WorldWideScience

Sample records for ros mediate selenite-induced

  1. Expression of p53 Enhances Selenite-Induced Superoxide Production and Apoptosis in Human Prostate Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Rui; Xiang, Nong; Domann, Frederick E; Zhong, Weixiong

    2006-01-01

    Although the anticancer effects of selenium have been demonstrated in clinical, preclinical, and laboratory studies, the underlying mechanism(s) remain unclear. Our previous study demonstrated that sodium selenite induced LNCaP human prostate cancer cell apoptosis in association with production of reactive oxygen species, alteration of cell redox state, and mitochondrial damage. In the present study, we demonstrated that selenite-induced apoptosis was superoxide-mediated and p53-dependent via...

  2. ROS mediated MAPK signaling in abiotic and biotic stress- striking similarities and differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalmi, Siddhi K.; Sinha, Alok K.

    2015-01-01

    Plants encounter a number of environmental stresses throughout their life cycles, most of which activate mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. The MAPKs show crosstalks at several points but the activation and the final response is known to be specific for particular stimuli that in-turn activates specific set of downstream targets. Interestingly, reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an important and common messenger produced in various environmental stresses and is known to activate many of the MAPKs. ROS activates a similar MAPK in different environmental stimuli, showing different downstream targets with different and specific responses. In animals and yeast, the mechanism behind the specific activation of MAPK by different concentration and species of ROS is elaborated, but in plants this aspect is still unclear. This review mainly focuses on the aspect of specificity of ROS mediated MAPK activation. Attempts have been made to review the involvement of ROS in abiotic stress mediated MAPK signaling and how it differentiates with that of biotic stress.

  3. STAT5 triggers BCR-ABL1 mutation by mediating ROS production in chronic myeloid leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warsch, Wolfgang; Grundschober, Eva; Berger, Angelika; Gille, Lars; Cerny-Reiterer, Sabine; Tigan, Anca-Sarmiza; Hoelbl-Kovacic, Andrea; Valent, Peter; Moriggl, Richard; Sexl, Veronika

    2012-12-01

    We recently reported that chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) patients harbour high levels of STAT5 when they progress to advanced phases of disease. Advanced disease is characterized by an increased incidence of BCR-ABL1 mutations. We now describe a highly significant correlation between STAT5 expression and the incidence of BCR-ABL1 mutations in primary CML. Forced expression of STAT5 in murine BCR-ABL1 transformed cells sufficed to enhance the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and to trigger DNA damage. STAT5-mediated ROS production is independent of JAK2 but requires concomitant BCR-ABL1 signalling as forced STAT5 expression in untransformed BCR-ABL1 negative cells has no impact on ROS levels. Only within the context of a BCR-ABL1 positive cell does STAT5 transcriptionally regulate a target gene or set of genes that causes the enhanced ROS production. Our study suggests the existence of a feed-forward loop accelerating disease progression, in which BCR-ABL1 enhances its own mutation rate in a STAT5-ROS dependent manner. This model explains the increased occurrence of inhibitor-resistant BCR-ABL1 mutations in advanced disease stages driven and characterized by high STAT5 expression. PMID:23458731

  4. Catalase delivery for inhibiting ROS-mediated tissue injury and tumor metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Makiya; Hashida, Mitsuru; Takakura, Yoshinobu

    2009-04-28

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been suggested to be involved in a variety of human diseases. Catalase, an enzyme degrading hydrogen peroxide, can be used as a therapeutic agent for such diseases, but its successful application will depend on the distribution of the enzyme to the sites where ROS are generated. Chemical modification techniques have been used to control the tissue distribution of catalase, and delivery to hepatocytes (galactosylation), liver nonparenchymal cells (mannosylation or succinylation), kidney (cationization) and the blood pool (PEGylation) has been achieved. The effectiveness of catalase delivery has been demonstrated in animal models for hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury, chemical-induced tissue injuries and tumor metastasis to the liver, lung and peritoneal organs. Significant inhibition was observed in the ROS-mediated oxidative tissue damages and ROS-mediated upregulation of expression of genes responsible for recruitment of inflammatory cells and for metastatic growth of tumor cells. Because oxygen plays a fundamental key role in our life and oxidative stress is implicated in a wide variety of human diseases, catalase delivery could have wide application in the near future. PMID:19385054

  5. ROS-mediated TNF-? and MIP-2 gene expression in alveolar macrophages exposed to pine dust

    OpenAIRE

    Husgafvel-Pursiainen Kirsti; Määttä Juha; Borm Paul J; Shi Tingming; Long Huayan; Savolainen Kai; Krombach Fritz

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background Respiratory symptoms, impaired lung function, and asthma have been reported in workers exposed to wood dust in a number of epidemiological studies. The underlying pathomechanisms, however, are not well understood. Here, we studied the effects of dust from pine (PD) and heat-treated pine (HPD) on the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory mediators in rat alveolar macrophages. Methods Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) and macrophage inflammatory protei...

  6. Preventive effect of onion juice on selenite-induced experimental cataract

    OpenAIRE

    Javadzadeh Alireza; Ghorbanihaghjo Amir; Bonyadi Somayeh; Rashidi Mohammad; Mesgari Mehran; Rashtchizadeh Nadereh; Argani Hassan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of onion juice on sodium-selenite induced cataract formation. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two 10-day-old Wistar-albino rat pups were divided into four equal groups. Group 1 received only subcutaneous saline injection. In Group 2, sodium-selenite (30 nmol?/?g body weight) was injected subcutaneously. In Group 3, subcutaneous sodium-selenite was injected and one drop 50% diluted fresh juice of crude onion was instilled every 8 h into the ...

  7. Mitochondrion-Permeable Antioxidants to Treat ROS-Burst-Mediated Acute Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhong-Wei; Xu, Xiao-Chao; Liu, Ting; Yuan, Shu

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a crucial role in the inflammatory response and cytokine outbreak, such as during virus infections, diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, antioxidant is an important medicine to ROS-related diseases. For example, ascorbic acid (vitamin C, VC) was suggested as the candidate antioxidant to treat multiple diseases. However, long-term use of high-dose VC causes many side effects. In this review, we compare and analyze all kinds of mitochondrion-permeable antioxidants, including edaravone, idebenone, ?-Lipoic acid, carotenoids, vitamin E, and coenzyme Q10, and mitochondria-targeted antioxidants MitoQ and SkQ and propose astaxanthin (a special carotenoid) to be the best antioxidant for ROS-burst-mediated acute diseases, like avian influenza infection and ischemia-reperfusion. Nevertheless, astaxanthins are so unstable that most of them are inactivated after oral administration. Therefore, astaxanthin injection is suggested hypothetically. The drawbacks of the antioxidants are also reviewed, which limit the use of antioxidants as coadjuvants in the treatment of ROS-associated disorders. PMID:26649144

  8. Artemisinin induces ROS-mediated caspase3 activation in ASTC-a-1 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Feng-Lian; Chen, Tong-Sheng; Qu, Jun-Le; Liu, Cheng-Yi

    2010-02-01

    Artemisinin (ART), an antimalarial phytochemical from the sweet wormwood plant or a naturally occurring component of Artemisia annua, has been shown a potential anticancer activity by apoptotic pathways. In our report, cell counting kit (CCK-8) assay showed that treatment of human lung adenocarcinoma (ASTC-a-1) cells with ART effectively increase cell death by inducing apoptosis in a time- and dose-dependent fashion. Hoechst 33258 staining was used to detect apoptosis as well. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was observed in cells exposed to ART at concentrations of 400 ?M for 48 h. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), an oxygen radical scavenger, suppressed the rate of ROS generation and inhibited the ART-induced apoptosis. Moreover, AFC assay (Fluorometric assay for Caspase3 activity) showed that ROS was involved in ART-induced caspase3 acitvation. Taken together, our data indicate that ART induces ROS-mediated caspase3 activation in a time-and dose-dependent way in ASCT-a-1 cells.

  9. ROS-mediated TNF-? and MIP-2 gene expression in alveolar macrophages exposed to pine dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husgafvel-Pursiainen Kirsti

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Respiratory symptoms, impaired lung function, and asthma have been reported in workers exposed to wood dust in a number of epidemiological studies. The underlying pathomechanisms, however, are not well understood. Here, we studied the effects of dust from pine (PD and heat-treated pine (HPD on the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS and inflammatory mediators in rat alveolar macrophages. Methods Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-? and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2 protein release, TNF-? and MIP-2 mRNA expression, and generation of ROS were studied as end points after treatment of rat alveolar macrophages with PD or HPD. In a separate series of experiments, the antioxidants glutathione and N-acetyl-L-cysteine were included in combination with wood dust. To determine the endogenous oxidative and antioxidant capacity of wood dusts, electron spin resonance (ESR spectroscopy was used. Results After 4 h incubation, both PD and HPD elicited a significantly (p Conclusion These results indicate that pine dust is able to induce expression of TNF-? and MIP-2 in rat alveolar macrophages by a mechanism that is, at least in part, mediated by ROS.

  10. Fluoride induces oxidative damage and SIRT1/autophagy through ROS-mediated JNK signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Maiko; Bandoski, Cheryl; Bartlett, John D

    2015-12-01

    Fluoride is an effective caries prophylactic, but at high doses can also be an environmental health hazard. Acute or chronic exposure to high fluoride doses can result in dental enamel and skeletal and soft tissue fluorosis. Dental fluorosis is manifested as mottled, discolored, porous enamel that is susceptible to dental caries. Fluoride induces cell stress, including endoplasmic reticulum stress and oxidative stress, which leads to impairment of ameloblasts responsible for dental enamel formation. Recently we reported that fluoride activates SIRT1 and autophagy as an adaptive response to protect cells from stress. However, it still remains unclear how SIRT1/autophagy is regulated in dental fluorosis. In this study, we demonstrate that fluoride exposure generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the resulting oxidative damage is counteracted by SIRT1/autophagy induction through c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling in ameloblasts. In the mouse-ameloblast-derived cell line LS8, fluoride induced ROS, mitochondrial damage including cytochrome-c release, up-regulation of UCP2, attenuation of ATP synthesis, and H2AX phosphorylation (?H2AX), which is a marker of DNA damage. We evaluated the effects of the ROS inhibitor N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and the JNK inhibitor SP600125 on fluoride-induced SIRT1/autophagy activation. NAC decreased fluoride-induced ROS generation and attenuated JNK and c-Jun phosphorylation. NAC decreased SIRT1 phosphorylation and formation of the autophagy marker LC3II, which resulted in an increase in the apoptosis mediators ?H2AX and cleaved/activated caspase-3. SP600125 attenuated fluoride-induced SIRT1 phosphorylation, indicating that fluoride activates SIRT1/autophagy via the ROS-mediated JNK pathway. In enamel organs from rats or mice treated with 50, 100, or 125ppm fluoride for 6 weeks, cytochrome-c release and the DNA damage markers 8-oxoguanine, p-ATM, and ?H2AX were increased compared to those in controls (0ppm fluoride). These results suggest that fluoride-induced ROS generation causes mitochondrial damage and DNA damage, which may lead to impairment of ameloblast function. To counteract this impairment, SIRT1/autophagy is induced via JNK signaling to protect cells/ameloblasts from fluoride-induced oxidative damage that may cause dental fluorosis. PMID:26431905

  11. Cadmium-induced teratogenicity: Association with ROS-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress in placenta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhen; Wang, Hua; Xu, Zhong Mei; Ji, Yan-Li; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Zhang, Cheng; Meng, Xiu-Hong; Zhao, Mei; Xu, De-Xiang, E-mail: xudex@126.com

    2012-03-01

    The placenta is essential for sustaining the growth of the fetus. An increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been associated with the impaired placental and fetal development. Cadmium (Cd) is a potent teratogen that caused fetal malformation and growth restriction. The present study investigated the effects of maternal Cd exposure on placental and fetal development. The pregnant mice were intraperitoneally injected with CdCl{sub 2} (4.5 mg/kg) on gestational day 9. As expected, maternal Cd exposure during early limb development significantly increased the incidences of forelimb ectrodactyly in fetuses. An obvious impairment in the labyrinth, a highly developed tissue of blood vessels, was observed in placenta of mice treated with CdCl{sub 2}. In addition, maternal Cd exposure markedly repressed cell proliferation and increased apoptosis in placenta. An additional experiment showed that maternal Cd exposure significantly upregulated the expression of GRP78, an ER chaperone. Moreover, maternal Cd exposure induced the phosphorylation of placental eIF2?, a downstream molecule of PERK signaling. In addition, maternal Cd exposure significantly increased the level of placental CHOP, another target of PERK signaling, indicating that the unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling was activated in placenta of mice treated with CdCl{sub 2}. Interestingly, alpha-phenyl-N-t-butylnitrone, a free radical spin-trapping agent, significantly alleviated Cd-induced placental ER stress and UPR. Taken together, these results suggest that reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated ER stress might be involved in Cd-induced impairment on placental and fetal development. Antioxidants may be used as pharmacological agents to protect against Cd-induced fetal malformation and growth restriction. -- Highlights: ? Cd induces fetal malformation and growth restriction. ? Cd induced placental ER stress and UPR. ? PBN alleviates Cd-induced ER stress and UPR in placenta. ? ROS-mediated ER stress might be involved in Cd-induced placental impairments. ? ROS-mediated ER stress might be involved in Cd-induced fetal malformations.

  12. ROS and Sympathetically mediated Mitochondria activation in Brown Adipose Tissue contributes to Methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria CeciliaGMarcondes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine abuse has been shown to induce alterations in mitochondrial function in the brain as well as to induce hyperthermia, which contributes to neurotoxicity and Meth-associated mortality. Brown adipose tissue (BAT, a thermogenic site known to be important in neonates, has recently regained importance since being identified in significant amounts and in correlation with metabolic balance in human adults. Given the high mitochondrial content of BAT and its role in thermogenesis, we aimed to investigate whether BAT plays any role in the development of Meth-induced hyperthermia. By ablating or denervating BAT, we identified a partial contribution of this organ to Meth-induced hyperthermia. BAT ablation decreased temperature by 0.5oC and reduced the length of hyperthermia by 1 hr, compared to sham-operated controls. BAT denervation also affected the development of hyperthermia in correlation with decreased the expression of electron transport chain molecules, and increase on PCG1a levels, but without affecting Meth-induced UCP1 upregulation. Furthermore, in isolated BAT cells in culture, Meth, but not Norepinephrine (NE, induced H2O2 upregulation. In addition, we found that in vivo Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS play a role in Meth hyperthermia. Thus, sympathetically- mediated mitochondrial activation in the BAT and Meth-induced ROS are key components to the development of hyperthermia in Meth abuse.

  13. Divalent metal transporter 1 regulates iron-mediated ROS and pancreatic ? cell fate in response to cytokines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Bondo; Tonnesen, Morten Fog

    2012-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to target-cell damage in inflammatory and iron-overload diseases. Little is known about iron transport regulation during inflammatory attack. Through a combination of in vitro and in vivo studies, we show that the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1? induces divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) expression correlating with increased ? cell iron content and ROS production. Iron chelation and siRNA and genetic knockdown of DMT1 expression reduce cytokine-induced ROS formation and cell death. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in the absence of cytokines in Dmt1 knockout islets is defective, highlighting a physiological role of iron and ROS in the regulation of insulin secretion. Dmt1 knockout mice are protected against multiple low-dose streptozotocin and high-fat diet-induced glucose intolerance, models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively. Thus, ? cells become prone to ROS-mediated inflammatory damage via aberrant cellular iron metabolism, a finding with potential general cellular implications.

  14. Divalent metal transporter 1 regulates iron-mediated ROS and pancreatic ? cell fate in response to cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Jakob Bondo; Tonnesen, Morten Fog; Madsen, Andreas Nygaard; Hagedorn, Peter H; Friberg, Josefine; Grunnet, Lars Groth; Heller, R Scott; Nielsen, Anja Østergren; Størling, Joachim; Baeyens, Luc; Anker-Kitai, Leeat; Qvortrup, Klaus; Bouwens, Luc; Efrat, Shimon; Aalund, Mogens; Andrews, Nancy C; Billestrup, Nils; Karlsen, Allan E; Holst, Birgitte; Pociot, Flemming; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to target-cell damage in inflammatory and iron-overload diseases. Little is known about iron transport regulation during inflammatory attack. Through a combination of in vitro and in vivo studies, we show that the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1? induces divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) expression correlating with increased ? cell iron content and ROS production. Iron chelation and siRNA and genetic knockdown of DMT1 expression reduce cytokine-induced ROS formation and cell death. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in the absence of cytokines in Dmt1 knockout islets is defective, highlighting a physiological role of iron and ROS in the regulation of insulin secretion. Dmt1 knockout mice are protected against multiple low-dose streptozotocin and high-fat diet-induced glucose intolerance, models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively. Thus, ? cells become prone to ROS-mediated inflammatory damage via aberrant cellular iron metabolism, a finding with potential general cellular implications. PMID:23000401

  15. ROS accumulation and IGF-IR inhibition contribute to fenofibrate/PPAR? -mediated inhibition of Glioma cell motility in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del Valle Luis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glioblastomas are characterized by rapid cell growth, aggressive CNS infiltration, and are resistant to all known anticancer regimens. Recent studies indicate that fibrates and statins possess anticancer potential. Fenofibrate is a potent agonist of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPAR? that can switch energy metabolism from glycolysis to fatty acid ?-oxidation, and has low systemic toxicity. Fenofibrate also attenuates IGF-I-mediated cellular responses, which could be relevant in the process of glioblastoma cell dispersal. Methods The effects of fenofibrate on Glioma cell motility, IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR signaling, PPAR? activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS metabolism, mitochondrial potential, and ATP production were analyzed in human glioma cell lines. Results Fenofibrate treatment attenuated IGF-I signaling responses and repressed cell motility of LN-229 and T98G Glioma cell lines. In the absence of fenofibrate, specific inhibition of the IGF-IR had only modest effects on Glioma cell motility. Further experiments revealed that PPAR?-dependent accumulation of ROS is a strong contributing factor in Glioma cell lines responses to fenofibrate. The ROS scavenger, N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC, restored cell motility, improved mitochondrial potential, and increased ATP levels in fenofibrate treated Glioma cell lines. Conclusions Our results indicate that although fenofibrate-mediated inhibition of the IGF-IR may not be sufficient in counteracting Glioma cell dispersal, PPAR?-dependent metabolic switch and the resulting ROS accumulation strongly contribute to the inhibition of these devastating brain tumor cells.

  16. Nuclear Translocation of B-Cell-Specific Transcription Factor, BACH2, Modulates ROS Mediated Cytotoxic Responses in Mantle Cell Lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    CHEN, ZHENG; Pittman, Eric F.; Romaguera, Jorge; Fayad, Luis; Wang, Michael; Neelapu, Sattva S.; McLaughlin, Peter; Kwak, Larry; McCarty, Nami

    2013-01-01

    BACH2, a B-cell specific transcription factor, plays a critical role in oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis. Bortezomib (VelcadeTM) is widely used to treat relapsed mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) patients despite varying clinical outcomes. As one of the potential mechanisms of action, bortezomib was reported to elicit endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress which triggers reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the present study, we investigated the redox-sensitive intracellular mechanism that might play a c...

  17. ?-Lapachone-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation mediates autophagic cell death in glioma U87 MG cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun Jung; Choi, Kyeong Sook; Kwon, Taeg Kyu

    2011-01-15

    Autophagy is mainly responsible for the degradation of long-lived proteins and subcellular organelles. Autophagy is responsible for the non-apoptotic cell death, and plays a crucial role in regulating cellular functions. ?-Lapachone is a quinone-containing compound originally obtained from the lapacho tree in South America. Here, we show that ?-lapachone induces death in U87 MG cells, which is not inhibited by blockers of pan-caspase or necrosis. ?-Lapachone-induced cell death gradually increased in a time-dependent manner in U87 MG cells, which were partly prevented by pretreatment of a specific inhibitor of NQO1 (dicoumarol). These results suggested that ?-lapachone-induced cell death was mediated by NQO1-independent as well as NQO1-dependent cell death pathways. During progression of ?-lapachone-induced cell death, translocation and processing of LC3 as well as an increase in acidic vesicular organelles, as assessed by acridine orange staining, were observed. Furthermore, ?-lapachone-induced cell death was inhibited by either a knockdown of beclin-1/Atg-6 or Atg-7 gene expression or by autophagy inhibitors (3-methyl adenine or bafilomycin A1). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were involved in ?-lapachone-induced autophagic cell death of U87 MG glioma cells, because ?-lapachone induced ROS production and antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) decreased autophagic cell death. Our results collectively demonstrate that ROS mediate ?-lapachone-induced autophagic cell death in U87 MG glioma cells. PMID:21035436

  18. Targeting MUC1-C is synergistic with bortezomib in downregulating TIGAR and inducing ROS-mediated myeloma cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Li; Kufe, Turner; Avigan, David; Kufe, Donald

    2014-05-01

    The proteosome inhibitor bortezomib (BTZ) induces endoplasmic reticulum and oxidative stress in multiple myeloma (MM) cells. The mucin 1 C-terminal subunit (MUC1-C) oncoprotein is aberrantly expressed in most MM cells, and targeting MUC1-C with GO-203, a cell-penetrating peptide inhibitor of MUC1-C homodimerization, is effective in inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated MM cell death. The present results demonstrate that GO-203 and BTZ synergistically downregulate expression of the p53-inducible regulator of glycolysis and apoptosis (TIGAR), which promotes shunting of glucose-6-phosphate into the pentose phosphate pathway to generate reduced glutathione (GSH). In turn, GO-203 blocks BTZ-induced increases in GSH and results in synergistic increases in ROS and MM cell death. The results also demonstrate that GO-203 is effective against BTZ-resistant MM cells. We show that BTZ resistance is associated with BTZ-induced increases in TIGAR and GSH levels, and that GO-203 resensitizes BTZ-resistant cells to BTZ treatment by synergistically downregulating TIGAR and GSH. The GO-203/BTZ combination is thus highly effective in killing BTZ-resistant MM cells. These findings support a model in which targeting MUC1-C is synergistic with BTZ in suppressing TIGAR-mediated regulation of ROS levels and provide an experimental rationale for combining GO-203 with BTZ in certain settings of BTZ resistance. PMID:24632713

  19. UCP2 Inhibits ROS-Mediated Apoptosis in A549 under Hypoxic Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Sanming; Yang, Ye; HAN, YONG; Xiaofei LI; Wang, Xiaoping; Li, Xueyong; Zhang, Zhipei; Wang, Yunjie

    2012-01-01

    The Crosstalk between a tumor and its hypoxic microenvironment has become increasingly important. However, the exact role of UCP2 function in cancer cells under hypoxia remains unknown. In this study, UCP2 showed anti-apoptotic properties in A549 cells under hypoxic conditions. Over-expression of UCP2 in A549 cells inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation (P

  20. Nickel (II)-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in human proximal tubule cells through a ROS- and mitochondria-mediated pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickel compounds are known to be toxic and carcinogenic in kidney and lung. In this present study, we investigated the roles of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondria in nickel (II) acetate-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in the HK-2 human renal cell line. The results showed that the cytotoxic effects of nickel (II) involved significant cell death and DNA damage. Nickel (II) increased the generation of ROS and induced a noticeable reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Analysis of the sub-G1 phase showed a significant increase in apoptosis in HK-2 cells after nickel (II) treatment. Pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) not only inhibited nickel (II)-induced cell death and DNA damage, but also significantly prevented nickel (II)-induced loss of MMP and apoptosis. Cell apoptosis triggered by nickel (II) was characterized by the reduced protein expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL and the induced the protein expression of Bad, Bcl-Xs, Bax, cytochrome c and caspases 9, 3 and 6. The regulation of the expression of Bcl-2-family proteins, the release of cytochrome c and the activation of caspases 9, 3 and 6 were inhibited in the presence of NAC. These results suggest that nickel (II) induces cytotoxicity and apoptosis in HK-2 cells via ROS generation and that the mitochondria-mediated apoptotic signaling pathway may be involved in the positive regulation of nickel (II)-induced renal cytotoxicity.

  1. Mechanism of Anti-glioblastoma Effect of Temzolomide Involved in ROS-Mediated SIRT 1 Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Jiang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the new molecular mechanism of anti-tumor effect of temzolomide (TMZon glioblastoma cell strain. Methods: MTT methods and Hoechst 33342 staining method were applied to determine the effect of TMZ on the proliferation and apoptosis of glioblastoma cell strains U251 and SHG44, while flow cytometry was used to detect the impact of TMZ on cellular cycles. Additionally, DCFH-DA probe was adopted to test intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS level while Real-time PCR and Western blot tests were applied to determine the influence of TMZ on SIRT1 expression. Results: TMZ in different concentrations added into glioblastoma cell strain for 72 h could concentration-dependently inhibit the proliferation of glioblastoma cells, 100 ?mol/L of which could also block cells in phase G2/M and improve cellular apoptosis. In addition, TMZ could evidently increase intracellular ROS level so as to activate SIRT1. Conclusion: The mechanism of anti-tumor effect of TMZ on glioblastoma may be associated with ROS-induced SIRT1 pathway, providing theoretical basis for the clinical efficacy of TMZ.

  2. Patulin induces apoptosis through ROS-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussabbeh, Manel; Ben Salem, Intidhar; Prola, Alexandre; Guilbert, Arnaud; Bacha, Hassen; Abid-Essefi, Salwa; Lemaire, Christophe

    2015-04-01

    Patulin (PAT) is a toxic metabolite produced by several filamentous fungi of the genera of Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Byssochlamys. PAT is the most common mycotoxin found in apples and apple-based products including juice, compotes, cider, and baby food. Exposure to this mycotoxin has been reported to induce intestinal and kidney injuries. This study investigated the mechanism of PAT-induced toxicity in human colon carcinoma (HCT116) and embryonic kidney cells (HEK293). We demonstrated that PAT activated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and unfolded protein response as evidenced by up-regulation of GRP78 and GADD34, splicing of XBP1 mRNA, and expression of the proapoptotic factor CHOP. This ER stress response was accompanied by the induction of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Apoptosis occurred with ROS production, drop in mitochondrial membrane potential and caspase activation. Further, we showed that deficiency of the proapoptotic protein Bax or Bak protected cells against PAT-induced apoptosis. The treatment of cells with the ROS scavenger N-acetyl cysteine inhibits the ER stress response and prevents mitochondrial apoptosis. Collectively, our data provide new mechanistic insights in the signaling pathways of the cell death induced by PAT and demonstrate that PAT induces cytotoxicity through a ROS-dependent mechanism involving ER stress and activation of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in human intestinal and kidney cells. PMID:25577197

  3. Self assembled nano fibers of betulinic acid: A selective inducer for ROS/TNF-alpha pathway mediated leukemic cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Sandeep Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Sourav; Dash, Shib Shankar; Tripathy, Satyajit; Das, Balaram; Mahapatra, Santanu Kar; Bag, Braja Gopal; Karmakar, Parimal; Roy, Somenath

    2015-12-01

    The main complication in betulinic acid (BA) based drug delivery has been observed due to its bulk structure. The present study demonstrates the potential effects of self assembled nano size betulinic acid (SA-BA) by treating human leukemic cell lines (KG-1A and K562) and its normal counterpart. Self assembly property of BA was investigated using SEM and DLS study which showed that the BA forms fibrous structure having few nanometers in diameter. Selective anti-leukemic efficacy study of SA-BA was investigated by cell viability assay. Mode of leukemic cell death and probable pathway of apoptosis was monitored by measuring ROS level, pro and anti-inflammatory cytokine status and expression of caspase-8 and caspage-3 by immunocytochemistry. Higher efficacy of SA-BA over non-assemble BA was monitored toward cancer cells, with no relevant toxicity to normal blood cells. SA-BA facilitated reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated leukemic cell death, confirmed by pre-treatment of N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Induction of apoptosis by SA-BA treatment increased pro-inflammatory cytokines, specifically potentiated TNF-? mediated cell death, confirmed by expression of caspase-8 and caspage-3 by immunocytochemistry. This study explored the better anti-leukemic efficacy of SA-BA over BA and this modification will enrich the use of BA in cancer therapy. PMID:26469741

  4. Evaluation of anticataract potential of Triphala in selenite-induced cataract: In vitro and in vivo studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Kumar Gupta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Triphala (TP is composed of Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula, and Terminalia belerica. The present study was undertaken to evaluate its anticataract potential in vitro and in vivo in a selenite-induced experimental model of cataract. In vitro enucleated rat lenses were maintained in organ culture containing Dulbecco?s Modified Eagles Medium alone or with the addition of 100?M selenite. These served as the normal and control groups, respectively. In the test group, the medium was supplemented with selenite and different concentrations of TP aqueous extract. The lenses were incubated for 24 h at 37°C. After incubation, the lenses were processed to estimate reduced glutathione (GSH, lipid peroxidation product, and antioxidant enzymes. In vivo selenite cataract was induced in 9-day-old rat pups by subcutaneous injection of sodium selenite (25 ?mole/kg body weight. The test groups received 25, 50, and 75 mg/kg of TP intraperitoneally 4 h before the selenite challenge. At the end of the study period, the rats? eyes were examined by slit-lamp. TP significantly (P < 0.01 restored GSH and decreased malondialdehyde levels. A significant restoration in the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (P < 0.05, catalase (P < 0.05, glutathione peroxidase (P < 0.05, and glutathione-s-transferase (P < 0.005 was observed in the TP-supplemented group compared to controls. In vivo TF 25mg/kg developed only 20% nuclear cataract as compared to 100% in control. TP prevents or retards experimental selenite-induced cataract. This effect may be due to antioxidant activity. Further studies are warranted to explore its role in human cataract.

  5. SAH-induced MMP activation and KV current suppression is mediated via both ROS-dependent and ROS-independent mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koide, Masayo; Wellman, George C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Voltage-gated potassium (KV) channels regulate cerebral artery tone and have been implicated in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)-induced pathologies. Here, we examined whether matrix metalloprotease (MMP) activation contributes to SAH-induced KV current suppression and cerebral artery constriction via activation of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs). Using patch clamp electrophysiology, we observed that KV currents were selectively decreased in cerebral artery myocytes isolated from SAH model rabbits. Consistent with involvement of enhanced MMP and EGFR activity in SAH-induced KV current suppression, we found that: 1) OxyHb and/or the exogenous EGFR ligand, HB-EGF, failed to induce further KV current suppression after SAH and 2) gelatin zymography detected significantly higher MMP-2 activity after SAH. The removal of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by combined treatment with superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase partially inhibited OxyHb-induced KV current suppression. However, these agents had little effect on OxyHb-induced MMP-2 activation. Interestingly, in the presence of a broad spectrum MMP inhibitor (GM6001), OxyHb failed to cause KV current suppression. These data suggest OxyHb suppresses KV currents through both ROS-dependent and ROS-independent pathways involving MMP activation. The ROS-independent pathway involves activation of MMP-2, whereas the ROS-dependent pathway involves activation of a second unidentified MMP or ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease domain). PMID:25366605

  6. STAT5 triggers BCR-ABL1 mutation by mediating ROS production in chronic myeloid leukaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Warsch, Wolfgang; Grundschober, Eva; Berger, Angelika; Gille, Lars; Cerny-Reiterer, Sabine; Tigan, Anca-Sarmiza; Hoelbl-Kovacic, Andrea; Valent, Peter; Moriggl, Richard; Sexl, Veronika

    2012-01-01

    We recently reported that chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) patients harbour high levels of STAT5 when they progress to advanced phases of disease. Advanced disease is characterized by an increased incidence of BCR-ABL1 mutations. We now describe a highly significant correlation between STAT5 expression and the incidence of BCR-ABL1 mutations in primary CML. Forced expression of STAT5 in murine BCR-ABL1 transformed cells sufficed to enhance the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and to...

  7. Cucurbitacin B induces DNA damage and autophagy mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Guowen; Sha, Tongye; Guo, Jiajie; Li, Wenxue; Lu, Jinjian; Chen, Xiuping

    2015-10-01

    Cucurbitacin B (Cuc B), a natural compound extracted from cucurbitaceous plants, demonstrated potent anticancer activities, while the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We investigated the anticancer effect of Cuc B on MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Cuc B drastically decreased cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner. Cuc B treatment caused DNA damage, as shown by long tails in the comet assay and increased ?H2AX protein expression. Immunofluorescence staining showed that Cuc B treatment induced nuclear ?H2AX foci. Cuc B activated DNA damage pathways by phosphorylation of ATM/ATR [two large phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-like kinase family (PIKKs) members]. Furthermore, it also induced autophagy, as evidenced by monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining and autophagic protein expression. In addition, Cuc B treatment led to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, which was inhibited by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) pretreatment. NAC pretreatment inhibited Cuc-B-induced DNA damage and autophagy. Taken together, these results suggest that ROS-mediated Cuc-B-induced DNA damage and autophagy in MCF-7 cells, which provides new insights into the anticancer molecular mechanism of Cuc B. PMID:26018422

  8. Pharmacologic IKK/NF-?B inhibition causes antigen presenting cells to undergo TNF? dependent ROS-mediated programmed cell death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilstra, Jeremy S.; Gaddy, Daniel F.; Zhao, Jing; Davé, Shaival H.; Niedernhofer, Laura J.; Plevy, Scott E.; Robbins, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    Monocyte-derived antigen presenting cells (APC) are central mediators of the innate and adaptive immune response in inflammatory diseases. As such, APC are appropriate targets for therapeutic intervention to ameliorate certain diseases. APC differentiation, activation and functions are regulated by the NF-?B family of transcription factors. Herein, we examined the effect of NF-?B inhibition, via suppression of the I?B Kinase (IKK) complex, on APC function. Murine bone marrow-derived macrophages and dendritic cells (DC), as well as macrophage and DC lines, underwent rapid programmed cell death (PCD) after treatment with several IKK/NF-?B inhibitors through a TNF?-dependent mechanism. PCD was induced proximally by reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, which causes a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of a caspase signaling cascade. NF-?B-inhibition-induced PCD of APC may be a key mechanism through which therapeutic targeting of NF-?B reduces inflammatory pathologies.

  9. Coenzyme Q10 Protects Astrocytes from ROS-Induced Damage through Inhibition of Mitochondria-Mediated Cell Death Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Li; He, Mao-Tao; Chang, Yue; Mehta, Suresh L.; He, Qing-Ping; Zhang, Jian-Zhong; Li, P. Andy

    2015-01-01

    Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) acts by scavenging reactive oxygen species to protect neuronal cells against oxidative stress in neurodegenerative diseases. The present study was designed to examine whether CoQ10 was capable of protecting astrocytes from reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated damage. For this purpose, ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation was used as a tool to induce ROS stress to cultured astrocytes. The cells were treated with 10 and 25 ?g/ml of CoQ10 for 3 or 24 h prior to the cells being exposed to UVB irradiation and maintained for 24 h post UVB exposure. Cell viability was assessed by MTT conversion assay. Mitochondrial respiration was assessed by respirometer. While superoxide production and mitochondrial membrane potential were measured using fluorescent probes, levels of cytochrome C (cyto-c), cleaved caspase-9, and caspase-8 were detected using Western blotting and/or immunocytochemistry. The results showed that UVB irradiation decreased cell viability and this damaging effect was associated with superoxide accumulation, mitochondrial membrane potential hyperpolarization, mitochondrial respiration suppression, cyto-c release, and the activation of both caspase-9 and -8. Treatment with CoQ10 at two different concentrations started 24 h before UVB exposure significantly increased the cell viability. The protective effect of CoQ10 was associated with reduction in superoxide, normalization of mitochondrial membrane potential, improvement of mitochondrial respiration, inhibition of cyto-c release, suppression of caspase-9. Furthermore, CoQ10 enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis. It is concluded that CoQ10 may protect astrocytes through suppression of oxidative stress, prevention of mitochondrial dysfunction, blockade of mitochondria-mediated cell death pathway, and enhancement of mitochondrial biogenesis. PMID:25552930

  10. Sodium fluoride induces apoptosis in mouse embryonic stem cells through ROS-dependent and caspase- and JNK-mediated pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen Ngoc, Tam Dan [Institute of Oral Biosciences and School of Dentistry (BK21 Program), Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Son, Young-Ok [Graduate Center for Toxicology, School of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0305 (United States); Lim, Shin-Saeng [Institute of Oral Biosciences and School of Dentistry (BK21 Program), Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Bioactive Material Sciences and Research Center of Bioactive Materials, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Shi, Xianglin [Graduate Center for Toxicology, School of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0305 (United States); Kim, Jong-Ghee [Institute of Oral Biosciences and School of Dentistry (BK21 Program), Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Jung Sun [Department of Maxillofacial Biomedical Engineering and Institute of Oral Biology, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Youngji [Institute of Oral Biosciences and School of Dentistry (BK21 Program), Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Young-Mi, E-mail: young@jbnu.ac.kr [Institute of Oral Biosciences and School of Dentistry (BK21 Program), Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong-Chae, E-mail: leejc88@jbnu.ac.kr [Institute of Oral Biosciences and School of Dentistry (BK21 Program), Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Graduate Center for Toxicology, School of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0305 (United States); Department of Bioactive Material Sciences and Research Center of Bioactive Materials, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Sodium fluoride (NaF) is used as a source of fluoride ions in diverse applications. Fluoride salt is an effective prophylactic for dental caries and is an essential element required for bone health. However, fluoride is known to cause cytotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner. Further, no information is available on the effects of NaF on mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). We investigated the mode of cell death induced by NaF and the mechanisms involved. NaF treatment greater than 1 mM reduced viability and DNA synthesis in mESCs and induced cell cycle arrest in the G{sub 2}/M phase. The addition of NaF induced cell death mainly by apoptosis rather than necrosis. Catalase (CAT) treatment significantly inhibited the NaF-mediated cell death and also suppressed the NaF-mediated increase in phospho-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK) levels. Pre-treatment with SP600125 or z-VAD-fmk significantly attenuated the NaF-mediated reduction in cell viability. In contrast, intracellular free calcium chelator, but not of sodium or calcium ion channel blockers, facilitated NaF-induced toxicity in the cells. A JNK specific inhibitor (SP600125) prevented the NaF-induced increase in growth arrest and the DNA damage-inducible protein 45?. Further, NaF-mediated loss of mitochondrial membrane potential was apparently inhibited by pifithrin-? or CAT inhibitor. These findings suggest that NaF affects viability of mESCs in a concentration-dependent manner, where more than 1 mM NaF causes apoptosis through hydroxyl radical-dependent and caspase- and JNK-mediated pathways. -- Highlights: ? The mode of NaF-induced cell death and the mechanisms involved were examined. ? NaF induced mainly apoptotic death of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). ? NaF induced mitochondrial-mediated and caspase-dependent apoptosis. ? JNK- and p53-mediated pathways are involved in NaF-mediated apoptosis in the cells. ? ROS are the up-stream effector in NaF-mediated activation of JNK and p53 in mESCs.

  11. Sodium fluoride induces apoptosis in mouse embryonic stem cells through ROS-dependent and caspase- and JNK-mediated pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium fluoride (NaF) is used as a source of fluoride ions in diverse applications. Fluoride salt is an effective prophylactic for dental caries and is an essential element required for bone health. However, fluoride is known to cause cytotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner. Further, no information is available on the effects of NaF on mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). We investigated the mode of cell death induced by NaF and the mechanisms involved. NaF treatment greater than 1 mM reduced viability and DNA synthesis in mESCs and induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase. The addition of NaF induced cell death mainly by apoptosis rather than necrosis. Catalase (CAT) treatment significantly inhibited the NaF-mediated cell death and also suppressed the NaF-mediated increase in phospho-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK) levels. Pre-treatment with SP600125 or z-VAD-fmk significantly attenuated the NaF-mediated reduction in cell viability. In contrast, intracellular free calcium chelator, but not of sodium or calcium ion channel blockers, facilitated NaF-induced toxicity in the cells. A JNK specific inhibitor (SP600125) prevented the NaF-induced increase in growth arrest and the DNA damage-inducible protein 45?. Further, NaF-mediated loss of mitochondrial membrane potential was apparently inhibited by pifithrin-? or CAT inhibitor. These findings suggest that NaF affects viability of mESCs in a concentration-dependent manner, where more than 1 mM NaF causes apoptosis through hydroxyl radical-dependent and caspase- and JNK-mediated pathways. -- Highlights: ? The mode of NaF-induced cell death and the mechanisms involved were examined. ? NaF induced mainly apoptotic death of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). ? NaF induced mitochondrial-mediated and caspase-dependent apoptosis. ? JNK- and p53-mediated pathways are involved in NaF-mediated apoptosis in the cells. ? ROS are the up-stream effector in NaF-mediated activation of JNK and p53 in mESCs.

  12. Artesunate induces ROS- and p38 MAPK-mediated apoptosis and counteracts tumor growth in vivo in embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccafico, Sara; Morozzi, Giulio; Marchetti, Maria Cristina; Riccardi, Carlo; Sidoni, Angelo; Donato, Rosario; Sorci, Guglielmo

    2015-09-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma represents about 50% of soft-tissue sarcomas and 10% of malignant solid tumors in childhood. Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS) is the most frequent subtype, suggested to have an origin in muscle precursor cells that fail to exit the cell cycle and terminally differentiate mainly because of overexpression of the transcription factor, PAX7, which sustains proliferation, migration and invasiveness in ERMS cells. Artesunate (ARS) is a semi-synthetic derivative of artemisinin (ART), a natural compound well known as an antimalarial drug. However, ART and its derivatives have been found efficacious even as anticancer drugs that induce cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis in several kinds of cancer. Here, we show that ARS dose-dependently induces DNA damage and apoptosis in ERMS cell lines. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activation of p38 MAPK have a central role in triggering ARS-mediated apoptosis in ERMS cells; indeed either the antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine or the p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB203580, protects ERMS cells from ARS-induced apoptosis. Moreover, ARS treatment in ERMS cells ROS-dependently induces the expression of the myo-miRs, miR-133a and miR-206, which are down-regulated in RMS, and reduces PAX7 protein levels. Finally, ARS upregulates the expression of the adhesion molecules, NCAM and integrin ?1, and reduces migration and invasiveness of ERMS cells in vitro, and ARS treatment reduces of about 50% the growth of ERMS xenografts in vivo. Our results are the first evidence of efficacy of ART derivatives in restraining ERMS growth in vivo, and suggest ARS as a potential candidate for therapeutic treatment of ERMS. PMID:26153023

  13. Prolonged exposure of cortical neurons to oligomeric amyloid-? impairs NMDA receptor function via NADPH oxidase-mediated ROS production: protective effect of green tea (–-epigallocatechin-3-gallate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Y Sun

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Excessive production of A? (amyloid ?-peptide has been shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of AD (Alzheimer's disease. Although not yet well understood, aggregation of A? is known to cause toxicity to neurons. Our recent study demonstrated the ability for oligomeric A? to stimulate the production of ROS (reactive oxygen species in neurons through an NMDA (N-methyl-d-aspartate-dependent pathway. However, whether prolonged exposure of neurons to aggregated A? is associated with impairment of NMDA receptor function has not been extensively investigated. In the present study, we show that prolonged exposure of primary cortical neurons to A? oligomers caused mitochondrial dysfunction, an attenuation of NMDA receptor-mediated Ca2+ influx and inhibition of NMDA-induced AA (arachidonic acid release. Mitochondrial dysfunction and the decrease in NMDA receptor activity due to oligomeric A? are associated with an increase in ROS production. Gp91ds-tat, a specific peptide inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, and Mn(III-tetrakis(4-benzoic acid-porphyrin chloride, an ROS scavenger, effectively abrogated A?-induced ROS production. Furthermore, A?-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, impairment of NMDA Ca2+ influx and ROS production were prevented by pre-treatment of neurons with EGCG [(?-epigallocatechin-3-gallate], a major polyphenolic component of green tea. Taken together, these results support a role for NADPH oxidase-mediated ROS production in the cytotoxic effects of A?, and demonstrate the therapeutic potential of EGCG and other dietary polyphenols in delaying onset or retarding the progression of AD.

  14. FV-429 Induced Apoptosis Through ROS-Mediated ERK2 Nuclear Translocation and p53 Activation in Gastric Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuxin; Wei, Libin; Zhang, Haiwei; Dai, Qinsheng; Li, Zhiyu; Yu, Boyang; Guo, Qinglong; Lu, Na

    2015-08-01

    Following our previous finding which revealed that FV-429 induces apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells, in this study, we found that FV-429 could also induce apoptosis in human gastric cancer cells. Firstly, FV-429 inhibited the viability of BGC-823 and MGC-803 cells with IC50 values in the range of 38.10?±?6.28 and 31.53?±?6.84?µM for 24?h treatment by MTT-assay. Secondly, FV-429 induced apoptosis in BGC-823 and MGC-803 cells through the mitochondrial-mediated pathway, showing an increase in Bax/Bcl-2 ratios, and caspase-9 activation, without change in caspase-8. Further research revealed that the mitogen-activated protein kinases, including c-Jun N-terminal kinase, extracellular regulated kinase, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, could be activated by FV-429-induced high level ROS. Moreover, FV-429 also promoted the ERK2 nuclear translocation, resulting in the co-translocation of p53 to the nucleus and increased transcription of p53-regulated proapoptotic genes. FV-429 significantly inhibited the nude mice xenograft tumors growth of BGC-823 or MGC-803 cells in vivo. PMID:25650185

  15. Optogenetic control of ROS production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P. Wojtovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS are known to cause oxidative damage to DNA, proteins and lipids. In addition, recent evidence suggests that ROS can also initiate signaling cascades that respond to stress and modify specific redox-sensitive moieties as a regulatory mechanism. This suggests that ROS are physiologically-relevant signaling molecules. However, these sensor/effector molecules are not uniformly distributed throughout the cell. Moreover, localized ROS damage may elicit site-specific compensatory measures. Thus, the impact of ROS can be likened to that of calcium, a ubiquitous second messenger, leading to the prediction that their effects are exquisitely dependent upon their location, quantity and even the timing of generation. Despite this prediction, ROS signaling is most commonly intuited through the global administration of chemicals that produce ROS or by ROS quenching through global application of antioxidants. Optogenetics, which uses light to control the activity of genetically-encoded effector proteins, provides a means of circumventing this limitation. Photo-inducible genetically-encoded ROS-generating proteins (RGPs were originally employed for their phototoxic effects and cell ablation. However, reducing irradiance and/or fluence can achieve sub-lethal levels of ROS that may mediate subtle signaling effects. Hence, transgenic expression of RGPs as fusions to native proteins gives researchers a new tool to exert spatial and temporal control over ROS production. This review will focus on the new frontier defined by the experimental use of RGPs to study ROS signaling.

  16. Divalent metal transporter 1 regulates iron-mediated ROS and pancreatic ? cell fate in response to cytokines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Bondo; Tonnesen, Morten Fog; Madsen, Andreas Nygaard; Hagedorn, Peter; Friberg, Josefine; Grunnet, Lars Groth; Heller, R Scott; Nielsen, Anja Østergren; Størling, Joachim; Baeyens, Luc; Anker-Kitai, Leeat; Qvortrup, Klaus; Bouwens, Luc; Efrat, Shimon; Aalund, Mogens; Andrews, Nancy C; Billestrup, Nils; Karlsen, Allan E; Holst, Birgitte; Pociot, Flemming; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to target-cell damage in inflammatory and iron-overload diseases. Little is known about iron transport regulation during inflammatory attack. Through a combination of in vitro and in vivo studies, we show that the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1? induces divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) expression correlating with increased ? cell iron content and ROS production. Iron chelation and siRNA and genetic knockdown of DMT1 expression reduce cytokine-induced RO...

  17. Radioactive 125I seeds inhibit cell growth and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human glioblastoma multiforme via a ROS-mediated signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary central nervous system neoplasm in adults. Radioactive 125I seed implantation has been widely applied in the treatment of cancers. Moreover, previous clinical trials have confirmed that 125I seeds treatment was an effective therapy in GBM. We sought to investigate the effect of 125I seed on GBM cell growth and Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Cells were exposed to irradiation at different doses. Colony-formation assay, EdU assay, cell cycle analysis, and TUNEL assay were preformed to investigate the radiation sensitivity. The effects of 125I seeds irradiation on EMT were measured by transwell, Boyden and wound-healing assays. The levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured by DCF-DA assay. Moreover, the radiation sensitivity and EMT were investigated with or without pretreatment with glutathione. Additionally, nude mice with tumors were measured after treated with radiation. Radioactive 125I seeds are more effective than X-ray irradiation in inhibiting GBM cell growth. Moreover, EMT was effectively inhibited by 125I seed irradiation. A mechanism study indicated that GBM cell growth and EMT inhibition were induced by 125I seeds with the involvement of a ROS-mediated signaling pathway. Radioactive 125I seeds exhibit novel anticancer activity via a ROS-mediated signaling pathway. These findings have clinical implications for the treatment of patients with GBM by 125I seeds

  18. FFA-ROS-P53-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis contributes to reduction of osteoblastogenesis and bone mass in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; He, Wang; Liao, Bo; Yang, Jingyue

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the association between free fatty acid (FFA), ROS generation, mitochondrial dysfunction and bone mineral density (BMD) in type 2 diabetic patients and investigated the molecular mechanism. db/db and high fat (HF)-fed mice were treated by Etomoxir, an inhibitor of CPT1, MitoQ, and PFT-?, an inhibitor of P53. Bone metabolic factors were assessed and BMSCs were isolated and induced to osteogenic differentiation. FFA, lipid peroxidation and mtDNA copy number were correlated with BMD in T2DM patients. Etomoxir, MitoQ and PFT-? significantly inhibited the decrease of BMD and bone breaking strength in db/db and HF-fed mice and suppressed the reduction of BMSCs-differentiated osteoblasts. Etomoxir and MitoQ, but not PFT-?, inhibited the increase of mitochondrial ROS generation in db/db and HF-fed mice and osteoblasts. In addition, Etomoxir, MitoQ and PFT-? significantly inhibited mitochondrial dysfunction in osteoblasts. Moreover, mitochondrial apoptosis was activated in osteoblasts derived from db/db and HF-fed mice, which was inhibited by Etomoxir, MitoQ and PFT-?. Furthermore, mitochondrial accumulation of P53 recruited Bax and initiated molecular events of apoptotic events. These results demonstrated that fatty acid oxidation resulted in ROS generation, activating P53/Bax-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis, leading to reduction of osteogenic differentiation and bone loss in T2DM. PMID:26226833

  19. Snake venom toxin from vipera lebetina turanica induces apoptosis of colon cancer cells via upregulation of ROS- and JNK-mediated death receptor expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Mi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abundant research suggested that the cancer cells avoid destruction by the immune system through down-regulation or mutation of death receptors. Therefore, it is very important that finding the agents that increase the death receptors of cancer cells. In this study, we demonstrated that the snake venom toxin from Vipera lebetina turanica induce the apoptosis of colon cancer cells through reactive oxygen species (ROS and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK dependent death receptor (DR4 and DR5 expression. Methods We used cell viability assays, DAPI/TUNEL assays, as well as western blot for detection of apoptosis related proteins and DRs to demonstrate that snake venom toxin-induced apoptosis is DR4 and DR5 dependent. We carried out transient siRNA knockdowns of DR4 and DR5 in colon cancer cells. Results We showed that snake venom toxin inhibited growth of colon cancer cells through induction of apoptosis. We also showed that the expression of DR4 and DR5 was increased by treatment of snake venom toxin. Moreover, knockdown of DR4 or DR5 reversed the effect of snake venom toxin. Snake venom toxin also induced JNK phosphorylation and ROS generation, however, pretreatment of JNK inhibitor and ROS scavenger reversed the inhibitory effect of snake venom toxin on cancer cell proliferation, and reduced the snake venom toxin-induced upregulation of DR4 and DR5 expression. Conclusions Our results indicated that snake venom toxin could inhibit human colon cancer cell growth, and these effects may be related to ROS and JNK mediated activation of death receptor (DR4 and DR5 signals.

