SNG1 gene that confers hyper-resistance to the mutagen N-methyl-N'nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae when overexpressed on a multi-copy plasmid. This hyper-resistance to MNNG is not due to depletion of glutathione pools since multi-copy SNG1 containing yeast transformants contain at least wild type levels of glutathione; DNA repair seems unaffected in these transformants as the multi-copy SNG1-mediated MNNG hyper-resistance is also seen in DNA repair mutants belonging to each of the three epistasis groups of yeast repair mutants. It could be shown that SNG1 is not under control of the YAP1 encoded transcription activator that controls expression of at least two genes involved in MNNG metabolism in yeast. sng1 null mutants are viable but exhibit only slight sensitivity to MNNG, indicating that SNG1 does not encode a protein involved in a major detoxification step of this mutagen. Sequencing of the HYR-mediating passenger DNA revealed that SNG1 encodes a 547 a polypeptide containing seven transmembrane-spanning regions that may be membrane-bound. Comparison of the DNA sequence with established gene databanks revealed that SNG1 is a novel yeast gene. PMID:7753113

  10. Saccharomyces cerevisiae translational activator Cbs1p is associated with translationally active mitochondrial ribosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause-Buchholz, Udo; Schöbel, Karina; Lauffer, Susann; Rödel, Gerhard

    2005-05-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mitochondrial translation of most, if not all, mitochondrially encoded genes is regulated by an individual set of gene-specific activators. Translation of the COB mRNA encoding cytochrome b requires the function of two nuclearly encoded proteins, Cbs1p and Cbs2p. Genetic data revealed that the 5'-untranslated region of COB mRNA is the target of both proteins. Recently, we provided evidence for an interaction of Cbs2p with mitochondrial ribosomes. We demonstrate here by means of blue native gel electrophoresis, density gradient centrifugation and tandem affinity purification that a portion of Cbs1p is also associated with mitochondrial ribosomes. In addition, we demonstrate that the amount of ribosome-associated Cbs1p is elevated in the presence of chloramphenicol, which is known to stall ribosomes on mRNAs. In the presence of puromycin, which strips off the mRNA and nascent protein chains from ribosomes, Cbs1p is no longer associated with ribosomes. Our data indicate that the observed interaction is mediated by ribosome-bound mRNA, thus restricting the association to ribosomes actively translating cytochrome b. PMID:15927884

  11. Low oxygen levels as a trigger for enhancement of respiratory metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiebe Marilyn G

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The industrially important yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to grow both in the presence and absence of oxygen. However, the regulation of its metabolism in conditions of intermediate oxygen availability is not well characterised. We assessed the effect of oxygen provision on the transcriptome and proteome of S. cerevisiae in glucose-limited chemostat cultivations in anaerobic and aerobic conditions, and with three intermediate (0.5, 1.0 and 2.8% oxygen levels of oxygen in the feed gas. Results The main differences in the transcriptome were observed in the comparison of fully aerobic, intermediate oxygen and anaerobic conditions, while the transcriptome was generally unchanged in conditions receiving different intermediate levels (0.5, 1.0 or 2.8% O2 of oxygen in the feed gas. Comparison of the transcriptome and proteome data suggested post-transcriptional regulation was important, especially in 0.5% oxygen. In the conditions of intermediate oxygen, the genes encoding enzymes of the respiratory pathway were more highly expressed than in either aerobic or anaerobic conditions. A similar trend was also seen in the proteome and in enzyme activities of the TCA cycle. Further, genes encoding proteins of the mitochondrial translation machinery were present at higher levels in all oxygen-limited and anaerobic conditions, compared to fully aerobic conditions. Conclusion Global upregulation of genes encoding components of the respiratory pathway under conditions of intermediate oxygen suggested a regulatory mechanism to control these genes as a response to the need of more efficient energy production. Further, cells grown in three different intermediate oxygen levels were highly similar at the level of transcription, while they differed at the proteome level, suggesting post-transcriptional mechanisms leading to distinct physiological modes of respiro-fermentative metabolism.

  12. Cellular responses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text. Several experimental strategies have been used to study responses of S. cerevisiae cells to DNA damage. One approach was based on the isolation of novel genes, the expression of which is induced by lesions in DNA. One of these genes, DIN7, was cloned and partially characterized previously. The product of DIN7 belongs to a large family of proteins involved in DNA repair and mutagenesis. This family includes Rad2, Rad27 and ExoI proteins of S. cerevisiae and their respective human homologues, all of which are endowed with DNA nuclease activity. To study cellular function of Din7 we constructed the pPK3 plasmid carrying DIN7 fused to the GAL1 promoter. Effects of DIN7 overproduction on the phenotypes of wild-type cells and of rad27 and exoI mutants were examined. Overproduction of Din7 does not seem to affect the proficiency of wild-type S. cerevisiae cells in recombination and mutagenesis. Also, overexpression of DIN7 does not suppress the deficiency of the EXOI gene product, the closest homologue of Din7, both in recombination and in controlling the fidelity of DNA replication. Unexpectedly, we found that elevated levels of Din7 result in a very high frequency of mitochondrial rho- mutants. A high frequency of production of rho- mutants wa s also observed in strains defective in the functioning of the Dun1 protein kinase involved in signal transmission in cells exposed to DNA damaging agents. Interestingly, deficiency of Dun1 results also in a significant derepression of the DIN7 gene. Experiments are under way to distinguish whether a high cellular level of Din7 specifically decreases stability of mitochondrial DNA or affects stability of chromosomal DNA as well. Analysis of previously constructed S. cerevisiae strains carrying random geno mic fusions with reporter lacZ gene, allowed us to identify the reading frame YBR173c, on chromosome II as a novel damage inducible gene - DIN8. We have shown that DIN8-lacZ fusion is induced in yeast cells treated with MMS or exposed to UV light. Northern RNA analysis indicates that DIN8 is induced in response to DNA damage at the transcriptional level. DIN8 was cloned and the phenotype of cells with disruption of the gene is under study. POL2-MEC1-RAD53-DUN1-signal transducing pathway has recently been postulated to be involved in the regulation of response of S. cerevisiae cells to DNA-damaging agents. We analyzed the expression of a known damage inducible DNA-repair gene, MAG1, encoding 3-methyladenine glycosylase, in S. cerevisiae strains carrying MAG1 ::lacZ fusion and deficient in either POL2, MEC1, RAD53 or DUN1 function. ?-galactosidase activity was assayed in cycling cells exposed to MMS or UV light. It was found that, in contrast to model DNA damage inducible RNR genes, neither mutation in t he sensory C-terminal part of polymerase ? (pol2-11) nor the in the Mec1, Sad1/Rad53 or Dun1 cellular kinases blocks the induction of MAG1 in response to MMS or UV light in cycling yeasts. (author)

  13. Expresión heteróloga de un péptido multiepitópico de células B de M. tuberculosis en Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de los Angeles García

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae ha sido ampliamente utilizada como sistema de expresión de proteínas heterólogas. El presente trabajo se encaminó hacia la expresión en Saccharomyces cerevisiae de un péptido de epitopes múltiples de M. tuberculosis. Con dicho propósito el péptido quimérico denominado B2 fue clonado en dos vectores de expresión de esta levadura con promotores regulables por galactosa y sulfato cúprico, respectivamente. Luego de los experimentos de inducción, la expresión del péptido B2 fue analizada mediante SDS/PAGE y Western blot. El análisis por Western blot confirmó la expresión del péptido B2, al hacerse la inducción con 100 mM de CuSO4 durante toda la noche. No ocurrió así en los experimentos donde se utilizó la galactosa como inductor con todas las condiciones ensayadas. Estos resultados muestran que la levadura Saccharomyces cerevisiae pudiera ser un buen hospedero alternativo para la expresión de péptidos multiepitópicos de M. tuberculosis.

  14. Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yeast on Tibia Bone Characteristics in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilker Arican

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of feeding different levels of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae on tibial bone characteristics of the New Zealand rabbits was studied. An experiment of 85 days duration was conducted with male 5-6 weeks old rabbits. There were 3 dietary treatments each consisting of 7 rabbits in each. The treatments were containing 0 (control, 2 and 4 g kg-1 yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae in their diet, respectively. At the end of the experiment the right tibia of rabbits were dissected from the surrounding tissues and used for bone force and stress measurements. Results show that there is no effect of feeding with different level of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast on body weight, tibia weight and length, bone force and stress values of tibia of the rabbits.

  15. Expresión heteróloga de un péptido multiepitópico de células B de M. tuberculosis en Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norazmi Mohd Nor

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae ha sido ampliamente utilizada como sistema de expresión de proteínas heterólogas. El presente trabajo se encaminó hacia la expresión en Saccharomyces cerevisiae de un péptido de epitopes múltiples de M. tuberculosis. Con dicho propósito el péptido quimérico denominado B2 fue clonado en dos vectores de expresión de esta levadura con promotores regulables por galactosa y sulfato cúprico, respectivamente. Luego de los experimentos de inducción, la expresión del péptido B2 se analizó mediante SDS/PAGE y Western blot. El análisis por Western blot confirmó la expresión del péptido B2, al hacerse la inducción con 100 ?M de CuSO4 durante toda la noche. No ocurrió así en los experimentos donde se utilizó la galactosa como inductor con todas las condiciones ensayadas. Estos resultados mostraron que la levadura Saccharomyces cerevisiae pudiera ser un buen hospedero alternativo para la expresión de péptidos multiepitópicos de M. tuberculosis.

  16. Removal of lead, mercury and nickel using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae / Remoción de plomo, mercurio y níquel utilizando la levadura Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cherlys, Infante J; Deniles, De Arco R; Edgardo, Angulo M.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. En este estudio se utilizó la biomasa de la levadura Saccharomyces cerevisiae para retener plomo, mercurio y níquel en forma de iones disueltos en agua. Materiales y métodos. Se prepararon soluciones sintéticas que contenían los tres metales pesados, las cuales se pusieron en contacto con [...] el microorganismo en forma viable a diferentes condiciones de pH, temperatura, aireación y agitación. Resultados. Tanto las variables individuales como los efectos de interacción influyeron sobre el proceso de biosorción. A través de todos los experimentos, se observó que la biomasa de Saccharomyces cerevisiae eliminó un mayor porcentaje de plomo (86.4%) en comparación al mercurio y al níquel (69.7 y 47.8% respectivamente). Cuando el pH se fijó en valor de 5, el efecto fue positivo para los tres metales. Conclusiones. El pH fue la variable que tuvo una mayor influencia en la biosorción de plomo sobre la biomasa de Saccharomyces cerevisiae. La afinidad de los metales pesados por la biomasa siguió el orden Pb>Hg>Ni. Abstract in english Objective. In this study the biomass of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used to remove lead, mercury and nickel in the form of ions dissolved in water. Materials and methods. Synthetic solutions were prepared containing the three heavy metals, which were put in contact with viable microorgani [...] sms at different conditions of pH, temperature, aeration and agitation. Results. Both individual variables and the interaction effects influenced the biosorption process. Throughout the experimental framework it was observed that the biomass of Saccharomyces cerevisiae removed a higher percentage of lead (86.4%) as compared to mercury and nickel (69.7 and 47.8% respectively). When the pH was set at a value of 5 the effect was positive for all three metals. Conclusions. pH was the variable that had a greater influence on the biosorption of lead on the biomass of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The affinity of the heavy metals for the biomass followed the order Pb>Hg>Ni.

  17. [Construction of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell factories for lycopene production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ming-Yu; Liu Yi; Wang, Dong; Lu, Fu-Ping; Huang, Lu-Qi; Dai, Zhu-Bo; Zhang, Xue-Li

    2014-10-01

    For microbial production of lycopene, the lycopene synthetic genes from Pantoea agglomerans were integrated into Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain BY4742, to obtain strain ZD-L-000 for production of 0.17 mg · L(-1) lycopene. Improving supplies of isoprenoid precursors was then investigated for increasing lycopene production. Four key genes were chosen to be overexpressed, inclu- ding truncated 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase gene (tHMG1), which is the major rate-limiting enzyme in the mevalonate (MVA) pathway, a mutated global regulatory factor gene (upc2.1), a fusion gene of FPP synthase (ERG20) and endogenous GGPP synthase (BTS1), which is a key enzyme in the diterpenoid synthetic pathway, and GGPP synthase gene (SaGGPS) from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius. Over-expression of upc2.1 could not improve lycopene production, while over-expression of tHMGI , BTS1-ERG20 and SaGGPS genes led to 2-, 16. 9- and20. 5-fold increase of lycopene production, respectively. In addition, three effective genes, tHMG1, BTS1-ERG20 and SaGGPS, were integrated into rDNA sites of ZD-L-000, resulting in strain ZD-L-201 for production of 13.23 mg · L(-1) lycopene, which was 77-fold higher than that of the parent strain. Finally, two-phase extractive fermentation was performed. The titer of lycopene increased 10-fold to 135.21 mg · L(-1). The engineered yeast strains obtained in this work provided the basis for fermentative production of lycopene. PMID:25751950

  18. Predicting functional upstream open reading frames in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristiansson Erik

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some upstream open reading frames (uORFs regulate gene expression (i.e., they are functional and can play key roles in keeping organisms healthy. However, how uORFs are involved in gene regulation is not yet fully understood. In order to get a complete view of how uORFs are involved in gene regulation, it is expected that a large number of experimentally verified functional uORFs are needed. Unfortunately, wet-experiments to verify that uORFs are functional are expensive. Results In this paper, a new computational approach to predicting functional uORFs in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is presented. Our approach is based on inductive logic programming and makes use of a novel combination of knowledge about biological conservation, Gene Ontology annotations and genes' responses to different conditions. Our method results in a set of simple and informative hypotheses with an estimated sensitivity of 76%. The hypotheses predict 301 further genes to have 398 novel functional uORFs. Three (RPC11, TPK1, and FOL1 of these 301 genes have been hypothesised, following wet-experiments, by a related study to have functional uORFs. A comparison with another related study suggests that eleven of the predicted functional uORFs from genes LDB17, HEM3, CIN8, BCK2, PMC1, FAS1, APP1, ACC1, CKA2, SUR1, and ATH1 are strong candidates for wet-lab experimental studies. Conclusions Learning based prediction of functional uORFs can be done with a high sensitivity. The predictions made in this study can serve as a list of candidates for subsequent wet-lab verification and might help to elucidate the regulatory roles of uORFs.

  19. Capturing of the monoterpene olefin limonene produced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongedijk, Esmer; Cankar, Katarina; Ranzijn, Jorn; van der Krol, Sander; Bouwmeester, Harro; Beekwilder, Jules

    2015-01-01

    Monoterpene olefins such as limonene are plant compounds with applications as flavouring and fragrance agents, as solvents and potentially also in polymer and fuel chemistry. We engineered baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to express a (-)-limonene synthase from Perilla frutescens and a (+)-limonene synthase from Citrus limon. Both proteins were expressed either with their native plastid targeting signal or in a truncated form in which the plastidial sorting signal was removed. The yeast host strain for expression was AE9 K197G, which expresses a mutant Erg20 enzyme. This enzyme catalyses the formation of geranyl diphosphate, which is the precursor for monoterpenes. Several methods were tested to capture limonene produced by the yeast. Extraction from the culture medium by pentane, or by the addition of CaCl2 followed by solid-phase micro-extraction, did not lead to detectable limonene, indicating that limonene is rapidly lost from the culture medium. Volatile terpenes such as limonene may also be trapped in a dodecane phase added to the medium during fermentation. This method resulted in recovery of 0.028?mg/l (+)-limonene and 0.060?mg/l (-)-limonene in strains using the truncated Citrus and Perilla synthases, respectively. Trapping the headspace during culture of the limonene synthase-expressing strains resulted in higher titres, at 0.12?mg/l (+)-limonene and 0.49?mg/l (-)-limonene. These results show that the volatile properties of the olefins produced require specific methods for efficient recovery of these molecules from biotechnological production systems. PMID:25164098

  20. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for optimizing 3HP production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Bjerg; Maury, Jerome

    2012-01-01

    The finite nature of fossil resources and the negative influence of CO2 emissions on the global climate are key drivers in development of new biological processes. These are based on renewable resources such as sugar, starch, and biomass and aim at replacing chemical production from fossil fuels. Polyacrylates are a substantial part of the different plastic varieties found on the market. This kind of plastic is derived from acrylic acid, which is currently produced from propylene, a by-product of ethylene and gasoline production. Annually, more than one billion kilograms of acrylic acid is produced and the market for acrylate products exceeds USD 100 billion. As an alternative to oil and gas derived acrylic acid, 3-hydroxypropionic (3HP) acid produced from renewable sources is highly desired, because 3HP can easily be converted into acrylic acid. We are setting out to produce 3HP in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. One main reason for selecting Baker's yeast as host organism is that yeast has a high tolerance towards low pH in comparison to bacteria, e.g. E. coli. Hence, it lowers the consumption of base for neutralization of growth media when compared to bacteria. The preferred engineered pathway towards 3HP has a substantial need for NADPH equivalents. Consequently, a yeast host with elevated NADPH availability is preferred. We will redirect several of the glycolysis steps in order to increase the NADPH generation per glucose molecule and thereby increase 3HP production. We believe this strain will be of high interest for other NADPH demanding biosynthetic routes.

  1. Genetic basis of arsenite and cadmium tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawes Ian W

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arsenic and cadmium are widely distributed in nature and pose serious threats to the environment and human health. Exposure to these nonessential toxic metals may result in a variety of human diseases including cancer. However, arsenic and cadmium toxicity targets and the cellular systems contributing to tolerance acquisition are not fully known. Results To gain insight into metal action and cellular tolerance mechanisms, we carried out genome-wide screening of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae haploid and homozygous diploid deletion mutant collections and scored for reduced growth in the presence of arsenite or cadmium. Processes found to be required for tolerance to both metals included sulphur and glutathione biosynthesis, environmental sensing, mRNA synthesis and transcription, and vacuolar/endosomal transport and sorting. We also identified metal-specific defence processes. Arsenite-specific defence functions were related to cell cycle regulation, lipid and fatty acid metabolism, mitochondrial biogenesis, and the cytoskeleton whereas cadmium-specific defence functions were mainly related to sugar/carbohydrate metabolism, and metal-ion homeostasis and transport. Molecular evidence indicated that the cytoskeleton is targeted by arsenite and that phosphorylation of the Snf1p kinase is required for cadmium tolerance. Conclusion This study has pin-pointed core functions that protect cells from arsenite and cadmium toxicity. It also emphasizes the existence of both common and specific defence systems. Since many of the yeast genes that confer tolerance to these agents have homologues in humans, similar biological processes may act in yeast and humans to prevent metal toxicity and carcinogenesis.

  2. Low doses effects of ionizing radiation on Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The exposure of living cells to low doses of ionizing radiation induce in response the activation of cellular protection mechanisms against subsequent larger doses of radiation. This cellular adaptive response may vary depending on radiation intensity and time of exposure, and also on the testing probes used whether they were mammalian cells, yeast, bacteria and other organisms or cell types. The mechanisms involved are the genome activation, followed by DNA repair enzymes synthesis. Due to the prompt cell response, the cell cycle can be delayed, and the secondary detoxification of free radicals and/or activation of membrane bound receptors may proceed. All these phenomena are submitted to intense scientific research nowadays, and their elucidation will depend on the complexity of the organism under study. In the present work, the effects of low doses of ionizing radiation (gamma rays) over a suspension of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker's yeast) was studied, mainly in respect to survival rate and radio-adaptive response. At first, the yeast surviving curve was assessed towards increasing doses, and an estimation of Lethal Dose 50 (LD50) was made. The irradiation tests were performed at LINAC (electrons Linear Accelerator) where electron energy reached approximately 2.65 MeV, and gamma-radiation was produced for bremsstrahlung process over an aluminium screen target. A series of experiments of conditioning doses was performed and an increment surviving fraction was observed when the dose was 2.3 Gy and a interval time between this and a higher dose (challenging dose) of 27 Gy was 90 minutes. A value of 58 ± 4 Gy was estimated for LD50, at a dose rate of 0.44 ± 0.03 Gy/min These quantities must be optimized. Besides data obtained over yeast survival, an unusual increasing amount of tiny yeast colonies appeared on the agar plates after incubation, and this number increased as increasing the time exposure. Preliminary results indicate these colonies as 'petite' (mutants with mt DNA damage). (author)

  3. Purification and characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondrial elongation factor Tu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, L P; Bodley, J W

    1987-08-15

    Yeast mitochondrial elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) was purified 200-fold from a mitochondrial extract of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to yield a single polypeptide of Mr = approximately 47,000. The factor was detected by complementation with Escherichia coli elongation factor G and ribosomes in an in vitro phenylalanine polymerization reaction. Mitochondrial EF-Tu, like E. coli EF-Tu, catalyzes the binding of aminoacyl-tRNA to ribosomes and possesses an intrinsic GTP hydrolyzing activity which can be activated either by kirromycin or by ribosomes. Kinetic and binding analyses of the interactions of mitochondrial EF-Tu with guanine nucleotides yielded affinity constants for GTP and GDP of approximately 5 and 25 microM, respectively. The corresponding affinity constants for the E. coli factor are approximately 0.3 and 0.003 microM, respectively. In keeping with these observations, we found that purified mitochondrial EF-Tu, unlike E. coli EF-Tu, does not contain endogenously bound nucleotide and is not stabilized by GDP. In addition, we have been unable to detect a functional counterpart to E. coli EF-Ts in extracts of yeast mitochondria and E. coli EF-Ts did not detectably stimulate amino acid polymerization with mitochondrial EF-Tu or enhance the binding of guanine nucleotides to the factor. We conclude that while yeast mitochondrial EF-Tu is functionally analogous to and interchangeable with E. coli EF-Tu, its affinity for guanine nucleotides and interaction with EF-Ts are quite different from those of E. coli EF-Tu. PMID:3301847

  4. Mating-type Gene Switching in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheng-Sheng; Haber, James E

    2015-04-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has two alternative mating types designated MATa and MAT?. These are distinguished by about 700 bp of unique sequences, Ya or Y?, including divergent promoter sequences and part of the open reading frames of genes that regulate mating phenotype. Homothallic budding yeast, carrying an active HO endonuclease gene, HO, can switch mating type through a recombination process known as gene conversion, in which a site-specific double-strand break (DSB) created immediately adjacent to the Y region results in replacement of the Y sequences with a copy of the opposite mating type information, which is harbored in one of two heterochromatic donor loci, HML? or HMRa. HO gene expression is tightly regulated to ensure that only half of the cells in a lineage switch to the opposite MAT allele, thus promoting conjugation and diploid formation. Study of the silencing of these loci has provided a great deal of information about the role of the Sir2 histone deacetylase and its associated Sir3 and Sir4 proteins in creating heterochromatic regions. MAT switching has been examined in great detail to learn about the steps in homologous recombination. MAT switching is remarkably directional, with MATa recombining preferentially with HML? and MAT? using HMRa. Donor preference is controlled by a cis-acting recombination enhancer located near HML. RE is turned off in MAT? cells but in MATa binds multiple copies of the Fkh1 transcription factor whose forkhead-associated phosphothreonine binding domain localizes at the DSB, bringing HML into conjunction with MATa. PMID:26104712

  5. Vba4p, a vacuolar membrane protein, is involved in the drug resistance and vacuolar morphology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano-Kawada, Miyuki; Pongcharoen, Pongsanat; Kawahara, Rieko; Yasuda, Mayu; Yamasaki, Takashi; Akiyama, Koichi; Sekito, Takayuki; Kakinuma, Yoshimi

    2016-02-01

    In the vacuolar basic amino acid (VBA) transporter family of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, VBA4 encodes a vacuolar membrane protein with 14 putative transmembrane helices. Transport experiments with isolated vacuolar membrane vesicles and estimation of the amino acid contents in vacuoles showed that Vba4p is not likely involved in the transport of amino acids. We found that the vba4? cells, as well as vba1? and vba2? cells, showed increased susceptibility to several drugs, particularly to azoles. Although disruption of the VBA4 gene did not affect the salt tolerance of the cells, vacuolar fragmentation observed under high salt conditions was less prominent in vba4? cells than in wild type, vba1?, and vba2? cells. Vba4p differs from Vba1p and Vba2p as a vacuolar transporter but is important for the drug resistance and vacuolar morphology of S. cerevisiae. PMID:26325352

  6. Idebenone treatment mediates the effect of menadione oxidative stress damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamondi, Oliver; Chapela, Sebastián; Nievas, Inés; Burgos, Isabel; Alonso, Manuel; Stella, Carlos

    2012-06-01

    We investigated the damage caused by oxidative stress using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model biological system. After inducing oxidative stress with menadione, we were able to evaluate the extent of cellular oxidative stress by utilizing 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) as a marker of the presence of reactive oxygen species. Cells were grown on different carbon sources in order to compare fermentative and oxidative metabolism. Under these conditions we evaluated the effectiveness of idebenone (2,3-dimethoxy-5-methyl-6-(10- hydroxydecyl)-1,4-benzoquinone) as a molecule that could relieve menadione-induced growth inhibition in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:22974201

  7. Accumulation and chemical states of radiocesium by fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Sakamoto, Fuminori; Kozai, Naofumi; Yamasaki, Shinya; Yu, Qianqian

    2014-05-01

    After accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, the fall-out radiocesium was deposited on the ground. Filamentous fungus is known to accumulate radiocesium in environment, even though many minerals are involved in soil. These facts suggest that fungus affect the migration behavior of radiocesium in the environment. However, accumulation mechanism of radiocesium by fungus is not understood. In the present study, accumulation and chemical states change of Cs by unicellular fungus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been studied to elucidate the role of microorganisms in the migration of radiocesium in the environment. Two different experimental conditions were employed; one is the accumulation experiments of radiocesium by S. cerevisiae from the agar medium containing 137Cs and a mineral of zeolite, vermiculite, smectite, mica, or illite. The other is the experiments using stable cesium to examine the chemical states change of Cs. In the former experiment, the cells were grown on membrane filter of 0.45 ?m installed on the agar medium. After the grown cells were weighed, radioactivity in the cells was measured by an autoradiography technique. The mineral weight contents were changed from 0.1% to 1% of the medium. In the latter experiment, the cells were grown in the medium containing stable Cs between 1 mM and 10mM. The Cs accumulated cells were analyzed by SEM-EDS and EXAFS. The adsorption experiments of cesium by the cells under resting condition were also conducted to test the effect of cells metabolic activity. Without mineral in the medium, cells of S. cerevisiae accumulated 1.5x103 Bq/g from the medium containing 137Cs of 2.6x102 Bq/g. When mineral was added in the medium, concentration of 137Cs in the cells decreased. The concentration of 137Cs in the cells from the medium containing different minerals were in the following order; smectite, illite, mica > vermiculite > zeolite. This order was nearly the same as the inverse of distribution coefficient of mineral for 137Cs in the medium solution. The concentration of 137Cs in the cells lowered in the medium containing higher mineral content. These results indicate that radiocesium was competively accumulated in the cells with minerals in the soil. Higher concentration of stable Cs was accumulated in the cells in the metabolically active condition than in the resting cells condition. XAFS analyses showed that the k3-weighted extended-XAFS functions and the radial structural function of Cs accumulated by the cells in the metabolically active condition were similar to those in the resting condition, indicating that chemical states of the accumulated Cs were nearly the same between both conditions. These results indicate that the fungus accumulates radiocesium by competitively with minerals in the soils, and performs higher retardation of the migration of Cs in the metabolically active condition than the resting one. A part of this study is the results of "Multidisciplinary investigation on radiocesium fate and transport for safety assessment for interim storage and disposal of heterogeneous waste" carried out under the Initiatives for Atomic Energy Basic and Generic Strategic Research by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan.

