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Regulation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae EKI1-encoded Ethanolamine Kinase by Zinc Depletion*  

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Ethanolamine kinase catalyzes the committed step in the synthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine via the CDP-ethanolamine branch of the Kennedy pathway. Regulation of the EKI1-encoded ethanolamine kinase by the essential nutrient zinc was examined in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The level of ethanolamine kinase activity increased when zinc was depleted from the growth medium. This regulation correlated with increases in the CDP-ethanolamine pathway intermediates phosphoethanolamine and CDP-ethanola...

Kersting, Michael C.; Carman, George M.

2006-01-01

2

Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Hoc1, a Suppressor of Pkc1, Encodes a Putative Glycosyltransferase  

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The Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene PKC1 encodes a protein kinase C isozyme that regulates cell wall synthesis. Here we describe the characterization of HOC1, a gene identified by its ability to suppress the cell lysis phenotype of pkc1-371 cells. The HOC1 gene (Homologous to OCH1) is predicted to encode a type II integral membrane protein that strongly resembles Och1p, an ?-1,6-mannosyltransferase. Immunofluorescence studies localized Hoc1p to the Golgi apparatus. While overexpression of HOC1...

Neiman, A. M.; Mhaiskar, V.; Manus, V.; Galibert, F.; Dean, N.

1997-01-01

3

RAD3 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a DNA-dependent ATPase  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The RAD3 gene of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is required for excision repair of damaged DNA and for cell viability. A protein of ? 89 kDa was purified to near homogeneity from yeast strains harboring multicopy plasmids that overproduce RAD3 protein; this protein corresponds closely to the expected size of the RAD3 protein and crossreacts with the antiserum raised against a truncated RAD3 protein produced in Escherichia coli. The purified RAD3 protein shows a single-stranded DNA-dependent ATPase activity that catalyzes hydrolysis of ATP to ADP and P/sub i/. The ATPase activity was coincident with the RAD3 protein during purification and is inhibited by anti-RAD3 antibodies, indicating that the RAD3 gene encodes this activity

4

Genes regulation encoding ADP/ATP carrier in yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida parapsilosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Genes encoding a mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier (AAC) in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida parapsilosis were investigated. AAC2 is coding for the major AAC isoform in S. cerevisiae. We suggest that AAC2 is a member of a syn-expression group of genes encoding oxidative phosphorylation proteins. Within our previous studies on the regulation of the AAC2 transcription an UAS (-393/-268) was identified that is essential for the expression of this gene. Two functional regulatory cis-elements are located within this UAS -binding sites for an ABFl factor and for HAP2/3/4/5 heteromeric complex. We examined relative contributions and mutual interactions of the ABFl and HAP2/3/4/5 factors in the activation of transcription from the UAS of the AAC2 gene. The whole UAS was dissected into smaller sub-fragments and tested for (i) the ability to form DNA-protein complexes with cellular proteins in vitro, (ii) the ability to confer heterologous expression using AAC3 gene lacking its own promoter, and (iii) the expression of AAC3-lacZ fusion instead of intact AAC3 gene. The obtained results demonstrated that: a) The whole UAS as well as sub-fragment containing only ABF1-binding site are able to form DNA-protein complexes with cellular proteins in oxygen- and heme- dependent manner. The experiments with antibody against the ABF1 showed that the ABF1 factor is one of the proteins binding to AAC2 promoter. We have been unsuccessful to prove the binding of cellular proteins to the HAP2/3/4/5-binding site. However, the presence of HAP2/3/4/5-binding site is necessary to drive a binding of cellular proteins to the ABF1-binding site in carbon source-dependent manner. b) The presence of both ABF1- and HAP2/3/4/5-binding sites and original spacing between them is necessary to confer the growth of Aaac2 mutant strain on non- fermentable carbon source when put in front of AAC3 gene introduced on centromeric vector to Aaac2 mutant strain. c) For the activation of AAC3-lacZ expression on both fermentable and non-fermentable carbon sources the only presence of two copies of HAP2/3/4/5-binding site is sufficient. However, activation of AAC3-lacZ expression by two copies of HAP2/3/4/5-binding site is very low. We can conclude that the presence of both ABF1- and HAP2/3/4/5-binding sites and original spacing between them is necessary to get strong activation of AAC2 gene. A gene homologous to Saccharomyces cerevisiae AAC genes coding for mitochondrial ADP/ATP carriers has been cloned from pathogenic yeast Candida parapsilosis. The cloned gene was sequenced and found to encode a polypeptide of 303 amino acids that shows homology with other yeast and mammal mitochondrial ADP/ATP carriers. The gene was designed CpAAC1 and was able to complement the growth phenotype of S. cerevisiae double deletion mutant (?aac2?aac3). The expression of the CpAAC1 gene was affected at normal aerobic conditions by the nature of carbon source used for growth. The concentration of oxygen had no effect to the expression of this gene. Hybridization experiments indicate that C. parapsilosis possesses a single gene encoding a mitochondrial ADP/ ATP carrier. (author)

5

RAD6 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a protein containing a tract of 13 consecutive aspartates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The RAD6 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is required for postreplication repair of UV-damaged DNA, for induced mutagenesis, and for sporulation. The authors have mapped the transcripts and determined the nucleotide sequence of the cloned RAD6 gene. The RAD6 gene encodes two transcripts of 0.98 and 0.86 kilobases which differ only in their 3' termini. The transcribed region contains an open reading frame of 516 nucleotides. The rad6-1 and rad6-3 mutant alleles, which the authors have cloned and sequenced, introduce amber and ochre nonsense mutations, respectively into the open reading frame, proving that it encodes the RAD6 protein. The RAD6 protein predicted by the nucleotide sequence is 172 amino acids long, has a molecular weight of 19,704, and contains 23.3% acidic and 11.6% basic residues. Its most striking feature is the highly acidic carboxyl terminus: 20 of the 23 terminal amino acids are acidic, including 13 consecutive aspartates. RAD6 protein thus resembles high mobility group proteins HMG-1 and HMG-2, which each contain a carboxyl-proximal tract of acidic amino acids. 48 references, 6 figures

6

The duplicated Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene SSM1 encodes a eucaryotic homolog of the eubacterial and archaebacterial L1 ribosomal proteins.  

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A previously unknown Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene, SSM1a, was isolated by screening for high-copy-number suppressors of thermosensitive mutations in the RNA14 gene, which encodes a component from the polyadenylation complex. The SSM1 a gene codes for a 217-amino-acid protein, Ssm1p, which is significantly homologous to eubacterial and archaebacterial ribosomal proteins of the L1 family. Comparison of the Ssm1p amino acid sequence with that of eucaryotic polypeptides with unknown functions re...

Petitjean, A.; Bonneaud, N.; Lacroute, F.

1995-01-01

7

SSI1 encodes a novel Hsp70 of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae endoplasmic reticulum.  

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The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains a well-characterized, essential member of the Hsp70 family of molecular chaperones, Kar2p. Kar2p has been shown to be involved in the translocation of proteins into the ER as well as the proper folding of proteins in that compartment. We report the characterization of a novel Hsp70 of the ER, Ssi1p. Ssi1p, which shares 24% of the amino acids of Kar2p, is not essential for growth under normal conditions. Howe...

Baxter, B. K.; James, P.; Evans, T.; Craig, E. A.

1996-01-01

8

The GCR1 gene encodes a positive transcriptional regulator of the enolase and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene families in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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The intracellular concentrations of the polypeptides encoded by the two enolase (ENO1 and ENO2) and three glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (TDH1, TDH2, and TDH3) genes were coordinately reduced more than 20-fold in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain carrying the gcr1-1 mutation. The steady-state concentration of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase mRNA was shown to be approximately 50-fold reduced in the mutant strain. Overexpression of enolase and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehyd...

Holland, M. J.; Yokoi, T.; Holland, J. P.; Myambo, K.; Innis, M. A.

1987-01-01

9

Epigenetics in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Saccharomyces cerevisiae provides a well-studied model system for heritable silent chromatin, in which a nonhistone protein complex--the SIR complex--represses genes by spreading in a sequence-independent manner, much like heterochromatin in higher eukaryotes. The ability to study mutations in histones and to screen genome-wide for mutations that impair silencing has yielded an unparalleled depth of detail about this system. Recent advances in the biochemistry and structural biology of the SIR-chromatin complex bring us much closer to a molecular understanding of how Sir3 selectively recognizes the deacetylated histone H4 tail and demethylated histone H3 core. The existence of appropriate mutants has also shown how components of the silencing machinery affect physiological processes beyond transcriptional repression. PMID:23818500

Grunstein, Michael; Gasser, Susan M

2013-07-01

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A second gene encoding a putative serine/threonine protein kinase which enhances spermine uptake in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have isolated a new gene (PTK2) which restores spermine uptake of a polyamine uptake-deficient mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Kakinuma, Y., Maruyama, T., Nozaki, T., Wada, Y., Oshumi, Y., and Igarashi, K., 1995, Biochem, Biophys. Res. Commun. 216, 985-992). In magnesium-limited medium, the cell growth of a spermine-sensitive polyamine uptake mutant transformed with PTK2 recovered its sensitivity to spermine. The nucleotide sequence of the PTK2 gene indicated that it is identical with the YJR059W open reading frame of chromosome X encoding a putative serine/threonine protein kinase. The deduced amino acid sequence of the PTK2 gene product was 38% identical and 55% similar with that of the PTK1 (POT1) gene product, a putative serine/threonine protein kinase, which was found to enhance spermine uptake of the same mutant. The results indicate that polyamine transport of yeast is regulated by multiple phosphorylation/dephosphorylation pathways. PMID:8920934

Nozaki, T; Nishimura, K; Michael, A J; Maruyama, T; Kakinuma, Y; Igarashi, K

1996-11-12

11

Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains two functional genes encoding 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase.  

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We have isolated two genes from yeast encoding 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase [hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (NADPH); HMG-CoA reductase; EC 1.1.1.34], the rate-limiting enzyme of sterol biosynthesis. These genes, HMG1 and HMG2, were identified by hybridization to a cDNA clone encoding hamster HMG-CoA reductase. DNA sequence analysis reveals homology between the amino acid sequence of the proteins encoded by the two yeast genes and the carboxyl-terminal half of th...

Basson, M. E.; Thorsness, M.; Rine, J.

1986-01-01

12

The AUR1 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes dominant resistance to the antifungal agent aureobasidin A (LY295337).  

Science.gov (United States)

Aureobasidin A (LY295337) is a cyclic depsipeptide antifungal agent with activity against Candida spp. The mechanism of action of LY295337 remains unknown. LY295337 also shows activity against the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Generation of a mutant of S. cerevisiae resistant to LY295337 is reported. Resistance was found to reside in a dominant mutation of a single gene which has been named AUR1 (aureobasidin resistance). This gene was cloned and sequenced. A search for homologous sequences in GenBank and by BLAST did not elucidate the function of this gene, although sequence homology too an open reading frame from the Saccharomyces genome sequencing project and several other adjacent loci was noted. Deletion of aur1 was accomplished in a diploid S. cerevisiae strain. Subsequent sporulation and dissection of the aur1/aur1 delta diploid resulted in tetrads demonstrating 2:2 segregation of viable and nonviable spores, indicating that deletion of aur1 is lethal. As LY295337 is fungicidal and deletion of aur1 is lethal, aur1 represents a potential candidate for the target of LY295337. PMID:8593016

Heidler, S A; Radding, J A

1995-12-01

13

PET genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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We describe a collection of nuclear respiratory-defective mutants (pet mutants) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae consisting of 215 complementation groups. This set of mutants probably represents a substantial fraction of the total genetic information of the nucleus required for the maintenance of functional mitochondria in S. cerevisiae. The biochemical lesions of mutants in approximately 50 complementation groups have been related to single enzymes or biosynthetic pathways, and the corresponding ...

Tzagoloff, A.; Dieckmann, C. L.

1990-01-01

14

Two genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae encode a membrane-bound form of casein kinase-1.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two cDNAs encoding casein kinase-1 have been isolated from a yeast cDNA library and termed CKI1 and CKI2. Each clone encodes a protein of approximately 62,000 Da containing a highly conserved protein kinase domain surrounded by variable amino- and carboxy-terminal domains. The proteins also contain two conserved carboxy-terminal cysteine residues that comprise a consensus sequence for prenylation. Consistent with this posttranslational modification, cell fractionation experiments demonstrate that intact CKI1 is found exclusively in yeast cell membranes. Gene disruption experiments reveal that, although neither of the two CKI genes is essential by itself, at least one CKI gene is required for yeast cell viability. Spores deficient in both CKI1 and CKI2 fail to grow and, therefore, either fail to germinate or arrest as small cells before bud emergence. These results suggest that casein kinase-1, which is distributed widely in nature, plays a pivotal role in eukaryotic cell regulation. PMID:1627830

Wang, P C; Vancura, A; Mitcheson, T G; Kuret, J

1992-03-01

15

The PEP4 gene encodes an aspartyl protease implicated in the posttranslational regulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae vacuolar hydrolases.  

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pep4 mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae accumulate inactive precursors of vacuolar hydrolases. The PEP4 gene was isolated from a genomic DNA library by complementation of the pep4-3 mutation. Deletion analysis localized the complementing activity to a 1.5-kilobase pair EcoRI-XhoI restriction enzyme fragment. This fragment was used to identify an 1,800-nucleotide mRNA capable of directing the synthesis of a 44,000-dalton polypeptide. Southern blot analysis of yeast genomic DNA showed that the...

Woolford, C. A.; Daniels, L. B.; Park, F. J.; Jones, E. W.; Arsdell, J. N.; Innis, M. A.

1986-01-01

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HKR1 encodes a cell surface protein that regulates both cell wall beta-glucan synthesis and budding pattern in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

We previously isolated the Saccharomyces cerevisiae HKR1 gene that confers on S. cerevisiae cells resistance to HM-1 killer toxin secreted by Hansenula mrakii (S. Kasahara, H. Yamada, T. Mio, Y. Shiratori, C. Miyamoto, T. Yabe, T. Nakajima, E. Ichishima, and Y. Furuichi, J. Bacteriol. 176:1488-1499, 1994). HKR1 encodes a type 1 membrane protein that contains a calcium-binding consensus sequence (EF hand motif) in the cytoplasmic domain. Although the null mutation of HKR1 is lethal, disruption of the 3' part of the coding region, which would result in deletion of the cytoplasmic domain of Hkr1p, did not affect the viability of yeast cells. This partial disruption of HKR1 significantly reduced beta-1,3-glucan synthase activity and the amount of beta-1,3-glucan in the cell wall and altered the axial budding pattern of haploid cells. Neither chitin synthase activity nor chitin content was significantly affected in the cells harboring the partially disrupted HKR1 allele. Immunofluorescence microscopy with an antibody raised against Hkr1p expressed in Escherichia coli revealed that Hkr1p was predominantly localized on the cell surface. The cell surface localization of Hkr1p required the N-terminal signal sequence because the C-terminal half of Hkr1p was detected uniformly in the cells. These results demonstrate that HKR1 encodes a cell surface protein that regulates both cell wall beta-glucan synthesis and budding pattern and suggest that bud site assembly is somehow related to beta-glucan synthesis in S. cerevisiae. PMID:8550469

Yabe, T; Yamada-Okabe, T; Kasahara, S; Furuichi, Y; Nakajima, T; Ichishima, E; Arisawa, M; Yamada-Okabe, H

1996-01-01

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Filamentous growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Filamentação em Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fungal dimorphism is a complex phenomenon triggered by a large variety of environmental factors and consists of a reversible alternating pattern of growth between different elliptical and filamentous forms of cells. Understanding the mechanisms that regulate these events is of major interest because of their implications in fungal pathogenesis, cell differentiation and industry. Diploid cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae transform from budding yeast to pseudohyphae when starved for nitrogen, giving the cells an advantage in food foraging, which is sensed by at least two signal transduction pathways: the MAP kinase (MAPK and the PKA (cAMP-dependent protein kinase A pathways. The output of these signalling pathways is the expression of pseudohypha-specific genes, whose expression profiles change and is accompanied by a G2 delay in the cell cycle and a prolonged period of polarized growth. Haploid yeast strains show a similar growth type after prolonged incubation on rich medium plates. The cells form chains and invade the agar on the edge of the colony, but they do not become elongated. This growth type is referred to as haploid invasive growth. Alcohols can also induce filamentous growth in S. cerevisiae, promoting aberrant and elongated morphology. The three forms of filamentous growth are revised in this article and also the pathways involved in sensing, signaling and signal transduction during filamentous growth.O dimorfismo em fungos é um fenômeno complexo acionado por um grande número de fatores ambientais e consiste num padrão alternante e reversível de crescimento, oscilando entre formas elípticas e filamentosas de células. É de grande importância o entendimento dos mecanismos que regulam esses eventos devido as suas implicações na patogenicidade, diferenciação celular e indústria. Células diplóides de Saccharomyces cerevisiae mudam de células brotantes para pseudohifas quando em condições limitantes de nitrogênio, o que confere às células uma vantagem na procura por alimento. A deficiência de nitrogênio é 'percebida' por pelo menos dois caminhos sinalizadores: 'MAP kinase' (MAPK e 'PKA' (cAMP-dependent protein kinase A. O resultado dessa sinalização é a expressão de genes específicos para filamentação, cujos perfis de expressão mudam e são acompanhados por um retardo da fase G2 do ciclo celular e um período prolongado de crescimento polarizado. Células haplóides mostram um tipo de crescimento similar após prolongada incubação em meio rico. As células formam cadeias e invadem o ágar na borda da colônia, mas não se tornam alongadas. Esse tipo de crescimento é conhecido como crescimento invasivo haplóide. Os álcoois podem também induzir crescimento filamentoso em S. cerevisiae, ocasionando uma morfologia alongada e aberrante. Nesse artigo revisamos as três formas de crescimento filamentoso incluindo os caminhos envolvidos na percepção, sinalização e transdução do sinal durante o crescimento filamentoso.

Sandra Regina Ceccato-Antonini

2004-09-01

18

Virus-like particle capsid proteins encoded by different L double-stranded RNAs of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: their roles in maintenance of M double-stranded killer plasmids.  

Science.gov (United States)

The plasmid determinants of killer phenotypes in type K1 and K2 killer yeast cells are the 1.9-kilobase (kb) M1 and 1.7-kb M2 double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs), respectively. These are dependent for their maintenance and encapsidation, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae virus ScV-M1 or ScV-M2 virus-like particles, on the capsid provided by one of a group of moderately related 4.7-kb dsRNAs called LA. The L1A and L2A dsRNAs found in naturally isolated K1 and K2 killers encode 88-kilodalton VL1A-P1 and 86-kilodalton VL2A-P1 capsids, respectively. These are competent for encapsidating homologous LA dsRNAs as well as M dsRNAs. Most strains of S. cerevisiae, including killers, contain one of a second group of closely related 4.7-kb dsRNAs called LBC. These encode their own 82-kilodalton capsid protein, VLBC-P1, which, at least in strains containing only LBC, encapsidates homologous dsRNA in ScV-LBC virus-like particles. In a K1 killer strain containing both L1A and LBC, ScV-M1 particles contain only VL1A-P1. In such strains it is probable that each virus-like particle contains a single capsid type and that each L dsRNA is encapsidated by a homologous capsid. PMID:6396508

El-Sherbeini, M; Tipper, D J; Mitchell, D J; Bostian, K A

1984-12-01

19

Purification and characterization of C1, the catalytic subunit of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cAMP-dependent protein kinase encoded by TPK1.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, three genes TPK1, TPK2, and TPK3 encode catalytic subunits of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. We have purified and characterized the catalytic subunit, C1, encoded by the TPK1 gene. In order to purify C1 completely free of C2 and C3, a strain was constructed that contained only the TPK1 gene and genetic disruptions of the other two TPK genes. The cellular level of C1 was increased by expressing the genes for C1 (TPK1) and yeast regulatory subunit (BCY1) on multiple copy plasmids within this strain. Purification was accomplished by a two-column procedure in which holoenzyme was chromatographed on Sephacryl-200, then bound to an anti-regulatory subunit immunoaffinity column. Pure C1 was released from the antibody column by addition of cAMP. The protein migrated on a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel with an Mr of 52,000. Kinetic analysis showed that the apparent Km for ATP and Leu-Arg-Arg-Ala-Ser-Leu-Gly was 33 and 101 microM, respectively. The kcat was determined to be 640 min-1. The protein weakly autophosphorylated, incorporating less than 0.1 mol of phosphate/mol of catalytic subunit. NH2-terminal sequencing revealed that the protein was blocked. PMID:3288629

Zoller, M J; Kuret, J; Cameron, S; Levin, L; Johnson, K E

1988-07-01

20

Glycolipids of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cell  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Total lipids of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were isolated by chloroform and methanol (2:1. Glycolipids were separated from total lipids by silicic acid chromatography. Glycolipid’s constituent sugars and fatty acids were analyzed by using Gas Liquid Chromatography. Galactose was the prominent sugar followed by mannose. Relative concentrations of fucose, mannose, galactose and glucose in the glycolipid were 5.3, 35.2, 55.1 and 4.2%. 16:0, 18:0, 18:1, 18:2 and 18:3 were the major fatty acids of the total glycolipids. Oleic acid was the dominating fatty acid followed by linoliec acid. They were separated into different fractions by using DEAE-Sephadex ion exchange chromatography. Glycolipids were fractionated and identified as cerebrosides, ceramide polyhexosides, sulfatides, monoglucosyldiglycerides and diglucosyldiglycerides. Ceramide polyhexosides were present in higher concentration as compared to other fractions.

Renuka Malhotra

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Methionine catabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The catabolism of methionine to methionol and methanethiol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was studied using (13)C NMR spectroscopy, GC-MS, enzyme assays and a number of mutants. Methionine is first transaminated to alpha-keto-gamma-(methylthio)butyrate. Methionol is formed by a decarboxylation reaction, which yields methional, followed by reduction. The decarboxylation is effected specifically by Ydr380wp. Methanethiol is formed from both methionine and alpha-keto-gamma-(methylthio)butyrate by a demethiolase activity. In all except one strain examined, demethiolase was induced by the presence of methionine in the growth medium. This pathway results in the production of alpha-ketobutyrate, a carbon skeleton, which can be re-utilized. Hence, methionine catabolism is more complex and economical than the other amino acid catabolic pathways in yeast, which use the Ehrlich pathway and result solely in the formation of a fusel alcohol. PMID:16423070

Perpète, Philippe; Duthoit, Olivier; De Maeyer, Simon; Imray, Louise; Lawton, Andrew I; Stavropoulos, Konstantinos E; Gitonga, Virginia W; Hewlins, Michael J E; Dickinson, J Richard

2006-01-01

22

Nucleosome Positioning in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Science.gov (United States)

Summary: The DNA of eukaryotic cells is spooled around large histone protein complexes, forming nucleosomes that make up the basis for a high-order packaging structure called chromatin. Compared to naked DNA, nucleosomal DNA is less accessible to regulatory proteins and regulatory processes. The exact positions of nucleosomes therefore influence several cellular processes, including gene expression, chromosome segregation, recombination, replication, and DNA repair. Here, we review recent technological advances enabling the genome-wide mapping of nucleosome positions in the model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We discuss the various parameters that determine nucleosome positioning in vivo, including cis factors like AT content, variable tandem repeats, and poly(dA:dT) tracts that function as chromatin barriers and trans factors such as chromatin remodeling complexes, transcription factors, histone-modifying enzymes, and RNA polymerases. In the last section, we review the biological role of chromatin in gene transcription, the evolution of gene regulation, and epigenetic phenomena. PMID:21646431

Jansen, An; Verstrepen, Kevin J.

2011-01-01

23

Expression of an ATP-binding cassette transporter-encoding gene (YOR1) is required for oligomycin resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report identifies a new target gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae called YOR1 which is important for oligomycin resistance. It discusses the relationship of the expression of this gene and others responsible for resistance to cyclohexamide. 51 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Katzmann, D.J.; Hallstrom, T.C.; Moye-Rowley, W.S. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)] [and others

1995-12-01

24

cDNA encoding protein O-mannosyltransferase from the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei; functional equivalence to Saccharomyces cerevisiae PMT2.  

Science.gov (United States)

O-Mannosylation is suggested to be essential for protein secretion in Trichoderma reesei. In protein O-glycosylation, the first mannosyl residue is transferred to a serine or threonine hydroxyl group of the protein from dolichyl phosphate mannose by protein O-mannosyltransferase. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, seven PMT genes have been cloned coding for these enzymes. In the present work, the characterisation of the pmt1 cDNA from T. reesei is reported. Sequence analysis of the predicted protein revealed the highest similarity to Schizosaccharomyces pombe Pmt and to Pmt4p of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In contrast, expression of the T. reesei cDNA in various S. cerevisiae pmt mutants showed functional similarity to the yeast Pmt2 protein. PMID:12684840

Zakrzewska, Anna; Migdalski, Andrzej; Saloheimo, Markku; Penttila, Merja E; Palamarczyk, Grazyna; Kruszewska, Joanna S

2003-04-01

25

Fatal Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Aortic Graft Infection  

Science.gov (United States)

Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a yeast commonly used in baking and a frequent colonizer of human mucosal surfaces. It is considered relatively nonpathogenic in immunocompetent adults. We present a case of S. cerevisiae fungemia and aortic graft infection in an immunocompetent adult. This is the first reported case of S. cerevisiue fungemia where the identity of the pathogen was confirmed by rRNA sequencing.

Meyer, Michael (Technical Monitor); Smith, Davey; Metzgar, David; Wills, Christopher; Fierer, Joshua

2002-01-01

26

Filamentous growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae / Filamentação em Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O dimorfismo em fungos é um fenômeno complexo acionado por um grande número de fatores ambientais e consiste num padrão alternante e reversível de crescimento, oscilando entre formas elípticas e filamentosas de células. É de grande importância o entendimento dos mecanismos que regulam esses eventos [...] devido as suas implicações na patogenicidade, diferenciação celular e indústria. Células diplóides de Saccharomyces cerevisiae mudam de células brotantes para pseudohifas quando em condições limitantes de nitrogênio, o que confere às células uma vantagem na procura por alimento. A deficiência de nitrogênio é 'percebida' por pelo menos dois caminhos sinalizadores: 'MAP kinase' (MAPK) e 'PKA' (cAMP-dependent protein kinase A). O resultado dessa sinalização é a expressão de genes específicos para filamentação, cujos perfis de expressão mudam e são acompanhados por um retardo da fase G2 do ciclo celular e um período prolongado de crescimento polarizado. Células haplóides mostram um tipo de crescimento similar após prolongada incubação em meio rico. As células formam cadeias e invadem o ágar na borda da colônia, mas não se tornam alongadas. Esse tipo de crescimento é conhecido como crescimento invasivo haplóide. Os álcoois podem também induzir crescimento filamentoso em S. cerevisiae, ocasionando uma morfologia alongada e aberrante. Nesse artigo revisamos as três formas de crescimento filamentoso incluindo os caminhos envolvidos na percepção, sinalização e transdução do sinal durante o crescimento filamentoso. Abstract in english Fungal dimorphism is a complex phenomenon triggered by a large variety of environmental factors and consists of a reversible alternating pattern of growth between different elliptical and filamentous forms of cells. Understanding the mechanisms that regulate these events is of major interest because [...] of their implications in fungal pathogenesis, cell differentiation and industry. Diploid cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae transform from budding yeast to pseudohyphae when starved for nitrogen, giving the cells an advantage in food foraging, which is sensed by at least two signal transduction pathways: the MAP kinase (MAPK) and the PKA (cAMP-dependent protein kinase A) pathways. The output of these signalling pathways is the expression of pseudohypha-specific genes, whose expression profiles change and is accompanied by a G2 delay in the cell cycle and a prolonged period of polarized growth. Haploid yeast strains show a similar growth type after prolonged incubation on rich medium plates. The cells form chains and invade the agar on the edge of the colony, but they do not become elongated. This growth type is referred to as haploid invasive growth. Alcohols can also induce filamentous growth in S. cerevisiae, promoting aberrant and elongated morphology. The three forms of filamentous growth are revised in this article and also the pathways involved in sensing, signaling and signal transduction during filamentous growth.

Sandra Regina, Ceccato-Antonini; Peter Edwin, Sudbery.

2004-09-01

27

The Saccharomyces cerevisiae DPM1 gene encoding dolichol-phosphate-mannose synthase is able to complement a glycosylation-defective mammalian cell line.  

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The Saccharomyces cerevisiae DPM1 gene product, dolichol-phosphate-mannose (Dol-P-Man) synthase, is involved in the coupled processes of synthesis and membrane translocation of Dol-P-Man. Dol-P-Man is the lipid-linked sugar donor of the last four mannose residues that are added to the core oligosaccharide transferred to protein during N-linked glycosylation in the endoplasmic reticulum. We present evidence that the S. cerevisiae gene DPM1, when stably transfected into a mutant Chinese hamster...

Beck, P. J.; Orlean, P.; Albright, C.; Robbins, P. W.; Gething, M. J.; Sambrook, J. F.

1990-01-01

28

TOTAL ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF YEAST SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE  

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Antioxidants are health beneficial compounds that can protect cells and macromolecules (e.g. fats, lipids, proteins and DNA) from the damage of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Sacchamomyces cerevisiae are know as organisms with very important antioxidative enzyme systems such as superoxide dismutase or catalase. The total antioxidant activity (mmol Trolox equivalent – TE.g-1 d.w.) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was measured by 2,2´-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) during the y...

Blažena Lavová; Dana Urminská

2013-01-01

29

The flavoproteome of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae?  

Science.gov (United States)

Genome analysis of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae identified 68 genes encoding flavin-dependent proteins (1.1% of protein encoding genes) to which 47 distinct biochemical functions were assigned. The majority of flavoproteins operate in mitochondria where they participate in redox processes revolving around the transfer of electrons to the electron transport chain. In addition, we found that flavoenzymes play a central role in various aspects of iron metabolism, such as iron uptake, the biogenesis of iron–sulfur clusters and insertion of the heme cofactor into apocytochromes. Another important group of flavoenzymes is directly (Dus1-4p and Mto1p) or indirectly (Tyw1p) involved in reactions leading to tRNA-modifications. Despite the wealth of genetic information available for S. cerevisiae, we were surprised that many flavoproteins are poorly characterized biochemically. For example, the role of the yeast flavodoxins Pst2p, Rfs1p and Ycp4p with regard to their electron donor and acceptor is presently unknown. Similarly, the function of the heterodimeric Aim45p/Cir1p, which is homologous to the electron-transferring flavoproteins of higher eukaryotes, in electron transfer processes occurring in the mitochondrial matrix remains to be elucidated. This lack of information extends to the five membrane proteins involved in riboflavin or FAD transport as well as FMN and FAD homeostasis within the yeast cell. Nevertheless, several yeast flavoproteins, were identified as convenient model systems both in terms of their mechanism of action as well as structurally to improve our understanding of diseases caused by dysfunctional human flavoprotein orthologs. PMID:24373875

Gudipati, Venugopal; Koch, Karin; Lienhart, Wolf-Dieter; Macheroux, Peter

2014-01-01

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40 CFR 180.1246 - Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement of a...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae on all food...

2010-07-01

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Small-Sized Mutants of SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE  

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The isolation of mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that divide at approximately half the size of the wild type is described. Three mutants have been isolated in which the small size at bud initiation is due to a mutation in a single nuclear gene.

Carter, Bruce L. A.; Sudbery, Peter E.

1980-01-01

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Regulation of Biotin Transport in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The metabolic control of biotin transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated. Nonproliferating cells harvested from cultures grown in excess biotin (25 ng/ml) took up small amounts of biotin, whereas cells grown in biotin-sufficient medium (0.25...

T. O. Rogers, H. C. Lichstein

1969-01-01

33

High level expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae of an artificial gene encoding a repeated tripeptide aspartyl-phenylyalanyl-lysine.  

Science.gov (United States)

A chemically synthesized gene, which encodes a 64 or 128 times-repeated tripeptide, aspartyl-phenylalanyl-lysine, has been cloned onto the yeast expression vector pAM82 containing the PHO5 promoter. The artificial gene (LAP gene) contains the untranslated leader sequence of the E. coli lipoprotein gene (lpp) with its transcription terminator sequence. When yeast AH22 cells transformed by recombinant plasmid containing repeated tripeptide gene were derepressed in low phosphate medium, the artificial polypeptides were synthesized to the amounts of about 30% of the total cell protein. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblot analysis indicated that the artificial polypeptides synthesized in yeast have molecular weights ranging from about 30,000 and 60,000 and have immunoreactivity with the artificial polypeptides expressed in E. coli. The artificial popypeptides in whole cell extract were insoluble and seem to be synthesized as insoluble aggregates. Electron microscopy showed the presence of inclusion bodies in the cell. These polypeptides can be hydrolyzed to tripeptides with trypsin or chymotrypsin. These properties along with the high expression and easy separation may make the artificial polypeptides a potential raw material for the production of an artificial sweetener, Aspartame. PMID:7764034

Choi, S Y; Lee, S Y; Bock, R M

1993-08-01

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The PDE1-encoded Low-Affinity Phosphodiesterase in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Has a Specific Function in Controlling Agonist-induced cAMP Signaling  

Science.gov (United States)

The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains two genes, PDE1 and PDE2, which respectively encode a low-affinity and a high-affinity cAMP phosphodiesterase. The physiological function of the low-affinity enzyme Pde1 is unclear. We show that deletion of PDE1, but not PDE2, results in a much higher cAMP accumulation upon addition of glucose or upon intracellular acidification. Overexpression of PDE1, but not PDE2, abolished the agonist-induced cAMP increases. These results indicate a specific role for Pde1 in controlling glucose and intracellular acidification-induced cAMP signaling. Elimination of a putative protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation site by mutagenesis of serine252 into alanine resulted in a Pde1ala252 allele that apparently had reduced activity in vivo. Its presence in a wild-type strain partially enhanced the agonist-induced cAMP increases compared with pde1?. The difference between the Pde1ala252 allele and wild-type Pde1 was strongly dependent on PKA activity. In a RAS2val19 pde2? background, the Pde1ala252 allele caused nearly the same hyperaccumulation of cAMP as pde1?, while its expression in a PKA-attenuated strain caused the same reduction in cAMP hyperaccumulation as wild-type Pde1. These results suggest that serine252 might be the first target site for feedback inhibition of cAMP accumulation by PKA. We show that Pde1 is rapidly phosphorylated in vivo upon addition of glucose to glycerol-grown cells, and this activation is absent in the Pde1ala252 mutant. Pde1 belongs to a separate class of phosphodiesterases and is the first member shown to be phosphorylated. However, in vitro the Pde1ala252 enzyme had the same catalytic activity as wild-type Pde1, both in crude extracts and after extensive purification. This indicates that the effects of the S252A mutation are not caused by simple inactivation of the enzyme. In vitro phosphorylation of Pde1 resulted in a modest and variable increase in activity, but only in crude extracts. This was absent in Pde1ala252, and phosphate incorporation was strongly reduced. Apparently, phosphorylation of Pde1 does not change its intrinsic activity or affinity for cAMP but appears to be important in vivo for protein-protein interaction or for targeting Pde1 to a specific subcellular location. The PKA recognition site is conserved in the corresponding region of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Candida albicans Pde1 homologues, possibly indicating a similar control by phosphorylation. PMID:9880329

Ma, Pingsheng; Wera, Stefaan; Van Dijck, Patrick; Thevelein, Johan M.

1999-01-01

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Nitrogen Catabolite Repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In Saccharomyces cerevisiae the expression of all known nitrogen catabolite pathways are regulated by four regulators known as Gln3, Gat1, Da180, and Deh1. This is known as nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR). They bind to motifs in the promoter region to the consensus sequence S' GATAA 3'. Gln3 and Gat1 act positively on gene expression whereas :Da180 and Deh1 act negatively. Expression of nitrogen catabolite pathway genes known to be regulated by these four regulators are glutamine, glutamate, proline, urea, arginine, GABA, and allantoine. In addition, the expression of the genes encoding the general amino acid permease and the ammonium permease are also regulated by these four regulatory proteins. Another group of genes whose expression is also regulated by Gln3, Gat1, Da180, and Deh1 are some proteases, CPS1, PRB1, LAP1, and PEP4, responsible for the degradation of proteins into amino acids thereby providing a nitrogen source to the cell.In this review, all known promoter sequences related to expression of nitrogen catabolite pathways are discussed as well as other regulatory proteins. Overview of metabolic pathways and promoters are presented.

Hofman-Bang, H Jacob Peider

1999-01-01

36

Acid excreting mutants of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants acidifying glucose medium containing bromocresol purple were shown to excrete protons when placed in unbuffered water in the absence of any external carbon source. The mutants belong to 16 different complementation groups. Most of them do not grow on glycerol and the excreted protons are associated to particular sets of organic anions such as citrate, aconitate, succinate, fumarate or malate. These novel types of respiratory mutations seem to be located in genes operating in the Krebs or glyoxylate cycle

37

Alpha-factor-directed synthesis and secretion of mature foreign proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells were transformed with plasmids containing hybrid genes in which the sequence encoding mature human epidermal growth factor was joined to sequences encoding the leader region (preprosegment) of the precursor of the yeast mating pheromone alpha-factor. These cells accurately process the hybrid protein and efficiently secrete authentic biologically active human epidermal growth factor into the medium.

Brake, A. J.; Merryweather, J. P.; Coit, D. G.; Heberlein, U. A.; Masiarz, F. R.; Mullenbach, G. T.; Urdea, M. S.; Valenzuela, P.; Barr, P. J.

1984-01-01

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A Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mutant Lacking a K+/H+ Exchanger  

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The KHA1 gene corresponding to the open reading frame YJL094c (2.62 kb) encoding a putative K+/H+ antiporter (873 amino acids) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was disrupted by homologous recombination. The core protein is similar to the putative Na+/H+ antiporters from Enterococcus hirae (NAPA gene) and Lactococcus lactis (LLUPP gene) and the putative K+/H+ exchanger from Escherichia coli (KEFC gene). Disruption of the KHA1 gene resulted in an increased K+ accumulation and net influx without a si...

Rami?rez, Jorge; Rami?rez, Oscar; Saldan?a, Carlos; Coria, Roberto; Pen?a, Antonio

1998-01-01

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Saccharomyces cerevisiae engineered for xylose metabolism exhibits a respiratory response.  

Science.gov (United States)

Native strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae do not assimilate xylose. S. cerevisiae engineered for d-xylose utilization through the heterologous expression of genes for aldose reductase (XYL1), xylitol dehydrogenase (XYL2), and d-xylulokinase (XYL3 or XKS1) produce only limited amounts of ethanol in xylose medium. In recombinant S. cerevisiae expressing XYL1, XYL2, and XYL3, mRNA transcript levels for glycolytic, fermentative, and pentose phosphate enzymes did not change significantly on glucose or xylose under aeration or oxygen limitation. However, expression of genes encoding the tricarboxylic acid cycle, respiration enzymes (HXK1, ADH2, COX13, NDI1, and NDE1), and regulatory proteins (HAP4 and MTH1) increased significantly when cells were cultivated on xylose, and the genes for respiration were even more elevated under oxygen limitation. These results suggest that recombinant S. cerevisiae does not recognize xylose as a fermentable carbon source and that respiratory proteins are induced in response to cytosolic redox imbalance; however, lower sugar uptake and growth rates on xylose might also induce transcripts for respiration. A petite respiration-deficient mutant (rho degrees ) of the engineered strain produced more ethanol and accumulated less xylitol from xylose. It formed characteristic colonies on glucose, but it did not grow on xylose. These results are consistent with the higher respiratory activity of recombinant S. cerevisiae when growing on xylose and with its inability to grow on xylose under anaerobic conditions. PMID:15528549

Jin, Yong-Su; Laplaza, Jose M; Jeffries, Thomas W

2004-11-01

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Saccharomyces cerevisiae engineered to produce D-xylonate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Saccharomyces cerevisiae was engineered to produce D-xylonate by introducing the Trichoderma reesei xyd1 gene, encoding a D-xylose dehydrogenase. D-xylonate was not toxic to S. cerevisiae, and the cells were able to export D-xylonate produced in the cytoplasm to the supernatant. Up to 3.8 g of D-xylonate per litre, at rates of 25-36 mg of D-xylonate per litre per hour, was produced. Up to 4.8 g of xylitol per litre was also produced. The yield of D-xylonate from D-xylose was approximately 0.4 g of D-xylonate per gramme of D-xylose consumed. Deletion of the aldose reductase encoding gene GRE3 in S. cerevisiae strains expressing xyd1 reduced xylitol production by 67%, increasing the yield of D-xylonate from D-xylose. However, D-xylose uptake was reduced compared to strains containing GRE3, and the total amount of D-xylonate produced was reduced. To determine whether the co-factor NADP+ was limiting for D-xylonate production the Escherichia coli transhydrogenase encoded by udhA, the Bacillus subtilis glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase encoded by gapB or the S. cerevisiae glutamate dehydrogenase encoded by GDH2 was co-expressed with xyd1 in the parent and GRE3 deficient strains. Although each of these enzymes enhanced NADPH consumption on D-glucose, they did not enhance D-xylonate production, suggesting that NADP+ was not the main limitation in the current D-xylonate producing strains. PMID:20680264

Toivari, Mervi H; Ruohonen, Laura; Richard, Peter; Penttilä, Merja; Wiebe, Marilyn G

2010-10-01

 
 
 
 
41

TOTAL ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF YEAST SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Antioxidants are health beneficial compounds that can protect cells and macromolecules (e.g. fats, lipids, proteins and DNA from the damage of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Sacchamomyces cerevisiae are know as organisms with very important antioxidative enzyme systems such as superoxide dismutase or catalase. The total antioxidant activity (mmol Trolox equivalent – TE.g-1 d.w. of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was measured by 2,2´-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid during the yeast cultivation. It was found that the total antioxidant activity was the highest (1.08 mmol TE.g-1 d.w. in the strain Kolín after 32 hours of cultivation and the lowest (0.26 mmol TE.g-1 d.w. in the strain Gyöng after 12 hours of cultivation.

Blažena Lavová

2013-02-01

42

Checkpoint-control in Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Eukaryotic cells have evolved a network of control mechanisms, known as checkpoints, which coordinate cell-cycle progression in response to internal and external cues. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been invaluable in dissecting genetically the DNA damage checkpoint pathway. DNA damage activates a set of proteins whose job is to delay the cell cycle until the damage is repaired. This process was thought to involve the detection of damage by sensor proteins, which transmit a signal to a key protein kinase and thence to downstream targets. Checkpoint mechanisms are interesting because of their link with cancer and we have the eternal hope that checkpoints may somehow present a therapeutic opportunity. (author)

43

Biosorption of americium-241 by Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The biosorption of radionuclide 241Am from solution by Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae), and the effects of experimental conditions on the adsorption were investigated. The preliminary results showed that S. cerevisiae is a very efficient biosorbent. An average of more than 99% of the total 241Am could be removed by S. cerevisiae of 2.1 g/l (dry weight) from 241Am solutions of 17.54-4386.0 ?g/l (2.22 MBq/l-555 MBq/l) with adsorption capacities of 7.45-1880.0 ?g/g biomass (dry weight) (0.94 MBq/g-237.9 MBq/g). The adsorption equilibrium was achieved within 1 hour and the optimum pH ranged 1-3. No significant differences on 241Am adsorption were observed at 10-45 deg C, or in solutions containing Au3+ or Ag+, even 2000 times above 241Am concentration. The relationship between concentrations and adsorption capacities of 241Am indicated the biosorption process should be described by the Freundlich adsorption isotherm. (author)

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RGD1, encoding a RhoGAP involved in low-pH survival, is an Msn2p/Msn4p regulated gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The RhoGAP Rgd1p is involved in different signal transduction pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae through its regulatory activity upon the Rho3 and Rho4 GTPases. The rgd1Delta mutant, which presents a mortality at the entry into the stationary phase in minimal medium, is sensitive to medium acidification caused by biomass augmentation. We showed that low-pH shock leads to abnormal intracellular acidification of the rgd1Delta mutant. Transcriptional regulation of RGD1 was studied in several stress conditions and we observed an activation of RGD1 transcription at low pH and after heat and oxidative shocks. The transcription level at low pH and after heat shock was demonstrated to depend on the STRE box located in the RGD1 promoter. The general stress-activated transcription factors Msn2p and Msn4p as well as the HOG pathway were shown to mainly act on the basal RGD1 transcriptional level in normal and stress conditions. PMID:15922872

Gatti, Xavier; de Bettignies, Geoffroy; Claret, Sandra; Doignon, François; Crouzet, Marc; Thoraval, Didier

2005-05-23

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The Trypanosoma cruzi PIN1 gene encodes a parvulin peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase able to replace the essential ESS1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Parvulins are a conserved group of peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerases (PPIases) that catalyze the cis/trans isomerization of proline-preceding peptide bonds. Parvulin-class PPIases are structurally unrelated to cyclophilins and FK506-binding proteins that are defined as receptors for immunosuppressive drugs. In Trypanosoma cruzi we identified parvulin TcPIN1 as a homolog of the human hPin1 PPIase. The 117 amino acids of the TcPIN1 display 40% identity with the catalytic core of hPin1 and exhibit prolyl cis/trans isomerase activity. TcPIN1 lacks the WW domain at the N-terminus, and is able to rescue the temperature-sensitive phenotype on a mutation in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae hPin1 homolog, ESS1/PTF1. Western blot analysis revealed that the enzyme was present both in dividing and non-dividing forms of T. cruzi. In epimastigote cells neither cell growth kinetics nor cell morphology was affected by the overexpression of the small parvulin TcPIN1. These results suggest the occurrence of a supplementary conserved level of post-translational control in trypanosomatids. PMID:17418434

Erben, Esteban D; Daum, Sebastian; Téllez-Iñón, María T

2007-06-01

46

Mobilomics in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Mobile Genetic Elements (MGEs) are selfish DNA integrated in the genomes. Their detection is mainly based on consensus–like searches by scanning the investigated genome against the sequence of an already identified MGE. Mobilomics aims at discovering all the MGEs in a genome and understanding their dynamic behavior: The data for this kind of investigation can be provided by comparative genomics of closely related organisms. The amount of data thus involved requires a strong computational effort, which should be alleviated. Results Our approach proposes to exploit the high similarity among homologous chromosomes of different strains of the same species, following a progressive comparative genomics philosophy. We introduce a software tool based on our new fast algorithm, called regender, which is able to identify the conserved regions between chromosomes. Our case study is represented by a unique recently available dataset of 39 different strains of S.cerevisiae, which regender?is able to compare in few minutes. By exploring the non–conserved regions, where MGEs are mainly retrotransposons called Tys, and marking the candidate Tys based on their length, we are able to locate a priori?and automatically all the already known Tys and map all the putative Tys in all the strains. The remaining putative mobile elements (PMEs) emerging from this intra–specific comparison are sharp markers of inter–specific evolution: indeed, many events of non–conservation among different yeast strains correspond to PMEs. A clustering based on the presence/absence of the candidate Tys in the strains suggests an evolutionary interconnection that is very similar to classic phylogenetic trees based on SNPs analysis, even though it is computed without using phylogenetic information. Conclusions The case study indicates that the proposed methodology brings two major advantages: (a) it does not require any template sequence for the wanted MGEs and (b) it can be applied to infer MGEs also for low coverage genomes with unresolved bases, where traditional approaches are largely ineffective. PMID:23514613

2013-01-01

47

Prezygotic reproductive isolation between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces paradoxus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Matings between different Saccharomyces sensu stricto yeast species produce sexually sterile hybrids, so individuals should avoid mating with other species. Any mechanism that reduces the frequency of interspecific matings will confer a selective advantage. Here we test the ability of two closely-related Saccharomyces sensu stricto species to select their own species as mates and avoid hybridisation. Results We set up mate choice tests, using five independently isolated pairs of species, in which individual germinating spores were presented with the opportunity to mate either with a germinating spore of their own species or with a germinating spore of the other species. For all five strain pairs, whether a S. cerevisiae or S. paradoxus occupies the role of "chooser" strain, the level of hybridisation that is observed between the two species is significantly lower than would be expected if mates were selected at random. We also show that, overall, S. cerevisiae exhibited a stronger own-species preference than S. paradoxus. Conclusion Prezygotic reproductive isolation is well known in higher organisms but has been largely overlooked in yeast, an important model microbe. Here we present the first report of prezygotic reproductive isolation in Saccharomyces. Prezygotic reproductive isolation may be important in yeast speciation or yeast species cohesion, and may have evolved to prevent wasted matings between different species. Whilst yeast has long been used as a genetic model system, little is known about yeast in the wild. Our work sheds light on an interesting aspect of yeast natural behaviour: their ability to avoid costly interspecific matings.

Greig Duncan

2008-01-01

48

Catalase enzyme in mitochondria of Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities have been explored in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during batchwise growth experiment. During the diauxic growth in YPD medium high Ys values were obtained (0.415 - 0.423) and correlation between the total activities of both enzymes has been found. [...] A mitochondrial fraction from three type strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been isolated. The purity of this fraction was proved through different enzyme assays: hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, D-amino acid oxidase, isocitric lyase, succinate dehydrogenase. Then the catalase, peroxidase, Mn and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase activities were evaluated in the mitochondrial fraction. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis separations allowed to identify a mitochondrial catalase as a band of 0.239 Rm value. It differed from the two catalase specific bands with Rm values 0.218 and 0.257 obtained from the crude extract. It was proved that the three catalase proteins are charge isomers. A positive correlation between the activity of mitochondrial catalase and Mn superoxide dismutase also takes place. Molecular weight of mitochonrial catalase protein has been determined as 240 kD.

Ventsislava Yankova, Petrova; Tanya Vassileva, Rasheva; Anna V., Kujumdzieva.

2002-04-15

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PRIMARY STRUCTURE OF THE P450 LANOSTEROL DEMETHYLASE GENE FROM SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE  

Science.gov (United States)

We have sequenced the structural gene and flanking regions for lanosterol 14oc-demethylase (14DM) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. n open reading fram of 530 codons encodes a 60.7-kDa protein. hen this gene is disrupted by integrative transformation, the resulting strain requires e...

50

A DNA sequence in Saccharomyces exiguus is homologous with the HO gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The DNA of Saccharomyces exiguus was analyzed by Southern hybridization using cloned MATa, MAT alpha, and HO genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as probes. It was shown that S. exiguus has a DNA sequence homologous with the HO gene of S. cerevisiae and that this DNA sequence is on a chromosome of about 940 kb of DNA in S. exiguus. However, there is no DNA sequence in S. exiguus that is homologous with the MAT genes of S. cerevisiae. PMID:2673556

Hisatomi, T; Tsuboi, M

1989-06-01

51

Interaction between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and chrysotile  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The interaction between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and chrysotile fibers was studied by scanning electron microscopy. The yeast cells adhere preferentially to the fibrils. In the extreme case, all the adhered fibrils were broken, resulting in a complete coverage of the surface. The chrysotile covered cells showed less buds, but retained metabolic capacities, and were fully active in fermentation experiments after one year. The interaction degree was depending on contact time and adhesion medium. The longer the contact period, the stronger the interaction between the cells and the fibers. Cells adhered in water show poor entrapment after short contact time, but were highly entrapped after longer periods and did not show any agglomerates. Cells adhered in the presence of nutrients showed a lower entrapment and a higher degree of cellular growth.

Cassiola F.

2001-11-01

52

Characterization of the Biotin Transport System in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The characteristics of the biotin transport mechanism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated in nonproliferating cells. Microbiological and radioisotope assays were employed to measure biotin uptake. The vitamin existed intracellularly in both free...

T. O. Rogers, H. C. Lichstein

1969-01-01

53

Study on biosorption of uranium by alginate immobilized saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Saccharomyces cerevisiae has great capability of biosorption of uranium. The maxium uptake is 172.4 mg/g according to this study. To adapt to the application of the biomass in the field, the biosorption of uranium by cross-linked and alginate calcium immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae is studied. Results indicate the maxium uptake is 185.2 mg/g by formaldehyde cross-linked biomass, and it is 769.2 mg/g by alginate calcium immobilized biomass. (authors)

54

Phenotypical signs and chemical composition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae – mannoprotein producers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Phenotypical signs and chemical composition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNMN-Y-18 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNMN-Y-19 yeast strains are described in this article. The presence of protein complexes with high content of irreplaceable amino acids and antioxidant enzymes, as well as polysaccharides with predominance of mannoproteins allow to recommend these yeast strains for the utilization in biotechnology. Results are of interest for the standard description of yeast strains offered as object for industrial appointment.

Agafia USATII

2012-11-01

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Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a versatile eukaryotic system in virology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a well-established model system for understanding fundamental cellular processes relevant to higher eukaryotic organisms. Less known is its value for virus research, an area in which Saccharomyces cerevisiae has proven to be very fruitful as well. The present review will discuss the main achievements of yeast-based studies in basic and applied virus research. These include the analysis of the function of individual proteins from important pathogenic virus...