  20. Snake venom toxin from vipera lebetina turanica induces apoptosis of colon cancer cells via upregulation of ROS- and JNK-mediated death receptor expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abundant research suggested that the cancer cells avoid destruction by the immune system through down-regulation or mutation of death receptors. Therefore, it is very important that finding the agents that increase the death receptors of cancer cells. In this study, we demonstrated that the snake venom toxin from Vipera lebetina turanica induce the apoptosis of colon cancer cells through reactive oxygen species (ROS) and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) dependent death receptor (DR4 and DR5) expression. We used cell viability assays, DAPI/TUNEL assays, as well as western blot for detection of apoptosis related proteins and DRs to demonstrate that snake venom toxin-induced apoptosis is DR4 and DR5 dependent. We carried out transient siRNA knockdowns of DR4 and DR5 in colon cancer cells. We showed that snake venom toxin inhibited growth of colon cancer cells through induction of apoptosis. We also showed that the expression of DR4 and DR5 was increased by treatment of snake venom toxin. Moreover, knockdown of DR4 or DR5 reversed the effect of snake venom toxin. Snake venom toxin also induced JNK phosphorylation and ROS generation, however, pretreatment of JNK inhibitor and ROS scavenger reversed the inhibitory effect of snake venom toxin on cancer cell proliferation, and reduced the snake venom toxin-induced upregulation of DR4 and DR5 expression. Our results indicated that snake venom toxin could inhibit human colon cancer cell growth, and these effects may be related to ROS and JNK mediated activation of death receptor (DR4 and DR5) signals

  1. Targeted anti-colon cancer activities of a millet bran-derived peroxidase were mediated by elevated ROS generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Shuhua; Shi, Jiangying; Li, Zhen; Gao, Huixian; Shi, Tonglin; Li, Zongwei; Li, Zhuoyu

    2015-07-01

    Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) is the sixth most important cereal in the world. In particular, the millet-derived active components play important roles in disease prevention. In this study, we found that a peroxidase from foxtail millet bran, named FMBP, displayed profound inhibitory effects on the growth of human colon cancer cells, but not on that of the normal colon epithelial cells. Mechanistic investigations suggested that the selective anti-cancer effects of FMBP were mainly achieved by inducing more accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in colon cancer cells than normal cells. The preferential ROS accumulation in cancer cells by FMBP appears to be partially attributed to the down-regulation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) expression, and the reduction of catalase activities and glutathione contents. The increased ROS accumulation is speculated to block the STAT3 signaling pathway, which results in the anti-proliferative effects on colon cancer cells. Therefore, these results suggest that the millet bran-derived peroxidase has a therapeutic potential in the management of colon cancer. PMID:26075747

  2. TRPV1 mediates cell death in rat synovial fibroblasts through calcium entry-dependent ROS production and mitochondrial depolarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synoviocyte hyperplasia is critical for rheumatoid arthritis, therefore, potentially an important target for therapeutics. It was found in this work that a TRPV1 agonist capsaicin, and acidic solution (pH 5.5) induced increases in cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]c) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in synoviocytes isolated from a rat model of collagen-induced arthritis. The increases in both [Ca2+]c and ROS production were completely abolished in calcium-free buffer or by a TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine. Further experiments revealed that capsaicin and pH 5.5 solution caused mitochondrial membrane depolarization and reduction in cell viability; such effects were inhibited by capsazepine, or the NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodonium. Both capsaicin and pH 5.5 buffer induced apoptosis as shown by nuclear condensation and fragmentation. Furthermore, RT-PCR readily detected TRPV1 mRNA expression in the isolated synoviocytes. Taken together, these data indicated that TRPV1 activation triggered synoviocyte death by [Ca2+]c elevation, ROS production, and mitochondrial membrane depolarization

  3. Saikosaponin-D reduces cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by repressing ROS-mediated activation of MAPK and NF-?B signalling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaobin; Dang, Chengxue; Kang, Huafeng; Dai, Zhijun; Lin, Shuai; Guan, Haitao; Liu, Xiaoxu; Wang, Xijing; Hui, Wentao

    2015-09-01

    The nephrotoxicity induced by cisplatin (DDP) severely limits the clinical efficacy of this widely used anticancer agent. The observed nephrotoxicity may be the result of DDP-induced inflammation and apoptosis. Saikosaponin-D (SSD), a triterpenoid saponin, has numerous pharmacological properties. The goal of the present study was to investigate whether and how SSD protected against DDP-induced nephrotoxicity. Non-cytotoxic levels of SSD significantly increased the viability rate, improved the nuclear morphology, and attenuated the caspase-3 activation and programmed apoptosis of DDP-treated HK-2 cells. In addition, SSD treatment markedly inhibited the release of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interleukin-1? (IL-1?), and interleukin-6 (IL-6), as well as the production of nitric oxide and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) by these cells. More importantly, SSD effectively blocked the DDP-induced activation of NF-?B, P38, JNK, and MAPKs. Furthermore, we found that U0126 (a specific inhibitor of MAPKs) strongly inhibited the IKK/I?B/NF-?B-dependent release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and iNOS gene expression. Finally, we demonstrated that SSD decreased the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and that the specific ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC) markedly inhibited the DDP-induced activation of MAPK and phosphorylation of the downstream signal NF-?B, which in turn reduced the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine release and iNOS gene expression. Our results suggest that the SSD-mediated alleviation of DDP-induced nephrotoxicity was due to uncoupling of the ROS, P38, and JNK/NF-?B signalling pathways. PMID:26118633

  4. Fucoidan Derived from Undaria pinnatifida Induces Apoptosis in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma SMMC-7721 Cells via the ROS-Mediated Mitochondrial Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Hou

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Fucoidans, fucose-enriched sulfated polysaccharides isolated from brown algae and marine invertebrates, have been shown to exert anticancer activity in several types of human cancer, including leukemia and breast cancer and in lung adenocarcinoma cells. In the present study, the anticancer activity of the fucoidan extracted from the brown seaweed Undaria pinnatifida was investigated in human hepatocellular carcinoma SMMC-7721 cells, and the underlying mechanisms of action were investigated. SMMC-7721 cells exposed to fucoidan displayed growth inhibition and several typical features of apoptotic cells, such as chromatin condensation and marginalization, a decrease in the number of mitochondria, and in mitochondrial swelling and vacuolation. Fucoidan-induced cell death was associated with depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH, accumulation of high intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS, and accompanied by damage to the mitochondrial ultrastructure, depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, ??m and caspase activation. Moreover, fucoidan led to altered expression of factors related to apoptosis, including downregulating Livin and XIAP mRNA, which are members of the inhibitor of apoptotic protein (IAP family, and increased the Bax-to-Bcl-2 ratio. These findings suggest that fucoidan isolated from U. pinnatifida induced apoptosis in SMMC-7721 cells via the ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway.

  5. Roles of ROS mediated oxidative stress and DNA damage in 3-methyl-2-quinoxalin benzenevinylketo-1, 4-dioxide-induced immunotoxicity of Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hui; Wang, Di; Zhang, Shun; Xu, Mengjing; Yang, Wei; Yan, Peipei; Liu, Yang; Luo, Xiao; Wu, Hailei; Yao, Ping; Yan, Hong; Liu, Liegang

    2015-11-01

    3-methyl-2-quinoxalin benzenevinylketo-1, 4-dioxide (Quinocetone, QCT) has been broadly used to treat dysentery and promote animal growth in food producing animals. However, its potential toxicity could not been neglected as parts of safety assessment according to the acceptable guidelines for QCT administration. In this study, the immunotoxicity of QCT was investigated in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats following a 28-day oral exposure at doses of 0, 50, 800, and 2400 mg/kg/day. The food consumption, body weight gain and relative spleen weight were significantly decreased by QCT in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment of rats with QCT also notably suppressed the T-cell proliferation and natural killer (NK) cell activity, accompanied by intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, antioxidant system inhibition and DNA damage enhancement. Thus, the primary finding of this study is that QCT exposure (2400 mg/kg/day) could cause immunotoxicity in SD rats due to ROS mediated oxidative stress and DNA damage. PMID:26361855

  6. BIM upregulation and ROS-dependent necroptosis mediate the antitumor effects of the HDACi Givinostat and Sorafenib in Hodgkin lymphoma cell line xenografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, S L; Cleris, L; Stirparo, G G; Tartari, S; Saba, E; Pierdominici, M; Malorni, W; Carbone, A; Anichini, A; Carlo-Stella, C

    2014-09-01

    Relapsed/refractory Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) is an unmet medical need requiring new therapeutic options. Interactions between the histone deacetylase inhibitor Givinostat and the RAF/MEK/ERK inhibitor Sorafenib were examined in HDLM-2 and L-540 HL cell lines. Exposure to Givinostat/Sorafenib induced a synergistic inhibition of cell growth (range, 70-80%) and a marked increase in cell death (up to 96%) due to increased H3 and H4 acetylation and strong mitochondrial injury. Gene expression profiling indicated that the synergistic effects of Givinostat/Sorafenib treatment are associated with the modulation of cell cycle and cell death pathways. Exposure to Givinostat/Sorafenib resulted in sustained production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activation of necroptotic cell death. The necroptosis inhibitor Necrostatin-1 prevented Givinostat/Sorafenib-induced ROS production, mitochondrial injury, activation of BH3-only protein BIM and cell death. Knockdown experiments identified BIM as a key signaling molecule that mediates Givinostat/Sorafenib-induced oxidative death of HL cells. Furthermore, in vivo xenograft studies demonstrated a 50% reduction in tumor burden (P<0.0001), a 5- to 15-fold increase in BIM expression (P < 0.0001) and a fourfold increase in tumor necrosis in Givinostat/Sorafenib-treated animals compared with mice that received single agents. These results provide a rationale for exploring Givinostat/Sorafenib combination in relapsed/refractory HL. PMID:24561519

  7. A rapid and transient ROS generation by cadmium triggers apoptosis via caspase-dependent pathway in HepG2 cells and this is inhibited through N-acetylcysteine-mediated catalase upregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in cadmium (Cd)-induced hepatotoxicity, the role of ROS in this pathway remains unclear. Therefore, we attempted to determine the molecular mechanisms relevant to Cd-induced cell death in HepG2 cells. Cd was found to induce apoptosis in the HepG2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent fashion, as confirmed by DNA fragmentation analysis and TUNEL staining. In the early stages, both rapid and transient ROS generation triggered apoptosis via Fas activation and subsequent caspase-8-dependent Bid cleavage, as well as by calpain-mediated mitochondrial Bax cleavage. The timing of Bid activation was coincided with the timing at which the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MMP) collapsed as well as the cytochrome c (Cyt c) released into the cytosol. Furthermore, mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) pore inhibitors, such as cyclosporin A (CsA) and bongkrekic acid (BA), did not block Cd-induced ROS generation, MMP collapse and Cyt c release. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) pretreatment resulted in the complete inhibition of the Cd-induced apoptosis via catalase upregulation and subsequent Fas downregulation. NAC treatment also completely blocked the Cd-induced intracellular ROS generation, MMP collapse and Cyt c release, indicating that Cd-induced mitochondrial dysfunction may be regulated indirectly by ROS-mediated signaling pathway. Taken together, a rapid and transient ROS generation by Cd triggers apoptosis via caspase-dependent pathway and subsequent mitochondrial pathway. NAC inhibits Cd-induced apoptosis through the blocking of ROS generation as well as the catalase upregulation

  8. The selective target of capsaicin on FASN expression and de novo fatty acid synthesis mediated through ROS generation triggers apoptosis in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impheng, Hathaichanok; Pongcharoen, Sutatip; Richert, Lysiane; Pekthong, Dumrongsak; Srisawang, Piyarat

    2014-01-01

    The inhibition of the mammalian de novo synthesis of long-chain saturated fatty acids (LCFAs) by blocking the fatty acid synthase (FASN) enzyme activity in tumor cells that overexpress FASN can promote apoptosis, without apparent cytotoxic to non-tumor cells. The present study aimed to focus on the potent inhibitory effect of capsaicin on the fatty acid synthesis pathway inducing apoptosis of capsaicin in HepG2 cells. The use of capsaicin as a source for a new FASN inhibitor will provide new insight into its possible application as a selective anti-cancer therapy. The present findings showed that capsaicin promoted apoptosis as well as cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase. The onset of apoptosis was correlated with a dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential (??m). Apoptotic induction by capsaicin was mediated by inhibition of FASN protein expression which was accompanied by decreasing its activity on the de novo fatty acid synthesis. The expression of FASN was higher in HepG2 cells than in normal hepatocytes that were resistant to undergoing apoptosis following capsaicin administration. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of capsaicin on FASN expression and activity was found to be mediated by an increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Treatment of HepG2 cells with capsaicin failed to alter ACC and ACLY protein expression, suggesting ACC and ACLY might not be the specific targets of capsaicin to induce apoptosis. An accumulation of malonyl-CoA level following FASN inhibition represented a major cause of mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic induction instead of deprivation of fatty acid per se. Here, we also obtained similar results with C75 that exhibited apoptosis induction by reducing the levels of fatty acid without any change in the abundance of FASN expression along with increasing ROS production. Collectively, our results provide novel evidence that capsaicin exhibits a potent anti-cancer property by targeting FASN protein in HepG2 cells. PMID:25255125

  9. Effect of electroacupuncture to prevent selenite-induced cataract in Wistar rats Efeito da eletro-acupuntura na prevenção da catarata induzida por selenito de sódio em ratos Wistar

    OpenAIRE

    Angelino Julio Cariello; Fábio Henrique Casanova; Acácio Alves de Souza Lima Filho; Yara Juliano; Angela Tabosa

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate whether electroacupuncture can prevent selenite-induced cataract in an experimental model. METHODS: Fifty Wistar rat pups were randomized into 5 groups of 10 animals: Group 1 (control), no procedure was performed; Group 2 (selenite), sodium selenite (30 micromoles/kg body weight) was injected subcutaneously between postpartum days 10 to 12; Group 3 (anesthesia) received the same dose of selenite and underwent ether inhalation anesthesia during 10 minutes daily for one ...

  10. Sensitization of cancer cells to radiation by selenadiazole derivatives by regulation of ROS-mediated DNA damage and ERK and AKT pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Qiang [Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Wu Jing Zong Dui Hospital of Guangdong Province, Guangzhou (China); Zhou, Yangliang; Lan, Guoqiang; Yang, Liye; Zheng, Wenjie; Liang, Yuanwei [Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Chen, Tianfeng, E-mail: tchentf@jnu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2014-06-20

    Highlights: • Selenadiazole derivatives could be used as an effective and low toxic sensitizer for radiotherapy. • Selenadiazole derivatives enhances radiation-induced growth inhibition on A375 cells through induction of G2/M arrest. • ROS-mediated signaling pathways play important roles in radiosensitization of selenadiazole derivatives. - Abstract: X-ray-based radiotherapy represents one of the most effective ways in treating human cancers. However, radioresistance and side effect remain as the most challenging issue. This study describes the design and application of novel selenadiazole derivatives as radiotherapy sensitizers to enhance X-ray-induced inhibitory effects on A375 human melanoma and Hela human cervical carcinoma cells. The results showed that, pretreatment of the cells with selenadiazole derivatives dramatically enhance X-ray-induced growth inhibition and colony formation. Flow cytometry analysis indicates that the sensitization by selenadiazole derivatives was mainly caused by induction of G2/M cell cycle arrest. Results of Western blotting demonstrated that the combined treatment-induced A375 cells growth inhibition was achieved by triggering reactive oxygen species-mediated DNA damage involving inactivation of AKT and MAPKs. Further investigation revealed that selenadiazole derivative in combination with X-ray could synergistically inhibit the activity of thioredoxin reductase-1 in A375 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that selenadiazole derivatives can act as novel radiosensitizer with potential application in combating human cancers.

  11. Induction of Nrf2-mediated genes by Antrodia salmonea inhibits ROS generation and inflammatory effects in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hsin-Ling; Lin, Shu-Wei; Lee, Chuan-Chen; Lin, Kai-Yuan; Liao, Chun-Huei; Yang, Ting-Yu; Wang, Hui-Min; Huang, Hui-Chi; Wu, Chi-Rei; Hseu, You-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Antrodia salmonea (AS), a well-known medicinal mushroom in Taiwan, has been reported to exhibit anti-oxidant, anti-angiogenic, anti-atherogenic, and anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, we investigated the activation of Nrf2-mediated antioxidant genes in RAW264.7 macrophages by the fermented culture broth of AS, studied the resulting protection against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated inflammation, and revealed the molecular mechanisms underlying these protective effects. We found that non-cytotoxic concentrations of AS (25-100 ?g mL?¹) protected macrophages from LPS-induced cell death and ROS generation in a dose-dependent manner. The antioxidant potential of AS was directly correlated with the increased expression of the antioxidant genes HO-1, NQO-1, and ?-GCLC, as well as the level of intracellular GSH followed by an increase in the nuclear translocation and transcriptional activation of the Nrf2-ARE pathway. Furthermore, Nrf2 knockdown diminished the protective effects of AS, as evidenced by the increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, including PGE?, NO, TNF-?, and IL-1?, in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Notably, AS treatment significantly inhibited LPS-induced ICAM-1 expression in macrophages. Our data suggest that the anti-inflammatory potential of Antrodia salmonea is mediated by the activation of Nrf2-dependent antioxidant defense mechanisms. Results support the traditional usage of this beneficial mushroom for the treatment of free radical-related diseases and inflammation. PMID:25380370

  12. Sensitization of cancer cells to radiation by selenadiazole derivatives by regulation of ROS-mediated DNA damage and ERK and AKT pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Selenadiazole derivatives could be used as an effective and low toxic sensitizer for radiotherapy. • Selenadiazole derivatives enhances radiation-induced growth inhibition on A375 cells through induction of G2/M arrest. • ROS-mediated signaling pathways play important roles in radiosensitization of selenadiazole derivatives. - Abstract: X-ray-based radiotherapy represents one of the most effective ways in treating human cancers. However, radioresistance and side effect remain as the most challenging issue. This study describes the design and application of novel selenadiazole derivatives as radiotherapy sensitizers to enhance X-ray-induced inhibitory effects on A375 human melanoma and Hela human cervical carcinoma cells. The results showed that, pretreatment of the cells with selenadiazole derivatives dramatically enhance X-ray-induced growth inhibition and colony formation. Flow cytometry analysis indicates that the sensitization by selenadiazole derivatives was mainly caused by induction of G2/M cell cycle arrest. Results of Western blotting demonstrated that the combined treatment-induced A375 cells growth inhibition was achieved by triggering reactive oxygen species-mediated DNA damage involving inactivation of AKT and MAPKs. Further investigation revealed that selenadiazole derivative in combination with X-ray could synergistically inhibit the activity of thioredoxin reductase-1 in A375 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that selenadiazole derivatives can act as novel radiosensitizer with potential application in combating human cancers

  13. ROS/Autophagy/Nrf2 Pathway Mediated Low-Dose Radiation Induced Radio-Resistance in Human Lung Adenocarcinoma A549 Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ni; Wu, Lijun; Yuan, Hang; Wang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Low-dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) can induce radio-resistance to following high dose radiation in various mammalian cells. The protective role of LDIR has been thought to be associated with the overall outcomes of cancer radiotherapy. NF-E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that plays pivotal roles in maintaining cellular oxidative equilibrium. Since oxidative stress has been indicated to be a mediator of LDIR induced radio-resistance, the role of Nrf2 in this process was investigated in this research. Our results showed that in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell, 5cGy alpha particle induced radio-resistance to following 75cGy alpha particle radiation. The expression level of Nrf2 and its target Heme Oxygenase-1(HO-1) increased after 5cGy radiation. Both the shRNA of Nrf2 and the chemical inhibitor of HO-1 suppressed the induced radio-resistance, indicating the involvement of Nrf2 antioxidant pathway in this process. Further, we found 5cGy radiation stimulated autophagy process in A549. Inhibition of the autophagy process resulted in suppression of the radio-resistance and the induced expression of Nrf2 and HO-1. ROS scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) blocked the autophagy process induced by 5cGy alpha particle, the upregulation of Nrf2 and HO-1, as well as the induced radio-resistance. In conclusion, ROS elevation caused by LDIR promoted Autophagy/Nrf2-HO-1 and conferred radio-resistance in A549. PMID:26078725

  14. ?-Solanine induces ROS-mediated autophagy through activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress and inhibition of Akt/mTOR pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanain, M; Bhattacharjee, A; Pandey, P; Ashraf, R; Singh, N; Sharma, S; Vishwakarma, A L; Datta, D; Mitra, K; Sarkar, J

    2015-01-01

    ?-Solanine is a glycoalkaloid found in species of the nightshade family including potato. It was primarily reported to have toxic effects in humans. However, there is a growing body of literature demonstrating in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity of ?-solanine. Most of these studies have shown activation of apoptosis as the underlying mechanism in antitumor activity of ?-solanine. In this study, we report ?-solanine as a potential inducer of autophagy, which may act synergistically or in parallel with apoptosis to exert its cytotoxic effect. Induction of autophagy was demonstrated by several assays including electron microscopy, immunoblotting of autophagy markers and immunofluorescence for LC3 (microtubule-associated protein 1 (MAP1) light chain-3) puncta. ?-Solanine-induced autophagic flux was demonstrated by additionally enhanced--turnover of LC3-II and--accumulation of LC3-specific puncta after co-incubation of cells with either of the autophagolysosome inhibitors--chloroquine and--bafilomycin A1. We also demonstrated ?-solanine-induced oxidative damage in regulating autophagy where pre-incubation of cells with reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger resulted in suppression of CM-H2DCFDA (5 (and 6)-chloromethyl-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate acetyl ester) fluorescence as well as decrease in LC3-II turnover. ?-Solanine treatment caused an increase in the expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress proteins (BiP, activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), X-box-binding protein 1, PERK, inositol-requiring transmembrane kinase/endonuclease 1, ATF4 and CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP)-homologous protein) suggesting activation of unfolded protein response pathway. Moreover, we found downregulation of phosphorylated Akt (Thr308 and Ser473), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR; Ser2448 and Ser2481) and 4E-BP1 (Thr37/46) by ?-solanine implying suppression of the Akt/mTOR pathway. Collectively, our results signify that ?-solanine induces autophagy to exert anti-proliferative activity by triggering ER stress and inhibiting Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. PMID:26313911

  15. (?)-Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Induces Non-Apoptotic Cell Death in Human Cancer Cells via ROS-Mediated Lysosomal Membrane Permeabilization

    OpenAIRE

    Yin ZHANG; Yang, Nai-Di; ZHOU, FAN; Shen, Ting; Duan, Ting; Zhou, Jing; Shi, Yin; Zhu, Xin-Qiang; Shen, Han-Ming

    2012-01-01

    (?)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most extensive studied tea polyphenol for its anti-cancer function. In this study, we report a novel mechanism of action for EGCG-mediated cell death by identifying the critical role of lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP). First, EGCG-induced cell death in human cancer cells (both HepG2 and HeLa) was found to be caspase-independent and accompanied by evident cytosolic vacuolization, only observable when cells were treated in serum-free medium...

  16. Stat3 mediates LIF-induced protection of astrocytes against toxic ROS by upregulating the UPC2 mRNA pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapp, Daniel W; Zhang, Samuel S; Barnstable, Colin J

    2014-02-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in various types of CNS damage, including stroke. We used a cultured astrocyte model to explore mechanisms of survival of CNS cells following ROS damage. We found that pretreatment with leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) preserves astrocytes exposed to toxic levels of t-BHP by inhibiting an increase in intracellular ROS following t-BHP treatment. Astrocytes lacking functional Stat3 did not benefit from the pro-survival or antioxidant effects of LIF. Inhibition of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) using a chemical inhibitor or siRNA abrogates the prosurvival effects of LIF, indicating a critical role for UCP2 in modulation of mitochondrial ROS production in survival following ROS exposure. LIF treatment of astrocytes results in increased UCP2 mRNA that is accompanied by an increase in Stat3 binding to the UCP2 promoter region. Although treatment with LIF alone did not increase UCP2 protein, a combination of LIF treatment and ROS stress led to increased UCP2 protein levels. We conclude that LIF protects astrocytes from ROS-induced death by increasing UCP2 mRNA, allowing cells to respond to ROS stress by rapidly producing UCP2 protein that ultimately decreases endogenous mitochondrial ROS production. PMID:24307565

  17. Mangrove dolabrane-type of diterpenes tagalsins suppresses tumor growth via ROS-mediated apoptosis and ATM/ATR-Chk1/Chk2-regulated cell cycle arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Jennifer; Yang, Yi; Köhler, Rebecca; Giaisi, Marco; Witzens-Harig, Mathias; Liu, Dong; Krammer, Peter H; Lin, Wenhan; Li-Weber, Min

    2015-12-01

    Natural compounds are an important source for drug development. With an increasing cancer rate worldwide there is an urgent quest for new anti-cancer drugs. In this study, we show that a group of dolabrane-type of diterpenes, collectively named tagalsins, isolated from the Chinese mangrove genus Ceriops has potent cytotoxicity on a panel of hematologic cancer cells. Investigation of the molecular mechanisms by which tagalsins kill malignant cells revealed that it induces a ROS-mediated damage of DNA. This event leads to apoptosis induction and blockage of cell cycle progression at S-G2 phase via activation of the ATM/ATR-Chk1/Chk2 check point pathway. We further show that tagalsins suppress growth of human T-cell leukemia xenografts in vivo. Tagalsins show only minor toxicity on healthy cells and are well tolerated by mice. Our study shows a therapeutic potential of tagalsins for the treatment of hematologic malignancies and a new source of anticancer drugs. PMID:26061604

  18. Induction of ROS-dependent mitochondria-mediated intrinsic apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells by glycoprotein from Codium decorticatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangam, Ramar; Senthilkumar, Dharmaraj; Suresh, Veeraperumal; Sathuvan, Malairaj; Sivasubramanian, Srinivasan; Pazhanichamy, Kalailingam; Gorlagunta, Praveen Kumar; Kannan, Soundarapandian; Gunasekaran, Palani; Rengasamy, Ramasamy; Sivaraman, Jayanthi

    2014-04-16

    Marine macroalgae consist of a range of bioactive molecules exhibiting different biological activities, and many of these properties are attributed to sulfated polysaccharides, fucoxanthin, phycobiliproteins, and halogenated compounds. In this study, a glycoprotein (GLP) with a molecular mass of ?48 kDa was extracted and purified from Codium decorticatum and investigated for its cytotoxic properties against human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. The IC?? values of GLP against MDA-MB-231 and normal breast HBL-100 cells (control) were 75 ± 0.23 ?g/mL (IC??), 55 ± 0.32 ?g/mL (IC??), and 30 ± 0.43 ?g/mL (IC??) and 90 ± 0.57 ?g/mL (IC??), 80 ± 0.48 ?g/mL (IC??), and 60 ± 0.26 ?g/mL (IC??), respectively. Chromatin condensation and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage studies showed that the GLP inhibited cell viability by inducing apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells. Induction of mitochondria-mediated intrinsic apoptotic pathway by GLP was evidenced by the events of loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (??(m)), bax/bcl-2 dysregulation, cytochrome c release, and activation of caspases 3 and 9. Apoptosis-associated factors such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and loss of ??(m) were evaluated by DCFH-DA staining and flow cytometry, respectively. Cell cycle arrest of G?/M phase and expression of apoptosis associated proteins were determined using flow cytometry and Western blotting, respectively. PMID:24694116

  19. Arsenic and chromium in drinking water promote tumorigenesis in a mouse colitis-associated colorectal cancer model and the potential mechanism is ROS-mediated Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xin; Mandal, Ardhendu K. [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Saito, Hiroshi [Department of Surgery and Physiology, Lucille P. Markey Cancer Center, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Pulliam, Joseph F.; Lee, Eun Y. [Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Ke, Zun-Ji; Lu, Jian; Ding, Songze [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Li, Li [Department of Family Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Shelton, Brent J.; Tucker, Thomas [Markey Cancer Control Program, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40504 (United States); Evers, B. Mark [Department of Surgery and Physiology, Lucille P. Markey Cancer Center, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Zhang, Zhuo [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Shi, Xianglin, E-mail: xshi5@uky.edu [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Exposure to carcinogenic metals, such as trivalent arsenic [As(III)] and hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)], through drinking water is a major global public health problem and is associated with various cancers. However, the mechanism of their carcinogenicity remains unclear. In this study, we used azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate (AOM/DSS)-induced mouse colitis-associated colorectal cancer model to investigate their tumorigenesis. Our results demonstrate that exposure to As(III) or Cr(VI), alone or in combination, together with AOM/DSS pretreatment has a promotion effect, increasing the colorectal tumor incidence, multiplicity, size, and grade, as well as cell inflammatory response. Two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry revealed that As(III) or Cr(VI) treatment alone significantly changed the density of proteins. The expression of ?-catenin and phospho-GSK was increased by treatment of carcinogenic metals alone. Concomitantly, the expression of NADPH oxidase1 (NOX1) and the level of 8-OHdG were also increased by treatment of carcinogenic metals alone. Antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, were decreased. Similarly, in an in vitro system, exposure of CRL-1807 to carcinogenic metals increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, the expression of ?-catenin, phospho-GSK, and NOX1. Inhibition of ROS generation by addition of SOD or catalase inhibited ?-catenin expression and activity. Our study provides a new animal model to study the carcinogenicity of As(III) and Cr(VI) and suggests that As(III) and Cr(VI) promote colorectal cancer tumorigenesis, at least partly, through ROS-mediated Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway. -- Highlights: ? Carcinogenic metals in drinking water promote colorectal tumor formation in vivo. ? Carcinogenic metals induce ?-catenin activation in vivo and in vitro. ? ROS generation induced by carcinogenic metals mediated ?-catenin activation.

  20. Arsenic and chromium in drinking water promote tumorigenesis in a mouse colitis-associated colorectal cancer model and the potential mechanism is ROS-mediated Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to carcinogenic metals, such as trivalent arsenic [As(III)] and hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)], through drinking water is a major global public health problem and is associated with various cancers. However, the mechanism of their carcinogenicity remains unclear. In this study, we used azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate (AOM/DSS)-induced mouse colitis-associated colorectal cancer model to investigate their tumorigenesis. Our results demonstrate that exposure to As(III) or Cr(VI), alone or in combination, together with AOM/DSS pretreatment has a promotion effect, increasing the colorectal tumor incidence, multiplicity, size, and grade, as well as cell inflammatory response. Two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry revealed that As(III) or Cr(VI) treatment alone significantly changed the density of proteins. The expression of ?-catenin and phospho-GSK was increased by treatment of carcinogenic metals alone. Concomitantly, the expression of NADPH oxidase1 (NOX1) and the level of 8-OHdG were also increased by treatment of carcinogenic metals alone. Antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, were decreased. Similarly, in an in vitro system, exposure of CRL-1807 to carcinogenic metals increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, the expression of ?-catenin, phospho-GSK, and NOX1. Inhibition of ROS generation by addition of SOD or catalase inhibited ?-catenin expression and activity. Our study provides a new animal model to study the carcinogenicity of As(III) and Cr(VI) and suggests that As(III) and Cr(VI) promote colorectal cancer tumorigenesis, at least partly, through ROS-mediated Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway. -- Highlights: ? Carcinogenic metals in drinking water promote colorectal tumor formation in vivo. ? Carcinogenic metals induce ?-catenin activation in vivo and in vitro. ? ROS generation induced by carcinogenic metals mediated ?-catenin activation.

  1. Low fucose containing bacterial polysaccharide facilitate mitochondria-dependent ROS-induced apoptosis of human lung epithelial carcinoma via controlled regulation of MAPKs-mediated Nrf2/Keap1 homeostasis signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Sougata Roy; Sengupta, Suman; Biswas, Subir; Sen, Ramkrishna; Sinha, Tridib Kumar; Basak, Ratan Kumar; Adhikari, Basudam; Bhattacharyya, Arindam

    2015-12-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS), the key mediators of cellular oxidative stress and redox dysregulation involved in cancer initiation and progression, have recently emerged as promising targets for anticancer drug discovery. Continuous free radical assault upsets homeostasis in cellular redox system and regulates the associated signaling pathways to mediate stress-induced cell death. This study investigates the dose-specific pro-oxidative behavior of a bacterial fucose polysaccharide, which attenuated proliferation of different cancer cells. In the fermentation process, Bacillus megaterium RB-05 [GenBank Accession Number HM371417] was found to biosynthesize a polysaccharide with low-fucose content (4.9%), which conferred the maximum anti-proliferative activity (750?µg/mL) against human lung cancer epithelial cells (A549) during preliminary screening. Structural elucidation and morphological characterization of the duly purified polysaccharide was done using HPLC, GC-MS, (1) H/(13) C NMR, and microscopy. The polysaccharide exhibited concentration- and time-dependent anti-proliferative effects against A549 cells by inducing intracellular ROS level and regulating the mitochondrial membrane-permeability following the apoptotic pathway. This process encompasses activation of caspase-8/9/3/7, increase in the ratio of Bax/Bcl2 ratio, translocation of Bcl2-associated X protein (Bax) and cytochrome c, decrease in expression of anti-apoptotic members of Bcl2 family, and phosphorylation of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Apoptosis was attenuated upon pretreatment with specific caspase-inhibitors. Simultaneously, during apoptosis, the ROS-mediated stress as well as activated MAPKs triggered nuclear translocation of transcription factors like nuclear factor (erythroid-derived)-like 2 (Nrf2) and promoted further transcription of downstream cytoprotective genes, which somehow perturbed the chemotherapeutic efficacy of the polysaccharide, although using CuPP, a chemical inhibitor of HO-1, apoptosis increased significantly (P?

  2. Snake venom toxin from vipera lebetina turanica induces apoptosis of colon cancer cells via upregulation of ROS- and JNK-mediated death receptor expression

    OpenAIRE

    Park Mi; Jo MiRan; Won Dohee; Song Ho; Han Sang; Song Min; Hong Jin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Abundant research suggested that the cancer cells avoid destruction by the immune system through down-regulation or mutation of death receptors. Therefore, it is very important that finding the agents that increase the death receptors of cancer cells. In this study, we demonstrated that the snake venom toxin from Vipera lebetina turanica induce the apoptosis of colon cancer cells through reactive oxygen species (ROS) and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) dependent death recep...

  3. Ellagic acid, a polyphenolic compound, selectively induces ROS-mediated apoptosis in cancerous B-lymphocytes of CLL patients by directly targeting mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi, Ahmad; Roudkenar, Mehryar Habibi; Sadeghi, Leila; Mohseni, Alireza; Seydi, Enayatollah; Pirahmadi, Nahal; Pourahmad, Jalal

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the effects ofellagic acid (EA) on the cytotoxicity, B-lymphocytes isolated from CLL patients and healthy individuals. Flow cytometric assay was used to measure the percentage of apoptosis versus necrosis, intracellular active oxygen radicals (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and the caspase-3 activity and then mitochondria were isolated from both groups B-lymphocytes and parameters of mitochondrial toxicity was investigated. Based on our results EA decreased the percentage of viable cells and induced apoptosis. EA increased ROS formation, mitochondria swelling, MMP decrease and cytochrome c release in mitochondria isolated from CLL BUT NOT healthy B-lymphocytes while pre-treatment with cyclosporine A and Butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) prevented these effects. Our results suggest that EA can act as an anti cancer candidate by directly and selectively targeting mitochondria could induce apoptosis through mitochondria pathway with increasing ROS production which finally ends in cytochrome c release, caspase 3 activation and apoptosis in cancerous B-lymphocytes isolated from CLL patients. PMID:26418626

  4. Mechanical stretch-induced vascular hypertrophy occurs through modulation of leptin synthesis-mediated ROS formation and GATA-4 nuclear translocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghantous, Crystal M.; Kobeissy, Firas H.; Soudani, Nadia; Rahman, Farah A.; Al-Hariri, Mustafa; Itani, Hana A.; Sabra, Ramzi; Zeidan, Asad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obesity and hypertension are associated with increased leptin production contributing to cardiovascular remodeling. Mechanisms involving mechanical stretch-induced leptin production and the cross talk between signaling pathways leading to vascular remodeling have not been fully elucidated. Methods and Results: Rat portal vein (RPV) organ culture was used to investigate the effect of mechanical stretch on leptin protein expression in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Moreover, the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the RhoA/ROCK pathway, actin cytoskeleton dynamics and the transcriptional factor GATA-4 activation in mechanical stretch-induced vascular remodeling were investigated. Stretching the RPV for 1 or 24 h significantly increased leptin protein level and ROS formation in VSMCs, which was prevented by 1 h pretreatment with the ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 and the actin cytoskeleton depolymerization agent cytochalasin D. Moreover, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry revealed that mechanical stretch or treatment with 3.1 nmol/L leptin for 24 h significantly increased actin polymerization, as reflected by an increase in the F-actin to G-actin ratio. Increases in blood vessels’ wet weight and [3H]-leucine incorporation following a 24 h treatment with conditioned media from cultured stretched RPVs indicated RPV hypertrophy. This effect was prevented by 1 h pretreatment with anti-leptin antibody, indicating leptin’s crucial role in promoting VSMC hypertrophy. As an index of GATA-4 activation, GATA-4 nuclear translocation was assessed by immunohistochemistry method. Pretreating VSMC with leptin for 1 h significantly activated GATA-4 nuclear translocation, which was potently attenuated by the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin, Y-27632, and cytochalasin D. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that ROS formation, RhoA/ROCK pathway, and GATA-4 activation play a pivotal role in mechanical stretch-induced leptin synthesis leading to VSMC remodeling. PMID:26557089

  5. Apoptosis of lymphocytes induced by chromium(VI/V) is through ROS-mediated activation of Src-family kinases and caspase-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasant, Chellappa; Rajaram, Rama; Ramasami, Thirumalachari

    2003-11-01

    Mechanistic insights into Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenicity and possible implication of Cr(V) species formed by the redox reactions of chromium-bearing species have attracted interest. We have previously demonstrated that when human peripheral blood lymphocytes are exposed to the Cr(V) complexes, viz., sodium bis(2-ethyl-2-hydroxybutyrato)oxochromate(V), Na[Cr(V)O(ehba)(2)] and sodium bis(2-hydroxy-2-methylbutyrato)oxochromate(V), Na[Cr(V)O(hmba)(2)], apoptosis and formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are observed. The molecular mechanisms involving cellular signaling pathways leading to apoptosis are addressed in the present study. Treatment of lymphocytes with Na[Cr(V)O(ehba)(2)] and K(2)Cr(2)O(7) leads to the activation of the Src-family protein tyrosine kinases namely, p56(lck), p59(fyn), and p56/53(lyn), which then activates caspase-3, both of which are under the partial influence of ROS. Inhibition of the Src-family tyrosine kinases activity by PP2 and of caspase-3 by Z-DEVD-FMK reverses apoptosis, thereby suggesting their importance. Antioxidants only partially reverse the apoptosis induced by Cr(VI/V), suggesting that pathways other than those induced by ROS cannot be ruled out. Although the complex, Na[Cr(V)O(ehba)(2)] is known to be relatively stable in aqueous solutions, previous studies have shown that the Cr(V) complex, Na[Cr(V)O(ehba)(2)] disproportionates to Cr(VI) and Cr(III) forms at pH 7.4 through complex mechanistic processes. Dynamics studies employing EPR data show that the Cr(V) state in Na[Cr(V)O(ehba)(2)] is relatively more stable in RPMI-1640 medium containing plasma. Formation of ROS during the reaction of redox partners with Na[Cr(V)O(ehba)(2)] is an early event and compares favorably in kinetic terms with the reported rate processes for disproportionation. This investigation presents evidence for the direct implication of Cr(V) in Cr(VI)-induced apoptosis of lymphocytes. PMID:14572611

  6. Inflammation-induced radioresistance is mediated by ROS-dependent inactivation of protein phosphatase 1 in non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wanyeon; Youn, HyeSook; Kang, ChulHee; Youn, BuHyun

    2015-09-01

    Inflammation plays a pivotal role in modulating the radiation responsiveness of tumors. We determined that an inflammation response prior to irradiation contributes to radiotherapy resistance in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. In the clonogenic survival assay, activation of the inflammation response by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) decreased the degree of radiosensitivity in NCI-H460 cells (relatively radiosensitive cells), but had no effect in A549 cells (relatively radioresistant cells). LPS-induced radioresistance of NCI-H460 cells was also confirmed with a xenograft mouse model. The radioresistant effect observed in NCI-H460 cells was correlated with inhibition of apoptotic cell death due to reduced Caspase 3/7 activity. Moreover, we found that the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were synergistically elevated in NCI-H460 cells by treatment with LPS and radiation. Increased ROS generation negatively affected the activity of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1). Decreased PP1 activity did not lead to Bad dephosphorylation, consequently resulting in the inhibition of irradiation-induced mitochondrial membrane potential loss and apoptosis. We confirmed that pre-treatment with a PP1 activator and LPS sensitized NCI-H460 cells to radiation. Taken together, our findings provided evidence that PP1 activity is critical for radiosensitization in NSCLC cells and PP1 activators can serve as promising radiosensitizers to improve therapeutic efficacy. PMID:26033480

  7. Synergistic effects of particulate matter (PM10) and SO2 on human non-small cell lung cancer A549 via ROS-mediated NF-?B activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Yang; Gao, Rui; Yue, Huifeng; Li, Guangke; Zhu, Na; Sang, Nan

    2015-05-01

    Since a real atmospheric scenario usually represents a system involving multiple pollutants, air pollution studies typically focused on describing adverse effects associated with exposure to individual pollutants cannot reflect actual health risk. Particulate matter (PM10) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) are two major pollutants derived from coal combustion processes and co-existing in coal-smoke air pollution, but their potentially synergistic toxicity remains elusive thus far. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic responses of PM10 and SO2, singly and in binary mixtures, using human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells, followed by clarifying the possible mechanisms for their interaction. The results indicated that the concomitant treatment of PM10 and SO2 at low concentrations led to synergistic injury in terms of cell survival and apoptosis occurrence, while PM10 and SO2 alone at the same concentrations did not cause damage to the cells. Also, radical oxygen species (ROS) production followed by nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) activation was involved in the above synergistic cytotoxicity, which was confirmed by the repression of the actions by an ROS inhibitor (NAC). This implies that assessment of health risk should consider the interactions between ambient PM and gaseous copollutants. PMID:25968268

  8. Induction of apoptosis by capsaicin in hepatocellular cancer cell line SMMC-7721 is mediated through ROS generation and activation of JNK and p38 MAPK pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, H Q; Cai, K; Shen, F; Bao, X D; Xu, Y; Yu, F; Pan, H Q; Chen, C H; Du, Z J; Cui, J H

    2015-01-01

    Capsaicin, one of the major pungent ingredients found in red peppers, has been shown to have anti-carcinogenic effect on various cancer cells through multiple mechanisms. In this study, we investigated the apoptotic effect of capsaicin on human hepatocellular cancer cell line SMMC-7721, as well as the possible mechanisms involved. Treatment of SMMC-7721 cells with capsaicin resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of cell-viability and induction of apoptosis which was associated with the generation of ROS and persistent disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential. These effects were significantly blocked when cells were pretreated with a general antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). We also found that capsaicin induced JNK and p38 MAPK phosphorylation. JNK and p38 MAPK inhibitor effectively blocked capsaicin-induced SMMC-7721 cell apoptosis. In addition, NAC completely blocked phosphorylation of JNK and p38 MAPK induced by capsaicin. Our results indicate that capsaicin induced in SMMC-7721 cell apoptosis through generation of intracellular ROS and activation of JNK and p38 MAPK pathways. PMID:25997958

  9. Emodin enhances cytotoxicity of chemotherapeutic drugs in prostate cancer cells: the mechanisms involve ROS-mediated suppression of multidrug resistance and hypoxia inducible factor-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xin-zhi; Wang, Jie; Huang, Chao; Chen, Yu-ying; Shi, Gui-ying; Hu, Qing-shen; Yi, Jing

    2008-03-01

    The intrinsic or acquired resistance to multiple drugs (MDR) of cancer cells remains one of the main obstacles for chemotherapy. Development of small molecule targeting to hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) has been recently proposed as strategy for treatments of drug-resistant solid tumors. In the present study, emodin, proven as a reactive oxygen species (ROS) generator by our previous work, was applied in combination with cisplatin and other chemotherapeutic drugs in the multidrug resistant prostate carcinoma cell line DU-145 and normal human dermal fibroblasts. Results showed that emodin/cisplatin co-treatment remarkably elevated ROS level and enhanced chemosensitivity in DU-145 cells, compared with cisplatin-only treatment, but exerted little effect on non-tumor cells. The effect of co-treatment on MDR1 gene and its upstream regulator HIF-1 was then investigated in DU-145. Co-treatment downregulated MDR1 expression and promoted drug retention, and meanwhile suppressed transactivation of HIF-1 in response to hypoxia without changing expression of HIF-1 alpha. The experiments on tumor-bearing mice showed that co-treatment inhibited the tumor growth in vivo, owing to oxidative stress and MDR1 down-regulation within tumors. HIF-1 transactivation and clonegenesis were suppressed in cells isolated from the tumors. Finally, examinations for the body weight, the organ histology and the antioxidant capacity of serum suggested that no systemic toxicity related to co-treatment was discernable. In conclusions, emodin, as a novel small inhibitor of HIF-1, may be recognized an effective adjunctive to improve efficacy of cytotoxic drugs in prostate cancer cells with over-activated HIF-1 and potent MDR. PMID:18285700

  10. Snake venom toxin from Vipera lebetina turanica sensitizes cancer cells to TRAIL through ROS- and JNK-mediated upregulation of death receptors and downregulation of survival proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mi Hee; Jo, Miran; Won, Dohee; Song, Ho Sueb; Song, Min Jong; Hong, Jin Tae

    2012-12-01

    We investigated whether snake venom toxin (SVT) from Vipera lebetina turanica enhances the apoptosis ability of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in cancer cells. TRAIL inhibited HCT116 cell growth in a dose-dependent manner; however, this reduction did not occur in TRAIL resistant HT-29, A549 and HepG2 cells with an even higher dose of TRAIL. SVT, but not TRAIL enhanced expression of cell death receptor (DR) in TRAIL resistant cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. A combination of SVT with TRAIL significantly inhibited cell growth of TRAIL resistant HT-29, A549 and HepG2 cells. Consistent with cell growth inhibition, the expression of TRAIL receptors; DR4 and DR5 was significantly increased as well as apoptosis related proteins such as cleaved caspase-3, -8, -9 and Bax. However, the expression of survival proteins (e.g., cFLIP, survivin, XIAP and Bcl2) was suppressed by the combination treatment of SVT and TRAIL. Depletion of DR4 or DR5 by small interfering RNA significantly reversed the cell growth inhibitory and apoptosis blocking effects of SVT in HCT116 and HT-29 cells. Pretreatment with the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor SP600125 and the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger N-acetylcysteine reduced the SVT and TRAIL-induced upregulation of DR4 and DR5 expression, expression of the apoptosis related protein such as caspase-3 and-9, as well as cell growth inhibitory effects. The collective results suggest that SVT facilitates TRAIL-induced apoptosis in cancer cells through up-regulation of the TRAIL receptors; DR4 and DR5 via ROS/JNK pathway signals. PMID:23007278

  11. ROS (Robot Operating System) für Automotive

    OpenAIRE

    Bubeck, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    - Introduction into the Robot Operating System - Open Source in the automotive industries - Application of ROS in the automotive industry - ROS navigation - ROS with real time control - ROS in the embedded world - Outlook: ROS 2.0 - Summary

  12. ROS Installation and Commissioning

    CERN Multimedia

    Gorini, B

    The ATLAS Readout group (a sub-group of TDAQ) has now completed the installation and commissioning of all of the Readout System (ROS) units. Event data from ATLAS is initially handled by detector specific hardware and software, but following a Level 1 Accept the data passes from the detector specific Readout Drivers (RODs) to the ROS, the first stage of the central ATLAS DAQ. Within the final ATLAS TDAQ system the ROS stores the data and on request makes it available to the Level 2 Trigger (L2) processors and to the Event Builder (EB) as required. The ROS is implemented as a large number of PCs housing custom built cards (ROBINs) and running custom multi-threaded software. Each ROBIN card (shown below) contains buffer memories to store the data, plus a field programmable gate array ( FPGA ) and an embedded PowerPC processor for management of the memories and data requests, and is implemented as a 64-bit 66 MHz PCI card. Both the software and the ROBIN cards have been designed and developed by the Readout g...

  13. Grape-Derived Polyphenols Prevent Doxorubicin-Induced Blunted EDH-Mediated Relaxations in the Rat Mesenteric Artery: Role of ROS and Angiotensin II

    OpenAIRE

    Noureddine Idris-Khodja; Paola Di Marco; Mona Farhat; Bernard Geny; Valérie B. Schini-Kerth

    2013-01-01

    This study determined whether doxorubicin, an anticancer agent, impairs endothelium-dependent relaxations mediated by nitric oxide (NO) and endothelium-derived hyperpolarization (EDH) in the mesenteric artery and, if so, the mechanism underlying the protective effect of red wine polyphenols (RWPs), a rich natural source of antioxidants. Male Wistar rats were assigned into 4 groups: control, RWPs, doxorubicin, and doxorubicin + RWPs. Vascular reactivity was assessed in organ chambers; the vasc...

  14. ROS/Autophagy/Nrf2 Pathway Mediated Low-Dose Radiation Induced Radio-Resistance in Human Lung Adenocarcinoma A549 Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ni; Wu, Lijun; Yuan, Hang; Wang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Low-dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) can induce radio-resistance to following high dose radiation in various mammalian cells. The protective role of LDIR has been thought to be associated with the overall outcomes of cancer radiotherapy. NF-E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that plays pivotal roles in maintaining cellular oxidative equilibrium. Since oxidative stress has been indicated to be a mediator of LDIR induced radio-resistance, the role of Nrf2 in this process was inv...

  15. The ROS Workshop

    CERN Multimedia

    Francis, D.

    The first week of February saw the taking place of the ReadOut Subsystem (ROS) workshop. The ROS is the subsystem of the Trigger, DAQ & DCS project which receives and buffers data from the detector ReadOut Drivers (RODs). On request it then provides a subset of this buffered data, the so-called Regions of Interest (RoI), to the Level 2 trigger. Using the subsequent Level 2 trigger decision, the ROS either removes the buffered event data from its buffers or sends the full event data to the Event Filter for further processing. The workshop took place over a four-day period at a location in the Jura. The average daily attendance was twenty people, which mainly represented the five main ATLAS institutes currently engaged in this Trigger, DAQ & DCS activity. The aim of the workshop was to bring to an end the current prototyping activities in this area and launch the next, final, phase of prototyping. This new phase of prototyping will build on the successful activities of the previous phase and will focus...