  8. Effects of cyclohexane, an industrial solvent, on the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and on isolated yeast mitochondria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uribe, S.; Rangel, P.; Espinola, G.; Aguirre, G. (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico))

    1990-07-01

    Little information on the effects of cyclohexane at the cellular or subcellular level is available. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cyclohexane inhibited respiration and diverse energy-dependent processes. In mitochondria isolated from S. cerevisiae, oxygen uptake and ATP synthesis were inhibited, although ATPase activity was not affected. Cyclohexane effects were similar to those reported for beta-pinene and limonene, suggesting that the cyclohexane ring in these monoterpenes may be a determinant for their biological activities.

  9. Functional co-operation between the nuclei of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and mitochondria from other yeast species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spirek, M.; Horvath, A.; Piskur, Jure; Sulo, P.

    2000-01-01

    We elaborated a simple method that allows the transfer of mitochondria from collection yeasts to Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Protoplasts prepared from different yeasts were fused to the protoplasts of the ade2-1, ura3-52, kar1-1, rho (0) strain of S. cerevisiae and were selected for respiring cybrids on plates containing 5-fluoroorotic acid and a non-fermentable carbon source. The identity of putative cybrids was assessed by restriction analysis of mitochondrial DNA, pulse field electrophoresis an...

  10. Aminoacid metabolism and the production of wine aroma compounds by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo, Leandro Dias

    2012-01-01

    Os produtos do metabolismo de aminoácidos por leveduras Saccharomyces cerevisiae durante a fermentação alcoólica têm um impacto relevante no perfil sensorial de vinhos. Com o objetivo de estudar a influência da composição de aminoácidos do meio na formação da base do aroma típico de vinho, meios sintéticos contendo diferentes compostos nitrogenados foram fermentados por S. cerevisiae. Em um primeiro experimento, cinco meios de composições distintas quanto à fonte de azoto foram testados, send...

  11. Proteomic Evaluation of Cellular Responses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Formic Acid Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sung-eun; Park, Byeoung-Soo; Yoon, Jeong-Jun

    2010-01-01

    Formic acid is a representative carboxylic acid that inhibits bacterial cell growth, and thus it is generally considered to constitute an obstacle to the reuse of renewable biomass. In this study, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used to elucidate changes in protein levels in response to formic acid. Fifty-seven differentially expressed proteins in response to formic acid toxicity in S. cerevisiae were identified by 1D-PAGE and nano-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (nano-LC-MS/MS) a...

  12. Characteristics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts exhibiting rough colonies and pseudohyphal morphology with respect to alcoholic fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Reis, Vanda Renata; Bassi, Ana Paula Guarnieri; da Silva, Jessica Carolina Gomes; Ceccato-Antonini, Sandra Regina

    2014-01-01

    Among the native yeasts found in alcoholic fermentation, rough colonies associated with pseudohyphal morphology belonging to the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae are very common and undesirable during the process. The aim of this work was to perform morphological and physiological characterisations of S. cerevisiae strains that exhibited rough and smooth colonies in an attempt to identify alternatives that could contribute to the management of rough colony yeasts in alcoholic fermentation. Ch...

  13. L-Carnosine Affects the Growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a Metabolism-Dependent Manner

    OpenAIRE

    Cartwright, Stephanie P.; Bill, Roslyn M.; Hipkiss, Alan R.

    2012-01-01

    The dipeptide L-carnosine (?-alanyl-L-histidine) has been described as enigmatic: it inhibits growth of cancer cells but delays senescence in cultured human fibroblasts and extends the lifespan of male fruit flies. In an attempt to understand these observations, the effects of L-carnosine on the model eukaryote, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, were examined on account of its unique metabolic properties; S. cerevisiae can respire aerobically, but like some tumor cells, it can also exhibit a metaboli...

  14. Physiological impact and context dependency of transcriptional responses: a chemostat study in Saccharomyces cerevisiae:

    OpenAIRE

    Tai, S.L.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis is a compilation of a four-year PhD project on bakers' yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Since the entire S. cerevisiae genome sequence became available in 1996, DNA-microarray analysis has become a popular high-information-density tool for analyzing gene expression in this important industrial microorganism and model eukaryote. This thesis explores chemostat-based analysis of the transcriptome (the complete set of messenger RNA molecules) as a tool to understand interaction of S....

  15. Transcriptional Responses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Shift from Respiratory and Respirofermentative to Fully Fermentative Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Rintala, Eija; Jouhten, Paula; Toivari, Mervi; Wiebe, Marilyn G.; Maaheimo, Hannu; Penttilä, Merja; Ruohonen, Laura

    2011-01-01

    In industrial fermentations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, transient changes in oxygen concentration commonly occur and it is important to understand the behavior of cells during these changes. Glucose-limited chemostat cultivations were used to study the time-dependent effect of sudden oxygen depletion on the transcriptome of S. cerevisiae cells initially in fully aerobic or oxygen-limited conditions. The overall responses to anaerobic conditions of cells initially in different conditions were...

  16. Low oxygen levels as a trigger for enhancement of respiratory metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Wiebe Marilyn G; Pitkänen Juha-Pekka; Toivari Mervi; Rintala Eija; Ruohonen Laura; Penttilä Merja

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The industrially important yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to grow both in the presence and absence of oxygen. However, the regulation of its metabolism in conditions of intermediate oxygen availability is not well characterised. We assessed the effect of oxygen provision on the transcriptome and proteome of S. cerevisiae in glucose-limited chemostat cultivations in anaerobic and aerobic conditions, and with three intermediate (0.5, 1.0 and 2.8% oxygen) levels of ox...

  17. Optimization of maize starch fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae using pervaporation / Sinethemba Aubrey Nongauza.

    OpenAIRE

    Nongauza, Sinethemba Aubrey

    2010-01-01

    Due to the depletion of petroleum reserves and environmental concerns, bioethanol has been identified as an alternative fuel to petrol. Bioethanol is a fuel of bio-origin derived from renewable biomass. Starch and sugar containing materials are the primary sources of carbon for bioethanol production. Starch is firstly hydrolysed into simple sugars which are later fermented to bioethanol using Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae). The fermentation of sugars to bioethanol is however limited...

  18. Regulation of phospholipid synthesis in phosphatidylserine synthase-deficient (chol) mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Letts, V.A.; Henry, S A

    1985-01-01

    chol mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are deficient in the synthesis of the phospholipid phosphatidylserine owing to lowered activity of the membrane-associated enzyme phosphatidylserine synthase. chol mutants are auxotrophic for ethanolamine or choline and, in the absence of these supplements, cannot synthesize phosphatidylethanolamine or phosphatidylcholine (PC). We exploited these characteristics of the chol mutants to examine the regulation of phospholipid metabolism in S. cerevisiae. ...

  19. Glutatation Transferasas de clase Omega en Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Estudio Bioquímico y Funcional

    OpenAIRE

    Barreto Parra, Lina Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae posseeix dues glutatió transferases (GST) anomenades Gtt1i Gtt2, amb capacitat de conjugar una molècula de glutatió amb el substrat estàndarCDNB. Aquests dos enzims no són clasificables dins de les classes convencionalsdescrites en base a l'estructura de les GST d'eucariotes superiors, encara que guardencerta similitud estructural amb els membres de la classe Zeta. En aquesta memòria esdescriu la caracterització de tres GST de classe Omega en S. cerevisiae anomenadesG...

  20. Identification and Characterization of a Novel Biotin Biosynthesis Gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    WU, HONG; ITO, Kiyoshi; Shimoi, Hitoshi

    2005-01-01

    Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells generally cannot synthesize biotin, a vitamin required for many carboxylation reactions. Although sake yeasts, which are used for Japanese sake brewing, are classified as S. cerevisiae, they do not require biotin for their growth. In this study, we identified a novel open reading frame (ORF) in the genome of one strain of sake yeast that we speculated to be involved in biotin synthesis. Homologs of this gene are widely distributed in the genomes of sake ye...

  1. Coordinate regulation of phospholipid biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: pleiotropically constitutive opi1 mutant.

    OpenAIRE

    Klig, L S; Homann, M J; Carman, G. M.; Henry, S A

    1985-01-01

    Phospholipid metabolism in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae opi1 mutant, which excretes inositol and is constitutive for the biosynthetic enzyme inositol-1-phosphate synthase (M. Greenberg, P. Goldwasser, and S. Henry, Mol. Gen. Genet. 186:157-163, 1982), was examined and compared to that of a wild-type strain. In wild-type S. cerevisiae, the phospholipid composition and the relative rates of synthesis of individual phospholipids change in response to the availability of exogenous supplies of sol...

  2. Adjustment of trehalose metabolism in wine Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains to modify ethanol yields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossouw, D; Heyns, E H; Setati, M E; Bosch, S; Bauer, F F

    2013-09-01

    The ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to efficiently produce high levels of ethanol through glycolysis has been the focus of much scientific and industrial activity. Despite the accumulated knowledge regarding glycolysis, the modification of flux through this pathway to modify ethanol yields has proved difficult. Here, we report on the systematic screening of 66 strains with deletion mutations of genes encoding enzymes involved in central carbohydrate metabolism for altered ethanol yields. Five of these strains showing the most prominent changes in carbon flux were selected for further investigation. The genes were representative of trehalose biosynthesis (TPS1, encoding trehalose-6-phosphate synthase), central glycolysis (TDH3, encoding glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (ZWF1, encoding glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase), and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle (ACO1 and ACO2, encoding aconitase isoforms 1 and 2). Two strains exhibited lower ethanol yields than the wild type (tps1? and tdh3?), while the remaining three showed higher ethanol yields. To validate these findings in an industrial yeast strain, the TPS1 gene was selected as a good candidate for genetic modification to alter flux to ethanol during alcoholic fermentation in wine. Using low-strength promoters active at different stages of fermentation, the expression of the TPS1 gene was slightly upregulated, resulting in a decrease in ethanol production and an increase in trehalose biosynthesis during fermentation. Thus, the mutant screening approach was successful in terms of identifying target genes for genetic modification in commercial yeast strains with the aim of producing lower-ethanol wines. PMID:23793638

  3. Functional Analysis of Free Methionine-R-sulfoxide Reductase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae*S?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Dung Tien; Lee, Byung Cheon; Marino, Stefano M.; Zhang, Yan; Fomenko, Dmitri E.; Kaya, Alaattin; Hacioglu, Elise; Kwak, Geun-Hee; Koc, Ahmet; Kim, Hwa-Young; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2009-01-01

    Methionine sulfoxide reductases (Msrs) are oxidoreductases that catalyze thiol-dependent reduction of oxidized methionines. MsrA and MsrB are the best known Msrs that repair methionine-S-sulfoxide (Met-S-SO) and methionine-R-sulfoxide (Met-R-SO) residues in proteins, respectively. In addition, an Escherichia coli enzyme specific for free Met-R-SO, designated fRMsr, was recently discovered. In this work, we carried out comparative genomic and experimental analyses to examine occurrence, evolution, and function of fRMsr. This protein is present in single copies and two mutually exclusive subtypes in about half of prokaryotes and unicellular eukaryotes but is missing in higher plants and animals. A Saccharomyces cerevisiae fRMsr homolog was found to reduce free Met-R-SO but not free Met-S-SO or dabsyl-Met-R-SO. fRMsr was responsible for growth of yeast cells on Met-R-SO, and the double fRMsr/MsrA mutant could not grow on a mixture of methionine sulfoxides. However, in the presence of methionine, even the triple fRMsr/MsrA/MsrB mutant was viable. In addition, fRMsr deletion strain showed an increased sensitivity to oxidative stress and a decreased life span, whereas overexpression of fRMsr conferred higher resistance to oxidants. Molecular modeling and cysteine residue targeting by thioredoxin pointed to Cys101 as catalytic and Cys125 as resolving residues in yeast fRMsr. These residues as well as a third Cys, resolving Cys91, clustered in the structure, and each was required for the catalytic activity of the enzyme. The data show that fRMsr is the main enzyme responsible for the reduction of free Met-R-SO in S. cerevisiae. PMID:19049972

  4. Expression of GUT1, which encodes glycerol kinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is controlled by the positive regulators Adr1p, Ino2p and Ino4p and the negative regulator Opi1p in a carbon source-dependent fashion.

    OpenAIRE

    Grauslund, M; Lopes, J. M.; Rønnow, B

    1999-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae glycerol utilization is mediated by two enzymes, glycerol kinase (Gut1p) and mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (Gut2p). The carbon source regulation of GUT1 was studied using promoter-reporter gene fusions. The promoter activity was lowest during growth on glucose and highest on the non-fermentable carbon sources, glycerol, ethanol, lactate, acetate and oleic acid. Mutational analysis of the GUT1 promoter region showed that two upstream activation se...

  5. Metabolic phenotypes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants with altered trehalose 6-phosphate dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Thomas; Mtimet, Narjes; Alkim, Ceren; Vax, Amélie; Loret, Marie-Odile; Ullah, Azmat; Gancedo, Carlos; Smits, Gertien J; François, Jean Marie

    2013-09-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, synthesis of T6P (trehalose 6-phosphate) is essential for growth on most fermentable carbon sources. In the present study, the metabolic response to glucose was analysed in mutants with different capacities to accumulate T6P. A mutant carrying a deletion in the T6P synthase encoding gene, TPS1, which had no measurable T6P, exhibited impaired ethanol production, showed diminished plasma membrane H?-ATPase activation, and became rapidly depleted of nearly all adenine nucleotides which were irreversibly converted into inosine. Deletion of the AMP deaminase encoding gene, AMD1, in the tps1 strain prevented inosine formation, but did not rescue energy balance or growth on glucose. Neither the 90%-reduced T6P content observed in a tps1 mutant expressing the Tps1 protein from Yarrowia lipolytica, nor the hyperaccumulation of T6P in the tps2 mutant had significant effects on fermentation rates, growth on fermentable carbon sources or plasma membrane H?-ATPase activation. However, intracellular metabolite dynamics and pH homoeostasis were strongly affected by changes in T6P concentrations. Hyperaccumulation of T6P in the tps2 mutant caused an increase in cytosolic pH and strongly reduced growth rates on non-fermentable carbon sources, emphasizing the crucial role of the trehalose pathway in the regulation of respiratory and fermentative metabolism. PMID:23763276

  6. Antibodies anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ASCA do not differentiate Crohn's disease from celiac disease Anticorpos anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae não diferenciam doença de Crohn de doença celíaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorete Maria da Silva Kotze

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA, considered serologic markers for Crohn's disease, were described in patients with celiac disease, disappearing after a gluten-free diet. OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of ASCA positivity in patients with Crohn's disease and celiac disease in relation to healthy individuals. METHODS: A total of 145 individuals were studied: 36 with Crohn's disease and 52 with celiac disease, that fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for both affections, and 57 healthy individuals for control. The celiac patients were divided as follow: group CeD I at diagnosis (n = 34, group CeD II with gluten-free diet compliance (n = 13 and group CeD III with transgressions to the diet (n = 5. ASCA IgA and IgG were determined by ELISA. RESULTS: With statistical significance, ASCA IgA were positive in Crohn's disease, celiac disease at diagnosis and celiac disease with diet transgressions; ASCA IgG in Crohn's disease and in all groups with celiac disease. CONCLUSIONS: The detection of ASCA in patients with celiac disease allows to suggest that ASCA is not a specific marker for Crohn's disease, but was associated with the inflammation of the small intestine. The increased levels of positive ASCA may be due to genetic factors and increased intestinal permeability.RACIONAL: Anticorpos anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies, considerados marcadores sorológicos para a doença de Crohn, foram descritos em pacientes com doença celíaca, desaparecendo após dieta isenta de glúten. OBJETIVOS: Avaliação da positividade de anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies em pacientes com doença de Crohn e doença celíaca, em relação a indivíduos sadios da mesma área geográfica. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 145 pacientes, 36 com doença de Crohn e 52 com doença celíaca que preencheram os critérios diagnósticos para ambas as afecções, e 57 indivíduos sadios para controle. Os pacientes celíacos foram divididos como segue: ao diagnóstico (grupo doença celíaca I: n = 34, obedientes à dieta isenta de glúten (grupo doença celíaca II: n = 13 e não-aderentes à dieta isenta de glúten (grupo doença celíaca III: n = 5. Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies IgA e IgG foram determinados por ELISA. RESULTADOS: Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies IgA foi positivo na doença de Crohn, nos celíacos ao diagnóstico e nos transgressores à dieta, com significado estatístico. Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies IgG foi positivo na doença de Crohn e em todos os grupos de celíacos, com significado estatístico. CONCLUSÕES: A detecção de anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies em pacientes com doença celíaca permite sugerir que o mesmo não seja marcador específico para a doença de Crohn, mas que esteja associado à inflamação do intestino delgado. A positividade de anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies pode ser decorrente de fatores genéticos e aumento da permeabilidade intestinal.

  7. Antibodies anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ASCA) do not differentiate Crohn's disease from celiac disease / Anticorpos anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae não diferenciam doença de Crohn de doença celíaca

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lorete Maria da Silva, Kotze; Renato Mitsunori, Nisihara; Shirley Ramos da Rosa, Utiyama; Paulo Gustavo, Kotze; Petra Mirella, Theiss; Márcia, Olandoski.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: Anticorpos anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies, considerados marcadores sorológicos para a doença de Crohn, foram descritos em pacientes com doença celíaca, desaparecendo após dieta isenta de glúten. OBJETIVOS: Avaliação da positividade de anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies em p [...] acientes com doença de Crohn e doença celíaca, em relação a indivíduos sadios da mesma área geográfica. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 145 pacientes, 36 com doença de Crohn e 52 com doença celíaca que preencheram os critérios diagnósticos para ambas as afecções, e 57 indivíduos sadios para controle. Os pacientes celíacos foram divididos como segue: ao diagnóstico (grupo doença celíaca I: n = 34), obedientes à dieta isenta de glúten (grupo doença celíaca II: n = 13) e não-aderentes à dieta isenta de glúten (grupo doença celíaca III: n = 5). Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies IgA e IgG foram determinados por ELISA. RESULTADOS: Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies IgA foi positivo na doença de Crohn, nos celíacos ao diagnóstico e nos transgressores à dieta, com significado estatístico. Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies IgG foi positivo na doença de Crohn e em todos os grupos de celíacos, com significado estatístico. CONCLUSÕES: A detecção de anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies em pacientes com doença celíaca permite sugerir que o mesmo não seja marcador específico para a doença de Crohn, mas que esteja associado à inflamação do intestino delgado. A positividade de anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies pode ser decorrente de fatores genéticos e aumento da permeabilidade intestinal. Abstract in english CONTEXT: Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA), considered serologic markers for Crohn's disease, were described in patients with celiac disease, disappearing after a gluten-free diet. OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of ASCA positivity in patients with Crohn's disease and celiac disease in relation [...] to healthy individuals. METHODS: A total of 145 individuals were studied: 36 with Crohn's disease and 52 with celiac disease, that fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for both affections, and 57 healthy individuals for control. The celiac patients were divided as follow: group CeD I at diagnosis (n = 34), group CeD II with gluten-free diet compliance (n = 13) and group CeD III with transgressions to the diet (n = 5). ASCA IgA and IgG were determined by ELISA. RESULTS: With statistical significance, ASCA IgA were positive in Crohn's disease, celiac disease at diagnosis and celiac disease with diet transgressions; ASCA IgG in Crohn's disease and in all groups with celiac disease. CONCLUSIONS: The detection of ASCA in patients with celiac disease allows to suggest that ASCA is not a specific marker for Crohn's disease, but was associated with the inflammation of the small intestine. The increased levels of positive ASCA may be due to genetic factors and increased intestinal permeability.

  8. The HOG pathway controls osmotic regulation of transcription via the stress response element (STRE) of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CTT1 gene.

    OpenAIRE

    Schüller, C.; Brewster, J L; Alexander, M. R.; Gustin, M C; Ruis, H.

    1994-01-01

    The HOG signal pathway of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is defined by the PBS2 and HOG1 genes encoding members of the MAP kinase kinase and of the MAP kinase family, respectively. Mutations in this pathway (deletions of PBS2 or HOG1, or point mutations in HOG1) almost completely abolish the induction of transcription by osmotic stress that is mediated by stress response elements (STREs). We have demonstrated previously that STREs also mediate induction of transcription by heat shock, nit...

  9. Mutational analysis reveals a role for the C terminus of the proteasome subunit Rpt4p in spindle pole body duplication in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Heather B.; Helfant, Astrid Hoes; Mahony, Erin M; Khosla, Shaun K; Goetsch, Loretta

    2002-01-01

    The ubiquitin/proteasome pathway plays a key role in regulating cell cycle progression. Previously, we reported that a conditional mutation in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene RPT4/PCS1, which encodes one of six ATPases in the proteasome 19S cap complex/regulatory particle (RP), causes failure of spindle pole body (SPB) duplication. To improve our understanding of Rpt4p, we created 58 new mutations, 53 of which convert clustered, charged residues to alanine. Virtually all mutations that affe...

  10. Effect of intron mutations on processing and function of Saccharomyces cerevisiae SUP53 tRNA in vitro and in vivo.

    OpenAIRE

    Strobel, M C; Abelson, J.

    1986-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae leucine-inserting amber suppressor tRNA gene SUP53 (a tRNALeu3 allele) was used to investigate the relationship between precursor tRNA structure and mature tRNA function. This gene encodes a pre-tRNA which contains a 32-base intron. The mature tRNASUP53 contains a 5-methylcytosine modification of the anticodon wobble base. Mutations were made in the SUP53 intron. These mutant genes were transcribed in an S. cerevisiae nuclear extract preparation. In this extract, ...

  11. Determinação de isotermas de adsorção de Saccharomyces cerevisiae empregando acetato e sulfato de cádmio Cadmium adsorption isotherms by Saccharomyces cerevisiae using cadmiun acetate and sulphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Albertini

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Para determinar as isotermas de adsorção de cádmio por Saccharomyces cerevisiae, foram utilizados os sais acetato e sulfato de cádmio, nas concentrações de 5; 10; 20; 40; 60; 80 e 100 mg.L-1. A biomassa foi produzida a partir de uma cultura "starter" de Saccharomyces cerevisiae IZ 1904. Após o contato de 16 horas entre o microrganismo em estudo e as soluções teste, a biomassa foi separada por centrifugação e o teor de cádmio residual foi determinado por espectrofotometria de absorção atômica diretamente no sobrenadante. Os dois sais testados demonstraram acúmulo crescente do metal nas concentrações de 5; 10; 20 e 40 mg.L-1. Porém, nas concentrações de 60; 80 e 100 mg.L-1, foi observado um acúmulo decrescente do metal, mostrando assim danos da parede celular, nem sempre evidenciados em nível de membrana citoplasmática, visualizados por microscopia eletrônica de varredura.To determine the isotherms of the adsorption of cadmium for Saccharomyces cerevisiae, acetate and sulphate salts were used at the concentrations of 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 mg.L-1. The biomass was produced from a starter culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae IZ 1904. After the contact of 16 hours among the microrganism study and the solution-test, the biomass was separated by a centrifugation and the cadmium residue content was determined directly in the supernatant by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. For the two salts which were used, a growing accumulation of cadmium was observed at concentrations of 5, 10, 20, and 40 mg.L-1. In the concentrations of 60; 80 and 100 mg.L-1 a decrease in the accumulation of the metal was observed, showing damage to the cellular wall, not always observed at the membrane citoplasmatic's level, visualized by a scanning electron microscopy.