Galao, Rui P.; Scheller, Nicoletta; Alves-rodrigues, Isabel; Breinig, Tanja; Meyerhans, Andreas; Di?ez, Juana

2007-01-01

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Survival kit of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for anhydrobiosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Yeast cells are well adapted to interfacial habitats, such as the surfaces of soil or plants, where they can resist frequent fluctuations between wet and dry conditions. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is recognized as an anhydrobiotic organism, and it has been the subject of numerous studies that aimed to elucidate this ability. Extensive data have been obtained from these studies based on a wide range of experimental approaches, which have added significantly to our understanding of the cellular bases and mechanisms of resistance to desiccation. The aim of this review is to provide an integrated view of these mechanisms in yeast and to describe the survival kit of S. cerevisiae for anhydrobiosis. This kit comprises constitutive and inducible mechanisms that prevent cell damage during dehydration and rehydration. This review also aims to characterize clearly the phenomenon of anhydrobiosis itself based on detailed descriptions of the causes and effects of the constraints imposed on cells by desiccation. These constraints mainly lead to mechanical, structural, and oxidative damage to cell components. Considerations of these constraints and the possible utilization of components of the survival kit could help to improve the survival of sensitive cells of interest during desiccation. PMID:25172136

Dupont, Sebastien; Rapoport, Alexander; Gervais, Patrick; Beney, Laurent

2014-11-01

57

Response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to cadmium stress  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The intensification of industrial activity has been greatly contributing with the increase of heavy metals in the environment. Among these heavy metals, cadmium becomes a serious pervasive environmental pollutant. The cadmium is a heavy metal with no biological function, very toxic and carcinogenic at low concentrations. The toxicity of cadmium and several other metals can be mainly attributed to the multiplicity of coordination complexes and clusters that they can form. Some aspects of the cellular response to cadmium were extensively investigated in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The primary site of interaction between many toxic metals and microbial cells is the plasma membrane. Plasma-membrane permeabilisation has been reported in a variety of microorganisms following cadmium exposure, and is considered one mechanism of cadmium toxicity in the yeast. In this work, using the yeast strain S. cerevisiae W303-WT, we have investigated the relationships between Cd uptake and release of cellular metal ions (K{sup +} and Na{sup +}) using neutron activation technique. The neutron activation was an easy, rapid and suitable technique for doing these metal determinations on yeast cells; was observed the change in morphology of the strains during the process of Cd accumulation, these alterations were observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) during incorporation of cadmium. (author)

Moreira, Luciana Mara Costa; Ribeiro, Frederico Haddad; Neves, Maria Jose [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia], e-mail: luamatu@uol.com.br; Porto, Barbara Abranches Araujo; Amaral, Angela M.; Menezes, Maria Angela B.C. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Ativacao Neutronica], e-mail: menezes@cdtn.br; Rosa, Carlos Augusto [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Microbiologia], e-mail: carlrosa@icb.ufmg

2009-07-01

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Selection and characterization of ricin toxin A-chain mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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A DNA sequence encoding the A chain of ricin toxin (RTA) from the castor bean plant, Ricinus communis, was placed under GAL1 promoter control and transformed into Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Induction of expression of RTA was lethal. This lethality was the basis for a selection of mutations in RTA which inactivated the toxin. A number of mutant alleles which encoded cross-reactive material were sequenced. Eight of the first nine mutant RTAs studied showed single-amino-acid changes involving res...

Frankel, A.; Schlossman, D.; Welsh, P.; Hertler, A.; Withers, D.; Johnston, S.

1989-01-01

59

Reconstitution of an efficient thymidine salvage pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is unable to incorporate exogenous nucleosides into DNA. We have made a number of improvements to existing strategies to reconstitute an efficient thymidine salvage pathway in yeast. We have constructed strains that express both a nucleoside kinase as well as an equilibrative nucleoside transporter. By also deleting the gene encoding thymidylate synthase (CDC21) we have constructed strains that are entirely dependent upon exogenous thymidine for viability and that can grow with normal kinetics at low thymidine concentrations. Using this novel approach, we show that depletion of a single deoxyribonucleoside causes reversible arrest of cells in S phase with concomitant phosphorylation and activation of the S phase checkpoint kinase, Rad53. We show that this strain also efficiently incorporates the thymidine analogue, BrdU, into DNA and can be used for pulse-chase labelling.

Piskur, Jure

2003-01-01

60

Identification of a Cryptococcus neoformans gene that directs expression of the cryptic Saccharomyces cerevisiae mannitol dehydrogenase gene.  

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The Mtl gene from Cryptococcus neoformans, which confers the ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sc4l YJO to grow on mannitol with substantial NAD-dependent mannitol dehydrogenase activity, was identified. Purifications and characterizations of this enzyme show that it is found in polyploid strain BB1, and the peptide sequence of the enzyme helped identify the saccharomyces gene encoding this mannitol dehydrogenase activity. On the other hand, the Mtl gene of C. neoformans encodes a 346-amino...

Perfect, J. R.; Rude, T. H.; Wong, B.; Flynn, T.; Chaturvedi, V.; Niehaus, W.

1996-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to improve succinic acid production based on metabolic profiling.  

Science.gov (United States)

We performed metabolic engineering on the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for enhanced production of succinic acid. Aerobic succinic acid production in S. cerevisiae was achieved by disrupting the SDH1 and SDH2 genes, which encode the catalytic subunits of succinic acid dehydrogenase. Increased succinic acid production was achieved by eliminating the ethanol biosynthesis pathways. Metabolic profiling analysis revealed that succinic acid accumulated intracellularly following disruption of the SDH1 and SDH2 genes, which suggests that enhancing the export of intracellular succinic acid outside of cells increases succinic acid production in S. cerevisiae. The mae1 gene encoding the Schizosaccharomyces pombe malic acid transporter was introduced into S. cerevisiae, and as a result, succinic acid production was successfully improved. Metabolic profiling analysis is useful in producing chemicals for metabolic engineering of microorganisms. PMID:25036498

Ito, Yuma; Hirasawa, Takashi; Shimizu, Hiroshi

2014-01-01

62

Mating pheromones of Saccharomyces kluyveri: pheromone interactions between Saccharomyces kluyveri and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Saccharomyces kluyveri is a heterothallic yeast with two allelic mating types denoted as a-k and alpha-k by analogy with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and from the work described here. S. kluyveri produces mating pheromones analogous to those of S. cerevisiae, but which appear to have different specificity. S. kluyveri thus differs from S. cerevisiae, Hansenula wingei, and Schizosaccharomyces pombe in that it exhibits both strong constitutive agglutination and mating pheromones. alpha-k cells produce a pheromone ("alpha-k-factor") which causes a-k cells to arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle and to undergo a morphological change. After a period of time dependent on the concentration of alpha-k-factor, cells exposed to the factor resume cell division. alpha-k-factor has no effect on a-k/alpha-k diploids or on alpha-k cells, but at high concentration does induce G1 arrest of S. cerevisiaea cells (a-c). a-k cells produce a pheromone ("a-k-factor") which causes alpha-k cells to exhibit a morphological change. In addition, a-k cells exhibit the Bar phenotype with respect to alpha-k-factor. Partially purified preparations of S. cerevisiae alpha-factor are more active in inducing G1 arrest of a-k cells than of a-c cells. A more purified preparation of alpha-c-factor is less active against a-k cells than a-c cells, suggesting that an additional factor (KRE, kluyveri response enhancer) may be lost during purification. Attempts to mate S. kluyveri and S. cerevisiae cells by prototroph selection and by cell-to-cell mating have been unsuccessful with all combinations of mating types. Thus, S. cerevisiae and S. kluyveri are incompatible for mating even though their pheromones exhibit some physiological cross-reaction. PMID:374360

McCullough, J; Herskowitz, I

1979-04-01

63

Redox balancing in recombinant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In metabolically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing Pichia stipitis XYL1 and XYL2 genes, encoding xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH), respectively, xylitol is excreted as the major product during anaerobic xylose fermentation and only low yields of ethanol are produced. This has been interpreted as a result of the dual cofactor dependence of XR and the exclusive use of NAD{sup +} by XDH. The excretion of xylitol was completely stopped and the formation of glycerol and acetic acid were reduced in xylose utilising S. cerevisiae strains cultivated in oxygen-limited conditions by expressing lower levels of XR than of XDH. The expression level of XYL1 and XYL2 were controlled by changing the promoters and transcription directions of the genes. A new functional metabolic pathway was established when Thermus thermophilus xylA gene was expressed in S. cerevisiae. The recombinant strain was able to ferment xylose to ethanol when cultivated on a minimal medium containing xylose as only carbon source. In order to create a channeled metabolic transfer in the two first steps of the xylose metabolism, XYL1 and XYL2 were fused in-frame and expressed in S. cerevisiae. When the fusion protein, containing a linker of three amino acids, was co expressed together with native XR and XDH monomers, enzyme complexes consisting of chimeric and native subunits were formed. The total activity of these complexes exhibited 10 and 9 times higher XR and XDH activity, respectively, than the original conjugates, consisting of only chimeric subunits. This strain produced less xylitol and the xylitol yield was lower than with strains only expressing native XR and XDH monomers. In addition, more ethanol and less acetic acid were formed. A new gene encoding the cytoplasmic transhydrogenase from Azotobacter vinelandii was cloned. The enzyme showed high similarity to the family of pyridine nucleotide-disulphide oxidoreductase. To analyse the physiological effect of transhydrogenation between the two coenzyme systems NADP(H) and NAD(H) during anaerobic growth, S. cerevisiae was transformed with a plasma membrane bound AB-transhydrogenase from E. coli and with a cytoplasmic BB-transhydrogenase from A. vinelandii. Expression of both types changed the intracellular nucleotide levels. The NADPH/NADP{sup +} ratio was reduced while the NADH/NAD{sup +} ratio was almost constant. An increased formation of 2-oxoglutarate, glycerol and acetate was observed during anaerobic glucose fermentation 206 refs, 8 figs, 3 tabs

Anderlund, M.

1998-09-01

64

Local Regulatory Variation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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Full Text Available Naturally occurring sequence variation that affects gene expression is an important source of phenotypic differences among individuals within a species. We and others have previously shown that such regulatory variation can occur both at the same locus as the gene whose expression it affects (local regulatory variation and elsewhere in the genome at trans-acting factors. Here we present a detailed analysis of genome-wide local regulatory variation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We used genetic linkage analysis to show that nearly a quarter of all yeast genes contain local regulatory variation between two divergent strains. We measured allele-specific expression in a diploid hybrid of the two strains for 77 genes showing strong self-linkage and found that in 52%-78% of these genes, local regulatory variation acts directly in cis. We also experimentally confirmed one example in which local regulatory variation in the gene AMN1 acts in trans through a feedback loop. Genome-wide sequence analysis revealed that genes subject to local regulatory variation show increased polymorphism in the promoter regions, and that some but not all of this increase is due to polymorphisms in predicted transcription factor binding sites. Increased polymorphism was also found in the 3' untranslated regions of these genes. These findings point to the importance of cis-acting variation, but also suggest that there is a diverse set of mechanisms through which local variation can affect gene expression levels.

2005-08-01

65

Acetylation dynamics and stoichiometry in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Lysine acetylation is a frequently occurring posttranslational modification; however, little is known about the origin and regulation of most sites. Here we used quantitative mass spectrometry to analyze acetylation dynamics and stoichiometry in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that acetylation accumulated in growth-arrested cells in a manner that depended on acetyl-CoA generation in distinct subcellular compartments. Mitochondrial acetylation levels correlated with acetyl-CoA concentration in vivo and acetyl-CoA acetylated lysine residues nonenzymatically in vitro. We developed a method to estimate acetylation stoichiometry and found that the vast majority of mitochondrial and cytoplasmic acetylation had a very low stoichiometry. However, mitochondrial acetylation occurred at a significantly higher basal level than cytoplasmic acetylation, consistent with the distinct acetylation dynamics and higher acetyl-CoA concentration in mitochondria. High stoichiometry acetylation occurred mostly on histones, proteins present in histone acetyltransferase and deacetylase complexes, and on transcription factors. These data show that a majority of acetylation occurs at very low levels in exponentially growing yeast and is uniformly affected by exposure to acetyl-CoA.

Weinert, Brian Tate; Iesmantavicius, Vytautas

2014-01-01

66

Directed Evolution towards Increased Isoprenoid Production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Due to declining drug discovery rates from organic synthetic libraries, pharmaceutical companies are turning their attention towards secondary metabolites. Isoprenoids, also known as terpenoids, constitute the largest known group of secondary metabolites isolated to date, encompassing more than 55,000 different compounds including several blockbuster drugs such as paclitaxel and artemisinin. All molecules within this group are biosynthesized from the same precursor called isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP), which is repeatedly polymerized and diversified giving rise to enormous chemical and structural diversity. The most common way of producing these compounds is by organic synthesis. Organic synthesis does however have several disadvantages for production of secondary metabolites such as low yields due to the complex structures, which makes this way of production economically unfeasible. Microbial production can easily be scaled to meet current demands and it is also an environmental benign production method compared to organic synthesis. Thus it would be attractive to engineer a microorganism to produce high amounts of IPP and other immediate prenyl precursors such as geranyl pyrophosphate, farnesyl pyrophosphate and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate for large-scale microbial production of terpenoids. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was chosen as production platform due to its widespread use in industrial production and the waste number of molecular biology tools which is available for its manipulation. The effort for discovering new genetic perturbations, which would results in and increased production of isoprenoids by S. cerevisiae has been very limited. This project is focus on creating diversity within a lycopene producing S. cerevisiae strain by construction of gDNA-, cDNA-, and transposon-libraries. The diversified population of S. cerevisiae clones will afterwards be screened using the isoprenoid molecule lycopene as a model compound, hereby enabling the isolation of phenotypes producing higher amounts of isoprenoid. The property making lycopene ideal for screening is its system of 11 conjugated double bonds, which absorbs light within the visible range resulting in the red color of lycopene. This feature is the cause for the orange/red phenotype of S. cerevisiae strains transformed with the genes encoding lycopene and enables visual screening of yeast colonies, by searching for colonies with more intense red colony coloration which is the result of higher amount of lycopene is being produced and hence high amount of isoprenoid precursor being available. This will elucidate novel genetic targets for increasing isoprenoid production in S. cerevisiae

Carlsen, Simon; Nielsen, Michael Lynge

67

Selected non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts in controlled multistarter fermentations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Non-Saccharomyces yeasts are metabolically active during spontaneous and inoculated must fermentations, and by producing a plethora of by-products, they can contribute to the definition of the wine aroma. Thus, use of Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts as mixed starter cultures for inoculation of wine fermentations is of increasing interest for quality enhancement and improved complexity of wines. We initially characterized 34 non-Saccharomyces yeasts of the genera Candida, Lachancea (Kluyveromyces), Metschnikowia and Torulaspora, and evaluated their enological potential. This confirmed that non-Saccharomyces yeasts from wine-related environments represent a rich sink of unexplored biodiversity for the winemaking industry. From these, we selected four non-Saccharomyces yeasts to combine with starter cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in mixed fermentation trials. The kinetics of growth and fermentation, and the analytical profiles of the wines produced indicate that these non-Saccharomyces strains can be used with S. cerevisiae starter cultures to increase polysaccharide, glycerol and volatile compound production, to reduce volatile acidity, and to increase or reduce the total acidity of the final wines, depending on yeast species and inoculum ratio used. The overall effects of the non-Saccharomyces yeasts on fermentation and wine quality were strictly dependent on the Saccharomyces/non-Saccharomyces inoculum ratio that mimicked the differences of fermentation conditions (natural or simultaneous inoculated fermentation). PMID:21569929

Comitini, Francesca; Gobbi, Mirko; Domizio, Paola; Romani, Cristina; Lencioni, Livio; Mannazzu, Ilaria; Ciani, Maurizio

2011-08-01

68

Switching the mode of sucrose utilization by Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Overflow metabolism is an undesirable characteristic of aerobic cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during biomass-directed processes. It results from elevated sugar consumption rates that cause a high substrate conversion to ethanol and other bi-products, severely affecting cell physiology, bioprocess performance, and biomass yields. Fed-batch culture, where sucrose consumption rates are controlled by the external addition of sugar aiming at its low concentrations in the fermentor, is the classical bioprocessing alternative to prevent sugar fermentation by yeasts. However, fed-batch fermentations present drawbacks that could be overcome by simpler batch cultures at relatively high (e.g. 20 g/L initial sugar concentrations. In this study, a S. cerevisiae strain lacking invertase activity was engineered to transport sucrose into the cells through a low-affinity and low-capacity sucrose-H+ symport activity, and the growth kinetics and biomass yields on sucrose analyzed using simple batch cultures. Results We have deleted from the genome of a S. cerevisiae strain lacking invertase the high-affinity sucrose-H+ symporter encoded by the AGT1 gene. This strain could still grow efficiently on sucrose due to a low-affinity and low-capacity sucrose-H+ symport activity mediated by the MALx1 maltose permeases, and its further intracellular hydrolysis by cytoplasmic maltases. Although sucrose consumption by this engineered yeast strain was slower than with the parental yeast strain, the cells grew efficiently on sucrose due to an increased respiration of the carbon source. Consequently, this engineered yeast strain produced less ethanol and 1.5 to 2 times more biomass when cultivated in simple batch mode using 20 g/L sucrose as the carbon source. Conclusion Higher cell densities during batch cultures on 20 g/L sucrose were achieved by using a S. cerevisiae strain engineered in the sucrose uptake system. Such result was accomplished by effectively reducing sucrose uptake by the yeast cells, avoiding overflow metabolism, with the concomitant reduction in ethanol production. The use of this modified yeast strain in simpler batch culture mode can be a viable option to more complicated traditional sucrose-limited fed-batch cultures for biomass-directed processes of S. cerevisiae.

Miletti Luiz C

2008-02-01

69

Accumulation of gold using Baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Authors have reported preconcentration of 152Eu, a long-lived fission product, by yeast cells, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Gold being a precious metal is used in electroplating, hydrogenation catalyst, etc. Heterogeneous composition of samples and low concentration offers renewed interest in its selective extraction of gold using various extractants. Gold can be recovered from different solutions using various chemical reagents like amines, organophosphorus compounds, and extractants containing sulphur as donor atom, etc. In the present work, two different strains of baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been used to study the preconcentration of gold at various experimental conditions

70

TRIPLES: a database of gene function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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Using a novel multipurpose mini-transposon, we have generated a collection of defined mutant alleles for the analysis of disruption phenotypes, protein localization, and gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To catalog this unique data set, we have developed TRIPLES, a Web-accessible database of TRansposon-Insertion Phenotypes, Localization and Expression in Saccharomyces. Encompassing over 250 000 data points, TRIPLES provides convenient access to information from nearly 7800 transpos...

Kumar, Anuj; Cheung, Kei-hoi; Ross-macdonald, Petra; Coelho, Paulo S. R.; Miller, Perry; Snyder, Michael

2000-01-01

71

Invasive Saccharomyces cerevisiae infection: A friend turning foe?  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a very rare case of acute pyelonephritis in a 51-year-old female with a history of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diabetes caused by a normally benign and a well-known human commensal organism, Saccharomyces cerevisiae that is very often prescribed as a probiotic in modern medical practice. The causal role of S. cerevisiae was confirmed by its isolation in blood, urine, stool as well as vaginal swabs thus proving its virulent nature in suitable situations. PMID:25394448

Pillai, Unnikrishnan; Devasahayam, Joe; Kurup, Aparna Narayana; Lacasse, Alexandre

2014-01-01

72

Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for lactose/whey fermentation  

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Lactose is an interesting carbon source for the production of several bio-products by fermentation, primarily because it is the major component of cheese whey, the main by-product of dairy activities. However, the microorganism more widely used in industrial fermentation processes, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, does not have a lactose metabolisation system. Therefore, several metabolic engineering approaches have been used to construct lactose-consuming S. cerevisia...

Domingues, Luci?lia; Guimara?es, Pedro M. R.; Oliveira, Carla Cristina Marques

2010-01-01

73

Research on biosorption of uranium by saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of pH and the granularity of S. cerevisiae on the biosorption capacity were examined in order to study the properties of the biosorption of uranium from effluent by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The isotherm was drawn. From the isotherm, the equations of Langmuir and Freundlich were achieved. The results showed the highest biosorption capacity was obtained when the pH value was about 6 and the granularity was 0.15-0.13 mm

74

Regulation of Gluconeogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Is Mediated by Activator and Repressor Functions of Rds2?  

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In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, RDS2 encodes a zinc cluster transcription factor with unknown function. Here, we unravel a key function of Rds2 in gluconeogenesis using chromatin immunoprecipitation-chip technology. While we observed that Rds2 binds to only a few promoters in glucose-containing medium, it binds many additional genes when the medium is shifted to ethanol, a nonfermentable carbon source. Interestingly, many of these genes are involved in gluconeogenesis, the tricarboxylic acid cyc...

Soontorngun, Nitnipa; Larochelle, Marc; Drouin, Simon; Robert, Franc?ois; Turcotte, Bernard

2007-01-01

75

APT1, but Not APT2, Codes for a Functional Adenine Phosphoribosyltransferase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has two separate genes (APT1 and APT2) that encode two potentially different forms of adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT). However, genetic analysis indicated that only APT1 could code for a complementing activity. Cloning and expression of both the APT1 and APT2 genes in Escherichia coli showed that although discrete proteins (APRT1 and APRT2) were made by these genes, only APRT1 had detectable APRT activity. Northern and Western blot analyses demonstr...

Alfonzo, Juan D.; Crother, Timothy R.; Guetsova, Maria L.; Daignan-fornier, Bertrand; Taylor, Milton W.

1999-01-01

76

Metabolic Engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Astaxanthin Production and Oxidative Stress Tolerance?  

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The red carotenoid astaxanthin possesses higher antioxidant activity than other carotenoids and has great commercial potential for use in the aquaculture, pharmaceutical, and food industries. In this study, we produced astaxanthin in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by introducing the genes involved in astaxanthin biosynthesis of carotenogenic microorganisms. In particular, expression of genes of the red yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous encoding phytoene desaturase (crtI product)...

Ukibe, Ken; Hashida, Keisuke; Yoshida, Nobuyuki; Takagi, Hiroshi

2009-01-01

77

Regulation of basal and induced levels of the MEL1 transcript in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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The MEL1 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is required for the production of alpha-galactosidase and for the catabolism of melibiose. Production of alpha-galactosidase is induced by galactose or melibiose and repressed by glucose. Inducibility is controlled by the positive and negative regulatory proteins GAL4 and GAL80, respectively. We have cloned the MEL1 gene to study its transcriptional expression and regulation. Evidence is presented that the MEL1 gene encodes alpha-galactosidase and tha...

Post-beittenmiller, M. A.; Hamilton, R. W.; Hopper, J. E.

1984-01-01

78

DNA polymerases delta and epsilon are required for chromosomal replication in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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Three DNA polymerases, alpha, delta, and epsilon are required for viability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have investigated whether DNA polymerases epsilon and delta are required for DNA replication. Two temperature-sensitive mutations in the POL2 gene, encoding DNA polymerase epsilon, have been identified by using the plasmid shuffle technique. Alkaline sucrose gradient analysis of DNA synthesis products in the mutant strains shows that no chromosomal-size DNA is formed after shift of an a...

Budd, M. E.; Campbell, J. L.

1993-01-01

79

Engineering and Analysis of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain That Uses Formaldehyde as an Auxiliary Substrate?  

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We demonstrated that formaldehyde can be efficiently coutilized by an engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain that expresses Hansenula polymorpha genes encoding formaldehyde dehydrogenase (FLD1) and formate dehydrogenase (FMD), in contrast to wild-type strains. Initial chemostat experiments showed that the engineered strain coutilized formaldehyde with glucose, but these mixed-substrate cultures failed to reach steady-state conditions and did not exhibit an increased biomass yield on gluco...

Baerends, Richard J. S.; Hulster, Erik; Geertman, Jan-maarten A.; Daran, Jean-marc; Maris, Antonius J. A.; Veenhuis, Marten; Klei, Ida J.; Pronk, Jack T.

2008-01-01

80

Filament formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae--a review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many yeasts can produce filamentous elongated cells identifiable as hyphae, pseudohyphae or invasive filaments. Filament formation has been understood as a foraging response that occurs in nutrient-poor conditions. However, fusel alcohols were observed to induce filament formation in rich nutrient conditions in every yeast species examined. Fusel alcohols, e.g., 3-methyl-1-butanol (3Me-BuOH; 'isoamyl alcohol'), 2-methyl-1-propanol (isobutyl alcohol), (-)-2-methyl-1-butanol ('active amyl alcohol'), 2-phenylethanol and 3-(2-hydroxyethyl)indole (tryptophol) (the end products of leucine, valine, isoleucine, phenylalanine and tryptophan catabolism, respectively) are the end products of amino acid catabolism that accumulate when nutrients become limiting. Thus, yeast responds to its own metabolic by-products. Considerable effort was made to define the cell biological and biochemical changes that take place during 3Me-BuOH-induced filamentation. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae filaments contain significantly greater mitochondrial mass and increased chitin content in comparison with yeast-form cells. The global transcriptional response of S. cerevisiae during the early stages of 3Me-BuOH-induced filament formation has been described. Four ORFs displayed very significant (more than 10-fold) increases in their RNA species, and 12 ORFs displayed increases in transcription of more than 5-fold. The transcription of five genes (all of which encode transporters) decreased by similar amounts. Where examined, the activity of the proteins encoded reflected the transcriptional pattern of their respective mRNAs. To understand this regulation, studies were performed to see whether deletion or overexpression of key genes affects the ability to filament and invade solid YEPD medium. This has led to identification of those proteins that are essential for filament formation, repressors and those which are simply not required. It also leads to the conclusion that 3Me-BuOH-induced filament formation is not a foraging response but a response to reduced growth rate. PMID:18481212

Dickinson, J R

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Copper/Zinc-Superoxide Dismutase Is Required for Oxytetracycline Resistance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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Saccharomyces cerevisiae, along with other eukaryotes, is resistant to tetracyclines. We found that deletion of SOD1 (encoding Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase) rendered S. cerevisiae hypersensitive to oxytetracycline (OTC): a sod1? mutant exhibited a >95% reduction in colony-forming ability at an OTC concentration of 20 ?g ml?1, whereas concentrations of up to 1,000 ?g ml?1 had no effect on the growth of the wild type. OTC resistance was restored in the sod1? mutant by complementation with...

Avery, Simon V.; Malkapuram, Srividya; Mateus, Carolina; Babb, Kimberly S.

2000-01-01

82

Exploring the genetic control of glycolytic oscillations in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background A well known example of oscillatory phenomena is the transient oscillations of glycolytic intermediates in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, their regulation being predominantly investigated by mathematical modeling. To our knowledge there has not been a genetic approach to elucidate the regulatory role of the different enzymes of the glycolytic pathway. Results We report that the laboratory strain BY4743 could also be used to investigate this oscillatory phenomenon, which traditionally has been studied using S. cerevisiae X2180. This has enabled us to employ existing isogenic deletion mutants and dissect the roles of isoforms, or subunits of key glycolytic enzymes in glycolytic oscillations. We demonstrate that deletion of TDH3 but not TDH2 and TDH1 (encoding glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase: GAPDH abolishes NADH oscillations. While deletion of each of the hexokinase (HK encoding genes (HXK1 and HXK2 leads to oscillations that are longer lasting with lower amplitude, the effect of HXK2 deletion on the duration of the oscillations is stronger than that of HXK1. Most importantly our results show that the presence of beta (Pfk2 but not that of alpha subunits (Pfk1 of the hetero-octameric enzyme phosphofructokinase (PFK is necessary to achieve these oscillations. Furthermore, we report that the cAMP-mediated PKA pathway (via some of its components responsible for feedback down-regulation modulates the activity of glycoytic enzymes thus affecting oscillations. Deletion of both PDE2 (encoding a high affinity cAMP-phosphodiesterase and IRA2 (encoding a GTPase activating protein- Ras-GAP, responsible for inactivating Ras-GTP abolished glycolytic oscillations. Conclusions The genetic approach to characterising the glycolytic oscillations in yeast has demonstrated differential roles of the two types of subunits of PFK, and the isoforms of GAPDH and HK. Furthermore, it has shown that PDE2 and IRA2, encoding components of the cAMP pathway responsible for negative feedback regulation of PKA, are required for glycolytic oscillations, suggesting an enticing link between these cAMP pathway components and the glycolysis pathway enzymes shown to have the greatest role in glycolytic oscillation. This study suggests that a systematic genetic approach combined with mathematical modelling can advance the study of oscillatory phenomena.

Williamson Thomas

2012-08-01

83

Expression of an ATP-binding cassette transporter-encoding gene (YOR1) is required for oligomycin resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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Semidominant mutations in the PDR1 or PDR3 gene lead to elevated resistance to cycloheximide and oligomycin. PDR1 and PDR3 have been demonstrated to encode zinc cluster transcription factors. Cycloheximide resistance mediated by PDR1 and PDR3 requires the presence of the PDR5 membrane transporter-encoding gene. However, PDR5 is not required for oligomycin resistance. Here, we isolated a gene that is necessary for PDR1- and PDR3-mediated oligomycin resistance. This locus, designated YOR1, caus...

Katzmann, D. J.; Hallstrom, T. C.; Voet, M.; Wysock, W.; Golin, J.; Volckaert, G.; Moye-rowley, W. S.

1995-01-01

84

Phosphoglycerate mutase knock-out mutant Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Physiological investigation and transcriptome analysis  

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Abstract The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to adapt its metabolism to grow on different carbon sources and shift to non-fermentative growth on C2 or C3 carbon sources (ethanol, acetate or glycerol) requires activation of gluconeogenesis. Here we studied the response to deletion of the glycolytic and gluconeogenic gene GPM1, encoding for phosphoglycerate mutase. It was previously shown that a S. cerevisiae strain with non-functional copies of GPM1

2010-01-01

85

Divergence in wine characteristics produced by wild and domesticated strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the primary species used by wine makers to convert sugar into alcohol during wine fermentation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is found in vineyards, but is also found in association with oak trees and other natural sources. Although wild strains of S. cerevisiae as well as other Saccharomyces species are also capable of wine fermentation, a genetically distinct group of S. cerevisiae strains is primarily used to produce wine, consistent with the idea t...

Hyma, Katie E.; Saerens, Sofie M.; Verstrepen, Kevin J.; Fay, Justin C.

2011-01-01

86

Pathways of ultraviolet mutability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seven umr mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae which had reduced capacity for ultraviolet light (UV)-induced forward mutation from CAN1 to can1 were tested for sensitivity to L-canavanine relative to one wild-type UMR strain and one slightly UV-sensitive but phenotypically umr+ strain (mutant 306). Relative UV mutation resistance was estimated by dividing the UV fluence needed to yield a particular induced mutation frequency by that needed to reach the same frequency in the genotypic wild-type strain. The umr5 and umr6 strains were especially sensitive to canavanine growth inhibition, while umr1 was no more sensitive than either wild type; umr2, umr3, umr4, a umr7 and ? umr7 were equally sensitive to an intermediate degree. Incubation at 30degC of wild-type cells plated on canavanine-selective agar for increasingly longer times before UV irradiation resulted in decreasing UV mutation frequencies (reduced to 50% in 1.6 h). All umr strains tested in this way lost UV mutability faster than wild type, including mutant 306, umr1 (not sensitive to growth inhibition), and umr6 (very sensitive to growth inhibition). Cells were grown to stationary phase in YEPD growth medium and assayed for arginine and tryptophan transport into the cell. The umr6 strain, which had weak UV mutation resistance but high sensitivity to canavanine growth inhibition, transported arginine and tryptophan at essentially wild-type levels. The umr1 strain, however, which has moderate UV mutatain, however, which has moderate UV mutation resistance and normal canavanine toxicity, transported both amino acids at rates tenfold higher than wild type. The data suggest that increased canavanine toxicity does not necessarily lead to defective mutability at CAN1, and that mutational deficiency cannot result solely from increased canavanine toxicity. Although exposure to canavanine was shown to block mutation fixation and/or expression, it is suggested that the degree of growth inhibition is not strictly correlated with the degree of mutation resistance

87

The enantioselective b-keto ester reductions by Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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The enantioselective yeast reduction of aromatic b-keto esters, by use of potassium dihydrogen phosphate, calcium phosphate (monobasic), magnesium sulfate and ammonium tartrate (diammonium salt) (10:1:1:50) in water at pH 7 as a buffer for 72–120 h with 45–90 % conversion to the corresponding aromatic -hydroxy esters was achieved by means of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

HASSAN TAJIK; KHALIL TABATABAEIAN; MAHMOOD SHAHBAZI

2006-01-01

88

Evidence against a photoprotective component of photoreactivation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Photoreactivation-deficient (phr-) mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were shown to lack in vitro DNA-photolyase activity. A phr- mutant was then compared with a phr+ strain for near-UV induced photoprotection from far-UV irradiation. Neither strain exhibited a photoprotective effect. (author)

89

Kinetics of formation of induced mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

UV and ?-radiation mutagenic effect an various strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was studied by analyzing formation kinetics of induced mutants at the period of postirradiation incubation. Mechanisms of induced reverse formation was suggested. The presented analysis is considered to be differential taking account of more subtle aspects of induced mutagenesis. 8 refs.; 10 figs.; 3 tabs

90

Analysis of the RNA Content of the Yeast "Saccharomyces Cerevisiae"  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, the authors describe an interconnected set of relatively simple laboratory experiments in which students determine the RNA content of yeast cells and use agarose gel electrophoresis to separate and analyze the major species of cellular RNA. This set of experiments focuses on RNAs from the yeast "Saccharomyces cerevisiae", a…

Deutch, Charles E.; Marshall, Pamela A.

2008-01-01

91

In vitro screening of probiotic properties of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii and food-borne Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The probiotic potential of IS Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains used for production of foods or bevel-ages or isolated from such, and eight strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii, was investigated. All strains included were able to withstand pH 2.5 and 0.3% Ox-all. Adhesion to the nontumorigenic porcine jejunal epithelial cell line (IPEC-J2) was investigated by incorporation of H-3-methionine into the yeast cells and use of liquid scintillation counting. Only few of the food-borne S. cerevisiae strains exhibited noteworthy adhesiveness with the strongest levels of adhesion (13.6-16.8%) recorded for two isolates from blue veined cheeses. Merely 25% of the S. cerevisiae var. boulardii strains displayed good adhesive properties (16.2-28.0%). The expression of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1? decreased strikingly in IPEC-J2 cells exposed to a Shiga-like toxin 2e producing Escherichia coli strain when the cells were pre- and coincubated with S. cerevisiae var. boulardii even though this yeast strain was low adhesive (5.4%), suggesting that adhesion is not a mandatory prerequisite for such a probiotic effect. A strain of S. cerevisiae isolated from West African sorghum beer exerted similar effects hence indicating that food-borne strains of S. cerevisiae may possess probiotic properties in spite of low adhesiveness. © 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Skovgaard, Kerstin; Jespersen, Lene

2005-01-01

92

Production of the artemisinin precursor amorpha-4,11-diene by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The gene encoding for amorpha-4,11-diene synthase from Artemisia annua was transformed into yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in two fundamentally different ways. First, the gene was subcloned into the galactose-inducible, high-copy number yeast expression vector pYeDP60 and used to transform the Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain CENÆPK113-5D. Secondly, amorpha-4,11-diene synthase gene, regulated by the same promoter, was introduced into the yeast genome by homologous recombination. In protein extracts from galactose-induced yeast cells, a higher activity was observed for yeast expressing the enzyme from the plasmid. The genome-transformed yeast grows at the same rate as wild-type yeast while plasmidcarrying yeast grows somewhat slower than the wild-type yeast. The plasmid and genome-transformed yeasts produced 600 and 100 lg/l of the artemisinin precursor amorpha-4,11-diene, respectively, during 16- days’ batch cultivation.

Lindahl, Ann-Louise; Olsson, Mikael Emil

2006-01-01

93

Efficient secretion of Bacillus subtilis levanase by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The secretion of Bacillus subtilis (Bs) levanase (Lev) was studied in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A set of different yeast expression plasmids, based on the constitutive PGK promoter and harbouring the Bs Lev-encoding gene (sacC), was constructed. In these plasmids, the original Bs signal sequence was either intact, partially deleted or entirely missing. With all constructs, Lev was produced from yeast transformants. However, only when the intact bacterial signal peptide was present was the synthesized enzyme secreted; around 20% was found in the periplasm and 30% in the culture medium. The secreted protein found in the periplasmic space was mainly core-glycosylated and unglycosylated, and had a size of 80-90 and 74 kDa, respectively. In contrast, Lev found in the culture medium was mainly hyper-glycosylated and had a size of 180-200 kDa. Yeast transformants harbouring sacC, but lacking parts of the bacterial signal sequence, only produced cytoplasmic protein which was not glycosylated and had a size of about 74 kDa. The deletion of the entire signal peptide and a further 22 amino acids at the N terminus of mature Lev resulted in a 71-kDa cytoplasmic protein which was not active. PMID:7642135

Wanker, E; Klingsbichel, E; Schwab, H

1995-08-01

94

Biosorption of 241Am by immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Americium-241 is one of the most serious radioactive contaminating nuclides due to its high toxicity and long half-life. The encouraging biosorption of 241Am from aqueous solutions by free Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) has been observed in our previous experiments. 241Am biosorption by immobilized S. cerevisiae and the effect of the various experimental conditions on the adsorption were investigated. The results indicated that the 241Am biosorption by immobilized S. cerevisiae is still very efficient, and immobilized S. cerevisiae can be used repeatedly or continuously. The biosorption equilibrium was achieved within 2 hours, and more than 92% of 241Am was removed by immobilized S. cerevisiae in the pH 1-4 range. No significant differences in 241Am biosorption were observed at 15-45 deg C. The immobilized S. cerevisiae, even after used repeatedly for 6 times, still could adsorb more than 90% of 241Am in solutions of 1.08 MBq/l (8.5 ?g/l). At this moment, the total adsorption capacity for 241Am was more than 63.3 KBq/g globe (0.5 ?g/g), but has not reached saturation yet. The 241Am left in solutions with initial concentration of 1.08 MBq/l (8.5 ?g/l) was noted as low as ?10 Bq/l (?8.0 x 10-5 ?g/l) after adsorption by the immobilized S. cerevisiae for 3 times. (author)

95

Electrical stimulation of saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures / Estimulação elétrica de células de Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Modulação do potencial de membrana celular endógeno por um campo elétrico externo influencia a estrutura e função dos compartimentos da membrana, de suas proteínas e da bi-camada lipídica. Neste trabalho, os efeitos da aplicação de potencial no crescimento de Saccharomyces cerevisiae foram caracteri [...] zados por experimentos simples, mas conclusivos. O perfil temporal de crescimento celular e a divisão celular foram investigados como respostas macroscópicas ao estímulo elétrico. Experimentos controle foram conduzidos em condições idênticas, exceto pela ausência de potencial aplicado. Através de análise comparativa, verificou-se que o estímulo elétrico alterou o ciclo celular como foi possível observar através da medida da dispersão de tamanho celular de cada população, sugerindo um possível sincronismo na divisão celular. Análise do espectro de potência foi empregada para sustentar o aumento no sincronismo, e uma modelagem matemática foi conduzida para determinar mudanças na cinética de crescimento celular. Parâmetros cinéticos do modelo tipo Monod para crescimento foram determinados por regressão não-linear. A constante de afinidade (a saber, K S) apresentou uma dependência com o potencial aplicado, sugerindo mudanças no transporte através da membrana celular. Verificou-se, também, que o estresse promovido eletroquimicamente inibiu o crescimento e induziu mudanças na viabilidade celular. Abstract in english Modulation of cell endogenous membrane potential by an external electrical field influences the structure and function of membrane compartments, proteins and lipid bi-layer. In this work, the effects of applied potential on Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth were characterized through simple yet conclu [...] sive experiments. Cell growth time profile and cell division were investigated as macroscopic response to the electrical stimulation. Control experiments were conducted under identical conditions except for the absence of applied potential. Through comparative analysis, electrical stimulation was verified to alter cell cycle as smaller sized population was observed, suggesting that a synchrony in cell division was promoted. Power spectral analysis was employed to sustain synchrony enhancement, and mathematical modeling was conducted for determining kinetic growth changes. Monod type kinetic parameters for growth were determined by non-linear regression. The affinity constant (namely kS) presented a dependence on applied potential suggesting changes on transport across cell membrane. Electrochemically promoted stress was also verified to inhibit growth as well as to induce changes on cell viability.

Ofelia Q.F., Araújo; Maria Alice Z., Coelho; Isabel C.P., Margarit; Carlos A., Vaz-Junior; Maria Helena M., Rocha-Leão.

96

Promoter elements determining weak expression of the GAL4 regulatory gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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The GAL4 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (encoding the activator of transcription of the GAL genes) is poorly expressed and is repressed during growth on glucose. To determine the basis for its weak expression and to identify DNA sequences recognized by proteins that activate transcription of a gene that itself encodes an activator of transcription, we have analyzed GAL4 promoter structure. We show that the GAL4 promoter is about 90-fold weaker than the strong GAL1 promoter and at least 7-fo...

Griggs, D. W.; Johnston, M.

1993-01-01

97

Selection and characterization of ricin toxin A-chain mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

A DNA sequence encoding the A chain of ricin toxin (RTA) from the castor bean plant, Ricinus communis, was placed under GAL1 promoter control and transformed into Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Induction of expression of RTA was lethal. This lethality was the basis for a selection of mutations in RTA which inactivated the toxin. A number of mutant alleles which encoded cross-reactive material were sequenced. Eight of the first nine mutant RTAs studied showed single-amino-acid changes involving residues located in the proposed active-site cleft. Images PMID:2469000

Frankel, A; Schlossman, D; Welsh, P; Hertler, A; Withers, D; Johnston, S

1989-01-01

98

The Acyl-CoA synthetases encoded within FAA1 and FAA4 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae function as components of the fatty acid transport system linking import, activation, and intracellular Utilization  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Exogenous long-chain fatty acids are activated to coenzyme A derivatives prior to metabolic utilization. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the activation of these compounds prior to metabolic utilization proceeds through the fatty acyl-CoA synthetases Faa1p and Faa4p. Faa1p or Faa4p are essential for long-chain fatty acid import, suggesting that one or both of these enzymes are components of the fatty acid transport system, which also includes Fat1p. By monitoring the intracellular accumulation of the fluorescent long-chain fatty acid analogue 4,4-difluoro-5-methyl-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene-3-dodecanoic acid, long-chain fatty acid transport was shown to be severely restricted in a faa1 Delta faa4 Delta strain. These data established for the first time a mechanistic linkage between the import and activation of exogenous fatty acids in yeast. To investigate this linkage further, oleoyl CoA levels were defined following incubation of wild type and mutant cells with limiting concentrations of exogenous oleate. These studies demonstrated oleoyl CoA levels were reduced to less than 10% wild-type levels in faa1 Delta and faa1 Delta faa4 Delta strains. Defects in metabolic utilization and intracellular trafficking were also found in the fatty acyl-CoA synthetase-deficient strains. The faa1 Delta faa4 Delta strain had a marked reduction in endogenous acyl-CoA pools, suggesting these enzymes play a role in maintenance of endogenous acyl-CoA pools, metabolism and trafficking. In addition, this strain had levels of in vivo beta-oxidation of exogenous oleate reduced 3-fold when compared with the isogenic parent. Northern analyses demonstrated an additional defect in fatty acid trafficking as FAA1 or FAA4 were required for the transcriptional regulation of the genes encoding the peroxisomal enzymes acyl-CoA oxidase (POX1) and medium-chain acyl-CoA synthetase (FAA2). These data support the hypothesis that fatty acyl-CoA synthetase (Faa1p or Faa4p) functions as a component of the fatty acid import system by linking import and activation of exogenous fatty acids to intracellular utilization and signaling.

Færgeman, Nils J.; Black, P N

2001-01-01

99

Evidence for Domesticated and Wild Populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae is predominantly found in association with human activities, particularly the production of alcoholic beverages. S. paradoxus, the closest known relative of S. cerevisiae, is commonly found on exudates and bark of deciduous trees and in associated soils. This has lead to the idea that S. cerevisiae is a domesticated species, specialized for the fermentation of alcoholic beverages, and isolates of S. cerevisiae from other sources simply represent migrants from these fermentations. We have surveyed DNA sequence diversity at five loci in 81 strains of S. cerevisiae that were isolated from a variety of human and natural fermentations as well as sources unrelated to alcoholic beverage production, such as tree exudates and immunocompromised patients. Diversity within vineyard strains and within saké strains is low, consistent with their status as domesticated stocks. The oldest lineages and the majority of variation are found in strains from sources unrelated to wine production. We propose a model whereby two specialized breeds of S. cerevisiae have been created, one for the production of grape wine and one for the production of saké wine. We estimate that these two breeds have remained isolated from one another for thousands of years, consistent with the earliest archeological evidence for winemaking. We conclude that although there are clearly strains of S. cerevisiae specialized for the production of alcoholic beverages, these have been derived from natural populations unassociated with alcoholic beverage production, rather than the opposite.

2005-07-01

100

Trifluoroleucine resistance as a dominant molecular marker in transformation of strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from wine.  

Science.gov (United States)

The resistance to 5,5,5-trifluoro-DL-leucine, encoded by the dominant allele LEU4-1, was used as a selectable marker to transform laboratory and natural Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains by the lithium acetate procedure. Results of transformation of S. cerevisiae laboratory and wine natural strains showed that trifluoroleucine resistance is a very effective selection marker and can be widely used to transform prototrophic S. cerevisiae strains. The LEU4-1 gene could also be exploited to improve wine flavour, as indicated by the higher isoamyl alcohol content of the transformants compared to the parental strains. PMID:10556716

Bendoni, B; Cavalieri, D; Casalone, E; Polsinelli, M; Barberio, C

1999-11-15

 
 
 
 
101

Involvement of an Actomyosin Contractile Ring in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cytokinesis  

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In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the mother cell and bud are connected by a narrow neck. The mechanism by which this neck is closed during cytokinesis has been unclear. Here we report on the role of a contractile actomyosin ring in this process. Myo1p (the only type II myosin in S. cerevisiae) forms a ring at the presumptive bud site shortly before bud emergence. Myo1p ring formation depends on the septins but not on F-actin, and preexisting Myo1p rings are stable when F-actin is depolymeri...

Bi, Erfei; Maddox, Paul; Lew, Daniel J.; Salmon, E. D.; Mcmillan, John N.; Yeh, Elaine; Pringle, John R.

1998-01-01

102

Characterization of early deaths of non- Saccharomyces yeasts in mixed cultures with Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The survival of Kluyveromyces thermotolerans and Torulaspora delbrueckii in mixed cultures with Saccharomyces cerevisiae was examined at low oxygen availability in a defined grape juice medium. In these fermentations, K. thermotolerans and T. delbrueckii died off earlier than S. cerevisiae, and K. thermotolerans and T. delbrueckii exhibited parabolic death kinetics. Furthermore, the early deaths seemed to be non-apoptotic in nature. In order to understand the mechanism causing the early deaths, various single- and mixed-culture fermentations were carried out. The early deaths could not be explained by nutrient depletion or the presence of toxic compounds. Rather, they seemed to be mediated by a cell-to-cell contact mechanism at high cell densities of S. cerevisiae, and to a lesser ability of K. thermotolerans and T. delbrueckii to compete for space, as compared to S. cerevisiae. These results contribute to an increased understanding of why K. thermotolerans and T. delbrueckii die off before S. cerevisiae in wine fermentations. PMID:12898132

Nissen, Peter; Arneborg, Nils

2003-10-01

103

A Member of the Sugar Transporter Family, Stl1p Is the Glycerol/H+ Symporter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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Glycerol and other polyols are used as osmoprotectants by many organisms. Several yeasts and other fungi can take up glycerol by proton symport. To identify genes involved in active glycerol uptake in Saccharomyces cerevisiae we screened a deletion mutant collection comprising 321 genes encoding proteins with 6 or more predicted transmembrane domains for impaired growth on glycerol medium. Deletion of STL1, which encodes a member of the sugar transporter family, eliminates active glycerol tra...

Ferreira, Ce?lia; Voorst, Frank; Martins, Anto?nio; Neves, Luisa; Oliveira, Rui; Kielland-brandt, Morten C.; Lucas, Ca?ndida; Brandt, Anders

2005-01-01

104

The reference genome sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: then and now.  

Science.gov (United States)

The genome of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the first completely sequenced from a eukaryote. It was released in 1996 as the work of a worldwide effort of hundreds of researchers. In the time since, the yeast genome has been intensively studied by geneticists, molecular biologists, and computational scientists all over the world. Maintenance and annotation of the genome sequence have long been provided by the Saccharomyces Genome Database, one of the original model organism databases. To deepen our understanding of the eukaryotic genome, the S. cerevisiae strain S288C reference genome sequence was updated recently in its first major update since 1996. The new version, called "S288C 2010," was determined from a single yeast colony using modern sequencing technologies and serves as the anchor for further innovations in yeast genomic science. PMID:24374639

Engel, Stacia R; Dietrich, Fred S; Fisk, Dianna G; Binkley, Gail; Balakrishnan, Rama; Costanzo, Maria C; Dwight, Selina S; Hitz, Benjamin C; Karra, Kalpana; Nash, Robert S; Weng, Shuai; Wong, Edith D; Lloyd, Paul; Skrzypek, Marek S; Miyasato, Stuart R; Simison, Matt; Cherry, J Michael

2014-03-01

105

Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a versatile eukaryotic system in virology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a well-established model system for understanding fundamental cellular processes relevant to higher eukaryotic organisms. Less known is its value for virus research, an area in which Saccharomyces cerevisiae has proven to be very fruitful as well. The present review will discuss the main achievements of yeast-based studies in basic and applied virus research. These include the analysis of the function of individual proteins from important pathogenic viruses, the elucidation of key processes in viral replication through the development of systems that allow the replication of higher eukayotic viruses in yeast, and the use of yeast in antiviral drug development and vaccine production.

Breinig Tanja

2007-10-01

106

Plasmid Accumulation Reduces Life Span in Saccharomyces cerevisiae*  

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Aging in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is under the control of multiple pathways. The production and accumulation of extrachromosomal rDNA circles (ERCs) is one pathway that has been proposed to bring about aging in yeast. To test this proposal, we have developed a plasmid-based model system to study the role of DNA episomes in reduction of yeast life span. Recombinant plasmids containing different replication origins, cis-acting partitioning elements, and selectable marker genes were co...

Falco?n, Alaric A.; Aris, John P.

2003-01-01

107

Meiotic Chromosome Segregation in Triploid Strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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Meiosis in triploids results in four highly aneuploid gametes because six copies of each homolog must be segregated into four meiotic products. Using DNA microarrays and other physical approaches, we examined meiotic chromosome segregation in triploid strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In most tetrads with four viable spores, two of the spores had two copies of a given homolog and two spores had only one copy. Chromosomes segregated randomly into viable spores without preferences for genera...

Charles, Jordan St; Hamilton, Monica L.; Petes, Thomas D.

2010-01-01

108

Topoisomerase I involvement in illegitimate recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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Chromosome aberrations may cause cancer and many heritable diseases. Topoisomerase I has been suspected of causing chromosome aberrations by mediating illegitimate recombination. The effects of deletion and of overexpression of the topoisomerase I gene on illegitimate recombination in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been studied. Yeast transformations were carried out with DNA fragments that did not have any homology to the genomic DNA. The frequency of illegitimate integration was 6-...

Zhu, J.; Schiestl, R. H.

1996-01-01

109

Intracellular ethanol accumulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae during fermentation.  

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An intracellular accumulation of ethanol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was observed during the early stages of fermentation (3 h). However, after 12 h of fermentation, the intracellular and extracellular ethanol concentrations were similar. Increasing the osmotic pressure of the medium caused an increase in the ratio of intracellular to extracellular ethanol concentrations at 3 h of fermentation. As in the previous case, the intracellular and extracellular ethanol concentrations were similar af...

D Amore, T.; Panchal, C. J.; Stewart, G. G.

1988-01-01

110

Characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants supersensitive to aminoglycoside antibiotics.  

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We describe mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that are more sensitive than the wild type to the aminoglycoside antibiotics G418, hygromycin B, destomycin A, and gentamicin X2. In addition, the mutants are sensitive to apramycin, kanamycin B, lividomycin A, neamine, neomycin, paromomycin, and tobramycin--antibiotics which do not inhibit wild-type strains. Mapping studies suggest that supersensitivity is caused by mutations in at least three genes, denoted AGS1, AGS2, and AGS3 (for aminoglyco...

Ernst, J. F.; Chan, R. K.