  16. ROS signalling – Specificity is required

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MØller, Ian Max; Sweetlove, Lee J

    2011-01-01

    The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) increases in plants under stress. ROS can damage cellular components, but they can also act in signal transduction to help the cell counteract the oxidative damage in the stressed compartment. H2O2 may induce a general stress response, but it does not have the required specificity to selectively regulate nuclear genes required for dealing with localized stress, e.g., in chloroplasts or mitochondria. We here argue that peptides deriving from proteolytic breakdown of oxidatively damaged proteins have the requisite specificity to act as secondary ROS messengers and regulate source-specific genes and in this way contribute to retrograde ROS signalling during oxidative stress. (This is a new project funded by FNU) References: Møller, I.M. & Sweetlove, L.J. 2010. ROS signalling – Specificity is required. Trends Plant Sci. 15: 370-374

  17. The role of ethylene and ROS in salinity, heavy metal, and flooding responses in rice

    OpenAIRE

    Steffens, Bianka

    2014-01-01

    Plant growth and developmental processes as well as abiotic and biotic stress adaptations are regulated by small endogenous signaling molecules. Among these, phytohormones such as the gaseous alkene ethylene and reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in mediating numerous specific growth or cell death responses. While apoplastic ROS are generated by plasma membrane-located respiratory burst oxidase homolog proteins, intracellular ROS are produced mainly in electron transfer chai...

  18. Learning ROS for robotics programming

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    The book will take an easy-to-follow and engaging tutorial approach, providing a practical and comprehensive way to learn ROS.If you are a robotic enthusiast who wants to learn how to build and program your own robots in an easy-to-develop, maintainable and shareable way, ""Learning ROS for Robotics Programming"" is for you. In order to make the most of the book, you should have some C++ programming background, knowledge of GNU/Linux systems, and computer science in general. No previous background on ROS is required, since this book provides all the skills required. It is also advisable to hav

  19. ROS signalling - specificity is required

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MØller, Ian M; Sweetlove, Lee J

    2010-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production increases in plants under stress. ROS can damage cellular components, but they can also act in signal transduction to help the cell counteract the oxidative damage in the stressed compartment. H2O2 might induce a general stress response, but it does not have the required specificity to selectively regulate nuclear genes required for dealing with localized stress, e.g. in chloroplasts or mitochondria. Here we argue that peptides deriving from proteolytic breakdown of oxidatively damaged proteins have the requisite specificity to act as secondary ROS messengers and regulate source-specific genes and in this way contribute to retrograde ROS signalling during oxidative stress. Likewise, unmodified peptides deriving from the breakdown of redundant proteins could help coordinate organellar and nuclear gene expression

  20. Oxido-reductive regulation of vascular remodeling by receptor tyrosine kinase ROS1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ziad A; de Jesus Perez, Vinicio; Yuan, Ke; Orcholski, Mark; Pan, Stephen; Qi, Wei; Chopra, Gaurav; Adams, Christopher; Kojima, Yoko; Leeper, Nicholas J; Qu, Xiumei; Zaleta-Rivera, Kathia; Kato, Kimihiko; Yamada, Yoshiji; Oguri, Mitsutoshi; Kuchinsky, Allan; Hazen, Stanley L; Jukema, J Wouter; Ganesh, Santhi K; Nabel, Elizabeth G; Channon, Keith; Leon, Martin B; Charest, Alain; Quertermous, Thomas; Ashley, Euan A

    2014-12-01

    Angioplasty and stenting is the primary treatment for flow-limiting atherosclerosis; however, this strategy is limited by pathological vascular remodeling. Using a systems approach, we identified a role for the network hub gene glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPX1) in pathological remodeling following human blood vessel stenting. Constitutive deletion of Gpx1 in atherosclerotic mice recapitulated this phenotype of increased vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and plaque formation. In an independent patient cohort, gene variant pair analysis identified an interaction of GPX1 with the orphan protooncogene receptor tyrosine kinase ROS1. A meta-analysis of the only genome-wide association studies of human neointima-induced in-stent stenosis confirmed the association of the ROS1 variant with pathological remodeling. Decreased GPX1 expression in atherosclerotic mice led to reductive stress via a time-dependent increase in glutathione, corresponding to phosphorylation of the ROS1 kinase activation site Y2274. Loss of GPX1 function was associated with both oxidative and reductive stress, the latter driving ROS1 activity via s-glutathiolation of critical residues of the ROS1 tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2. ROS1 inhibition with crizotinib and deglutathiolation of SHP-2 abolished GPX1-mediated increases in VSMC proliferation while leaving endothelialization intact. Our results indicate that GPX1-dependent alterations in oxido-reductive stress promote ROS1 activation and mediate vascular remodeling. PMID:25401476

  1. The role of ethylene and ROS in salinity, heavy metal, and flooding responses in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, Bianka

    2014-01-01

    Plant growth and developmental processes as well as abiotic and biotic stress adaptations are regulated by small endogenous signaling molecules. Among these, phytohormones such as the gaseous alkene ethylene and reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in mediating numerous specific growth or cell death responses. While apoplastic ROS are generated by plasma membrane-located respiratory burst oxidase homolog proteins, intracellular ROS are produced mainly in electron transfer chains of mitochondria and chloroplasts. Ethylene accumulates in plants due to physical entrapment or by enhanced ethylene biosynthesis. A major crop that must endure high salt and heavy metal concentrations upon flooding in regions of Asia is rice. Ethylene and ROS have been identified as the major signals that mediate salinity, chromium, and flooding stress in rice. This mini review focuses on (i) what is known about ethylene and ROS level control during these abiotic stresses in rice, (ii) how the two signals mediate growth or death processes, and (iii) feedback mechanisms that in turn regulate ethylene and ROS signaling. PMID:25538719

  2. Mitochondria-derived ROS bursts disturb Ca²? cycling and induce abnormal automaticity in guinea pig cardiomyocytes: a theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qince; Su, Di; O'Rourke, Brian; Pogwizd, Steven M; Zhou, Lufang

    2015-03-15

    Mitochondria are in close proximity to the redox-sensitive sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) release [ryanodine receptors (RyRs)] and uptake [Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA)] channels. Thus mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species (mdROS) could play a crucial role in modulating Ca(2+) cycling in the cardiomyocytes. However, whether mdROS-mediated Ca(2+) dysregulation translates to abnormal electrical activities under pathological conditions, and if yes what are the underlying ionic mechanisms, have not been fully elucidated. We hypothesize that pathological mdROS induce Ca(2+) elevation by modulating SR Ca(2+) handling, which activates other Ca(2+) channels and further exacerbates Ca(2+) dysregulation, leading to abnormal action potential (AP). We also propose that the morphologies of elicited AP abnormality rely on the time of mdROS induction, interaction between mitochondria and SR, and intensity of mitochondrial oxidative stress. To test the hypotheses, we developed a multiscale guinea pig cardiomyocyte model that incorporates excitation-contraction coupling, local Ca(2+) control, mitochondrial energetics, and ROS-induced ROS release. This model, for the first time, includes mitochondria-SR microdomain and modulations of mdROS on RyR and SERCA activities. Simulations show that mdROS bursts increase cytosolic Ca(2+) by stimulating RyRs and inhibiting SERCA, which activates the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger, Ca(2+)-sensitive nonspecific cationic channels, and Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release, eliciting abnormal AP. The morphologies of AP abnormality are largely influenced by the time interval among mdROS burst induction and AP firing, dosage and diffusion of mdROS, and SR-mitochondria distance. This study defines the role of mdROS in Ca(2+) overload-mediated cardiac arrhythmogenesis and underscores the importance of considering mitochondrial targets in designing new antiarrhythmic therapies. PMID:25539710

  3. Optimizing the Universal Robots ROS driver.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Timm

    2015-01-01

    In this report I will examine both the current and the possible performance of one of the most popular robotics platforms in research, the Universal Robot manipulator. I will solely focus on the ROS based approaches and show how the current driver can be improved. I will look at performance improvement both in terms of faster reaction as well as making it possible to control the robot using either ros_control or ordinary joint speed commands, which is required for many types of sensory based control like visual servoing. The developed driver is compared to the drivers already existing in the ROS framework to prove the improved performance.

  4. SIRT3 Controls Cancer Metabolic Reprogramming by Regulating ROS and HIF

    OpenAIRE

    Schumacker, Paul T.

    2011-01-01

    In this issue of Cancer Cell, Finley and coworkers report that genetic loss of the deacetylase SIRT3 leads to metabolic re-programming toward glycolysis. This shift is mediated by an increase in cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation that amplifies HIF-? stabilization and HIF-dependent gene expression, thereby driving the tumor phenotype.

  5. Mitochondrial complex III ROS regulate adipocyte differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Tormos, Kathryn V.; Anso, Elena; Hamanaka, Robert B; Eisenbart, James; Joseph, Joy; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman; Chandel, Navdeep S.

    2011-01-01

    Adipocyte differentiation is characterized by an increase in mitochondrial metabolism. However it is not known whether the increase in mitochondrial metabolism is essential for differentiation or a byproduct of the differentiation process. Here, we report that primary human mesenchymal stem cells undergoing differentiation into adipocytes display an early increase in mitochondrial metabolism, biogenesis, and ROS generation. This early increase in mitochondrial metabolism and ROS generation wa...

  6. Towards Interactive, Incremental Programming of ROS Nodes

    OpenAIRE

    Adam, Sorin; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2014-01-01

    Writing software for controlling robots is a complex task, usually demanding command of many programming languages and requiring significant experimentation. We believe that a bottom-up development process that complements traditional component- and MDSD-based approaches can facilitate experimentation. We propose the use of an internal DSL providing both a tool to interactively create ROS nodes and a behaviour-replacement mechanism to interactively reshape existing ROS nodes...

  7. Lipoxin A4 Attenuates Cell Invasion by Inhibiting ROS/ERK/MMP Pathway in Pancreatic Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Liang; Li, Jiahui; Chen, Xin; Chen, Ke; Li, Wei; Li, Xuqi; Zhang, Lun; Duan, Wanxing; Lei, Jianjun; Xu, Qinhong; Shan, Tao; Ma, Qingyong; Sun, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Lipoxin A4 (LXA4), an endogenous arachidonic acid metabolite, was previously considered an anti-inflammatory lipid mediator. But it also has the potential to inhibit cancer progression. To explore the therapeutic effect of LXA4 in pancreatic cancer, we used Panc-1 cells to investigate the mechanism by which LXA4 can attenuate pancreatic cancer cell invasion. Our data showed that LXA4 significantly inhibited both cell invasion and the expression of matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP-) 9 and MMP-2. Further experiments implied that LXA4 decreased the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the activity of the extracellular signal regulated kinases (ERK) pathway to achieve similar outcome to ROS scavenger N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC). However, a decreased level of intracellular ROS was not observed in cells treated with the specific ERK pathway inhibitor FR180204. The blocking of either intracellular ROS or ERK pathway caused the downregulation of MMP-9 and MMP-2 expression. Furthermore, tests revealed that LXA4 inhibited MMP-9 and MMP-2 at the mRNA, protein, and functional levels. Finally, LXA4 dramatically limited the invasion of CoCl2-mimic hypoxic cells and abrogated intracellular ROS levels, ERK activity, and MMPs expression. These results suggest that LXA4 attenuates cell invasion in pancreatic cancer by suppressing the ROS/ERK/MMPs pathway, which may be beneficial for preventing the invasion of pancreatic cancer. PMID:26649143

  8. Tailored-CuO-nanowire decorated with folic acid mediated coupling of the mitochondrial-ROS generation and miR425-PTEN axis in furnishing potent anti-cancer activity in human triple negative breast carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahir, Manisha; Bhattacharya, Saurav; Karmakar, Soumendu; Mukhopadhyay, Ayan; Mukherjee, Sudeshna; Ghosh, Swatilekha; Chattopadhyay, Sreya; Patra, Prasun; Adhikary, Arghya

    2016-01-01

    Metal oxide nanoparticles are the forthcoming anti-tumor therapeutics and provide a versatile platform in the development of therapeutic approaches for drug-resistant cancers such as triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). Copper oxide nanoparticles have been characterized as anti-cancer agents but its toxicity has been a matter of concern. Herein, we have developed a targeted CuO Nanowire fabricated with Folic acid (CuO-Nw-FA) that enables enhanced cellular uptake in TNBC cells without imparting significant toxicity in normal cellular system. In the present study, we enumerated that CuO-Nw-FA caused mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis in MDAMB-231 cells. Furthermore, CuO-Nw-FA mediated cytosolic retardation of NF-?B favoured inactivation of miR-425 and henceforth activated PTEN to induce apoptosis in TNBC cells. Simultaneously, CuO-Nw-FA also restricted the in-vitro cell migration through the miR-425/PTEN axis via pFAK. Studies extended to ex-ovo and in-vivo mice models further validated the efficacy of CuO-Nw-FA. Additionally, the accumulations of nanoparticles in tumor as well as different organs in mice were examined by in-vivo biodistribution and ex-vivo optical imaging studies. Thus our results cumulatively propose that CuO-Nw-FA cross-talks two distinct signalling pathways to induce apoptosis and retard migration in TNBC cells and raises the possibility for the use of CuO-Nw-FA as a potent anti-tumor agent. PMID:26520043

  9. Mechanism regulating reactive oxygen species in tumor induced myeloid-derived suppressor cells1: MDSC and ROS in cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Corzo, Cesar A.; Cotter, Matthew J.; Cheng, Pingyan; Cheng, Fendong; Kusmartsev, Sergei; Sotomayor, Eduardo; Padhya, Tapan; McCaffrey, Thomas V.; McCaffrey, Judith C.; Gabrilovich, Dmitry I.

    2009-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are a major component of the immune suppressive network described in cancer and many other pathological conditions. Recent studies have demonstrated that one of the major mechanisms of MDSC-induced immune suppression is mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, the mechanism of this phenomenon remained unknown. In this study we observed a substantial up-regulation of ROS by MDSC in all of seven different tumor models and in patients with head ...

  10. Uudised : Fääri ooper Tallinnas. Sigur Ros Tallinnas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    10.-12. septembrini mängitakse Tallinnas Kultuurikatlas fääri helilooja Sunleif Rasmusseni ooperit "Hullu mehe aias", lavastajaks Robert Annus. 23. augustil annab Rock Cafés kontserdi Islandi eksperimentaalrocki ansambel Sigur Ros, kes esitleb oma viiendat albumit "Med sud i eyrum vid spilum endalaust" (mida võiks tõlkida "Mängime lõppematult, sumin kõrvus"

  11. Mitochondrial ROS induces NLRP3-dependent lysosomal damage and inflammasome activation1

    OpenAIRE

    Heid, Michelle E.; Keyel, Peter A.; Kamga, Christelle; Shiva, Sruti; Watkins, Simon C.; Russell D. Salter

    2013-01-01

    The NLRP3 inflammasome drives many inflammatory processes and mediates IL-1 family cytokine release. Inflammasome activators typically damage cells, and may release lysosomal and mitochondrial products into the cytosol. Macrophages triggered by the NLRP3 inflammasome activator nigericin show reduced mitochondrial function and decreased cellular ATP. Release of mitochondrial ROS leads to subsequent lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP). NLRP3-deficient macrophages show comparable reduced m...

  12. Calcium and ROS: A mutual interplay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görlach, Agnes; Bertram, Katharina; Hudecova, Sona; Krizanova, Olga

    2015-12-01

    Calcium is an important second messenger involved in intra- and extracellular signaling cascades and plays an essential role in cell life and death decisions. The Ca(2+) signaling network works in many different ways to regulate cellular processes that function over a wide dynamic range due to the action of buffers, pumps and exchangers on the plasma membrane as well as in internal stores. Calcium signaling pathways interact with other cellular signaling systems such as reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although initially considered to be potentially detrimental byproducts of aerobic metabolism, it is now clear that ROS generated in sub-toxic levels by different intracellular systems act as signaling molecules involved in various cellular processes including growth and cell death. Increasing evidence suggests a mutual interplay between calcium and ROS signaling systems which seems to have important implications for fine tuning cellular signaling networks. However, dysfunction in either of the systems might affect the other system thus potentiating harmful effects which might contribute to the pathogenesis of various disorders. PMID:26296072

  13. ROS-Dependent Antiproliferative Effect of Brassinin Derivative Homobrassinin in Human Colorectal Cancer Caco2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kello

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to examine the in vitro antiproliferative effect of brassinin and its derivatives on human cancer cell lines. Among seven tested compounds, homobrassinin (K1; N-[2-(indol-3-ylethyl]-S-methyldithiocarbamate exhibited the most potent activity with IC50 = 8.0 ?M in human colorectal Caco2 cells and was selected for further studies. The flow cytometric analysis revealed a K1-induced increase in the G2/M phase associated with dysregulation of ?-tubulin, ?1-tubulin and ?5-tubulin expression. These findings suggest that the inhibitory effect of K1 can be mediated via inhibition of microtubule formation. Furthermore, simultaneously with G2/M arrest, K1 also increased population of cells with sub-G1 DNA content which is considered to be a marker of apoptotic cell death. Apoptosis was also confirmed by annexin V/PI double staining, DNA fragmentation assay and chromatin condensation assay. The apoptosis was associated with the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, caspase-3 activation as well as intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS production. Moreover, the antioxidant Trolox blocked ROS production, changes in MMP and decreased K1 cytotoxicity, which confirmed the important role of ROS in cell apoptosis. Taken together, our data demonstrate that K1 induces ROS-dependent apoptosis in Caco2 cells and provide the rationale for further in vivo anticancer investigation.

  14. A high-sensitivity optical device for the early monitoring of plant pathogen attack via the in vivo detection of ROS bursts

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Lizhang; zhou, Jun; Li, Bo; Xing, Da

    2015-01-01

    Biotic stressors, especially pathogenic microorganisms, are rather difficult to detect. In plants, one of the earliest cellular responses following pathogen infection is the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, a novel optical device for the early monitoring of Pseudomonas attack was developed; this device measures the ROS level via oxidation-sensitive 2?, 7?-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H2DCFDA)-mediated fluorescence, which could provide early monitoring of at...

  15. Benzoquinone activates the ERK/MAPK signaling pathway via ROS production in HL-60 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benzene (BZ) is a class I carcinogen and its oxidation to reactive intermediates is a prerequisite of hematoxicity and myelotoxicity. The generated metabolites include hydroquinone, which is further oxidized to the highly reactive 1,4-benzoquinone (BQ) in bone marrow. Therefore, we explored the mechanisms underlying BQ-induced HL-60 cell proliferation by studying the role of BQ-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the activation of the ERK-MAPK signaling pathway. BQ treatment (0.01-30 ?M) showed that doses below 10 ?M did not significantly reduce viability. ROS production after 3 ?M BQ treatment increased threefold; however, catalase addition reduced ROS generation to basal levels. FACS analysis showed that BQ induced a fivefold increase in the proportion of cells in S-phase. We also observed a high proportion of Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) stained cells, indicating a higher DNA synthesis rate. BQ also produced rapid and prolonged phosphorylation of ERK1/2 proteins. Simultaneous treatment with catalase or PD98059, a potent MEK protein inhibitor, reduced cell recruitment into the S-phase and also abolished the ERK1/2 protein phosphorylation induced by BQ, suggesting that MEK/ERK is an important pathway involved in BQ-induced ROS mediated proliferation. The prolonged activation of ERK1/2 contributes to explain the increased S-phase cell recruitment and to understand the leukemogenic processes associated with exposure to benzene metabolites. Thus, the possible mechanism by which BQ induce HL-60 cells to enter the cell cycle and proliferate is linked to ROS production and its growth promoting effects by specific activation of regulating genes known to be activated by redox mechanisms

  16. ROS Function in Redox Signaling and Oxidative Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Schieber, Michael; Chandel, Navdeep S.

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress refers to elevated intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that cause damage to lipids, proteins and DNA. Oxidative stress has been linked to a myriad of pathologies. However, elevated ROS are also signaling molecules i.e. redox biology that maintain physiological functions. In this review we discuss the two faces of ROS, redox signaling and oxidative stress, and their contribution to both physiological and pathological conditions. Redox biology refers to low le...

  17. Lack of ROS1 Gene Rearrangement in Glioblastoma Multiforme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sun Min; Choi, Junjeong; Chang, Jong Hee; Sohn, Jinyoung; Jacobson, Kristine; Policht, Frank; Schulz, John

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive type of brain tumor, and the prognosis remains poor. Rearrangement of ROS1 gene, which was shown to have an oncogenic potential, was previously discovered in GBM cell lines. In this pilot study, we aimed to identify the incidence of ROS1 rearrangement in GBM patient tissues to explore novel biomarkers for therapeutic strategy. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue sections from 109 patients with GBM were screened for ROS1 rearrangement by anti-ROS immunohistochemistry (IHC) and ROS1 break-apart fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) assays. O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) gene promoter methylation and Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutation status were also assessed. All samples were interpreted by two experienced pathologists who were blinded to the clinical data. A total of 109 samples were collected and all samples were examined for ROS1 rearrangement by IHC and FISH assays, and none was found to harbor ROS1 rearrangement. MGMT gene methylation was found in 42 (39.2%) cases, and IDH1 mutation was found in 6 (5.5%) cases. In this study, ROS1 rearrangement was not identified in GBM patients, and thus it is difficult to classify ROS1 rearrangement as a novel molecular subset in GBM patients for now. PMID:26366867

  18. ROS-dependent anticandidal activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesized by using egg albumen as a biotemplate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have attracted great attention because of their superior optical properties and wide application in biomedical science. However, little is known about the anticandidal activity of ZnO NPs against Candida albicans (C. albicans). This study was designed to develop the green approach to synthesize ZnO NPs using egg white (denoted as EtZnO NPs) and investigated its possible mechanism of antimicrobial activity against C. albicans 077. It was also notable that anticandidal activity of EtZnO NPs is correlated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in a dose dependent manner. Protection of histidine against ROS clearly suggests the implication of ROS in anticandidal activity of EtZnO NPs. This green approach based on egg white-mediated synthesis of ZnO NPs paves the way for developing cost effective, eco-friendly and promising antimicrobial nanomaterial for applications in medicine. (paper)

  19. ROS-dependent anticandidal activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesized by using egg albumen as a biotemplate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoeb, M.; Singh, Braj R.; Khan, Javed A.; Khan, Wasi; Singh, Brahma N.; Singh, Harikesh B.; Naqvi, Alim H.

    2013-09-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have attracted great attention because of their superior optical properties and wide application in biomedical science. However, little is known about the anticandidal activity of ZnO NPs against Candida albicans (C. albicans). This study was designed to develop the green approach to synthesize ZnO NPs using egg white (denoted as EtZnO NPs) and investigated its possible mechanism of antimicrobial activity against C. albicans 077. It was also notable that anticandidal activity of EtZnO NPs is correlated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in a dose dependent manner. Protection of histidine against ROS clearly suggests the implication of ROS in anticandidal activity of EtZnO NPs. This green approach based on egg white-mediated synthesis of ZnO NPs paves the way for developing cost effective, eco-friendly and promising antimicrobial nanomaterial for applications in medicine.

  20. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and response of antioxidants as ROS-scavengers during environmental stress in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Kaushik; Roychoudhury, Aryadeep

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were initially recognized as toxic by-products of aerobic metabolism. In recent years, it has become apparent that ROS plays an important signaling role in plants, controlling processes such as growth, development and especially response to biotic and abiotic environmental stimuli. The major members of the ROS family include free radicals like O•?2, OH• and non-radicals like H2O2 and 1O2. The ROS production in plants is mainly localized in the chloroplast, mitoch...

  1. ROS signaling, oxidative stress and Nrf2 in pancreatic beta-cell function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review focuses on the emerging evidence that reactive oxygen species (ROS) derived from glucose metabolism, such as H2O2, act as metabolic signaling molecules for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in pancreatic beta-cells. Particular emphasis is placed on the potential inhibitory role of endogenous antioxidants, which rise in response to oxidative stress, in glucose-triggered ROS and GSIS. We propose that cellular adaptive response to oxidative stress challenge, such as nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated antioxidant induction, plays paradoxical roles in pancreatic beta-cell function. On the one hand, induction of antioxidant enzymes protects beta-cells from oxidative damage and possible cell death, thus minimizing oxidative damage-related impairment of insulin secretion. On the other hand, the induction of antioxidant enzymes by Nrf2 activation blunts glucose-triggered ROS signaling, thus resulting in reduced GSIS. These two premises are potentially relevant to impairment of beta-cells occurring in the late and early stage of Type 2 diabetes, respectively. In addition, we summarized our recent findings that persistent oxidative stress due to absence of uncoupling protein 2 activates cellular adaptive response which is associated with impaired pancreatic beta-cell function.

  2. ROS-dependence of cyclooxygenase-2 induction in rats subjected to unilateral ureteral obstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oestergaard, Martin; Christensen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress resulting from unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) may be aggravated by increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Previous studies demonstrated increased COX-2 expression in renal medullary interstitial cells (RMIC) in response to UUO. We investigated both in vivo and in vitro the role of ROS in COX-2 induction in rats subjected to UUO and RMIC cells exposed to oxidative and mechanical stress. Rats subjected to 3-day UUO were treated with 2 mechanistically distinct antioxidants, the NADPH-oxidase inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) and the complex I inhibitor rotenone (ROT), to interfere with ROS production. We found that UUO-mediated induction of COX-2 in inner medulla was attenuated by both antioxidants. In addition, DPI and ROT reduced tubular damage and oxidative stress after UUO. Moreover, mechanical stretch induce COX-2 and oxidative stress in RMIC. Likewise, RMIC cells exposed to H2O2 as an inducer of oxidative stress showed increased COX-2 expression and activity, both of which were reduced by DPI and ROT. Similarly, ROS production, which was increased following exposure of RMIC cells to H2O2, was also reduced by DPI and ROT. Furthermore, oxidative stress-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 was blocked by both antioxidants, and inhibition of ERK1/2 and p38 attenuated COX-2 induction in RMIC cells. Notably, COX-2 inhibitors further exacerbated the oxidative stress level in H2O2-exposed RMIC cells. We conclude that oxidative stress as a consequence of UUO stimulates the COX-2 expression through activation of multiple MAP kinases and that COX-2 induction may exert a cytoprotective function in RMIC cells.

  3. Oxygen Consumption and Usage During Physical Exercise: The Balance Between Oxidative Stress and ROS-Dependent Adaptive Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Radak, Zsolt; Zhao, Zhongfu; Koltai, Erika; Ohno, Hideki; Atalay, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The complexity of human DNA has been affected by aerobic metabolism, including endurance exercise and oxygen toxicity. Aerobic endurance exercise could play an important role in the evolution of Homo sapiens, and oxygen was not important just for survival, but it was crucial to redox-mediated adaptation. The metabolic challenge during physical exercise results in an elevated generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are important modulators of muscle contraction, antioxidant protection...

  4. MaROS: Information Management Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, Daniel A.; Gladden, Roy E.; Wright, Jesse J.; Hy, Franklin H.; Rabideau, Gregg R.; Wallick, Michael N.

    2011-01-01

    This software is provided by the Mars Relay Operations Service (MaROS) task to a variety of Mars projects for the purpose of coordinating communications sessions between landed spacecraft assets and orbiting spacecraft assets at Mars. The Information Management Service centralizes a set of functions previously distributed across multiple spacecraft operations teams, and as such, greatly improves visibility into the end-to-end strategic coordination process. Most of the process revolves around the scheduling of communications sessions between the spacecraft during periods of time when a landed asset on Mars is geometrically visible by an orbiting spacecraft. These relay sessions are used to transfer data both to and from the landed asset via the orbiting asset on behalf of Earth-based spacecraft operators. This software component is an application process running as a Java virtual machine. The component provides all service interfaces via a Representational State Transfer (REST) protocol over https to external clients. There are two general interaction modes with the service: upload and download of data. For data upload, the service must execute logic specific to the upload data type and trigger any applicable calculations including pass delivery latencies and overflight conflicts. For data download, the software must retrieve and correlate requested information and deliver to the requesting client. The provision of this service enables several key advancements over legacy processes and systems. For one, this service represents the first time that end-to-end relay information is correlated into a single shared repository. The software also provides the first multimission latency calculator; previous latency calculations had been performed on a mission-by-mission basis.

  5. Philip Glass, Scott Walker ja Sigur Ros! / Immo Mihkelson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mihkelson, Immo, 1959-

    2007-01-01

    Pimedate Ööde 11. filmifestivali muusikafilme - Austraalia "Glass: Philipi portree 12 osas" (rež. Scott Hicks), Islandi "Sigur Ros kodus" (rež. Dean DeBois), Suurbritannia "Scott Walker: 30 Century Man" (rež. Stephen Kijak)

  6. The ROS-induced cytotoxicity of ascorbate is attenuated by hypoxia and HIF-1alpha in the NCI60 cancer cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    Sinnberg, Tobias; Noor, Seema; Venturelli, Sascha; Berger, Alexander; Schuler, Paul; Garbe, Claus; Busch, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Intravenous application of high-dose ascorbate is used in complementary palliative medicine to treat cancer patients. Pharmacological doses of ascorbate in the mM range induce cytotoxicity in cancer cells mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS), namely hydrogen peroxide and ascorbyl radicals. However, little is known about intrinsic or extrinsic factors modulating this ascorbate-mediated cytotoxicity. Under normoxia and hypoxia, ascorbate IC50 values were determined on the NCI60 cancer cell...

  7. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced cytokine production and cytotoxicity of PAMAM dendrimers in J774A.1 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The immunotoxicity of three generations of polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers (G-4, G-5 and G-6) was evaluated in mouse macrophage cells in vitro. Using the Alamar blue and MTT assays, a generation dependent cytotoxicity of the PAMAM dendrimers was found whereby G-6 > G-5 > G-4. The toxic response of the PAMAM dendrimers correlated well with the number of surface primary amino groups, with increasing number resulting in an increase in toxic response. An assessment of intracellular ROS generation by the PAMAM dendrimers was performed by measuring the increased fluorescence as a result of intracellular oxidation of Carboxy H2DCFDA to DCF both quantitatively using plate reader and qualitatively by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The inflammatory mediators macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2), tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interleukin-6, (IL-6) were measured by the enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) following exposure of mouse macrophage cells to PAMAM dendrimers. A generation dependent ROS and cytokine production was found, which correlated well with the cytotoxicological response and therefore number of surface amino groups. A clear time sequence of increased ROS generation (maximum at ? 4 h), TNF-? and IL-6 secretion (maximum at ? 24 h), MIP-2 levels and cell death (? 72 h) was observed. The intracellular ROS generation and cytokine production induced cytotoxicity point towards the mechanistic pathway of cell death upon exposure to PAMAM dendrimers.

  8. Function of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes RosC and RosD in the Biosynthesis of Rosamicin Macrolide Antibiotic Produced by Micromonospora rosaria

    OpenAIRE

    Iizaka, Yohei; Higashi, Noriko; Ishida, Masanari; Oiwa, Reina; Ichikawa, Yumi; Takeda, Moeka; Anzai, Yojiro; Kato, Fumio

    2013-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 enzyme-encoding genes rosC and rosD were cloned from the rosamicin biosynthetic gene cluster of Micromonospora rosaria IFO13697. The functions of RosC and RosD were demonstrated by gene disruption and complementation with M. rosaria and bioconversion of rosamicin biosynthetic intermediates with Escherichia coli expressing RosC and RosD. It is proposed that M. rosaria IFO13697 has two pathway branches that lead from the first desosaminyl rosamicin intermediate, 20-deoxo-20-...

  9. Cadmium induces autophagy through ROS-dependent activation of the LKB1-AMPK signaling in skin epidermal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium is a toxic heavy metal which is environmentally and occupationally relevant. The mechanisms underlying cadmium-induced autophagy are not yet completely understood. The present study shows that cadmium induces autophagy, as demonstrated by the increase of LC3-II formation and the GFP-LC3 puncta cells. The induction of autophagosomes was directly visualized by electron microscopy in cadmium-exposed skin epidermal cells. Blockage of LKB1 or AMPK by siRNA transfection suppressed cadmium-induced autophagy. Cadmium-induced autophagy was inhibited in dominant-negative AMPK-transfected cells, whereas it was accelerated in cells transfected with the constitutively active form of AMPK. mTOR signaling, a negative regulator of autophagy, was downregulated in cadmium-exposed cells. In addition, cadmium generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) at relatively low levels, and caused poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP) activation and ATP depletion. Inhibition of PARP by pharmacological inhibitors or its siRNA transfection suppressed ATP reduction and autophagy in cadmium-exposed cells. Furthermore, cadmium-induced autophagy signaling was attenuated by either exogenous addition of catalase and superoxide dismutase, or by overexpression of these enzymes. Consequently, these results suggest that cadmium-mediated ROS generation causes PARP activation and energy depletion, and eventually induces autophagy through the activation of LKB1-AMPK signaling and the down-regulation of mTOR in skin epidermal cells. - Highlights: ? Cadmium, a toxic heavy metal, induces autophagic cell death through ROS-dependent activation of the LKB1-AMPK signaling. ? Cadmium generates intracellular ROS at low levels and this leads to severe DNA damage and PARP activation, resulting in ATP depletion, which are the upstream events of LKB1-AMPK-mediated autophagy. ? This novel finding may contribute to further understanding of cadmium-mediated diseases.

  10. Psoralidin induces autophagy through ROS generation which inhibits the proliferation of human lung cancer A549 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhui Hao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Psoralidin (PSO, a natural furanocoumarin, is isolated from Psoralea corylifolia L. possessing anti-cancer properties. However, the mechanisms of its effects remain unclear. Herein, we investigated its anti-proliferative effect and potential approaches of action on human lung cancer A549 cells. Cell proliferation and death were measured by MTT and LDH assay respectively. Apoptosis was detected with Hoechst 33342 staining by fluorescence microscopy, Annexin V-FITC by flow cytometry and Western blot analysis for apoptosis-related proteins. The autophagy was evaluated using MDC staining, immunofluorescence assay and Western blot analyses for LC3-I and LC3-II. In addition, the reactive oxygen species (ROS generation was measured by DCFH2-DA with flow cytometry. PSO dramatically decreased the cell viabilities in dose- and time-dependent manner. However, no significant change was observed between the control group and the PSO-treated groups in Hoechst 33342 and Annexin V-FITC staining. The expression of apoptosis-related proteins was not altered significantly either. While the MDC-fluorescence intensity and the expression ratio of LC3-II/LC3-I was remarkably increased after PSO treatment. Autophagy inhibitor 3-MA blocked the production of LC3-II and reduced the cytotoxicity in response to PSO. Furthermore, PSO increased intracellular ROS level which was correlated to the elevation of LC3-II. ROS scavenger N-acetyl cysteine pretreatment not only decreased the ROS level, reduced the expression of LC3-II but also reversed PSO induced cytotoxicity. PSO inhibited the proliferation of A549 cells through autophagy but not apoptosis, which was mediated by inducing ROS production.

  11. Cadmium induces carcinogenesis in BEAS-2B cells through ROS-dependent activation of PI3K/AKT/GSK-3?/?-catenin signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Young-Ok; Wang, Lei; Poyil, Pratheeshkumar; Budhraja, Amit; Hitron, J. Andrew; Zhang, Zhuo [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Lee, Jeong-Chae [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); School of Dentistry and Institute of Oral Biosciences (BK21 program), Research Center of Bioactive Materials, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Shi, Xianglin, E-mail: xshi5@email.uky.edu [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Cadmium has been widely used in industry and is known to be carcinogenic to humans. Although it is widely accepted that chronic exposure to cadmium increases the incidence of cancer, the mechanisms underlying cadmium-induced carcinogenesis are unclear. The main aim of this study was to investigate the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cadmium-induced carcinogenesis and the signal transduction pathways involved. Chronic exposure of human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells to cadmium induced cell transformation, as evidenced by anchorage-independent growth in soft agar and clonogenic assays. Chronic cadmium treatment also increased the potential of these cells to invade and migrate. Injection of cadmium-stimulated cells into nude mice resulted in the formation of tumors. In contrast, the cadmium-mediated increases in colony formation, cell invasion and migration were prevented by transfection with catalase, superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1), or SOD2. In particular, chronic cadmium exposure led to activation of signaling cascades involving PI3K, AKT, GSK-3?, and ?-catenin and transfection with each of the above antioxidant enzymes markedly inhibited cadmium-mediated activation of these signaling proteins. Inhibitors specific for AKT or ?-catenin almost completely suppressed the cadmium-mediated increase in total and active ?-catenin proteins and colony formation. Moreover, there was a marked induction of AKT, GSK-3?, ?-catenin, and carcinogenic markers in tumor tissues formed in mice after injection with cadmium-stimulated cells. Collectively, our findings suggest a direct involvement of ROS in cadmium-induced carcinogenesis and implicate a role of AKT/GSK-3?/?-catenin signaling in this process. -- Highlights: ? Chronic exposure to cadmium induces carcinogenic properties in BEAS-2B cells. ? ROS involved in cadmium-induced tumorigenicity of BEAS-2B cells. ? Cadmium activates ROS-dependent AKT/GSK-3?/?-catenin-mediated signaling. ? ROS-dependent signaling as potential therapeutic targets in cadmium carcinogenesis.

  12. NADPH oxidase/ROS-dependent PYK2 activation is involved in TNF-?-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in rat heart-derived H9c2 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TNF-? plays a mediator role in the pathogenesis of chronic heart failure contributing to cardiac remodeling and peripheral vascular disturbances. The implication of TNF-? in inflammatory responses has been shown to be mediated through up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). However, the detailed mechanisms of TNF-?-induced MMP-9 expression in rat embryonic-heart derived H9c2 cells are largely not defined. We demonstrated that in H9c2 cells, TNF-? induced MMP-9 mRNA and protein expression associated with an increase in the secretion of pro-MMP-9. TNF-?-mediated responses were attenuated by pretreatment with the inhibitor of ROS (N-acetyl-L-cysteine, NAC), NADPH oxidase [apocynin (APO) or diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI)], MEK1/2 (U0126), p38 MAPK (SB202190), JNK1/2 (SP600125), NF-?B (Bay11-7082), or PYK2 (PF-431396) and transfection with siRNA of TNFR1, p47phox, p42, p38, JNK1, p65, or PYK2. Moreover, TNF-? markedly induced NADPH oxidase-derived ROS generation in these cells. TNF-?-enhanced p42/p44 MAPK, p38 MAPK, JNK1/2, and NF-?B (p65) phosphorylation and in vivo binding of p65 to the MMP-9 promoter were inhibited by U0126, SB202190, SP600125, NAC, DPI, or APO. In addition, TNF-?-mediated PYK2 phosphorylation was inhibited by NAC, DPI, or APO. PYK2 inhibition could reduce TNF-?-stimulated MAPKs and NF-?B activation. Thus, in H9c2 cells, we are the first to show that TNF-?-induced MMP-9 expression is mediated through a TNFR1/NADPH oxidase/ROS/PYK2/MAPKs/NF-?B cascade. We demonstrated that NADPH oxidase-derived ROS generation is involved in TNF-?-induced PYK2 activation in these cells. Understanding the regulation of MMP-9 expression and NADPH oxidase activation by TNF-? on H9c2 cells may provide potential therapeutic targets of chronic heart failure. - Highlights: • TNF-? induces MMP-9 secretion and expression via a TNFR1-dependent pathway. • TNF-? induces ROS/PYK2-dependent MMP-9 expression in H9c2 cells. • TNF-? induces MMP-9 expression via a NADPH oxidase/ROS-dependent NF-?B signaling. • TNF-? activates MAPK phosphorylation through NADPH oxidase/ROS generation

  13. NADPH oxidase/ROS-dependent PYK2 activation is involved in TNF-?-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in rat heart-derived H9c2 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Chuen-Mao, E-mail: chuenmao@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology and Health Aging Research Center, Chang Gung University, Kwei-San, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan (China); Heart Failure Center, Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Keelung, Keelung, Taiwan (China); Lee, I-Ta [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology and Health Aging Research Center, Chang Gung University, Kwei-San, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan (China); Department of Anesthetics, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou and College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Kwei-San, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Ru-Chun; Chi, Pei-Ling; Hsiao, Li-Der [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology and Health Aging Research Center, Chang Gung University, Kwei-San, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan (China)

    2013-10-15

    TNF-? plays a mediator role in the pathogenesis of chronic heart failure contributing to cardiac remodeling and peripheral vascular disturbances. The implication of TNF-? in inflammatory responses has been shown to be mediated through up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). However, the detailed mechanisms of TNF-?-induced MMP-9 expression in rat embryonic-heart derived H9c2 cells are largely not defined. We demonstrated that in H9c2 cells, TNF-? induced MMP-9 mRNA and protein expression associated with an increase in the secretion of pro-MMP-9. TNF-?-mediated responses were attenuated by pretreatment with the inhibitor of ROS (N-acetyl-L-cysteine, NAC), NADPH oxidase [apocynin (APO) or diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI)], MEK1/2 (U0126), p38 MAPK (SB202190), JNK1/2 (SP600125), NF-?B (Bay11-7082), or PYK2 (PF-431396) and transfection with siRNA of TNFR1, p47{sup phox}, p42, p38, JNK1, p65, or PYK2. Moreover, TNF-? markedly induced NADPH oxidase-derived ROS generation in these cells. TNF-?-enhanced p42/p44 MAPK, p38 MAPK, JNK1/2, and NF-?B (p65) phosphorylation and in vivo binding of p65 to the MMP-9 promoter were inhibited by U0126, SB202190, SP600125, NAC, DPI, or APO. In addition, TNF-?-mediated PYK2 phosphorylation was inhibited by NAC, DPI, or APO. PYK2 inhibition could reduce TNF-?-stimulated MAPKs and NF-?B activation. Thus, in H9c2 cells, we are the first to show that TNF-?-induced MMP-9 expression is mediated through a TNFR1/NADPH oxidase/ROS/PYK2/MAPKs/NF-?B cascade. We demonstrated that NADPH oxidase-derived ROS generation is involved in TNF-?-induced PYK2 activation in these cells. Understanding the regulation of MMP-9 expression and NADPH oxidase activation by TNF-? on H9c2 cells may provide potential therapeutic targets of chronic heart failure. - Highlights: • TNF-? induces MMP-9 secretion and expression via a TNFR1-dependent pathway. • TNF-? induces ROS/PYK2-dependent MMP-9 expression in H9c2 cells. • TNF-? induces MMP-9 expression via a NADPH oxidase/ROS-dependent NF-?B signaling. • TNF-? activates MAPK phosphorylation through NADPH oxidase/ROS generation.

  14. Surveillance-activated defenses block the ROS-induced mitochondrial unfolded protein response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runkel, Eva D; Liu, Shu; Baumeister, Ralf; Schulze, Ekkehard

    2013-01-01

    Disturbance of cellular functions results in the activation of stress-signaling pathways that aim at restoring homeostasis. We performed a genome-wide screen to identify components of the signal transduction of the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPR(mt)) to a nuclear chaperone promoter. We used the ROS generating complex I inhibitor paraquat to induce the UPR(mt), and we employed RNAi exposure post-embryonically to allow testing genes whose knockdown results in embryonic lethality. We identified 54 novel regulators of the ROS-induced UPR(mt). Activation of the UPR(mt), but not of other stress-signaling pathways, failed when homeostasis of basic cellular mechanisms such as translation and protein transport were impaired. These mechanisms are monitored by a recently discovered surveillance system that interprets interruption of these processes as pathogen attack and depends on signaling through the JNK-like MAP-kinase KGB-1. Mutation of kgb-1 abrogated the inhibition of ROS-induced UPR(mt), suggesting that surveillance-activated defenses specifically inhibit the UPR(mt) but do not compromise activation of the heat shock response, the UPR of the endoplasmic reticulum, or the SKN-1/Nrf2 mediated response to cytosolic stress. In addition, we identified PIFK-1, the orthologue of the Drosophila PI 4-kinase four wheel drive (FWD), and found that it is the only known factor so far that is essential for the unfolded protein responses of both mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. This suggests that both UPRs may share a common membrane associated mechanism. PMID:23516373

  15. Mitochondrial translocation of Nur77 induced by ROS contributed to cardiomyocyte apoptosis in metabolic syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Aibin; Liu, Jingyi [Department of Cardiology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an (China); Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, General Hospital of Beijing Command, PLA, Beijing (China); Liu, Peilin; Jia, Min; Wang, Han [Department of Cardiology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an (China); Tao, Ling, E-mail: lingtao2006@gmail.com [Department of Cardiology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an (China)

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • Metabolic syndrome exacerbated MI/R induced injury accompanied by decreased Nur77. • ROS led to Nur77 translocation in metabolic syndrome. • Inhibiting relocation of Nur77 to mitochondria reduced ROS-induced cardiomyocyte injury in metabolic syndrome. - Abstract: Metabolic syndrome is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, and increased cardiomyocyte apoptosis which contributes to cardiac dysfunction after myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury. Nur77, a nuclear orphan receptor, is involved in such various cellular events as apoptosis, proliferation, and glucose and lipid metabolism in several cell types. Apoptosis is positively correlated with mitochondrial translocation of Nur77 in the cancer cells. However, the roles of Nur77 on cardiac myocytes in patients with metabolic syndrome remain unclear. The objective of this study was to determine whether Nur77 may contribute to cardiac apoptosis in patients with metabolic syndrome after I/R injury, and, if so, to identify the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible. We used leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice to make metabolic syndrome models. In this report, we observed that, accompanied by the substantial decline in apoptosis inducer Nur77, MI/R induced cardiac dysfunction was manifested as cardiomyopathy and increased ROS. Using the neonatal rat cardiac myocytes cultured in a high-glucose and high-fat medium, we found that excessive H{sub 2}O{sub 2} led to the significant alteration in mitochondrial membrane potential and translocation of Nur77 from the nucleus to the mitochondria. However, inhibition of the relocation of Nur77 to mitochondria via Cyclosporin A reversed the changes in membrane potential mediated by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and reduced myocardial cell injury. Therefore, these data provide a potential underlying mechanism for cardiac dysfunction in metabolic syndrome and the suppression of Nur77 translocation may provide an effective approach to reduce cardiac injury in the process.

  16. Mitochondrial translocation of Nur77 induced by ROS contributed to cardiomyocyte apoptosis in metabolic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Metabolic syndrome exacerbated MI/R induced injury accompanied by decreased Nur77. • ROS led to Nur77 translocation in metabolic syndrome. • Inhibiting relocation of Nur77 to mitochondria reduced ROS-induced cardiomyocyte injury in metabolic syndrome. - Abstract: Metabolic syndrome is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, and increased cardiomyocyte apoptosis which contributes to cardiac dysfunction after myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury. Nur77, a nuclear orphan receptor, is involved in such various cellular events as apoptosis, proliferation, and glucose and lipid metabolism in several cell types. Apoptosis is positively correlated with mitochondrial translocation of Nur77 in the cancer cells. However, the roles of Nur77 on cardiac myocytes in patients with metabolic syndrome remain unclear. The objective of this study was to determine whether Nur77 may contribute to cardiac apoptosis in patients with metabolic syndrome after I/R injury, and, if so, to identify the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible. We used leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice to make metabolic syndrome models. In this report, we observed that, accompanied by the substantial decline in apoptosis inducer Nur77, MI/R induced cardiac dysfunction was manifested as cardiomyopathy and increased ROS. Using the neonatal rat cardiac myocytes cultured in a high-glucose and high-fat medium, we found that excessive H2O2 led to the significant alteration in mitochondrial membrane potential and translocation of Nur77 from the nucleus to the mitochondria. However, inhibition of the relocation of Nur77 to mitochondria via Cyclosporin A reversed the changes in membrane potential mediated by H2O2 and reduced myocardial cell injury. Therefore, these data provide a potential underlying mechanism for cardiac dysfunction in metabolic syndrome and the suppression of Nur77 translocation may provide an effective approach to reduce cardiac injury in the process

  17. Oxygen consumption and usage during physical exercise: the balance between oxidative stress and ROS-dependent adaptive signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radak, Zsolt; Zhao, Zhongfu; Koltai, Erika; Ohno, Hideki; Atalay, Mustafa

    2013-04-01

    The complexity of human DNA has been affected by aerobic metabolism, including endurance exercise and oxygen toxicity. Aerobic endurance exercise could play an important role in the evolution of Homo sapiens, and oxygen was not important just for survival, but it was crucial to redox-mediated adaptation. The metabolic challenge during physical exercise results in an elevated generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are important modulators of muscle contraction, antioxidant protection, and oxidative damage repair, which at moderate levels generate physiological responses. Several factors of mitochondrial biogenesis, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? coactivator 1? (PGC-1?), mitogen-activated protein kinase, and SIRT1, are modulated by exercise-associated changes in the redox milieu. PGC-1? activation could result in decreased oxidative challenge, either by upregulation of antioxidant enzymes and/or by an increased number of mitochondria that allows lower levels of respiratory activity for the same degree of ATP generation. Endogenous thiol antioxidants glutathione and thioredoxin are modulated with high oxygen consumption and ROS generation during physical exercise, controlling cellular function through redox-sensitive signaling and protein-protein interactions. Endurance exercise-related angiogenesis, up to a significant degree, is regulated by ROS-mediated activation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1?. Moreover, the exercise-associated ROS production could be important to DNA methylation and post-translation modifications of histone residues, which create heritable adaptive conditions based on epigenetic features of chromosomes. Accumulating data indicate that exercise with moderate intensity has systemic and complex health-promoting effects, which undoubtedly involve regulation of redox homeostasis and signaling. PMID:22978553

  18. ROS and brain diseases: the good, the bad, and the ugly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa-Wagner, Aurel; Mitran, Smaranda; Sivanesan, Senthilkumar; Chang, Edwin; Buga, Ana-Maria

    2013-01-01

    The brain is a major metabolizer of oxygen and yet has relatively feeble protective antioxidant mechanisms. This paper reviews the Janus-faced properties of reactive oxygen species. It will describe the positive aspects of moderately induced ROS but it will also outline recent research findings concerning the impact of oxidative and nitrooxidative stress on neuronal structure and function in neuropsychiatric diseases, including major depression. A common denominator of all neuropsychiatric diseases including schizophrenia and ADHD is an increased inflammatory response of the brain caused either by an exposure to proinflammatory agents during development or an accumulation of degenerated neurons, oxidized proteins, glycated products, or lipid peroxidation in the adult brain. Therefore, modulation of the prooxidant-antioxidant balance provides a therapeutic option which can be used to improve neuroprotection in response to oxidative stress. We also discuss the neuroprotective role of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) in the aged brain in response to oxidative stressors and nanoparticle-mediated delivery of ROS-scavenging drugs. The antioxidant therapy is a novel therapeutic strategy. However, the available drugs have pleiotropic actions and are not fully characterized in the clinic. Additional clinical trials are needed to assess the risks and benefits of antioxidant therapies for neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:24381719

  19. The Arabidopsis a zinc finger domain protein ARS1 is essential for seed germination and ROS homeostasis in response to ABA and oxidative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Dongwon; Cha, Joon-Yung; Kang, Songhwa; Park, Bokyung; Lee, Hyo-Jung; Hong, Hyewon; Chun, Hyun Jin; Kim, Doh Hoon; Kim, Min Chul; Lee, Sang Yeol; Yun, Dae-Jin

    2015-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) induces accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can disrupt seed dormancy and plant development. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of an Arabidopsis thaliana mutant called ars1 (aba and ros sensitive 1) that showed hypersensitivity to ABA during seed germination and to methyl viologen (MV) at the seedling stage. ARS1 encodes a nuclear protein with one zinc finger domain, two nuclear localization signal (NLS) domains, and one nuclear export signal (NES). The ars1 mutants showed reduced expression of a gene for superoxide dismutase (CSD3) and enhanced accumulation of ROS after ABA treatment. Transient expression of ARS1 in Arabidopsis protoplasts strongly suppressed ABA-mediated ROS production. Interestingly, nuclear-localized ARS1 translocated to the cytoplasm in response to treatment with ABA, H2O2, or MV. Taken together, these results suggest that ARS1 modulates seed germination and ROS homeostasis in response to ABA and oxidative stress in plants. PMID:26583028

  20. [The "Limoph?ros": Polybius III, 87, 2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulon, E

    1997-01-01

    The word "limoph?ros", a hapax legomenon appearing in Polybius' Histories, does not mean scurvy, but rather scabies. Polybius created the word to describe an illness he believed was derived from a nutritional deficit, but can really only be seen as an attempt to describe an illness the etiology of which he was wholly unfamiliar. PMID:17219710

  1. Kuula : Sigur Ros rokiklubis. Kammemuusikat Tallinnas. Loomade reekviem

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    23. aug. esineb Tallinna rokiklubis Rock Café islandi bänd Sigur Ros. Pille Lille muusikute toetusfondi korraldatavast Tallinna Kammermuusika festivalist 17.-23. aug. Tallinna Rootsi Mihkli kirikus, Raekojas ja Jaani kirkus (vt. www.plmf.ee). Kontserdist Nargen Festivali raames 30. ja 31. aug. Tallinna loomaaias

  2. Using ROS for agricultural robotics - design considerations and experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Barth, Ruud; Baur, Jörg; Buschmann, Thomas; Edan, Yael; Hellström, Thomas; Nguyen, Thanh; Ringdahl, Ola; Saeys, Wouter; Salinas, Carlota; Vitzrabin, Efi

    2014-01-01

    We report on experiences of using the ROS middleware for developmentof agricultural robots. We describe software related design considerations for all maincomponents in developed subsystems as well as drawbacks and advantages with thechosen approaches. This work was partly funded by the European Commission(CROPS GA no 246252).