  12. Saccharomyces kudriavzevii and Saccharomyces uvarum differ from Saccharomyces cerevisiae during the production of aroma-active higher alcohols and acetate esters using their amino acidic precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stribny, Jiri; Gamero, Amparo; Pérez-Torrado, Roberto; Querol, Amparo

    2015-07-16

    Higher alcohols and acetate esters are important flavour and aroma components in the food industry. In alcoholic beverages these compounds are produced by yeast during fermentation. Although Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the most extensively used species, other species of the Saccharomyces genus have become common in fermentation processes. This study analyses and compares the production of higher alcohols and acetate esters from their amino acidic precursors in three Saccharomyces species: Saccharomyces kudriavzevii, Saccharomyces uvarum and S. cerevisiae. The global volatile compound analysis revealed that S. kudriavzevii produced large amounts of higher alcohols, whereas S. uvarum excelled in the production of acetate esters. Particularly from phenylalanine, S. uvarum produced the largest amounts of 2-phenylethyl acetate, while S. kudriavzevii obtained the greatest 2-phenylethanol formation from this precursor. The present data indicate differences in the amino acid metabolism and subsequent production of flavour-active higher alcohols and acetate esters among the closely related Saccharomyces species. This knowledge will prove useful for developing new enhanced processes in fragrance, flavour, and food industries. PMID:25886016

  13. Engineering of carbon catabolite repression in recombinant xylose fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roca, Christophe Francois Aime; Haack, Martin Brian; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2004-01-01

    Two xylose-fermenting glucose-derepressed Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were constructed in order to investigate the influence of carbon catabolite repression on xylose metabolism. S. cerevisiae CPB.CR2 (Deltamig1, XYL1, XYL2, XKS1) and CPB.MBH2 (Deltamig1, Deltamig2, XYL1, XYL2, XKS1) were...... analysed for changes in xylose consumption rate and ethanol production rate during anaerobic batch and chemostat cultivations on a mixture of 20 g l(-1) glucose and 50 g l(-1) xylose, and their characteristics were compared to the parental strain S. cerevisiae TMB3001 (XYL1, XYL2, XKS1). Improvement of...

  14. Viabilidade celular de Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultivada em associação com bactérias contaminantes da fermentação alcoólica / Cellular viability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultivated in association with contaminant bacteria of alcoholic fermentation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Thais de Paula, Nobre; Jorge, Horii; André Ricardo, Alcarde.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a influência de bactérias dos gêneros Bacillus e Lactobacillus, bem como de seus produtos metabólicos, na redução da viabilidade celular de leveduras Saccharomyces cerevisiae. As bactérias Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus stearothermophilus, Lacto [...] bacillus fermentum e Lactobacillus plantarum foram cultivadas em associação com a levedura S. cerevisiae (cepa Y-904) por 72 horas a 32 °C, sob agitação. A viabilidade celular, a taxa de brotamento e a população de células de S. cerevisiae e a acidez total, a acidez volátil e o pH dos meios de cultivos foram determinados às 0, 24, 48 e 72 horas do cultivo misto. As culturas de bactérias foram tratadas através do calor, de agente antimicrobiano e de irradiação. Os resultados mostraram que apenas os meios de cultivo mais acidificados, contaminados com as bactérias ativas L. fermentum e B. subtilis, provocaram redução na viabilidade celular de S. cerevisiae. Excetuando a bactéria B. subtilis tratada com radiação gama, as demais bactérias tratadas pelos diferentes processos (calor, irradiação e antimicrobiano) não causaram diminuição da viabilidade celular e da população de S. cerevisiae, indicando que a presença isolada dos metabólitos celulares dessas bactérias não foi suficiente para reduzir a porcentagem de células vivas de S. cerevisiae. Abstract in english The aim of this project was to study the influence of the bacteria Bacillus and Lactobacillus, as well as their metabolic products to decrease the cellular viability of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus stearothermophilus, Lactobacillus [...] fermentum and Lactobacillus plantarum were cultivated in association with yeast S. cerevisiae (strain Y-904) for 72 hours at 32 ºC under agitation. The cellular viability, budding rate and population of S. Cerevisiae and the total acidity, volatile acidity and pH of culture medium were determined at 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours of incubation of the mixed culture. The bacteria cultures were treated by heat sterilization, antibacterial agent and irradiation. The results showed that only the more acidified culture medium, contaminated with active bacteria L. fermentum and B. subtilis, caused a reduction in the yeast cellular viability. Except for the bacteria B. subtilis treated for radiation, the other bacteria treated by the different procedures (heat, radiation and antibacterial) did not cause a reduction in the cellular viability of S. cerevisiae, indicating that the isolated presence of the cellular metabolic of these bacteria was not enough to reduce the percentage of the living yeast cells.

  15. Growth and fermentation characteristics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae NK28 isolated from kiwi fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Sub; Park, Eun-Hee; Kim, Jung-Wan; Yeo, Soo-Hwan; Kim, Myoung-Dong

    2013-09-28

    The influences of glucose concentration, initial medium acidity (pH), and temperature on the growth and ethanol production of Saccharomyces cerevisiae NK28, which was isolated from kiwi fruit, were examined in shake flask cultures. The optimal glucose concentration, initial medium pH, and temperature for ethanol production were 200 g/l, pH 6.0, and 35oC, respectively. Under this growth condition, S. cerevisiae NK28 produced 98.9 ± 5.67 g/l ethanol in 24 h with a volumetric ethanol production rate of 4.12 ± 0.24 g/l·h. S. cerevisiae NK28 was more tolerant to heat and ethanol than laboratory strain S. cerevisiae BY4742, and its tolerance to ethanol and fermentation inhibitors was comparable to that of an ethanologen, S. cerevisiae D5A. PMID:23893096

  16. Production of miltiradiene by metabolically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhubo; Liu, Yi; Huang, Luqi; Zhang, Xueli

    2012-11-01

    Metabolic engineering of microorganisms is an alternative and attractive route for production of valuable terpenoids that are usually extracted from plant sources. Tanshinones are the bioactive components of Salvia miltiorrhizha Bunge, which is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine widely used for treatment of many cardiovascular diseases. As a step toward microbial production of tanshinones, copalyl diphosphate (CPP) synthase, and normal CPP kaurene synthase-like genes, which convert the universal diterpenoid precursor geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) to miltiradiene (an important intermediate of the tanshinones synthetic pathway), was introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae, resulting in production of 4.2?mg/L miltiradiene. Improving supplies of isoprenoid precursors was then investigated for increasing miltiradiene production. Although over-expression of a truncated 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (tHMGR) and a mutated global regulatory factor (upc2.1) gene did improve supply of farnesyl diphosphate (FPP), production of miltiradiene was not increased while large amounts of squalene (78?mg/L) were accumulated. In contrast, miltiradiene production increased to 8.8?mg/L by improving supply of GGPP through over-expression of a fusion gene of FPP synthase (ERG20) and endogenous GGPP synthase (BTS1) together with a heterologous GGPP synthase from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius (SaGGPS). Auxotrophic markers in the episomal plasmids were then replaced by antibiotic markers, so that engineered yeast strains could use rich medium to obtain better cell growth while keeping plasmid stabilities. Over-expressing ERG20-BTS1 and SaGGPS genes increased miltiradiene production from 5.4 to 28.2?mg/L. Combinatorial over-expression of tHMGR-upc2.1 and ERG20-BTS1-SaGGPS genes had a synergetic effects on miltiradiene production, increasing titer to 61.8?mg/L. Finally, fed-batch fermentation was performed, and 488?mg/L miltiradiene was produced. The yeast strains engineered in this work provide a basis for creating an alternative way for production of tanshinones in place of extraction from plant sources. PMID:22566191

  17. Crystal structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase Gnd1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Cong-Zhao

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As the third enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH is the main generator of cellular NADPH. Both thioredoxin reductase and glutathione reductase require NADPH as the electron donor to reduce oxidized thioredoxin or glutathione (GSSG. Since thioredoxin and GSH are important antioxidants, it is not surprising that 6PGDH plays a critical role in protecting cells from oxidative stress. Furthermore the activity of 6PGDH is associated with several human disorders including cancer and Alzheimer's disease. The 3D structural investigation would be very valuable in designing small molecules that target this enzyme for potential therapeutic applications. Results The crystal structure of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH/Gnd1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been determined at 2.37 Å resolution by molecular replacement. The overall structure of Gnd1 is a homodimer with three domains for each monomer, a Rossmann fold NADP+ binding domain, an all-? helical domain contributing the majority to hydrophobic interaction between the two subunits and a small C-terminal domain penetrating the other subunit. In addition, two citrate molecules occupied the 6PG binding pocket of each monomer. The intact Gnd1 had a Km of 50 ± 9 ?M for 6-phosphogluconate and of 35 ± 6 ?M for NADP+ at pH 7.5. But the truncated mutants without the C-terminal 35, 39 or 53 residues of Gnd1 completely lost their 6PGDH activity, despite remaining the homodimer in solution. Conclusion The overall tertiary structure of Gnd1 is similar to those of 6PGDH from other species. The substrate and coenzyme binding sites are well conserved, either from the primary sequence alignment, or from the 3D structural superposition. Enzymatic activity assays suggest a sequential mechanism of catalysis, which is in agreement with previous studies. The C-terminal domain of Gnd1 functions as a hook to further tighten the dimer, but it is not necessary for the dimerization. This domain also works as a lid on the substrate binding pocket to control the binding of substrate and the release of product, so it is indispensable for the 6PGDH activity. Moreover, the co-crystallized citrate molecules, which mimic the binding mode of the substrate 6-phosphogluconate, provided us a novel strategy to design the 6PDGH inhibitors.

  18. LACTIC ACID PRODUCTION BY SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE EXPRESSING A RHIZOPUS ORYZAE LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE GENE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This work demonstrates the first example of a fungal LDH expressed in yeast. A L(+)-lactate dehydrogenase gene, ldhA, from the filamentous fungus Rhizopus oryzae was modified to be expressed under control of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae adhl promoter and terminator, then placed in a 2 micron contai...

  19. Implementation of Sliding Mode Controller with Boundary Layer for Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fed-batch Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoyan Tzonkov

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available An implementation of sliding mode control for yeast fed-batch cultivation is presented in this paper. Developed controller has been implemented on two real fed-batch cultivations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The controller successfully stabilizes the process and shows a very good performance at high input disturbances.

  20. Fermentation performance and intracellular metabolite patterns in laboratory and industrial xylose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaldivar, Jesus; Borges, A.; Johansson, B.; Smits, Hans Peter; Villas-Boas, S.G.; Nielsen, Jens; Olsson, Lisbeth

    Heterologous genes for xylose utilization were introduced into an industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae, strain A, with the aim of producing fuel ethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks. Two transformants, A4 and A6, were evaluated by comparing the performance in 4-1 anaerobic batch cultivations to...

  1. Enzymes of phosphoinositide synthesis in secretory vesicles destined for the plasma membrane in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Kinney, A J; Carman, G M

    1990-01-01

    CDP-diacylglycerol synthase, phosphatidylinositol synthase, and phosphatidylinositol kinase activities were associated with post-Golgi apparatus secretory vesicles destined for the plasma membrane of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These results suggest that the plasma membrane is capable of synthesizing both CDP-diacylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol as well as phosphorylating phosphatidylinositol.

  2. Chromosomal integration of recombinant alpha-amylase and glucoamylase genes in saccharomyces cerevisiae for starch conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recombinant constructs of barley '-amylase and Lentinula edodes glucoamylase genes were integrated into the chromosomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The insertion was confirmed by PCR amplification of the gene sequence in the chromosomes. The expression was analyzed by SDS-PAGE of the enzymes puri...

  3. Physical evidence for a Saccharomyces cerevisiae transposable element which carries the his4C gene.

    OpenAIRE

    de Bruijn, F.; Greer, H

    1981-01-01

    A Saccharomyces cerevisiae transposable element which carries the his4C structural gene and which is capable of transposition, excision, and mutator activity is described. Physical evidence is presented for transposition of the his4C deoxyribonucleic acid sequences to a new location in the genome and for precise excision of these transposed deoxyribonucleic acid sequences in spontaneous his4C- segregants.

  4. The uptake of different iron salts by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernanda, Gaensly; Geraldo, Picheth; Debora, Brand; Tania M.B., Bonfim.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Yeasts can be enriched with microelements, including iron; however, special physicochemical conditions are required to formulate a culture media that promotes both yeast growth and iron uptake. Different iron sources do not affect biomass formation; however, considering efficacy, cost, stability, an [...] d compatibility with Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolism, ferrous sulphate is recommended.

  5. Identification of novel functional domains of Rad52 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Plate, Iben

    2006-01-01

    Reparation af DNA dobbeltstrengsbrud (DSB) er vigtig for opretholdelse af genetisk stabilitet. Manglende eller fejlagtig reparation af DNA DSB medfører genetisk ustabilitet, hvilket i højere eukaryoter kan føre til kræftudvikling. DNA DSB repareres blandt andet ved hjælp af homolog rekombination, som er den foretrukne reparationsmekanisme i bagegæren Saccharomyces cerevisiae, som derfor ofte anvendes som modelorganisme til at studere homolog rekombination. Reparationsvejen homolog rekombinati...

  6. Large-scale evaluation of in silico gene deletions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Förster, Jochen; Famili, Iman; Palsson, Bernhard Ø; Nielsen, Jens

    2003-01-01

    A large-scale in silico evaluation of gene deletions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was conducted using a genome-scale reconstructed metabolic model. The effect of 599 single gene deletions on cell viability was simulated in silico and compared to published experimental results. In 526 cases (87.8%)...

  7. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of citrus peel waste by Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of limonene concentration, enzyme loading, and pH on ethanol production from simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of citrus peel waste by Saccharomyces cerevisiae were studied at 37 C. Prior to SSF, citrus peel waste underwent a steam explosion process combined with fla...

  8. Increased isobutanol production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by overexpression of genes in valine metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xiao; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Borodina, Irina; Kielland-Brandt, Morten; Karhumaa, Kaisa

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Isobutanol can be a better biofuel than ethanol due to its higher energy density and lower hygroscopicity. Furthermore, the branched-chain structure of isobutanol gives a higher octane number than the isomeric n-butanol. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was chosen as the production host because...

  9. Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4741 and W303-1A laboratory strains differ in salt tolerance.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrezsélyová, Silvia; Zahrádka, Jaromír; Sychrová, Hana

    2010-01-01

    Ro?. 114, 2-3 (2010), s. 144-150. ISSN 1878-6146 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC531; GA ?R(CZ) GA204/08/0354 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : Saccharomyces cerevisiae * salt tolerance * potassium homeostasis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  10. Long-term developmernt of Saccharomyces cerevisiae colonies: Chaugs in stress factors.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Váchová, Libuše; Devaux, F.; Ku?erová, Helena; ?i?icová, M.; Palková, Z.

    Sweden, 2003, s. 197. [International Conference on Yeast Genetics and Molecular Biology /11./. Goteborg (SE), 07.07.2003-12.07.2003] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA204/02/0650 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM 113100003 Keywords : saccharomyces * cerevisiae * colonies Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  11. Functional States Recognition System for Fed-batch Cultivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pencheva T.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Free software for entering and documenting data EpiData is here used for design of a system for functional states recognition during a fermentation process. The identification of the current process state is based on the predetermined rules, rendering specific metabolic mechanisms. Developed system is further applied for a fed-batch cultivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  12. Functional States Recognition System for Fed-batch Cultivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Pencheva T.; Ljakova K.

    2008-01-01

    Free software for entering and documenting data EpiData is here used for design of a system for functional states recognition during a fermentation process. The identification of the current process state is based on the predetermined rules, rendering specific metabolic mechanisms. Developed system is further applied for a fed-batch cultivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  13. Degradation of Specific Nuclear Proteins Occurs in the Cytoplasm in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Li; Madura, Kiran

    2014-01-01

    The ubiquitin/proteasome system has been characterized extensively, although the site of nuclear substrate turnover has not been established definitively. We report here that two well-characterized nuclear proteins are stabilized in nuclear export mutants in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The requirement for nuclear export defines a new regulatory step in intracellular proteolysis.

  14. Engineering Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce feruloyl esterase for the release of ferulic acid from switchgrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Aspergillus niger ferulic acid esterase gene (faeA) was cloned into Saccharomyces cerevisiae via a yeast expression vector, resulting in efficient expression and secretion of the enzyme in the medium. The recombinant enzyme was purified to homogeneity by anion-exchange and hydrophobic interactio...

  15. Lipid Raft-Based Membrane Compartmentation of a Plant Transport Protein Expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grossmann, Q.; Opekarová, Miroslava; Nováková, L.; Stolz, J.; Tanner, W.

    2006-01-01

    Ro?. 5, ?. 6 (2006), s. 945-953. ISSN 1535-9778 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC545 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : saccharomyces cerevisiae * plant transport protein * hup1 Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.707, year: 2006

  16. Investigation of the effect of water exposed to nonequilibrium contact plasma onto saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mykolenko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Additional treatment of water by nonequilibrium contact plasma allows improving consumer characteristics of bakery goods considerably. Determination of the effect of plasma-chemically activated water on morphological, cultural and physiological properties of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast is important from the technological point of view. Materials and Methods. Experimental investigations were carried out in the conditions of bacteriological laboratory by seeding the culture of yeasts of ?? “Lvivski” and “Kryvorizki” on Sabouraud dense liquid nutrient media. The quantity of viable cells of microorganisms was determined by the method of Gould sector seeds. Morphology of the yeast was investigated by phase-contrast microscopy. Biotechnological properties of yeasts were determined on Giss media. Results. The paper establishes the effect of water exposed to nonequilibrium contact plasma on the sensitivity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and shows absence of suppressive action of treated water with regard to cultural properties of microorganisms. The experiments prove that with the use of plasma-chemically activated water morphological characteristics and biochemical properties of bakery yeasts produced by Lviv and Kryvyi Rig yeast plants are preserved. Culturing of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast on the nutrient media prepared with the use of water exposed to nonequilibrium contact plasm resulted in 6,5–15 times’ increase in quantity of viable microorganisms compared with the control on the mains drinking water. Conclusions. Physiological properties of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast improved owing to use water exposed to nonequilibrium contact plasma. Results of investigations are recommended for using in yeast production and bread making.

  17. Mating ability during chemically induced G1 arrest of cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Bedard, D P; Li, A W; Singer, R. A.; Johnston, G. C.

    1984-01-01

    Diploid formation by haploid cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was tested during and after treatment with chemical agents which bring about arrest at the cell cycle regulatory step "start." All compounds, except sinefungin, allowed efficient mating. During sinefungin treatment, zygote formation, but not karyogamy, was affected.

  18. Increased isobutanol production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by overexpression of genes in valine metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karhumaa Kaisa

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Isobutanol can be a better biofuel than ethanol due to its higher energy density and lower hygroscopicity. Furthermore, the branched-chain structure of isobutanol gives a higher octane number than the isomeric n-butanol. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was chosen as the production host because of its relative tolerance to alcohols, robustness in industrial fermentations, and the possibility for future combination of isobutanol production with fermentation of lignocellulosic materials. Results The yield of isobutanol was improved from 0.16 to 0.97 mg per g glucose by simultaneous overexpression of biosynthetic genes ILV2, ILV3, and ILV5 in valine metabolism in anaerobic fermentation of glucose in mineral medium in S. cerevisiae. Isobutanol yield was further improved by twofold by the additional overexpression of BAT2, encoding the cytoplasmic branched-chain amino-acid aminotransferase. Overexpression of ILV6, encoding the regulatory subunit of Ilv2, in the ILV2 ILV3 ILV5 overexpression strain decreased isobutanol production yield by threefold. In aerobic cultivations in shake flasks in mineral medium, the isobutanol yield of the ILV2 ILV3 ILV5 overexpression strain and the reference strain were 3.86 and 0.28 mg per g glucose, respectively. They increased to 4.12 and 2.4 mg per g glucose in yeast extract/peptone/dextrose (YPD complex medium under aerobic conditions, respectively. Conclusions Overexpression of genes ILV2, ILV3, ILV5, and BAT2 in valine metabolism led to an increase in isobutanol production in S. cerevisiae. Additional overexpression of ILV6 in the ILV2 ILV3 ILV5 overexpression strain had a negative effect, presumably by increasing the sensitivity of Ilv2 to valine inhibition, thus weakening the positive impact of overexpression of ILV2, ILV3, and ILV5 on isobutanol production. Aerobic cultivations of the ILV2 ILV3 ILV5 overexpression strain and the reference strain showed that supplying amino acids in cultivation media gave a substantial improvement in isobutanol production for the reference strain, but not for the ILV2 ILV3 ILV5 overexpression strain. This result implies that other constraints besides the enzyme activities for the supply of 2-ketoisovalerate may become bottlenecks for isobutanol production after ILV2, ILV3, and ILV5 have been overexpressed, which most probably includes the valine inhibition to Ilv2.

  19. Increased isobutanol production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by overexpression of genes in valine metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xiao; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Isobutanol can be a better biofuel than ethanol due to its higher energy density and lower hygroscopicity. Furthermore, the branched-chain structure of isobutanol gives a higher octane number than the isomeric n-butanol. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was chosen as the production host because of its relative tolerance to alcohols, robustness in industrial fermentations, and the possibility for future combination of isobutanol production with fermentation of lignocellulosic materials. RESULTS: The yield of isobutanol was improved from 0.16 to 0.97 mg per g glucose by simultaneous overexpression of biosynthetic genes ILV2, ILV3, and ILV5 in valine metabolism in anaerobic fermentation of glucose in mineral medium in S. cerevisiae. Isobutanol yield was further improved by twofold by the additional overexpression of BAT2, encoding the cytoplasmic branched-chain amino-acid aminotransferase. Overexpression of ILV6, encoding the regulatory subunit of Ilv2, in the ILV2 ILV3 ILV5 overexpression strain decreased isobutanol production yield by threefold. In aerobic cultivations in shake flasks in mineral medium, the isobutanol yield of the ILV2 ILV3 ILV5 overexpression strain and the reference strain were 3.86 and 0.28 mg per g glucose, respectively. They increased to 4.12 and 2.4 mg per g glucose in yeast extract/peptone/dextrose (YPD) complex medium under aerobic conditions, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Overexpression of genes ILV2, ILV3, ILV5, and BAT2 in valine metabolism led to an increase in isobutanol production in S. cerevisiae. Additional overexpression of ILV6 in the ILV2 ILV3 ILV5 overexpression strain had a negative effect, presumably by increasing the sensitivity of Ilv2 to valine inhibition, thus weakening the positive impact of overexpression of ILV2, ILV3, and ILV5 on isobutanol production. Aerobic cultivations of the ILV2 ILV3 ILV5 overexpression strain and the reference strain showed that supplying amino acids in cultivation media gave a substantial improvement in isobutanol production for the referencestrain, but not for the ILV2 ILV3 ILV5 overexpression strain. This result implies that other constraints besides the enzyme activities for the supply of 2-ketoisovalerate may become bottlenecks for isobutanol production after ILV2, ILV3, and ILV5 have been overexpressed, which most probably includes the valine inhibition to Ilv2.

  20. KONSTRUKSI MUTAN PROTEIN FOSFATASE ptc2D Saccharomyces cerevisiae DENGAN METODE PENGGANTIAN GEN TARGET DENGAN POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermansyah

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an excellent model to studi genes function of eukarotic cells such as study of gene encoding protein phosphatase PTC2. Novel phenotypic caused by mutated gene is an important step to study function of gene. In this study constructed mutant of PTC2 gene encoding protein phosphatase. Method that used in this construction was replacement of target gene (PTC2 with auxotroph marker Candida albicans HIS3 by Polymer Chain Reaction (PCR or called by PCR-mediated disruption. Mutant colonies which grew in selective medium SC without histidine were confirmed by PCR amplification. By using 1% Agarose gel electrophoresis the result showed that size of ptc2D::CgHIS3 transformant was 3.52 kb while wild type strain was 2.9 kb, indicated that ptc2D::CgHIS3 has integrated on chromosome V replacing PTC2 wild type.