1985-01-01

111

The Snf1 Protein Kinase in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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In yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Snf1 protein kinase is primarily known as a key component of the glucose repression regulatory cascade. The Snf1 kinase is highly conserved among eukaryotes and its mammalian homolog AMPK is responsible for energy homeostasis in cells, organs and whole bodies. Failure in the AMPK regulatory cascade leads to metabolic disorders, such as obesity or type 2 diabetes. The knowledge about the Snf1 protein kinase remains to be of much interest in s...

Usaite, Renata; Olsson, Lisbeth; Nielsen, Jens

2009-01-01

112

Construction of a flocculent saccharomyces cerevisiae fermenting lactose  

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A flocculent Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain with the ability to express both the LAC4 (coding for b-galactosidase) and LAC12 (coding for lactose permease) genes of Kluyveromyces marxianus was constructed. This recombinant strain is not only able to grow on lactose, but it can also ferment this substrate. To our knowledge this is the first time that a recombinant S. cervisiae has been found to ferment lactose in a way comparable to that of the existing lactose-fermenting ...

Domingues, Luci?lia; Teixeira, J. A.; Lima, Nelson

1999-01-01

113

Global response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to an alkylating agent  

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DNA chip technology enables simultaneous examination of how ?6,200 Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene transcript levels, representing the entire genome, respond to environmental change. By using chips bearing oligonucleotide arrays, we show that, after exposure to the alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate, ?325 gene transcript levels are increased and ?76 are decreased. Of the 21 genes that already were known to be induced by a DNA-damaging agent, 18 can be sco...

Jelinsky, Scott A.; Samson, Leona D.

1999-01-01

114

The enantioselective b-keto ester reductions by Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The enantioselective yeast reduction of aromatic b-keto esters, by use of potassium dihydrogen phosphate, calcium phosphate (monobasic, magnesium sulfate and ammonium tartrate (diammonium salt (10:1:1:50 in water at pH 7 as a buffer for 72–120 h with 45–90 % conversion to the corresponding aromatic -hydroxy esters was achieved by means of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

HASSAN TAJIK

2006-09-01

115

Regulation of Phospholipid Synthesis in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with its full complement of organelles, synthesizes membrane phospholipids by pathways that are generally common to those found in higher eukaryotes. Phospholipid synthesis in yeast is regulated in response to a variety of growth conditions (e.g., inositol supplementation, zinc depletion, and growth stage) by a coordination of genetic (e.g., transcriptional activation and repression) and biochemical (e.g., activity modulation and localization) mechanisms. P...

Carman, George M.; Han, Gil-soo

2011-01-01

116

Spontaneous loss of heterozygosity in diploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells.  

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To obtain a broad perspective of the events leading to spontaneous loss of heterozygosity (LOH), we have characterized the genetic alterations that functionally inactivated the URA3 marker hemizygously or heterozygously situated either on chromosome III or chromosome V in diploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. Analysis of chromosome structure in a large number of LOH clones by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and PCR showed that chromosome loss, allelic recombination, and chromosome aberrati...

Hiraoka, M.; Watanabe, K.; Umezu, K.; Maki, H.

2000-01-01

117

Genes Required for Vacuolar Acidity in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae  

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Mutations that cause loss of acidity in the vacuole (lysosome) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were identified by screening colonies labeled with the fluorescent, pH-sensitive, vacuolar labeling agent, 6-carboxyfluorescein. Thirty nine vacuolar pH (Vph(-)) mutants were identified. Four of these contained mutant alleles of the previously described PEP3, PEP5, PEP6 and PEP7 genes. The remaining mutants defined eight complementation groups of vph mutations. No alleles of the VAT2 or TFP1 genes (know...

Preston, R. A.; Reinagel, P. S.; Jones, E. W.

1992-01-01

118

Transcriptional regulation by non-coding RNAs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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Genome-wide studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have revealed that the majority of the genome is transcribed on both strands, producing both coding and non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). Initially, these ncRNAs were regarded as spurious transcripts but some have since been shown to have important roles as transcriptional regulators. Very little is understood about how ncRNAs are initiated, terminated and processed or how this influences their function. To address these questions, the expression, stabi...

Serra Barros, Ana Cristina; Mellor, E. Jane

2012-01-01

119

Influence of organic acids and organochlorinated insecticides on metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae is exposed to different stress factors during the production: osmotic, temperature, oxidative. The response to these stresses is the adaptive mechanism of cells. The raw materials Saccharomyces cerevisiae is produced from, contain metabolism products of present microorganisms and protective agents used during the growth of sugar beet for example the influence of acetic and butyric acid and organochlorinated insecticides, lindan and heptachlor, on the metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated and presented in this work. The mentioned compounds affect negatively the specific growth rate, yield, content of proteins, phosphorus, total ribonucleic acids. These compounds influence the increase of trechalose and glycogen content in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells.

Pejin Dušanka J.

2005-01-01

120

An apoptotic cell cycle mutant in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The simple eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae has proved to be a useful organism for elucidating the mechanisms that govern cell cycle progression in eukaryotic cells. The excellent in vivo system permits a cell cycle study using temperature sensitive mutants. In addition, it is possible to study many genes and gene products from higher eukaryotes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae because many genes and biological processes are homologous or similar in lower and in higher eukaryotes. The highly developed methods of genetics and molecular biology greatly facilitates studies of higher eukaryotic processes.Programmmed cell death with apoptosis plays a major role in development and homeostatis in most, if not all, animal cells. Apoptosis is a morphologically distinct form of death, that requires the activation of a highly regulated suicide program. Saccharomyces cerevisiae provides a new system in which apoptosis can be studied using the novel, temperature sensitive mutant, cdc77. The cdc77 cells are defective in a G1 process, and die show the characteristc signs of apoptosis: condensation of the chromatin, degradation of the inner nuclear membrane, dilation of the space between the nuclear membranes, condensation of the cytoplasm and degradation of DNA to 50kb fragmensts. It should be noted that in yeast, in contrast to higher eukaryotes, the nuclear membrane remain intact and the chromosomes remain uncondensed and invisible during mitosis. The cdc77 mutant exhibit a defect in initiation of DNA synthesis and a much prolonged DNA synthesis under semirestrictive conditions.

Villadsen, Ingrid

1996-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for astaxanthin production and oxidative stress tolerance.  

Science.gov (United States)

The red carotenoid astaxanthin possesses higher antioxidant activity than other carotenoids and has great commercial potential for use in the aquaculture, pharmaceutical, and food industries. In this study, we produced astaxanthin in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by introducing the genes involved in astaxanthin biosynthesis of carotenogenic microorganisms. In particular, expression of genes of the red yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous encoding phytoene desaturase (crtI product) and bifunctional phytoene synthase/lycopene cyclase (crtYB product) resulted in the accumulation of a small amount of beta-carotene in S. cerevisiae. Overexpression of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) synthase from S. cerevisiae (the BTS1 gene product) increased the intracellular beta-carotene levels due to the accelerated conversion of farnesyl pyrophosphate to GGPP. Introduction of the X. dendrorhous crtS gene, encoding astaxanthin synthase, assumed to be the cytochrome P450 enzyme, did not lead to astaxanthin production. However, coexpression of CrtS with X. dendrorhous CrtR, a cytochrome P450 reductase, resulted in the accumulation of a small amount of astaxanthin. In addition, the beta-carotene-producing yeast cells transformed by the bacterial genes crtW and crtZ, encoding beta-carotene ketolase and hydroxylase, respectively, also accumulated astaxanthin and its intermediates, echinenone, canthaxanthin, and zeaxanthin. Interestingly, we found that these ketocarotenoids conferred oxidative stress tolerance on S. cerevisiae cells. This metabolic engineering has potential for overproduction of astaxanthin and breeding of novel oxidative stress-tolerant yeast strains. PMID:19801484

Ukibe, Ken; Hashida, Keisuke; Yoshida, Nobuyuki; Takagi, Hiroshi

2009-11-01

122

Metabolic Engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Astaxanthin Production and Oxidative Stress Tolerance?  

Science.gov (United States)

The red carotenoid astaxanthin possesses higher antioxidant activity than other carotenoids and has great commercial potential for use in the aquaculture, pharmaceutical, and food industries. In this study, we produced astaxanthin in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by introducing the genes involved in astaxanthin biosynthesis of carotenogenic microorganisms. In particular, expression of genes of the red yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous encoding phytoene desaturase (crtI product) and bifunctional phytoene synthase/lycopene cyclase (crtYB product) resulted in the accumulation of a small amount of ?-carotene in S. cerevisiae. Overexpression of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) synthase from S. cerevisiae (the BTS1 gene product) increased the intracellular ?-carotene levels due to the accelerated conversion of farnesyl pyrophosphate to GGPP. Introduction of the X. dendrorhous crtS gene, encoding astaxanthin synthase, assumed to be the cytochrome P450 enzyme, did not lead to astaxanthin production. However, coexpression of CrtS with X. dendrorhous CrtR, a cytochrome P450 reductase, resulted in the accumulation of a small amount of astaxanthin. In addition, the ?-carotene-producing yeast cells transformed by the bacterial genes crtW and crtZ, encoding ?-carotene ketolase and hydroxylase, respectively, also accumulated astaxanthin and its intermediates, echinenone, canthaxanthin, and zeaxanthin. Interestingly, we found that these ketocarotenoids conferred oxidative stress tolerance on S. cerevisiae cells. This metabolic engineering has potential for overproduction of astaxanthin and breeding of novel oxidative stress-tolerant yeast strains. PMID:19801484

Ukibe, Ken; Hashida, Keisuke; Yoshida, Nobuyuki; Takagi, Hiroshi

2009-01-01

123

A Saccharomyces cerevisiae-based bioassay for assessing pesticide toxicity.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluates the toxic effect of three pesticides (Azoxystrobin, Cymoxanil, and Diuron) on the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the development of a new bioassay based on inhibition of S. cerevisiae metabolic activity at the level of adenosine-5-triphosphate (ATP) synthesis, as compared with two different toxicity tests based on inhibition of Daphnia magna mobility (NF EN ISO 6341) and inhibition of Vibrio fisheri activity (NF EN ISO 11348). The S. cerevisiae bioassay is cheaper and 96 times faster than the D. magna toxicity bioassay, but has lower sensitivity. It is as fast as the V. fisheri bioassay and more sensitive. Thus, this new toxicity test can be proposed for rapid detection of pesticide residues in environmental samples as a complement to the more expensive and time-consuming D. magna toxicity test. PMID:19856193

Estève, Karine; Poupot, C; Dabert, P; Mietton-Peuchot, M; Milisic, V

2009-12-01

124

Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces yeasts in grape varieties of the São Francisco Valley.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aims of this work was to characterise indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in the naturally fermented juice of grape varieties Cabernet Sauvignon, Grenache, Tempranillo, Sauvignon Blanc and Verdejo used in the São Francisco River Valley, northeastern Brazil. In this study, 155 S. cerevisiae and 60 non-Saccharomyces yeasts were isolated and identified using physiological tests and sequencing of the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit of the rRNA gene. Among the non-Saccharomyces species, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa was the most common species, followed by Pichia kudriavzevii, Candida parapsilosis, Meyerozyma guilliermondii, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Kloeckera apis, P. manshurica, C. orthopsilosis and C. zemplinina. The population counts of these yeasts ranged among 1.0 to 19 × 10(5) cfu/mL. A total of 155 isolates of S. cerevisiae were compared by mitochondrial DNA restriction analysis, and five molecular mitochondrial DNA restriction profiles were detected. Indigenous strains of S. cerevisiae isolated from grapes of the São Francisco Valley can be further tested as potential starters for wine production. PMID:25242923

de Ponzzes-Gomes, Camila M P B S; de Mélo, Dângelly L F M; Santana, Caroline A; Pereira, Giuliano E; Mendonça, Michelle O C; Gomes, Fátima C O; Oliveira, Evelyn S; Barbosa, Antonio M; Trindade, Rita C; Rosa, Carlos A

2014-01-01

125

Genetic evidence for a morphogenetic function of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pho85 cyclin-dependent kinase.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Saccharomyces cerevisiae PHO85 gene encodes a nonessential cyclin-dependent kinase that associates with 10 cyclin subunits. To survey the functions provided by Pho85, we identified mutants that require PHO85 for viability. We identified mutations that define seven Pho Eighty-Five Requiring or Efr loci, six of which are previously identified genes-BEM2 (YER155C), SPT7 (YBR081C), GCR1 (YPL075W), SRB5 (YGR104C), HFI1 (YPL254W), and BCK1 (YJL095W)-with one novel gene (YMR212C). We found that ...

Lenburg, M. E.; O Shea, E. K.

2001-01-01

126

dUTPase activity is critical to maintain genetic stability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We identified a viable allele (dut1-1) of the DUT1 gene that encodes the dUTPase activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The Dut1-1 protein possesses a single amino acid substitution (Gly82Ser) in a conserved motif nearby the active site and exhibits a greatly reduced dUTPase activity. The dut1-1 single mutant exhibits growth delay and cell cycle abnormalities and shows a strong spontaneous mutator phenotype. All phenotypes of the dut1-1 mutant are suppressed by the simultaneous inactivation of...

Guillet, Marie; Kemp, Patricia Auffret; Boiteux, Serge

2006-01-01

127

Isolation and Characterization of Pep5, a Gene Essential for Vacuolar Biogenesis in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae  

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pep5 mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae accumulate inactive precursors to the vacuolar hydrolases. The PEP5 gene was isolated from a genomic DNA library by complementation of the pep5-8 mutation. Deletion analysis localized the complementing activity to a 3.3-kb DNA fragment. DNA sequence analysis of the PEP5 gene revealed an open reading frame of 1029 codons with a calculated molecular mass for the encoded protein of 117,403 D. Deletion/disruption of the PEP5 gene did not kill the cells. Th...

Woolford, C. A.; Dixon, C. K.; Manolson, M. F.; Wright, R.; Jones, E. W.

1990-01-01

128

Suppressors of a Gpa1 Mutation Cause Sterility in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Saccharomyces cerevisiae GPA1 gene encodes a protein highly homologous to the ? subunit of mammalian G proteins and is essential for haploid cell growth. We have selected 77 mutants able to suppress the lethality resulting from disruption of GPA1 (gpa1::HIS3). Two strains bearing either of two recessive mutations, sgp1 and sgp2, in combination with the disruption mutation, showed a cell type nonspecific sterile phenotype, yet expressed the major ?-factor gene (MF?1) as judged by the ab...

Miyajima, I.; Nakayama, N.; Nakafuku, M.; Kaziro, Y.; Arai, K. I.; Matsumoto, K.

1988-01-01

129

GPA1Val-50 mutation in the mating-factor signaling pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The GPA1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a protein that is highly homologous to the alpha subunit of mammalian hetrotrimeric G proteins and is essential for haploid cell growth. A mutation of the GPA1 protein, GPA1Val-50, in which Gly-50 was replaced by valine, could complement the growth defect of a GPA1 disruption, gpal::HIS3. However, cells with gpa1::HIS3 expressing the GPA1Val-50 protein were supersensitive to alpha-factor in a short-term incubation but resumed growth after long...

Miyajima, I.; Arai, K.; Matsumoto, K.

1989-01-01

130

Nucleotide sequence of two rasH related-genes isolated from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A complete nucleotide sequence of two ras-related yeast genes (c- rassc -1 and c- rassc -2) isolated from the yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae is reported. They encode predicted polypeptides of 40,000 and 41,000 daltons, respectively. The N-terminal 170 amino acids from both genes show extensive amino acid homology to other ras genes from vertebrates, whereas their C-termini have diverged. These genes should be useful in the elucidation of a normal biological function of ras-related gene...

Dhar, R.; Nieto, A.; Koller, R.; Defeo-jones, D.; Scolnick, E. M.

1984-01-01

131

Expression of the E.coli pntA and pntB genes encoding nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its effect on product formation during anaerobic glucose fermentation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We studied the physiological effect of the interconversion between the NAD(H) and NADP(H) coenzyme systems in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing the membrane-bound transhydrogenase from Escherichia coli. Our objective was to determine if the membrane-bound transhydrogenase could work in reoxidation of NADH to NAD(+) in S. cerevisiae and thereby reduce glycerol formation during anaerobic fermentation. Membranes isolated from the recombinant strains exhibited reduction of 3-acetylpyridine-NAD(+) by NADPH and by NADH in the presence of NADP(+), which demonstrated that an active enzyme was present. Unlike the situation in E. coli, however, most of the transhydrogenase activity was not present in the yeast plasma membrane; rather, the enzyme appeared to remain localized in the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum. During anaerobic glucose fermentation we observed an increase in the formation of 2-oxoglutarate, glycerol, and acetic acid in a strain expressing a high level of transhydrogenase, which indicated that increased NADPH consumption and NADH production occurred. The intracellular concentrations of NADH, NAD(+) NADPH, and NADP(+) were measured in cells expressing transhydrogenase. The reduction of the NADPH pool indicated that the transhydrogenase transferred reducing equivalents from NADPH to NAD(+).

Nissen, Torben Lauesgaard; Nielsen, Jens Bredal

1999-01-01

132

Screening for hydrolytic enzymes reveals Ayr1p as a novel triacylglycerol lipase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as well as other eukaryotes, preserves fatty acids and sterols in a biologically inert form, as triacylglycerols and steryl esters. The major triacylglycerol lipases of the yeast S. cerevisiae identified so far are Tgl3p, Tgl4p, and Tgl5p (Athenstaedt, K., and Daum, G. (2003) YMR313c/TGL3 encodes a novel triacylglycerol lipase located in lipid particles of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J. Biol. Chem. 278, 23317-23323; Athenstaedt, K., and Daum, G. (2005) Tgl4p and Tgl5p, two triacylglycerol lipases of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are localized to lipid particles. J. Biol. Chem. 280, 37301-37309). We observed that upon cultivation on oleic acid, triacylglycerol mobilization did not come to a halt in a yeast strain deficient in all currently known triacylglycerol lipases, indicating the presence of additional not yet characterized lipases/esterases. Functional proteome analysis using lipase and esterase inhibitors revealed a subset of candidate genes for yet unknown hydrolytic enzymes on peroxisomes and lipid droplets. Based on the conserved GXSXG lipase motif, putative functions, and subcellular localizations, a selected number of candidates were characterized by enzyme assays in vitro, gene expression analysis, non-polar lipid analysis, and in vivo triacylglycerol mobilization assays. These investigations led to the identification of Ayr1p as a novel triacylglycerol lipase of yeast lipid droplets and confirmed the hydrolytic potential of the peroxisomal Lpx1p in vivo. Based on these results, we discuss a possible link between lipid storage, lipid mobilization, and peroxisomal utilization of fatty acids as a carbon source. PMID:24187129

Ploier, Birgit; Scharwey, Melanie; Koch, Barbara; Schmidt, Claudia; Schatte, Jessica; Rechberger, Gerald; Kollroser, Manfred; Hermetter, Albin; Daum, Günther

2013-12-13

133

Construction of killer industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAU-1 and its fermentation performance  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAU-1, a time tested industrial yeast possesses most of the desirable fermentation characteristics like fast growth and fermentation rate, osmotolerance, high ethanol tolerance, ability to ferment molasses, and to ferment at elevated temperatures etc. However, this yeast was [...] found to be sensitive against the killer strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the present study, killer trait was introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAU-1 by protoplast fusion with Saccharomyces cerevisiae MTCC 475, a killer strain. The resultant fusants were characterized for desirable fermentation characteristics. All the technologically important characteristics of distillery yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAU-1 were retained in the fusants, and in addition the killer trait was also introduced into them. Further, the killer activity was found to be stably maintained during hostile conditions of ethanol fermentations in dextrose or molasses, and even during biomass recycling.

Bijender K., Bajaj; S., Sharma.

2010-06-01

134

Construction of killer industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAU-1 and its fermentation performance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAU-1, a time tested industrial yeast possesses most of the desirable fermentation characteristics like fast growth and fermentation rate, osmotolerance, high ethanol tolerance, ability to ferment molasses, and to ferment at elevated temperatures etc. However, this yeast was found to be sensitive against the killer strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the present study, killer trait was introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAU-1 by protoplast fusion with Saccharomyces cerevisiae MTCC 475, a killer strain. The resultant fusants were characterized for desirable fermentation characteristics. All the technologically important characteristics of distillery yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAU-1 were retained in the fusants, and in addition the killer trait was also introduced into them. Further, the killer activity was found to be stably maintained during hostile conditions of ethanol fermentations in dextrose or molasses, and even during biomass recycling.

Bijender K. Bajaj

2010-06-01

135

Cloning and DNA sequence analysis of the glucose transporter gene2 from Iranian Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Saccharomyces cerevisiae has 20 genes that encode hexose transporter proteins including HXT1 to HXT17, GAL2, SNF3 and RGT2. Among these gene families, seven genes (HXT1-HXT7 have important role in alcohol production. The aim of this study was the identification and isolation of HXT2 gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome by PCR technique and cloning into vector containing suitable expression promoter in order to design expression vector as a basis to produce recombinant yeast by transformation.Materials and Methods: After designing specific oligonucleotides primers, fragment gene amplified by PCR. Gene HXT2 inserted into pTZ57R vector by restriction enzymes EcoRI and HindIII and T4 ligase. After transformation of pTZ57R/THXT2 into E.coli, plasmid recombinant analysis considered. The final further analysis by restriction enzymes digestion and software were evaluated.Results: HXT2 gene isolated from pTZ57R/THXT2 has correct size in agarose gel electrophoresis. Electrophoresis analysis showed that this gene has correct size on agarose gel. Software study showed that this gene encode proteins with 59.84 KDa molecular weight having 541 amino acids with isoelectric point 8.3.Conclusion: HXT2 gene by PCR optimization from saccharomyces cerevisiae was isolated and cloned into prokaryotic host. This is the first report of isolation and cloning of this gene by using genetic engineering technique in IRAN that can be used for cloning into suitable expression vector to improve alcohol fermentation yield.

Saleh Amiri

2012-12-01

136

ISOTERMAS DE ADSORÇÃO DE CÁDMIO POR Saccharomyces cerevisiae ISOTHERMS OF CADMIUM ADSORPTION BY Saccharomyces cerevisae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Com o objetivo de determinar as isotermas de adsorção de cádmio por Saccharomyces cerevisiae, foram utilizados os sais cloreto e nitrato de cádmio nas concentrações de 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80 e 100mg L-1. A biomassa foi produzida a partir de uma cultura "starter"de Saccharomyces cerevisiae IZ 1904. Após o contato de 16h entre o microrganismo e as soluções em estudo, a biomassa foi separada por centrifugação e o teor de cádmio residual foi determinado no sobrenadante por espectrofotometria de absorção atômica. Para os dois sais empregados foi observado um acúmulo crescente de cádmio nas concentrações de 5, 10, 20 e 40mg L-1. Nas concentrações de 60, 80 e 100mg L-1 foi observado que a levedura acumulou teores menores do metal, evidenciando danos na parede celular, nem sempre acompanhados de iguais danos da membrana citoplasmática, tais alterações da parede visualizadas por microscopia eletrônica de varredura.With the objective of determining the isotherms of cadmium the adsorption by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the chloride and nitrate salts were used in the concentrations of 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100mg L-1. The biomass was produced from a starter culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae IZ 1904. After a 16h contact between the microrganism and solutions of study the biomass was separated by a centrifuge and the cadmium residue content was determined at the supernatant by atomic adsorption spectrophotometry. For the two salts used a growing accumulation of cadmium was observed at concentrations of 5, 10, 20, and 40mg L-1. In the concentrations of 60, 80 and 100mg L-1 a decreasing of the accumulation of the metal was observed, evidencing damages of the cellular wall, which they're not accompanied always by damages of the citoplasmatic membrane, visualized by scanning electron microscopy.

Silvana ALBERTINI

2001-08-01

137

Production of Recombinant Vaccine Cb Peritrophin-42 of Screwworm Fly in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The screwworm fly (Chrysomya bezziana larva is an obligate parasite which causes myasis in mammals. Vaccination is thought to be a protective and an enviromentally friendly method for combating the pest. A gene encoding a peritrophic membrane protein Cb peritrophin-42 of C. bezziana was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cb peritrophin-42 fused with the outer membrane protein A signal sequence was produced as an aggregate in E. coli. Expression of an Cb peritrophin-42 gene fused with oligonucleotide of the invertase signal sequence in S. cerevisiae allowed the production of 14.4 mg L-1 soluble extracellular Cb peritrophin-42. Sheep vaccinated with recombinant Cb peritrophin-42 showed a strong immunological reaction. In vivo assay following vaccination with the recombinant Cb peritrophin-42 showed a 27% reduction in the weight of recovered larvae.

DESSY NATALIA

2007-12-01

138

Genetiese manipulering van die gis Saccharomyces cerevisiae betreffende polisakkariedbenutting Genetiese manipulering van die gis Saccharomyces cerevisiae betreffende polisakkariedbenutting  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Die gis Saccharomyces cerevisiae word wêreldwyd as die belangrikste kommersiële mikro-organisme bestempel en geniet sogenaamde ABAV-status (Algemeen Beskou As Veilig) weens dié gis se eeue lange verbintenis met voedselproduksie (bv. brood, wyn, bier, proteienaanvulling en geurstowwe).Die gis Saccharomyces cerevisiae word wêreldwyd as die belangrikste kommersiële mikro-organisme bestempel en geniet sogenaamde ABAV-status (Algemeen Beskou As Veilig) weens dié ...

Pretoruis, I. S.

1992-01-01

139

Protein expression of saccharomyces cerevisiae in response to uranium exposure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Protein expression of Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown in the medium containing 238U (VI) and 233U (VI) was examined by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Saccharomyces cerevisiae of BY4743 was grown in yeast nitrogen base medium containing glucose and glycerol 2-phosphate and 238U of 0, 2.0, and 5.0 x 10-4 M or 233U of 2.5 x 10-6 M (radioactivity was higher by 350 times than 2.0 x 10-4 M 238U) and 5.0 x 10-6 M for 112 h at 30 degC. The growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was monitored by measuring OD600 at 112 h after the inoculation. Uranium concentrations in the media also were measured by radiometry using a liquid scintillation counter. The growths of the yeast grown in the above media were in the following order: control>2.5 x 10-6 M 233U>2.0 x 10-4 M 238U>5.0 x 10-6 M 233U>5.0 x 10-4 M 238U. This result indicated that not only radiological but also chemical effect of U reduced the growth of the yeast. The concentrations of U in the medium containing 238U or 233U decreased, suggesting U accumulation by the yeast cells. The 2-D gel electrophoresis analysis showed the appearance of several spots after exposure to 238U or to 233U but not in the control containing no uranium. These results show that the yeast cells exposed to U ex show that the yeast cells exposed to U express several specific proteins. (author)

140

Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces yeasts in grape varieties of the São Francisco Valley  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aims of this work was to characterise indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in the naturally fermented juice of grape varieties Cabernet Sauvignon, Grenache, Tempranillo, Sauvignon Blanc and Verdejo used in the São Francisco River Valley, northeastern Brazil. In this study, 155 S. cerevisi [...] ae and 60 non-Saccharomyces yeasts were isolated and identified using physiological tests and sequencing of the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit of the rRNA gene. Among the non-Saccharomyces species, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa was the most common species, followed by Pichia kudriavzevii, Candida parapsilosis, Meyerozyma guilliermondii, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Kloeckera apis, P. manshurica, C. orthopsilosis and C. zemplinina. The population counts of these yeasts ranged among 1.0 to 19 x 10(5) cfu/mL. A total of 155 isolates of S. cerevisiae were compared by mitochondrial DNA restriction analysis, and five molecular mitochondrial DNA restriction profiles were detected. Indigenous strains of S. cerevisiae isolated from grapes of the São Francisco Valley can be further tested as potential starters for wine production.

Camila M.P.B.S. de, Ponzzes-Gomes; Dângelly L.F.M. de, Mélo; Caroline A., Santana; Giuliano E., Pereira; Michelle O.C., Mendonça; Fátima C.O., Gomes; Evelyn S., Oliveira; Antonio M., Barbosa Jr; Rita C., Trindade; Carlos A., Rosa.

2014-06-01

 
 
 
 
141

Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces yeasts in grape varieties of the São Francisco Valley  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aims of this work was to characterise indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in the naturally fermented juice of grape varieties Cabernet Sauvignon, Grenache, Tempranillo, Sauvignon Blanc and Verdejo used in the São Francisco River Valley, northeastern Brazil. In this study, 155 S. cerevisi [...] ae and 60 non-Saccharomyces yeasts were isolated and identified using physiological tests and sequencing of the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit of the rRNA gene. Among the non-Saccharomyces species, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa was the most common species, followed by Pichia kudriavzevii, Candida parapsilosis, Meyerozyma guilliermondii, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Kloeckera apis, P. manshurica, C. orthopsilosis and C. zemplinina. The population counts of these yeasts ranged among 1.0 to 19 x 10(5) cfu/mL. A total of 155 isolates of S. cerevisiae were compared by mitochondrial DNA restriction analysis, and five molecular mitochondrial DNA restriction profiles were detected. Indigenous strains of S. cerevisiae isolated from grapes of the São Francisco Valley can be further tested as potential starters for wine production.

Camila M.P.B.S. de, Ponzzes-Gomes; Dângelly L.F.M. de, Mélo; Caroline A., Santana; Giuliano E., Pereira; Michelle O.C., Mendonça; Fátima C.O., Gomes; Evelyn S., Oliveira; Antonio M., Barbosa Jr; Rita C., Trindade; Carlos A., Rosa.

142

Advanced biofuel production by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Replacement of conventional transportation fuels with biofuels will require production of compounds that can cover the complete fuel spectrum, ranging from gasoline to kerosene. Advanced biofuels are expected to play an important role in replacing fossil fuels because they have improved properties compared with ethanol and some of these may have the energy density required for use in heavy duty vehicles, ships, and aviation. Moreover, advanced biofuels can be used as drop-in fuels in existing internal combustion engines. The yeast cell factory Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be turned into a producer of higher alcohols (1-butanol and isobutanol), sesquiterpenes (farnesene and bisabolene), and fatty acid ethyl esters (biodiesel), and here we discusses progress in metabolic engineering of S. cerevisiae for production of these advanced biofuels.

Buijs, Nicolaas A; Siewers, Verena

2013-01-01

143

Expression of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ?-glucoside transporters under different growth conditions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Important biotechnological processes depend on the efficient fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts of starch hydrolysates rich in maltose and maltotriose. The rate-limiting step for fermentation of these ?-glucosides is the transport across the plasma membrane of the cells. In order to con [...] tribute to a better understanding of maltose and maltotriose metabolism by S. cerevisiae, we analyzed the expression of the main ? glucoside transporter genes in two different yeast strains grown on media with glucose, maltose or maltotriose as carbon source. Although both yeast strains have higher ?glucoside transport activity during growth on maltotriose, our results show similar expression levels of the analyzed genes on either maltose or maltrotriose media. Thus, our results indicate that, although the transport capacity of maltotriose grown cells is higher than that of maltose grown cells, maltotriose cannot be considered a better inducer of ?glucoside transporter genes.

S. L., Alves Jr.; J. M., Thevelein; B. U., Stambuk.

2014-03-01

144

Understanding the 3-hydroxypropionic acid tolerance mechanism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

3-Hydroxypropionic acid (3HP) is an important platform chemical that can be converted into other valuable chemicals such as acrylic acid and its derivatives that are used in baby diap ers, various plastics, and paints. With the oil and gas resources becoming limiting, biotechnolo gy offers a sustainable alternative for production of acrylic acid from renewable feedstocks. We are establishing Saccharomyces cerevisiae as an alternative host for 3HP production. However, 3HP also inhibits yeast grow th at level well below what is desired for commercial applications. Therefore, we are aiming to improve 3HP tolerance in S. cerevisiae by applying adaptive evolution approach. We have generated yeast strains with sign ificantly improved capacity for tolerating 3HP when compared to the wild-type. We will present physiolo gical characterization, genome re-sequencing, and transcriptome analysis of the evolved strains. Conseq uently, mechanism underlying 3HP tolerance will be investigated.

Kildegaard, Kanchana Rueksomtawin; Juncker, Agnieszka

2013-01-01

145

Use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in radioactive waste treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Waste management plays an important role in reducing the volume of radioactive waste streams, minimizing the cost of the final disposal and the impact on the environment. In this context, new research should focus on the development of simpler and cheaper techniques which may improve the waste processing. The use of biomass in processes concerned with the removal of heavy metals and radionuclides offers significant potential in the treatment of waste-liquid streams. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is well known for its capacity of heavy metals biosorption and it also has the additional advantages such as easy availability and the possibility of genetic manipulation. The aim of this work is to study the potential of the free cell and immobilized S. cerevisiae in bentonite in the removal Americium-241 from radioactive liquid streams produced by Radioactive Waste Laboratory of Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN-CNEN/SP). (author)

146

Effect of environmental stress on radiation response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have investigated the effect of pH shock and oxidative stress (H2O2 effect) both separately and together on the response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae exposed to UV and gamma radiations for one hour. Exposure to these environmental stresses resulted in S. cerevisiae cells acquiring resistance to UV radiation. Presence of cycloheximide (a know protein synthesis inhibitor) during stress inhibited the acquired UV resistance. The increased UV resistance is apparently mediated through nucleotide excision repair as the stress exposure to rad3 mutants (defective in nucleotide excision repair) do not have any effect on UV response. Both types of stresses used probably follow the same path of induction of radioresistance as the effect of both of them is nonadditive. In the strains used in our study stress exposure dose not have any significant effect on gamma radiation response. (author)

147

Some characteristics of tetraphenylphosphonium uptake into Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The characteristics of the uptake of the lipophilic cation tetraphenylphosphonium (TPP+) into Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been investigated in order to establish whether this compound can be used to monitor the membrane potential of his organism. Unlike dibenzyldimethylammonium, TPP+ is not translocated via the thiamine transport system, nor via another inducible translocation mechanism. On changing the experimental conditions the equilibrium potential of TPP+ varies according to expected changes of the membrane potential. TPP+ accumulation is higher in metabolizing cells than in non-metabolizing cells. In addition, decreasing the medium pH, addition of the proton conductor 2,4-dinitrophenol and addition of K+ all cause an apparent depolarization, whereas Ca2+ apparently hyperpolarizes the cell membrane. It is concluded that TPP+, if applied at low concentrations, can be used to measure the membrane potential of S. cerevisiae. PMID:7039677

Boxman, A W; Barts, P W; Borst-Pauwels, G W

1982-03-23

148

Influence of dough freezing on Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolism  

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Full Text Available The need to freeze dough is increasing in bakery production. Frozen dough can be stored for a long time without quality change. The capacity of bakery production can be increased in this way, and in the same time, the night shifts can be decreased. Yeast cells can be damaged by freezing process resulting in poor technological quality of dough after defrostation (longer fermentation of dough. The influence of frozen storage time of dough on survival percentage of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated. Dough samples were taken after 1, 7, 14 and 28 days of frozen storage at -20°C. After defrosting, at room temperature, samples were taken from the surface and the middle part of dough (under aseptic conditions, and the percentage of living S. cerevisiae cells was determined. During frozen storage of dough, the number of living S. cerevisiae decreased. After 28 days of frozen storage, the percentage of live cells on the surface and inside the dough was 53,1% and 54,95%, respectively. The addition of k-carragenan to dough increased the percentage of living cells in the middle part of dough up to 64,63%. Pure cultures, isolated from survived S. cerevisia cells in frozen dough by agar plates method (Koch's method, were multiplied in optimal liquid medium for yeasts. The content of cytochromes in S. cerevisiae cells was determined by spectrophotometric method. The obtained results showed that the content of cytochromes in survived S. cerevisiae cells was not affected by dough freezing process. Growth rate and fermentative activity (Einchor's method were determined in multiplied cells.

Pejin Dušanka J.

2007-01-01

149

Non-Coding RNA Prediction and Verification in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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Non-coding RNA (ncRNA) play an important and varied role in cellular function. A significant amount of research has been devoted to computational prediction of these genes from genomic sequence, but the ability to do so has remained elusive due to a lack of apparent genomic features. In this work, thermodynamic stability of ncRNA structural elements, as summarized in a Z-score, is used to predict ncRNA in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This analysis was coupled with comparative genomics ...

Kavanaugh, Laura A.; Dietrich, Fred S.

2009-01-01

150

d-Xylulose Fermentation to Ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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We used commercial bakers' yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) to study the conversion of d-xylulose to ethanol in the presence of d-xylose. The rate of ethanol production increased with an increase in yeast cell density. The optimal temperature for d-xylulose fermentation was 35°C, and the optimal pH range was 4 to 6. The fermentation of d-xylulose by yeast resulted in the production of ethanol as the major product; small amounts of xylitol and glycerol were also produced. The production of xy...

Chiang, Lin-chang; Gong, Cheng-shung; Chen, Li-fu; Tsao, George T.

1981-01-01

151

Magnetically altered ethanol fermentation capacity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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Full Text Available We studied the effect of static magnetic fields on ethanol production by yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 424A (LNH-ST using sugar cane molasses during the fermentation in an enclosed bioreactor. Two static NdFeB magnets were attached to a cylindrical tube reactor with their opposite poles (north to south, creating 150 mT magnetic field inside the reactor. Comparable differences emerged between the results of these two experimental conditions. We found ethanol productivity to be 15% higher in the samples exposed to 150 mT magnetic field.

Galonja-Corghill Tamara

2009-01-01

152

Genetic effects of 5-azacytidine in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The base analog 5-azacytidine induced a variety of genetic and epigenetic effects in different organisms. It was tested in two diploid strains of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to study the induction of point mutation, mitotic reciprocal crossing-over, mitotic gene conversion (strain D7) and mitotic aneuploidy (strain D61.M). It was used on cells growing in its presence for 4-5 generations. There was a strong induction of both types of mitotic recombination and point mutation. However, there was no induction of mitotic chromosomal malsegregation under the same conditions. PMID:6197648

Zimmermann, F K; Scheel, I

1984-01-01

153

Information propagation within the Genetic Network of Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background A gene network's capacity to process information, so as to bind past events to future actions, depends on its structure and logic. From previous and new microarray measurements in Saccharomyces cerevisiae following gene deletions and overexpressions, we identify a core gene regulatory network (GRN of functional interactions between 328 genes and the transfer functions of each gene. Inferred connections are verified by gene enrichment. Results We find that this core network has a generalized clustering coefficient that is much higher than chance. The inferred Boolean transfer functions have a mean p-bias of 0.41, and thus similar amounts of activation and repression interactions. However, the distribution of p-biases differs significantly from what is expected by chance that, along with the high mean connectivity, is found to cause the core GRN of S. cerevisiae's to have an overall sensitivity similar to critical Boolean networks. In agreement, we find that the amount of information propagated between nodes in finite time series is much higher in the inferred core GRN of S. cerevisiae than what is expected by chance. Conclusions We suggest that S. cerevisiae is likely to have evolved a core GRN with enhanced information propagation among its genes.

Yli-Harja Olli

2010-10-01

154

Promoter elements of the PHR1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and their roles in the response to DNA damage.  

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The PHR1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes the apoenzyme for the DNA repair enzyme photolyase. PHR1 transcription is induced in response to 254 nm radiation and a variety of chemical damaging agents. We report here the identification of promoter elements required for PHR1 expression. Transcription is regulated primarily through three sequence elements clustered within a 120 bp region immediately upstream of the translational start site. A 20 bp interrupted palindrome comprises UASPHR1 ...

Sancar, G. B.; Ferris, R.; Smith, F. W.; Vandeberg, B.

1995-01-01

155

Regulation of the Premiddle and Middle Phases of Expression of the NDT80 Gene during Sporulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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The NDT80 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which encodes a global activator of transcription of middle sporulation-specific genes, is first expressed after the activation of early meiotic genes but prior to activation of middle sporulation-specific genes. Both upstream repression sequence 1 (URS1) and mid-sporulation element (MSE) sites are present in the promoter region of the NDT80 gene; these elements have been shown previously to contribute to the regulation of expression of early and mi...

Pak, Julia; Segall, Jacqueline

2002-01-01

156

Construction of an amylolytic industrial strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae containing the Schwanniomyces occidentalis alpha-amylase gene.  

Science.gov (United States)

The gene encoding Schwanniomyces occidentalis alpha-amylase (AMY) was introduced into the chromosomal delta sequences of an industrial strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To obtain a strain suitable for commercial use, an delta-integrative cassette devoid of bacterial DNA sequences was constructed that contains the AMY gene and aureobasidin A resistance gene (AUR1-C) as the selection marker. The AMY gene was expressed under the control of the alcohol dehydrogenase gene promoter (ADC1p). The alpha-amylase activity of Sacc. cerevisiae transformed with this integrative cassette was 6 times higher than that of Sch. occidentalis. The transformants (integrants) were mitotically stable after 100 generations in nonselective medium. PMID:14677710

Kang, Na-Young; Park, Jeong-Nam; Chin, Jong-Eon; Lee, Hwanghee Blaise; Im, Suhn-Young; Bai, Suk

2003-11-01

157

Identification of the constitutive ultradian oscillator of the circadian clock (ENOX1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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Full Text Available A yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion library was screened based on NADH fluorescence using a 384 well plate assay and robotics to identify a yeast isolate lacking the 24 min periodic cell surface oxidase. The oxidase was shown previously to be a candidate ultradian oscillator of the yeast’s biological clock. The cDNA was cloned from a yeast overexpression library and the encoded protein was expressed in bacteria and characterized. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity was used as the cellular circadian indicator. The identified gene was YML117W which encodes a ca 126 kDa putative RNA-binding protein. The candidate ENOX1 activity from yeast had functional characteristics similar to those of other constitutive ENOX1 proteins of eukaryotes exhibiting oscillating activities with a temperature independent period length of 24 min phased by melatonin and low frequency electromagnetic fields and susceptible to inhibition by the ENOX1 inhibitor, simalikalactone D. The YML117W deletion mutant cells lacked the ENOX1 clock output present in wild type yeast. The findings identify YML117W as the ENOX1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and support its proposed function as an ultradian oscillator of the yeast biological clock.

Sara S. Dick

2013-05-01

158

Evaluation of cytochrome P-450 concentration in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Linhagens de Saccharomyces cerevisiae tem sido amplamente empregadas em testes de mutagenicidade devido à presença de um sistema citocromo P-450 capaz de metabolizar substâncias pró-mutagênicas à sua forma ativa. Devido à grande variedade de linhagens de S. cerevisiae com diferentes capacidades de p [...] rodução de citocromo P-450, torna-se necessária a seleção de cepas, bem como a definição das condições ideais de cultivo. Neste trabalho, foram comparados os níveis de citocromo P-450 em quatro diferentes linhagens de S. cerevisiae e avaliadas as condições de cultivo necessárias para obtenção de altas concentrações deste sistema enzimático. O maior nível enzimático foi encontrado na linhagem NCYC 240 em presença de 20 % de glicose (p/v). A adição de etanol ao meio de cultura também produziu um aumento na síntese de citocromo P-450. Estes resultados indicam que as condições de cultivo devem ser específicas e bem definidas para a linhagem selecionada, garantindo assim elevados níveis de citocromo P-450 e, conseqüentemente, a confiabilidade nos testes de mutagenicidade. Abstract in english Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been widely used in mutagenicity tests due to the presence of a cytochrome P-450 system, capable of metabolizing promutagens to active mutagens. There are a large number of S. cerevisiae strains with varying abilities to produce cytochrome P-450. However, strain selectio [...] n and ideal cultivation conditions are not well defined. We compared cytochrome P-450 levels in four different S. cerevisiae strains and evaluated the cultivation conditions necessary to obtain the highest levels. The amount of cytochrome P-450 produced by each strain varied, as did the incubation time needed to reach the maximum level. The highest cytochrome P-450 concentrations were found in media containing fermentable sugars. The NCYC 240 strain produced the highest level of cytochrome P-450 when grown in the presence of 20 % (w/v) glucose. The addition of ethanol to the media also increased cytochrome P-450 synthesis in this strain. These results indicate cultivation conditions must be specific and well-established for the strain selected in order to assure high cytochrome P-450 levels and reliable mutagenicity results.

Míriam Cristina Sakuragui, Matuo; Irene Satiko, Kikuchi; Terezinha de Jesus Andreoli, Pinto.

159

Introducing a New Breed of Wine Yeast: Interspecific Hybridisation between a Commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae Wine Yeast and Saccharomyces mikatae  

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Interspecific hybrids are commonplace in agriculture and horticulture; bread wheat and grapefruit are but two examples. The benefits derived from interspecific hybridisation include the potential of generating advantageous transgressive phenotypes. This paper describes the generation of a new breed of wine yeast by interspecific hybridisation between a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast strain and Saccharomyces mikatae, a species hitherto not associated with industrial fermentatio...

Bellon, Jennifer R.; Schmid, Frank; Capone, Dimitra L.; Dunn, Barbara L.; Chambers, Paul J.

2013-01-01

160

Optimization of protein extraction from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae/
Otimização da extração de proteínas da levedura Saccharomyces cerevisiae
 

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This work aimed to determine the optimum temperature, pH and sodium chloride sodium concentration for protein extraction of yeast cells during autolysis process. The cellular extract was obtained using commercial compressed baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and for statistical analysis and definition of the variation levels of temperature (32,0 to 52,0°C), pH (1,32 to 7,00) and NaCl (2,0 to 75%) the Response Surface Analysis Methodology was used. The result obtained showed that the be...

Go?mez, Raul Jorge Hernan C.; Antonio Martins Oliveira

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Acquisition of tolerance against oxidative damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Living cells constantly sense and adapt to redox shifts by the induction of genes whose products act to maintain the cellular redox environment. In the eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae, while stationary cells possess a degree of constitutive resistance towards oxidants, treatment of exponential phase cultures with sub-lethal stresses can lead to the transient induction of protection against subsequent lethal oxidant conditions. The sensors of oxidative stress and the corresponding transcription factors that activate gene expression under these conditions have not yet been completely identified. Results We report the role of SOD1, SOD2 and TPS1 genes (which encode the cytoplasmic Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase, the mitochondrial Mn-isoform and trehalose-6-phosphate synthase, respectively in the development of resistance to oxidative stress. In all experimental conditions, the cultures were divided into two parts, one was immediately submitted to severe stress (namely: exposure to H2O2, heat shock or ethanol stress while the other was initially adapted to 40°C for 60 min. The deficiency in trehalose synthesis did not impair the acquisition of tolerance to H2O2, but this disaccharide played an essential role in tolerance against heat and ethanol stresses. We also verified that the presence of only one Sodp isoform was sufficient to improve cellular resistance to 5 mM H2O2. On the other hand, while the lack of Sod2p caused high cell sensitivity to ethanol and heat shock, the absence of Sod1p seemed to be beneficial to the process of acquisition of tolerance to these adverse conditions. The increase in oxidation-dependent fluorescence of crude extracts of sod1 mutant cells upon incubation at 40°C was approximately 2-fold higher than in sod2 and control strain extracts. Furthermore, in Western blots, we observed that sod mutants showed a different pattern of Hsp104p and Hsp26p expression also different from that in their control strain. Conclusions Trehalose seemed not to be essential in the acquisition of tolerance to H2O2 stress, but its absence was strongly felt under water stress conditions such as heat and alcoholic stresses. On the other hand, Sod1p could be involved in the control of ROS production; these reactive molecules could signal the induction of genes implicated within cell tolerance to heat and ethanol. The effects of this deletion needs further investigation.

Eleutherio Elis CA

2001-07-01

162

Beta-glucana from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: constitution, bioactivity and obtaining / Beta-glucana de Saccharomyces cerevisiae: constituição, bioatividade e obtenção  

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Full Text Available b-glucans are polysaccharides that constitute the structure of the cell wall of yeast, fungi and some cereals, which differs each other by the linkages between glucose units. An important source of these polymers is the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall, which is a yeast widely used in industrial processes of fermentation. The b-glucan is considered to be a modifier of biological response due to its immunomodulator potential. When it is recognized by specific cellular receptors, have the ability to enhance the host’s immune response. Other beneficial effects such as anticarcinogenic, antimutagenic, hypocholesterolemic and blood sugar reduction have also been related to the b-glucan. The aim of this literature review was expand scientific knowledge about the constitution and bioactivity of b-glucan, including its recognition by the immune system, as well as its obtaining from S. cerevisiae cell wall.b-glucanas são polissacarídeos constituintes estruturais da parede celular de leveduras, fungos e alguns cereais, que se diferenciam pelo tipo de ligação presente entre as unidades de glicose. Uma importante fonte destes polissacarídeos é a parede celular de Saccharomyces cerevisiae, uma levedura amplamente empregada em processos industriais de fermentação. A b-glucana é considerada um modificador da resposta biológica devido ao seu potencial imunomodulador, pois ao ser reconhecida por receptores celulares específicos tem habilidade de realçar a resposta imune do hospedeiro. Outros efeitos benéficos como anticarcinogênico, antimutagênico, hipocolesterolêmico e hipoglicêmico também têm sido relacionados à b-glucana Esta revisão de literatura teve por objetivo agregar conhecimentos científicos sobre a constituição e bioatividade da b glucana, incluindo seu reconhecimento pelo sistema imune, bem como, a obtenção a partir da parede celular de S. cerevisiae.

Raul Jorge Hernan Castro-Gómez

2008-08-01

163

Saccharomyces boulardii  

Science.gov (United States)

... is now believed to be a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast). Saccharomyces boulardii is used as medicine. ... Hansen CBS 5926), Probiotic, Probiotique, Saccharomyces, Saccharomyces boulardii, Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, S. Boulardii.

164

A vaccine grade of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing mammalian myostatin  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a widely-used system for protein expression. We previously showed that heat-killed whole recombinant yeast vaccine expressing mammalian myostatin can modulate myostatin function in mice, resulting in increase of body weight and muscle composition in these animals. Foreign DNA introduced into yeast cells can be lost soon unless cells are continuously cultured in selection media, which usually contain antibiotics. For cost and safety concerns, it is essential to optimize conditions to produce quality food and pharmaceutical products. Results We developed a simple but effective method to engineer a yeast strain stably expressing mammalian myostatin. This method utilized high-copy-number integration of myostatin gene into the ribosomal DNA of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the final step, antibiotic selection marker was removed using the Cre-LoxP system to minimize any possible side-effects for animals. The resulting yeast strain can be maintained in rich culture media and stably express mammalian myostatin for two years. Oral administration of the recombinant yeast was able to induce immune response to myostatin and modulated the body weight of mice. Conclusions Establishment of such yeast strain is a step further toward transformation of yeast cells into edible vaccine to improve meat production in farm animals and treat human muscle-wasting diseases in the future.

Zhang Tingting

2012-12-01

165

Investigation of autonomous cell cycle oscillation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Autonome Oscillationer i kontinuert kultivering af Saccharomyces cerevisiae Udgangspunktet for dette Ph.d. projekt var at søge at forstå, hvad der gør det muligt at opnå multiple statiske tilstande ved kontinuert kultivering af Saccharomyces cerevisiae med glukose som begrænsende substrat. Imidlertid viste der sig nogle fænomener omkring den kritiske fortyndingshastighed der ledte opmærksomheden hen på autonome oscillationer, der hidrører fra delvis synkroniseret vækst af mikroorganismerne. Derfor blev fokus flyttet til at undersøge mulighederne for at initiere oscillationer i kontinuerte kultiveringer. Det lykkedes efter et større eksperimentelt arbejde at udvikle en procedure til at initiere vedvarende oscillationer i en kultur, hvor tidspunktet for initiering imidlertid ikke kunne reproduceres. Det blev også vist eksperimentelt at oscillationsperioden i nogle tilfælde er længere end populationens fordoblingstid. I litteraturen findes der ikke modeller der kan beskrive denne observation. Ved udvikling afen relativt simpel ny model, der indeholder en synchron og en asynchron subpopulation, hvor den synchrone subpopulation kan rekruttere celler fra den asynchrone subpopulation er det vist at oscillations perioder der er længere end fordoblingstiden for populationen kan opretholdes. Modellen kan også forudsige graden af synchronisering og andre karakteristika for en oscillerende population.