  3. Ny forskning: Derfor virker ros ikke mod stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille

    Ny forskning peger på, at stressede medarbejdere overhører din ros og anerkendelse, hvis de føler skam. Skam over ikke at kunne slå til på arbejdet. Vil du hjælpe en stresset medarbejder, skal du forebygge, at de føler sig skamfulde. Læs her anbefalinger til, hvordan du bedst hjælper din stressede medarbejder.

  4. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species: which ROS signals cardioprotection?.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Garlid, A. O.; Jab?rek, Martin; Jacobs, J. P.; Garlid, K. D.

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 305, ?. 7 (2013), H960-H968. ISSN 0363-6135 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME09018; GA ?R(CZ) GAP301/11/0662 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : KATP channels * ROS signaling * cardiac ischemia * cardioportection * mitochondria Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.012, year: 2013

  5. Sodium Fluoride Induces Apoptosis in H9c2 Cardiomyocytes by Altering Mitochondrial Membrane Potential and Intracellular ROS Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaoyan; Yang, Xia; Hao, Xianhui; Ren, Qiurong; Gao, Jiping; Wang, Yu; Chang, Na; Qiu, Yulan; Song, Guohua

    2015-08-01

    Chronic excessive fluoride intake is known to be toxic, and effects of long-term fluorosis on different organ systems have been examined. However, there are few studies about the effects of fluorosis on cardiovascular systems. Here, we studied the fluoride-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cells and determined the underlying molecular mechanisms including the cell viability, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, the changes of mitochondrial membrane potential (??m), and the cell apoptosis. Sodium fluoride (NaF) at concentrations of 0, 2, 4, 8, and 16 mg/L was administered to cultured H9c2 cells for up to 48 h. After the treatment, H9c2 cells were collected and the associated parameters were measured by flow cytometry. Our study found that fluoride not only inhibited H9c2 cell proliferation but also induced cell apoptosis. With the increment of NaF concentration, the apoptotic rates and ROS generation were increased, while the ??m was decreased. In summary, these data suggested that NaF-induced H9c2 cell apoptosis is mediated by direct increased intracellular ROS and downregulated ??m. PMID:25707396

  6. Fluoxetine a novel anti-hepatitis C virus agent via ROS-, JNK-, and PPAR?/?-dependent pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kung-Chia; Bai, Chyi-Huey; Su, Hui-Chen; Tsai, Pei-Ju; Pu, Chien-Yu; Liao, Chao-Sheng; Lin, Yu-Min; Lai, Hsin-Wen; Chong, Lee-Won; Tsai, Yau-Sheng; Tsao, Chiung-Wen

    2014-10-01

    More than 20% of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients receiving interferon-alpha (IFN-?)-based anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy experienced significant depression, which was relieved by treatment with fluoxetine. However, whether and how fluoxetine affected directly the anti-HCV therapy remained unclear. Here, we demonstrated that fluoxetine inhibited HCV infection and blocked the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid accumulation in Huh7.5 cells. Fluoxetine facilitated the IFN-?-mediated antiviral actions via activations of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-1 and c-Jun amino-terminal kinases (JNK). Alternatively, fluoxetine elevated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) response element activity under HCV infection. The inhibitory effects of fluoxetine on HCV infection and lipid accumulation, but not production of ROS, were partially reversed by the PPAR-?, -?, and JNK antagonists. Furthermore, fluoxetine intervention to the IFN-?-2b regimen facilitated to reduce HCV titer and alanine transaminase level for CHC patients. Therefore, fluoxetine intervention to the IFN-?-2b regimen improved the efficacy of anti-HCV treatment, which might be related to blockades of ROS generation and lipid accumulation and activation of host antiviral JNK/STAT-1 and PPAR?/? signals. PMID:25151487

  7. Perfluorooctane sulfonate induces apoptosis of cerebellar granule cells via a ROS-dependent protein kinase C signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Gyo; Lee, Youn Ju; Yang, Jae-Ho

    2012-06-01

    Perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) have been widely used in a variety of industry and consumer products. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), a prominent member of perfluoroalkyls, is known as a neurotoxicant in developing brain and affects behavior and motor activity. However, mechanism of neurotoxicity still remains unknown. In this study, we attempted to analyze apoptotic effects of PFOS on developing neuron. Cerebellar granule cells derived from 7-day old SD rats and grown in culture for additional 7 days were used to mimic postnatal day (PND)-14 conditions. PFOS exposure increased ROS production, which was blocked by ROS inhibitor, N-acetylcysteine (NAC). PFOS selectively induced dose-dependent translocations of PKC-?, -?II and -? among PKC isozymes tested. The translocation of these specific PKC isozymes was blocked by NAC. A panel of different approaches was utilized to detect apoptotic effects. PFOS induced caspase-3 activity and nucleosomal DNA fragmentation in a dose-dependent manner, which were blocked by pretreatment of NAC. These apoptotic effects were further confirmed by TUNEL staining. Increases of caspase-3 activity and nucleosomal DNA fragmentation were dampened by the inhibition of PKC isozymes using siRNA technique. Taken together, our results suggest that PFOS may induce apoptosis of cerebellar granule cells via a ROS-mediated PKC signaling pathway. PKC signal transduction pathway is pivotal in learning and memory and apoptosis of neuronal cells is a critical event in neurotoxicity. Thus, this study may contribute to understand a new mechanistic aspect of PFOS-induced neurotoxicities. PMID:22326494

  8. Mitochondria-Ros Crosstalk in the Control of Cell Death and Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Jerzy Duszynski; Paolo Pinton; Simone Patergnani; Federica Poletti; Alessandro Rimessi; Sonia Missiroli; Elena De Marchi; Massimo Bonora; Angela Bononi; Saverio Marchi; Carlotta Giorgi; Jan M. Suski; Wieckowski, Mariusz R; Chiara Agnoletto

    2011-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are highly reactive molecules, mainly generated inside mitochondria that can oxidize DNA, proteins, and lipids. At physiological levels, ROS function as “redox messengers” in intracellular signalling and regulation, whereas excess ROS induce cell death by promoting the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Recent work has pointed to a further role of ROS in activation of autophagy and their importance in the regulation of aging. This review will focus on mitochondria as p...

  9. The role of mitochondrial complex III in melatonin induced ROS production in cultured mesangial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hong-mei; Zhang, Yi-Qiang; Zhang, Bin-Xian

    2010-01-01

    Melatonin is a potent scavenger of reactive oxygen (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). At pharmacological concentrations, however, melatonin is documented to cause ROS/RNS production, especially in cultured cancerous cells. Currently, the mechanism responsible for melatonin-induced ROS generation remains elusive. In this study, we provide evidence that melatonin, at micromolar concentrations induced rapid ROS generation by a mitochondrial dependent mechanism in primary human mesangial ...

  10. Chromium(III)-induced apoptosis of lymphocytes: death decision by ROS and Src-family tyrosine kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balamurugan, Kuppusamy; Rajaram, Rama; Ramasami, Thirumalachari; Narayanan, Sujatha

    2002-12-15

    Apoptosis is an active process induced by a variety of physiological and external stimuli, in which elimination of damaged cells are effected through a genetically controlled process. In this study, we have examined the mechanism of chromium(III) [Cr(III)]-induced cytotoxicity with respect to its relationship to oxidative stress. Morphology, flow cytometry, and DNA fragmentation studies show that tris-(1,10-phenanthroline)chromium(III) [Cr(III)-phen], tris-(2,2'-bipyridyl)chromium(III) [Cr(III)-bpy], trans-diaqua[1,2-bis(salicylideneamino)ethanechromium(III)] [Cr(III)-salen], and trans-diaqua[1,3-bis(salicylideneamino)propanechromium(III)] [Cr(III)-salprn] induced apoptosis of lymphocytes. Pentaammineaquachromium(III) [Cr(III)-hpa] does not induce apoptosis. Apoptosis induced by these complexes involves the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as seen by increased fluorescence of dichloroflourescein (DCF) observed through flow cytometry. Pretreatment of lymphocytes with antioxidants completely abrogate apoptosis. Cr(III) treatment also increased the expression and activation of Src-family tyrosine kinases viz. p56lck, p59fyn, and p53/56lyn, as seen by immunoblotting and immune complex kinase assay. PP2, a selective Src-family tyrosine kinase inhibitor, abolishes apoptosis, indicating that Src-family tyrosine kinases are directly involved in eliciting apoptosis. Interestingly, a one-to-one correlation between the expression of Src-family tyrosine kinases and ROS is observed, since antioxidants pretreatment inhibits the expression and the activation of these kinases. These results further indicate that Cr(III)-induced apoptosis is mediated through production of ROS, which in turn activates the Src-family tyrosine kinases. The increased activation of Src-family tyrosine kinases may be a mechanism involved in apoptosis of lymphocytes elicited by various other physiological stimuli that exploit ROS as a second messenger. PMID:12488131

  11. MicroRNA-145 suppresses ROS-induced Ca{sup 2+} overload of cardiomyocytes by targeting CaMKII?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Min-Ji [Cardiovascular Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seongsanno, Seodamun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seongsanno, Seodamun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Jin-Kyung [College of Pharmacy, Sookmyung Women’s University, 52 HyoChangWon-Gil, Yongsan-ku, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of); Ham, Onju; Song, Byeong-Wook; Lee, Se-Yeon [Cardiovascular Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seongsanno, Seodamun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seongsanno, Seodamun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chang Yeon; Park, Jun-Hee [Department of Integrated Omics for Biomedical Sciences, Graduate School, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodamun-gu, Seoul 120-759 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jiyun; Seo, Hyang-Hee [Cardiovascular Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seongsanno, Seodamun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seongsanno, Seodamun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Eunhyun [Severance Integrative Research Institute for Cerebral and Cardiovascular Disease, Yonsei University Health System, 250 Seongsanno, Seodamun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Woo-min [Department of Animal Resource, Sahmyook University, Seoul 139-742 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Hye Jin [Cardiovascular Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seongsanno, Seodamun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Hyun-Taek [College of Pharmacy, Sookmyung Women’s University, 52 HyoChangWon-Gil, Yongsan-ku, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2013-06-14

    Highlights: •CaMKII? mediates H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced Ca{sup 2+} overload in cardiomyocytes. •miR-145 can inhibit Ca{sup 2+} overload. •A luciferase assay confirms that miR-145 functions as a CaMKII?-targeting miRNA. •Overexpression of miR-145 regulates CaMKII?-related genes and ameliorates apoptosis. -- Abstract: A change in intracellular free calcium (Ca{sup 2+}) is a common signaling mechanism of reperfusion-induced cardiomyocyte death. Calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a critical regulator of Ca{sup 2+} signaling and mediates signaling pathways responsible for functions in the heart including hypertrophy, apoptosis, arrhythmia, and heart disease. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are involved in the regulation of cell response, including survival, proliferation, apoptosis, and development. However, the roles of miRNAs in Ca{sup 2+}-mediated apoptosis of cardiomyocytes are uncertain. Here, we determined the potential role of miRNA in the regulation of CaMKII dependent apoptosis and explored its underlying mechanism. To determine the potential roles of miRNAs in H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-mediated Ca{sup 2+} overload, we selected and tested 6 putative miRNAs that targeted CaMKII?, and showed that miR-145 represses CaMKII? protein expression and Ca{sup 2+} overload. We confirmed CaMKII? as a direct downstream target of miR-145. Furthermore, miR-145 regulates Ca{sup 2+}-related signals and ameliorates apoptosis. This study demonstrates that miR-145 regulates reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced Ca{sup 2+} overload in cardiomyocytes. Thus, miR-145 affects ROS-mediated gene regulation and cellular injury responses.

  12. Effect of Methyl Jasmonate on antioxidative enzyme activities and on the contents of ROS and H2O2 in Ricinus communis leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Martins dos Santos Soares; Thiago Freitas de Souza; Tânia Jacinto; Olga Lima Tavares Machado

    2010-01-01

    Jasmonates are a class of plant hormones that mediate various aspects in gene and metabolic regulation, defense, stress responses, reproduction and, possibly, communication. Oxidative stress stimulates synthesis of antioxidant metabolites and enhances antioxidant enzyme activities that could protect plant tissues. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of methyl jasmonate (JAME) treatment on the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and on the activities of H2O2 scavenging enzymes, such as s...

  13. The Affordance Template ROS Package for Robot Task Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Stephen; Dinh, Paul; Hambuchen, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the Affordance Template ROS package for quickly programming, adjusting, and executing robot applications in the ROS RViz environment. This package extends the capabilities of RViz interactive markers by allowing an operator to specify multiple end-effector waypoint locations and grasp poses in object-centric coordinate frames and to adjust these waypoints in order to meet the run-time demands of the task (specifically, object scale and location). The Affordance Template package stores task specifications in a robot-agnostic XML description format such that it is trivial to apply a template to a new robot. As such, the Affordance Template package provides a robot-generic ROS tool appropriate for building semi-autonomous, manipulation-based applications. Affordance Templates were developed by the NASA-JSC DARPA Robotics Challenge (DRC) team and have since successfully been deployed on multiple platforms including the NASA Valkyrie and Robonaut 2 humanoids, the University of Texas Dreamer robot and the Willow Garage PR2. In this paper, the specification and implementation of the affordance template package is introduced and demonstrated through examples for wheel (valve) turning, pick-and-place, and drill grasping, evincing its utility and flexibility for a wide variety of robot applications.

  14. Damaged DNA Binding Protein 2 in Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS Regulation and Premature Senescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradip Raychaudhuri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Premature senescence induced by DNA damage or oncogene is a critical mechanism of tumor suppression. Reactive oxygen species (ROS have been implicated in the induction of premature senescence response. Several pathological disorders such as cancer, aging and age related neurological abnormalities have been linked to ROS deregulation. Here, we discuss how Damaged DNA binding Protein-2 (DDB2, a nucleotide excision repair protein, plays an important role in ROS regulation by epigenetically repressing the antioxidant genes MnSOD and Catalase. We further revisit a model in which DDB2 plays an instrumental role in DNA damage induced ROS accumulation, ROS induced premature senescence and inhibition of skin tumorigenesis.

  15. Heterologous transmembrane signaling by a human insulin receptor-v-ros hybrid in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hybrid receptor molecule composed of the extracellular ligand-binding domain of the human insulin receptor and the transmembrane and cytoplasmic (protein-tyrosine kinase) domains of the chicken sarcoma virus UR2 transforming protein p68/sup gag-ros/ has been constructed and expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The hybrid is processed normally into ? and hybrid ? subunits, is expressed on the cell surface at high levels, and binds insulin with near-wild-type affinity. Furthermore, insulin stimulates the phosphorylation on tyrosine resides of the hybrid ?-subunit in vivo and the phosphorylation of an exogeneous substrate [poly(Glu,Tyr)] in vitro. Thus the hybrid is capable of heterologous transmembrane signaling. However, the hybrid mediates neither the insulin-activated uptake of 2-deoxyglucose nor the incorporation of [3H]thymidine into DNA, suggesting that the physiological response(s) mediated by ligand-activated protein-tyrosine kinases may utilize distinct intracellular mechanisms for postreceptor signaling

  16. Metal-Sulfate Induced Generation of ROS in Human Brain Cells: Detection Using an Isomeric Mixture of 5- and 6-Carboxy-2?,7?-Dichlorofluorescein Diacetate (Carboxy-DCFDA as a Cell Permeant Tracer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter J. Lukiw

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Evolution of reactive oxygen species (ROS, generated during the patho-physiological stress of nervous tissue, has been implicated in the etiology of several progressive human neurological disorders including Alzheimer’s disease (AD and amylotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. In this brief communication we used mixed isomers of 5-(and-6-carboxy-2?,7?-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (carboxy-DCFDA; C25H14Cl2O9; MW 529.3, a novel fluorescent indicator, to assess ROS generation within human neuronal-glial (HNG cells in primary co-culture. We introduced pathological stress using the sulfates of 12 environmentally-, industrially- and agriculturally-relevant divalent and trivalent metals including Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ga, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn and Zn. In this experimental test system, of all the metal sulfates analyzed, aluminum sulfate showed by far the greatest ability to induce intracellular ROS. These studies indicate the utility of using isomeric mixtures of carboxy-H2DCFDA diacetates as novel and highly sensitive, long-lasting, cell-permeant, fluorescein-based tracers for quantifying ROS generation in intact, metabolizing human brain cells, and in analyzing the potential epigenetic contribution of different metal sulfates to ROS-generation and ROS-mediated neurological dysfunction.

  17. Mitochondria-ros crosstalk in the control of cell death and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchi, Saverio; Giorgi, Carlotta; Suski, Jan M; Agnoletto, Chiara; Bononi, Angela; Bonora, Massimo; De Marchi, Elena; Missiroli, Sonia; Patergnani, Simone; Poletti, Federica; Rimessi, Alessandro; Duszynski, Jerzy; Wieckowski, Mariusz R; Pinton, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are highly reactive molecules, mainly generated inside mitochondria that can oxidize DNA, proteins, and lipids. At physiological levels, ROS function as "redox messengers" in intracellular signalling and regulation, whereas excess ROS induce cell death by promoting the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Recent work has pointed to a further role of ROS in activation of autophagy and their importance in the regulation of aging. This review will focus on mitochondria as producers and targets of ROS and will summarize different proteins that modulate the redox state of the cell. Moreover, the involvement of ROS and mitochondria in different molecular pathways controlling lifespan will be reported, pointing out the role of ROS as a "balance of power," directing the cell towards life or death. PMID:22175013

  18. Ursolic acid induces autophagy in U87MG cells via ROS-dependent endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shuying; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Rui; Tu, Xintao; Gong, Xingguo

    2014-07-25

    Malignant gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors, and novel ways of treating gliomas are urgently needed. Ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpenoid, has been reported to exhibit promising antitumor activity. Here, we evaluated the effects of UA on U87MG cells and explored the underlying molecular mechanisms. The results demonstrated that both G1-phase arrest and autophagy were induced by UA in U87MG cells. Evidence of UA-induced autophagy included the formation of acidic vesicular organelles, increase of autophagolysosomes and LC3-II accumulation. UA was also found to induce ER stress and an increase in intracellular calcium accompanied by ROS production. The increase in free cytosolic calcium induced by UA activated the CaMKK-AMPK-mTOR kinase signaling cascade, which ultimately triggered autophagy. Western blot analysis showed that UA promoted the phosphorylation of PERK and eIF2?; this was followed by the upregulation of the downstream protein CHOP, implying the involvement of the ER stress-mediated PERK/eIF2?/CHOP pathway in glioma cells. Meanwhile, UA activated IRE1? and subsequently increased the levels of phosphorylated JNK and Bcl-2, resulting in the dissociation of Beclin1 from Bcl-2. Furthermore, TUDCA and the silencing of either PERK or IRE1? partially blocked the UA-induced accumulation of LC3-II, suggesting that ER stress precedes the process of autophagy. Additionally, NAC attenuated the UA-induced elevation in cytosolic calcium, ER stress markers and autophagy-related proteins, indicating that UA triggered ER stress and autophagy via a ROS-dependent pathway. Collectively, our findings revealed a novel cellular mechanism triggered by UA and provide a molecular basis for developing UA into a drug candidate. PMID:24802810

  19. Structural insight into selectivity and resistance profiles of ROS1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davare, Monika A.; Vellore, Nadeem A.; Wagner, Jacob P.; Eide, Christopher A.; Goodman, James R.; Drilon, Alexander; Deininger, Michael W.; O’Hare, Thomas; Druker, Brian J.

    2015-01-01

    Oncogenic ROS1 fusion proteins are molecular drivers in multiple malignancies, including a subset of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The phylogenetic proximity of the ROS1 and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) catalytic domains led to the clinical repurposing of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved ALK inhibitor crizotinib as a ROS1 inhibitor. Despite the antitumor activity of crizotinib observed in both ROS1- and ALK-rearranged NSCLC patients, resistance due to acquisition of ROS1 or ALK kinase domain mutations has been observed clinically, spurring the development of second-generation inhibitors. Here, we profile the sensitivity and selectivity of seven ROS1 and/or ALK inhibitors at various levels of clinical development. In contrast to crizotinib’s dual ROS1/ALK activity, cabozantinib (XL-184) and its structural analog foretinib (XL-880) demonstrate a striking selectivity for ROS1 over ALK. Molecular dynamics simulation studies reveal structural features that distinguish the ROS1 and ALK kinase domains and contribute to differences in binding site and kinase selectivity of the inhibitors tested. Cell-based resistance profiling studies demonstrate that the ROS1-selective inhibitors retain efficacy against the recently reported CD74-ROS1G2032R mutant whereas the dual ROS1/ALK inhibitors are ineffective. Taken together, inhibitor profiling and stringent characterization of the structure–function differences between the ROS1 and ALK kinase domains will facilitate future rational drug design for ROS1- and ALK-driven NSCLC and other malignancies. PMID:26372962

  20. Role of Mitochondrial Electron Transport Chain Complexes in Capsaicin Mediated Oxidative Stress Leading to Apoptosis in Pancreatic Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Pramanik, Kartick C.; Boreddy, Srinivas Reddy; Srivastava, Sanjay K.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the mechanism of capsaicin-mediated ROS generation in pancreatic cancer cells. The generation of ROS was about 4–6 fold more as compared to control and as early as 1 h after capsaicin treatment in BxPC-3 and AsPC-1 cells but not in normal HPDE-6 cells. The generation of ROS was inhibited by catalase and EUK-134. To delineate the mechanism of ROS generation, enzymatic activities of mitochondrial complex-I and complex-III were determined in the pure mitochondria. Our results shows ...

  1. Advanced Query and Data Mining Capabilities for MaROS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Paul; Wallick, Michael N.; Allard, Daniel A.; Gladden, Roy E.; Hy, Franklin H.

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Relay Operational Service (MaROS) comprises a number of tools to coordinate, plan, and visualize various aspects of the Mars Relay network. These levels include a Web-based user interface, a back-end "ReSTlet" built in Java, and databases that store the data as it is received from the network. As part of MaROS, the innovators have developed and implemented a feature set that operates on several levels of the software architecture. This new feature is an advanced querying capability through either the Web-based user interface, or through a back-end REST interface to access all of the data gathered from the network. This software is not meant to replace the REST interface, but to augment and expand the range of available data. The current REST interface provides specific data that is used by the MaROS Web application to display and visualize the information; however, the returned information from the REST interface has typically been pre-processed to return only a subset of the entire information within the repository, particularly only the information that is of interest to the GUI (graphical user interface). The new, advanced query and data mining capabilities allow users to retrieve the raw data and/or to perform their own data processing. The query language used to access the repository is a restricted subset of the structured query language (SQL) that can be built safely from the Web user interface, or entered as freeform SQL by a user. The results are returned in a CSV (Comma Separated Values) format for easy exporting to third party tools and applications that can be used for data mining or user-defined visualization and interpretation. This is the first time that a service is capable of providing access to all cross-project relay data from a single Web resource. Because MaROS contains the data for a variety of missions from the Mars network, which span both NASA and ESA, the software also establishes an access control list (ACL) on each data record in the database repository to enforce user access permissions through a multilayered approach.

  2. Silica particles cause NADPH oxidase-independent ROS generation and transient phagolysosomal leakage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Gaurav N; Goetjen, Alexandra M; Knecht, David A

    2015-09-15

    Chronic inhalation of silica particles causes lung fibrosis and silicosis. Silica taken up by alveolar macrophages causes phagolysosomal membrane damage and leakage of lysosomal material into the cytoplasm to initiate apoptosis. We investigated the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in this membrane damage by studying the spatiotemporal generation of ROS. In macrophages, ROS generated by NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) was detected in phagolysosomes containing either silica particles or nontoxic latex particles. ROS was only detected in the cytoplasm of cells treated with silica and appeared in parallel with an increase in phagosomal ROS, as well as several hours later associated with mitochondrial production of ROS late in apoptosis. Pharmacological inhibition of NOX activity did not prevent silica-induced phagolysosomal leakage but delayed it. In Cos7 cells, which do not express NOX2, ROS was detected in silica-containing phagolysosomes that leaked. ROS was not detected in phagolysosomes containing latex particles. Leakage of silica-containing phagolysosomes in both cell types was transient, and after resealing of the membrane, endolysosomal fusion continued. These results demonstrate that silica particles can generate phagosomal ROS independent of NOX activity, and we propose that this silica-generated ROS can cause phagolysosomal leakage to initiate apoptosis. PMID:26202463

  3. A novel synthetic analog of militarin, MA-1 induces mitochondrial dependent apoptosis by ROS generation in human lung cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Deok Hyo; Lim, Mi-Hee [Department of Biochemistry, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yu Ran [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 301-747 (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Gi-Ho [Mushroom Research Division, National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science, Rural Development Administration, Suwon 404-707 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Tae-Ho [R and D Center, Dong-A Pharmaceutical Co, Ltd, Yongin 446-905 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Byeong Hwa [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 301-747 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jae Youl [Department of Genetic Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Won O. [Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Park, Haeil [College of Pharmacy, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sunga, E-mail: sachoi@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 301-747 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Woong, E-mail: tawkim@kangwon.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    A synthetic Militarin analog-1[(2R,3R,4R,5R)-1,6-bis(4-(2,4,4-trimethylpentan-2-yl)phenoxy) hexane-2,3,4,5-tetraol] is a novel derivative of constituents from Cordyceps militaris, which has been used to treat a variety of chronic diseases including inflammation, diabetes, hyperglycemia and cancers. Here, we report for the first time the synthesis of Militarin analog-1 (MA-1) and the apoptotic mechanism of MA-1 against human lung cancer cell lines. Treatment with MA-1 significantly inhibited the viability of 3 human lung cancer cell lines. The inhibition of viability and growth in MA-1-treated A549 cells with an IC{sub 50} of 5 ?M were mediated through apoptosis induction, as demonstrated by an increase in DNA fragmentation, sub-G{sub 0}/G{sub 1}-DNA fraction, nuclear condensation, and phosphatidylserine exposure. The apoptotic cell death caused mitochondrial membrane permeabilization through regulation of expression of the Bcl-2 family proteins, leading to cytochrome c release in a time-dependent manner. Subsequently, the final stage of apoptosis, activation of caspase-9/-3 and cleavage of poly (ADP ribose) polymerase, was induced. Furthermore, A549 lung cancer cells were more responsive to MA-1 than a bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B), involving the rapid generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation. The pharmacological inhibition of ROS generation and JNK/p38 MAPK exhibited attenuated DNA fragmentation in MA-1-induced apoptosis. Oral administration of MA-1 also retarded growth of A549 orthotopic xenografts. In conclusion, the present study indicates that the new synthetic derivative MA-1 triggers mitochondrial apoptosis through ROS generation and regulation of MAPKs and may be a potent therapeutic agent against human lung cancer. - Highlights: • We report a novel synthesized derivative, militarin analog-1 (MA-1). • MA-1-induced cancer cell death was triggered by the ROS generation through MAPKs. • The MA-1-induced cell death was also modulated by the mitochondria-mediated pathway. • The apoptotic cancer cell death by MA-1 was also exhibited in orthotopic xenografts. • Our findings suggest MA-1 as a clinically useful agent for human lung cancer.

  4. A novel synthetic analog of militarin, MA-1 induces mitochondrial dependent apoptosis by ROS generation in human lung cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A synthetic Militarin analog-1[(2R,3R,4R,5R)-1,6-bis(4-(2,4,4-trimethylpentan-2-yl)phenoxy) hexane-2,3,4,5-tetraol] is a novel derivative of constituents from Cordyceps militaris, which has been used to treat a variety of chronic diseases including inflammation, diabetes, hyperglycemia and cancers. Here, we report for the first time the synthesis of Militarin analog-1 (MA-1) and the apoptotic mechanism of MA-1 against human lung cancer cell lines. Treatment with MA-1 significantly inhibited the viability of 3 human lung cancer cell lines. The inhibition of viability and growth in MA-1-treated A549 cells with an IC50 of 5 ?M were mediated through apoptosis induction, as demonstrated by an increase in DNA fragmentation, sub-G0/G1-DNA fraction, nuclear condensation, and phosphatidylserine exposure. The apoptotic cell death caused mitochondrial membrane permeabilization through regulation of expression of the Bcl-2 family proteins, leading to cytochrome c release in a time-dependent manner. Subsequently, the final stage of apoptosis, activation of caspase-9/-3 and cleavage of poly (ADP ribose) polymerase, was induced. Furthermore, A549 lung cancer cells were more responsive to MA-1 than a bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B), involving the rapid generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation. The pharmacological inhibition of ROS generation and JNK/p38 MAPK exhibited attenuated DNA fragmentation in MA-1-induced apoptosis. Oral administration of MA-1 also retarded growth of A549 orthotopic xenografts. In conclusion, the present study indicates that the new synthetic derivative MA-1 triggers mitochondrial apoptosis through ROS generation and regulation of MAPKs and may be a potent therapeutic agent against human lung cancer. - Highlights: • We report a novel synthesized derivative, militarin analog-1 (MA-1). • MA-1-induced cancer cell death was triggered by the ROS generation through MAPKs. • The MA-1-induced cell death was also modulated by the mitochondria-mediated pathway. • The apoptotic cancer cell death by MA-1 was also exhibited in orthotopic xenografts. • Our findings suggest MA-1 as a clinically useful agent for human lung cancer

  5. Ionized gas (plasma) delivery of reactive oxygen species (ROS) into artificial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was designed to enhance our understanding of how reactive oxygen species (ROS), generated ex situ by ionized gas (plasma), can affect the regulation of signalling processes within cells. A model system, comprising of a suspension of phospholipid vesicles (cell mimics) encapsulating a ROS reporter, was developed to study the plasma delivery of ROS into cells. For the first time it was shown that plasma unequivocally delivers ROS into cells over a sustained period and without compromising cell membrane integrity. An important consideration in cell and biological assays is the presence of serum, which significantly reduced the transfer efficiency of ROS into the vesicles. These results are key to understanding how plasma treatments can be tailored for specific medical or biotechnology applications. Further, the phospholipid vesicle ROS reporter system may find use in other studies involving the application of free radicals in biology and medicine. (fast track communication)

  6. ROS1 rearranged non-small cell lung cancer brain metastases respond to low dose radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Rimas V; Hasan, Yasmin; Nicholas, Martin K; Salgia, Ravi

    2015-12-01

    We present a young woman with ROS1 gene rearranged non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with brain metastases. ROS is a proto-oncogene tyrosine protein kinase. The patient received a partial course of whole brain radiation therapy and experienced a sustained partial response in the brain. We hypothesize that ROS1 rearranged NSCLC brain metastases may be particularly sensitive to radiation therapy. PMID:26159887

  7. Acquired Resistance to Crizotinib from a Mutation in CD74–ROS1

    OpenAIRE

    Awad, Mark M; Katayama, Ryohei; McTigue, Michele; Liu, Wei; Deng, Ya-Li; Brooun, Alexei; Friboulet, Luc; Huang, Donghui; Falk, Matthew D.; Timofeevski, Sergei; Wilner, Keith D; Lockerman, Elizabeth L.; Khan, Tahsin M.; Mahmood, Sidra; Gainor, Justin F.

    2013-01-01

    Crizotinib, an inhibitor of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), has also recently shown efficacy in the treatment of lung cancers with ROS1 translocations. Resistance to crizotinib developed in a patient with metastatic lung adenocarcinoma harboring a CD74–ROS1 rearrangement who had initially shown a dramatic response to treatment. We performed a biopsy of a resistant tumor and identified an acquired mutation leading to a glycine-to-arginine substitution at codon 2032 in the ROS1 kinase domain....

  8. Nox Enzymes, ROS, and Chronic Disease: An Example of Antagonistic Pleiotropy

    OpenAIRE

    Lambeth, J David

    2007-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are considered to be chemically reactive with and damaging to biomolecules including DNA, protein and lipid, and excessive exposure to ROS induces oxidative stress and causes genetic mutations. However, the recently described family of Nox and Duox enzymes generates ROS in a variety of tissues as part of normal physiological functions, which include innate immunity, signal transduction and biochemical reactions, e.g. to produce thyroid hormone. Nature’s “choice” ...

  9. Synergism between polyamines and ROS in the induction of Ca2+ and K+ fluxes in roots

    OpenAIRE

    Pottosin, Igor; Velarde-Buendía, Ana-María; Zepeda-Jazo, Isaac; Dobrovinskaya, Oxana; Shabala, Sergey

    2012-01-01

    Stress conditions cause increases in ROS and polyamines levels, which are not merely collateral. There is increasing evidence for the ROS participation in signaling as well as for polyamine protective roles under stress. Polyamines and ROS, respectively, inhibit cation channels and induce novel cation conductance in the plasma membrane. Our new results indicate that polyamines and OH• also stimulate Ca2+ pumping across the root plasma membrane. Besides, polyamines potentiate the OH•-induced n...

  10. Rho GTPases and Nox dependent ROS production in skin. Is there a connection?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanley, Alanna; Hynes, Ailish; Brakebusch, Cord Herbert; Quondamatteo, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    Rho GTPases are a family of small GTP binding proteins most commonly known for the regulation of many cellular processes, including actin cytoskeleton re-organisation, cell proliferation, signal transduction and regulation of apoptosis. Additionally, a link between Rho GTPases and reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been shown. In line with the growing interest in the role of ROS in cell biology, the relevance of this connection is becoming increasingly clearer. ROS production is classically assoc...

  11. Cytosolic and mitochondrial ROS in staurosporine-induced retinal cell apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    Gil, Joana; Almeida, Sandra; Oliveira, Catarina R.; Rego, A Cristina

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and calcium in staurosporine (STS)-induced apoptosis in cultured retinal neurons, under conditions of maintained membrane integrity. The antioxidants idebenone (IDB), glutathione-ethylester (GSH/EE), trolox, and Mn(III)tetrakis (4-benzoic acid) porphyrin chloride (MnTBAP) significantly reduced STS-induced caspase-3-like activity and intracellular ROS generation. Endogenous sources of ROS production were investigat...

  12. Effect of Methyl Jasmonate on antioxidative enzyme activities and on the contents of ROS and H2O2 in Ricinus communis leaves

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alexandra Martins dos Santos, Soares; Thiago Freitas de, Souza; Tânia, Jacinto; Olga Lima Tavares, Machado.

    Full Text Available Jasmonates are a class of plant hormones that mediate various aspects in gene and metabolic regulation, defense, stress responses, reproduction and, possibly, communication. Oxidative stress stimulates synthesis of antioxidant metabolites and enhances antioxidant enzyme activities that could protect [...] plant tissues. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of methyl jasmonate (JAME) treatment on the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and on the activities of H2O2 scavenging enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT; EC 1.11.1.6), ascorbate peroxidase (APX EC; 1.11.1.1), and guaiacol peroxidase (GPX; EC 1.11.1.7) in Ricinus communis leaves. The activity of CAT and GPX was transient while SOD activity decreased and APX increased after treatment with JAME. In addition, JAME exposure induced ROS accumulation.

  13. Boron deficiency inhibits root cell elongation via an ethylene/auxin/ROS-dependent pathway in Arabidopsis seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Cristóbal, Juan J; Martín-Rejano, Esperanza M; Herrera-Rodríguez, M Begoña; Navarro-Gochicoa, M Teresa; Rexach, Jesús; González-Fontes, Agustín

    2015-07-01

    One of the earliest symptoms of boron (B) deficiency is the inhibition of root elongation which can reasonably be attributed to the damaging effects of B deprivation on cell wall integrity. It is shown here that exposure of wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings to B deficiency for 4h led to a drastic inhibition of root cell length in the transition between the elongation and differentiation zones. To investigate the possible mediation of ethylene, auxin, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the effect of B deficiency on root cell elongation, B deficiency was applied together with aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG, a chemical inhibitor of ethylene biosynthesis), silver ions (Ag(+), an antagonist of ethylene perception), ?-(phenylethyl-2-oxo)-indoleacetic acid (PEO-IAA, a synthetic antagonist of TIR1 receptor function), and diphenylene iodonium (DPI, an inhibitor of ROS production). Interestingly, all these chemicals partially or fully restored cell elongation in B-deficient roots. To further explore the possible role of ethylene and auxin in the inhibition of root cell elongation under B deficiency, a genetic approach was performed by using Arabidopsis mutants defective in the ethylene (ein2-1) or auxin (eir1-4 and aux1-22) response. Root cell elongation in these mutants was less sensitive to B-deficient treatment than that in wild-type plants. Altogether, these results demonstrated that a signalling pathway involving ethylene, auxin, and ROS participates in the reduction of root cell elongation when Arabidopsis seedlings are subjected to B deficiency. A similar signalling process has been described to reduce root elongation rapidly under various types of cell wall stress which supports the idea that this signalling pathway is triggered by the impaired cell wall integrity caused by B deficiency. PMID:25922480

  14. Moderate extracellular acidification inhibits capsaicin-induced cell death through regulating calcium mobilization, NF-{kappa}B translocation and ROS production in synoviocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Fen; Yang, Shuang; Zhao, Dan; Zhu, Shuyan; Wang, Yuxiang [Department of Biophysics, School of Physics and Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials of Education Ministry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Li, Junying, E-mail: jyli04@nankai.edu.cn [Department of Biophysics, School of Physics and Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials of Education Ministry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2012-07-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Moderate extracellular acidification regulates intracellular Ca{sup 2+} mobilization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Moderate acidification activates NF-{kappa}B nuclear translocation in synoviocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Moderate acidification depresses the ROS production induced by capsaicin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Moderate acidification inhibits capsaicin-caused synoviocyte death. -- Abstract: We previously show the expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) in primary synoviocytes from collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rats. Capsaicin and lowered extracellular pH from 7.4 to 5.5 induce cell death through TRPV1-mediated Ca{sup 2+} entry and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. However, under the pathological condition in rheumatoid arthritis, the synovial fluid is acidified to a moderate level (about pH 6.8). In the present study, we examined the effects of pH 6.8 on the TRPV1-mediated cell death. Our finding is different or even opposite from what was observed at pH 5.5. We found that the moderate extracellular acidification (from pH 7.4 to 6.8) inhibited the capsaicin-induced Ca{sup 2+} entry through attenuating the activity of TRPV1. In the mean time, it triggered a phospholipse C (PLC)-related Ca{sup 2+} release from intracellular stores. The nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B was found at pH 6.8, and this also depends on PLC activation. Moreover, the capsaicin-evoked massive ROS production and cell death were depressed at pH 6.8, both of which are dependent on the activation of PLC and NF-{kappa}B. Taken together, these results suggested that the moderate extracellular acidification inhibited the capsaicin-induced synoviocyte death through regulating Ca{sup 2+} mobilization, activating NF-{kappa}B nuclear translocation and depressing ROS production.

  15. Moderate extracellular acidification inhibits capsaicin-induced cell death through regulating calcium mobilization, NF-?B translocation and ROS production in synoviocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Moderate extracellular acidification regulates intracellular Ca2+ mobilization. ? Moderate acidification activates NF-?B nuclear translocation in synoviocytes. ? Moderate acidification depresses the ROS production induced by capsaicin. ? Moderate acidification inhibits capsaicin-caused synoviocyte death. -- Abstract: We previously show the expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) in primary synoviocytes from collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rats. Capsaicin and lowered extracellular pH from 7.4 to 5.5 induce cell death through TRPV1-mediated Ca2+ entry and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. However, under the pathological condition in rheumatoid arthritis, the synovial fluid is acidified to a moderate level (about pH 6.8). In the present study, we examined the effects of pH 6.8 on the TRPV1-mediated cell death. Our finding is different or even opposite from what was observed at pH 5.5. We found that the moderate extracellular acidification (from pH 7.4 to 6.8) inhibited the capsaicin-induced Ca2+ entry through attenuating the activity of TRPV1. In the mean time, it triggered a phospholipse C (PLC)-related Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. The nuclear translocation of NF-?B was found at pH 6.8, and this also depends on PLC activation. Moreover, the capsaicin-evoked massive ROS production and cell death were depressed at pH 6.8, both of which are dependent on the activation of PLC and NF-?B. Taken together, these results suggested that the moderate extracellular acidification inhibited the capsaicin-induced synoviocyte death through regulating Ca2+ mobilization, activating NF-?B nuclear translocation and depressing ROS production.

  16. The Protective Role of Antioxidants in the Defence against ROS/RNS-Mediated Environmental Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Borut Poljšak; Rok Fink

    2014-01-01

    Overproduction of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species can result from exposure to environmental pollutants, such as ionising and nonionising radiation, ultraviolet radiation, elevated concentrations of ozone, nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide, cigarette smoke, asbestos, particulate matter, pesticides, dioxins and furans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and many other compounds present in the environment. It appears that increased oxidative/nitrosative stress is often neglected mechanism by ...

  17. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid induces ROS-mediated cleavage of HSP90 in leukemia cells

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sangkyu; Park, Jeong-A; Kim, Young-eun; Song, Sukgil; Kwon, Hyung-Joo; Lee, YoungHee

    2014-01-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a molecular chaperone that supports stability of client proteins. We found that HSP90 was cleaved to 55 kDa protein after treatment with histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors including suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) in several leukemia cell lines. We further analyzed molecular changes induced by SAHA in K562 cells. The SAHA-induced cleavage of HSP90 was blocked by a pan-caspase inhibitor, z-VAD-fmk, implying that the process is dependent on caspase act...

  18. Gemcitabine/cannabinoid combination triggers autophagy in pancreatic cancer cells through a ROS-mediated mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Donadelli, M.(Universidade Federal do Rio De Janeiro COPPE/EE/IF, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Federal University of Juiz de Fora (UFJF), Juiz de Fora, Brazil Federal University of Sao Joao del Rei (UFSJ), Sao Joao del Rei, Brazil Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil); Dando, I; Zaniboni, T; Costanzo, C; Dalla Pozza, E; Scupoli, M T; Scarpa, A.; Zappavigna, S; Marra, M; Abbruzzese, A.; Bifulco, M; M. Caraglia; Palmieri, M

    2011-01-01

    Gemcitabine (GEM, 2?,2?-difluorodeoxycytidine) is currently used in advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma, with a response rate of < 20%. The purpose of our work was to improve GEM activity by addition of cannabinoids. Here, we show that GEM induces both cannabinoid receptor-1 (CB1) and cannabinoid receptor-2 (CB2) receptors by an NF-?B-dependent mechanism and that its association with cannabinoids synergistically inhibits pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell growth and increases reactive oxygen speci...

  19. Antifungal activity of ZnO nanoparticles-the role of ROS mediated cell injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metal oxide nanoparticles have marked antibacterial activity. The toxic effect of these nanoparticles, such as those comprised of ZnO, has been found to occur due to an interaction of the nanoparticle surface with water, and to increase with a decrease in particle size. In the present study, we tested the ability of ZnO nanoparticles to affect the viability of the pathogenic yeast, Candida albicans (C. albicans). A concentration-dependent effect of ZnO on the viability of C. albicans was observed. The minimal fungicidal concentration of ZnO was found to be 0.1 mg ml-1 ZnO; this concentration caused an inhibition of over 95% in the growth of C. albicans. ZnO nanoparticles also inhibited the growth of C. albicans when it was added at the logarithmic phase of growth. Addition of histidine (a quencher of hydroxyl radicals and singlet oxygen) caused reduction in the effect of ZnO on C. albicans depending on its concentration. An almost complete elimination of the antimycotic effect was achieved following addition of 5 mM of histidine. Exciting the ZnO by visible light increased the yeast cell death. The effects of histidine suggest the involvement of reactive oxygen species, including hydroxyl radicals and singlet oxygen, in cell death. In light of the above results it appears that metal oxide nanoparticles may provide a novel family of fungicidal compounds.

  20. ROS-mediated genotoxicity of asbestos-cement in mammalian lung cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rödelsperger Klaus

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Asbestos is a known carcinogen and co-carcinogen. It is a persisting risk in our daily life due to its use in building material as asbestos-cement powder. The present study done on V79-cells (Chinese hamster lung cells demonstrates the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of asbestos-cement powder (ACP in comparison with chrysotile asbestos. A co-exposure of chrysotile and ACP was tested using the cell viability test and the micronucleus assay. The kinetochore analysis had been used to analyse the pathway causing such genotoxic effects. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances were determined as evidence for the production of reactive oxygen species. Both, asbestos cement as well as chrysotile formed micronuclei and induced loss of cell viability in a concentration- and time- dependent way. Results of TBARS analysis and iron chelator experiments showed induction of free radicals in ACP- and chrysotile exposed cultures. CaSO4 appeared to be a negligible entity in enhancing the toxic potential of ACP. The co-exposure of both, ACP and chrysotile, showed an additive effect in enhancing the toxicity. The overall study suggests that asbestos-cement is cytotoxic as well as genotoxic in vitro. In comparison to chrysotile the magnitude of the toxicity was less, but co-exposure increased the toxicity of both.

  1. Monolayer expansion induces an oxidative metabolism and ROS in chondrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study tests the hypothesis that articular chondrocytes shift from a characteristically glycolytic to an oxidative energy metabolism during population expansion in monolayer. Bovine articular chondrocytes were cultured in monolayer under standard incubator conditions for up to 14 days. Cellular proliferation, oxygen consumption, lactate production, protein content, ROS generation and mitochondrial morphology were examined. Lactate release increased ?5-fold within 1 week, but this was limited to ?2-fold increase when normalized to cellular protein content. By contrast, per cell oxidative phosphorylation increased 98-fold in 1 week. The increase in oxidative phosphorylation was evident within 24 h, preceding cell proliferation and was associated with augmented reactive oxygen species generation. The autologous chondrocyte implantation procedure requires 14-21 days for population expansion. The alterations in metabolic phenotype we report within 7 days in vitro are thus pertinent to autologous chondrocyte implantation with significant implications for the chondrocyte functionality

  2. TGF-?1 increases invasiveness of SW1990 cells through Rac1/ROS/NF-?B/IL-6/MMP-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: ? Rac1 mediates TGF-?1-induced SW1990 invasion through MMP-2 secretion and activation. ? NADPH-generated ROS act downstream of Rac1 in TGF-?1-challenged SW1990 cells. ? TGF-?1-stimulated ROS activate NF-?B in SW1990 cells. ? NF?B-induced IL-6 release is required for secretion and activation of MMP-2 in SW1990 cells. -- Abstract: Human pancreatic cancer invasion and metastasis have been found to correlate with increased levels of active matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2). The multifunctional cytokine transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-?1) has been shown to increase both secretion of MMP-2 and invasion by several pancreatic cancer cell types. In the present study, we investigated the signaling pathway involved in TGF-?1-promoted MMP-2 secretion and invasion by human pancreatic cancer cells SW1990. Using specific inhibitors, we found that stimulation of these tumor cells with TGF-?1 induced secretion and activation of the collagenase MMP-2, which was required for TGF-?1-stimulated invasion. Our results also indicate that signaling events involved in TGF-?1-enhanced SW1990 invasiveness comprehend activation of Rac1 followed by generation of reactive oxygen species through nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase, activation of nuclear factor-kappa beta, release of interleukin-6, and secretion and activation of MMP-2.

  3. Condurango (Gonolobus condurango Extract Activates Fas Receptor and Depolarizes Mitochondrial Membrane Potential to Induce ROS-dependent Apoptosis in Cancer Cells in vitro CE-treatment on HeLa: a ROS-dependent mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kausik Bishayee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Condurango (Gonolobus condurango extract is used by complementary and alternative medicine (CAM practitioners as a traditional medicine, including homeopathy, mainly for the treatment of syphilis. Condurango bark extract is also known to reduce tumor volume, but the underlying molecular mechanisms still remain unclear. Methods: Using a cervical cancer cell line (HeLa as our model, the molecular events behind condurango extract’s (CE’s anticancer effect were investigated by using flow cytometry, immunoblotting and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Other included cell types were prostate cancer cells (PC3, transformed liver cells (WRL-68, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs. Results: Condurango extract (CE was found to be cytotoxic against target cells, and this was significantly deactivated in the presence of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC, a scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS, suggesting that its action could be mediated through ROS generation. CE caused an increase in the HeLa cell population containing deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA damage at the G zero/Growth 1 (G0/G1 stage. Further, CE increased the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-? and the fas receptor (FasR levels both at the ribonucleic acid (RNA and the protein levels, indicating that CE might have a cytotoxic mechanism of action. CE also triggered a sharp decrease in the expression of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-?B both at the RNA and the protein levels, a possible route to attenuation of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2, and caused an opening of the mitochondrial membrane’s permeability transition (MPT pores, thus enhancing caspase activities. Conclusion: Overall, our results suggest possible pathways for CE mediated cytotoxicity in model cancer cells.

  4. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Embelica officinalis on Selenite Induced Cataract in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kavitha Nair, Nair; Patel, Kirti; Gandhi, Tejal

    2010-01-01

    Cataract is clouding of the eye lens that reduces the amount of incoming light and results in deteriorating vision. Blindness is thought to reach 75 million by 2020. Of these, unoperated cataract may be expected to account for at least 35 million. Thus, the burden of cataract is increasing remorselessly. Embelica officinalis is reported to have a very good antioxidant property and thus we hypothesized that it could be a good candidate in treatment of cataract. Hence, the aim of this study was...