  1. Expresión heteróloga de un péptido multiepitópico de células B de M. tuberculosis en Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María de los Angeles, García; María Elena, Sarmiento; Roberto, Coria; Laura, Kawasaky; Laura, Ongay; Juan Francisco, de la Rosa; Armando, Acosta.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae ha sido ampliamente utilizada como sistema de expresión de proteínas heterólogas. El presente trabajo se encaminó hacia la expresión en Saccharomyces cerevisiae de un péptido de epitopes múltiples de M. tuberculosis. Con dicho propósito el péptido quimérico denominado B2 fue [...] clonado en dos vectores de expresión de esta levadura con promotores regulables por galactosa y sulfato cúprico, respectivamente. Luego de los experimentos de inducción, la expresión del péptido B2 fue analizada mediante SDS/PAGE y Western blot. El análisis por Western blot confirmó la expresión del péptido B2, al hacerse la inducción con 100 mM de CuSO4 durante toda la noche. No ocurrió así en los experimentos donde se utilizó la galactosa como inductor con todas las condiciones ensayadas. Estos resultados muestran que la levadura Saccharomyces cerevisiae pudiera ser un buen hospedero alternativo para la expresión de péptidos multiepitópicos de M. tuberculosis. Abstract in english Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been widely used as expression system of heterologous proteins. The aim of the present work was the expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae of a class B multiepitopic peptide from M. tuberculosis. For this purpose, the chimerical peptide named B2 was cloned in two yeast e [...] xpression vectors containing galactose and cupric sulphate regulated promoters, respectively. After induction experiments, B2 expression was analyzed by SDS/PAGE and Western Blot. By Western Blot analysis B2 expression was confirmed when induction took place overnight with 100 mM of CuSO4. No expression signal took place when galactose was used as inductor. These results show that Sacchromyces cervisiae could be a good alternative host for the expression of multiepitopic peptides from M. tuberculosis.

  2. Improvement of oxidized glutathione fermentation by thiol redox metabolism engineering in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Kiyotaka Y; Aoki, Naoko; Kobayashi, Jyumpei; Kiriyama, Kentaro; Nishida, Keiji; Araki, Michihiro; Kondo, Akihiko

    2015-11-01

    Glutathione is a valuable tripeptide widely used in the pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries. In industrial fermentation, glutathione is currently produced primarily using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Intracellular glutathione exists in two forms; the majority is present as reduced glutathione (GSH) and a small amount is present as oxidized glutathione (GSSG). However, GSSG is more stable than GSH and is a more attractive form for the storage of glutathione extracted from yeast cells after fermentation. In this study, intracellular GSSG content was improved by engineering thiol oxidization metabolism in yeast. An engineered strain producing high amounts of glutathione from over-expression of glutathione synthases and lacking glutathione reductase was used as a platform strain. Additional over-expression of thiol oxidase (1.8.3.2) genes ERV1 or ERO1 increased the GSSG content by 2.9-fold and 2.0-fold, respectively, compared with the platform strain, without decreasing cell growth. However, over-expression of thiol oxidase gene ERV2 showed almost no effect on the GSSG content. Interestingly, ERO1 over-expression did not decrease the GSH content, raising the total glutathione content of the cell, but ERV1 over-expression decreased the GSH content, balancing the increase in the GSSG content. Furthermore, the increase in the GSSG content due to ERO1 over-expression was enhanced by additional over-expression of the gene encoding Pdi1, whose reduced form activates Ero1 in the endoplasmic reticulum. These results indicate that engineering the thiol redox metabolism of S. cerevisiae improves GSSG and is critical to increasing the total productivity and stability of glutathione. PMID:26239069

  3. Radiosensitivity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae W303-1A and BY4741 Strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ji Young; Kim, Jin Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Nili, Mohammad [Dawnesh Radiation Research Institute, Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-05-15

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a simple eukaryotic cell, has been widely used as a model for all eukaryotes including humans for the study of fundamental cellular processes such as DNA replication, DNA recombination, cell cycle, cell division and metabolism. Numerous laboratory strains are used in yeast research. Most of the mutants have been derived from the two widely used laboratory strains W303-1A and BY4741. While BY4741 is a derivative of S288C, used in the systematic sequencing of the S. cerevisiae genome, strains with a W303 background serve in many physiological and biochemical studies. It was found in a recent study that W303-1A contains a mutant allele of YBP1, ybp1-1, encoding four amino acid substitutions, that results in increased peroxide sensitivity. Mutation of ybp1-1 is not a complete loss of function allele as it is more resistant to peroxides than the knock-out mutant. Ybp1 is required for oxidation of specific cysteine residues of the transcription factor Yap1p resulting in the nuclear localization of Yap1p in response to stress. Ionizing radiation (IR) can produce highly reactive hydroxyl radicals through the decomposition of cellular water, such as superoxide anion radical, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical. These reactive oxygen species (ROS) can cause wide-ranging cellular damage, including DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), lipid peroxidation, and protein modification. Also, ROS produced by IR cause oxidative stress. Detoxification enzymes are activated for ROS scavenging against oxidative stress. Also, antioxidants are used for detoxification of ROS and reduction of oxidative damage. NAC, one of the antioxidants, is a precursor for glutathione (GSH). The aim of the present study was to compare the differences in radiosensitivity associated cell viability between the two strains. Also, effect of NAC against IR on cell protection was investigated

  4. A Novel Recombinant DNA System for High Efficiency Affinity Purification of Proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian H. Carrick

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Isolation of endogenous proteins from Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been facilitated by inserting encoding polypeptide affinity tags at the C-termini of chromosomal open reading frames (ORFs using homologous recombination of DNA fragments. Tagged protein isolation is limited by a number of factors, including high cost of affinity resins for bulk isolation and low concentration of ligands on the resin surface, leading to low isolation efficiencies and trapping of contaminants. To address this, we have created a recombinant “CelTag” DNA construct from which PCR fragments can be created to easily tag C-termini of S. cerevisiae ORFs using selection for a nat1 marker. The tag has a C-terminal cellulose binding module to be used in the first affinity step. Microgranular cellulose is very inexpensive and has an effectively continuous ligand on its surface, allowing rapid, highly efficient purification with minimal background. Cellulose-bound proteins are released by specific cleavage of an included site for TEV protease, giving nearly pure product. The tag can be lifted from the recombinant DNA construct either with or without a 13x myc epitope tag between the target ORF and the TEV protease site. Binding of CelTag protein fusions to cellulose is stable to high salt, nonionic detergents, and 1 M urea, allowing stringent washing conditions to remove loosely associated components, as needed, before specific elution. It is anticipated that this reagent could allow isolation of protein complexes from large quantities of yeast extract, including soluble, membrane-bound, or nucleic acid-associated assemblies.

  5. Transcription of hexose transporters of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is affected by change in oxygen provision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruohonen Laura

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The gene family of hexose transporters in Saccharomyces cerevisiae consists of 20 members; 18 genes encoding transporters (HXT1-HXT17, GAL2 and two genes encoding sensors (SNF3, RGT2. The effect of oxygen provision on the expression of these genes was studied in glucose-limited chemostat cultivations (D = 0.10 h-1, pH 5, 30°C. Transcript levels were measured from cells grown in five steady state oxygen levels (0, 0.5, 1, 2.8 and 20.9% O2, and from cells under conditions in which oxygen was introduced to anaerobic cultures or removed from cultures receiving oxygen. Results The expression pattern of the HXT gene family was distinct in cells grown under aerobic, hypoxic and anaerobic conditions. The transcription of HXT2, HXT4 and HXT5 was low when the oxygen concentration in the cultures was low, both under steady state and non-steady state conditions, whereas the expression of HXT6, HXT13 and HXT15/16 was higher in hypoxic than in fully aerobic or anaerobic conditions. None of the HXT genes showed higher transcript levels in strictly anaerobic conditions. Expression of HXT9, HXT14 and GAL2 was not detected under the culture conditions studied. Conclusion When oxygen becomes limiting in a glucose-limited chemostat cultivation, the glucose uptake rate per cell increases. However, the expression of none of the hexose transporter encoding genes was increased in anaerobic conditions. It thus seems that the decrease in the moderately low affinity uptake and consequently the relative increase of high affinity uptake may itself allow the higher specific glucose consumption rate to occur in anaerobic compared to aerobic conditions.

  6. De novo production of resveratrol from glucose or ethanol by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingji; Kildegaard, Kanchana R; Chen, Yun; Rodriguez, Angelica; Borodina, Irina; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-11-01

    Resveratrol is a natural antioxidant compound, used as food supplement and cosmetic ingredient. Microbial production of resveratrol has until now been achieved by supplementation of expensive substrates, p-coumaric acid or aromatic amino acids. Here we engineered the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce resveratrol directly from glucose or ethanol via tyrosine intermediate. First we introduced the biosynthetic pathway, consisting of tyrosine ammonia-lyase from Herpetosiphon aurantiacus, 4-coumaryl-CoA ligase from Arabidopsis thaliana and resveratrol synthase from Vitis vinifera, and obtained 2.73±0.05mgL(-1) resveratrol from glucose. Then we over-expressed feedback-insensitive alleles of ARO4 encoding 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate and ARO7 encoding chorismate mutase, resulting in production of 4.85±0.31mgL(-1) resveratrol from glucose as the sole carbon source. Next we improved the supply of the precursor malonyl-CoA by over-expressing a post-translational de-regulated version of the acetyl-CoA carboxylase encoding gene ACC1; this strategy further increased resveratrol production to 6.39±0.03mgL(-1). Subsequently, we improved the strain by performing multiple-integration of pathway genes resulting in resveratrol production of 235.57±7.00mgL(-1). Finally, fed-batch fermentation of the final strain with glucose or ethanol as carbon source resulted in a resveratrol titer of 415.65 and 531.41mgL(-1), respectively. PMID:26344106

  7. A metabolic and genomic study of engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for high glycerol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordier, Hélène; Mendes, Filipa; Vasconcelos, Isabel; François, Jean M

    2007-07-01

    Towards a global objective to produce chemical derivatives by microbial processes, this work dealt with a metabolic engineering of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for glycerol production. To accomplish this goal, overexpression of GPD1 was introduced in a tpi1delta mutant defective in triose phosphate isomerase. This strategy alleviated the inositol-less phenotype of this mutant, by reducing the levels of dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glycerol-3-P, two potent inhibitors of myo-inositol synthase that catalyzes the formation of inositol-6-phosphate from glucose-6-phosphate. Further deletion of ADH1 and overexpression of ALD3, encoding, respectively, the major NAD+-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase and a cytosolic NAD+-dependent aldehyde dehydrogenase yielded a yeast strain able to produce 0.46 g glycerol (g glucose)(-1) at a maximal rate of 3.1 mmol (g dry mass)(-1) h(-1) in aerated batch cultures. At the metabolic level, this genetic strategy shifted the flux control coefficient of the pathway to the level of the glycerol efflux, with a consequent intracellular accumulation of glycerol that could be partially reduced by the overproduction of glycerol exporter encoded by FPS1. At the transcriptomic level, this metabolic reprogramming brought about the upregulation of genes encoding NAD+/NADP+ binding proteins, a partial derepression of genes coding for TCA cycle and respiratory enzymes, and a downregulation of genes implicated in protein biosynthesis and ribosome biogenesis. Altogether, these metabolic and molecular alterations stand for major hurdles that may represent potential targets for further optimizing glycerol production in yeast. PMID:17500021

  8. Sporulation in soil as an overwinter survival strategy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Sarah J; Goddard, Matthew R

    2016-02-01

    Due to its commercial value and status as a research model there is an extensive body of knowledge concerning Saccharomyces cerevisiae's cell biology and genetics. Investigations into S. cerevisiae's ecology are comparatively lacking, and are mostly focused on the behaviour of this species in high sugar, fruit-based environments; however, fruit is ephemeral, and presumably, S. cerevisiae has evolved a strategy to survive when this niche is not available. Among other places, S. cerevisiae has been isolated from soil which, in contrast to fruit, is a permanent habitat. We hypothesize that S. cerevisiae employs a life history strategy targeted at self-preservation rather than growth outside of the fruit niche, and resides in forest niches, such as soil, in a dormant and resistant sporulated state, returning to fruit via vectors such as insects. One crucial aspect of this hypothesis is that S. cerevisiae must be able to sporulate in the 'forest' environment. Here, we provide the first evidence for a natural environment (soil) where S. cerevisiae sporulates. While there are further aspects of this hypothesis that require experimental verification, this is the first step towards an inclusive understanding of the more cryptic aspects of S. cerevisiae's ecology. PMID:26568201

  9. Structural insights into the substrate tunnel of Saccharomyces cerevisiae carbonic anhydrase Nce103

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yuxing

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The carbonic anhydrases (CAs are involved in inorganic carbon utilization. They have been classified into six evolutionary and structural families: ?-, ?-, ?-, ?-, ?-, ?- CAs, with ?-CAs present in higher plants, algae and prokaryotes. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a single copy of ?-CA Nce103/YNL036W. Results We determined the crystal structure of Nce103 in complex with a substrate analog at 2.04 Å resolution. It assembles as a homodimer, with the active site located at the interface between two monomers. At the bottom of the substrate pocket, a zinc ion is coordinated by the three highly conserved residues Cys57, His112 and Cys115 in addition to a water molecule. Residues Asp59, Arg61, Gly111, Leu102, Val80, Phe75 and Phe97 form a tunnel to the bottom of the active site which is occupied by a molecule of the substrate analog acetate. Activity assays of full length and two truncated versions of Nce103 indicated that the N-terminal arm is indispensable. Conclusion The quaternary structure of Nce103 resembles the typical plant type ?-CAs of known structure, with an N-terminal arm indispensable for the enzymatic activity. Comparative structure analysis enables us to draw a possible tunnel for the substrate to access the active site which is located at the bottom of a funnel-shaped substrate pocket.

  10. Effect of 21 different nitrogen sources on global gene expression in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godard, Patrice; Urrestarazu, Antonio; Vissers, Stéphan; Kontos, Kevin; Bontempi, Gianluca; van Helden, Jacques; André, Bruno

    2007-04-01

    We compared the transcriptomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells growing under steady-state conditions on 21 unique sources of nitrogen. We found 506 genes differentially regulated by nitrogen and estimated the activation degrees of all identified nitrogen-responding transcriptional controls according to the nitrogen source. One main group of nitrogenous compounds supports fast growth and a highly active nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR) control. Catabolism of these compounds typically yields carbon derivatives directly assimilable by a cell's metabolism. Another group of nitrogen compounds supports slower growth, is associated with excretion by cells of nonmetabolizable carbon compounds such as fusel oils, and is characterized by activation of the general control of amino acid biosynthesis (GAAC). Furthermore, NCR and GAAC appear interlinked, since expression of the GCN4 gene encoding the transcription factor that mediates GAAC is subject to NCR. We also observed that several transcriptional-regulation systems are active under a wider range of nitrogen supply conditions than anticipated. Other transcriptional-regulation systems acting on genes not involved in nitrogen metabolism, e.g., the pleiotropic-drug resistance and the unfolded-protein response systems, also respond to nitrogen. We have completed the lists of target genes of several nitrogen-sensitive regulons and have used sequence comparison tools to propose functions for about 20 orphan genes. Similar studies conducted for other nutrients should provide a more complete view of alternative metabolic pathways in yeast and contribute to the attribution of functions to many other orphan genes. PMID:17308034

  11. Physiological Effects of GLT1 Modulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains Growing on Different Nitrogen Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Marco; Adamo, Giusy Manuela; Frascotti, Gianni; Porro, Danilo; Branduardi, Paola

    2016-02-28

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the most employed cell factories for the production of bioproducts. Although monomeric hexose sugars constitute the preferential carbon source, this yeast can grow on a wide variety of nitrogen sources that are catabolized through central nitrogen metabolism (CNM). To evaluate the effects of internal perturbations on nitrogen utilization, we characterized strains deleted or overexpressed in GLT1, encoding for one of the key enzymes of the CNM node, the glutamate synthase. These strains, together with the parental strain as control, have been cultivated in minimal medium formulated with ammonium sulfate, glutamate, or glutamine as nitrogen source. Growth kinetics, together with the determination of protein content, viability, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation at the single cell level, revealed that GLT1 modulations do not significantly influence the cellular physiology, whereas the nitrogen source does. As important exceptions, GLT1 deletion negatively affected the scavenging activity of glutamate against ROS accumulation, when cells were treated with H2O2, whereas Glt1p overproduction led to lower viability in glutamine medium. Overall, this confirms the robustness of the CNM node against internal perturbations, but, at the same time, highlights its plasticity in respect to the environment. Considering that side-stream protein-rich waste materials are emerging as substrates to be used in an integrated biorefinery, these results underline the importance of preliminarily evaluating the best nitrogen source not only for media formulation, but also for the overall economics of the process. PMID:26528537

  12. Homologous Recombination Repair Within the rDNA Array in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Motovali-Bashi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Homologous recombination repair starts with Double-strand Breaks (DSBs followed by crossing-over and recombination. The expected frequency of meiotic chromosomal exchange in the region of chromosome XII encoding ribosomal DNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is 3.5 to 5 events per cell per meiosis. However interchromosomal meiotic recombination in the rDNA gene is very rare, suggesting repression of DSB and crossing-over. On the other hand, mitotic events such as intrachromosomal recombination producing 3 ?m rDNA circles (which accumulate with cellular age and unequal sister chromatid exchanges appear to be quite common. This study looked at the rDNA breakage in the strain ORD 1181, a rad50S mutant with SK1 background, which does a relatively fast and near synchronous meiosis. The fine analysis of the rDNA array was performed using restriction endonuclease enzymes that do not cleave within the rDNA array. The results suggest that there are at least two hot regions for chromosome breakage within the rDNA array. According to our previous studies we suggest that the DSB hot regions are in one homologue. However, there is possibility that other homologue is involving in DSB too.

  13. Quantitative modeling of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae FLR1 regulatory network using an S-system formalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calçada, Dulce; Vinga, Susana; Freitas, Ana T; Oliveira, Arlindo L

    2011-10-01

    In this study we address the problem of finding a quantitative mathematical model for the genetic network regulating the stress response of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to the agricultural fungicide mancozeb. An S-system formalism was used to model the interactions of a five-gene network encoding four transcription factors (Yap1, Yrr1, Rpn4 and Pdr3) regulating the transcriptional activation of the FLR1 gene. Parameter estimation was accomplished by decoupling the resulting system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations into a larger nonlinear algebraic system, and using the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm to fit the models predictions to experimental data. The introduction of constraints in the model, related to the putative topology of the network, was explored. The results show that forcing the network connectivity to adhere to this topology did not lead to better results than the ones obtained using an unrestricted network topology. Overall, the modeling approach obtained partial success when trained on the nonmutant datasets, although further work is required if one wishes to obtain more accurate prediction of the time courses. PMID:21976379

  14. Opportunistic Strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A Potential Risk Sold in Food Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Torrado, Roberto; Querol, Amparo

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, fungal infections have emerged as an important health problem associated with more people who present deficiencies in the immune system, such as HIV or transplanted patients. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the emerging fungal pathogens with a unique characteristic: its presence in many food products. S. cerevisiae has an impeccably good food safety record compared to other microorganisms like virus, bacteria and some filamentous fungi. However, humans unknowingly and inadvertently ingest large viable populations of S. cerevisiae (home-brewed beer or dietary supplements that contain yeast). In the last few years, researchers have studied the nature of S. cerevisiae strains and the molecular mechanisms related to infections. Here we review the last advance made in this emerging pathogen and we discuss the implication of using this species in food products.

  15. Microbial cells as biosorbents for heavy metals: accumulation of Uranium by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium accumulated extracellularly on the surfaces of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. The rate and extent of accumulation were subject to environmental parameters, such as pH, temperature, and interference by certain anions and cations. Uranium accumulation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa occurred intracellularly and was extremely rapid (<10 s), and no response to environmental parameters could be detected. Metabolism was not required for metal uptake by either organism. Cell-bound uranium reached a concentration of 10 to 15% of the dry cell weight, but only 32% of the S. cerevisiae cells and 44% of the P. aeruginosa cells within a given population possessed visible uranium deposits when examined by electron microscopy. Rates of uranium uptake by S. cerevisiae were increased by chemical pretreatment of the cells. Uranium could be removed chemically from S. cerevisiae cells, and the cells could then be reused as a biosorbent

  16. Systems Biology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Physiology and its DNA Damage Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fazio, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a model organism in biology, being widely used in fundamental research, the first eukaryotic organism to be fully sequenced and the platform for the development of many genomics techniques. Therefore, it is not surprising that S. cerevisiae has also been widely used in the field of systems biology during the last decade. This thesis investigates S. cerevisiae growth physiology and DNA damage response by using a systems biology approach. Elucidation of the relationship between growth rate and gene expression is important to understand the mechanisms regulating cell growth. In order to study this relationship, we have grown S. cerevisiae cells in chemostat at defined growth rates and measured the transcriptional response. We have applied a complex experimental design, involving three factors: specific growth rate, oxygen availability and nutrient limitation. We have identified 268 growth rate dependent genes. These genes were used to identify key areas of the metabolism around which expression changes were significantly associated and we found nucleotide synthesis and ATP producing and consuming reactions. Moreover, by scoring the significance of overlap between growth rate dependent genes and known transcription factor (TF) target sets, we identified 13 TFs, involved in stress response, cell cycle and ribosome biogenesis, that appeared to coordinate the response at increasing growth rates. Therefore, in this study we have identified a more conservative set of growth dependent genes by using a multi-factorial experimental design. Moreover, new insights into the metabolic response and transcriptional regulation of these genes have been provided by using systems biology tools (Chapter 3). One of the prerequisite of systems biology should be the standardization and reproducibility of experimental and analytical techniques, in order to allow the comparison of data generated in different laboratories. With the aim of addressing this aspect, we have collaborated in a large study involving ten laboratories, constituting the Yeast Systems Biology Network (YSBN). S. cerevisiae cultivations were performed in a single laboratory and samples were sent to the other partners. The experimental design involved two factors: strain (CEN.PK113-7D and YSBN2) and growth condition (batch and chemostat). Transcriptome was measured with four different platforms (Affymetrix, Agilent, qPCR and TRAC), metabolome was analyzed in seven laboratories, using different protocols, and enzyme activities were determined in two different laboratories. The comparison of the analyses showed that reproducibility of the results was affected by the laboratory and the protocol used. Transcription and enzyme activity analyses gave consistent results, while metabolite level measurements showed some variability. Therefore, even though the source of biomass was unique, the reproducibility of data appeared to be a challenging task. Nevertheless, we were able to perform an integrative analysis and discover that the lower biomass yield of CEN.PK113-7D was due to higher protein turnover than YSBN2; this finding would not be achievable using a single omics dataset. Moreover, the generated datasets are a valuable resource for the yeast systems biology community (Chapter 4). Upon DNA damage, S. cerevisiae cells respond activating the so-called cell cycle checkpoints that promote damage repair and viability. The activation of these checkpoints depends on kinase cascades and regulation of transcription is one of the responses elicited by checkpoint activation. Therefore, we have decided to investigate the transcriptional and phenotypic responses to the alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) of mutant strains carrying deletions of genes encoding protein kinases (Mec1, Tel1, Rad53, Dun1, Chk1, Alk1) and protein phosphatases (Ptc3, Pph3, Oca1) involved in DNA damage response (DDR). We have discovered a prominent role for Rad53, Mec1 and Tel1 in transcriptional response. Moreover, we have shown for the first time the important role of O

  17. Automated Yeast Mating Protocol Using Open Reading Frames from Saccharomyces cerevisiae Genome to Improve Yeast Strains for Cellulosic Ethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineering the industrial ethanologen Saccharomyces cerevisiae to utilize pentose sugars from lignocellulosic biomass is critical for commercializing cellulosic fuel ethanol production. Approaches to engineer pentose-fermenting yeasts have required expression of additional genes. We implemented a...

  18. Multiple gene mediated aldehyde reduction is a mechanism of in situ detoxification of furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furfural and HMF (5-hydroxymethylfurfural) are representative inhibitors to ethanologenic yeast generated from biomass pretreatment using dilute acid hydrolysis. Few yeast strains tolerant to inhibitors are available. We have developed tolerant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with enhanced bio...