Hansen, Morten Skov

2007-01-01

166

Characterization of an MMS sensitive mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have characterized a methyl methanesulfonate sensitive mutant of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in order to learn more about DNA repair and mutagenesis in this organism. The mutation, designated mms3-1, also confers sensitivity to ultraviolet light and to ethyl methanesulfonate in both haploids and homozygous diploids. Its effect on ?-ray sensitivity, however, is a function of the ploidy of the cell and its effect on induced mutation is a function of both the ploidy of the cell and the nature of the inducing agent. Our major findings are discussed. Our data indicate that: (1) Saccharomyces cerevisiae has an error prone pathway for the repair of uv damage controlled by the MMS3 gene product operating in and only in, and possibly induced by conditions present only in, a/? diploids; (2) in diploids, at least, there exists at least one step in the error prone repair of uv induced damage which is different from a step in the error prone repair of EMS induced damage; (3) a/? mms3-1/mms3-1 diploids may be defective in a step common to the repair of mutagenic lesions following uv irradiation and lethal lesions following ? irradiation; and (4) there are steps in the repair of MMS induced lethal damage that are different from steps in the repair of EMS induced lethal damage

167

ROD1, a novel gene conferring multiple resistance phenotypes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glutathione-dependent detoxification reactions are catalyzed by the enzyme glutathione S-transferase and are important in drug resistance in organisms ranging from bacteria to humans. The yeast Issatchenkia orientalis expresses a glutathione S-transferase (GST) protein that is induced when the GST substrate o-dinitrobenzene (o-DNB) is added to the culture. In this study, we show that overproduction of the I. orientalis GST in Saccharomyces cerevisiae leads to an increase in o-dinitrobenzene resistance in S. cerevisiae cells. To recover genes that influence o-DNB resistance in S. cerevisiae, a high copy plasmid library was screened for loci that elevate o-DNB tolerance. One gene was recovered and designated ROD1 (resistance to o-dinitrobenzene). This locus was found to encode a novel protein with no significant sequence similarity with proteins of known function in the data base. An epitope-tagged version of Rod1p was produced in S. cerevisiae and shown to function properly. Subcellular fractionation experiments indicated that this factor was found in the particulate fraction by differential centrifugation. Overproduction of Rod1p leads to resistance to not only o-DNB but also zinc and calcium. Strains that lack the ROD1 gene are hypersensitive to these same compounds. Rod1p represents a new type of molecule influencing drug tolerance in eukaryotes. PMID:8621680

Wu, A L; Hallstrom, T C; Moye-Rowley, W S

1996-02-01

168

The Saccharomyces cerevisiae YFR041C/ERJ5 gene encoding a type I membrane protein with a J domain is required to preserve the folding capacity of the endoplasmic reticulum.  

Science.gov (United States)

YFR041C/ERJ5 was identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a gene regulated by the unfolded protein response pathway (UPR). The open reading frame of the gene has a J domain characteristic of the DnaJ chaperone family of proteins that regulate the activity of Hsp70 chaperones. We determined the expression and topology of Erj5p, a type I membrane protein with a J domain in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that colocalizes with Kar2p, the major Hsp70 in the yeast ER. We identified synthetic interactions of Deltaerj5 with mutations in genes involved in protein folding in the ER (kar2-159, Deltascj1Deltajem1) and in the induction of the unfolded protein response (Deltaire1). Loss of Erj5p in yeast cells with impaired ER protein folding capacity increased sensitivity to agents that cause ER stress. We identified the ERJ5 mRNA and confirmed that agents that promote accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER regulate its abundance. We found that loss of the non-essential ERJ5 gene leads to a constitutively induced UPR, indicating that ERJ5 is required for maintenance of an optimal folding environment in the yeast ER. PMID:17157937

Carla Famá, M; Raden, David; Zacchi, Nicolás; Lemos, Darío R; Robinson, Anne S; Silberstein, Susana

2007-02-01

169

Ciclohexadespipeptide beauvericin degradation by different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The interaction between the mycotoxin beauvericin (BEA) and 9 yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae named LO9, YE-2, YE5, YE-6, YE-4, A34, A17, A42 and A08 was studied. The biological degradations were carried out under aerobic conditions in the liquid medium of Potato Dextrose Broth (PDB) at 25°C for 48 h and in a food/feed system composed of corn flour at 37°C for 3 days, respectively. BEA present in fermented medium and corn flour was determined using liquid chromatography coupled to the mass spectrometry detector in tandem (LC-MS/MS) and the BEA degradation products produced during the fermentations were determined using the technique of the liquid chromatography coupled to a linear ion trap (LIT). Results showed that the S. cerevisiae strains reduced meanly the concentration of the BEA present in PDB by 86.2% and in a food system by 71.1%. All the S. cerevisiae strains used in this study showed a significant BEA reduction during the fermentation process employed. PMID:23791659

Meca, G; Zhou, T; Li, X Z; Ritieni, A; Mañes, J

2013-09-01

170

[Production of ?-carotene by metabolically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae].  

Science.gov (United States)

?-carotene has a wide range of application in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. For microbial production of ?-carotene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the supply of geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) was firstly increased in S. cerevisiae BY4742 to obtain strain BY4742-T2 through over-expressing truncated 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (tHMGR), which is the major rate-limiting enzyme in the mevalonate (MVA) pathway, and GGPP synthase (GGPS), which is a key enzyme in the diterpenoid synthetic pathway. The ?-carotene synthetic genes of Pantoea agglomerans and Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous were further integrated into strain BY4742-T2 for comparing ?-carotene production. Over-expression of tHMGR and GGPS genes led to 26.0-fold increase of ?-carotene production. In addition, genes from X. dendrorhous was more efficient than those from P. agglomerans for ?-carotene production in S. cerevisiae. Strain BW02 was obtained which produced 1.56 mg/g (dry cell weight) ?-carotene, which could be used further for constructing cell factories for ?-carotene production. PMID:25423750

Wang, Beibei; Shi, Mingyu; Wang, Dong; Xu, Jiaoyang; Liu, Yi; Yang, Hongjiang; Dai, Zhubo; Zhang, Xueli

2014-08-01

171

Irradiation effects on the alcohol fermentation ability of saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Irradiation effects on the alcohol fermentation ability of saccharomyces cerevisiae. S. cerevisiae suspensions of 1.5x108 clls/ml were exposed to single and fractionated doses of gamma irradiation, i.e. 0; 0.30; 0.60; 0.90; and 1.20 kGy in aerobic condition at dose rate of 1.63 kGy/hour. The fractionated doses were given with time interval of 15, 30 and 45 minutes. The fermentation was held at 300C for 40 hours. It is seen that an increase of alcohol production was obtained when cells were irradiated at 0.60 kGy, although the result has no significant difference statistically with control. At the dose of 1.20 kGy the alcohol fermentation ability of S. cerevisiae decreased drastically as compared to control. Irradiation using single or fractionated doses with time interval of 15-45 minutes did not influence the alcohol production. Comparing the time interval of 45 minutes at 0.60 kGy and at 1.20 kGy, it appeared that the yield of alcohol was different. (author). 17 refs.; 4 figs

172

Osmo-, thermo- and ethanol- tolerances of Saccharomyces cerevisiae S1  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Saccharomyces cerevisiae S1, which is a locally isolated and improved strain showed viability at 40, 45 and 50ºC and produced ethanol at 40, 43 and 45ºC. When the cells were given heat shock at 45ºC for 30min and grown at 40ºC, 100% viability was observed for 60h, and addition of 200gl-1 ethanol has [...] led to complete cell death at 30h. Heat shock given at 45ºC (for 30min) has improved the tolerance to temperature induced ethanol shock leading to 37% viability at 30h. when the cells were subjected to ethanol (200gl-1 for 30 min) and osmotic shock (sorbitol 300gl-1), trehalose contents in the cells were increased. The heat shocked cells showed better viability in presence of added ethanol. Soy flour supplementation has improved the viability of S. cerevisiae S1 to 80% in presence of 100gl-1 added ethanol and to 60% in presence of 300gl-1 sorbitol. In presence of sorbitol (200gl-1) and ethanol (50gl-1) at 40ºC, 46% viability was retained by S. cerevisiae S1 at 48h and it was improved to 80% by soy flour supplementation.

Sandrasegarampillai, Balakumar; Vasanthy, Arasaratnam.

2012-03-01

173

The postmitotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae after spaceflight showed higher viability  

Science.gov (United States)

The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been proposed as an ideal model organism for clarifying the biological effects caused by spaceflight conditions. The postmitotic S. cerevisiae cells onboard Practice eight recoverable satellite were subjected to spaceflight for 15 days. After recovery, the viability, the glycogen content, the activities of carbohydrate metabolism enzymes, the DNA content and the lipid peroxidation level in yeast cells were analyzed. The viability of the postmitotic yeast cells after spaceflight showed a three-fold increase as compared with that of the ground control cells. Compared to the ground control cells, the lipid peroxidation level in the spaceflight yeast cells markedly decreased. The spaceflight yeast cells also showed an increase in G2/M cell population and a decrease in Sub-G1 cell population. The glycogen content and the activities of hexokinase and succinate dehydrogenase significantly decreased in the yeast cells after spaceflight. In contrast, the activity of malate dehydrogenase showed an obvious increase after spaceflight. These results suggested that microgravity or spaceflight could promote the survival of postmitotic S. cerevisiae cells through regulating carbohydrate metabolism, ROS level and cell cycle progression.

Yi, Zong-Chun; Li, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Yan; Wang, Jie; Sun, Yan; Zhuang, Feng-Yuan

2011-06-01

174

Biogeographical characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast by molecular methods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biogeography is the descriptive and explanatory study of spatial patterns and processes involved in the distribution of biodiversity. Without biogeography, it would be difficult to study the diversity of microorganisms because there would be no way to visualize patterns in variation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, "the wine yeast," is the most important species involved in alcoholic fermentation, and in vineyard ecosystems, it follows the principle of "everything is everywhere." Agricultural practices such as farming (organic versus conventional) and floor management systems have selected different populations within this species that are phylogenetically distinct. In fact, recent ecological and geographic studies highlighted that unique strains are associated with particular grape varieties in specific geographical locations. These studies also highlighted that significant diversity and regional character, or 'terroir,' have been introduced into the winemaking process via this association. This diversity of wild strains preserves typicity, the high quality, and the unique flavor of wines. Recently, different molecular methods were developed to study population dynamics of S. cerevisiae strains in both vineyards and wineries. In this review, we will provide an update on the current molecular methods used to reveal the geographical distribution of S. cerevisiae wine yeast. PMID:23805132

Tofalo, Rosanna; Perpetuini, Giorgia; Schirone, Maria; Fasoli, Giuseppe; Aguzzi, Irene; Corsetti, Aldo; Suzzi, Giovanna

2013-01-01

175

Biogeographical characterisation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast by molecular methods  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biogeography is the descriptive and explanatory study of spatial patterns and processes involved in the distribution of biodiversity. Without biogeography, it would be difficult to study the diversity of microorganisms because there would be no way to visualise patterns in variation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, “the wine yeast”, is the most important species involved in alcoholic fermentation, and in vineyard ecosystems, it follows the principle of “everything is everywhere”. Agricultural practices such as farming (organic versus conventional and floor management systems have selected different populations within this species that are phylogenetically distinct. In fact, recent ecological and geographic studies highlighted that unique strains are associated with particular grape varieties in specific geographical locations. These studies also highlighted that significant diversity and regional character, or ‘terroir’, have been introduced into the winemaking process via this association. This diversity of wild strains preserves typicity, the high quality and the unique flavour of wines. Recently, different molecular methods were developed to study population dynamics of S. cerevisiae strains in both vineyards and wineries. In this review, we will provide an update on the current molecular methods used to reveal the geographical distribution of S. cerevisiae wine yeast.

RosannaTofalo

2013-06-01

176

Production of aromatics in Saccharomyces cerevisiae--a feasibility study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aromatics are amongst the most important bulk feedstocks for the chemical industry, however, no viable bioprocess exists today and production is still dependent on petro-chemistry. In this article the production of aromatic precursors such as p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHBA) and p-amino benzoic acid (PABA) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was evaluated using metabolic network analysis. Theoretical mass yields for PHBA and for PABA obtained by metabolic network analysis were 0.58 and 0.53 g g(glucose)?¹, respectively. A major setback for microbial production of aromatics is the high toxicity of the products. Therefore, PHBA and PABA toxicity was evaluated in S. cerevisiae. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of 38.3 g L?¹ for PHBA and 0.62 g L?¹ for PABA were observed. However, PABA toxicity could be alleviated in adaptation experiments. Finally, metabolic engineering was used to create proof of principle first generation strains of S. cerevisiae. Overall accumulation of 650 ?M PHBA and 250 ?M PABA could be achieved. PMID:22579724

Krömer, Jens O; Nunez-Bernal, Dariela; Averesch, Nils J H; Hampe, Jennifer; Varela, Javier; Varela, Cristian

2013-01-20

177

Role of social wasps in Saccharomyces cerevisiae ecology and evolution.  

Science.gov (United States)

Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the most important model organisms and has been a valuable asset to human civilization. However, despite its extensive use in the last 9,000 y, the existence of a seasonal cycle outside human-made environments has not yet been described. We demonstrate the role of social wasps as vector and natural reservoir of S. cerevisiae during all seasons. We provide experimental evidence that queens of social wasps overwintering as adults (Vespa crabro and Polistes spp.) can harbor yeast cells from autumn to spring and transmit them to their progeny. This result is mirrored by field surveys of the genetic variability of natural strains of yeast. Microsatellites and sequences of a selected set of loci able to recapitulate the yeast strain's evolutionary history were used to compare 17 environmental wasp isolates with a collection of strains from grapes from the same region and more than 230 strains representing worldwide yeast variation. The wasp isolates fall into subclusters representing the overall ecological and industrial yeast diversity of their geographic origin. Our findings indicate that wasps are a key environmental niche for the evolution of natural S. cerevisiae populations, the dispersion of yeast cells in the environment, and the maintenance of their diversity. The close relatedness of several wasp isolates with grape and wine isolates reflects the crucial role of human activities on yeast population structure, through clonal expansion and selection of specific strains during the biotransformation of fermented foods, followed by dispersal mediated by insects and other animals. PMID:22847440

Stefanini, Irene; Dapporto, Leonardo; Legras, Jean-Luc; Calabretta, Antonio; Di Paola, Monica; De Filippo, Carlotta; Viola, Roberto; Capretti, Paolo; Polsinelli, Mario; Turillazzi, Stefano; Cavalieri, Duccio

2012-08-14

178

Osmo-, thermo- and ethanol- tolerances of Saccharomyces cerevisiae S1  

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Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae S1, which is a locally isolated and improved strain showed viability at 40, 45 and 50ºC and produced ethanol at 40, 43 and 45ºC. When the cells were given heat shock at 45ºC for 30min and grown at 40ºC, 100% viability was observed for 60h, and addition of 200gl-1 ethanol has led to complete cell death at 30h. Heat shock given at 45ºC (for 30min has improved the tolerance to temperature induced ethanol shock leading to 37% viability at 30h. when the cells were subjected to ethanol (200gl-1 for 30 min and osmotic shock (sorbitol 300gl-1, trehalose contents in the cells were increased. The heat shocked cells showed better viability in presence of added ethanol. Soy flour supplementation has improved the viability of S. cerevisiae S1 to 80% in presence of 100gl-1 added ethanol and to 60% in presence of 300gl-1 sorbitol. In presence of sorbitol (200gl-1 and ethanol (50gl-1 at 40ºC, 46% viability was retained by S. cerevisiae S1 at 48h and it was improved to 80% by soy flour supplementation.

Sandrasegarampillai Balakumar

2012-03-01

179

Osmo-, thermo- and ethanol- tolerances of Saccharomyces cerevisiae S1  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Saccharomyces cerevisiae S1, which is a locally isolated and improved strain showed viability at 40, 45 and 50ºC and produced ethanol at 40, 43 and 45ºC. When the cells were given heat shock at 45ºC for 30min and grown at 40ºC, 100% viability was observed for 60h, and addition of 200gl-1 ethanol has [...] led to complete cell death at 30h. Heat shock given at 45ºC (for 30min) has improved the tolerance to temperature induced ethanol shock leading to 37% viability at 30h. when the cells were subjected to ethanol (200gl-1 for 30 min) and osmotic shock (sorbitol 300gl-1), trehalose contents in the cells were increased. The heat shocked cells showed better viability in presence of added ethanol. Soy flour supplementation has improved the viability of S. cerevisiae S1 to 80% in presence of 100gl-1 added ethanol and to 60% in presence of 300gl-1 sorbitol. In presence of sorbitol (200gl-1) and ethanol (50gl-1) at 40ºC, 46% viability was retained by S. cerevisiae S1 at 48h and it was improved to 80% by soy flour supplementation.

Sandrasegarampillai, Balakumar; Vasanthy, Arasaratnam.

180

Uranium removal from acidic aqueous solutions by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Debaryomyces hansenii, Kluyveromyces marxianus and Candida colliculosa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The sorption of uranium from acidic aqueous solutions (pH 4.5, Cinit = 10 to 1000 mg U/L) by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Debaryomyces hansenii, Kluyveromyces marxianus and Candida colliculosa was investigated using a batch technique. The U-sorption onto Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Debaryomyces hansenii followed a Langmuir, while that onto Kluyveromyces marxianus and Candida colliculosa a Freundlich isotherm. The results demonstrated that all investigated biomasses could effectively remove uranium from acidic aqueous solutions. From all sorbents, Saccharomyces cerevisiae appeared to be the most effective with a maximum sorption capacity of 127.7 mg U/g dry biomass. (author)

 
 
 
 
181

Comparison between two selected Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains as fermentation starters in the production of traditional cachaça  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were tested as the starter yeasts in a traditional cachaça distillery. The strains used were S. cerevisiae UFMG-A829, isolated from a cachaça fermentation process, and S. cerevisiae K1-V1116, obtained from the wine industry. The permanence of each strain in the fermentation must was determined by RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-PCR, with primer M13. Both yeast strains were prevalent in the vats for approximately 30 days. Indigenous non-Saccharomyces and indigenous S. cerevisiae strains were isolated in lower counts during the fermentation period. Indigenous S. cerevisiae strains were molecularly distinct when compared to the starter yeasts. The two yeasts appeared promising starter yeasts in the fermentation process to produce traditional cachaça.Duas linhagens de Saccharomyces cerevisiae foram testadas como iniciadoras em uma destilaria de cachaça. Foram utilizadas as linhagens de S. cerevisiae UFMG-A829, isolada de fermentação de cachaça, e S. cerevisiae K1-V1116, de origem vinícola. A permanência de cada linhagem durante a fermentação foi determinada por RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-PCR, utilizando o iniciador M13. As duas linhagens predominaram nas dornas de fermentação por aproximadamente 30 dias. Leveduras não-Saccharomyces e S. cerevisiae indígenas foram isoladas em menor proporção durante o experimento. As linhagens de S. cerevisiae indígenas apresentaram perfis moleculares distintos em relação às linhagens iniciadoras. As duas linhagens foram promissoras para serem utilizadas como iniciadoras do processo fermentativo para a produção da cachaça.

Fátima de Cássia Oliveira Gomes

2009-04-01

182

Comparison of heterologous xylose transporters in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been engineered for xylose utilization to enable production of fuel ethanol from lignocellulose raw material. One unresolved challenge is that S. cerevisiae lacks a dedicated transport system for pentose sugars, which means that xylose is transported by non-specific Hxt transporters with comparatively low transport rate and affinity for xylose. Results In this study, we compared three heterologous xylose transporters that have recently been shown to improve xylose uptake under different experimental conditions. The transporters Gxf1, Sut1 and At5g59250 from Candida intermedia, Pichia stipitis and Arabidopsis thaliana, respectively, were expressed in isogenic strains of S. cerevisiae and the transport kinetics and utilization of xylose was evaluated. Expression of the Gxf1 and Sut1 transporters led to significantly increased affinity and transport rates of xylose. In batch cultivation at 4 g/L xylose concentration, improved transport kinetics led to a corresponding increase in xylose utilization, whereas no correlation could be demonstrated at xylose concentrations greater than 15 g/L. The relative contribution of native sugar transporters to the overall xylose transport capacity was also estimated during growth on glucose and xylose. Conclusions Kinetic characterization and aerobic batch cultivation of strains expressing the Gxf1, Sut1 and At5g59250 transporters showed a direct relationship between transport kinetics and xylose growth. The Gxf1 transporter had the highest transport capacity and the highest xylose growth rate, followed by the Sut1 transporter. The range in which transport controlled the growth rate was determined to between 0 and 15 g/L xylose. The role of catabolite repression in regulation of native transporters was also confirmed by the observation that xylose transport by native S. cerevisiae transporters increased significantly during cultivation in xylose and at low glucose concentration.

Hahn-Hägerdal Bärbel

2010-03-01

183

Surface display of malolactic enzyme from Oenococcus oeni on Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to display malolactic enzyme (MLE) on the cell surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a yeast cell surface display plasmid pADH1-AGG was constructed by fusing the ?-factor signal encoding sequence (267 bp) and the C-terminal half of ?-agglutinin encoding sequence (1,645 bp) into the plasmid pADH1. The pADH1-AGG could successfully express and anchor the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) onto the yeast cell surface when the EGFP was used to verify its function. Then the pADH1-MLE was constructed by inserting the MLE encoding sequence (1,600 bp) into the pADH1-AGG and introduced into S. cerevisiae cells. The positive strain carrying pADH1-MLE was confirmed by use of the 6× His monoclonal antibody and fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated goat anti-mouse IgG. All results indicated that the MLE was displayed successfully on the cell surface of positive transformant. The MLE activity of genetically engineered yeast strain could turn 21.11 % L-malate into lactic acid after 12 h reaction with L-malate. The constructed yeast strain might be used to conduct malolactic fermentation (MLF) in wine to solve the important issues of sluggish MLF, microbial spoilage, and adverse metabolic substances produced by the lactic acid bacteria. PMID:23446978

Zhang, Xiuyan; Hou, Xiaoyan; Liang, Fang; Chen, Fusheng; Wang, Xiaohong

2013-04-01

184

Heterologous production of non-ribosomal peptide LLD-ACV in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Non-ribosomal peptides (NRPs) are a diverse family of secondary metabolites with a broad range of biological activities. We started to develop an eukaryotic microbial platform based on the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for heterologous production of NRPs using ?-(l-?-aminoadipyl)–l-cysteinyl–d-valine (ACV) as a model NRP. The Penicillium chrysogenum gene pcbAB encoding ACV synthetase was expressed in S. cerevisiae from a high-copy plasmid together with phosphopantetheinyl transferase (PPTase) encoding genes from Aspergillus nidulans, P. chrysogenum and Bacillus subtilis, and in all the three cases production of ACV was observed. To improve ACV synthesis, several factors were investigated. Codon optimization of the 5? end of pcbAB did not significantly increase ACV production. However, a 30-fold enhancement was achieved by lowering the cultivation temperature from 30 to 20 °C. When ACVS and PPTase encoding genes were integrated into the yeast genome, a 6-fold decrease in ACV production was observed indicatingthat gene copy number was one of the rate-limiting factors for ACV production in yeast.

Siewers, Verena; Chen, Xiao

2009-01-01

185

Substrate specificity of thiamine pyrophosphate-dependent 2-oxo-acid decarboxylases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fusel alcohols are precursors and contributors to flavor and aroma compounds in fermented beverages, and some are under investigation as biofuels. The decarboxylation of 2-oxo acids is a key step in the Ehrlich pathway for fusel alcohol production. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, five genes share sequence similarity with genes encoding thiamine pyrophosphate-dependent 2-oxo-acid decarboxylases (2ODCs). PDC1, PDC5, and PDC6 encode differentially regulated pyruvate decarboxylase isoenzymes; ARO10 encodes a 2-oxo-acid decarboxylase with broad substrate specificity, and THI3 has not yet been shown to encode an active decarboxylase. Despite the importance of fusel alcohol production in S. cerevisiae, the substrate specificities of these five 2ODCs have not been systematically compared. When the five 2ODCs were individually overexpressed in a pdc1? pdc5? pdc6? aro10? thi3? strain, only Pdc1, Pdc5, and Pdc6 catalyzed the decarboxylation of the linear-chain 2-oxo acids pyruvate, 2-oxo-butanoate, and 2-oxo-pentanoate in cell extracts. The presence of a Pdc isoenzyme was also required for the production of n-propanol and n-butanol in cultures grown on threonine and norvaline, respectively, as nitrogen sources. These results demonstrate the importance of pyruvate decarboxylases in the natural production of n-propanol and n-butanol by S. cerevisiae. No decarboxylation activity was found for Thi3 with any of the substrates tested. Only Aro10 and Pdc5 catalyzed the decarboxylation of the aromatic substrate phenylpyruvate, with Aro10 showing superior kinetic properties. Aro10, Pdc1, Pdc5, and Pdc6 exhibited activity with all branched-chain and sulfur-containing 2-oxo acids tested but with markedly different decarboxylation kinetics. The high affinity of Aro10 identified it as a key contributor to the production of branched-chain and sulfur-containing fusel alcohols. PMID:22904058

Romagnoli, Gabriele; Luttik, Marijke A H; Kötter, Peter; Pronk, Jack T; Daran, Jean-Marc

2012-11-01

186

Cloning and sequencing of cellulase cDNA from Aspergillus kawachii and its expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The cDNA encoding the endo-beta-1,4-glucanase (carboxymethylcellulase; CMCase-I) from Aspergillus kawachii IFO 4308 was cloned. Nucleotide-sequence analysis of the cloned cDNA insert showed a 717-bp open reading frame that encoded a protein of 239 amino-acid residues. The predicted amino-acid sequence of the mature protein had considerable homology with the protein sequence of the FI-CMCase of Aspergillus aculeatus. The cDNA was introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The expressed enzyme had carboxylmethylcellulase activity, identified by clear zones on a CMC-agar plate after Congo Red staining. PMID:7586029

Sakamoto, S; Tamura, G; Ito, K; Ishikawa, T; Iwano, K; Nishiya, N

1995-04-01

187

Probing glycolytic and membrane potential oscillations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We have investigated glycolytic oscillations under semi-anaerobic conditions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by means of NADH fluorescence, measurements of intracellular glucose concentration, and mitochondrial membrane potential. The glucose concentration was measured using an optical nanosensor, while mitochondrial membrane potential was measured using the fluorescent dye DiOC(2)(3). The results show that, as opposed to NADH and other intermediates in glycolysis, intracellular glucose is not oscillating. Furthermore, oscillations in NADH and membrane potential are inhibited by the ATP/ADP antiporter inhibitor atractyloside and high concentrations of the ATPase inhibitor N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, suggesting that there is a strong coupling between oscillations in mitochondrial membrane potential and oscillations in NADH mediated by the ATP/ADP antiporter and possibly also other respiratory components.

Poulsen, Allan; Scharff-Poulsen, Anne Marie

2008-01-01

188

Structural properties of Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein complex network  

CERN Document Server

Recent studies indicate that protein complexes rather than individual proteins are the functional units of the cell. A first step in the understanding of integration and coordination of these cellular functions is a comprehensive study of the structural features of the network of connections between these complexes. We use the recently obtained data based on tandem-affinity purification (TAP) and mass spectrometry, to study the structural features of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein complex network. We find striking similarities and differences between the structural properties of the networks of proteins and protein complexes. The network of complexes is still a small world network with scale free distributions for many of its properties (e.g. connectivity and size of complexes). However in contrast to the protein network, we find no correlations between the degrees of neighbouring complexes. There is also no correlation between the size of neighbouring complexes. Finally we propose a simple evolut...

Ramezanpour, A; Karimipour, V

2003-01-01

189

Tolerance of budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ultra high pressure  

Science.gov (United States)

Our studies on the tolerance of plants and animals against very high pressure of several GPa have been extended to a smaller sized fungus, the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Several pieces of budding yeast (dry yeast) were sealed in a small teflon capsule with a liquid pressure medium fluorinate, and exposed to 7.5 GPa by using a cubic anvil press. The pressure was kept constant for various duration of time from 2 to 24 h. After the pressure was released, the specimens were brought out from the teflon capsule, and they were cultivated on a potato dextrose agar. It was found that the budding yeast exposed to 7.5 GPa for up to 6 h showed multiplication. However, those exposed to 7.5 GPa for longer than 12 h were found dead. The high pressure tolerance of budding yeast is a little weaker than that of tardigrades.

Shibata, M.; Torigoe, M.; Matsumoto, Y.; Yamamoto, M.; Takizawa, N.; Hada, Y.; Mori, Y.; Takarabe, K.; Ono, F.

2014-05-01

190

Partial purification of Holliday junction resolvase activity from Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Toward the goal of understanding genetic recombination on a molecular level, we are focusing on the essential final step, resolution of the Holliday junction intermediate. This report describes progress in the purification and characterization of this activity from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Resolvase activity is assayed by conversion of cruciform-containing supercoiled pBR322 dimer DNA or cruciform-containing supercoiled ColE1 DNA to linear forms by cleavage at the base of the cruciform. Resolvase activity, which can be detected in cell-free extracts prepared from haploid and diploid mitotic cells, is dependent on the presence of magnesium, is independent of ATP, and the reaction is inhabited by concentrations of sodium or potassium chloride of 100 mM or greater. Linear DNA is not a substrate for this activity. 6 refs., 8 figs

191

Vectors for glucose-dependent protein expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on the p426 series of expression vectors developed by Mumberg et al. (Gene 156, 119-122, 1995), we have generated a set of plasmids that allow the glucose-dependent expression of target genes in the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The ADH1 promoter in plasmid p426-ADH1 was replaced by the 1-kb 5'-region from either of the following genes: HXK1, YGR243, HXT4 and HXT7. Expression mediated by the respective 5'-regions was monitored with EGFP, yEGFP3-CLN2pest and TurboGFP as marker genes. Fluorescence is induced 2.7-fold using the HXK1, 2.3-fold using the YGR243-, 5-fold using the HXT7- and 12.6-fold using the HXT4 5'-regions upon depletion of glucose to a concentration of l. PMID:20949330

Thierfelder, Simone; Ostermann, Kai; Göbel, Andy; Rödel, Gerhard

2011-04-01

192

Impact of systems biology on metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Industrial biotechnology is a rapidly growing field. With the increasing shift towards a bio-based economy, there is rising demand for developing efficient cell factories that can produce fuels, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, materials, nutraceuticals, and even food ingredients. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is extremely well suited for this objective. As one of the most intensely studied eukaryotic model organisms, a rich density of knowledge detailing its genetics, biochemistry, physiology, and large-scale fermentation performance can be capitalized upon to enable a substantial increase in the industrial application of this yeast. Developments in genomics and high-throughput systems biology tools are enhancing one's ability to rapidly characterize cellular behaviour, which is valuable in the field of metabolic engineering where strain characterization is often the bottleneck in strain development programmes. Here, the impact of systems biology on metabolic engineering is reviewed and perspectives on the role of systems biology in the design of cell factories are given.

Nielsen, Jens; Jewett, Michael Christopher

2008-01-01

193

Phenotypic effects of membrane protein overexpression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Science.gov (United States)

Large-scale protein overexpression phenotype screens provide an important complement to the more common gene knockout screens. Here, we have targeted the so far poorly understood Saccharomyces cerevisiae membrane proteome and report growth phenotypes for a strain collection overexpressing 600 C-terminally tagged integral membrane proteins grown both under normal and three different stress conditions. Although overexpression of most membrane proteins reduce the growth rate in synthetic defined medium, we identify a large number of proteins that, when overexpressed, confer specific resistance to various stress conditions. Our data suggest that regulation of glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor biosynthesis and the Na+/K+ homeostasis system constitute major downstream targets of the yeast PKA/RAS pathway and point to a possible connection between the early secretory pathway and the cells' response to oxidative stress. We also have quantified the expression levels for >550 membrane proteins, facilitating the choice of well expressing proteins for future functional and structural studies. caffeine | paraquat | salt tolerance | yeast

Melén, Karin; Blomberg, Anders; von Heijne, Gunnar

2006-07-01

194

Adaptive answer to low ionizing radiation doses in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this work is to verify the existence of the adaptive response phenomenon induced by low doses of ionizing radiation in living cells. It is known that low doses of ionizing radiation, called conditioning doses, may induce resistance in exposed organisms to higher doses, called challenging doses, which are applied after a period of time. The involved mechanisms in this phenomenon, called Adaptive Response, are diverse and complex. Among them, the most important are the activation of DNA-repair enzymes and nuclear recombination process. As the 'target' sample, it was utilized a 'wild type' strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in aqueous suspension. Adaptive Response was verified in a wide range of challenging doses. Conditioning doses, inductors of radio-resistance, were (0.44±0.03) Gy and the waiting time between them and challenging doses was 2 hours at room temperature.(author)

195

Mechanisms and Regulation of Mitotic Recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Science.gov (United States)

Homology-dependent exchange of genetic information between DNA molecules has a profound impact on the maintenance of genome integrity by facilitating error-free DNA repair, replication, and chromosome segregation during cell division as well as programmed cell developmental events. This chapter will focus on homologous mitotic recombination in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, there is an important link between mitotic and meiotic recombination (covered in the forthcoming chapter by Hunter et al. 2015) and many of the functions are evolutionarily conserved. Here we will discuss several models that have been proposed to explain the mechanism of mitotic recombination, the genes and proteins involved in various pathways, the genetic and physical assays used to discover and study these genes, and the roles of many of these proteins inside the cell. PMID:25381364

Symington, Lorraine S.; Rothstein, Rodney; Lisby, Michael

2014-01-01

196

Higher-order structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromatin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have developed a method for partially purifying chromatin from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast) to a level suitable for studies of its higher-order folding. This has required the use of yeast strains that are free of the ubiquitous yeast killer virus. Results from dynamic light scattering, electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction show that the yeast chromatin undergoes a cation-dependent folding into 30-nm filaments that resemble those characteristic of higher-cell chromatin; moreover, the packing of nucleosomes within the yeast 30-nm filaments is similar to that of higher cells. These results imply that yeast has a protein or protein domain that serves the role of the histone H 1 found in higher cells; physical and genetic studies of the yeast activity could help elucidate the structure and function of H 1. Images of the yeast 30-nm filaments can be used to test crossed-linker models for 30-nm filament structure

197

The Influence of Microgravity on Invasive Growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates the effects of microgravity on colony growth and the morphological transition from single cells to short invasive filaments in the model eukaryotic organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Two-dimensional spreading of the yeast colonies grown on semi-solid agar medium was reduced under microgravity in the ?1278b laboratory strain but not in the CMBSESA1 industrial strain. This was supported by the ?1278b proteome map under microgravity conditions, which revealed upregulation of proteins linked to anaerobic conditions. The ?1278b strain showed a reduced invasive growth in the center of the yeast colony. Bud scar distribution was slightly affected, with a switch toward more random budding. Together, microgravity conditions disturb spatially programmed budding patterns and generate strain-dependent growth differences in yeast colonies on semi-solid medium.

Van Mulders, Sebastiaan E.; Stassen, Catherine; Daenen, Luk; Devreese, Bart; Siewers, Verena; van Eijsden, Rudy G. E.; Nielsen, Jens; Delvaux, Freddy R.; Willaert, Ronnie

2011-01-01

198

Pyrimidine-specific cleavage by an endoribonuclease of Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An endoribonuclease with pyrimidine cleavage site specificity was isolated from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The enzyme had a pH optimum of 6 to 7 and did not require a divalent cation. It was inhibited by 5 x 10-5 M hetidium bromide, although it appeared to be single strand specific. The enzyme gave a limited cleavage of yeast mRNA and rRNA, yielding products that were terminated with pyrimidine nucleoside 2',3'-cyclic phosphate. The bonds between pyrimidine and A residues constituted more than 90% of the scission sites when the average product size was 50 nucloetides. Homopolyribonucleotides were cleaved poorly. Poly(A,U) was cleaved rapidly, and analysis of the products of poly(A,U) hydrolysis showed a very stringent cleavage of U-A bonds

199

Mutations in Ran system affected telomere silencing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Ran GTPase system regulates the direction and timing of several cellular events, such as nuclear-cytosolic transport, centrosome formation, and nuclear envelope assembly in telophase. To gain insight into the Ran system's involvement in chromatin formation, we investigated gene silencing at the telomere in several mutants of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which had defects in genes involved in the Ran system. A mutation of the RanGAP gene, rna1-1, caused reduced silencing at the telomere, and partial disruption of the nuclear Ran binding factor, yrb2-?2, increased this silencing. The reduced telomere silencing in rna1-1 cells was suppressed by a high dosage of the SIR3 gene or the SIT4 gene. Furthermore, hyperphosphorylated Sir3 protein accumulated in the rna1-1 mutant. These results suggest that RanGAP is required for the heterochromatin structure at the telomere in budding yeast

200

Isolation of thermotolerant, osmotolerant, flocculating Saccharomyces cerevisiae for ethanol production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Four thermotolerant, osmotolerant, flocculating alcohol producing cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were isolated from soil samples collected from a thermal power plant in India. All the isolates grew at 44{sup o}C but VS{sub 1} and VS{sub 3} were better than the other two. Maximum ethanol yields obtained from 150 g/l glucose were 75 and 60 g/l using culture VS{sub 3} at 30{sup o}C and 40{sup o}C, respectively. Growth and ethanol production were decreasing at 44{sup o}C so higher temperatures were not tested, but the isolates could tolerate temperatures above 44{sup o}C. All cultures belonged to class IV flocculating yeasts and were able to tolerate up to 350 g/l glucose. These cultures have economical importance for use in alcohol production during hot seasons in countries such as India. (author)

Kiran Sree, N.; Sridhar, M.; Suresh, K.; Venkateswar Rao, L. [Osmania Univ., Hyderabad (India). Dept. of Microbiology; Banat, I.M. [University of Ulster, Coleraine, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom). Biotechnology Group

2000-03-01

 
 
 
 
201

Expression of an endoglucanase from Tribolium castaneum (TcEG1) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Insects are a largely unexploited resource in prospecting for novel cellulolytic enzymes to improve the production of ethanol fuel from lignocellulosic biomass. The cost of lignocellulosic ethanol production is expected to decrease by the combination of cellulose degradation (saccharification) and fermentation of the resulting glucose to ethanol in a single process, catalyzed by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae transformed to express efficient cellulases. While S. cerevisiae is an established heterologous expression system, there are no available data on the functional expression of insect cellulolytic enzymes for this species. To address this knowledge gap, S. cerevisiae was transformed to express the full-length cDNA encoding an endoglucanase from the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (TcEG1), and evaluated the activity of the transgenic product (rTcEG1). Expression of the TcEG1 cDNA in S. cerevisiae was under control of the strong glyceraldehyde-3 phosphate dehydrogenase promoter. Cultured transformed yeast secreted rTcEG1 protein as a functional ?-1,4-endoglucanase, which allowed transformants to survive on selective media containing cellulose as the only available carbon source. Evaluation of substrate specificity for secreted rTcEG1 demonstrated endoglucanase activity, although some activity was also detected against complex cellulose substrates. Potentially relevant to uses in biofuel production rTcEG1 activity increased with pH conditions, with the highest activity detected at pH 12. Our results demonstrate the potential for functional production of an insect cellulase in S. cerevisiae and confirm the stability of rTcEG1 activity in strong alkaline environments. PMID:24318365

Shirley, Derek; Oppert, Cris; Reynolds, Todd B; Miracle, Bethany; Oppert, Brenda; Klingeman, William E; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis

2014-10-01

202

Characterization of the Viable but Nonculturable (VBNC) State in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Viable But Non Culturable (VBNC) state has been thoroughly studied in bacteria. In contrast, it has received much less attention in other microorganisms. However, it has been suggested that various yeast species occurring in wine may enter in VBNC following sulfite stress.In order to provide conclusive evidences for the existence of a VBNC state in yeast, the ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to enter into a VBNC state by applying sulfite stress was investigated. Viable populations were monitored by flow cytometry while culturable populations were followed by plating on culture medium. Twenty-four hours after the application of the stress, the comparison between the culturable population and the viable population demonstrated the presence of viable cells that were non culturable. In addition, removal of the stress by increasing the pH of the medium at different time intervals into the VBNC state allowed the VBNC S. cerevisiae cells to "resuscitate". The similarity between the cell cycle profiles of VBNC cells and cells exiting the VBNC state together with the generation rate of cells exiting VBNC state demonstrated the absence of cellular multiplication during the exit from the VBNC state. This provides evidence of a true VBNC state. To get further insight into the molecular mechanism pertaining to the VBNC state, we studied the involvement of the SSU1 gene, encoding a sulfite pump in S. cerevisiae. The physiological behavior of wild-type S. cerevisiae was compared to those of a recombinant strain overexpressing SSU1 and null ?ssu1 mutant. Our results demonstrated that the SSU1 gene is only implicated in the first stages of sulfite resistance but not per se in the VBNC phenotype. Our study clearly demonstrated the existence of an SO2-induced VBNC state in S. cerevisiae and that the stress removal allows the "resuscitation" of VBNC cells during the VBNC state. PMID:24204887

Salma, Mohammad; Rousseaux, Sandrine; Sequeira-Le Grand, Anabelle; Divol, Benoit; Alexandre, Hervé

2013-01-01

203

Repair of UV-damaged incoming plasmid DNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A whole-cell transformation assay was used for the repair of UV-damaged plasma DNA in highly-transformable haploid strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae having different repair capabilities. The experiments described demonstrate that three epistasis groups (Friedberg 1988) are involved in the repair of UV-incoming DNA and that the repair processes act less efficiently on incoming DNA than they do on chromosomal DNA. The implications of these findings for UV repair in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed. (author)

204

Water treatment process and system for metals removal using Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Science.gov (United States)

A process and a system for removal of metals from ground water or from soil by bioreducing or bioaccumulating the metals using metal tolerant microorganisms Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is tolerant to the metals, able to bioreduce the metals to the less toxic state and to accumulate them. The process and the system is useful for removal or substantial reduction of levels of chromium, molybdenum, cobalt, zinc, nickel, calcium, strontium, mercury and copper in water.

Krauter, Paula A. W. (Livermore, CA); Krauter, Gordon W. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01

205

Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the production of n-butanol  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing energy costs and environmental concerns have motivated engineering microbes for the production of "second generation" biofuels that have better properties than ethanol. Results and conclusion Saccharomyces cerevisiae was engineered with an n-butanol biosynthetic pathway, in which isozymes from a number of different organisms (S. cerevisiae, Escherichia coli, Clostridium beijerinckii, and Ralstonia eutropha were substituted for the Clostridial enzymes and their effect on n-butanol production was compared. By choosing the appropriate isozymes, we were able to improve production of n-butanol ten-fold to 2.5 mg/L. The most productive strains harbored the C. beijerinckii 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase, which uses NADH as a co-factor, rather than the R. eutropha isozyme, which uses NADPH, and the acetoacetyl-CoA transferase from S. cerevisiae or E. coli rather than that from R. eutropha. Surprisingly, expression of the genes encoding the butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase from C. beijerinckii (bcd and etfAB did not improve butanol production significantly as previously reported in E. coli. Using metabolite analysis, we were able to determine which steps in the n-butanol biosynthetic pathway were the most problematic and ripe for future improvement.

Myers Samuel

2008-12-01

206

Systems biology of GAL regulon in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Evolutionary success of an organism depends on its ability to express or adapt to constantly changing environmental conditions. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has evolved an elaborate genetic circuit to regulate the expression of galactose-metabolizing enzymes in the presence of galactose but in the absence of glucose. The circuit possesses molecular mechanisms such as multiple binding sites, cooperativity, autoregulation, nucleocytoplasmic shuttling, and substrate sensing mechanism. Furthermore, the GAL system consists of two positive (activating) feedback and one negative (repressing) feedback loops. These individual mechanisms, elucidated through experimental approach, can be integrated to obtain a system-wide behavior. Mathematical models in conjunction with guided experiments have demonstrated system-level properties such as ultrasensitivity, memory, noise attenuation, rapid response, and sensitive response arising out of the molecular interactions. These system-level properties allow S. cerevisiae to adapt and grow in a galactose medium under noisy and changing environments. This review focuses on system-level models and properties of the GAL regulon. PMID:20836013

Pannala, Venkat Reddy; Bhat, Paike Jayadeva; Bhartiya, Sharad; Venkatesh, K V

2010-01-01

207

Genomic Evolution of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under Chinese Rice Wine Fermentation  

Science.gov (United States)

Rice wine fermentation represents a unique environment for the evolution of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To understand how the selection pressure shaped the yeast genome and gene regulation, we determined the genome sequence and transcriptome of a S. cerevisiae strain YHJ7 isolated from Chinese rice wine (Huangjiu), a popular traditional alcoholic beverage in China. By comparing the genome of YHJ7 to the lab strain S288c, a Japanese sake strain K7, and a Chinese industrial bioethanol strain YJSH1, we identified many genomic sequence and structural variations in YHJ7, which are mainly located in subtelomeric regions, suggesting that these regions play an important role in genomic evolution between strains. In addition, our comparative transcriptome analysis between YHJ7 and S288c revealed a set of differentially expressed genes, including those involved in glucose transport (e.g., HXT2, HXT7) and oxidoredutase activity (e.g., AAD10, ADH7). Interestingly, many of these genomic and transcriptional variations are directly or indirectly associated with the adaptation of YHJ7 strain to its specific niches. Our molecular evolution analysis suggested that Japanese sake strains (K7/UC5) were derived from Chinese rice wine strains (YHJ7) at least approximately 2,300 years ago, providing the first molecular evidence elucidating the origin of Japanese sake strains. Our results depict interesting insights regarding the evolution of yeast during rice wine fermentation, and provided a valuable resource for genetic engineering to improve industrial wine-making strains. PMID:25212861

Li, Yudong; Zhang, Weiping; Zheng, Daoqiong; Zhou, Zhan; Yu, Wenwen; Zhang, Lei; Feng, Lifang; Liang, Xinle; Guan, Wenjun; Zhou, Jingwen; Chen, Jian; Lin, Zhenguo

2014-01-01

208

Gene relics in the genome of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is increasing evidence that DNA duplication is a common and ongoing process that plays a major role in molecular evolution of genomes and that a large fraction of the duplicated gene copies becomes non-functional by accumulation of deleterious mutations. In order to describe this phenomenon, we systematically searched the 6404 intergenic regions (IRs) of the genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for traces of coding sequences presenting degenerated but still recognizable sequence similarity with active open reading frames (5823 annotated ORFs). We detected a total of 124 anciently coding regions, or "gene relics", showing similarity to a total of 149 distinct active ORFs. This set of relics shows a continuum of sequence degeneration from those whose sequence is slightly altered compared to the functional ORF (classically defined as pseudogenes), to those that contains so many deleterious mutations, as to reach the limit of recognition. Gene relics are more concentrated in the subtelomeric regions of the chromosomes, reflecting the high plasticity of these regions. The presence of relics also revealed ancestral duplication events of chromosomal segments that were previously undetected. Some of these segments are intermingled with the more easily recognizable ancestral blocks of duplication, indicating successive duplication events. We present a compilation of all the data available, leading to a total of 278 pseudogenes in the genome of S. cerevisiae. PMID:15194185

Lafontaine, Ingrid; Fischer, Gilles; Talla, Emmanuel; Dujon, Bernard

2004-06-23

209

Production of 2,3-butanediol by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to produce 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) with a high titer, it is necessary to engineer Saccharomyces cerevisiae by deleting the competing pathway and overexpressing the 2,3-BD biosynthetic pathway. A pyruvate decarboxylase (Pdc)-deficient mutant was constructed and evolved for rapid glucose consumption without ethanol production. Genome re-sequencing of the evolved strain (SOS4) revealed a point mutation (A81P) in MTH1 coding for a transcriptional regulator involved in glucose sensing, unlike the previously reported Pdc-deficient mutant which had internal deletion in MTH1. When alsS and alsD genes from Bacillus subtilis, and endogenous BDH1 gene were overexpressed in SOS4, the resulting strain (BD4) not only produced 2,3-BD efficiently, but also consumed glucose faster than the parental strain. In fed-batch fermentation with optimum aeration, 2,3-BD concentration increased up to 96.2 g/L. These results suggest that S. cerevisiae might be a promising host for producing 2,3-BD for industrial applications. PMID:23941711

Kim, Soo-Jung; Seo, Seung-Oh; Jin, Yong-Su; Seo, Jin-Ho

2013-10-01

210

Suppression of nuclear oscillations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing Glu tubulin  

Science.gov (United States)

In most eukaryotic cells, the C-terminal amino acid of ?-tubulin is aromatic (Tyr in mammals and Phe in Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and is preceded by two glutamate residues. In mammals, the C-terminal Tyr of ?-tubulin is subject to cyclic removal from the peptide chain by a carboxypeptidase and readdition to the chain by a tubulin–Tyr ligase. There is evidence that tubulin–Tyr ligase suppression and the resulting accumulation of detyrosinated (Glu) tubulin favor tumor growth, both in animal models and in human cancers. However, the molecular basis for this apparent stimulatory effect of Glu tubulin accumulation on tumor progression is unknown. Here we have developed S. cerevisiae strains expressing only Glu tubulin and used them as a model to assess the consequences of Glu tubulin accumulation in cells. We find that Glu tubulin strains show defects in nuclear oscillations. These defects are linked to a markedly decreased association of the yeast ortholog of CLIP170, Bik1p, with microtubule plus-ends. These results indicate that the accumulation of Glu tubulin in cells affects microtubule tip complexes that are important for microtubule interactions with the cell cortex. PMID:15031428

Badin-Larcon, A. C.; Boscheron, C.; Soleilhac, J. M.; Piel, M.; Mann, C.; Denarier, E.; Fourest-Lieuvin, A.; Lafanechere, L.; Bornens, M.; Job, D.

2004-01-01

211

Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for itaconic acid production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Renewable alternatives for petroleum-derived chemicals are achievable through biosynthetic production. Here, we utilize Saccharomyces cerevisiae to enable the synthesis of itaconic acid, a molecule with diverse applications as a petrochemical replacement. We first optimize pathway expression within S. cerevisiae through the use of a hybrid promoter. Next, we utilize sequential, in silico computational genome-scanning to identify beneficial genetic perturbations that are metabolically distant from the itaconic acid synthesis pathway. In this manner, we successfully identify three non-obvious genetic targets (?ade3 ?bna2 ?tes1) that successively improve itaconic acid titer. We establish that focused manipulations of upstream pathway enzymes (localized refactoring) and enzyme re-localization to both mitochondria and cytosol fail to improve itaconic acid titers. Finally, we establish a higher cell density fermentation that ultimately achieves itaconic acid titer of 168 mg/L, a sevenfold improvement over initial conditions. This work represents an attempt to increase itaconic acid production in yeast and demonstrates the successful utilization of computationally guided genetic manipulation to increase metabolic capacity. PMID:24997118

Blazeck, John; Miller, Jarrett; Pan, Anny; Gengler, Jon; Holden, Clinton; Jamoussi, Mariam; Alper, Hal S

2014-10-01

212

Energy coupling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: selected opportunities for metabolic engineering.  

Science.gov (United States)

Free-energy (ATP) conservation during product formation is crucial for the maximum product yield that can be obtained, but often overlooked in metabolic engineering strategies. Product pathways that do not yield ATP or even demand input of free energy (ATP) require an additional pathway to supply the ATP needed for product formation, cellular maintenance, and/or growth. On the other hand, product pathways with a high ATP yield may result in excess biomass formation at the expense of the product yield. This mini-review discusses the importance of the ATP yield for product formation and presents several opportunities for engineering free-energy (ATP) conservation, with a focus on sugar-based product formation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These engineering opportunities are not limited to the metabolic flexibility within S. cerevisiae itself, but also expression of heterologous reactions will be taken into account. As such, the diversity in microbial sugar uptake and phosphorylation mechanisms, carboxylation reactions, product export, and the flexibility of oxidative phosphorylation via the respiratory chain and H(+) -ATP synthase can be used to increase or decrease free-energy (ATP) conservation. For product pathways with a negative, zero or too high ATP yield, analysis and metabolic engineering of the ATP yield of product formation will provide a promising strategy to increase the product yield and simplify process conditions. PMID:22404754

de Kok, Stefan; Kozak, Barbara U; Pronk, Jack T; van Maris, Antonius J A

2012-06-01

213

Heat shock response improves heterologous protein secretion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a widely used platform for the production of heterologous proteins of medical or industrial interest. However, heterologous protein productivity is often low due to limitations of the host strain. Heat shock response (HSR) is an inducible, global, cellular stress response, which facilitates the cell recovery from many forms of stress, e.g., heat stress. In S. cerevisiae, HSR is regulated mainly by the transcription factor heat shock factor (Hsf1p) and many of its targets are genes coding for molecular chaperones that promote protein folding and prevent the accumulation of mis-folded or aggregated proteins. In this work, we over-expressed a mutant HSF1 gene HSF1-R206S which can constitutively activate HSR, so the heat shock response was induced at different levels, and we studied the impact of HSR on heterologous protein secretion. We found that moderate and high level over-expression of HSF1-R206S increased heterologous ?-amylase yield 25 and 70 % when glucose was fully consumed, and 37 and 62 % at the end of the ethanol phase, respectively. Moderate and high level over-expression also improved endogenous invertase yield 118 and 94 %, respectively. However, human insulin precursor was only improved slightly and this only by high level over-expression of HSF1-R206S, supporting our previous findings that the production of this protein in S. cerevisiae is not limited by secretion. Our results provide an effective strategy to improve protein secretion and demonstrated an approach that can induce ER and cytosolic chaperones simultaneously.

