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1

Isolation and Characterization of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae XPT1 Gene Encoding Xanthine Phosphoribosyl Transferase  

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A new Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene, XPT1, was isolated as a multicopy suppressor of a hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) defect. Disruption of XPT1 affects xanthine utilization in vivo and results in a severe reduction of xanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (XPRT) activity while HPRT is unaffected. We conclude that XPT1 encodes XPRT in yeast.

Guetsova, M. L.; Crother, T. R.; Taylor, M. W.; Daignan-fornier, B.

1999-01-01

2

Identification of RNR4, encoding a second essential small subunit of ribonucleotide reductase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), which catalyzes the rate-limiting step for deoxyribonucleotide production required for DNA synthesis, is an alpha2beta2 tetramer consisting of two large and two small subunits. RNR2 encodes a small subunit and is essential for mitotic viability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have cloned a second essential gene encoding a homologous small subunit, RNR4. RNR4 and RNR2 appear to have nonoverlapping functions and cannot substitute for each other even when overprod...

Huang, M.; Elledge, S. J.

1997-01-01

3

Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Hoc1, a Suppressor of Pkc1, Encodes a Putative Glycosyltransferase  

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The Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene PKC1 encodes a protein kinase C isozyme that regulates cell wall synthesis. Here we describe the characterization of HOC1, a gene identified by its ability to suppress the cell lysis phenotype of pkc1-371 cells. The HOC1 gene (Homologous to OCH1) is predicted to encode a type II integral membrane protein that strongly resembles Och1p, an ?-1,6-mannosyltransferase. Immunofluorescence studies localized Hoc1p to the Golgi apparatus. While overexpression of HOC1...

Neiman, A. M.; Mhaiskar, V.; Manus, V.; Galibert, F.; Dean, N.

1997-01-01

4

YLR209c Encodes Saccharomyces cerevisiae Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase  

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The yeast YLR209c (PNP1) gene encodes a protein highly similar to purine nucleoside phosphorylases. This protein specifically metabolized inosine and guanosine. Disruption of PNP1 led to inosine and guanosine excretion in the medium, thus showing that PNP1 plays an important role in the metabolism of these purine nucleosides in vivo.

2001-01-01

5

Transcriptional regulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiaeCYS3 encoding cystathionine ?-lyase  

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In studying the regulation of GSH11, the structural gene of the high-affinity glutathione transporter (GSH-P1) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a cis-acting cysteine responsive element, CCGCCACAC (CCG motif), was detected. Like GSH-P1, the cystathionine ?-lyase encoded by CYS3 is induced by sulfur starvation and repressed by addition of cysteine to the growth medium. We detected a CCG motif (?311 to ?303) and a CGC motif (CGCCACAC; ?193 to ?186), which is one base shorter than the CCG mo...

Hiraishi, Hiroyuki; Miyake, Tsuyoshi; Ono, Bun-ichiro

2008-01-01

6

RAD3 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a DNA-dependent ATPase  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The RAD3 gene of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is required for excision repair of damaged DNA and for cell viability. A protein of ? 89 kDa was purified to near homogeneity from yeast strains harboring multicopy plasmids that overproduce RAD3 protein; this protein corresponds closely to the expected size of the RAD3 protein and crossreacts with the antiserum raised against a truncated RAD3 protein produced in Escherichia coli. The purified RAD3 protein shows a single-stranded DNA-dependent ATPase activity that catalyzes hydrolysis of ATP to ADP and P/sub i/. The ATPase activity was coincident with the RAD3 protein during purification and is inhibited by anti-RAD3 antibodies, indicating that the RAD3 gene encodes this activity

1987-01-01

7

A human homolog of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae REV3 gene, which encodes the catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase ?  

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To get a better understanding of mutagenic mechanisms in humans, we have cloned and sequenced the human homolog of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae REV3 gene. The yeast gene encodes the catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase ?, a nonessential enzyme that is thought to carry out translesion replication and is responsible for virtually all DNA damage-induced mutagenesis and the majority of spontaneous mutagenesis. The human gene encodes an expected protein of 3,130 residues, about twice the size of t...

Gibbs, Peter E. M.; Mcgregor, W. Glenn; Maher, Veronica M.; Nisson, Paul; Lawrence, Christopher W.

1998-01-01

8

Xylose-metabolizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains overexpressing the TKL1 and TAL1 genes encoding the pentose phosphate pathway enzymes transketolase and transaldolase.  

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Saccharomyces cerevisiae was metabolically engineered for xylose utilization. The Pichia stipitis CBS 6054 genes XYL1 and XYL2 encoding xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase were cloned into S. cerevisiae. The gene products catalyze the two initial steps in xylose utilization which S. cerevisiae lacks. In order to increase the flux through the pentose phosphate pathway, the S. cerevisiae TKL1 and TAL1 genes encoding transketolase and transaldolase were overexpressed. A XYL1- and XYL2-con...

Walfridsson, M.; Hallborn, J.; Penttila?, M.; Kera?nen, S.; Hahn-ha?gerdal, B.

1995-01-01

9

Characterization of a new multigene family encoding isomaltases in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the IMA family.  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been known for a long time that the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae can assimilate alpha-methylglucopyranoside and isomaltose. We here report the identification of 5 genes (YGR287c, YIL172c, YJL216c, YJL221c and YOL157c), which, similar to the SUCx, MALx, or HXTx multigene families, are located in the subtelomeric regions of different chromosomes. They share high nucleotide sequence identities between themselves (66-100%) and with the MALx2 genes (63-74%). Comparison of their amino acid sequences underlined a substitution of threonine by valine in region II, one of the four highly conserved regions of the alpha-glucosidase family. This change was previously shown to be sufficient to discriminate alpha-1,4- to alpha-1,6-glucosidase activity in YGR287c (Yamamoto, K., Nakayama, A., Yamamoto, Y., and Tabata, S. (2004) Eur. J. Biochem. 271, 3414-3420). We showed that each of these five genes encodes a protein with alpha-glucosidase activity on isomaltose, and we therefore renamed these genes IMA1 to IMA5 for IsoMAltase. Our results also illustrated that sequence polymorphisms among this family led to interesting variability of gene expression patterns and of catalytic efficiencies on different substrates, which altogether should account for the absence of functional redundancy for growth on isomaltose. Indeed, deletion studies revealed that IMA1/YGR287c encodes the major isomaltase and that growth on isomaltose required the presence of AGT1, which encodes an alpha-glucoside transporter. Expressions of IMA1 and IMA5/YJL216c were strongly induced by maltose, isomaltose, and alpha-methylglucopyranoside, in accordance with their regulation by the Malx3p-transcription system. The physiological relevance of this IMAx multigene family in S. cerevisiae is discussed. PMID:20562106

Teste, Marie-Ange; François, Jean Marie; Parrou, Jean-Luc

2010-08-27

10

Characterization of a New Multigene Family Encoding Isomaltases in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the IMA Family*  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been known for a long time that the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae can assimilate ?-methylglucopyranoside and isomaltose. We here report the identification of 5 genes (YGR287c, YIL172c, YJL216c, YJL221c and YOL157c), which, similar to the SUCx, MALx, or HXTx multigene families, are located in the subtelomeric regions of different chromosomes. They share high nucleotide sequence identities between themselves (66–100%) and with the MALx2 genes (63–74%). Comparison of their amino acid sequences underlined a substitution of threonine by valine in region II, one of the four highly conserved regions of the ?-glucosidase family. This change was previously shown to be sufficient to discriminate ?-1,4- to ?-1,6-glucosidase activity in YGR287c (Yamamoto, K., Nakayama, A., Yamamoto, Y., and Tabata, S. (2004) Eur. J. Biochem. 271, 3414–3420). We showed that each of these five genes encodes a protein with ?-glucosidase activity on isomaltose, and we therefore renamed these genes IMA1 to IMA5 for IsoMAltase. Our results also illustrated that sequence polymorphisms among this family led to interesting variability of gene expression patterns and of catalytic efficiencies on different substrates, which altogether should account for the absence of functional redundancy for growth on isomaltose. Indeed, deletion studies revealed that IMA1/YGR287c encodes the major isomaltase and that growth on isomaltose required the presence of AGT1, which encodes an ?-glucoside transporter. Expressions of IMA1 and IMA5/YJL216c were strongly induced by maltose, isomaltose, and ?-methylglucopyranoside, in accordance with their regulation by the Malx3p-transcription system. The physiological relevance of this IMAx multigene family in S. cerevisiae is discussed.

Teste, Marie-Ange; Francois, Jean Marie; Parrou, Jean-Luc

2010-01-01

11

Human dendritic cell maturation and activation by a heat-killed recombinant yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) vector encoding carcinoembryonic antigen  

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Tumor-associated antigens are weakly immunogenic. Human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is overexpressed on a wide range of human carcinomas and represents an attractive target for cancer immunotherapy. This study analyzes the ability of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae vector containing the transgene encoding CEA (yeast-CEA) to activate human dendritic cells (DCs) and stimulate CEA-specific T-cell responses. We demonstrate for the first time that treatment with yeast-CEA can activate human DCs, res...

2009-01-01

12

Differential expression of the invertase-encoding SUC genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Invertase (INV) is encoded in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by a family of genes, comprising SUC1-SUC5 and SUC7. Production of INV is highly variable, dependent on the strain and SUC gene present in the cell. The differences in INV production derive from the structure of the genes or are dependent on the genetic background of the strain. Centromeric plasmids (based on YCp50) carrying one of the SUC genes (except SUC7) were introduced into a strain (SEY2101) lacking SUC genes. The INV produced by the transformants was dependent on the individual SUC genes, and correlated with INV mRNA levels. Plasmids in which SUC2 had been placed under control of promoters from the other SUC genes, were used to transform SEY2101 cells. The amounts of INV produced by cells carrying hybrid SUC genes were in agreement with the levels expected if the promoter controlled the expression of the SUC2 structural region. It is suggested that the differences in expression are a function of the transcription efficiency of the different SUC gene promoters, based on the divergence of 5' sequences. PMID:1398124

del Castillo Agudo, L; Nieto Soria, A; Sentandreu, R

1992-10-12

13

Structure and transcriptional control of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae POX1 gene encoding acyl-coenzyme A oxidase.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have cloned the Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene coding for the peroxisomal enzyme: fatty acyl-CoA oxidase (POX). The gene (named POX1) is unique in S. cerevisiae and has been identified through homology with the POX4 and POX5 genes of Candida tropicalis. The POX1 gene encodes a 84-kDa POX protein composed of 748 amino acids. The identity between the S. cerevisiae and C. tropicalis enzymes is about 40%, and there is a greater degree of similarity between the N termini than the C termini. A disruption of the POX1 coding sequence diminishes the ability of yeast cells to grow on oleic acid as a sole carbon source. The expression of the POX1 gene is regulated at the level of transcription, and is induced more than 25-fold by the addition of oleic acid to the medium. PMID:2189786

Dmochowska, A; Dignard, D; Maleszka, R; Thomas, D Y

1990-04-16

14

Mutational Analysis of the Gal4-Encoded Transcriptional Activator Protein of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae  

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The GAL4 protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae binds to DNA upstream of each of six genes and stimulates their transcription. To locate regions of the protein responsible for these processes, we identified and characterized 88 gal4 mutations selected in vivo to reduce the ability to GAL4 protein to activate transcription. These mutations alter two regions of GAL4 protein: the DNA binding domain, and the transcription activation domain. Some mutations in the DNA binding domain that abolish the a...

Johnston, M.; Dover, J.

1988-01-01

15

PAN3 encodes a subunit of the Pab1p-dependent poly(A) nuclease in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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The Pab1p-dependent poly(A) nuclease (PAN) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae copurifies with polypeptides of approximately 127 and 76 kDa. Previously, it was demonstrated that the 127-kDa Pan2 protein is required for PAN activity (R. Boeck, S. Tarun, M. Reiger, J. Deardorff, S. Müller-Auer, and A.B. Sachs, J. Biol. Chem. 271:432-438, 1996). Here we demonstrate that the 76-kDa protein, encoded by the nonessential PAN3 gene, is also required for enzymatic activity. Deletion of PAN3 resulted in the...

Brown, C. E.; Tarun, S. Z.; Boeck, R.; Sachs, A. B.

1996-01-01

16

Mitochondrially-encoded protein Var1 promotes loss of respiratory function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae under stressful conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Stressed Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells easily lose respiratory function due to deletions in mitochondrial DNA, and this increases their general stress resistance. Is the loss active? We found that erythromycin (an inhibitor of mitochondrial translation) prevents the loss in control cells but not in the ones expressing mitochondrially-encoded protein Var1 in the nucleus. Var1 is a component of mitochondrial ribosomes; it is hydrophilic, positively charged, and prone to aggregation. Addition of DNase altered Var1 content in a preparation of mitochondrial nucleoids. Our data indicate that Var1 physically interacts with mitochondrial DNA and under stress negatively regulates its maintenance. PMID:23523087

Litvinchuk, Alexandra V; Sokolov, Svyatoslav S; Rogov, Anton G; Markova, Olga V; Knorre, Dmitry A; Severin, Fedor F

2013-01-01

17

Saccharomyces cerevisiae SMT4 encodes an evolutionarily conserved protease with a role in chromosome condensation regulation.  

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In a search for regulatory genes affecting the targeting of the condensin complex to chromatin in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we identified a member of the adenovirus protease family, SMT4. SMT4 overexpression suppresses the temperature-sensitive conditional lethal phenotype of smc2-6, but not smc2-8 or smc4-1. A disruption allele of SMT4 has a prominent chromosome phenotype: impaired targeting of Smc4p-GFP to rDNA chromatin. Site-specific mutagenesis of the predicted protease active site cyste...

Strunnikov, A. V.; Aravind, L.; Koonin, E. V.

2001-01-01

18

Characterization of a New Multigene Family Encoding Isomaltases in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the IMA Family*  

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It has been known for a long time that the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae can assimilate ?-methylglucopyranoside and isomaltose. We here report the identification of 5 genes (YGR287c, YIL172c, YJL216c, YJL221c and YOL157c), which, similar to the SUCx, MALx, or HXTx multigene families, are located in the subtelomeric regions of different chromosomes. They share high nucleotide sequence identities between themselves (66–100%) and with the MALx2 genes (63–74%). Comparison of their amino aci...

Teste, Marie-ange; Franc?ois, Jean Marie; Parrou, Jean-luc

2010-01-01

19

SSI1 encodes a novel Hsp70 of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae endoplasmic reticulum.  

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The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains a well-characterized, essential member of the Hsp70 family of molecular chaperones, Kar2p. Kar2p has been shown to be involved in the translocation of proteins into the ER as well as the proper folding of proteins in that compartment. We report the characterization of a novel Hsp70 of the ER, Ssi1p. Ssi1p, which shares 24% of the amino acids of Kar2p, is not essential for growth under normal conditions. Howe...

Baxter, B. K.; James, P.; Evans, T.; Craig, E. A.

1996-01-01

20

Characterization of a gene encoding Trametes versicolor laccase A and improved heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by decreased cultivation temperature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Laccase can be used for enzymatic detoxification of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. A Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain with enhanced resistance to phenolic inhibitors and thereby improved ability to ferment lignocellulosic hydrolysates would presumably be obtained by heterologous expression of laccase. Sequencing of the cDNA for the novel laccase gene lcc2 from the lignin-degrading basidiomycete Trametes versicolor showed that it encodes an isoenzyme of 499 amino-acid residues preceded by a 21-residue signal peptide. By comparison with Edman degradation data, it was concluded that lcc2 encodes an isoenzyme corresponding to laccase A. The gene product of lcc2 displays 71% identity with the previously characterized T. versicolor lcc1 gene product. An alignment of laccase sequences revealed that the T. versicolor isoenzymes in general are more closely related to corresponding isoenzymes from other white-rot fungi than to the other T. versicolor isoenzymes. The multiplicity of laccase is thus a conserved feature of T. versicolor and related species of white-rot fungi. When the T. versicolor lcc2 cDNA was expressed in S. cerevisiae, the production of active enzyme was strongly dependent on the temperature. After 3 days of incubation, a 16-fold higher laccase activity was found when a positive transformant was kept at 19 degrees C instead of 28 degrees C. Similar experiments with Pichia pastoris expressing the T. versicolor laccase gene lcc1 also showed that the expression level was favoured considerably by lower cultivation temperature, indicating that the observation made for the S. cerevisiae expression system is of general significance. PMID:10531652

Cassland, P; Jönsson, L J

1999-09-01

 
 
 
 
21

Molecular cloning of CWP1: a gene encoding a Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall protein solubilized with Rarobacter faecitabidus protease I.  

Science.gov (United States)

A yeast cell wall glycoprotein with a molecular weight of 40,000, named gp40, was solubilized from SDS-extracted cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by incubation with Rarobacter faecitabidus protease I, which is a yeast-lytic enzyme. Based on its amino acid sequence, we cloned and sequenced the gene encoding the precursor of gp40, named CWP1; cell wall protein gene. The DNA sequence of the CWP1 gene was identical to YKL443, an open reading frame identified in a genome sequencing program for yeast chromosome XI. This gene encoded a serine-rich protein of 239 amino acids with a molecular weight of 24,267. The presence of hydrophobic sequences in the N- and C-termini of the CWP1 protein suggests that it is secreted as a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein and is subsequently integrated into the cell wall. Since a gene disruption experiment showed no growth defect, the CWP1 gene is not essential for growth. Mutant CWP1 protein deficient in the C-terminal hydrophobic sequence was secreted into the culture medium, not anchored to the cell wall, thereby indicating that this hydrophobic sequence plays a crucial role in anchoring to the cell wall. Homology between the CWP1 protein and TIP1 family of cold shock proteins suggests that they belong to a new family of cell wall proteins. PMID:8543563

Shimoi, H; Iimura, Y; Obata, T

1995-08-01

22

Evidence that the MIF2 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a centromere protein with homology to the mammalian centromere protein CENP-C.  

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The MIF2 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been implicated in mitosis. Here we provide genetic evidence that MIF2 encodes a centromere protein. Specifically, we found that mutations in MIF2 stabilize dicentric minichromosomes and confer high instability (i.e., a synthetic acentric phenotype) to chromosomes that bear a cis-acting mutation in element I of the yeast centromeric DNA (CDEI). Similarly, we observed synthetic phenotypes between mutations in MIF2 and trans-acting mutations in thre...

Meluh, P. B.; Koshland, D.

1995-01-01

23

Overexpression of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mannosylphosphodolichol Synthase-Encoding Gene in Trichoderma reesei Results in an Increased Level of Protein Secretion and Abnormal Cell Ultrastructure  

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Production of extracellular proteins plays an important role in the physiology of Trichoderma reesei and has potential industrial application. To improve the efficiency of protein secretion, we overexpressed in T. reesei the DPM1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, encoding mannosylphosphodolichol (MPD) synthase, under homologous, constitutively acting expression signals. Four stable transformants, each with different copy numbers of tandemly integrated DPM1, exhibited roughly double the activi...

Kruszewska, Joanna S.; Butterweck, Arno H.; Kurza?tkowski, Wies?aw; Migdalski, Andrzej; Kubicek, Christian P.; Palamarczyk, Graz?yna

1999-01-01

24

Characterization of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ERG26 gene encoding the C-3 sterol dehydrogenase (C-4 decarboxylase) involved in sterol biosynthesis  

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All but two genes involved in the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been cloned, and their corresponding mutants have been described. The remaining genes encode the C-3 sterol dehydrogenase (C-4 decarboxylase) and the 3-keto sterol reductase and in concert with the C-4 sterol methyloxidase (ERG25) catalyze the sequential removal of the two methyl groups at the sterol C-4 position. The protein sequence of the Nocardia sp NAD(P)-dependent cholesterol dehydrogenase...

Gachotte, D.; Barbuch, R.; Gaylor, J.; Nickel, E.; Bard, M.

1998-01-01

25

Mannitol Uptake by Saccharomyces Cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The uptake of mannitol, a nonmetabolized hexitol, by Saccharomyces cerevisiae was measured. Various parameters examined include: effects of temperature on uptake, inhibition of uptake by uranyl nitrate, competition for uptake by glucose, counterflow of ma...

E. Spoerl W. A. Maxwell

1970-01-01

26

??????: Saccharomyces cerevisiae virus L-BC (La)  

Full Text Available Viruses Totiviridae Saccharomyces cerevisiae virus L-BC (La ) Saccharomyces cerevisiae virus L-BC (La ) (scientific name) NCBI 42478 Saccharomyces cerevi siae virus La (synonym) NCBI 42478 Saccharomyces cerevisiae viru s ScV-La (synonym) NCBI 42478 ScV-La (acronym) NCBI 42478 < iew/diam_microbe_patent?taxonomy_id=42478 target=_bla nk>???? (?????): 215

27

Xylose-metabolizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains overexpressing the TKL1 and TAL1 genes encoding the pentose phosphate pathway enzymes transketolase and transaldolase.  

Science.gov (United States)

Saccharomyces cerevisiae was metabolically engineered for xylose utilization. The Pichia stipitis CBS 6054 genes XYL1 and XYL2 encoding xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase were cloned into S. cerevisiae. The gene products catalyze the two initial steps in xylose utilization which S. cerevisiae lacks. In order to increase the flux through the pentose phosphate pathway, the S. cerevisiae TKL1 and TAL1 genes encoding transketolase and transaldolase were overexpressed. A XYL1- and XYL2-containing S. cerevisiae strain overexpressing TAL1 (S104-TAL) showed considerably enhanced growth on xylose compared with a strain containing only XYL1 and XYL2. Overexpression of only TKL1 did not influence growth. The results indicate that the transaldolase level in S. cerevisiae is insufficient for the efficient utilization of pentose phosphate pathway metabolites. Mixtures of xylose and glucose were simultaneously consumed with the recombinant strain S104-TAL. The rate of xylose consumption was higher in the presence of glucose. Xylose was used for growth and xylitol formation, but not for ethanol production. Decreased oxygenation resulted in impaired growth and increased xylitol formation. Fermentation with strain S103-TAL, having a xylose reductase/xylitol dehydrogenase ratio of 0.5:30 compared with 4.2:5.8 for S104-TAL, did not prevent xylitol formation. PMID:8534086

Walfridsson, M; Hallborn, J; Penttilä, M; Keränen, S; Hahn-Hägerdal, B

1995-12-01

28

mRNA cap-binding protein: cloning of the gene encoding protein synthesis initiation factor eIF-4E from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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We have isolated genomic and cDNA clones encoding protein synthesis initiation factor eIF-4E (mRNA cap-binding protein) of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Their identity was established by expression of a cDNA in Escherichia coli. This cDNA encodes a protein indistinguishable from purified eIF-4E in terms of molecular weight, binding to and elution from m7GDP-agarose affinity columns, and proteolytic peptide pattern. The eIF-4E gene was isolated by hybridization of cDNA to clones of a yea...

Altmann, M.; Handschin, C.; Trachsel, H.

1987-01-01

29

HTL1 Encodes a Novel Factor That Interacts with the RSC Chromatin Remodeling Complex in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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RSC is an essential chromatin remodeling complex in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that performs central roles in transcriptional regulation and cell cycle progression. Here we identify Htl1 as a novel factor that associates with the RSC complex both physically and functionally. We isolated HTL1 through a genetic screen for mutants that displayed additive growth defects with a conditional mutation in the protein kinase C gene (PKC1), which has been suggested through genetic connections to interact ...

Romeo, Martin J.; Angus-hill, Melinda L.; Sobering, Andrew K.; Kamada, Yoshiaki; Cairns, Bradley R.; Levin, David E.

2002-01-01

30

Minisatellites in Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes encoding cell wall proteins: a new way towards wine strain characterisation  

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With the aim of developing new tools for the characterisation of wine yeasts, by means of databases available on-line we scanned the genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in search of potentially polymorphic targets. As we have previously observed for SED1, we found that other genes coding for cell wall proteins contain minisatellite-like sequences. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) survey of SED1 and three of these others, namely AGA1, DAN4 and HSP150, in a po...

2004-01-01

31

Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains two functional genes encoding 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase.  

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We have isolated two genes from yeast encoding 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase [hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (NADPH); HMG-CoA reductase; EC 1.1.1.34], the rate-limiting enzyme of sterol biosynthesis. These genes, HMG1 and HMG2, were identified by hybridization to a cDNA clone encoding hamster HMG-CoA reductase. DNA sequence analysis reveals homology between the amino acid sequence of the proteins encoded by the two yeast genes and the carboxyl-terminal half of th...

Basson, M. E.; Thorsness, M.; Rine, J.

1986-01-01

32

In silicio search for genes encoding peroxisomal proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The biogenesis of peroxisomes involves the synthesis of new proteins that after, completion of translation, are targeted to the organelle by virtue of peroxisomal targeting signals (PTS). Two types of PTSs have been well characterized for import of matrix proteins (PTS1 and PTS2). Induction of the genes encoding these matrix proteins takes place in oleate-containing medium and is mediated via an oleate response element (ORE) present in the region preceding these genes. The authors have searched the yeast genome for OREs preceding open reading frames (ORFs), and for ORFs that contain either a PTS1 or PTS2. Of the ORFs containing an ORE, as well as either a PTS1 or a PTS2, many were known to encode bona fide peroxisomal matrix proteins. In addition, candidate genes were identified as encoding putative new peroxisomal proteins. For one case, subcellular location studies validated the in silicio prediction. This gene encodes a new peroxisomal thioesterase. PMID:11330035

Kal, A J; Hettema, E H; van den Berg, M; Koerkamp, M G; van Ijlst, L; Distel, B; Tabak, H F

2000-01-01

33

The HAP3 regulatory locus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes divergent overlapping transcripts.  

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Activation of the CYC1 upstream activation site, UAS2, and transcription of several other genes encoding respiratory functions requires the product of the regulatory gene HAP2. We report here the isolation and characterization of a second UAS2 regulatory gene, HAP3. Like mutations in HAP2, a mutation in HAP3 abolishes the activity of UAS2 and prevents growth on nonfermentable carbon sources. The HAP3 gene was cloned and, surprisingly, was found to encode two divergently transcribed, overlappi...

Hahn, S.; Pinkham, J.; Wei, R.; Miller, R.; Guarente, L.

1988-01-01

34

21 CFR 866.5785 - Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody...Test Systems § 866.5785 Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae ...a) Identification. The Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S....

2009-04-01

35

Differential regulation of the two genes encoding Saccharomyces cerevisiae cytochrome c oxidase subunit V by heme and the HAP2 and REO1 genes.  

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In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the COX5a and COX5b genes encode two forms of cytochrome c oxidase subunit V, Va and Vb. We report here that heme increases COX5a expression and decreases COX5b expression and that the HAP2 and REO1 genes are involved in positive regulation of COX5a and negative regulation of COX5b, respectively. Heme regulation of COX5a and COX5b may dictate which subunit V isoform is available for assembly into cytochrome c oxidase under conditions of high- and low-oxygen tension.

Trueblood, C. E.; Wright, R. M.; Poyton, R. O.

1988-01-01

36

Cloning and bacterial expression of the CYS3 gene encoding cystathionine gamma-lyase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the physicochemical and enzymatic properties of the protein.  

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By screening a yeast genomic library, we isolated and characterized a gene rescuing the cysteine requirement in a "cys1" strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Except for four residues in the open reading frame composed of 1,182 nucleotides, the DNA sequence was the same as that for the CYS3 (CYI1) gene, encoding cystathionine gamma-lyase (EC 4.4.1.1), and isolated previously as a cycloheximide-induced gene (B. Ono, K. Tanaka, K. Naito, C. Heike, S. Shinoda, S. Yamamoto, S. Ohmori, T. Os...

1993-01-01

37

RRN3 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes an essential RNA polymerase I transcription factor which interacts with the polymerase independently of DNA template.  

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RRN3 is one of the RRN genes specifically required for the transcription of rDNA by RNA polymerase I (Pol I) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have cloned the gene, determined the nucleotide sequence, and found that it is an essential gene which encodes a protein of calculated molecular weight of 72 369. Extracts prepared from rrn3 mutants were defective in in vitro transcription of rDNA templates. We used extracts from a strain containing an epitope-tagged Rrn3 protein to purify a factor that ...

1996-01-01

38

Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD5-encoded DNA repair protein contains DNA helicase and zinc-binding sequence motifs and affects the stability of simple repetitive sequences in the genome.  

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rad5 (rev2) mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are sensitive to UV light and other DNA-damaging agents, and RAD5 is in the RAD6 epistasis group of DNA repair genes. To unambiguously define the function of RAD5, we have cloned the RAD5 gene, determined the effects of the rad5 deletion mutation on DNA repair, DNA damage-induced mutagenesis, and other cellular processes, and analyzed the sequence of RAD5-encoded protein. Our genetic studies indicate that RAD5 functions primarily with RAD18 in e...

Johnson, R. E.; Henderson, S. T.; Petes, T. D.; Prakash, S.; Bankmann, M.; Prakash, L.

1992-01-01

39

The FKB2 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, encoding the immunosuppressant-binding protein FKBP-13, is regulated in response to accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum.  

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The FKB2 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a homolog of mammalian FKBP-13, an FK506/rapamycin-binding protein that localizes to the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We have found that FKB2 mRNA levels increase in response to the accumulation of unfolded precursor proteins in the ER. FKB2 mRNA levels are elevated in cells blocked in N-glycosylation--i.e., in wild-type cells treated with tunicamycin and in the sec53-6 mutant grown at the nonpermissive temperature. Mutations that ...

Partaledis, J. A.; Berlin, V.

1993-01-01

40

A novel Nudix hydrolase for oxidized purine nucleoside triphosphates encoded by ORFYLR151c (PCD1 gene) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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A search for candidates for a functional homologue of Escherichia coli MutT in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was made in the NCBI-BLAST database using the Nudix box, a short amino acid sequence conserved among E.coli MutT, Pseudomonoas vulgaris MutT, and human, rat and mouse MTH1. Among five candidates, we focused on the open reading frame YLR151c, because it had a region with ?76% similarity to the N-terminal half of MutT including the Nudix box. We thus evaluated the ability of YLR151c a...

Nunoshiba, Tatsuo; Ishida, Rikiya; Sasaki, Michi; Iwai, Shigenori; Nakabeppu, Yusaku; Yamamoto, Kazuo

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

An essential Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene homologous to SNF2 encodes a helicase-related protein in a new family.  

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The Saccharomyces cerevisiae SNF2 gene affects the expression of many diversely regulated genes and has been implicated in transcriptional activation. We report here the cloning and characterization of STH1, a gene that is homologous to SNF2. STH1 is essential for mitotic growth and is functionally distinct from SNF2. A bifunctional STH1-beta-galactosidase protein is located in the nucleus. The predicted 155,914-Da STH1 protein is 72% identical to SNF2 over 661 amino acids and 46% identical o...

Laurent, B. C.; Yang, X.; Carlson, M.

1992-01-01

42

Metabolic Engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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Comprehensive knowledge regarding Saccharomyces cerevisiae has accumulated over time, and today S. cerevisiae serves as a widley used biotechnological production organism as well as a eukaryotic model system. The high transformation efficiency, in addition to the availability of the complete yeast genome sequence, has facilitated genetic manipulation of this microorganism, and new approaches are constantly being taken to metabolicially engineer this organism in order to suit specific needs. I...

Ostergaard, Simon; Olsson, Lisbeth; Nielsen, Jens

2000-01-01

43

"Malonate uptake and metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae".  

Science.gov (United States)

Malonyl-CoA plays an important role in the synthesis and elongation of fatty acids in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Malonyl-CoA is at a low concentration inside the cell and is produced mainly from acetyl-CoA through the enzyme acetyl-CoA carboxylase. It would be beneficial to find an alternative source of malonyl-CoA to increase its intracellular concentration and overall synthesis of the fatty acids. MatB gene from the bacteria Rhizobium leguminosarium bv. trifolii encodes for a malonyl-CoA synthetase which catalyzes the formation of the malonyl-CoA directly from malonate and CoA. However, results from high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) proved that Saccharomyces cerevisiae itself does not contain enough cytoplasmic malonate within them and is unable to uptake exogenously supplied malonate in the form of malonic acid. A dicarboxylic acid plasma membrane transporter with the ability to uptake exogenous malonic acid was identified from another species of yeast known as Schizosaccharomyces pombe and the gene encoding this transporter is identified as the mae1 gene. From the experiments thus far, the mae1 gene had been successfully cloned and transformed into Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The expression and functional ability of the encoded plasma membrane dicarboxylic acid transporter were also demonstrated and verified using specialized technologies such as RT-PCR, yeast immunofluorescence, HPLC, and LC-MS. PMID:23813405

Chen, Wei Ning; Tan, Kee Yang

2013-09-01

44

Identification by functional analysis of the gene encoding alpha-isopropylmalate synthase II (LEU9) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The function of the open reading frame (ORF) YOR108w of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been analysed. The deletion of this ORF from chromosome XV did not give an identifiable phenotype. A mutant in which both ORF YOR108w and LEU4 gene have been deleted proved to be leucine auxotrophic and alpha-isopropylmalate synthase (alpha-IPMS)-negative. This mutant recovered alpha-IPMS activity and a Leu(+) phenotype when transformed with a plasmid copy of YOR108w. These data and the sequence homology indicated that YOR108w is the structural gene for alpha-IPMS II, responsible for the residual alpha-IPMS activity found in a leu4Delta strain. The leu4Delta strain appeared to be very sensitive to the leucine analogue trifluoroleucine. In the absence of leucine, its growth was not much impaired in glucose but more on non-fermentable carbon sources. PMID:10790691

Casalone, E; Barberio, C; Cavalieri, D; Polsinelli, M

2000-04-01

45

Xylitol production by recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

We obtained efficient conversion of xylose to xylitol by transforming Saccharomyces cerevisiae with the gene encoding the xylose reductase (XR) of Pichia stipitis CBS 6054. Comparison of the chromosomal and cDNA copies of the XYL1 gene showed that the genomic XYL1 contains no introns, and an XR monomer of 318 amino acids (35,985 D) is encoded by an open reading frame of 954 bp. The amino acid sequence of the P. stipitis XR is similar to several aldose reductases, suggesting that P. stipitis XR is part of the aldoketo reductase superfamily. S. cerevisiae transformed with the XYL1 gene gave over 95% conversion of xylose into xylitol, a yield not obtainable with natural xylose utilizing yeasts. PMID:1367625

Hallborn, J; Walfridsson, M; Airaksinen, U; Ojamo, H; Hahn-Hägerdal, B; Penttilä, M; Keräsnen, S

1991-11-01

46

Microarray Analysis for Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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In this protocol, gene expression in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is changed after exposure to oxidative stress induced by the addition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), an oxidizing agent. In the experiment, yeast is grown for 48 hours in 1/2X YPD broth containing 3X glucose. The culture is split into a control and treated group. The experiment culture is treated with 0.5 mM H2O2 in Hanks Buffered Saline (HBSS) for 1 hour. The control culture is treated with HBSS only. Total RNA is extracted ...

Tighe, Scott; Hunter, Tim; Reed, Pat; Murray, Janet

2011-01-01

47

Mutations in a gene encoding the. cap alpha. subunit of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae G protein indicate a role in mating pheromone signaling  

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Mutations which allowed conjugation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells lacking a mating pheromone receptor gene were selected. One of the genes defined by such mutations was isolated from a yeast genomic library by complementation of a temperature-sensitive mutation and is identically to the gene GPA1 (also known as SCG1), recently shown to be highly homologous to gene encoding the ..cap alpha.. subunits of mammalian G proteins. Physiological analysis of temperature-sensitive gpal mutations suggests that the encoded G protein is involved in signaling in response to mating pheromones. Mutational disruption of G-protein activity causes cell-cycle arrest in G/sub 1/, deposition of mating-specific cell surface aggultinins, and induction of pheromone-specific mRNa, all of which are responses to pheromone in wild-type cells. In addition, mutants can conjugate without the benefit of mating pheromone or pheromone receptor. A model is presented where the activated G protein has a negative impact on a constitutive signal which normally keeps the pheromone response repressed.

Jahng, K.Y.; Ferguson, J.; Reed, S.I.

1988-06-01

48

Monoterpenoid biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant monoterpenoids belong to a large family of plant secondary metabolites with valuable applications in cosmetics and medicine. Their usual low levels and difficult purification justify the need for alternative fermentative processes for large-scale production. Geranyl diphosphate is the universal precursor of monoterpenoids. In yeast it occurs exclusively as an intermediate of farnesyl diphosphate synthesis. In the present study we investigated the potential use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as an alternative engineering tool. The expression of geraniol synthase of Ocimum basilicum in yeast allowed a strong and specific excretion of geraniol to the growth medium, in contrast to mutants defective in farnesyl diphosphate synthase which excreted geraniol and linalool in similar amounts. A further increase of geraniol synthesis was obtained using yeast mutants defective in farnesyl diphosphate synthase. We also showed that geraniol synthase expression affects the general ergosterol pathway, but in a manner dependent on the genetic background of the strain. PMID:17096665

Oswald, Marilyne; Fischer, Marc; Dirninger, Nicole; Karst, Francis

2007-05-01

49

Glycolipids of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cell  

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Full Text Available Total lipids of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were isolated by chloroform and methanol (2:1. Glycolipids were separated from total lipids by silicic acid chromatography. Glycolipid’s constituent sugars and fatty acids were analyzed by using Gas Liquid Chromatography. Galactose was the prominent sugar followed by mannose. Relative concentrations of fucose, mannose, galactose and glucose in the glycolipid were 5.3, 35.2, 55.1 and 4.2%. 16:0, 18:0, 18:1, 18:2 and 18:3 were the major fatty acids of the total glycolipids. Oleic acid was the dominating fatty acid followed by linoliec acid. They were separated into different fractions by using DEAE-Sephadex ion exchange chromatography. Glycolipids were fractionated and identified as cerebrosides, ceramide polyhexosides, sulfatides, monoglucosyldiglycerides and diglucosyldiglycerides. Ceramide polyhexosides were present in higher concentration as compared to other fractions.

Renuka Malhotra

2005-01-01

50

Postreplication repair in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Postreplication events in logarithmically growing excision-defective mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were examined after low doses of ultraviolet light. Pulse-labeled deoxyribonucleic acid had interruptions, and when the cells were chased, the interruptions were no longer detected. Since the loss of interruptions was not associated with an exchange of pyrimidine dimers at a detection level of 10 to 20% of the induced dimers, it was concluded that postreplication repair in excision-defective mutants does not involve molecular recombination. Pyrimidine dimers were assayed by utilizing the ultraviolet-endonuclease activity in extracts of Micrococcus luteus and newly developed alkaline sucrose gradient techniques, which yielded chromosomal-size deoxyribonucleic acid after treatment of irradiated cells

1981-01-01

51

YEB3/VAC8 encodes a myristylated armadillo protein of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae vacuolar membrane that functions in vacuole fusion and inheritance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Armadillo (Arm) repeat proteins such as beta-catenin and alpha-karyopherin (importin) are thought to mediate the docking of cargo at membrane-associated cytoskeletal elements. YEB3 encodes an uncharacterized Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein that contains eleven tandem Arm repeats. While YEB3 is nonessential for growth, yeb3delta cells accumulated numerous small vacuoles and are defective in vacuolar inheritance. A functional Yeb3p-green fluorescent protein (GFP) chimera localized to vacuolar membranes. Confocal microscopy revealed that Yeb3p-GFP is localized over the surface of the vacuole, but is concentrated approximately 5- to 7-fold in bands located between clustered vacuoles. N-terminal myristylation of Yeb3p is required for vacuolar localization. The first 69 amino acids of Yeb3p were sufficient to target a GFP reporter protein to the vacuolar membrane; however, this fusion protein also localized to the plasma membrane, indicating that additional sequence is required for exclusive steady state vacuolar localization. By analogy to the function of beta-catenin in cell-cell adhesion, alpha-karyopherin in nuclear transport, and smgGDS in the control of ras-like GTPases, Yeb3p may provide a link between vacuoles and the actin cytoskeleton during vacuolar inheritance and fusion and perhaps mediate the assembly of a GTPase regulated docking complex. PMID:9664035

Pan, X; Goldfarb, D S

1998-08-01

52

Lactose fermentation by recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains  

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The development of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with the ability to ferment lactose has a high biotechnological interest, particularly for cheese whey bioremediation processes with simultaneous bio-ethanol production. We have developed a flocculent S. cerevisiae strain that efficiently ferments lactose to ethanol, using a combination of genetic engineering and evolutionary engineering approaches. This strain fermented efficiently and nearly completely (residual lactose < 3 ...

Guimara?es, Pedro M. R.; Teixeira, J. A.; Domingues, Luci?lia

2008-01-01

53

Fatal Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Aortic Graft Infection  

Science.gov (United States)

Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a yeast commonly used in baking and a frequent colonizer of human mucosal surfaces. It is considered relatively nonpathogenic in immunocompetent adults. We present a case of S. cerevisiae fungemia and aortic graft infection in an immunocompetent adult. This is the first reported case of S. cerevisiue fungemia where the identity of the pathogen was confirmed by rRNA sequencing.

Meyer, Michael (Technical Monitor); Smith, Davey; Metzgar, David; Wills, Christopher; Fierer, Joshua

2002-01-01

54

Overproduction of geraniol by enhanced precursor supply in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Monoterpene geraniol, a compound obtained from aromatic plants, has wide applications. In this study, geraniol was synthesized in Saccharomyces cerevisiae through the introduction of geraniol synthase. To increase geraniol production, the mevalonate pathway in S. cerevisiae was genetically manipulated to enhance the supply of geranyl diphosphate, a substrate used for the biosynthesis of geraniol. Identification and optimization of the key regulatory points in the mevalonate pathway in S. cerevisiae increased geraniol production to 36.04 mg L(-1). The results obtained revealed that the IDI1-encoded isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase is a rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of geraniol in S. cerevisiae, and overexpression of MAF1, a negative regulator in tRNA biosynthesis, is another effective method to increase geraniol production in S. cerevisiae. PMID:24161921

Liu, Jidong; Zhang, Weiping; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian; Zhou, Jingwen

2013-12-01

55

Physiolgical Roles of Pyruvate Decarboxylase in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contents: Pyruvate decarboxylase: in indispensable enzyme for growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on glucose; Growth requirements of pyruvate-decarboxylase-negative Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains; Metabolic responses of pyruvate-decarboxylase-negative Sa...

M. Filkweert

1999-01-01

56

The Saccharomyces cerevisiae FKS1 (ETG1) gene encodes an integral membrane protein which is a subunit of 1,3-beta-D-glucan synthase.  

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In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mutations in FKS1 confer hypersensitivity to the immunosuppressants FK506 and cyclosporin A, while mutations in ETG1 confer resistance to the cell-wall-active echinocandins (inhibitors of 1,3-beta-D-glucan synthase) and, in some cases, concomitant hypersensitivity to the chitin synthase inhibitor nikkomycin Z. The FKS1 and ETG1 genes were cloned by complementation of these phenotypes and were found to be identical. Disruption of the gene results in (i) a pronounce...

Douglas, C. M.; Foor, F.; Marrinan, J. A.; Morin, N.; Nielsen, J. B.; Dahl, A. M.; Mazur, P.; Baginsky, W.; Li, W.; El-sherbeini, M.

1994-01-01

57

Enzyme encapsulation in permeabilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall provides a semipermeable barrier that can retain intracellular proteins but still permits small molecules to pass through. When S. cerevisiae cells expressing E. coli lacZ are treated with detergent to extract the cell membrane, beta-galactosidase activity in the permeabilized cells is approximately 40% of the activity of the protein in cell extract. However, the permeabilized cells can easily be collected and reused over 15 times without appreciable loss in activity. Cell wall composition and thickness can be modified using different cell strains for enzyme expression or by mutating genes involved in cell wall biosynthesis or degradation. The Sigma1278b strain cell wall is less permeable than the walls of BY4742 and W303 cells, and deleting EXG1, which encodes a 1,3-beta-glucanase, can further reduce permeability. A short Zymolyase treatment can increase cell wall permeability without rupturing the cells. Encapsulating multiple enzymes in permeabilized cells can offer kinetic advantages over the same enzymes in solution. Regeneration of ATP from AMP by adenylate kinase and pyruvate kinase encapsulated in the same cell proceeded more rapidly than regeneration using a cell extract. Combining permeabilized cells containing adenylate kinase with permeabilized cells containing pyruvate kinase can also regenerate ATP from AMP, but the kinetics of this reaction are slower than regeneration using cell extract or permeabilized cells expressing both enzymes. PMID:15058989

Chow, Chi-Kin; Palecek, Sean P

2004-01-01

58

Allelism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene PSO10, involved in error-prone repair of psoralen-induced DNA damage, with SUMO ligase-encoding MMS21.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to extend the understanding of the genetical and biochemical basis of photo-activated psoralen-induced DNA repair in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae we have identified and cloned 10 pso mutants. Here, we describe the phenotypic characterization and molecular cloning of the pso10-1 mutant which is highly sensitive to photoactivated psoralens, UV(254) (nm) radiation and the alkylating agent methylmethane sulphonate. The pso10-1 mutant allele also confers a block in the mutagenic response to photoactivated psoralens and UV(254) (nm) radiation, and homoallelic diploids do not sporulate. Molecular cloning using a yeast genomic library, sequence analysis and genetic complementation experiments proved pso10-1 to be a mutant allele of gene MMS21 that encodes a SUMO ligase involved in the sumoylation of several DNA repair proteins. The ORF of pso10-1 contains a single nucleotide C-->T transition at position 758, which leads to a change in amino acid sequence from serine to phenylalanine [S253F]. Pso10-1p defines a leaky mutant phenotype of the essential MMS21 gene, and as member of the Smc5-Smc6 complex, still has some essential functions that allow survival of the mutant. DNA repair via translesion synthesis is severely impaired as the pso10-1 mutant allele confers severely blocked induced forward and reverse mutagenesis and shows epistatic interaction with a rev3Delta mutant allele. By identifying the allelism of PSO10 and MMS21 we demonstrate the need of a fully functional Smc5-Smc6 complex for a WT-like adequate repair of photoactivated psoralen-induced DNA damage in yeast. PMID:18437386

Hoch, Nícolas C; Santos, Rafael S; Rosa, Renato M; Machado, Roseane M; Saffi, Jenifer; Brendel, Martin; Henriques, João A P

2008-06-01

59

Positive and negative transcriptional control by heme of genes encoding 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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Responses of the yeast genes encoding 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, HMG1 and HMG2, to in vivo changes in heme concentrations were investigated. Expression of the genes was determined by direct measurement of the mRNA transcribed from each gene, by direct assay of the enzyme activity encoded by each gene, and by measurement of the expression of lacZ fusions to the control regions of each gene. These studies indicated that expression of HMG1 was stimulated by heme, whereas ex...