  19. Performance evaluation of Pichia kluyveri, Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in industrial tequila fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya-Delgado, L; Herrera-López, E J; Arrizon, Javier; Arellano-Plaza, M; Gschaedler, A

    2013-05-01

    Traditionally, industrial tequila production has used spontaneous fermentation or Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains. Despite the potential of non-Saccharomyces strains for alcoholic fermentation, few studies have been performed at industrial level with these yeasts. Therefore, in this work, Agave tequilana juice was fermented at an industrial level using two non-Saccharomyces yeasts (Pichia kluyveri and Kluyveromyces marxianus) with fermentation efficiency higher than 85 %. Pichia kluyveri (GRO3) was more efficient for alcohol and ethyl lactate production than S. cerevisiae (AR5), while Kluyveromyces marxianus (GRO6) produced more isobutanol and ethyl-acetate than S. cerevisiae (AR5). The level of volatile compounds at the end of fermentation was compared with the tequila standard regulation. All volatile compounds were within the allowed range except for methanol, which was higher for S. cerevisiae (AR5) and K. marxianus (GRO6). The variations in methanol may have been caused by the Agave tequilana used for the tests, since this compound is not synthesized by these yeasts. PMID:23329062

  20. "A comparison between sugar consumption and ethanol production in wort by immobilized Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Saccharomyces Ludwigii and Saccharomyces Rouxii on Brewer'S Spent Grain".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Aniseh; Razavi, Seyyed Hadi; Mousavi, Seyyed Mohammad; Rezaei, Karamatollah

    2011-04-01

    The immobilization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae DSM 70424, Saccharomyces ludwigii DSM 3447 and Saccharomyces rouxii DSM 2531 on brewer's spent grain and then ethanol production and sugar consumption of these immobilized yeasts were investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the abilities of these three immobilized yeasts for producing alcohol for brewing at two temperatures (7 and 12 °C) using two different sugar levels (one at original level supplied in the brewery and one with 2.5% (w/v), added glucose to the wort). Increasing both parameters resulted in higher alcohol production by all the yeasts studied. At 7 °C and with original wort density the ethanol content at the end of fermentation was 2.7% (v/v) for S. cerevisiae, 1.7% for S. ludwigii and 2.0% for S. rouxii. After the addition of 2.5% (w/v) glucose at the same temperature (7 °C), the alcohol production was increased to 4.1, 2.8 and 4.1%, respectively. Similar improvements were observed when the fermentation was carried out at 12 °C with/without the addition of glucose to the wort. However, temperature indicated greater influence on S. ludwigii than did on S. rouxii and S. cerevisiae. The immobilization as carried out in this study impacted both S. ludwigii and S. rouxii in a way that they could consume maltose under certain conditions. PMID:24031672

  1. "A comparison between sugar consumption and ethanol production in wort by immobilized Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Saccharomyces Ludwigii and Saccharomyces Rouxii on Brewer's Spent Grain"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniseh Mohammadi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The immobilization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae DSM 70424, Saccharomyces ludwigii DSM 3447 and Saccharomyces rouxii DSM 2531 on brewer's spent grain and then ethanol production and sugar consumption of these immobilized yeasts were investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the abilities of these three immobilized yeasts for producing alcohol for brewing at two temperatures (7 and 12 °C using two different sugar levels (one at original level supplied in the brewery and one with 2.5% (w/v, added glucose to the wort. Increasing both parameters resulted in higher alcohol production by all the yeasts studied. At 7 °C and with original wort density the ethanol content at the end of fermentation was 2.7% (v/v for S. cerevisiae, 1.7% for S. ludwigii and 2.0% for S. rouxii. After the addition of 2.5% (w/v glucose at the same temperature (7 °C, the alcohol production was increased to 4.1, 2.8 and 4.1%, respectively. Similar improvements were observed when the fermentation was carried out at 12 °C with/without the addition of glucose to the wort. However, temperature indicated greater influence on S. ludwigii than did on S. rouxii and S. cerevisiae. The immobilization as carried out in this study impacted both S. ludwigii and S. rouxii in a way that they could consume maltose under certain conditions.

  2. “A comparison between sugar consumption and ethanol production in wort by immobilized Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Saccharomyces Ludwigii and Saccharomyces Rouxii on Brewer’S Spent Grain”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Aniseh; Razavi, Seyyed Hadi; Mousavi, Seyyed Mohammad; Rezaei, Karamatollah

    2011-01-01

    The immobilization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae DSM 70424, Saccharomyces ludwigii DSM 3447 and Saccharomyces rouxii DSM 2531 on brewer’s spent grain and then ethanol production and sugar consumption of these immobilized yeasts were investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the abilities of these three immobilized yeasts for producing alcohol for brewing at two temperatures (7 and 12 °C) using two different sugar levels (one at original level supplied in the brewery and one with 2.5% (w/v), added glucose to the wort). Increasing both parameters resulted in higher alcohol production by all the yeasts studied. At 7 °C and with original wort density the ethanol content at the end of fermentation was 2.7% (v/v) for S. cerevisiae, 1.7% for S. ludwigii and 2.0% for S. rouxii. After the addition of 2.5% (w/v) glucose at the same temperature (7 °C), the alcohol production was increased to 4.1, 2.8 and 4.1%, respectively. Similar improvements were observed when the fermentation was carried out at 12 °C with/without the addition of glucose to the wort. However, temperature indicated greater influence on S. ludwigii than did on S. rouxii and S. cerevisiae. The immobilization as carried out in this study impacted both S. ludwigii and S. rouxii in a way that they could consume maltose under certain conditions. PMID:24031672

  3. "A comparison between sugar consumption and ethanol production in wort by immobilized Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Saccharomyces Ludwigii and Saccharomyces Rouxii on Brewer's Spent Grain"

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aniseh, Mohammadi; Seyyed Hadi, Razavi; Seyyed Mohammad, Mousavi; Karamatollah, Rezaei.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The immobilization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae DSM 70424, Saccharomyces ludwigii DSM 3447 and Saccharomyces rouxii DSM 2531 on brewer's spent grain and then ethanol production and sugar consumption of these immobilized yeasts were investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the abilities [...] of these three immobilized yeasts for producing alcohol for brewing at two temperatures (7 and 12 °C) using two different sugar levels (one at original level supplied in the brewery and one with 2.5% (w/v), added glucose to the wort). Increasing both parameters resulted in higher alcohol production by all the yeasts studied. At 7 °C and with original wort density the ethanol content at the end of fermentation was 2.7% (v/v) for S. cerevisiae, 1.7% for S. ludwigii and 2.0% for S. rouxii. After the addition of 2.5% (w/v) glucose at the same temperature (7 °C), the alcohol production was increased to 4.1, 2.8 and 4.1%, respectively. Similar improvements were observed when the fermentation was carried out at 12 °C with/without the addition of glucose to the wort. However, temperature indicated greater influence on S. ludwigii than did on S. rouxii and S. cerevisiae. The immobilization as carried out in this study impacted both S. ludwigii and S. rouxii in a way that they could consume maltose under certain conditions.

  4. Effects of Yeast (Saccharomyces Cerevisiae) Feed Supplement on Milk Production and its Composition in Tunisian Holstein Friesian Cows

    OpenAIRE

    Maamouri O.; Selmi H.; M’hamdi N.

    2014-01-01

    A 105-day feed trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of probiotic feed supplement containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae on milk yield and its composition in Holstein Friesian cows. The trial was conducted in the region of Sidi Bouzid in the west of Tunisia. Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been investigated on eight Holstein Friesian cows randomly divided into two groups of four animals on the basis of age, body weight, average milk yield, and lactation number. The first group was ...

  5. Transcriptome-Based Characterization of Interactions between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus in Lactose-Grown Chemostat Cocultures

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes, Filipa; Sieuwerts, Sander; de Hulster, Erik; Almering, Marinka J. H.; Luttik, Marijke A. H.; Pronk, Jack T; Smid, Eddy J; Bron, Peter A.; Daran-Lapujade, Pascale

    2013-01-01

    Mixed populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts and lactic acid bacteria occur in many dairy, food, and beverage fermentations, but knowledge about their interactions is incomplete. In the present study, interactions between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, two microorganisms that co-occur in kefir fermentations, were studied during anaerobic growth on lactose. By combining physiological and transcriptome analysis of the two strains in the cocultu...

  6. Comportamento celular e resposta antioxidante diferenciados de Saccharomyces cerevisiae e de Saccharomyces chevalieri ao metavanadato de amónio / Different cellular behaviour and antioxidant response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces chevalieri growing in presence of ammonium metavanadate

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R., Ferreira; I., Alves-Pereira; S., Magriço; C., Ferraz-Franco.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A fermentação do vinho é um processo microbiológico complexo que requere a presença de leveduras adaptadas a condições de stresse. No ambiente celular de organismos aeróbios ocorrem naturalmente espécies reactivas de oxigénio (ROS) como subprodutos da respiração mitocondrial. A elevada reactividade [...] destas espécies químicas pode gerar danos moleculares que, em alguns casos, levam à morte celular. Em condições fisiológicas normais ou como resposta ao stresse oxidativo, a célula pode desencadear respostas adaptativas que envolvem mecanismos antioxidantes como os enzimas glutationo redutase (GR; EC 1.6.4.2) e catalases T (CAT T; EC 1.11.1.6) e A (CAT A; EC 1.11.1.6). O vanádio, um metal pesado presente em alguns fitofármacos, pode também com portar-se como um gerador de ROS, alterando o estado redox intracelular e exercendo efeitos nocivos em leveduras expostas a quantidade excessiva deste elemento. O principal objectivo deste trabalho foi comparar o efeito do metavanadato de amónio (NH4VO3), um sal pentavalente de vanádio, na viabilidade celular e nas actividades enzimáticas GR, CAT T e CAT A das leveduras vínicas Saccharomyces cerevisiae UE-ME3 e Saccharomyces chevalieri UE-ME1. Os resultados obtidos mostram que S. chevalieri UE-ME1 revelou menor tolerância ao NH4VO3 do que S. cerevisiae UE-ME3, uma vez que culturas de S. chevalieri não sobreviveram para valores de concentração do sal de vanádio superiores a 7,5 mM enquanto que células de S. cerevisiae mantiveram-se viáveis em presença de metavanadato de amónio 75 mM. As actividades enzimáticas estudadas apresentaram em S. chevalieri valores muito inferiores aos que foram determinados em S. cerevisiae embora em ambas as espécies de levedura o NH4VO3 pareça comportarse como um indutor de stresse oxidativo ao provocar um decréscimo significativo da actividade GR (P Abstract in english The fermentation of wine is a complex microbiological process which requires yeast adaptation to stress conditions. In the cellular environment of aerobic organisms naturally reactive oxygen species (ROS) occurs as by-products of mitochondrial respiration. The higher reactivity of these chemical spe [...] cies could cause molecular damages that in several cases induce cellular death. In common physiological conditions or as response to oxidative stress, the cell can generate adapted responses which involve antioxidants mechanisms as glutathione reductase (GR; EC 1.6.4.2) and catalase T (CAT T; EC 1.11.1.6) and A (CAT A; EC 1.11.1.6) enzymes. Vanadium, a heavy metal present in several pesticides could generate ROS changing the intracellular redox state and cause deleterious effects in yeasts exposed to higher levels of this element. The main objective of this work was to compare the effects of ammonium metavanadate (NH4VO3), a pentavalent salt of vanadium on cellular viability and GR, CAT T and CAT A activities of wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae UE-ME3 and Saccharomyces chevalieri UE-ME1. The results obtained show that S. chevalieri UE-ME1 has lower tolerance to NH4VO3 than S. cerevisiae UE-ME3, since S. chevalieri cultures do not survive to concentration values of ammonium metavanadate higher than 7,5 mM, whereas S. cerevisiae cells are still viable in the presence of 75 mM. S. chevalieri has an enzymatic activity lower than S. cerevisiae, although for both yeast species NH4VO3 could behave as oxidative stress inductor, causing a significant decrease of GR activity (P

  7. Transcriptional responses to glucose in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains lacking a functional protein kinase A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livas Daniela

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pattern of gene transcripts in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is strongly affected by the presence of glucose. An increased activity of protein kinase A (PKA, triggered by a rise in the intracellular concentration of cAMP, can account for many of the effects of glucose on transcription. In S. cerevisiae three genes, TPK1, TPK2, and TPK3, encode catalytic subunits of PKA. The lack of viability of tpk1 tpk2 tpk3 triple mutants may be suppressed by mutations such as yak1 or msn2/msn4. To investigate the requirement for PKA in glucose control of gene expression, we have compared the effects of glucose on global transcription in a wild-type strain and in two strains devoid of PKA activity, tpk1 tpk2 tpk3 yak1 and tpk1 tpk2 tpk3 msn2 msn4. Results We have identified different classes of genes that can be induced -or repressed- by glucose in the absence of PKA. Representative examples are genes required for glucose utilization and genes involved in the metabolism of other carbon sources, respectively. Among the genes responding to glucose in strains devoid of PKA some are also controlled by a redundant signalling pathway involving PKA activation, while others are not affected when PKA is activated through an increase in cAMP concentration. On the other hand, among genes that do not respond to glucose in the absence of PKA, some give a full response to increased cAMP levels, even in the absence of glucose, while others appear to require the cooperation of different signalling pathways. We show also that, for a number of genes controlled by glucose through a PKA-dependent pathway, the changes in mRNA levels are transient. We found that, in cells grown in gluconeogenic conditions, expression of a small number of genes, mainly connected with the response to stress, is reduced in the strains lacking PKA. Conclusions In S. cerevisiae, the transcriptional responses to glucose are triggered by a variety of pathways, alone or in combination, in which PKA is often involved. Redundant signalling pathways confer a greater robustness to the response to glucose, while cooperative pathways provide a greater flexibility.

  8. Surface display of a bifunctional glutathione synthetase on Saccharomyces cerevisiae for converting chicken feather hydrolysate into glutathione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhiqi; Tan, Hongming; Zhou, Shining; Cao, Lixiang

    2014-08-01

    The low economic profits of feather recycling lead that the large amount of feathers is currently discarded in China. To convert feather hydrolysates into GSH with high values, surface display of the bifunctional glutathione synthetase encoded by gcsgs from Streptococcus thermophilus on Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the potential in glutathione (GSH) production from feather hydrolysates were studied. The surface-displayed GCSGS could be used to convert feather hydrolysates into GSH. Results showed that 10 g/l of feather was converted into 321.8 mg/l GSH by the Trichoderma atroviride F6 and surface-displayed GCSGS in the study. Compared with production of intracellular GSH by S. cerevisiae from amino acids or feather hydrolysate, the concentration of GSH in the study was higher, and purification of GSH was more feasible. Due to the glycolytic pathway, the S. cerevisiae was used to generate ATP and cheap feather hydrolysate as precursors, the process for GSH production based on surface-displayed GCSGS is cheap and feasible. The process showed the potential to convert feather hydrolysates into GSH on an industrial scale. PMID:24706360

  9. Transcription activator-like effector nucleases mediated metabolic engineering for enhanced fatty acids production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    KAUST Repository

    Aouida, Mustapha

    2015-04-01

    Targeted engineering of microbial genomes holds much promise for diverse biotechnological applications. Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9 systems are capable of efficiently editing microbial genomes, including that of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we demonstrate the use of TALENs to edit the genome of S.cerevisiae with the aim of inducing the overproduction of fatty acids. Heterodimeric TALENs were designed to simultaneously edit the FAA1 and FAA4 genes encoding acyl-CoA synthetases in S.cerevisiae. Functional yeast double knockouts generated using these TALENs over-produce large amounts of free fatty acids into the cell. This study demonstrates the use of TALENs for targeted engineering of yeast and demonstrates that this technology can be used to stimulate the enhanced production of free fatty acids, which are potential substrates for biofuel production. This proof-of-principle study extends the utility of TALENs as excellent genome editing tools and highlights their potential use for metabolic engineering of yeast and other organisms, such as microalgae and plants, for biofuel production. © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan.

  10. Tomato QM-like protein protects Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells against oxidative stress by regulating intracellular proline levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Changbin; Wanduragala, Srimevan; Becker, Donald F; Dickman, Martin B

    2006-06-01

    Exogenous proline can protect cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae from oxidative stress. We altered intracellular proline levels by overexpressing the proline dehydrogenase gene (PUT1) of S. cerevisiae. Put1p performs the first enzymatic step of proline degradation in S. cerevisiae. Overexpression of Put1p results in low proline levels and hypersensitivity to oxidants, such as hydrogen peroxide and paraquat. A put1-disrupted yeast mutant deficient in Put1p activity has increased protection from oxidative stress and increased proline levels. Following a conditional life/death screen in yeast, we identified a tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) gene encoding a QM-like protein (tQM) and found that stable expression of tQM in the Put1p-overexpressing strain conferred protection against oxidative damage from H2O2, paraquat, and heat. This protection was correlated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) reduction and increased proline accumulation. A yeast two-hybrid system assay was used to show that tQM physically interacts with Put1p in yeast, suggesting that tQM is directly involved in modulating proline levels. tQM also can rescue yeast from the lethality mediated by the mammalian proapoptotic protein Bax, through the inhibition of ROS generation. Our results suggest that tQM is a component of various stress response pathways and may function in proline-mediated stress tolerance in plants. PMID:16751508

  11. Similarities and differences in the biochemical and enzymological properties of the four isomaltases from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Deng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae IMA multigene family encodes four isomaltases sharing high sequence identity from 65% to 99%. Here, we explore their functional diversity, with exhaustive in-vitro characterization of their enzymological and biochemical properties. The four isoenzymes exhibited a preference for the ?-(1,6 disaccharides isomaltose and palatinose, with Michaëlis–Menten kinetics and inhibition at high substrates concentration. They were also able to hydrolyze trisaccharides bearing an ?-(1,6 linkage, but also ?-(1,2, ?-(1,3 and ?-(1,5 disaccharides including sucrose, highlighting their substrate ambiguity. While Ima1p and Ima2p presented almost identical characteristics, our results nevertheless showed many singularities within this protein family. In particular, Ima3p presented lower activities and thermostability than Ima2p despite only three different amino acids between the sequences of these two isoforms. The Ima3p_R279Q variant recovered activity levels of Ima2p, while the Leu-to-Pro substitution at position 240 significantly increased the stability of Ima3p and supported the role of prolines in thermostability. The most distant protein, Ima5p, presented the lowest optimal temperature and was also extremely sensitive to temperature. Isomaltose hydrolysis by Ima5p challenged previous conclusions about the requirement of specific amino acids for determining the specificity for ?-(1,6 substrates. We finally found a mixed inhibition by maltose for Ima5p while, contrary to a previous work, Ima1p inhibition by maltose was competitive at very low isomaltose concentrations and uncompetitive as the substrate concentration increased. Altogether, this work illustrates that a gene family encoding proteins with strong sequence similarities can lead to enzyme with notable differences in biochemical and enzymological properties.

  12. Saccharomyces cerevisiae UE-ME3 is a good strain for isoproturon biorremediation?

    OpenAIRE

    Candeias, M; I. Alves-Pereira; Ferreira, R.

    2010-01-01

    Isoproturon, an herbicide of pre- and pos-emergence of Autumn-Winter crops, persists occasionally in soil, groundwater and biological systems at levels above those established by European Directives. Saccharomyces cerevisiae UE-ME3 exposed in stationary phase to 50 and 100 mM isoproturon exhibit growth rates higher than control or exposed cells to 5 and 25 mM of this phenylurea. However, in S.cerevisiae UE-ME3 grown in the presence of 5 mM isoproturon, were observed a decrease of ...

  13. Improved ethanol production from whey Saccharomyces cerevisiae using permeabilized cells of Kluyveromyces marxianus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, M. [Slovak Technical Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia). Dept. of Biochemical Technology; Tomaska, M. [Slovak Technical Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia). Dept. of Biochemical Technology; Kanuch, J. [Slovak Technical Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia). Dept. of Biochemical Technology; Sturdik, E. [Slovak Technical Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia). Dept. of Biochemical Technology

    1995-12-31

    Permeabilized cells of Kluyveromyces marxianus CCY eSY2 were tested as the source of lactase in the ethanol fermentation of concentrated deproteinized whey (65-70 g/l lactose) by Saccharomyces cerevisiae CCY 10-13-14. Rapid lactose hydrolysis by small amounts of permeabilized cells following the fermentation of released glucose and galactose by S. cerevisiae resulted in a twofold enhancement of the overall volumetric productivity (1.03 g/lxh), compared to the fermentation in which the lactose was directly fermented by K. marxianus. (orig.)

  14. Advances in metabolic engineering of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for production of chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borodina, Irina; Nielsen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an important industrial host for production of enzymes, pharmaceutical and nutraceutical ingredients and recently also commodity chemicals and biofuels. Here, we review the advances in modeling and synthetic biology tools and how these tools can speed up the...... development of yeast cell factories. We also present an overview of metabolic engineering strategies for developing yeast strains for production of polymer monomers: lactic, succinic, and cis,cis-muconic acids. S. cerevisiae has already firmly established itself as a cell factory in industrial biotechnology...

  15. The acyl dihydroxyacetone phosphate pathway enzymes for glycerolipid biosynthesis are present in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Racenis, P V; Lai, J L; Das, A. K.; Mullick, P C; Hajra, A K; Greenberg, M L

    1992-01-01

    The presence of the acyl dihydroxyacetone phosphate (acyl DHAP) pathway in yeasts was investigated by examining three key enzyme activities of this pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the total membrane fraction of S. cerevisiae, we confirmed the presence of both DHAP acyltransferase (DHAPAT; Km = 1.27 mM; Vmax = 5.9 nmol/min/mg of protein) and sn-glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT; Km = 0.28 mM; Vmax = 12.6 nmol/min/mg of protein). The properties of these two acyltransferases are...

  16. Sensitivity to Lovastatin of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains Deleted for Pleiotropic Drug Resistance (PDR) Genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Formenti, Luca Riccardo; Kielland-Brandt, Morten

    2011-01-01

    The use of statins is well established in human therapy, and model organisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae are commonly used in studies of drug action at molecular and cellular levels. The investigation of the resistance mechanisms towards statins may suggest new approaches to improve therapy...... based on the use of statins. We investigated the susceptibility to lovastatin of S. cerevisiae strains deleted for PDR genes, responsible for exporting hydrophobic and amphi-philic drugs, such as lovastatin. Strains deleted for the genes tested, PDR1, PDR3, PDR5 and SNQ2, exhibited remarkably different...

  17. Bioconversion of lactose/whey to fructose diphosphate with recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compagno, C.; Tura, A.; Ranzi, B.M.; Martegani, E. (Univ. di Milano (Italy))

    1993-07-01

    Genetically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that express Escherichia coli [beta]-galactosidase gene are able to bioconvert lactose or whey into fructose-1,6-diphosphate (FDP). High FDP yields from whey were obtained with an appropriate ratio between cell concentration and inorganic phosphate. The biomass of transformed cells can be obtained from different carbon sources, according to the expression vector bearing the lacZ gene. The authors showed that whey can be used as the carbon source for S. cerevisiae growth and as the substrate for bioconversion to fructose diphosphate.

  18. Industrial Systems Biology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Enables Novel Succinic Acid Cell Factory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otero, José Manuel; Cimini, Donatella; Patil, Kiran Raosaheb; Poulsen, Simon Guldberg; Olsson, Lisbeth; Nielsen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the most well characterized eukaryote, the preferred microbial cell factory for the largest industrial biotechnology product (bioethanol), and a robust commerically compatible scaffold to be exploitted for diverse chemical production. Succinic acid is a highly sought...... genetic targets for either over-expression or interruption of succinate producing or consuming pathways, respectively, do not lead to increased succinate. Rather, we demonstrate how systems biology tools coupled with directed evolution and selection allows non-intuitive, rapid and substantial re......-direction of carbon fluxes in S. cerevisiae, and hence show proof of concept that this is a potentially attractive cell factory for over-producing different platform chemicals....

  19. Finding of thiosulfate pathway for synthesis of organic sulfur compounds in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and improvement of ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funahashi, Eri; Saiki, Kyohei; Honda, Kurara; Sugiura, Yuki; Kawano, Yusuke; Ohtsu, Iwao; Watanabe, Daisuke; Wakabayashi, Yukari; Abe, Tetsuya; Nakanishi, Tsuyoshi; Suematsu, Makoto; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2015-12-01

    We found that Saccharomyces cerevisiae utilizes thiosulfate as a sole sulfur source. The energetically-favored thiosulfate rather than sulfate as sulfur sources is also more effective for improving growth and ethanol-production rate in S. cerevisiae due to high levels of intracellular NADPH during thiosulfate utilization. PMID:26188417

  20. Integrated phospholipidomics and transcriptomics analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with enhanced tolerance to a mixture of acetic acid, furfural, and phenol

    Science.gov (United States)

    A mixture of acetic acid, furfural and phenol (AFP), three representative lignocellulose derived inhibitors, significantly inhibited the growth and bioethanol production of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In order to uncover mechanisms behind the enhanced tolerance of an inhibitor-tolerant S.cerevisiae s...

  1. Germination of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ascospores without trehalose mobilization as revealed by in vivo 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    OpenAIRE

    Donnini, C; Puglisi, P P; Vecli, A.; Marmiroli, N.

    1988-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae ascospores germinate in the presence of acetate without any detectable trehalose degradation, as revealed by high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and by a standard colorimetric assay. The results presented here substantiate the hypothesis that in S. cerevisiae trehalose supplies energy during dormancy of the spores and not during the germination process.

  2. Crystallization and Preliminary X-ray Diffraction Analysis of motif N from Saccharomyces cerevisiae Dbf4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, L.; Duong, A; Prasad, A; Duncker, B; Guarne, A

    2009-01-01

    The Cdc7-Dbf4 complex plays an instrumental role in the initiation of DNA replication and is a target of replication-checkpoint responses in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cdc7 is a conserved serine/threonine kinase whose activity depends on association with its regulatory subunit, Dbf4. A conserved sequence near the N-terminus of Dbf4 (motif N) is necessary for the interaction of Cdc7-Dbf4 with the checkpoint kinase Rad53. To understand the role of the Cdc7-Dbf4 complex in checkpoint responses, a fragment of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Dbf4 encompassing motif N was isolated, overproduced and crystallized. A complete native data set was collected at 100 K from crystals that diffracted X-rays to 2.75 {angstrom} resolution and structure determination is currently under way.

  3. Effect of Reserve Carbohydrates on Oxidative Stress in Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y6210

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Kanwal

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is investigate the role of reserve carbohydrates, trehalose and glycogen in DEM (Diethyl Maleate induced oxidative stress in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y6210. Trehalose and glycogen accumulated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, when growth conditions deteriorate. Yeast cells were subjected to oxidative stress for different time periods (0, 30, 60 and 120 min to evaluate the role of trehalose, glycogen and trehalase. There was no change in the level of trehalose while the content of glycogen increased during the oxidative stress. The time dependent modulation in the activities of trehalase and invertase was observed under oxidative stress. It has been suggested that glycogen serving as a protectant during oxidative stress not trehalose.