Nielsen, Jens

2013-01-01

214

Engineered production of fungal anticancer cyclooligomer depsipeptides in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two fungal cyclooligomer depsipeptide synthetases(CODSs), BbBEAS (352 kDa) and BbBSLS (348 kDa) from Beauveria bassiana ATCC7159, were reconstituted in Saccharomyces cerevisiae BJ5464-NpgA, leading to the production of the corresponding anticancer natural products, beauvericins and bassianolide, respectively. The titers of beauvericins (33.8 ± 1.4 mg/l) and bassianolide (21.7± 0.1 mg/l) in the engineered S. cerevisiae BJ5464-NpgA strains were comparable to those in the native producer B. bassiana. Feeding D-hydroxyisovaleric acid (D-Hiv) and the corresponding L-amino acid precursors improved the production of beauvericins and bassianolide. However, the high price of D-Hiv limits its application in large-scale production of these cyclooligomer depsipeptides. Alternatively, we engineered another enzyme, ketoisovalerate reductase (KIVR) from B. bassiana, into S. cerevisiae BJ5464-NpgA for enhanced in situ synthesis of this expensive substrate. Co-expression of BbBEAS and KIVR in the yeast led to significant improvement of the production of beauvericins.The total titer of beauvericin and its congeners (beauvericins A-C) was increased to 61.7 ± 3.0 mg/l and reached 2.6-fold of that in the native producer B. bassiana ATCC7159. Supplement of L-Val at 10 mM improved the supply of ketoisovalerate, the substrate of KIVR, which consequently further increased the total titer of beauvericins to 105.8 ± 2.1 mg/l. Using this yeast system,we functionally characterized an unknown CODS from Fusarium venenatum NRRL 26139 as a beauvericin synthetase, which was named as FvBEAS. Our work thus provides a useful approach for functional reconstitution and engineering of fungal CODSs for efficient production of this family of anticancer molecules. PMID:23608474

Yu, Dayu; Xu, Fuchao; Zi, Jiachen; Wang, Siyuan; Gage, David; Zeng, Jia; Zhan, Jixun

2013-07-01

215

Endocarditis verrucosa secundaria a Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Caso clínico Saccharomyces cerevisiae endocarditis in a preterm infant: Report of one case  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We report a preterm infant with 30 weeks of gestation, that received broad spectrum antimicrobials during the first days of life. At nine days of life, the infant appeared with abdominal distension and hematochezia. A systolic murmur with changing auscultatory features also appeared. An echocardiography showed an atrial vegetation. A yeast, that was identified as the emergent pathogen Saccharomyces cerevisiae appeared in two blood cultures. Treatment with amphotericin B was started, the dose was adjusted calculating the minimal inhibitory concentration of amphotericin B, and measuring plasma levels of the antimicrobial. Therefore the minimal effective dose was prescribed, avoiding its deleterious effects. After 14 days of antifungal therapy, a new echocardiography showed a reduction in the size of the atrial vegetation. At 35 days, it disappeared and amphotericin B was discontinued. On the outpatient follow up, the infant has shown a normal growth and a normal cardiac auscultation (Rev Méd Chile 2002; 130: 1165-9

Fernando Ruiz-Esquide E

2002-10-01

216

Estudo do equilíbrio e cinética da biossorção do pb2+ por saccharomyces cerevisiae / Equilibrium and kinetic study of pb2+ biosorption by saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english The biosorption, based on the use of biomass for removal of ions is distinguished as an innovative and promising technology when compared with the traditional methods. In this context, the aim of the present work is to use Saccharomyces cerevisiae as biosorbent for the retention of Pb2+ metal ions. [...] Factorial design was used for evaluation of the process. The observed equilibrium data were well described by Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. The maximum adsorption capacity was 1486.88 mg/g. The results indicated that Saccharomyces cerevisiae is suitable for biosorption of Pb2+ metal ions.

Joelma Morais, Ferreira; Flávio Luiz Honorato da, Silva; Odelsia Leonor Sanchez, Alsina; Líbia de Sousa Conrado, Oliveira; Eliane Bezerra, Cavalcanti; Wolia Costa, Gomes.

217

Estudo do equilíbrio e cinética da biossorção do pb2+ por saccharomyces cerevisiae Equilibrium and kinetic study of pb2+ biosorption by saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The biosorption, based on the use of biomass for removal of ions is distinguished as an innovative and promising technology when compared with the traditional methods. In this context, the aim of the present work is to use Saccharomyces cerevisiae as biosorbent for the retention of Pb2+ metal ions. Factorial design was used for evaluation of the process. The observed equilibrium data were well described by Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. The maximum adsorption capacity was 1486.88 mg/g. The results indicated that Saccharomyces cerevisiae is suitable for biosorption of Pb2+ metal ions.

Joelma Morais Ferreira

2007-10-01

218

ISOLATION OF A CYTOCHROME P-450 STRUCTURAL GENE FROM SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE  

Science.gov (United States)

We have transformed a Saccharomyces cerevisiae host with an S. cerevisiae genomic library contained in the shuttle vector YEp24 and screened the resultant transformants for resistance to ketoconazole (Kc), an inhibitor of the cytochrome P-450 (P-450) enzyme lanosterol 14-demethyl...

219

Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the production of n-butanol  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Increasing energy costs and environmental concerns have motivated engineering microbes for the production of "second generation" biofuels that have better properties than ethanol. Results and conclusion Saccharomyces cerevisiae was engineered with an n-butanol biosynthetic pathway, in which isozymes from a number of different organisms (S. cerevisiae, Escherichia coli, Clostridium beijerinckii, and Rals...

Myers Samuel; Prasad Nilu; Chan Rossana; Steen Eric J; Petzold Christopher J; Redding Alyssa; Ouellet Mario; Keasling Jay D

2008-01-01

220

GLE2, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae homologue of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe export factor RAE1, is required for nuclear pore complex structure and function.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To identify and characterize novel factors required for nuclear transport, a genetic screen was conducted in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mutations that were lethal in combination with a null allele of the gene encoding the nucleoporin Nup100p were isolated using a colony-sectoring assay. Three complementation groups of gle (for GLFG lethal) mutants were identified. In this report, the characterization of GLE2 is detailed. GLE2 encodes a 40.5-kDa polypeptide with striking similarity to...

Murphy, R.; Watkins, J. L.; Wente, S. R.

1996-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Genome-wide identification of genes required for growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under ethanol stress.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion collection was screened for impaired growth on glucose-based complex medium containing 6% ethanol. Forty-six mutants were found. Genes encoding proteins involved in vacuolar function, the cell integrity pathway, mitochondrial function, subunits of the co-chaperone complex GimC and components of the SAGA transcription factor complex were in this way found to be important for the growth of wild-type Saccharomyces yeast in the presence of ethanol. Several mutants were also sensitive to Calcofluor white (14 mutants), sorbic acid (9), increased temperature (5) and NaCl (3). The transcription factors Msn2p and Ars1p, tagged with green fluorescent protein, were translocated to the nucleus upon ethanol stress. Only one of the genes that contain STRE elements in the promoter was important under ethanol stress; this was TPS1, encoding trehalose 6-phosphate synthase. The map kinase of the cell integrity pathway, Slt2p, was phosphorylated when cells were treated with 6% ethanol. Two out of three mutants tested fermented 20% glucose more slowly than the wild-type. PMID:16598687

van Voorst, Frank; Houghton-Larsen, Jens; Jønson, Lars; Kielland-Brandt, Morten C; Brandt, Anders

2006-04-15

222

Genome-wide identification of genes required for growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under ethanol stress  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion collection was screened for impaired growth on glucose-based complex medium containing 6% ethanol. Forty-six mutants were found. Genes encoding proteins involved in vacuolar function, the cell integrity pathway, mitochondrial function, subunits of the co-chaperone complex GimC and components of the SAGA transcription factor complex were in this way found to be important for the growth of wild-type Saccharomyces yeast in the presence of ethanol. Several mutants were also sensitive to Calcofluor white (14 mutants), sorbic acid (9), increased temperature (5) and NaCl (3). The transcription factors Msn2p and Ars1p, tagged with green fluorescent protein, were translocated to the nucleus upon ethanol stress. Only one of the genes that contain STRE elements in the promoter was important under ethanol stress; this was TPS1, encoding trehalose 6-phosphate synthase. The map kinase of the cell integrity pathway, Slt2p, was phosphorylated when cells were treated with 6% ethanol. Two out of three mutants tested fermented 20% glucose more slowly than the wild-type. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

van Voorst, Frank; Houghton-Larsen, Jens

2006-01-01

223

Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for bioconversion of D-xylose to D-xylonate.  

Science.gov (United States)

An NAD(+)-dependent D-xylose dehydrogenase, XylB, from Caulobacter crescentus was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, resulting in production of 17 ± 2 g D-xylonate l(-1) at 0.23 gl(-1)h(-1) from 23 g D-xylose l(-1) (with glucose and ethanol as co-substrates). D-Xylonate titre and production rate were increased and xylitol production decreased, compared to strains expressing genes encoding T. reesei or pig liver NADP(+)-dependent D-xylose dehydrogenases. D-Xylonate accumulated intracellularly to ?70 mgg(-1); xylitol to ?18 mgg(-1). The aldose reductase encoding gene GRE3 was deleted to reduce xylitol production. Cells expressing D-xylonolactone lactonase xylC from C. crescentus with xylB initially produced more extracellular D-xylonate than cells lacking xylC at both pH 5.5 and pH 3, and sustained higher production at pH 3. Cell vitality and viability decreased during D-xylonate production at pH 3.0. An industrial S. cerevisiae strain expressing xylB efficiently produced 43 g D-xylonate l(-1) from 49 g D-xylose l(-1). PMID:22709678

Toivari, Mervi; Nygård, Yvonne; Kumpula, Esa-Pekka; Vehkomäki, Maija-Leena; Ben?ina, Mojca; Valkonen, Mari; Maaheimo, Hannu; Andberg, Martina; Koivula, Anu; Ruohonen, Laura; Penttilä, Merja; Wiebe, Marilyn G

2012-07-01

224

Enhancing sesquiterpene production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae through in silico driven metabolic engineering  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A genome-scale metabolic model was used to identify new target genes for enhanced biosynthesis of sesquiterpenes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The effect of gene deletions on the flux distributions in the metabolic model of S. cerevisiae was assessed using OptGene as the modeling framework and minimization of metabolic adjustments (MOMA) as objective function. Deletion of NADPH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase encoded by GDH1 was identified as the best target gene for the improvement of sesquiterpene biosynthesis in yeast. Deletion of this gene enhances the available NADPH in the cytosol for other NADPH requiring enzymes, including HMG-CoA reductase. However, since disruption of GDH1 impairs the ammonia utilization, simultaneous over-expression of the NADH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase encoded by GDH2 was also considered in this study. Deletion of GDH1 led to an approximately 85% increase in the final cubebol titer. However, deletion of this gene also caused a significant decrease in the maximum specific growth rate. Over-expression of GDH2 did not show a further effect on the final cubebol titer but this alteration significantly improved the growth rate compared to the GDH1 deleted strain.

Asadollahi, Mohammadali; Maury, Jerome

2009-01-01

225

Genome-wide expression profile of steroid response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The response of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to human steroid hormone progesterone was studied by genomic expression profiling. The transcription profile data revealed that steroid response was a global phenomenon wherein a host of genes were affected. For example, 163 genes were upregulated and 40 genes were downregulated, by at least more than twofold. The major categories of upregulated genes included protein destination (15%), metabolism (14%), transport facilitation (12%), cell growth, cell division, and DNA synthesis (8%), and transcription (7%), while metabolism (22%), transcription (11%), intracellular transport (10%), cell growth, cell division, and DNA synthesis (10%), energy (8%), cell rescue, defense, and cell death (6%), and protein synthesis (6%) encoding genes were downregulated. Notwithstanding the fact that yeast cells do not possess commonly occurring steroid response cascade similar to higher eukaryotes, our results demonstrate that a short-term exposure to progesterone results in differential regulation of predominantly stress responsive genes. PMID:15063773

Banerjee, Dibyendu; Pillai, Beena; Karnani, Neerja; Mukhopadhyay, Gauranga; Prasad, Rajendra

2004-04-30

226

[Genetic analysis of the Hsm3 protein domain structure in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae].  

Science.gov (United States)

Gene HSM3 encodes the Hsm3 protein involved in the minor branch in the system responsible for the correction of mismatched bases in DNA structure and controls replicative and reparative spontaneous mutagenesis in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Spontaneous and UV-induced mutagenesis was studied in three mutant alleles of gene HSM3, and repair effectivity of artificial heteroduplexes was assessed in DNA molecule. The resuts of these studies allowed establishment of the protein domain structure of protein Hsm3 and functions of each domain: the N-terminal domain is responsible for binding to mispaired bases, and the C-terminal domain ensures the interaction with other proteins involved in the system of mismatched base correction. PMID:20734764

Chernenkov, A Iu; Ivanova, S V; Koval'tsova, S V; Gracheva, L M; Peshekhonov, V T; Fedorova, I V; Korolev, V G

2010-06-01

227

Overexpression of Sbe2p, a Golgi Protein, Results in Resistance to Caspofungin in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Caspofungin inhibits the synthesis of 1, 3-?-d-glucan, an essential cell wall target in fungi. Genetic studies in the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have shown that mutations in FKS1 and FKS2 genes result in caspofungin resistance. However, direct demonstration of the role of gene overexpression in caspofungin resistance has been lacking. We transformed wild-type S. cerevisiae with an S. cerevisiae URA3-based GAL1 cDNA library and selected transformants in glucose synthetic complete pl...

Osherov, Nir; May, Gregory S.; Albert, Nathaniel D.; Kontoyiannis, D. P.

2002-01-01

228

Isolation of the catalase T structural gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by functional complementation.  

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The catalase T structural gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was cloned by functional complementation of a mutation causing specific lack of the enzyme (cttl). Catalase T-deficient mutants were obtained by UV mutagenesis of an S. cerevisiae strain bearing the cas1 mutation, which causes insensitivity of catalase T to glucose repression. Since the second catalase protein of S. cerevisiae, catalase A, is completely repressed on 10% glucose, catalase T-deficient mutant colonies could be detected u...

Spevak, W.; Fessl, F.; Rytka, J.; Traczyk, A.; Skoneczny, M.; Ruis, H.

1983-01-01

229

Physiological variants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kloeckera apiculata from palm wine and cashew juice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Physiological variants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kloeckera apiculata have been identified in oil palm wine and cashew juice from Nigeria. Genomic DNA from the four S. cerevisiae variants had a % G + C of 36-41% while that of K. apiculata was 32.2%. Fermentation of cashew juice produced wine of alcoholic contents of 10% with S. cerevisiae, 8% with K. apiculata and 9.3% with both yeasts simultaneously. PMID:2196256

Owuama, C I; Saunders, J R

1990-05-01

230

[Saccharomyces cerevisiae fungemia in an elderly patient following probiotic treatment].  

Science.gov (United States)

Saccharomyces cerevisiae, known as baker's yeast, is also used as a probiotic agent to treat gastroenteritis by modulating the endogenous flora and immune system. However, since there have been increasing reports of fungemia due to S.cerevisiae and its subspecies S.boulardii, it is recommended that probiotics should be cautiously used in immunosuppressed patients, people with underlying diseases and low-birth weight babies. To emphasize this phenomenon, in this report, a case of S.cerevisiae fungemia developed in a patient given probiotic treatment for antibiotic-associated diarrhea, was presented. An 88-year-old female patient was admitted to our hospital with left hip pain, hypotension, and confusion. Her medical history included hypertension, chronic renal failure, left knee replacement surgery, and recurrent urinary tract infections due to neurogenic bladder. She was transferred to the intensive care unit with the diagnosis of urosepsis. After obtaining blood and urine samples for culture, empirical meropenem (2 x 500 mg) and linezolid (1 x 600 mg) treatment were administered. A central venous catheter (CVC) was inserted and after one day of inotropic support, her hemodynamic parameters were stabilized. The urine culture obtained on admission yielded extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. Urine culture was repeated after three days and no bacteria were isolated. On the 4th day of admission she developed diarrhea. Toxin A/B tests for Clostridium difficile were negative. To relieve diarrhea, S.boulardii (Reflor 250 mg capsules, Sanofi Aventis, Turkey) was administered twice a day, without opening capsules. Two days later, her C-reactive protein (CRP) level increased from 23.2 mg/L to 100 mg/L without fever. Her blood culture taken from the CVC yielded S.cerevisiae. Linezolid and meropenem therapies were stopped on the 13th and 14th days, respectively, while prophylactic fluconazole therapy was replaced with caspofungin 1 x 50 mg on the fifth day. After seven days of therapy CRP and serum creatinine levels decreased to 9.1 mg/L and 1.2 mg/dl, respectively; and she was discharged from the hospital with improvement. The probiotic capsules were used unopen, thus, it was proposed that S.cerevisiae fungemia originated from translocation from the intestinal mucosa. Since it was not possible to investigate the molecular genetics of the strain isolated from the blood culture and the strain present in the probiotic, a definite conclusion about the origin of the strain could not be reached. It was thought that old age and underlying disease of the patient were the related predisposing factors for S.cerevisiae fungemia. This case emphasized that clinicians should be cautious in case of probiotic application even though in encapsulated form, even in immunocompetent patients with a history of long-term hospital stay and use of broad-spectrum antimicrobials since there may be a risk of S.cerevisiae fungemia development. PMID:24819274

Eren, Zehra; Gurol, Ye?im; Sonmezoglu, Meral; Eren, Hatice Seyma; Celik, Gülden; Kantarci, Gülçin

2014-04-01

231

Killer toxin of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y500-4L active against Fleischmann and Itaiquara commercial brands of yeast  

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Full Text Available The strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y500-4L, previously selected from the must of alcohol producing plants and showing high fermentative and killer capacities, was characterized according to the interactions between the yeasts and examined for curing and detection of dsRNA plasmids, which code for the killer character. The killer yeast S. cerevisiae Y500-4L showed considerable killer activity against the Fleischmann and Itaiquara commercial brands of yeast and also against the standard killer yeasts K2 (S. diastaticus NCYC 713, K4 (Candida glabrata NCYC 388 and K11 (Torulopsis glabrata ATCC 15126. However S. cerevisiae Y500-4L showed sensitivity to the killer toxin produced by the standard killer yeasts K8 (Hansenula anomala NCYC 435, K9 (Hansenula mrakii NCYC 500, K10 (Kluyveromyces drosophilarum NCYC 575 and K11 (Torulopsis glabrata ATCC 15126. No M-dsRNA plasmid was detected in the S. cerevisiae Y500-4L strain and these results suggest that the genetic basis for toxin production is encoded by chromosomal DNA. The strain S. cerevisiae Y500-4L was more resistant to the loss of the phenotype killer with cycloheximide and incubation at elevated temperatures (40oC than the standard killer yeast S. cerevisiae K1.

Soares Giselle A.M.

1999-01-01

232

Quantifying the individual effects of ethanol and temperature on the fitness advantage of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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The presence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in grape berries and fresh musts is usually very low. However, as fermentation progresses, the population levels of this species considerably increase. In this study, we use the concept of fitness advantage to measure how increasing ethanol concentrations (0-25%) and temperature values (4-46 °C) in wine fermentations affects competition between S. cerevisiae and several non-Saccharomyces yeasts (Hanseniaspora uvarum, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Candida zemplinina, Pichia fermentans and Kluyveromyces marxianus). We used a mathematical approach to model the hypothetical time needed for S. cerevisiae to impose itself on a mixed population of the non-Saccharomyces species described above. This approach also took into consideration the influence of environmental factors and the initial population levels of S. cerevisiae (0.1, 1.0 and 10.0%). Our results suggest that Saccharomyces niche construction via ethanol production does not provide a clear ecological advantage (at least not until the ethanol concentration exceeds 9%), whereas a temperature rise (above 15 °C) does give S. cerevisiae a considerable advantage. The initial frequency of S. cerevisiae considerably influences the time it needs to impose itself (until it reaches a final frequency of 99% in the mixed culture), the lowest time values being found at the highest initial frequency. In light of these results, the application of low temperatures in the wine industry could favor the growth and survival of non-Saccharomyces species for a longer period of time. PMID:21645814

Salvadó, Z; Arroyo-López, F N; Barrio, E; Querol, A; Guillamón, J M

2011-09-01

233

ACÚMULO DE CÁDMIO POR Saccharomyces cerevisiae FERMENTANDO MOSTO DE MELAÇO  

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Full Text Available O presente trabalho visou o estudo do acúmulo de cádmio (Cd por Saccharomyces cerevisiae, fermentando mosto de melaço com contaminações controladas em níveis sub-tóxicos do citado metal. As condições de fermentação foram similares às reinantes na produção industrial de etanol. O mosto, não esterilizado, continha 12% de açúcares redutores totais (ART e pH 4,5. Para a contaminação controlada empregou-se dois sais de cádmio, cloreto e acetato e, quatro níveis de contaminação 0,5; 1,0; 2,0 e 5,0 mg Cd.kg-1 mosto. A inoculação do mosto foi executada com fermento de panificação (10% p/p. Após a fermentação (4 horas foram determinados, porcentagem de fermento no vinho centrifugado e teor alcoólico. Na levedura separada foram determinados peso úmido, matéria seca, proteína bruta e teores de cádmio por espectrofotometria de absorção atômica. Em todos os níveis de contaminação estudados houve acúmulo de Cd pela levedura e diminuição do rendimento em etanol.The aim of this paper was to study the cadmium (Cd accumulation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermenting wort of molasses, under sub-toxic levels of controlled cadmium contamination. Fermentation conditions were similar to industrial alcohol production. Non-sterelized wort had 12% of total reducing sugars (w/w and pH 4.5. For the controlled contamination, two cadmium salts were used (chloride and acetate, at four levels of contamination: 0.5; 1.0; 2.0 and 5.0 mg Cd.kg-1 wort. The inoculation of the wort was carried out with commercial bread yeast (10% w/w. After fermentation (4 hours, samples were evaluated for cellular viability, alcohol content and yeast percentage in the centrifuged wine. The centrifuged yeast cells were evaluated for total fresh and dry weight, total protein, and cadmium concentration by atomic absortion spectroscopy. In all Cd levels, there was cadmium accumulation by yeast and a decrease in ethanol yield.

L.G. do PRADO-FILHO

1998-01-01

234

ACÚMULO DE CÁDMIO POR Saccharomyces cerevisiae FERMENTANDO MOSTO DE MELAÇO  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho visou o estudo do acúmulo de cádmio (Cd) por Saccharomyces cerevisiae, fermentando mosto de melaço com contaminações controladas em níveis sub-tóxicos do citado metal. As condições de fermentação foram similares às reinantes na produção industrial de etanol. O mosto, não esterili [...] zado, continha 12% de açúcares redutores totais (ART) e pH 4,5. Para a contaminação controlada empregou-se dois sais de cádmio, cloreto e acetato e, quatro níveis de contaminação 0,5; 1,0; 2,0 e 5,0 mg Cd.kg-1 mosto. A inoculação do mosto foi executada com fermento de panificação (10% p/p). Após a fermentação (4 horas) foram determinados, porcentagem de fermento no vinho centrifugado e teor alcoólico. Na levedura separada foram determinados peso úmido, matéria seca, proteína bruta e teores de cádmio por espectrofotometria de absorção atômica. Em todos os níveis de contaminação estudados houve acúmulo de Cd pela levedura e diminuição do rendimento em etanol. Abstract in english The aim of this paper was to study the cadmium (Cd) accumulation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermenting wort of molasses, under sub-toxic levels of controlled cadmium contamination. Fermentation conditions were similar to industrial alcohol production. Non-sterelized wort had 12% of total reducing s [...] ugars (w/w) and pH 4.5. For the controlled contamination, two cadmium salts were used (chloride and acetate), at four levels of contamination: 0.5; 1.0; 2.0 and 5.0 mg Cd.kg-1 wort. The inoculation of the wort was carried out with commercial bread yeast (10% w/w). After fermentation (4 hours), samples were evaluated for cellular viability, alcohol content and yeast percentage in the centrifuged wine. The centrifuged yeast cells were evaluated for total fresh and dry weight, total protein, and cadmium concentration by atomic absortion spectroscopy. In all Cd levels, there was cadmium accumulation by yeast and a decrease in ethanol yield.

L.G. do, PRADO-FILHO; R.N., DOMINGOS; S.M.G. da, SILVA.

1998-01-01

235

Effects of growth conditions on mitochondrial morphology in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Effects of growth conditions on mitochondrial morphology were studied in living Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells by vital staining with the fluorescent dye dimethyl-aminostyryl-methylpyridinium iodine (DASPMI), fluorescence microscopy, and confocal-scanning laser microscopy. Cells from respiratory, ethanol-grown batch cultures contained a large number of small mitochondria. Conversely, cells from glucose-grown batch cultures, in which metabolism was respiro-fermentative, contained small numbers of large, branched mitochondria. These changes did not significantly affect the fraction of the cellular volume occupied by the mitochondria. Similar differences in mitochondrial morphology were observed in glucose-limited chemostat cultures. In aerobic chemostat cultures, glucose metabolism was strictly respiratory and cells contained a large number of small mitochondria. Anaerobic, fermentative chemostat cultivation resulted in the large, branched mitochondrial structures also seen in glucose-grown batch cultures. Upon aeration of a previously anaerobic chemostat culture, the maximum respiratory capacity increased from 10 to 70 mumole.min-1.g dry weight-1 within 10 h. This transition resulted in drastic changes of mitochondrial number, morphology and, consequently, mitochondrial surface area. These changes continued for several hours after the respiratory capacity had reached its maximum. Cyanide-insensitive oxygen consumption contributed ca. 50% of the total respiratory capacity in anaerobic cultures, but was virtually absent in aerobic cultures. The response of aerobic cultures to oxygen deprivation was qualitatively the reverse of the response of anaerobic cultures to aeration. The results indicate that mitochondrial morphology in S. cerevisiae is closely linked to the metabolic activity of this yeast: conditions that result in repression of respiratory enzymes generally lead to the mitochondrial morphology observed in anaerobically grown, fermenting cells. PMID:7778893

Visser, W; van Spronsen, E A; Nanninga, N; Pronk, J T; Gijs Kuenen, J; van Dijken, J P

1995-01-01

236

Septins localize to microtubules during nutritional limitation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, nutrient limitation stimulates diploid cells to undergo DNA replication and meiosis, followed by the formation of four haploid spores. Septins are a family of proteins that assemble a ring structure at the mother-daughter neck during vegetative growth, where they control cytokinesis. In sporulating cells, the septin ring disassembles and septins relocalize to the prospore membrane. Results Here, we demonstrate that nutrient limitation triggers a change in the localization of at least two vegetative septins (Cdc10 and Cdc11 from the bud neck to the microtubules. The association of Cdc10 and Cdc11 with microtubules persists into meiosis, and they are found associated with the meiotic spindle until the end of meiosis II. In addition, the meiosis-specific septin Spr28 displays similar behavior, suggesting that this is a common feature of septins. Septin association to microtubules is a consequence of the nutrient limitation signal, since it is also observed when haploid cells are incubated in sporulation medium and when haploid or diploid cells are grown in medium containing non-fermentable carbon sources. Moreover, during meiosis II, when the nascent prospore membrane is formed, septins moved from the microtubules to this membrane. Proper organization of the septins on the membrane requires the sporulation-specific septins Spr3 and Spr28. Conclusion Nutrient limitation in S. cerevisiae triggers the sporulation process, but it also induces the disassembly of the septin bud neck ring and relocalization of the septin subunits to the nucleus. Septins remain associated with microtubules during the meiotic divisions and later, during spore morphogenesis, they are detected associated to the nascent prospore membranes surrounding each nuclear lobe. Septin association to microtubules also occurs during growth in non-fermentable carbon sources.

Vázquez de Aldana Carlos R

2008-10-01

237

Oxygen requirements of yeasts. [Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Candida tropicalis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Type species of 75 yeast genera were examined for their ability to grow anaerobically in complex and mineral media. To define anaerobic conditions, we added a redox indicator, resazurin, to the media to determine low redox potentials. All strains tested were capable of fermenting glucose to ethanol in oxygen-limited shake-flask cultures, even those of species generally regarded as nonfermentative. However, only 23% of the yeast species tested grew under anaerobic conditions. A comparative study with a number of selected strains revealed that Saccharomyces cerevisiae stands out as a yeast capable of rapid growth at low redox potentials. Other yeasts, such as Torulaspora delbrueckii and Candida tropicalis, grew poorly ({mu}{sub max}, 0.03 and 0.05 h{sup {minus}1}, respectively) under anaerobic conditions in mineral medium supplemented with Tween 80 and ergosterol. The latter organisms grew rapidly under oxygen limitation and then displayed a high rate of alcoholic fermentation. It can be concluded that these yeasts have hitherto-unidentified oxygen requirements for growth.

Visser, W.; Scheffers, W.A.; Batenburg-Van Der Vegte, W.H.; Van Dijken, J.P. (Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands))

1990-12-01

238

Biotransformation of mogrosides from Siraitia grosvenorii Swingle by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mogrosides are a group of triterpenoidal saponins from the fruit of Siraitia grosvenorii Swingle; they are intensely sweet and have consequently been used as a substitute for sugar by the food industry. The lack of efficient methods to produce specific mogrosides has hindered investigation of the relationship between their structure and bioactivity, e.g., down-regulation of blood glucose levels, anti-inflammation, and antiviral infection. Here, we attempt to selectively convert the major saponin mogroside V, a mogrol pentaglucoside, into mogroside III E, a triglucoside, via the ?-glucosidases of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We report that the ?-glucopyranosyl and ?-glucopyranosyl-(1?2)-?-d-glucopyranosyl attached on C-3 and -24 of mogrol, respectively, were resistant to hydrolysis by yeast ?-d-glucosidases. We further screened 16 mutants bearing single defective glucanase or glucosidase genes, thereby demonstrating that Exg1 is a major enzyme of the initiation of mogroside V conversion. Deletion of the KRE6 gene unexpectedly facilitated the production of mogroside III E in yeast culture. This paper demonstrates that yeast knockout mutants are a valuable tool for saponin modification and for studying the specificity of glucosidase function. PMID:23796186

Chiu, Chun-Hui; Wang, Reuben; Lee, Cho-Ching; Lo, Yi-Chen; Lu, Ting-Jang

2013-07-24

239

Fed-batch cultivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on lignocellulosic hydrolyzate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Saccharomyces cerevisiae grows very poorly in dilute acid lignocellulosic hydrolyzate during the anaerobic fermentation for fuel ethanol production. However, yeast cells grown aerobically on the hydrolyzate have increased tolerance for the hydrolyzate. Cultivation of yeast on part of the hydrolyzate has therefore the potential of enabling increased ethanol productivity in the fermentation of the hydrolyzate. To evaluate the ability of the yeast to grow in the hydrolyzate, fed-batch cultivations were run using the ethanol concentration as input variable to control the feed-rate. The yeast then grew in an undetoxified hydrolyzate with a specific growth rate of 0.19 h(-1) by controlling the ethanol concentration at a low level during the cultivation. However, the biomass yield was lower for the cultivation on hydrolyzate compared to synthetic media: with an ethanol set-point of 0.25 g/l the yield was 0.46 g/g on the hydrolyzate, compared to 0.52 g/g for synthetic media. The main reason for the difference was not the ethanol production per se, but a significant production of glycerol at a high specific growth rate. The glycerol production may be attributed to an insufficient respiratory capacity. PMID:17091372

Petersson, Anneli; Lidén, Gunnar

2007-02-01

240

In vivo analysis of chromosome condensation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although chromosome condensation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been widely studied, visualization of this process in vivo has not been achieved. Using Lac operator sequences integrated at two loci on the right arm of chromosome IV and a Lac repressor-GFP fusion protein, we were able to visualize linear condensation of this chromosome arm during G2/M phase. As previously determined in fixed cells, condensation in yeast required the condensin complex. Not seen after fixation of cells, we found that topoisomerase II is required for linear condensation. Further analysis of perturbed mitoses unexpectedly revealed that condensation is a transient state that occurs before anaphase in budding yeast. Blocking anaphase progression by activation of the spindle assembly checkpoint caused a loss of condensation that was dependent on Mad2, followed by a delayed loss of cohesion between sister chromatids. Release of cells from spindle checkpoint arrest resulted in recondensation before anaphase onset. The loss of condensation in preanaphase-arrested cells was abrogated by overproduction of the aurora B kinase, Ipl1, whereas in ipl1-321 mutant cells condensation was prematurely lost in anaphase/telophase. In vivo analysis of chromosome condensation has therefore revealed unsuspected relationships between higher order chromatin structure and cell cycle control. PMID:17151360

Vas, Amit C J; Andrews, Catherine A; Kirkland Matesky, Kathryn; Clarke, Duncan J

2007-02-01

 
 
 
 
241

Dual effects of plant steroidal alkaloids on Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many plant species accumulate sterols and triterpenes as antimicrobial glycosides. These secondary metabolites (saponins) provide built-in chemical protection against pest and pathogen attack and can also influence induced defense responses. In addition, they have a variety of important pharmacological properties, including anticancer activity. The biological mechanisms underpinning the varied and diverse effects of saponins on microbes, plants, and animals are only poorly understood despite the ecological and pharmaceutical importance of this major class of plant secondary metabolites. Here we have exploited budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) to investigate the effects of saponins on eukaryotic cells. The tomato steroidal glycoalkaloid alpha-tomatine has antifungal activity towards yeast, and this activity is associated with membrane permeabilization. Removal of a single sugar from the tetrasaccharide chain of alpha-tomatine results in a substantial reduction in antimicrobial activity. Surprisingly, the complete loss of sugars leads to enhanced antifungal activity. Experiments with alpha-tomatine and its aglycone tomatidine indicate that the mode of action of tomatidine towards yeast is distinct from that of alpha-tomatine and does not involve membrane permeabilization. Investigation of the effects of tomatidine on yeast by gene expression and sterol analysis indicate that tomatidine inhibits ergosterol biosynthesis. Tomatidine-treated cells accumulate zymosterol rather than ergosterol, which is consistent with inhibition of the sterol C(24) methyltransferase Erg6p. However, erg6 and erg3 mutants (but not erg2 mutants) have enhanced resistance to tomatidine, suggesting a complex interaction of erg mutations, sterol content, and tomatidine resistance. PMID:16870766

Simons, Veronika; Morrissey, John P; Latijnhouwers, Maita; Csukai, Michael; Cleaver, Adam; Yarrow, Carol; Osbourn, Anne

2006-08-01

242

Chromium resistant mutants of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae do not grow on YPD agar containing 750 ?g/ml CrO3. Mutants able to grow in the presence of 850 ?g/ml CrO3 were obtained from such strains after UV mutagenesis. All of the mutants grew even in the presence of 1,000 ?/ml CrO3. Chromium resistance was dominant or partial dominant over normal response, therefore it was impossible to determine the number of genetic loci by complementation analysis. However, the segregation of representative mutants strongly indicated that resistance was determined by single mutations. In addition, a limited analysis of recombination suggested that the chromium resistant mutations were located on a certain region of the yeast genome. Although it was determined that the mutants had slightly reduced rates of Cr(6+) uptake, the exact mechanism of resistance was not discovered. According to the studies of interactions between resistant mutations and sensitive mutations, however, we have proposed a preliminary pathway of Cr(6+) detoxification. PMID:24186374

Ono, B; Weng, M

1982-10-01

243

Pyruvate kinase mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: biochemical and genetic characterisation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae lacking pyruvate kinase (EC 2.7.1.40) are described. These have less than 0.5% of the pyruvate kinase activity of the wild type. All the other glycolytic enzymes are present in normal amounts in these mutants. The mutation is recessive and segregates in diploids as a single gene. Five alleles examined fail to complement one another. Tetrad analysis and mitotic recombination data place the mutation on the left arm of chromosome I distal to cys 1. The majority of single-step spontaneous revertants on glucose regain the enzyme activity fully and this activity appears, by a number of criteria, to be due to the same enzyme present in the wild type. Some of these revertants become nuclear petites. The mutants do neither grow on nor ferment sugars but do grow on ethyl alcohol or pyruvate. Glucose addition to cultures growing on alcohol arrests growth until glucose is exhausted. The steady state rate of glucose utilization is slower than in the wild type. This is associated with the accumulation of as much as 5 micronmoles P-enolpyruvate per g wet weight of cells and proportional amounts of 2-P-glyceric and 3-P glyceric acids. The mutation is believed to involve some regulatory element in the synthesis of pyruvate kinase. PMID:327275

Maitra, P K; Lobo, Z

1977-04-29

244

Antimutators of mitochodrial and nuclear DNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Saccharomyces cerevisiae ten antimutator mutants have been isolated. The spontaneous occurrence of mitochondrial mutants resistant to erythromycin, oligomycin, and diuron is decreased 2-60-fold in these strains. The rate of forward and reverse spontaneous mutations of the nuclear genome is also reduced. The meiotic progenies arising from the crosses of seven mutants (LB1, LB2, LB4, LB5, LB6, LB7, LB10) with an isogenic parental strain exhibit 2:2 segregations and therefore are the result of mutations in a single nuclear gene. The six mutants LB1, LB2, LB4, LB6, LB7, LB10 are semidominant and determine six complementation groups. The mutant LB5 is dominant and therefore cannot be assigned to any complementation group. The mutants. LB1, LB4 and LB10 are gamma-ray sensitive and, by tetrad analysis, it has been shown that gamma-ray sensitivity and spontaneous antimutability are the result of a single nuclear gene mutation. The other three mutants LB3, LB8 and LB9 exhibit complex tetrad segregations, typical of cytoplasmic inheritance and do not complement each other. However, although the mutations are semidominant, it has not been possible to detect any antimutator cytoductant among some 500 cytoductants carrying the karl 1-1 nucleus. (orig./AJ)ng the karl 1-1 nucleus. (orig./AJ)

245

Fluorescence based assay of GAL system in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The GAL1 promoter is one of the strongest inducible promoters in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In order to improve recombinant protein production we have developed a fluorescence based method for screening and evaluating the contribution of various gene deletions to protein expression from the GAL1 promoter. The level of protein synthesis was determined in 28 selected mutant strains simultaneously, by direct measurement of fluorescence in living cells using a microplate reader. The highest, 2.4-fold increase in GFP production was observed in a gal1 mutant strain. Deletion of GAL80 caused a 1.3-fold increase in fluorescence relative to the isogenic strain. GAL3, GAL4 and MTH1 gene deletion completely abrogated GFP synthesis. Growth of gal7, gal10 and gal3 also exhibited reduced fitness in galactose medium. Other genetic perturbations affected the GFP expression level only moderately. The fluorescence based method proved to be useful for screening genes involved in GAL1 promoter regulation and provides insight into more efficient manipulation of the GAL system. PMID:15727828

Stagoj, Mateja Novak; Comino, Aleksandra; Komel, Radovan

2005-03-01

246

Biosynthesis of diphthamide in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Inactivation of EF-2 by diphtheria toxin requires the presence of a posttranslationally synthesized amino acid residue, diphthamide. The present work was undertaken to study the biosynthetic mechanism of diphthamide synthesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in order to gain better understanding of the biological roles of this unique amino acid residue. Thirty-one haploid ADP-ribosylation-negative mutants, comprising 5 complementation groups, were obtained. One of these mutants contains a toxin-resistant form of EF-2 which can be converted to a toxin-sensitive form through the methylation reaction catalyzed by a S-AdoMet:EF-2 methyltransferase enzyme which is present in other yeast strains. The [3He]methylated residue in the EF-2 modified by the methyltransferase in the presence of S-Ado-L-[3H-methyl]-Met has been analyzed chromatographically following both acid and enzymatic hydrolysis. At the conclusion of the reaction, all of the radiolabel was recovered as diphthine (the unamidated form of diphthamide). The authors conclude that the S-AdoMet:EF-2-methyltransferase is specific for the addition of at least the last two of the three methyl groups present in diphthine

247

Comparative Genomics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Natural Isolates for Bioenergy Production  

Science.gov (United States)

Lignocellulosic plant material is a viable source of biomass to produce alternative energy including ethanol and other biofuels. However, several factors—including toxic byproducts from biomass pretreatment and poor fermentation of xylose and other pentose sugars—currently limit the efficiency of microbial biofuel production. To begin to understand the genetic basis of desirable traits, we characterized three strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with robust growth in a pretreated lignocellulosic hydrolysate or tolerance to stress conditions relevant to industrial biofuel production, through genome and transcriptome sequencing analysis. All stress resistant strains were highly mosaic, suggesting that genetic admixture may contribute to novel allele combinations underlying these phenotypes. Strain-specific gene sets not found in the lab strain were functionally linked to the tolerances of particular strains. Furthermore, genes with signatures of evolutionary selection were enriched for functional categories important for stress resistance and included stress-responsive signaling factors. Comparison of the strains’ transcriptomic responses to heat and ethanol treatment—two stresses relevant to industrial bioethanol production—pointed to physiological processes that were related to particular stress resistance profiles. Many of the genotype-by-environment expression responses occurred at targets of transcription factors with signatures of positive selection, suggesting that these strains have undergone positive selection for stress tolerance. Our results generate new insights into potential mechanisms of tolerance to stresses relevant to biofuel production, including ethanol and heat, present a backdrop for further engineering, and provide glimpses into the natural variation of stress tolerance in wild yeast strains. PMID:25193303

Wohlbach, Dana J.; Rovinskiy, Nikolay; Lewis, Jeffrey A.; Sardi, Maria; Schackwitz, Wendy S.; Martin, Joel A.; Deshpande, Shweta; Daum, Christopher G.; Lipzen, Anna; Sato, Trey K.; Gasch, Audrey P.

2014-01-01

248

Properties and functional significance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ADHVI.  

Science.gov (United States)

The completion of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome project has provided the opportunity to explore for new genes of the medium-chain dehydrogenase/reductase enzyme superfamily. Our group has recently identified a new gene, the YMR318C open reading frame, which coded for a Zn-containing NADP(H)-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (ADHVI). ADHVI has been purified to homogeneity from over expressing yeast cells, and found to be a homodimer of 40 kDa subunits. The enzyme showed a strict specificity for NADP(H) and high activity with a variety of long chain aliphatic and bulky substrates. Aldehydes exhibited 50-12000 times higher catalytic efficiency than the corresponding alcohols. Substrates with high k(cat)/K(m) were: pentanal, veratraldehyde and cinnamaldehyde. The ADHVI expression was strongly induced when galactose was the sole carbon source in the culture medium. Phylogenetic trees include ADHVI in the cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CADH) family. In contrast to the plant CADH, involved in lignin biosynthesis, this is not the function for ADHVI, since yeast does not synthesize lignin. ADHVI may be physiologically involved in several steps of the lignin degradation pathway, initiated by other microorganisms, in the synthesis of fusel alcohols, products derived from the aminoacidic metabolism, and in the homeostasis of NADP(H). Disruption of ADH6 was not lethal for the yeast, under laboratory conditions. PMID:12604208

Larroy, Carol; Rosario Fernández, M; González, Eva; Parés, Xavier; Biosca, Josep A

2003-02-01

249

Cell cycle regulation of homologous recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Homologous recombination (HR) contributes to maintaining genome integrity by facilitating error-free repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) primarily during the S and G2 phases of the mitotic cell cycle, while nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) is the preferred pathway for DSB repair in G1 phase. The decision to repair a DSB by NHEJ or HR is made primarily at the level of DSB end resection, which is inhibited by the Ku complex in G1 and promoted by the Sae2 and Mre11 nucleases in S/G2 . The cell cycle regulation of HR is accomplished both at the transcription level and at the protein level through post-translational modification, degradation and subcellular localization. Cyclin-dependent kinase Cdc28 plays an established key role in these events, while the role of transcriptional regulation and protein degradation are less well understood. Here, the cell cycle regulatory mechanisms for mitotic HR in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are reviewed, and evolutionarily conserved principles are highlighted. PMID:24483249

Mathiasen, David P; Lisby, Michael

2014-03-01

250

Genotoxicity assessment of amaranth and allura red using Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Amaranth (E123) and Allura red (E129), very important food azo dyes used in food, drug, paper, cosmetic and textile industries, were assessed for their genotoxic potential through comet assay in yeast cells. Comet assay was standardized by with different concentration of H(2)O(2). Concentrations of Amaranth and Allura red were maintained in sorbitol buffer starting from 9.76 to 5,000 ?g/mL and 1 × 10(4) cells were incubated at two different incubation temperatures 28 and 37°C. Amaranth (E123) and Allura red (E129) were found to exhibit their genotoxic effect directly in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. No significant genotoxic activity was observed for Amaranth and Allura red at 28°C but at 37°C direct relation of Amaranth concentration with comet tail was significant and no positive relation was seen with time exposure factor. At 37°C the minimum concentration of Amaranth and Allura red at which significant DNA damage observed through comet assay was 1,250 ?g/mL in 2nd h post exposure time. The results indicated that food colors should be carefully used in baking products as heavy concentration of food colors could affect the fermentation process of baking. PMID:23132362

Jabeen, Hafiza Sumara; ur Rahman, Sajjad; Mahmood, Shahid; Anwer, Sadaf

2013-01-01

251

Dynamics of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Transcriptome during Bread Dough Fermentation  

Science.gov (United States)

The behavior of yeast cells during industrial processes such as the production of beer, wine, and bioethanol has been extensively studied. In contrast, our knowledge about yeast physiology during solid-state processes, such as bread dough, cheese, or cocoa fermentation, remains limited. We investigated changes in the transcriptomes of three genetically distinct Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains during bread dough fermentation. Our results show that regardless of the genetic background, all three strains exhibit similar changes in expression patterns. At the onset of fermentation, expression of glucose-regulated genes changes dramatically, and the osmotic stress response is activated. The middle fermentation phase is characterized by the induction of genes involved in amino acid metabolism. Finally, at the latest time point, cells suffer from nutrient depletion and activate pathways associated with starvation and stress responses. Further analysis shows that genes regulated by the high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway, the major pathway involved in the response to osmotic stress and glycerol homeostasis, are among the most differentially expressed genes at the onset of fermentation. More importantly, deletion of HOG1 and other genes of this pathway significantly reduces the fermentation capacity. Together, our results demonstrate that cells embedded in a solid matrix such as bread dough suffer severe osmotic stress and that a proper induction of the HOG pathway is critical for optimal fermentation. PMID:24056467

Aslankoohi, Elham; Zhu, Bo; Rezaei, Mohammad Naser; Voordeckers, Karin; De Maeyer, Dries; Marchal, Kathleen; Dornez, Emmie

2013-01-01

252

Proteomic profiling of autophagosome cargo in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Macroautophagy (autophagy) is a bulk protein-degradation system ubiquitously conserved in eukaryotic cells. During autophagy, cytoplasmic components are enclosed in a membrane compartment, called an autophagosome. The autophagosome fuses with the vacuole/lysosome and is degraded together with its cargo. Because autophagy is important for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis by degrading unwanted proteins and organelles, identification of autophagosome cargo proteins (i.e., the targets of autophagy) will aid in understanding the physiological roles of autophagy. In this study, we developed a method for monitoring intact autophagosomes ex vivo by detecting the fluorescence of GFP-fused aminopeptidase I, the best-characterized selective cargo of autophagosomes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This method facilitated optimization of a biochemical procedure to fractionate autophagosomes. A combination of LC-MS/MS with subsequent statistical analyses revealed a list of autophagosome cargo proteins; some of these are selectively enclosed in autophagosomes and delivered to the vacuole in an Atg11-independent manner. The methods we describe will be useful for analyzing the mechanisms and physiological significance of Atg11-independent selective autophagy. PMID:24626240

Suzuki, Kuninori; Nakamura, Shingo; Morimoto, Mayumi; Fujii, Kiyonaga; Noda, Nobuo N; Inagaki, Fuyuhiko; Ohsumi, Yoshinori

2014-01-01

253

Brazilian propolis protects Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells against oxidative stress  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Propolis is a natural product widely used for humans. Due to its complex composition, a number of applications (antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, anesthetic, cytostatic and antioxidant) have been attributed to this substance. Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a eukaryotic model we investigated the me [...] chanisms underlying the antioxidant effect of propolis from Guarapari against oxidative stress. Submitting a wild type (BY4741) and antioxidant deficient strains (ctt1?, sod1?, gsh1?, gtt1? and gtt2?) either to 15 mM menadione or to 2 mM hydrogen peroxide during 60 min, we observed that all strains, except the mutant sod1?, acquired tolerance when previously treated with 25 µg/mL of alcoholic propolis extract. Such a treatment reduced the levels of ROS generation and of lipid peroxidation, after oxidative stress. The increase in Cu/Zn-Sod activity by propolis suggests that the protection might be acting synergistically with Cu/Zn-Sod.

Rafael A. de, Sá; Frederico A.V. de, Castro; Elis C.A., Eleutherio; Raquel M. de, Souza; Joaquim F.M. da, Silva; Marcos D., Pereira.

2013-09-01

254

Effects of low X-ray doses in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with different capacities for repair of radiation damage (RAD, rad18, and rad52) have been tested for their colony forming ability (CFA) and growth rates after application of small X-ray doses from 3.8 mGy to 40 Gy. There was no reproducible increase in CFA observable after application of doses between 3.8 mGy and 4.7 Gy.X-ray doses of 40 Gy causing an inactivation of CFA from 90% to 50%, depending on the repair capacity of the strains used, caused a reduced increase in optical density during 2 h buffer treatment in comparison to unirradiated cells. This reduction however, is reversible as soon as the cells are transferred into nutrient medium. One hour after transfer into growh medium the portions of cells with large buds (Gs and M phase) and cells with small buds (S phase) are drastically different in irradiated cells from those obtained in unirradiated cells. The time necessary for separation of mother and daughter cells is prolonged by X-ray irradiation and the formation of new buds is retarded. (orig.)

255

MAP kinase pathways in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Science.gov (United States)

A cascade of three protein kinases known as a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is commonly found as part of the signaling pathways in eukaryotic cells. Almost two decades of genetic and biochemical experimentation plus the recently completed DNA sequence of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome have revealed just five functionally distinct MAPK cascades in this yeast. Sexual conjugation, cell growth, and adaptation to stress, for example, all require MAPK-mediated cellular responses. A primary function of these cascades appears to be the regulation of gene expression in response to extracellular signals or as part of specific developmental processes. In addition, the MAPK cascades often appear to regulate the cell cycle and vice versa. Despite the success of the gene hunter era in revealing these pathways, there are still many significant gaps in our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms for activation of these cascades and how the cascades regulate cell function. For example, comparison of different yeast signaling pathways reveals a surprising variety of different types of upstream signaling proteins that function to activate a MAPK cascade, yet how the upstream proteins actually activate the cascade remains unclear. We also know that the yeast MAPK pathways regulate each other and interact with other signaling pathways to produce a coordinated pattern of gene expression, but the molecular mechanisms of this cross talk are poorly understood. This review is therefore an attempt to present the current knowledge of MAPK pathways in yeast and some directions for future research in this area.

Gustin, M. C.; Albertyn, J.; Alexander, M.; Davenport, K.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

1998-01-01

256

Coexpression of ?-l-arabinofuranosidase and ?-glucosidase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Monoterpenes are important aroma compounds in grape varieties such as Muscat, Gewürztraminer and Riesling, and are present as either odourless, glycosidically bound complexes or free aromatic monoterpenes. Commercial enzymes can be used to release the monoterpenes, but they commonly consist of crude extracts that often have unwanted and unpredictable side-effects on wine aroma. This project aims to address these problems by the expression and secretion of the Aspergillus awamori?-l-arabinofuranosidase in combination with either the ?-glucosidases from Saccharomycopsis fibuligera or from Aspergillus kawachii in the industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae VIN13. The concentration of five monoterpenes was monitored throughout alcoholic fermentation of Gewürztraminer grapes. The recombinant yeast strains that caused an early boost in the geraniol concentration led to a reduction in the final geraniol levels due to the downregulation of the sterol biosynthetic pathway. Monoterpene concentrations were also analysed 9 and 38 days after racking and the performance of the VB2 and VAB2 recombinant strains was similar, and in many cases, better than that of a commercial enzyme used in the same experiment. The results were backed by sensorial analysis, with the panel preferring the aroma of the wines produced by the VAB2 strain. PMID:21062416

Zietsman, Anscha J J; de Klerk, Daniel; van Rensburg, Pierre

2011-02-01

257

Metabolic Engineering of the Phenylpropanoid Pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Science.gov (United States)

Flavonoids are valuable natural products derived from the phenylpropanoid pathway. The objective of this study was to create a host for the biosynthesis of naringenin, the central precursor of many flavonoids. This was accomplished by introducing the phenylpropanoid pathway with the genes for phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) from Rhodosporidium toruloides, 4-coumarate:coenzyme A (CoA) ligase (4CL) from Arabidopsis thaliana, and chalcone synthase (CHS) from Hypericum androsaemum into two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, namely, AH22 and a pad1 knockout mutant. Each gene was cloned and inserted into an expression vector under the control of a separate individual GAL10 promoter. Besides its PAL activity, the recombinant PAL enzyme showed tyrosine ammonia lyase activity, which enabled the biosynthesis of naringenin without introducing cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H). 4CL catalyzed the conversion of both trans-cinnamic acid and p-coumaric acid to their corresponding CoA products, which were further converted to pinocembrin chalcone and naringenin chalcone by CHS. These chalcones were cyclized to pinocembrin and naringenin. The yeast AH22 strain coexpressing PAL, 4CL, and CHS produced approximately 7 mg liter?1 of naringenin and 0.8 mg liter?1 of pinocembrin. Several by-products, such as 2?,4?,6?-trihydroxydihydrochalcone and phloretin, were also identified. Precursor feeding studies indicated that metabolic flux to the engineered flavonoid pathway was limited by the flux to the precursor l-tyrosine. PMID:15932991

Jiang, Hanxiao; Wood, Karl V.; Morgan, John A.