Thorsness, M.; Schafer, W.; D Ari, L.; Rine, J.

1989-01-01

60

Overproduction of Geranylgeraniol by Metabolically Engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae?  

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(E, E, E)-Geranylgeraniol (GGOH) is a valuable starting material for perfumes and pharmaceutical products. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, GGOH is synthesized from the end products of the mevalonate pathway through the sequential reactions of farnesyl diphosphate synthetase (encoded by the ERG20 gene), geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (the BTS1 gene), and some endogenous phosphatases. We demonstrated that overexpression of the diacylglycerol diphosphate phosphatase (DPP1) gene could...

Tokuhiro, Kenro; Muramatsu, Masayoshi; Ohto, Chikara; Kawaguchi, Toshiya; Obata, Shusei; Muramoto, Nobuhiko; Hirai, Masana; Takahashi, Haruo; Kondo, Akihiko; Sakuradani, Eiji; Shimizu, Sakayu

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Regulation of partitioned sterol biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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Using yeast strains with null mutations in structural genes which encode delta-aminolevulinic acid synthetase (HEM1), isozymes of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG1 and HMG2), squalene epoxidase (ERG1), and fatty acid delta 9-desaturase (OLE1), we were able to determine the effect of hemes, sterols, and unsaturated fatty acids on both sterol production and the specific activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that the HM...

1992-01-01

62

Metabolic Impact of Increased NADH Availability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae?  

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Engineering the level of metabolic cofactors to manipulate metabolic flux is emerging as an attractive strategy for bioprocess applications. We present the metabolic consequences of increasing NADH in the cytosol and the mitochondria of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In a strain that was disabled in formate metabolism, we either overexpressed the native NAD+-dependent formate dehydrogenase in the cytosol or directed it into the mitochondria by fusing it with the mitochondrial signal sequence encod...

Hou, Jin; Scalcinati, Gionata; Oldiges, Marco; Vemuri, Goutham N.

2010-01-01

63

Metabolic Engineering of Glycerol Production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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Inactivation of TPI1, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae structural gene encoding triose phosphate isomerase, completely eliminates growth on glucose as the sole carbon source. In tpi1-null mutants, intracellular accumulation of dihydroxyacetone phosphate might be prevented if the cytosolic NADH generated in glycolysis by glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase were quantitatively used to reduce dihydroxyacetone phosphate to glycerol. We hypothesize that the growth defect of tpi1-null mutants is c...

2002-01-01

64

A Role for Ubiquitination in Mitochondrial Inheritance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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The smm1 mutation suppresses defects in mitochondrial distribution and morphology caused by the mdm1-252 mutation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cells harboring only the smm1 mutation themselves display temperature-sensitive growth and aberrant mitochondrial inheritance and morphology at the nonpermissive temperature. smm1 maps to RSP5, a gene encoding an essential ubiquitin-protein ligase. The smm1 defects are suppressed by overexpression of wild-type ubiquitin but not by overex...

1999-01-01

65

40 CFR 180.1246 - Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement of a...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae on all food...

2010-07-01

66

The flavoproteome of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae?  

Science.gov (United States)

Genome analysis of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae identified 68 genes encoding flavin-dependent proteins (1.1% of protein encoding genes) to which 47 distinct biochemical functions were assigned. The majority of flavoproteins operate in mitochondria where they participate in redox processes revolving around the transfer of electrons to the electron transport chain. In addition, we found that flavoenzymes play a central role in various aspects of iron metabolism, such as iron uptake, the biogenesis of iron–sulfur clusters and insertion of the heme cofactor into apocytochromes. Another important group of flavoenzymes is directly (Dus1-4p and Mto1p) or indirectly (Tyw1p) involved in reactions leading to tRNA-modifications. Despite the wealth of genetic information available for S. cerevisiae, we were surprised that many flavoproteins are poorly characterized biochemically. For example, the role of the yeast flavodoxins Pst2p, Rfs1p and Ycp4p with regard to their electron donor and acceptor is presently unknown. Similarly, the function of the heterodimeric Aim45p/Cir1p, which is homologous to the electron-transferring flavoproteins of higher eukaryotes, in electron transfer processes occurring in the mitochondrial matrix remains to be elucidated. This lack of information extends to the five membrane proteins involved in riboflavin or FAD transport as well as FMN and FAD homeostasis within the yeast cell. Nevertheless, several yeast flavoproteins, were identified as convenient model systems both in terms of their mechanism of action as well as structurally to improve our understanding of diseases caused by dysfunctional human flavoprotein orthologs.

Gudipati, Venugopal; Koch, Karin; Lienhart, Wolf-Dieter; Macheroux, Peter

2014-01-01

67

The flavoproteome of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genome analysis of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae identified 68 genes encoding flavin-dependent proteins (1.1% of protein encoding genes) to which 47 distinct biochemical functions were assigned. The majority of flavoproteins operate in mitochondria where they participate in redox processes revolving around the transfer of electrons to the electron transport chain. In addition, we found that flavoenzymes play a central role in various aspects of iron metabolism, such as iron uptake, the biogenesis of iron-sulfur clusters and insertion of the heme cofactor into apocytochromes. Another important group of flavoenzymes is directly (Dus1-4p and Mto1p) or indirectly (Tyw1p) involved in reactions leading to tRNA-modifications. Despite the wealth of genetic information available for S. cerevisiae, we were surprised that many flavoproteins are poorly characterized biochemically. For example, the role of the yeast flavodoxins Pst2p, Rfs1p and Ycp4p with regard to their electron donor and acceptor is presently unknown. Similarly, the function of the heterodimeric Aim45p/Cir1p, which is homologous to the electron-transferring flavoproteins of higher eukaryotes, in electron transfer processes occurring in the mitochondrial matrix remains to be elucidated. This lack of information extends to the five membrane proteins involved in riboflavin or FAD transport as well as FMN and FAD homeostasis within the yeast cell. Nevertheless, several yeast flavoproteins, were identified as convenient model systems both in terms of their mechanism of action as well as structurally to improve our understanding of diseases caused by dysfunctional human flavoprotein orthologs. PMID:24373875

Gudipati, Venugopal; Koch, Karin; Lienhart, Wolf-Dieter; Macheroux, Peter

2014-03-01

68

VMA13 encodes a 54-kDa vacuolar H(+)-ATPase subunit required for activity but not assembly of the enzyme complex in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous purifications and characterizations of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae vacuolar proton-translocating ATPase (V-ATPase) have indicated that this enzyme is a multisubunit complex composed of at least eight subunits of 100-, 69-, 60-, 42-, 36-, 32-, 27-, and 17-kDa (Kane, P. M., Yamashiro, C. T., and Stevens, T. H. (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264, 19236-19244). We report the cloning and characterization of an additional V-ATPase subunit, the 54-kDa subunit, which is encoded by the VMA13 gene. VMA13 was isolated by complementation of the growth phenotypes associated with the vma13 mutation, which was originally described as cls11 (Ohya, Y., Umemoto, N., Tanida, I., Ohta, A., Iida, H., and Anraku, Y. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 13971-13977). The nucleotide sequence of the VMA13 gene predicted a hydrophilic polypeptide with a calculated molecular mass of 54,415 daltons. The VMA13 54-kDa gene product resides on the vacuolar membrane and co-purified with the active V-ATPase complex. Characterization of a null vma13 mutant (delta vma13) revealed that the Vma13 polypeptide is essential for V-ATPase activity. However, the Vma13 polypeptide is not required for targeting of the other V-ATPase subunits (100-, 69-, 60-, 42-, 27-, or 17-kDa subunits) to the vacuolar membrane as shown by the association of these subunits with vacuolar membranes isolated from delta vma13 cells. The nature of the V-ATPase "complex" in delta vma13 mutant is, nevertheless, fundamentally different from the wild-type enzyme. This is evidenced by the fact that the inactive V-ATPase complex from delta vma13 cells is less stable than the wild-type enzyme. Taken together, these results indicate that VMA13 encodes the 54-kDa subunit of the V-ATPase and that this subunit is essential for activity, but not assembly, of the enzyme complex. PMID:8349704

Ho, M N; Hirata, R; Umemoto, N; Ohya, Y; Takatsuki, A; Stevens, T H; Anraku, Y

1993-08-25

69

Expression of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA repair gene RAD6 that encodes a ubiquitin conjugating enzyme, increases in response to DNA damage and in meiosis but remains constant during the mitotic cell cycle.  

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The RAD6 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a ubiquitin-conjugating (E2) enzyme and is required for the repair of damaged DNA, mutagenesis, and sporulation. Here, we report our studies on the regulation of RAD6 gene expression after UV damage, during the mitotic cell cycle, in meiosis, and following heat shock and starvation. RAD6 mRNA levels became elevated in cells exposed to UV light, and at all UV doses the increase in mRNA levels was rapid and occurred within 30 min after exposure ...

Madura, K.; Prakash, S.; Prakash, L.

1990-01-01

70

Agglutination and mating activity of the MF alpha 2-encoded alpha-factor analog in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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The MF alpha 2-encoded Asn-5,Arg-7 alpha-factor-like peptide has been shown shown to have similar activity to Gln-5,Lys-7 alpha-factor in morphogenesis and growth arrest studies (S. Raths, P. Shenbagamurthi, F. Naider, and J. M. Becker, J. Bacteriol. 168:1468-1471, 1986). We tested the Asn-5,Arg-7 peptide in agglutination and mating assays and found that its activity was similar to or slightly less than that of the Gln-5,Lys-7 alpha-factor. The Asn-5,Arg-7 alpha-factor-like peptide is thus th...

Kurjan, J.; Lipke, P. N.

1986-01-01

71

The Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene YPR011c encodes a mitochondrial transporter of adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate and 3'-phospho-adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate.  

Science.gov (United States)

The genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains 35 members of the mitochondrial carrier family, nearly all of which have been functionally characterized. In this study, the identification of the mitochondrial carrier for adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (APS) is described. The corresponding gene (YPR011c) was overexpressed in bacteria. The purified protein was reconstituted into phospholipid vesicles and its transport properties and kinetic parameters were characterized. It transported APS, 3'-phospho-adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate, sulfate and phosphate almost exclusively by a counter-exchange mechanism. Transport was saturable and inhibited by bongkrekic acid and other inhibitors. To investigate the physiological significance of this carrier in S. cerevisiae, mutants were subjected to thermal shock at 45°C in the presence of sulfate and in the absence of methionine. At 45°C cells lacking YPR011c, engineered cells (in which APS is produced only in mitochondria) and more so the latter cells, in which the exit of mitochondrial APS is prevented by the absence of YPR011cp, were less thermotolerant. Moreover, at the same temperature all these cells contained less methionine and total glutathione than wild-type cells. Our results show that S. cerevisiae mitochondria are equipped with a transporter for APS and that YPR011cp-mediated mitochondrial transport of APS occurs in S. cerevisiae under thermal stress conditions. PMID:24296033

Todisco, Simona; Di Noia, Maria Antonietta; Castegna, Alessandra; Lasorsa, Francesco Massimo; Paradies, Eleonora; Palmieri, Ferdinando

2014-02-01

72

Procedure for mutagenizing spores of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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A procedure for inducing mutants of a homothallic strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is described. The essential parts of the procedure are long incubation in Glusulase, which preferentially kills vegetative cells instead of spores, and treatment in 9% ethyl methanesulfonate, which also preferentially kills vegetative cells instead of spores. Consequently, the viable population is virtually 100% spores.

Romano, P.; Soli, M. G.; Suzzi, G.

1983-01-01

73

Biosynthesis of Natural Flavanones in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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A four-step flavanone biosynthetic pathway was constructed and introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The recombinant yeast strain was fed with phenylpropanoid acids and produced the flavanones naringenin and pinocembrin 62 and 22 times more efficiently compared to previously reported recombinant prokaryotic strains. Microbial biosynthesis of the flavanone eriodictyol was also achieved.

2005-01-01

74

Tangential Ultrafiltration of Aqueous "Saccharomyces Cerevisiae" Suspensions  

Science.gov (United States)

Experimental work on ultrafiltration is presented to illustrate the practical and theoretical principles of this separation technique. The laboratory exercise comprises experiments with pure water and with aqueous "Saccharomyces cerevisiae" (from commercial Baker's yeast) suspensions. With this work students detect the characteristic phenomena…

Silva, Carlos M.; Neves, Patricia S.; Da Silva, Francisco A.; Xavier, Ana M. R. B.; Eusebio, M. F. J.

2008-01-01

75

Regulation of Biotin Transport in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The metabolic control of biotin transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated. Nonproliferating cells harvested from cultures grown in excess biotin (25 ng/ml) took up small amounts of biotin, whereas cells grown in biotin-sufficient medium (0.25...

T. O. Rogers H. C. Lichstein

1969-01-01

76

Nitrogen Catabolite Repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In Saccharomyces cerevisiae the expression of all known nitrogen catabolite pathways are regulated by four regulators known as Gln3, Gat1, Da180, and Deh1. This is known as nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR). They bind to motifs in the promoter region to the consensus sequence S' GATAA 3'. Gln3 and Gat1 act positively on gene expression whereas :Da180 and Deh1 act negatively. Expression of nitrogen catabolite pathway genes known to be regulated by these four regulators are glutamine, glutamate, proline, urea, arginine, GABA, and allantoine. In addition, the expression of the genes encoding the general amino acid permease and the ammonium permease are also regulated by these four regulatory proteins. Another group of genes whose expression is also regulated by Gln3, Gat1, Da180, and Deh1 are some proteases, CPS1, PRB1, LAP1, and PEP4, responsible for the degradation of proteins into amino acids thereby providing a nitrogen source to the cell.In this review, all known promoter sequences related to expression of nitrogen catabolite pathways are discussed as well as other regulatory proteins. Overview of metabolic pathways and promoters are presented.

Hofman-Bang, H Jacob Peider

1999-01-01

77

Xylose utilizing recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Through metabolic engineering, S. cerevisiae was provided with the necessary enzymes required for xylose utilisation during ethanolic fermentation of xylose-rich lignocellulose raw materials. For xylitol production, S. cerevisiae was provided with the Pichia stipitis XYL1 gene encoding xylose reductase (XR). The in-vivo reduction and the following excretion of xylitol, requires a co-substrate for maintenance and cofactor regeneration. Xylitol yields close to 100% were obtained with the XYL1 containing S. cerevisiae. Introducing P. stipitis XYL1 and XYL2 genes, encoding XR and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH), respectively, enabled S. cerevisiae to convert xylose to xylulose, via xylitol. During the screening work of P. stipitis XDH gene, another gene encoding a polyol dehydrogenase was isolated and cloned in S. cerevisiae. The gene was identified as a D-arabinitol dehydrogenase gene. In P. stipitis it may function as a redox sink by reducing D-ribulose to D-arabinitol. The metabolism through the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) was enhanced by over-expressing the native genes TKL1 and TAL1 encoding transketolase and transaldolase, respectively, resulting in improved xylose utilisation. The XR and XDH activities in recombinant S. cerevisiae were produced at different levels by constructing yeast vectors in which the PGK1 and ADHI promoters controlled XYL1 and XYL2. With higher XDH than XR activities, less by-products, in the form of xylitol and glycerol, were formed by the recombinant S. cerevisiae strains. The Thermus thermophilus xylA gene encoding a thermostable xylose isomerase was cloned and expressed in S. cerevisiae. The recombinant xylose isomerase was actively produced and a new functional metabolic pathway was established in S. cerevisiae resulting in ethanol production from xylose. 150 refs, 3 figs, 4 tabs

Walfridsson, M.

1996-04-01

78

Identification of Histone Demethylases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae*s  

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Based on the prediction that histone lysine demethylases may contain the JmjC domain, we examined the methylation patterns of five knock-out strains (ecm5?, gis1?, rph1?, jhd1?, and jhd2? (yjr119c?)) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mass spectrometry (MS) analyses of histone H3 showed increased modifications in all mutants except ecm5?. High-resolution MS was used to unequivocally differentiate trimethylation from acetylation in various tryptic fragments. The relative abundance of specific...

2007-01-01

79

Phosphate transport and sensing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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Cellular metabolism depends on the appropriate concentration of intracellular inorganic phosphate; however, little is known about how phosphate concentrations are sensed. The similarity of Pho84p, a high-affinity phosphate transporter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to the glucose sensors Snf3p and Rgt2p has led to the hypothesis that Pho84p is an inorganic phosphate sensor. Furthermore, pho84Delta strains have defects in phosphate signaling; they constitutively express PHO5, a phosphate starvat...

Wykoff, D. D.; O Shea, E. K.

2001-01-01

80

Saccharomyces cerevisiae morphology under hyperbaric gases  

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The effects of hyperbaric stress on the morphology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were studied in batch cultures under pressures between 0.1 MPa and 0.6 MPa and different gas compositions (air, O2, N2, or CO2), covering aerobic and anaerobic conditions. A method using automatic image analysis for cell classification based on their morphology was applied to experimental data. Cell viability was assessed through the Methylene Blue staining method and the percentages of viable and non-viab...

Coelho, M. A. Z.; Coutinho, J. A. P.; Mota, M.; Ferreira, E. C.; Belo, Isabel

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Alpha-factor-directed synthesis and secretion of mature foreign proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells were transformed with plasmids containing hybrid genes in which the sequence encoding mature human epidermal growth factor was joined to sequences encoding the leader region (preprosegment) of the precursor of the yeast mating pheromone alpha-factor. These cells accurately process the hybrid protein and efficiently secrete authentic biologically active human epidermal growth factor into the medium.

Brake, A. J.; Merryweather, J. P.; Coit, D. G.; Heberlein, U. A.; Masiarz, F. R.; Mullenbach, G. T.; Urdea, M. S.; Valenzuela, P.; Barr, P. J.

1984-01-01

82

On cycles in the transcription network of Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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Abstract Background We investigate the cycles in the transcription network of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Unlike a similar network of Escherichia coli, it contains many cycles. We characterize properties of these cycles and their place in the regulatory mechanism of the cell. Results Almost all cycles in the transcription network of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are contained in a single strongly connected component, which we call LS...

Jeong Jieun; Berman Piotr

2008-01-01

83

Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase as the sole anaplerotic enzyme in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pyruvate carboxylase is the sole anaplerotic enzyme in glucose-grown cultures of wild-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Pyruvate carboxylase-negative (Pyc(-)) S. cerevisiae strains cannot grow on glucose unless media are supplemented with C(4) compounds, such as aspartic acid. In several succinate-producing prokaryotes, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) fulfills this anaplerotic role. However, the S. cerevisiae PEPCK encoded by PCK1 is repressed by glucose and is considered to have a purely decarboxylating and gluconeogenic function. This study investigates whether and under which conditions PEPCK can replace the anaplerotic function of pyruvate carboxylase in S. cerevisiae. Pyc(-) S. cerevisiae strains constitutively overexpressing the PEPCK either from S. cerevisiae or from Actinobacillus succinogenes did not grow on glucose as the sole carbon source. However, evolutionary engineering yielded mutants able to grow on glucose as the sole carbon source at a maximum specific growth rate of ca. 0.14 h(-1), one-half that of the (pyruvate carboxylase-positive) reference strain grown under the same conditions. Growth was dependent on high carbon dioxide concentrations, indicating that the reaction catalyzed by PEPCK operates near thermodynamic equilibrium. Analysis and reverse engineering of two independently evolved strains showed that single point mutations in pyruvate kinase, which competes with PEPCK for phosphoenolpyruvate, were sufficient to enable the use of PEPCK as the sole anaplerotic enzyme. The PEPCK reaction produces one ATP per carboxylation event, whereas the original route through pyruvate kinase and pyruvate carboxylase is ATP neutral. This increased ATP yield may prove crucial for engineering of efficient and low-cost anaerobic production of C(4) dicarboxylic acids in S. cerevisiae. PMID:20581175

Zelle, Rintze M; Trueheart, Josh; Harrison, Jacob C; Pronk, Jack T; van Maris, Antonius J A

2010-08-01

84

Checkpoint-control in Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Eukaryotic cells have evolved a network of control mechanisms, known as checkpoints, which coordinate cell-cycle progression in response to internal and external cues. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been invaluable in dissecting genetically the DNA damage checkpoint pathway. DNA damage activates a set of proteins whose job is to delay the cell cycle until the damage is repaired. This process was thought to involve the detection of damage by sensor proteins, which transmit a signal to a key protein kinase and thence to downstream targets. Checkpoint mechanisms are interesting because of their link with cancer and we have the eternal hope that checkpoints may somehow present a therapeutic opportunity. (author)

2000-03-04

85

Myo-inositol transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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myo-Inositol uptake in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was dependent on temperature, time, and substrate concentration. The transport obeyed saturation kinetics with an apparent Km for myo-inositol of 0.1 mM, myo-Inositol analogs, such as scyllo-inositol, 2-inosose, mannitol, and 1,2-cyclohexanediol, had no effect on myo-inositol uptake, myo-Inositol uptake required metabolic energy. Removal of D-glucose resulted in a loss of activity, and azide and cyanide ions were inhibitory. In the presence of D...

Nikawa, J.; Nagumo, T.; Yamashita, S.

1982-01-01

86

Gene duplication in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Five independent duplications of the acid-phosphatase (aphtase) structural gene (acp1) were recovered from chemostat populations of S. cerevisiae that were subject to selection for in vivo hyper-aphtase activity. Two of the duplications arose spontaneously. Three of them were induced by uv. All five of the duplication events involved the transpositioning of the aphtase structural gene, acp1, and all known genes distal to acp1 on the right arm of chromosome II, to the terminus of an arm of other unknown chromosomes. One of the five duplicated regions of the right arm of chromosome II was found to be transmitted mitotically and meiotically with very high fidelity. The other four duplicated regions of the right arm of chromosome II were found to be unstable, being lost at a rate of about 2% per mitosis. However, selection for increased fidelity of mitotic transmission was effective in one of these strains. No tandem duplications of the aphtase structural gene were found

1978-01-01

87

Excision repair in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two approaches, the first to detect endogenous single-strand (ss) breaks in cellular DNA and the second to detect dimers after low fluences, were used to investigate events during excision repair in wild-type and radiation-sensitive strains of S. cerevisiae. With a modification of the alkaline sucrose gradient sedimentation procedure of McGrath and Williams (Nature 212:534-535, 1966), ss-breaks were found to appear in yeast nuclear DNA after the uv irradiation of cells. In the haploid, wild-type strain S288C the number of ss-breaks was found first to increase to a maximum value proportional to the incident fluence and then to decrease during post-irradiation incubation in potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) at 280C. Both the maximum number observed and the length of incubation required before the number of ss-breaks again reached a minimum increased with fluence, and were decreased by photoreactivating treatment in the wild-type strain. Single-strand breaks were also detected in haploid, radiation-sensitive strains carrying mutations at rad1, rad2, rad3, and rad4, but the number of breaks was not found to decrease again as in the wild-type strain. A sensitive and quantitative technique was also developed for the detection of dimers in yeast nuclear DNA. This assay employed a dimer-specific endonuclease found in extracts of Micrococcus luteus and the sensitivity of alkaline sucrose gradient sedimentation to small numbers of ss-breaks

1976-01-01

88

Physiological Properties of Saccharomyces cerevisiae from Which Hexokinase II Has Been Deleted  

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Hexokinase II is an enzyme central to glucose metabolism and glucose repression in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Deletion of HXK2, the gene which encodes hexokinase II, dramatically changed the physiology of S. cerevisiae. The hxk2-null mutant strain displayed fully oxidative growth at high glucose concentrations in early exponential batch cultures, resulting in an initial absence of fermentative products such as ethanol, a postponed and shortened diauxic shift, and higher biomass yield...

Diderich, Jasper A.; Raamsdonk, Le?onie M.; Kruckeberg, Arthur L.; Berden, Jan A.; Dam, Karel

2001-01-01

89

sck1, a high copy number suppressor of defects in the cAMP-dependent protein kinase pathway in fission yeast, encodes a protein homologous to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae SCH9 kinase.  

Science.gov (United States)

Schizosaccharomyces pombe regulates intracellular cAMP levels, and thus cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) activity, in response to changes in nutrient conditions. Mutations in any of eight git genes inhibit glucose repression of fbp1 transcription, alter the cell morphology, and cause a reduction in the growth rate. The eight git genes encode components of an adenylate cyclase activation pathway, adenylate cyclase itself, and the catalytic subunit of PKA. Three of these genes have been identified in other studies as regulators of meiosis. Here we show that the sck1 gene, cloned as a high copy number suppressor of a mutation in git3, is able to suppress the defects conferred by a mutation in any of these git genes. Sequence analysis suggests that sck1 encodes a protein most closely related to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae SCH9 protein kinase that had previously been identified as a high copy number suppressor of mutations in S. cerevisiae that reduce or eliminate PKA activity. Disruption of the sck1 gene causes a significant delay in exit from stationary phase when combined with a disruption of the pka1 (git6) gene encoding the catalytic subunit of PKA. However, the sck1 disruption by itself has little or no effect upon fbp1 transcription, meiosis, or exit from stationary phase, and does not enhance the constitutive fbp1 transcription observed in a pka1 mutant. Therefore, sck1 appears to function in a redundant fashion to pka1, but to varying degrees, in the pathways regulated by pka1. PMID:7498728

Jin, M; Fujita, M; Culley, B M; Apolinario, E; Yamamoto, M; Maundrell, K; Hoffman, C S

1995-06-01

90

Catalase enzyme in mitochondria of Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities have been explored in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during batchwise growth experiment. During the diauxic growth in YPD medium high Ys values were obtained (0.415 - 0.423) and correlation between the total activities of both enzymes has been found. [...] A mitochondrial fraction from three type strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been isolated. The purity of this fraction was proved through different enzyme assays: hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, D-amino acid oxidase, isocitric lyase, succinate dehydrogenase. Then the catalase, peroxidase, Mn and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase activities were evaluated in the mitochondrial fraction. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis separations allowed to identify a mitochondrial catalase as a band of 0.239 Rm value. It differed from the two catalase specific bands with Rm values 0.218 and 0.257 obtained from the crude extract. It was proved that the three catalase proteins are charge isomers. A positive correlation between the activity of mitochondrial catalase and Mn superoxide dismutase also takes place. Molecular weight of mitochonrial catalase protein has been determined as 240 kD.

Petrova, Ventsislava Yankova; Rasheva, Tanya Vassileva; Kujumdzieva, Anna V..

91

Comparison of the structure and cell cycle expression of mRNAs encoded by two histone H3-H4 loci in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The haploid genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains two nonallelic sets of histone H3 and H4 gene pairs, termed the copy I and copy II loci. The structures of the mRNA transcripts from each of these four genes were examined by nuclease protection and primer extension mapping. For each gene, several species of mRNAs were identified that differed in the lengths of their 5' and 3' untranslated regions. The cell cycle accumulation pattern of the H3 and H4 mRNAs was determined in cells from early-exponential-growth cultures fractionated by centrifugal elutriaton. The RNA transcripts from all four genes were regulated with the cell division cycle, and transcripts from the nonallelic gene copies showed tight temporal coordination. Cell cycle regulation did not depend on selection of a particular histone mRNA transcript since the ratio of the multiple species from each gene remained the same across the division cycle. Quantitative measurements showed significant differences in the amounts of mRNA expressed from the two nonallelic gene sets. The mRNAs from the copy II H3 and H4 genes were five to seven times more abundant than the mRNAs from the copy I genes. There was no dosage compensation in the steady-state levels of mRNA when either set of genes was deleted. In particular, there was no increase in the amount of copy I H3 or H4 transcripts in cells in which the high-abundance copy II genes were deleted.

Cross, S.L.; Smith, M.M.

1988-02-01

92

Adaption of Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing a heterologous protein  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Production of the heterologous protein, bovine aprotinin, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was shown to affect the metabolism of the host cell to various extent depending on the strain genotype. Strains with different genotypes, industrial and laboroatory, respectively, were investigated. The maximal specific growth rate of the strains was reduced by 54% and 33%, respectively, upon the introduction of the gene encoding aprotinin. Growing the strains in sequential shake flask cultivations for 250 generations led to an increased maximal specific growth rate and a decrease in the yield of aprotinin as a result of the adaptation. Determination of the level of mRNA encoding aprotinin and the plasmid copy number pointed to different mechanisms responsible for the decline in aprotinin yield in the different strains. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Krogh, Astrid Mørkeberg; Beck, Vibe

2008-01-01

93

Molecular cloning and expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae of two Aspergillus nidulans xylanase genes.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two Aspergillus nidulans genes, xlnA and xlnB, encoding the X22 and X24 xylanases from this fungus, respectively, have been cloned and sequenced. Their cDNAs have been expressed in a laboratory Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain under the control of a constitutive yeast promoter, resulting in the construction of recombinant xylanolytic yeast strains.

Pe?rez-gonzalez, J. A.; Graaff, L. H.; Visser, J.; Ramo?n, D.

1996-01-01

94

PRIMARY STRUCTURE OF THE P450 LANOSTEROL DEMETHYLASE GENE FROM SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE  

Science.gov (United States)

We have sequenced the structural gene and flanking regions for lanosterol 14oc-demethylase (14DM) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. n open reading fram of 530 codons encodes a 60.7-kDa protein. hen this gene is disrupted by integrative transformation, the resulting strain requires e...

95

Expression of the Escherichia coli pntA and pntB Genes, Encoding Nicotinamide Nucleotide Transhydrogenase, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Its Effect on Product Formation during Anaerobic Glucose Fermentation  

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We studied the physiological effect of the interconversion between the NAD(H) and NADP(H) coenzyme systems in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing the membrane-bound transhydrogenase from Escherichia coli. Our objective was to determine if the membrane-bound transhydrogenase could work in reoxidation of NADH to NAD+ in S. cerevisiae and thereby reduce glycerol formation during anaerobic fermentation. Membranes isolated from the recombinant strains exhibited reduction of 3-acetylpyr...

Anderlund, Mikael; Nissen, Torben L.; Nielsen, Jens; Villadsen, John; Rydstro?m, Jan; Hahn-ha?gerdal, Ba?rbel; Kielland-brandt, Morten C.

1999-01-01

96

Interaction between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and chrysotile  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The interaction between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and chrysotile fibers was studied by scanning electron microscopy. The yeast cells adhere preferentially to the fibrils. In the extreme case, all the adhered fibrils were broken, resulting in a complete coverage of the surface. The chrysotile covered cells showed less buds, but retained metabolic capacities, and were fully active in fermentation experiments after one year. The interaction degree was depending on contact time and adhesion medium. The longer the contact period, the stronger the interaction between the cells and the fibers. Cells adhered in water show poor entrapment after short contact time, but were highly entrapped after longer periods and did not show any agglomerates. Cells adhered in the presence of nutrients showed a lower entrapment and a higher degree of cellular growth.

Cassiola F.

2001-11-01

97

Mechanisms of gene conversion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In red-white sectored colonies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, derived from mitotic cells grown to stationary phase and irradiated with a light dose of x-rays, all of the segregational products of gene conversion and crossing over can be ascertained. Approximately 80% of convertants are induced in G1, the remaining 20% in G2. Crossing over, in the amount of 20%, is found among G1 convertants but most of the crossovers are delayed until G2. About 20% of all sectored colonies had more than one genotype in one or the other sector, thus confirming the hypothesis that conversion also occurs in G2. The principal primary event in G2 conversion is a single DNA heteroduplex. It is suggested that the close contact that this implies carries over to G2 when crossing over and a second round of conversion occurs

1990-01-01

98

Study on biosorption of uranium by alginate immobilized saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Saccharomyces cerevisiae has great capability of biosorption of uranium. The maxium uptake is 172.4 mg/g according to this study. To adapt to the application of the biomass in the field, the biosorption of uranium by cross-linked and alginate calcium immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae is studied. Results indicate the maxium uptake is 185.2 mg/g by formaldehyde cross-linked biomass, and it is 769.2 mg/g by alginate calcium immobilized biomass. (authors)

2005-02-01

99

Phenotypical signs and chemical composition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae – mannoprotein producers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Phenotypical signs and chemical composition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNMN-Y-18 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNMN-Y-19 yeast strains are described in this article. The presence of protein complexes with high content of irreplaceable amino acids and antioxidant enzymes, as well as polysaccharides with predominance of mannoproteins allow to recommend these yeast strains for the utilization in biotechnology. Results are of interest for the standard description of yeast strains offered as object for industrial appointment.

Agafia USATII

2012-11-01

100

40 CFR 180.1246 - Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement of a...  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement...1246 Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement...pesticide Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae on all food...

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
101

Sucrose fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae lacking hexose transport.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sucrose is the major carbon source used by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during production of baker's yeast, fuel ethanol and several distilled beverages. It is generally accepted that sucrose fermentation proceeds through extracellular hydrolysis of the sugar, mediated by the periplasmic invertase, producing glucose and fructose that are transported into the cells and metabolized. In the present work we analyzed the contribution to sucrose fermentation of a poorly characterized pathway of sucrose utilization by S. cerevisiae cells, the active transport of the sugar through the plasma membrane and its intracellular hydrolysis. A yeast strain that lacks the major hexose transporters (hxt1-hxt7 and gal2) is incapable of growing on or fermenting glucose or fructose. Our results show that this hxt-null strain is still able to ferment sucrose due to direct uptake of the sugar into the cells. Deletion of the AGT1 gene, which encodes a high-affinity sucrose-H(+) symporter, rendered cells incapable of sucrose fermentation. Since sucrose is not an inducer of the permease, expression of the AGT1 must be constitutive in order to allow growth of the hxt-null strain on sucrose. The molecular characterization of active sucrose transport and fermentation by S. cerevisiae cells opens new opportunities to optimize yeasts for sugarcane-based industrial processes. PMID:15741738

Batista, Anderson S; Miletti, Luiz C; Stambuk, Boris U

2004-01-01

102

Metabolic engineering of glycerol production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Inactivation of TPI1, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae structural gene encoding triose phosphate isomerase, completely eliminates growth on glucose as the sole carbon source. In tpi1-null mutants, intracellular accumulation of dihydroxyacetone phosphate might be prevented if the cytosolic NADH generated in glycolysis by glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase were quantitatively used to reduce dihydroxyacetone phosphate to glycerol. We hypothesize that the growth defect of tpi1-null mutants is caused by mitochondrial reoxidation of cytosolic NADH, thus rendering it unavailable for dihydroxyacetone-phosphate reduction. To test this hypothesis, a tpi1delta nde1delta nde2delta gut2delta quadruple mutant was constructed. NDE1 and NDE2 encode isoenzymes of mitochondrial external NADH dehydrogenase; GUT2 encodes a key enzyme of the glycerol-3-phosphate shuttle. It has recently been demonstrated that these two systems are primarily responsible for mitochondrial oxidation of cytosolic NADH in S. cerevisiae. Consistent with the hypothesis, the quadruple mutant grew on glucose as the sole carbon source. The growth on glucose, which was accompanied by glycerol production, was inhibited at high-glucose concentrations. This inhibition was attributed to glucose repression of respiratory enzymes as, in the quadruple mutant, respiratory pyruvate dissimilation is essential for ATP synthesis and growth. Serial transfer of the quadruple mutant on high-glucose media yielded a spontaneous mutant with much higher specific growth rates in high-glucose media (up to 0.10 h(-1) at 100 g of glucose. liter(-1)). In aerated batch cultures grown on 400 g of glucose. liter(-1), this engineered S. cerevisiae strain produced over 200 g of glycerol. liter(-1), corresponding to a molar yield of glycerol on glucose close to unity. PMID:12039737

Overkamp, Karin M; Bakker, Barbara M; Kötter, Peter; Luttik, Marijke A H; Van Dijken, Johannes P; Pronk, Jack T

2002-06-01

103

Phycomyces blakesleeanus TRP1 gene: organization and functional complementation in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We have cloned the gene encoding the TRPF and TRPC functions of Phycomyces blakesleeanus by complementation of the corresponding activities of Escherichia coli. TRPF also complemented a trpl mutation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. As in other filamentous fungi, such as Neurospora and Aspergillus spp., the P. blakesleeanus TRPF and TRPC formed part of a trifunctional polypeptide encoded by a single gene (called TRP1). Transcription of TRP1 in P. blakesleeanus did not appear to be regulated by li...

1987-01-01

104

Specific distribution of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae linker histone homolog HHO1p in the chromatin  

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In virtually all eukaryotic organisms, linker DNA between nucleosomes is associated with a histone termed linker histone or histone H1. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, HHO1 encodes a putative linker histone with very significant homology to histone H1. The encoded protein is expressed in the nucleus, but has not been shown to affect global chromatin structure, nor has its deletion shown any detectable phenotype. In vitro chromatin assembly experiments with recombinant HHO1p have shown that it is...

Freidkin, Ilya; Katcoff, Don J.

2001-01-01

105

Growth rate-regulated expression of the hexose transporter HXT5 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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Glucose, which is the most preferred carbon source for the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is transported across the plasma membrane into cells by hexose transporter (Hxt) proteins. The Hxt proteins are encoded by a multigene family consisting of 20 members. It was shown previously that HXT1-4 and HXT6-7 encode the major Hxt proteins and contribute mainly to glucose transport, whereas the remaining Hxt proteins have other or unknown functions. Expression of the major HXT genes is regulated by...

Verwaal, Rene?

2003-01-01

106

Proline utilization in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: sequence, regulation, and mitochondrial localization of the PUT1 gene product.  

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The PUT1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, believed to encode proline oxidase, has been completely sequenced and contains an open reading frame capable of encoding a polypeptide of 476 amino acids in length. The amino terminus of the protein deduced from the DNA sequence has a characteristic mitochondrial import signal; two PUT1-lacZ gene fusions were constructed that produced mitochondrially localized beta-galactosidase in vivo. The transcription initiation and termination sites of the PUT1 ...

Wang, S. S.; Brandriss, M. C.

1987-01-01

107

Molecular and Epidemiological Characterization of Vaginal Saccharomyces cerevisiae Isolates  

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Although vaginitis caused by Saccharomyces cerevisiae is extremely rare, in recent years we have experienced an increasing frequency of S. cerevisiae isolation from the vaginas of fertile-age women. In order to investigate the epidemiology of these vaginal infections, a total of 40 isolates of S. cerevisiae derived from symptomatic and asymptomatic women were characterized by two DNA typing approaches, named ribosomal DNA (rDNA) hybridization and Ty917 hybridization, based on the Southern blo...

Posteraro, Brunella; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; D’amore, Giuseppina; Masucci, Luca; Morace, Giulia; Fadda, Giovanni

1999-01-01

108

Saccharomyces cerevisiae Engineered for Xylose Metabolism Exhibits a Respiratory Response  

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Native strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae do not assimilate xylose. S. cerevisiae engineered for d-xylose utilization through the heterologous expression of genes for aldose reductase (XYL1), xylitol dehydrogenase (XYL2), and d-xylulokinase (XYL3 or XKS1) produce only limited amounts of ethanol in xylose medium. In recombinant S. cerevisiae expressing XYL1, XYL2, and XYL3, mRNA transcript levels for glycolytic, fermentative, and pentose phosphate enzymes did not change significantly on gluco...

Jin, Yong-su; Laplaza, Jose M.; Jeffries, Thomas W.

2004-01-01

109

Redox balancing in recombinant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In metabolically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing Pichia stipitis XYL1 and XYL2 genes, encoding xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH), respectively, xylitol is excreted as the major product during anaerobic xylose fermentation and only low yields of ethanol are produced. This has been interpreted as a result of the dual cofactor dependence of XR and the exclusive use of NAD{sup +} by XDH. The excretion of xylitol was completely stopped and the formation of glycerol and acetic acid were reduced in xylose utilising S. cerevisiae strains cultivated in oxygen-limited conditions by expressing lower levels of XR than of XDH. The expression level of XYL1 and XYL2 were controlled by changing the promoters and transcription directions of the genes. A new functional metabolic pathway was established when Thermus thermophilus xylA gene was expressed in S. cerevisiae. The recombinant strain was able to ferment xylose to ethanol when cultivated on a minimal medium containing xylose as only carbon source. In order to create a channeled metabolic transfer in the two first steps of the xylose metabolism, XYL1 and XYL2 were fused in-frame and expressed in S. cerevisiae. When the fusion protein, containing a linker of three amino acids, was co expressed together with native XR and XDH monomers, enzyme complexes consisting of chimeric and native subunits were formed. The total activity of these complexes exhibited 10 and 9 times higher XR and XDH activity, respectively, than the original conjugates, consisting of only chimeric subunits. This strain produced less xylitol and the xylitol yield was lower than with strains only expressing native XR and XDH monomers. In addition, more ethanol and less acetic acid were formed. A new gene encoding the cytoplasmic transhydrogenase from Azotobacter vinelandii was cloned. The enzyme showed high similarity to the family of pyridine nucleotide-disulphide oxidoreductase. To analyse the physiological effect of transhydrogenation between the two coenzyme systems NADP(H) and NAD(H) during anaerobic growth, S. cerevisiae was transformed with a plasma membrane bound AB-transhydrogenase from E. coli and with a cytoplasmic BB-transhydrogenase from A. vinelandii. Expression of both types changed the intracellular nucleotide levels. The NADPH/NADP{sup +} ratio was reduced while the NADH/NAD{sup +} ratio was almost constant. An increased formation of 2-oxoglutarate, glycerol and acetate was observed during anaerobic glucose fermentation 206 refs, 8 figs, 3 tabs

Anderlund, M.

1998-09-01

110

Intracellular Signal Triggered by Cholera Toxin in Saccharomyces boulardii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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As is the case for Saccharomyces boulardii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae W303 protects Fisher rats against cholera toxin (CT). The addition of glucose or dinitrophenol to cells of S. boulardii grown on a nonfermentable carbon source activated trehalase in a manner similar to that observed for S. cerevisiae. The addition of CT to the same cells also resulted in trehalase activation. Experiments performed separately on the A and B subunits of CT showed that both are necessary for activation. Simila...

Branda?o, Rogelio L.; Castro, Ieso M.; Bambirra, Eduardo A.; Amaral, Sheila C.; Fietto, Luciano G.; Tropia, Maria Jose? M.; Neves, Maria Jose?; Dos Santos, Raquel G.; Gomes, Newton C. M.; Nicoli, Jacques R.

1998-01-01

111

Chimeric Genomes of Natural Hybrids of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces kudriavzevii? †  

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Recently, a new type of hybrid resulting from the hybridization between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces kudriavzevii was described. These strains exhibit physiological properties of potential biotechnological interest. A preliminary characterization of these hybrids showed a trend to reduce the S. kudriavzevii fraction of the hybrid genome. We characterized the genomic constitution of several wine S. cerevisiae × S. kudriavzevii strains by using a combined approach based on the re...

Belloch, Carmela; Pe?rez-torrado, Roberto; Gonza?lez, Sara S.; Pe?rez-orti?n, Jose? E.; Garci?a-marti?nez, Jose?; Querol, Amparo; Barrio, Eladio

2009-01-01

112

Chimeric Genomes of Natural Hybrids of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces kudriavzevii  

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Recently, a new type of hybrid resulting from the hybridization between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces kudriavzevii was described. These strains exhibit physiological properties of potential biotechnological interest. A preliminary characterization of these hybrids showed a trend to reduce the S. kudriavzevii fraction of the hybrid genome. We characterized the genomic constitution of several wine S. cerevisiae S. kudriavzevii strains by using a combined approach based on the res...

Belloch Trinidad, Carmela; Pe?rez Torrado, Roberto; Gonza?lez, Sara S.; Pe?rez Orti?n, Jose? E.; Garci?a Marti?nez, Jose?; Querol, Amparo; Barrio, Eladio

2009-01-01

113

Mating pheromones of Saccharomyces kluyveri: pheromone interactions between Saccharomyces kluyveri and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Saccharomyces kluyveri is a heterothallic yeast with two allelic mating types denoted as a-k and alpha-k by analogy with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and from the work described here. S. kluyveri produces mating pheromones analogous to those of S. cerevisiae, but which appear to have different specificity. S. kluyveri thus differs from S. cerevisiae, Hansenula wingei, and Schizosaccharomyces pombe in that it exhibits both strong constitutive agglutination and mating pheromones. alpha-k cells produce a pheromone ("alpha-k-factor") which causes a-k cells to arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle and to undergo a morphological change. After a period of time dependent on the concentration of alpha-k-factor, cells exposed to the factor resume cell division. alpha-k-factor has no effect on a-k/alpha-k diploids or on alpha-k cells, but at high concentration does induce G1 arrest of S. cerevisiaea cells (a-c). a-k cells produce a pheromone ("a-k-factor") which causes alpha-k cells to exhibit a morphological change. In addition, a-k cells exhibit the Bar phenotype with respect to alpha-k-factor. Partially purified preparations of S. cerevisiae alpha-factor are more active in inducing G1 arrest of a-k cells than of a-c cells. A more purified preparation of alpha-c-factor is less active against a-k cells than a-c cells, suggesting that an additional factor (KRE, kluyveri response enhancer) may be lost during purification. Attempts to mate S. kluyveri and S. cerevisiae cells by prototroph selection and by cell-to-cell mating have been unsuccessful with all combinations of mating types. Thus, S. cerevisiae and S. kluyveri are incompatible for mating even though their pheromones exhibit some physiological cross-reaction. PMID:374360

McCullough, J; Herskowitz, I

1979-04-01

114

Genetical approach to oxygen toxicity. [Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The role of intermediate products of dioxygen reduction in cytotoxic effects ascribed to oxygen molecules was studied in vivo using various yeast mutants with changed response to oxygen stress. It has been documented that superoxide radical exerts its deleterious effects on yeast cells directly and the role of other oxygen species derived from it is hardly detectable. Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, however, cannot be considered as a typical eukaryotic organism due to its inability of synthesizing polyunsaturated fatty acids (pufa). These fatty acids are known as main target molecules during oxidative stress and their peroxidation leads to cytotoxic effects. As fatty acid content could be easily manipulated in yeast, this organism was used to evaluate the contribution of pufa peroxidation process to the cytotoxic effects of oxygen. Results obtained show, that yeast cells containing linolenic acid as the main constituent of phospholipids are hypersensitive to oxygen stress and, therefore, the dominant role of pufa peroxidation in oxygen toxicity finds experimental support in vivo. Yeast cells not supplemented with pufa were used to study alternative processes leading to cell death as a consequence of oxidative stress. The role of various deleterious processes initiated by oxygen and presumptive mechanisms protecting against them is discussed.