  5. ROS/redox signaling regulates bone turnover in an age-specific manner in female mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    In bone, oxidant signaling through NADPH oxidase (NOX)-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) superoxide and/or hydrogen peroxide appears to be an important stimulus for osteoclast differentiation and activity. ROS signaling has been suggested to increase RANKL mRNA and protein expression, thus enha...

  6. ROS evaluation for a series of CNTs and their derivatives using an ESR method with DMPO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are important materials in advanced industries. It is a concern that pulmonary exposure to CNTs may induce carcinogenic responses. It has been recently reported that CNTs scavenge ROS though non-carbon fibers generate ROS. A comprehensive evaluation of ROS scavenging using various kinds of CNTs has not been demonstrated well. The present work specifically investigates ROS scavenging capabilities with a series of CNTs and their derivatives that were physically treated, and with the number of commercially available CNTs. CNT concentrations were controlled at 0.2 through 0.6 wt%. The ROS scavenging rate was measured by ESR with DMPO. Interestingly, the ROS scavenging rate was not only influenced by physical treatments, but was also dependent on individual manufacturing methods. Ratio of CNTs to DMPO/ hydrogen peroxide is a key parameter to obtain appropriate ROS quenching results for comparison of CNTs. The present results suggest that dangling bonds are not a sole factor for scavenging, and electron transfer on the CNT surface is not clearly determined to be the sole mechanism to explain ROS scavenging.

  7. ROS1 rearrangements in lung adenocarcinoma: prognostic impact, therapeutic options and genetic variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixido, Cristina; Michels, Sebastian; Morales-Espinosa, Daniela; Viteri, Santiago; Hartmann, Wolfgang; Merkelbach-Bruse, Sabine; Fischer, Rieke; Schildhaus, Hans-Ulrich; Fassunke, Jana; Sebastian, Martin; Serke, Monika; Kaminsky, Britta; Randerath, Winfried; Gerigk, Ulrich; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Krüger, Stefan; Schnell, Roland; Rothe, Achim; Kropf-Sanchen, Cornelia; Heukamp, Lukas; Rosell, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Background While recent data show that crizotinib is highly effective in patients with ROS1 rearrangement, few data is available about the prognostic impact, the predictive value for different treatments, and the genetic heterogeneity of ROS1-positive patients. Patients and Methods 1137 patients with adenocarcinoma of the lung were analyzed regarding their ROS1 status. In positive cases, next-generation sequencing (NGS) was performed. Clinical characteristics, treatments and outcome of these patients were assessed. Overall survival (OS) was compared with genetically defined subgroups of ROS1-negative patients. Results 19 patients of 1035 evaluable (1.8%) had ROS1-rearrangement. The median OS has not been reached. Stage IV patients with ROS1-rearrangement had the best OS of all subgroups (36.7 months, p < 0.001). 9 of 14 (64.2%) patients had at least one response to chemotherapy. Estimated mean OS for patients receiving chemotherapy and crizotinib was 5.3 years. Ten patients with ROS1-rearrangement (52.6%) harbored additional aberrations. Conclusion ROS1-rearangement is not only a predictive marker for response to crizotinib, but also seems to be the one of the best prognostic molecular markers in NSCLC reported so far. In stage IV patients, response to chemotherapy was remarkable high and overall survival was significantly better compared to other subgroups including EGFR-mutated and ALK-fusion-positive NSCLC. PMID:25868855

  8. Evidence of reactive oxygen species-mediated damage to mitochondrial DNA in children with typical autism

    OpenAIRE

    Napoli Eleonora; Wong Sarah; Giulivi Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) is particularly susceptible to damage mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although elevated ROS production and elevated biomarkers of oxidative stress have been found in tissues from children with autism spectrum disorders, evidence for damage to mtDNA is lacking. Findings mtDNA deletions were evaluated in peripheral blood monocytic cells (PBMC) isolated from 2–5 year old children with full autism (AU; n = 67), and typically developi...

  9. Apoplastic ROS production upon pollination by RbohH and RbohJ in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Hidetaka; Iwano, Megumi; Takeda, Seiji; Kanaoka, Masahiro M; Kimura, Sachie; Abe, Mitsutomo; Kuchitsu, Kazuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulate at the tip of growing pollen tubes. In Arabidopsis, NADPH oxidases RbohH and RbohJ are localized at the plasma membrane of pollen tube tip and produce ROS in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. The ROS produced by Rbohs and Ca(2+) presumably play a critical role in the positive feedback regulation that maintains the tip growth. Ultrastructural cytochemical analysis revealed ROS accumulation in the apoplast/cell wall of the pollen grains on the stigmatic papillae in the wild type, but not in the rbohH rbohJ double mutant, suggesting that apoplastic ROS derived from RbohH and RbohJ are involved in pollen tube elongation into the stigmatic papillae by affecting the cell wall metabolism. PMID:25751652

  10. A systems biology perspective on Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cells in vivo are constantly exposed to reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated endogenously and exogenously. To defend against the deleterious consequences of ROS, cells contain multiple antioxidant enzymes expressed in various cellular compartments to scavenge these toxic species. Under oxidative stresses, these antioxidant enzymes are upregulated to restore redox homeostasis. Such an adaptive response results from the activation of a redox-sensitive gene regulatory network mediated by nuclear factor E2-related factor 2. To more completely understand how the redox control system is designed by nature to meet homeostatic goals, we have examined the network from a systems perspective using engineering approaches. As with man-made control devices, the redox control system can be decomposed into distinct functional modules, including transducer, controller, actuator, and plant. Cells achieve specific performance objectives by utilizing nested feedback loops, feedforward control, and ultrasensitive signaling motifs, etc. Given that endogenously generated ROS are also used as signaling molecules, our analysis suggests a novel mode of action to explain oxidative stress-induced pathological conditions and diseases. Specifically, by adaptively upregulating antioxidant enzymes, oxidative stress may inadvertently attenuate ROS signals that mediate physiological processes, resulting in aberrations of cellular functions and adverse consequences. Lastly, by simultaneously considering the two competing cellular tasks-adaptive antioxidant defense and ROS signaling-we re-examine the premise that dietary antioxidant supplements is generally beneficial to human health. Our analysis highlights some possible adverse effects of these widely consumed antioxidants.

  11. EPR spectroscopy and its use in planta—a promising technique to disentangle the origin of specific ROS

    OpenAIRE

    Steffen-Heins, Anja; Steffens, Bianka

    2015-01-01

    While it is widely accepted that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are common players in developmental processes and a large number of adaptations to abiotic and biotic stresses in plants, we still do not know a lot about ROS level control at cellular or organelle level. One major problem that makes ROS hard to quantify and even to identify is their short lifetime. A promising technique that helps to understand ROS level control in planta is the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy....

  12. TOR Complex 2-Ypk1 Signaling Maintains Sphingolipid Homeostasis by Sensing and Regulating ROS Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad J. Niles

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS are produced during normal metabolism and can function as signaling molecules. However, ROS at elevated levels can damage cells. Here, we identify the conserved target of rapamycin complex 2 (TORC2/Ypk1 signaling module as an important regulator of ROS in the model eukaryotic organism, S. cerevisiae. We show that TORC2/Ypk1 suppresses ROS produced both by mitochondria as well as by nonmitochondrial sources, including changes in acidification of the vacuole. Furthermore, we link vacuole-related ROS to sphingolipids, essential components of cellular membranes, whose synthesis is also controlled by TORC2/Ypk1 signaling. In total, our data reveal that TORC2/Ypk1 act within a homeostatic feedback loop to maintain sphingolipid levels and that ROS are a critical regulatory signal within this system. Thus, ROS sensing and signaling by TORC2/Ypk1 play a central physiological role in sphingolipid biosynthesis and in the maintenance of cell growth and viability.

  13. Determination and detection of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation, and electrolyte leakage in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambunathan, Niranjani

    2010-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species or intermediates are formed by the incomplete reduction of oxygen. Organisms living in aerobic environment generate various kinds of reactive oxygen species (ROS) molecules, such as superoxide (*O(2)(-)), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), hydroxyl radical (OH(-)), singlet oxygen, and lipid hydroperoxides. ROS are highly reactive molecules and are extremely unstable, so detection of ROS relies on measuring the end products that are formed when they react with particular substances. The end products can be measured by changes in their fluorescence, color, or luminescence. ROS causes lipid peroxidation wherein the lipids in the cell membranes are damaged. Lipid peroxidation is usually quantified using a colorimetric assay. When ROS concentrations reach a certain threshold, it activates a programmed cell death response in the cells. This is quantified by measuring the amount of ion leakage. ROS such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide have been detected traditionally by staining techniques. Superoxide anion is detected with nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) and hydrogen peroxide by Diaminobenzidine tetrahydrochloride (DAB) staining. In this chapter, methods for determining total ROS and lipid peroxidation assay, histochemical staining techniques for superoxide and H(2)O(2) molecules are described. PMID:20387054

  14. Regulation of ROS in transmissible gastroenteritis virus-activated apoptotic signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Li [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); College of Life Sciences, Hainan Normal University, Haikou, Hainan 571158 (China); Zhao, Xiaomin; Huang, Yong; Du, Qian; Dong, Feng; Zhang, Hongling; Song, Xiangjun; Zhang, Wenlong [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Tong, Dewen, E-mail: dwtong@nwsuaf.edu.cn [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China)

    2013-12-06

    Highlights: •TGEV infection induced ROS accumulation. •ROS accumulation is involved in TGEV-induced mitochondrial integrity impairment. •ROS is associated with p53 activation and apoptosis occurrence in TGEV-infected cells. -- Abstract: Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), an enteropathogenic coronavirus, causes severe lethal watery diarrhea and dehydration in piglets. Previous studies indicate that TGEV infection induces cell apoptosis in host cells. In this study, we investigated the roles and regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in TGEV-activated apoptotic signaling. The results showed that TGEV infection induced ROS accumulation, whereas UV-irradiated TGEV did not promote ROS accumulation. In addition, TGEV infection lowered mitochondrial transmembrane potential in PK-15 cell line, which could be inhibited by ROS scavengers, pyrrolidinedithiocarbamic (PDTC) and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). Furthermore, the two scavengers significantly inhibited the activation of p38 MAPK and p53 and further blocked apoptosis occurrence through suppressing the TGEV-induced Bcl-2 reduction, Bax redistribution, cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation. These results suggest that oxidative stress pathway might be a key element in TGEV-induced apoptosis and TGEV pathogenesis.

  15. Regulation of ROS in transmissible gastroenteritis virus-activated apoptotic signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •TGEV infection induced ROS accumulation. •ROS accumulation is involved in TGEV-induced mitochondrial integrity impairment. •ROS is associated with p53 activation and apoptosis occurrence in TGEV-infected cells. -- Abstract: Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), an enteropathogenic coronavirus, causes severe lethal watery diarrhea and dehydration in piglets. Previous studies indicate that TGEV infection induces cell apoptosis in host cells. In this study, we investigated the roles and regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in TGEV-activated apoptotic signaling. The results showed that TGEV infection induced ROS accumulation, whereas UV-irradiated TGEV did not promote ROS accumulation. In addition, TGEV infection lowered mitochondrial transmembrane potential in PK-15 cell line, which could be inhibited by ROS scavengers, pyrrolidinedithiocarbamic (PDTC) and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). Furthermore, the two scavengers significantly inhibited the activation of p38 MAPK and p53 and further blocked apoptosis occurrence through suppressing the TGEV-induced Bcl-2 reduction, Bax redistribution, cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation. These results suggest that oxidative stress pathway might be a key element in TGEV-induced apoptosis and TGEV pathogenesis

  16. Effects of ROS-relative NF-?B signaling on high glucose-induced TLR4 and MCP-1 expression in podocyte injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Miaomiao; Li, Zhigui; Xiao, Lu; Yang, Zhuo

    2015-12-01

    High glucose (HG) induced inflammation is central to progression in diabetic nephropathy (DN). Recent studies have suggested that nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) signaling activation is associated with DN, and podocyte damage may be involved in orchestrating these effects. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of NF-?B signaling on podocytes under HG conditions. The effects of HG and NF-?B signaling on podocytes were assessed by CCK-8 assay, cellular NF-?B translocation assay, measurement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Western blot analysis. We found that HG reduced cell viability, activated NF-?B signaling and up-regulated toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). In these cells, NF-?B inhibition with ammonium pyrrolidinethiocarbamate (PDTC) resulted in effectively constraining TLR4 and MCP-1 up-regulation, indicating that protective effects associated with the inhibition of NF-?B were linked to TLR4 and MCP-1 down-regulation in podocytes. Furthermore, HG significantly increased the production of intracellular ROS. Pretreatment with N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) significantly inhibited intracellular ROS generation and increased cell viability, accompanied by a significant NF-?B inhibition and suppression of TLR4 and inflammatory cytokine MCP-1 expression. Collectively, our novel data suggest that HG induces the over-experssion of TLR-4 and MCP-1 through a NF-?B-dependent signaling. NF-?B-mediated increased inflammation is possibly via ROS and contributes to the cell injury. These results may provide potential therapeutic target for diabetic nephropathy in the future. PMID:26364141

  17. TiO2 nanoparticle-induced ROS correlates with modulated immune cell function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Design of non-toxic nanoparticles will be greatly facilitated by understanding the nanoparticle-cell interaction mechanism on a cell function level. Mast cells are important cells for the immune system’s first line of defense, and we can utilize their exocytotic behavior as a model cellular function as it is a conserved process across cell types and species. Perturbations in exocytosis can also have implications for whole organism health. One proposed mode of toxicity is nanoparticle-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS), particularly for titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles. Herein, we have correlated changes in ROS with the perturbation of the critical cell function of exocytosis, using UV light to induce greater levels of ROS in TiO2 exposed cells. The primary culture mouse peritoneal mast cells (MPMCs) were exposed to varying concentrations of TiO2 nanoparticles for 24 h. ROS content was determined using 2,7-dihydrodichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA). Cellular viability was determined with the MTT and Trypan blue assays, and exocytosis was measured by the analytical electrochemistry technique of carbon-fiber microelectrode amperometry. MPMCs exposed to TiO2 nanoparticles experienced a dose-dependent increase in total ROS content. While there was minimal impact of ROS on cellular viability, there is a correlation between ROS amount and exocytosis perturbation. As nanoparticle-induced ROS increases, there is a significant decrease (45 %) in the number of serotonin molecules being released during exocytosis, increase (26 %) in the amount of time for each exocytotic granule to release, and decrease (28 %) in the efficiency of granule trafficking and docking. This is the first evidence that nanoparticle-induced ROS correlates with chemical messenger molecule secretion, possibly making a critical connection between functional impairment and mechanisms contributing to that impairment.

  18. TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle-induced ROS correlates with modulated immune cell function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurer-Jones, Melissa A.; Christenson, Jenna R.; Haynes, Christy L., E-mail: chaynes@umn.edu [University of Minnesota, Department of Chemistry (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Design of non-toxic nanoparticles will be greatly facilitated by understanding the nanoparticle-cell interaction mechanism on a cell function level. Mast cells are important cells for the immune system's first line of defense, and we can utilize their exocytotic behavior as a model cellular function as it is a conserved process across cell types and species. Perturbations in exocytosis can also have implications for whole organism health. One proposed mode of toxicity is nanoparticle-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS), particularly for titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles. Herein, we have correlated changes in ROS with the perturbation of the critical cell function of exocytosis, using UV light to induce greater levels of ROS in TiO{sub 2} exposed cells. The primary culture mouse peritoneal mast cells (MPMCs) were exposed to varying concentrations of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles for 24 h. ROS content was determined using 2,7-dihydrodichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA). Cellular viability was determined with the MTT and Trypan blue assays, and exocytosis was measured by the analytical electrochemistry technique of carbon-fiber microelectrode amperometry. MPMCs exposed to TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles experienced a dose-dependent increase in total ROS content. While there was minimal impact of ROS on cellular viability, there is a correlation between ROS amount and exocytosis perturbation. As nanoparticle-induced ROS increases, there is a significant decrease (45 %) in the number of serotonin molecules being released during exocytosis, increase (26 %) in the amount of time for each exocytotic granule to release, and decrease (28 %) in the efficiency of granule trafficking and docking. This is the first evidence that nanoparticle-induced ROS correlates with chemical messenger molecule secretion, possibly making a critical connection between functional impairment and mechanisms contributing to that impairment.

  19. Uranium induced ROS and its antioxidant defense molecules, genotoxicity assessment in iridescent shark (Pangasius sutchi)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential adverse effects of uranium (U) contamination in the aquatic environment to living organisms have been debated during the recent years. In order to understand the effect and mode of action (MoA) of U in vivo, the iridescent shark (Pangasius sutchi) were exposed to ¼ and ½ LC50 waterborne uranyl nitrate in a static system till 21 days. The accumulation of U concentrations in the muscle, brain, gill and liver were analyzed by ICP-MS.The results clearly showed higher accumulation of U in the gills, and the accumulation were in the order of magnitude as gills > liver> Brain> tissue. Dose dependent effects of uranium on hepatic antioxidant defenses like super oxide dismutase, catalase and lipid peroxidase were observed and the ideal concentration-response relationships were observed at the highest U concentration. The DNA fragmentation analysis by comet assay and cell viability by flow cytometric analysis was performed at different time intervals. The whole blood analysis revealed aneuploidy-like patterns in the DNA histograms some fish, as well as hyper diploid shoulders of the G0/G1 peak. A significant differences in DNA damage occurred in fishes exposed protractedly and acutely to uranium compared to control. The higher the U concentration greater the effect observed suggested a close relationship between accumulation and effect. A possible ROS mediated U cytotoxic mechanism has been proposed. Studies on the uranium toxicity regulating genes can possibly be used as a tool to evaluate U toxicity which will be more sensitive than the enzymatic activities. However a multiple biomarker approach can be recommended as the perturbed pathways and the mode of action of this pollutant are not completely understood. (author)

  20. Scavenging of photogenerated ROS by Oxicams. Possible biological and environmental implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Gabriela V; Natera, José; Paulina Montaña, M; Muñoz, Vanesa; Gutiérrez, Eduardo L; Massad, Walter; Miskoski, Sandra; García, Norman A

    2015-12-01

    The profusely employed drugs Piroxicam (Piro), Tenoxicam (Teno) and Meloxicam (Melo) belonging to the non-steroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) family of the Oxicams (Oxis) were studied in the frame of two specific conditions: (a) their ROS scavenging ability, in relation to a possible biological antioxidant action and (b) their photodegradability under environmental conditions, in the context of Oxi-contaminated waters. Singlet molecular oxygen (O2((1)?g)) and superoxide radical anion (O2(-)) were photogenerated through Riboflavin (Rf, vitamin B2)-photosensitization in aqueous and aqueous-methanolic solutions in the presence of Oxi concentrations in the range 50-500?M. The visible-light absorber vitamin is currently present in all types of natural waters and constitutes the most frequent endogenous photosensitizer in mammals. Hence, it was employed in order to mimic both natural sceneries of interest. All three Oxis quench O2((1)?g) with rate constants in the order of 10(8)M(-1)s(-1) showing a significant photodegradation efficiency given by a dominant reactive fashion for deactivation of the oxidative species. Although this is not a desirable property in the context of photoprotection upon prolonged photoirradiation, constitutes in fact a promissory aspect for the degradation NSAIDs, in waste waters. Indirect evidence indicates that Melo is also oxidized through a O2(-)-mediated component. The simultaneous presence of Piro plus tryptophan or tyrosine under Rf-photosensitizing conditions, which has taken the amino acids as photooxidizable model residues in a proteinaceous environment, indicates that the NSAID induces a protection of the biomolecules against photodynamic degradation. PMID:26453988

  1. Triiodothyronine (T3) does not induce Rankl expression in rat Ros 17/2.8 cells / Triiodotironina (T3) não induz a expressão de Rankl em células de rato ROS 17/2.8

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Patrícia P., Saraiva; Silvania S., Teixeira; Célia Regina, Nogueira; Carlos Roberto, Padovani.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A osteoclastogênese pode ser regulada via ativação do sistema RANK/RANKL (receptor ativador do fator nuclear kapa B/ ligante do receptor do fator nuclear kapa B), que é mediado pelos osteoblastos. Entretanto, o mecanismo de perda óssea induzido pelo T3 (triiodotironina) ainda é controverso. Neste es [...] tudo, a linhagem osteoblástica de células de rato ROS 17/2.8 foi tratada com T3 (10-8 M, 10-9 M e 10-10 M), e a expressão do mRNA do RANKL foi medida por RT-PCR semiquantitativo. Nossos resultados mostraram que as concentrações de T3 utilizadas não induziram significativamente a expressão do RANKL, comparado ao controle (sem tratamento hormonal). Estes dados sugerem que outros mecanismos, não relacionados ao sistema RANK/RANKL, são usados para ativar a diferenciação osteoclástica nestas células. Abstract in english Osteoclastogenesis may be regulated via activation of the RANK/RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B/ receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand) system, which is mediated by osteoblasts. However, the bone loss mechanism induced by T3 (triiodothyronine) is still controversial. [...] In this study, osteoblastic lineage rat cells (ROS 17/2.8) were treated with T3 (10-8 M, 10-9 M, and 10-10 M), and RANKL mRNA (messenger RNA) expression was measured by semiquantitative RT-PCR. Our results show that T3 concentrations used did not significantly enhance RANKL expression compared to controls without hormone treatment. This data suggests that other mechanisms, unrelated to the RANK/RANKL system, might be to activate osteoclast differentiation in these cells.

  2. Intercultural Mediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragos Marian Radulescu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Intercultural Mediator facilitates exchanges between people of different socio-cultural backgrounds and acts as a bridge between immigrants and national and local associations, health organizations, services and offices in order to foster integration of every single individual. As the use mediation increases, mediators are more likely to be involved in cross-cultural mediation, but only the best mediators have the opportunity to mediate cross border business disputes or international politics conflicts. This article attempts to provide a new perspective about the intercultural mediation.

  3. Acquired resistance to crizotinib from a mutation in CD74-ROS1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Mark M; Katayama, Ryohei; McTigue, Michele; Liu, Wei; Deng, Ya-Li; Brooun, Alexei; Friboulet, Luc; Huang, Donghui; Falk, Matthew D; Timofeevski, Sergei; Wilner, Keith D; Lockerman, Elizabeth L; Khan, Tahsin M; Mahmood, Sidra; Gainor, Justin F; Digumarthy, Subba R; Stone, James R; Mino-Kenudson, Mari; Christensen, James G; Iafrate, A John; Engelman, Jeffrey A; Shaw, Alice T

    2013-06-20

    Crizotinib, an inhibitor of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), has also recently shown efficacy in the treatment of lung cancers with ROS1 translocations. Resistance to crizotinib developed in a patient with metastatic lung adenocarcinoma harboring a CD74-ROS1 rearrangement who had initially shown a dramatic response to treatment. We performed a biopsy of a resistant tumor and identified an acquired mutation leading to a glycine-to-arginine substitution at codon 2032 in the ROS1 kinase domain. Although this mutation does not lie at the gatekeeper residue, it confers resistance to ROS1 kinase inhibition through steric interference with drug binding. The same resistance mutation was observed at all the metastatic sites that were examined at autopsy, suggesting that this mutation was an early event in the clonal evolution of resistance. (Funded by Pfizer and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00585195.). PMID:23724914

  4. Antioxidative potential of Perna viridis and its protective role against ROS induced lipidperoxidation and protein carbonyl

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jena, K.B.; Jagtap, T.G.; Verlecar, X.N.

    The antioxidant potential of methanol extracts of green-lipped mussel (Perna viridis) were evaluated using tests such as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, reducing potential, scavenging capacity of reactive oxygen species (ROS...

  5. Serotonin-promoted elevation of ROS levels may lead to cardiac pathologies in diabetic rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Tahir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM develop tendencies toward heart disease. Hyperglycemia induces the release of serotonin from enterochromaffin cells (EC. Serotonin was observed to elevate reactive oxygen species (ROS and downregulate antioxidant enzymes. As a result, elevated levels of serotonin could contribute to diabetic complications, including cardiac hypertrophy. In the present study, diabetes mellitus was induced in rats by alloxan administration; this was followed by the administration of serotonin to experimental animals. ROS, catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP expression, and histopathological assessments were performed. Elevated ROS concentrations and decreased antioxidant enzyme activities were detected. Further, we observed an increase in cell surface area and elevated BNP expression which suggests that events associated with cardiac hypertrophy were increased in serotonin-administered diabetic rats. We conclude that serotonin secretion in diabetes could contribute to diabetic complications, including cardiac hypertrophy, through enhanced ROS production.

  6. Oncogene-induced Nrf2 transcription promotes ROS detoxification and tumorigenesis

    OpenAIRE

    DeNicola, Gina M.; Karreth, Florian A.; Humpton, Timothy J.; Gopinathan, Aarthi; Wei,Cong; Frese, Kristopher; Mangal, Dipti; YU, KENNETH H.; Yeo, Charles J; Calhoun, Eric S.; Scrimieri, Francesca; Winter, Jordan M.; Ralph H Hruban; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine; Kern, Scott E.

    2011-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are mutagenic and may thereby promote cancer1. Normally, ROS levels are tightly controlled by an inducible antioxidant program that responds to cellular stressors and is predominantly regulated by the transcription factor Nrf2 and its repressor protein Keap12-5. In contrast to the acute physiological regulation of Nrf2, in neoplasia there is evidence for increased basal activation of Nrf2. Indeed, somatic mutations that disrupt the Nrf2-Keap1 interaction to stabi...

  7. ROS generation and multiple forms of mammalian mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mrá?ek, Tomáš; Holzerová, Eliška; Drahota, Zden?k; Ková?ová, Nikola; Vrbacký, Marek; Ješina, Pavel; Houšt?k, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 1837, ?. 1 (2014), s. 98-111. ISSN 0005-2728 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GPP303/10/P227; GA MŠk(CZ) LL1204 Grant ostatní: Univerzita Karlova(CZ) 750213 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase * ROS production * supercomplex * in-gel ROS detection Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.353, year: 2014

  8. CIRCADIAN CLOCK-ASSOCIATED 1 regulates ROS homeostasis and oxidative stress responses

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Alvina Grace; Doherty, Colleen J.; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Kay, Steve A.; Schippers, Jos H. M.; Dijkwel, Paul P

    2012-01-01

    Organisms have evolved endogenous biological clocks as internal timekeepers to coordinate metabolic processes with the external environment. Here, we seek to understand the mechanism of synchrony between the oscillator and products of metabolism known as Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in Arabidopsis thaliana. ROS-responsive genes exhibit a time-of-day–specific phase of expression under diurnal and circadian conditions, implying a role of the circadian clock in transcriptional regulation of the...

  9. Mitohormesis: Promoting Health and Lifespan by Increased Levels of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)

    OpenAIRE

    Ristow, Michael; Schmeisser, Kathrin

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that reactive oxygen species (ROS), consisting of superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and multiple others, do not only cause oxidative stress, but rather may function as signaling molecules that promote health by preventing or delaying a number of chronic diseases, and ultimately extend lifespan. While high levels of ROS are generally accepted to cause cellular damage and to promote aging, low levels of these may rather improve systemic defense mechanisms by inducing ...

  10. A preliminary cyber-physical security assessment of the Robot Operating System (ROS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClean, Jarrod; Stull, Christopher; Farrar, Charles; Mascareñas, David

    2013-05-01

    Over the course of the last few years, the Robot Operating System (ROS) has become a highly popular software framework for robotics research. ROS has a very active developer community and is widely used for robotics research in both academia and government labs. The prevalence and modularity of ROS cause many people to ask the question: "What prevents ROS from being used in commercial or government applications?" One of the main problems that is preventing this increased use of ROS in these applications is the question of characterizing its security (or lack thereof). In the summer of 2012, a crowd sourced cyber-physical security contest was launched at the cyber security conference DEF CON 20 to begin the process of characterizing the security of ROS. A small-scale, car-like robot was configured as a cyber-physical security "honeypot" running ROS. DEFFCON-20 attendees were invited to find exploits and vulnerabilities in the robot while network traffic was collected. The results of this experiment provided some interesting insights and opened up many security questions pertaining to deployed robotic systems. The Federal Aviation Administration is tasked with opening up the civil airspace to commercial drones by September 2015 and driverless cars are already legal for research purposes in a number of states. Given the integration of these robotic devices into our daily lives, the authors pose the following question: "What security exploits can a motivated person with little-to-no experience in cyber security execute, given the wide availability of free cyber security penetration testing tools such as Metasploit?" This research focuses on applying common, low-cost, low-overhead, cyber-attacks on a robot featuring ROS. This work documents the effectiveness of those attacks.

  11. Evidence for an adaptation in ROS scavenging systems in human testicular peritubular cells from infertility patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampfer, C; Spillner, S; Spinnler, K; Schwarzer, J U; Terradas, C; Ponzio, R; Puigdomenech, E; Levalle, O; Köhn, F M; Matzkin, M E; Calandra, R S; Frungieri, M B; Mayerhofer, A

    2012-12-01

    Fibrosis, increased amounts of immune cells and expression of COX-2 in the testes of infertility patients provide circumstantial evidence for a specific testicular milieu, in which reactive oxygen species (ROS) could be increased. If ROS level increase and/or ROS scavengers decrease, the resulting testicular oxidative stress may contribute to human male infertility. Primary peritubular cells of the human testis, from men with normal spermatogenesis (HTPCs) and infertile patients (HTPC-Fs), previously allowed us to identify an end product of COX-2 action, a prostaglandin derivative (15dPGJ2), which acts via ROS to alter the phenotype of peritubular cells, at least in vitro. Using testicular biopsies we now found 15dPGJ2 in patients and hence we started exploring the ROS scavenger systems of the human testis. This system includes catalase, DJ-1, peroxiredoxin 1, SOD 1 and 2, glutathione-S-transferase and HMOX-1, which were identified by RT-PCR/sequencing in HTPCs and HTPC-Fs and whole testes. Catalase, DJ-1, peroxiredoxin 1 and SOD 2 were also detected by Western blots and in part by immunohistochemistry in testicular samples. Western blots of cultured cells further revealed that catalase levels, but not peroxiredoxin 1, SOD 2 or DJ-1 levels, are significantly higher in HTPC-Fs than in HTPCs. This particular difference is correlated with the improved ability of HTPC-Fs to handle ROS, which became evident when cells were exposed to 100 ?m H(2)O(2). H(2)O(2) induced stronger responses in HTPCs than in HTPC-Fs, which correlates with the lower level of the H(2)O(2)-degrading defence enzyme catalase in HTPCs. The results provide evidence for an adaptation to elevated ROS levels, which must have occurred in vivo and which persist in vitro in HTPC-Fs. Thus, in infertile men with impaired spermatogenesis elevated ROS levels likely exist, at least in the tubular wall. PMID:22640168

  12. Ionizing radiation regulates cardiac Ca handling via increased ROS and activated CaMKII

    OpenAIRE

    Sag, Can; Wolff, Hendrik; Neumann, Kay; Opiela, Marie-Kristin; Zhang, Juqian; Steuer, Felicia; Sowa, Thomas; Gupta, Shamindra; Schirmer, Markus; Hünlich, Mark; Rave-Fränk, Margret; Hess, Clemens; Anderson, Mark; Shah, Ajay; Christiansen, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) is an integral part of modern multimodal anti-cancer therapies. IR involves the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in targeted tissues. This is associated with subsequent cardiac dysfunction when applied during chest radiotherapy. We hypothesized that IR (i.e., ROS)-dependently impaired cardiac myocytes’ Ca handling might contribute to IR-dependent cardiocellular dysfunction. Isolated ventricular mouse myocytes and the mediastinal area of anaesthetized mice (th...

  13. Reactive oxygen species (ROS – a family of fate deciding molecules pivotal in constructive inflammation and wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Bryan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Wound healing requires a fine balance between the positive and deleterious effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS; a group of extremely potent molecules, rate limiting in successful tissue regeneration. A balanced ROS response will debride and disinfect a tissue and stimulate healthy tissue turnover; suppressed ROS will result in infection and an elevation in ROS will destroy otherwise healthy stromal tissue. Understanding and anticipating the ROS niche within a tissue will greatly enhance the potential to exogenously augment and manipulate healing.Tissue engineering solutions to augment successful healing and remodelling of wounded or diseased tissue rely on a controlled balance between the constructive and destructive capacity of the leukocyte secretome, including ROS.This review comprehensively considers leukocyte derived ROS in tissue repair with particular interest in surgical intervention with inclusion of a biomaterial. The article considers ROS fundamental chemistry, formation, stimulation and clearance before applying this to discuss the implications of ROS in healing tissue with and without a biomaterial. We also systematically discuss ROS in leukocyte signalling and compare and contrast experimental means of measuring ROS.

  14. Cytotoxic mechanisms of Zn2+ and Cd2+ involve Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE) activation by ROS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The signaling mechanism induced by cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) in gill cells of Mytilus galloprovincialis was investigated. Both metals cause an increase in ·O2- production, with Cd to be more potent (216 ± 15%) than Zn (150 ± 9.5%), in relation to control value (100%). The metals effect was reversed after incubation with the amiloride analogue, EIPA, a selective Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE) inhibitor as well as in the presence of calphostin C, a protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor. The heavy metals effect on ·O2- production was mediated via the interaction of metal ions with ?1- and ?-adrenergic receptors, as shown after incubation with their respective agonists and antagonists. In addition, both metals caused an increase in intracellular pH (pHi) of gill cells. EIPA together with either metal significantly reduced the effect of each metal treatment on pHi. Incubation of gill cells with the oxidants rotenone, antimycin A and pyruvate caused a significant increase in pHi (?pHi 0.830, 0.272 and 0.610, respectively), while in the presence of the anti-oxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) a decrease in pHi (?pHi -0.090) was measured, indicating that change in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by heavy metals affects NHE activity. When rosiglitazone was incubated together with either heavy metal a decrease in O2- production was observed. Our results show a key role of NHE in the signal transduction pathway induced by Zn and Cd in gill cells, with the involvement of ROS, PKC, adrenergic and PPAR-? receptors. In addition, differences between the two metals concerning NHE activation, O2- production and interaction with adrenergic receptors were observed

  15. Mitochondrial ROS Induces Cardiac Inflammation via a Pathway through mtDNA Damage in a Pneumonia-Related Sepsis Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xiao; Carlson, Deborah; Sun, Yuxiao; Ma, Lisha; Wolf, Steven E.; Minei, Joseph P.; Zang, Qun S.

    2015-01-01

    We have previously shown that mitochondria-targeted vitamin E (Mito-Vit-E), a mtROS specific antioxidant, improves cardiac performance and attenuates inflammation in a pneumonia-related sepsis model. In this study, we applied the same approaches to decipher the signaling pathway(s) of mtROS-dependent cardiac inflammation after sepsis. Sepsis was induced in Sprague Dawley rats by intratracheal injection of S. pneumoniae. Mito-Vit-E, vitamin E or vehicle was administered 30 minutes later. In myocardium 24 hours post-inoculation, Mito-Vit-E, but not vitamin E, significantly protected mtDNA integrity and decreased mtDNA damage. Mito-Vit-E alleviated sepsis-induced reduction in mitochondria-localized DNA repair enzymes including DNA polymerase ?, AP endonuclease, 8-oxoguanine glycosylase, and uracil-DNA glycosylase. Mito-Vit-E dramatically improved metabolism and membrane integrity in mitochondria, suppressed leakage of mtDNA into the cytoplasm, inhibited up-regulation of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) pathway factors MYD88 and RAGE, and limited RAGE interaction with its ligand TFAM in septic hearts. Mito-Vit-E also deactivated NF-?B and caspase 1, reduced expression of the essential inflammasome component ASC, and decreased inflammatory cytokine IL–1?. In vitro, both Mito-Vit-E and TLR9 inhibitor OND-I suppressed LPS-induced up-regulation in MYD88, RAGE, ASC, active caspase 1, and IL–1? in cardiomyocytes. Since free mtDNA escaped from damaged mitochondria function as a type of DAMPs to stimulate inflammation through TLR9, these data together suggest that sepsis-induced cardiac inflammation is mediated, at least partially, through mtDNA-TLR9-RAGE. At last, Mito-Vit-E reduced the circulation of myocardial injury marker troponin-I, diminished apoptosis and amended morphology in septic hearts, suggesting that mitochondria-targeted antioxidants are a potential cardioprotective approach for sepsis. PMID:26448624

  16. Looking into a Conceptual Framework of ROS–miRNA–Atrial Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seahyoung Lee

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation (AF has been recognized as a major cause of cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality. MicroRNAs (miRNAs represent recent additions to the collection of biomolecules involved in arrhythmogenesis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS have been independently linked to both AF and miRNA regulation. However, no attempts have been made to investigate the possibility of a framework composed of ROS–miRNA–AF that is related to arrhythmia development. Therefore, this review was designed as an attempt to offer a new approach to understanding AF pathogenesis. The aim of this review was to find and to summarize possible connections that exist among AF, miRNAs and ROS to understand the interactions among the molecular entities underlying arrhythmia development in the hopes of finding unappreciated mechanisms of AF. These findings may lead us to innovative therapies for AF, which can be a life-threatening heart condition. A systemic literature review indicated that miRNAs associated with AF might be regulated by ROS, suggesting the possibility that miRNAs translate cellular stressors, such as ROS, into AF pathogenesis. Further studies with a more appropriate experimental design to either prove or disprove the existence of an ROS–miRNA–AF framework are strongly encouraged.

  17. Fatty Acids are Key in 4-Hydroxy-2-Nonenal-Mediated Activation of Uncoupling Proteins 1 and 2

    OpenAIRE

    Malingriaux, Elena A.; Rupprecht, Anne; Gille, Lars; Jovanovic, Olga; Jezek, Petr; Jaburek, Martin; Pohl, Elena E.

    2013-01-01

    The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mitochondria is very sensitive to the proton motive force and may be decreased by mild uncoupling, mediated e.g. by mitochondrial uncoupling proteins (UCPs). UCPs were conversely hypothesized to be activated by ROS. Conclusions from experiments studying the reactive product of lipid peroxidation 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) in isolated mitochondria and UCP knock-out mice are highly controversial. Here we investigated the molecular mechanism of H...

  18. Stop the Flow: A Paradigm for Cell Signaling Mediated by Reactive Oxygen Species in the Pulmonary Endothelium

    OpenAIRE

    Browning, Elizabeth A.; Chatterjee, Shampa; Fisher, Aron B

    2011-01-01

    The lung endothelium is exposed to mechanical stimuli through shear stress arising from blood flow and responds to altered shear by activation of NADPH (NOX2) to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). This review describes the pathway for NOX2 activation and the downstream ROS-mediated signaling events on the basis of studies of isolated lungs and flow-adapted endothelial cells in vitro that are subjected to acute flow cessation (ischemia). Altered mechanical stress is detected by a cell-ass...

  19. Lysosome-controlled efficient ROS overproduction against cancer cells with a high pH-responsive catalytic nanosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jingke; Shao, Yiran; Wang, Liyao; Zhu, Yingchun

    2015-04-01

    Excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been proved to damage cancer cells efficiently. ROS overproduction is thus greatly desirable for cancer therapy. To date, ROS production is generally uncontrollable and outside cells, which always bring severe side-effects in the vasculature. Since most ROS share a very short half-life and primarily react close to their site of formation, it would be more efficient if excess ROS are controllably produced inside cancer cells. Herein, we report an efficient lysosome-controlled ROS overproduction via a pH-responsive catalytic nanosystem (FeOx-MSNs), which catalyze the decomposition of H2O2 to produce considerable ROS selectively inside the acidic lysosomes (pH 5.0) of cancer cells. After a further incorporation of ROS-sensitive TMB into the nanosystem (FeOx-MSNs-TMB), both a distinct cell labeling and an efficient death of breast carcinoma cells are obtained. This lysosome-controlled efficient ROS overproduction suggests promising applications in cancer treatments.Excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been proved to damage cancer cells efficiently. ROS overproduction is thus greatly desirable for cancer therapy. To date, ROS production is generally uncontrollable and outside cells, which always bring severe side-effects in the vasculature. Since most ROS share a very short half-life and primarily react close to their site of formation, it would be more efficient if excess ROS are controllably produced inside cancer cells. Herein, we report an efficient lysosome-controlled ROS overproduction via a pH-responsive catalytic nanosystem (FeOx-MSNs), which catalyze the decomposition of H2O2 to produce considerable ROS selectively inside the acidic lysosomes (pH 5.0) of cancer cells. After a further incorporation of ROS-sensitive TMB into the nanosystem (FeOx-MSNs-TMB), both a distinct cell labeling and an efficient death of breast carcinoma cells are obtained. This lysosome-controlled efficient ROS overproduction suggests promising applications in cancer treatments. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental section, supplementary figures and characterization of as-prepared compounds. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr00706b

  20. The role of frataxin in doxorubicin-mediated cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouli, Shravanthi; Nanayakkara, Gayani; AlAlasmari, Abdullah; Eldoumani, Haitham; Fu, Xiaoyu; Berlin, Avery; Lohani, Madhukar; Nie, Ben; Arnold, Robert D; Kavazis, Andreas; Smith, Forrest; Beyers, Ronald; Denney, Thomas; Dhanasekaran, Muralikrishnan; Zhong, Juming; Quindry, John; Amin, Rajesh

    2015-09-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a highly effective anti-neoplastic agent; however, its cumulative dosing schedules are clinically limited by the development of cardiotoxicity. Previous studies have attributed the cause of DOX-mediated cardiotoxicity to mitochondrial iron accumulation and the ensuing reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. The present study investigates the role of frataxin (FXN), a mitochondrial iron-sulfur biogenesis protein, and its role in development of DOX-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction. Athymic mice treated with DOX (5 mg/kg, 1 dose/wk with treatments, followed by 2-wk recovery) displayed left ventricular hypertrophy, as observed by impaired cardiac hemodynamic performance parameters. Furthermore, we also observed significant reduction in FXN expression in DOX-treated animals and H9C2 cardiomyoblast cell lines, resulting in increased mitochondrial iron accumulation and the ensuing ROS formation. This observation was paralleled in DOX-treated H9C2 cells by a significant reduction in the mitochondrial bioenergetics, as observed by the reduction of myocardial energy regulation. Surprisingly, similar results were observed in our FXN knockdown stable cell lines constructed by lentiviral technology using short hairpin RNA. To better understand the cardioprotective role of FXN against DOX, we constructed FXN overexpressing cardiomyoblasts, which displayed cardioprotection against mitochondrial iron accumulation, ROS formation, and reduction of mitochondrial bioenergetics. Lastly, our FXN overexpressing cardiomyoblasts were protected from DOX-mediated cardiac hypertrophy. Together, our findings reveal novel insights into the development of DOX-mediated cardiomyopathy. PMID:26209053

  1. Endogenous ROS levels are increased in replicative senescence in human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sin-Gu; Cho, Goang-Won

    2015-05-15

    Cellular senescence is characterized by functional decline induced by cumulative damage to DNA, proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates. Previous studies have reported that replicative senescence is caused by excessive amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced as a result of aerobic energy metabolism. In this study, we established human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (hBM-MSCs) in replicative senescence after culture over a long term to investigate the relationship between ROS levels and stem cell potential and to determine whether differentiation potential can be restored by antioxidant treatment. Intracellular ROS levels were increased in hBM-MSCs; this was accompanied by a decrease in the expression of the antioxidant enzymes catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD)1 and 2 and of phosphorylated forkhead box O1 (p-FOXO1) as well as an increase in the expression of p53 and p16, along with a reduction in differentiation potential. When the antioxidant ascorbic acid was used to eliminate excess ROS, the levels of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, SOD1 and 2, p-FOXO1, and p53) were partly restored. Moreover, differentiation into adipocytes and osteocytes was higher in hBM-MSCs treated with ascorbic acid than in the untreated control cells. These results suggest that the decline in differentiation potential caused by increased endogenous ROS production during in vitro expansion can be reversed by treatment with antioxidants such as ascorbic acid. PMID:25839657

  2. The hormesis effect of plasma-elevated intracellular ROS on HaCaT cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szili, Endre J.; Harding, Frances J.; Hong, Sung-Ha; Herrmann, Franziska; Voelcker, Nicolas H.; Short, Robert D.

    2015-12-01

    We have examined the link between ionized-gas plasma delivery of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to immortalized keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells and cell fate, defined in terms of cell viability versus death. Phospholipid vesicles were used as cell mimics to measure the possible intracellular ROS concentration, [ROSi], delivered by various plasma treatments. Cells were exposed to a helium cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) jet for different plasma exposure times (5–60?s) and gas flow rates (50–1000?ml min?1). Based upon the [ROSi] data we argue that plasma-generated ROS in the cell culture medium can readily diffuse into real cells. Plasma exposure that equated to an [ROSi] in the range of 3.81??×??10?10–9.47??×??10?8 M, measured at 1?h after the plasma exposure, resulted in increased cell viability at 72 h; whereas a higher [ROSi] at 1 h decreased cell viability after 72 h of culture. This may be because of the manner in which the ROS are delivered by the plasma: HaCaT cells better tolerate a low ROS flux over an extended plasma exposure period of 1?min, compared to a high flux delivered in a few seconds, although the final [ROSi] may be the same. Our results suggest that plasma stimulation of HaCaT cells follows the principle of hormesis.

  3. The redox-sensitive transcription factor Nrf2 regulates murine hematopoietic stem cell survival independently of ROS levels

    OpenAIRE

    Merchant, Akil A.; Singh, Anju; Matsui, William; Biswal, Shyam

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have found that high levels of reactive oxidative species (ROS) are associated with stem cell dysfunction. In the present study, we investigated the role of nuclear factor erythroid-2–related factor 2 (Nrf2), a master regulator of the antioxidant response, and found that it is required for hematopoietic stem progenitor cell (HSPC) survival and myeloid development. Although the loss of Nrf2 leads to increased ROS in most tissues, basal ROS levels in Nrf2-deficient (Nrf2?/?) BM ...

  4. Po2 cycling protects diaphragm function during reoxygenation via ROS, Akt, ERK, and mitochondrial channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Li; Pannell, Benjamin K; Re, Anthony T; Best, Thomas M; Wagner, Peter D

    2015-12-01

    Po2 cycling, often referred to as intermittent hypoxia, involves exposing tissues to brief cycles of low oxygen environments immediately followed by hyperoxic conditions. After experiencing long-term hypoxia, muscle can be damaged during the subsequent reintroduction of oxygen, which leads to muscle dysfunction via reperfusion injury. The protective effect and mechanism behind Po2 cycling in skeletal muscle during reoxygenation have yet to be fully elucidated. We hypothesize that Po2 cycling effectively increases muscle fatigue resistance through reactive oxygen species (ROS), protein kinase B (Akt), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and certain mitochondrial channels during reoxygenation. Using a dihydrofluorescein fluorescent probe, we detected the production of ROS in mouse diaphragmatic skeletal muscle in real time under confocal microscopy. Muscles treated with Po2 cycling displayed significantly attenuated ROS levels (n = 5; P diaphragm. PMID:26423578

  5. Elucidating hormonal/ROS networks during seed germination: insights and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diaz-Vivancos, Pedro; Barba Espin, Gregorio

    2013-01-01

    While authors have traditionally emphasized the deleterious effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on seed biology, their role as signaling molecules during seed dormancy alleviation and germination is now the focus of many studies around the world. Over the last few years, studies using “-omics” technologies together with physiological and biochemical approaches have revealed that seed germination is a very complex process that depends on multiple biochemical and molecular variables. The pivotal role of phytohormones in promoting germination now appears to be interdependent with ROS metabolism, involving mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade activation, gene expression and post-translational protein modifications. This review is, thus, an attempt to summarize the new discoveries involving ROS and seed germination. The study of these interactions may supply markers of seed quality that might eventually be used in breeding programs to improve crop yields.

  6. TGF-{beta}1 increases invasiveness of SW1990 cells through Rac1/ROS/NF-{kappa}B/IL-6/MMP-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binker, Marcelo G. [Departments of Medicine and Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 1A8 (Canada); CBRHC Research Center, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Binker-Cosen, Andres A. [CBRHC Research Center, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gaisano, Herbert Y. [Departments of Medicine and Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 1A8 (Canada); Cosen, Rodica H. de [CBRHC Research Center, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Cosen-Binker, Laura I., E-mail: laura.cosen.binker@utoronto.ca [Departments of Medicine and Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 1A8 (Canada); CBRHC Research Center, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-02-04

    Research highlights: {yields} Rac1 mediates TGF-{beta}1-induced SW1990 invasion through MMP-2 secretion and activation. {yields} NADPH-generated ROS act downstream of Rac1 in TGF-{beta}1-challenged SW1990 cells. {yields} TGF-{beta}1-stimulated ROS activate NF-{kappa}B in SW1990 cells. {yields} NF{kappa}B-induced IL-6 release is required for secretion and activation of MMP-2 in SW1990 cells. -- Abstract: Human pancreatic cancer invasion and metastasis have been found to correlate with increased levels of active matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2). The multifunctional cytokine transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-{beta}1) has been shown to increase both secretion of MMP-2 and invasion by several pancreatic cancer cell types. In the present study, we investigated the signaling pathway involved in TGF-{beta}1-promoted MMP-2 secretion and invasion by human pancreatic cancer cells SW1990. Using specific inhibitors, we found that stimulation of these tumor cells with TGF-{beta}1 induced secretion and activation of the collagenase MMP-2, which was required for TGF-{beta}1-stimulated invasion. Our results also indicate that signaling events involved in TGF-{beta}1-enhanced SW1990 invasiveness comprehend activation of Rac1 followed by generation of reactive oxygen species through nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase, activation of nuclear factor-kappa beta, release of interleukin-6, and secretion and activation of MMP-2.

  7. Iron Overload Induced Apoptotic Cell Death in Isolated Rat Hepatocytes Mediated by Reactive Oxygen Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolamir Allameh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolated rat hepatocytes in culture were incubated with different concentrations of iron-sorbitol (50, 100, 150, and 200 µM to assess the changes in reactive oxygen species (ROS and lipid peroxidation leading to apoptotic hepatocyte cell death. The viability of hepatocytes was declined depending on the iron concentration. One hour incubation of the cells with 100 µM iron resulted in decreased of the hepatocyte viability down to 50% (EC50 µM. Cellular glutathione (GSH was depleted depending on the concentration of iron added to the hepatocytes in culture. Decline in cellular GSH was associated with elevation in reactive oxygen species (ROS generation and formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS as index of lipid peroxidation. TBARS concentration was elevated in hepatocytes exposed to >100 µM of iron for 40 min. A significant increase in ROS formation was also observed in cells incubated with 75 µM of iron for 60 and 120 min. The consequences of ROS-mediated damages to hepatocytes were observed by DNA fragmentation, nuclear staining by propidium iddide and finally with induction of apoptotic hepatocyte cell death. Terminal deoxynucleotie transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling i.e. TUNEL assay (In situ- cell death-detection kit and nuclear staining were also used to confirm apoptosis. These data clearly show that iron overload can cause apoptotic cell death in isolated hepatocytes and generation of ROS precedes other changes related to oxidative stress.