  4. Investigation of nutrient sensing in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckert-Boulet, Nadine

    2006-01-01

    Gæren Saccharomyces cerevisiae har udviklet komplekse regulatoriske systemer til at kontrollere ekspression af de proteiner, der importerer næringsstoffer, således at disse kun bliver produceret, når der er brug for dem. Dette er tilfældet for hexose-transportører samt aminosyre-transportører (disse bliver også kaldt amino acid permeases (AAPs)). Deres ekspression induceres på det transkriptionelle niveau efter at ekstracellulære næringsstoffer, henholdsvis glukose og aminosyrer, bliver detekteret af sensor-proteiner, som sidder i plasmamembranen. Aminosyrer bliver detekteres af den såkaldte SPS (Ssy1p-Ptr3p-Ssy5p) sensor, og et signal genereres og bliver transmitteret via de homologe transkriptionsfaktorer Stp1p og Stp2p. Stp1p og Stp2p undergår endoproteolytisk kløvning i cytoplasma og migrerer derefter til cellekernen, hvor de binder til promoter-DNA ved flere AAP gener, hvilket medfører transkriptionel induktion. For at kunne bekræfte eller identificere nye gener som reguleres via SPS-systemet, blev der udført global transkriptionel profilering af vildtype stammer samt af stammer deleterede for enten SSY1 eller STP1 og STP2, både med og uden aminosyren L-citrullin i mediet. L-citrulline kan ikke optages af disse stammer, da de mangler GAP1 (General Amino acid Permease). Det blev bekræftet, at AAP generne TAT1, BAP2, BAP3 og PTR2 er under kontrol af aminosyre induktionsvejen, mens AGP2 blev identificeret som et nyt gen under kontrol af denne mekanisme. Den globale transkriptionsanalyse viste at 46 gener induceres af L-citrullin, afhængigt af Ssy1p og Stp1p/Stp2p. Sekvenssammenligning af promoterregionerne muliggjorde en mere præcis definition af den tidligere beskrevet Upstream Activating Sequence (UASaa). Udover effekten på AAP gener, viste ssy1? og stp1? stp2? mutanter mange andre transkriptionelle fænotyper, såsom øget ekspression af gener under kontrol af Nitrogen Catabolite Repression og gener involverede i stress respons. F-box proteinet Grr1p, som også spiller en rolle i regulering af cellecyklus og glukose induktion af heksose transportørgener, er nødvendig for at aminosyre induktion kan finde sted. Hel-genom transkriptionsanalyser af en vildtype stamme og en grr1? stamme med og uden L-citrullin blev udført. Dataanalyse viste at aminosyre induktion af AAP generne AGP1, BAP2, BAP3, DIP5, TAT1, og GNP1 er helt afhængig af tilstedeværelsen af GRR1. Sammenligningen af de to stammers transkriptionelle profiler viste at, når GRR1 er slået ud, transkription af mange gener til enzymer i den centrale karbon metabolisme øges. Promoteranalyse viste at mange af de gener med øget transkription har mulige Mig1p og/eller Msn2p-Msn4p bindingelementer. Den øgede ekspression af glukose-represserede gener i grr1? stammen kan være en indirekte konsekvens af den begrænsede glukose optagelse som forventes i denne mutant på grund af formindsket ekspression af flere hexose transportører. I et forsøg på at identificere nye komponenter i SPS-signaltransduktionsmekanismen, blev en transposon samling screenet for mutanter med (konstitutive) transkriptionel induktion af AAP gener, det vil sige, mutanter, i hvilke signaleringsvejen er aktiv selv uden aminosyre i mediet. Flere transposoner blev fundet i RTS1 locus. RTS1 koder en af de to regulatoriske enheder af protein fosfatase 2A, som er kendt i gær. RTS1 blev slået ud, og dette medførte konstitutiv aktivering af AGP1 og BAP2 promotorer. Dette var afhængigt af SSY1, PTR3, SSY5, GRR1 eller STP1, STP2 og deres homolog STP3. Den forøgede transkription fra AGP1 og BAP2 promotorer i rts1? celler ser ud til at skyldes forøget processering af Stp1p. Med dette arbejde blev der identificeret nye gener som reguleres via SPS-signalnetværket og konsensussekvensen af UASaa involveret i aminosyre induktion blev defineret mere præcist. Det er blevet bekræftet at Grr1p er involveret i denne vej og effekterne af grr1? mutationen blev undersøgt på hel-genom transkriptionelt niveau. Derudover, blev der identificeret en ny komponent af signa

  5. In silico modeling of cation homeostasis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Gerber, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Die toxische Wirkung von Kationen ist verantwortlich für eine Reihe biologischer und pathologischer Erscheinungen. Zu den übergreifenden Zielen des Gesamtvorhabens wurden als wissenschaftliche Arbeiten i) die Analyse, graphische Darstellung und darauf basierende Gewichtung spezifischer genomischer Promotor-Regionen, ii) die Verarbeitung, Auswertung und genomweite Analyse von Mikro-Array Experimenten über die Auswirkung verschiedener Schwermetalle auf S. cerevisiae, iii) Mitarbeit an einer Si...

  6. Tomato QM-Like Protein Protects Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cells against Oxidative Stress by Regulating Intracellular Proline Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Changbin; Wanduragala, Srimevan; Becker, Donald F; Dickman, Martin B.

    2006-01-01

    Exogenous proline can protect cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae from oxidative stress. We altered intracellular proline levels by overexpressing the proline dehydrogenase gene (PUT1) of S. cerevisiae. Put1p performs the first enzymatic step of proline degradation in S. cerevisiae. Overexpression of Put1p results in low proline levels and hypersensitivity to oxidants, such as hydrogen peroxide and paraquat. A put1-disrupted yeast mutant deficient in Put1p activity has increased protection from...

  7. The Reacquisition of Biotin Prototrophy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Involved Horizontal Gene Transfer, Gene Duplication and Gene Clustering

    OpenAIRE

    HALL, CHARLES; Dietrich, Fred S.

    2007-01-01

    The synthesis of biotin, a vitamin required for many carboxylation reactions, is a variable trait in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Many S. cerevisiae strains, including common laboratory strains, contain only a partial biotin synthesis pathway. We here report the identification of the first step necessary for the biotin synthesis pathway in S. cerevisiae. The biotin auxotroph strain S288c was able to grow on media lacking biotin when BIO1 and the known biotin synthesis gene BIO6 were introduced t...

  8. Morfologia do epitélio intestinal de codornas japonesas alimentadas com parede celular da Saccharomyces cerevisiae / Morphology of the intestinal epithelium of Japanese quail fed with cell wall Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marina Jorge de, Lemos; Lígia Fátima Lima, Calixto; Aparecida Alves do, Nascimento; Armando, Sales; Marcos Antônio José dos, Santos; Rômulo Jordão Neves, Aroucha.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar os benefícios e o melhor nível de inclusão de parede celular de Saccharomyces cerevisiae (PCSC) na dieta sobre a morfologia intestinal de codornas japonesas (Coturnix coturnix japonica) durante a fase de produção. 400 codornas japonesas (42 a 154 dias de idade) [...] foram distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e 10 repetições com oito aves cada. Foram utilizadas cinco dietas com diferentes níveis de parede celular de S. cerevisiae (0, 0,5, 1,0; 1,5; 2,0kg t-1). A dieta foi fornecida ad libitum durante todo o período experimental. As variáveis analisadas foram: altura e largura das vilosidades, relação altura/largura das vilosidades e profundidade da cripta intestinal. Altura, largura e proporção altura/largura das vilosidades intestinais foram influenciados pela inclusão de PCSc na dieta, enquanto que a profundidade das criptas não foi influenciada pela adição de PCSc. A inclusão de parede celular de S. cerevisiae na dieta até 1,7kg t-1 trouxe alterações positivas na morfologia do epitélio intestinal de codornas japonesas (C. c. japonica) na fase de produção. Abstract in english Objective of this research was to evaluate the benefits and the best level of cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (PCSc) added on the diet, on intestinal morphology of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica), during the production phase. 400 Japanese quails (42 to 154 days of age), were distri [...] buted in a complete random design, with five treatments and 10 replicates with 8 birds each. It was used five diets with different levels of cell wall of S. cerevisiae (0; 0.5; 1.0; 1.5; 2.0kg t-1). Diet was fed ad libitum during all the experimental period. The variables were: height and width of the villus, width / height ratio of the villi and depth of the intestinal crypt. Height, width and height and width ratio of the intestinal villi were influenced by the inclusion of PCSc in the diet, while the crypt depth was not influenced by the addition of PCSc. The inclusion of the cell wall of S. cerevisiae in the diet up to 1.7kg t-1 brought positive changes in the morphology of the intestinal epithelium of Japanese quail (C. c. japonica) in the production phase.

  9. EasyCloneMulti: A Set of Vectors for Simultaneous and Multiple Genomic Integrations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baallal Jacobsen, Simo Abdessamad; Jensen, Niels B.; Kildegaard, Kanchana R.; Herrgård, Markus J.; Schneider, Konstantin; Koza, Anna; Forster, Jochen; Nielsen, Jens; Borodina, Irina

    2016-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is widely used in the biotechnology industry for production of ethanol, recombinant proteins, food ingredients and other chemicals. In order to generate highly producing and stable strains, genome integration of genes encoding metabolic pathway enzymes is the preferred option. However, integration of pathway genes in single or few copies, especially those encoding rate-controlling steps, is often not sufficient to sustain high metabolic fluxes. By exploiting the sequence diversity in the long terminal repeats (LTR) of Ty retrotransposons, we developed a new set of integrative vectors, EasyCloneMulti, that enables multiple and simultaneous integration of genes in S. cerevisiae. By creating vector backbones that combine consensus sequences that aim at targeting subsets of Ty sequences and a quickly degrading selective marker, integrations at multiple genomic loci and a range of expression levels were obtained, as assessed with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter system. The EasyCloneMulti vector set was applied to balance the expression of the rate-controlling step in the ?-alanine pathway for biosynthesis of 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3HP). The best 3HP producing clone, with 5.45 g.L-1 of 3HP, produced 11 times more 3HP than the lowest producing clone, which demonstrates the capability of EasyCloneMulti vectors to impact metabolic pathway enzyme activity. PMID:26934490

  10. Topological basis of signal integration in the transcriptional-regulatory network of the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Chennubhotla Chakra; Wu Chuang; Farkas Illés J; Bahar Ivet; Oltvai Zoltán N

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Signal recognition and information processing is a fundamental cellular function, which in part involves comprehensive transcriptional regulatory (TR) mechanisms carried out in response to complex environmental signals in the context of the cell's own internal state. However, the network topological basis of developing such integrated responses remains poorly understood. Results By studying the TR network of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae we show that an intermediate l...

  11. Defect in two pleiotropic drug resistance transporters causes extensive changes in physiology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae populations.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlavá?ek, Otakar; Ku?erová, Helena; Palková, Zdena; Váchová, Libuše

    Helsinki : Springer, 2007, s. 98-98. [European Federation of Biotechnology Conference /3./. Helsinki (FI), 13.06.2007-16.06.2007] R&D Projects: GA ?R GP204/05/P175; GA ?R GA525/05/0297; GA MŠk(CZ) LC531 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : saccharomyces cerevisiae Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  12. Regulation of allantoate transport in wild-type and mutant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Chisholm, V T; Lea, H Z; Rai, R; Cooper, T G

    1987-01-01

    Accumulation of intracellular allantoin and allantoate is mediated by two distinct active transport systems in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Allantoin transport (DAL4 gene) is inducible, while allantoate uptake is constitutive (it occurs at full levels in the absence of any allantoate-related compounds from the culture medium). Both systems appear to be sensitive to nitrogen catabolite repression, feedback inhibition, and trans-inhibition. Mutants (dal5) that lack allantoate transport have been i...

  13. Protective effect of acetic acid against ethanol-induced cell death in "Saccharomyces cerevisiae"

    OpenAIRE

    Afonso, Andreia Fernandes

    2011-01-01

    O etanol é um produto final bem conhecido da fermentação alcoólica realizada por Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Em altas concentrações, é responsável pela redução de viabilidade celular e inibição da fermentação. Além disso, durante a fermentação alguns ácidos fracos, como os ácidos acético, butírico e pirúvico, produzidos pelo metabolismo da levedura, podem acumular-se no meio de crescimento e aumentar a toxicidade do etanol, o que resulta numa maior inibição de crescimento e fermentação (Gibson,...

  14. Cloning and Expression of a Schwanniomyces occidentalis ?-Amylase Gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Tsung Tsan; Lin, Long Liu; Hsu, Wen Hwei

    1989-01-01

    An ?-amylase gene (AMY) was cloned from Schwanniomyces occidentalis CCRC 21164 into Saccharomyces cerevisiae AH22 by inserting Sau3AI-generated DNA fragments into the BamHI site of YEp16. The 5-kilobase insert was shown to direct the synthesis of ?-amylase. After subclones containing various lengths of restricted fragments were screened, a 3.4-kilobase fragment of the donor strain DNA was found to be sufficient for ?-amylase synthesis. The concentration of ?-amylase in culture broth produced ...

  15. Improved xylose and arabinose utilization by an industrial recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain using evolutionary engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez, R.G.; Karhumaa, Kaisa; Fonseca, C.; Nogue, V.S.; Almeida, J.R.M.; Larsson, C.U.; Bengtsson, O.; Bettiga, M.; Hahn-Hagerdal, B.; Gorwa-Grauslund, M.F.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Cost-effective fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysate to ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires efficient mixed sugar utilization. Notably, the rate and yield of xylose and arabinose co-fermentation to ethanol must be enhanced. Results: Evolutionary engineering was used to...... xylose and arabinose under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Improved anaerobic ethanol production was achieved at the expense of xylitol and glycerol but arabinose was almost stoichiometrically converted to arabitol. Further characterization of the strain indicated that the selection pressure during...

  16. The Influence of Different Factors on Manganese Incorporation into Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Vesna Stehlik-Tomas; Jasna Mrv?i?; Damir Stanzer

    2009-01-01

    Yeast biomass as well as biomass enriched with trace minerals have been demonstrated to be useful in improving animal health and growth performance. In this work, process for the production of Saccharomyces cerevisiae biomass enriched with manganese, a microelement with antioxidant properties in the form of high bioavailable Mn-protein complex, has been studied. The influences of media composition, Mn2+ concentration and Mn salt were investigated in shaken cultures. The change of biomass and ...

  17. Diversion of flux toward sesquiterpene production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by fusion of host and heterologous enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Line; Chen, Yun; Bach, Lars Stougaard; Rattleff, Stig; Maury, Jerome; Pedersen, Susanne Brix; Nielsen, Jens; Mortensen, Uffe Hasbro

    2011-01-01

    The ability to transfer metabolic pathways from the natural producer organisms to the well-characterized cell factory Saccharomyces cerevisiae is well documented. However, as many secondary metabolites are produced by collaborating enzymes assembled in complexes, metabolite production in yeast may be limited by the inability of the heterologous enzymes to collaborate with the native yeast enzymes. This may cause loss of intermediates by diffusion or degradation or due to conversion of the interm...

  18. Stimulation of DNA repair in saccharomyces cerevisiae by ginkgo biloba leaf extract

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Filipe; Azevedo, F.; Johansson, Björn; Oliveira, Rui Pedro Soares de

    2011-01-01

    Many extracts prepared from plants traditionally used for medicinal applications contain a variety of phytochemicals with antioxidant and antigenotoxic activity. In this work we measured the DNA protective effect of extracts of Ginkgo biloba leaves from oxidative stress using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as experimental model. The extract improved viability of yeast cells under oxidative stress imposed by hydrogen peroxide. In accordance with previous reports on antioxidant properties of G. bilob...

  19. Towards fermentation of galacturonic acid-containing feedstocks with Saccharomyces cerevisiae:

    OpenAIRE

    Huisjes, E.H.

    2013-01-01

    The ambition to reduce our current dependence on fossil transportation fuels has driven renewed interest in bioethanol. Pectin-rich feedstocks like sugar beet pulp and citrus peel, which are currently sold as cattle feed, are promising raw materials for the production of bioethanol. This thesis explores the challenges related to the fermentation of pectin-rich hydrolysates with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Galacturonic acid is a major constituent of pectin-rich hydrolysates. Achieving efficient ...

  20. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mutants Resistant to Catabolite Repression: Use in Cheese Whey Hydrolysate Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Richard B.; Benitez, Tahia; Woodward, Anne

    1982-01-01

    Mutants of an industrial-type strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae which rapidly and completely fermented equimolar mixtures of glucose and galactose to ethanol were isolated. These mutants fell into two general phenotypic classes based upon their fermentation kinetics and enzyme induction patterns. One class apparently specifically effects the utilization of galactose and allows sequential utilization of first glucose and then galactose in an anaerobic fermentation. The second class of mutants...

  1. Self-surface assembly of cellulosomes with two miniscaffoldins on Saccharomyces cerevisiae for cellulosic ethanol production

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Li-Hai; ZHANG, ZI-JIAN; Yu, Xiao-Yu; Xue, Ya-Xu; Tan, Tian-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Yeast to directly convert cellulose and, especially, the microcrystalline cellulose into bioethanol, was engineered through display of minicellulosomes on the cell surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The construction and cell surface attachment of cellulosomes were accomplished with two individual miniscaffoldins to increase the display level. All of the cellulases including a celCCA (endoglucanase), a celCCE (cellobiohydrolase), and a Ccel_2454 (?-glucosidase) were cloned from Clostridium c...

  2. Function and Regulation in MAPK Signaling Pathways: Lessons Learned from the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Raymond E; Thorner, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    Signaling pathways that activate different mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) elicit many of the responses that are evoked in cells by changes in certain environmental conditions and upon exposure to a variety of hormonal and other stimuli. These pathways were first elucidated in the unicellular eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae (budding yeast). Studies of MAPK pathways in this organism continue to be especially informative in revealing the molecular mechanisms by which MAPK cascades ...

  3. Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies as predictors of inflammatory bowel disease

    OpenAIRE

    Israeli, E.; Grotto, I; Gilburd, B.; Balicer, R D; Goldin, E.; Wiik, A; Shoenfeld, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Background and aims: Several antibodies have been reported in the sera of patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). The most commonly described are anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae mannan antibodies (ASCA) in CD and perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasm antibodies (pANCA) in UC. Familial clustering of these antibodies has been described, suggesting they might be genetic markers. Our aim was to investigate the presence of these antibodies before the emergence of overt clinica...

  4. Saccharomyces cerevisiae exhibits a sporulation-specific temporal pattern of transcript accumulation.

    OpenAIRE

    Kaback, D B; Feldberg, L R

    1985-01-01

    Cultures of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that are heterozygous for the mating type (MATa/MAT alpha) undergo synchronous meiosis and spore formation when starved for nitrogen and supplied with a nonfermentable carbon source such as acetate. Haploid and homozygous MAT alpha/MAT alpha and MATa/MATa diploid cells incubated under the same conditions fail to undergo meiosis and are asporogenous. It has not yet been firmly established that gene expression during sporulation is controlled at th...

  5. Role of inositol-containing sphingolipids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae during inositol starvation.

    OpenAIRE

    Hanson, B A

    1984-01-01

    The in vitro lipid requirements of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine-dolichol phosphate N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphotransferase for the inositol-containing sphingolipids from Saccharomyces cerevisiae were characterized in terms of concentration and specificity. The effects of combinations of lipids, especially phosphatidylinositol and the inositol-containing sphingolipids, were also tested on the transferase. Phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylglycerol stimulated the enzyme 3.3- and 2.8-fold, respec...

  6. Metabolism of myo-inositol during sporulation of myo-inositol-requiring Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Schroeder, R.; Breitenbach, M.

    1981-01-01

    We investigated the sporulation properties of a series of diploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains homozygous for inositol auxotrophic markers. The strains required different amounts of inositol for the completion of sporulation. Shift experiments revealed two phases of inositol requirement during sporulation which coincided with the two phases of lipid synthesis found by earlier workers. Phase I was at the beginning and during premeiotic deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis; phase II immediately ...

  7. Effects of Ty insertions on HIS4 transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Silverman, S J; Fink, G R

    1984-01-01

    Insertion of two different Ty elements into the Saccharomyces cerevisiae HIS4 regulatory region eliminates transcription of HIS4. Transcription can be restored by genetic rearrangements involving the Ty element inserted at HIS4. Several deletions, an inversion, a translocation, and a gene conversion are capable of restoring HIS4 transcription. Some of the rearrangements result in new transcriptional initiation sites. One type of revertant of his4-912 results from recombination between the del...

  8. Effects of unsaturated fatty acid deprivation on neutral lipid synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Buttke, T M; Pyle, A L

    1982-01-01

    The effects of unsaturated fatty acid deprivation on lipid synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain GL7 were determined by following the incorporation of [14C]acetate. Compared to yeast cells grown with oleic acid, unsaturated fatty acid-deprived cells contained 200 times as much 14C label in squalene, with correspondingly less label in 2,3-oxidosqualene and 2,3;22,23-dioxidosqualene. Cells deprived of either methionine or cholesterol did not accumulate squalene, demonstrating that the ef...

  9. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rif1 cooperates with MRX-Sae2 in promoting DNA-end resection

    OpenAIRE

    Martina, Marina; Bonetti, Diego; VILLA Matteo; Lucchini, Giovanna; Longhese, Maria Pia

    2014-01-01

    Diverse roles in DNA metabolism have been envisaged for budding yeast and mammalian Rif1. In particular, yeast Rif1 is involved in telomere homeostasis, while its mammalian counterpart participates in the cellular response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Here, we show that Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rif1 supports cell survival to DNA lesions in the absence of MRX or Sae2. Furthermore, it contributes to the nucleolytic processing (resection) of DSBs. This Rif1-dependent control of DSB resect...

  10. Shelterin-Like Proteins and Yku Inhibit Nucleolytic Processing of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Telomeres

    OpenAIRE

    Bonetti, Diego; Clerici, Michela; Anbalagan, Savani; Martina, Marina; Lucchini, Giovanna; Longhese, Maria Pia

    2010-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells distinguish their chromosome ends from accidental DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by packaging them into protective structures called telomeres that prevent DNA repair/recombination activities. Here we investigate the role of key telomeric proteins in protecting budding yeast telomeres from degradation. We show that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae shelterin-like proteins Rif1, Rif2, and Rap1 inhibit nucleolytic processing at both de novo and native telomeres during G1 and G2 cel...

  11. Glucose, Nitrogen, and Phosphate Repletion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Common Transcriptional Responses to Different Nutrient Signals

    OpenAIRE

    Conway, Michael K.; Grunwald, Douglas; Heideman, Warren

    2012-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae are able to control growth in response to changes in nutrient availability. The limitation for single macronutrients, including nitrogen (N) and phosphate (P), produces stable arrest in G1/G0. Restoration of the limiting nutrient quickly restores growth. It has been shown that glucose (G) depletion/repletion very rapidly alters the levels of more than 2000 transcripts by at least 2-fold, a large portion of which are involved with either protein production in growth or...

  12. NDT80, a meiosis-specific gene required for exit from pachytene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, L.; Ajimura, M.; Padmore, R; KLEIN, C; Kleckner, N.

    1995-01-01

    We describe the identification of a new meiosis-specific gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, NDT80. The ndt80 null and point mutants arrest at the pachytene stage of meiosis, with homologs connected by full-length synaptonemal complexes and spindle pole bodies duplicated but unseparated. Meiotic recombination in an ndt80 delta mutant is relatively normal, although commitment to heteroallelic recombination is elevated two- to threefold and crossing over is decreased twofold compared with those o...

  13. The Sum1/Ndt80 Transcriptional Switch and Commitment to Meiosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Winter, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Cells encounter numerous signals during the development of an organism that induce division, differentiation, and apoptosis. These signals need to be present for defined intervals in order to induce stable changes in the cellular phenotype. The point after which an inducing signal is no longer needed for completion of a differentiation program can be termed the “commitment point.” Meiotic development in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (sporulation) provides a model system to study...

  14. Rapid method for isolation and screening of cytochrome c oxidase-deficient mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    McEwen, J.E; Cameron, V L; Poyton, R. O.

    1985-01-01

    We describe here a new method for the specific isolation of cytochrome c oxidase-deficient mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. One unique feature of the method is the use of tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine as a cytochrome c oxidase activity stain for yeast colonies. The staining of yeast colonies by tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine is dependent upon a functional cytochrome c oxidase and is unaffected by other lesions in respiration. Since the tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine colony staining react...

  15. Improvement of ethanol production by ethanol-tolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae UVNR56

    OpenAIRE

    Thammasittirong, Sutticha Na-Ranong; Thirasaktana, Thanawan; Thammasittirong, Anon; Srisodsuk, Malee

    2013-01-01

    Ethanol tolerance is one of the important characteristics of ethanol-producing yeast. This study focused on the improvement of ethanol tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae NR1 for enhancing ethanol production by random UV-C mutagenesis. One ethanol-tolerant mutant, UVNR56, displayed a significantly improved ethanol tolerance in the presence of 15% (v/v) ethanol and showed a considerably higher viability during ethanol fermentation from sugarcane molasses and sugarcane molasses with initial e...