Bilinski, T.; Litwinska, J.

1986-01-01

115

MPR1 as a novel selection marker in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

L-Azetidine-2-carboxylic acid (AZC) is a toxic four-membered ring analogue of L-proline that is transported into cells by proline transporters. AZC and L-proline in the cells are competitively incorporated into nascent proteins. When AZC is present in a minimum medium, misfolded proteins are synthesized in the cells, thereby inhibiting cell growth. The MPR1 gene has been isolated from the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sigma1278b as a multicopy suppressor of AZC-induced growth inhibition. MPR1 encodes a novel acetyltransferase that detoxifies AZC via N-acetylation. Since MPR1 is absent in the laboratory strain of S. cerevisiae S288C, it could be a positive selection marker that confers AZC resistance in the S288C background strains. To examine the usefulness of MPR1, we constructed some plasmid vectors that harboured MPR1 under the control of various promoters and introduced them into the S288C-derived strains. The expression of MPR1 conferred AZC resistance that was largely dependent on the expression level of MPR1. In an additional experiment, the galactose-inducible MPR1 and ppr1(+), the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe homologue of MPR1, were used for gene disruption by homologous recombination, and here AZC-resistant colonies were also successfully selected. We concluded that our MPR1-AZC system provides a powerful tool for yeast transformation. PMID:19750564

Ogawa-Mitsuhashi, Kaoru; Sagane, Koji; Kuromitsu, Junro; Takagi, Hiroshi; Tsukahara, Kappei

2009-11-01

116

Genotypic and Physiological Characterization of Saccharomyces boulardii, the Probiotic Strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae?  

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Saccharomyces boulardii, a yeast that was isolated from fruit in Indochina, has been used as a remedy for diarrhea since 1950 and is now a commercially available treatment throughout Europe, Africa, and South America. Though initially classified as a separate species of Saccharomyces, recent publications have shown that the genome of S. boulardii is so similar to Saccharomyces cerevisiae that the two should be classified as conspecific. This raises the question of the distinguishing molecular...

Edwards-ingram, Laura; Gitsham, Paul; Burton, Nicola; Warhurst, Geoff; Clarke, Ian; Hoyle, David; Oliver, Stephen G.; Stateva, Lubomira

2007-01-01

117

Selected non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts in controlled multistarter fermentations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Non-Saccharomyces yeasts are metabolically active during spontaneous and inoculated must fermentations, and by producing a plethora of by-products, they can contribute to the definition of the wine aroma. Thus, use of Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts as mixed starter cultures for inoculation of wine fermentations is of increasing interest for quality enhancement and improved complexity of wines. We initially characterized 34 non-Saccharomyces yeasts of the genera Candida, Lachancea (Kluyveromyces), Metschnikowia and Torulaspora, and evaluated their enological potential. This confirmed that non-Saccharomyces yeasts from wine-related environments represent a rich sink of unexplored biodiversity for the winemaking industry. From these, we selected four non-Saccharomyces yeasts to combine with starter cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in mixed fermentation trials. The kinetics of growth and fermentation, and the analytical profiles of the wines produced indicate that these non-Saccharomyces strains can be used with S. cerevisiae starter cultures to increase polysaccharide, glycerol and volatile compound production, to reduce volatile acidity, and to increase or reduce the total acidity of the final wines, depending on yeast species and inoculum ratio used. The overall effects of the non-Saccharomyces yeasts on fermentation and wine quality were strictly dependent on the Saccharomyces/non-Saccharomyces inoculum ratio that mimicked the differences of fermentation conditions (natural or simultaneous inoculated fermentation). PMID:21569929

Comitini, Francesca; Gobbi, Mirko; Domizio, Paola; Romani, Cristina; Lencioni, Livio; Mannazzu, Ilaria; Ciani, Maurizio

2011-08-01

118

CNS1 Encodes an Essential p60/Sti1 Homolog in Saccharomyces cerevisiae That Suppresses Cyclophilin 40 Mutations and Interacts with Hsp90  

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Cyclophilins are cis-trans-peptidyl-prolyl isomerases that bind to and are inhibited by the immunosuppressant cyclosporin A (CsA). The toxic effects of CsA are mediated by the 18-kDa cyclophilin A protein. A larger cyclophilin of 40 kDa, cyclophilin 40, is a component of Hsp90-steroid receptor complexes and contains two domains, an amino-terminal prolyl isomerase domain and a carboxy-terminal tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain. There are two cyclophilin 40 homologs in the yeast Saccharomyc...

Dolinski, Kara J.; Cardenas, Maria E.; Heitman, Joseph

1998-01-01

119

Accumulation of gold using Baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Authors have reported preconcentration of 152Eu, a long-lived fission product, by yeast cells, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Gold being a precious metal is used in electroplating, hydrogenation catalyst, etc. Heterogeneous composition of samples and low concentration offers renewed interest in its selective extraction of gold using various extractants. Gold can be recovered from different solutions using various chemical reagents like amines, organophosphorus compounds, and extractants containing sulphur as donor atom, etc. In the present work, two different strains of baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been used to study the preconcentration of gold at various experimental conditions

2006-01-23

120

Xylose utilizing recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.  

Science.gov (United States)

Through metabolic engineering, S. cerevisiae was provided with the necessary enzymes required for xylose utilisation during ethanolic fermentation of xylose-rich lignocellulose raw materials. For xylitol production, S. cerevisiae was provided with the Pic...

M. Walfridsson

1996-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Identification of high-copy disruptors of telomeric silencing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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The ends of chromosomes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae initiate a repressive chromatin structure that spreads internally and inhibits the transcription of nearby genes, a phenomenon termed telomeric silencing. To investigate the molecular basis of this process, we carried out a genetic screen to identify genes whose overexpression disrupts telomeric silencing. We thus isolated 10 DOT genes (disruptor of telomeric silencing). Among these were genes encoding chromatin component Sir4p, DNA helicase...

Singer, M. S.; Kahana, A.; Wolf, A. J.; Meisinger, L. L.; Peterson, S. E.; Goggin, C.; Mahowald, M.; Gottschling, D. E.

1998-01-01

122

Identification and characterization of CRT10 as a novel regulator of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ribonucleotide reductase genes  

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The CRT10 gene was identified through screening of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion library for hydroxyurea (HU) resistance. CRT10 encodes a putative 957 amino acid, 110 kDa protein with a leucine repeat and a WD40 repeat near the N-terminus. Deletion of CRT10 resulted in an enhanced resistance to HU reminiscent of the inactivation of two other ribonucleotide reductase (Rnr) suppressors, CRT1 and SML1, which regulate Rnr activity at transcriptional and translational levels, respectively....

Fu, Yu; Xiao, Wei

2006-01-01

123

Localization and Interaction of the Proteins Constituting the GAL Genetic Switch in Saccharomyces cerevisiae? †  

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In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the GAL genes encode the enzymes required for galactose metabolism. Regulation of these genes has served as the paradigm for eukaryotic transcriptional control over the last 50 years. The switch between inert and active gene expression is dependent upon three proteins—the transcriptional activator Gal4p, the inhibitor Gal80p, and the ligand sensor Gal3p. Here, we present a detailed spatial analysis of the three GAL regulatory proteins produced from their native ...

Wightman, Raymond; Bell, Rachel; Reece, Richard J.

2008-01-01

124

Synthesis of Novel Lipids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Heterologous Expression of an Unspecific Bacterial Acyltransferase  

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The bifunctional wax ester synthase/acyl-coenzyme A:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (WS/DGAT) is the key enzyme in storage lipid accumulation in the gram-negative bacterium Acinetobacter calcoaceticus ADP1, mediating wax ester, and to a lesser extent, triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis. Saccharomyces cerevisiae accumulates TAGs and steryl esters as storage lipids. Four genes encoding a DGAT (Dga1p), a phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (Lro1p) and two acyl-coenzyme A:sterol acyltransf...

Kalscheuer, Rainer; Luftmann, Heinrich; Steinbu?chel, Alexander

2004-01-01

125

Elements involved in oxygen regulation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CYC7 gene.  

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The CYC7 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes the minor species, iso-2, of the cytochrome c protein. Its expression is governed by two regulatory sequences upstream from the gene: a positive site which stimulates transcription 240 base pairs 5' from the protein-coding sequence (-240) and a negative site which inhibits transcription at -300. In this study, the nature of the positive site and its relationship to the negative site has been investigated. Expression of the CYC7 gene is weakly ...

1987-01-01

126

A General Screen for Mutants of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Deficient in Trna Biosynthesis  

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We have devised a general screen for isolating conditional lethal mutants defective in synthesis of mature tRNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using this screen, we have identified several new genes in yeast that are required for production of mature tRNA. These genes most likely encode essential functions, since the mutations we isolated are recessive and cause temperature-sensitive growth. One of the mutants, tpd3, is defective in de novo transcription of 4S RNA at the nonpermissive temperatu...

Van-zyl, W. H.; Wills, N.; Broach, J. R.

1989-01-01

127

Pga1 Is an Essential Component of Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Mannosyltransferase II of Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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The Saccharomyces cerevisiae essential gene YNL158w/PGA1 encodes an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized membrane protein. We constructed temperature-sensitive alleles of PGA1 by error-prone polymerase chain reaction mutagenesis to explore its biological role. Pulse-chase experiments revealed that the pga1ts mutants accumulated the ER-form precursor of Gas1 protein at the restrictive temperature. Transport of invertase and carboxypeptidase Y were not affected. Triton X-114 phase separation an...

Sato, Keisuke; Noda, Yoichi; Yoda, Koji

2007-01-01

128

Engineering and Analysis of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain That Uses Formaldehyde as an Auxiliary Substrate?  

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We demonstrated that formaldehyde can be efficiently coutilized by an engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain that expresses Hansenula polymorpha genes encoding formaldehyde dehydrogenase (FLD1) and formate dehydrogenase (FMD), in contrast to wild-type strains. Initial chemostat experiments showed that the engineered strain coutilized formaldehyde with glucose, but these mixed-substrate cultures failed to reach steady-state conditions and did not exhibit an increased biomass yield on gluco...

Baerends, Richard J. S.; Hulster, Erik; Geertman, Jan-maarten A.; Daran, Jean-marc; Maris, Antonius J. A.; Veenhuis, Marten; Klei, Ida J.; Pronk, Jack T.

2008-01-01

129

Aquaporin-Mediated Improvement of Freeze Tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Is Restricted to Rapid Freezing Conditions  

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Previous observations that aquaporin overexpression increases the freeze tolerance of baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) without negatively affecting the growth or fermentation characteristics held promise for the development of commercial baker's yeast strains used in frozen dough applications. In this study we found that overexpression of the aquaporin-encoding genes AQY1-1 and AQY2-1 improves the freeze tolerance of industrial strain AT25, but only in small doughs under laboratory co...

2004-01-01

130

Desensitization of Feedback Inhibition of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ?-Glutamyl Kinase Enhances Proline Accumulation and Freezing Tolerance?  

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In response to osmotic stress, proline is accumulated in many bacterial and plant cells as an osmoprotectant. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae induces trehalose or glycerol synthesis but does not increase intracellular proline levels during various stresses. Using a proline-accumulating mutant, we previously found that proline protects yeast cells from damage by freezing, oxidative, or ethanol stress. This mutant was recently shown to carry an allele of PRO1 which encodes the Asp154Asn muta...

2007-01-01

131

Two Dot1 isoforms in Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a result of leaky scanning by the ribosome  

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Dot1 is a conserved histone methyltransferase that methylates histone H3 on lysine 79. We previously observed that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a single DOT1 gene encodes two Dot1 protein species. Here, we show that the relative abundance of the two isoforms changed under nutrient-limiting conditions. A mutagenesis approach showed that the two Dot1 isoforms are produced from two alternative translation start sites as a result of leaky scanning by the ribosome. The leaky scanning was not affec...

Frederiks, Floor; Heynen, Guus J. J. E.; Deventer, Sjoerd J.; Janssen, Hans; Leeuwen, Fred

2009-01-01

132

Regulation of the urea active transporter gene (DUR3) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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The DUR3 gene, which encodes a component required for active transport of urea in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has been isolated, and its sequence has been determined. The deduced DUR3 protein profile possesses alternating hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions characteristics of integral membrane proteins. Strong negative complementation observed during genetic analysis of the DUR3 locus suggests that the DUR3 product may polymerize to carry out its physiological function. Expression of DUR3 is re...

Elberry, H. M.; Majumdar, M. L.; Cunningham, T. S.; Sumrada, R. A.; Cooper, T. G.

1993-01-01

133

The posttranslational modification of phosphoglucomutase is regulated by galactose induction and glucose repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The enzyme phosphoglucomutase functions at a key point in carbohydrate metabolism. In this paper, we show that the synthesis of the major isoform of yeast phosphoglucomutase, encoded by the GAL5 (PGM2) gene, is regulated in a manner that is distinct from that previously described for other enzymes involved in galactose metabolism in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Accumulation of this isoform increased four- to sixfold when the culture experienced either glucose depletion or heat shock. H...

Fu, L.; Bounelis, P.; Dey, N.; Browne, B. L.; Marchase, R. B.; Bedwell, D. M.

1995-01-01

134

Chromatin structure modulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by centromere and promoter factor 1.  

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CPF1 is an abundant basic-helix-loop-helix-ZIP protein that binds to the CDEI motif in Saccharomyces cerevisiae centromeres and in the promoters of numerous genes, including those encoding enzymes of the methionine biosynthetic pathway. Strains lacking CPF1 are methionine auxotrophs, and it has been proposed that CPF1 might positively influence transcription at the MET25 and MET16 genes by modulating promoter chromatin structure. We test this hypothesis and show that the regions surrounding t...

Kent, N. A.; Tsang, J. S.; Crowther, D. J.; Mellor, J.

1994-01-01

135

Adaptive evolution of a lactose-consuming saccharomyces cerevisiae recombinant  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The construction of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with the ability to efficiently ferment lactose has biotechnological interest, particularly for the alcoholic fermentation of cheese whey (a high pollutant by-product of dairy industries). A flocculent lactoseconsuming S. cerevisiae recombinant expressing the LAC12 (lactose permease) and LAC4 (beta-galactosidase) genes of Kluyveromyces lactis was previously constructed, but presented poor efficiency in the fermentation of lactose. Thus, it ...

Guimara?es, Pedro M. R.; Franc?ois, J.; Parrou, J. L.; Teixeira, J. A.; Domingues, Luci?lia

2007-01-01

136

Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for lactose/whey fermentation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Lactose is an interesting carbon source for the production of several bio-products by fermentation, primarily because it is the major component of cheese whey, the main by-product of dairy activities. However, the microorganism more widely used in industrial fermentation processes, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, does not have a lactose metabolization system. Therefore, several metabolic engineering approaches have been used to construct lactose-consuming S. cerevisiae strains, particular...

2010-01-01

137

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288C genome annotation: a working hypothesis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The S. cerevisiae genome is the most well-characterized eukaryotic genome and one of the simplest in terms of identifying open reading frames (ORFs), yet its primary annotation has been updated continually in the decade since its initial release in 1996 (Goffeau et al., 1996). The Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD; www.yeastgenome.org) (Hirschman et al., 2006), the community-designated repository for this reference genome, strives to ensure that the S. cerevisiae annotation is as accurate an...

Fisk, Dianna G.; Ball, Catherine A.; Dolinski, Kara; Engel, Stacia R.; Hong, Eurie L.; Issel-tarver, Laurie; Schwartz, Katja; Sethuraman, Anand; Botstein, David; Cherry, J. Michael

2006-01-01

138

Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for lactose/whey fermentation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Lactose is an interesting carbon source for the production of several bio-products by fermentation, primarily because it is the major component of cheese whey, the main by-product of dairy activities. However, the microorganism more widely used in industrial fermentation processes, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, does not have a lactose metabolisation system. Therefore, several metabolic engineering approaches have been used to construct lactose-consuming S. cerevisia...

Domingues, Luci?lia; Guimara?es, Pedro M. R.; Oliveira, Carla Cristina Marques

2010-01-01

139

A functional screening assay for aldopentose transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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D-Xylose and L-arabinose are two important aldopentose sugars present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, which is a major feedstock for 2nd generation bioethanol production. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the proferred ethanol production organism but lacks efficient pentose transport and metabolism. Heterologous xylose and arabinose metabolic genes have been successfully expressed in S. cerevisiae, enabling growth on these carbon sources. A practical way of cloning transporter genes is by function...

Pereira, Filipa; Johansson, Bjo?rn

2011-01-01

140

Isolation of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae from unusual natural habitats  

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Baker yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been an eukarontic experimental organism since 1960s, becoming even more significant with the determination of its complete nucleotide genome sequence in 1996. Even though its biochemical function in the fermentation process had long remained unclear, its metabolism and products (eg. bread, beer, wine) have been used for millennia. S. cerevisiae yeast represents an important organism for production of recombinant proteins (gene manipulation). Moreover,...

Finz?gar, Bernarda

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Regulation of CDP-diacylglycerol synthase activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The addition of ethanolamine or choline to inositol-containing growth medium resulted in a reduction of CTP:phosphatidate cytidylyltransferase (CDP-diacylglycerol synthase; EC 2.7.7.41) activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The reduction of activity did not occur in the absence of inositol. CDP-diacylglycerol synthase activity was not regulated in a S. cerevisiae mutant strain (opi1; an inositol biosynthesis regulatory mutant) by the addition of phospholipid precursors to the growth medium.

Homann, M. J.; Henry, S. A.; Carman, G. M.

1985-01-01

142

Metabolism of sulfur amino acids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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Sulfur amino acid biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae involves a large number of enzymes required for the de novo biosynthesis of methionine and cysteine and the recycling of organic sulfur metabolites. This review summarizes the details of these processes and analyzes the molecular data which have been acquired in this metabolic area. Sulfur biochemistry appears not to be unique through terrestrial life, and S. cerevisiae is one of the species of sulfate-assimilatory organisms possessin...

Thomas, D.; Surdin-kerjan, Y.

1997-01-01

143

Research on biosorption of uranium by saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of pH and the granularity of S. cerevisiae on the biosorption capacity were examined in order to study the properties of the biosorption of uranium from effluent by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The isotherm was drawn. From the isotherm, the equations of Langmuir and Freundlich were achieved. The results showed the highest biosorption capacity was obtained when the pH value was about 6 and the granularity was 0.15-0.13 mm

2003-11-01

144

Expression of Aureobasidium pullulans xynA in, and secretion of the xylanase from, Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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A previous report dealt with the cloning in Escherichia coli and sequencing of both the cDNA and genomic DNA encoding a highly active xylanase (XynA) of Aureobasidium pullulans (X.-L. Li and L. G. Ljungdahl, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60:3160-3166, 1994). Now we show that the gene was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae under the GAL1 promoter in pYES2 and that its product was secreted into the culture medium. S. cerevisiae clone pCE4 with the whole open reading frame of xynA, including the ...

1996-01-01

145

Characterization of Schizosaccharomyces pombe Malate Permease by Expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, l-malic acid transport is not carrier mediated and is limited to slow, simple diffusion of the undissociated acid. Expression in S. cerevisiae of the MAE1 gene, encoding Schizosaccharomyces pombe malate permease, markedly increased l-malic acid uptake in this yeast. In this strain, at pH 3.5 (encountered in industrial processes), l-malic acid uptake involves Mae1p-mediated transport of the monoanionic form of the acid (apparent kinetic parameters: Vmax = 8.7 nmol/...

2001-01-01

146

Filament formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae--a review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many yeasts can produce filamentous elongated cells identifiable as hyphae, pseudohyphae or invasive filaments. Filament formation has been understood as a foraging response that occurs in nutrient-poor conditions. However, fusel alcohols were observed to induce filament formation in rich nutrient conditions in every yeast species examined. Fusel alcohols, e.g., 3-methyl-1-butanol (3Me-BuOH; 'isoamyl alcohol'), 2-methyl-1-propanol (isobutyl alcohol), (-)-2-methyl-1-butanol ('active amyl alcohol'), 2-phenylethanol and 3-(2-hydroxyethyl)indole (tryptophol) (the end products of leucine, valine, isoleucine, phenylalanine and tryptophan catabolism, respectively) are the end products of amino acid catabolism that accumulate when nutrients become limiting. Thus, yeast responds to its own metabolic by-products. Considerable effort was made to define the cell biological and biochemical changes that take place during 3Me-BuOH-induced filamentation. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae filaments contain significantly greater mitochondrial mass and increased chitin content in comparison with yeast-form cells. The global transcriptional response of S. cerevisiae during the early stages of 3Me-BuOH-induced filament formation has been described. Four ORFs displayed very significant (more than 10-fold) increases in their RNA species, and 12 ORFs displayed increases in transcription of more than 5-fold. The transcription of five genes (all of which encode transporters) decreased by similar amounts. Where examined, the activity of the proteins encoded reflected the transcriptional pattern of their respective mRNAs. To understand this regulation, studies were performed to see whether deletion or overexpression of key genes affects the ability to filament and invade solid YEPD medium. This has led to identification of those proteins that are essential for filament formation, repressors and those which are simply not required. It also leads to the conclusion that 3Me-BuOH-induced filament formation is not a foraging response but a response to reduced growth rate. PMID:18481212

Dickinson, J R

2008-01-01

147

Saccharomyces cerevisiae IRE2/HAC1 is involved in IRE1-mediated KAR2 expression.  

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The Saccharomyces cerevisiae IRE1 gene, encoding a putative receptor-type protein kinase, is known to be required for inositol prototrophy and for the induction of a chaperon molecule, BiP, encoded by KAR2, under stress conditions such as tunicamycin addition. We have characterized a yeast gene, IRE2, which was isolated as a suppressor gene that complements the inositol auxotrophic phenotype of the ire1 mutation. Sequencing analysis revealed that IRE2 is identical to HAC1, which encodes a tra...

Nikawa, J.; Akiyoshi, M.; Hirata, S.; Fukuda, T.

1996-01-01

148

Molecular genetics of serine and threonine catabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The catabolic L-serine (L-threonine) deaminase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae allows the yeast to grow on media with L-serine or L-threonine as sole nitrogen source. A mutant, cha1 (catabolism of hydroxyamino acids), lacking this enzyme activity has been isolated. We have cloned the CHA1 gene by complementation of a cha1 mutation. Northern analysis showed that CHA1 mRNA has a size of about 1200 ribonucleotides. CHA1 is probably the structural gene for the enzyme; it is an abundant RNA in cells grown with serine and threonine as nitrogen source, whereas it is not detected when cells are grown on ammonium or proline, i.e., the transcription of the CHA1 gene is induced by serine or threonine. Under induced growth conditions haploid ilv1 CHA1 strains do not require isoleucine, i.e., the catabolic deaminase is able to substitute for the biosynthetic threnonine deaminase encoded by the ILV1 gene. We have identified a nuclear, recessive mutation, sil1, that suppresses ilv1 mutations by increased transcription of the CHA1 gene under growth conditions leading to partial induction. The sil1 mutation could exert its effect by increasing the effective pools of the hydroxyamino acids. Alternatively SIL1 may encode a negatively acting regulatory protein for CHA1. PMID:2841185

Petersen, J G; Kielland-Brandt, M C; Nilsson-Tillgren, T; Bornaes, C; Holmberg, S

1988-07-01

149

Regulation of xylose metabolism in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Considerable interest in the bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass into ethanol has led to metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for fermentation of xylose. In the present study, the transcriptome and proteome of recombinant, xylose-utilising S. cerevisiae grown in aerobic batch cultures on xylose were compared with those of glucose-grown cells both in glucose repressed and derepressed states. The aim was to study at the genome-wide level how signalling and carbon catabolite repression differ in cells grown on either glucose or xylose. The more detailed knowledge whether xylose is sensed as a fermentable carbon source, capable of catabolite repression like glucose, or is rather recognised as a non-fermentable carbon source is important for further engineering this yeast for more efficient anaerobic fermentation of xylose. Results Genes encoding respiratory proteins, proteins of the tricarboxylic acid and glyoxylate cycles, and gluconeogenesis were only partially repressed by xylose, similar to the genes encoding their transcriptional regulators HAP4, CAT8 and SIP1-2 and 4. Several genes that are repressed via the Snf1p/Mig1p-pathway during growth on glucose had higher expression in the cells grown on xylose than in the glucose repressed cells but lower than in the glucose derepressed cells. The observed expression profiles of the transcription repressor RGT1 and its target genes HXT2-3, encoding hexose transporters suggested that extracellular xylose was sensed by the glucose sensors Rgt2p and Snf3p. Proteome analyses revealed distinct patterns in phosphorylation of hexokinase 2, glucokinase and enolase isoenzymes in the xylose- and glucose-grown cells. Conclusion The results indicate that the metabolism of yeast growing on xylose corresponds neither to that of fully glucose repressed cells nor that of derepressed cells. This may be one of the major reasons for the suboptimal fermentation of xylose by recombinant S. cerevisiae strains. Phosphorylation of different isoforms of glycolytic enzymes suggests that regulation of glycolysis also occurred at a post-translational level, supporting prior findings.

Penttilä Merja

2008-06-01

150

Exploring the genetic control of glycolytic oscillations in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background A well known example of oscillatory phenomena is the transient oscillations of glycolytic intermediates in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, their regulation being predominantly investigated by mathematical modeling. To our knowledge there has not been a genetic approach to elucidate the regulatory role of the different enzymes of the glycolytic pathway. Results We report that the laboratory strain BY4743 could also be used to investigate this oscillatory phenomenon, which traditionally has been studied using S. cerevisiae X2180. This has enabled us to employ existing isogenic deletion mutants and dissect the roles of isoforms, or subunits of key glycolytic enzymes in glycolytic oscillations. We demonstrate that deletion of TDH3 but not TDH2 and TDH1 (encoding glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase: GAPDH abolishes NADH oscillations. While deletion of each of the hexokinase (HK encoding genes (HXK1 and HXK2 leads to oscillations that are longer lasting with lower amplitude, the effect of HXK2 deletion on the duration of the oscillations is stronger than that of HXK1. Most importantly our results show that the presence of beta (Pfk2 but not that of alpha subunits (Pfk1 of the hetero-octameric enzyme phosphofructokinase (PFK is necessary to achieve these oscillations. Furthermore, we report that the cAMP-mediated PKA pathway (via some of its components responsible for feedback down-regulation modulates the activity of glycoytic enzymes thus affecting oscillations. Deletion of both PDE2 (encoding a high affinity cAMP-phosphodiesterase and IRA2 (encoding a GTPase activating protein- Ras-GAP, responsible for inactivating Ras-GTP abolished glycolytic oscillations. Conclusions The genetic approach to characterising the glycolytic oscillations in yeast has demonstrated differential roles of the two types of subunits of PFK, and the isoforms of GAPDH and HK. Furthermore, it has shown that PDE2 and IRA2, encoding components of the cAMP pathway responsible for negative feedback regulation of PKA, are required for glycolytic oscillations, suggesting an enticing link between these cAMP pathway components and the glycolysis pathway enzymes shown to have the greatest role in glycolytic oscillation. This study suggests that a systematic genetic approach combined with mathematical modelling can advance the study of oscillatory phenomena.

Williamson Thomas

2012-08-01

151

Phosphoglycerate mutase knock-out mutant Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Physiological investigation and transcriptome analysis  

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Abstract The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to adapt its metabolism to grow on different carbon sources and shift to non-fermentative growth on C2 or C3 carbon sources (ethanol, acetate or glycerol) requires activation of gluconeogenesis. Here we studied the response to deletion of the glycolytic and gluconeogenic gene GPM1, encoding for phosphoglycerate mutase. It was previously shown that a S. cerevisiae strain with non-functional copies of GPM1

2010-01-01

152

The ORD1 gene encodes a transcription factor involved in oxygen regulation and is identical to IXR1, a gene that confers cisplatin sensitivity to Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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The yeast COX5a and COX5b genes encode isoforms of subunit Va of the mitochondrial inner membrane protein complex cytochrome c oxidase. These genes have been shown to be inversely regulated at the level of transcription by oxygen, which functions through the metabolic coeffector heme. In earlier studies we identified several regulatory elements that control transcriptional activation and aerobic repression of one of these genes, COX5b. Here, we report the isolation of trans-acting mutants tha...

Lambert, J. R.; Bilanchone, V. W.; Cumsky, M. G.

1994-01-01

153

Expression of the AAC2 gene encoding the major mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is controlled at the transcriptional level by oxygen, heme and HAP2 factor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Expression of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae AAC2 gene encoding the major mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier was examined. The intracellular level of the carrier protein, as well as the level of the AAC2-gene-specific mRNA, is influenced by the presence or absence of oxygen or of heme, and it is subject to carbon-source control. In addition, the expression of AAC2 gene requires the products of the HAP2 and HAP3 genes, but not that of the HAP1 gene. The 5'-flanking region of the gene was isolated, sequenced and fused to the lacZ reporter gene in order to study the effect of carbon sources and of specific deletion mutations on expression of the gene in yeast transformants. The expression of the reporter gene reveals that the AAC2 gene possesses a strong inducible promoter. The promoter analysis, combined with expression studies in the wild-type as well as in various mutant strains, identified an upstream activation site (UAS) contained within a sequence between -393 bp and -268 bp, and several major initiation sites of AAC2 mRNA between -105bp and -95 bp. Deletion analysis also shows that the TATA boxes located 45 bp and 104 bp upstream of the 5'-ends of AAC2 mRNA are not essential for the transcription. The UAS of the AAC2 gene is required for activation by HAP2 and heme and for release from glucose repressin. A restriction fragment containing the UAS conferred oxygen and carbon source regulation when placed upstream of another yeast gene encoding ADP/ATP carrier (AAC3), deleted of its regulatory sequences. The UAS of the AAC2 gene contains at least two distinct motifs for DNA-binding transcriptional activators, including one which is identical with the core HAP2/3/4 binding motif, and a second one with the ABF1 consensus binding sequence. Our results indicate that these sequences mediate the effects of the respective transactivator on the oxygen- and carbon-source-dependent transcription of the AAC2 gene. PMID:7758459

Betina, S; Gavurníková, G; Haviernik, P; Sabová, L; Kolarov, J

1995-05-01

154

Evidence against a photoprotective component of photoreactivation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Photoreactivation-deficient (phr"-) mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were shown to lack in vitro DNA-photolyase activity. A phr"- mutant was then compared with a phr"+ strain for near-UV induced photoprotection from far-UV irradiation. Neither strain exhibited a photoprotective effect. (author)

1981-01-01

155

Analysis of the RNA Content of the Yeast "Saccharomyces Cerevisiae"  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, the authors describe an interconnected set of relatively simple laboratory experiments in which students determine the RNA content of yeast cells and use agarose gel electrophoresis to separate and analyze the major species of cellular RNA. This set of experiments focuses on RNAs from the yeast "Saccharomyces cerevisiae", a…

Deutch, Charles E.; Marshall, Pamela A.

2008-01-01

156

Kinetics of formation of induced mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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UV and ?-radiation mutagenic effect an various strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was studied by analyzing formation kinetics of induced mutants at the period of postirradiation incubation. Mechanisms of induced reverse formation was suggested. The presented analysis is considered to be differential taking account of more subtle aspects of induced mutagenesis. 8 refs.; 10 figs.; 3 tabs

1990-06-12

157

RSC2, Encoding a Component of the RSC Nucleosome Remodeling Complex, Is Essential for 2?m Plasmid Maintenance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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The stable maintenance of the 2?m circle plasmid depends on its ability to overcome intrinsic maternal inheritance bias, which in yeast normally results in the failure to transmit DNA molecules efficiently to daughter cells. In addition to the plasmid proteins Rep1 and Rep2 acting on the plasmid DNA locus STB, it is likely that other chromosomally encoded yeast proteins are required. We have isolated mutants of yeast unable to maintain 2?m and found that RSC2 is essential for 2?m to overco...

Wong, Michael C. V. L.; Scott-drew, Suzanna R. S.; Hayes, Matthew J.; Howard, Philip J.; Murray, James A. H.

2002-01-01

158

l-Proline Accumulation and Freeze Tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Are Caused by a Mutation in the PRO1 Gene Encoding ?-Glutamyl Kinase  

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We previously isolated a mutant which showed a high tolerance to freezing that correlated with higher levels of intracellular l-proline derived from l-proline analogue-resistant mutants. The mutation responsible for the analogue resistance and l-proline accumulation was a single nuclear dominant mutation. By introducing the mutant-derived genomic library into a non-l-proline-utilizing strain, the mutant was found to carry an allele of the wild-type PRO1 gene encoding ?-glutamyl kinase, which...

2003-01-01

159

Suppressors of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae pkc1 mutation identify alleles of the phosphatase gene PTC1 and of a novel gene encoding a putative basic leucine zipper protein  

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The PKC1 gene product, protein kinase C, regulates a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade, which is implicated in cell wall metabolism. Previously, we identified the pkc1-4 allele in a screen for mutants with increased rates of recombination, indicating that PKC1 may also regulate DNA metabolism. The pkc1-4 allele also conferred a temperature-sensitive (ts) growth defect. Extragenic suppressors were isolated that suppress both the ts and hyperrecombination phenotypes conferred by the pkc1-4 mutation. Eight of these suppressors fell into two complementation groups, designated KCS1 and KCS2. KCS1 was cloned and found to encode a novel protein with homology to the basic leucine zipper family of transcription factors. KCS2 is allelic with PTC1, a previously identified type 2C serine/threonine protein phosphatase. Although mutation of either KCS1 or PTC1 causes little apparent phenotype, the kcs1{Delta} ptc1{Delta} double mutant fails to grow at 30{degrees}. Furthermore, the ptc1 deletion mutation is synthetically lethal in combination with a mutation in MPK1, which encodes a MAPK homologue proposed to act in the PKC1 pathway. Because PTC1 was initially isolated as a component of the Hog1p MAPK pathway, it appears that these two MAPK cascades share a common regulatory feature. 36 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

Huang, K.N.; Symington, L.S. [Columbia Univ. College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY (United States)

1995-12-01

160

V-ATPase dysfunction suppresses polyphosphate synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae accumulates the high levels of inorganic polyphosphates (polyPs) performing in the cells numerous functions, including phosphate and energy storage. The effects of vacuolar membrane ATPase (V-ATPase) dysfunction were studied on polyP accumulation under short-term cultivation in the Pi-excess media after Pi starvation. The addition of bafilomycin A1, a specific inhibitor of V-ATPase, to the medium with glucose resulted in strong inhibition of the synthesis of long-chain polyP and in substantial suppression of short-chain polyP. The addition of bafilomycin to the medium with ethanol resulted in decreased accumulation of high-molecular polyP, while the accumulation of low-molecular polyP was not affected. The levels of polyP synthesis in the mutant strain with a deletion in the vma2 gene encoding a V-ATPase subunit were significantly lower than in the parent strain in the media with glucose and with ethanol. The synthesis of the longest chain polyP was not observed in the mutant cells. The synthesis of only the low-polymer acid-soluble polyP fraction occurred in the cells of the mutant strain. However, the level of polyP1 was nearly tenfold lower than compared to the cells of the parent strain. Both bafilomycin A1 and the mutation in vacuolar ATPase subunit vma2 lead to a considerable decrease of cellular polyP accumulation. Thus, the defects in ??H(+) formation on the vacuolar membrane resulted in the decrease of polyP biosynthesis in S. cerevisiae. PMID:23371743

Trilisenko, Ludmila; Tomashevsky, Alexander; Kulakovskaya, Tatiana; Kulaev, Igor

2013-11-01

 
 
 
 
161

Characterization of glycogen-deficient glc mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Forty-eight mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with defects in glycogen metabolism were isolated. The mutations defined eight GLC genes, the function of which were determined. Mutations in three of these genes activate the RAS/cAMP pathway either by impairment of a RAS GTPase-activating protein (GLC1/IRA1 and GLC4/IRA2) or by activating Ras2p (GLC5/RAS2). SNF1 protein kinase (GLC2) was found to be required for normal glycogen levels. Glycogen branching enzyme (GLC3) was found to be required for significant glycogen synthesis. GLC6 was shown to be allelic to CIF1 (and probably FDP1, BYP1 and GGS1), mutations in which were previously found to prevent growth on glucose; this gene is also the same as TPS1, which encodes a subunit of the trehalose-phosphate synthase. Mutations in GLC6 were capable of increasing or decreasing glycogen levels, at least in part via effects on the regulation of glycogen synthase. GLC7 encodes a type 1 protein phosphatase that contributes to the dephosphorylation (and hence activation) of glycogen synthase. GLC8 encodes a homologue of type 1 protein phosphatase inhibitor-2. The genetic map positions of GLC1/IRA1, GLC3, GLC4/IRA2, GLC6/CIF1/TPS1 (and the adjacent VAT2/VMA2), and GLC7 were clarified. From the data on GLC3, there may be a suppression of recombination near the chromosome V centromere, at least in some strains. PMID:8150278

Cannon, J F; Pringle, J R; Fiechter, A; Khalil, M

1994-02-01

162

Production of the artemisinin precursor amorpha-4,11-diene by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The gene encoding for amorpha-4,11-diene synthase from Artemisia annua was transformed into yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in two fundamentally different ways. First, the gene was subcloned into the galactose-inducible, high-copy number yeast expression vector pYeDP60 and used to transform the Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain CENÃ?PK113-5D. Secondly, amorpha-4,11-diene synthase gene, regulated by the same promoter, was introduced into the yeast genome by homologous recombination. In protein extracts from galactose-induced yeast cells, a higher activity was observed for yeast expressing the enzyme from the plasmid. The genome-transformed yeast grows at the same rate as wild-type yeast while plasmidcarrying yeast grows somewhat slower than the wild-type yeast. The plasmid and genome-transformed yeasts produced 600 and 100 lg/l of the artemisinin precursor amorpha-4,11-diene, respectively, during 16- daysâ?? batch cultivation.

Lindahl, Ann-Louise; Olsson, Mikael Emil

2006-01-01

163

Transcriptional induction by aromatic amino acids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aromatic aminotransferase II, product of the ARO9 gene, catalyzes the first step of tryptophan, phenylalanine, and tyrosine catabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ARO9 expression is under the dual control of specific induction and nitrogen source regulation. We have here identified UASaro, a 36-bp upstream element necessary and sufficient to promote transcriptional induction of reporter gene expression in response to tryptophan, phenylalanine, or tyrosine. We then isolated mutants in which UASaro-mediated ARO9 transcription is partially or totally impaired. Mutations abolishing ARO9 induction affect a gene called ARO80 (YDR421w), coding for a Zn2Cys6 family transcription factor. A sequence highly similar to UASaro was found upstream from the YDR380w gene encoding a homolog of bacterial indolepyruvate decarboxylase. In yeast, this enzyme is postulated to catalyze the second step of tryptophan catabolism to tryptophol. We show that ARO9 and YDR380w (named ARO10) have similar patterns of transcriptional regulation and are both under the positive control of Aro80p. Nitrogen regulation of ARO9 expression seems not directly to involve the general factor Ure2p, Gln3p, Nil1p, Uga43p, or Gzf3p. ARO9 expression appears, rather, to be mainly regulated by inducer exclusion. Finally, we show that Gap1p, the general amino acid permease, and Wap1p (Ycl025p), a newly discovered inducible amino acid permease with broad specificity, are the main aromatic amino acid transporters for catabolic purposes. PMID:10207060

Iraqui, I; Vissers, S; André, B; Urrestarazu, A

1999-05-01

164

Transcriptional Induction by Aromatic Amino Acids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Science.gov (United States)

Aromatic aminotransferase II, product of the ARO9 gene, catalyzes the first step of tryptophan, phenylalanine, and tyrosine catabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ARO9 expression is under the dual control of specific induction and nitrogen source regulation. We have here identified UASaro, a 36-bp upstream element necessary and sufficient to promote transcriptional induction of reporter gene expression in response to tryptophan, phenylalanine, or tyrosine. We then isolated mutants in which UASaro-mediated ARO9 transcription is partially or totally impaired. Mutations abolishing ARO9 induction affect a gene called ARO80 (YDR421w), coding for a Zn2Cys6 family transcription factor. A sequence highly similar to UASaro was found upstream from the YDR380w gene encoding a homolog of bacterial indolepyruvate decarboxylase. In yeast, this enzyme is postulated to catalyze the second step of tryptophan catabolism to tryptophol. We show that ARO9 and YDR380w (named ARO10) have similar patterns of transcriptional regulation and are both under the positive control of Aro80p. Nitrogen regulation of ARO9 expression seems not directly to involve the general factor Ure2p, Gln3p, Nil1p, Uga43p, or Gzf3p. ARO9 expression appears, rather, to be mainly regulated by inducer exclusion. Finally, we show that Gap1p, the general amino acid permease, and Wap1p (Ycl025p), a newly discovered inducible amino acid permease with broad specificity, are the main aromatic amino acid transporters for catabolic purposes.

Iraqui, Ismail; Vissers, Stephan; Andre, Bruno; Urrestarazu, Antonio

1999-01-01

165

Characterization of a mitochondrial inorganic pyrophosphatase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have studied a mitochondrial inorganic pyrophosphatase (PPase) in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The uncoupler FCCP (carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone) and the ionophores valinomycin and nigericin stimulate the PPase activity of repeatedly washed yeast mitochondria 2-3-fold. We have previously cloned a yeast gene, PPA2, encoding the catalytic subunit of a mitochondrial PPase. Uncouplers stimulate the PPase activity several-fold in mitochondria from both cells that overexpress PPA2 from a high copy number plasmid and cells with normal expression. These results indicate that the PPA2 polypeptide functions as an energy linked and membrane associated PPase. The stimulation of mitochondrial PPase activity by FCCP, but not by valinomycin and nigericin, was greatly enhanced by the presence of DTT. The antibiotics Dio-9, equisetin and the F0F1-ATPase inhibitor oligomycin also increase mitochondrial PPase activity several fold. This stimulation is much higher, whereas basal PPase activity is lower, in isotonic than in hypotonic solution, which indicates that intact membranes are a prerequisite for maximal effects. PMID:1309654

Lundin, M; Deopujari, S W; Lichko, L; da Silva, L P; Baltscheffsky, H

1992-01-16

166

Sit4p protein phosphatase is required for sensitivity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Kluyveromyces lactis zymocin.  

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We have identified two Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes that, in high copy, confer resistance to Kluyveromyces lactis zymocin, an inhibitor that blocks cells in the G(1) phase of the cell cycle prior to budding and DNA replication. One gene (GRX3) encodes a glutaredoxin and is likely to act at the level of zymocin entry into sensitive cells, while the other encodes Sap155p, one of a family of four related proteins that function positively and interdependently with the Sit4p protein phosphatase....

Jablonowski, D.; Butler, A. R.; Fichtner, L.; Gardiner, D.; Schaffrath, R; Stark, M. J.

2001-01-01

167

Sequence and nuclear localization of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAP2 protein, a transcriptional activator.  

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Activation of the CYC1 upstream activation site (UAS2) and other Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes encoding respiratory functions requires the products of the regulatory loci HAP2 and HAP3. We present here the DNA sequence of the yeast HAP2 gene and an initial investigation into the function of its product. The DNA sequence indicated that HAP2 encoded a 265-amino-acid protein whose carboxyl third was highly basic. Also found in the sequence was a polyglutamine tract spanning residues 120 to 133....

Pinkham, J. L.; Olesen, J. T.; Guarente, L. P.

1987-01-01

168

Reciprocal Regulation of Anaerobic and Aerobic Cell Wall Mannoprotein Gene Expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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The DAN/TIR genes encode nine cell wall mannoproteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae which are expressed during anaerobiosis (DAN1, DAN2, DAN3, DAN4, TIR1, TIR2, TIR3, TIR4, and TIP1). Most are expressed within an hour of an anaerobic shift, but DAN2 and DAN3 are expressed after about 3 h. At the same time, CWP1 and CWP2, the genes encoding the major mannoproteins, are down-regulated, suggesting that there is a programmed remodeling of the cell wall in which Cwp1 and Cwp2 are replaced by nine an...

Abramova, Natalia; Sertil, Odeniel; Mehta, Sapna; Lowry, Charles V.