  8. Baicalein induces human osteosarcoma cell line MG-63 apoptosis via ROS-induced BNIP3 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Fangfan; Wang, Honghan; Zhang, Lusi; Zou, Yongyi; Han, Hailong; Huang, Jia

    2015-06-01

    Baicalein, a flavonoid compound, is one of the active constituents of the root of Scutellariae Radix. Its antitumor effects have attracted widespread attention worldwide. One of its major functions is to induce the apoptosis of tumor cells, but the antitumor mechanism is currently unclear. In the present study, we found that baicalein increased MG-63 cell mortality in a dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, baicalein activated apoptosis through induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and that ROS scavenger N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), glutathione (GSH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) apparently inhibited intracellular ROS production, consequently attenuating the baicalein-induced apoptosis. Baicalein also induce the mitochondrial fragmentation which precedes the cell apoptosis. This morphological alteration is accompanied by an increase in the expression of the protein BNIP3 as well as Mul1 and Drp1. Furthermore, we show that the inhibition of BNIP3 expression can inhibit cell apoptosis by baicalein treatment. Taken together, our results bring the evidence of a mechanism that links apoptosis and ROS-induced BNIP3 expression in MG-63 cells with bacalein treatment and suggest that baicalein has a good potential as an anti-osteosarcoma drug. PMID:25618603

  9. Rotationally oscillating drill (Ros-Drill) for mouse ICSI without using mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergenc, Ali Fuat; Li, Ming-Wen; Toner, Mehmet; Biggers, John D; Lloyd, K C Kent; Olgac, Nejat

    2008-12-01

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is an important assisted reproductive technology (ART). Due to deployment difficulties and low efficiency of the earlier (conventional) version of ICSI, especially in the mouse, a piezo-assisted ICSI technique had evolved as a popular ART methodology in recent years. An important and remaining problem with this technique, however, is that it requires small amounts of mercury to stabilize the pipette tip when piezoelectric force pulses are applied. To eliminate this problem we developed and tested a completely different and mercury-free technology, called the "Ros-Drill" (rotationally oscillating drill). The technique uses microprocessor-controlled rotational oscillations on a spiked micropipette without mercury or piezo. Preliminary experimental results show that this new microinjection technology gives high survival rate (>70% of the injected oocytes) and fertilization rate (>80% of the survived oocytes), and blastocyst formation rates in early trials (approximately 50% of the survived oocytes). Blastocysts created by Ros-Drill ICSI were transferred into the uteruses of pseudopregnant surrogate mothers and healthy pups were born and weaned. The Ros-Drill ICSI technique is automated and therefore; it requires a very short preliminary training for the specialists, as evidenced in many successful biological trials. These advantages of Ros-Drill ICSI over conventional and piezo-assisted ICSI are clearly demonstrated and it appears to have resolved an important problem in reproductive biology. PMID:18437690

  10. Basal and T?-induced ROS production in lymphocyte mitochondria is increased in type 2 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anthonsen, S; Larsen, J

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial function, including production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), is important in the pathogenesis of diabetes and its complications. Thyroid hormones are major regulator of these processes. Hence, the aim of this study was to examine the thyroid hormone regulation of ROS production in human lymphocytes in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM). Lymphocytes from 10 controls and 10 persons with T2DM were examined. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was examined by flow cytometry after staining with MitoTracker Green (MTG). Similarly ROS was measured following staining with carboxy-H?DCFDA. MMP was increased in T2DM patients and T? stimulation increased MMP in controls [1398 a.u. (979-4094) vs. 2156 a.u. (1611-15189), p=0.04, median and quartiles] as well as in T2DM patients [9167 a.u. (7387-11746) vs. 20274 a.u. (17183-27839 p=0.004, median and quartiles]. Basal ROS concentration was increased in lymphocytes from T2DM and T? significantly stimulated ROS concentration in controls [3691 a.u. (2584-6396) vs. 5650 a.u. (3001-7802) p=0.013, median and quartiles] and in T2DM patients [19271 a.u. (6288-25282) vs. 23178 a.u. (10004-28857) p=0.013, median and quartiles]. The ratio of ROS production related to MMP was significantly higher in T2DM, unstimulated as well as T?-stimulated in T2DM. Unstimulated and T? stimulated ROS production and MMP were higher in lymphocytes from diabetic patients. An altered balance between ROS production and MMP, favoring ROS production in T2DM patients, was found suggesting that an increased mitochondrial sensitivity for T? may be a significant factor responsible for increased ROS activity in diabetic patients.

  11. Mediating Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    "Mediating Business" is a study of the expansion of business journalism. Building on evidence from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, "Mediating Business" is a comparative and multidisciplinary study of one of the major transformations of the mass media and the realm of business - nationally and globally. The book explores the history of key innovations and innovators in the business press. It analyzes changes in the discourse of business journalism associated with the growth in business news ...

  12. Mediatized play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv

    2011-01-01

    Children’s play must nowadays be understood as a mediatized field in society and culture. Media – understood in a very broad sense - holds severe explanatory power in describing and understanding the practice of play, since play happens both with, through and inspired by media of different sorts. In this presentation the case of ‘playing soccer’ will be outlined through its different mediated manifestations, including soccer games and programs on TV, computer games, magazines, books, YouTube vid...

  13. ROS-Induced JNK and p38 Signaling Is Required for Unpaired Cytokine Activation during Drosophila Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santabárbara-Ruiz, Paula; López-Santillán, Mireya; Martínez-Rodríguez, Irene; Binagui-Casas, Anahí; Pérez, Lídia; Milán, Marco; Corominas, Montserrat; Serras, Florenci

    2015-10-01

    Upon apoptotic stimuli, epithelial cells compensate the gaps left by dead cells by activating proliferation. This has led to the proposal that dying cells signal to surrounding living cells to maintain homeostasis. Although the nature of these signals is not clear, reactive oxygen species (ROS) could act as a signaling mechanism as they can trigger pro-inflammatory responses to protect epithelia from environmental insults. Whether ROS emerge from dead cells and what is the genetic response triggered by ROS is pivotal to understand regeneration of Drosophila imaginal discs. We genetically induced cell death in wing imaginal discs, monitored the production of ROS and analyzed the signals required for repair. We found that cell death generates a burst of ROS that propagate to the nearby surviving cells. Propagated ROS activate p38 and induce tolerable levels of JNK. The activation of JNK and p38 results in the expression of the cytokines Unpaired (Upd), which triggers the JAK/STAT signaling pathway required for regeneration. Our findings demonstrate that this ROS/JNK/p38/Upd stress responsive module restores tissue homeostasis. This module is not only activated after cell death induction but also after physical damage and reveals one of the earliest responses for imaginal disc regeneration. PMID:26496642

  14. A tidal wave of signals: calcium and ROS at the forefront of rapid systemic signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilroy, Simon; Suzuki, Nobuhiro; Miller, Gad; Choi, Won-Gyu; Toyota, Masatsugu; Devireddy, Amith R; Mittler, Ron

    2014-10-01

    Systemic signaling pathways enable multicellular organisms to prepare all of their tissues and cells to an upcoming challenge that may initially only be sensed by a few local cells. They are activated in plants in response to different stimuli including mechanical injury, pathogen infection, and abiotic stresses. Key to the mobilization of systemic signals in higher plants are cell-to-cell communication events that have thus far been mostly unstudied. The recent identification of systemically propagating calcium (Ca(2+)) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) waves in plants has unraveled a new and exciting cell-to-cell communication pathway that, together with electric signals, could provide a working model demonstrating how plant cells transmit long-distance signals via cell-to-cell communication mechanisms. Here, we summarize recent findings on the ROS and Ca(2+) waves and outline a possible model for their integration. PMID:25088679

  15. Cu-Zn Slags from R?ros (Norway): A Case Study of Rapid Cooling and Crystal Nucleation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warchulski, Rafa?; Szopa, Krzysztof

    2014-09-01

    The mining town of R?ros located in central Norway was established in 1644 and it is known of historical mining industry related to copper. R?ros was designated as an UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1980 on the base of mining culture represented by, e.g., unique wooden architecture. Slag pieces are composed of three parts differing in glass to crystallites ratio. R?ros slags are composed of olivine- and pyroxene- group minerals accompanied by sulphides, with glass in the interstices. Temperature gradient and volatiles content were determined as the main factor influencing crystallization process in this material.

  16. Role of histone deacetylase inhibitor-induced ROS and DNA damage in LAQ-824/fludarabine antileukemic interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Rosato, Roberto R.; Almenara, Jorge A.; Maggio, Sonia C.; Coe, Stefanie; Atadja, Peter; Dent, Paul; Grant, Steven

    2008-01-01

    The role of ROS production on DNA damage and potentiation of fludarabine (F) lethality by the HDAC inhibitor LAQ-824 was investigated in human leukemia cells. Pre-exposure (24 h) of U937, HL-60, Jurkat, or K562 cells to LAQ-824 (40nM) followed by F (0.4µM) dramatically potentiated apoptosis (?75%). LAQ-824 triggered an early reactive oxygen species (ROS) peak (30?- 3 h), which declined by 6 h, following LAQ-824 induced Mn-SOD2. LAQ-824/F lethality was significantly diminished by either ROS sc...

  17. Providing Routing Security Using ROS Protocol in MANET and Performance Comparison with AODV

    OpenAIRE

    J.Martin Leo Manickam; Shanmugavel, S.

    2007-01-01

    Many of the proposed routing security solutions for the Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET) requires cryptographic techniques or a secret association between the communicating entities. These security solutions work well for the anticipated attacks but fails for unanticipated attacks. In this study, a Resiliency Oriented Secure (ROS) routing protocol for MANET is proposed. Present proposed protocol is a secure extension of AODV, in which each node suspects routing packet based on update time inter...

  18. Cryopreservation affects ROS-induced oxidative stress and antioxidant response in Arabidopsis seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guan-Qun; Ren, Li; Zhang, Jie; Reed, Barbara M; Zhang, Di; Shen, Xiao-Hui

    2015-02-01

    Plant recovery status after cryopreservation by vitrification had a negative relationship to the oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings germinated for 48 h or 72 h with different survival tolerances were examined at five steps of cryopreservation, to determine the role of ROS (O2(-), H2O2 and OH) and antioxidant systems (SOD, POD, CAT, AsA and GSH) in cryo-injury. In addition, the effects of the steps on membrane lipid peroxidation were studied using malondialdehyde (MDA) as an indicator. The results indicated that H2O2-induced oxidative stress at the steps of dehydration and rapid warming was the main cause of cryo-injury of 48-h seedlings (high survival rate) and 72-h seedlings (no survival). The H2O2 was mainly generated in cotyledons, shoot tips and roots of seedlings as indicated by Amplex Red staining. Low survival of 72-h seedlings was associated with severe membrane lipid peroxidation, which was caused by increased OH generation activity and decreased SOD activity. The antioxidant-related gene expression by qRT-PCR and physiological assays suggested that the antioxidant system of 48-h seedlings were activated by ROS, and they mounted a defense against oxidative stress. A high level of ROS led to the weakening of the antioxidant system of 72-h seedlings. Correlation analysis indicated that enhanced antioxidant enzymes activities contributed to the high survival rate of 48-h seedlings, which could reflect by cryopreservation of antioxidant mutant seedlings. This model system indicated that elevated CAT activity and AsA content were determinants of cryogenic stress tolerance, whose manipulation could improve the recovery of seedlings after cryopreservation. PMID:25489814

  19. Eicosapentaenoic acid attenuates cigarette smoke-induced lung inflammation by inhibiting ROS-sensitive inflammatory signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Meng-Han; Lin, An-Hsuan; Lu, Shing-Hwa; Peng, Ruo-Yun; Lee, Tzong-Shyuan; Kou, Yu Ru

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking causes chronic lung inflammation that is mainly regulated by redox-sensitive pathways. Our previous studies have demonstrated that cigarette smoke (CS) activates reactive oxygen species (ROS)-sensitive mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs)/nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) signaling resulting in induction of lung inflammation. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), a major type of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, is present in significant amounts in marine-based fish and fish oil. EPA ...

  20. Induction and determination of ROS and their effect on peroxisome dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Pinho, Sónia Andreia de Almeida

    2010-01-01

    Peroxissomas são organelos celulares de membrana simples, os quais têm importantes funções metabólicas, como por exemplo metabolismo de lípidos e ROS, sendo assim indispensáveis para a saúde e desenvolvimento humano. Os peroxissomas são organelos altamente flexíveis e dinâmicos que rapidamente se agregam, multiplicam e degradam em resposta a necessidades metabólicas. Em cultura celular, o stress oxidativo e outros estímulos externos (ex. factores de crescimento, ácidos gordo...

  1. Surveillance-Activated Defenses Block the ROS–Induced Mitochondrial Unfolded Protein Response

    OpenAIRE

    Runkel, Eva D.; Liu, Shu; Baumeister, Ralf; Schulze, Ekkehard

    2013-01-01

    Disturbance of cellular functions results in the activation of stress-signaling pathways that aim at restoring homeostasis. We performed a genome-wide screen to identify components of the signal transduction of the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt) to a nuclear chaperone promoter. We used the ROS generating complex I inhibitor paraquat to induce the UPRmt, and we employed RNAi exposure post-embryonically to allow testing genes whose knockdown results in embryonic lethality. We i...

  2. High efficiency of ROS production by glycerophosphate dehydrogenase in mammalian mitochondria.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mrá?ek, Tomáš; Pecinová, Alena; Vrbacký, Marek; Drahota, Zden?k; Houšt?k, Josef

    2009-01-01

    Ro?. 481, ?. 1 (2009), s. 30-36. ISSN 0003-9861 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520; GA ?R(CZ) GA303/06/1261 Grant ostatní: EC(XE) LSHM-CT-2004-503116 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : mGPDH * ROS * mitochondria Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.046, year: 2009

  3. Elucidating hormonal/ROS networks during seed germination: insights and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diaz-Vivancos, Pedro; Barba Espin, Gregorio; Hernández, José Antonio

    2013-01-01

    While authors have traditionally emphasized the deleterious effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on seed biology, their role as signaling molecules during seed dormancy alleviation and germination is now the focus of many studies around the world. Over the last few years, studies using “-omics” technologies together with physiological and biochemical approaches have revealed that seed germination is a very complex process that depends on multiple biochemical and molecular variables. The pivo...

  4. Mars Express Forward Link Capabilities for the Mars Relay Operations Service (MaROS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, Daniel A.; Wallick, Michael N.; Gladden, Roy E.; Wang, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This software provides a new capability for landed Mars assets to perform forward link relay through the Mars Express (MEX) European Union orbital spacecraft. It solves the problem of standardizing the relay interface between lander missions and MEX. The Mars Operations Relay Service (MaROS) is intended as a central point for relay planning and post-pass analysis for all Mars landed and orbital assets. Through the first two phases of implementation, MaROS supports relay coordination through the Odyssey orbiter and the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). With this new software, MaROS now fully integrates the Mars Express spacecraft into the relay picture. This new software generates and manages a new set of file formats that allows for relay request to MEX for forward and return link relay, including the parameters specific to MEX. Existing MEX relay planning interactions were performed via email exchanges and point-to-point file transfers. By integrating MEX into MaROS, all transactions are managed by a centralized service for tracking and analysis. Additionally, all lander missions have a single, shared interface with MEX and do not have to integrate on a mission-by mission basis. Relay is a critical element of Mars lander data management. Landed assets depend largely upon orbital relay for data delivery, which can be impacted by the availability and health of each orbiter in the network. At any time, an issue may occur to prevent relay. For this reason, it is imperative that all possible orbital assets be integrated into the overall relay picture.

  5. Seasonal trends in the composition and ROS activity of fine particulate matter in Baghdad, Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Samera Hussein; Shafer, Martin Merrill; Kadhim, Ahmed K. H.; Al-Omran, Sabah M.; Schauer, James Jay

    2015-01-01

    Baghdad suffers from severe atmospheric particulate matter (PM) pollution and has limited infrastructure to monitor and control PM-pollution. To help better understand the nature of particulate matter in Baghdad, daily PM2.5 samples were collected every 6th day from September, 2012 to September, 2013. The samples were analyzed for chemical composition and cellular oxidative stress activity using a macrophage-based assay. The annual average PM2.5 concentration was 50 ± 19 ?g m-3, and was comprised of approximately 28% crustal materials, 26% organic carbon (OC), 17% sulfate, 12% elemental carbon (EC), and 8.0% ammonium ion. No clear seasonal trend was observed for the total PM2.5 mass and PM2.5 OC, but EC exhibited higher concentrations in the warmer months, likely due to the extensive use of electric generators operated by diesel and gasoline for cooling. April showed the lowest levels of both EC and OC compared with other months due to both sand and rainstorm events which led to increased deposition and dispersion of local emissions. Concentrations of nitrate ion were low in all seasons due to the high temperatures and low humidity, but slightly higher levels were observed in the cooler months of winter. The oxidative stress (reactive oxygen species (ROS)) activity (59 ± 35 ?g Zymosan equivalents m-3) of the PM was relatively lower than in other studied areas. Association between the water soluble PM constituents and the oxidative activity was investigated using a multi-linear regression model which showed no strong relationships between ROS activity and the water soluble components of PM2.5, but a moderate correlation of water soluble organic carbon from biomass burning (WSOC-BB) was observed (R2 = 0.52). Biomass burning PM has been shown to be an important contributor to ROS activity in other published studies, but additional work is needed to better understand the sources leading to the ROS activity in Baghdad.

  6. Carbon black nanoparticles promote endothelial activation and lipid accumulation in macrophages independently of intracellular ROS production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Yi; Roursgaard, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to nanoparticles (NPs) may cause vascular effects including endothelial dysfunction and foam cell formation, with oxidative stress and inflammation as supposed central mechanisms. We investigated oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction and lipid accumulation caused by nano-sized carbon black (CB) exposure in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), THP-1 (monocytes) and THP-1 derived macrophages (THP-1a). The proliferation of HUVECs or co-cultures of HUVECs and THP-1 cells were unaffected by CB exposure, whereas there was increased cytotoxicity, assessed by the LDH and WST-1 assays, especially in THP-1 and THP-1a cells. The CB exposure decreased the glutathione (GSH) content in THP-1 and THP-1a cells, whereas GSH was increased in HUVECs. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was increased in all cell types after CB exposure. A reduction of the intracellular GSH concentration by buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) pre-treatment further increased the CB-induced ROS production in THP-1 cells and HUVECs. The expression of adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, but not adhesion of THP-1 to HUVECs or culture dishes, was elevated by CB exposure, whereas these effects were unaffected by BSO pre-treatment. qRT-PCR showed increased VCAM1 expression, but no change in GCLM and HMOX1 expression in CB-exposed HUVECs. Pre-exposure to CB induced lipid accumulation in THP-1a cells, which was not affected by the presence of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine. In addition, the concentrations of CB to induce lipid accumulation were lower than the concentrations to promote intracellular ROS production in THP-1a cells. In conclusion, exposure to nano-sized CB induced endothelial dysfunction and foam cell formation, which was not dependent on intracellular ROS production.

  7. Intracellular ROS Protection Efficiency and Free Radical-Scavenging Activity of Curcumin

    OpenAIRE

    Barzegar, Abolfazl; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali A.

    2011-01-01

    Curcumin has many pharmaceutical applications, many of which arise from its potent antioxidant properties. The present research examined the antioxidant activities of curcumin in polar solvents by a comparative study using ESR, reduction of ferric iron in aqueous medium and intracellular ROS/toxicity assays. ESR data indicated that the steric hindrance among adjacent big size groups within a galvinoxyl molecule limited the curcumin to scavenge galvinoxyl radicals effectively, while curcumin s...

  8. Disease prevention by natural antioxidants and prebiotics acting as ROS scavengers in the gastrointestinal tract

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Ende, Wim; PESHEV, Darin; Gara, Laura De

    2011-01-01

    Natural antioxidants derived from plants become increasingly popular as functional food and feed ingredients. This viewpoint article highlights the emerging antioxidant character of natural non-structural carbohydrates, with focus on those plant-derived compounds that have dual antioxidative and prebiotic properties. In parallel to more indirect action mechanisms, it is proposed here that such compounds are involved in direct ROS scavenging processes in plants, in food and in the gastrointest...

  9. ROS and Brain Diseases: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly

    OpenAIRE

    Aurel Popa-Wagner; Smaranda Mitran; Senthilkumar Sivanesan; Edwin Chang; Ana-Maria Buga

    2013-01-01

    The brain is a major metabolizer of oxygen and yet has relatively feeble protective antioxidant mechanisms. This paper reviews the Janus-faced properties of reactive oxygen species. It will describe the positive aspects of moderately induced ROS but it will also outline recent research findings concerning the impact of oxidative and nitrooxidative stress on neuronal structure and function in neuropsychiatric diseases, including major depression. A common denominator of all neuropsychiatric di...

  10. Unusual compounds from Galium mollugo and their inhibitory activities against ROS generation in human fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaher, Nassima; Krisa, Stéphanie; Delaunay, Jean-Claude; Bernillon, Stéphane; Pedrot, Eric; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Atmani, Djebbar; Richard, Tristan

    2016-01-01

    Three unusual dioxatricyclodecenone compounds, mollugoside A, E-mollugoside B and Z-mollugoside B and, together with known flavonoids, were isolated from the aerial parts of Galium mollugo collected in north-eastern Algeria. Their structures were elucidated by analysis of spectroscopic data, including 1D and 2D NMR. Flavonoids and mollugoside A significantly reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in human fibroblasts. PMID:26344381

  11. Mediating the potent ROS toxicity of acrolein in neurons with silica nanoparticles and a natural product approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    White-Schenk, Désirée.; Shi, Riyi; Leary, James F.

    2014-03-01

    Acrolein, a very reactive aldehyde, is a culprit in the biochemical cascade after primary, mechanical spinal cord injury (SCI), which leads to the destruction of tissue initially unharmed, referred to as "secondary injury". Additionally, in models of multiple sclerosis (MS) and some clinical research, acrolein levels are significantly increased. Due to its ability to make more copies of itself in the presence of tissue via lipid peroxidation, researchers believe that acrolein plays a role in the increased destruction of the central nervous system in both SCI and MS. Hydralazine, an FDAapproved hypotensive drug, has been shown to scavenge acrolein, but its side effects and short half life at the appropriate dose for acrolein scavenging must be improved for beneficial clinical translation. Therefore, a nanomedical approach has been designed using silica nanoparticles as a porous delivery vehicle hydralazine. The silica particles are formed in a one-step method that incorporates poly(ethylene) glycol (PEG), a stealth molecule, directly onto the nanoparticles. As an additional avenue for study, a natural product in green tea, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), has been explored for its ability to react with acrolein, disabling its reactive capabilities. Upon demonstration of attenuating acrolein, EGCG's delivery may also be improved using the nanomedical approach. The current work exposes the potential of using silica nanoparticles as a delivery vehicle and EGCG's antioxidant capabilities in B35 neuroblastoma cells exposed to acrolein. We also measure nanotoxicity to individual rat neurons using high-throughput image scanning cytometry.

  12. Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles Induced Toxicity in Human Lung Cells: Role of ROS Mediated DNA Damage and Apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeep Mittal; Alok K. Pandey

    2014-01-01

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) have promising industrial and biomedical applications. In spite of their applications, the toxicity of these NPs in biological/physiological environment is a major concern. Present study aimed to understand the molecular mechanism underlying the toxicity of CeO2 NPs on lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cells. After internalization, CeO2 NPs caused significant cytotoxicity and morphological changes in A549 cells. Further, the cell death was found to be apoptotic ...

  13. Expression and activity of NADPH oxidases (NOX) and the ROS-mediated effects on ?-Glutamyltransferase (GGT) expression in cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ravuri, Chandra Sekhar

    2010-01-01

    Cancer cells with the ability to metastasize have also an ability to adapt and survive in new surroundings. This is connected to their ability to alter the balance between and the level of oxidants and antioxidants within the cell. To understand how cancer cells do this, a panel of cancer cells were examined with respect to genes that can affect the oxidant production. These cells had been isolated from patients with epithelial carcinoma in skin and/or mouth. The results showed that cancer ce...

  14. ROS-mediated amplification of AKT/mTOR signalling pathway leads to myeloproliferative syndrome in Foxo3?/? mice

    OpenAIRE

    Yalcin, Safak; Marinkovic, Dragan; Mungamuri, Sathish Kumar; Zhang, Xin; Tong, Wei; Sellers, Rani; Ghaffari, Saghi

    2010-01-01

    This work reports a novel myeloid progenitor phenotype in Foxo3a-deficient mice that exhibit increased reactive oxygen species signalling and reduced expression of Lnk, a negative regulator of mitogenic cytokine signalling. Thus, the paper unveils a molecular link from Foxo3a deficiency to malignant progression.

  15. Mentha piperita essential oil induces apoptosis in yeast associated with both cytosolic and mitochondrial ROS-mediated damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Patrícia; Cardoso, Teresa; Ferreira, Filipa; Fernandes-Ferreira, Manuel; Piper, Peter; Sousa, Maria João

    2014-11-01

    Mentha piperita (MP), also known as peppermint, is an aromatic and medicinal plant widely used in the food industry, perfumery and cosmetic, pharmacy and traditional medicine. Its essential oil (EO) displays antimicrobial activity against a range of bacteria and fungi. In this study, we found that MP EO lethal cytotoxicity is associated with increased levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial fragmentation and chromatin condensation, without loss of the plasma membrane integrity, indicative of an apoptotic process. Overexpression of cytosolic catalase and superoxide dismutases reverted the lethal effects of the EO and of its major component menthol. Conversely, deficiency in Sod1p (cytosolic copper-zinc-superoxide dismutase) greatly increased sensitivity to both agents, but deficiency in Sod2p (mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase) only induced sensitivity under respiratory growth conditions. Mentha piperita EO increased the frequency of respiratory deficient mutants indicative of damage to the mitochondrial genome, although increase in mitochondrial thiol oxidation does not seem to be involved in the EO toxicity. PMID:25065265

  16. Natural Triterpenic Diols Promote Apoptosis in Astrocytoma Cells through ROS-Mediated Mitochondrial Depolarization and JNK Activation

    OpenAIRE

    Martín, Rubén; Ibeas, Elvira; Carvalho-Tavares, Juliana; Hernández, Marita; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Nieto, María Luisa

    2009-01-01

    [Principal Findings]: Erythrodiol and uvaol effectively affected cell proliferation, as well as cell cycle phases and induced 1321N1 cell death. Both triterpenes successfully modulated the apoptotic response, promoting nuclear condensation and fragmentation. They caused retraction and rounding of cultured cells, which lost adherence from their supports, while F-actin and vimentin filaments disappeared as an organized cytoplasmic network. At molecular level, changes in the expression of surfac...

  17. Protoporphyrin IX-dependent photodynamic production of endogenous ROS stimulates cell proliferation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blazquez-Castro, Alfonso; Carrasco, Elisa

    2012-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy using methyl 5-aminolevulinate (MAL) as a precursor of the photosensitizing agent protoporphyrin IX is widely used in clinical practice for the treatment of different pathologies, including cancer. In this therapeutic modality, MAL treatment promotes the forced accumulation of the endogenous photoactive compound protoporphyrin IX in target malignant cells. Subsequent irradiation of treated tissues with an appropriate visible light source induces the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that, once accumulated above a critical level, promote cell death. Here we demonstrate that a photodynamic treatment with low MAL concentrations can be used to promote a moderate production of endogenous ROS, which efficiently stimulates cell growth in human immortalized keratinocytes (HaCaT). We also show that this proliferative response requires Src kinase activity and is associated to a transient induction of cyclin D1 expression. Taken together, these results demonstrate for the first time that acombination of light and a photoactive compound can be used to modulate cell cycle progression through Src kinase activation and that a moderate intracellular increase of photogenerated ROS efficiently stimulates cell proliferation.

  18. MST1 activation by curcumin mediates JNK activation, Foxo3a nuclear translocation and apoptosis in melanoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Curcumin activates MST1 in melanoma cells. •MST1 mediates curcumin-induced apoptosis of melanoma cells. •ROS production is involved in curcumin-induced MST1 activation. •MST1 mediates curcumin-induced JNK activation in melanoma cells. •MST1 mediates curcumin-induced Foxo3a nuclear translocation and Bim expression. -- Abstract: Different groups including ours have shown that curcumin induces melanoma cell apoptosis, here we focused the role of mammalian Sterile 20-like kinase 1 (MST1) in it. We observed that curcumin activated MST1-dependent apoptosis in cultured melanoma cells. MST1 silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) suppressed curcumin-induced cell apoptosis, while MST1 over-expressing increased curcumin sensitivity. Meanwhile, curcumin induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in melanoma cells, and the ROS scavenger, N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), almost blocked MST1 activation to suggest that ROS might be required for MST1 activation by curcumin. c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) activation by curcumin was dependent on MST1, since MST1 inhibition by RNAi or NAC largely inhibited curcumin-induced JNK activation. Further, curcumin induced Foxo3 nuclear translocation and Bim-1 (Foxo3 target gene) expression in melanoma cells, such an effect by curcumin was inhibited by MST1 RNAi. In conclusion, we suggested that MST1 activation by curcumin mediates JNK activation, Foxo3a nuclear translocation and apoptosis in melanoma cells

  19. MST1 activation by curcumin mediates JNK activation, Foxo3a nuclear translocation and apoptosis in melanoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Teng, E-mail: tengyu33@yahoo.com [Department of Dermatology, Shandong Ji-ning No. 1 People’s Hospital, Shandong Province 272011 (China); Ji, Jiang [Department of Dermatology, The Second Hospital Affiliated of Soochow University, SuZhou, Jiangsu Province 215000 (China); Guo, Yong-li [Department of Oncology, Shandong Ji-ning No. 1 People’s Hospital, Shandong Province 272011 (China)

    2013-11-08

    Highlights: •Curcumin activates MST1 in melanoma cells. •MST1 mediates curcumin-induced apoptosis of melanoma cells. •ROS production is involved in curcumin-induced MST1 activation. •MST1 mediates curcumin-induced JNK activation in melanoma cells. •MST1 mediates curcumin-induced Foxo3a nuclear translocation and Bim expression. -- Abstract: Different groups including ours have shown that curcumin induces melanoma cell apoptosis, here we focused the role of mammalian Sterile 20-like kinase 1 (MST1) in it. We observed that curcumin activated MST1-dependent apoptosis in cultured melanoma cells. MST1 silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) suppressed curcumin-induced cell apoptosis, while MST1 over-expressing increased curcumin sensitivity. Meanwhile, curcumin induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in melanoma cells, and the ROS scavenger, N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), almost blocked MST1 activation to suggest that ROS might be required for MST1 activation by curcumin. c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) activation by curcumin was dependent on MST1, since MST1 inhibition by RNAi or NAC largely inhibited curcumin-induced JNK activation. Further, curcumin induced Foxo3 nuclear translocation and Bim-1 (Foxo3 target gene) expression in melanoma cells, such an effect by curcumin was inhibited by MST1 RNAi. In conclusion, we suggested that MST1 activation by curcumin mediates JNK activation, Foxo3a nuclear translocation and apoptosis in melanoma cells.

  20. Characterization of structure and coagulation behaviour of refractory organic substances (ROS) using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and x-ray microscopy; Charakterisierung von Struktur und Koagulationsverhalten von Refraktaeren Organischen Saeuren (ROS) mit Hilfe von Neutronenkleinwinkelstreuung (SANS), Roentgenkleinwinkelstreuung (SAXS) und Roentgenmikroskopie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pranzas, P.K. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstofforschung

    1999-07-01

    In this work structure, coagulation and complexation behaviour of aquatic refractory organic substances (ROS) (humic and fulvic acids) were characterized. For this purpose a structural analytical system with the methods small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and X-ray microscopy with synchrotron radiation was developed and established. Size distributions of ROS of different origin were calculated from the scattering curves. Spherical ROS units were obtained, which coagulated by forming chainlike structures or disordered ROS agglomerates at higher concentrations. Additionally the average molecular weights of several ROS were calculated. Studies of the coagulation behaviour of ROS towards copper ions resulted in larger ROS-agglomerates besides the spherical ROS units. A linear relation between the addition of Cu{sup 2+} and the formation of the ROS-Cu{sup 2+}-agglomerates was found. With X-ray microscopy an extensive ROS-Cu{sup 2}-network structure could be registrated. For mercury and cadmium ions such coagulation interactions were not found. Investigations with X-ray microscopy of the coagulation behaviour of ROS towards the cationic surfactant DTB resulted in micel-like structures of equal size, which were spread throughout the solution. With increasing concentrations of DTB larger agglomerates up to network structures were obtained. (orig.) [German] In dieser Arbeit wurden Struktur, Koagulations- und Komplexierungsverhalten von aquatischen refraktaeren organischen Saeuren (ROS) (Humin- und Fulvinsaeuren) charakterisiert. Zu diesem Zweck wurde ein strukturanalytisches Gesamtsystem mit den Methoden Neutronenkleinwinkelstreuung (SANS), Roentgenkleinwinkelstreuung (SAXS) und Roentgenmikroskopie mit Synchrotronstrahlung entwickelt und etabliert. Fuer ROS unterschiedlicher Herkunft in Loesung wurden Groessenverteilungen aus den Streukurven berechnet. Es wurden kugelfoermige ROS-Einheiten gefunden, die bei hoeheren ROS-Konzentrationen unter der Bildung von Kettenstrukturen oder ungeordneten ROS-Agglomeraten koagulierten. Aus den SANS-Streukurven wurden fuer ausgewaehlte ROS zusaetzlich die mittleren Molekulargewichte berechnet, wobei ebenfalls eine Agglomeratbildung beobachtet wurde. Studien des Koagulationsverhaltens von ROS gegenueber Kupferionen ergaben zusaetzlich zu den kugelfoermigen ROS-Einheiten groessere ROS-Cu{sup 2+}-Agglomerate. Ein linearer Zusammenhang zwischen der Cu{sup 2+}-Zugabe und der Bildung der ROS-Cu{sup 2+}-Agglomerate wurde festgestellt. Mit der Roentgenmikroskopie wurden grossflaechige ROS-Cu{sup 2+}-Netzwerkstrukturen abgebildet. Fuer Quecksilber- und Cadmium-Ionen wurde keine derartige Koagulationswechselwirkung gefunden. Untersuchungen des Koagulationsverhaltens der ROS gegenueber Tensiden mit der Roentgenmikroskopie ergaben bei ansteigenden Konzentrationen des kationischen Standard-Tensids DTB in der ganzen Loesung verteilte mizellartige Strukturen gleicher Groesse sowie groessere Agglomerate bis hin zu Netzwerkstrukturen. Die aufgefuehrten Strukturen zeigen sowohl das Potential des etablierten strukturanalytischen Systems als auch die Komplexitaet und Vielfalt der Koagulationswechselwirkungen von ROS und damit die mannigfaltigen Prozesse im Bereich zwischen geloester Phase und Suspension. (orig.)

  1. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells through ROS–Ca2+–JNK mitochondrial pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • EPA evoked ROS formation, [Ca2+]c accumulation, the opening of MPTP and the phosphorylation of JNK. • EPA-induced [Ca2+]c elevation was depended on production of ROS. • EPA-induced ROS generation, [Ca2+]c increase, and JNK activated caused MPTP opening. • The apoptosis induced by EPA was related to release of cytochrome C through the MPTP. • EPA induced HepG2 cells apoptosis through ROS–Ca2+–JNK mitochondrial pathways. - Abstract: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), a well-known dietary n?3 PUFAS, has been considered to inhibit proliferation of tumor cells. However, the molecular mechanism related to EPA-induced liver cancer cells apoptosis has not been reported. In this study, we investigated the effect of EPA on HepG2 cells proliferation and apoptosis mechanism through mitochondrial pathways. EPA inhibited proliferation of HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner and had no significant effect on the cell viability of humor normal liver L-02 cells. It was found that EPA initially evoked ROS formation, leading to [Ca2+]c accumulation and the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening; EPA-induced HepG2 cells apoptosis was inhibited by N-acetylcysteine (NAC, an inhibitor of ROS), 1,2-bis (2-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N?,N?-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA-AM, a chelator of calcium) and CsA (inhibitor of MPTP). The relationship between ROS production, the increase of cytoplasmic Ca and MPTP opening was detected. It seems that ROS may act as an upstream regulator of EPA-induced [Ca2+]c generation, moreover, generation of ROS, overload of mitochondrial [Ca2+]c, and JNK activated cause the opening of MPTP. Western blotting results showed that EPA elevated the phosphorylation status of JNK, processes associated with the ROS generation. Simultaneously, the apoptosis induced by EPA was related to release of cytochrome C from mitochondria to cytoplasm through the MPTP and activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. These results suggest that EPA induces apoptosis through ROS–Ca2+–JNK mitochondrial pathways

  2. Complex Mediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Andersen, Peter Bøgh

    2005-01-01

    This article has its starting point in a large number of empirical findings regarding computer-mediated work. These empirical findings have challenged our understanding of the role of mediation in such work; on the one hand as an aspect of communication and cooperation at work and on the other hand as an aspect of human engagement with instruments of work. On the basis of previous work in activity-theoretical and semiotic human—computer interaction, we propose a model to encompass both of these ...

  3. Basal and T?-induced ROS production in lymphocyte mitochondria is increased in type 2 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anthonsen, S; Larsen, J; Pedersen, P L; Dalgaard, L T; Kvetny, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial function, including production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), is important in the pathogenesis of diabetes and its complications. Thyroid hormones are major regulator of these processes. Hence, the aim of this study was to examine the thyroid hormone regulation of ROS production in human lymphocytes in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM). Lymphocytes from 10 controls and 10 persons with T2DM were examined. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was examined by flow cyt...

  4. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a key factor for stimulation of macrophage proliferation by ceramide 1-phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arana, Lide; Gangoiti, Patricia; Ouro, Alberto; Rivera, Io-Guane; Ordonez, Marta; Trueba, Miguel [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of the Basque Country, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Lankalapalli, Ravi S.; Bittman, Robert [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Queens College of The City University of New York, Flushing, NY 11367-1597 (United States); Gomez-Munoz, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.gomez@ehu.es [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of the Basque Country, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)

    2012-02-15

    We previously demonstrated that ceramide 1-phosphate (C1P) is mitogenic for fibroblasts and macrophages. However, the mechanisms involved in this action were only partially described. Here, we demonstrate that C1P stimulates reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in primary bone marrow-derived macrophages, and that ROS are required for the mitogenic effect of C1P. ROS production was dependent upon prior activation of NADPH oxidase by C1P, which was determined by measuring phosphorylation of the p40phox subunit and translocation of p47phox from the cytosol to the plasma membrane. In addition, C1P activated cytosolic calcium-dependent phospholipase A{sub 2} and protein kinase C-{alpha}, and NADPH oxidase activation was blocked by selective inhibitors of these enzymes. These inhibitors, and inhibitors of ROS production, blocked the mitogenic effect of C1P. By using BHNB-C1P (a photolabile caged-C1P analog), we demonstrate that all of these C1P actions are caused by intracellular C1P. It can be concluded that the enzyme responsible for C1P-stimulated ROS generation in bone marrow-derived macrophages is NADPH oxidase, and that this enzyme is downstream of PKC-{alpha} and cPLA{sub 2}-{alpha} in this pathway. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ceramide 1-phosphate (C1P) stimulates reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The enzyme responsible for ROS generation by C1P in macrophages is NADPH oxidase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NADPH oxidase lies downstream of cPLA{sub 2}-{alpha} and PKC-{alpha} in this pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ROS generation is essential for the stimulation of macrophage proliferation by C1P.

  5. Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii rosR is required for interaction with clover, biofilm formation and adaptation to the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piersiak Tomasz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii is a symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacterium that elicits nodules on roots of host plants Trifolium spp. Bacterial surface polysaccharides are crucial for establishment of a successful symbiosis with legumes that form indeterminate-type nodules, such as Trifolium, Pisum, Vicia, and Medicago spp. and aid the bacterium in withstanding osmotic and other environmental stresses. Recently, the R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii RosR regulatory protein which controls exopolysaccharide production has been identified and characterized. Results In this work, we extend our earlier studies to the characterization of rosR mutants which exhibit pleiotropic phenotypes. The mutants produce three times less exopolysaccharide than the wild type, and the low-molecular-weight fraction in that polymer is greatly reduced. Mutation in rosR also results in quantitative alterations in the polysaccharide constituent of lipopolysaccharide. The rosR mutants are more sensitive to surface-active detergents, antibiotics of the beta-lactam group and some osmolytes, indicating changes in the bacterial membranes. In addition, the rosR mutants exhibit significant decrease in motility and form a biofilm on plastic surfaces, which differs significantly in depth, architecture, and bacterial viability from that of the wild type. The most striking effect of rosR mutation is the considerably decreased attachment and colonization of root hairs, indicating that the mutation affects the first stage of the invasion process. Infection threads initiate at a drastically reduced rate and frequently abort before they reach the base of root hairs. Although these mutants form nodules on clover, they are unable to fix nitrogen and are outcompeted by the wild type in mixed inoculations, demonstrating that functional rosR is important for competitive nodulation. Conclusions This report demonstrates the significant role RosR regulatory protein plays in bacterial stress adaptation and in the symbiotic relationship between clover and R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii 24.2.

  6. TAK1 regulates SCF expression to modulate PKB? activity that protects keratinocytes from ROS-induced apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, C.R.I.; Tan, M.J.; Tan, S H; Tang, M B Y; Cheung, P C F; Tan, N.S.

    2011-01-01

    Dysregulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation contributes to many human pathologies, including cancer and diabetes. During normal wound repair, inflammation-induced ROS production must be tightly controlled, but the mechanisms reining their generation remain unclear. Herein, we show that transforming growth factor ?-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) directly regulates stem cell factor (SCF) expression, which activates the protein kinase B (PKB)? pro-survival pathway in a cell-autonomous manne...

  7. Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and Pro-Inflammatory Signaling in Human Brain Cells in Primary Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Lukiw, Walter J.; Bjattacharjee, Surjyadipta; Zhao, Yuhai; Aileen I. Pogue; Percy, Maire E.

    2012-01-01

    The cellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in contributing to the pathology of human neurological disorders including Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD). To further understand the triggering and participation of ROS-generating species to pro-inflammatory and pathological signaling in human brain cells, in these experiments we studied the effects of 22 different substances (including various common drugs, interleukins, amyloid precursor prot...

  8. Reliability of ROS and RNS detection in hematopoietic stem cells - potential issues with probes and target cell population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaski-Lafarge, Marija; Ivanovic, Zoran

    2015-11-01

    Many studies have provided evidence for the crucial role of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in the regulation of differentiation and/or self-renewal, and the balance between quiescence and proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Several metabolic regulators have been implicated in the maintenance of HSC redox homeostasis; however, the mechanisms that are regulated by ROS and RNS, as well as their downstream signaling are still elusive. This is partially owing to a lack of suitable methods that allow unequivocal and specific detection of ROS and RNS. In this Opinion, we first discuss the limitations of the commonly used techniques for detection of ROS and RNS, and the problem of heterogeneity of the cell population used in redox studies, which, together, can result in inaccurate conclusions regarding the redox biology of HSCs. We then propose approaches that are based on single-cell analysis followed by a functional test to examine ROS and RNS levels specifically in HSCs, as well as methods that might be used in vivo to overcome these drawbacks, and provide a better understanding of ROS and RNS function in stem cells. PMID:26527201

  9. Ethanol attenuates peripheral NMDAR-mediated vascular oxidative stress and pressor response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Marie A; Abdel-Rahman, Abdel A

    2015-08-01

    There are no studies on the acute effect of ethanol on peripheral N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-mediated increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and blood pressure (BP). We tested the hypothesis that ethanol antagonism of peripheral NMDAR dampens systemic NMDA-evoked increases in vascular ROS and BP. We investigated the effect of ethanol (1 g/kg) on BP and heart rate (HR) responses elicited by systemic bolus (125-1000 ?g/kg, intra-venous [i.v.]) or infused (180 ?g/kg/min) NMDA in conscious male Sprague-Dawley rats. We also hypothesized that peripheral NMDAR blockade with DL-2-Amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (AP-5; 5 mg/kg, i.v.) uncovers an ethanol- (1 or 1.5 g/kg) evoked hypotensive response. Ethanol attenuated the peripheral NMDAR-mediated pressor and bradycardic responses caused by NMDA infusion, and ex vivo studies revealed parallel ethanol attenuation of peripheral NMDAR-mediated increases in vascular ROS. While ethanol (1 or 1.5 g/kg) alone had no effect on BP, the higher dose caused a hypotensive response in the presence of NMDAR blockade (AP-5). Blood ethanol concentrations were not statistically different in the groups that received ethanol alone or along with NMDA or AP-5. These findings are the first to demonstrate ethanol attenuation of peripheral NMDAR-mediated pressor response, and the uncovering of ethanol-evoked hypotension in the presence of peripheral NMDAR blockade. PMID:25986731

  10. Apoptosis induction by silica nanoparticles mediated through reactive oxygen species in human liver cell line HepG2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Javed [Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Ahamed, Maqusood, E-mail: maqusood@gmail.com [King Abdullah Institute for Nanotechnology, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Akhtar, Mohd Javed [Fibre Toxicology, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Lucknow-226001 (India); Alrokayan, Salman A. [King Abdullah Institute for Nanotechnology, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Siddiqui, Maqsood A.; Musarrat, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A. [Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)

    2012-03-01

    Silica nanoparticles are increasingly utilized in various applications including agriculture and medicine. In vivo studies have shown that liver is one of the primary target organ of silica nanoparticles. However, possible mechanisms of hepatotoxicity caused by silica nanoparticles still remain unclear. In this study, we explored the reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated apoptosis induced by well-characterized 14 nm silica nanoparticles in human liver cell line HepG2. Silica nanoparticles (25–200 ?g/ml) induced a dose-dependent cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. Silica nanoparticles were also found to induce oxidative stress in dose-dependent manner indicated by induction of ROS and lipid peroxidation and depletion of glutathione (GSH). Quantitative real-time PCR and immunoblotting results showed that both the mRNA and protein expressions of cell cycle checkpoint gene p53 and apoptotic genes (bax and caspase-3) were up-regulated while the anti-apoptotic gene bcl-2 was down-regulated in silica nanoparticles treated cells. Moreover, co-treatment of ROS scavenger vitamin C significantly attenuated the modulation of apoptotic markers along with the preservation of cell viability caused by silica nanoparticles. Our data demonstrated that silica nanoparticles induced apoptosis in human liver cells, which is ROS mediated and regulated through p53, bax/bcl-2 and caspase pathways. This study suggests that toxicity mechanisms of silica nanoparticles should be further investigated at in vivo level. -- Highlights: ? We explored the mechanisms of toxicity caused by silica NPs in human liver HepG2 cells. ? Silica NPs induced a dose-dependent cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. ? Silica NPs induced ROS generation and oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner. ? Silica NPs were also modulated apoptosis markers both at mRNA and protein levels. ? ROS mediated apoptosis induced by silica NPs was preserved by vitamin C.

  11. Particulate matter air pollution disrupts endothelial cell barrier via calpain-mediated tight junction protein degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ting

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to particulate matter (PM is a significant risk factor for increased cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. The mechanism of PM-mediated pathophysiology remains unknown. However, PM is proinflammatory to the endothelium and increases vascular permeability in vitro and in vivo via ROS generation. Objectives We explored the role of tight junction proteins as targets for PM-induced loss of lung endothelial cell (EC barrier integrity and enhanced cardiopulmonary dysfunction. Methods Changes in human lung EC monolayer permeability were assessed by Transendothelial Electrical Resistance (TER in response to PM challenge (collected from Ft. McHenry Tunnel, Baltimore, MD, particle size >0.1??m. Biochemical assessment of ROS generation and Ca2+ mobilization were also measured. Results PM exposure induced tight junction protein Zona occludens-1 (ZO-1 relocation from the cell periphery, which was accompanied by significant reductions in ZO-1 protein levels but not in adherens junction proteins (VE-cadherin and ?-catenin. N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC, 5?mM reduced PM-induced ROS generation in ECs, which further prevented TER decreases and atteneuated ZO-1 degradation. PM also mediated intracellular calcium mobilization via the transient receptor potential cation channel M2 (TRPM2, in a ROS-dependent manner with subsequent activation of the Ca2+-dependent protease calpain. PM-activated calpain is responsible for ZO-1 degradation and EC barrier disruption. Overexpression of ZO-1 attenuated PM-induced endothelial barrier disruption and vascular hyperpermeability in vivo and in vitro. Conclusions These results demonstrate that PM induces marked increases in vascular permeability via ROS-mediated calcium leakage via activated TRPM2, and via ZO-1 degradation by activated calpain. These findings support a novel mechanism for PM-induced lung damage and adverse cardiovascular outcomes.

  12. 1,4-butanediyl-bismethanethiosulfonate (BMTS) induces apoptosis through reactive oxygen species-mediated mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Khaled; Kawamoto, Yoshiyuki; Hamada, Masataka; Akhand, Anwarul A; Yanagishita, Takeshi; Hoque, Md Ashraful; Tsuboi, Hideo; Kato, Masashi; Nakashima, Izumi

    2009-12-01

    Although methane sulfonate compounds are widely used for the protein modification for their selectivity of thiol groups in proteins, their intracellular signaling events have not yet been clearly documented. This study demonstrated the methane sulfonate chemical 1,4-butanediyl-bismethanethiosulfonate (BMTS)-induced cascades of signals that ultimately led to apoptosis of Jurkat cells. BMTS induced apoptosis through fragmentation of DNA, activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, and downregulation of Bcl-2 protein with reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential. Moreover, BMTS intensely and transiently induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and ROS produced by BMTS was mediated through mitochondria. We also found that a reducing agent dithiothreitol (DTT) and an anti-oxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) inhibited BMTS-mediated caspase-9 and -3 activation, ROS production and induction of Annexin V/propidium iodide double positive cells, suggesting the involvement of ROS in the apoptosis process. Therefore, this study further extends our understanding on the basic mechanism of redox-linked apoptosis induced by sulfhydryl-reactive chemicals. PMID:19830705

  13. Overexpression of yeast thioredoxin TRX2 reduces p53-mediated cell death in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamoun, Yosra; Mabrouk, Imed; Delahodde, Agnes; Boukid, Fatma; Yacoubi-Hadj Amor, Ines; Mokdad-Gargouri, Raja; Gargouri, Ali

    2015-10-01

    We have previously shown that overexpression of the human tumor suppressor protein P53 causes cell death of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. P53 overproduction led to transcriptional downregulation of some yeast genes, such as the TRX1/2 thioredoxin system, which plays a key role in cell protection against various oxidative stresses induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the present work, the impact of TRX2 overexpression on apoptosis mediated by p53 overexpression in yeast is investigated. In yeast cells expressing P53 under an inducible promoter together with TRX2 under a strong constitutive promoter, we showed that Tr2p overproduction reduced the apoptotic effect exerted by P53 and increased the viability of the P53-overproducing cells. Furthermore, measurements of ROS amounts by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy indicated that the TRX2 protein acted probably through its increased detoxifying activity on the P53-generated ROS. The steady-state level and activity of P53 were not affected by TRX2 overexpression, as shown by western blotting and functional analysis of separated alleles in yeast (FASAY), respectively. The growth inhibitory effect of P53 was partially reversed by the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine. Our data strengthen the idea that overexpression of a single gene (trx2) decreases the p53-mediated cell death by decreasing ROS accumulation. PMID:26264138

  14. Basal and T3-induced ROS Production in Lymphocyte Mitochondria is Increased in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anthonsen, Stine; Larsen, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial function, including production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), is important in the pathogenesis of diabetes and its complications. Thyroid hormones are major regulator of these processes. Hence, the aim of this study was to examine the thyroid hormone regulation of ROS production in human lymphocytes in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM). Lymphocytes from 10 controls and 10 persons with T2DM were examined. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was examined by flow cytometry after staining with MitoTracker Green (MTG). Similarly ROS was measured following staining with carboxy-H2DCFDA. MMP was increased in T2DM patients and T3 stimulation increased MMP in controls [1 398 a.u. (979-4 094) vs. 2 156 a.u. (1 611-15 189), p=0.04, median and quartiles] as well as in T2DM patients [9 167 a.u. (7 387-11 746) vs. 20 274 a.u. (17 183-27 839 p=0.004, median and quartiles]. Basal ROS concentration was increased in lymphocytes from T2DM and T3 significantly stimulated ROS concentration in controls [3 691 a.u. (2 584-6 396) vs. 5 650 a.u. (3 001-7 802) p=0.013, median and quartiles] and in T2DM patients [19 271 a.u. (6 288-25 282) vs. 23 178 a.u. (10 004-28 857) p=0.013, median and quartiles]. The ratio of ROS production related to MMP was significantly higher in T2DM, unstimulated as well as T3-stimulated in T2DM. Unstimulated and T3 stimulated ROS production and MMP were higher in lymphocytes from diabetic patients. An altered balance between ROS production and MMP, favoring ROS production in T2DM patients, was found suggesting that an increased mitochondrial sensitivity for T3 may be a significant factor responsible for increased ROS activity in diabetic patients.