  16. Advances in metabolic engineering of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for production of chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borodina, Irina; Nielsen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an important industrial host for production of enzymes, pharmaceutical and nutraceutical ingredients and recently also commodity chemicals and biofuels. Here, we review the advances in modeling and synthetic biology tools and how these tools can speed up the development of yeast cell factories. We also present an overview of metabolic engineering strategies for developing yeast strains for production of polymer monomers: lactic, succinic, and cis,cis-muconic aci...

  17. Biosynthesis of phosphoinositol-containing sphingolipids from phosphatidylinositol by a membrane preparation from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, G W; Lester, R L

    1980-01-01

    Incubation of membranes prepared from Saccharomyces cerevisiae with [32P]phosphatidyl[3H]inositol resulted in the transfer of both labels to two products which were characterized as two species of inositolphosphoceramide, differing in the ceramide portion of the molecule. The products were characterized on the basis of stability in mild alkali, mobility on silica gel-impregnated paper, chromatography on silicic acid columns, and release of inositol phosphate upon base hydrolysis. The reaction...

  18. Adaptation of a flocculent Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain to lignocellulosic inhibitors by cell recycle batch fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Landaeta, R.; Aroca, G.; Acevedo, F.; Teixeira, J. A.; Mussatto, Solange I.

    2013-01-01

    The ethanol production from lignocellulosic feedstocks is considered a promising strategy to increase global production of biofuels without impacting food supplies. However, some compounds released during the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials are toxic for the microbial metabolism, causing low ethanol yield and productivity during the fermentation. As an attempt to overcome this problem, the present study evaluated the adaptation of a flocculent strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (NRRL ...

  19. The Linker Histone Plays a Dual Role during Gametogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Bryant, Jessica M; Govin, Jérôme; Zhang, Liye; Donahue, Greg; Pugh, B. Franklin; BERGER, SHELLEY L.

    2012-01-01

    The differentiation of gametes involves dramatic changes to chromatin, affecting transcription, meiosis, and cell morphology. Sporulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae shares many chromatin features with spermatogenesis, including a 10-fold compaction of the nucleus. To identify new proteins involved in spore nuclear organization, we purified chromatin from mature spores and discovered a significant enrichment of the linker histone (Hho1). The function of Hho1 has proven to be elusive during ve...

  20. Microbial transformations of ferulic acid by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Z.; Dostal, L; Rosazza, J P

    1993-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae (dry baker's yeast) and Pseudomonas fluorescens were used to convert trans-ferulic acid into 4-hydroxy-3-methoxystyrene in 96 and 89% yields, respectively. The metabolites were isolated by solid-phase extraction and analyzed by thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. The identities of the metabolites were determined by 1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and by mass spectrometry. The mechanism of the decarboxylation of fer...

  1. Engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Efficient Anaerobic Alcoholic Fermentation of L-Arabinose:

    OpenAIRE

    Wisselink, H.W.; Toirkens, M.J.; del Rosario Franco Berriel, M.; Winkler, A.A.; van Dijken, J P; Pronk, J T; Van Maris, A.J.A.

    2007-01-01

    For cost-effective and efficient ethanol production from lignocellulosic fractions of plant biomass, the conversion of not only major constituents, such as glucose and xylose, but also less predominant sugars, such as L-arabinose, is required. Wild-type strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the organism used in industrial ethanol production, cannot ferment xylose and arabinose. Although metabolic and evolutionary engineering has enabled the efficient alcoholic fermentation of xylose under anae...

  2. Transcriptional Response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Different Nitrogen Concentrations during Alcoholic Fermentation? †

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes-Ferreira, A.; Del Olmo, M.; García-Martínez, J.; Jiménez-Martí, E.; Mendes-Faia, A.; Pérez-Ortín, J E; Leão, C.

    2007-01-01

    Gene expression profiles of a wine strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae PYCC4072 were monitored during alcoholic fermentations with three different nitrogen supplies: (i) control fermentation (with enough nitrogen to complete sugar fermentation), (ii) nitrogen-limiting fermentation, and (iii) the addition of nitrogen to the nitrogen-limiting fermentation (refed fermentation). Approximately 70% of the yeast transcriptome was altered in at least one of the fermentation stages studied, revealing t...

  3. Impact of assimilable nitrogen availability in glucose uptake kinetics in Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Palma Margarida; Madeira Sara; Mendes-Ferreira Ana; Sá-Correia Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The expression and activity of the different Saccharomyces cerevisiae hexose uptake systems (Hxt) and the kinetics of glucose uptake are considered essential to industrial alcoholic fermentation performance. However, the dynamics of glucose uptake kinetics during the different stages of fermentation, depending on glucose and nitrogen availability, is very poorly characterized. The objective of the present work was to examine thoroughly the alterations occurring in glucose ...

  4. Engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Efficient Anaerobic Alcoholic Fermentation of l-Arabinose?

    OpenAIRE

    Wisselink, H. Wouter; Toirkens, Maurice J.; del Rosario Franco Berriel, M.; Winkler, Aaron A.; Van Dijken, Johannes P.; Pronk, Jack T; van Maris, Antonius J.A.

    2007-01-01

    For cost-effective and efficient ethanol production from lignocellulosic fractions of plant biomass, the conversion of not only major constituents, such as glucose and xylose, but also less predominant sugars, such as l-arabinose, is required. Wild-type strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the organism used in industrial ethanol production, cannot ferment xylose and arabinose. Although metabolic and evolutionary engineering has enabled the efficient alcoholic fermentation of xylose under anae...

  5. Ethanol production using Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells immobilised on corn stem ground tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Vu?urovi? Vesna M.; Razmovski Radojka N.; Popov Stevan D.

    2009-01-01

    Cell immobilisation in alcoholic fermentation has been extensively studied during the past few decades because of its technical and economical advantages over those of free cell systems. A biocatalyst was prepared by immobilising a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain (baker yeast) on corn stem ground tissue for use in alcoholic fermentation. For this purpose, the yeast cells were submitted to the batch tests 'in situ' adsorption onto pieces of the corn stem ground tissue. Cells immobil...

  6. Fungicide residues in grapes determined the dynamics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains during spontaneous wine fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    ?uš Franc; ?adež Neža J.; Raspor Peter I.

    2011-01-01

    Impact of three fungicides against B. cinerea (iprodione, pyrimethanil and f ludioxonil plus cyprodinil) on the population of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains during the spontaneous alcoholic fermentation was studied. With regard to the use of fungicides in the vineyard at two stages of the grapevine growth we followed four different spontaneous fermentations: control, iprodione, pyrimethanil and f ludioxonil plus cyprodinil. The fungicide residues in the grapes were determined by GC/MS...

  7. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for increased bioconversion of lignocellulose to ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Jun, He; Jiayi, Cai

    2012-01-01

    The absence of pentose-utilizing enzymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an obstacle for efficiently converting lignocellulosic materials to ethanol. In the present study, the genes coding xylose reductase (XYL1) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XYL2) from Pichia stipitis were successfully engineered into S. cerevisae. As compared to the control transformant, engineering of XYL1 and XYL2 into yeasts significantly increased the microbial biomass (8.1 vs. 3.4 g/L), xylose consumption rate (0.15 vs. 0....

  8. Sex and the Spread of Retrotransposon Ty3 in Experimental Populations of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Zeyl, C; Bell, G; Green, D M

    1996-01-01

    Mobile genetic elements may be molecular parasites that reduce the fitness of individuals that bear them by causing predominantly deleterious mutations, but increase in frequency when rare because transposition increases their rates of transmission to the progeny of crosses between infected and uninfected individuals. If this is true, then the initial spread of a mobile element requires sex. We tested this prediction using the yeast retrotransposon Ty3 and a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae...

  9. Dysfunctional Mitochondria Modulate cAMP-PKA Signaling and Filamentous and Invasive Growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Aun, Anu; Tamm, Tiina; Sedman, Juhan

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial metabolism is targeted by conserved signaling pathways that mediate external information to the cell. However, less is known about whether mitochondrial dysfunction interferes with signaling and thereby modulates the cellular response to environmental changes. In this study, we analyzed defective filamentous and invasive growth of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that have a dysfunctional mitochondrial genome (rho mutants). We found that the morphogenetic defect of rho...

  10. Inhibition of mycotoxin-producing Aspergillus nomius vsc 23 by lactic acid bacteria and Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz, R.; Arena, M.E.; Silva, J.; González, S. N.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of different fermenting microorganisms on growth of a mycotoxin- producing Aspergillus nomius was assayed. Two lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, all of which are widely used in fermentation and preservation of food, were assayed on their fungus inhibitory properties. Assays were carried out by simultaneous inoculation of one of the possible inhibiting microorganisms and the fungus or subsequent inoculation of on...

  11. THE EFFECT OF PHOSPHATE ACCUMULATION ON METAL ION HOMEOSTASIS IN SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenfeld, Leah; Reddi, Amit R.; Leung, Edison; Aranda, Kimberly; Jensen, Laran T.; Culotta, Valeria C.

    2010-01-01

    Much of what is currently understood about the cell biology of metals involves their interactions with proteins. By comparison, little is known about metal interactions with intracellular inorganic compounds such as phosphate. Here we examined the role of phosphate in metal metabolism in vivo by genetically perturbing the phosphate content of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. Yeast pho80 mutants cannot sense phosphate and have lost control of phosphate uptake, storage and metabolism. We report ...

  12. Fermentation performance of engineered and evolved xylose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonderegger, M.; Jeppsson, M.; Larsson, C.; Gorwa-Grauslund, M.F.; Boles, E.; Olsson, Lisbeth; Spencer-Martins, I.; Hahn-Hagerdal, B.; Sauer, U.

    2004-01-01

    Lignocellulose hydrolysate is an abundant substrate for bioethanol production. The ideal microorganism for such a fermentation process should combine rapid and efficient conversion of the available carbon sources to ethanol with high tolerance to ethanol and to inhibitory components in the hydrolysate. A particular biological problem are the pentoses, which are not naturally metabolized by the main industrial ethanol producer Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Several recombinant, mutated, and evolved xy...

  13. Effect of ARS1 mutations on chromosome stability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Srienc, F; Bailey, J. E.; Campbell, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    We have used a set of deletion mutations in the ARS1 element of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to measure their effect on chromosome stability. This work establishes the previously proposed existence of three domains in ARS1. Domain C, which we have previously inferred, but not proved, to be a part of ARS1, is now established. In addition, we show that increasingly large deletions of the domain have increasingly large effects, which was not realized before. Furthermore, we have provided the first p...

  14. Metabolome Studies of Stress Responses in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae : - implementation of sampling and analytical protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Haug, Anne Marte

    2011-01-01

    As a part of cancer research and therapy, it is important to study metabolic responses caused by DNA damaging agents. Whereas earlier studies have focused on changes at protein levels caused by DNA damaging agents, this project focuses on establishment of sampling and cultivation protocols for metabolome analysis, using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism growing in exponential phase. Sampling and cultivations protocols were optimized before cultures were stressed by DNA damaging age...

  15. Continuous ethanol fermentation of lactose by a recombinant flocculating saccharomyces cerevisiae strain

    OpenAIRE

    Domingues, Luc??lia; Dantas, Maria M.; Lima, Nelson; Teixeira, J. A.

    1998-01-01

    Alcohol fermentation of lactose was investigated using a recombinant flocculating Saccharomyces cerevisiae, expressing the LAC4 (coding for b-galactosidase) and LAC12 (coding for lactose permease) genes of Kluyveromyces marxianus. Data on yeast fermentation and growth on a medium containing lactose as the sole carbon source are presented. In the range of studied lactose concentrations, total lactose consumption was observed with a conversion yield of ethanol close to t...

  16. Effects of furfural on the respiratory metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in glucose-limited chemostats,

    OpenAIRE

    Sarvari Horvath, I; Franzén, C J; Taherzadeh, M.J.; Niklasson, C; Lidén, Gunnar

    2003-01-01

    Effects of furfural on the aerobic metabolism of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were studied by performing chemostat experiments, and the kinetics of furfural conversion was analyzed by performing dynamic experiments. Furfural, an important inhibitor present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, was shown to have an inhibitory effect on yeast cells growing respiratively which was much greater than the inhibitory effect previously observed for anaerobically growing yeast cells. The residual fur...

  17. Synthesis of Polyhydroxyalkanoate in the Peroxisome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Using Intermediates of Fatty Acid ?-Oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Poirier, Yves; Erard, Nadine; Petétot, Jean MacDonald-Comber

    2001-01-01

    Medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are polyesters having properties of biodegradable thermoplastics and elastomers that are naturally produced by a variety of pseudomonads. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was transformed with the Pseudomonas aeruginosa PHAC1 synthase modified for peroxisome targeting by the addition of the carboxyl 34 amino acids from the Brassica napus isocitrate lyase. The PHAC1 gene was put under the control of the promoter of the catalase A gene. PHA synthase expre...

  18. Hog1 Controls Global Reallocation of RNA Pol II upon Osmotic Shock in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Kristen; O'Shea, Erin K

    2012-01-01

    When challenged with osmotic shock, Saccharomyces cerevisiae induces hundreds of genes, despite a concurrent reduction in overall transcriptional capacity. The stress-responsive MAP kinase Hog1 activates expression of specific genes through interactions with chromatin remodeling enzymes, transcription factors, and RNA polymerase II. However, it is not clear whether Hog1 is involved more globally in modulating the cell’s transcriptional program during stress, in addition to activating specific...

  19. Anaerobicity Prepares Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cells for Faster Adaptation to Osmotic Shock†

    OpenAIRE

    Krantz, Marcus; Nordlander, Bodil; Valadi, Hadi; Johansson, Mikael; Gustafsson, Lena; Hohmann, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    Yeast cells adapt to hyperosmotic shock by accumulating glycerol and altering expression of hundreds of genes. This transcriptional response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to osmotic shock encompasses genes whose products are implicated in protection from oxidative damage. We addressed the question of whether osmotic shock caused oxidative stress. Osmotic shock did not result in the generation of detectable levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). To preclude any generation of ROS, osmotic shock...

  20. Ultrasonic Measurements and its Evaluation for the Monitoring of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Bernd Hitzmann; Young-Lok Cha

    2004-01-01

    The monitoring and supervision of batch Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultivations are presented by ultrasonic velocity measurements. The measurements are performed in a by-pass to reduce the influence of bubbles. Using these signals the typical phases of such cultivations can be identified. Applying a multi-linear regression model the ultrasonic velocity can be estimated by the biomass, the glucose and the ethanol concentration with a mean estimation error of 1.6 m/s. The multi-linear regression ...

  1. Oxidative Stress in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Diseases: Insights from the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Catarina Pimentel; Liliana Batista-Nascimento; Claudina Rodrigues-Pousada; Menezes, Regina A

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's (PD) diseases are the two most common causes of dementia in aged population. Both are protein-misfolding diseases characterized by the presence of protein deposits in the brain. Despite growing evidence suggesting that oxidative stress is critical to neuronal death, its precise role in disease etiology and progression has not yet been fully understood. Budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae shares conserved biological processes with all eukaryotic cells, inclu...

  2. Catalase Overexpression Reduces Lactic Acid-Induced Oxidative Stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae:

    OpenAIRE

    Abbott, D.A.; Suir, E.; Duong, G.H.; de Hulster, E; Pronk, J T; Van Maris, A.J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Industrial production of lactic acid with the current pyruvate decarboxylase-negative Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains requires aeration to allow for respiratory generation of ATP to facilitate growth and, even under nongrowing conditions, cellular maintenance. In the current study, we observed an inhibition of aerobic growth in the presence of lactic acid. Unexpectedly, the cyb2{Delta} reference strain, used to avoid aerobic consumption of lactic acid, had a specific growth rate of 0.25 h–1 ...

  3. ROX1 and ERG Regulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Implications for Antifungal Susceptibility

    OpenAIRE

    Henry, Karl W.; Nickels, Joseph T.; Edlind, Thomas D.

    2002-01-01

    Yeasts respond to treatment with azoles and other sterol biosynthesis inhibitors by upregulating the expression of the ERG genes responsible for ergosterol production. Previous studies on Saccharomyces cerevisiae implicated the ROX1 repressor in ERG regulation. We report that ROX1 deletion resulted in 2.5- to 16-fold-lower susceptibilities to azoles and terbinafine. In untreated cultures, ERG11 was maximally expressed in mid-log phase and expression decreased in late log phase, while the inve...

  4. Salt tolerance and methionine biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae involve a putative phosphatase gene.

    OpenAIRE

    Gläser, H U; Thomas, D.; Gaxiola, R.; Montrichard, F; Surdin-Kerjan, Y; Serrano, R

    1993-01-01

    The progressive salinization of irrigated land poses a threat to the future of agriculture in arid regions. The identification of crucial metabolic steps in salt tolerance is important for the understanding of stress physiology and may provide the tools for its genetic engineering. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae we have isolated a gene, HAL2, which upon increase in gene dosage improves growth under NaCl and LiCl stresses. The HAL2 protein is homologous to inositol phosphatases, enzymes...

  5. Genetic diversity and molecular characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains from winemaking environments

    OpenAIRE

    Schuller, Dorit

    2004-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve como principal objectivo a avaliação da diversidade genética de estirpes fermentativas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae na Região dos Vinhos Verdes no sentido de estabelecer uma colecção de leveduras, que representa a biodiversidade da região, como recurso para futuros programas de selecção e melhoramento de estirpes enológicas. A validação de métodos moleculares para genotipagem é um pré-requisito essencial para estudos biogeográficos. Neste sentido, foi realizada a an...

  6. Reconstruction of the biosynthetic pathway for the core fungal polyketide scaffold rubrofusarin in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rugbjerg, Peter; Naesby, Michael; Mortensen, Uffe Hasbro; Frandsen, Rasmus John Normand

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Fungal polyketides include commercially important pharmaceuticals and food additives, e.g. the cholesterol-lowering statins and the red and orange monascus pigments. Presently, production relies on isolation of the compounds from the natural producers, and systems for heterologous production in easily fermentable and genetically engineerable organisms, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli are desirable. Rubrofusarin is an orange polyketide pigment that is a...

  7. Genome structure of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain widely used in bioethanol production

    OpenAIRE

    Argueso, Juan Lucas; Carazzolle, Marcelo F.; Mieczkowski, Piotr A; Duarte, Fabiana M.; Netto, Osmar V.C.; Missawa, Silvia K.; Galzerani, Felipe; Gustavo G.L. Costa; Vidal, Ramon O.; Noronha, Melline F; Dominska, Margaret; Andrietta, Maria G.S.; Andrietta, Sílvio R.; Cunha, Anderson F; Gomes, Luiz H.

    2009-01-01

    Bioethanol is a biofuel produced mainly from the fermentation of carbohydrates derived from agricultural feedstocks by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. One of the most widely adopted strains is PE-2, a heterothallic diploid naturally adapted to the sugar cane fermentation process used in Brazil. Here we report the molecular genetic analysis of a PE-2 derived diploid (JAY270), and the complete genome sequence of a haploid derivative (JAY291). The JAY270 genome is highly heterozygous (?2 SNP...

  8. Metabolic link between phosphatidylethanolamine and triacylglycerol metabolism in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Horvath, Susanne E.; Wagner, Andrea; Steyrer, Ernst; Daum, Günther

    2011-01-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae triacylglycerols (TAG) are synthesized by the acyl-CoA dependent acyltransferases Dga1p, Are1p, Are2p and the acyl-CoA independent phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (PDAT) Lro1p which uses phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) as a preferred acyl donor. In the present study we investigated a possible link between TAG and PE metabolism by analyzing the contribution of the four different PE biosynthetic pathways to TAG formation, namely de novo PE synthes...

  9. Cloning and characterization of a gene which determines osmotic stability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Stateva, L I; Oliver, S. G.; Trueman, L J; Venkov, P V

    1991-01-01

    The srb1-1 mutation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an ochre allele which renders the yeast dependent on an osmotic stabilizer for growth and gives the cells the ability to lyse on transfer to hypotonic conditions. A DNA fragment which complements both of these phenotypic effects has been cloned. This clone contains a functional gene which is transcribed into a 2.3-kb polyadenylated mRNA molecule. Transformation of yeast strains carrying defined suppressible alleles demonstrated that the clone...

  10. Sequential injection kinetic flow assay for monitoring glycerol in a sugar fermentation process by saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Hueso Domínguez, Karina B.; Tóth, Ildikó V.; Souto, M. Renata S.; Mendes, Filipa; García De María, Cándido; Vasconcelos, Isabel; Rangel, António O. S. S.

    2010-01-01

    A sequential injection system to monitor glycerol in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation process was developed. The method relies on the rate of formation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide in its reduced form (NADH, measured spectrophotometrically at 340 nm) from the reaction of glycerol with NAD+ cofactor, catalysed by the enzyme glycerol dehydrogenase present in solution. This procedure enables the determination of glycerol between 0.046 and 0.46 g/l, (corresponding to yeast ferment...

  11. Nonlinear differential equation model for quantification of transcriptional regulation applied to microarray data of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vu, Thi Tra; Vohradský, Ji?í

    2007-01-01

    Ro?. 35, ?. 1 (2007), s. 279-287. ISSN 0305-1048 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA310/03/0293; GA ?R GA310/04/0804 Grant ostatní: XE(XE) LSHM-CT-2004-005224 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Source of funding: O - opera?né programy Keywords : saccharomyces cerevisiae * gene expression * tra nscriptional regulators Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 6.954, year: 2007

  12. Engineering Redox Cofactor Regeneration for Improved Pentose Fermentation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Verho, Ritva; Londesborough, John; Penttilä, Merja; Richard, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Pentose fermentation to ethanol with recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae is slow and has a low yield. A likely reason for this is that the catabolism of the pentoses d-xylose and l-arabinose through the corresponding fungal pathways creates an imbalance of redox cofactors. The process, although redox neutral, requires NADPH and NAD+, which have to be regenerated in separate processes. NADPH is normally generated through the oxidative part of the pentose phosphate pathway by the action of glu...

  13. In silico design of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for production of industrial compounds derived from TCA cycle

    OpenAIRE

    H. Lopes; Silva, P.(Instituto de Física de Cantabria (IFCA), CSIC-Universidad de Cantabria, Santander, Spain); Patil, Kiran R; Rocha, I.

    2015-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the most widely used cell factories in industrial biotechnology. However, the development of optimized yeast strains for the production of novel compounds is a costly and time-consuming process, mainly due to the unavailability of suitable chassis cells. This work was developed under the scope of the ERA-IB DeYeastLibrary project and aimed to design in silico pre-optimized strains capable of overproducing organic acids originating from the TCA cycle, based o...

  14. Effects of Ethanol and Other Alkanols on Transport of Acetic Acid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Casal, Margarida; Cardoso, Helena; Leão, Cecília

    1998-01-01

    In glucose-grown cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae IGC 4072, acetic acid enters only by simple diffusion of the undissociated acid. In these cells, ethanol and other alkanols enhanced the passive influx of labelled acetic acid. The influx of the acid followed first-order kinetics with a rate constant that increased exponentially with the alcohol concentration, and an exponential enhancement constant for each alkanol was estimated. The intracellular concentration of labelled acetic acid was al...

  15. Exploiting Spore-Autonomous Fluorescent Protein Expression to Quantify Meiotic Chromosome Behaviors in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Thacker, Drew; Lam, Isabel; Knop, Michael; Keeney, Scott

    2011-01-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has proven to be a rich source of information about the mechanisms and regulation of homologous recombination during meiosis. A common technique for studying this process involves microdissecting the four products (ascospores) of a single meiosis and analyzing the configuration of genetic markers in the spores that are viable. Although this type of analysis is powerful, it can be laborious and time-consuming to characterize the large numbers of meios...

  16. Ure2p Function Is Enhanced by Its Prion Domain in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Shewmaker, Frank; Mull, Lori; Nakayashiki, Toru; Masison, Daniel C.; Wickner, Reed B.

    2007-01-01

    The Ure2 protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae can become a prion (infectious protein). At very low frequencies Ure2p forms an insoluble, infectious amyloid known as [URE3], which is efficiently transmitted to progeny cells or mating partners that consequently lose the normal Ure2p nitrogen regulatory function. The [URE3] prion causes yeast cells to grow slowly, has never been identified in the wild, and confers no obvious phenotypic advantage. An N-terminal asparagine-rich domain determines Ur...

  17. Exploiting cell metabolism for biocatalytic whole-cell transamination by recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Nora; Gorwa-Grauslund, Marie; Carlquist, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    The potential of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for biocatalytic whole-cell transamination was investigated using the kinetic resolution of racemic 1-phenylethylamine (1-PEA) to (R)-1-PEA as a model reaction. As native yeast do not possess any ?-transaminase activity for the reaction, a recombinant yeast biocatalyst was constructed by overexpressing the gene coding for vanillin aminotransferase from Capsicum chinense. The yeast-based biocatalyst could use glucose as the sole co-substrate for the su...

  18. Analyse Systémique de la Modulation de la bascule respiro-fermentaire chez Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Feria Gervasio, David

    2008-01-01

    L’objective de notre travail est d’étudier la transition métabolique respiro-fermentaire chez Saccharomyces cerevisiae, plus spécifiquement d’évaluer l’importance du transport du carbone issu du métabolisme de l’acétyl-coenzymeA vers la mitochondrie. Pour ce faire, une approche originale du génie microbiologique a été mise en place basée sur l’utilisation de chémostat sur substrats mixtes. Cela consiste à introduire au cours d’un chémostat oxydatif sous limitation glucose une pert...