2001-01-01

169

The Acyl-CoA synthetases encoded within FAA1 and FAA4 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae function as components of the fatty acid transport system linking import, activation, and intracellular Utilization  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Exogenous long-chain fatty acids are activated to coenzyme A derivatives prior to metabolic utilization. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the activation of these compounds prior to metabolic utilization proceeds through the fatty acyl-CoA synthetases Faa1p and Faa4p. Faa1p or Faa4p are essential for long-chain fatty acid import, suggesting that one or both of these enzymes are components of the fatty acid transport system, which also includes Fat1p. By monitoring the intracellular accumulation of the fluorescent long-chain fatty acid analogue 4,4-difluoro-5-methyl-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene-3-dodecanoic acid, long-chain fatty acid transport was shown to be severely restricted in a faa1 Delta faa4 Delta strain. These data established for the first time a mechanistic linkage between the import and activation of exogenous fatty acids in yeast. To investigate this linkage further, oleoyl CoA levels were defined following incubation of wild type and mutant cells with limiting concentrations of exogenous oleate. These studies demonstrated oleoyl CoA levels were reduced to less than 10% wild-type levels in faa1 Delta and faa1 Delta faa4 Delta strains. Defects in metabolic utilization and intracellular trafficking were also found in the fatty acyl-CoA synthetase-deficient strains. The faa1 Delta faa4 Delta strain had a marked reduction in endogenous acyl-CoA pools, suggesting these enzymes play a role in maintenance of endogenous acyl-CoA pools, metabolism and trafficking. In addition, this strain had levels of in vivo beta-oxidation of exogenous oleate reduced 3-fold when compared with the isogenic parent. Northern analyses demonstrated an additional defect in fatty acid trafficking as FAA1 or FAA4 were required for the transcriptional regulation of the genes encoding the peroxisomal enzymes acyl-CoA oxidase (POX1) and medium-chain acyl-CoA synthetase (FAA2). These data support the hypothesis that fatty acyl-CoA synthetase (Faa1p or Faa4p) functions as a component of the fatty acid import system by linking import and activation of exogenous fatty acids to intracellular utilization and signaling.

Færgeman, Nils J.; Black, P N

2001-01-01

170

Electrical stimulation of saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures Estimulação elétrica de células de Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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Full Text Available Modulation of cell endogenous membrane potential by an external electrical field influences the structure and function of membrane compartments, proteins and lipid bi-layer. In this work, the effects of applied potential on Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth were characterized through simple yet conclusive experiments. Cell growth time profile and cell division were investigated as macroscopic response to the electrical stimulation. Control experiments were conducted under identical conditions except for the absence of applied potential. Through comparative analysis, electrical stimulation was verified to alter cell cycle as smaller sized population was observed, suggesting that a synchrony in cell division was promoted. Power spectral analysis was employed to sustain synchrony enhancement, and mathematical modeling was conducted for determining kinetic growth changes. Monod type kinetic parameters for growth were determined by non-linear regression. The affinity constant (namely kS presented a dependence on applied potential suggesting changes on transport across cell membrane. Electrochemically promoted stress was also verified to inhibit growth as well as to induce changes on cell viability.Modulação do potencial de membrana celular endógeno por um campo elétrico externo influencia a estrutura e função dos compartimentos da membrana, de suas proteínas e da bi-camada lipídica. Neste trabalho, os efeitos da aplicação de potencial no crescimento de Saccharomyces cerevisiae foram caracterizados por experimentos simples, mas conclusivos. O perfil temporal de crescimento celular e a divisão celular foram investigados como respostas macroscópicas ao estímulo elétrico. Experimentos controle foram conduzidos em condições idênticas, exceto pela ausência de potencial aplicado. Através de análise comparativa, verificou-se que o estímulo elétrico alterou o ciclo celular como foi possível observar através da medida da dispersão de tamanho celular de cada população, sugerindo um possível sincronismo na divisão celular. Análise do espectro de potência foi empregada para sustentar o aumento no sincronismo, e uma modelagem matemática foi conduzida para determinar mudanças na cinética de crescimento celular. Parâmetros cinéticos do modelo tipo Monod para crescimento foram determinados por regressão não-linear. A constante de afinidade (a saber, K S apresentou uma dependência com o potencial aplicado, sugerindo mudanças no transporte através da membrana celular. Verificou-se, também, que o estresse promovido eletroquimicamente inibiu o crescimento e induziu mudanças na viabilidade celular.

Ofelia Q.F. Araújo

2004-06-01

171

Electrical stimulation of saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures / Estimulação elétrica de células de Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Modulação do potencial de membrana celular endógeno por um campo elétrico externo influencia a estrutura e função dos compartimentos da membrana, de suas proteínas e da bi-camada lipídica. Neste trabalho, os efeitos da aplicação de potencial no crescimento de Saccharomyces cerevisiae foram caracteri [...] zados por experimentos simples, mas conclusivos. O perfil temporal de crescimento celular e a divisão celular foram investigados como respostas macroscópicas ao estímulo elétrico. Experimentos controle foram conduzidos em condições idênticas, exceto pela ausência de potencial aplicado. Através de análise comparativa, verificou-se que o estímulo elétrico alterou o ciclo celular como foi possível observar através da medida da dispersão de tamanho celular de cada população, sugerindo um possível sincronismo na divisão celular. Análise do espectro de potência foi empregada para sustentar o aumento no sincronismo, e uma modelagem matemática foi conduzida para determinar mudanças na cinética de crescimento celular. Parâmetros cinéticos do modelo tipo Monod para crescimento foram determinados por regressão não-linear. A constante de afinidade (a saber, K S) apresentou uma dependência com o potencial aplicado, sugerindo mudanças no transporte através da membrana celular. Verificou-se, também, que o estresse promovido eletroquimicamente inibiu o crescimento e induziu mudanças na viabilidade celular. Abstract in english Modulation of cell endogenous membrane potential by an external electrical field influences the structure and function of membrane compartments, proteins and lipid bi-layer. In this work, the effects of applied potential on Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth were characterized through simple yet conclu [...] sive experiments. Cell growth time profile and cell division were investigated as macroscopic response to the electrical stimulation. Control experiments were conducted under identical conditions except for the absence of applied potential. Through comparative analysis, electrical stimulation was verified to alter cell cycle as smaller sized population was observed, suggesting that a synchrony in cell division was promoted. Power spectral analysis was employed to sustain synchrony enhancement, and mathematical modeling was conducted for determining kinetic growth changes. Monod type kinetic parameters for growth were determined by non-linear regression. The affinity constant (namely kS) presented a dependence on applied potential suggesting changes on transport across cell membrane. Electrochemically promoted stress was also verified to inhibit growth as well as to induce changes on cell viability.

Ofelia Q.F., Araújo; Maria Alice Z., Coelho; Isabel C.P., Margarit; Carlos A., Vaz-Junior; Maria Helena M., Rocha-Leão.

172

Vesicular transport of extracellular acid phosphatases in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

A method for isolation of secretory vesicles from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae based on the disintegration of protoplasts by osmotic shock followed by separation of the vesicles by centrifugation in a density gradient of Urografin was developed in this study. Two populations of the secretory vesicles that differ in density and shape were separated. Acid phosphatases (EC 3.1.3.2) were used as markers of the secretory vesicles. It was shown that the constitutive acid phosphatase (PHO3 gene product) is mainly transported to the cell surface by a lower density population of vesicles, while the repressible acid phosphatase (a heteromer encoded by PHO5, PHO10, and PHO11 genes) by a vesicle population of higher density. These data provide evidence that at least two pathways of transport of yeast secretory proteins from the place of their synthesis and maturation to the cell surface may exist. To reveal the probable reasons for transport of Pho3p and Pho5p/Pho10p/Pho11p enzymes by two different kinds of vesicles, we isolated vesicles from strains that synthesize the homomeric forms of the repressible acid phosphatase. It was demonstrated that glycoproteins encoded by the PHO10 and/or PHO11 genes could be responsible for the choice of one of the alternative transport pathways of the repressible acid phosphatase. A high correlation coefficient between bud formation and secretion of Pho5p phosphatase and the absence of correlation between bud formation and secretion of minor phosphatases Pho10p and Pho11p suggests different functional roles of the polypeptides that constitute the native repressible acid phosphatase. PMID:11996663

Blinnikova, E I; Mirjuschenko, F L; Shabalin, Yu A; Egorov, S N

2002-04-01

173

Evolutionary engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for efficient aerobic xylose consumption.  

Science.gov (United States)

Industrial biotechnology aims to develop robust microbial cell factories, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to produce an array of added value chemicals presently dominated by petrochemical processes. Xylose is the second most abundant monosaccharide after glucose and the most prevalent pentose sugar found in lignocelluloses. Significant research efforts have focused on the metabolic engineering of S. cerevisiae for fast and efficient xylose utilization. This study aims to metabolically engineer S. cerevisiae, such that it can consume xylose as the exclusive substrate while maximizing carbon flux to biomass production. Such a platform may then be enhanced with complementary metabolic engineering strategies that couple biomass production with high value-added chemical. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, expressing xylose reductase, xylitol dehydrogenase and xylulose kinase, from the native xylose-metabolizing yeast Pichia stipitis, was constructed, followed by a directed evolution strategy to improve xylose utilization rates. The resulting S. cerevisiae strain was capable of rapid growth and fast xylose consumption producing only biomass and negligible amount of byproducts. Transcriptional profiling of this strain was employed to further elucidate the observed physiology confirms a strongly up-regulated glyoxylate pathway enabling respiratory metabolism. The resulting strain is a desirable platform for the industrial production of biomass-related products using xylose as a sole carbon source. PMID:22487265

Scalcinati, Gionata; Otero, José Manuel; Van Vleet, Jennifer R H; Jeffries, Thomas W; Olsson, Lisbeth; Nielsen, Jens

2012-08-01

174

Transcription of hexose transporters of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is affected by change in oxygen provision  

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Abstract Background The gene family of hexose transporters in Saccharomyces cerevisiae consists of 20 members; 18 genes encoding transporters (HXT1-HXT17, GAL2) and two genes encoding sensors (SNF3, RGT2). The effect of oxygen provision on the expression of these genes was studied in glucose-limited chemostat cultivations (D = 0.10 h-1, pH 5, 30°C). Transcript levels were measured from cells grown in five steady state o...

2008-01-01

175

Underproduction of the Largest Subunit of RNA Polymerase II Causes Temperature Sensitivity, Slow Growth, and Inositol Auxotrophy in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae  

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In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mutations in genes encoding subunits of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) often give rise to a set of pleiotropic phenotypes that includes temperature sensitivity, slow growth and inositol auxotrophy. In this study, we show that these phenotypes can be brought about by a reduction in the intracellular concentration of RNAPII. Underproduction of RNAPII was achieved by expressing the gene (RPO21), encoding the largest subunit of the enzyme, from the LEU2 promoter...

Archambault, J.; Jansma, D. B.; Friesen, J. D.

1996-01-01

176

The putative phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C gene, PLC1, of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is important for cell growth.  

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Using the polymerase chain reaction technique, we have isolated a gene that encodes a putative phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The nucleotide sequence indicates that the gene encodes a polypeptide of 869 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 101 kDa. This polypeptide has both the X and Y regions conserved among mammalian PLC-beta, -gamma, and -delta, and the structure is most similar to that of mammalian PLC-delta. This ...

Yoko-o, T.; Matsui, Y.; Yagisawa, H.; Nojima, H.; Uno, I.; Toh-e, A.

1993-01-01

177

Construction of killer industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAU-1 and its fermentation performance  

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Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAU-1, a time tested industrial yeast possesses most of the desirable fermentation characteristics like fast growth and fermentation rate, osmotolerance, high ethanol tolerance, ability to ferment molasses, and to ferment at elevated temperatures etc. However, this yeast was found to be sensitive against the killer strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the present study, killer trait was introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAU-1 by protoplast fusion with Saccha...

Bajaj, Bijender K.; Sharma, S.

2010-01-01

178

The reference genome sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: then and now.  

Science.gov (United States)

The genome of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the first completely sequenced from a eukaryote. It was released in 1996 as the work of a worldwide effort of hundreds of researchers. In the time since, the yeast genome has been intensively studied by geneticists, molecular biologists, and computational scientists all over the world. Maintenance and annotation of the genome sequence have long been provided by the Saccharomyces Genome Database, one of the original model organism databases. To deepen our understanding of the eukaryotic genome, the S. cerevisiae strain S288C reference genome sequence was updated recently in its first major update since 1996. The new version, called "S288C 2010," was determined from a single yeast colony using modern sequencing technologies and serves as the anchor for further innovations in yeast genomic science. PMID:24374639

Engel, Stacia R; Dietrich, Fred S; Fisk, Dianna G; Binkley, Gail; Balakrishnan, Rama; Costanzo, Maria C; Dwight, Selina S; Hitz, Benjamin C; Karra, Kalpana; Nash, Robert S; Weng, Shuai; Wong, Edith D; Lloyd, Paul; Skrzypek, Marek S; Miyasato, Stuart R; Simison, Matt; Cherry, J Michael

2014-03-01

179

Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a versatile eukaryotic system in virology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a well-established model system for understanding fundamental cellular processes relevant to higher eukaryotic organisms. Less known is its value for virus research, an area in which Saccharomyces cerevisiae has proven to be very fruitful as well. The present review will discuss the main achievements of yeast-based studies in basic and applied virus research. These include the analysis of the function of individual proteins from important pathogenic viruses, the elucidation of key processes in viral replication through the development of systems that allow the replication of higher eukayotic viruses in yeast, and the use of yeast in antiviral drug development and vaccine production.

Breinig Tanja

2007-10-01

180

Chimeric Genomes of Natural Hybrids of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces kudriavzevii? †  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, a new type of hybrid resulting from the hybridization between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces kudriavzevii was described. These strains exhibit physiological properties of potential biotechnological interest. A preliminary characterization of these hybrids showed a trend to reduce the S. kudriavzevii fraction of the hybrid genome. We characterized the genomic constitution of several wine S. cerevisiae × S. kudriavzevii strains by using a combined approach based on the restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of gene regions, comparative genome hybridizations with S. cerevisiae DNA arrays, ploidy analysis, and gene dose determination by quantitative real-time PCR. The high similarity in the genome structures of the S. cerevisiae × S. kudriavzevii hybrids under study indicates that they originated from a single hybridization event. After hybridization, the hybrid genome underwent extensive chromosomal rearrangements, including chromosome losses and the generation of chimeric chromosomes by the nonreciprocal recombination between homeologous chromosomes. These nonreciprocal recombinations between homeologous chromosomes occurred in highly conserved regions, such as Ty long terminal repeats (LTRs), rRNA regions, and conserved protein-coding genes. This study supports the hypothesis that chimeric chromosomes may have been generated by a mechanism similar to the recombination-mediated chromosome loss acting during meiosis in Saccharomyces hybrids. As a result of the selective processes acting during fermentation, hybrid genomes maintained the S. cerevisiae genome but reduced the S. kudriavzevii fraction.

Belloch, Carmela; Perez-Torrado, Roberto; Gonzalez, Sara S.; Perez-Ortin, Jose E.; Garcia-Martinez, Jose; Querol, Amparo; Barrio, Eladio

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Influence of organic acids and organochlorinated insecticides on metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae is exposed to different stress factors during the production: osmotic, temperature, oxidative. The response to these stresses is the adaptive mechanism of cells. The raw materials Saccharomyces cerevisiae is produced from, contain metabolism products of present microorganisms and protective agents used during the growth of sugar beet for example the influence of acetic and butyric acid and organochlorinated insecticides, lindan and heptachlor, on the metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated and presented in this work. The mentioned compounds affect negatively the specific growth rate, yield, content of proteins, phosphorus, total ribonucleic acids. These compounds influence the increase of trechalose and glycogen content in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells.

Pejin Dušanka J.

2005-01-01

182

Alcoholic fermentation of lactose by engineered flocculent Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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The construction of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with the ability to ferment lactose has biotechnological interest, particularly for cheese whey fermentation to ethanol. Direct fermentation of whey to ethanol is generally not economically feasible because the low lactose content (ca. 5% w/v) results in low ethanol titre (2 – 3% v/v), making the distillation process too expensive. Concentration of whey lactose (e.g. by ultrafiltration) prior to fermentation is an option to obtain higher ...

Guimara?es, Pedro M. R.; Teixeira, J. A.; Domingues, Luci?lia

2008-01-01

183

Cloning and mapping of Saccharomyces cerevisiae photoreactivation gene PHR1.  

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The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, like most organisms, is able to directly repair pyrimidine dimers by using a photoreactivating enzyme and visible light. Cells carrying the phr1 mutation were shown previously to be unable to photoreactivate dimers, but neither the map position nor the primary gene product of the PHR1 gene has been determined. We have cloned this gene and determined its map position. A plasmid containing a 6.4-kilobase yeast DNA insert has been isolated and shown to restore...

Schild, D.; Johnston, J.; Chang, C.; Mortimer, R. K.

1984-01-01

184

Radiometric prescreen for antitumor activity with Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant strain.  

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After modification, a technique for radiometrically measuring bacterial growth has been applied to a mutant strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The assay is based on inhibition of 14CO2 release from [14C]glucose, which provides an extremely sensitive measure of cellular respiratory activity and growth. The criterion for antitumor activity is the differential inhibition of wild-type and mutant (distorted cell membrane) strains of the yeast. The system was optimized for medium, time of incubati...

Speedie, M. K.; Fique, D. V.; Blomster, R. N.

1980-01-01

185

Engineering the Monomer Composition of Polyhydroxyalkanoates Synthesized in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) have received considerable interest as renewable-resource-based, biodegradable, and biocompatible plastics with a wide range of potential applications. We have engineered the synthesis of PHA polymers composed of monomers ranging from 4 to 14 carbon atoms in either the cytosol or the peroxisome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by harnessing intermediates of fatty acid metabolism. Cytosolic PHA production was supported by establishing in the cytosol critical ?-oxidatio...

Zhang, Bo; Carlson, Ross; Srienc, Friedrich

2006-01-01

186

Selection of in vivo deletions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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A general screening procedure has been devised for the selection of in vivo-generated deletions in haploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. It is based on the introduction into a cyh2 host (resistant to the drug cycloheximide) of a tandemly duplicated CYH2 gene (a dominant allele, conferring sensitivity to cycloheximide), and subsequent selection for Cyhr derivatives. The duplicated CYH2 gene has been introduced on CEN ARS plasmids or integrated into chromosome II. A variable but significant p...

Bitoun, R.; Zamir, A.

1988-01-01

187

Initiation of recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae haploid meiosis.  

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In most eukaryotes during prophase I of meiosis, homologous chromosomes pair and recombine by coordinated molecular and cellular processes. To directly test whether or not the early steps of the initiation of recombination depend on the presence of a homologous chromosome, we have examined the formation and processing of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs, the earliest physical landmark of recombination initiation) in various haploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains capable of entering meiosis. W...

Massy, B.; Baudat, F.; Nicolas, A.

1994-01-01

188

Genome engineering in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using CRISPR-Cas systems  

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Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) systems in bacteria and archaea use RNA-guided nuclease activity to provide adaptive immunity against invading foreign nucleic acids. Here, we report the use of type II bacterial CRISPR-Cas system in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for genome engineering. The CRISPR-Cas components, Cas9 gene and a designer genome targeting CRISPR guide RNA (gRNA), show robust and specific RNA-guided endonuclease activity a...

Dicarlo, James E.; Norville, Julie E.; Mali, Prashant; Rios, Xavier; Aach, John; Church, George M.

2013-01-01

189

Genes Required for Vacuolar Acidity in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae  

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Mutations that cause loss of acidity in the vacuole (lysosome) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were identified by screening colonies labeled with the fluorescent, pH-sensitive, vacuolar labeling agent, 6-carboxyfluorescein. Thirty nine vacuolar pH (Vph(-)) mutants were identified. Four of these contained mutant alleles of the previously described PEP3, PEP5, PEP6 and PEP7 genes. The remaining mutants defined eight complementation groups of vph mutations. No alleles of the VAT2 or TFP1 genes (know...

Preston, R. A.; Reinagel, P. S.; Jones, E. W.

1992-01-01

190

A mechanism of palindromic gene amplification in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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Selective gene amplification is associated with normal development, neoplasia, and drug resistance. One class of amplification events results in large arrays of inverted repeats that are often complex in structure, thus providing little information about their genesis. We made a recombination substrate in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that frequently generates palindromic duplications to repair a site-specific double-strand break in strains deleted for the SAE2 gene. The resulting palindromes are ...

Rattray, Alison J.; Shafer, Brenda K.; Neelam, Beena; Strathern, Jeffrey N.

2005-01-01

191

Recombinant thermostable cycloinulo-oligosaccharide fructanotransferase produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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A truncated fragment of the cycloinulo-oligosaccharide fructanotransferase (CFTase) gene of Bacillus circulans MCI-2554 was fused to the prepro secretion sequence of the alpha-factor and expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae under the control of the 5' upstream region of the isocitrate lyase gene of Candida tropicalis (UPR-ICL). Efficiently secreted recombinant CFTase protein (yeast CFTase) was purified. Yeast CFTase consisted of three protein molecules, each of which had CFTase activity (yea...

1997-01-01

192

YPA: an integrated repository of promoter features in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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This study presents the Yeast Promoter Atlas (YPA, http://ypa.ee.ncku.edu.tw/ or http://ypa.csbb.ntu.edu.tw/) database, which aims to collect comprehensive promoter features in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. YPA integrates nine kinds of promoter features including promoter sequences, genes’ transcription boundaries—transcription start sites (TSSs), five prime untranslated regions (5?-UTRs) and three prime untranslated regions (3?UTRs), TATA boxes, transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs)...

Chang, Darby Tien-hao; Huang, Cheng-yi; Wu, Chi-yeh; Wu, Wei-sheng

2011-01-01

193

Intracellular ethanol accumulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae during fermentation.  

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An intracellular accumulation of ethanol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was observed during the early stages of fermentation (3 h). However, after 12 h of fermentation, the intracellular and extracellular ethanol concentrations were similar. Increasing the osmotic pressure of the medium caused an increase in the ratio of intracellular to extracellular ethanol concentrations at 3 h of fermentation. As in the previous case, the intracellular and extracellular ethanol concentrations were similar af...

D Amore, T.; Panchal, C. J.; Stewart, G. G.

1988-01-01

194

Analysis of feedback-resistant anthranilate synthases from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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The initial step of tryptophan biosynthesis is catalyzed by the enzyme anthranilate synthase, which in most microorganisms is subject to feedback inhibition by the end product of the pathway. We have characterized the TRP2 gene from a mutant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain coding for an anthranilate synthase that is unresponsive to tryptophan. Sequence analysis of this TRP2(Fbr) (feedback-resistant) allele revealed numerous differences from a previously published TRP2 sequence. However, TRP2(...

Graf, R.; Mehmann, B.; Braus, G. H.

1993-01-01

195

Increasing NADH oxidation reduces overflow metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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Respiratory metabolism plays an important role in energy production in the form of ATP in all aerobically growing cells. However, a limitation in respiratory capacity results in overflow metabolism, leading to the formation of byproducts, a phenomenon known as ‘‘overflow metabolism’’ or ‘‘the Crabtree effect.’’ The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has served as an important model organism for studying the Crabtree effect. When subjected to increasing glycolytic fluxes under aero...

Vemuri, Goutham; Eiteman, M. A.; Mcewen, J. E.; Olsson, Lisbeth; Nielsen, Jens

2007-01-01

196

Tunicamycin inhibition of epispore formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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The ascopore wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was found to contain more protein, polymeric glucosamine, and beta-glucan than the vegetative cell wall, which was enriched in mannoprotein relative to ascospore walls. Tunicamycin inhibited sporulation, as judged by the absence of refractile ascospores visible by phase-contrast microscopy, but cells completed meiosis, as demonstrated by the presence of multinucleate asci. Such spores lacked the dense outer layer characteristic of normal spores. T...

Weinstock, K. G.; Ballou, C. E.

1987-01-01

197

Effect of growth phase on phospholipid biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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The effect of growth phase on the membrane-associated phospholipid biosynthetic enzymes CDP-diacylglycerol synthase, phosphatidylserine synthase, phosphatidylinositol synthase, and the phospholipid N-methyltransferases in wild-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae was examined. Maximum activities were found in the exponential phase of cells grown in complete synthetic medium. As cells entered the stationary phase of growth, the activities of the CDP-diacylglycerol synthase, phosphatidylserine synthas...

Homann, M. J.; Poole, M. A.; Gaynor, P. M.; Ho, C. T.; Carman, G. M.

1987-01-01

198

SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE Recessive Suppressor That Circumvents Phosphatidylserine Deficiency  

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Phenotypic reversion of six independent Saccharomyces cerevisiae cho1 mutants was shown to be due predominantly to mutation of an unlinked gene, eam1. The eam1 gene was located very close to ino1 on chromosome X by meiotic tetrad analysis. Recessive eam1 mutations did not correct the primary cho1 defect in phosphatidylserine synthesis but made endogenous ethanolamine available for sustained nitrogenous phospholipid synthesis. A novel biochemical contribution to nitrogenous lipid synthesis i...

Atkinson, Katharine D.

1984-01-01

199

Regulation of phosphatidylserine synthase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae by phospholipid precursors.  

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The addition of ethanolamine or choline to inositol-containing growth medium of Saccharomyces cerevisiae wild-type cells resulted in a reduction of membrane-associated phosphatidylserine synthase (CDPdiacylglycerol:L-serine O-phosphatidyltransferase, EC 2.7.8.8) activity in cell extracts. The reduction of activity did not occur when inositol was absent from the growth medium. Under the growth conditions where a reduction of enzyme activity occurred, there was a corresponding qualitative reduc...

Poole, M. A.; Homann, M. J.; Bae-lee, M. S.; Carman, G. M.

1986-01-01

200

Characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants supersensitive to aminoglycoside antibiotics.  

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We describe mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that are more sensitive than the wild type to the aminoglycoside antibiotics G418, hygromycin B, destomycin A, and gentamicin X2. In addition, the mutants are sensitive to apramycin, kanamycin B, lividomycin A, neamine, neomycin, paromomycin, and tobramycin--antibiotics which do not inhibit wild-type strains. Mapping studies suggest that supersensitivity is caused by mutations in at least three genes, denoted AGS1, AGS2, and AGS3 (for aminoglyco...

Ernst, J. F.; Chan, R. K.

1985-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Advances in measuring lifespan in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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Much research aimed at discovering the genetic bases of longevity focuses on the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Unfortunately, yeast researchers use a definition of longevity not applied to other species. We propose here a method that makes it possible to estimate for yeast the same measures of longevity calculated for other species. We also show that the conventional method (equating longevity with the number of offspring) is only an approximate measure of true chronological lifespa...

Minois, Nade?ge; Frajnt, Magdalena; Wilson, Chris; Vaupel, James W.

2005-01-01

202

Coordinate regulation of phospholipid biosynthesis by serine in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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The addition of L-serine to inositol-containing growth medium repressed membrane-associated CDPdiacylglycerol synthase (CTP:phosphatidate cytidylyltransferase, EC 2.7.7.41) and phosphatidylserine synthase (CDPdiacylglycerol:L-serine O-phosphatidyltransferase, EC 2.7.8.8) activities and subunit levels in wild-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Enzyme activities and subunit levels were not repressed when inositol was absent from the growth medium. The addition of L-serine to the growth medium did n...

Homann, M. J.; Bailis, A. M.; Henry, S. A.; Carman, G. M.

1987-01-01

203

A second photoreactivation-deficient mutation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was isolated which has a low capability for photoreactivating UV-induced lethal damage. The DNA photolyase activity of the cell-free extract is much less than in a wild-type strain. In vivo complementation of photoreactivation was demonstrated in crosses with phr 1 mutant strains. Tetrad analysis and backcrosses suggest that this new mutation defines a second chromosomal gene PHR 2 which is loosely linked to the PHR 1 gene. (author)

1981-01-01

204

YPD-A database for the proteins of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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YPD is a database for the proteins of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. YPD has two formats: (i) a spreadsheet which tabulates many of the physical and functional properties of yeast proteins, and (ii) the YPD Protein Reports which are formatted pages containing the protein properties, annotations gathered from the literature, and references with titles. YPD is available through the World-Wide Web, through an Email server, and by anonymous FTP. New releases of the YPD spreadsheet a...

Garrels, J. I.

1996-01-01

205

Cytoplasmic Decay of Intergenic Transcripts in Saccharomyces cerevisiae?  

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Eukaryotes produce a number of noncoding transcripts from intergenic regions. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, such cryptic unstable transcripts (CUTs) are thought to be degraded in the nucleus by a process involving polyadenylation and 3?-to-5? degradation by the nuclear exosome. In this work, we examine the degradation pathway of the RNA SRG1, which is produced from an intergenic region and contributes to the regulation of the SER3 gene by promoter occlusion during SRG1 transcription. Altho...

Thompson, Debrah M.; Parker, Roy

2007-01-01

206

Oligoadenylate is present in the mitochondrial RNA of Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors examined Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondrial RNA for polyadenylate. Using hybridization to [/sup 3/H]polyuridylate as the assay for adenylate sequences, they found adenylate-rich oligonucleotides approximately 8 residues long. Longer polyadenylate was not detected. Most of the adenylate-rich sequence is associated with the large mitochondrial rRNA. The remainder is associated with the 10-12S group of transcripts

1982-01-01

207

Effect of Potassium on Saccharomyces cerevisiae Resistance to Fluconazole  

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Susceptibility of strain S288c of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to fluconazole was assayed in the presence and absence of KCl. Addition of 150 mM KCl renders the strain more sensitive to the antifungal agent. The effect is caused by the K+ ion rather than the anion or the osmolarity of the medium. The increase in sensitivity does not modify the values of intracellular and extracellular pH established in the presence of KCl.

Stella, Carlos A.; Burgos, Hilda I.

2001-01-01

208

An apoptotic cell cycle mutant in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The simple eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae has proved to be a useful organism for elucidating the mechanisms that govern cell cycle progression in eukaryotic cells. The excellent in vivo system permits a cell cycle study using temperature sensitive mutants. In addition, it is possible to study many genes and gene products from higher eukaryotes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae because many genes and biological processes are homologous or similar in lower and in higher eukaryotes. The highly developed methods of genetics and molecular biology greatly facilitates studies of higher eukaryotic processes.Programmmed cell death with apoptosis plays a major role in development and homeostatis in most, if not all, animal cells. Apoptosis is a morphologically distinct form of death, that requires the activation of a highly regulated suicide program. Saccharomyces cerevisiae provides a new system in which apoptosis can be studied using the novel, temperature sensitive mutant, cdc77. The cdc77 cells are defective in a G1 process, and die show the characteristc signs of apoptosis: condensation of the chromatin, degradation of the inner nuclear membrane, dilation of the space between the nuclear membranes, condensation of the cytoplasm and degradation of DNA to 50kb fragmensts. It should be noted that in yeast, in contrast to higher eukaryotes, the nuclear membrane remain intact and the chromosomes remain uncondensed and invisible during mitosis. The cdc77 mutant exhibit a defect in initiation of DNA synthesis and a much prolonged DNA synthesis under semirestrictive conditions.

Villadsen, Ingrid

1996-01-01

209

Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for astaxanthin production and oxidative stress tolerance.  

Science.gov (United States)

The red carotenoid astaxanthin possesses higher antioxidant activity than other carotenoids and has great commercial potential for use in the aquaculture, pharmaceutical, and food industries. In this study, we produced astaxanthin in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by introducing the genes involved in astaxanthin biosynthesis of carotenogenic microorganisms. In particular, expression of genes of the red yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous encoding phytoene desaturase (crtI product) and bifunctional phytoene synthase/lycopene cyclase (crtYB product) resulted in the accumulation of a small amount of beta-carotene in S. cerevisiae. Overexpression of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) synthase from S. cerevisiae (the BTS1 gene product) increased the intracellular beta-carotene levels due to the accelerated conversion of farnesyl pyrophosphate to GGPP. Introduction of the X. dendrorhous crtS gene, encoding astaxanthin synthase, assumed to be the cytochrome P450 enzyme, did not lead to astaxanthin production. However, coexpression of CrtS with X. dendrorhous CrtR, a cytochrome P450 reductase, resulted in the accumulation of a small amount of astaxanthin. In addition, the beta-carotene-producing yeast cells transformed by the bacterial genes crtW and crtZ, encoding beta-carotene ketolase and hydroxylase, respectively, also accumulated astaxanthin and its intermediates, echinenone, canthaxanthin, and zeaxanthin. Interestingly, we found that these ketocarotenoids conferred oxidative stress tolerance on S. cerevisiae cells. This metabolic engineering has potential for overproduction of astaxanthin and breeding of novel oxidative stress-tolerant yeast strains. PMID:19801484

Ukibe, Ken; Hashida, Keisuke; Yoshida, Nobuyuki; Takagi, Hiroshi

2009-11-01

210

Growth of non-Saccharomyces yeasts affects nutrient availability for Saccharomyces cerevisiae during wine fermentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Yeast produces numerous secondary metabolites during fermentation that impact final wine quality. Although it is widely recognized that growth of diverse non-Saccharomyces (NS) yeast can positively affect flavor complexity during Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine fermentation, the inability to control spontaneous or co-fermentation processes by NS yeast has restricted their use in winemaking. We selected two NS yeasts from our Uruguayan native collection to study NS-S. cerevisiae interactions during wine fermentation. The selected strains of Hanseniaspora vineae and Metschnikowia pulcherrima had different yeast assimilable nitrogen consumption profiles and had different effects on S. cerevisiae fermentation and growth kinetics. Studies in which we varied inoculum size and using either simultaneous or sequential inoculation of NS yeast and S. cerevisiae suggested that competition for nutrients had a significant effect on fermentation kinetics. Sluggish fermentations were more pronounced when S. cerevisiae was inoculated 24h after the initial stage of fermentation with a NS strain compared to co-inoculation. Monitoring strain populations using differential WL nutrient agar medium and fermentation kinetics of mixed cultures allowed for a better understanding of strain interactions and nutrient addition effects. Limitation of nutrient availability for S. cerevisiae was shown to result in stuck fermentations as well as to reduce sensory desirability of the resulting wine. Addition of diammonium phosphate (DAP) and a vitamin mix to a defined medium allowed for a comparison of nutrient competition between strains. Addition of DAP and the vitamin mix was most effective in preventing stuck fermentations. PMID:22687186

Medina, Karina; Boido, Eduardo; Dellacassa, Eduardo; Carrau, Francisco

2012-07-01

211

A Saccharomyces cerevisiae-based bioassay for assessing pesticide toxicity.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluates the toxic effect of three pesticides (Azoxystrobin, Cymoxanil, and Diuron) on the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the development of a new bioassay based on inhibition of S. cerevisiae metabolic activity at the level of adenosine-5-triphosphate (ATP) synthesis, as compared with two different toxicity tests based on inhibition of Daphnia magna mobility (NF EN ISO 6341) and inhibition of Vibrio fisheri activity (NF EN ISO 11348). The S. cerevisiae bioassay is cheaper and 96 times faster than the D. magna toxicity bioassay, but has lower sensitivity. It is as fast as the V. fisheri bioassay and more sensitive. Thus, this new toxicity test can be proposed for rapid detection of pesticide residues in environmental samples as a complement to the more expensive and time-consuming D. magna toxicity test. PMID:19856193

Estève, Karine; Poupot, C; Dabert, P; Mietton-Peuchot, M; Milisic, V

2009-12-01

212

Saccharomyces cerevisiae en la fabricación del licor Cocuy. / Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the manufacturing of Cocuy liquor  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El licor "cocuy" es una bebida artesanal, producida por las comunidades rurales en el occidente de Venezuela mediante un proceso de fermentación y destilación del mosto extraído del Agave cocui. Este estudio fue enmarcado en el "Programa Agave" con el propósito de contribuir a rescatar esta activida [...] d productiva tradicional. En vista de la falta de información en relación al proceso autóctono se hicieron estudios de las levaduras fermentadoras, la optimización de la producción de etanol y la utilización del residuo de la destilación (vinaza) como medio de cultivo. Los aislados con mayor capacidad fermentativa fueron seleccionados e identificados mediante parámetros morfológicos y metabólicos. Se compararon los niveles de consumo de azúcar de las levaduras con mayor capacidad fermentativa. Se estudió el efecto de la adición del azúcar blanca comercial y/o del fosfato de amonio y en la producción de alcohol en el proceso artesanal. Las concentraciones de azúcares en el mosto se evaluaron por refractometría, y el contenido de alcohol del licor por hidrometría. La utilización de la vinaza para la producción de biomasa como un componente del medio de cultivo fue comparada con un medio sintético mediante medidas del peso seco de la biomasa. Se confirma el papel de Saccharomyces cerevisiae en el proceso fermentativo espontáneo. Los resultados in situ evidenciaron un efecto favorable de la elevación del contenido de azúcar (11 a 18°Brix) y de la adición de fosfato de amonio dibásico (0,2 g/l). En estas condiciones, el tiempo de fermentación del mosto se acortó y la producción de licor aumentó hasta un 92%. Se demostró la posibilidad de utilizar la vinaza como un componente para un medio de cultivo de esta levadura, para iniciar la fermentación y para la producción de biomasa como una fuente de nutrientes de alto valor nutritivo para aves de corral o caprinos. Se recomienda apoyar los esfuerzos para desarrollar de esta importante fuente de ingresos para los campesinos que habitan las zonas semi-áridas de los estados Falcón y Lara. Abstract in english Liquor cocuy is an alcoholic beverage produced by fermentation and a subsequent distillation process of Agave cocui juice by the communities northwest Venezuela. This study was included in the "Agave cocui Program", which purpose was to rescue this traditional productive activity. Due to the lack of [...] information about this native product fermentative yeasts, alcohol production optimization, and use of distillation residue (nasty wine) as culture medium was investigated. Isolates with the best fermentative capacity were selected and identified by morphological and metabolic studies. Sugars consumption of the yeast with highest fermentative capacity were compared. Effect of white commercial sugar and/or ammonium phosphate dibasic addition to juice was evaluated during the process. Sugars concentration was estimated with a refractometer, measurement of alcohol content of liquor with an hidrometer. The production of yeasts biomass grown in a broth with nasty wine was compared to that in a synthetic one by dry biomass weight determinations. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae role in the spontaneous fermentative process was confirmed. The results in situ proved the favorable effect of extra sugar (11 to 18°Brix) and ammonium phosphate (0,2 g/l). Fermentative period was reduced and liquor production was enhanced to 92%. Use of nasty wine was proposed to obtain yeasts biomass, as fermentation starter or as a source of high nutritive value for poultry and goat feeding. We recommend to support efforts to improve this local activity which represent an important source of income for the farmer at the semi-arid zone at the states of Falcón and Lara.

F, Yegres; G, Fernández-Zeppenfeldt; CG, Padin; L, Rovero; N, Richard-Yegres.

213

The isolation of a Dol-P-Man synthase from Ustilago maydis that functions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genomic DNAs from several fungi were screened for a homologous sequence to Saccharomyces cerevisiae DPM1, an essential gene which encodes dolichyl phosphoryl mannose synthase. The fungi examined included Aspergillus nidulans, Neurospora crassa, Schizophyllum commune and Ustilago maydis. Only U. maydis gave a significant signal after Southern hybridization using DPM1 as a probe. The Ustilago homolog was subsequently cloned and sequenced. The predicted protein of 294 amino acids has 60% identity to the S. cerevisiae protein, but lacks the putative "dolichol recognition sequence'. RNA of ca. 900 bp is transcribed in both yeast and filamentous cells of Ustilago. In Escherichia coli, the U. maydis sequence expressed a 35 kDa protein exhibiting dolichyl phosphoryl mannose synthase activity. The sequence was also shown to complement a haploid strain of S. cerevisiae containing a deletion of the DPM1 gene. The U. maydis sequence therefore, encodes a dolichyl phosphoryl mannose synthase that can support normal vegetative growth in S. cerevisiae. PMID:8813763

Zimmerman, J W; Specht, C A; Cazares, B X; Robbins, P W

1996-06-30

214

Regulation of isoleucine-valine biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The threonine deaminase gene (ILV1) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been designated "multifunctional" since Bollon (1974) indicated its involvement both in the catalysis of the first step in isoleucine biosynthesis and in the regulation of the isoleucine-valine pathway. Its role in regulation is characterized by a decrease in the activity of the five isoleucine-valine enzymes when cells are grown in the presence of the three branched-chain amino acids, isoleucine, valine and leucine (multivalent repression). We have demonstrated that the regulation of AHA reductoisomerase (encoded by ILV5) and branched-chain amino acid transaminase is unaffected by the deletion of ILV1, subsequently revealing that the two enzymes can be regulated in the absence of threonine deaminase. Both threonine deaminase activity and ILV1 mRNA levels increase in mutants (gcd2 and gcd3) having constitutively depressed levels of enzymes under the general control of amino acid biosynthesis, as well as in response to starvation for tryptophan and branched-chain amino acid imbalance. Thus, the ILV1 gene is under general amino acid control, as is the case for both the ILV5 and the transaminase gene. Multivalent repression of reductoisomerase and transaminase can be observed in mutants defective in general control (gcn and gcd), whereas this is not the case for threonine deaminase. Our analysis suggests that repression effected by general control is not complete in minimal medium. Amino acid dependent regulation of threonine deaminase is only through general control, while the branched-chain amino acid repression of AHA reducto isomerase and the transaminase is caused both by general control and an amino acid-specific regulation. PMID:3289762

Holmberg, S; Petersen, J G

1988-03-01

215

ISC1-dependent Metabolic Adaptation Reveals an Indispensable Role for Mitochondria in Induction of Nuclear Genes during the Diauxic Shift in Saccharomyces cerevisiae*S?  

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Growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae following glucose depletion (the diauxic shift) depends on a profound metabolic adaptation accompanied by a global reprogramming of gene expression. In this study, we provide evidence for a heretofore unsuspected role for Isc1p in mediating this reprogramming. Initial studies revealed that yeast cells deleted in ISC1, the gene encoding inositol sphingolipid phospholipase C, which resides in mitochondria in the post-diauxic phase, show...

Kitagaki, Hiroshi; Cowart, L. Ashley; Matmati, Nabil; Montefusco, David; Gandy, Jason; Avalos, Silvia Vaena; Novgorodov, Sergei A.; Zheng, Jim; Obeid, Lina M.; Hannun, Yusuf A.

2009-01-01

216

Genetic evidence for a morphogenetic function of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pho85 cyclin-dependent kinase.  

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The Saccharomyces cerevisiae PHO85 gene encodes a nonessential cyclin-dependent kinase that associates with 10 cyclin subunits. To survey the functions provided by Pho85, we identified mutants that require PHO85 for viability. We identified mutations that define seven Pho Eighty-Five Requiring or Efr loci, six of which are previously identified genes-BEM2 (YER155C), SPT7 (YBR081C), GCR1 (YPL075W), SRB5 (YGR104C), HFI1 (YPL254W), and BCK1 (YJL095W)-with one novel gene (YMR212C). We found that ...

Lenburg, M. E.; O Shea, E. K.

2001-01-01

217

ATP16 Genes and Neighboring ORFs Are Duplicated on Chromosome IV in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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We present evidence that there were two closely linked copies of the ATP16 (YDL004w) gene encoding the delta subunit of F1F0-ATPase complex on chromosome IV in laboratory strains, W303-1A, W303-1B, DC5, LL20, SEY2102, YPH499, and S288C of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We previously reported that there were 2-3 copies of ATP1 (alpha), ATP2 (beta) and ATP3 (gamma) on chromosomes II, X, and II, respectively. Homologous recombination of the ATP16 with HIS3 (YOR202w), gene walking, and long-P...

Masaharu Takeda; Hironori Fujioka; Manami Shimomura; Tadashi Mabuchi; Atsushi Minami

2011-01-01

218

A Novel Allele of Hap1 Causes Uninducible Expression of Hem13 in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae  

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Transcription of HEM13 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is repressed by heme and oxygen. We have isolated two mutants in which expression of HEM13 is aberrant. The mutant alleles in these strains represent two different alleles of HAP1. HAP1 encodes an activator protein whose DNA binding activity is stimulated by heme, and is required for the transcription of CYC1, ROX1 and a number of other heme-dependent genes. One of our mutant alleles confers a phenotype much like that of the hap1::LEU2 allele...

Ushinsky, S. C.; Keng, T.

1994-01-01

219

Isolation and characterization of mutations in the HXK2 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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Several hundred new mutations in the gene (HXK2) encoding hexokinase II of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were isolated, and a subset of them was mapped, resulting in a fine-structure genetic map. Among the mutations that were sequenced, 35 were independent missense mutations. The mutations were obtained by mutagenesis of cloned HXK2 DNA carried on a low-copy-number plasmid vector and screened for a number of different phenotypes in yeast strains bearing chromosomal hxk1 and hxk2 null mutations. So...

Ma, H.; Bloom, L. M.; Zhu, Z. M.; Walsh, C. T.; Botstein, D.

1989-01-01

220

Functional Mapping of the U3 Small Nucleolar RNA from the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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The U3 small nucleolar RNA participates in early events of eukaryotic pre-rRNA cleavage and is essential for formation of 18S rRNA. Using an in vivo system, we have developed a functional map of the U3 small nucleolar RNA from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The test strain features a galactose-dependent U3 gene in the chromosome and a plasmid-encoded allele with a unique hybridization tag. Effects of mutations on U3 production were analyzed by evaluating RNA levels in cells grown on galactose medi...

1998-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Construction of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain expressing the Leishmania major nucleoside hydrolase gene  

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Nucleoside hydrolase (NH) (EC. 3.2.2.3) is an essential enzyme in the purine–pyrimidine salvage pathway utilised by many protozoan parasites and may be a useful drug target. However, the search for NH inhibitors has been hampered by the lack of suitable in vitro screens. We have constructed a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain that requires expression of the Leishmania major nucleoside hydrolase (LmNH) enzyme for growth and that may be suitable as a screen for NH inhibitors. The gene encoding ...

Miller, Tamara K.; Patel, Champa; Selitrennikoff, Claude P.

2007-01-01

222

Divergent overlapping transcripts at the PET122 locus in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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PET122 is one of three nuclear genes specifically required for translation of the mitochondrial mRNA for cytochrome c oxidase subunit III in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The nucleotide sequence of 2,862 base pairs (bp) of yeast genomic DNA encompassing the PET122 locus shows very close spacing between the PET122 gene (254 codons) and two unidentified open reading frames, termed ORF2 and ORF3. ORF2 is encoded by the same strand of DNA as PET122 and is located 53 bp downstream of PET122, while ORF...