  15. Identifying bipolar knapping in the Mesolithic site of Font del Ros (northeast Iberia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roda Gilabert, Xavier; Mora, Rafael; Martínez-Moreno, Jorge

    2015-11-19

    Despite recent advances in the identification of bipolar knapping, its role in many sites is not well known. We propose to assess the significance of this technique in the context of changes that occur in the Mesolithic. A lithic assemblage was recovered from unit SG at Font del Ros (Catalunya, Spain) in which pitted stones, cores and products arising from bipolar reduction (flakes, fragments and splintered pieces) were identified. This study indicates that the bipolar technique is fundamental in the settlement. These results are key to defining the organization of Holocene hunter-gatherer subsistence in northeast Iberia. PMID:26483532

  16. Increased ROS generation in subsets of OGG1 knockout fibroblast cells

    OpenAIRE

    Bacsi, Attila; Chodaczek, Grzegorz; Hazra, Tapas K.; Konkel, David; Boldogh, Istvan

    2007-01-01

    Oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1) is a major base excision repair protein responsible for excision of the mutagenic 8-oxoguanosine (8-oxoG) lesions from the genome. Despite OGG1’s importance, the moderate phenotype of Ogg1-null (Ogg1?/?) mice is not well understood. This study addresses a mechanism by which Ogg1?/? cells limit accumulation of 8-oxoG in their genome. Our data reveal that a subset of Ogg1?/? cells shows higher ROS levels (HROS cells), while ~85% of Ogg1?/? cells exhibit physiol...

  17. Ethanol increases matrix metalloproteinase-12 expression via NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production in macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Jin; Nepal, Saroj; Lee, Eung-Seok; Jeong, Tae Cheon [College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsanbuk-do 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang-Hyun [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Pil-Hoon, E-mail: parkp@yu.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsanbuk-do 712-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Matrix metalloproteinase-12 (MMP-12), an enzyme responsible for degradation of extracellular matrix, plays an important role in the progression of various diseases, including inflammation and fibrosis. Although most of those are pathogenic conditions induced by ethanol ingestion, the effect of ethanol on MMP-12 has not been explored. In the present study, we investigated the effect of ethanol on MMP-12 expression and its potential mechanisms in macrophages. Here, we demonstrated that ethanol treatment increased MMP-12 expression in primary murine peritoneal macrophages and RAW 264.7 macrophages at both mRNA and protein levels. Ethanol treatment also significantly increased the activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADPH) oxidase and the expression of NADPH oxidase-2 (Nox2). Pretreatment with an anti-oxidant (N-acetyl cysteine) or a selective inhibitor of NADPH oxidase (diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI)) prevented ethanol-induced MMP-12 expression. Furthermore, knockdown of Nox2 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) prevented ethanol-induced ROS production and MMP-12 expression in RAW 264.7 macrophages, indicating a critical role for Nox2 in ethanol-induced intracellular ROS production and MMP-12 expression in macrophages. We also showed that ethanol-induced Nox2 expression was suppressed by transient transfection with dominant negative I?B-? plasmid or pretreatment with Bay 11-7082, a selective inhibitor of NF-?B, in RAW 264.7 macrophages. In addition, ethanol-induced Nox2 expression was also attenuated by treatment with a selective inhibitor of p38 MAPK, suggesting involvement of p38 MAPK/NF-?B pathway in ethanol-induced Nox2 expression. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ethanol treatment elicited increase in MMP-12 expression via increase in ROS production derived from Nox2 in macrophages. - Highlights: • Ethanol increases ROS production through up-regulation of Nox2 in macrophages. • Enhanced oxidative stress contributes to ethanol-induced MMP-12 expression. • p38 MAPK/NF-?B signaling pathway modulates ethanol-induced Nox2 expression.

  18. Light regulation of cGMP metabolism in toad rod outer segments (ROS) deduced from intact photoreceptor and cellfree kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rate of cGMP hydrolysis by phosphodiesterase (PDE) in intact ROS, monitored in dark-adapted isolated toad retina by the rate of 18O appearance in guanine nucleotide ?-phosphoryls, is 1/360th of that observed in disrupted ROS at a substrate concentration equivalent to the total [cGMP] in ROS. Low to moderate photic stimuli increase this cGMP hydrolytic rate up to 10-fold in intact ROS with little or no change in total [cGMP]. G-protein activation determined in intact ROS by the fraction of GDP labeled with 18O corresponds with light-related increases in cGMP flux. In contrast, relatively high intensities and extended illumination cause attenuation of maximal cGMP hydrolysis with proportionate reductions in total [cGMP]. From these observations combined with the effects of activated G-protein on kinetics and cGMP binding of ROS PDE the following model for light-regulation of cGMP metabolism was deduced: cGMP flux in intact ROS is severely restricted in the dark state because approximately 99% of the cGMP is bound to high affinity sites on the non-stimulated form of PDE. This constraint is relieved when activated G-protein converts the cGMP-binding form of PDE to a high K/sub m/ catalytic form. cGMP is then redistributed to a dynamic pool where it is available to PDE catalytic sites and lower affinity allosteric sites. The [cGMP] in the dynamic pool is maintained or further increased or decreased by modulating the activity of an apparently light-sensitive guanylyl cyclase

  19. Mediatized Humanitarianism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The article investigates the implications of mediatization for the legitimation strategies of humanitarian organizations. Based on a (full population) corpus of ~400 pages of brochure material from 1970 to 2007, the micro-textual processes involved in humanitarian organizations' efforts to legitimate themselves and their moral claim were examined. A time trend analysis of the prioritization of actors in the material indicates that marked shifts in legitimation loci have taken place during the pa...

  20. The small GTPase RALA controls c-Jun N-terminal kinase-mediated FOXO activation by regulation of a JIP1 scaffold complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Maaike C W; van Gogh, Inkie J A; Smits, Alida M M; van Triest, Miranda; Dansen, Tobias B; Visscher, Marieke; Polderman, Paulien E; Vliem, Marjolein J; Rehmann, Holger; Burgering, Boudewijn M T

    2013-07-26

    FOXO (forkhead box O) transcription factors are tumor suppressors and increase the life spans of model organisms. Cellular stress, in particular oxidative stress caused by an increase in levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), activates FOXOs through JNK-mediated phosphorylation. Importantly, JNK regulation of FOXO is evolutionarily conserved. Here we identified the pathway that mediates ROS-induced JNK-dependent FOXO regulation. Following increased ROS, RALA is activated by the exchange factor RLF (RalGDS-like factor), which is in complex with JIP1 (C-Jun-amino-terminal-interacting protein 1) and JNK. Active RALA consequently regulates assembly and activation of MLK3, MKK4, and JNK onto the JIP1 scaffold. Furthermore, regulation of FOXO by RALA and JIP1 is conserved in C. elegans, where both ral-1 and jip-1 depletion impairs heat shock-induced nuclear translocation of the FOXO orthologue DAF16. PMID:23770673

  1. Pinacidil and levamisole prevent glutamate-induced death of hippocampal neuronal cells through reducing ROS production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukry, Mustafa; Kamal, Tarek; Ali, Radi; Farrag, Foad; Almadaly, Essam; Saleh, Ayman A; Abu El-Magd, Mohammed

    2015-10-01

    Activators of both adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive K(+) (KATP) channel and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl(-?) channel have significant in vivo and in vitro neuroprotection against glutamate-induced death of some neuronal cells. Here, the effect of the KATP channel activator, pinacidil, and the CFTR Cl(-?) channel opener, levamisole, against glutamate-induced oxidative stress were investigated in mouse hippocampal cells, HT22. The results from cell viability assay (WST-1) showed that pinacidil and levamisole weakly protected cells against glutamate-induced toxicity at 10??M and their effect increased in a dose-dependent manner till reach maximum protection at 300??M. Pretreatment with pinacidil or levamisole significantly suppressed the elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) triggered by glutamate through stabilising mitochondrial membrane potential and subsequently protected HT22 cells against glutamate-induced death. HT22 cells viability was maintained by pinacidil and levamisole in presence of glutathione inhibitor, BSO. Also, pinacidil and levamisole pretreatment did not induce recovery of glutathione levels decreased by glutamate Expectedly, this protection was abolished by the KATP and CFTR Cl(-?) channels blocker, glibenclamide. Thus, both pinacidil and levamisole protect HT22 cells against glutamate-induced cell death through stabilising mitochondrial membrane potential and subsequently decreasing ROS production. PMID:26183935

  2. ROS implication in a new antitumor strategy based on non-thermal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandamme, Marc; Robert, Eric; Lerondel, Stéphanie; Sarron, Vanessa; Ries, Delphine; Dozias, Sébastien; Sobilo, Julien; Gosset, David; Kieda, Claudine; Legrain, Brigitte; Pouvesle, Jean-Michel; Pape, Alain Le

    2012-05-01

    Non-thermal plasma (NTP) is generated by ionizing neutral gas molecules/atoms leading to a highly reactive gas at ambient temperature containing excited molecules, reactive species and generating transient electric fields. Given its potential to interact with tissue or cells without a significant temperature increase, NTP appears as a promising approach for the treatment of various diseases including cancer. The aim of our study was to evaluate the interest of NTP both in vitro and in vivo. To this end, we evaluated the antitumor activity of NTP in vitro on two human cancer cell lines (glioblastoma U87MG and colorectal carcinoma HCT-116). Our data showed that NTP generated a large amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to the formation of DNA damages. This resulted in a multiphase cell cycle arrest and a subsequent apoptosis induction. In addition, in vivo experiments on U87MG bearing mice showed that NTP induced a reduction of bioluminescence and tumor volume as compared to nontreated mice. An induction of apoptosis was also observed together with an accumulation of cells in S phase of the cell cycle suggesting an arrest of tumor proliferation. In conclusion, we demonstrated here that the potential of NTP to generate ROS renders this strategy particularly promising in the context of tumor treatment. PMID:21702038

  3. Romo1 is associated with ROS production and cellular growth in human gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mi Ok; Song, Na-Hyun; Park, Kyung-Jae; Park, Dong-Hyuk; Kim, Se-Hyuk; Chae, Yang-Seok; Chung, Yong-Gu; Chi, Sung-Gil; Kang, Shin-Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    Romo1 is a mitochondrial protein whose elevated expression is commonly observed in various types of human cancers. However, the expression status of Romo1 and its implication in the pathogenesis of human glioblastoma (GBM) remain largely undefined. To understand the role of Romo1 in the progression of GBM, we explored its expression in a series of GBM tissues and cell lines and determined its effect on ROS production, cell proliferation, and tumor growth. Romo1 was frequently overexpressed at the mRNA level in both primary tumors and cell lines and its elevation was more commonly observed in high grade tumors versus low grade tumors. Romo1 expression was associated with ROS production and its knockdown led to a marked reduction of in vitro cellular growth and anchorage-independent growth of GBM. Consistently, Romo1 depletion induced a G2/M arrest of the cell cycle that was accompanied with accumulation of phospho-cdc2. Furthermore, a mouse xenograft assay revealed that Romo1 depletion significantly decreased tumor formation and growth. Therefore, our data demonstrate that Romo1 upregulation is a common event in human GBMs and contributes to the malignant tumor progression, suggesting that Romo1 could be a new therapeutic target for human GBM. PMID:25193023

  4. Resveratrol dimers, nutritional components in grape wine, are selective ROS scavengers and weak Nrf2 activators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chang; Xu, Xiaofei; Tao, Zhihao; Wang, Xiu Jun; Pan, Yuanjiang

    2015-04-15

    Resveratrol monomer (Res) and its oligomers are considered as nutritional components distributed in edible plants. Three naturally occurring resveratrol dimers, namely parthenocissin A (Par), quadrangularin A (Qua) and pallidol (Pal), were synthesized and evaluated for their ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) and to activate the transcription factor Nrf2, which regulates cellular antioxidant systems. In vitro studies with different ROS and radical assay models showed that all the three dimers are strong DPPH quenchers and selective singlet oxygen ((1)O2) scavengers (IC50=4.90, 1.05 and 5.50 ?M, respectively). However, they were ineffective against hydroxyl radical (OH) or superoxide anion (O2(-)). Exposing the dimers to an antioxidant response element (ARE) reporter cell line revealed that only pallidol was able to activate Nrf2 at 30 ?M, while parthenocissin A and quadrangularin A had no significant effect on Nrf2. Our data demonstrates the distinct difference between reservatrol monomer and its dimers in activating the Nrf2/ARE signalling pathway. PMID:25466015

  5. DNA damage by smoke: Protection by turmeric and other inhibitors of ROS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivas, L.; Shalini, V.K. (Department of Nutrition and Food Safety, Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore (India))

    1991-01-01

    Twigs-dry leaves smoke condensate (TDS), as a source of clastogenic ROS and carcinogenic PAH, was investigated for its in vitro DNA-damaging effect in calf thymus DNA and human peripheral lymphocytes. An aqueous turmeric component--Aq.T--with an established antioxidant activity, was tested as a DNA protectant. TDS induced 13-fold damage to calf thymus DNA as judged by the emergence of a DNA damage specific, fluorescent product (em: 405 nm). Aq.T at 800 ng/microL extended 69% protection to calf thymus DNA and was comparable to the other protectants such as curcumin, BHA, vitamin E, SOD, and CAT. In human peripheral lymphocytes, TDS induced extensive DNA damage in comparison with the tumor promoter TPA, as judged by FADU. Aq.T at 300 ng/microL extended 90% protection to human lymphocyte DNA against TDS-induced damage, and was more effective than the other protectants--DABCO, D-mannitol, sodium benzoate, vitamin E (ROS quenchers), SOD, CAT (antioxidant enzymes), tannic acid, flufenamic acid, BHA, BHT, n-PG, curcumin and quercetin (antioxidants). Aq.T offered 65% protection to human lymphocyte DNA against TPA-induced damage and was comparable to SOD. The above results indicate that TDS induces substantial DNA damage in calf thymus DNA and human lymphocytes and Aq.T is an efficient protectant.

  6. Rod and cone photoreceptor cells produce ROS in response to stress in a live retinal explant system.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bhatt, Lavinia

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can lead to oxidative stress, which is a strong contributory factor to many ocular diseases. In this study, the removal of trophic factors is used as a model system to investigate the effects of stress in the retina. The aims were to determine if both rod and cone photoreceptor cells produce ROS when they are deprived of trophic factor support and to demonstrate if the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (Nox) enzymes are responsible for this ROS production. METHODS: Retinas were explanted from mice aged between postnatal days 8-10 and cultured overnight. The following morning, confocal microscopy combined with various fluorescent probes was used to detect the production of ROS. Each time peanut agglutinin (PNA), a cone photoreceptor marker, was used to facilitate orientation of the retina. Dihydroethidium and dihydrorhodamine 123 (DHR123) were used to determine which cells produce ROS. Subsequently, western blots of retinal serial sections were used to detect the presence of Noxs in the different retinal layers. The Nox inhibitor apocynin was then tested to determine if it altered the production of ROS within these cells. RESULTS: Live retinal explants, viewed at high magnifications using confocal microscopy, displayed an increase in the fluorescent products of dihydroethidium and DHR123 upon serum removal when compared to controls. DHR123 fluorescence, once oxidized, localized to mitochondria and was found in the same focal plane as the PNA staining. This showed that cones and rods produced ROS when stressed. Retinal serial sectioning established that the photoreceptor layer expressed Nox4, dual oxidase (Duox) 1, and Duox2 at varying levels. Finally, the Nox inhibitor apocynin decreased the burst stimulated by the stress of serum removal. CONCLUSIONS: Confocal microscopy and PNA staining allowed differentiation of cell types within the outermost layers of the retina, demonstrating that both rods and cones generated ROS in response to the stress of serum deprivation. Nox4 was the most abundantly expressed Nox in the photoreceptor layer, but Duox1 and Duox2 were also present at detectable levels, and as apocynin reduced the levels of ROS produced, this implied that these proteins may play some role in this production.

  7. Postnatal retinal ganglion cells in vitro: protection against reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced axonal degeneration by cocultured astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucius, R; Sievers, J

    1996-12-16

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are supposed to be involved in neurodegenerative processes like Parkinson's or Alzheimer's disease. Beside this there are an increasing number of studies indicating an involvement of ROS in traumatic brain injury. We therefore studied the potential role of astrocytes against neurotoxic effects of ROS in cocultures of rat cortical astrocytes with regenerating postnatal retinal ganglion cells (RGC). The sydnonimine SIN-1, which spontaneously decomposes to yield nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide anion radicals, led to axonal degeneration at concentrations between 1 microM and 10 microM. Comparable effects were seen after addition of iron salts (Fe2+/Fe3+), which catalyze the generation of hydroxyl radicals. In contrast, in cocultures of RGC with astrocytes or after addition of free radical scavengers there was no neurotoxic/neurodegenerative effect of ROS as compared with control cultures. Vitamin E (1-10 microM) and vitamin C (10-100 microM) abolished the neurotoxic effect of both SIN-1 or iron ions. Beside this, there was an additional effect concerning the number and the length of neurites growing out from the retinal explant: in cocultures both parameters were greatly enhanced. These results suggest that (i) astrocytes are able to protect retinal ganglion cells against ROS-induced oxidative stress, (ii) astrocytes release soluble neurotrophic factors supporting RGC axonal regeneration, and (iii) free radical production after tissue injury may partly contribute to the failure of axonal regeneration in the adult mammalian central nervous system. PMID:9017230

  8. A Differential Role for Endocytosis in Receptor-Mediated Activation of Nox1

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Francis J; Chu, Xi; Stanic, Bojana; Tian, Xin; Sharma, Ram V.; Davisson, Robin L.; LAMB, Fred S.

    2010-01-01

    Internalization of activated receptors to a compartment enriched with NAPDH oxidase and associated signaling molecules is expected to facilitate regulation of redox-mediated signal transduction. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that endocytosis is necessary for generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by Nox1 and for redox-dependent signaling in smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Within minutes of treatment with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? or thrombin, SMCs increased cellular le...

  9. Photoactivation of ROS Production in Situ Transiently Activates Cell Proliferation in Mouse Skin and in the hair Follicle Stem Cell Niche Promoting Hair Growth and Wound Healing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrasco, Elisa; Calvo, María I; Blázquez-Castro, Alfonso; Vecchio, Daniela; Zamarrón, Alicia; de Almeida, Irma Joyce Dias; Stockert, Juan C; Hamblin, Michael R; Juarranz, Ángeles; Espada, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the regulation of hair follicle cycle and skin homeostasis is poorly characterized. ROS have been traditionally linked to human disease and ageing, but recent findings suggest that can also have beneficial physiological functions in vivo in mammals. To test this hypothesis, we transiently switched on in situ ROS production in mouse skin. This process activated cell proliferation in the tissue and, interestingly, in the bulge region of the hair follicl...

  10. Development and testing of an online method to measure ambient fine particulate Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) based on the 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin (DCFH) assay

    OpenAIRE

    King, L. E.; Weber, R. J.

    2013-01-01

    An online, semi-continuous instrument to measure fine particle (PM2.5) reactive oxygen species (ROS) was developed based on the fluorescent probe 2'7'-dichlorofluorescin (DCFH). Parameters that influence probe response were first characterized to develop an optimal method for use in a field instrument. The online method used a mist chamber scrubber to collect total (gas plus particle) ROS components (ROSt) alternating with gas phase ROS (ROSg) by means of an inline filter. Particle phase...

  11. The antitumor mechanism of di-2-pyridylketone 2-pyridine carboxylic acid hydrazone and its copper complex in ROS generation and topoisomerase inhibition, and hydrazone involvement in oxygen-catalytic iron mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tengfei; Li, Cuiping; Sun, Xingzhi; Zhu, Zhenfu; Fu, Yun; Liu, Youxun; Yuan, Yanbin; Li, Shaoshan; Li, Changzheng

    2015-11-01

    Iron depletion and stimulation of iron-dependent free radical damage is a rapidly developing field for chelation therapy, but the iron mobilization from ferritin by chelators has received less attention. In this study, the di-2-pyridylketone 2-pyridine carboxylic acid hydrazone (DPPCAH) and its copper complex was prepared and characterized by NMR and MS spectra. The proliferation inhibition assay showed that both DPPCAH and its copper complex exhibited selectively proliferation inhibition for HepG2 (IC50, 4.6±0.2 µM for DPPACH and 1.3±0.2 µM for its copper complex), but less inhibition for HCT-116 cell line (IC50, >100 µM for DPPACH and 7.8±0.4 µM for its copper complex). The mechanistic studies revealed that DPPACH could remove iron from ferritin in a oxygen-catalytic manner, and contributed to redox activity of labile iron pool (LIP), that is less reported for the chelators that possess significant biological activity. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and DNA cleavage assay in vitro and in vivo showed that both DPPACH-Fe(II) and DPPACH-Cu were redox-active species, indicating that ROS may mediate their antitumor activity. Further study revealed that both DPPACH and its copper complex displayed certain degree of inhibition of type II topoisomerase (Top) which contributed to their antitumor activity. Thus, the mechanism that iron mobilization by DPPACH from ferritin contributed to LIP was proposed, and both DPPACH and its copper complex were involved in ROS generation and Top II inhibition for their antitumor activities. PMID:26398524

  12. Control of reactive oxygen species (ROS production through histidine kinases in Aspergillus nidulans under different growth conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saki Hayashi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensor histidine kinases (HKs are important factors that control cellular growth in response to environmental conditions. The expression of 15 HKs from Aspergillus nidulans was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR under vegetative, asexual, and sexual growth conditions. Most HKs were highly expressed during asexual growth. All HK gene-disrupted strains produced reactive oxygen species (ROS. Three HKs are involved in the control of ROS: HysA was the most abundant under the restricted oxygen condition, NikA is involved in fungicide sensing, and FphA inhibits sexual development in response to red light. Phosphotransfer signal transduction via HysA is essential for ROS production control.

  13. Reactive oxygen species regulated mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in PC12 cells exposed to chlorpyrifos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactive oxidative species (ROS) generated by environmental toxicants including pesticides could be one of the factors underlying the neuronal cell damage in neurodegenerative diseases. In this study we found that chlorpyrifos (CPF) induced apoptosis in dopaminergic neuronal components of PC12 cells as demonstrated by the activation of caspases and nuclear condensation. Furthermore, CPF also reduced the tyrosine hydroxylase-positive immunoreactivity in substantia nigra of the rat. In addition, CPF induced inhibition of mitochondrial complex I activity. Importantly, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) treatment effectively blocked apoptosis via the caspase-9 and caspase-3 pathways while NAC attenuated the inhibition of mitochondrial complex I activity as well as the oxidative metabolism of dopamine (DA). These results demonstrated that CPF-induced apoptosis was involved in mitochondrial dysfunction through the production of ROS. In the response of cellular antioxidant systems to CPF, we found that CPF treatment increased HO-1 expression while the expression of CuZnSOD and MnSOD was reduced. In addition, we found that CPF treatment activated MAPK pathways, including ERK 1/2, the JNK, and the p38 MAP kinase in a time-dependent manner. NAC treatment abolished MAPK phosphorylation caused by CPF, indicating that ROS are upstream signals of MAPK. Interestingly, MAPK inhibitors abolished cytotoxicity and reduced ROS generation by CPF treatment. Our results demonstrate that CPF induced neuronal cell death in part through MAPK activation via ROS generation, suggesting its potential to generate oxidative stress via mitochondrial damage and its involvement in oxidative stress-related neurodegenerative disease. -- Highlights: ? Chlorpyrifos induces apoptosis. ? Chlorpyrifos inhibits mitochondrial complex I activity. ? ROS is involved in chlorpyrifos-induced apoptosis. ? Chlorpyrifos affects cellular antioxidant systems. ? Chlorpyrifos-induced apoptosis mediates activation of MAPK.

  14. Molecular Characterization of Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumors with Frequent ALK and ROS1 Fusions and Rare Novel RET Gene Rearrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonescu, Cristina R; Suurmeijer, Albert JH; Zhang, Lei; Sung, Yun-Shao; Jungbluth, Achim A; Travis, William D; Al-Ahmadie, Hikmat; Fletcher, Christopher DM; Alaggio, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 50% of conventional IMTs harbor ALK gene rearrangement and overexpress ALK. Recently gene fusions involving other kinases have been implicated in the pathogenesis of IMT, including ROS1 and in one patient PDGFRB. However, it remains uncertain if the emerging genotypes correlate with clinicopathologic characteristics of IMT. In this study we expand the molecular investigation of IMT in a large cohort of different clinical presentations and analyze for potential genotype-phenotype associations. Criteria for inclusion in the study were typical morphology and tissue availability for molecular studies. The lack of ALK immunoreactivity was not an excluding factor. As overlapping gene fusions involving actionable kinases are emerging in both IMT and lung cancer, we set out to evaluate abnormalities in ALK, ROS1, PDGFRB, NTRK1 and RET by FISH. Additionally, next generation paired-end RNA sequencing and FusionSeq algorithm was applied in 4 cases, which identified EML4-ALK fusions in 2 cases. Of the 62 IMTs (25 children and 37 adults), 35 (56%) showed ALK gene rearrangement. Of note, EML4-ALK inversion was noted in 7 (20%) cases, seen mainly in the lung and soft tissue of young children including 2 lesions from newborns. There were 6 (10%) ROS1 rearranged IMTs, all except one presenting in children, mainly in the lung and intra-abdominal and showed a distinctive fascicular growth of spindle cells with long cell processes, often positive for ROS1 IHC. Two of the cases showed TFG-ROS1 fusions. Interestingly, one adult IMT revealed a RET gene rearrangement, a previously unreported finding. Our results show that 42/62 (68%) of IMTs are characterized by kinase fusions, offering a rationale for targeted therapeutic strategies. Interestingly 90% of fusion negative IMT were seen in adults, while >90% of pediatric IMT showed gene rearrangements.EML4-ALK inversion and ROS1 fusions emerge as common fusion abnormalities in IMT, closely recapitulating the pattern seen in lung cancer. PMID:25723109

  15. Verminoside mediates life span extension and alleviates stress in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, A; Asthana, J; Yadav, A K; Rathor, L; Srivastava, S; Gupta, M M; Pandey, R

    2015-11-01

    The discovery of bioactive molecules modulating aging in living organism promotes development of natural therapeutics for curing age-related afflictions. The progression in age-related disorders can be attributed to increment in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress level. To this end, we isolated an iridoid verminoside (VMS) from Stereospermum suaveolens (Roxb.) DC. and evaluated its effect on Caenorhabditis elegans. The present study delineates VMS-mediated alteration of intracellular ROS, oxidative stress, and life span in C. elegans. The different tested doses of VMS (5 ?M, 25 ?M, and 50 ?M) were able to enhance ROS scavenging and extend mean life span in C. elegans. The maximal life span extension was observed in 25 ?M VMS, that is, 20.79% (P < 0.0001) followed by 9.84% (P < 0.0001) in 5 ?M VMS and 8.54% (P < 0.0001) in 50 ?M VMS. VMS was able to alleviate juglone-induced oxidative stress and enhanced thermotolerance in worms. The stress-modulating and ROS-scavenging potential of VMS was validated by increment in mean survival by 29.54% (P < 0.0001) in VMS-treated oxidative stress hypersensitive mev-1 mutant strain. Furthermore, VMS modulates expression of DAF-16 (a FoxO transcription factor) promoting stress resistance and longevity. Altogether, our results suggest that VMS attenuates intracellular ROS and stress (oxidative and thermal) level promoting longevity. The longevity and stress modulation can be attributed to VMS-mediated alterations in daf-16 expression which regulates insulin signaling pathway. This study opens doors for development of phytomolecule-based therapeutics for prolonging life span and managing age-related severe disorders. PMID:26189547

  16. Surface topography of hydroxyapatite affects ROS17/2.8 cells response A topografia de superfície da hidroxiapatita afeta a resposta de células ROS17/2.8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto Luiz Rosa

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxyapatite (HA has been used in orthopedic, dental, and maxillofacial surgery as a bone substitute. The aim of this investigation was to study the effect of surface topography produced by the presence of microporosity on cell response, evaluating: cell attachment, cell morphology, cell proliferation, total protein content, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity. HA discs with different percentages of microporosity (A hidroxiapatita (HA tem sido utilizada como revestimento de implantes e para substituição de tecido ósseo. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da topografia de superfície da HA, resultante da presença de microporosidade, sobre a adesão, a morfologia e proliferação celulares, a medida de proteína total e a atividade de fosfatase alcalina. Discos de HA com diferentes porcentagens de microporosidade (< 5%, 15% e 30% foram fabricados por uma combinação das técnicas de pressão uniaxial e sinterização. Células ROS17/2.8 foram cultivadas sobre os discos de HA. Para a adesão, as células foram cultivadas por duas horas. A morfologia foi avaliada após sete dias. A proliferação, medida de proteína total e atividade de ALP foram avaliadas após sete e quatorze dias. Os dados foram comparados por ANOVA e teste de Duncan quando apropriado. A adesão (p = 0,11 e a medida de proteína total (p = 0,31 não foram afetadas pela topografia de superfície. A proliferação após sete e quatorze dias (p = 0,0007 e p = 0,003, respectivamente, e a atividade de ALP (p = 0,0007 foram significantemente menores na superfície irregular (HA30. Esses resultados sugerem que eventos iniciais não são afetados pela topografia, enquanto superfícies com topografias mais regulares (microporosidade de 15% ou menos favoreceram eventos intermediários e finais, como proliferação e atividade de ALP.

  17. Contact probe voltammetry for in situ monitoring of the reactivity of phenolic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) compounds with ROS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doménech-Carbó, Antonio; Gavara, Rafael; Hernández-Muñoz, Pilar; Domínguez, Irene

    2015-11-01

    The application of an in situ electrochemical contact probe methodology for monitoring reactivity of antioxidant polyphenolic compounds in tomato fruits is described. Upon electrochemical generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), characteristic voltammetric responses were recorded for compounds resulting from the reaction of such species with tomato compounds. This suggests that new electrochemically oxidizable compounds are generated from the oxidation of highly reactive polyphenolic compounds with ROS. Therefore, an evaluation of the antioxidant capacity of such species could be made from voltammetric data for different tomato varieties. PMID:26452949

  18. Synthesis and biological evaluation of new pyrimidine-4-yl-ethanol derivatives as ROS1 kinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelazem, Ahmed Z; Lee, So Ha

    2015-04-01

    As a part of trials to target ROS1 kinase with potential inhibitors, a novel series of pyrimidin-4-yl-ethanol and ethanone derivatives (4a-f, 5a-f, 6a-f and 7a-f) have been designed based on previously discovered lead compounds KIST301072 and KIST301080, and synthesized on 4-5 steps according to compounds. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds have been confirmed on (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR and IR. Most of the tested compounds showed ROS1 kinase inhibitory activity in micromolar range. PMID:24939104

  19. Safflor yellow B suppresses angiotensin II-mediated human umbilical vein cell injury via regulation of Bcl-2/p22{sup phox} expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chaoyun; He, Yanhao [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai, Shandong 264003 (China); Department of Pharmacology, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Key Laboratory of Environment and Genes Related to Disease, Ministry of Education, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710061 (China); Yang, Ming; Sun, Hongliu; Zhang, Shuping [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai, Shandong 264003 (China); Wang, Chunhua, E-mail: chunhuawang2012@163.com [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai, Shandong 264003 (China)

    2013-11-15

    Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) are derived from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase. Angiotensin II (Ang II) can cause endothelial dysfunction by promoting intracellular ROS generation. Safflor yellow B (SYB) effectively inhibits ROS generation by upregulating Bcl-2 expression. In this study, we examined the effects of SYB on Ang II-induced injury to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and elucidated the roles of NADPH oxidase and Bcl-2. We treated cultured HUVECs with Ang II, SYB, and Bcl-2 siRNA, and determined NADPH oxidase activity and ROS levels. Furthermore, cellular and mitochondrial physiological states were evaluated, and the expression levels of target proteins were analyzed. Ang II significantly enhanced intracellular ROS levels, caused mitochondrial membrane dysfunction, and decreased cell viability, leading to apoptosis. This was associated with increased expression of AT1R and p22{sup phox}, increased NADPH oxidase activity, and an increased ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, leading to decreases in antioxidant enzyme activities, which were further strengthened after blocking Bcl-2. Compared to Ang II treatment alone, co-treatment with SYB significantly reversed HUVEC injury. Taken together, these results demonstrate that SYB could significantly protect endothelial cells from Ang II-induced cell damage, and that it does so by upregulating Bcl-2 expression and inhibiting ROS generation. - Highlights: • Angiotensin II depresses mitochondria physiological function. • Angiotensin II activates NADPH oxidase via up-regulating expresion of p22{sup phox}. • Bcl-2 plays a pivotal role in improving mitochondria function and regulates ROS level. • Inhibitor of Bcl-2 promotes angiotensin II mediated HUVEC injury. • SYB attenuates angiotensin II mediated HUVEC injury via up regulating Bcl-2 expression.

  20. Safflor yellow B suppresses angiotensin II-mediated human umbilical vein cell injury via regulation of Bcl-2/p22phox expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) are derived from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase. Angiotensin II (Ang II) can cause endothelial dysfunction by promoting intracellular ROS generation. Safflor yellow B (SYB) effectively inhibits ROS generation by upregulating Bcl-2 expression. In this study, we examined the effects of SYB on Ang II-induced injury to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and elucidated the roles of NADPH oxidase and Bcl-2. We treated cultured HUVECs with Ang II, SYB, and Bcl-2 siRNA, and determined NADPH oxidase activity and ROS levels. Furthermore, cellular and mitochondrial physiological states were evaluated, and the expression levels of target proteins were analyzed. Ang II significantly enhanced intracellular ROS levels, caused mitochondrial membrane dysfunction, and decreased cell viability, leading to apoptosis. This was associated with increased expression of AT1R and p22phox, increased NADPH oxidase activity, and an increased ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, leading to decreases in antioxidant enzyme activities, which were further strengthened after blocking Bcl-2. Compared to Ang II treatment alone, co-treatment with SYB significantly reversed HUVEC injury. Taken together, these results demonstrate that SYB could significantly protect endothelial cells from Ang II-induced cell damage, and that it does so by upregulating Bcl-2 expression and inhibiting ROS generation. - Highlights: • Angiotensin II depresses mitochondria physiological function. • Angiotensin II activates NADPH oxidase via up-regulating expresion of p22phox. • Bcl-2 plays a pivotal role in improving mitochondria function and regulates ROS level. • Inhibitor of Bcl-2 promotes angiotensin II mediated HUVEC injury. • SYB attenuates angiotensin II mediated HUVEC injury via up regulating Bcl-2 expression

  1. Arsenic trioxide synergistically enhances radiation response in human cervical cancer cells through ROS-dependent p38 MAPK and JNK signalling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many factors affect susceptibility of tumor cells to ionizing radiation. Among them intrinsic apoptosis sensitivity or resistancy seems to play an important role. The use of chemical modifiers as radiosensitizers in combination with low-dose irradiation may increase the therapeutic efficacy by overcoming a high apoptotic threshold. Several recent studies demonstrated additive effects of As2O3 with conventional chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatin, adriamycin, and etoposide, but no synergism. Previously, we have shown for the first time that As2O3 sensitize human cervical cancer cells to ionizing radiation. Treatment of As2O3 in combination of ionizing radiation has synergistic effects in decreasing clonogenic survival and in the regression of tumor growth in xenografts. We also have shown that the combination treatment enhanced apoptotic cell death through a reactive oxygen species-dependent pathway in human cervical cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the regulatory mechanism of ROS-mediated mitochondrial apoptotic cell death induced by combination treatment with As2O3 and ionizing radiation in human cervical cancer cells

  2. Redox cycling of Cu(II) by 6-mercaptopurine leads to ROS generation and DNA breakage: possible mechanism of anticancer activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Sayeed Ur; Zubair, Haseeb; Sarwar, Tarique; Husain, Mohammed Amir; Ishqi, Hassan Mubarak; Nehar, Shamshun; Tabish, Mohammad

    2015-02-01

    6-Mercaptopurine (6MP) is a well-known purine antimetabolite used to treat childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia and other diseases. Cancer cells as compared to normal cells are under increased oxidative stress and show high copper level. These differences between cancer cells and normal cells can be targeted to develop effective cancer therapy. Pro-oxidant property of 6MP in the presence of metal ions is not well documented. Redox cycling of Cu(II) to Cu(I) was found to be efficiently mediated by 6MP. We have performed a series of in vitro experiments to demonstrate the pro-oxidant property of 6MP in the presence of Cu(II). Studies on human lymphocytes confirmed the DNA damaging ability of 6MP in the presence of Cu(II). Since 6MP possesses DNA damaging ability by producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the presence of Cu(II), it may also possess apoptosis-inducing activity by involving endogenous copper ions. Essentially, this would be an alternative and copper-dependent pathway for anticancer activity of 6MP. PMID:25344215

  3. Natural borneol enhances bisdemethoxycurcumin-induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase through up-regulation of intracellular ROS in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianping; Li, Lin; Su, Jianyu; Chen, Tianfeng

    2015-03-01

    Bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDCur) has been found widely in foods such as cheese, butter, etc., and in curry (powder) as a spice. It has been reported to possess anticancer activity. However, its poor absorption limited its application. Natural borneol (NB) has been used as a promoter of drug absorption and widely used in candies, beverages, baked goods, chewing gum and other foods. Thus, we investigated whether NB could potentiate the cellular uptake of BDCur, and elucidated the molecular mechanisms of their combined inhibitory effects on HepG2 cells. Our results demonstrate that NB significantly enhanced the cellular uptake of BDCur. Induction of cell cycle arrest in HepG2 cells by NB and BDCur in combination was evidenced by accumulation of the G2/M cell population. Further investigation on the molecular mechanism showed that NB and BDCur in combination resulted in a significant decrease in the expression level of Cdc2 and cyclin B. Moreover, studies also found that ROS acted as an upstream mediator in NB/BDCur-induced HepG2 cell growth inhibition and led to DNA damage with up-regulation of the expression level of phosphorylated ATM and p53. Our findings suggest that the strategy of using NB and BDCur in combination may have promising potential applications in cancer chemoprevention. PMID:25537301

  4. Radiation Induces Cathepsin S through ROS-IFN-{gamma} Pathways: Involvement of Cellular Radioresistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Haeng Ran; Lee, Yun-Sil [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Joon [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    Ionizing radiation can elicit an activated phenotype that promotes rapid and persistent remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) through the induction of proteases and growth factors, as well as in response to chronic production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, the results of previously conducted cDNA microarrays and real-time RT-PCR analysis (unpublished) suggest that radiation-induced mammary tumors were specifically induced by cathepsin S (CTSS), but that dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary tumors were not. CTSS is a lysosomal cystein protease that is synthesized as an inactive precursor (36kDa) and activated in the acidic environment of lysosomes by proteolytic cleavage of its propeptide. In this study, we further investigate the mechanism by which CTSS is induced by radiation as well as its function.

  5. UV-B affects photosynthesis, ROS production and motility of the freshwater flagellate, Euglena agilis Carter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? We proposed a hypothesis for the UV-B protective/adaptive mechanism in Euglena agilis. After moderate levels of UV-B radiation, ROS plays a signaling role to shut down photosynthetic system for protection against harmful UV radiation. ? E. agilis exposed to excessive UV appears to become animal-like, investing all its stored energy into movement rather than into sustaining its photosynthetic machinery. ? This adaptation allows E. agilis to avoid harmful UV and seek a safe place where the organism may regain its photosynthetic capacity for survival. - Abstract: The effects of ultraviolet B (UV-B; 295–320 nm) radiation on certain vital physiological (photosynthesis), biochemical (production of reactive oxygen species – ROS) and behavioral (motility and orientation) characteristics were investigated in the unicellular photoautotroph, Euglena agilis Carter. The photosynthetic performance of E. agilis was recorded after exposure of between 15 and 60 min followed by a period of recovery lasting 6–24 h under dim light (5–10 ?mol photons m?2 s?1). The maximum quantum yield of PS II (Fv/Fm) was reduced to 65% and 14% of initial values immediately following 15 and 30 min UV-B exposure, but recovered to 100 and 86% of the initials, respectively. Values of rETRmax in E. agilis exposed to 15 min UV-B were similar to those of the initials, but a 30 min UV exposure resulted in 75% reduction of rETRmax with only a 43% recovery as compared with the initial after 24 h recovery. After a 60 min UV-B exposure, there were no Chl a fluorescence signals, and hence no Fv/Fm or rETRmax. A UV dose-dependent increase in DCFH-DA fluorescence was found in E. agilis cells, reflecting an increase in ROS production. After exposures to UV-B for between 15 and 60 min, the percentages of motile cells in the population decreased to 76, 39 and 15%, respectively. Following 24 h in dim light, the percentage of motile cells increased to between 66% and 95% of the initial value. The velocity of non-irradiated cells was 60 ?m s?1, which decreased to 16–35 ?m s?1 immediately following exposure for 15–60 min. After periods of time in dim light (6, 12 and 24 h) velocities had recovered to between 44 and 81% of the initial value. In untreated controls, the r-value was 0.23, indicating random movement of E. agilis, but it increased to 0.35 and 0.72 after exposure to UV-B for 30 and 60 min, respectively. There was a tendency towards vertical downward movement of cells proportional to the duration of exposure. The compactness of E. agilis decreased from 2.9 in controls to 1.8–2.3 in cells treated with UV-B although significant recovery followed. UV-B dose-dependent interaction between photosynthetic activity, ROS production and movement is discussed in terms of a UV-protective mechanism in E. agilis.

  6. Radiation Induces Cathepsin S through ROS-IFN-? Pathways: Involvement of Cellular Radioresistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation can elicit an activated phenotype that promotes rapid and persistent remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) through the induction of proteases and growth factors, as well as in response to chronic production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, the results of previously conducted cDNA microarrays and real-time RT-PCR analysis (unpublished) suggest that radiation-induced mammary tumors were specifically induced by cathepsin S (CTSS), but that dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary tumors were not. CTSS is a lysosomal cystein protease that is synthesized as an inactive precursor (36kDa) and activated in the acidic environment of lysosomes by proteolytic cleavage of its propeptide. In this study, we further investigate the mechanism by which CTSS is induced by radiation as well as its function

  7. SkiROS : A four tiered architecture for task-level programming of industrial mobile manipulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rovida, Francesco; Schou, Casper

    During the last decades, the methods for intuitive task level programming of robots have become a fundamental point of interest for industrial application. The paper in hand presents SkiROS (Skill-based Robot Operating System) a novel software architecture based on the skills paradigm. The skill paradigm has already been used and tested within the FP7 project TAPAS, and we are going to use it in several new FP7 projects (CARLOS, STAMINA, ACAT). It facilitates task-level programming of mobile manipulators by providing the robot with a set of movement primitives, skills and tasks. This hierarchy brings many advantages, where the most relevant is the separation of control in the layers of hardware abstraction(proxy), multi-sensory control(primitive), object-level abstraction (skill) and planning (task). The de?nition and the clear division in different abstraction levels allows the implementation of a ?exible, highly modular system for the development of cognitive robot tasks.

  8. 8-bromo-7-methoxychrysin-induced apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells involves ROS and JNK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Hong Yang, Xing Zheng, Jian-Guo Cao, Hong-Lin Xiang, Fei Liu, Yuan Lv

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate whether the apoptotic activities of 8-bromo-7-methoxychrysin (BrMC involve reactive oxygen species (ROS generation and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK activation in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HCC.METHODS: HepG2, Bel-7402 and L-02 cell lines were cultured in vitro and the apoptotic effects of BrMC were evaluated by flow cytometry (FCM after propidium iodide (PI staining, caspase-3 activity using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, and DNA agarose gel electrophoresis. ROS production was evaluated by FCM after dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCHF-DA probe labeling. The phosphorylation level of JNK and c-Jun protein was analyzed by Western blotting.RESULTS: FCM after PI staining showed a dose-dependent increase in the percentage of the sub-G1 cell population (P < 0.05, reaching 39.0% ± 2.8% of HepG2 cells after 48 h of treatment with BrMC at 10 ?mol/L. The potency of BrMC to HepG2 and Bel-7402 (32.1% ± 2.6% cells was found to be more effective than the lead compound, chrysin (16.2% ± 1.6% for HepG2 cells and 11.0% ± 1.3% for Bel-7402 cell at 40 ?mol/L and similar to 5-flurouracil (33.0% ± 2.1% for HepG2 cells and 29.3% ± 2.3% for Bel-7402 cells at 10 ?mol/L. BrMC had little effect on human embryo liver L-02 cells, with the percentage of sub-G1 cell population 5.4% ± 1.8%. Treatment of HepG2 cells with BrMC for 48 h also increased the levels of active caspase-3, in a concentration-dependent manner. z-DEVD-fmk, a caspase-3-specific inhibitor, prevented the activation of caspase-3. Treatment with BrMC at 10 ?mol/L for 48 h resulted in the formation of a DNA ladder. Treatment of cells with BrMC (10 ?mol/L increased mean fluorescence intensity of DCHF-DA in HepG2 cells from 7.2 ± 1.12 at 0 h to 79.8 ± 3.9 at 3 h and 89.7 ± 4.7 at 6 h. BrMC did not affect ROS generation in L-02 cells. BrMC treatment failed to induce cell death and caspase-3 activation in HepG2 cells pretreated with N-acetylcysteine (10 mmol/L. In addition, in HepG2 cells treated with BrMC (2.5, 5.0, 10.0 ?mol/L for 12 h, JNK activation was observed. Peak JNK activation occurred at 12 h post-treatment and this activation persisted for up to 24 h. The expression of phosphorylated JNK and c-Jun protein after 12 h with BrMC-treated cells was inhibited by N-acetylcysteine and SP600125 pre-treatment, but GW9662 had no effect. SP600125 substantially reduced BrMC-induced cell death and caspase-3 activation of HepG2 cells. N-acetylcysteine and GW9662 also attenuated induction of cell death and caspase-3 activation in HepG2 cells treated with BrMC.CONCLUSION: BrMC induces apoptosis of HCC cells by ROS generation and sustained JNK activation.

  9. Antimicrobial peptide protonectin disturbs the membrane integrity and induces ROS production in yeast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kairong; Dang, Wen; Xie, Junqiu; Zhu, Ranran; Sun, Mengyang; Jia, Fengjing; Zhao, Yanyan; An, Xiaoping; Qiu, Shuai; Li, Xiaoyuan; Ma, Zelin; Yan, Wenjin; Wang, Rui

    2015-10-01

    Candidiasis is often observed in immunocompromised patients and is the 4th most common cause of bloodstream infections. However, antifungals are limited, so novel antifungal agents are urgently needed. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are considered as potential alternatives of conventional antibiotics. In the present study, antimicrobial peptide protonectin was chemically synthesized and its antifungal activity and mode of action were studied. Our results showed that protonectin has potent antifungal activity and fungicidal activity against the tested fungi cells. Its action mode involved the disruption of the membrane integrity and the inducing of the production of cellular ROS. Furthermore, protonectin could inhibit the formation of biofilm and kill the adherent fungi cells. In conclusion, with the increase of fungal infection, protonectin may offer a new strategy and be considered as a potential therapeutic agent against fungal disease. PMID:26209560

  10. A soccer match's ability to enhance lymphocyte capability to produce ROS and induce oxidative damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Miguel David; Tauler, Pedro; Sureda, Antoni; Pujol, Pedro; Drobnic, Francheck; Tur, Josep Antoni; Pons, Antoni

    2009-06-01

    Soccer-associated oxidative stress has barely been studied. The aims of this study were to establish the effect of a soccer training match and the effect of a diet supplementation with a multivitamin complex and coenzyme Q during 3 months of soccer training on the pro-oxidant and antioxidant status of lymphocytes. In a randomized, double-blind trial, 19 male preprofessional soccer players were treated with either an antioxidant nutrient cocktail or placebo for 90 days. After this period the athletes played a soccer match lasting 60 min. All determinations were made under basal conditions before and after the training period and after the match. Basal lymphocyte hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production did not change after the 3 months of training. Catalase activity decreased (about 50%) after the 3 months, whereas glutathione reductase increased its activity (150-200%) both with placebo and in the supplemented group. Basal ascorbate levels were maintained during the training period, whereas a-tocopherol and MDA decreased (about 40%) in both groups. The match increased H2O2 production (180%) in both groups when the lymphocytes were stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate, and it also increased MDA levels (150%). Antioxidant enzyme activities and antioxidant vitamin levels were maintained before and after the match. Regular soccer training modifies the lymphocyte strategy to eliminate ROS and increases protection against oxidative damage. A friendly soccer match raises lymphocyte capacity to produce ROS and oxidative damage, but it is not enough to induce a defensive response, thus leading to a situation of postexercise oxidative stress. Supplementation with low doses of antioxidant vitamins and coenzyme Q does not modify the endogenous antioxidant response to training. PMID:19574612

  11. Structure-activity relationship of trifluoromethyl-containing metallocenes: electrochemistry, lipophilicity, cytotoxicity, and ROS production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschke, Marcus; Alborzinia, Hamed; Lieb, Max; Wölfl, Stefan; Metzler-Nolte, Nils

    2014-06-01

    We report the synthesis of trifluoromethylated metallocenes (M=Fe, Ru) and related metal-free compounds for comparison of their biological properties with the aim to establish structure-activity relationships toward the anti-proliferative activity of this compound class. All new compounds were comprehensively characterized by NMR spectroscopy ((1) H, (13) C, (19) F), mass spectrometry, IR spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. A single-crystal X-ray structure was obtained on the Ru derivative, 1-(1-hydroxy-1-hexafluoromethylethyl)ruthenocene (3). The cytotoxicity of all compounds was tested on MCF-7, HT-29, and PT-45 cells, and IC50 values as low as 12 ?M were observed. Both the metallocene moiety and the hydroxy function are crucial for cytotoxicity. In addition, the activity decreased sharply even if only one trifluoromethyl group was replaced with a methyl group. Electrochemical investigations by cyclic voltammetry revealed that all CF3 -containing compounds are harder to oxidize than the unsubstituted metallocenes. Moreover, log?P determination by RP-HPLC showed the fluorinated derivatives to have higher lipophilicity, with log?P values up to 4.6. At the same time, the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in Jurkat cells by these compounds was investigated by flow cytometry. Strong ROS production was shown exclusively for the bis-CF3 derivative 1-(1-hydroxy-1-hexafluoromethylethyl)ferrocene (1) after 6 and 24 h. Also on the Jurkat cell line, only compound 1 strongly induces necrosis after 24 and 48 h, as shown by annexin V/propidium iodide staining. No induction of apoptosis was observed. We propose that compound 1 is more efficiently incorporated into cancer cells relative to all other derivatives, causing significant induction of oxidative stress within the cell, which ultimately leads to cell death. PMID:24838930

  12. Mediated homogenization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homogenization protocols model the quantum mechanical evolution of a system to a fixed state independently from its initial configuration by repeatedly coupling it with a collection of identical ancillas. Here we analyze these protocols within the formalism of ''relaxing'' channels providing an easy-to-check sufficient condition for homogenization. In this context we describe mediated homogenization schemes where a network of connected qudits relaxes to a fixed state by only partially interacting with a bath. We also study configurations which allow us to introduce entanglement among the elements of the network. Finally we analyze the effect of having competitive configurations with two different baths and we prove the convergence to dynamical equilibrium for Heisenberg chains

  13. Micro dynamics in mediation

    OpenAIRE

    Boserup, Hans

    2014-01-01

    The author has identified a number of styles in mediation, which lead to different processes and different outcomes. Through discourse and conversation analysis he examines the micro dynamics in three of these, the postmodern styles: systemic, transformative and narrative mediation. The differences between the three mediation ideologies and practice is illustrated through role play scripts enacted in each style. Mediator and providers of mediation and trainers in mediation are encouraged to a...