  19. Characterization of surface-exposed reactive cysteine residues in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Marino, Stefano M.; Li, Yehua; Fomenko, Dmitri E; Agisheva, Natalia; L.Cerny, Ronald; GLADYSHEV, Vadim N.

    2010-01-01

    Numerous cellular processes are subject to redox regulation, and thiol-dependent redox control, acting through reactive cysteine (Cys) residues, is among the major mechanisms of redox regulation. However, information on the sets of proteins that provide thiol-based redox regulation or are affected by it is limited. Here, we describe proteomic approaches to characterize proteins that contain reactive thiols and methods to identify redox Cys in these proteins. Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as ...

  20. Genome-wide analysis of mRNA translation profiles in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Arava, Yoav; Wang, Yulei; Storey, John D; Liu, Chih Long; Brown, Patrick O; Herschlag, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    We have analyzed the translational status of each mRNA in rapidly growing Saccharomyces cerevisiae. mRNAs were separated by velocity sedimentation on a sucrose gradient, and 14 fractions across the gradient were analyzed by quantitative microarray analysis, providing a profile of ribosome association with mRNAs for thousands of genes. For most genes, the majority of mRNA molecules were associated with ribosomes and presumably engaged in translation. This systematic approach enabled us to reco...

  1. Physiological behaviour of saccharomyces cerevisiae under increased air and oxygen pressures

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro, Rita; Belo, Isabel; M. Mota

    1997-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in a pressure batch reactor, coped with higher air (1.2–3 bar) pressures better than with pure oxygen pressures (1.2–3 bar) for an equivalent dissolved oxygen concentration. However, pure oxygen pressure enhanced ethanol production. Both pressures did not influence the type of metabolism followed by the organism which was always oxidoreductive. Growth was inhibited with the increase of air and pure oxygen pressure and almost completely inhibited with 8 bar of pure ox...

  2. Regulation of hydrogen sulfide liberation in wine-producing Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains by assimilable nitrogen.

    OpenAIRE

    Jiranek, V; Langridge, P.; Henschke, P A

    1995-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine-producing yeast cultures grown under model winemaking conditions could be induced to liberate hydrogen sulfide (H2S) by starvation for assimilable nitrogen. The amount of H2S produced was dependent on the yeast strain, the sulfur precursor compound, the culture growth rate, and the activity of the sulfite reductase enzyme (EC 1.8.1.2) immediately before nitrogen depletion. Increased H2S formation relative to its utilization by metabolism was not a consequence of ...

  3. A novel Saccharomyces cerevisiae secretory mutant possesses a thermolabile phosphomannose isomerase.

    OpenAIRE

    Payton, M. A.; Rheinnecker, M; Klig, L S; DeTiani, M; Bowden, E

    1991-01-01

    A temperature-sensitive mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was identified which at the restrictive temperature of 37 degrees C is unable to secrete a number of cell wall-associated proteins and thus resembles previously reported sec mutants. In contrast to other sec mutants, however, both the temperature-sensitive growth and the secretion defects can be repaired by the addition of D-mannose to growth media. We show that the mutant possesses a single, apparently recessive mutation which leads ...

  4. Red Fluorescent Protein (DsRed) as a Reporter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Fernando; van Hemert, Martijn; Steensma, H. Yde; Côrte-Real, Manuela; Leão, Cecíla

    2001-01-01

    We describe the utilization of a red fluorescent protein (DsRed) as an in vivo marker for Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Clones expressing red and/or green fluorescent proteins with both cytoplasmic and nuclear localization were obtained. A series of vectors are now available which can be used to create amino-terminal (N-terminal) and carboxyl-terminal (C-terminal) fusions with the DsRed protein.

  5. Transcriptional Regulation of the Two Sterol Esterification Genes in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen-Pergakes, Kristen; Guo, Zhongmin; Giattina, Mara; Sturley, Stephen L; Bard, Martin

    2001-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae transcribes two genes, ARE1 and ARE2, that contribute disproportionately to the esterification of sterols. Are2p is the major enzyme isoform in a wild-type cell growing aerobically. This likely results from a combination of differential transcription initiation and transcript stability. By using ARE1 and ARE2 promoter fusions to lacZ reporters, we demonstrated that transcriptional initiation from the ARE1 promoter is significantly reduced compared to that from the ARE...

  6. Electrochemical Probing of in Vivo 5-Hydroxymethyl Furfural Reduction in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostesha, Natalie; Almeida, J.R.M.; Heiskanen, Arto; Gorwa-Grauslund, M.F.; Hahn-Hagerdal, B.; Emnéus, Jenny

    2009-01-01

    In this work, mediated amperometry was used to evaluate whether differences in intracellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) (NAD(P)H) level could be observed between a genetically modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, engineered for NADPH dependent 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (HMF) reduction, and its control strain. Cells overexpressing the alcohol dehydrogenase 6 gene (ADH6 strain) and cells carrying the corresponding control plasmid (control strain) were each immobilized o...

  7. Toward a Comprehensive Temperature-Sensitive Mutant Repository of the Essential Genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Ben-Aroya, Shay; Coombes, Candice; Kwok, Teresa; O’Donnell, Kathryn A.; Boeke, Jef D.; Hieter, Philip

    2008-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cereivisiae gene deletion project revealed that approximately 20% of yeast genes are required for viability. The analysis of essential genes traditionally relies on conditional mutants, typically temperature-sensitive (ts) alleles. We developed a systematic approach (termed “diploid shuffle”) useful for generating a ts allele for each essential gene in S. cerevisiae and for improved genetic manipulation of mutant alleles and gene constructs in general. Importantly, each ts a...

  8. Protein characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase II after in vivo cross-linking

    OpenAIRE

    Tardiff, Daniel F.; Abruzzi, Katharine C; ROSBASH, MICHAEL

    2007-01-01

    To characterize proteins associated with active transcription complexes, we purified RNA polymerase II (pol II) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae after fixing live cells with formaldehyde. The approach mimics ChIP and requires solubilizing cross-linked complexes with sonication. Pol II was affinity-purified, and associated proteins were identified by MS. Several classes of proteins depended on cross-linking, including Mediator, general transcription factors, elongation factors, ribonucleoprotein ...

  9. Genomic Approach to Identification of Mutations Affecting Caspofungin Susceptibility in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Markovich, Sarit; Yekutiel, Aya; Shalit, Itamar; Shadkchan, Yona; Osherov, Nir

    2004-01-01

    The antifungal agent caspofungin (CAS) specifically interferes with glucan synthesis and cell wall formation. To further study the cellular processes affected by CAS, we analyzed a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant collection (4,787 individual knockout mutations) to identify new genes affecting susceptibility to the drug. This collection was screened for increased CAS sensitivity (CAS-IS) or increased CAS resistance (CAS-IR). MICs were determined by the broth microdilution method. Disruption of...

  10. EFFECT OF NITROGEN SOURCES ON THE PRODUCTION OF INVERTASE BY YEAST SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE 3090

    OpenAIRE

    Suresh P. Kamble; Jyotsna C. Borate

    2012-01-01

    Invertase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is high cost enzyme and primarily used in the confectionary industry. For large scale production of the enzyme, feasible synthetic medium with appropriate supplemented nutrients are required. The effect of carbon source on invertase production is well known, but little is known about the effect of different nitrogen source. The aim of the present study is to see the effect of different nitrogen sources on the production of invertase in submerged ferment...

  11. Susceptibility of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and lactic acid bacteria from the alcohol industry to several antimicrobial compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Oliva-Neto Pedro de; Yokoya Fumio

    2001-01-01

    The antimicrobial effect of several products including commercial formulations currently used in sugar and alcohol factories was determined by adapted MIC (Minimal Inhibitory Concentration) test on Saccharomyces cerevisiae and on natural contaminants Lactobacillus fermentum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides. The MIC test by macrodilution broth method was adapted by formulating of the culture medium with cane juice closely simulating industrial alcoholic fermentation must. Acid penicillin V (MIC 0...

  12. Impact of Photocatalysis on Fungal Cells: Depiction of Cellular and Molecular Effects on Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Thabet, Sana; Simonet, France; Lemaire, Marc; Guillard, Chantal; Cotton, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the antimicrobial effects of photocatalysis on the yeast model Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To accurately study the antimicrobial mechanisms of the photocatalytic process, we focused our investigations on two questions: the entry of the nanoparticles in treated cells and the fate of the intracellular environment. Transmission electronic microscopy did not reveal any entry of nanoparticles within the cells, even for long exposure times, despite degradation of the cell wall sp...

  13. Differential importance of trehalose in stress resistance in fermenting and nonfermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Dijck, P., van; Colavizza, D; Smet, P; Thevelein, J M

    1995-01-01

    The trehalose content in laboratory and industrial baker's yeast is widely believed to be a major determinant of stress resistance. Fresh and dried baker's yeast is cultured to obtain a trehalose content of more than 10% of the dry weight. Initiation of fermentation, e.g., during dough preparation, is associated with a rapid loss of stress resistance and a rapid mobilization of trehalose. Using specific Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants affected in trehalose metabolism, we confirm the correlat...

  14. Internal Trehalose Protects Endocytosis from Inhibition by Ethanol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Lucero, P; Peñalver, E; Moreno, E.; Lagunas, R.

    2000-01-01

    Endocytosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is inhibited by concentrations of ethanol of 2 to 6% (vol/vol), which are lower than concentrations commonly present in its natural habitats. In spite of this inhibition, endocytosis takes place under enological conditions when high concentrations of ethanol are present. Therefore, it seems that yeast has developed some means to circumvent the inhibition. In this work we have investigated this possibility. We identified two stress conditions under which...

  15. Mutagenic Inverted Repeats Assisted Genome Engineering (MIRAGE) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: deletion of gal7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Nikhil U; Zhao, Huimin

    2012-01-01

    MIRAGE is a unique in vivo genome editing technique that exploits the inherent instability of inverted repeats (palindromes) in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome. As a technique able to quickly create deletions as well as precise point mutations, it is valuable in applications that require creation of designer strains of this yeast. In particular, it has various potential applications in metabolic engineering, systems biology, synthetic biology, and molecular genetics. PMID:22144353

  16. Three regulatory systems control production of glutamine synthetase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, A. P.; Magasanik, B

    1984-01-01

    Production of glutamine synthetase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is controlled by three regulatory systems. One system responds to glutamine levels and depends on the positively acting GLN3 product. This system mediates derepression of glutamine synthetase in response to pyrimidine limitation as well, but genetic evidence argues that this is an indirect effect of depletion of the glutamine pool. The second system is general amino acid control, which couples derepression of a variety of biosynth...

  17. Cloning and characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes that confer L-methionine sulfoximine and tabtoxin resistance.

    OpenAIRE

    Marek, E T; Dickson, R. C.

    1987-01-01

    Pseudomonas tabaci produces a toxin, tabtoxin, that causes wildfire disease in tobacco. The primary target of tabtoxin is presumed to be glutamine synthetase. Some effects of tabtoxin in tobacco can be mimicked by methionine sulfoximine (MSO), a compound that is known to inactivate glutamine synthetase. To understand how organisms can be made resistant to tabtoxin and MSO, we used Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We demonstrate that yeast strains carrying the glutamine synthetase gene, GLN1, on a mu...

  18. Regulation of glutamine-repressible gene products by the GLN3 function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, A. P.; Magasanik, B

    1984-01-01

    Mutants of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been isolated which fail to derepress glutamine synthetase upon glutamine limitation. The mutations define a single nuclear gene, GLN3, which is located on chromosome 5 near HOM3 and HIS1 and is unlinked to the structural gene for glutamine synthetase, GLN1. The three gln3 mutations are recessive, and one is amber suppressible, indicating that the GLN3 product is a positive regulator of glutamine synthetase expression. Four polypeptides, in a...

  19. Glutamine synthesis is a regulatory signal controlling glucose catabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Flores-Samaniego, B; H. Olivera; González, A.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of glutamine biosynthesis and degradation on glucose catabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was studied. A wild-type strain and mutants altered in glutamine biosynthesis and degradation were analyzed. Cells having low levels of glutamine synthetase activity showed high ATP/ADP ratios and a diminished rate of glucose metabolism. It is proposed that glutamine biosynthesis plays a role in the regulation of glucose catabolism.

  20. Regulated expression of endonuclease EcoRI in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: nuclear entry and biological consequences.

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, G; RINE, J.

    1985-01-01

    In an investigation to determine how proteins are localized within the nucleus of a cell, we demonstrate that the restriction endonuclease EcoRI is able to enter and function within the nucleus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae when this prokaryotic protein is synthesized in vivo. The EcoRI endonuclease was produced in yeast under the transcriptional control of a regulated yeast promoter by ligating a DNA fragment containing only coding sequences for the endonuclease to the promoter element of the ...

  1. Properties of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mtDNA segment conferring high-frequency yeast transformation.

    OpenAIRE

    Hyman, B.C.; Cramer, J H; Rownd, R H

    1982-01-01

    The bakers' yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a facultative anaerobe, tolerant to mutations in its mitochondrial genome. Individual cytoplasmic petite mutants retain genetic information derived from any portion of the parenteral mtDNA, prompting questions concerning distribution of the DNA replication origin(s) on the yeast mitochondrial genome. The experiments described in this paper were designated to test the possibility of using high-frequency yeast transformation as a selection for yeast...

  2. Altered Phenotypes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Heterologous Expression of Basidiomycete Moniliophthora perniciosa SOD2 Gene

    OpenAIRE

    Sônia C. Melo; Regineide X. Santos; Ana C. Melgaço; Pereira, Alanna C. F.; Cristina Pungartnik; Martin Brendel

    2015-01-01

    Heterologous expression of a putative manganese superoxide dismutase gene (SOD2) of the basidiomycete Moniliophthora perniciosa complemented the phenotypes of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae sod2? mutant. Sequence analysis of the cloned M. perniciosa cDNA revealed an open reading frame (ORF) coding for a 176 amino acid polypeptide with the typical metal-binding motifs of a SOD2 gene, named MpSOD2. Phylogenetic comparison with known manganese superoxide dismutases (MnSODs) located the protein of M....

  3. A Novel Saccharomyces cerevisiae FG Nucleoporin Mutant Collection for Use in Nuclear Pore Complex Functional Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Rebecca L.; Terry, Laura J.; Wente, Susan R

    2016-01-01

    FG nucleoporins (Nups) are the class of proteins that both generate the permeability barrier and mediate selective transport through the nuclear pore complex (NPC). The FG Nup family has 11 members in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the study of mutants lacking different FG domains has been instrumental in testing transport models. To continue analyzing the distinct functional roles of FG Nups in vivo, additional robust genetic tools are required. Here, we describe a novel collection of S. cere...

  4. Effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product on immune functions of broilers challenged with Eimeria tenella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, J; Zhang, H J; Wu, S G; Yu, S H; Yoon, I; Moore, D; Gao, Y P; Yan, H J; Qi, G H

    2009-10-01

    Three hundred sixty 1-d-old male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly allotted to 6 groups with a 2x3 factorial arrangement of treatments. Three supplemental levels (0, 0.25, and 0.50%) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (XP) were fed to control and Eimeria tenella-infected broilers. Growth performance and immune response criteria were measured after coccidian infection. Broiler ADG was lowered (Pcoccidia-infected broilers. PMID:19762868

  5. Requirement for ESP1 in the nuclear division of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    McGrew, J T; Goetsch, L; Byers, B.; Baum, P

    1992-01-01

    Mutations in the ESP1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae disrupt normal cell-cycle control and cause many cells in a mutant population to accumulate extra spindle pole bodies. To determine the stage at which the esp1 gene product becomes essential for normal cell-cycle progression, synchronous cultures of ESP1 mutant cells were exposed to the nonpermissive temperature for various periods of time. The mutant cells retained viability until the onset of mitosis, when their viability dropped marked...

  6. Ethanol Production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae Immobilized in Hollow-Fiber Membrane Bioreactors

    OpenAIRE

    Inloes, Douglas S.; Taylor, Dean P.; Cohen, Stanley N; Michaels, Alan S.; Robertson, Channing R.

    1983-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 4126 was grown within the macroporous matrix of asymmetric-walled polysulfone hollow-fiber membranes and on the exterior surfaces of isotropic-walled polypropylene hollow-fiber membranes. Nutrients were supplied and products were removed by single-pass perfusion of the fiber lumens. Growth of yeast cells within the macrovoids of the asymmetric-walled membranes attained densities of greater than 1010 cells per ml and in some regions accounted for nearly 100% of th...

  7. A Recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain Overproducing Mannoproteins Stabilizes Wine against Protein Haze?

    OpenAIRE

    González Ramos, Daniel; Cebollero, E.; González García, Ramón

    2008-01-01

    Stabilization against protein haze was one of the first positive properties attributed to yeast mannoproteins in winemaking. In previous work we demonstrated that deletion of KNR4 leads to increased mannoprotein release in laboratory Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. We have now constructed strains with KNR4 deleted in two different industrial wine yeast backgrounds. This required replacement of two and three alleles of KNR4 for the EC1118 and T73-4 backgrounds, respectively, and the use of t...

  8. Zearalenone and its derivatives ?-Zearalenol and ?-Zearalenol decontamination by Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from bovine forage

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Luiz; Abrunhosa, Luís; Keller, Kelly; Rosa, Carlos Alberto; Cavaglieri, Lilia; Venâncio, Armando

    2015-01-01

    Zearalenone (ZEA) and its derivatives are mycotoxins with estrogenic effects on mammals. The biotransformation for ZEA in animals involves the formation of two major metabolites, - and -zearalenol (-ZOL and -ZOL), which are subsequently conjugated with glucuronic acid. The capability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from silage to eliminate ZEA and its derivatives -ZOL and -ZOL was investigated as, also, the mechanisms involved. Strains were grown on Yeast Extract-Peptone-Dextrose...

  9. Encapsulation-Induced Stress Helps Saccharomyces cerevisiae Resist Convertible Lignocellulose Derived Inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Westman, Johan O; Ramesh Babu Manikondu; Carl Johan Franzén; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.

    2012-01-01

    The ability of macroencapsulated Saccharomyces cerevisiae CBS8066 to withstand readily and not readily in situ convertible lignocellulose-derived inhibitors was investigated in anaerobic batch cultivations. It was shown that encapsulation increased the tolerance against readily convertible furan aldehyde inhibitors and to dilute acid spruce hydrolysate, but not to organic acid inhibitors that cannot be metabolized anaerobically. G...

  10. Cellular and mitochondrial respiration of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells of different age.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlousková, J.; Volejníková, A.; Sigler, Karel; Pichová, Alena

    Smolenice : Springer, 2009, s. 92-92. ISSN 1336-4839. [Annual Conference on Yeasts /37./. Smolenice (SK), 13.05.2009-15.05.2009] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA301/07/0339; GA MŠk 1M0570; GA MŠk ME 938 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Saccharomyces cerevisiae Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  11. The Mode of Action of Silver and Silver Halides Nanoparticles against Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cells

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Kudrinskiy; A. Yu. Ivanov; Kulakovskaya, E. V.; Klimov, A I; P. M. Zherebin; D. V. Khodarev; Anh-Tuan Le; Le Thi Tam; Lisichkin, G. V.; Yu. A. Krutyakov

    2014-01-01

    Silver and silver halides nanoparticles (NPs) (Ag, AgCl, AgBr, and AgI) capped with two different stabilizers (sodium citrate and nonionic surfactant Tween 80) were obtained via sodium borohydride reduction of silver nitrate in an aqueous solution. The effect of the biocidal action of as-prepared synthesized materials against yeast cells Saccharomyces cerevisiae was compared to the effect produced by silver nitrate and studied through the measurement of cell loss and kinetics of K+ efflux fro...

  12. Expression of the Escherichia coli xylose isomerase gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Sarthy, A. V.; McConaughy, B L; Lobo, Z.; Sundstrom, J A; Furlong, C E; Hall, B.D.

    1987-01-01

    Transformation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by yeast expression plasmids bearing the Escherichia coli xylose isomerase gene leads to production of the protein. Western blotting (immunoblotting) experiments show that immunoreactive protein chains which comigrate with the E. coli enzyme are made in the transformant strains and that the amount produced parallels the copy number of the plasmid. When comparable amounts of immunologically cross-reactive xylose isomerase protein made in E. coli or S....

  13. Evaluation of stress tolerance and fermentative behavior of indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Cíntia Lacerda; Duarte, Whasley Ferreira; Freire, Ana Luiza; Dias, Disney Ribeiro; Eleutherio, Elis Cristina Araújo; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2013-01-01

    Sixty six indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were evaluated in stressful conditions (temperature, osmolarity, sulphite and ethanol tolerance) and also ability to flocculate. Eighteen strains showed tolerant characteristics to these stressful conditions, growing at 42 °C, in 0.04% sulphite, 1 mol L?1 NaCl and 12% ethanol. No flocculent characteristics were observed. These strains were evaluated according to their fermentative performance in sugar cane juice. The conversion factors of ...

  14. A metabolic and genomic study of engineered saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for high glycerol production

    OpenAIRE

    Cordier, Hélène; Filipa, Mendes; Isabel, Vasconcelos; François, Jean M

    2007-01-01

    Towards a global objective to producechemical derivatives by microbial processes, this work dealt with a metabolic engineering of theyeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for glycerol production. To accomplish this goal, overexpression of GPD1was introduced in a tpi1D mutant defective in triose phosphateisomerase. This strategy alleviated the inositol-less phenotype of this mutant, by reducing the levelsof dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glycerol-3-P, two potent inhibitors of myo-inositol synthase...

  15. Increasing galactose consumption by Saccharomyces cerevisiae through metabolic engineering of the GAL gene regulatory network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Simon; Olsson, Lisbeth; Johnston, M.; Nielsen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    Increasing the flux through central carbon metabolism is difficult because of rigidity in regulatory structures, at both the genetic and the enzymatic levels. Here we describe metabolic engineering of a regulatory network to obtain a balanced increase in the activity of all the enzymes in the pathway, and ultimately, increasing metabolic flux through the pathway of interest, By manipulating the GAL gene regulatory network of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is a tightly regulated system, we produ...

  16. Improved Production of a Heterologous Amylase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Inverse Metabolic Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zihe; Liu, Lifang; Osterlund, Tobias; Hou, Jin; Huang, Mingtao; Fagerberg, Linn; Petranovic, Dina; Uhlén, Mathias; Nielsen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    The increasing demand for industrial enzymes and biopharmaceutical proteins relies on robust production hosts with high protein yield and productivity. Being one of the best-studied model organisms and capable of performing posttranslational modifications, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is widely used as a cell factory for recombinant protein production. However, many recombinant proteins are produced at only 1% (or less) of the theoretical capacity due to the complexity of the secretory pat...

  17. Overlapping Roles of the Cytoplasmic and Mitochondrial Redox Regulatory Systems in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Trotter, Eleanor W; Grant, Chris M.

    2005-01-01

    Thioredoxins are small, highly conserved oxidoreductases which are required to maintain the redox homeostasis of the cell. Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains a cytoplasmic thioredoxin system (TRX1, TRX2, and TRR1) as well as a complete mitochondrial thioredoxin system, comprising a thioredoxin (TRX3) and a thioredoxin reductase (TRR2). In the present study we have analyzed the functional overlap between the two systems. By constructing mutant strains with deletions of both the mitochondrial an...

  18. Molecular and physiological approaches towards the characterisation of glycerol transport in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Rui Pedro Soares de

    2003-01-01

    A adaptação fisiológica de células de Saccharomyces cerevisiae a condições de stresse salino envolve a acumulação intracelular de glicerol como soluto compatível. A concentração citoplasmática de glicerol é regulada permitindo a manutenção do equilíbrio da actividade da água entre o compartimento celular e o meio externo. Em células cultivadas em meios contendo açúcares fermentescíveis, tal como na maior parte dos habitats naturais de levedura, o glicerol é produzido por red...

  19. Efficiency of supplementing saccharomyces cerevisiae var. ellipsoideus for improved growth performance and carcass yield in broilers

    OpenAIRE

    M. H. Ayed; F. Ghaoui

    2011-01-01

    The use of dietary additives is becoming a very interesting practise to improve animal health and performance in poultry production. Thepax® is a prebiotic that includes inactivated Saccharomyces cerevisiae Var. ellipsoideus cells and nutrients such as vitamins, enzymes, amino acids and short chain polypeptides. The effects of supplementing diet by Thepax® via potable water on growth and carcass yield were studied in broilers. Two treatments, an active with Thepax® and a control treatment, we...

  20. Phosphorylation of RAS1 and RAS2 proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Cobitz, A R; Yim, E H; Brown, W R; Perou, C. M.; Tamanoi, F

    1989-01-01

    RAS1 and RAS2 proteins of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are guanine nucleotide-binding proteins involved in the regulation of adenylate cyclase. In this paper, we report that these proteins are phosphorylated. The phosphorylation of RAS1 protein is demonstrated by treating with alkaline phosphatase as well as by labeling with [32P]orthophosphate. The phosphorylation occurs exclusively on serine residues and phosphorylated RAS1 protein is predominantly membrane localized. The phosphorylation of RAS...