1990-01-01

223

Cha4p of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Activates Transcription via Serine/Threonine Response Elements  

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The CHA1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes the catabolic L-serine (L-threonine) deaminase responsible for the utilization of serine/threonine as nitrogen sources. Previously, we identified two serine/threonine response elements in the CHA1 promoter, UAS(CHA). We report isolation of a mutation, cha4-1, that impairs serine/threonine induction of CHA1 transcription. The cha4-1 allele causes noninducibility of a CHA1p-lacZ translational gene fusion, indicating that Cha4p exerts its action ...

1996-01-01

224

Control of mRNA turnover as a mechanism of glucose repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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We have examined the expression of the gene encoding the iron-protein subunit (Ip) of succinate dehydrogenase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The gene had been cloned by us and shown to be subject to glucose regulation (A. Lombardo, K. Carine, and I. E. Scheffler, J. Biol. Chem. 265:10419-10423, 1990). We discovered that a significant part of the regulation of the Ip mRNA levels by glucose involves the regulation of the turnover rate of this mRNA. In the presence of glucose, the half-life appear...

Lombardo, A.; Cereghino, G. P.; Scheffler, I. E.

1992-01-01

225

Xrs2, a DNA Repair Gene of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Is Needed for Meiotic Recombination  

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The XRS2 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been previously identified as a DNA repair gene. In this communication, we show that XRS2 also encodes an essential meiotic function. Spore inviability of xrs2 strains is rescued by a spo13 mutation, but meiotic recombination (both gene conversion and crossing over) is highly depressed in spo13 xrs2 diploids. The xrs2 mutation suppresses spore inviability of a spo13 rad52 strain suggesting that XRS2 acts prior to RAD52 in the meiotic recombination...

Ivanov, E. L.; Korolev, V. G.; Fabre, F.

1992-01-01

226

Interactions among the subunits of the G protein involved in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mating.  

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The SCG1 (GPA1), STE4, and STE18 genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encode mating-pathway components whose amino acid sequences are similar to those of the alpha, beta, and gamma subunits, respectively, of mammalian G proteins. Genetic evidence suggests that the STE4 and STE18 gene products interact. The mating defects of a set of ste4 mutants were partially suppressed by the overexpression of STE18, and, moreover, a combination of partially defective ste4 and ste18 alleles created a totally s...

Clark, K. L.; Dignard, D.; Thomas, D. Y.; Whiteway, M.

1993-01-01

227

Genetic and biochemical characterization of a phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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Hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) by phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) generates two second messengers, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and 1,2-diacylglycerol. The polymerase chain reaction was used to isolate a Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene (PLC1) that encodes a protein of 869 amino acids (designated Plc1p) that bears greatest resemblance to the delta isoforms of mammalian PI-PLC in terms of overall sequence similarity and domain arrangement. Plc1p ...

Flick, J. S.; Thorner, J.

1993-01-01

228

Conservative replication of double-stranded RNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by displacement of progeny single strands.  

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Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains two double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) molecules, L and M, encapsulated in virus-like particles. After cells are transferred from dense (13C 15N) to light (12C 14N) medium, only two density classes of dsRNA are found, fully light (LL) and fully dense (HH). Cells contain single-stranded copies of both dsRNAs and, at least for L dsRNA, greater than 99% of these single strands are the positive protein-encoding strand. Single-stranded copies of L and M dsRNA accumulate ...

Sclafani, R. A.; Fangman, W. L.

1984-01-01

229

Synthetic lethal interactions suggest a role for the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rtf1 protein in transcription elongation.  

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Strong evidence indicates that transcription elongation by RNA polymerase II (pol II) is a highly regulated process. Here we present genetic results that indicate a role for the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rtf1 protein in transcription elongation. A screen for synthetic lethal mutations was carried out with an rtf1 deletion mutation to identify factors that interact with Rtf1 or regulate the same process as Rtf1. The screen uncovered mutations in SRB5, CTK1, FCP1, and POB3. These genes encode an...

Costa, P. J.; Arndt, K. M.

2000-01-01

230

GPA1Val-50 mutation in the mating-factor signaling pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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The GPA1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a protein that is highly homologous to the alpha subunit of mammalian hetrotrimeric G proteins and is essential for haploid cell growth. A mutation of the GPA1 protein, GPA1Val-50, in which Gly-50 was replaced by valine, could complement the growth defect of a GPA1 disruption, gpal::HIS3. However, cells with gpa1::HIS3 expressing the GPA1Val-50 protein were supersensitive to alpha-factor in a short-term incubation but resumed growth after long...

Miyajima, I.; Arai, K.; Matsumoto, K.

1989-01-01

231

Suppressors of a Gpa1 Mutation Cause Sterility in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae  

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The Saccharomyces cerevisiae GPA1 gene encodes a protein highly homologous to the ? subunit of mammalian G proteins and is essential for haploid cell growth. We have selected 77 mutants able to suppress the lethality resulting from disruption of GPA1 (gpa1::HIS3). Two strains bearing either of two recessive mutations, sgp1 and sgp2, in combination with the disruption mutation, showed a cell type nonspecific sterile phenotype, yet expressed the major ?-factor gene (MF?1) as judged by the ab...

Miyajima, I.; Nakayama, N.; Nakafuku, M.; Kaziro, Y.; Arai, K. I.; Matsumoto, K.

1988-01-01

232

Identification and comparison of stable and unstable mRNAs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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We developed a procedure to measure mRNA decay rates in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and applied it to the determination of half-lives for 20 mRNAs encoded by well-characterized genes. The procedure utilizes Northern (RNA) or dot blotting to quantitate the levels of individual mRNAs after thermal inactivation of RNA polymerase II in an rpb1-1 temperature-sensitive mutant. We compared the results of this procedure with results obtained by two other procedures (approach to steady-state la...

Herrick, D.; Parker, R.; Jacobson, A.

1990-01-01

233

Cloning and nucleotide sequence of the gene for dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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A 537-base cDNA encoding a portion of Saccharomyces cerevisiae dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (acetyl-CoA:dihydrolipoamide S-acetyltransferase, EC 2.3.1.12) was isolated from a lambda gt11 yeast cDNA library by immunoscreening. This cDNA was subcloned and used as a probe to screen a lambda gt11 yeast genomic DNA library. Two overlapping clones were used to determine the complete sequence of the acetyltransferase gene. The composite sequence has an open reading frame of 1446 nucleotides en...

Niu, X. D.; Browning, K. S.; Behal, R. H.; Reed, L. J.

1988-01-01

234

N myristylation of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gag polyprotein precursor in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A semisynthetic gene precisely encoding the 502 amino acids of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gag precursor (Pr53gag) was expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Amino acid sequence analysis of the recombinant Pr53gag showed that the amino terminus was fully blocked. Labeling of Pr53gag with [3H]myristic acid demonstrated that, as with Pr53gag isolated from virus-infected cells, the yeast-derived protein was demethionylated and N myristylated on glycine, the second amino acid residue

1989-01-01

235

TRK2 is not a low-affinity potassium transporter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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TRK1 and TRK2 encode proteins involved in K+ uptake in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A kinetic study of Rb+ influx in trk1 TRK2, trk1 TRK2D, and trk1 trk2 mutants reveals that TRK2 shows moderate affinity for Rb+. K(+)-starved trk1 delta TRK2 cells show a low-affinity component accounting for almost the total Vmax of the influx and a moderate-affinity component exhibiting a very low Vmax. Overexpression of TRK2 in trk1 delta TRK2D cells increases the Vmax of the moderate-affinity component, and t...

Ramos, J.; Alijo, R.; Haro, R.; Rodriguez-navarro, A.

1994-01-01

236

Characterization of SIS1, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae homologue of bacterial dnaJ proteins  

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The Saccharomyces cerevisiae SIS1 gene was identified as a high copy number suppressor of the slow growth phenotype of strains containing mutations in the SIT4 gene, which encodes a predicted serine/threonine protein phosphatase. The SIS1 protein is similar to bacterial dnaJ proteins in the amino-terminal third and carboxyl-terminal third of the proteins. In contrast, the middle third of SIS1 is not similar to dnaJ proteins. This region of SIS1 contains a glycine/methionine-rich region which,...

1991-01-01

237

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288C genome annotation: a working hypothesis  

Science.gov (United States)

The S. cerevisiae genome is the most well-characterized eukaryotic genome and one of the simplest in terms of identifying open reading frames (ORFs), yet its primary annotation has been updated continually in the decade since its initial release in 1996 (Goffeau et al., 1996). The Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD; www.yeastgenome.org) (Hirschman et al., 2006), the community-designated repository for this reference genome, strives to ensure that the S. cerevisiae annotation is as accurate and useful as possible. At SGD, the S. cerevisiae genome sequence and annotation are treated as a working hypothesis, which must be repeatedly tested and refined. In this paper, in celebration of the tenth anniversary of the completion of the S. cerevisiae genome sequence, we discuss the ways in which the S. cerevisiae sequence and annotation have changed, consider the multiple sources of experimental and comparative data on which these changes are based, and describe our methods for evaluating, incorporating and documenting these new data.

Fisk, Dianna G.; Ball, Catherine A.; Dolinski, Kara; Engel, Stacia R.; Hong, Eurie L.; Issel-Tarver, Laurie; Schwartz, Katja; Sethuraman, Anand; Botstein, David; Cherry, J. Michael

2011-01-01

238

Ultradian oscillators of the circadian clock in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has an ENOX1 activity with a period length of 24 min similar to that of other eukaryotes. In contrast to other eukaryotes, however, Saccharomyces cerevisiae has a second ENOX1-like activity with a period length of 25 min. The latter is distinguishable from the traditional ENOX1 on the basis of the longer period length along with resistance to an ENOX1 inhibitor, simalikalactone D, and failure to be phased by melatonin. In addition, two periods are apparent in measurements of oxygen consumption indicating that the consumption of oxygen to water occurs independently by homodimers of both of the two forms of ENOX. Based on the measurements of glyceraldehyde-3- phosphate dehydrogenase, S. cerevisiae exhibits circadian activity maxima at 24 and 25 h together with a 40 h period possibly representing the 40 min metabolic rhythm of yeast not observed in our measurement of oxygen consumption and normally observed only with continuous cultures. The findings are indicative of at least three independent time-keeping systems being operative in a single cell. 

Sara S. Dick

2013-02-01

239

Construction of killer industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAU-1 and its fermentation performance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAU-1, a time tested industrial yeast possesses most of the desirable fermentation characteristics like fast growth and fermentation rate, osmotolerance, high ethanol tolerance, ability to ferment molasses, and to ferment at elevated temperatures etc. However, this yeast was found to be sensitive against the killer strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the present study, killer trait was introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAU-1 by protoplast fusion with Saccharomyces cerevisiae MTCC 475, a killer strain. The resultant fusants were characterized for desirable fermentation characteristics. All the technologically important characteristics of distillery yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAU-1 were retained in the fusants, and in addition the killer trait was also introduced into them. Further, the killer activity was found to be stably maintained during hostile conditions of ethanol fermentations in dextrose or molasses, and even during biomass recycling.

Bijender K. Bajaj

2010-06-01

240

Acquisition of thermotolerant yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by breeding via stepwise adaptation.  

Science.gov (United States)

A thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strain, YK60-1, was bred from a parental strain, MT8-1, via stepwise adaptation. YK60-1 grew at 40°C, a temperature at which MT8-1 could not grow at all. YK60-1 exhibited faster growth than MT8-1 at 30°C. To investigate the mechanisms how MT8-1 acquired thermotolerance, DNA microarray analysis was performed. The analysis revealed the induction of stress-responsive genes such as those encoding heat shock proteins and trehalose biosynthetic enzymes in YK60-1. Furthermore, nontargeting metabolome analysis showed that YK60-1 accumulated more trehalose, a metabolite that contributes to stress tolerance in yeast, than MT8-1. In conclusion, S. cerevisiae MT8-1 acquired thermotolerance by induction of specific stress-responsive genes and enhanced intracellular trehalose levels. PMID:24115578

Satomura, Atsushi; Katsuyama, Yoshiaki; Miura, Natsuko; Kuroda, Kouichi; Tomio, Ayako; Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Production of Recombinant Vaccine Cb Peritrophin-42 of Screwworm Fly in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The screwworm fly (Chrysomya bezziana larva is an obligate parasite which causes myasis in mammals. Vaccination is thought to be a protective and an enviromentally friendly method for combating the pest. A gene encoding a peritrophic membrane protein Cb peritrophin-42 of C. bezziana was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cb peritrophin-42 fused with the outer membrane protein A signal sequence was produced as an aggregate in E. coli. Expression of an Cb peritrophin-42 gene fused with oligonucleotide of the invertase signal sequence in S. cerevisiae allowed the production of 14.4 mg L-1 soluble extracellular Cb peritrophin-42. Sheep vaccinated with recombinant Cb peritrophin-42 showed a strong immunological reaction. In vivo assay following vaccination with the recombinant Cb peritrophin-42 showed a 27% reduction in the weight of recovered larvae.

DESSY NATALIA

2007-12-01

242

ISOTERMAS DE ADSORÇÃO DE CÁDMIO POR Saccharomyces cerevisiae ISOTHERMS OF CADMIUM ADSORPTION BY Saccharomyces cerevisae  

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Full Text Available Com o objetivo de determinar as isotermas de adsorção de cádmio por Saccharomyces cerevisiae, foram utilizados os sais cloreto e nitrato de cádmio nas concentrações de 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80 e 100mg L-1. A biomassa foi produzida a partir de uma cultura "starter"de Saccharomyces cerevisiae IZ 1904. Após o contato de 16h entre o microrganismo e as soluções em estudo, a biomassa foi separada por centrifugação e o teor de cádmio residual foi determinado no sobrenadante por espectrofotometria de absorção atômica. Para os dois sais empregados foi observado um acúmulo crescente de cádmio nas concentrações de 5, 10, 20 e 40mg L-1. Nas concentrações de 60, 80 e 100mg L-1 foi observado que a levedura acumulou teores menores do metal, evidenciando danos na parede celular, nem sempre acompanhados de iguais danos da membrana citoplasmática, tais alterações da parede visualizadas por microscopia eletrônica de varredura.With the objective of determining the isotherms of cadmium the adsorption by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the chloride and nitrate salts were used in the concentrations of 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100mg L-1. The biomass was produced from a starter culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae IZ 1904. After a 16h contact between the microrganism and solutions of study the biomass was separated by a centrifuge and the cadmium residue content was determined at the supernatant by atomic adsorption spectrophotometry. For the two salts used a growing accumulation of cadmium was observed at concentrations of 5, 10, 20, and 40mg L-1. In the concentrations of 60, 80 and 100mg L-1 a decreasing of the accumulation of the metal was observed, evidencing damages of the cellular wall, which they're not accompanied always by damages of the citoplasmatic membrane, visualized by scanning electron microscopy.

Silvana ALBERTINI

2001-08-01

243

On cycles in the transcription network of Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigate the cycles in the transcription network of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Unlike a similar network of Escherichia coli, it contains many cycles. We characterize properties of these cycles and their place in the regulatory mechanism of the cell. Results Almost all cycles in the transcription network of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are contained in a single strongly connected component, which we call LSCC (L for "largest", except for a single cycle of two transcription factors. The fact that LSCC includes almost all cycles is well explained by the properties of a random graph with the same in- and out-degrees of the nodes. Among different physiological conditions, cell cycle has the most significant relationship with LSCC, as the set of 64 transcription interactions that are active in all phases of the cell cycle has overlap of 27 with the interactions of LSCC (of which there are 49. Conversely, if we remove the interactions that are active in all phases of the cell cycle (25% of interactions to transcription factors, the LSCC would have only three nodes and 5 edges, many fewer than expected. This subgraph of the transcription network consists mostly of interactions that are active only in the stress response subnetwork. We also characterize the role of LSCC in the topology of the network. We show that LSCC can be used to define a natural hierarchy in the network and that in every physiological subnetwork LSCC plays a pivotal role. Conclusion Apart from those well-defined conditions, the transcription network of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is devoid of cycles. It was observed that two conditions that were studied and that have no cycles of their own are exogenous: diauxic shift and DNA repair, while cell cycle and sporulation are endogenous. We claim that in a certain sense (slow recovery stress response is endogenous as well.

Berman Piotr

2008-01-01

244

Protein expression of saccharomyces cerevisiae in response to uranium exposure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Protein expression of Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown in the medium containing 238U (VI) and 233U (VI) was examined by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Saccharomyces cerevisiae of BY4743 was grown in yeast nitrogen base medium containing glucose and glycerol 2-phosphate and 238U of 0, 2.0, and 5.0 x 10-4 M or 233U of 2.5 x 10-6 M (radioactivity was higher by 350 times than 2.0 x 10-4 M 238U) and 5.0 x 10-6 M for 112 h at 30 degC. The growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was monitored by measuring OD600 at 112 h after the inoculation. Uranium concentrations in the media also were measured by radiometry using a liquid scintillation counter. The growths of the yeast grown in the above media were in the following order: control>2.5 x 10-6 M 233U>2.0 x 10-4 M 238U>5.0 x 10-6 M 233U>5.0 x 10-4 M 238U. This result indicated that not only radiological but also chemical effect of U reduced the growth of the yeast. The concentrations of U in the medium containing 238U or 233U decreased, suggesting U accumulation by the yeast cells. The 2-D gel electrophoresis analysis showed the appearance of several spots after exposure to 238U or to 233U but not in the control containing no uranium. These results show that the yeast cells exposed to U express several specific proteins. (author)

2007-10-01

245

Expression of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ?-glucoside transporters under different growth conditions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Important biotechnological processes depend on the efficient fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts of starch hydrolysates rich in maltose and maltotriose. The rate-limiting step for fermentation of these ?-glucosides is the transport across the plasma membrane of the cells. In order t [...] o contribute to a better understanding of maltose and maltotriose metabolism by S. cerevisiae, we analyzed the expression of the main ? glucoside transporter genes in two different yeast strains grown on media with glucose, maltose or maltotriose as carbon source. Although both yeast strains have higher ?glucoside transport activity during growth on maltotriose, our results show similar expression levels of the analyzed genes on either maltose or maltrotriose media. Thus, our results indicate that, although the transport capacity of maltotriose grown cells is higher than that of maltose grown cells, maltotriose cannot be considered a better inducer of ?glucoside transporter genes.

Alves Jr., S. L.; Thevelein, J. M.; Stambuk, B. U..

246

Advanced biofuel production by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Replacement of conventional transportation fuels with biofuels will require production of compounds that can cover the complete fuel spectrum, ranging from gasoline to kerosene. Advanced biofuels are expected to play an important role in replacing fossil fuels because they have improved properties compared with ethanol and some of these may have the energy density required for use in heavy duty vehicles, ships, and aviation. Moreover, advanced biofuels can be used as drop-in fuels in existing internal combustion engines. The yeast cell factory Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be turned into a producer of higher alcohols (1-butanol and isobutanol), sesquiterpenes (farnesene and bisabolene), and fatty acid ethyl esters (biodiesel), and here we discusses progress in metabolic engineering of S. cerevisiae for production of these advanced biofuels.

Buijs, Nicolaas A; Siewers, Verena

2013-01-01

247

Effect of environmental stress on radiation response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have investigated the effect of pH shock and oxidative stress (H2O2 effect) both separately and together on the response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae exposed to UV and gamma radiations for one hour. Exposure to these environmental stresses resulted in S. cerevisiae cells acquiring resistance to UV radiation. Presence of cycloheximide (a know protein synthesis inhibitor) during stress inhibited the acquired UV resistance. The increased UV resistance is apparently mediated through nucleotide excision repair as the stress exposure to rad3 mutants (defective in nucleotide excision repair) do not have any effect on UV response. Both types of stresses used probably follow the same path of induction of radioresistance as the effect of both of them is nonadditive. In the strains used in our study stress exposure dose not have any significant effect on gamma radiation response. (author)

1999-10-01

248

Understanding the 3-hydroxypropionic acid tolerance mechanism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

3-Hydroxypropionic acid (3HP) is an important platform chemical that can be converted into other valuable chemicals such as acrylic acid and its derivatives that are used in baby diap ers, various plastics, and paints. With the oil and gas resources becoming limiting, biotechnolo gy offers a sustainable alternative for production of acrylic acid from renewable feedstocks. We are establishing Saccharomyces cerevisiae as an alternative host for 3HP production. However, 3HP also inhibits yeast grow th at level well below what is desired for commercial applications. Therefore, we are aiming to improve 3HP tolerance in S. cerevisiae by applying adaptive evolution approach. We have generated yeast strains with sign ificantly improved capacity for tolerating 3HP when compared to the wild-type. We will present physiolo gical characterization, genome re-sequencing, and transcriptome analysis of the evolved strains. Conseq uently, mechanism underlying 3HP tolerance will be investigated.

Kildegaard, Kanchana Rueksomtawin; Juncker, Agnieszka

2013-01-01

249

Use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in radioactive waste treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Waste management plays an important role in reducing the volume of radioactive waste streams, minimizing the cost of the final disposal and the impact on the environment. In this context, new research should focus on the development of simpler and cheaper techniques which may improve the waste processing. The use of biomass in processes concerned with the removal of heavy metals and radionuclides offers significant potential in the treatment of waste-liquid streams. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is well known for its capacity of heavy metals biosorption and it also has the additional advantages such as easy availability and the possibility of genetic manipulation. The aim of this work is to study the potential of the free cell and immobilized S. cerevisiae in bentonite in the removal Americium-241 from radioactive liquid streams produced by Radioactive Waste Laboratory of Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN-CNEN/SP). (author)

2007-10-05

250

The Complete Kinetic Mechanism of Homoisocitrate Dehydrogenase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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The kinetic mechanism of homoisocitrate dehydrogenase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was determined using initial velocity studies in the absence and presence of product and dead-end inhibitors in both reaction directions. Data suggest a steady state random kinetic mechanism. The dissociation constant of the Mg-homoisocitrate complex (MgHIc) was estimated as 11 ± 2 mM as measured using Mg2+ as a shift reagent. Initial velocity data indicate the MgHIc complex is the reactant in the direction o...

Lin, Ying; Alguindigue, Susan S.; Volkman, Jerome; Nicholas, Kenneth M.; West, Ann H.; Cook, Paul F.

2007-01-01

251

Characterization of Glycogen-Deficient Glc Mutants of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae  

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Forty-eight mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with defects in glycogen metabolism were isolated. The mutations defined eight GLC genes, the functions of which were determined. Mutations in three of these genes activate the RAS/cAMP pathway either by impairment of a RAS GTPase-activating protein (GLC1/IRA1 and GLC4/IRA2) or by activating Ras2p (GLC5/RAS2). SNF1 protein kinase (GLC2) was found to be required for normal glycogen levels. Glycogen branching enzyme (GLC3) was found to be required...

1994-01-01

252

Non-Coding RNA Prediction and Verification in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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Non-coding RNA (ncRNA) play an important and varied role in cellular function. A significant amount of research has been devoted to computational prediction of these genes from genomic sequence, but the ability to do so has remained elusive due to a lack of apparent genomic features. In this work, thermodynamic stability of ncRNA structural elements, as summarized in a Z-score, is used to predict ncRNA in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This analysis was coupled with comparative genomics ...

Kavanaugh, Laura A.; Dietrich, Fred S.

2009-01-01

253

Molecular Genetics of Serine and Threonine Catabolism in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae  

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The catabolic L-serine (L-threonine) deaminase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae allows the yeast to grow on media with L-serine or L-threonine as sole nitrogen source. A mutant, cha1 (catabolism of hydroxyamino acids), lacking this enzyme activity has been isolated. We have cloned the CHA1 gene by complementation of a cha1 mutation. Northern analysis showed that CHA1 mRNA has a size of about 1200 ribonucleotides. CHA1 is probably the structural gene for the enzyme; it is an abundant RNA in cells g...

1988-01-01

254

d-Xylulose Fermentation to Ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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We used commercial bakers' yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) to study the conversion of d-xylulose to ethanol in the presence of d-xylose. The rate of ethanol production increased with an increase in yeast cell density. The optimal temperature for d-xylulose fermentation was 35°C, and the optimal pH range was 4 to 6. The fermentation of d-xylulose by yeast resulted in the production of ethanol as the major product; small amounts of xylitol and glycerol were also produced. The production of xy...

Chiang, Lin-chang; Gong, Cheng-shung; Chen, Li-fu; Tsao, George T.

1981-01-01

255

Effect of calcofluor white on chitin synthases from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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The growths of Saccharomyces cerevisiae wild-type strain and another strain containing a disrupted structural gene for chitin synthase (chs1::URA3), defective in chitin synthase 1 (Chs1) but showing a new chitin synthase activity (Chs2), were affected by Calcofluor. To be effective, the interaction of Calcofluor with growing cells had to occur at around pH 6. Treatment of growing cells from these strains with the fluorochrome led to an increase in the total levels of Chs1 and Chs2 activities ...

Roncero, C.; Valdivieso, M. H.; Ribas, J. C.; Dura?n, A.

1988-01-01

256

accumulation and subcellular localisation of metal cations by saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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Uptake of Cd2+ ions m the presence or absence of glucose by a brewing strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was examined in unbuffered, buffered and pH controlled systems. Levels of Cd2+ taken up, and K+ release were influenced by the degree of pH control in each system. A time-dependent component of uptake was observed in the absence of glucose which was attributed to a degree of metabolic activity Subcellulai localisation studies determined that Cd2+ was predominantly bound by insoluble cellul...

Blackwell, Kevin J.

1998-01-01

257

Temperature-sensitive glucosamine auxotroph of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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Temperature-sensitive revertants were isolated from Saccharomyces cerevisiae D-glucosamine auxotrophs previously obtained in this laboratory (W. L. Whelan and C. E. Ballou, J. Bacteriol. 124:1545-1557, 1975). The auxotrophs lack the enzyme 2-amino-2-deoxy-D-glucose-6-phosphate ketol-isomerase (EC 5.3.1.19), and the revertants appear to be temperature sensitive in the formation of enzyme activity. The enzyme they produce under permissive conditions decays in activity at a rate comparable to th...

Ballou, L.; Grove, J. R.; Roon, R. J.; Wiggs, J.; Ballou, C. E.

1981-01-01

258

Xylulose and glucose fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in chemostat culture.  

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Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 24860 was cultivated in chemostat culture under anoxic conditions with 111.1 mmol of glucose liter-1 alone or with a mixture of 66.7 mmol of xylulose liter-1 and 111.1 mmol of glucose liter-1. The substrate consumption rate was 5.4 mmol g of cells-1 h-1 for glucose, whereas for xylulose it was 1.0 mmol g of cells-1 h-1. The ethanol yield decreased from 0.52 carbon mole of ethanol produced per carbon mole of sugar consumed during the utilization of glucose alone t...

Jeppsson, H.; Yu, S.; Hahn-ha?gerdal, B.

1996-01-01

259

Competing Crossover Pathways Act During Meiosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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In Saccharomyces cerevisiae the MSH4-MSH5, MLH1-MLH3, and MUS81-MMS4 complexes act to promote crossing over during meiosis. MSH4-MSH5, but not MUS81-MMS4, promotes crossovers that display interference. A role for MLH1-MLH3 in crossover control is less clear partly because mlh1? mutants retain crossover interference yet display a decrease in crossing over that is only slightly less severe than that seen in msh4? and msh5? mutants. We analyzed the effects of msh5?, mlh1?, and mms4? single...

Argueso, Juan Lucas; Wanat, Jennifer; Gemici, Zekeriyya; Alani, Eric

2004-01-01

260

Global analysis of RNA oxidation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oxidative RNA damage has been linked to loss of RNA function and to the development of many human age-related diseases. Consequently, a need exists for methods to identify and quantify the extent of RNA oxidation on a genome-wide basis. We developed such a method by combining affinity selection of mRNA containing 8-hydroxyguanine with high throughput DNA sequencing. We demonstrate that this assay is suitable for detecting differences in the extent of oxidation between RNA transcripts. We applied this method to the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown under physiological conditions and in response to hydrogen peroxide, and detected significantly oxidized RNA transcripts. PMID:22313409

McKinlay, Anastasia; Gerard, Wayne; Fields, Stanley

2012-02-01

 
 
 
 
261

Glycolipids of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cell  

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Total lipids of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were isolated by chloroform and methanol (2:1). Glycolipids were separated from total lipids by silicic acid chromatography. Glycolipid’s constituent sugars and fatty acids were analyzed by using Gas Liquid Chromatography. Galactose was the prominent sugar followed by mannose. Relative concentrations of fucose, mannose, galactose and glucose in the glycolipid were 5.3, 35.2, 55.1 and 4.2%. 16:0, 18:0, 18:1, 18:2 and 18:3 were the major fatty a...

Renuka Malhotra; Balwant Singh

2005-01-01

262

Telomere length constancy during aging of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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It has been proposed that a decrease in the length of telomeres with the successive rounds of DNA replication that accompany mitotic division could play a causal role in the aging process. To investigate this possibility, telomeres from cells of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that varied in replicative age were examined. No change in the lengths of the telomeres was observed in cells that had completed up to 83% of the mean life span. We conclude that the length of the telomeres i...

D Mello, N. P.; Jazwinski, S. M.

1991-01-01

263

Expression of the Cymbidium Ringspot Virus 33-Kilodalton Protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Molecular Dissection of the Peroxisomal Targeting Signal  

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Open reading frame 1 in the viral genome of Cymbidium ringspot virus encodes a 33-kDa protein (p33), which was previously shown to localize to the peroxisomal membrane in infected and transgenic plant cells. To determine the sequence requirements for the organelle targeting and membrane insertion, the protein was expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in native form (33K) or fused to the green fluorescent protein (33KGFP). Cell organelles were identified by immunolabeling of marker p...

Navarro, Beatriz; Rubino, Luisa; Russo, Marcello

2004-01-01

264

A Viable Hypomorphic Allele of the Essential IMP3 Gene Reveals Novel Protein Functions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the essential IMP3 gene encodes a component of the SSU processome, a large ribonucleoprotein complex required for processing of small ribosomal subunit RNA precursors. Mutation of the IMP3 termination codon to a sense codon resulted in a viable mutant allele producing a C-terminal elongated form of the Imp3 protein. A strain expressing the mutant allele displayed ribosome biogenesis defects equivalent to IMP3 depletion. This hypomorphic allele represented a unique...

Cosnier, Bruno; Kwapisz, Marta; Hatin, Isabelle; Namy, Olivier; Denmat, Sylvie Hermann-le; Morillon, Antonin; Rousset, Jean-pierre; Fabret, Ce?line

2011-01-01

265

Production of a thermostable fumarase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the bioconversion of fumarate to L-malate  

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The gene encoding fumarase (fum) from Thermus thermophilus was expressed in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The recombinant cells were heated at 70°C to inactivate indigenous enzymes and used for the bioconversion of fumaric acid to L-malic acid. By heating the host cells at 70°C, substrate is able to go across the heat-damaged membrane of the microorganism and a desired product can be formed. This new concept, called Synthetic Metabolic Engineering (SME), has already been applied successfu...

2011-01-01

266

Physiological and genetic analysis of the carbon regulation of the NAD-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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We found that cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have an elevated level of the NAD-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (NAD-GDH; encoded by the GDH2 gene) when grown with a nonfermentable carbon source or with limiting amounts of glucose, even in the presence of the repressing nitrogen source glutamine. This regulation was found to be transcriptional, and an upstream activation site (GDH2 UASc) sufficient for activation of transcription during respiratory growth conditions was identified. This U...

Coschigano, P. W.; Miller, S. M.; Magasanik, B.

1991-01-01

267

Biology of the Heat Shock Response and Protein Chaperones: Budding Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) as a Model System  

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Summary: The eukaryotic heat shock response is an ancient and highly conserved transcriptional program that results in the immediate synthesis of a battery of cytoprotective genes in the presence of thermal and other environmental stresses. Many of these genes encode molecular chaperones, powerful protein remodelers with the capacity to shield, fold, or unfold substrates in a context-dependent manner. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae continues to be an invaluable model for driving t...

Verghese, Jacob; Abrams, Jennifer; Wang, Yanyu; Morano, Kevin A.

2012-01-01

268

A glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing the heterologous XYL1 gene.  

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The gene XYL1, encoding a xylose reductase, from Pichia stipitis was transformed into a mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae incapable of glycerol production because of deletion of the genes GPD1 and GPD2. The transformed strain was capable of anaerobic glucose conversion in the presence of added xylose, indicating that the xylose reductase reaction can fulfill the role of the glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase reaction as a redox sink. The specific xylitol production rate obtained was 0.38 g g...

Lide?n, G.; Walfridsson, M.; Ansell, R.; Anderlund, M.; Adler, L.; Hahn-ha?gerdal, B.

1996-01-01

269

Viable nonsense mutants for the essential gene SUP45 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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Abstract Background Termination of protein synthesis in eukaryotes involves at least two polypeptide release factors (eRFs) – eRF1 and eRF3. The highly conserved translation termination factor eRF1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is encoded by the essential gene SUP45. Results We have isolated five sup45-n (n from nonsense) mutations that cause nonsense substitutions in the following amino acid positions of eRF1: Y53 ? UAA, E266 ? UA...

Moskalenko Svetlana E; Chabelskaya Svetlana V; Inge-Vechtomov Sergei G; Philippe Michel; Zhouravleva Galina A

2003-01-01

270

A common element involved in transcriptional regulation of two DNA alkylation repair genes (MAG and MGT1) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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The Saccharomyces cerevisiae MAG gene encodes a 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase that protects cells from killing by alkylating agents. MAG mRNA levels are induced not only by alkylating agents but also by DNA-damaging agents that do not produce alkylated DNA. We constructed a MAG-lacZ gene fusion to help identify the cis-acting promoter elements involved in regulating MAG expression. Deletion analysis defined the presence of one upstream activating sequence and one upstream repressing sequenc...

Xiao, W.; Singh, K. K.; Chen, B.; Samson, L.

1993-01-01

271

Analysis of the primary structure and promoter function of a pyruvate decarboxylase gene (PDC1) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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The PDC1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, encoding pyruvate decarboxylase was sequenced. The gene contains an open reading frame of 1647 base pairs. The codon usage shows the same strong bias as found for some other glycolytic enzymes. Transcription starts mainly at -30 and terminates 100 base pairs downstream of the termination codon. In some strains a second termination site, 46 base pairs upstream of the stop codon was observed. The function of the promoter region was analyzed by fusion t...

Kellermann, E.; Seeboth, P. G.; Hollenberg, C. P.

1986-01-01

272

Structural insights into the substrate tunnel of Saccharomyces cerevisiae carbonic anhydrase Nce103  

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Abstract Background The carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are involved in inorganic carbon utilization. They have been classified into six evolutionary and structural families: ?-, ?-, ?-, ?-, ?-, ?- CAs, with ?-CAs present in higher plants, algae and prokaryotes. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a single copy of ?-CA Nce103/YNL036W. Results We determined the crystal structure of Nce103 in complex with a substrate analog at 2.04 Å resolution....

Teng Yan-Bin; Jiang Yong-Liang; He Yong-Xing; He Wei-Wei; Lian Fu-Ming; Chen Yuxing; Zhou Cong-Zhao

2009-01-01

273

Regulation of Gene Expression by Glucose in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a Role for ADA2 and ADA3/NGG1  

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When Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells are transferred from poor medium to fresh medium containing glucose, they rapidly increase the transcription of a large group of genes as they resume rapid growth and accelerate progress through the cell cycle. Among those genes induced by glucose is CLN3, encoding a G1 cyclin that is thought to play a pivotal role in progression through Start. Deletion of CLN3 delays the increase in proliferation normally observed in response to glucose medium. ADA2 and AD...

Wu, Mei; Newcomb, Laura; Heideman, Warren

1999-01-01

274

Identification of the constitutive ultradian oscillator of the circadian clock (ENOX1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion library was screened based on NADH fluorescence using a 384 well plate assay and robotics to identify a yeast isolate lacking the 24 min periodic cell surface oxidase. The oxidase was shown previously to be a candidate ultradian oscillator of the yeast’s biological clock. The cDNA was cloned from a yeast overexpression library and the encoded protein was expressed in bacteria and characterized. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity was used as the cellular circadian indicator. The identified gene was YML117W which encodes a ca 126 kDa putative RNA-binding protein. The candidate ENOX1 activity from yeast had functional characteristics similar to those of other constitutive ENOX1 proteins of eukaryotes exhibiting oscillating activities with a temperature independent period length of 24 min phased by melatonin and low frequency electromagnetic fields and susceptible to inhibition by the ENOX1 inhibitor, simalikalactone D. The YML117W deletion mutant cells lacked the ENOX1 clock output present in wild type yeast. The findings identify YML117W as the ENOX1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and support its proposed function as an ultradian oscillator of the yeast biological clock.

Sara S. Dick

2013-05-01

275

Saccharomyces boulardii  

Science.gov (United States)

... is now believed to be a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast). Saccharomyces boulardii is used as medicine. ... Hansen CBS 5926), Probiotic, Probiotique, Saccharomyces, Saccharomyces boulardii, Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, S. Boulardii.

276

Introducing a New Breed of Wine Yeast: Interspecific Hybridisation between a Commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae Wine Yeast and Saccharomyces mikatae  

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Interspecific hybrids are commonplace in agriculture and horticulture; bread wheat and grapefruit are but two examples. The benefits derived from interspecific hybridisation include the potential of generating advantageous transgressive phenotypes. This paper describes the generation of a new breed of wine yeast by interspecific hybridisation between a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast strain and Saccharomyces mikatae, a species hitherto not associated with industrial fermentatio...

2013-01-01

277

Acquisition of tolerance against oxidative damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Living cells constantly sense and adapt to redox shifts by the induction of genes whose products act to maintain the cellular redox environment. In the eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae, while stationary cells possess a degree of constitutive resistance towards oxidants, treatment of exponential phase cultures with sub-lethal stresses can lead to the transient induction of protection against subsequent lethal oxidant conditions. The sensors of oxidative stress and the corresponding transcription factors that activate gene expression under these conditions have not yet been completely identified. Results We report the role of SOD1, SOD2 and TPS1 genes (which encode the cytoplasmic Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase, the mitochondrial Mn-isoform and trehalose-6-phosphate synthase, respectively in the development of resistance to oxidative stress. In all experimental conditions, the cultures were divided into two parts, one was immediately submitted to severe stress (namely: exposure to H2O2, heat shock or ethanol stress while the other was initially adapted to 40°C for 60 min. The deficiency in trehalose synthesis did not impair the acquisition of tolerance to H2O2, but this disaccharide played an essential role in tolerance against heat and ethanol stresses. We also verified that the presence of only one Sodp isoform was sufficient to improve cellular resistance to 5 mM H2O2. On the other hand, while the lack of Sod2p caused high cell sensitivity to ethanol and heat shock, the absence of Sod1p seemed to be beneficial to the process of acquisition of tolerance to these adverse conditions. The increase in oxidation-dependent fluorescence of crude extracts of sod1 mutant cells upon incubation at 40°C was approximately 2-fold higher than in sod2 and control strain extracts. Furthermore, in Western blots, we observed that sod mutants showed a different pattern of Hsp104p and Hsp26p expression also different from that in their control strain. Conclusions Trehalose seemed not to be essential in the acquisition of tolerance to H2O2 stress, but its absence was strongly felt under water stress conditions such as heat and alcoholic stresses. On the other hand, Sod1p could be involved in the control of ROS production; these reactive molecules could signal the induction of genes implicated within cell tolerance to heat and ethanol. The effects of this deletion needs further investigation.

Eleutherio Elis CA

2001-07-01

278

Beta-glucana from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: constitution, bioactivity and obtaining / Beta-glucana de Saccharomyces cerevisiae: constituição, bioatividade e obtenção  

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Full Text Available b-glucans are polysaccharides that constitute the structure of the cell wall of yeast, fungi and some cereals, which differs each other by the linkages between glucose units. An important source of these polymers is the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall, which is a yeast widely used in industrial processes of fermentation. The b-glucan is considered to be a modifier of biological response due to its immunomodulator potential. When it is recognized by specific cellular receptors, have the ability to enhance the host’s immune response. Other beneficial effects such as anticarcinogenic, antimutagenic, hypocholesterolemic and blood sugar reduction have also been related to the b-glucan. The aim of this literature review was expand scientific knowledge about the constitution and bioactivity of b-glucan, including its recognition by the immune system, as well as its obtaining from S. cerevisiae cell wall.b-glucanas são polissacarídeos constituintes estruturais da parede celular de leveduras, fungos e alguns cereais, que se diferenciam pelo tipo de ligação presente entre as unidades de glicose. Uma importante fonte destes polissacarídeos é a parede celular de Saccharomyces cerevisiae, uma levedura amplamente empregada em processos industriais de fermentação. A b-glucana é considerada um modificador da resposta biológica devido ao seu potencial imunomodulador, pois ao ser reconhecida por receptores celulares específicos tem habilidade de realçar a resposta imune do hospedeiro. Outros efeitos benéficos como anticarcinogênico, antimutagênico, hipocolesterolêmico e hipoglicêmico também têm sido relacionados à b-glucana Esta revisão de literatura teve por objetivo agregar conhecimentos científicos sobre a constituição e bioatividade da b glucana, incluindo seu reconhecimento pelo sistema imune, bem como, a obtenção a partir da parede celular de S. cerevisiae.

Raul Jorge Hernan Castro-Gómez

2008-08-01

279

Improved polyhydroxybutyrate production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae through the use of the phosphoketolase pathway.  

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The metabolic pathways of the central carbon metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are well studied and consequently S. cerevisiae has been widely evaluated as a cell factory for many industrial biological products. In this study, we investigated the effect of engineering the supply of precursor, acetyl-CoA, and cofactor, NADPH, on the biosynthesis of the bacterial biopolymer polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), in S. cerevisiae. Supply of acetyl-CoA was engineered by over-expression of genes from the ethanol degradation pathway or by heterologous expression of the phophoketolase pathway from Aspergillus nidulans. Both strategies improved the production of PHB. Integration of gapN encoding NADP(+) -dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Streptococcus mutans into the genome enabled an increased supply of NADPH resulting in a decrease in glycerol production and increased production of PHB. The strategy that resulted in the highest PHB production after 100?h was with a strain harboring the phosphoketolase pathway to supply acetyl-CoA without the need of increased NADPH production by gapN integration. The results from this study imply that during the exponential growth on glucose, the biosynthesis of PHB in S. cerevisiae is likely to be limited by the supply of NADPH whereas supply of acetyl-CoA as precursor plays a more important role in the improvement of PHB production during growth on ethanol. PMID:23456608

Kocharin, Kanokarn; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

2013-08-01

280

Heterologous carotenoid production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae induces the pleiotropic drug resistance stress response.  

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To obtain insight into the genome-wide transcriptional response of heterologous carotenoid production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the transcriptome of two different S. cerevisiae strains overexpressing carotenogenic genes from the yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous grown in carbon-limited chemostat cultures was analysed. The strains exhibited different absolute carotenoid levels as well as different intermediate profiles. These discrepancies were further sustained by the difference of the transcriptional response exhibited by the two strains. Transcriptome analysis of the strain producing high carotenoid levels resulted in specific induction of genes involved in pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR). These genes encode ABC-type and major facilitator transporters which are reported to be involved in secretion of toxic compounds out of cells. ?-Carotene was found to be secreted when sunflower oil was added to the medium of S. cerevisiae cells producing high levels of carotenoids, which was not observed when added to X. dendrorhous cells. Deletion of pdr10, one of the induced ABC transporters, decreased the transformation efficiency of a plasmid containing carotenogenic genes. The few transformants that were obtained had decreased growth rates and lower carotenoid production levels compared to a pdr5 deletion and a reference strain transformed with the same genes. Our results suggest that production of high amounts of carotenoids in S. cerevisiae leads to membrane stress, in which Pdr10 might play an important role, and a cellular response to secrete carotenoids out of the cell. PMID:20632327

Verwaal, René; Jiang, Yang; Wang, Jing; Daran, Jean-Marc; Sandmann, Gerhard; van den Berg, Johan A; van Ooyen, Albert J J

2010-12-01

 
 
 
 
281

Metabolic Engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Conversion of d-Glucose to Xylitol and Other Five-Carbon Sugars and Sugar Alcohols?  

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Recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that produce the sugar alcohols xylitol and ribitol and the pentose sugar d-ribose from d-glucose in a single fermentation step are described. A transketolase-deficient S. cerevisiae strain accumulated d-xylulose 5-phosphate intracellularly and released ribitol and pentose sugars (d-ribose, d-ribulose, and d-xylulose) into the growth medium. Expression of the xylitol dehydrogenase-encoding gene XYL2 of Pichia stipitis in the transketolase-deficient...

2007-01-01

282

Ethanolic fermentation of xylose with Saccharomyces cerevisiae harboring the Thermus thermophilus xylA gene, which expresses an active xylose (glucose) isomerase.  

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The Thermus thermophilus xylA gene encoding xylose (glucose) isomerase was cloned and expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae under the control of the yeast PGK1 promoter. The recombinant xylose isomerase showed the highest activity at 85 degrees C with a specific activity of 1.0 U mg-1. A new functional metabolic pathway in S. cerevisiae with ethanol formation during oxygen-limited xylose fermentation was demonstrated. Xylitol and acetic acid were also formed during the fermentation.

Walfridsson, M.; Bao, X.; Anderlund, M.; Lilius, G.; Bu?low, L.; Hahn-ha?gerdal, B.