2005-01-01

258

Calcium Dependence of Eugenol Tolerance and Toxicity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Science.gov (United States)

Eugenol is a plant-derived phenolic compound which has recognised therapeutical potential as an antifungal agent. However little is known of either its fungicidal activity or the mechanisms employed by fungi to tolerate eugenol toxicity. A better exploitation of eugenol as a therapeutic agent will therefore depend on addressing this knowledge gap. Eugenol initiates increases in cytosolic Ca2+ in Saccharomyces cerevisiae which is partly dependent on the plasma membrane calcium channel, Cch1p. However, it is unclear whether a toxic cytosolic Ca2+elevation mediates the fungicidal activity of eugenol. In the present study, no significant difference in yeast survival was observed following transient eugenol treatment in the presence or absence of extracellular Ca2+. Furthermore, using yeast expressing apoaequorin to report cytosolic Ca2+ and a range of eugenol derivatives, antifungal activity did not appear to be coupled to Ca2+ influx or cytosolic Ca2+ elevation. Taken together, these results suggest that eugenol toxicity is not dependent on a toxic influx of Ca2+. In contrast, careful control of extracellular Ca2+ (using EGTA or BAPTA) revealed that tolerance of yeast to eugenol depended on Ca2+ influx via Cch1p. These findings expose significant differences between the antifungal activity of eugenol and that of azoles, amiodarone and carvacrol. This study highlights the potential to use eugenol in combination with other antifungal agents that exhibit differing modes of action as antifungal agents to combat drug resistant infections. PMID:25036027

Roberts, Stephen K.; McAinsh, Martin; Cantopher, Hanna; Sandison, Sean

2014-01-01

259

Comparative Genomics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Natural Isolates for Bioenergy Production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lignocellulosic plant material is a viable source of biomass to produce alternative energy including ethanol and other biofuels. However, several factors-including toxic byproducts from biomass pretreatment and poor fermentation of xylose and other pentose sugars-currently limit the efficiency of microbial biofuel production. To begin to understand the genetic basis of desirable traits, we characterized three strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with robust growth in a pretreated lignocellulosic hydrolysate or tolerance to stress conditions relevant to industrial biofuel production, through genome and transcriptome sequencing analysis. All stress resistant strains were highly mosaic, suggesting that genetic admixture may contribute to novel allele combinations underlying these phenotypes. Strain-specific gene sets not found in the lab strain were functionally linked to the tolerances of particular strains. Furthermore, genes with signatures of evolutionary selection were enriched for functional categories important for stress resistance and included stress-responsive signaling factors. Comparison of the strains' transcriptomic responses to heat and ethanol treatment-two stresses relevant to industrial bioethanol production-pointed to physiological processes that were related to particular stress resistance profiles. Many of the genotype-by-environment expression responses occurred at targets of transcription factors with signatures of positive selection, suggesting that these strains have undergone positive selection for stress tolerance. Our results generate new insights into potential mechanisms of tolerance to stresses relevant to biofuel production, including ethanol and heat, present a backdrop for further engineering, and provide glimpses into the natural variation of stress tolerance in wild yeast strains. PMID:25193303

Wohlbach, Dana J; Rovinskiy, Nikolay; Lewis, Jeffrey A; Sardi, Maria; Schackwitz, Wendy S; Martin, Joel A; Deshpande, Shweta; Daum, Christopher G; Lipzen, Anna; Sato, Trey K; Gasch, Audrey P

2014-01-01

260

Structure of the RACK1 dimer from Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Receptor for activated C-kinase 1 (RACK1) serves as a scaffolding protein in numerous signaling pathways involving kinases and membrane-bound receptors from different cellular compartments. It exists simultaneously as a cytosolic free form and as a ribosome-bound protein. As part of the 40S ribosomal subunit, it triggers translational regulation by establishing a direct link between protein kinase C and the protein synthesis machinery. It has been suggested that RACK1 could recruit other signaling molecules onto the ribosome, providing a signal-specific modulation of the translational process. RACK1 is able to dimerize both in vitro and in vivo. This homodimer formation has been observed in several processes including the regulation of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor by the Fyn kinase in the brain and the oxygen-independent degradation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1. The functional relevance of this dimerization is, however, still unclear and the question of a possible dimerization of the ribosome-bound protein is still pending. Here, we report the first structure of a RACK1 homodimer, as determined from two independent crystal forms of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RACK1 protein (also known as Asc1p) at 2.9 and 3.9 Å resolution. The structure reveals an atypical mode of dimerization where monomers intertwine on blade 4, thus exposing a novel surface of the protein to potential interacting partners. We discuss the significance of the dimer structure for RACK1 function.

Yatime, Laure; Hein, Kim Langemach

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Killed Saccharomyces cerevisiae protects against lethal challenge of Cryptococcus grubii.  

Science.gov (United States)

Heat-killed Saccharomyces cerevisiae (HKY) vaccination protects mice against aspergillosis, coccidioidomycosis, mucormycosis, or candidiasis. We studied HKY protection against murine cryptococcosis. Once weekly subcutaneous HKY doses (S, 6 × 10(7); 2S, 1.2 × 10(8); 3S, 2.4 × 10(8)) began 28 (×3), 35 (×4), or 42 (×6) days prior to intravenous Cryptococcus grubii infection. Survival through 28 days, and CFU in the organs of survivors, were compared to saline-vaccinated controls. In the initial experiment, S, S×4, or 2S reduced brain CFU; liver or spleen CFU was reduced by S×4 or 2S. In a more lethal second experiment, 2S×6, 2S, or 3S×4 improved survival, and HKY regimens reduced CFU in the brain, liver, or spleen, with 2S×6, 2S, or 3S×4 most efficacious. Dose size appears more important than the number of doses: Regimens >S were superior, and 2S and 2S×6 were equivalent. 2S and 3S were equivalent, suggesting doses >2S do not provide additional protection. HKY protects against Cryptococcus, supporting components of HKY as a basis for the development of a panfungal vaccine. PMID:25118873

Majumder, Tanya; Liu, Min; Chen, Vicky; Martinez, Marife; Alvarado, Danielle; Clemons, Karl V; Stevens, David A

2014-10-01

262

Structural and Functional Analysis of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Mob1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Mob proteins function as activator subunits for the Dbf2/Dbf20 family of protein kinases. Human and Xenopus Mob1 protein structures corresponding to the most conserved C-terminal core, but lacking the variable N-terminal region, have been reported and provide a framework for understanding the mechanism of Dbf2/Dbf20 regulation. Here, we report the 2.0 {angstrom} X-ray crystal structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mob1 containing both the conserved C-terminal core and the variable N-terminal region. Within the N-terminal region, three novel structural elements are observed; namely, an {alpha}-helix denoted H0, a strand-like element denoted S0 and a short {beta} strand denoted S-1. Helix H0 associates in an intermolecular manner with a second Mob1 molecule to form a Mob1 homodimer. Strand S0 binds to the core domain in an intramolecular manner across a putative Dbf2 binding site mapped by Mob1 temperature-sensitive alleles and NMR binding experiments. In vivo functional analysis demonstrates that Mob1 mutants that target helix H0 or its reciprocal binding site are biologically compromised. The N-terminal region of Mob1 thus contains structural elements that are functionally important.

Mrkobrada,S.; Boucher, L.; Tyers, D.; Sicheri, F.

2006-01-01

263

Metabolic impact of redox cofactor perturbations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Redox cofactors play a pivotal role in coupling catabolism with anabolism and energy generation during metabolism. There exists a delicate balance in the intracellular level of these cofactors to ascertain an optimal metabolic output. Therefore, cofactors are emerging to be attractive targets to induce widespread changes in metabolism. We present a detailed analysis of the impact of perturbations in redox cofactors in the cytosol or mitochondria on glucose and energy metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to aid metabolic engineering decisions that involve cofactor engineering. We enhanced NADH oxidation by introducing NADH oxidase or alternative oxidase, its ATP-mediated conversion to NADPH using NADH kinase as well as the interconversion of NADH and NADPH independent of ATP by the soluble, non-proton-translocating bacterial transhydrogenase. Decreasing cytosolic NADH level lowered glycerol production, while decreasing mitochondrial NADH lowered ethanol production. However, when these reactions were coupled with NADPH production, the metabolic changes were more moderated. The direct consequence of these perturbations could be seen in the shift of the intracellular concentrations of the cofactors. The changes in product profile and intracellular metabolite levels were closely linked to the ATP requirement for biomass synthesis and the efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation, as estimated from a simple stoichiometric model. The results presented here will provide valuable insights for a quantitative understanding and prediction of cellular response to redox-based perturbations for metabolic engineering applications.

Hou, Jin; Lages, Nuno

2009-01-01

264

Brazilian propolis protects Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells against oxidative stress  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Propolis is a natural product widely used for humans. Due to its complex composition, a number of applications (antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, anesthetic, cytostatic and antioxidant) have been attributed to this substance. Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a eukaryotic model we investigated the me [...] chanisms underlying the antioxidant effect of propolis from Guarapari against oxidative stress. Submitting a wild type (BY4741) and antioxidant deficient strains (ctt1?, sod1?, gsh1?, gtt1? and gtt2?) either to 15 mM menadione or to 2 mM hydrogen peroxide during 60 min, we observed that all strains, except the mutant sod1?, acquired tolerance when previously treated with 25 µg/mL of alcoholic propolis extract. Such a treatment reduced the levels of ROS generation and of lipid peroxidation, after oxidative stress. The increase in Cu/Zn-Sod activity by propolis suggests that the protection might be acting synergistically with Cu/Zn-Sod.

Rafael A. de, Sá; Frederico A.V. de, Castro; Elis C.A., Eleutherio; Raquel M. de, Souza; Joaquim F.M. da, Silva; Marcos D., Pereira.

265

Improved ethanol fermentation by heterologous endoinulinase and inherent invertase from inulin by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is hypothesized that introduction of an endoinulinase gene into Saccharomyces cerevisiae will improve its inulin utilization and ethanol fermentation through collaboration between the heterologous endoinulinase and the inherent invertase SUC2. The aim of this work was to test the hypothesis by introducing the endoinulinase gene inuA from Aspergillus niger into S. cerevisiae. The results showed that heterologous inuA expressed in S. cerevisiae selectively digested long chains of inulin into short fructooligosaccharides and parts of these fructooligosaccharides could be efficiently utilized by the yeast. This study demonstrated that collaboration between heterologous endoinulinase and inherent invertase improved inulin degradation and ethanol fermentation in S. cerevisiae. PMID:23683966

Yuan, Bo; Wang, Shi-An; Li, Fu-Li

2013-07-01

266

Null mutations in the SNF3 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cause a different phenotype than do previously isolated missense mutations.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Missense mutations in the SNF3 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were previously found to cause defects in both glucose repression and derepression of the SUC2 (invertase) gene. In addition, the growth properties of snf3 mutants suggested that they were defective in uptake of glucose and fructose. We have cloned the SNF3 gene by complementation and demonstrated linkage of the cloned DNA to the chromosomal SNF3 locus. The gene encodes a 3-kilobase poly(A)-containing RNA, which was fivefold more...

Neigeborn, L.; Schwartzberg, P.; Reid, R.; Carlson, M.

1986-01-01

267

Saccharomyces cerevisiae CCMI 885 secretes peptides that inhibit the growth of some non-Saccharomyces wine-related strains.  

Science.gov (United States)

The nature of the toxic compounds produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae CCMI 885 that induce the early death of Hanseniaspora guilliermondii during mixed fermentations, as well as their ability to inhibit the growth of other non-Saccharomyces wine-related strains, was investigated. The killing effect of mixed supernatants towards H. guilliermondii was inactivated by protease treatments, thus revealing the proteinaceous nature of the toxic compounds. Analysis of the protein pattern of mixed supernatants on Tricine SDS-PAGE showed that this S. cerevisiae strain secretes peptides (Torulaspora delbrueckii and H. guilliermondii. Under the growth conditions used for these tests, the (2-10) kDa protein fraction of S. cerevisiae CCMI 885 supernatants exhibited a fungistatic effect against all the strains and a fungicidal effect against K. marxianus. PMID:20039034

Albergaria, Helena; Francisco, Diana; Gori, Klaus; Arneborg, Nils; Gírio, Francisco

2010-04-01

268

The Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Flavomycin on Broiler Growth Performance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ninety days old commercial broilers (Ross PM-3 were used in a completely randomized design to study the effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and flavomycin on growth performance of broiler chicks. Three treatments (30 replicates utilized were (1 control, (2 Saccharomyces cerevisiae and (3 flavomycin. A significant increase in gain of birds was observed in birds fed Saccharomyces cerevisiae group in 5 th and flavomycin group on 28 th and 35 th days (P<0.05. Feed consumption of broilers during the 14 days of experiment was not different among treatments. A considerable increase in feed consumption in the treated chicks was recorded in 21st and 37th days of the experiment in flavomycin group. A similar result was found on 28 th day of the experiment in control group. Birds receiving 0.2 % Saccharomyces cerevisiae consumed significantly much more feed during 5th week of experiment. Body weight of broilers at 37 days age were better with flavomycin, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and control groups respectively (P<0.05.

Kemal CELIK

2001-01-01

269

Overexpression of NADH-dependent fumarate reductase improves D-xylose fermentation in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Deviation from optimal levels and ratios of redox cofactors NAD(H) and NADP(H) is common when microbes are metabolically engineered. The resulting redox imbalance often reduces the rate of substrate utilization as well as biomass and product formation. An example is the metabolism of D-xylose by recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains expressing xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase encoding genes from Scheffersomyces stipitis. This pathway requires both NADPH and NAD(+). The effect of overexpressing the glycosomal NADH-dependent fumarate reductase (FRD) of Trypanosoma brucei in D-xylose-utilizing S. cerevisiae alone and together with an endogenous, cytosol directed NADH-kinase (POS5?17) was studied as one possible solution to overcome this imbalance. Expression of FRD and FRD + POS5?17 resulted in 60 and 23 % increase in ethanol yield, respectively, on D-xylose under anaerobic conditions. At the same time, xylitol yield decreased in the FRD strain suggesting an improvement in redox balance. We show that fumarate reductase of T. brucei can provide an important source of NAD(+) in yeast under anaerobic conditions, and can be useful for metabolic engineering strategies where the redox cofactors need to be balanced. The effects of FRD and NADH-kinase on aerobic and anaerobic D-xylose and D-glucose metabolism are discussed. PMID:24113892

Salusjärvi, Laura; Kaunisto, Sanna; Holmström, Sami; Vehkomäki, Maija-Leena; Koivuranta, Kari; Pitkänen, Juha-Pekka; Ruohonen, Laura

2013-12-01

270

A novel approach for the improvement of ethanol fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The partial substitution of fossil fuels with bioethanol has become an important strategy for the use of renewable energy. Ethanol production is generally achieved through fermentation of starch or sugar-based feedstock by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In order to meet the growing demand for ethanol, there is a need for new yeast strains that can produce ethanol more efficiently and cost effectively. This paper presented a new genome engineering approach that was developed to improve ethanol production by S. cerevisiae. In this study, the aneuploid strain constructed on the base of tetraploid cells was shown to have favourable metabolic traits in very high gravity (VHG) fermentation with 300 g/L glucose as the carbon source. The tetraploid strain was constructed using the plasmid YCplac33-GHK, which comprised the HO gene encoding the site-specific HO endonucleases. The aneuploid strain, WT4-M, was chosen and screened once the tetraploid cells were treated with methyl benzimidazole-2-yl-carbamate to induce loss of mitotic chromosomes. The aneuploid strain WT4-M increased ethanol production as well as osmotic and thermal tolerance. The sugar to ethanol conversion rate also improved. It was concluded that this new approach is valuable for creating yeast strains with better fermentation characteristics. 25 refs., 3 figs.

Hou, L.; Cao, X.; Wang, C. [Tianjin Univ. of Science and Technology, Tianjin (China). Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety

2010-06-15

271

Fermentation of high concentrations of maltose by Saccharomyces cerevisiae is limited by the COMPASS methylation complex.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, genes encoding maltose permeases and maltases are located in the telomeric regions of different chromosomes. The COMPASS methylation complex, which methylates lysine 4 on histone H3, controls the silencing of telomeric regions. Yeast strains deleted for SWD1, SWD3, SDC1, SET1, BRE2 or SPP1, encoding components of the COMPASS complex, fermented a medium containing 22% maltose with noticeably higher attenuation than did the wild type, resulting in production of up to 29% more ethanol. The least effective strain was spp1. Absence of COMPASS components had no effect on the fermentation of media with 20% glucose, 20% sucrose or 16% maltose. Deletion of SWD3 resulted in larger amounts of MAL12 transcript, encoding maltase, at the late stages of fermentation of 22% maltose. A similar effect on maltase activity and maltose uptake capability was seen. The lysine 4 residue of histone H3 was trimethylated in wild-type cells at the late stages, while only small amounts of the dimethylated form were detected. Trimethylation and dimethylation of this residue were not detected in strains deleted for SWD1, SWD3, SET1, BRE2 or SDC1. Trimethylated lysine 4 was apparent only at the early stages (48 and 96 h) of fermentation in an spp1 strain. Results indicate that the COMPASS complex represses the expression of maltose utilization genes during the late stages of fermentation of a high concn. of maltose.

Houghton-Larsen, J.; Brandt, A.

2006-01-01

272

Development of a cellulolytic Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain with enhanced cellobiohydrolase activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) is a promising technology for lignocellulosic ethanol production, and the key is the engineering of a microorganism that can efficiently utilize cellulose. Development of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for CBP requires high level expression of cellulases, particularly cellobiohydrolases (CBH). In this study, to construct a CBP-enabling yeast with enhanced CBH activity, three cassettes containing constitutively expressed CBH-encoding genes (cbh1 from Aspergillus aculeatus, cbh1 and cbh2 from Trichoderma reesei) were constructed. T. reesei eg2, A. aculeatus bgl1, and the three CBH-encoding genes were then sequentially integrated into the S. cerevisiae W303-1A chromosome via ?-sequence-mediated integration. The resultant strains W1, W2, and W3, expressing uni-, bi-, and trifunctional cellulases, respectively, exhibited corresponding cellulase activities. Furthermore, both the activities and glucose producing activity ascended. The growth test on cellulose containing plates indicated that CBH was a necessary component for successful utilization of crystalline cellulose. The three recombinant strains and the control strains W303-1A and AADY were evaluated in acid- and alkali-pretreated corncob containing media with 5 FPU exogenous cellulase/g biomass loading. The highest ethanol titer (g/l) within 7 days was 5.92 ± 0.51, 18.60 ± 0.81, 28.20 ± 0.84, 1.40 ± 0.12, and 2.12 ± 0.35, respectively. Compared with the control strains, W3 efficiently fermented pretreated corncob to ethanol. To our knowledge, this is the first study aimed at creating cellulolytic yeast with enhanced CBH activity by integrating three types of CBH-encoding gene with a strong constitutive promoter Ptpi. PMID:25164958

Hong, Jiefang; Yang, Huajun; Zhang, Kun; Liu, Cheng; Zou, Shaolan; Zhang, Minhua

2014-11-01

273

Low oxygen levels as a trigger for enhancement of respiratory metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The industrially important yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to grow both in the presence and absence of oxygen. However, the regulation of its metabolism in conditions of intermediate oxygen availability is not well characterised. We assessed the effect of oxygen provision on the transcriptome and proteome of S. cerevisiae in glucose-limited chemostat cultivations in anaerobic and aerobic conditions, and with three intermediate (0.5, 1.0 and 2.8% oxygen levels of oxygen in the feed gas. Results The main differences in the transcriptome were observed in the comparison of fully aerobic, intermediate oxygen and anaerobic conditions, while the transcriptome was generally unchanged in conditions receiving different intermediate levels (0.5, 1.0 or 2.8% O2 of oxygen in the feed gas. Comparison of the transcriptome and proteome data suggested post-transcriptional regulation was important, especially in 0.5% oxygen. In the conditions of intermediate oxygen, the genes encoding enzymes of the respiratory pathway were more highly expressed than in either aerobic or anaerobic conditions. A similar trend was also seen in the proteome and in enzyme activities of the TCA cycle. Further, genes encoding proteins of the mitochondrial translation machinery were present at higher levels in all oxygen-limited and anaerobic conditions, compared to fully aerobic conditions. Conclusion Global upregulation of genes encoding components of the respiratory pathway under conditions of intermediate oxygen suggested a regulatory mechanism to control these genes as a response to the need of more efficient energy production. Further, cells grown in three different intermediate oxygen levels were highly similar at the level of transcription, while they differed at the proteome level, suggesting post-transcriptional mechanisms leading to distinct physiological modes of respiro-fermentative metabolism.

Wiebe Marilyn G

2009-10-01

274

Cellular responses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to DNA damage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text. Several experimental strategies have been used to study responses of S. cerevisiae cells to DNA damage. One approach was based on the isolation of novel genes, the expression of which is induced by lesions in DNA. One of these genes, DIN7, was cloned and partially characterized previously. The product of DIN7 belongs to a large family of proteins involved in DNA repair and mutagenesis. This family includes Rad2, Rad27 and ExoI proteins of S. cerevisiae and their respective human homologues, all of which are endowed with DNA nuclease activity. To study cellular function of Din7 we constructed the pPK3 plasmid carrying DIN7 fused to the GAL1 promoter. Effects of DIN7 overproduction on the phenotypes of wild-type cells and of rad27 and exoI mutants were examined. Overproduction of Din7 does not seem to affect the proficiency of wild-type S. cerevisiae cells in recombination and mutagenesis. Also, overexpression of DIN7 does not suppress the deficiency of the EXOI gene product, the closest homologue of Din7, both in recombination and in controlling the fidelity of DNA replication. Unexpectedly, we found that elevated levels of Din7 result in a very high frequency of mitochondrial rho- mutants. A high frequency of production of rho- mutants wa s also observed in strains defective in the functioning of the Dun1 protein kinase involved in signal transmission in cells exposed to DNA damaging agents. Interestingly, deficiency of Dun1 results also in a significant derepression of the DIN7 gene. Experiments are under way to distinguish whether a high cellular level of Din7 specifically decreases stability of mitochondrial DNA or affects stability of chromosomal DNA as well. Analysis of previously constructed S. cerevisiae strains carrying random geno mic fusions with reporter lacZ gene, allowed us to identify the reading frame YBR173c, on chromosome II as a novel damage inducible gene - DIN8. We have shown that DIN8-lacZ fusion is induced in yeast cells treated with MMS or exposed to UV light. Northern RNA analysis indicates that DIN8 is induced in response to DNA damage at the transcriptional level. DIN8 was cloned and the phenotype of cells with disruption of the gene is under study. POL2-MEC1-RAD53-DUN1-signal transducing pathway has recently been postulated to be involved in the regulation of response of S. cerevisiae cells to DNA-damaging agents. We analyzed the expression of a known damage inducible DNA-repair gene, MAG1, encoding 3-methyladenine glycosylase, in S. cerevisiae strains carrying MAG1 ::lacZ fusion and deficient in either POL2, MEC1, RAD53 or DUN1 function. ?-galactosidase activity was assayed in cycling cells exposed to MMS or UV light. It was found that, in contrast to model DNA damage inducible RNR genes, neither mutation in t he sensory C-terminal part of polymerase ? (pol2-11) nor the in the Mec1, Sad1/Rad53 or Dun1 cellular kinases blocks the induction of MAG1 in response to MMS or UV light in cycling yeasts. (author)

275

Expresión heteróloga de un péptido multiepitópico de células B de M. tuberculosis en Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae ha sido ampliamente utilizada como sistema de expresión de proteínas heterólogas. El presente trabajo se encaminó hacia la expresión en Saccharomyces cerevisiae de un péptido de epitopes múltiples de M. tuberculosis. Con dicho propósito el péptido quimérico denominado B2 fue clonado en dos vectores de expresión de esta levadura con promotores regulables por galactosa y sulfato cúprico, respectivamente. Luego de los experimentos de inducción, la expresión del péptido B2 se analizó mediante SDS/PAGE y Western blot. El análisis por Western blot confirmó la expresión del péptido B2, al hacerse la inducción con 100 ?M de CuSO4 durante toda la noche. No ocurrió así en los experimentos donde se utilizó la galactosa como inductor con todas las condiciones ensayadas. Estos resultados mostraron que la levadura Saccharomyces cerevisiae pudiera ser un buen hospedero alternativo para la expresión de péptidos multiepitópicos de M. tuberculosis.

Norazmi Mohd Nor

2007-01-01

276

Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yeast on Tibia Bone Characteristics in Rabbits  

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Full Text Available The effect of feeding different levels of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae on tibial bone characteristics of the New Zealand rabbits was studied. An experiment of 85 days duration was conducted with male 5-6 weeks old rabbits. There were 3 dietary treatments each consisting of 7 rabbits in each. The treatments were containing 0 (control, 2 and 4 g kg-1 yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae in their diet, respectively. At the end of the experiment the right tibia of rabbits were dissected from the surrounding tissues and used for bone force and stress measurements. Results show that there is no effect of feeding with different level of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast on body weight, tibia weight and length, bone force and stress values of tibia of the rabbits.

Ilker Arican

2012-01-01

277

Ethanol fermentation from Jerusalem artichoke powder using Saccharomyces cerevisiae KCCM50549 without pretreatment for inulin hydrolysis.  

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A strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, KCCM50549, was found to efficiently ferment the inulin-containing carbohydrates in Jerusalem artichoke without acidic or enzymatic pretreatment prior to fermentation. S. cerevisiae KCCM50549 could utilize almost completely the fructo-oligosaccharides present in Jerusalem artichoke (up to degree of polymerization (DP) of 15), in contrast to the other S. cerevisiae strain such as NCYC625 that fermented the fructo-oligosaccharides with DP of up to around six. Inulin-fermenting S. cerevisiae KCCM50549 produced c.a. 1.6 times more ethanol from Jerusalem artichoke compared with S. cerevisiae NCYC625. Direct ethanol fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke flour at 180 g/L without any supplements or pretreatments by S. cerevisiae KCCM50549 in a 5 L jar fermentor yielded 36.2 g/L of ethanol within 36 h. The conversion efficiency of inulin-type sugars to ethanol was 70% of the theoretical ethanol yield. PMID:20833540

Lim, Seok-Hwan; Ryu, Ji-Myoung; Lee, Hongweon; Jeon, Jae Heung; Sok, Dai-Eun; Choi, Eui-Sung

2011-01-01

278

Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces yeasts in grape varieties of the S?o Francisco Valley  

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The aims of this work was to characterise indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in the naturally fermented juice of grape varieties Cabernet Sauvignon, Grenache, Tempranillo, Sauvignon Blanc and Verdejo used in the São Francisco River Valley, northeastern Brazil. In this study, 155 S. cerevisiae and 60 non-Saccharomyces yeasts were isolated and identified using physiological tests and sequencing of the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit of the rRNA gene. Among the non-Saccharomyces species, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa was the most common species, followed by Pichia kudriavzevii, Candida parapsilosis, Meyerozyma guilliermondii, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Kloeckera apis, P. manshurica, C. orthopsilosis and C. zemplinina. The population counts of these yeasts ranged among 1.0 to 19 × 105 cfu/mL. A total of 155 isolates of S. cerevisiae were compared by mitochondrial DNA restriction analysis, and five molecular mitochondrial DNA restriction profiles were detected. Indigenous strains of S. cerevisiae isolated from grapes of the São Francisco Valley can be further tested as potential starters for wine production. PMID:25242923

de Ponzzes-Gomes, Camila M.P.B.S.; de Melo, Dangelly L.F.M.; Santana, Caroline A.; Pereira, Giuliano E.; Mendonca, Michelle O.C.; Gomes, Fatima C.O.; Oliveira, Evelyn S.; Barbosa, Antonio M.; Trindade, Rita C.; Rosa, Carlos A.

2014-01-01

279

A member of the sugar transporter family, Stl1p is the glycerol/H+ symporter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Glycerol and other polyols are used as osmoprotectants by many organisms. Several yeasts and other fungi can take up glycerol by proton symport. To identify genes involved in active glycerol uptake in Saccharomyces cerevisiae we screened a deletion mutant collection comprising 321 genes encoding proteins with 6 or more predicted transmembrane domains for impaired growth on glycerol medium. Deletion of STL1, which encodes a member of the sugar transporter family, eliminates active glycerol transport. Stl1p is present in the plasma membrane in S. cerevisiae during conditions where glycerol symport is functional. Both the Stl1 protein and the active glycerol transport are subject to glucose-induced inactivation, following identical patterns. Furthermore, the Stl1 protein and the glycerol symporter activity are strongly but transiently induced when cells are subjected to osmotic shock. STL1 was heterologously expressed in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, a yeast that does not contain its own active glycerol transport system. In S. pombe, STL1 conferred the ability to take up glycerol against a concentration gradient in a proton motive force-dependent manner. We conclude that the glycerol proton symporter in S. cerevisiae is encoded by STL1.

Ferreira, Celia; van Voorst, Frank

2005-01-01

280

Removal of lead, mercury and nickel using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae / Remoción de plomo, mercurio y níquel utilizando la levadura Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Objetivos. En este estudio se utilizó la biomasa de la levadura Saccharomyces cerevisiae para retener plomo, mercurio y níquel en forma de iones disueltos en agua. Materiales y métodos. Se prepararon soluciones sintéticas que contenían los tres metales pesados, las cuales se pusieron en contacto con [...] el microorganismo en forma viable a diferentes condiciones de pH, temperatura, aireación y agitación. Resultados. Tanto las variables individuales como los efectos de interacción influyeron sobre el proceso de biosorción. A través de todos los experimentos, se observó que la biomasa de Saccharomyces cerevisiae eliminó un mayor porcentaje de plomo (86.4%) en comparación al mercurio y al níquel (69.7 y 47.8% respectivamente). Cuando el pH se fijó en valor de 5, el efecto fue positivo para los tres metales. Conclusiones. El pH fue la variable que tuvo una mayor influencia en la biosorción de plomo sobre la biomasa de Saccharomyces cerevisiae. La afinidad de los metales pesados por la biomasa siguió el orden Pb>Hg>Ni. Abstract in english Objective. In this study the biomass of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used to remove lead, mercury and nickel in the form of ions dissolved in water. Materials and methods. Synthetic solutions were prepared containing the three heavy metals, which were put in contact with viable microorgani [...] sms at different conditions of pH, temperature, aeration and agitation. Results. Both individual variables and the interaction effects influenced the biosorption process. Throughout the experimental framework it was observed that the biomass of Saccharomyces cerevisiae removed a higher percentage of lead (86.4%) as compared to mercury and nickel (69.7 and 47.8% respectively). When the pH was set at a value of 5 the effect was positive for all three metals. Conclusions. pH was the variable that had a greater influence on the biosorption of lead on the biomass of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The affinity of the heavy metals for the biomass followed the order Pb>Hg>Ni.

Cherlys, Infante J; Deniles, De Arco R; Edgardo, Angulo M.

2014-05-01

 
 
 
 
281

Genetic Basis for Saccharomyces cerevisiae Biofilm in Liquid Medium  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Biofilm-forming microorganisms switch between two forms: free-living planktonic and sessile multicellular. Sessile communities of yeast biofilms in liquid medium provide a primitive example of multicellularity and are clinically important because biofilms tend to have other growth characteristics than free-living cells. We investigated the genetic basis for yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, biofilm on solid surfaces in liquid medium by screening a comprehensive deletion mutant collection in the S1278b background and found 71 genes that were essential for biofilm development. Quantitative northern blots further revealed that AIM1, ASG1, AVT1, DRN1, ELP4, FLO8, FMP10, HMT1, KAR5, MIT1, MRPL32, MSS11, NCP1, NPR1, PEP5, PEX25, RIM8, RIM101, RGT1, SNF8, SPC2, STB6, STP22, TEC1, VID24, VPS20, VTC3, YBL029W, YBL029C-A, YFL054C, YGR161W-C, YIL014C-A, YIR024C, YKL151C, YNL200C, YOR034C-A, and YOR223W controlled biofilm through FLO11 induction. Almost all deletion mutants that were unable to form biofilms in liquid medium also lost the ability to form surface-spreading biofilm colonies (mats) on agar and 69% also lost the ability to grow invasively. The protein kinase A isoform Tpk3p functioned specifically in biofilm and mat formation. In a tpk3 mutant, transcription of FLO11 was induced three-fold compared with wild-type, but biofilm development and cell–cell adhesion was absent, suggesting that Tpk3p regulates FLO11 positive posttranscriptionally and negative transcriptionally. The study provides a resource of biofilm-influencing genes for additional research on biofilm development and suggests that the regulation of FLO11 is more complex than previously anticipated.

Andersen, Kaj Scherz; Bojsen, Rasmus Kenneth

2014-01-01

282

Genetic Basis for Saccharomyces cerevisiae Biofilm in Liquid Medium  

Science.gov (United States)

Biofilm-forming microorganisms switch between two forms: free-living planktonic and sessile multicellular. Sessile communities of yeast biofilms in liquid medium provide a primitive example of multicellularity and are clinically important because biofilms tend to have other growth characteristics than free-living cells. We investigated the genetic basis for yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, biofilm on solid surfaces in liquid medium by screening a comprehensive deletion mutant collection in the ?1278b background and found 71 genes that were essential for biofilm development. Quantitative northern blots further revealed that AIM1, ASG1, AVT1, DRN1, ELP4, FLO8, FMP10, HMT1, KAR5, MIT1, MRPL32, MSS11, NCP1, NPR1, PEP5, PEX25, RIM8, RIM101, RGT1, SNF8, SPC2, STB6, STP22, TEC1, VID24, VPS20, VTC3, YBL029W, YBL029C-A, YFL054C, YGR161W-C, YIL014C-A, YIR024C, YKL151C, YNL200C, YOR034C-A, and YOR223W controlled biofilm through FLO11 induction. Almost all deletion mutants that were unable to form biofilms in liquid medium also lost the ability to form surface-spreading biofilm colonies (mats) on agar and 69% also lost the ability to grow invasively. The protein kinase A isoform Tpk3p functioned specifically in biofilm and mat formation. In a tpk3 mutant, transcription of FLO11 was induced three-fold compared with wild-type, but biofilm development and cell–cell adhesion was absent, suggesting that Tpk3p regulates FLO11 positive posttranscriptionally and negative transcriptionally. The study provides a resource of biofilm-influencing genes for additional research on biofilm development and suggests that the regulation of FLO11 is more complex than previously anticipated. PMID:25009170

Andersen, Kaj Scherz; Bojsen, Rasmus; S?rensen, Laura Gro Rejkjaer; Nielsen, Martin Weiss; Lisby, Michael; Folkesson, Anders; Regenberg, Birgitte

2014-01-01

283

Predicting functional upstream open reading frames in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Some upstream open reading frames (uORFs regulate gene expression (i.e., they are functional and can play key roles in keeping organisms healthy. However, how uORFs are involved in gene regulation is not yet fully understood. In order to get a complete view of how uORFs are involved in gene regulation, it is expected that a large number of experimentally verified functional uORFs are needed. Unfortunately, wet-experiments to verify that uORFs are functional are expensive. Results In this paper, a new computational approach to predicting functional uORFs in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is presented. Our approach is based on inductive logic programming and makes use of a novel combination of knowledge about biological conservation, Gene Ontology annotations and genes' responses to different conditions. Our method results in a set of simple and informative hypotheses with an estimated sensitivity of 76%. The hypotheses predict 301 further genes to have 398 novel functional uORFs. Three (RPC11, TPK1, and FOL1 of these 301 genes have been hypothesised, following wet-experiments, by a related study to have functional uORFs. A comparison with another related study suggests that eleven of the predicted functional uORFs from genes LDB17, HEM3, CIN8, BCK2, PMC1, FAS1, APP1, ACC1, CKA2, SUR1, and ATH1 are strong candidates for wet-lab experimental studies. Conclusions Learning based prediction of functional uORFs can be done with a high sensitivity. The predictions made in this study can serve as a list of candidates for subsequent wet-lab verification and might help to elucidate the regulatory roles of uORFs.

Kristiansson Erik

2009-12-01

284

Phenotypic and metabolic traits of commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Currently, pursuing yeast strains that display both a high potential fitness for alcoholic fermentation and a favorable impact on quality is a major goal in the alcoholic beverage industry. This considerable industrial interest has led to many studies characterizing the phenotypic and metabolic traits of commercial yeast populations. In this study, 20 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains from different geographical origins exhibited high phenotypic diversity when their response to nine biotechnologically relevant conditions was examined. Next, the fermentation fitness and metabolic traits of eight selected strains with a unique phenotypic profile were evaluated in a high-sugar synthetic medium under two nitrogen regimes. Although the strains exhibited significant differences in nitrogen requirements and utilization rates, a direct relationship between nitrogen consumption, specific growth rate, cell biomass, cell viability, acetic acid and glycerol formation was only observed under high-nitrogen conditions. In contrast, the strains produced more succinic acid under the low-nitrogen regime, and a direct relationship with the final cell biomass was established. Glucose and fructose utilization patterns depended on both yeast strain and nitrogen availability. For low-nitrogen fermentation, three strains did not fully degrade the fructose. This study validates phenotypic and metabolic diversity among commercial wine yeasts and contributes new findings on the relationship between nitrogen availability, yeast cell growth and sugar utilization. We suggest that measuring nitrogen during the stationary growth phase is important because yeast cells fermentative activity is not exclusively related to population size, as previously assumed, but it is also related to the quantity of nitrogen consumed during this growth phase. PMID:24949272

Barbosa, Catarina; Lage, Patrícia; Vilela, Alice; Mendes-Faia, Arlete; Mendes-Ferreira, Ana

2014-01-01

285

Antimutators of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Saccharomyces cerevisiae ten antimutator mutants have been isolated. The spontaneous occurrence of mitochondrial mutants resistant to erythromycin, oligomycin, and diuron is decreased 2-60-fold in these strains. The rate of forward and reverse spontaneous mutations of the nuclear genome is also reduced. The meiotic progenies arising from the crosses of seven mutants (LB/sub 1/, LB/sub 2/, LB/sub 4/, LB/sub 5/, LB/sub 6/, LB/sub 7/, LB/sub 10/) with an isogenic parental strain exhibit 2:2 segregations and therefore are the result of mutations in a single nuclear gene. The six mutants LB/sub 1/, LB/sub 2/, LB/sub 4/, LB/sub 6/, LB/sub 7/, LB/sub 10/ are semidominant and determine six complementation groups. The mutant LB/sub 5/ is dominant and therefore cannot be assigned to any complementation group. The mutants, LB/sub 1/, LB/sub 4/ and LB/sub 1/0 are gamma-ray sensitive and, by tetrad analysis, it has been shown that gamma-ray sensitivity and spontaneous antimutability are the result of a single nuclear gene mutation. The other three mutants LB/sub 3/, LB/sub 8/ and LB/sub 9/ exhibit complex tetrad segregations, typical of cytoplasmic inheritance and do not complement each other. However, although the mutations are semidominant, it has not been possible to detect any antimutator cytoductant among some 500 cytoductants carrying the karl 1-1 nucleus.

Bianchi, L.; Foury, F.

1982-05-01

286

IMMOBILIZATION OF Saccharomyces cerevisiae IN RICE HULLS FOR ETHANOL PRODUCTION  

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Full Text Available The whole cell immobilization in ethanol fermentation can be done by using natural carriers or through synthetic carriers. All of these methods have the same purpose of retaining high cell concentrations within a certain defined region of space which leads to higher ethanol productivity. Lignocellulosic plant substance represents one of highly potential sources in ethanol production. Some studies have found that cellulosic substances substances can also be used as a natural carrier in cell immobilization by re-circulating pre-culture medium into a reactor. In this experiment, rice hulls without any treatment were used to immobilize Saccharomyces cerevisiae through semi solid state incubation combined with re-circulating pre-culture medium. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM pictures of the carrier show that the yeast cells are absorbed and embedded to the rice hull pore. In liquid batch fermentation system with an initial sugar concentration of 50 g/L, nearly 100% total sugar was consumed after 48 hours. This resulted in an ethanol yield of 0.32 g ethanol/g glucose, which is 62.7% of the theoretical value. Ethanol productivity of 0.59 g/(L.h is 2.3 fold higher than that of free cells which is 0.26 g/(L.h. An effort to reuse the immobilized cells in liquid fermentation system showed poor results due to cell desorption in the first batch which led to high sugar concentration inhibitory effect in the second batch fermentation. This might be solved by using semi solid fermentation process in the future work.

Don-Hee Park

2010-11-01

287

Genetic basis of arsenite and cadmium tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Arsenic and cadmium are widely distributed in nature and pose serious threats to the environment and human health. Exposure to these nonessential toxic metals may result in a variety of human diseases including cancer. However, arsenic and cadmium toxicity targets and the cellular systems contributing to tolerance acquisition are not fully known. Results To gain insight into metal action and cellular tolerance mechanisms, we carried out genome-wide screening of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae haploid and homozygous diploid deletion mutant collections and scored for reduced growth in the presence of arsenite or cadmium. Processes found to be required for tolerance to both metals included sulphur and glutathione biosynthesis, environmental sensing, mRNA synthesis and transcription, and vacuolar/endosomal transport and sorting. We also identified metal-specific defence processes. Arsenite-specific defence functions were related to cell cycle regulation, lipid and fatty acid metabolism, mitochondrial biogenesis, and the cytoskeleton whereas cadmium-specific defence functions were mainly related to sugar/carbohydrate metabolism, and metal-ion homeostasis and transport. Molecular evidence indicated that the cytoskeleton is targeted by arsenite and that phosphorylation of the Snf1p kinase is required for cadmium tolerance. Conclusion This study has pin-pointed core functions that protect cells from arsenite and cadmium toxicity. It also emphasizes the existence of both common and specific defence systems. Since many of the yeast genes that confer tolerance to these agents have homologues in humans, similar biological processes may act in yeast and humans to prevent metal toxicity and carcinogenesis.

Dawes Ian W

2009-03-01

288

Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for optimizing 3HP production  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The finite nature of fossil resources and the negative influence of CO2 emissions on the global climate are key drivers in development of new biological processes. These are based on renewable resources such as sugar, starch, and biomass and aim at replacing chemical production from fossil fuels. Polyacrylates are a substantial part of the different plastic varieties found on the market. This kind of plastic is derived from acrylic acid, which is currently produced from propylene, a by-product of ethylene and gasoline production. Annually, more than one billion kilograms of acrylic acid is produced and the market for acrylate products exceeds USD 100 billion. As an alternative to oil and gas derived acrylic acid, 3-hydroxypropionic (3HP) acid produced from renewable sources is highly desired, because 3HP can easily be converted into acrylic acid. We are setting out to produce 3HP in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. One main reason for selecting Baker's yeast as host organism is that yeast has a high tolerance towards low pH in comparison to bacteria, e.g. E. coli. Hence, it lowers the consumption of base for neutralization of growth media when compared to bacteria. The preferred engineered pathway towards 3HP has a substantial need for NADPH equivalents. Consequently, a yeast host with elevated NADPH availability is preferred. We will redirect several of the glycolysis steps in order to increase the NADPH generation per glucose molecule and thereby increase 3HP production. We believe this strain will be of high interest for other NADPH demanding biosynthetic routes.

Jensen, Niels Bjerg; Maury, Jerome

2012-01-01

289

Comparative genomics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae natural isolates for bioenergy production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lignocellulosic plant material is a viable source of biomass to produce alternative energy including ethanol and other biofuels. However, several factors—including toxic by products from biomass pretreatment and poor fermentation of xylose and other pentose sugars—currently limit the efficiency of microbial biofuel production. To begin to understand the genetic basis of desirable traits, we characterized three strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with robust growth in a pretreated lignocellulosic hydrolysate or tolerance to stress conditions relevant to industrial biofuel production, through genome and transcriptome sequencing analysis. All stress resistant strains were highly mosaic, suggesting that genetic admixture may contribute to novel allele combinations underlying these phenotypes. Strain-specific gene sets not found in the lab strain were functionally linked to the tolerances of particular strains. Furthermore,genes with signatures of evolutionary selection were enriched for functional categories important for stress resistance and included stress-responsive signaling factors. Comparison of the strains’ transcriptomic responses to heat and ethanol treatment—two stresses relevant to industrial bioethanol production—pointed to physiological processes that were related to particular stress resistance profiles. Many of the genotype-by-environment expression responses occurred at targets of transcription factors with signatures of positive selection, suggesting that these strains have undergone positive selection for stress tolerance. Our results generate new insights into potential mechanisms of tolerance to stresses relevant to biofuel production, including ethanol and heat, present a backdrop for further engineering, and provide glimpses into the natural variation of stress tolerance in wild yeast strains. PMID:25364804

Wohlbach, Dana J; Rovinskiy, Nikolay; Lewis, Jeffrey A; Sardi, Maria; Schackwitz, Wendy S; Martin, Joel A; Deshpande, Shweta; Daum, Christopher G; Lipzen, Anna; Sato, Trey K; Gasch, Audrey P

2014-09-01

290

Studies of anaerobic and aerobic glycolysis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Glucose metabolism was followed in suspensions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by using 13C NMR and 14C radioactive labeling techniques and by Warburg manometer experiments. These experiments were performed for cells grown with various carbon sources in the growth medium, so as to evaluate the effect of catabolite repression. The rate of glucose utilization was most conveniently determined by the 13C NMR experiments, which measured the concentration of [1-13C]glucose, whereas the distribution of end products was determined from the 13C and the 14C experiments. By combining these measurements the flows into the various pathways that contribute to glucose catabolism were estimated, and the effect of oxygen upon glucose catabolism was evaluated. From these measurements, the Pasteur quotient (PQ) for glucose catabolism was calculated to be 2.95 for acetate-grown cells and 1.89 for cells grown on glucose into saturation. The Warburg experiments provided an independent estimate of glucose catabolism. The PQ estimated from Warburg experiments was 2.9 for acetate-grown cells in excellent agreement with the labeled carbon experiments and 4.6 for cells grown into saturation, which did not agree. Possible explanations of these differences are discussed. From these data an estimate is obtained of the net flow through the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway. The backward flow through fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (Fru-1,6-P2-ase) was calculated from the scrambling of the 13C label of [1-13C]glucose into the C1 and C6 positions of trehalose. Combining these data allowed us to calculate the net flux through phosphofructokinase (PFK). For acetate-grown cells we found that the relative flow through PFK is a factor of 1.7 faster anaerobically than aerobically

291

Genotoxicity of bergapten and bergamot oil in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to determine the genotoxic potential of bergapten (5-methoxypsoralen (5-MOP] and bergamot oil (BO), the genetic effects of 5-MOP and BO (containing equivalent amounts of 5-MOP) were studied in haploid and diploid yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) using solar simulated radiation (SSR). At equal doses of SSR, equal concentrations of 5-MOP alone or 5-MOP in BO have a similar influence on survival and on the induction of cytoplasmic "petite" mutations, reverse and forward mutations, mitotic gene conversion and genetically aberrant colonies including mitotic crossing over. No reciprocity is found between SSR dose and 5-MOP concentration for cytotoxic, mutagenic and recombinogenic effects. In the presence of chemical filters (Parsol 1789, a UVA filter, and Parsol MCX, a cinnamate derivative acting as a UVB filter) considerable protection is observed against the induction of genetic effects by 5-MOP and BO containing 5-MOP in haploid and diploid cells. As indicated by the lower induction kinetics, the protection is higher than expected from the light-absorbing properties, suggesting photochemical interaction. The protection is slightly higher for BO than for 5-MOP. The induction of genetic effects by 5-MOP alone or BO containing 5-MOP is independent of oxygen. Experiments on suction blister fluids taken from patients after topical treatment with BO containing 5-MOP indicate that in comparison with water the bioavailability and thus the genotoxic effects of the compounds are decreased. Moreover, in addition to the filtering effect against the photoinduced genotoxic effects of BO, the presence of chemical filters apparently reduces the penetration of BO containing 5-MOP and provides a reduction in biological effectiveness. PMID:2128325

Averbeck, D; Averbeck, S; Dubertret, L; Young, A R; Morlière, P

1990-11-01

292

Microfluidic reactor for continuous cultivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

A diffusion-based microreactor system operated with a reaction volume of 8 ?L is presented and characterized to intensify the process understanding in microscale cultivations. Its potential as screening tool for biological processes is evaluated. The advantage of the designed microbioreactor is the use for the continuous cultivation mode by integrating online measurement technique for dissolved oxygen (DO) and optical density (OD). A further advantage is the broaden application for biological systems. The bioreactor geometry was chosen to achieve homogeneous flow during continuous process operation. The device consisted of a microstructured top layer made of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), which was designed and fabricated using UV-depth and soft lithography assembled with a glass bottom. CFD simulation data used for geometry design were verified via microparticle-image-velocimetry (?PIV). In the used microreactor geometry no concentration gradients occurred along the entire reaction volume because of rapid diffusive mixing, the homogeneous medium flow inside the growth chamber of the microreactor could be realized. Undesirable bubble formation before and during operation was reduced by using degassed medium as well as moistened and moderate incident air flow above the gas permeable PDMS membrane. Because of this a passive oxygen supply of the culture medium in the device is ensured by diffusion through the PDMS membrane. The oxygen supply itself was monitored online via integrated DO sensors based on a fluorescent dye complex. An adequate overall volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient K(L)a as well as mechanical stability of the device were accomplished for a membrane thickness of 300 ?m. Experimental investigations considering measurements of OD (online) and several metabolite concentrations (offline) in a modified Verduyn medium. The used model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae DSM 2155 tended to strong reactor wall growth resembling a biofilm. PMID:20945484

Edlich, Astrid; Magdanz, Veronika; Rasch, Detlev; Demming, Stefanie; Aliasghar Zadeh, Shobeir; Segura, Rodrigo; Kähler, Christian; Radespiel, Rolf; Büttgenbach, Stephanus; Franco-Lara, Ezequiel; Krull, Rainer

2010-01-01

293

Transcriptional control of nonfermentative metabolism in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although sugars are clearly the preferred carbon sources of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, nonfermentable substrates such as ethanol, glycerol, lactate, acetate or oleate can also be used for the generation of energy and cellular biomass. Several regulatory networks of glucose repression (carbon catabolite repression) are involved in the coordinate biosynthesis of enzymes required for the utilization of nonfermentable substrates. Positively and negatively acting complexes of pleiotropic regulatory proteins have been characterized. The Snf1 (Cat1) protein kinase complex, together with its regulatory subunit Snf4 (Cat3) and alternative beta-subunits Sip1, Sip2 or Gal83, plays an outstanding role for the derepression of structural genes which are repressed in the presence of a high glucose concentration. One molecular function of the Snf1 complex is deactivation by phosphorylation of the general glucose repressor Mig1. In addition to regulation of alternative sugar fermentation, Mig1 also influences activators of respiration and gluconeogenesis, although to a lesser extent. Snf1 is also required for conversion of specific regulatory factors into transcriptional activators. This review summarizes regulatory cis-acting elements of structural genes of the nonfermentative metabolism, together with the corresponding DNA-binding proteins (Hap2-5, Rtg1-3, Cat8, Sip4, Adr1, Oaf1, Pip2), and describes the molecular interactions among general regulators and pathway-specific factors. In addition to the influence of the carbon source at the transcriptional level, mechanisms of post-transcriptional control such as glucose-regulated stability of mRNA are also discussed briefly. PMID:12715202

Schüller, Hans-Joachim

2003-06-01

294

Adjustment of trehalose metabolism in wine Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains to modify ethanol yields.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to efficiently produce high levels of ethanol through glycolysis has been the focus of much scientific and industrial activity. Despite the accumulated knowledge regarding glycolysis, the modification of flux through this pathway to modify ethanol yields has proved difficult. Here, we report on the systematic screening of 66 strains with deletion mutations of genes encoding enzymes involved in central carbohydrate metabolism for altered ethanol yields. Five of these strains showing the most prominent changes in carbon flux were selected for further investigation. The genes were representative of trehalose biosynthesis (TPS1, encoding trehalose-6-phosphate synthase), central glycolysis (TDH3, encoding glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (ZWF1, encoding glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase), and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle (ACO1 and ACO2, encoding aconitase isoforms 1 and 2). Two strains exhibited lower ethanol yields than the wild type (tps1? and tdh3?), while the remaining three showed higher ethanol yields. To validate these findings in an industrial yeast strain, the TPS1 gene was selected as a good candidate for genetic modification to alter flux to ethanol during alcoholic fermentation in wine. Using low-strength promoters active at different stages of fermentation, the expression of the TPS1 gene was slightly upregulated, resulting in a decrease in ethanol production and an increase in trehalose biosynthesis during fermentation. Thus, the mutant screening approach was successful in terms of identifying target genes for genetic modification in commercial yeast strains with the aim of producing lower-ethanol wines. PMID:23793638

Rossouw, D; Heyns, E H; Setati, M E; Bosch, S; Bauer, F F

2013-09-01

295

Idebenone treatment mediates the effect of menadione oxidative stress damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the damage caused by oxidative stress using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model biological system. After inducing oxidative stress with menadione, we were able to evaluate the extent of cellular oxidative stress by utilizing 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) as a marker of the presence of reactive oxygen species. Cells were grown on different carbon sources in order to compare fermentative and oxidative metabolism. Under these conditions we evaluated the effectiveness of idebenone (2,3-dimethoxy-5-methyl-6-(10- hydroxydecyl)-1,4-benzoquinone) as a molecule that could relieve menadione-induced growth inhibition in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:22974201

Gamondi, Oliver; Chapela, Sebastián; Nievas, Inés; Burgos, Isabel; Alonso, Manuel; Stella, Carlos

2012-06-01

296

Computational identification of non-coding RNAs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by comparative genomics  

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We screened for new structural non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) in the genome sequence of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae using computational comparative analysis of genome sequences from five related species of Saccharomyces. The screen identified 92 candidate ncRNA genes. Thirteen showed discrete transcripts when assayed by northern blot. Of these, eight appear to be novel ncRNAs ranging in size from 268 to 775 nt, including three new H/ACA box small nucleolar RNAs.