1996-01-01

283

Ethanolic fermentation of xylose with Saccharomyces cerevisiae harboring the Thermus thermophilus xylA gene, which expresses an active xylose (glucose) isomerase.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Thermus thermophilus xylA gene encoding xylose (glucose) isomerase was cloned and expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae under the control of the yeast PGK1 promoter. The recombinant xylose isomerase showed the highest activity at 85 degrees C with a specific activity of 1.0 U mg-1. A new functional metabolic pathway in S. cerevisiae with ethanol formation during oxygen-limited xylose fermentation was demonstrated. Xylitol and acetic acid were also formed during the fermentation. PMID:8953736

Walfridsson, M; Bao, X; Anderlund, M; Lilius, G; Bülow, L; Hahn-Hägerdal, B

1996-12-01

284

Characterization of an MMS sensitive mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have characterized a methyl methanesulfonate sensitive mutant of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in order to learn more about DNA repair and mutagenesis in this organism. The mutation, designated mms3-1, also confers sensitivity to ultraviolet light and to ethyl methanesulfonate in both haploids and homozygous diploids. Its effect on ?-ray sensitivity, however, is a function of the ploidy of the cell and its effect on induced mutation is a function of both the ploidy of the cell and the nature of the inducing agent. Our major findings are discussed. Our data indicate that: (1) Saccharomyces cerevisiae has an error prone pathway for the repair of uv damage controlled by the MMS3 gene product operating in and only in, and possibly induced by conditions present only in, a/? diploids; (2) in diploids, at least, there exists at least one step in the error prone repair of uv induced damage which is different from a step in the error prone repair of EMS induced damage; (3) a/? mms3-1/mms3-1 diploids may be defective in a step common to the repair of mutagenic lesions following uv irradiation and lethal lesions following ? irradiation; and (4) there are steps in the repair of MMS induced lethal damage that are different from steps in the repair of EMS induced lethal damage

1979-01-01

285

A vaccine grade of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing mammalian myostatin  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a widely-used system for protein expression. We previously showed that heat-killed whole recombinant yeast vaccine expressing mammalian myostatin can modulate myostatin function in mice, resulting in increase of body weight and muscle composition in these animals. Foreign DNA introduced into yeast cells can be lost soon unless cells are continuously cultured in selection media, which usually contain antibiotics. For cost and safety concerns, it is essential to optimize conditions to produce quality food and pharmaceutical products. Results We developed a simple but effective method to engineer a yeast strain stably expressing mammalian myostatin. This method utilized high-copy-number integration of myostatin gene into the ribosomal DNA of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the final step, antibiotic selection marker was removed using the Cre-LoxP system to minimize any possible side-effects for animals. The resulting yeast strain can be maintained in rich culture media and stably express mammalian myostatin for two years. Oral administration of the recombinant yeast was able to induce immune response to myostatin and modulated the body weight of mice. Conclusions Establishment of such yeast strain is a step further toward transformation of yeast cells into edible vaccine to improve meat production in farm animals and treat human muscle-wasting diseases in the future.

Zhang Tingting

2012-12-01

286

Aquaporins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast.  

Science.gov (United States)

AQY1 and AQY2 were sequenced from five commercial and five native wine yeasts. Of these, two AQY1 alleles from UCD 522 and UCD 932 were identified that encoded three or four amino-acid changes, respectively, compared with the Sigma1278b sequence. Oocytes expressing these AQY1 alleles individually exhibited increased water permeability vs. water-injected oocytes, whereas oocytes expressing the AQY2 allele from UCD 932 did not show an increase, as expected, owing to an 11 bp deletion. Wine strains lacking Aqy1p did not show a decrease in spore fitness or enological aptitude under stressful conditions, limited nitrogen, or increased temperature. The exact role of aquaporins in wine yeasts remains unclear. PMID:16553841

Karpel, Jonathan E; Bisson, Linda F

2006-04-01

287

Dominant negative selection of heterologous genes: isolation of Candida albicans genes that interfere with Saccharomyces cerevisiae mating factor-induced cell cycle arrest.  

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We have used a genomic library of Candida albicans to transform Saccharomyces cerevisiae and screened for genes that act similarly to dominant negative mutations by interfering with pheromone-mediated cell cycle arrest. Six different plasmids were identified from 2000 transformants; four have been sequenced. One gene (CZF1) encodes a protein with structural motifs characteristic of a transcription factor. A second gene (CCN1) encodes a cyclin homologue, a third (CRL1) encodes a protein with s...

Whiteway, M.; Dignard, D.; Thomas, D. Y.

1992-01-01

288

N-Acetylglucosamine Utilization by Saccharomyces cerevisiae Based on Expression of Candida albicans NAG Genes ?  

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Synthesis of chitin de novo from glucose involves a linear pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Several of the pathway genes, including GNA1, are essential. Genes for chitin catabolism are absent in S. cerevisiae. Therefore, S. cerevisiae cannot use chitin as a carbon source. Chitin is the second most abundant polysaccharide after cellulose and consists of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) moieties. Here, we have generated S. cerevisiae strains that are able to use GlcNAc as a carbon source by exp...

Wendland, Ju?rgen; Schaub, Yvonne; Walther, Andrea

2009-01-01

289

Phycomyces blakesleeanus TRP1 gene: organization and functional complementation in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have cloned the gene encoding the TRPF and TRPC functions of Phycomyces blakesleeanus by complementation of the corresponding activities of Escherichia coli. TRPF also complemented a trpl mutation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. As in other filamentous fungi, such as Neurospora and Aspergillus spp., the P. blakesleeanus TRPF and TRPC formed part of a trifunctional polypeptide encoded by a single gene (called TRP1). Transcription of TRP1 in P. blakesleeanus did not appear to be regulated by light or by the nutritional status of the culture. The information on the structure and organization of a P. blakesleeanus gene derived from these studies should be useful in devising molecular genetic strategies to analyze the sensory physiology of this organism. Images

Revuelta, J L; Jayaram, M

1987-01-01

290

Antimicrobial action of palmarosa oil (Cymbopogon martinii) on Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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The essential oil extracted from palmarosa (Cymbopogon martinii) has proven anti-microbial properties against cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Low concentrations of the oil (0.1%) inhibited the growth of S. cerevisiae cells completely. The composition of the sample of palmarosa oil was determined as 65% geraniol and 20% geranyl acetate as confirmed by GC-FTIR. The effect of palmarosa oil in causing K(+) leakage from yeast cells was attributed mainly to geraniol. Some leakage of magnesium ions was also observed. Blocking potassium membrane channels with caesium ions before addition of palmarosa oil did not change the extent of K(+) ion leakage, which was equal to the total sequestered K(+) in the cells. Palmarosa oil led to changes in the composition of the yeast cell membrane, with more saturated and less unsaturated fatty acids in the membrane after exposure of S. cerevisiae cells to the oil. Some of the palmarosa oil was lost by volatilization during incubation of the oil with the yeast cells. The actual concentration of the oil components affecting the yeast cells could not therefore be accurately determined. PMID:12809717

Prashar, Anjali; Hili, Pauline; Veness, Robert G; Evans, Christine S

2003-07-01

291

The postmitotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae after spaceflight showed higher viability  

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The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been proposed as an ideal model organism for clarifying the biological effects caused by spaceflight conditions. The postmitotic S. cerevisiae cells onboard Practice eight recoverable satellite were subjected to spaceflight for 15 days. After recovery, the viability, the glycogen content, the activities of carbohydrate metabolism enzymes, the DNA content and the lipid peroxidation level in yeast cells were analyzed. The viability of the postmitotic yeast cells after spaceflight showed a three-fold increase as compared with that of the ground control cells. Compared to the ground control cells, the lipid peroxidation level in the spaceflight yeast cells markedly decreased. The spaceflight yeast cells also showed an increase in G2/M cell population and a decrease in Sub-G1 cell population. The glycogen content and the activities of hexokinase and succinate dehydrogenase significantly decreased in the yeast cells after spaceflight. In contrast, the activity of malate dehydrogenase showed an obvious increase after spaceflight. These results suggested that microgravity or spaceflight could promote the survival of postmitotic S. cerevisiae cells through regulating carbohydrate metabolism, ROS level and cell cycle progression.

Yi, Zong-Chun; Li, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Yan; Wang, Jie; Sun, Yan; Zhuang, Feng-Yuan

2011-06-01

292

Role of social wasps in Saccharomyces cerevisiae ecology and evolution  

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Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the most important model organisms and has been a valuable asset to human civilization. However, despite its extensive use in the last 9,000 y, the existence of a seasonal cycle outside human-made environments has not yet been described. We demonstrate the role of social wasps as vector and natural reservoir of S. cerevisiae during all seasons. We provide experimental evidence that queens of social wasps overwintering as adults (Vespa crabro and Polistes spp.) can harbor yeast cells from autumn to spring and transmit them to their progeny. This result is mirrored by field surveys of the genetic variability of natural strains of yeast. Microsatellites and sequences of a selected set of loci able to recapitulate the yeast strain’s evolutionary history were used to compare 17 environmental wasp isolates with a collection of strains from grapes from the same region and more than 230 strains representing worldwide yeast variation. The wasp isolates fall into subclusters representing the overall ecological and industrial yeast diversity of their geographic origin. Our findings indicate that wasps are a key environmental niche for the evolution of natural S. cerevisiae populations, the dispersion of yeast cells in the environment, and the maintenance of their diversity. The close relatedness of several wasp isolates with grape and wine isolates reflects the crucial role of human activities on yeast population structure, through clonal expansion and selection of specific strains during the biotransformation of fermented foods, followed by dispersal mediated by insects and other animals.

Stefanini, Irene; Dapporto, Leonardo; Legras, Jean-Luc; Calabretta, Antonio; Di Paola, Monica; De Filippo, Carlotta; Viola, Roberto; Capretti, Paolo; Polsinelli, Mario; Turillazzi, Stefano; Cavalieri, Duccio

2012-01-01

293

De novo synthesis of monoterpenes by Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeasts.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports the production of monoterpenes, which elicit a floral aroma in wine, by strains of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Terpenes, which are typical components of the essential oils of flowers and fruits, are also present as free and glycosylated conjugates amongst the secondary metabolites of certain wine grape varieties of Vitis vinifera. Hence, when these compounds are present in wine they are considered to originate from grape and not fermentation. However, the biosynthesis of monoterpenes by S. cerevisiae in the absence of grape derived precursors is shown here to be of de novo origin in wine yeast strains. Higher concentration of assimilable nitrogen increased accumulation of linalool and citronellol. Microaerobic compared with anaerobic conditions favored terpene accumulation in the ferment. The amount of linalool produced by some strains of S. cerevisiae could be of sensory importance in wine production. These unexpected results are discussed in relation to the known sterol biosynthetic pathway and to an alternative pathway for terpene biosynthesis not previously described in yeast. PMID:15668008

Carrau, Francisco M; Medina, Karina; Boido, Eduardo; Farina, Laura; Gaggero, Carina; Dellacassa, Eduardo; Versini, Giuseppe; Henschke, Paul A

2005-02-01

294

Osmo-, thermo- and ethanol- tolerances of Saccharomyces cerevisiae S1  

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Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae S1, which is a locally isolated and improved strain showed viability at 40, 45 and 50ºC and produced ethanol at 40, 43 and 45ºC. When the cells were given heat shock at 45ºC for 30min and grown at 40ºC, 100% viability was observed for 60h, and addition of 200gl-1 ethanol has led to complete cell death at 30h. Heat shock given at 45ºC (for 30min has improved the tolerance to temperature induced ethanol shock leading to 37% viability at 30h. when the cells were subjected to ethanol (200gl-1 for 30 min and osmotic shock (sorbitol 300gl-1, trehalose contents in the cells were increased. The heat shocked cells showed better viability in presence of added ethanol. Soy flour supplementation has improved the viability of S. cerevisiae S1 to 80% in presence of 100gl-1 added ethanol and to 60% in presence of 300gl-1 sorbitol. In presence of sorbitol (200gl-1 and ethanol (50gl-1 at 40ºC, 46% viability was retained by S. cerevisiae S1 at 48h and it was improved to 80% by soy flour supplementation.

Sandrasegarampillai Balakumar

2012-03-01

295

Transformations of inorganic mercury by Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans were incubated with 0.25, 0.5, or 0.75 {mu}g of Hg (as HgCl{sub 2}) per ml of Nelson's medium in the presence of trace amounts of oxygen at 28{degree}C for 12 days. Two control media were used, one without added Hg and one without yeast inoculum. Yeast cell growth was estimated after 1, 2, 3, and 8 days of incubation. The contents of organomercury in the system and of elemental mercury released from the media and collected in traps were determined at the end of the experiments. The results were as follows: (1) C. albicans was the more mercury-resistant species, but both yeast species failed to grown in the media containing 0.75 {mu}g of Hg per ml.; (2) The amounts of organomercury produced by the two species were proportional to the amount of HgCl{sub 2} added to the medium. In all cases C. albicans produced considerably larger amounts of methylmercury than S. cerevisiae; (3) The amounts of elemental Hg produced were inversely proportional to the HgCl{sub 2} level added in the case of S. cerevisiae but were all similar in the case of C. albicans;and (4) Neither organomercury nor elemental Hg was produced in any of the control media.

Yannai, S.; Berdicevsky, I.; Duek, L. (Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa (Israel))

1991-01-01

296

Production of aromatics in Saccharomyces cerevisiae--a feasibility study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aromatics are amongst the most important bulk feedstocks for the chemical industry, however, no viable bioprocess exists today and production is still dependent on petro-chemistry. In this article the production of aromatic precursors such as p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHBA) and p-amino benzoic acid (PABA) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was evaluated using metabolic network analysis. Theoretical mass yields for PHBA and for PABA obtained by metabolic network analysis were 0.58 and 0.53 g g(glucose)?¹, respectively. A major setback for microbial production of aromatics is the high toxicity of the products. Therefore, PHBA and PABA toxicity was evaluated in S. cerevisiae. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of 38.3 g L?¹ for PHBA and 0.62 g L?¹ for PABA were observed. However, PABA toxicity could be alleviated in adaptation experiments. Finally, metabolic engineering was used to create proof of principle first generation strains of S. cerevisiae. Overall accumulation of 650 ?M PHBA and 250 ?M PABA could be achieved. PMID:22579724

Krömer, Jens O; Nunez-Bernal, Dariela; Averesch, Nils J H; Hampe, Jennifer; Varela, Javier; Varela, Cristian

2013-01-20

297

Biogeographical characterisation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast by molecular methods  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biogeography is the descriptive and explanatory study of spatial patterns and processes involved in the distribution of biodiversity. Without biogeography, it would be difficult to study the diversity of microorganisms because there would be no way to visualise patterns in variation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, “the wine yeast”, is the most important species involved in alcoholic fermentation, and in vineyard ecosystems, it follows the principle of “everything is everywhere”. Agricultural practices such as farming (organic versus conventional and floor management systems have selected different populations within this species that are phylogenetically distinct. In fact, recent ecological and geographic studies highlighted that unique strains are associated with particular grape varieties in specific geographical locations. These studies also highlighted that significant diversity and regional character, or ‘terroir’, have been introduced into the winemaking process via this association. This diversity of wild strains preserves typicity, the high quality and the unique flavour of wines. Recently, different molecular methods were developed to study population dynamics of S. cerevisiae strains in both vineyards and wineries. In this review, we will provide an update on the current molecular methods used to reveal the geographical distribution of S. cerevisiae wine yeast.

RosannaTofalo

2013-06-01

298

Irradiation effects on the alcohol fermentation ability of saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Irradiation effects on the alcohol fermentation ability of saccharomyces cerevisiae. S. cerevisiae suspensions of 1.5x108 clls/ml were exposed to single and fractionated doses of gamma irradiation, i.e. 0; 0.30; 0.60; 0.90; and 1.20 kGy in aerobic condition at dose rate of 1.63 kGy/hour. The fractionated doses were given with time interval of 15, 30 and 45 minutes. The fermentation was held at 300C for 40 hours. It is seen that an increase of alcohol production was obtained when cells were irradiated at 0.60 kGy, although the result has no significant difference statistically with control. At the dose of 1.20 kGy the alcohol fermentation ability of S. cerevisiae decreased drastically as compared to control. Irradiation using single or fractionated doses with time interval of 15-45 minutes did not influence the alcohol production. Comparing the time interval of 45 minutes at 0.60 kGy and at 1.20 kGy, it appeared that the yield of alcohol was different. (author). 17 refs.; 4 figs

1987-01-01

299

Osmo-, thermo- and ethanol- tolerances of Saccharomyces cerevisiae S1  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Saccharomyces cerevisiae S1, which is a locally isolated and improved strain showed viability at 40, 45 and 50ºC and produced ethanol at 40, 43 and 45ºC. When the cells were given heat shock at 45ºC for 30min and grown at 40ºC, 100% viability was observed for 60h, and addition of 200gl-1 ethanol has [...] led to complete cell death at 30h. Heat shock given at 45ºC (for 30min) has improved the tolerance to temperature induced ethanol shock leading to 37% viability at 30h. when the cells were subjected to ethanol (200gl-1 for 30 min) and osmotic shock (sorbitol 300gl-1), trehalose contents in the cells were increased. The heat shocked cells showed better viability in presence of added ethanol. Soy flour supplementation has improved the viability of S. cerevisiae S1 to 80% in presence of 100gl-1 added ethanol and to 60% in presence of 300gl-1 sorbitol. In presence of sorbitol (200gl-1) and ethanol (50gl-1) at 40ºC, 46% viability was retained by S. cerevisiae S1 at 48h and it was improved to 80% by soy flour supplementation.

Sandrasegarampillai, Balakumar; Vasanthy, Arasaratnam.

300

Protein Enrichment of Cassava Pulp Fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine intestinal digestibility of residual components of cassava pulp solid state fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae for animal feed. Three ruminally cannulated animal were used to measure in situ rumen Dry Matter (DM and Crude Protein (CP degradability characteristics of cassava pulp solid state fermentation by S. cerevisiae. Nylon bags containing 3 g (as fed basis of each feed was immersed in duplicate at each time point in the ventral rumen of each goat for 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h. Rumen feed residues from bags of 16 h incubation were used for estimation of lower gut digestibility by the technique of in vitro pepsin-pancreatin digestion. The results of the chemical analysis indicated that fermentation was slightly improved Ruminal Undegradable Protein (RUP of cassava pulp. The highest value of RUP was significantly differ (pS. cerevisiae in cassava pulp. The present results indicate that fermented cassava pulp can improve protein content and ruminal undegradable protein content.

C. Yuangklang

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Ciclohexadespipeptide beauvericin degradation by different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The interaction between the mycotoxin beauvericin (BEA) and 9 yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae named LO9, YE-2, YE5, YE-6, YE-4, A34, A17, A42 and A08 was studied. The biological degradations were carried out under aerobic conditions in the liquid medium of Potato Dextrose Broth (PDB) at 25°C for 48 h and in a food/feed system composed of corn flour at 37°C for 3 days, respectively. BEA present in fermented medium and corn flour was determined using liquid chromatography coupled to the mass spectrometry detector in tandem (LC-MS/MS) and the BEA degradation products produced during the fermentations were determined using the technique of the liquid chromatography coupled to a linear ion trap (LIT). Results showed that the S. cerevisiae strains reduced meanly the concentration of the BEA present in PDB by 86.2% and in a food system by 71.1%. All the S. cerevisiae strains used in this study showed a significant BEA reduction during the fermentation process employed. PMID:23791659

Meca, G; Zhou, T; Li, X Z; Ritieni, A; Mañes, J

2013-09-01

302

Uranium removal from acidic aqueous solutions by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Debaryomyces hansenii, Kluyveromyces marxianus and Candida colliculosa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The sorption of uranium from acidic aqueous solutions (pH 4.5, Cinit = 10 to 1000 mg U/L) by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Debaryomyces hansenii, Kluyveromyces marxianus and Candida colliculosa was investigated using a batch technique. The U-sorption onto Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Debaryomyces hansenii followed a Langmuir, while that onto Kluyveromyces marxianus and Candida colliculosa a Freundlich isotherm. The results demonstrated that all investigated biomasses could effectively remove uranium from acidic aqueous solutions. From all sorbents, Saccharomyces cerevisiae appeared to be the most effective with a maximum sorption capacity of 127.7 mg U/g dry biomass. (author)

2009-03-01

303

Histone H1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Inhibits Transcriptional Silencing  

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Eukaryotic genomes contain euchromatic regions, which are transcriptionally active, and heterochromatic regions, which are repressed. These domains are separated by “barrier elements”: DNA sequences that protect euchromatic regions from encroachment by neighboring heterochromatin. To identify proteins that play a role in the function of barrier elements we have carried out a screen in S. cerevisiae. We recovered the gene HHO1, which encodes the yeast ortholog of histone H1, as a high-copy...

Veron, Marie; Zou, Yanfei; Yu, Qun; Bi, Xin; Selmi, Abdelkader; Gilson, Eric; Defossez, Pierre-antoine

2006-01-01

304

Capacidade fermentativa de Saccharomyces cerevisiae enriquecida com ácidos graxos / Fermentative capacity of (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) enriched with fatty acids  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Levedura de panificaçao (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) foi obtida anaerobicamente (sem e com adição dos ácidos graxos palmítico, oleico e linoleico) e aerobicamente e utilizada em ensaios de fermentação com 14% e 16% de sacarose a 32°C. Não houve diferenças significativas, quanto a viabilidade celular, [...] entre os tratamentos das leveduras com ácido oleico, ácido linoleico e aerobicamente (as quais foram ricas em palmitoleico e oleico). As leveduras enriquecidas com ácido palmítico e anaeróbicas apresentaram maior redução na viabilidade do que com ácidos graxos insaturados. Foi observado um aumento na produção de ácido pirúvico e uma redução nos álcoois superiores com a redução da viabilidade celular. Abstract in english Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was obtained anaerobically (with and without the addition of following fatty acids: palmitic, oleic and linoleic) aerobically and utilised infermentation trials with 14 and 16% of sucrose in the medium at 32°C. There were no significant differences among olei [...] c acid, linoleic acid and aerobic treatments (which were rich in palmitoleic and oleic acids) in relation to cellular viability. Yeasts enriched with palmitic acid and under anaerobic conditions showed a higher reduction on viability than those treated with unsaturated fatty acids. An increased production of pyruvic acid and a reduction in higher alcohols with a reduction on cellular viability were observed.

L.E., Gutierrez; A.V.K.O., Annicchino; L., Lucatti.

305

Comparison between two selected Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains as fermentation starters in the production of traditional cachaça  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were tested as the starter yeasts in a traditional cachaça distillery. The strains used were S. cerevisiae UFMG-A829, isolated from a cachaça fermentation process, and S. cerevisiae K1-V1116, obtained from the wine industry. The permanence of each strain in the fermentation must was determined by RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-PCR, with primer M13. Both yeast strains were prevalent in the vats for approximately 30 days. Indigenous non-Saccharomyces and indigenous S. cerevisiae strains were isolated in lower counts during the fermentation period. Indigenous S. cerevisiae strains were molecularly distinct when compared to the starter yeasts. The two yeasts appeared promising starter yeasts in the fermentation process to produce traditional cachaça.Duas linhagens de Saccharomyces cerevisiae foram testadas como iniciadoras em uma destilaria de cachaça. Foram utilizadas as linhagens de S. cerevisiae UFMG-A829, isolada de fermentação de cachaça, e S. cerevisiae K1-V1116, de origem vinícola. A permanência de cada linhagem durante a fermentação foi determinada por RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-PCR, utilizando o iniciador M13. As duas linhagens predominaram nas dornas de fermentação por aproximadamente 30 dias. Leveduras não-Saccharomyces e S. cerevisiae indígenas foram isoladas em menor proporção durante o experimento. As linhagens de S. cerevisiae indígenas apresentaram perfis moleculares distintos em relação às linhagens iniciadoras. As duas linhagens foram promissoras para serem utilizadas como iniciadoras do processo fermentativo para a produção da cachaça.

Fátima de Cássia Oliveira Gomes

2009-04-01

306

Comparison of heterologous xylose transporters in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been engineered for xylose utilization to enable production of fuel ethanol from lignocellulose raw material. One unresolved challenge is that S. cerevisiae lacks a dedicated transport system for pentose sugars, which means that xylose is transported by non-specific Hxt transporters with comparatively low transport rate and affinity for xylose. Results In this study, we compared three heterologous xylose transporters that have recently been shown to improve xylose uptake under different experimental conditions. The transporters Gxf1, Sut1 and At5g59250 from Candida intermedia, Pichia stipitis and Arabidopsis thaliana, respectively, were expressed in isogenic strains of S. cerevisiae and the transport kinetics and utilization of xylose was evaluated. Expression of the Gxf1 and Sut1 transporters led to significantly increased affinity and transport rates of xylose. In batch cultivation at 4 g/L xylose concentration, improved transport kinetics led to a corresponding increase in xylose utilization, whereas no correlation could be demonstrated at xylose concentrations greater than 15 g/L. The relative contribution of native sugar transporters to the overall xylose transport capacity was also estimated during growth on glucose and xylose. Conclusions Kinetic characterization and aerobic batch cultivation of strains expressing the Gxf1, Sut1 and At5g59250 transporters showed a direct relationship between transport kinetics and xylose growth. The Gxf1 transporter had the highest transport capacity and the highest xylose growth rate, followed by the Sut1 transporter. The range in which transport controlled the growth rate was determined to between 0 and 15 g/L xylose. The role of catabolite repression in regulation of native transporters was also confirmed by the observation that xylose transport by native S. cerevisiae transporters increased significantly during cultivation in xylose and at low glucose concentration.

Hahn-Hägerdal Bärbel

2010-03-01

307

Characterisation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell separation machinery: Sdm1 and its possible role in cell separation  

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The final act of the cell cycle in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is cell separation. Inactivation of the transcription factor encoding gene, ACE2, leads to a defect in cell separation. Ace2 plays a central role in cell separation by regulating daughter cell specific expression of endochitinase (CTS1) and at least 3 putative glucanase encoding genes, DSE2, DSE4 (ENG1) and SCW11. The products of these genes degrade the tri-laminar septum that holds mother and daughter cells together. ACE2, itself, i...

Ho, Hsueh-lui

2010-01-01

308

Expression of Mammalian Metallothionein Genes in Escherichia Coli and in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The metallothionein genes of mouse and human were expressed in Escherichia coli and in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, respectively. The mammalian metallothionein genes code for a group of proteins that are low molecular weight, rich in cysteine and capable of ...

Y. M. Hou

1986-01-01

309

ENHANCEMENT OF SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE GLUTATHIONE AND MICRONUTRIENTS CONTENT FOR NUTRACEUTICAL APPLICATIONS.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This Ph.D. research concerns nutritional and microbiological aspects, and the final aim of this project is the development of innovative food supplements formulations containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae, enriched, by biotechnological processes, with micronutrients and antioxidant molecules.

2012-01-01

310

Brazilian propolis protects Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells against oxidative stress.  

Science.gov (United States)

Propolis is a natural product widely used for humans. Due to its complex composition, a number of applications (antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, anesthetic, cytostatic and antioxidant) have been attributed to this substance. Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a eukaryotic model we investigated the mechanisms underlying the antioxidant effect of propolis from Guarapari against oxidative stress. Submitting a wild type (BY4741) and antioxidant deficient strains (ctt1?, sod1?, gsh1?, gtt1? and gtt2?) either to 15 mM menadione or to 2 mM hydrogen peroxide during 60 min, we observed that all strains, except the mutant sod1?, acquired tolerance when previously treated with 25 ?g/mL of alcoholic propolis extract. Such a treatment reduced the levels of ROS generation and of lipid peroxidation, after oxidative stress. The increase in Cu/Zn-Sod activity by propolis suggests that the protection might be acting synergistically with Cu/Zn-Sod. PMID:24516431

de Sá, Rafael A; de Castro, Frederico A V; Eleutherio, Elis C A; de Souza, Raquel M; da Silva, Joaquim F M; Pereira, Marcos D

2013-01-01

311

Isolation of thermotolerant, osmotolerant, flocculating Saccharomyces cerevisiae for ethanol production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Four thermotolerant, osmotolerant, flocculating alcohol producing cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were isolated from soil samples collected from a thermal power plant in India. All the isolates grew at 44{sup o}C but VS{sub 1} and VS{sub 3} were better than the other two. Maximum ethanol yields obtained from 150 g/l glucose were 75 and 60 g/l using culture VS{sub 3} at 30{sup o}C and 40{sup o}C, respectively. Growth and ethanol production were decreasing at 44{sup o}C so higher temperatures were not tested, but the isolates could tolerate temperatures above 44{sup o}C. All cultures belonged to class IV flocculating yeasts and were able to tolerate up to 350 g/l glucose. These cultures have economical importance for use in alcohol production during hot seasons in countries such as India. (author)

Kiran Sree, N.; Sridhar, M.; Suresh, K.; Venkateswar Rao, L. [Osmania Univ., Hyderabad (India). Dept. of Microbiology; Banat, I.M. [University of Ulster, Coleraine, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom). Biotechnology Group

2000-03-01

312

Brazilian propolis protects Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells against oxidative stress  

Science.gov (United States)

Propolis is a natural product widely used for humans. Due to its complex composition, a number of applications (antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, anesthetic, cytostatic and antioxidant) have been attributed to this substance. Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a eukaryotic model we investigated the mechanisms underlying the antioxidant effect of propolis from Guarapari against oxidative stress. Submitting a wild type (BY4741) and antioxidant deficient strains (ctt1?, sod1?, gsh1?, gtt1? and gtt2?) either to 15 mM menadione or to 2 mM hydrogen peroxide during 60 min, we observed that all strains, except the mutant sod1?, acquired tolerance when previously treated with 25 ?g/mL of alcoholic propolis extract. Such a treatment reduced the levels of ROS generation and of lipid peroxidation, after oxidative stress. The increase in Cu/Zn-Sod activity by propolis suggests that the protection might be acting synergistically with Cu/Zn-Sod.

de Sa, Rafael A.; de Castro, Frederico A.V.; Eleutherio, Elis C.A.; de Souza, Raquel M.; da Silva, Joaquim F.M.; Pereira, Marcos D.

2013-01-01

313

Tolerance of budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ultra high pressure  

Science.gov (United States)

Our studies on the tolerance of plants and animals against very high pressure of several GPa have been extended to a smaller sized fungus, the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Several pieces of budding yeast (dry yeast) were sealed in a small teflon capsule with a liquid pressure medium fluorinate, and exposed to 7.5 GPa by using a cubic anvil press. The pressure was kept constant for various duration of time from 2 to 24 h. After the pressure was released, the specimens were brought out from the teflon capsule, and they were cultivated on a potato dextrose agar. It was found that the budding yeast exposed to 7.5 GPa for up to 6 h showed multiplication. However, those exposed to 7.5 GPa for longer than 12 h were found dead. The high pressure tolerance of budding yeast is a little weaker than that of tardigrades.

Shibata, M.; Torigoe, M.; Matsumoto, Y.; Yamamoto, M.; Takizawa, N.; Hada, Y.; Mori, Y.; Takarabe, K.; Ono, F.

2014-05-01

314

Mutations in Ran system affected telomere silencing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Ran GTPase system regulates the direction and timing of several cellular events, such as nuclear-cytosolic transport, centrosome formation, and nuclear envelope assembly in telophase. To gain insight into the Ran system's involvement in chromatin formation, we investigated gene silencing at the telomere in several mutants of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which had defects in genes involved in the Ran system. A mutation of the RanGAP gene, rna1-1, caused reduced silencing at the telomere, and partial disruption of the nuclear Ran binding factor, yrb2-?2, increased this silencing. The reduced telomere silencing in rna1-1 cells was suppressed by a high dosage of the SIR3 gene or the SIT4 gene. Furthermore, hyperphosphorylated Sir3 protein accumulated in the rna1-1 mutant. These results suggest that RanGAP is required for the heterochromatin structure at the telomere in budding yeast

2007-11-23

315

Probing glycolytic and membrane potential oscillations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We have investigated glycolytic oscillations under semi-anaerobic conditions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by means of NADH fluorescence, measurements of intracellular glucose concentration, and mitochondrial membrane potential. The glucose concentration was measured using an optical nanosensor, while mitochondrial membrane potential was measured using the fluorescent dye DiOC 2(3). The results show that, as opposed to NADH and other intermediates in glycolysis, intracellular glucose is not oscillating. Furthermore, oscillations in NADH and membrane potential are inhibited by the ATP/ADP antiporter inhibitor atractyloside and high concentrations of the ATPase inhibitor N, N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, suggesting that there is a strong coupling between oscillations in mitochondrial membrane potential and oscillations in NADH mediated by the ATP/ADP antiporter and possibly also other respiratory components.

Poulsen, Allan K; Andersen, Ann Zahle

2008-01-01

316

Modeling and optimization of cloned invertase expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study is to determine the medium feeding strategy to maximize the invertase productivity of recombinant Saccharomyces Cerevisiae using a fed-batch mode of operation. The yeast contains the plasmid, pRB58, which contains the yeast SUC2 gene, coding for the enzyme invertase. The expression of this gene is repressed at high glucose levels. A Goal-oriented model is development to describe the kinetics of fed-batch fermentations. This simple model could quantitatively describe previous experimental results. A conjugate gradient algorithm is then used, in conjunction gradient algorithm is then used, in conjunction with this mathematical model, to compute the optimum feed rate for maximization of invertase productivity. The optimal feeding procedure results in an initial high cell growth phase followed by a high invertase production phase. PMID:18601292

Patkar, A; Seo, J H; Lim, H C

1993-05-01

317

Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a potential biosorbent for biosorption of uranium.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper projects the potential of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in biosorbing U (VI ion on nonliving biomass of specie in batch system with respect to pH, Biosorbent dose, Initial metal concentration, Contact time and Particle size. From the batch studies, it was found that the fungal biomass exhibited the optimum Uranium uptake at pH 5 and 100 ?m particle size, adsorbent dose of 10g/L and initial metal concentration of 100mg/L. Maximum uptake was observed after the Contact time of 75 minutes. Sorption isotherms were interpreted interms of Langmuir and Freundlich models. Equilibrium data fitted well to Langmuir model and Uptake kinetic followed pseudo-second order model. Base treatment was found to enhance the metal removal ability of untreated biomass. The mechanism of process was gained by FTIR and SEM. IR spectra analysis revealed that Carbonyl and amino groups have played important role in U (VI biosorption.

PROF. RAJESH DHANKHAR

2011-06-01

318

Recovery of some radionuclides by biosorption using immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Biosorption of 233U, 239Pu, 241Am, 144Ce, 137Cs, 103.106Ru and 90Sr from aqueous nitrate medium was studied at different pH using immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae (biomatrix). At pH 1 to 2 more than 95% sorption of U, Pu, Am and Ce could be observed, while that of Ru was 65%. Sorption of Cs and Sr were negligible. The presence of anionic components, Cl-, C2O42-, CH3COO-, NO3- and SO42- (up to 0.5 M of their individual concentration) had no effect on the sorption of Pu. About 85% of Ru was removed from high level waste fraction employing 3 contact batch experiments. (author)

2001-02-07

319

Interaction among Saccharomyces cerevisiae pheromone receptors during endocytosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates endocytosis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ?-factor receptor and the role that receptor oligomerization plays in this process. ?-factor receptor contains signal sequences in the cytoplasmic C-terminal domain that are essential for ligand-mediated endocytosis. In an endocytosis complementation assay, we found that oligomeric complexes of the receptor undergo ligand-mediated endocytosis when the ?-factor binding site and the endocytosis signal sequences are located in different receptors. Both in vitro and in vivo assays suggested that ligand-induced conformational changes in one Ste2 subunit do not affect neighboring subunits. Therefore, recognition of the endocytosis signal sequence and recognition of the ligand-induced conformational change are likely to be two independent events. PMID:24682008

Chang, Chien-I; Schandel, Kimberly A; Jenness, Duane D

2014-01-01

320

Adaptive answer to low ionizing radiation doses in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this work is to verify the existence of the adaptive response phenomenon induced by low doses of ionizing radiation in living cells. It is known that low doses of ionizing radiation, called conditioning doses, may induce resistance in exposed organisms to higher doses, called challenging doses, which are applied after a period of time. The involved mechanisms in this phenomenon, called Adaptive Response, are diverse and complex. Among them, the most important are the activation of DNA-repair enzymes and nuclear recombination process. As the 'target' sample, it was utilized a 'wild type' strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in aqueous suspension. Adaptive Response was verified in a wide range of challenging doses. Conditioning doses, inductors of radio-resistance, were (0.44±0.03) Gy and the waiting time between them and challenging doses was 2 hours at room temperature.(author)

2001-05-04

 
 
 
 
321

Structural properties of Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein complex network  

CERN Document Server

Recent studies indicate that protein complexes rather than individual proteins are the functional units of the cell. A first step in the understanding of integration and coordination of these cellular functions is a comprehensive study of the structural features of the network of connections between these complexes. We use the recently obtained data based on tandem-affinity purification (TAP) and mass spectrometry, to study the structural features of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein complex network. We find striking similarities and differences between the structural properties of the networks of proteins and protein complexes. The network of complexes is still a small world network with scale free distributions for many of its properties (e.g. connectivity and size of complexes). However in contrast to the protein network, we find no correlations between the degrees of neighbouring complexes. There is also no correlation between the size of neighbouring complexes. Finally we propose a simple evolut...

Ramezanpour, A; Karimipour, V

2003-01-01

322

Pyrimidine-specific cleavage by an endoribonuclease of Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An endoribonuclease with pyrimidine cleavage site specificity was isolated from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The enzyme had a pH optimum of 6 to 7 and did not require a divalent cation. It was inhibited by 5 x 10"-"5 M hetidium bromide, although it appeared to be single strand specific. The enzyme gave a limited cleavage of yeast mRNA and rRNA, yielding products that were terminated with pyrimidine nucleoside 2',3'-cyclic phosphate. The bonds between pyrimidine and A residues constituted more than 90% of the scission sites when the average product size was 50 nucloetides. Homopolyribonucleotides were cleaved poorly. Poly(A,U) was cleaved rapidly, and analysis of the products of poly(A,U) hydrolysis showed a very stringent cleavage of U-A bonds

1985-01-01

323

The Influence of Microgravity on Invasive Growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates the effects of microgravity on colony growth and the morphological transition from single cells to short invasive filaments in the model eukaryotic organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Two-dimensional spreading of the yeast colonies grown on semi-solid agar medium was reduced under microgravity in the ?1278b laboratory strain but not in the CMBSESA1 industrial strain. This was supported by the ?1278b proteome map under microgravity conditions, which revealed upregulation of proteins linked to anaerobic conditions. The ?1278b strain showed a reduced invasive growth in the center of the yeast colony. Bud scar distribution was slightly affected, with a switch toward more random budding. Together, microgravity conditions disturb spatially programmed budding patterns and generate strain-dependent growth differences in yeast colonies on semi-solid medium.

Van Mulders, Sebastiaan E.; Stassen, Catherine; Daenen, Luk; Devreese, Bart; Siewers, Verena; van Eijsden, Rudy G. E.; Nielsen, Jens; Delvaux, Freddy R.; Willaert, Ronnie

2011-01-01

324

Higher-order structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromatin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have developed a method for partially purifying chromatin from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast) to a level suitable for studies of its higher-order folding. This has required the use of yeast strains that are free of the ubiquitous yeast killer virus. Results from dynamic light scattering, electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction show that the yeast chromatin undergoes a cation-dependent folding into 30-nm filaments that resemble those characteristic of higher-cell chromatin; moreover, the packing of nucleosomes within the yeast 30-nm filaments is similar to that of higher cells. These results imply that yeast has a protein or protein domain that serves the role of the histone H 1 found in higher cells; physical and genetic studies of the yeast activity could help elucidate the structure and function of H 1. Images of the yeast 30-nm filaments can be used to test crossed-linker models for 30-nm filament structure

1989-01-01

325

Anaplerotic role for cytosolic malic enzyme in engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malic enzyme catalyzes the reversible oxidative decarboxylation of malate to pyruvate and CO(2). The Saccharomyces cerevisiae MAE1 gene encodes a mitochondrial malic enzyme whose proposed physiological roles are related to the oxidative, malate-decarboxylating reaction. Hitherto, the inability of pyruvate carboxylase-negative (Pyc(-)) S. cerevisiae strains to grow on glucose suggested that Mae1p cannot act as a pyruvate-carboxylating, anaplerotic enzyme. In this study, relocation of malic enzyme to the cytosol and creation of thermodynamically favorable conditions for pyruvate carboxylation by metabolic engineering, process design, and adaptive evolution, enabled malic enzyme to act as the sole anaplerotic enzyme in S. cerevisiae. The Escherichia coli NADH-dependent sfcA malic enzyme was expressed in a Pyc(-) S. cerevisiae background. When PDC2, a transcriptional regulator of pyruvate decarboxylase genes, was deleted to increase intracellular pyruvate levels and cells were grown under a CO(2) atmosphere to favor carboxylation, adaptive evolution yielded a strain that grew on glucose (specific growth rate, 0.06 ± 0.01 h(-1)). Growth of the evolved strain was enabled by a single point mutation (Asp336Gly) that switched the cofactor preference of E. coli malic enzyme from NADH to NADPH. Consistently, cytosolic relocalization of the native Mae1p, which can use both NADH and NADPH, in a pyc1,2? pdc2? strain grown under a CO(2) atmosphere, also enabled slow-growth on glucose. Although growth rates of these strains are still low, the higher ATP efficiency of carboxylation via malic enzyme, compared to the pyruvate carboxylase pathway, may contribute to metabolic engineering of S. cerevisiae for anaerobic, high-yield C(4)-dicarboxylic acid production. PMID:21131518

Zelle, Rintze M; Harrison, Jacob C; Pronk, Jack T; van Maris, Antonius J A

2011-02-01

326

Enhancing volatile phenol concentrations in wine by expressing various phenolic acid decarboxylase genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phenolic acids, which are generally esterified with tartaric acid, are natural constituents of grape must and wine and can be released as free acids (principally p-coumaric, caffeic, and ferulic acids) by certain cinnamoyl esterase activities during the wine-making process. Some of the microorganisms present in grape can metabolize the free phenolic acids into 4-vinyl and 4-ethyl derivatives. These volatile phenols contribute to the aroma of wine. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae phenyl acrylic acid decarboxylase gene (PAD1) is steadily transcribed, but its encoded product, Pad1p, shows low activity. In contrast, the phenolic acid decarboxylase (PADC) from Bacillus subtilis and the p-coumaric acid decarboxylase (PDC) from Lactobacillus plantarum display substrate-inducible decarboxylating activity in the presence of phenolic acids. In an attempt to develop wine yeasts with optimized decarboxylation activity on phenolic acids, the padc, pdc, and PAD1 genes were cloned under the control of S. cerevisiae's constitutive phosphoglyceratekinase I gene promoter (PGK1(P)()) and terminator (PGK1(T)()) sequences. These gene constructs were integrated into the URA3 locus of a laboratory strain of S. cerevisiae, Sigma1278b. The overexpression of the two bacterial genes, padc and pdc, in S. cerevisiae showed high enzyme activity. However, this was not the case for PAD1. The padc and pdc genes were also integrated into an industrial wine yeast strain, S. cerevisiae VIN13. As an additional control, both alleles of PAD1 were disrupted in the VIN13 strain. In microvinification trials, all of the laboratory and industrial yeast transformants carrying the padc and pdc gene constructs showed an increase in volatile phenol formation as compared to the untransformed host strains (Sigma1278b and VIN13). This study offers prospects for the development of wine yeast starter strains with optimized decarboxylation activity on phenolic acids and the improvement of wine aroma in the future. PMID:12903944

Smit, Annél; Cordero Otero, Ricardo R; Lambrechts, Marius G; Pretorius, Isak S; Van Rensburg, Pierre

2003-08-13

327

Functional Survey for Heterologous Sugar Transport Proteins, Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a Host?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Molecular transport is a key process in cellular metabolism. This step is often limiting when using a nonnative carbon source, as exemplified by xylose catabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. As a step toward addressing this limitation, this study seeks to characterize monosaccharide transport preference and efficiency. A group of 26 known and putative monosaccharide transport proteins was expressed in a recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae host unable to transport several monosaccharides. A ...

2011-01-01

328

Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yeast on Tibia Bone Characteristics in Rabbits  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effect of feeding different levels of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae on tibial bone characteristics of the New Zealand rabbits was studied. An experiment of 85 days duration was conducted with male 5-6 weeks old rabbits. There were 3 dietary treatments each consisting of 7 rabbits in each. The treatments were containing 0 (control), 2 and 4 g kg-1 yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in their diet, respectively. At the end of the experiment the right tibia of rabbits ...

Ilker Arican

2012-01-01

329

Screening of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with respect to anaerobic growth in non-detoxified lignocellulose hydrolysate  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A microplate screening method was used to assess anaerobic growth of 12 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in barley straw, spruce and wheat straw hydrolysate. The assay demonstrated significant differences in inhibitor tolerance among the strains. In addition, growth inhibition by the three hydrolysates differed so that wheat hydrolysate supported growth up to 70%, while barley hydrolysate only supported growth up to 50%, with dilute-acid spruce hydrolysate taking an intermediate position. Keyword: Screening,Lignocellulose hydrolysate,Bioethanol,Yeast,Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Almeida, João Ricardo M.; Karhumaa, Kaisa

2009-01-01

330

In vitro susceptibility testing and DNA typing of Saccharomyces cerevisiae clinical isolates.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Saccharomyces spp. are widely distributed in nature and may colonize the normal human gastrointestinal tract. Although Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates have been previously considered nonpathogenic, they appear to be increasingly associated with infections in immunocompromised or otherwise debilitated patients. The antifungal susceptibility and epidemiology of S. cerevisiae are poorly defined at present. A series of 76 isolates (mostly stool surveillance and throat swab isolates) from 70 bon...

Zerva, L.; Hollis, R. J.; Pfaller, M. A.

1996-01-01

331

Influence of organic acids and organochlorinated insecticides on metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Saccharomyces cerevisiae is exposed to different stress factors during the production: osmotic, temperature, oxidative. The response to these stresses is the adaptive mechanism of cells. The raw materials Saccharomyces cerevisiae is produced from, contain metabolism products of present microorganisms and protective agents used during the growth of sugar beet for example the influence of acetic and butyric acid and organochlorinated insecticides, lindan and heptachlor, on the metabolism of Sac...

Pejin Dušanka J.; Vasi? Vesna M.

2005-01-01

332

Repair of UV-damaged incoming plasmid DNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A whole-cell transformation assay was used for the repair of UV-damaged plasma DNA in highly-transformable haploid strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae having different repair capabilities. The experiments described demonstrate that three epistasis groups (Friedberg 1988) are involved in the repair of UV-incoming DNA and that the repair processes act less efficiently on incoming DNA than they do on chromosomal DNA. The implications of these findings for UV repair in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed. (author)

1990-01-01

333

Water treatment process and system for metals removal using Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Science.gov (United States)

A process and a system for removal of metals from ground water or from soil by bioreducing or bioaccumulating the metals using metal tolerant microorganisms Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is tolerant to the metals, able to bioreduce the metals to the less toxic state and to accumulate them. The process and the system is useful for removal or substantial reduction of levels of chromium, molybdenum, cobalt, zinc, nickel, calcium, strontium, mercury and copper in water.

Krauter, Paula A. W. (Livermore, CA); Krauter, Gordon W. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01

334

Engineering of vesicle trafficking improves heterologous protein secretion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a widely used platform for the production of heterologous proteins of medical or industrial interest. However, heterologous protein productivity is often restricted due to the limitations of the host strain. In the protein secretory pathway, the protein trafficking between different organelles is catalyzed by the soluble NSF (N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor) receptor (SNARE) complex and regulated by the Sec1/Munc18 (SM) proteins. In this study, we report that over-expression of the SM protein encoding genes SEC1 and SLY1, improves the protein secretion in S. cerevisiae. Engineering Sec1p, the SM protein that is involved in vesicle trafficking from Golgi to cell membrane, improves the secretion of heterologous proteins human insulin precursor and ?-amylase, and also the secretion of an endogenous protein invertase. Enhancing Sly1p, the SM protein regulating the vesicle fusion from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to Golgi, increases ?-amylase production only. Our study demonstrates that strengthening the protein trafficking in ER-to-Golgi and Golgi-to-plasma membrane process is a novel secretory engineering strategy for improving heterologous protein production in S. cerevisiae. PMID:22265825

Hou, Jin; Tyo, Keith; Liu, Zihe; Petranovic, Dina; Nielsen, Jens

2012-03-01

335

Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the production of n-butanol  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

BackgroundIncreasing energy costs and environmental concerns have motivated engineering microbes for the production of ?second generation? biofuels that have better properties than ethanol.Results& ConclusionsSaccharomyces cerevisiae was engineered with an n-butanol biosynthetic pathway, in which isozymes from a number of different organisms (S. cerevisiae, Escherichia coli, Clostridium beijerinckii, and Ralstonia eutropha) were substituted for the Clostridial enzymes and their effect on n-butanol production was compared. By choosing the appropriate isozymes, we were able to improve production of n-butanol ten-fold to 2.5 mg/L. The most productive strains harbored the C. beijerinckii 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase, which uses NADH as a co-factor, rather than the R. eutropha isozyme, which uses NADPH, and the acetoacetyl-CoA transferase from S. cerevisiae or E. coli rather than that from R. eutropha. Surprisingly, expression of the genes encoding the butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase from C. beijerinckii (bcd and etfAB) did not improve butanol production significantly as previously reported in E. coli. Using metabolite analysis, we were able to determine which steps in the n-butanol biosynthetic pathway were the most problematic and ripe for future improvement.

Steen, EricJ.; Chan, Rossana; Prasad, Nilu; Myers, Samuel; Petzold, Christopher; Redding, Alyssa; Ouellet, Mario; Keasling, JayD.

2008-11-25

336

Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the production of n-butanol  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing energy costs and environmental concerns have motivated engineering microbes for the production of "second generation" biofuels that have better properties than ethanol. Results and conclusion Saccharomyces cerevisiae was engineered with an n-butanol biosynthetic pathway, in which isozymes from a number of different organisms (S. cerevisiae, Escherichia coli, Clostridium beijerinckii, and Ralstonia eutropha were substituted for the Clostridial enzymes and their effect on n-butanol production was compared. By choosing the appropriate isozymes, we were able to improve production of n-butanol ten-fold to 2.5 mg/L. The most productive strains harbored the C. beijerinckii 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase, which uses NADH as a co-factor, rather than the R. eutropha isozyme, which uses NADPH, and the acetoacetyl-CoA transferase from S. cerevisiae or E. coli rather than that from R. eutropha. Surprisingly, expression of the genes encoding the butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase from C. beijerinckii (bcd and etfAB did not improve butanol production significantly as previously reported in E. coli. Using metabolite analysis, we were able to determine which steps in the n-butanol biosynthetic pathway were the most problematic and ripe for future improvement.

Myers Samuel

2008-12-01

337

Characterization of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant with oversecretion phenotype.  

Science.gov (United States)

An oversecreting mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was obtained from about 400 meiotic segregants derived from thediploid cells made by crossing the HBsAg-induced mutant NI-C with the wild-type strain Sey6211. When transformed with a plasmid containing mouse alpha-amylase cDNA, the mutant (NI-C-D4) exhibited an increased capacity (up to 13-fold) for the secretion of mouse alpha-amylase, higher than the parental strains and other standard wild-type strains. It was also shown that alpha-amylase secreted by the oversecreting mutant had a higher activity and contained more of the non-glycosylated form than the glycosylated form. This isolated oversecreting, low-glycosylation mutant may prove to be a potential S. cerevisiae host for the production of foreign proteins. Further genetic analysis suggested that the mutation responsible for the mutant's oversecretion was partially dominant and that both the oversecretion and low-glycosylation phenotypes were governed by a single chromosome mutation. These pleiotrophic phenotypes may be attributed to a defect in the synthesis of an ER-resident chaperone. PMID:11525619

Wang, B D; Chen, D C; Kuo, T T

2001-06-01

338

Production of recombinant Agaricus bisporus tyrosinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been demonstrated that Agaricus bisporus tyrosinase is able to oxidize various phenolic compounds, thus being an enzyme of great importance for a number of biotechnological applications. The tyrosinase-coding PPO2 gene was isolated by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using total RNA extracted from the mushroom fruit bodies as template. The gene was sequenced and cloned into pYES2 plasmid, and the resulting pY-PPO2 recombinant vector was then used to transform Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by enzymatic activity staining with L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) indicated that the recombinant tyrosinase is biologically active. The recombinant enzyme was overexpressed and biochemically characterized, showing that the catalytic constants of the recombinant tyrosinase were higher than those obtained when a commercial tyrosinase was used, for all the tested substrates. The present study describes the recombinant production of A. bisporus tyrosinase in active form. The produced enzyme has similar properties to the one produced in the native A. bisporus host, and its expression in S. cerevisiae provides good potential for protein engineering and functional studies of this important enzyme. PMID:22996308

Lezzi, Chiara; Bleve, Gianluca; Spagnolo, Stefano; Perrotta, Carla; Grieco, Francesco

2012-12-01

339

High level secretion of cellobiohydrolases by Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The main technological impediment to widespread utilization of lignocellulose for the production of fuels and chemicals is the lack of low-cost technologies to overcome its recalcitrance. Organisms that hydrolyze lignocellulose and produce a valuable product such as ethanol at a high rate and titer could significantly reduce the costs of biomass conversion technologies, and will allow separate conversion steps to be combined in a consolidated bioprocess (CBP. Development of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for CBP requires the high level secretion of cellulases, particularly cellobiohydrolases. Results We expressed various cellobiohydrolases to identify enzymes that were efficiently secreted by S. cerevisiae. For enhanced cellulose hydrolysis, we engineered bimodular derivatives of a well secreted enzyme that naturally lacks the carbohydrate-binding module, and constructed strains expressing combinations of cbh1 and cbh2 genes. Though there was significant variability in the enzyme levels produced, up to approximately 0.3 g/L CBH1 and approximately 1 g/L CBH2 could be produced in high cell density fermentations. Furthermore, we could show activation of the unfolded protein response as a result of cellobiohydrolase production. Finally, we report fermentation of microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel™ to ethanol by CBH-producing S. cerevisiae strains with the addition of beta-glucosidase. Conclusions Gene or protein specific features and compatibility with the host are important for efficient cellobiohydrolase secretion in yeast. The present work demonstrated that production of both CBH1 and CBH2 could be improved to levels where the barrier to CBH sufficiency in the hydrolysis of cellulose was overcome.

Ahlgren Simon

2011-09-01

340

Stoichiometry and compartmentation of NADH metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, reduction of NAD(+) to NADH occurs in dissimilatory as well as in assimilatory reactions. This review discusses mechanisms for reoxidation of NADH in this yeast, with special emphasis on the metabolic compartmentation that occurs as a consequence of the impermeability of the mitochondrial inner membrane for NADH and NAD(+). At least five mechanisms of NADH reoxidation exist in S. cerevisiae. These are: (1) alcoholic fermentation; (2) glycerol production; (3) respiration of cytosolic NADH via external mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenases; (4) respiration of cytosolic NADH via the glycerol-3-phosphate shuttle; and (5) oxidation of intramitochondrial NADH via a mitochondrial 'internal' NADH dehydrogenase. Furthermore, in vivo evidence indicates that NADH redox equivalents can be shuttled across the mitochondrial inner membrane by an ethanol-acetaldehyde shuttle. Several other redox-shuttle mechanisms might occur in S. cerevisiae, including a malate-oxaloacetate shuttle, a malate-aspartate shuttle and a malate-pyruvate shuttle. Although key enzymes and transporters for these shuttles are present, there is as yet no consistent evidence for their in vivo activity. Activity of several other shuttles, including the malate-citrate and fatty acid shuttles, can be ruled out based on the absence of key enzymes or transporters. Quantitative physiological analysis of defined mutants has been important in identifying several parallel pathways for reoxidation of cytosolic and intramitochondrial NADH. The major challenge that lies ahead is to elucidate the physiological function of parallel pathways for NADH oxidation in wild-type cells, both under steady-state and transient-state conditions. This requires the development of techniques for accurate measurement of intracellular metabolite concentrations in separate metabolic compartments. PMID:11152939

Bakker, B M; Overkamp, K M; van Maris AJ; Kötter, P; Luttik, M A; van Dijken JP; Pronk, J T

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Heat shock response improves heterologous protein secretion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a widely used platform for the production of heterologous proteins of medical or industrial interest. However, heterologous protein productivity is often low due to limitations of the host strain. Heat shock response (HSR) is an inducible, global, cellular stress response, which facilitates the cell recovery from many forms of stress, e.g., heat stress. In S. cerevisiae, HSR is regulated mainly by the transcription factor heat shock factor (Hsf1p) and many of its targets are genes coding for molecular chaperones that promote protein folding and prevent the accumulation of mis-folded or aggregated proteins. In this work, we over-expressed a mutant HSF1 gene HSF1-R206S which can constitutively activate HSR, so the heat shock response was induced at different levels, and we studied the impact of HSR on heterologous protein secretion. We found that moderate and high level over-expression of HSF1-R206S increased heterologous ?-amylase yield 25 and 70 % when glucose was fully consumed, and 37 and 62 % at the end of the ethanol phase, respectively. Moderate and high level over-expression also improved endogenous invertase yield 118 and 94 %, respectively. However, human insulin precursor was only improved slightly and this only by high level over-expression of HSF1-R206S, supporting our previous findings that the production of this protein in S. cerevisiae is not limited by secretion. Our results provide an effective strategy to improve protein secretion and demonstrated an approach that can induce ER and cytosolic chaperones simultaneously. PMID:23208612

Hou, Jin; Osterlund, Tobias; Liu, Zihe; Petranovic, Dina; Nielsen, Jens

2013-04-01

342

Heat shock response improves heterologous protein secretion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a widely used platform for the production of heterologous proteins of medical or industrial interest. However, heterologous protein productivity is often low due to limitations of the host strain. Heat shock response (HSR) is an inducible, global, cellular stress response, which facilitates the cell recovery from many forms of stress, e.g., heat stress. In S. cerevisiae, HSR is regulated mainly by the transcription factor heat shock factor (Hsf1p) and many of its targets are genes coding for molecular chaperones that promote protein folding and prevent the accumulation of mis-folded or aggregated proteins. In this work, we over-expressed a mutant HSF1 gene HSF1-R206S which can constitutively activate HSR, so the heat shock response was induced at different levels, and we studied the impact of HSR on heterologous protein secretion. We found that moderate and high level over-expression of HSF1-R206S increased heterologous α-amylase yield 25 and 70 % when glucose was fully consumed, and 37 and 62 % at the end of the ethanol phase, respectively. Moderate and high level over-expression also improved endogenous invertase yield 118 and 94 %, respectively. However, human insulin precursor was only improved slightly and this only by high level over-expression of HSF1-R206S, supporting our previous findings that the production of this protein in S. cerevisiae is not limited by secretion. Our results provide an effective strategy to improve protein secretion and demonstrated an approach that can induce ER and cytosolic chaperones simultaneously.

Hou, Jin; Ã?sterlund, Tobias

2013-01-01

343

Engineered production of fungal anticancer cyclooligomer depsipeptides in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two fungal cyclooligomer depsipeptide synthetases(CODSs), BbBEAS (352 kDa) and BbBSLS (348 kDa) from Beauveria bassiana ATCC7159, were reconstituted in Saccharomyces cerevisiae BJ5464-NpgA, leading to the production of the corresponding anticancer natural products, beauvericins and bassianolide, respectively. The titers of beauvericins (33.8 ± 1.4 mg/l) and bassianolide (21.7± 0.1 mg/l) in the engineered S. cerevisiae BJ5464-NpgA strains were comparable to those in the native producer B. bassiana. Feeding D-hydroxyisovaleric acid (D-Hiv) and the corresponding L-amino acid precursors improved the production of beauvericins and bassianolide. However, the high price of D-Hiv limits its application in large-scale production of these cyclooligomer depsipeptides. Alternatively, we engineered another enzyme, ketoisovalerate reductase (KIVR) from B. bassiana, into S. cerevisiae BJ5464-NpgA for enhanced in situ synthesis of this expensive substrate. Co-expression of BbBEAS and KIVR in the yeast led to significant improvement of the production of beauvericins.The total titer of beauvericin and its congeners (beauvericins A-C) was increased to 61.7 ± 3.0 mg/l and reached 2.6-fold of that in the native producer B. bassiana ATCC7159. Supplement of L-Val at 10 mM improved the supply of ketoisovalerate, the substrate of KIVR, which consequently further increased the total titer of beauvericins to 105.8 ± 2.1 mg/l. Using this yeast system,we functionally characterized an unknown CODS from Fusarium venenatum NRRL 26139 as a beauvericin synthetase, which was named as FvBEAS. Our work thus provides a useful approach for functional reconstitution and engineering of fungal CODSs for efficient production of this family of anticancer molecules. PMID:23608474

Yu, Dayu; Xu, Fuchao; Zi, Jiachen; Wang, Siyuan; Gage, David; Zeng, Jia; Zhan, Jixun

2013-07-01

344

Endocarditis verrucosa secundaria a Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Caso clínico Saccharomyces cerevisiae endocarditis in a preterm infant: Report of one case  

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Full Text Available We report a preterm infant with 30 weeks of gestation, that received broad spectrum antimicrobials during the first days of life. At nine days of life, the infant appeared with abdominal distension and hematochezia. A systolic murmur with changing auscultatory features also appeared. An echocardiography showed an atrial vegetation. A yeast, that was identified as the emergent pathogen Saccharomyces cerevisiae appeared in two blood cultures. Treatment with amphotericin B was started, the dose was adjusted calculating the minimal inhibitory concentration of amphotericin B, and measuring plasma levels of the antimicrobial. Therefore the minimal effective dose was prescribed, avoiding its deleterious effects. After 14 days of antifungal therapy, a new echocardiography showed a reduction in the size of the atrial vegetation. At 35 days, it disappeared and amphotericin B was discontinued. On the outpatient follow up, the infant has shown a normal growth and a normal cardiac auscultation (Rev Méd Chile 2002; 130: 1165-9

Fernando Ruiz-Esquide E

2002-10-01

345

Estudo do equilíbrio e cinética da biossorção do pb2+ por saccharomyces cerevisiae Equilibrium and kinetic study of pb2+ biosorption by saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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Full Text Available The biosorption, based on the use of biomass for removal of ions is distinguished as an innovative and promising technology when compared with the traditional methods. In this context, the aim of the present work is to use Saccharomyces cerevisiae as biosorbent for the retention of Pb2+ metal ions. Factorial design was used for evaluation of the process. The observed equilibrium data were well described by Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. The maximum adsorption capacity was 1486.88 mg/g. The results indicated that Saccharomyces cerevisiae is suitable for biosorption of Pb2+ metal ions.

Joelma Morais Ferreira

2007-10-01

346

Reconstruction of the biosynthetic pathway for the core fungal polyketide scaffold rubrofusarin in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND: Fungal polyketides include commercially important pharmaceuticals and food additives, e.g. the cholesterol-lowering statins and the red and orange monascus pigments. Presently, production relies on isolation of the compounds from the natural producers, and systems for heterologous production in easily fermentable and genetically engineerable organisms, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli are desirable. Rubrofusarin is an orange polyketide pigment that is a common intermediate in many different fungal biosynthetic pathways. RESULTS: In this study, we established a biosynthetic pathway for rubrofusarin in S. cerevisiae. First, the Fusarium graminearum gene encoding polyketide synthase 12 (PKS12) was heterologously co-expressed with the Aspergillus fumigatus gene encoding phosphopantetheinyl transferase (npgA) resulting in production of YWA1. This aromatic heptaketide intermediate was converted into nor-rubrofusarin upon expression of the dehydratase gene aurZ from the aurofusarin gene cluster of F. graminearum. Final conversion into rubrofusarin was achieved by expression of the O-methyltransferase encoding gene aurJ, also obtained from the aurofusarin gene cluster, resulting in a titer of 1.1 mg/L. Reduced levels of rubrofusarin were detected when expressing PKS12, npgA, and aurJ alone, presumably due to spontaneous conversion of YWA1 to nor-rubrofusarin. However, the co-expression of aurZ resulted in an approx. six-fold increase in rubrofusarin production. CONCLUSIONS: The reconstructed pathway for rubrofusarin in S. cerevisiae allows the production of a core scaffold molecule with a branch-point role in several fungal polyketide pathways, thus paving the way for production of further natural pigments and bioactive molecules. Furthermore, the reconstruction verifies the suggested pathway, and as such, it is the first example of utilizing a synthetic biological "bottom up" approach for the validation of a complex fungal polyketide pathway. PMID:23557488

Rugbjerg, Peter; Naesby, Michael; Mortensen, Uffe H; Frandsen, Rasmus Jn

2013-04-01

347

Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the production of n-butanol  

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Abstract Background Increasing energy costs and environmental concerns have motivated engineering microbes for the production of "second generation" biofuels that have better properties than ethanol. Results and conclusion Saccharomyces cerevisiae was engineered with an n-butanol biosynthetic pathway, in which isozymes from a number of different organisms (S. cerevisiae, Escherichia coli, Clostridium beijerinckii, and ...

Steen Eric J; Chan Rossana; Prasad Nilu; Myers Samuel; Petzold Christopher J; Redding Alyssa; Ouellet Mario; Keasling Jay D

2008-01-01

348

ISOLATION OF A CYTOCHROME P-450 STRUCTURAL GENE FROM SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE  

Science.gov (United States)

We have transformed a Saccharomyces cerevisiae host with an S. cerevisiae genomic library contained in the shuttle vector YEp24 and screened the resultant transformants for resistance to ketoconazole (Kc), an inhibitor of the cytochrome P-450 (P-450) enzyme lanosterol 14-demethyl...

349

Regulatory mechanisms controlling expression of the DAN/TIR mannoprotein genes during anaerobic remodeling of the cell wall in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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The DAN/TIR genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encode homologous mannoproteins, some of which are essential for anaerobic growth. Expression of these genes is induced during anaerobiosis and in some cases during cold shock. We show that several heme-responsive mechanisms combine to regulate DAN/TIR gene expression. The first mechanism employs two repression factors, Mox1 and Mox2, and an activation factor, Mox4 (for mannoprotein regulation by oxygen). The genes encoding these proteins were ide...

Abramova, N. E.; Cohen, B. D.; Sertil, O.; Kapoor, R.; Davies, K. J.; Lowry, C. V.

2001-01-01

350

Viabilidade celular de Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultivada em associação com bactérias contaminantes da fermentação alcoólica Cellular viability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultivated in association with contaminant bacteria of alcoholic fermentation  

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O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a influência de bactérias dos gêneros Bacillus e Lactobacillus, bem como de seus produtos metabólicos, na redução da viabilidade celular de leveduras Saccharomyces cerevisiae. As bactérias Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus stearothermophilus, Lactobacillus fermentum e Lactobacillus plantarum foram cultivadas em associação com a levedura S. cerevisiae (cepa Y-904) por 72 horas a 32 °C, sob agitação. A viabilidade celular, a tax...

2007-01-01

351

Genome-wide identification of genes required for growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under ethanol stress  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion collection was screened for impaired growth on glucose-based complex medium containing 6% ethanol. Forty-six mutants were found. Genes encoding proteins involved in vacuolar function, the cell integrity pathway, mitochondrial function, subunits of the co-chaperone complex GimC and components of the SAGA transcription factor complex were in this way found to be important for the growth of wild-type Saccharomyces yeast in the presence of ethanol. Several mutants were also sensitive to Calcofluor white (14 mutants), sorbic acid (9), increased temperature (5) and NaCl (3). The transcription factors Msn2p and Ars1p, tagged with green fluorescent protein, were translocated to the nucleus upon ethanol stress. Only one of the genes that contain STRE elements in the promoter was important under ethanol stress; this was TPS1, encoding trehalose 6-phosphate synthase. The map kinase of the cell integrity pathway, Slt2p, was phosphorylated when cells were treated with 6% ethanol. Two out of three mutants tested fermented 20% glucose more slowly than the wild-type. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

van Voorst, Frank; Houghton-Larsen, Jens

2006-01-01

352

Improved extracellular phytase activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by modifications in the PHO system.  

Science.gov (United States)

Myo-inositol hexaphosphate (IP6, phytate) is a potent anti-nutritional compound occurring in many plant-based staple foods, limiting the bioavailability of important nutrients such as iron and zinc. The objective of the present study was to investigate different strategies to achieve high and constitutive extracellular IP6 degradation by Baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. By deleting either of the genes PHO80 and PHO85, encoding negative regulators of the transcription of the repressible acid phosphatases (rAPs), the IP6 degradation became constitutive, and the biomass specific IP6 degradation was increased manyfold. In addition, the genes encoding the transcriptional activator Pho4p and the major rAP Pho5p were overexpressed in both a wild-type and a pho80delta strain, yielding an additional increase in IP6 degradation. It has previously been proved possible to increase human iron bioavailability by degradation of IP6 using microbial phytase. A high-phytase S. cerevisiae strain, without the use of any heterologous DNA, may be a suitable organism for the production of food-grade phytase and for the direct use in food production. PMID:16476497

Veide, Jenny; Andlid, Thomas

2006-04-15

353

Enhancing sesquiterpene production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae through in silico driven metabolic engineering  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A genome-scale metabolic model was used to identify new target genes for enhanced biosynthesis of sesquiterpenes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The effect of gene deletions on the flux distributions in the metabolic model of S. cerevisiae was assessed using OptGene as the modeling framework and minimization of metabolic adjustments (MOMA) as objective function. Deletion of NADPH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase encoded by GDH1 was identified as the best target gene for the improvement of sesquiterpene biosynthesis in yeast. Deletion of this gene enhances the available NADPH in the cytosol for other NADPH requiring enzymes, including HMG-CoA reductase. However, since disruption of GDH1 impairs the ammonia utilization, simultaneous over-expression of the NADH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase encoded by GDH2 was also considered in this study. Deletion of GDH1 led to an approximately 85% increase in the final cubebol titer. However, deletion of this gene also caused a significant decrease in the maximum specific growth rate. Over-expression of GDH2 did not show a further effect on the final cubebol titer but this alteration significantly improved the growth rate compared to the GDH1 deleted strain.

Asadollahi, Mohammadali; Maury, Jerome

2009-01-01

354

Killer toxin of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y500-4L active against Fleischmann and Itaiquara commercial brands of yeast Toxina "killer" de Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y500-4L ativa contra leveduras comerciais Fleischmann e Itaiquara  

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Full Text Available The strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y500-4L, previously selected from the must of alcohol producing plants and showing high fermentative and killer capacities, was characterized according to the interactions between the yeasts and examined for curing and detection of dsRNA plasmids, which code for the killer character. The killer yeast S. cerevisiae Y500-4L showed considerable killer activity against the Fleischmann and Itaiquara commercial brands of yeast and also against the standard killer yeasts K2 (S. diastaticus NCYC 713, K4 (Candida glabrata NCYC 388 and K11 (Torulopsis glabrata ATCC 15126. However S. cerevisiae Y500-4L showed sensitivity to the killer toxin produced by the standard killer yeasts K8 (Hansenula anomala NCYC 435, K9 (Hansenula mrakii NCYC 500, K10 (Kluyveromyces drosophilarum NCYC 575 and K11 (Torulopsis glabrata ATCC 15126. No M-dsRNA plasmid was detected in the S. cerevisiae Y500-4L strain and these results suggest that the genetic basis for toxin production is encoded by chromosomal DNA. The strain S. cerevisiae Y500-4L was more resistant to the loss of the phenotype killer with cycloheximide and incubation at elevated temperatures (40oC than the standard killer yeast S. cerevisiae K1.A linhagem de Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y500-4L com alta capacidade fermentativa e atividade "killer", previamente selecionada de mosto de fermentação de usina de álcool, foi caracterizada quanto ao espectro de atividade e quanto à perda do caracter "killer". A linhagem "killer" de S. cerevisiae Y500-4L, mostrou alta atividade "killer" contra as leveduras comerciais Fleischmann e Itaiquara, e também contra as linhagens "killer" padrões K2 (S. diastaticus NCYC 713, K4 (Candida glabrata NCYC 388 e K11 (Torulopsis glabrata ATCC 15126 e mostrou ser sensível às toxinas produzidas pelas leveduras padrões "killer" K8 (Hansenula anomala NCYC 435, K9 (Hansenula mrakii NCYC 500, K10 (Kluyveromyces drosophilarum NCYC 575 e K11 (Torulopsis glabrata ATCC 15126. A linhagem de S. cerevisiae Y500-4L não apresentou plasmídio M-dsRNA e, provavelmente, o caracter genético responsável pelo fenótipo "killer" é codificado por genes cromossomais. Em ensaios para a perda do fenótipo, a linhagem S. cerevisiae Y500-4L apresentou maior resistência ao tratamento com cicloheximida e a temperatura elevada (40oC do que a levedura S. cerevisiae padrão "killer" K1.

Giselle A.M. Soares

1999-07-01

355

Killer toxin of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y500-4L active against Fleischmann and Itaiquara commercial brands of yeast / Toxina "killer" de Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y500-4L ativa contra leveduras comerciais Fleischmann e Itaiquara  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A linhagem de Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y500-4L com alta capacidade fermentativa e atividade "killer", previamente selecionada de mosto de fermentação de usina de álcool, foi caracterizada quanto ao espectro de atividade e quanto à perda do caracter "killer". A linhagem "killer" de S. cerevisiae Y500 [...] -4L, mostrou alta atividade "killer" contra as leveduras comerciais Fleischmann e Itaiquara, e também contra as linhagens "killer" padrões K2 (S. diastaticus NCYC 713), K4 (Candida glabrata NCYC 388) e K11 (Torulopsis glabrata ATCC 15126) e mostrou ser sensível às toxinas produzidas pelas leveduras padrões "killer" K8 (Hansenula anomala NCYC 435), K9 (Hansenula mrakii NCYC 500), K10 (Kluyveromyces drosophilarum NCYC 575) e K11 (Torulopsis glabrata ATCC 15126). A linhagem de S. cerevisiae Y500-4L não apresentou plasmídio M-dsRNA e, provavelmente, o caracter genético responsável pelo fenótipo "killer" é codificado por genes cromossomais. Em ensaios para a perda do fenótipo, a linhagem S. cerevisiae Y500-4L apresentou maior resistência ao tratamento com cicloheximida e a temperatura elevada (40oC) do que a levedura S. cerevisiae padrão "killer" K1. Abstract in english The strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y500-4L, previously selected from the must of alcohol producing plants and showing high fermentative and killer capacities, was characterized according to the interactions between the yeasts and examined for curing and detection of dsRNA plasmids, which code for t [...] he killer character. The killer yeast S. cerevisiae Y500-4L showed considerable killer activity against the Fleischmann and Itaiquara commercial brands of yeast and also against the standard killer yeasts K2 (S. diastaticus NCYC 713), K4 (Candida glabrata NCYC 388) and K11 (Torulopsis glabrata ATCC 15126). However S. cerevisiae Y500-4L showed sensitivity to the killer toxin produced by the standard killer yeasts K8 (Hansenula anomala NCYC 435), K9 (Hansenula mrakii NCYC 500), K10 (Kluyveromyces drosophilarum NCYC 575) and K11 (Torulopsis glabrata ATCC 15126). No M-dsRNA plasmid was detected in the S. cerevisiae Y500-4L strain and these results suggest that the genetic basis for toxin production is encoded by chromosomal DNA. The strain S. cerevisiae Y500-4L was more resistant to the loss of the phenotype killer with cycloheximide and incubation at elevated temperatures (40oC) than the standard killer yeast S. cerevisiae K1.

Giselle A.M., Soares; Hélia H., Sato.

356

[Mutational analysis of the starch utilization system in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae].  

Science.gov (United States)

Seven mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae deficient in production of extracellular glucoamylase have been analyzed. For each of the seven a monogenic pattern of inheriting the mutant phenotype has been observed. The mutations have been shown to map within five different genetic loci, three independent mutations affecting the STA2 locus and the other four residing in four formerly unidentified genes. As expected, the sta2 mutants recover the wild phenotype when transformed with a STA2-bearing multicopy plasmid. Such reversion has also been observed for the transformed stall mutant. Unlike the others, the sta16 mutant is unable to secrete heterologous alpha-amylase encoded by a plasmid-borne DNA fragment. All the mutants have a moderately reduced ability to secrete the invertase and acid phosphatase. PMID:2199827

Kuchin, S V; Ne?stat, M A; Mashko, S V; Gerasimenko, O G; Benevolenski?, S V

1990-05-01

357

Four genes responsible for a position effect on expression from HML and HMR in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mating type interconversion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae occurs by transposition of copies of the a or ? mating type cassettes from inactive loci, HML and HMR, to an active locus, MAT. The lack of expression of the a and ? genes at the silent loci results from repression by trans-acting regulators encoded by SIR (Silent Information Regulator) genes. In this paper the authors present evidence for the existence of four SIR genes. Inactivation of any of these genes leads to expression of cassettes at both HML and HMR. Unusual complementation properties are observed for a number of sir mutations. Specifically, some recessive mutations in different genes fail to complement. The correspondence between SIR1, SIR2, SIR3, SIR4 and other genes with similar roles (MAR, CMT, STE8 and STE9) is presented

1987-01-01

358

Physiological variants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kloeckera apiculata from palm wine and cashew juice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Physiological variants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kloeckera apiculata have been identified in oil palm wine and cashew juice from Nigeria. Genomic DNA from the four S. cerevisiae variants had a % G + C of 36-41% while that of K. apiculata was 32.2%. Fermentation of cashew juice produced wine of alcoholic contents of 10% with S. cerevisiae, 8% with K. apiculata and 9.3% with both yeasts simultaneously. PMID:2196256

Owuama, C I; Saunders, J R

1990-05-01

359

Analysis of Key Factors Affecting Ethanol Production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae IFST-072011  

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Ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae is affected not only by fermentation conditions (temperature, pH and sugar concentration) but also by the intrinsic factors e.g., culture medium, dissolved O2, immobilization and other micronutrients. In order to investigate the influence of key factors on ethanol production by S. cerevisiae, a laboratory strain S. cerevisiae IFST-072011 was used in this study. Several fermentation runs were carried out varyi...

Md. Fakruddin; Md. Abdul Quayum; Monzur Morshed Ahmed; Naiyyum Choudhury

2012-01-01

360

Overexpression of Sbe2p, a Golgi Protein, Results in Resistance to Caspofungin in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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Caspofungin inhibits the synthesis of 1, 3-?-d-glucan, an essential cell wall target in fungi. Genetic studies in the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have shown that mutations in FKS1 and FKS2 genes result in caspofungin resistance. However, direct demonstration of the role of gene overexpression in caspofungin resistance has been lacking. We transformed wild-type S. cerevisiae with an S. cerevisiae URA3-based GAL1 cDNA library and selected transformants in glucose synthetic complete pl...

Osherov, Nir; May, Gregory S.; Albert, Nathaniel D.; Kontoyiannis, D. P.

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Utilization by Saccharomyces cerevisiae of 5'-methylthioadenosine as a source of both purine and methionine.  

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Cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are normally impermeable to the purine nucleosides adenosine and 5'-deoxy-5'-methylthioadenosine (MTA), a product of polyamine biosynthesis. cordycepin-sensitive, adenosine-utilizing strains of S. cerevisiae were able to use MTA to fulfill an auxotrophic requirement for purine. Cordycepin-sensitive strains carrying a met5 mutation were also able to use MTA as a source of methionine. These MTA-utilizing strains of S. cerevisiae should be useful for m...

Cone, M. C.; Marchitto, K.; Zehfus, B.; Ferro, A. J.

1982-01-01

362

Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD) provides tools to identify and analyze sequences from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and related sequences from other organisms  

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The Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD; http://www.yeastgenome.org/), a scientific database of the molecular biology and genetics of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has recently developed several new resources that allow the comparison and integration of information on a genome-wide scale, enabling the user not only to find detailed information about individual genes, but also to make connections across groups of genes with common features and across different species. The Fungal Alignmen...

Christie, Karen R.; Weng, Shuai; Balakrishnan, Rama; Costanzo, Maria C.; Dolinski, Kara; Dwight, Selina S.; Engel, Stacia R.; Feierbach, Becket; Fisk, Dianna G.; Hirschman, Jodi E.; Hong, Eurie L.; Issel-tarver, Laurie; Nash, Robert; Sethuraman, Anand; Starr, Barry

2004-01-01

363

[Saccharomyces cerevisiae fungemia in an elderly patient following probiotic treatment].  

Science.gov (United States)

Saccharomyces cerevisiae, known as baker's yeast, is also used as a probiotic agent to treat gastroenteritis by modulating the endogenous flora and immune system. However, since there have been increasing reports of fungemia due to S.cerevisiae and its subspecies S.boulardii, it is recommended that probiotics should be cautiously used in immunosuppressed patients, people with underlying diseases and low-birth weight babies. To emphasize this phenomenon, in this report, a case of S.cerevisiae fungemia developed in a patient given probiotic treatment for antibiotic-associated diarrhea, was presented. An 88-year-old female patient was admitted to our hospital with left hip pain, hypotension, and confusion. Her medical history included hypertension, chronic renal failure, left knee replacement surgery, and recurrent urinary tract infections due to neurogenic bladder. She was transferred to the intensive care unit with the diagnosis of urosepsis. After obtaining blood and urine samples for culture, empirical meropenem (2 x 500 mg) and linezolid (1 x 600 mg) treatment were administered. A central venous catheter (CVC) was inserted and after one day of inotropic support, her hemodynamic parameters were stabilized. The urine culture obtained on admission yielded extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. Urine culture was repeated after three days and no bacteria were isolated. On the 4th day of admission she developed diarrhea. Toxin A/B tests for Clostridium difficile were negative. To releive diarrhea, S.boulardii (Reflor 250 mg capsules, Sanofi Aventis, Turkey) was administered twice a day, without opening capsules. Two days later, her C-reactive protein (CRP) level increased from 23.2 mg/L to 100 mg/L without fever. Her blood culture taken from the CVC yielded S.cerevisiae. Linezolid and meropenem therapies were stopped on the 13th and 14th days, respectively, while prophylactic fluconazole therapy was replaced with caspofungin 1 x 50 mg on the fifth day. After seven days of therapy CRP and serum creatinine levels decreased to 9.1 mg/L and 1.2 mg/dl, respectively; and she was discharged from the hospital with improvement. The probiotic capsules were used unopen, thus, it was proposed that S.cerevisiae fungemia originated from translocation from the intestinal mucosa. Since it was not possible to investigate the molecular genetics of the strain isolated from the blood culture and the strain present in the probiotic, a definite conclusion about the origin of the strain could not be reached. It was thought that old age and underlying disease of the patient were the related predisposing factors for S.cerevisiae fungemia. This case emphasized that clinicians should be cautious in case of probiotic application eventhough in encapsulated form, even in immunocompetent patients with a history of long-term hospital stay and use of broad-spectrum antimicrobials since there may be a risk of S.cerevisiae fungemia development. PMID:24819274

Eren, Zehra; Gurol, Ye?im; Sonmezoglu, Meral; Eren, Hatice Seyma; Celik, Gülden; Kantarci, Gülçin

2014-04-01

364

Improved galactose fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae through inverse metabolic engineering.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although Saccharomyces cerevisiae is capable of fermenting galactose into ethanol, ethanol yield and productivity from galactose are significantly lower than those from glucose. An inverse metabolic engineering approach was undertaken to improve ethanol yield and productivity from galactose in S. cerevisiae. A genome-wide perturbation library was introduced into S. cerevisiae, and then fast galactose-fermenting transformants were screened using three different enrichment methods. The characterization of genetic perturbations in the isolated transformants revealed three target genes whose overexpression elicited enhanced galactose utilization. One confirmatory (SEC53 coding for phosphomannomutase) and two novel targets (SNR84 coding for a small nuclear RNA and a truncated form of TUP1 coding for a general repressor of transcription) were identified as overexpression targets that potentially improve galactose fermentation. Beneficial effects of overexpression of SEC53 may be similar to the mechanisms exerted by overexpression of PGM2 coding for phosphoglucomutase. While the mechanism is largely unknown, overexpression of SNR84, improved both growth and ethanol production from galactose. The most remarkable improvement of galactose fermentation was achieved by overexpression of the truncated TUP1 (tTUP1) gene, resulting in unrivalled galactose fermentation capability, that is 250% higher in both galactose consumption rate and ethanol productivity compared to the control strain. Moreover, the overexpression of tTUP1 significantly shortened lag periods that occurs when substrate is changed from glucose to galactose. Based on these results we proposed a hypothesis that the mutant Tup1 without C-terminal repression domain might bring in earlier and higher expression of GAL genes through partial alleviation of glucose repression. mRNA levels of GAL genes (GAL1, GAL4, and GAL80) indeed increased upon overexpression of tTUP. The results presented in this study illustrate that alteration of global regulatory networks through overexpression of the identified targets (SNR84 and tTUP1) is as effective as overexpression of a rate limiting metabolic gene (PGM2) in the galactose assimilation pathway for efficient galactose fermentation in S. cerevisiae. In addition, these results will be industrially useful in the biofuels area as galactose is one of the abundant sugars in marine plant biomass such as red seaweed as well as cheese whey and molasses. PMID:21246509

Lee, Ki-Sung; Hong, Min-Eui; Jung, Suk-Chae; Ha, Suk-Jin; Yu, Byung Jo; Koo, Hyun Min; Park, Sung Min; Seo, Jin-Ho; Kweon, Dae-Hyuk; Park, Jae Chan; Jin, Yong-Su

2011-03-01

365

Pex11-related Proteins in Peroxisome Dynamics: A Role for the Novel Peroxin Pex27p in Controlling Peroxisome Size and Number in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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Transcriptome profiling identified the gene PEX25 encoding Pex25p, a peroxisomal membrane peroxin required for the regulation of peroxisome size and maintenance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Pex25p is related to a protein of unknown function encoded by the open reading frame, YOR193w, of the S. cerevisiae genome. Yor193p is a peripheral peroxisomal membrane protein that exhibits high sequence similarity not only to Pex25p but also to the peroxisomal membrane peroxin Pex11p. Unlike Pex25p and P...

2003-01-01

366

Characterization and gene expression profiles of thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates from Thai fruits.  

Science.gov (United States)

For industrial applications, fermentation of ethanol at high temperature offers advantages such as reduction in cooling costs, reduced risk of microbial contamination and higher efficiency of fermentation processes including saccharification and continuous ethanol stripping. Three thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates (C3723, C3751 and C3867) from Thai fruits were capable of growing and producing 38 g/L ethanol up to 41°C. Based on genetic analyses, these isolates were prototrophic and homothallic, with dominant homothallic and thermotolerant phenotypes. After short-term (30 min) and long-term (12 h) exposure at 37°C, expression levels increased for the heat stress-response genes HSP26, SSA4, HSP82, and HSP104 encoding the heat shock proteins small HSP, HSP70, HSP90 and the HSP100 family, respectively. In isolates C3723 and C3867, expression was significantly higher than that in reference isolates W303 and TISTR5606 for TPS1 encoding trehalose-6-phosphate synthase, NTH1 encoding neutral trehalase and GSY1 encoding glycogen synthase. The results suggested that continuous high expression of heat stress-response genes was important for the long-term, heat stress tolerance of these thermotolerant isolates. PMID:22579450

Auesukaree, Choowong; Koedrith, Preeyaporn; Saenpayavai, Pornpon; Asvarak, Thipa; Benjaphokee, Suthee; Sugiyama, Minetaka; Kaneko, Yoshinobu; Harashima, Satoshi; Boonchird, Chuenchit

2012-08-01

367

Kinetic modelling reveals current limitations in the production of ethanol from xylose by recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Saccharomyces cerevisiae lacks the ability to ferment the pentose sugar xylose that is the second most abundant sugar in nature. Therefore two different xylose catabolic pathways have been heterologously expressed in S. cerevisiae. Whereas the xylose reductase (XR)-xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) pathway leads to the production of the by-product xylitol, the xylose isomerase (XI) pathway results in significantly lower xylose consumption. In this study, kinetic models including the reactions ranging from xylose transport into the cell to the phosphorylation of xylulose to xylulose 5-P were constructed. They were used as prediction tools for the identification of putative targets for the improvement of xylose utilization in S. cerevisiae strains engineered for higher level of the non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) enzymes, higher xylulokinase and inactivated GRE3 gene encoding an endogenous NADPH-dependent aldose reductase. For both pathways, the in silico analyses identified a need for even higher xylulokinase (XK) activity. In a XR-XDH strain expressing an integrated copy of the Escherichia coli XK encoding gene xylB about a six-fold reduction of xylitol formation was confirmed under anaerobic conditions. Similarly overexpression of the xylB gene in a XI strain increased the aerobic growth rate on xylose by 21%. In contrast to the in silico predictions, the aerobic growth also increased 24% when the xylose transporter gene GXF1 from Candida intermedia was overexpressed together with xylB in the XI strain. Under anaerobic conditions, the XI strains overexpressing xylB gene and the combination of xylB and GFX1 genes consumed 27% and 37% more xylose than the control strain. PMID:21642010

Parachin, Nádia Skorupa; Bergdahl, Basti; van Niel, Ed W J; Gorwa-Grauslund, Marie F

2011-09-01

368

ACÚMULO DE CÁDMIO POR Saccharomyces cerevisiae FERMENTANDO MOSTO DE MELAÇO  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho visou o estudo do acúmulo de cádmio (Cd) por Saccharomyces cerevisiae, fermentando mosto de melaço com contaminações controladas em níveis sub-tóxicos do citado metal. As condições de fermentação foram similares às reinantes na produção industrial de etanol. O mosto, não esterili [...] zado, continha 12% de açúcares redutores totais (ART) e pH 4,5. Para a contaminação controlada empregou-se dois sais de cádmio, cloreto e acetato e, quatro níveis de contaminação 0,5; 1,0; 2,0 e 5,0 mg Cd.kg-1 mosto. A inoculação do mosto foi executada com fermento de panificação (10% p/p). Após a fermentação (4 horas) foram determinados, porcentagem de fermento no vinho centrifugado e teor alcoólico. Na levedura separada foram determinados peso úmido, matéria seca, proteína bruta e teores de cádmio por espectrofotometria de absorção atômica. Em todos os níveis de contaminação estudados houve acúmulo de Cd pela levedura e diminuição do rendimento em etanol. Abstract in english The aim of this paper was to study the cadmium (Cd) accumulation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermenting wort of molasses, under sub-toxic levels of controlled cadmium contamination. Fermentation conditions were similar to industrial alcohol production. Non-sterelized wort had 12% of total reducing s [...] ugars (w/w) and pH 4.5. For the controlled contamination, two cadmium salts were used (chloride and acetate), at four levels of contamination: 0.5; 1.0; 2.0 and 5.0 mg Cd.kg-1 wort. The inoculation of the wort was carried out with commercial bread yeast (10% w/w). After fermentation (4 hours), samples were evaluated for cellular viability, alcohol content and yeast percentage in the centrifuged wine. The centrifuged yeast cells were evaluated for total fresh and dry weight, total protein, and cadmium concentration by atomic absortion spectroscopy. In all Cd levels, there was cadmium accumulation by yeast and a decrease in ethanol yield.

L.G. do, PRADO-FILHO; R.N., DOMINGOS; S.M.G. da, SILVA.