Mccutcheon, John P.; Eddy, Sean R.

2003-01-01

297

Analysis of the Metabolic Response of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae to DNA Damaging Agents  

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Saccharomyces cerevisiae, commonly known as Baker?s yeast, is a eukaryotic model organism widely used in biotechnology research. Its genome has a high degree of similarity to humans, and research done on S. cerevisiae can give us a better understanding of the mechanisms involved and the cellular responses to anti-cancer drugs. Yeast is therefore usefool in increasing the effectiveness of anti-cancer drugs.The main goal for this master thesis was to investigate the metabolic response of S...

Rey, Simon Scheel

2011-01-01

298

Genomic Sequence Diversity and Population Structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Assessed by RAD-seq  

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The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is important for human food production and as a model organism for biological research. The genetic diversity contained in the global population of yeast strains represents a valuable resource for a number of fields, including genetics, bioengineering, and studies of evolution and population structure. Here, we apply a multiplexed, reduced genome sequencing strategy (known as RAD-seq) to genotype a large collection of S. cerevisiae ...

Cromie, Gareth A.; Hyma, Katie E.; Ludlow, Catherine L.; Garmendia-torres, Cecilia; Gilbert, Teresa L.; May, Patrick; Huang, Angela A.; Dudley, Aime?e M.; Fay, Justin C.

2013-01-01

299

Identification and Characterization of a Novel Biotin Biosynthesis Gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells generally cannot synthesize biotin, a vitamin required for many carboxylation reactions. Although sake yeasts, which are used for Japanese sake brewing, are classified as S. cerevisiae, they do not require biotin for their growth. In this study, we identified a novel open reading frame (ORF) in the genome of one strain of sake yeast that we speculated to be involved in biotin synthesis. Homologs of this gene are widely distributed in the genomes of sake ye...

Wu, Hong; Ito, Kiyoshi; Shimoi, Hitoshi

2005-01-01

300

Effects of cyclohexane, an industrial solvent, on the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and on isolated yeast mitochondria.  

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Little information on the effects of cyclohexane at the cellular or subcellular level is available. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cyclohexane inhibited respiration and diverse energy-dependent processes. In mitochondria isolated from S. cerevisiae, oxygen uptake and ATP synthesis were inhibited, although ATPase activity was not affected. Cyclohexane effects were similar to those reported for beta-pinene and limonene, suggesting that the cyclohexane ring in these monoterpenes may be a determina...

Uribe, S.; Rangel, P.; Espi?nola, G.; Aguirre, G.

1990-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Accumulation and chemical states of radiocesium by fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Science.gov (United States)

After accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, the fall-out radiocesium was deposited on the ground. Filamentous fungus is known to accumulate radiocesium in environment, even though many minerals are involved in soil. These facts suggest that fungus affect the migration behavior of radiocesium in the environment. However, accumulation mechanism of radiocesium by fungus is not understood. In the present study, accumulation and chemical states change of Cs by unicellular fungus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been studied to elucidate the role of microorganisms in the migration of radiocesium in the environment. Two different experimental conditions were employed; one is the accumulation experiments of radiocesium by S. cerevisiae from the agar medium containing 137Cs and a mineral of zeolite, vermiculite, smectite, mica, or illite. The other is the experiments using stable cesium to examine the chemical states change of Cs. In the former experiment, the cells were grown on membrane filter of 0.45 ?m installed on the agar medium. After the grown cells were weighed, radioactivity in the cells was measured by an autoradiography technique. The mineral weight contents were changed from 0.1% to 1% of the medium. In the latter experiment, the cells were grown in the medium containing stable Cs between 1 mM and 10mM. The Cs accumulated cells were analyzed by SEM-EDS and EXAFS. The adsorption experiments of cesium by the cells under resting condition were also conducted to test the effect of cells metabolic activity. Without mineral in the medium, cells of S. cerevisiae accumulated 1.5x103 Bq/g from the medium containing 137Cs of 2.6x102 Bq/g. When mineral was added in the medium, concentration of 137Cs in the cells decreased. The concentration of 137Cs in the cells from the medium containing different minerals were in the following order; smectite, illite, mica > vermiculite > zeolite. This order was nearly the same as the inverse of distribution coefficient of mineral for 137Cs in the medium solution. The concentration of 137Cs in the cells lowered in the medium containing higher mineral content. These results indicate that radiocesium was competively accumulated in the cells with minerals in the soil. Higher concentration of stable Cs was accumulated in the cells in the metabolically active condition than in the resting cells condition. XAFS analyses showed that the k3-weighted extended-XAFS functions and the radial structural function of Cs accumulated by the cells in the metabolically active condition were similar to those in the resting condition, indicating that chemical states of the accumulated Cs were nearly the same between both conditions. These results indicate that the fungus accumulates radiocesium by competitively with minerals in the soils, and performs higher retardation of the migration of Cs in the metabolically active condition than the resting one. A part of this study is the results of "Multidisciplinary investigation on radiocesium fate and transport for safety assessment for interim storage and disposal of heterogeneous waste" carried out under the Initiatives for Atomic Energy Basic and Generic Strategic Research by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan.

Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Sakamoto, Fuminori; Kozai, Naofumi; Yamasaki, Shinya; Yu, Qianqian

2014-05-01

302

Isolation and characterization of a mutant recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain with high efficiency xylose utilization.  

Science.gov (United States)

A recombinant xylose-utilizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain carrying one copy of heterologous XYL1 and XYL2 from Pichia stipitis and endogenous XKS1 under the control of the TDH3 promoter in the chromosomal DNA was constructed from the industrial haploid yeast strain NAM34-4C, which showed thermotolerance and acid tolerance. The recombinant S. cerevisiae strain SCB7 grew in minimal medium containing xylose as the sole carbon source, and its shortest generation time (G(short)) was 5 h. From this strain, four mutants showing rapid growth (G(short) = 2.5 h) in the minimal medium were isolated. The mutants carried four mutations that were classified into three linkage groups. Three mutations were dominant and one mutation was recessive to the wild type allele. The recessive mutation was in the PHO13 gene encoding para-nitrophenyl phosphatase. The other mutant genes were not linked to TAL1 gene encoding transaldolase. When the mutants and their parental strain were used for the batch fermentation in a complex medium at pH 4.0 containing 30 g/L xylose at 35 °C with shaking (60 rpm) and an initial cell density (Absorbance at 660 nm) of 1.0, all mutants showed efficient ethanol production and xylose consumption from the early stage of the fermentation culture. In two mutants, within 24 h, 4.8 g/L ethanol was produced, and the ethanol yield was 47%, which was 1.4 times higher than that achieved with the parental strain. The xylose concentration in the medium containing the mutant decreased linearly at a rate of 1 g/L/h until 24 h. PMID:23810666

Tomitaka, Masataka; Taguchi, Hisataka; Fukuda, Kohsai; Akamatsu, Takashi; Kida, Kenji

2013-12-01

303

Construction of lactose-consuming Saccharomyces cerevisiae for lactose fermentation into ethanol fuel.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two lactose-consuming diploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, AY-51024A and AY-51024M, were constructed by expressing the LAC4 and LAC12 genes of Kluyveromyces marxianus in the host strain AY-5. In AY-51024A, both genes were targeted to the ATH1 and NTH1 gene-encoding regions to abolish the activity of acid/neutral trehalase. In AY-51024M, both genes were respectively integrated into the MIG1 and NTH1 gene-encoding regions to relieve glucose repression. Physiologic studies of the two transformants under anaerobic cultivations in glucose and galactose media indicated that the expression of both LAC genes did not physiologically burden the cells, except for AY-51024A in glucose medium. Galactose consumption was initiated at higher glucose concentrations in the MIG1 deletion strain AY-51024M than in the corresponding wild-type strain and AY-51024A, wherein galactose was consumed until glucose was completely depleted in the mixture. In lactose medium, the Sp. growth rates of AY-51024A and AY-51024M under anaerobic shake-flasks were 0.025 and 0.067 h(-1), respectively. The specific lactose uptake rate and ethanol production of AY-51024M were 2.50 g lactose g CDW(-1) h(-1) and 23.4 g l(-1), respectively, whereas those of AY-51024A were 0.98 g lactose g CDW(-1) h(-1) and 24.3 g lactose g CDW(-1) h(-1), respectively. In concentrated cheese whey powder solutions, AY-51024M produced 63.3 g l(-1) ethanol from approximately 150 g l(-1) initial lactose in 120 h, conversely, AY-51024A consumed 63.7 % of the initial lactose and produced 35.9 g l(-1) ethanol. Therefore, relieving glucose repression is an effective strategy for constructing lactose-consuming S. cerevisiae. PMID:23344501

Zou, Jing; Guo, Xuewu; Shen, Tong; Dong, Jian; Zhang, Cuiying; Xiao, Dongguang

2013-04-01

304

Regulation of PKA activity by an autophosphorylation mechanism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

PKA (cAMP-dependent protein kinase) activity, as well as that of other AGC members, is regulated by multiple phosphorylations of its catalytic subunits. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the PKA regulatory subunit is encoded by the gene BCY1, and the catalytic subunits are encoded by three genes: TPK1, TPK2 and TPK3. Previously, we have reported that, following cAMP/PKA pathway activation, Tpk1 increases its phosphorylation status. Now, in vivo genetic and in vitro experiments indicate an autophosphorylation mechanism for Tpk1. Using array peptides derived from Tpk1, we identified Ser179 as a target residue. Tpk1 is phosphorylated on Ser179 in vivo during glucose stimulus. Reduction of the activation loop Thr241 phosphorylation increases Ser179 autophosphorylation. To evaluate the role of phosphorylation on Ser179, we made strains expressing tpk1S179A or tpk1S179D as the sole PKA kinase source. Our results suggest that Ser179 phosphorylation increases the reactivity towards the substrate without affecting the formation of the holoenzyme. Phenotypic readout analysis showed that Ser179 phosphorylation increases in vivo PKA activity, reducing cell survival, stress and lifespan. Ser179 phosphorylation increases Tpk1 cytoplasmic accumulation in glucose-grown cells. These results describe for the first time that an autophosphorylation mechanism on Tpk1 controls PKA activity in response to glucose availability. PMID:24947305

Solari, Clara Andrea; Tudisca, Vanesa; Pugliessi, Marcelo; Nadra, Alejandro Daniel; Moreno, Silvia; Portela, Paula

2014-09-15

305

Locus-specific suppression of ilv1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by deregulation of CHA1 transcription.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ILV1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes the anabolic threonine deaminase, which catalyzes the first committed step in isoleucine biosynthesis. Strains devoid of a functional Ilv1p have a requirement for isoleucine. Threonine can also be deaminated by a second serine/threonine deaminase encoded by the CHA1 gene. CHA1 is regulated by transcriptional induction by serine and threonine, and enables yeast to utilize the hydroxyamino acids as sole nitrogen source. Phenotypic suppression of ilv1 can occur by inducer-mediated transcriptional activation of the CHA1 gene. To identify mutations in putative trnas-acting factors regulating CHA1 expression, we have isolated and characterized three extragenic suppressors of ilv1. A dominant mutation, SIL4 (suppressor of ilv1), is allelic to HOM3. It increases the size of the threonine pool, by 15- to 20-fold, which is sufficient to induce CHA1 transcription, thereby creating a metabolic bypass of ilv1. A second dominant mutation, SIL3, and a recessive mutation, sil2, both suppress ilv1 by causing inducer-independent, constitutive transcription of CHA1. Importantly, sil2 and SIL3 increase the expression of a CHA1p-lacZ translational gene fusion, demonstrating that they exert their action through the CHA1 promoter. Genetic analysis showed that both SIL3 and sil2 are alleles of CHA4, a positive regulator of CHA1, i.e., they convert Cha4p to a constitutive activator. PMID:9323359

Pedersen, J O; Rodríguez, M A; Praetorius-Ibba, M; Nilsson-Tillgren, T; Calderón, I L; Holmberg, S

1997-08-01

306

Antibodies anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ASCA) do not differentiate Crohn's disease from celiac disease / Anticorpos anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae não diferenciam doença de Crohn de doença celíaca  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese RACIONAL: Anticorpos anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies, considerados marcadores sorológicos para a doença de Crohn, foram descritos em pacientes com doença celíaca, desaparecendo após dieta isenta de glúten. OBJETIVOS: Avaliação da positividade de anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies em p [...] acientes com doença de Crohn e doença celíaca, em relação a indivíduos sadios da mesma área geográfica. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 145 pacientes, 36 com doença de Crohn e 52 com doença celíaca que preencheram os critérios diagnósticos para ambas as afecções, e 57 indivíduos sadios para controle. Os pacientes celíacos foram divididos como segue: ao diagnóstico (grupo doença celíaca I: n = 34), obedientes à dieta isenta de glúten (grupo doença celíaca II: n = 13) e não-aderentes à dieta isenta de glúten (grupo doença celíaca III: n = 5). Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies IgA e IgG foram determinados por ELISA. RESULTADOS: Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies IgA foi positivo na doença de Crohn, nos celíacos ao diagnóstico e nos transgressores à dieta, com significado estatístico. Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies IgG foi positivo na doença de Crohn e em todos os grupos de celíacos, com significado estatístico. CONCLUSÕES: A detecção de anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies em pacientes com doença celíaca permite sugerir que o mesmo não seja marcador específico para a doença de Crohn, mas que esteja associado à inflamação do intestino delgado. A positividade de anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies pode ser decorrente de fatores genéticos e aumento da permeabilidade intestinal. Abstract in english CONTEXT: Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA), considered serologic markers for Crohn's disease, were described in patients with celiac disease, disappearing after a gluten-free diet. OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of ASCA positivity in patients with Crohn's disease and celiac disease in relation [...] to healthy individuals. METHODS: A total of 145 individuals were studied: 36 with Crohn's disease and 52 with celiac disease, that fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for both affections, and 57 healthy individuals for control. The celiac patients were divided as follow: group CeD I at diagnosis (n = 34), group CeD II with gluten-free diet compliance (n = 13) and group CeD III with transgressions to the diet (n = 5). ASCA IgA and IgG were determined by ELISA. RESULTS: With statistical significance, ASCA IgA were positive in Crohn's disease, celiac disease at diagnosis and celiac disease with diet transgressions; ASCA IgG in Crohn's disease and in all groups with celiac disease. CONCLUSIONS: The detection of ASCA in patients with celiac disease allows to suggest that ASCA is not a specific marker for Crohn's disease, but was associated with the inflammation of the small intestine. The increased levels of positive ASCA may be due to genetic factors and increased intestinal permeability.

Lorete Maria da Silva, Kotze; Renato Mitsunori, Nisihara; Shirley Ramos da Rosa, Utiyama; Paulo Gustavo, Kotze; Petra Mirella, Theiss; Márcia, Olandoski.

307

Antibodies anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ASCA do not differentiate Crohn's disease from celiac disease Anticorpos anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae não diferenciam doença de Crohn de doença celíaca  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available CONTEXT: Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA, considered serologic markers for Crohn's disease, were described in patients with celiac disease, disappearing after a gluten-free diet. OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of ASCA positivity in patients with Crohn's disease and celiac disease in relation to healthy individuals. METHODS: A total of 145 individuals were studied: 36 with Crohn's disease and 52 with celiac disease, that fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for both affections, and 57 healthy individuals for control. The celiac patients were divided as follow: group CeD I at diagnosis (n = 34, group CeD II with gluten-free diet compliance (n = 13 and group CeD III with transgressions to the diet (n = 5. ASCA IgA and IgG were determined by ELISA. RESULTS: With statistical significance, ASCA IgA were positive in Crohn's disease, celiac disease at diagnosis and celiac disease with diet transgressions; ASCA IgG in Crohn's disease and in all groups with celiac disease. CONCLUSIONS: The detection of ASCA in patients with celiac disease allows to suggest that ASCA is not a specific marker for Crohn's disease, but was associated with the inflammation of the small intestine. The increased levels of positive ASCA may be due to genetic factors and increased intestinal permeability.RACIONAL: Anticorpos anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies, considerados marcadores sorológicos para a doença de Crohn, foram descritos em pacientes com doença celíaca, desaparecendo após dieta isenta de glúten. OBJETIVOS: Avaliação da positividade de anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies em pacientes com doença de Crohn e doença celíaca, em relação a indivíduos sadios da mesma área geográfica. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 145 pacientes, 36 com doença de Crohn e 52 com doença celíaca que preencheram os critérios diagnósticos para ambas as afecções, e 57 indivíduos sadios para controle. Os pacientes celíacos foram divididos como segue: ao diagnóstico (grupo doença celíaca I: n = 34, obedientes à dieta isenta de glúten (grupo doença celíaca II: n = 13 e não-aderentes à dieta isenta de glúten (grupo doença celíaca III: n = 5. Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies IgA e IgG foram determinados por ELISA. RESULTADOS: Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies IgA foi positivo na doença de Crohn, nos celíacos ao diagnóstico e nos transgressores à dieta, com significado estatístico. Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies IgG foi positivo na doença de Crohn e em todos os grupos de celíacos, com significado estatístico. CONCLUSÕES: A detecção de anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies em pacientes com doença celíaca permite sugerir que o mesmo não seja marcador específico para a doença de Crohn, mas que esteja associado à inflamação do intestino delgado. A positividade de anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies pode ser decorrente de fatores genéticos e aumento da permeabilidade intestinal.

Lorete Maria da Silva Kotze

2010-09-01

308

Determinação de isotermas de adsorção de Saccharomyces cerevisiae empregando acetato e sulfato de cádmio Cadmium adsorption isotherms by Saccharomyces cerevisiae using cadmiun acetate and sulphate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Para determinar as isotermas de adsorção de cádmio por Saccharomyces cerevisiae, foram utilizados os sais acetato e sulfato de cádmio, nas concentrações de 5; 10; 20; 40; 60; 80 e 100 mg.L-1. A biomassa foi produzida a partir de uma cultura "starter" de Saccharomyces cerevisiae IZ 1904. Após o contato de 16 horas entre o microrganismo em estudo e as soluções teste, a biomassa foi separada por centrifugação e o teor de cádmio residual foi determinado por espectrofotometria de absorção atômica diretamente no sobrenadante. Os dois sais testados demonstraram acúmulo crescente do metal nas concentrações de 5; 10; 20 e 40 mg.L-1. Porém, nas concentrações de 60; 80 e 100 mg.L-1, foi observado um acúmulo decrescente do metal, mostrando assim danos da parede celular, nem sempre evidenciados em nível de membrana citoplasmática, visualizados por microscopia eletrônica de varredura.To determine the isotherms of the adsorption of cadmium for Saccharomyces cerevisiae, acetate and sulphate salts were used at the concentrations of 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 mg.L-1. The biomass was produced from a starter culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae IZ 1904. After the contact of 16 hours among the microrganism study and the solution-test, the biomass was separated by a centrifugation and the cadmium residue content was determined directly in the supernatant by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. For the two salts which were used, a growing accumulation of cadmium was observed at concentrations of 5, 10, 20, and 40 mg.L-1. In the concentrations of 60; 80 and 100 mg.L-1 a decrease in the accumulation of the metal was observed, showing damage to the cellular wall, not always observed at the membrane citoplasmatic's level, visualized by a scanning electron microscopy.

Silvana Albertini

2007-06-01

309

Ethanol Tolerance in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Is Dependent on Cellular Oleic Acid Content  

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In this investigation, we examined the effects of different unsaturated fatty acid compositions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the growth-inhibiting effects of ethanol. The unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) composition of S. cerevisiae is relatively simple, consisting almost exclusively of the mono-UFAs palmitoleic acid (?9Z-C16:1) and oleic acid (?9Z-C18:1), with the former predominating. Both UFAs are formed in S. cerevisiae by the oxygen- and NADH-dependent desaturation of palmitic acid (C16:...

You, Kyung Man; Rosenfield, Claire-lise; Knipple, Douglas C.

2003-01-01

310

Genetic engineering to enhance the Ehrlich pathway and alter carbon flux for increased isobutanol production from glucose by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The production of higher alcohols by engineered bacteria has received significant attention. The budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has considerable potential as a producer of higher alcohols because of its capacity to naturally fabricate fusel alcohols, in addition to its robustness and tolerance to low pH. However, because its natural productivity is not significant, we considered a strategy of genetic engineering to increase production of the branched-chain higher alcohol isobutanol, which is involved in valine biosynthesis. Initially, we overexpressed 2-keto acid decarboxylase (KDC) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) in S. cerevisiae to enhance the endogenous activity of the Ehrlich pathway. We then overexpressed Ilv2, which catalyzes the first step in the valine synthetic pathway, and deleted the PDC1 gene encoding a major pyruvate decarboxylase with the intent of altering the abundant ethanol flux via pyruvate. Through these engineering steps, along with modification of culture conditions, the isobutanol titer of S. cerevisiae was elevated 13-fold, from 11 mg/l to 143 mg/l, and the yield was 6.6 mg/g glucose, which is higher than any previously reported value for S. cerevisiae. PMID:22342368

Kondo, Takashi; Tezuka, Hironori; Ishii, Jun; Matsuda, Fumio; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko

2012-05-31

311

Viabilidade celular de Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultivada em associação com bactérias contaminantes da fermentação alcoólica / Cellular viability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultivated in association with contaminant bacteria of alcoholic fermentation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a influência de bactérias dos gêneros Bacillus e Lactobacillus, bem como de seus produtos metabólicos, na redução da viabilidade celular de leveduras Saccharomyces cerevisiae. As bactérias Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus stearothermophilus, Lacto [...] bacillus fermentum e Lactobacillus plantarum foram cultivadas em associação com a levedura S. cerevisiae (cepa Y-904) por 72 horas a 32 °C, sob agitação. A viabilidade celular, a taxa de brotamento e a população de células de S. cerevisiae e a acidez total, a acidez volátil e o pH dos meios de cultivos foram determinados às 0, 24, 48 e 72 horas do cultivo misto. As culturas de bactérias foram tratadas através do calor, de agente antimicrobiano e de irradiação. Os resultados mostraram que apenas os meios de cultivo mais acidificados, contaminados com as bactérias ativas L. fermentum e B. subtilis, provocaram redução na viabilidade celular de S. cerevisiae. Excetuando a bactéria B. subtilis tratada com radiação gama, as demais bactérias tratadas pelos diferentes processos (calor, irradiação e antimicrobiano) não causaram diminuição da viabilidade celular e da população de S. cerevisiae, indicando que a presença isolada dos metabólitos celulares dessas bactérias não foi suficiente para reduzir a porcentagem de células vivas de S. cerevisiae. Abstract in english The aim of this project was to study the influence of the bacteria Bacillus and Lactobacillus, as well as their metabolic products to decrease the cellular viability of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus stearothermophilus, Lactobacillus [...] fermentum and Lactobacillus plantarum were cultivated in association with yeast S. cerevisiae (strain Y-904) for 72 hours at 32 ºC under agitation. The cellular viability, budding rate and population of S. Cerevisiae and the total acidity, volatile acidity and pH of culture medium were determined at 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours of incubation of the mixed culture. The bacteria cultures were treated by heat sterilization, antibacterial agent and irradiation. The results showed that only the more acidified culture medium, contaminated with active bacteria L. fermentum and B. subtilis, caused a reduction in the yeast cellular viability. Except for the bacteria B. subtilis treated for radiation, the other bacteria treated by the different procedures (heat, radiation and antibacterial) did not cause a reduction in the cellular viability of S. cerevisiae, indicating that the isolated presence of the cellular metabolic of these bacteria was not enough to reduce the percentage of the living yeast cells.

Thais de Paula, Nobre; Jorge, Horii; André Ricardo, Alcarde.

2007-03-01

312

Viabilidade celular de Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultivada em associação com bactérias contaminantes da fermentação alcoólica Cellular viability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultivated in association with contaminant bacteria of alcoholic fermentation  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a influência de bactérias dos gêneros Bacillus e Lactobacillus, bem como de seus produtos metabólicos, na redução da viabilidade celular de leveduras Saccharomyces cerevisiae. As bactérias Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus stearothermophilus, Lactobacillus fermentum e Lactobacillus plantarum foram cultivadas em associação com a levedura S. cerevisiae (cepa Y-904 por 72 horas a 32 °C, sob agitação. A viabilidade celular, a taxa de brotamento e a população de células de S. cerevisiae e a acidez total, a acidez volátil e o pH dos meios de cultivos foram determinados às 0, 24, 48 e 72 horas do cultivo misto. As culturas de bactérias foram tratadas através do calor, de agente antimicrobiano e de irradiação. Os resultados mostraram que apenas os meios de cultivo mais acidificados, contaminados com as bactérias ativas L. fermentum e B. subtilis, provocaram redução na viabilidade celular de S. cerevisiae. Excetuando a bactéria B. subtilis tratada com radiação gama, as demais bactérias tratadas pelos diferentes processos (calor, irradiação e antimicrobiano não causaram diminuição da viabilidade celular e da população de S. cerevisiae, indicando que a presença isolada dos metabólitos celulares dessas bactérias não foi suficiente para reduzir a porcentagem de células vivas de S. cerevisiae.The aim of this project was to study the influence of the bacteria Bacillus and Lactobacillus, as well as their metabolic products to decrease the cellular viability of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus stearothermophilus, Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus plantarum were cultivated in association with yeast S. cerevisiae (strain Y-904 for 72 hours at 32 ºC under agitation. The cellular viability, budding rate and population of S. Cerevisiae and the total acidity, volatile acidity and pH of culture medium were determined at 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours of incubation of the mixed culture. The bacteria cultures were treated by heat sterilization, antibacterial agent and irradiation. The results showed that only the more acidified culture medium, contaminated with active bacteria L. fermentum and B. subtilis, caused a reduction in the yeast cellular viability. Except for the bacteria B. subtilis treated for radiation, the other bacteria treated by the different procedures (heat, radiation and antibacterial did not cause a reduction in the cellular viability of S. cerevisiae, indicating that the isolated presence of the cellular metabolic of these bacteria was not enough to reduce the percentage of the living yeast cells.

Thais de Paula Nobre

2007-03-01

313

Isolation and characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains of winery interest / Isolamento e caracterização de cepas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae de interesse em produção de vinho  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Despite the availability of several Saccharomyces cerevisiae commercial strains intended for wine production, strains isolated from winery regions are usually more adapted to their own climatic conditions, grapes and also partially responsible for particular characteristics that frequently identify [...] specific wines and regions. Thus the microbiota of an important winery region (Colombo) was studied in order to isolate and characterize S. cerevisiae strains that could be used on wine production. From 61 yeasts isolated, 14 were identified as S. cerevisiae. Some of them showed fermentative characteristics even better than commercial strains indicating that they could be applied on wine production in order to increase the quality and assure the particular wine characteristics of that region.

Thais M., Guimarães; Danilo G., Moriel; Iara P., Machado; Cyntia M. T. Fadel, Picheth; Tania M. B., Bonfim.

314

Isolation and characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains of winery interest Isolamento e caracterização de cepas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae de interesse em produção de vinho  

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Full Text Available Despite the availability of several Saccharomyces cerevisiae commercial strains intended for wine production, strains isolated from winery regions are usually more adapted to their own climatic conditions, grapes and also partially responsible for particular characteristics that frequently identify specific wines and regions. Thus the microbiota of an important winery region (Colombo was studied in order to isolate and characterize S. cerevisiae strains that could be used on wine production. From 61 yeasts isolated, 14 were identified as S. cerevisiae. Some of them showed fermentative characteristics even better than commercial strains indicating that they could be applied on wine production in order to increase the quality and assure the particular wine characteristics of that region.

Thais M. Guimarães

2006-03-01

315

Crystal structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase Gnd1  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background As the third enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH is the main generator of cellular NADPH. Both thioredoxin reductase and glutathione reductase require NADPH as the electron donor to reduce oxidized thioredoxin or glutathione (GSSG. Since thioredoxin and GSH are important antioxidants, it is not surprising that 6PGDH plays a critical role in protecting cells from oxidative stress. Furthermore the activity of 6PGDH is associated with several human disorders including cancer and Alzheimer's disease. The 3D structural investigation would be very valuable in designing small molecules that target this enzyme for potential therapeutic applications. Results The crystal structure of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH/Gnd1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been determined at 2.37 Å resolution by molecular replacement. The overall structure of Gnd1 is a homodimer with three domains for each monomer, a Rossmann fold NADP+ binding domain, an all-? helical domain contributing the majority to hydrophobic interaction between the two subunits and a small C-terminal domain penetrating the other subunit. In addition, two citrate molecules occupied the 6PG binding pocket of each monomer. The intact Gnd1 had a Km of 50 ± 9 ?M for 6-phosphogluconate and of 35 ± 6 ?M for NADP+ at pH 7.5. But the truncated mutants without the C-terminal 35, 39 or 53 residues of Gnd1 completely lost their 6PGDH activity, despite remaining the homodimer in solution. Conclusion The overall tertiary structure of Gnd1 is similar to those of 6PGDH from other species. The substrate and coenzyme binding sites are well conserved, either from the primary sequence alignment, or from the 3D structural superposition. Enzymatic activity assays suggest a sequential mechanism of catalysis, which is in agreement with previous studies. The C-terminal domain of Gnd1 functions as a hook to further tighten the dimer, but it is not necessary for the dimerization. This domain also works as a lid on the substrate binding pocket to control the binding of substrate and the release of product, so it is indispensable for the 6PGDH activity. Moreover, the co-crystallized citrate molecules, which mimic the binding mode of the substrate 6-phosphogluconate, provided us a novel strategy to design the 6PDGH inhibitors.

Zhou Cong-Zhao

2007-06-01

316

Implementation of Sliding Mode Controller with Boundary Layer for Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fed-batch Cultivation  

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Full Text Available An implementation of sliding mode control for yeast fed-batch cultivation is presented in this paper. Developed controller has been implemented on two real fed-batch cultivations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The controller successfully stabilizes the process and shows a very good performance at high input disturbances.

Stoyan Tzonkov

2005-04-01

317

Functional States Recognition System for Fed-batch Cultivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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Full Text Available Free software for entering and documenting data EpiData is here used for design of a system for functional states recognition during a fermentation process. The identification of the current process state is based on the predetermined rules, rendering specific metabolic mechanisms. Developed system is further applied for a fed-batch cultivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Pencheva T.

2008-12-01

318

The uptake of different iron salts by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Yeasts can be enriched with microelements, including iron; however, special physicochemical conditions are required to formulate a culture media that promotes both yeast growth and iron uptake. Different iron sources do not affect biomass formation; however, considering efficacy, cost, stability, an [...] d compatibility with Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolism, ferrous sulphate is recommended.

Fernanda, Gaensly; Geraldo, Picheth; Debora, Brand; Tania M.B., Bonfim.

319

The uptake of different iron salts by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Yeasts can be enriched with microelements, including iron; however, special physicochemical conditions are required to formulate a culture media that promotes both yeast growth and iron uptake. Different iron sources do not affect biomass formation; however, considering efficacy, cost, stability, an [...] d compatibility with Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolism, ferrous sulphate is recommended.

Fernanda, Gaensly; Geraldo, Picheth; Debora, Brand; Tania M.B., Bonfim.

2014-06-01

320

X-ray enhances mating type switching in heterothallic strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A procedure for the determination of the frequency of mating type switching in heterothallic strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was worked out. In cell populations irradiated with X-rays the frequencies of switching were enhanced in a dose-dependent manner. The possible implication of this finding for understanding the mechanism of carcinogenesis is discussed. (orig.)

 
 
 
 
321

Production of Ethanol from Starch by Respiration-Deficient Recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A 100%-respiration-deficient nuclear petite amylolytic Saccharomyces cerevisiae NPB-G strain was generated, and its employment for direct fermentation of starch into ethanol was investigated. In a comparison of ethanol fermentation performances with the parental respiration-sufficient WTPB-G strain, the NPB-G strain showed an increase of ca. 48% in both ethanol yield and ethanol productivity.

Toksoy O?ner, Ebru; Oliver, Stephen G.; K?rdar, Betu?l

2005-01-01

322

Saccharomyces cerevisiae of palm wine-enhanced ethanol production by using mutagens  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The newly isolated Saccharomyces cerevisiae of palm wine produced enhanced amounts of ethanol when cells were UV-irradiated and treated with N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. A further increase of ethanol was observed in yeast extract, peptone, dextrose medium fortified with yeast extract, skimmed milk and soya flour. (author). 9 refs

323

High-efficiency transformation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells by bacterial minicell protoplast fusion.  

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After a new transformation procedure, 10% of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells were found to contain transforming DNA sequences. We used direct transfer of plasmid molecules by fusing bacterial minicell protoplasts to yeast protoplasts. Since the procedure significantly reduces the toxic effect of procaryotic protoplasm on the eucaryotic organism, it might be generally applicable in other systems in which transformation is inefficient or impossible.

Gyuris, J.; Duda, E. G.

1986-01-01

324

Elucidation of molecular pathways involved in Saccharomyces cerevisiae apoptotic cell death  

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A levedura Saccharomyces cerevisiae apresenta um mecanismo de morte celular programada com um fenótipo apoptótico, desencadeado por diferentes estímulos, quer externos, quer fisiológicos. Este processo é mediado por inúmeros reguladores apoptóticos, ortólogos aos existentes em mamíferos. Evidências anteriores indicam que as leveduras, tal como as células de mamífero, possuem diferentes vias de indução de morte apoptótica. No entanto são ainda muito limitados os ...

Almeida, Bruno

2009-01-01

325

Screening and identification of respiration deficiency mutants of yeasts (Saccharomyces Cerevisiae) induced by heavy ion irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A screen of respiration deficiency mutants of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae induced by 5.19 MeV/u 22Ne5- ion irradiation is studied. Some respiration deficiency mutants, which are white colony phenotype in the selective culture of TTC medium, are obtained. The mutants are effectively identified by means of a new and simplified restriction analysis method. (authors)

326

Effect of X-irradiation on frameshift and missense mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In cell populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae homogeneous for sensitivity to X-irradiation, induction of base insertions/deletions and base substitutions was quantitatively analyzed in a reversion system. The repair mechanisms phenotypically unexpressed in the sensitive cell fraction and fully operating in resistant cells did not affect point mutations of either type. (Auth.)

327

The effect of covalent immobilization on ethanol-induced leakage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ethanol-induced leakage of UV-absorbing compounds from free and immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells was studied. The resistance of immobilized cells to this ethanol effect is accompanied with increased levels of phospholipids and sterols. These reslts suggest a positive role of whole cell immobilization in improving yeast ethanol tolerance. (orig.).

Jirku, V. (Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague (Czechoslovakia). Dept. of Fermentation Chemistry and Bioengineering)

1991-01-01

328

Increased isobutanol production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by overexpression of genes in valine metabolism  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Isobutanol can be a better biofuel than ethanol due to its higher energy density and lower hygroscopicity. Furthermore, the branched-chain structure of isobutanol gives a higher octane number than the isomeric n-butanol. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was chosen as the production host because of its relative tolerance to alcohols, robustness in industrial fermentations, and the possibility for future combination of isobutanol production with fermentation of lignocellulosic materials. RESULTS: The yield of isobutanol was improved from 0.16 to 0.97 mg per g glucose by simultaneous overexpression of biosynthetic genes ILV2, ILV3, and ILV5 in valine metabolism in anaerobic fermentation of glucose in mineral medium in S. cerevisiae. Isobutanol yield was further improved by twofold by the additional overexpression of BAT2, encoding the cytoplasmic branched-chain amino-acid aminotransferase. Overexpression of ILV6, encoding the regulatory subunit of Ilv2, in the ILV2 ILV3 ILV5 overexpression strain decreased isobutanol production yield by threefold. In aerobic cultivations in shake flasks in mineral medium, the isobutanol yield of the ILV2 ILV3 ILV5 overexpression strain and the reference strain were 3.86 and 0.28 mg per g glucose, respectively. They increased to 4.12 and 2.4 mg per g glucose in yeast extract/peptone/dextrose (YPD) complex medium under aerobic conditions, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Overexpression of genes ILV2, ILV3, ILV5, and BAT2 in valine metabolism led to an increase in isobutanol production in S. cerevisiae. Additional overexpression of ILV6 in the ILV2 ILV3 ILV5 overexpression strain had a negative effect, presumably by increasing the sensitivity of Ilv2 to valine inhibition, thus weakening the positive impact of overexpression of ILV2, ILV3, and ILV5 on isobutanol production. Aerobic cultivations of the ILV2 ILV3 ILV5 overexpression strain and the reference strain showed that supplying amino acids in cultivation media gave a substantial improvement in isobutanol production for the referencestrain, but not for the ILV2 ILV3 ILV5 overexpression strain. This result implies that other constraints besides the enzyme activities for the supply of 2-ketoisovalerate may become bottlenecks for isobutanol production after ILV2, ILV3, and ILV5 have been overexpressed, which most probably includes the valine inhibition to Ilv2.

Chen, Xiao; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

2011-01-01

329

Increased isobutanol production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by overexpression of genes in valine metabolism  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Isobutanol can be a better biofuel than ethanol due to its higher energy density and lower hygroscopicity. Furthermore, the branched-chain structure of isobutanol gives a higher octane number than the isomeric n-butanol. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was chosen as the production host because of its relative tolerance to alcohols, robustness in industrial fermentations, and the possibility for future combination of isobutanol production with fermentation of lignocellulosic materials. Results The yield of isobutanol was improved from 0.16 to 0.97 mg per g glucose by simultaneous overexpression of biosynthetic genes ILV2, ILV3, and ILV5 in valine metabolism in anaerobic fermentation of glucose in mineral medium in S. cerevisiae. Isobutanol yield was further improved by twofold by the additional overexpression of BAT2, encoding the cytoplasmic branched-chain amino-acid aminotransferase. Overexpression of ILV6, encoding the regulatory subunit of Ilv2, in the ILV2 ILV3 ILV5 overexpression strain decreased isobutanol production yield by threefold. In aerobic cultivations in shake flasks in mineral medium, the isobutanol yield of the ILV2 ILV3 ILV5 overexpression strain and the reference strain were 3.86 and 0.28 mg per g glucose, respectively. They increased to 4.12 and 2.4 mg per g glucose in yeast extract/peptone/dextrose (YPD complex medium under aerobic conditions, respectively. Conclusions Overexpression of genes ILV2, ILV3, ILV5, and BAT2 in valine metabolism led to an increase in isobutanol production in S. cerevisiae. Additional overexpression of ILV6 in the ILV2 ILV3 ILV5 overexpression strain had a negative effect, presumably by increasing the sensitivity of Ilv2 to valine inhibition, thus weakening the positive impact of overexpression of ILV2, ILV3, and ILV5 on isobutanol production. Aerobic cultivations of the ILV2 ILV3 ILV5 overexpression strain and the reference strain showed that supplying amino acids in cultivation media gave a substantial improvement in isobutanol production for the reference strain, but not for the ILV2 ILV3 ILV5 overexpression strain. This result implies that other constraints besides the enzyme activities for the supply of 2-ketoisovalerate may become bottlenecks for isobutanol production after ILV2, ILV3, and ILV5 have been overexpressed, which most probably includes the valine inhibition to Ilv2.

Karhumaa Kaisa

2011-07-01

330

Heterologous expression and characterization of bacterial 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol-4-phosphate pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Transfer of a biosynthetic pathway between evolutionary distant organisms can create a metabolic shunt capable of bypassing the native regulation of the host organism, hereby improving the production of secondary metabolite precursor molecules for important natural products. Here, we report the engineering of Escherichia coli genes encoding the 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathway into the genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the characterization of intermediate metabolites synthesized by the MEP pathway in yeast. Our UPLC-MS analysis of the MEP pathway metabolites from engineered yeast showed that the pathway is active until the synthesis of 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol-2,4-cyclodiphosphate, but appears to lack functionality of the last two steps of the MEP pathway, catalyzed by the [4Fe–4S] iron sulfur cluster proteins encoded by ispG and ispH. In order to functionalize the last two steps of the MEP pathway, we co-expressed the genes for the E. coli iron sulfur cluster (ISC) assembly machinery. Bydeleting ERG13, thereby incapacitating the mevalonate pathway, in conjunction with labeling experiments with U–13C6 glucose and growth experiments, we found that the ISC assembly machinery was unable to functionalize ispG and ispH. However, we have found that leuC and leuD, encoding the heterodimeric iron–sulfur cluster protein, isopropylmalate isomerase, can complement the S. cerevisiae leu1 auxotrophy. To our knowledge, this is the first time a bacterial iron–sulfur cluster protein has been functionally expressed in the cytosol of S. cerevisiae under aerobic conditions and shows that S. cerevisiae has the capability to functionally express at least some bacterial iron–sulfur cluster proteins in its cytosol.

Carlsen, Simon; Ajikumar, Parayil Kumaran

2013-01-01

331

Expresión heteróloga de un péptido multiepitópico de células B de M. tuberculosis en Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Saccharomyces cerevisiae ha sido ampliamente utilizada como sistema de expresión de proteínas heterólogas. El presente trabajo se encaminó hacia la expresión en Saccharomyces cerevisiae de un péptido de epitopes múltiples de M. tuberculosis. Con dicho propósito el péptido quimérico denominado B2 fue [...] clonado en dos vectores de expresión de esta levadura con promotores regulables por galactosa y sulfato cúprico, respectivamente. Luego de los experimentos de inducción, la expresión del péptido B2 fue analizada mediante SDS/PAGE y Western blot. El análisis por Western blot confirmó la expresión del péptido B2, al hacerse la inducción con 100 mM de CuSO4 durante toda la noche. No ocurrió así en los experimentos donde se utilizó la galactosa como inductor con todas las condiciones ensayadas. Estos resultados muestran que la levadura Saccharomyces cerevisiae pudiera ser un buen hospedero alternativo para la expresión de péptidos multiepitópicos de M. tuberculosis. Abstract in english Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been widely used as expression system of heterologous proteins. The aim of the present work was the expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae of a class B multiepitopic peptide from M. tuberculosis. For this purpose, the chimerical peptide named B2 was cloned in two yeast e [...] xpression vectors containing galactose and cupric sulphate regulated promoters, respectively. After induction experiments, B2 expression was analyzed by SDS/PAGE and Western Blot. By Western Blot analysis B2 expression was confirmed when induction took place overnight with 100 mM of CuSO4. No expression signal took place when galactose was used as inductor. These results show that Sacchromyces cervisiae could be a good alternative host for the expression of multiepitopic peptides from M. tuberculosis.

María de los Angeles, García; María Elena, Sarmiento; Roberto, Coria; Laura, Kawasaky; Laura, Ongay; Juan Francisco, de la Rosa; Armando, Acosta.

332

Rapid identification of target genes for 3-methyl-1-butanol production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Extracellular conditions determine the taste of fermented foods by affecting metabolite formation by the micro-organisms involved. To identify targets for improvement of metabolite formation in food fermentation processes, automated high-throughput screening and cDNA microarray approaches were applied. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was cultivated in 96-well microtiter plates, and the effects of salt concentration and pH on the growth and synthesis of the fusel alcohol-flavoured substance, 3-methyl-1-butanol, was evaluated. Optimal fermentation conditions for 3-methyl-1-butanol concentration were found at pH 3.0 and 0% NaCl. To identify genes encoding enzymes with major influence on product formation, a genome-wide gene expression analysis was carried out with S. cerevisiae cells grown at pH 3.0 (optimal for 3-methyl-1-butanol formation) and pH 5.0 (yeast cultivated under standard conditions). A subset of 747 genes was significantly induced or repressed when the pH was changed from pH 5.0 to 3.0. Expression of seven genes related to the 3-methyl-1-butanol pathway, i.e. LAT1, PDX1, THI3, ALD4, ILV3, ILV5 and LEU4, strongly changed in response to this switch in pH of the growth medium. In addition, genes involved in NAD metabolism, i.e. BNA2, BNA3, BNA4 and BNA6, or those involved in the TCA cycle and glutamate metabolism, i.e. MEU1, CIT1, CIT2, KDG1 and KDG2, displayed significant changes in expression. The results indicate that this is a rapid and valuable approach for identification of interesting target genes for improvement of yeast strains used in industrial processes. PMID:16041576

Schoondermark-Stolk, Sung A; Jansen, Michael; Veurink, Janine H; Verkleij, Arie J; Verrips, C Theo; Euverink, Gert-Jan W; Boonstra, Johannes; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

2006-03-01

333

Cloning of casbene and neocembrene synthases from Euphorbiaceae plants and expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

A large number of diterpenes have been isolated from Euphorbiaceae plants, many of which are of interest due to toxicity or potential therapeutic activity. Specific Euphorbiaceae diterpenes of medical interest include the latent HIV-1 activator prostratin (and related 12-deoxyphorbol esters), the analgesic resiniferatoxin, and the anticancer drug candidate ingenol 3-angelate. In spite of the large number of diterpenes isolated from these plants and the similarity of their core structures, there is little known about their biosynthetic pathways. Other than the enzymes involved in gibberellin biosynthesis, the only diterpene synthase isolated to date from the Euphorbiaceae has been casbene synthase, responsible for biosynthesis of a macrocyclic diterpene in the castor bean (Ricinus communis). Here, we have selected five Euphorbiaceae species in which to investigate terpene biosynthesis and report on the distribution of diterpene synthases within this family. We have discovered genes encoding putative casbene synthases in all of our selected Euphorbiaceae species and have demonstrated high-level casbene production through expression of four of these genes in a metabolically engineered strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The only other diterpene synthase found among the five plants was a neocembrene synthase from R. communis (this being the first report of a neocembrene synthase gene). Based on the prevalence of casbene synthases, the lack of other candidates, and the structure of the casbene skeleton, we consider it likely that casbene is the precursor to a large number of Euphorbiaceae diterpenes. Casbene production levels of 31 mg/L were achieved in S. cerevisiae and we discuss strategies to further increase production by maximizing flux through the mevalonate pathway. PMID:20594566

Kirby, James; Nishimoto, Minobu; Park, J Genevieve; Withers, Sydnor T; Nowroozi, Farnaz; Behrendt, Dominik; Rutledge, Elizabeth J Garcia; Fortman, Jeffrey L; Johnson, Holly E; Anderson, James V; Keasling, Jay D

2010-09-01

334

Isolation and characterization of saccharomyces cerevisiae RFA1 gene mutations which confer ultraviolet light sensitivity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Replication protein A (RPA) has been identified as an essential factor of SV40 DNA replication in vitro and is involved in DNA replication, recombination, nucleotide excision repair (NER), mismatch repair, and checkpoint control. It is a heterotrimeric single-stranded DNA binding protein consisting of 70-, 34-, and 14-kDa subunits and highly conserved among eukaryotes, In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, ultraviolet light (UV) sensitive mutations on RFA1 gene which encodes the largest subunit of RPA have been isolated. UV sensitivity could be caused by the defect of several mechanisms, including NER, recombinational repair, and checkpoint control. However, it is unclear which mechanism is defective by each mutation. To investigate it, mutations which confer UV sensitivity on S. cerevisiae RFA1 gene were searched using plasmid shuffling method. Two mutations (36+60 and t6) were isolated and m51 mutation, previously reported by Umezu et al., was added to further analysis. The strain carrying each rfa1 allele showed not only UV sensitivity but also methyl methane sulfonate sensitivity. By the epistasis with rad14, rad52, and rad6 mutations, all mutations were epistatic to RAD52, not to RAD14 or RAD6. UV sensitivity of each rfa1 strain was partially suppressed by over-expression of RAD52 gene. Partial suppression for UV sensitivity by over-expression of each rfa1 gene was also seen in m51 and t6 strains. The amount of RPA was predominantly reduced in m51 and t6 strains. Taken toly reduced in m51 and t6 strains. Taken together, these rfa1 gene mutations cause the defect of recombinational repair. The defect in m51 and t6 strains is mainly caused by the reduction of RPA, while the defect in 36+60 strain is caused by other reasons. (author)

335

Spk1, a new kinase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, phosphorylates proteins on serine, threonine, and tyrosine.  

Science.gov (United States)

A Saccharomyces cerevisiae lambda gt11 library was screened with antiphosphotyrosine antibodies in an attempt to identify a gene encoding a tyrosine kinase. A subclone derived from one positive phage was sequenced and found to contain an 821-amino-acid open reading frame that encodes a protein with homology to protein kinases. We tested the activity of the putative kinase by constructing a vector encoding a glutathione-S-transferase fusion protein containing most of the predicted polypeptide. The fusion protein phosphorylated endogenous substrates and enolase primarily on serine and threonine. The gene was designated SPK1 for serine-protein kinase. Expression of the Spk1 fusion protein in bacteria stimulated serine, threonine, and tyrosine phosphorylation of bacterial proteins. These results, combined with the antiphosphotyrosine immunoreactivity induced by the kinase, indicate that Spk1 is capable of phosphorylating tyrosine as well as phosphorylating serine and threonine. In in vitro assays, the fusion protein kinase phosphorylated the synthetic substrate poly(Glu/Tyr) on tyrosine, but the activity was weak compared with serine and threonine phosphorylation of other substrates. To determine if other serine/threonine kinases would phosphorylate poly(Glu/Tyr), we tested calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and the catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. The two kinases had similar tyrosine-phosphorylating activities. These results establish that the functional difference between serine/threonine- and tyrosine-protein kinases is not absolute and suggest that there may be physiological circumstances in which tyrosine phosphorylation is mediated by serine/threonine kinases. PMID:1899289

Stern, D F; Zheng, P; Beidler, D R; Zerillo, C

1991-02-01

336

Outlining a future for non-Saccharomyces yeasts: selection of putative spoilage wine strains to be used in association with Saccharomyces cerevisiae for grape juice fermentation.  