369

Septins localize to microtubules during nutritional limitation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, nutrient limitation stimulates diploid cells to undergo DNA replication and meiosis, followed by the formation of four haploid spores. Septins are a family of proteins that assemble a ring structure at the mother-daughter neck during vegetative growth, where they control cytokinesis. In sporulating cells, the septin ring disassembles and septins relocalize to the prospore membrane. Results Here, we demonstrate that nutrient limitation triggers a change in the localization of at least two vegetative septins (Cdc10 and Cdc11 from the bud neck to the microtubules. The association of Cdc10 and Cdc11 with microtubules persists into meiosis, and they are found associated with the meiotic spindle until the end of meiosis II. In addition, the meiosis-specific septin Spr28 displays similar behavior, suggesting that this is a common feature of septins. Septin association to microtubules is a consequence of the nutrient limitation signal, since it is also observed when haploid cells are incubated in sporulation medium and when haploid or diploid cells are grown in medium containing non-fermentable carbon sources. Moreover, during meiosis II, when the nascent prospore membrane is formed, septins moved from the microtubules to this membrane. Proper organization of the septins on the membrane requires the sporulation-specific septins Spr3 and Spr28. Conclusion Nutrient limitation in S. cerevisiae triggers the sporulation process, but it also induces the disassembly of the septin bud neck ring and relocalization of the septin subunits to the nucleus. Septins remain associated with microtubules during the meiotic divisions and later, during spore morphogenesis, they are detected associated to the nascent prospore membranes surrounding each nuclear lobe. Septin association to microtubules also occurs during growth in non-fermentable carbon sources.

Vázquez de Aldana Carlos R

2008-10-01

370

Introducing a new breed of wine yeast: interspecific hybridisation between a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast and Saccharomyces mikatae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Interspecific hybrids are commonplace in agriculture and horticulture; bread wheat and grapefruit are but two examples. The benefits derived from interspecific hybridisation include the potential of generating advantageous transgressive phenotypes. This paper describes the generation of a new breed of wine yeast by interspecific hybridisation between a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast strain and Saccharomyces mikatae, a species hitherto not associated with industrial fermentation environs. While commercially available wine yeast strains provide consistent and reliable fermentations, wines produced using single inocula are thought to lack the sensory complexity and rounded palate structure obtained from spontaneous fermentations. In contrast, interspecific yeast hybrids have the potential to deliver increased complexity to wine sensory properties and alternative wine styles through the formation of novel, and wider ranging, yeast volatile fermentation metabolite profiles, whilst maintaining the robustness of the wine yeast parent. Screening of newly generated hybrids from a cross between a S. cerevisiae wine yeast and S. mikatae (closely-related but ecologically distant members of the Saccharomyces sensu stricto clade), has identified progeny with robust fermentation properties and winemaking potential. Chemical analysis showed that, relative to the S. cerevisiae wine yeast parent, hybrids produced wines with different concentrations of volatile metabolites that are known to contribute to wine flavour and aroma, including flavour compounds associated with non-Saccharomyces species. The new S. cerevisiae x S. mikatae hybrids have the potential to produce complex wines akin to products of spontaneous fermentation while giving winemakers the safeguard of an inoculated ferment. PMID:23614011

Bellon, Jennifer R; Schmid, Frank; Capone, Dimitra L; Dunn, Barbara L; Chambers, Paul J

2013-01-01

371

Potential RNA Binding Proteins in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Identified as Suppressors of Temperature-Sensitive Mutations in Npl3  

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The NPL3 gene of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a protein with similarity to heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs). Npl3p has been implicated in many nuclear-related events including RNA export, protein import, and rRNA processing. Several temperature-sensitive alleles of NPL3 have been isolated. We now report the sequence of these alleles. For one allele, npl3-1, four complementation groups of suppressors have been isolated. The cognate genes for the two recessive mut...

Henry, M.; Borland, C. Z.; Bossie, M.; Silver, P. A.

1996-01-01

372

Isolation of a metal-activated transcription factor gene from Candida glabrata by complementation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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Metal-inducible transcription of metallothionein (MT) genes involves the interaction of metal-responsive trans-acting factors with specific promoter DNA sequence elements. In this report, we present a genetic selection using the baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to clone a gene from Candida glabrata encoding a metal-activated DNA-binding protein denoted AMT1. This selection is based on the ability of the AMT1 gene product to activate expression of the C. glabrata MT-I gene in a copper-...

Zhou, P. B.; Thiele, D. J.

1991-01-01

373

Differential Azole Antifungal Efficacies Contrasted Using a Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain Humanized for Sterol 14?-Demethylase at the Homologous Locus?  

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Inhibition of sterol-14?-demethylase, a cytochrome P450 (CYP51, Erg11p), is the mode of action of azole antifungal drugs, and with high frequencies of fungal infections new agents are required. New drugs that target fungal CYP51 should not inhibit human CYP51, although selective inhibitors of the human target are also of interest as anticholesterol agents. A strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that was humanized with respect to the amino acids encoded at the CYP51 (ERG11) yeast locus (BY4741:...

Parker, J. E.; Merkamm, M.; Manning, N. J.; Pompon, D.; Kelly, S. L.; Kelly, D. E.

2008-01-01

374

Molecular Analysis of the Candida albicans Homolog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae MNN9, Required for Glycosylation of Cell Wall Mannoproteins  

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The fungal cell wall has generated interest as a potential target for developing antifungal drugs, and the genes encoding glucan and chitin in fungal pathogens have been studied to this end. Mannoproteins, the third major component of the cell wall, contain mannose in either O- or N-glycosidic linkages. Here we describe the molecular analysis of the Candida albicans homolog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae MNN9, a gene required for the synthesis of N-linked outer-chain mannan in yeast, and the phe...

Southard, Susan B.; Specht, Charles A.; Mishra, Chitra; Chen-weiner, Joan; Robbins, Phillips W.

1999-01-01

375

Control of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae regulatory gene PET494: transcriptional repression by glucose and translational induction by oxygen.  

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The product of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae nuclear gene PET494 is required to promote the translation of the mitochondrial mRNA encoding cytochrome c oxidase subunit III (coxIII). The level of cytochrome c oxidase activity is affected by several different environmental conditions, which also influence coxIII expression. We have studied the regulation of PET494 to test whether the level of its expression might modulate coxIII translation in response to these conditions. A pet494::lacZ fusion ...

Marykwas, D. L.; Fox, T. D.

1989-01-01

376

A glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing the heterologous XYL1 gene.  

Science.gov (United States)

The gene XYL1, encoding a xylose reductase, from Pichia stipitis was transformed into a mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae incapable of glycerol production because of deletion of the genes GPD1 and GPD2. The transformed strain was capable of anaerobic glucose conversion in the presence of added xylose, indicating that the xylose reductase reaction can fulfill the role of the glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase reaction as a redox sink. The specific xylitol production rate obtained was 0.38 g g-1 h-1. PMID:8837449

Lidén, G; Walfridsson, M; Ansell, R; Anderlund, M; Adler, L; Hahn-Hägerdal, B

1996-10-01

377

The Amino Terminus of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA Helicase Rrm3p Modulates Protein Function Altering Replication and Checkpoint Activity  

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The Pif1 family of DNA helicases is conserved from yeast to humans. Although the helicase domains of family members are well conserved, the amino termini of these proteins are not. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome encodes two Pif1 family members, Rrm3p and Pif1p, that have very different functions. To determine if the amino terminus of Rrm3p contributes to its role in promoting fork progression at >1000 discrete chromosomal sites, we constructed a deletion series that lacked portions of th...

Bessler, Jessica B.; Zakian, Virginia A.

2004-01-01

378

Exo1 Roles for Repair of DNA Double-Strand Breaks and Meiotic Crossing Over in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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The MRE11, RAD50, and XRS2 genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are involved in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) produced by ionizing radiation and by radiomimetic chemicals such as methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). In these mutants, single-strand DNA degradation in a 5? to 3? direction from DSB ends is reduced. Multiple copies of the EXO1 gene, encoding a 5? to 3? double-strand DNA exonuclease, were found to suppress the high MMS sensitivity of these mutants. The exo1 single m...

Tsubouchi, Hideo; Ogawa, Hideyuki

2000-01-01

379

Substrate specificities of the ntg1 and ntg2 proteins of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for oxidized DNA bases are not identical.  

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Two genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, NTG1 and NTG2, encode proteins with a significant sequence homology to the endonuclease III of Escherichia coli. The Ntg1 and Ntg2 proteins were overexpressed in E.coli and purified to apparent homogeneity. The substrate specificity of Ntg1 and Ntg2 proteins for modified bases in oxidatively damaged DNA was investigated using gas chromatography/isotope-dilution mass spectrometry. The substrate used was calf-thymus DNA exposed to gamma-radiation in N2O-sa...

Sentu?rker, S.; Auffret Kemp, P.; You, H. J.; Doetsch, P. W.; Dizdaroglu, M.; Boiteux, S.

1998-01-01

380

Evidence for a modulation of neutral trehalase activity by Ca2+ and cAMP signaling pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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Saccharomyces cerevisiae neutral trehalase (encoded by NTH1) is regulated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and by an endogenous modulator protein. A yeast strain with knockouts of CMK1 and CMK2 genes (cmk1cmk2) and its isogenic control (CMK1CMK2) were used to investigate the role of CaM kinase II in the in vitro activation of neutral trehalase during growth on glucose. In the exponential growth phase, cmk1cmk2 cells exhibited basal trehalase activity and an activation ratio by PKA very ...

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Responsiveness to Exogenous Camp of a Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Strain Conferred by Naturally Occurring Alleles of Pde1 and Pde2  

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The Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain P-28-24C, from which cAMP requiring mutants derived, responded to exogenously added cAMP. Upon the addition of cAMP, this strain showed phenotypes shared by mutants with elevated activity of the cAMP pathway. Genetic analysis involving serial crosses of this strain to a strain with another genetic background revealed that the responsiveness to cAMP results from naturally occurring loss-of-function alleles of PDE1 and PDE2, which encode low and high affinity...

Mitsuzawa, H.

1993-01-01

382

Novel interaction of the Hsp90 chaperone machine with Ssl2, an essential DNA helicase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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Hsp90 is an essential molecular chaperone that is critical for the activity of diverse cellular proteins. Hsp90 functions with a number of co-chaperone proteins, including Sti1/Hop. We conducted a genetic screen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to isolate mutations that exhibit enhanced growth defects in the absence of STI1. We obtained mutations in genes encoding components of the Hsp90 chaperone machine, HSC82, CPR7 and YDJ1, and two essential genes, SSL2 and UTP21, not previously linked to Hsp9...

Flom, Gary; Weekes, Jared; Johnson, Jill L.

2005-01-01

383

A glycolytic enzyme, enolase, is recruited as a cofactor of tRNA targeting toward mitochondria in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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In many organisms, mitochondria import nuclear DNA-encoded small RNAs. In yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, one out of two cytoplasmic isoacceptor tRNAsLys is partially addressed into the organelle. Mitochondrial targeting of this tRNA was shown to depend on interaction with the precursor of mitochondrial lysyl–tRNA synthetase, preMsk1p. However, preMsk1p alone was unable to direct tRNA targeting, suggesting the existence of additional protein factor(s). Here, we identify the glycolytic enzym...

2006-01-01

384

Multiple Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Proteins Regulate Expression of the ENO1 Gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae?  

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The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) eukaryotic transcription factors have the ability to form multiple dimer combinations. This property, together with limited DNA-binding specificity for the E box (CANNTG), makes them ideally suited for combinatorial control of gene expression. We tested the ability of all nine Saccharomyces cerevisiae bHLH proteins to regulate the enolase-encoding gene ENO1. ENO1 was known to be activated by the bHLH protein Sgc1p. Here we show that expression of an ENO1-lacZ...

Chen, Meng; Lopes, John M.

2007-01-01

385

Differential transcriptional activation by v-myb and c-myb in animal cells and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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The v-myb oncogene and its cellular homolog c-myb encode sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins which regulate transcription from promoters containing Myb-binding sites in animal cells. We have developed a Saccharomyces cerevisiae system to assay transcriptional activation by v-Myb and c-Myb. In yeast strains containing integrated reporter genes, activation was strictly dependent upon both the Myb DNA-binding domain and the Myb recognition element. BAS1, an endogenous Myb-related yeast protei...

Chen, R. H.; Lipsick, J. S.

1993-01-01

386

A Saccharomyces cerevisiae UAS element controlled by protein kinase A activates transcription in response to a variety of stress conditions.  

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Transcription of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CTT1 gene encoding the cytosolic catalase T is activated by a variety of stress conditions: it is derepressed by nitrogen starvation and induced by heat shock. Furthermore, it is activated by osmotic and oxidative stress. This study shows that a CTT1 upstream region previously found to be involved in nitrogen, cAMP and heat control (base pairs -382 to -325) contains a UAS element (STRE, -368 to -356), which is sufficient for the activation of a re...

Marchler, G.; Schu?ller, C.; Adam, G.; Ruis, H.

1993-01-01

387

Fermentasi Etanol dari Ubi Jalar (Ipomoea batatas) oleh Kultur Campuran Rhizopus oryzae dan Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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Saccharomyces cerevisiae was known to ferment glucose into ethanol, but S.cerevisiae could not ferment starch into ethanol. This research was to studyethanol fermentation from sweet potato by mix cultures of Rhizopus oryzae and S. cerevisiae. The medium was prepared 10, 15 and 20%(b/v) sweet potato in aquadest into jam’s bottle. The media (50 mL) was inoculated with 1 mL S. cerevisiae 1x106 cfu/mL. After covered by Whatman paper No.41, the bottle added with another 50 mL medium and i...

2004-01-01

388

Dual Effects of Plant Steroidal Alkaloids on Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Science.gov (United States)

Many plant species accumulate sterols and triterpenes as antimicrobial glycosides. These secondary metabolites (saponins) provide built-in chemical protection against pest and pathogen attack and can also influence induced defense responses. In addition, they have a variety of important pharmacological properties, including anticancer activity. The biological mechanisms underpinning the varied and diverse effects of saponins on microbes, plants, and animals are only poorly understood despite the ecological and pharmaceutical importance of this major class of plant secondary metabolites. Here we have exploited budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) to investigate the effects of saponins on eukaryotic cells. The tomato steroidal glycoalkaloid ?-tomatine has antifungal activity towards yeast, and this activity is associated with membrane permeabilization. Removal of a single sugar from the tetrasaccharide chain of ?-tomatine results in a substantial reduction in antimicrobial activity. Surprisingly, the complete loss of sugars leads to enhanced antifungal activity. Experiments with ?-tomatine and its aglycone tomatidine indicate that the mode of action of tomatidine towards yeast is distinct from that of ?-tomatine and does not involve membrane permeabilization. Investigation of the effects of tomatidine on yeast by gene expression and sterol analysis indicate that tomatidine inhibits ergosterol biosynthesis. Tomatidine-treated cells accumulate zymosterol rather than ergosterol, which is consistent with inhibition of the sterol C24 methyltransferase Erg6p. However, erg6 and erg3 mutants (but not erg2 mutants) have enhanced resistance to tomatidine, suggesting a complex interaction of erg mutations, sterol content, and tomatidine resistance.

Simons, Veronika; Morrissey, John P.; Latijnhouwers, Maita; Csukai, Michael; Cleaver, Adam; Yarrow, Carol; Osbourn, Anne

2006-01-01

389

Dual effects of plant steroidal alkaloids on Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many plant species accumulate sterols and triterpenes as antimicrobial glycosides. These secondary metabolites (saponins) provide built-in chemical protection against pest and pathogen attack and can also influence induced defense responses. In addition, they have a variety of important pharmacological properties, including anticancer activity. The biological mechanisms underpinning the varied and diverse effects of saponins on microbes, plants, and animals are only poorly understood despite the ecological and pharmaceutical importance of this major class of plant secondary metabolites. Here we have exploited budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) to investigate the effects of saponins on eukaryotic cells. The tomato steroidal glycoalkaloid alpha-tomatine has antifungal activity towards yeast, and this activity is associated with membrane permeabilization. Removal of a single sugar from the tetrasaccharide chain of alpha-tomatine results in a substantial reduction in antimicrobial activity. Surprisingly, the complete loss of sugars leads to enhanced antifungal activity. Experiments with alpha-tomatine and its aglycone tomatidine indicate that the mode of action of tomatidine towards yeast is distinct from that of alpha-tomatine and does not involve membrane permeabilization. Investigation of the effects of tomatidine on yeast by gene expression and sterol analysis indicate that tomatidine inhibits ergosterol biosynthesis. Tomatidine-treated cells accumulate zymosterol rather than ergosterol, which is consistent with inhibition of the sterol C(24) methyltransferase Erg6p. However, erg6 and erg3 mutants (but not erg2 mutants) have enhanced resistance to tomatidine, suggesting a complex interaction of erg mutations, sterol content, and tomatidine resistance. PMID:16870766

Simons, Veronika; Morrissey, John P; Latijnhouwers, Maita; Csukai, Michael; Cleaver, Adam; Yarrow, Carol; Osbourn, Anne

2006-08-01

390

BIOTECHNOLOGICAL PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL BY SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE, USING DIFFERENT SUBSTRATES  

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Full Text Available Research efforts are needed to design and improve the process, which would produce sustainable and economically feasible transportation fuel. The present investigation was undertaken to determine the availability of carbohydrates in hydrolysates derived from different substrates Acacia arabica, Delbergia sisso, Peltophorum Pterocarpur and Perkia biglobosa pods, in the production of ethanol. The enzymatic hydrolysis of the substrates has yielded the significant amount of reducing sugar from the substrates by comparing the effect of enzymes on hydrolysis. The Acacia arabica pods has showed the higher production of reducing sugars when treated with 4% a-amylase whereas Peltophorum pterocarpum has produced lowest yield of reducing sugar at 4% a-amylase enzyme. The optimum temperature required for the activity of a-amylase enzyme in the production of reducing sugars using different substrates were revealed that at 30oC the Acacia arabica has yielded maximum sugars whereas the Perkia biglobosa has showed the minimum yield of reducing sugar. The optimum period of enzyme activity in the production of reducing sugars using different substrates was indicted that the Acacia arabica has showed the maximum yield of reducing sugars during the incubation period of 24 hours whereas minimum yield was observed in Perkia biglobosa. The optimum incubation period of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the production of ethanol has showed that the seven days of incubation has yielded maximum amount of ethanol using the substrate Acacia arabica.

Vijaya S. Gulalkayi

2012-12-01

391

Effects of low X-ray doses in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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Three strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with different capacities for repair of radiation damage (RAD, rad18, and rad52) have been tested for their colony forming ability (CFA) and growth rates after application of small X-ray doses from 3.8 mGy to 40 Gy. There was no reproducible increase in CFA observable after application of doses between 3.8 mGy and 4.7 Gy.X-ray doses of 40 Gy causing an inactivation of CFA from 90% to 50%, depending on the repair capacity of the strains used, caused a reduced increase in optical density during 2 h buffer treatment in comparison to unirradiated cells. This reduction however, is reversible as soon as the cells are transferred into nutrient medium. One hour after transfer into growh medium the portions of cells with large buds (Gs and M phase) and cells with small buds (S phase) are drastically different in irradiated cells from those obtained in unirradiated cells. The time necessary for separation of mother and daughter cells is prolonged by X-ray irradiation and the formation of new buds is retarded. (orig.)

1987-01-01

392

The genes for fifteen ribosomal proteins of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have isolated recombinant lambda phage carrying the genes for 14 of the ribosomal proteins of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Analysis of these and of the plasmid carrying the gene tcm1, which codes for the ribosomal protein responsible for resistance to trichodermin, demonstrates that in general the genes for ribosomal proteins are unlinked. One exceptional recombinant carries the genes for two ribosomal proteins within a 2-kilobase region. DNA fragments bearing individual ribosomal protein genes were used to probe restriction digests of the yeast genome to determine whether any of the genes were duplicated. Only 3 of 12 of the genes are present unequivocally as a single copy. Similar fragments were used to probe blots of mRNA separated on denaturing agarose gels to determine the size of the mRNA for each protein. In each case, the mRNA is near the minimum size necessary to code for its protein. In certain temperature-sensitive mutants which fail to synthesize functional mRNA for ribosomal protein, Rosbash et al. (Rosbash, M., Harris, P. K. W., Woolford, J., and Teem, J. L. (1981) Cell, 24, 679-686) have demonstrated the accumulation of a larger RNA molecule, homologous to a ribosomal protein gene, that appears to be a transcript which retains an intervening sequence. We find that for 8 of the 11 ribosomal protein genes examined, a larger molecule accumulates in such a mutant strain, suggesting that in general transcripts of ribosomal protein genes may have introns. PMID:6268628

Fried, H M; Pearson, N J; Kim, C H; Warner, J R

1981-10-10

393

Heterologous Expression of Syntaxin 6 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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Full Text Available The molecular mechanisms of vesicular protein transport in eukaryotic cells are highly conserved. Members of the syntaxin family play a pivotal role in the membrane fusion process. We have expressed rat syntaxin 6 and its cytoplasmic domain in wild-type and pep12 mutant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to elucidate the role of the syntaxin 6-dependent vesicular trafficking step in yeast. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed a punctate, Golgi-like staining pattern for syntaxin 6, which only partially overlapped with Pep12p in wild-type yeast cells. In contrast to Pep12p, syntaxin 6 was not mislocalized to the vacuole upon expression from 2 micron vectors, which might be attributed to conserved sorting and retention signals. Syntaxin 6 was not capable of complementing the sorting and maturation defects of the vacuolar hydrolase CPY in pep12 null mutants. No dominant negative effects of either syntaxin 6 or syntaxin 6deltaC overexpression on CPY sorting and maturation were observed in wild-type yeast cells. We conclude that syntaxin 6 and Pep12p do not act at the same vesicular trafficking step(s in yeast and higher eukaryotes

MARTIN GÖTTE

2002-01-01

394

Spontaneous and radiation induced gene conversion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Spontaneous and radiation induced gene conversion to arginine independence was studied in a heteroallelic diploid strain of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae BZ 34. When stationary phase cells were incubated in phosphate buffer (pH7) at 300C under aerated condition for 48 hours, the conversion frequency increased by a factor of about 1000 times the background. This was found to be so even when the cells were incubated in saline (0.85%) or distilled water. Various conditions influencing this enhancement have been investigated. Conversion frequency enhancement was not significant under anoxic conditions and was absent at low temperatures and in log phase cells. Caffeine could inhibit this enhancement when present in the suspension medium. These results can be explained on the basis of the induction of meiosis in cells held in buffer. Microscopic examination confirmed this view. Under conditions not favourable for the onset of meiosis there is no significant enhancement in conversion frequency. In stationary phase cells exposed to series of gamma doses, the conversion frequency increases with dose. Post irradiation incubation in buffer further increases the conversion frequency. However, the increase expressed as the ratio of the conversion frequency on buffer holding to that on immediate plating decreased with increasing dose. This decrease in enhancement with increasing dose may be due to the dose dependent inhibition of meiosis. (author)

1976-12-18

395

[Improving ergosterol production from molasses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae].  

Science.gov (United States)

Ergosterol is an economically important metabolite produced by yeast. To improve the production of ergosterol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae YEH56 (pHXA42) from molasses, a cheap and regenerative material, different strategies were applied. First, Plackett-Burman design and central composite design were applied to screen the significant factors in fermentation medium using ergosterol yield (g/L) as the response value. Ergosterol yield reached 371.56 mg/L by using the optimal fermentation medium in shake-flask culture (total sugar in molasses 40 g/L, KH2PO4 1 g/L, K2HPO4 1.86 g/L, CuSO4 x 5H2O 17.5 mg/L, FeSO4 x 7H2O 13.9 mg/L, MgSO4 x 5H2O 12.3 mg/L, corn steep liquor 10 mL/L), which was increased by 29.5% compared with the initial culture. Second, ergosterol yield was increased by 62.1% using a pH-control strategy in a 5-L bioreactor. Third, ergosterol production was improved further by using molasses feeding strategy. After 38 h fermentation, ergosterol yield reached 1 953.85 mg/L, which was 3.2 times of that in batch fermentation. Meanwhile, ergosterol production rate was increased by 42.7% compared with that in the batch culture. PMID:24701833

Wang, Shaojie; Guo, Xuena; He, Xiuping; Zhang, Borun

2013-11-01

396

DNA binding induces dimerization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pif1.  

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In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pif1 is involved in a wide range of DNA transactions. It operates both in mitochondria and in the nucleus, where it has telomeric and non-telomeric functions. All of the activities of Pif1 rely on its ability to bind to DNA. We have determined the mode of Pif1 binding to different DNA substrates. While Pif1 is a monomer in solution, we show that binding of ssDNA to Pif1 induces protein dimerization. DNA-induced dimerization of Pif1 is also observed on tailed- and forked-dsDNA substrates, suggesting that on the latter formation of a Pif1 dimer prevents binding of additional Pif1 molecules. A dimer of Pif1 also forms on ssDNA of random composition and in the presence of saturating concentrations of nonhydrolyzable ATP analogues. The observation that a Pif1 dimer is formed on unwinding substrates in the presence of ATP analogues suggests that a dimeric form of the enzyme might constitute the pre-initiation complex leading to its unwinding activity. PMID:20795654

Barranco-Medina, Sergio; Galletto, Roberto

2010-10-01

397

Oxygen requirements of yeasts. [Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Candida tropicalis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Type species of 75 yeast genera were examined for their ability to grow anaerobically in complex and mineral media. To define anaerobic conditions, we added a redox indicator, resazurin, to the media to determine low redox potentials. All strains tested were capable of fermenting glucose to ethanol in oxygen-limited shake-flask cultures, even those of species generally regarded as nonfermentative. However, only 23% of the yeast species tested grew under anaerobic conditions. A comparative study with a number of selected strains revealed that Saccharomyces cerevisiae stands out as a yeast capable of rapid growth at low redox potentials. Other yeasts, such as Torulaspora delbrueckii and Candida tropicalis, grew poorly ({mu}{sub max}, 0.03 and 0.05 h{sup {minus}1}, respectively) under anaerobic conditions in mineral medium supplemented with Tween 80 and ergosterol. The latter organisms grew rapidly under oxygen limitation and then displayed a high rate of alcoholic fermentation. It can be concluded that these yeasts have hitherto-unidentified oxygen requirements for growth.

Visser, W.; Scheffers, W.A.; Batenburg-Van Der Vegte, W.H.; Van Dijken, J.P. (Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands))

1990-12-01

398

Degradation signals for ubiquitin system proteolysis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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Combinations of different ubiquitin-conjugating (Ubc) enzymes and other factors constitute subsidiary pathways of the ubiquitin system, each of which ubiquitinates a specific subset of proteins. There is evidence that certain sequence elements or structural motifs of target proteins are degradation signals which mark them for ubiquitination by a particular branch of the ubiquitin system and for subsequent degradation. Our aim was to devise a way of searching systematically for degradation signals and to determine to which ubiquitin system subpathways they direct the proteins. We have constructed two reporter gene libraries based on the lacZ or URA3 genes which, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, express fusion proteins with a wide variety of C-terminal extensions. From these, we have isolated clones producing unstable fusion proteins which are stabilized in various ubc mutants. Among these are 10 clones whose products are stabilized in ubc6, ubc7 or ubc6ubc7 double mutants. The C-terminal extensions of these clones, which vary in length from 16 to 50 amino acid residues, are presumed to contain degradation signals channeling proteins for degradation via the UBC6 and/or UBC7 subpathways of the ubiquitin system. Some of these C-terminal tails share similar sequence motifs, and a feature common to almost all of these sequences is a highly hydrophobic region such as is usually located inside globular proteins or inserted into membranes. PMID:9582269

Gilon, T; Chomsky, O; Kulka, R G

1998-05-15

399

Degradation signals for ubiquitin system proteolysis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Combinations of different ubiquitin-conjugating (Ubc) enzymes and other factors constitute subsidiary pathways of the ubiquitin system, each of which ubiquitinates a specific subset of proteins. There is evidence that certain sequence elements or structural motifs of target proteins are degradation signals which mark them for ubiquitination by a particular branch of the ubiquitin system and for subsequent degradation. Our aim was to devise a way of searching systematically for degradation signals and to determine to which ubiquitin system subpathways they direct the proteins. We have constructed two reporter gene libraries based on the lacZ or URA3 genes which, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, express fusion proteins with a wide variety of C-terminal extensions. From these, we have isolated clones producing unstable fusion proteins which are stabilized in various ubc mutants. Among these are 10 clones whose products are stabilized in ubc6, ubc7 or ubc6ubc7 double mutants. The C-terminal extensions of these clones, which vary in length from 16 to 50 amino acid residues, are presumed to contain degradation signals channeling proteins for degradation via the UBC6 and/or UBC7 subpathways of the ubiquitin system. Some of these C-terminal tails share similar sequence motifs, and a feature common to almost all of these sequences is a highly hydrophobic region such as is usually located inside globular proteins or inserted into membranes.

Gilon, T; Chomsky, O; Kulka, R G

1998-01-01

400

Effects of ethanol on the temperature profile of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethanol at concentrations above 3% (w/v) decreased the maximum temperature for growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in batch culture. At 9% (w/v), the highest concentration tested, the maximum temperature suffered a decrease of about 10 degrees centigrade. At effective concentrations ethanol shifted the ARRHENIUS plots of growth and death in the superoptimal temperature range to lower temperature while an associative temperature profile was maintained. Thus at a concentration of 6% (w/v), ethanol depressed the optimum temperature for growth from 37 degree C to 25 degree C, the final maximum temperature for growth from 40 degree C to 33 degree C and the initial maximum temperature for growth from 44 degree C to 36 degree C. The results indicate that during alcoholic batch fermentation these three cardinal temperatures are variables, the values of which decrease with increasing ethanol concentration. When the ethanol concentration becomes high enough to depress them successively below the process temperature, the yeast population becomes increasingly subject to ethanol-enhanced thermal death. Implications of the findings for the production of fermentation ethanol in batch and continuous processes are discussed. PMID:7039151

van Uden, N; da Cruz Duarte, H

1981-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Proteomic Profiling of Autophagosome Cargo in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Science.gov (United States)

Macroautophagy (autophagy) is a bulk protein-degradation system ubiquitously conserved in eukaryotic cells. During autophagy, cytoplasmic components are enclosed in a membrane compartment, called an autophagosome. The autophagosome fuses with the vacuole/lysosome and is degraded together with its cargo. Because autophagy is important for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis by degrading unwanted proteins and organelles, identification of autophagosome cargo proteins (i.e., the targets of autophagy) will aid in understanding the physiological roles of autophagy. In this study, we developed a method for monitoring intact autophagosomes ex vivo by detecting the fluorescence of GFP-fused aminopeptidase I, the best-characterized selective cargo of autophagosomes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This method facilitated optimization of a biochemical procedure to fractionate autophagosomes. A combination of LC-MS/MS with subsequent statistical analyses revealed a list of autophagosome cargo proteins; some of these are selectively enclosed in autophagosomes and delivered to the vacuole in an Atg11-independent manner. The methods we describe will be useful for analyzing the mechanisms and physiological significance of Atg11-independent selective autophagy.

Morimoto, Mayumi; Fujii, Kiyonaga; Noda, Nobuo N.; Inagaki, Fuyuhiko; Ohsumi, Yoshinori

2014-01-01

402

Bioflavour production from orange peel hydrolysate using immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The rising trend of bioflavour synthesis by microorganisms is hindered by the high manufacturing costs, partially attributed to the cost of the starting material. To overcome this limitation, in the present study, dilute-acid hydrolysate of orange peel was employed as a low-cost, rich in fermentable sugars substrate for the production of flavour-active compounds by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. With this purpose, the use of immobilized cell technology to protect cells against the various inhibitory compounds present in the hydrolysate was evaluated with regard to yeast viability, carbon and nitrogen consumption and cell ability to produce flavour active compounds. For cell immobilization the encapsulation in Ca alginate beads was used. The results were compared with those obtained using free-cell system. Based on the data obtained immobilized cells showed better growth performance and increased ability for de novo synthesis of volatile esters of "fruity" aroma (phenylethyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, octanoate, decanoate and dodecanoate) than those of free cells. The potential for in situ production of new formulations containing flavour-active compounds derive from yeast cells and also from essential oil of orange peel (limonene, ?-terpineol) was demonstrated by the fact that bioflavour mixture was found to accumulate within the beads. Furthermore, the ability of the immobilized yeast to perform efficiently repeated batch fermentations of orange peel hydrolysate for bioflavour production was successfully maintained after six consecutive cycles of a total period of 240 h. PMID:23995224

Lalou, Sofia; Mantzouridou, Fani; Paraskevopoulou, Adamantini; Bugarski, Branko; Levic, Steva; Nedovic, Victor

2013-11-01

403

Structure of the RACK1 dimer from Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Receptor for activated C-kinase 1 (RACK1) serves as a scaffolding protein in numerous signaling pathways involving kinases and membrane-bound receptors from different cellular compartments. It exists simultaneously as a cytosolic free form and as a ribosome-bound protein. As part of the 40S ribosomal subunit, it triggers translational regulation by establishing a direct link between protein kinase C and the protein synthesis machinery. It has been suggested that RACK1 could recruit other signaling molecules onto the ribosome, providing a signal-specific modulation of the translational process. RACK1 is able to dimerize both in vitro and in vivo. This homodimer formation has been observed in several processes including the regulation of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor by the Fyn kinase in the brain and the oxygen-independent degradation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1. The functional relevance of this dimerization is, however, still unclear and the question of a possible dimerization of the ribosome-bound protein is still pending. Here, we report the first structure of a RACK1 homodimer, as determined from two independent crystal forms of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RACK1 protein (also known as Asc1p) at 2.9 and 3.9 � resolution. The structure reveals an atypical mode of dimerization where monomers intertwine on blade 4, thus exposing a novel surface of the protein to potential interacting partners. We discuss the significance of the dimer structure for RACK1 function.

Yatime, Laure; Hein, Kim Langemach

2011-01-01

404

Small molecule activators of sirtuins extend Saccharomyces cerevisiae lifespan.  

Science.gov (United States)

In diverse organisms, calorie restriction slows the pace of ageing and increases maximum lifespan. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, calorie restriction extends lifespan by increasing the activity of Sir2 (ref. 1), a member of the conserved sirtuin family of NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylases. Included in this family are SIR-2.1, a Caenorhabditis elegans enzyme that regulates lifespan, and SIRT1, a human deacetylase that promotes cell survival by negatively regulating the p53 tumour suppressor. Here we report the discovery of three classes of small molecules that activate sirtuins. We show that the potent activator resveratrol, a polyphenol found in red wine, lowers the Michaelis constant of SIRT1 for both the acetylated substrate and NAD(+), and increases cell survival by stimulating SIRT1-dependent deacetylation of p53. In yeast, resveratrol mimics calorie restriction by stimulating Sir2, increasing DNA stability and extending lifespan by 70%. We discuss possible evolutionary origins of this phenomenon and suggest new lines of research into the therapeutic use of sirtuin activators. PMID:12939617

Howitz, Konrad T; Bitterman, Kevin J; Cohen, Haim Y; Lamming, Dudley W; Lavu, Siva; Wood, Jason G; Zipkin, Robert E; Chung, Phuong; Kisielewski, Anne; Zhang, Li-Li; Scherer, Brandy; Sinclair, David A

2003-09-11

405

TOR and RAS pathways regulate desiccation tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tolerance to desiccation in cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is inducible; only one in a million cells from an exponential culture survive desiccation compared with one in five cells in stationary phase. Here we exploit the desiccation sensitivity of exponentially dividing cells to understand the stresses imposed by desiccation and their stress response pathways. We found that induction of desiccation tolerance is cell autonomous and that there is an inverse correlation between desiccation tolerance and growth rate in glucose-, ammonia-, or phosphate-limited continuous cultures. A transient heat shock induces a 5000-fold increase in desiccation tolerance, whereas hyper-ionic, -reductive, -oxidative, or -osmotic stress induced much less. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the Sch9p-regulated branch of the TOR and Ras-cAMP pathway inhibits desiccation tolerance by inhibiting the stress response transcription factors Gis1p, Msn2p, and Msn4p and by activating Sfp1p, a ribosome biogenesis transcription factor. Among 41 mutants defective in ribosome biogenesis, a subset defective in 60S showed a dramatic increase in desiccation tolerance independent of growth rate. We suggest that reduction of a specific intermediate in 60S biogenesis, resulting from conditions such as heat shock and nutrient deprivation, increases desiccation tolerance. PMID:23171550

Welch, Aaron Z; Gibney, Patrick A; Botstein, David; Koshland, Douglas E

2013-01-01

406

Brazilian propolis protects Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells against oxidative stress  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Propolis is a natural product widely used for humans. Due to its complex composition, a number of applications (antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, anesthetic, cytostatic and antioxidant) have been attributed to this substance. Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a eukaryotic model we investigated the me [...] chanisms underlying the antioxidant effect of propolis from Guarapari against oxidative stress. Submitting a wild type (BY4741) and antioxidant deficient strains (ctt1?, sod1?, gsh1?, gtt1? and gtt2?) either to 15 mM menadione or to 2 mM hydrogen peroxide during 60 min, we observed that all strains, except the mutant sod1?, acquired tolerance when previously treated with 25 µg/mL of alcoholic propolis extract. Such a treatment reduced the levels of ROS generation and of lipid peroxidation, after oxidative stress. The increase in Cu/Zn-Sod activity by propolis suggests that the protection might be acting synergistically with Cu/Zn-Sod.

Rafael A. de, Sá; Frederico A.V. de, Castro; Elis C.A., Eleutherio; Raquel M. de, Souza; Joaquim F.M. da, Silva; Marcos D., Pereira.

407

Existence of a tightly regulated water channel in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain Sigma1278b possesses two putative aquaporins, Aqy1-1p and Aqy2-1p. Previous work demonstrated that Aqy1-1p functions as a water channel in Xenopus oocyte. However, no function could be attributed to Aqy2-1p in this system. Specific antibodies were used to follow the expression of Aqy1-1p and Aqy2-1p in the yeast. Aqy1-1p was never detected whatever the growth phase and culture conditions tested. In contrast, Aqy2-1p was detected only during the exponential growth phase in rich medium containing glucose. Aqy2-1p expression was repressed by hyper-osmotic culture conditions. Both immunocytochemistry and biochemical subcellular fractionation demonstrated that Aqy2-1p is located on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) as well as on the plasma membrane. In microsomal vesicles enriched in ER, a water channel activity due to Aqy2-1p was detected by stopped-flow analysis. Our results show that the expression of aquaporins is tightly controlled. The physiological relevance of aquaporin-mediated water transport in yeast is discussed. PMID:11168368

Meyrial, V; Laizé, V; Gobin, R; Ripoche, P; Hohmann, S; Tacnet, F

2001-01-01

408

Post-Transcriptional Regulation of Iron Homeostasis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Iron is an essential micronutrient for all eukaryotic organisms because it participates as a redox cofactor in a wide variety of biological processes. Recent studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have shown that in response to iron deficiency, an RNA-binding protein denoted Cth2 coordinates a global metabolic rearrangement that aims to optimize iron utilization. The Cth2 protein contains two Cx8Cx5Cx3H tandem zinc fingers (TZFs that specifically bind to adenosine/uridine-rich elements within the 3' untranslated region of many mRNAs to promote their degradation. The Cth2 protein shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Once inside the nucleus, Cth2 binds target mRNAs and stimulates alternative 3' end processing. A Cth2/mRNA-containing complex is required for export to the cytoplasm, where the mRNA is degraded by the 5' to 3' degradation pathway. This post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism limits iron utilization in nonessential pathways and activates essential iron-dependent enzymes such as ribonucleotide reductase, which is required for DNA synthesis and repair. Recent findings indicate that the TZF-containing tristetraprolin protein also functions in modulating human iron homeostasis. Elevated iron concentrations can also be detrimental for cells. The Rnt1 RNase III exonuclease protects cells from excess iron by promoting the degradation of a subset of the Fe acquisition system when iron levels rise.

Antonia María Romero

2013-07-01

409

Distribution and regulation of stochasticity and plasticity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Science.gov (United States)

Stochasticity is an inherent feature of complex systems with nanoscale structure. In such systems information is represented by small collections of elements (e.g., a few electrons on a quantum dot), and small variations in the populations of these elements may lead to big uncertainties in the information. Unfortunately, little is known about how to work within this inherently noisy environment to design robust functionality into complex nanoscale systems. Here, we look to the biological cell as an intriguing model system where evolution has mediated the trade-offs between fluctuations and function, and in particular we look at the relationships and trade-offs between stochastic and deterministic responses in the gene expression of budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). We find gene regulatory arrangements that control the stochastic and deterministic components of expression, and show that genes that have evolved to respond to stimuli (stress) in the most strongly deterministic way exhibit the most noise in the absence of the stimuli. We show that this relationship is consistent with a bursty two-state model of gene expression, and demonstrate that this regulatory motif generates the most uncertainty in gene expression when there is the greatest uncertainty in the optimal level of gene expression.

Dar, R. D.; Karig, D. K.; Cooke, J. F.; Cox, C. D.; Simpson, M. L.

2010-09-01

410

MAP kinase pathways in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Science.gov (United States)

A cascade of three protein kinases known as a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is commonly found as part of the signaling pathways in eukaryotic cells. Almost two decades of genetic and biochemical experimentation plus the recently completed DNA sequence of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome have revealed just five functionally distinct MAPK cascades in this yeast. Sexual conjugation, cell growth, and adaptation to stress, for example, all require MAPK-mediated cellular responses. A primary function of these cascades appears to be the regulation of gene expression in response to extracellular signals or as part of specific developmental processes. In addition, the MAPK cascades often appear to regulate the cell cycle and vice versa. Despite the success of the gene hunter era in revealing these pathways, there are still many significant gaps in our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms for activation of these cascades and how the cascades regulate cell function. For example, comparison of different yeast signaling pathways reveals a surprising variety of different types of upstream signaling proteins that function to activate a MAPK cascade, yet how the upstream proteins actually activate the cascade remains unclear. We also know that the yeast MAPK pathways regulate each other and interact with other signaling pathways to produce a coordinated pattern of gene expression, but the molecular mechanisms of this cross talk are poorly understood. This review is therefore an attempt to present the current knowledge of MAPK pathways in yeast and some directions for future research in this area.

Gustin, M. C.; Albertyn, J.; Alexander, M.; Davenport, K.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

1998-01-01

411

Biosynthesis of diphthamide in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Inactivation of EF-2 by diphtheria toxin requires the presence of a posttranslationally synthesized amino acid residue, diphthamide. The present work was undertaken to study the biosynthetic mechanism of diphthamide synthesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in order to gain better understanding of the biological roles of this unique amino acid residue. Thirty-one haploid ADP-ribosylation-negative mutants, comprising 5 complementation groups, were obtained. One of these mutants contains a toxin-resistant form of EF-2 which can be converted to a toxin-sensitive form through the methylation reaction catalyzed by a S-AdoMet:EF-2 methyltransferase enzyme which is present in other yeast strains. The ["3He]methylated residue in the EF-2 modified by the methyltransferase in the presence of S-Ado-L-["3H-methyl]-Met has been analyzed chromatographically following both acid and enzymatic hydrolysis. At the conclusion of the reaction, all of the radiolabel was recovered as diphthine (the unamidated form of diphthamide). The authors conclude that the S-AdoMet:EF-2-methyltransferase is specific for the addition of at least the last two of the three methyl groups present in diphthine

1985-01-01

412

An overview of membrane transport proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

All eukaryotic cells contain a wide variety of proteins embedded in the plasma and internal membranes, which ensure transmembrane solute transport. It is now established that a large proportion of these transport proteins can be grouped into families apparently conserved throughout organisms. This article presents the data of an in silicio analysis aimed at establishing a preliminary classification of membrane transport proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This analysis was conducted at a time when about 65% of all yeast genes were available in public databases. In addition to approximately 60 transport proteins whose function was at least partially known, approximately 100 deduced protein sequences of unknown function display significant sequence similarity to membrane transport proteins characterized in yeast and/or other organisms. While some protein families have been well characterized by classical genetic experimental approaches, others have largely if not totally escaped characterization. The proteins revealed by this in silicio analysis also include a putative K+ channel, proteins similar to aquaporins of plant and animal origin, proteins similar to Na+-solute symporters, a protein very similar to electroneural cation-chloride cotransporters, and a putative Na+-H+ antiporter. A new research area is anticipated: the functional analysis of many transport proteins whose existence was revealed by genome sequencing. PMID:8720066

Andre, B

1995-12-01

413

Biotransformation of mogrosides from Siraitia grosvenorii Swingle by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mogrosides are a group of triterpenoidal saponins from the fruit of Siraitia grosvenorii Swingle; they are intensely sweet and have consequently been used as a substitute for sugar by the food industry. The lack of efficient methods to produce specific mogrosides has hindered investigation of the relationship between their structure and bioactivity, e.g., down-regulation of blood glucose levels, anti-inflammation, and antiviral infection. Here, we attempt to selectively convert the major saponin mogroside V, a mogrol pentaglucoside, into mogroside III E, a triglucoside, via the ?-glucosidases of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We report that the ?-glucopyranosyl and ?-glucopyranosyl-(1?2)-?-d-glucopyranosyl attached on C-3 and -24 of mogrol, respectively, were resistant to hydrolysis by yeast ?-d-glucosidases. We further screened 16 mutants bearing single defective glucanase or glucosidase genes, thereby demonstrating that Exg1 is a major enzyme of the initiation of mogroside V conversion. Deletion of the KRE6 gene unexpectedly facilitated the production of mogroside III E in yeast culture. This paper demonstrates that yeast knockout mutants are a valuable tool for saponin modification and for studying the specificity of glucosidase function. PMID:23796186

Chiu, Chun-Hui; Wang, Reuben; Lee, Cho-Ching; Lo, Yi-Chen; Lu, Ting-Jang

2013-07-24

414

The Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Flavomycin on Broiler Growth Performance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ninety days old commercial broilers (Ross PM-3 were used in a completely randomized design to study the effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and flavomycin on growth performance of broiler chicks. Three treatments (30 replicates utilized were (1 control, (2 Saccharomyces cerevisiae and (3 flavomycin. A significant increase in gain of birds was observed in birds fed Saccharomyces cerevisiae group in 5 th and flavomycin group on 28 th and 35 th days (P<0.05. Feed consumption of broilers dur