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The use of non-Saccharomyces yeasts that are generally considered as spoilage yeasts, in association with Saccharomyces cerevisiae for grape must fermentation was here evaluated. Analysis of the main oenological characteristics of pure cultures of 55 yeasts belonging to the genera Hanseniaspora, Pichia, Saccharomycodes and Zygosaccharomyces revealed wide biodiversity within each genus. Moreover, many of these non-Saccharomyces strains had interesting oenological properties in terms of fermentation purity, and ethanol and secondary metabolite production. The use of four non-Saccharomyces yeasts (one per genus) in mixed cultures with a commercial S. cerevisiae strain at different S. cerevisiae/non-Saccharomyces inoculum ratios was investigated. This revealed that most of the compounds normally produced at high concentrations by pure cultures of non-Saccharomyces, and which are considered detrimental to wine quality, do not reach threshold taste levels in these mixed fermentations. On the other hand, the analytical profiles of the wines produced by these mixed cultures indicated that depending on the yeast species and the S. cerevisiae/non-Saccharomyces inoculum ratio, these non-Saccharomyces yeasts can be used to increase production of polysaccharides and to modulate the final concentrations of acetic acid and volatile compounds, such as ethyl acetate, phenyl-ethyl acetate, 2-phenyl ethanol, and 2-methyl 1-butanol. PMID:21531033

Domizio, Paola; Romani, Cristina; Lencioni, Livio; Comitini, Francesca; Gobbi, Mirko; Mannazzu, Ilaria; Ciani, Maurizio

2011-06-30

337

Gateway vectors for efficient artificial gene assembly in vitro and expression in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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Construction of synthetic genetic networks requires the assembly of DNA fragments encoding functional biological parts in a defined order. Yet this may become a time-consuming procedure. To address this technical bottleneck, we have created a series of Gateway shuttle vectors and an integration vector, which facilitate the assembly of artificial genes and their expression in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our method enables the rapid construction of an artificial gene from a promoter and an open reading frame (ORF) cassette by one-step recombination reaction in vitro. Furthermore, the plasmid thus created can readily be introduced into yeast cells to test the assembled gene's functionality. As flexible regulatory components of a synthetic genetic network, we also created new versions of the tetracycline-regulated transactivators tTA and rtTA by fusing them to the auxin-inducible degron (AID). Using our gene assembly approach, we made yeast expression vectors of these engineered transactivators, AIDtTA and AIDrtTA and then tested their functions in yeast. We showed that these factors can be regulated by doxycycline and degraded rapidly after addition of auxin to the medium. Taken together, the method for combinatorial gene assembly described here is versatile and would be a valuable tool for yeast synthetic biology. PMID:23675537

Giuraniuc, Claudiu V; MacPherson, Murray; Saka, Yasushi

2013-01-01

338

Optimization of ordered plasmid assembly by gap repair in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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Combinatorial genetic libraries are powerful tools for diversifying and optimizing biomolecules. The process of library assembly is a major limiting factor for library complexity and quality. Gap repair by homologous recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae can facilitate in vivo assembly of DNA fragments sharing short patches of sequence homology, thereby supporting generation of high-complexity libraries without compromising fidelity. In this study, we have optimized the ordered assembly of three DNA fragments into a gapped vector by in vivo homologous recombination. Assembly is achieved by co-transformation of the DNA fragments and the gapped vector, using a modified lithium acetate protocol. The optimal gap-repair efficiency is found at a 1:80 molar ratio of gapped vector to each of the three fragments. We measured gap-repair efficiency in different genetic backgrounds and observed increased efficiency in mutants carrying a deletion of the SGS1 helicase-encoding gene. Using our experimental conditions, agap-repair efficiency of > 10(6) plasmid-harbouring colonies/µg gapped vector DNA is obtained in a single transformation, with a recombination fidelity > 90%.

Eckert-Boulet, Nadine Valerie; Pedersen, Mette Louise

2012-01-01

339

Exocytosis and Endocytosis of Small Vesicles across the Plasma Membrane in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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When Saccharomyces cerevisiae is starved of glucose, the gluconeogenic enzymes fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, isocitrate lyase, and malate dehydrogenase, as well as the non-gluconeogenic enzymes glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and cyclophilin A, are secreted into the periplasm. In the extracellular fraction, these secreted proteins are associated with small vesicles that account for more than 90% of the total number of extracellular structures observed. When glucose is added to glucose-starved cells, FBPase is internalized and associated with clusters of small vesicles in the cytoplasm. Specifically, the internalization of FBPase results in the decline of FBPase and vesicles in the extracellular fraction and their appearance in the cytoplasm. The clearance of extracellular vesicles and vesicle-associated proteins from the extracellular fraction is dependent on the endocytosis gene END3. This internalization is regulated when cells are transferred from low to high glucose. It is rapidly occurring and is a high capacity process, as clusters of vesicles occupy 10%-20% of the total volume in the cytoplasm in glucose re-fed cells. FBPase internalization also requires the VPS34 gene encoding PI3K. Following internalization, FBPase is delivered to the vacuole for degradation, whereas proteins that are not degraded may be recycled. PMID:25192542

Stein, Kathryn; Chiang, Hui-Ling

2014-01-01

340

Exocytosis and Endocytosis of Small Vesicles across the Plasma Membrane in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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Full Text Available When Saccharomyces cerevisiae is starved of glucose, the gluconeogenic enzymes fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, isocitrate lyase, and malate dehydrogenase, as well as the non-gluconeogenic enzymes glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and cyclophilin A, are secreted into the periplasm. In the extracellular fraction, these secreted proteins are associated with small vesicles that account for more than 90% of the total number of extracellular structures observed. When glucose is added to glucose-starved cells, FBPase is internalized and associated with clusters of small vesicles in the cytoplasm. Specifically, the internalization of FBPase results in the decline of FBPase and vesicles in the extracellular fraction and their appearance in the cytoplasm. The clearance of extracellular vesicles and vesicle-associated proteins from the extracellular fraction is dependent on the endocytosis gene END3. This internalization is regulated when cells are transferred from low to high glucose. It is rapidly occurring and is a high capacity process, as clusters of vesicles occupy 10%–20% of the total volume in the cytoplasm in glucose re-fed cells. FBPase internalization also requires the VPS34 gene encoding PI3K. Following internalization, FBPase is delivered to the vacuole for degradation, whereas proteins that are not degraded may be recycled.

Kathryn Stein

2014-09-01

 
 
 
 
341

How the Rgt1 transcription factor of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is regulated by glucose.  

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Rgt1 is a transcription factor that regulates expression of HXT genes encoding glucose transporters in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Rgt1 represses HXT gene expression in the absence of glucose; high levels of glucose cause Rgt1 to activate expression of HXT1. We identified four functional domains of Rgt1. A domain required for transcriptional repression (amino acids 210-250) is required for interaction of Rgt1 with the Ssn6 corepressor. Another region of Rgt1 (320-380) is required for normal transcriptional activation, and sequences flanking this region (310-320 and 400-410) regulate this function. A central region (520-830) and a short sequence adjacent to the zinc cluster DNA-binding domain (80-90) inhibit transcriptional repression when glucose is present. We found that this middle region of Rgt1 physically interacts with the N-terminal portion of the protein that includes the DNA-binding domain. This interaction is inhibited by the Rgt1 regulator Mth1, which binds to Rgt1. Our results suggest that Mth1 promotes transcriptional repression by Rgt1 by binding to it and preventing the intramolecular interaction, probably by preventing phosphorylation of Rgt1, thereby enabling Rgt1 to bind to DNA. Glucose induces HXT1 gene expression by causing Mth1 degradation, allowing Rgt1 phosphorylation, and leading to the intramolecular interaction that inhibits DNA binding of Rgt1. PMID:15489524

Polish, Jeffrey A; Kim, Jeong-Ho; Johnston, Mark

2005-02-01

342

Structural insights into the substrate tunnel of Saccharomyces cerevisiae carbonic anhydrase Nce103  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The carbonic anhydrases (CAs are involved in inorganic carbon utilization. They have been classified into six evolutionary and structural families: ?-, ?-, ?-, ?-, ?-, ?- CAs, with ?-CAs present in higher plants, algae and prokaryotes. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a single copy of ?-CA Nce103/YNL036W. Results We determined the crystal structure of Nce103 in complex with a substrate analog at 2.04 Å resolution. It assembles as a homodimer, with the active site located at the interface between two monomers. At the bottom of the substrate pocket, a zinc ion is coordinated by the three highly conserved residues Cys57, His112 and Cys115 in addition to a water molecule. Residues Asp59, Arg61, Gly111, Leu102, Val80, Phe75 and Phe97 form a tunnel to the bottom of the active site which is occupied by a molecule of the substrate analog acetate. Activity assays of full length and two truncated versions of Nce103 indicated that the N-terminal arm is indispensable. Conclusion The quaternary structure of Nce103 resembles the typical plant type ?-CAs of known structure, with an N-terminal arm indispensable for the enzymatic activity. Comparative structure analysis enables us to draw a possible tunnel for the substrate to access the active site which is located at the bottom of a funnel-shaped substrate pocket.

Chen Yuxing

2009-10-01

343

Requirements for E1A dependent transcription in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The human adenovirus type 5 early region 1A (E1A gene encodes proteins that are potent regulators of transcription. E1A does not bind DNA directly, but is recruited to target promoters by the interaction with sequence specific DNA binding proteins. In mammalian systems, E1A has been shown to contain two regions that can independently induce transcription when fused to a heterologous DNA binding domain. When expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, each of these regions of E1A also acts as a strong transcriptional activator. This allows yeast to be used as a model system to study mechanisms by which E1A stimulates transcription. Results Using 81 mutant yeast strains, we have evaluated the effect of deleting components of the ADA, COMPASS, CSR, INO80, ISW1, NuA3, NuA4, Mediator, PAF, RSC, SAGA, SAS, SLIK, SWI/SNF and SWR1 transcriptional regulatory complexes on E1A dependent transcription. In addition, we examined the role of histone H2B ubiquitylation by Rad6/Bre1 on transcriptional activation. Conclusion Our analysis indicates that the two activation domains of E1A function via distinct mechanisms, identify new factors regulating E1A dependent transcription and suggest that yeast can serve as a valid model system for at least some aspects of E1A function.

Mymryk Joe S

2009-04-01

344

Effect of 21 different nitrogen sources on global gene expression in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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We compared the transcriptomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells growing under steady-state conditions on 21 unique sources of nitrogen. We found 506 genes differentially regulated by nitrogen and estimated the activation degrees of all identified nitrogen-responding transcriptional controls according to the nitrogen source. One main group of nitrogenous compounds supports fast growth and a highly active nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR) control. Catabolism of these compounds typically yields carbon derivatives directly assimilable by a cell's metabolism. Another group of nitrogen compounds supports slower growth, is associated with excretion by cells of nonmetabolizable carbon compounds such as fusel oils, and is characterized by activation of the general control of amino acid biosynthesis (GAAC). Furthermore, NCR and GAAC appear interlinked, since expression of the GCN4 gene encoding the transcription factor that mediates GAAC is subject to NCR. We also observed that several transcriptional-regulation systems are active under a wider range of nitrogen supply conditions than anticipated. Other transcriptional-regulation systems acting on genes not involved in nitrogen metabolism, e.g., the pleiotropic-drug resistance and the unfolded-protein response systems, also respond to nitrogen. We have completed the lists of target genes of several nitrogen-sensitive regulons and have used sequence comparison tools to propose functions for about 20 orphan genes. Similar studies conducted for other nutrients should provide a more complete view of alternative metabolic pathways in yeast and contribute to the attribution of functions to many other orphan genes. PMID:17308034

Godard, Patrice; Urrestarazu, Antonio; Vissers, Stéphan; Kontos, Kevin; Bontempi, Gianluca; van Helden, Jacques; André, Bruno

2007-04-01

345

Functional analysis of fungal drug efflux transporters by heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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Clinically important resistance of fungal pathogens to azole antifungal drugs is most frequently caused by the over-expression of energy-dependent drug efflux pumps. These pumps usually belong to either the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family or the Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS) class of membrane transporter. Little is known about how these pumps work and there is an urgent need to develop pump antagonists that circumvent azole resistance. We have developed a protein hyper-expression system to facilitate functional analysis of efflux pumps based on a Saccharomyces cerevisiae host which has been deleted in seven major ABC transporters to reduce the background of endogenous efflux activity. Plasmid pABC3 was engineered to allow functional hyper-expression of foreign proteins in this host. The main advantages of the system include its ease of directional cloning and the use of homologous recombination to stably integrate single copy constructs into the host genome under the control of a highly active transcriptional regulator. The system has been used to clone and functionally hyper-express genes encoding drug efflux pumps from several pathogenic fungi. Furthermore, the protein hyper-expression system has been used to screen for pump inhibitors and study the structure and function of heterologous membrane proteins. PMID:15728981

Niimi, Masakazu; Wada, Shun-ichi; Tanabe, Koichi; Kaneko, Aki; Takano, Yukie; Umeyama, Takashi; Hanaoka, Nozomu; Uehara, Yoshimasa; Lamping, Erwin; Niimi, Kyoko; Tsao, Sarah; Holmes, Ann R; Monk, Brian C; Cannon, Richard D

2005-02-01

346

Squalene epoxidase as a target for manipulation of squalene levels in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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Squalene is a valuable natural substance with several biotechnological applications. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, it is produced in the isoprenoid pathway as the first precursor dedicated to ergosterol biosynthesis. The aim of this study was to explore the potential of squalene epoxidase encoded by the ERG1 gene as the target for manipulating squalene levels in yeast. Highest squalene levels (over 1000 ?g squalene per 10(9)  cells) were induced by specific point mutations in ERG1 gene that reduced activity of squalene epoxidase and caused hypersensitivity to terbinafine. This accumulation of squalene in erg1 mutants did not significantly disturb their growth. Treatment with squalene epoxidase inhibitor terbinafine revealed a limit in squalene accumulation at 700 ?g squalene per 10(9)  cells which was associated with pronounced growth defects. Inhibition of squalene epoxidase activity by anaerobiosis or heme deficiency resulted in relatively low squalene levels. These levels were significantly increased by ergosterol depletion in anaerobic cells which indicated feedback inhibition of squalene production by ergosterol. Accumulation of squalene in erg1 mutants and terbinafine-treated cells were associated with increased cellular content and aggregation of lipid droplets. Our results prove that targeted genetic manipulation of the ERG1 gene is a promising tool for increasing squalene production in yeast. PMID:24119181

Garaiová, Martina; Zambojová, Veronika; Simová, Zuzana; Gria?, Peter; Hapala, Ivan

2014-03-01

347

Quantitative modeling of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae FLR1 regulatory network using an S-system formalism.  

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In this study we address the problem of finding a quantitative mathematical model for the genetic network regulating the stress response of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to the agricultural fungicide mancozeb. An S-system formalism was used to model the interactions of a five-gene network encoding four transcription factors (Yap1, Yrr1, Rpn4 and Pdr3) regulating the transcriptional activation of the FLR1 gene. Parameter estimation was accomplished by decoupling the resulting system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations into a larger nonlinear algebraic system, and using the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm to fit the models predictions to experimental data. The introduction of constraints in the model, related to the putative topology of the network, was explored. The results show that forcing the network connectivity to adhere to this topology did not lead to better results than the ones obtained using an unrestricted network topology. Overall, the modeling approach obtained partial success when trained on the nonmutant datasets, although further work is required if one wishes to obtain more accurate prediction of the time courses. PMID:21976379

Calçada, Dulce; Vinga, Susana; Freitas, Ana T; Oliveira, Arlindo L

2011-10-01

348

Gene dosage alteration of L2 ribosomal protein genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: effects on ribosome synthesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the genes coding for the ribosomal protein L2 are present in two copies per haploid genome. The two copies, which encode proteins differing in only a few amino acids, contribute unequally to the L2 mRNA pool: the L2A copy makes 72% of the mRNA, while the L2B copy makes only 28%. Disruption of the L2B gene (delta B strain) did not lead to any phenotypic alteration, whereas the inactivation of the L2A copy (delta A strain) produced a slow-growth phenotype associated with decreased accumulation of 60S subunits and ribosomes. No intergenic compensation occurred at the transcriptional level in the disrupted strains; in fact, delta A strains contained reduced levels of L2 mRNA, whereas delta B strains had almost normal levels. The wild-type phenotype was restored in the delta A strains by transformation with extra copies of the intact L2A or L2B gene. As already shown for other duplicated genes (Kim and Warner, J. Mol. Biol. 165:79-89, 1983; Leeret al., Curr. Genet. 9:273-277, 1985), the difference in expression of the two gene copies could be accounted for via differential transcription activity. Sequence comparison of the rpL2 promoter regions has shown the presence of canonical HOMOL1 boxes which are slightly different in the two genes. PMID:3062369

Lucioli, A; Presutti, C; Ciafrè, S; Caffarelli, E; Fragapane, P; Bozzoni, I

1988-11-01

349

N-acetyltransferase Mpr1 confers ethanol tolerance on Saccharomyces cerevisiae by reducing reactive oxygen species  

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N-Acetyltransferase Mpr1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae can reduce intracellular oxidation levels and protect yeast cells under oxidative stress, including H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, heat-shock, or freeze-thaw treatment. Unlike many antioxidant enzyme genes induced in response to oxidative stress, the MPR1 gene seems to be constitutively expressed in yeast cells. Based on a recent report that ethanol toxicity is correlated with the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), we examined here the role of Mpr1 under ethanol stress conditions. The null mutant of the MPR1 and MPR2 genes showed hypersensitivity to ethanol stress, and the expression of the MPR1 gene conferred stress tolerance. We also found that yeast cells exhibited increased ROS levels during exposure to ethanol stress, and that Mpr1 protects yeast cells from ethanol stress by reducing intracellular ROS levels. When the MPR1 gene was overexpressed in antioxidant enzyme-deficient mutants, increased resistance to H{sub 2}O{sub 2} or heat shock was observed in cells lacking the CTA1, CTT1, or GPX1 gene encoding catalase A, catalase T, or glutathione peroxidase, respectively. These results suggest that Mpr1 might compensate the function of enzymes that detoxify H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Hence, Mpr1 has promising potential for the breeding of novel ethanol-tolerant yeast strains. (orig.)

Du, Xiaoyi [Fukui Prefectural Univ., Fukui (Japan). Dept. of Bioscience; Takagi, Hiroshi [Nara Inst. of Science and Technology, Ikoma, Nara (Japan). Graduate School of Biological Sciences

2007-07-15

350

Homologous Recombination Repair Within the rDNA Array in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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Full Text Available Homologous recombination repair starts with Double-strand Breaks (DSBs followed by crossing-over and recombination. The expected frequency of meiotic chromosomal exchange in the region of chromosome XII encoding ribosomal DNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is 3.5 to 5 events per cell per meiosis. However interchromosomal meiotic recombination in the rDNA gene is very rare, suggesting repression of DSB and crossing-over. On the other hand, mitotic events such as intrachromosomal recombination producing 3 ?m rDNA circles (which accumulate with cellular age and unequal sister chromatid exchanges appear to be quite common. This study looked at the rDNA breakage in the strain ORD 1181, a rad50S mutant with SK1 background, which does a relatively fast and near synchronous meiosis. The fine analysis of the rDNA array was performed using restriction endonuclease enzymes that do not cleave within the rDNA array. The results suggest that there are at least two hot regions for chromosome breakage within the rDNA array. According to our previous studies we suggest that the DSB hot regions are in one homologue. However, there is possibility that other homologue is involving in DSB too.

M. Motovali-Bashi

2007-01-01

351

Interactions between Torulaspora delbrueckii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in wine fermentation: influence of inoculation and nitrogen content.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alcoholic fermentation by an oenological strain of Torulaspora delbrueckii in association with an oenological strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was studied in mixed and sequential cultures. Experiments were performed in a synthetic grape must medium in a membrane bioreactor, a special tool designed to study indirect interactions between microorganisms. Results showed that the S. cerevisiae strain had a negative impact on the T. delbrueckii strain, leading to a viability decrease as soon as S. cerevisiae was inoculated. Even for high inoculation of T. delbrueckii (more than 20× S. cerevisiae) in mixed cultures, T. delbrueckii growth was inhibited. Substrate competition and cell-to-cell contact mechanism could be eliminated as explanations of the observed interaction, which was probably an inhibition by a metabolite produced by S. cerevisiae. S. cerevisiae should be inoculated 48 h after T. delbrueckii in order to ensure the growth of T. delbrueckii and consequently a decrease of volatile acidity and a higher isoamyl acetate production. In this case, in a medium with a high concentration of assimilable nitrogen (324 mg L(-1)), S. cerevisiae growth was not affected by T. delbrueckii. But in a sequential fermentation in a medium containing 176 mg L(-1) initial assimilable nitrogen, S. cerevisiae was not able to develop because of nitrogen exhaustion by T. delbrueckii growth during the first 48 h, leading to sluggish fermentation. PMID:24500666

Taillandier, Patricia; Lai, Quoc Phong; Julien-Ortiz, Anne; Brandam, Cédric

2014-07-01

352

Unraveling condition specific gene transcriptional regulatory networks in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression and transcription factor (TF binding data have been used to reveal gene transcriptional regulatory networks. Existing knowledge of gene regulation can be presented using gene connectivity networks. However, these composite connectivity networks do not specify the range of biological conditions of the activity of each link in the network. Results We present a novel method that utilizes the expression and binding patterns of the neighboring nodes of each link in existing experimentally-based, literature-derived gene transcriptional regulatory networks and extend them in silico using TF-gene binding motifs and a compendium of large expression data from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using this method, we predict several hundreds of new transcriptional regulatory TF-gene links, along with experimental conditions in which known and predicted links become active. This approach unravels new links in the yeast gene transcriptional regulatory network by utilizing the known transcriptional regulatory interactions, and is particularly useful for breaking down the composite transcriptional regulatory network to condition specific networks. Conclusion Our methods can facilitate future binding experiments, as they can considerably help focus on the TFs that must be surveyed to understand gene regulation. (Supplemental material and the latest version of the MATLAB implementation of the United Signature Algorithm is available online at 1 or [see Additional files 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10] Additional File 1 overview of supplemental data Click here for file Additional File 2 experimental conditions for each link in figure 5. These are the experimental conditions in which the links are likely to be active. Click here for file Additional File 3 experimental conditions for each link in figure 7. These are the experimental conditions in which the links are likely to be active. Click here for file Additional File 4 Alon's transcriptional regulatory sub-network. Sparse representation of the Alon's network where column one represents the TF and column two represents the target. Entry of 1(2 corresponds to activation (suppression Click here for file Additional File 5 The Union of Alon's and Palsson's transcriptional regulatory sub-networks. Sparse representation of this unified network where column one represents the TF and column two represents the target. Entry of 1(2 corresponds to activation (suppression Click here for file Additional File 6 Predicted transcriptional regulatory links obtained by applying the LINK model to Alon's network. Each link is accompanied by a list of experiments in which it is likely to be functional. Click here for file Additional File 7 Predicted transcriptional regulatory links obtained by applying the LINK model to the combined network obtained by unifying Alon's and Palsson's networks. Each link is accompanied by a list of experiments in which it is likely to be functional. Click here for file Additional File 8 Predicted transcriptional regulatory links obtained by applying the STAR model to Alon's network. Each link is accompanied by a list of experiments in which it is likely to be functional. Click here for file Additional File 9 Predicted transcriptional regulatory links obtained by applying the STAR model to the combined network obtained by unifying Alon's and Palsson's networks. Each link is accompanied by a list of experiments in which it is likely to be functional. Click here for file Additional File 10 Exploring the parameter space. Overlap between our condition specific predicted networks and condition specific ChIP-on-chip data. Click here for file

Kluger Yuval

2006-03-01

353

Systems Biology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Physiology and its DNA Damage Response  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a model organism in biology, being widely used in fundamental research, the first eukaryotic organism to be fully sequenced and the platform for the development of many genomics techniques. Therefore, it is not surprising that S. cerevisiae has also been widely used in the field of systems biology during the last decade. This thesis investigates S. cerevisiae growth physiology and DNA damage response by using a systems biology approach. Elucidation of the relationship between growth rate and gene expression is important to understand the mechanisms regulating cell growth. In order to study this relationship, we have grown S. cerevisiae cells in chemostat at defined growth rates and measured the transcriptional response. We have applied a complex experimental design, involving three factors: specific growth rate, oxygen availability and nutrient limitation. We have identified 268 growth rate dependent genes. These genes were used to identify key areas of the metabolism around which expression changes were significantly associated and we found nucleotide synthesis and ATP producing and consuming reactions. Moreover, by scoring the significance of overlap between growth rate dependent genes and known transcription factor (TF) target sets, we identified 13 TFs, involved in stress response, cell cycle and ribosome biogenesis, that appeared to coordinate the response at increasing growth rates. Therefore, in this study we have identified a more conservative set of growth dependent genes by using a multi-factorial experimental design. Moreover, new insights into the metabolic response and transcriptional regulation of these genes have been provided by using systems biology tools (Chapter 3). One of the prerequisite of systems biology should be the standardization and reproducibility of experimental and analytical techniques, in order to allow the comparison of data generated in different laboratories. With the aim of addressing this aspect, we have collaborated in a large study involving ten laboratories, constituting the Yeast Systems Biology Network (YSBN). S. cerevisiae cultivations were performed in a single laboratory and samples were sent to the other partners. The experimental design involved two factors: strain (CEN.PK113-7D and YSBN2) and growth condition (batch and chemostat). Transcriptome was measured with four different platforms (Affymetrix, Agilent, qPCR and TRAC), metabolome was analyzed in seven laboratories, using different protocols, and enzyme activities were determined in two different laboratories. The comparison of the analyses showed that reproducibility of the results was affected by the laboratory and the protocol used. Transcription and enzyme activity analyses gave consistent results, while metabolite level measurements showed some variability. Therefore, even though the source of biomass was unique, the reproducibility of data appeared to be a challenging task. Nevertheless, we were able to perform an integrative analysis and discover that the lower biomass yield of CEN.PK113-7D was due to higher protein turnover than YSBN2; this finding would not be achievable using a single omics dataset. Moreover, the generated datasets are a valuable resource for the yeast systems biology community (Chapter 4). Upon DNA damage, S. cerevisiae cells respond activating the so-called cell cycle checkpoints that promote damage repair and viability. The activation of these checkpoints depends on kinase cascades and regulation of transcription is one of the responses elicited by checkpoint activation. Therefore, we have decided to investigate the transcriptional and phenotypic responses to the alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) of mutant strains carrying deletions of genes encoding protein kinases (Mec1, Tel1, Rad53, Dun1, Chk1, Alk1) and protein phosphatases (Ptc3, Pph3, Oca1) involved in DNA damage response (DDR). We have discovered a prominent role for Rad53, Mec1 and Tel1 in transcriptional response. Moreover, we have shown for the first time the important role of O

Fazio, Alessandro

2010-01-01

354

In vitro synthesis of biologically active human leukocyte interferon in a RNA-dependent system from Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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RNA isolated from yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae containing recombinant plasmid DNA coding for a human leukocyte interferon gene was used as template in a modified yeast cell-free translation system. Radioactive as well as biologically active leukocyte interferon was synthesized.

Chanda, Pranab K.; Kung, Hsiang-fu

1983-01-01

355

Microbial cells as biosorbents for heavy metals: accumulation of Uranium by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Uranium accumulated extracellularly on the surfaces of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. The rate and extent of accumulation were subject to environmental parameters, such as pH, temperature, and interference by certain anions and cations. Uranium accumulation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa occurred intracellularly and was extremely rapid (<10 s), and no response to environmental parameters could be detected. Metabolism was not required for metal uptake by either organism. Cell-bound uranium reached a concentration of 10 to 15% of the dry cell weight, but only 32% of the S. cerevisiae cells and 44% of the P. aeruginosa cells within a given population possessed visible uranium deposits when examined by electron microscopy. Rates of uranium uptake by S. cerevisiae were increased by chemical pretreatment of the cells. Uranium could be removed chemically from S. cerevisiae cells, and the cells could then be reused as a biosorbent

356

PHYLOGENETIC SELECTION GUIDED SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE S288C GLUCOSE FERMENTATION MODELING  

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Full Text Available Fermentation products are indigenous to many civilizations, and they have been produced by industriessince a long time. Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288C (commonly known as baker's yeast is the strain mainly usedin the Glucose based fermentation industries. We have seen the use of same yeast strain at different places withdifferent Phenotypic Constraints. The way to improve the adaptability of considered strain for desired phenotypicconditions, using smart selection of genes through cybernetic modeling is illustrated. Phylogenetic homologues forall S. cerevisiae S288c Glucose Fermentation pathway genes were screened to search evolutionarily relatedfunctional domains in other yeast strains like Saccharomyces cerevisiae YJM789, Candida glabrata CBS138,Kluyveromyces lactis NRRL Y-1140, Ashbya gossypii ATCC10895 etc., which are adapted naturally in different setof environment. We observed that Saccharomyces cerevisiae YJM789, Candida glabrata CBS138, Ashbyagossypii ATCC10895, Kluyveromyces lactis NRRL Y-1140 possess highly conserved functional domains, whichcan be carefully selected based on usage. This study aims at designing an algorithm to select and incorporateevolutionary homologues for genes of a considered strain, which mostly show sub-optimal performance in thedesired set of experimental constraints. Such a consideration of native microenvironment and evolutionarycloseness in the selection of functional homologues of the entire genetic set can thus be significantly fruitful.

ASHISH RUNTHALA

2011-06-01

357

Biotransformation of Carmoisine and Reactive Black 5 Dyes Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker’s yeast is the most important industrial microorganisms. This yeast is commonly used as a leavening agent in baking bread and bakery products, where it produces carbon dioxide from converting of the fermentable sugars present in the dough. Nowadays, industrial and chemical activities led to produce new compounds with new kinds of contamination in the environment. Discharge of untreated or partially treated industrial sewage has created the contamination problems of rivers and lakes such as drugs, oil, heavy metals, paints, pesticides and various chemical compounds in them. Hence, it is necessary to control and reduce the levels of these compounds in wastewater and bring them to permissible values. This study aims to study the bioconversion potential of commonly available Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the two textile dyes of Carmoisine and Reactive Black 5. Reaction mixtures for biotransformation of dyes included 50 mg/l Carmoisine or 25 mg/l Reactive Black 5 and 1% dried harvested cells of S. cerevisiae (bread’s yeast were tested. Harvested dry and wet yeast were studied for this purpose. The results show that harvested cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are able to bioconvert Carmoisine and Reactive Black 5. Reactive Black 5, Carmoisine are degraded by biotransformation 85% and 53% within 24 hours in water at the room temperature.

Abbas Sadeghi

2014-04-01

358

"A comparison between sugar consumption and ethanol production in wort by immobilized Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Saccharomyces Ludwigii and Saccharomyces Rouxii on Brewer's Spent Grain"  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The immobilization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae DSM 70424, Saccharomyces ludwigii DSM 3447 and Saccharomyces rouxii DSM 2531 on brewer's spent grain and then ethanol production and sugar consumption of these immobilized yeasts were investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the abilities [...] of these three immobilized yeasts for producing alcohol for brewing at two temperatures (7 and 12 °C) using two different sugar levels (one at original level supplied in the brewery and one with 2.5% (w/v), added glucose to the wort). Increasing both parameters resulted in higher alcohol production by all the yeasts studied. At 7 °C and with original wort density the ethanol content at the end of fermentation was 2.7% (v/v) for S. cerevisiae, 1.7% for S. ludwigii and 2.0% for S. rouxii. After the addition of 2.5% (w/v) glucose at the same temperature (7 °C), the alcohol production was increased to 4.1, 2.8 and 4.1%, respectively. Similar improvements were observed when the fermentation was carried out at 12 °C with/without the addition of glucose to the wort. However, temperature indicated greater influence on S. ludwigii than did on S. rouxii and S. cerevisiae. The immobilization as carried out in this study impacted both S. ludwigii and S. rouxii in a way that they could consume maltose under certain conditions.

Aniseh, Mohammadi; Seyyed Hadi, Razavi; Seyyed Mohammad, Mousavi; Karamatollah, Rezaei.

359

"A comparison between sugar consumption and ethanol production in wort by immobilized Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Saccharomyces Ludwigii and Saccharomyces Rouxii on Brewer's Spent Grain"  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The immobilization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae DSM 70424, Saccharomyces ludwigii DSM 3447 and Saccharomyces rouxii DSM 2531 on brewer's spent grain and then ethanol production and sugar consumption of these immobilized yeasts were investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the abilities of these three immobilized yeasts for producing alcohol for brewing at two temperatures (7 and 12 °C using two different sugar levels (one at original level supplied in the brewery and one with 2.5% (w/v, added glucose to the wort. Increasing both parameters resulted in higher alcohol production by all the yeasts studied. At 7 °C and with original wort density the ethanol content at the end of fermentation was 2.7% (v/v for S. cerevisiae, 1.7% for S. ludwigii and 2.0% for S. rouxii. After the addition of 2.5% (w/v glucose at the same temperature (7 °C, the alcohol production was increased to 4.1, 2.8 and 4.1%, respectively. Similar improvements were observed when the fermentation was carried out at 12 °C with/without the addition of glucose to the wort. However, temperature indicated greater influence on S. ludwigii than did on S. rouxii and S. cerevisiae. The immobilization as carried out in this study impacted both S. ludwigii and S. rouxii in a way that they could consume maltose under certain conditions.

Aniseh Mohammadi

2011-06-01

360

Comportamento celular e resposta antioxidante diferenciados de Saccharomyces cerevisiae e de Saccharomyces chevalieri ao metavanadato de amónio / Different cellular behaviour and antioxidant response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces chevalieri growing in presence of ammonium metavanadate  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A fermentação do vinho é um processo microbiológico complexo que requere a presença de leveduras adaptadas a condições de stresse. No ambiente celular de organismos aeróbios ocorrem naturalmente espécies reactivas de oxigénio (ROS) como subprodutos da respiração mitocondrial. A elevada reactividade [...] destas espécies químicas pode gerar danos moleculares que, em alguns casos, levam à morte celular. Em condições fisiológicas normais ou como resposta ao stresse oxidativo, a célula pode desencadear respostas adaptativas que envolvem mecanismos antioxidantes como os enzimas glutationo redutase (GR; EC 1.6.4.2) e catalases T (CAT T; EC 1.11.1.6) e A (CAT A; EC 1.11.1.6). O vanádio, um metal pesado presente em alguns fitofármacos, pode também com portar-se como um gerador de ROS, alterando o estado redox intracelular e exercendo efeitos nocivos em leveduras expostas a quantidade excessiva deste elemento. O principal objectivo deste trabalho foi comparar o efeito do metavanadato de amónio (NH4VO3), um sal pentavalente de vanádio, na viabilidade celular e nas actividades enzimáticas GR, CAT T e CAT A das leveduras vínicas Saccharomyces cerevisiae UE-ME3 e Saccharomyces chevalieri UE-ME1. Os resultados obtidos mostram que S. chevalieri UE-ME1 revelou menor tolerância ao NH4VO3 do que S. cerevisiae UE-ME3, uma vez que culturas de S. chevalieri não sobreviveram para valores de concentração do sal de vanádio superiores a 7,5 mM enquanto que células de S. cerevisiae mantiveram-se viáveis em presença de metavanadato de amónio 75 mM. As actividades enzimáticas estudadas apresentaram em S. chevalieri valores muito inferiores aos que foram determinados em S. cerevisiae embora em ambas as espécies de levedura o NH4VO3 pareça comportarse como um indutor de stresse oxidativo ao provocar um decréscimo significativo da actividade GR (P Abstract in english The fermentation of wine is a complex microbiological process which requires yeast adaptation to stress conditions. In the cellular environment of aerobic organisms naturally reactive oxygen species (ROS) occurs as by-products of mitochondrial respiration. The higher reactivity of these chemical spe [...] cies could cause molecular damages that in several cases induce cellular death. In common physiological conditions or as response to oxidative stress, the cell can generate adapted responses which involve antioxidants mechanisms as glutathione reductase (GR; EC 1.6.4.2) and catalase T (CAT T; EC 1.11.1.6) and A (CAT A; EC 1.11.1.6) enzymes. Vanadium, a heavy metal present in several pesticides could generate ROS changing the intracellular redox state and cause deleterious effects in yeasts exposed to higher levels of this element. The main objective of this work was to compare the effects of ammonium metavanadate (NH4VO3), a pentavalent salt of vanadium on cellular viability and GR, CAT T and CAT A activities of wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae UE-ME3 and Saccharomyces chevalieri UE-ME1. The results obtained show that S. chevalieri UE-ME1 has lower tolerance to NH4VO3 than S. cerevisiae UE-ME3, since S. chevalieri cultures do not survive to concentration values of ammonium metavanadate higher than 7,5 mM, whereas S. cerevisiae cells are still viable in the presence of 75 mM. S. chevalieri has an enzymatic activity lower than S. cerevisiae, although for both yeast species NH4VO3 could behave as oxidative stress inductor, causing a significant decrease of GR activity (P

R., Ferreira; I., Alves-Pereira; S., Magriço; C., Ferraz-Franco.

 
 
 
 
361

Comportamento celular e resposta antioxidante diferenciados de Saccharomyces cerevisiae e de Saccharomyces chevalieri ao metavanadato de amónio / Different cellular behaviour and antioxidant response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces chevalieri growing in presence of ammonium metavanadate  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A fermentação do vinho é um processo microbiológico complexo que requere a presença de leveduras adaptadas a condições de stresse. No ambiente celular de organismos aeróbios ocorrem naturalmente espécies reactivas de oxigénio (ROS) como subprodutos da respiração mitocondrial. A elevada reactividade [...] destas espécies químicas pode gerar danos moleculares que, em alguns casos, levam à morte celular. Em condições fisiológicas normais ou como resposta ao stresse oxidativo, a célula pode desencadear respostas adaptativas que envolvem mecanismos antioxidantes como os enzimas glutationo redutase (GR; EC 1.6.4.2) e catalases T (CAT T; EC 1.11.1.6) e A (CAT A; EC 1.11.1.6). O vanádio, um metal pesado presente em alguns fitofármacos, pode também com portar-se como um gerador de ROS, alterando o estado redox intracelular e exercendo efeitos nocivos em leveduras expostas a quantidade excessiva deste elemento. O principal objectivo deste trabalho foi comparar o efeito do metavanadato de amónio (NH4VO3), um sal pentavalente de vanádio, na viabilidade celular e nas actividades enzimáticas GR, CAT T e CAT A das leveduras vínicas Saccharomyces cerevisiae UE-ME3 e Saccharomyces chevalieri UE-ME1. Os resultados obtidos mostram que S. chevalieri UE-ME1 revelou menor tolerância ao NH4VO3 do que S. cerevisiae UE-ME3, uma vez que culturas de S. chevalieri não sobreviveram para valores de concentração do sal de vanádio superiores a 7,5 mM enquanto que células de S. cerevisiae mantiveram-se viáveis em presença de metavanadato de amónio 75 mM. As actividades enzimáticas estudadas apresentaram em S. chevalieri valores muito inferiores aos que foram determinados em S. cerevisiae embora em ambas as espécies de levedura o NH4VO3 pareça comportarse como um indutor de stresse oxidativo ao provocar um decréscimo significativo da actividade GR (P Abstract in english The fermentation of wine is a complex microbiological process which requires yeast adaptation to stress conditions. In the cellular environment of aerobic organisms naturally reactive oxygen species (ROS) occurs as by-products of mitochondrial respiration. The higher reactivity of these chemical spe [...] cies could cause molecular damages that in several cases induce cellular death. In common physiological conditions or as response to oxidative stress, the cell can generate adapted responses which involve antioxidants mechanisms as glutathione reductase (GR; EC 1.6.4.2) and catalase T (CAT T; EC 1.11.1.6) and A (CAT A; EC 1.11.1.6) enzymes. Vanadium, a heavy metal present in several pesticides could generate ROS changing the intracellular redox state and cause deleterious effects in yeasts exposed to higher levels of this element. The main objective of this work was to compare the effects of ammonium metavanadate (NH4VO3), a pentavalent salt of vanadium on cellular viability and GR, CAT T and CAT A activities of wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae UE-ME3 and Saccharomyces chevalieri UE-ME1. The results obtained show that S. chevalieri UE-ME1 has lower tolerance to NH4VO3 than S. cerevisiae UE-ME3, since S. chevalieri cultures do not survive to concentration values of ammonium metavanadate higher than 7,5 mM, whereas S. cerevisiae cells are still viable in the presence of 75 mM. S. chevalieri has an enzymatic activity lower than S. cerevisiae, although for both yeast species NH4VO3 could behave as oxidative stress inductor, causing a significant decrease of GR activity (P

R., Ferreira; I., Alves-Pereira; S., Magriço; C., Ferraz-Franco.

2007-01-01

362

Similarities and differences in the biochemical and enzymological properties of the four isomaltases from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae IMA multigene family encodes four isomaltases sharing high sequence identity from 65% to 99%. Here, we explore their functional diversity, with exhaustive in-vitro characterization of their enzymological and biochemical properties. The four isoenzymes exhibited a preference for the ?-(1,6) disaccharides isomaltose and palatinose, with Michaëlis-Menten kinetics and inhibition at high substrates concentration. They were also able to hydrolyze trisaccharides bearing an ?-(1,6) linkage, but also ?-(1,2), ?-(1,3) and ?-(1,5) disaccharides including sucrose, highlighting their substrate ambiguity. While Ima1p and Ima2p presented almost identical characteristics, our results nevertheless showed many singularities within this protein family. In particular, Ima3p presented lower activities and thermostability than Ima2p despite only three different amino acids between the sequences of these two isoforms. The Ima3p_R279Q variant recovered activity levels of Ima2p, while the Leu-to-Pro substitution at position 240 significantly increased the stability of Ima3p and supported the role of prolines in thermostability. The most distant protein, Ima5p, presented the lowest optimal temperature and was also extremely sensitive to temperature. Isomaltose hydrolysis by Ima5p challenged previous conclusions about the requirement of specific amino acids for determining the specificity for ?-(1,6) substrates. We finally found a mixed inhibition by maltose for Ima5p while, contrary to a previous work, Ima1p inhibition by maltose was competitive at very low isomaltose concentrations and uncompetitive as the substrate concentration increased. Altogether, this work illustrates that a gene family encoding proteins with strong sequence similarities can lead to enzyme with notable differences in biochemical and enzymological properties. PMID:24649402

Deng, Xu; Petitjean, Marjorie; Teste, Marie-Ange; Kooli, Wafa; Tranier, Samuel; François, Jean Marie; Parrou, Jean-Luc

2014-01-01

363

Interactions between Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in mixed culture for kefiran production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since a positive effect on the growth and kefiran production of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens was observed in a mixed culture with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the elucidation of the interactions between L. kefiranofaciens and S. cerevisiae may lead to higher productivity. Hence, the microbial interaction of each strain was investigated. Apart from the positive effect of a reduction in the amount of lactic acid by S. cerevisiae, a positive effect of S. cerevisiae on the growth and kefiran production of L. kefiranofaciens in a mixed culture was observed. Various experiments were carried out to study this effect. In this study, the observed increase in capsular kefiran in a mixed culture with inactivated S. cerevisiae correlated well to that in an anaerobic mixed culture. Differences in capsular kefiran production were observed for different initial S. cerevisiae concentrations under anaerobic conditions. From these fermentation results, it was concluded that the physical contact with S. cerevisiae mainly enhanced the capsular kefiran production of L. kefiranofaciens in a mixed culture. Therefore, in an anaerobic mixed culture, this direct contact resulted in higher capsular kefiran production than that in pure culture. PMID:16233522

Cheirsilp, Benjamas; Shoji, Hirofumi; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Shioya, Suteaki

2003-01-01

364

Toxicity and biosorption of metals by saccharomyces cerevisiae, amorphotheca resinae and azolla filiculoides  

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The value of H+ efflux in assessing and understanding metal interactions with Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated for its potential use as a rapid means of toxicity assessment for a range of metals Toxicity decreased in the order Cu2+ > Cd2+ > Pb2+ > Co2+ > Sr2+. Toxic effects can be alleviated by external Ca2+. The effect of Cu2+ and Co2+ on S cerevisiae growth, and the intracellular localisation of Cu2+, were studied in order to gain a better understanding of their toxicity. S cer...

Fogarty, Robert V.

1998-01-01

365

Expression of an Aspergillus niger Phytase Gene (phyA) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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Phytase improves the bioavailability of phytate phosphorus in plant foods to humans and animals and reduces phosphorus pollution of animal waste. Our objectives were to express an Aspergillus niger phytase gene (phyA) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and to determine the effects of glycosylation on the phytase’s activity and thermostability. A 1.4-kb DNA fragment containing the coding region of the phyA gene was inserted into the expression vector pYES2 and was expressed in S. cerevisiae as an a...

Han, Yanming; Wilson, David B.; Lei, Xin Gen

1999-01-01

366

Advances in metabolic engineering of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for production of chemicals  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an important industrial host for production of enzymes, pharmaceutical and nutraceutical ingredients and recently also commodity chemicals and biofuels. Here, we review the advances in modeling and synthetic biology tools and how these tools can speed up the development of yeast cell factories. We also present an overview of metabolic engineering strategies for developing yeast strains for production of polymer monomers: lactic, succinic, and cis,cis-muconic acids. S. cerevisiae has already firmly established itself as a cell factory in industrial biotechnology and the advances in yeast strain engineering will stimulate development of novel yeast-based processes for chemicals production.

Borodina, Irina; Nielsen, Jens

2014-01-01

367

A short region from the LEU2 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae functions as an ARS in the yeast Saccharomyces exiguus Yp74L-3.  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined the autonomously replicating sequence (ARS) activity of some fragments derived from the LEU2 region of Saccharomyces cerevisiae onto Saccharomyces exiguus Yp74L-3. A DNA fragment functioning as an ARS in S. exiguus, but not in S. cerevisiae, was shown to exist. The ARS activity for S. exiguus was reduced by the 2-microm plasmid origin of S. cerevisiae when both elements coexisted on a single circular plasmid. Analysis of ARS activity with the PCR products from the fragment revealed that the ARS-acting sequence was located in the 3'-terminal area of the transcribed region of the LEU2 gene of S. cerevisiae. It is suggested that the ARS recognition system in S. exiguus is significantly different from that of S. cerevisiae. PMID:9806982

Hisatomi, T; Wada, Y; Fujisaki, C; Tsuboi, M

1998-12-01

368

O emprego de fermento de pão, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, na síntese de feromônios Baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as a tool for the synthesis of pheromones  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The use of pheromones in integrated pest management has been increasing in the last years due to environmental concern. This development is accompanied by the search for simple, efficient and less aggressive synthetic methodologies for the preparation of pheromones. One of these methodologies includes microbiological reactions, more specifically biocatalytic reduction of carbonyl compounds using baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This review presents the use of baker's yeast as an easy and cheap alternative to obtain enantiomerically enriched compounds employed in the synthesis of pheromones.

Patrícia T. Baraldi

2004-06-01

369

O emprego de fermento de pão, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, na síntese de feromônios / Baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as a tool for the synthesis of pheromones  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english The use of pheromones in integrated pest management has been increasing in the last years due to environmental concern. This development is accompanied by the search for simple, efficient and less aggressive synthetic methodologies for the preparation of pheromones. One of these methodologies includ [...] es microbiological reactions, more specifically biocatalytic reduction of carbonyl compounds using baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). This review presents the use of baker's yeast as an easy and cheap alternative to obtain enantiomerically enriched compounds employed in the synthesis of pheromones.

Patrícia T., Baraldi; Arlene G., Corrêa.

2004-06-01

370

PHENOTYPES INVESTIGATION IN THE YEAST SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE ISOLATED FROM DIFFERENT GRAPE CULTIVARS FOLLOWIG FERMENTATION  

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Full Text Available Micobiological investigation was carried out on Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cultures, which were isolated from different varieties of vintage grape harvested from the ?Koblevo? winery, Nikolaev region of Ukraine. It was determined that wild yeast cultures tend to be of one of three different phenotypes. For comparison and reference, investigation of test cultures was performed with previously known phenotypes and yeast cultures Saccharomyces cerevisiae used in wine industry. It was noted that the most desirable yeast cultures had a killer phenotype. These are able to generate toxins that inhibit the growth of other yeast cultures that are present in the same substrate and compete for habitat. It was observed that yeast a neutral phenotype can also be can also utilized in wine industry biotechnology. Yeast cultures with sensitive phenotype, however, die in the substrate (grape musts in the presence of yeast culture killer phenotypes that secrete killer toxins harmful to these sensitive phenotypes.

Bayraktar V.N.

2012-11-01

371

Biodegradation of crude oil by Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from fermented zobo (locally fermented beverage in Nigeria).  

Science.gov (United States)

The increase in demand for crude oil as a source of energy and as a primary raw material for industries has resulted in an increase in its production, transportation and refining, which in turn has resulted in gross pollution of the environment. In this study, Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from a commercially prepared local fermented beverage 'zobo' (prepared from Hibiscus flower) was tested to determine its potential to degrade crude oil for a period of 28 days under aerobic condition. The percentage of oil biodegradation was determined using weight loss method and gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) of the residual crude oil after 28 days. At the end of 28 days 49.29% crude oil degradation was recorded. The result suggests the potential of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for bioremediation of oil polluted sites. PMID:24517030

Abioye, O P; Akinsola, R O; Aransiola, S A; Damisa, D

2013-12-15

372

Saccharomyces cerevisiae con deficiencia en el mecanismo de reparación del ADN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ciento treinta y ocho extractos obtenidos de plantas pertenecientes a las familias botánicas Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Melastomataceae, Podocarpaceae, Rubiaceae y Solanaceae recolectadas en reservas naturales de la Ecorregión del Eje Cafetero (EEC fueron evaluadas contra cepas de la levadura Saccharomyces cerevisiae RS 322N, R52Y y RS 321 por el método de difusión en agar, con el propósito de identificar nuevos extractos bioactivos que dañen el ADN y/o que inhiban las topoisomerasas I o II. Los extractos metanólicos de las especies pertenecientes a la familia Solanaceae: Browallia speciosa, Cestrum olivaceum y Solanum brevifolium mostraron selectividad para el ensayo de la levadura Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutada, presentando actividad como inhibidor de la topoisomerasa I. Adicionalmente, el extracto de diclorometano de Solanum deflexiflorum perteneciente a la misma familia presentó actividad inhibidora de la topoisomerasa II.

Jaime Ni\\u00F1o

2007-01-01

373

Effect of Reserve Carbohydrates on Oxidative Stress in Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y6210  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study is investigate the role of reserve carbohydrates, trehalose and glycogen in DEM (Diethyl Maleate induced oxidative stress in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y6210. Trehalose and glycogen accumulated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, when growth conditions deteriorate. Yeast cells were subjected to oxidative stress for different time periods (0, 30, 60 and 120 min to evaluate the role of trehalose, glycogen and trehalase. There was no change in the level of trehalose while the content of glycogen increased during the oxidative stress. The time dependent modulation in the activities of trehalase and invertase was observed under oxidative stress. It has been suggested that glycogen serving as a protectant during oxidative stress not trehalose.

Smita Kanwal

2011-11-01

374

Digestibility and nutrient intake in Mangalarga Marchador mares supplemented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae during aerobic training  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study evaluated the effect of yeast supplementation on the digestibility and intake of nutrients of Mangalarga Marchador horses in training. Fourteen Mangalarga Marchador mares were divided into two groups: Probiotic (horses supplemented with 20 g of Saccharomyces cerevisiae daily and Control. The diet consisted of commercial concentrate and roughage in the ratio of 50:50. The mares were trained for six weeks, Monday to Saturday, and the exercise performed daily alternating work on a treadmill and automatic walker. Nutrient digestibility was assessed using the indicator LIPE® (6 days end fecal collection was performed for five days. Was analyzed DM, NDF, ADF, CP, GE, hemicelluloses and dry matter intake. There was not difference (P>0,05 in any of the variables analyzed. Supplementation with 20 g of Saccharomyces cerevisiae does not affect the digestibility and nutrient intake in mares Mangalarga Marchador submitted six weeks of aerobic training.

Tiago Resende Garcia

2014-09-01

375

Saccharomyces cerevisiae STR3 and yeast cystathionine ?-lyase enzymes: The potential for engineering increased flavor release.  

Science.gov (United States)

Selected Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains are used for wine fermentation. Based on several criteria, winemakers often use a specific yeast to improve the flavor, mouth feel, decrease the alcohol content and desired phenolic content, just to name a few properties. Scientists at the AWRI previously illustrated the potential for increased flavor release from grape must via overexpression of the Escherichia coli Tryptophanase enzyme in wine yeast. To pursue a self-cloning approach for improving the aroma production, we recently characterized the S. cerevisiae cystathionine ?-lyase STR3, and investigated its flavor releasing capabilities. Here, we continue with a phylogenetic investigation of STR3 homologs from non-Saccharomyces yeasts to map the potential for using natural variation to engineer new strains. PMID:22572787

Holt, Sylvester; Cordente, Antonio G; Curtin, Chris

2012-01-01

376

FTIR spectroscopic analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell walls: study of an anomalous strain exhibiting a pink-colored cell phenotype.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new strain, exhibiting an intriguing pink-colored cell phenotype, was obtained after an encoding alpha-glucosidase gene from an archaebacteria Thermococcus hydrothermalis was cloned by functional complementation of a mal11 Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant TCY70. The possible implications of the alpha-glucosidase on the cell wall were evaluated by infrared spectroscopy and data indicate a 30% decrease in mannoproteins and an increase in beta-glucans. The loss of mannoproteins was confirmed by experiments on cells deprived of peptidomannans. Modifications in the major components of the cell wall did not jeopardize cell viability. Such rapid optical spectroscopic method can be used to screen a wide range of yeast mutants. PMID:11313132

Galichet, A; Sockalingum, G D; Belarbi, A; Manfait, M

2001-04-13

377

The Reacquisition of Biotin Prototrophy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Involved Horizontal Gene Transfer, Gene Duplication and Gene Clustering  

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The synthesis of biotin, a vitamin required for many carboxylation reactions, is a variable trait in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Many S. cerevisiae strains, including common laboratory strains, contain only a