  14. Asperlin induces G2/M arrest through ROS generation and ATM pathway in human cervical carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? A new anti-cancer effect of an antibiotics, asperlin, is exploited. ? Asperlin induced human cervical cancer cell apoptosis through ROS generation. ? Asperlin activated DNA-damage related ATM protein and cell cycle associated proteins. ? Asperlin could be developed as a new anti-cancer therapeutics. -- Abstract: We exploited the biological activity of an antibiotic agent asperlin isolated from Aspergillus nidulans against human cervical carcinoma cells. We found that asperlin dramatically increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation accompanied by a significant reduction in cell proliferation. Cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP and reduction of Bcl-2 could also be detected after asperlin treatment to the cells. An anti-oxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), however, blocked all the apoptotic effects of asperlin. The involvement of oxidative stress in asperlin induced apoptosis could be supported by the findings that ROS- and DNA damage-associated G2/M phase arrest and ATM phosphorylation were increased by asperlin. In addition, expression and phosphorylation of cell cycle proteins as well as G2/M phase arrest in response to asperlin were significantly blocked by NAC or an ATM inhibitor KU-55933 pretreatment. Collectively, our study proved for the first time that asperlin could be developed as a potential anti-cancer therapeutics through ROS generation in HeLa cells.

  15. High activity of mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase and glycerophosphate-dependent ROS production in prostate cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most malignant cells are highly glycolytic and produce high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) compared to normal cells. Mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (mGPDH) participates in the reoxidation of cytosolic NADH by delivering reducing equivalents from this molecule into the electron transport chain, thus sustaining glycolysis. Here, we investigate the role of mGPDH in maintaining an increased rate of glycolysis and evaluate glycerophosphate-dependent ROS production in prostate cancer cell lines (LNCaP, DU145, PC3, and CL1). Immunoblot, polarographic, and spectrophotometric analyses revealed that mGPDH abundance and activity was significantly elevated in prostate cancer cell lines when compared to the normal prostate epithelial cell line PNT1A. Furthermore, both the glycolytic capacity and glycerophosphate-dependent ROS production was increased 1.68- to 4.44-fold and 5- to 7-fold, respectively, in prostate cancer cell lines when compared to PNT1A cells. Overall, these data demonstrate that mGPDH is involved in maintaining a high rate of glycolysis and is an important site of electron leakage leading to ROS production in prostate cancer cells

  16. Asperlin induces G{sub 2}/M arrest through ROS generation and ATM pathway in human cervical carcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Long; Nan, Mei-Hua [Chemical Biology Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), 30 Yeongudanji-ro, Ochang-eup, Cheongwon-gun, Chungbuk 363-883 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Hyun Cheol [College of Medical and Life Sciences, Silla University, 100 Silladaehak-gil, Sasang-gu, Busan 617-736 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Ho [College of Pharmacy, ChungNam National University, Yuseong, Daejeon, 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Jae Hyuk [Chemical Biology Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), 30 Yeongudanji-ro, Ochang-eup, Cheongwon-gun, Chungbuk 363-883 (Korea, Republic of); Erikson, Raymond Leo [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ahn, Jong Seog, E-mail: jsahn@kribb.re.kr [Chemical Biology Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), 30 Yeongudanji-ro, Ochang-eup, Cheongwon-gun, Chungbuk 363-883 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Bo Yeon, E-mail: bykim@kribb.re.kr [Chemical Biology Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), 30 Yeongudanji-ro, Ochang-eup, Cheongwon-gun, Chungbuk 363-883 (Korea, Republic of); World Class Institute, KRIBB, 30 Yeongudanji-ro, Ochang-eup, Cheongwon-gun, Chungbuk 363-883 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} A new anti-cancer effect of an antibiotics, asperlin, is exploited. {yields} Asperlin induced human cervical cancer cell apoptosis through ROS generation. {yields} Asperlin activated DNA-damage related ATM protein and cell cycle associated proteins. {yields} Asperlin could be developed as a new anti-cancer therapeutics. -- Abstract: We exploited the biological activity of an antibiotic agent asperlin isolated from Aspergillus nidulans against human cervical carcinoma cells. We found that asperlin dramatically increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation accompanied by a significant reduction in cell proliferation. Cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP and reduction of Bcl-2 could also be detected after asperlin treatment to the cells. An anti-oxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), however, blocked all the apoptotic effects of asperlin. The involvement of oxidative stress in asperlin induced apoptosis could be supported by the findings that ROS- and DNA damage-associated G2/M phase arrest and ATM phosphorylation were increased by asperlin. In addition, expression and phosphorylation of cell cycle proteins as well as G2/M phase arrest in response to asperlin were significantly blocked by NAC or an ATM inhibitor KU-55933 pretreatment. Collectively, our study proved for the first time that asperlin could be developed as a potential anti-cancer therapeutics through ROS generation in HeLa cells.

  17. Necrostatin-1 protects against reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced hepatotoxicity in acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure

    OpenAIRE

    Takemoto, Kenji; Hatano, Etsuro; Iwaisako, Keiko; Takeiri, Masatoshi; Noma, Naruto; Ohmae, Saori; Toriguchi, Kan; Tanabe, Kazutaka; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Seo, Satoru; Taura, Kojiro; MACHIDA, KEIGO; Takeda, Norihiko; Saji, Shigehira; Uemoto, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    •RIPK-dependent necrosis is involved in acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity.•Necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) protects mice against APAP-induced acute liver damage.•Nec-1 suppresses APAP-induced ROS generation in hepatocytes.•Nec-1 promotes resistance to oxidative stress in hepatocytes.

  18. Modulation of ROS production in photodynamic therapy using a pH controlled photoinduced electron transfer (PET) based sensitiser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchison, Jordan; Kamila, Sukanta; McEwan, Conor; Nesbitt, Heather; Davis, James; Fowley, Colin; Callan, Bridgeen; McHale, Anthony P; Callan, John F

    2015-12-01

    A new sensitiser () for use in photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been developed to enable control of ROS production as a function of pH. This pH dependent PDT behaviour was tested in HeLa cells and in SCID mice bearing human xenograft pancreatic cancer (BxPC-3) tumours. PMID:26435142

  19. Environmental changes in oxygen tension reveal ROS-dependent neurogenesis and regeneration in the adult newt brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, L Shahul; Berg, Daniel A; Belnoue, Laure; Jensen, Lasse D; Cao, Yihai; Simon, András

    2015-01-01

    Organisms need to adapt to the ecological constraints in their habitat. How specific processes reflect such adaptations are difficult to model experimentally. We tested whether environmental shifts in oxygen tension lead to events in the adult newt brain that share features with processes occurring during neuronal regeneration under normoxia. By experimental simulation of varying oxygen concentrations, we show that hypoxia followed by re-oxygenation lead to neuronal death and hallmarks of an injury response, including activation of neural stem cells ultimately leading to neurogenesis. Neural stem cells accumulate reactive oxygen species (ROS) during re-oxygenation and inhibition of ROS biosynthesis counteracts their proliferation as well as neurogenesis. Importantly, regeneration of dopamine neurons under normoxia also depends on ROS-production. These data demonstrate a role for ROS-production in neurogenesis in newts and suggest that this role may have been recruited to the capacity to replace lost neurons in the brain of an adult vertebrate. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08422.001 PMID:26485032

  20. A deficiency of apoptosis inducing factor (AIF in Harlequin mouse heart mitochondria paradoxically reduces ROS generation during ischemia-reperfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QunChen

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: A deficiency of AIF within mitochondria does not increase ROS production during IR, indicating that AIF functions less as an antioxidant within mitochondria. The decreased cardiac injury in Hq mouse heart accompanied by less AIF translocation to the nucleus suggests that AIF relocation, rather than the AIF content within mitochondria, contributes to cardiac injury during IR.

  1. Antenatal Antioxidant Prevents Nicotine-Mediated Hypertensive Response in Rat Adult Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, DaLiao; Huang, Xiaohui; Li, Yong; Dasgupta, Chiranjib; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Lubo

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that perinatal nicotine exposure increased blood pressure (BP) in adult offspring. However, the underlying mechanisms were unclear. The present study tested the hypothesis that perinatal nicotine-induced programming of hypertensive response is mediated by enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the vasculature. Nicotine was administered to pregnant rats via subcutaneous osmotic mini-pumps from Day 4 of gestation to Day 10 after birth, in the absence or presence of the ROS inhibitor N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) in the drinking water. Experiments were conducted in 8-mo-old male offspring. Perinatal nicotine treatment resulted in a significant increase in arterial ROS production in offspring, which was abrogated by NAC. Angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced BP responses were significantly higher in nicotine-treated group than in saline-treated control group, and NAC treatment blocked the nicotine-induced increase in BP response. Consistent with that, the nicotine treatment significantly increased both Ang II-induced and phorbol [12, 13]-dibutyrate (PDBu, a Prkc activator)-induced arterial contractions in adult offspring, which were blocked by NAC treatment. In addition, perinatal nicotine treatment significantly attenuated acetylcholine-induced arterial relaxation in offspring, which was also inhibited by NAC treatment. Results demonstrate that inhibition of ROS blocks the nicotine-induced increase in arterial reactivity and BP response to vasoconstrictors in adult offspring, suggesting a key role for increased oxidative stress in nicotine-induced developmental programming of hypertensive phenotype in male offspring. PMID:26224008

  2. Redox Modulating NRF2: A Potential Mediator of Cancer Stem Cell Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryoo, In-Geun; Lee, Sang-Hwan; Kwak, Mi-Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    Tumors contain a distinct small subpopulation of cells that possess stem cell-like characteristics. These cells have been called cancer stem cells (CSCs) and are thought to be responsible for anticancer drug resistance and tumor relapse after therapy. Emerging evidence indicates that CSCs share many properties, such as self-renewal and quiescence, with normal stem cells. In particular, CSCs and normal stem cells retain low levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can contribute to stem cell maintenance and resistance to stressful tumor environments. Current literatures demonstrate that the activation of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and forkhead box O3 (FoxO3) is associated with the maintenance of low ROS levels in normal stem cells such as hematopoietic stem cells. However, the importance of ROS signaling in CSC biology remains poorly understood. Recent studies demonstrate that nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2), a master regulator of the cellular antioxidant defense system, is involved in the maintenance of quiescence, survival, and stress resistance of CSCs. Here, we review the recent findings on the roles of NRF2 in maintenance of the redox state and multidrug resistance in CSCs, focusing on how NRF2-mediated ROS modulation influences the growth and resistance of CSCs. PMID:26682001

  3. Mitochondrial aquaporin-8-mediated hydrogen peroxide transport is essential for teleost spermatozoon motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvigné, François; Boj, Mónica; Finn, Roderick Nigel; Cerdà, Joan

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS), particularly hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), cause oxidative cell damage and inhibit sperm function. In most oviparous fishes that spawn in seawater (SW), spermatozoa may be exposed to harmful ROS loads associated with the hyperosmotic stress of axonemal activation and ATP synthesis from mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. However, it is not known how marine spermatozoa can cope with the increased ROS levels to maintain flagellar motility. Here, we show that a marine teleost orthologue of human aquaporin-8, termed Aqp8b, is rapidly phosphorylated and inserted into the inner mitochondrial membrane of SW-activated spermatozoa, where it facilitates H2O2 efflux from this compartment. When Aqp8b intracellular trafficking and mitochondrial channel activity are immunologically blocked in activated spermatozoa, ROS levels accumulate in the mitochondria leading to mitochondrial membrane depolarisation, the reduction of ATP production, and the progressive arrest of sperm motility. However, the decreased sperm vitality underlying Aqp8b loss of function is fully reversed in the presence of a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant. These findings reveal a previously unknown detoxification mechanism in spermatozoa under hypertonic conditions, whereby mitochondrial Aqp8b-mediated H2O2 efflux permits fuel production and the maintenance of flagellar motility. PMID:25586329

  4. SK channels mediate NADPH oxidase-independent reactive oxygen species production and apoptosis in granulocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Alex J; Qian, Xiang; Jan, Yuh Nung; Jan, Lily Yeh

    2006-11-14

    Neutrophils are immune cells that bind to, engulf, and destroy bacterial and fungal pathogens in infected tissue, and their clearance by apoptosis is essential for the resolution of inflammation. Killing involves both oxidative and nonoxidative processes, the oxidative pathway requiring electrogenic production of superoxide by the membrane-bound NADPH oxidase complex. A variety of stimuli, from bacterial chemotactic peptides to complement- or IgG-opsonized microbes, can induce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by neutrophils, presumably by means of NADPH oxidase. We report here that 1-ethyl-2-benzimidazolinone (1-EBIO), an activator of Ca2+-activated potassium channels of small conductance (SK) and intermediate conductance (IK), causes production of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide by neutrophils and granulocyte-differentiated PLB-985 cells. This response can be partially inhibited by the SK blocker apamin, which inhibits a Ca2+-activated K+ current in these cells. Analysis of RNA transcripts indicates that channels encoded by the SK3 gene carry this current. The effects of 1-EBIO and apamin are independent of the NADPH oxidase pathway, as demonstrated by using a PLB-985 cell line lacking the gp91phox subunit. Rather, 1-EBIO and apamin modulate mitochondrial ROS production. Consistent with the enhanced ROS production and K+ efflux mediated by 1-EBIO, we found that this SK opener increased apoptosis of PLB-985 cells. Together, these findings suggest a previously uncharacterized mechanism for the regulation of neutrophil ROS production and programmed cell death. PMID:17085590

  5. Reactive oxygen species mediates homocysteine-induced mitochondrial biogenesis in human endothelial cells: Modulation by antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been proposed that homocysteine (Hcy)-induces endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). A previous report has shown that Hcy promotes mitochondrial damage. Considering that oxidative stress can affect mitochondrial biogenesis, we hypothesized that Hcy-induced ROS in endothelial cells may lead to increased mitochondrial biogenesis. We found that Hcy-induced ROS (1.85-fold), leading to a NF-?B activation and increase the formation of 3-nitrotyrosine. Furthermore, expression of the mitochondrial biogenesis factors, nuclear respiratory factor-1 and mitochondrial transcription factor A, was significantly elevated in Hcy-treated cells. These changes were accompanied by increase in mitochondrial mass and higher mRNA and protein expression of the subunit III of cytochrome c oxidase. These effects were significantly prevented by pretreatment with the antioxidants, catechin and trolox. Taken together, our results suggest that ROS is an important mediator of mitochondrial biogenesis induced by Hcy, and that modulation of oxidative stress by antioxidants may protect against the adverse vascular effects of Hcy

  6. DNA replication factor C1 mediates genomic stability and transcriptional gene silencing in Arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Qian

    2010-07-01

    Genetic screening identified a suppressor of ros1-1, a mutant of REPRESSOR OF SILENCING1 (ROS1; encoding a DNA demethylation protein). The suppressor is a mutation in the gene encoding the largest subunit of replication factor C (RFC1). This mutation of RFC1 reactivates the unlinked 35S-NPTII transgene, which is silenced in ros1 and also increases expression of the pericentromeric Athila retrotransposons named transcriptional silent information in a DNA methylationindependent manner. rfc1 is more sensitive than the wild type to the DNA-damaging agent methylmethane sulphonate and to the DNA inter- and intra- cross-linking agent cisplatin. The rfc1 mutant constitutively expresses the G2/M-specific cyclin CycB1;1 and other DNA repair-related genes. Treatment with DNA-damaging agents mimics the rfc1 mutation in releasing the silenced 35S-NPTII, suggesting that spontaneously induced genomic instability caused by the rfc1 mutation might partially contribute to the released transcriptional gene silencing (TGS). The frequency of somatic homologous recombination is significantly increased in the rfc1 mutant. Interestingly, ros1 mutants show increased telomere length, but rfc1 mutants show decreased telomere length and reduced expression of telomerase. Our results suggest that RFC1 helps mediate genomic stability and TGS in Arabidopsis thaliana. © 2010 American Society of Plant Biologists.

  7. Vorinostat and sorafenib increase CD95 activation in gastrointestinal tumor cells through a Ca2+ - de novo ceramide - PP2A - ROS dependent signaling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Margaret A.; Mitchell, Clint; Zhang, Guo; Yacoub, Adly; Allegood, Jeremy; Häussinger, Dieter; Reinehr, Roland; Larner, Andrew; Spiegel, Sarah; Fisher, Paul B.; Voelkel-Johnson, Christina; Ogretmen, Besim; Grant, Steven; Dent, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The targeted therapeutics sorafenib and vorinostat interact in a synergistic fashion to kill carcinoma cells by activating CD95, and this drug combination is entering phase I evaluation. In this study we determined how CD95 is activated by treatment with this drug combination. Low doses of sorafenib and vorinostat but not the individual drugs rapidly increased ROS, Ca2+ and ceramide levels in GI tumor cells. The production of ROS was reduced in Rho zero cells. Quenching ROS blocked drug-induced CD95 surface localization and apoptosis. ROS generation, CD95 activation and cell killing was also blocked by quenching of induced Ca2+ levels or by inhibition of PP2A. Inhibition of acidic sphingomyelinase or de novo ceramide generation blocked the induction of ROS however combined inhibition of both acidic sphingomyelinase and de novo ceramide generation was required to block the induction of Ca2+. Quenching of ROS did not impact on drug-induced ceramide/dihydro-ceramide levels whereas quenching of Ca2+ reduced the ceramide increase. Sorafenib and vorinostat treatment radiosensitized liver and pancreatic cancer cells, an effect that was suppressed by quenching ROS or knock down of LASS6. Further, sorafenib and vorinostat treatment suppressed the growth of pancreatic tumors in vivo. Our findings demonstrate that induction of cytosolic Ca2+ by sorafenib and vorinostat is a primary event that elevates dihydroceramide levels, each essential steps in ROS generation that promotes CD95 activation. PMID:20631069

  8. Cadmium-induced glutathionylation of actin occurs through a ROS-independent mechanism: Implications for cytoskeletal integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choong, Grace; Liu, Ying; Xiao, Weiqun; Templeton, Douglas M., E-mail: doug.templeton@utoronto.ca

    2013-10-15

    Cadmium disrupts the actin cytoskeleton in rat mesangial cells, and we have previously shown that this involves a complex interplay involving activation of kinase signaling, protein translocation, and disruption of focal adhesions. Here we investigate the role that glutathionylation of actin plays in Cd{sup 2+}-associated cytoskeletal reorganization. Low concentrations of Cd{sup 2+} (0.5–2 ?M) caused an increase in actin glutathionylation by 6 h, whereas at higher concentrations glutathionylation remained at basal levels. Although oxidation with diamide increased glutathionylation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) were not involved in the Cd{sup 2+}-dependent effect, as only Cd{sup 2+} concentrations above 2 ?M were sufficient to increase ROS. However, low [Cd{sup 2+}] increased total glutathione levels without affecting the ratio of reduced/oxidized glutathione, and inhibition of glutathione synthesis suppressed actin glutathionylation. Cadmium increased the activity of the enzyme glutaredoxin, which influences the equilibrium between glutathionylated and deglutathionylated proteins and thus may influence levels of glutathionylated actin. Together these observations show that cadmium-dependent effects on actin glutathionylation are affected by glutathione metabolism and not by direct effects of ROS on thiol chemistry. In vitro polymerization assays with glutathionylated actin show a decreased rate of polymerization. In contrast, immunofluorescence of cytoskeletal structure in intact cells suggests that increases in actin glutathionylation accompanying increased glutathione levels occurring under low Cd{sup 2+} exposure are protective in vivo, with cytoskeletal disruption ensuing only when higher Cd{sup 2+} concentrations increase ROS levels and prevent an increase in actin–glutathione conjugates. - Highlights: • Cadmium disrupts the actin cytoskeleton in mesangial cells. • Cadmium induces glutathionylation of actin at low concentrations. • Glutathionylation requires glutathione synthesis but is independent of ROS. • Glutathionylation is protective against cytoskeletal disruption at low cadmium.

  9. Angiotensin II down-regulates natriuretic peptide receptor-A expression and guanylyl cyclase activity in H9c2 (2-1) cardiac myoblast cells: Role of ROS and NF-?B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopi, Venkatachalam; Subramanian, Vimala; Manivasagam, Senthamizharasi; Vellaichamy, Elangovan

    2015-11-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)/natriuretic peptide receptor-A (NPR-A) system is suggested as an endogenous anti-hypertrophic protective mechanism of the heart. We have shown previously that Angiotensin II (ANG II), an effector molecule of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, down-regulates NPR-A expression and its activity in vivo rat heart. However, the underlying mechanism by which ANG II down-regulates NPR-A expression in the heart is not well understood. Hence, the present investigation was aimed to determine whether ANG II-stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and NF-?B are involved in the down-regulation of NPR-A activity in H9c2 (2-1) cardiac myoblast cells. The H9c2 (2-1) cardiac myoblast cells were exposed to ANG II (10(-7) M for 20 h) with/or without blocker treatment (losartan-10 µM, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC)-10 mM and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC)-100 µM). On exposure, ANG II induced a significant decrease (P < 0.001) in the expression of Npr1 (coding for NPR-A) gene and NPR-A receptor-dependent guanylyl cyclase (GC) activity. The level of expression of proto-oncogenes (c-fos, c-myc, and c-jun) and natriuretic peptides (ANP and BNP) was increased in ANG II-treated cells when compared with control cells. Interestingly, ANG II-dependent repression of Npr1 gene expression and guanylyl cyclase (GC) activity was completely restored on treatment with losartan, while only a partial reversal was observed in NAC- and PDTC-co-treated cells. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that ROS-mediated NF-?B activation mechanism is critically involved in the ANG II-mediated down-regulation of NPR-A expression and its GC activity. PMID:26215453

  10. Unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling regulates arsenic trioxide-mediated macrophage innate immune function disruption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, Ritesh K.; Li, Changzhao; Chaudhary, Sandeep C. [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Ballestas, Mary E. [Department of Pediatrics Infectious Disease, Children' s of Alabama, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL (United States); Elmets, Craig A. [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Robbins, David J. [Department of Surgery, Molecular Oncology Program, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami (United States); Matalon, Sadis [Department of Anesthesiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Deshane, Jessy S. [Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Afaq, Farrukh [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Bickers, David R. [Department of Dermatology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York (United States); Athar, Mohammad, E-mail: mathar@uab.edu [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Arsenic exposure is known to disrupt innate immune functions in humans and in experimental animals. In this study, we provide a mechanism by which arsenic trioxide (ATO) disrupts macrophage functions. ATO treatment of murine macrophage cells diminished internalization of FITC-labeled latex beads, impaired clearance of phagocytosed fluorescent bacteria and reduced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These impairments in macrophage functions are associated with ATO-induced unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling pathway characterized by the enhancement in proteins such as GRP78, p-PERK, p-eIF2?, ATF4 and CHOP. The expression of these proteins is altered both at transcriptional and translational levels. Pretreatment with chemical chaperon, 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA) attenuated the ATO-induced activation in UPR signaling and afforded protection against ATO-induced disruption of macrophage functions. This treatment also reduced ATO-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Interestingly, treatment with antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) prior to ATO exposure, not only reduced ROS production and UPR signaling but also improved macrophage functions. These data demonstrate that UPR signaling and ROS generation are interdependent and are involved in the arsenic-induced pathobiology of macrophage. These data also provide a novel strategy to block the ATO-dependent impairment in innate immune responses. - Highlights: • Inorganic arsenic to humans and experimental animals disrupt innate immune responses. • The mechanism underlying arsenic impaired macrophage functions involves UPR signaling. • Chemical chaperon attenuates arsenic-mediated macrophage function impairment. • Antioxidant, NAC blocks impairment in arsenic-treated macrophage functions.

  11. Unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling regulates arsenic trioxide-mediated macrophage innate immune function disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenic exposure is known to disrupt innate immune functions in humans and in experimental animals. In this study, we provide a mechanism by which arsenic trioxide (ATO) disrupts macrophage functions. ATO treatment of murine macrophage cells diminished internalization of FITC-labeled latex beads, impaired clearance of phagocytosed fluorescent bacteria and reduced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These impairments in macrophage functions are associated with ATO-induced unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling pathway characterized by the enhancement in proteins such as GRP78, p-PERK, p-eIF2?, ATF4 and CHOP. The expression of these proteins is altered both at transcriptional and translational levels. Pretreatment with chemical chaperon, 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA) attenuated the ATO-induced activation in UPR signaling and afforded protection against ATO-induced disruption of macrophage functions. This treatment also reduced ATO-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Interestingly, treatment with antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) prior to ATO exposure, not only reduced ROS production and UPR signaling but also improved macrophage functions. These data demonstrate that UPR signaling and ROS generation are interdependent and are involved in the arsenic-induced pathobiology of macrophage. These data also provide a novel strategy to block the ATO-dependent impairment in innate immune responses. - Highlights: • Inorganic arsenic to humans and experimental animals disrupt innate immune responses. • The mechanism underlying arsenic impaired macrophage functions involves UPR signaling. • Chemical chaperon attenuates arsenic-mediated macrophage function impairment. • Antioxidant, NAC blocks impairment in arsenic-treated macrophage functions

  12. Mitochondrial KATP Channels Control Glioma Radioresistance by Regulating ROS-Induced ERK Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lianyan; Li, Boxing; Tang, Shihao; Guo, Hongbo; Li, Wenjun; Huang, Xiaozhou; Yan, Wenjuan; Zou, Fei

    2015-08-01

    Malignant glioma is the most prevalent form of malignant brain tumor. Although radiotherapy is widely used in glioma treatment, the radioresistance of glioma cells limits the success of the glioma treatment. The lack of effective targets and signaling pathways to reverse glioma radioresistance is the critical obstacle in successful treatment. In this study, we demonstrate that mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channels (mtK(ATP) channels) are overexpressed in glioma cells and are closely related to the malignancy grade and the overall survival of the patients. Importantly, we showed that mtK(ATP) channels could control glioma radioresistance by regulating reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced ERK activation. The inhibition of mtK(ATP) channels suppresses glioma radioresistance by inhibiting ERK activation both in vitro and in vivo. These findings reveal the important roles of the mitochondria and mtK(ATP) channels as key regulators in the radioresistance of glioma cells, and suggest that mtK(ATP) channel blockers and MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK) inhibitors are potential targets for drug development of glioma treatments. PMID:25249341

  13. Nimbolide Induces ROS-Regulated Apoptosis and Inhibits Cell Migration in Osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ju-Fang; Hou, Chun-Han; Lin, Feng-Ling; Tsao, Ya-Ting; Hou, Sheng-Mou

    2015-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is a primary malignant tumor of bone and is most prevalent in children and adolescents. OS is frequently associated with pulmonary metastasis, which is the main cause of OS-related mortality. OS has a poor prognosis and is often unresponsive to conventional chemotherapy. In this study, we determined that Nimbolide, a novel anti-cancer therapy, acts by modulating multiple mechanisms in osteosarcoma cells. Nimbolide induces apoptosis by increasing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and finally, caspase activation. We also determined that Nimbolide inhibits cell migration, which is crucial for metastasis, by reducing the expression of integrin ?v?5. In addition, our results demonstrate that integrin ?v?5 expression is modulated by the PI3K/Akt and NF-?B signaling cascade. Nimbolide has potential as an anti-tumor drug given its multifunctional effects in OS. Collectively, these results help us to understand the mechanisms of action of Nimbolide and will aid in the development of effective therapies for OS. PMID:26426012

  14. Nimbolide Induces ROS-Regulated Apoptosis and Inhibits Cell Migration in Osteosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Fang Liu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Osteosarcoma (OS is a primary malignant tumor of bone and is most prevalent in children and adolescents. OS is frequently associated with pulmonary metastasis, which is the main cause of OS-related mortality. OS has a poor prognosis and is often unresponsive to conventional chemotherapy. In this study, we determined that Nimbolide, a novel anti-cancer therapy, acts by modulating multiple mechanisms in osteosarcoma cells. Nimbolide induces apoptosis by increasing endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, and finally, caspase activation. We also determined that Nimbolide inhibits cell migration, which is crucial for metastasis, by reducing the expression of integrin ?v?5. In addition, our results demonstrate that integrin ?v?5 expression is modulated by the PI3K/Akt and NF-?B signaling cascade. Nimbolide has potential as an anti-tumor drug given its multifunctional effects in OS. Collectively, these results help us to understand the mechanisms of action of Nimbolide and will aid in the development of effective therapies for OS.

  15. Lack of K-Dependent Oxidative Stress in Cotton Roots Following Coronatine-Induced ROS Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Xin; Hu, Zebing; Wang, Sufang; Zhang, Jinbao; Wang, Xiaojing; Wang, Qinglian; Zhang, Baohong

    2015-01-01

    Coronatine [COR] is a novel type of plant growth regulator with similarities in structure and property to jasmonate. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between increased root vitality induced by 10 nM COR and reactive oxygen species scavenging under potassium (K)-replete (2.5 mM) and K-deficient (0.05 mM) conditions in hydroponic cultured cotton seedlings. K-replete and K-deficient conditions increased root vitality by 2.7- and 3.5-fold, respectively. COR treatment significantly decreased lipid peroxidation in cotton seedlings determined by reduction in MDA levels. These results suggest that COR improves the functioning of both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems. Under K-replete and K-deficient conditions, COR significantly increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes SOD (only for K-repletion), CAT, GPX, and APX comparing; COR also significantly increased DPPH-radical scavenging activity. However, COR led to 1.6- and 1.7-fold increases in superoxide anion (O2•-) concentrations, and 5.7- and 2.1-fold increases in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels, respectively. Additionally, COR intensified the DAB staining of H2O2 and the NBT staining of O2•-. Therefore, our results reveal that COR-induced ROS accumulation stimulates the activities of most antioxidant enzymes but does not induce oxidative stress in cotton roots. PMID:25955838

  16. Microglial ROS production in an electrical rat post-status epilepticus model of epileptogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettenbeck, Maruja L; von Rüden, Eva-Lotta; Bienas, Silvia; Carlson, Regina; Stein, Veronika M; Tipold, Andrea; Potschka, Heidrun

    2015-07-10

    Reactive oxygen species and inflammatory signaling have been identified as pivotal pathophysiological factors contributing to epileptogenesis. Considering the development of combined anti-inflammatory and antioxidant treatment strategies with antiepileptogenic potential, a characterization of the time course of microglial reactive oxygen species generation during epileptogenesis is of major interest. Thus, we isolated microglia cells and analyzed the generation of reactive oxygen species by flow cytometric analysis in an electrical rat post-status epilepticus model. Two days post status epilepticus, a large-sized cell cluster exhibited a pronounced response with excessive production of reactive oxygen species upon stimulation with phorbol-myristate-acetate. Neither in the latency phase nor in the chronic phase with spontaneous seizures a comparable cell population with induction of reactive oxygen species was identified. We were able to demonstrate in the electrical rat post-status-epilepticus model, that microglial ROS generation reaches a peak after the initial insult, is only marginally increased in the latency phase, and returns to control levels during the chronic epileptic phase. The data suggest that a combination of anti-inflammatory and radical scavenging approaches might only be beneficial during a short time window after an epileptogenic brain insult. PMID:26007700

  17. Ribosylation of bovine serum albumin induces ROS accumulation and cell death in cancer line (MCF-7).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohd Shahnawaz; Dwivedi, Sourabh; Priyadarshini, Medha; Tabrez, Shams; Siddiqui, Maqsood Ahmed; Jagirdar, Haseeb; Al-Senaidy, Abdulrahman M; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A; Musarrat, Javed

    2013-12-01

    Formation of advanced glycation end products (AGE) is crucially involved in the several pathophysiologies associated with ageing and diabetes, for example arthritis, atherosclerosis, chronic renal insufficiency, Alzheimer's disease, nephropathy, neuropathy, and cataracts. Because of devastating effects of AGE and the significance of bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a transport protein, this study was designed to investigate glycation-induced structural modifications in BSA and their functional consequences in breast cancer cell line (MCF-7). We incubated D-ribose with BSA and monitored formation of D-ribose-glycated BSA by observing changes in the intensity of fluorescence at 410 nm. NBT (nitro blue tetrazolium) assay was performed to confirm formation of keto-amine during glycation. Absorbance at 540 nm (fructosamine) increased markedly with time. Furthermore, intrinsic protein and 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonate (ANS) fluorescence revealed marked conformational changes in BSA upon ribosylation. In addition, a fluorescence assay with thioflavin T (ThT) revealed a remarkable increase in fluorescence at 485 nm in the presence of glycated BSA. This suggests that glycation with D-ribose induced aggregation of BSA into amyloid-like deposits. Circular dichroism (CD) study of native and ribosylated BSA revealed molten globule formation in the glycation pathway of BSA. Functional consequences of ribosylated BSA on cancer cell line, MCF-7 was studied by MTT assay and ROS estimation. The results revealed cytotoxicity of ribosylated BSA on MCF-7 cells. PMID:24218080

  18. Molecular characterization of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors with frequent ALK and ROS1 gene fusions and rare novel RET rearrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonescu, Cristina R; Suurmeijer, Albert J H; Zhang, Lei; Sung, Yun-Shao; Jungbluth, Achim A; Travis, William D; Al-Ahmadie, Hikmat; Fletcher, Christopher D M; Alaggio, Rita

    2015-07-01

    Approximately 50% of conventional inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (IMTs) harbor ALK gene rearrangement and overexpress ALK. Recently, gene fusions involving other kinases have been implicated in the pathogenesis of IMT, including ROS1 and in 1 patient PDGFRB. However, it remains uncertain whether the emerging genotypes correlate with clinicopathologic characteristics of IMT. In this study, we expand the molecular investigation of IMT in a large cohort of different clinical presentations and analyze for potential genotype-phenotype associations. Criteria for inclusion in the study were typical morphology and tissue availability for molecular studies. The lack of ALK immunoreactivity was not an excluding factor. As overlapping gene fusions involving actionable kinases are emerging in both IMT and lung cancer, we set out to evaluate abnormalities in ALK, ROS1, PDGFRB, NTRK1, and RET by fluorescence in situ hybridization. In addition, next-generation paired-end RNA sequencing and FusionSeq algorithm was applied in 4 cases, which identified EML4-ALK fusions in 2 cases. Of the 62 IMTs (25 children and 37 adults), 35 (56%) showed ALK gene rearrangement. Of note, EML4-ALK inversion was noted in 7 (20%) cases, seen mainly in the lung and soft tissue of young children including 2 lesions from newborns. There were 6 (10%) ROS1-rearranged IMTs, all except 1 presenting in children, mainly in the lung and intra-abdominally and showed a distinctive fascicular growth of spindle cells with long cell processes, often positive for ROS1 immunohistochemistry. Two of the cases showed TFG-ROS1 fusions. Interestingly, 1 adult IMT revealed a RET gene rearrangement, a previously unreported finding. Our results show that 42/62 (68%) IMTs are characterized by kinase fusions, offering a rationale for targeted therapeutic strategies. Interestingly, 90% of fusion-negative IMTs were seen in adults, whereas >90% of pediatric IMT showed gene rearrangements. EML4-ALK inversion and ROS1 fusions emerge as common fusion abnormalities in IMT, closely recapitulating the pattern seen in lung cancer. PMID:25723109

  19. NADPH oxidase-mediated generation of reactive oxygen species: A new mechanism for X-ray-induced HeLa cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxidative damage is an important mechanism in X-ray-induced cell death. Radiolysis of water molecules is a source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that contribute to X-ray-induced cell death. In this study, we showed by ROS detection and a cell survival assay that NADPH oxidase has a very important role in X-ray-induced cell death. Under X-ray irradiation, the upregulation of the expression of NADPH oxidase membrane subunit gp91phox was dose-dependent. Meanwhile, the cytoplasmic subunit p47phox was translocated to the cell membrane and localized with p22phox and gp91phox to form reactive NADPH oxidase. Our data suggest, for the first time, that NADPH oxidase-mediated generation of ROS is an important contributor to X-ray-induced cell death. This suggests a new target for combined gene transfer and radiotherapy.

  20. Reactive oxygen species-mediated apoptosis contributes to chemosensitization effect of saikosaponins on cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Fan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Saikosaponin-a and -d, two naturally occurring compounds derived from Bupleurum radix, have been shown to exert anti-cancer activity in several cancer cell lines. However, the effect of combination of saikosaponins with chemotherapeutic drugs has never been addressed. Thus, we investigated whether these two saikosaponins have chemosensitization effect on cisplatin-induced cancer cell cytotoxicity. Methods Two cervical cancer cell lines, HeLa and Siha, an ovarian cancer cell line, SKOV3, and a non-small cell lung cancer cell line, A549, were treated with saikosaponins or cisplatin individually or in combination. Cell death was quantitatively detected by the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH using a cytotoxicity detection kit. Cellular ROS was analyzed by flow cytometry. Apoptosis was evaluated by AO/EB staining, flow cytometry after Anexin V and PI staining, and Western blot for caspase activation. ROS scavengers and caspase inhibitor were used to determine the roles of ROS and apoptosis in the effects of saikosaponins on cisplatin-induced cell death. Results Both saikosaponin-a and -d sensitized cancer cells to cisplatin-induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner, which was accompanied with induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS accumulation. The dead cells showed typical apoptotic morphologies. Both early apoptotic and late apoptotic cells detected by flow cytometry were increased in saikosaponins and cisplatin cotreated cells, accompanied by activation of the caspase pathway. The pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD and ROS scanvengers butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC dramatically suppressed the potentiated cytotoxicity achieved by combination of saikosaponin-a or -d and cisplatin. Conclusions These results suggest that saikosaponins sensitize cancer cells to cisplatin through ROS-mediated apoptosis, and the combination of saikosaponins with cisplatin could be an effective therapeutic strategy.

  1. Effect of N-n-butyl haloperidol iodide on ROS/JNK/Egr-1 signaling in H9c2 cells after hypoxia/reoxygenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanmei; Liao, Han; Zhong, Shuping; Gao, Fenfei; Chen, Yicun; Huang, Zhanqin; Lu, Shishi; Sun, Ting; Wang, Bin; Li, Weiqiu; Xu, Han; Zheng, Fuchun; Shi, Ganggang

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced oxidative stress in cells is an important pathophysiological process during myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, and the transcription factor Egr-1 is a master switch for various damage pathways during reperfusion injury. An in vitro model of myocardial I/R injury and H9c2 cardiomyoblast cells hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) was used to assess whether there is abnormal intracellular ROS/JNK/Egr-1 signaling. We also assessed whether N-n-butyl haloperidol (F2), which exerts protective effects during myocardial I/R injury, can modulate this pathway. H/R induced ROS generation, JNK activation, and increased the expression of Egr-1 protein in H9c2 cells. The ROS scavengers edaravone (EDA) and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) reduced ROS level, downregulated JNK activation, and Egr-1 expression in H9c2 cells after H/R. The JNK inhibitor SP600125 inhibited Egr-1 overexpression in H9c2 cells caused by H/R. F2 could downregulate H/R-induced ROS level, JNK activation, and Egr-1 expression in H9c2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The ROS donor hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase (XO/HX) and the JNK activator ANISO antagonized the effects of F2. Therefore, H/R activates ROS/Egr-1 signaling pathway in H9c2 cells, and JNK activation plays an important role in this pathway. F2 regulates H/R-induced ROS/JNK/Egr-1 signaling, which might be an important mechanism by which it antagonizes myocardial I/R injury. PMID:26134032

  2. In Vitro Cytotoxic Evaluation of MgO Nanoparticles and Their Effect on the Expression of ROS Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangarajulu Senthil Kumaran

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Water-dispersible MgO nanoparticles were tested to investigate their cytotoxic effects on oxidative stress gene expression. In this in vitro study, genes related to reactive oxygen species (ROS, glutathione S-transferase (GST and catalase, were quantified using real-time polymerase chain reactions (molecular level and molecular beacon technologies (cellular level. The monodispersed MgO nanoparticles, 20 nm in size, were used to treat human cancer cell lines (liver cancer epithelial cells at different concentrations (25, 75 and 150 µg/mL and incubation times (24, 48 and 72 h. Both the genetic and cellular cytotoxic screening methods produced consistent results, showing that GST and catalase ROS gene expression was maximized at 150 µg/mL nanoparticle treatment with 48 h incubation. However, the genotoxic effect of MgO nanoparticles was not significant compared with control experiments, which indicates its significant potential applications in nanomedicine as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool.

  3. Cerium oxide and platinum nanoparticles protect cells from oxidant-mediated apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalytic nanoparticles represent a potential clinical approach to replace or correct aberrant enzymatic activities in patients. Several diseases, including many blinding eye diseases, are promoted by excessive oxidant stress due to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Cerium oxide and platinum nanoparticles represent two potentially therapeutic nanoparticles that de-toxify ROS. In the present study, we directly compare these two classes of catalytic nanoparticles. Cerium oxide and platinum nanoparticles were found to be 16 ± 2.4 and 1.9 ± 0.2 nm in diameter, respectively. Using surface plasmon-enhanced microscopy, we find that these nanoparticles associate with cells. Furthermore, cerium oxide and platinum nanoparticles demonstrated superoxide dismutase catalytic activity, but did not promote hemolytic or cytolytic pathways in living cells. Importantly, both cerium oxide and platinum nanoparticles reduce oxidant-mediated apoptosis in target cells as judged by the activation of caspase 3. The ability to diminish apoptosis may contribute to maintaining healthy tissues.

  4. Light-independent reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation through electron transfer from carboxylated single-walled carbon nanotubes in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Hsin-Se; Wu, Renren; Jafvert, Chad T

    2014-10-01

    Promising developments in application of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have raised concern regarding potential biological and environmental effects upon their inevitable release to the environment. Although some CNTs have been reported to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) under light, limited information exists on ROS generation by these materials in the dark. In this study, generation of ROS was examined, initiated by electron transfer from biological electron donors through carboxylated single-walled carbon nanotubes (C-SWCNT) to molecular oxygen in water in the dark. In the presence of C-SWCNT, the oxidation of NADH (?-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, reduced form) and DTTre (DL-dithiothreitol, reduced form) was confirmed by light absorbance shifts (340 nm to 260 nm during oxidation of NADH to NAD(+), and increased light absorbance at 280 nm during oxidation of DTTre). Production of superoxide anion (O2(•-)) was detected by its selective reaction with a tetrazolium salt (NBT(2+)), forming a formazan product that is visible at 530 nm. A modified acid-quenched N,N-diethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DPD) assay was used to measure the accumulation of H2O2 in C-SWCNT suspensions containing O2 and NADH. In the same suspensions (i.e., containing C-SWCNT, NADH, and O2), pBR322 DNA plasmid was cleaved, although •OH was not detected when using •OH scavenging molecular probes. These results indicate that the oxidation of electron donors by C-SWCNT can be a light-independent source of ROS in water, and that electron shuttling through CNTs to molecular oxygen may be a potential mechanism for DNA damage by this specific CNT and potentially other carbon-based nanomaterials. PMID:25171301

  5. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen (ROS and RNS) species generation and cell death in tomato suspension cultures—Botrytis cinerea interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Pietrowska, E.; Ró?alska, S.; Ka?mierczak, A.; Nawrocka, J.; Ma?olepsza, U.

    2014-01-01

    This article reports events connected to cell survival and Botrytis cinerea infection development in cell suspension cultures of two tomato cultivars which show different levels of susceptibility to the pathogen: cv. Corindo (more susceptible) and cv. Perkoz (less susceptible). In parallel changes in reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species generation and in S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) activity were studied. In vivo staining methods with acridine orange (AO) and ethidium br...

  6. The role of Candida albicans AP-1 protein against host derived ROS in in vivo models of infection

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Charu; Pastor, Kelly; Gonzalez, Arely Y.; Lorenz, Michael C.; Rao, Reeta P

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans is a major fungal pathogen of humans, causing mucosal infections that are difficult to eliminate and systemic infections that are often lethal primarily due to defects in the host’s innate status. Here we demonstrate the utility of Caenorhabditis elegans, a model host to study innate immunity, by exploring the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a critical innate response against C. albicans infections. Much like a human host, the nematode’s innate immune response is act...

  7. Is Myeloperoxidase a Key Component in the ROS-Induced Vascular Damage Related to Nephropathy in Type 2 Diabetes?

    OpenAIRE

    Rovira-Llopis, Susana; Rocha, Milagros; Falcon, Rosa; de Pablo, Carmen; Alvarez, Angeles; Jover, Ana; Hernandez-Mijares, Antonio; Victor, Victor M.

    2013-01-01

    It is still unclear whether microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes correlate with leukocyte-endothelium interactions and/or myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels. In the present study, we found that serum levels of glucose, the rate of ROS and MPO concentration were higher in type 2 diabetic patients. Patients with nephropathy (39.6%) presented higher MPO levels that correlate positively with the albumin/creatinine ratio (r=0.59, p

  8. In situ dynamics of O2, pH and cyanobacterial transcripts associated with CCM, photosynthesis and detoxification of ROS

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Sheila I.; Steunou, Anne-Soisig; Bhaya, Devaki; Kühl, Michael; Grossman, Arthur R

    2010-01-01

    The relative abundance of transcripts encoding proteins involved in inorganic carbon concentrating mechanisms (CCM), detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and photosynthesis in the thermophilic cyanobacterium Synechococcus OS-B? was measured in hot spring microbial mats over two diel cycles, and was coupled with in situ determinations of incoming irradiance and microenvironmental dynamics of O2 and pH. Fluctuations in pH and O2 in the mats were largely driven by the diel cycle of so...

  9. Protective Role of PGC-1? in Diabetic Nephropathy Is Associated with the Inhibition of ROS through Mitochondrial Dynamic Remodeling

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Kaifeng; Lu, Junxi; Huang, Yan; Wu, Mian; Zhang, Lei; YU, Haoyong; Zhang, Mingliang; Bao, Yuqian; He, John Cijiang; Chen, Haibing; Jia, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    The overproduction of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays a key role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. Our aim was to investigate the role of PGC-1? in the pathogenesis of DN. Rat glomerular mesangial cells (RMCs) were incubated in normal or high glucose medium with or without the PGC-1?-overexpressing plasmid (pcDNA3-PGC-1?) for 48 h. In the diabetic rats, decreased PGC-1? expression was associated wit...

  10. Lithium Chloride Suppresses Colorectal Cancer Cell Survival and Proliferation through ROS/GSK-3?/NF-?B Signaling Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Huili Li; Kun Huang; Xinghua Liu; Jinlin Liu; Xiaoming Lu; Kaixiong Tao; Guobin Wang; Jiliang Wang

    2014-01-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?), a serine/threonine protein kinase, has been regarded as a potential therapeutic target for multiple human cancers. In addition, oxidative stress is closely related to all aspects of cancer. We sought to determine the biological function of lithium, one kind of GSK-3? inhibitors, in the process of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in colorectal cancer. In this study, we analyzed the cell apoptosis and proliferation by cell viability, EdU, and flow c...

  11. Enterococcus faecalis infection causes inflammation, intracellular oxphos-independent ROS production, and DNA damage in human gastric cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strickertsson, Jesper A B; Madsen, Claus Desler

    2013-01-01

    Achlorhydria caused by e.g. atrophic gastritis allows for bacterial overgrowth, which induces chronic inflammation and damage to the mucosal cells of infected individuals driving gastric malignancies and cancer. Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) can colonize achlohydric stomachs and we therefore wanted to study the impact of E. faecalis infection on inflammatory response, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, mitochondrial respiration, and mitochondrial genetic stability in gastric mucosal cells.

  12. Trace amounts of Cu(2+) ions influence ROS production and cytotoxicity of ZnO quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Hatem; Merlin, Christophe; Dezanet, Clément; Balan, Lavinia; Medjahdi, Ghouti; Ben-Attia, Mossadok; Schneider, Raphaël

    2016-03-01

    3-Aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS) was used as ligand to prepare ZnO@APTMS, Cu(2+)-doped ZnO (ZnO:Cu@APTMS) and ZnO quantum dots (QDs) with chemisorbed Cu(2+) ions at their surface (ZnO@APTMS/Cu). The dots have a diameter of ca. 5nm and their crystalline and phase purities and composition were established by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopies and by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The effect of Cu(2+) location on the ability of the QDs to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) under light irradiation was investigated. Results obtained demonstrate that all dots are able to produce ROS (OH, O2(-), H2O2 and (1)O2) and that ZnO@APTMS/Cu QDs generate more OH and O2(-) radicals and H2O2 than ZnO@APTMS and ZnO:Cu@APTMS QDs probably via mechanisms associating photo-induced charge carriers and Fenton reactions. In cytotoxicity experiments conducted in the dark or under light exposure, ZnO@APTMS/Cu QDs appeared slightly more deleterious to Escherichia coli cells than the two other QDs, therefore pointing out the importance of the presence of Cu(2+) ions at the periphery of the nanocrystals. On the other hand, with the lack of photo-induced toxicity, it can be inferred that ROS production cannot explain the cytotoxicity associated to the QDs. Our study demonstrates that both the production of ROS from ZnO QDs and their toxicity may be enhanced by chemisorbed Cu(2+) ions, which could be useful for medical or photocatalytic applications. PMID:26619052

  13. ZnO Nanoparticles Treatment Induces Apoptosis by Increasing Intracellular ROS Levels in LTEP-a-2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Caixia; Hu, Xiaoke; Gao, Yan; Ji, Yinglu

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the wide use of novel nanoparticles (NPs) such as zinc oxide (ZnO) in all aspects of life, toxicological research on ZnO NPs is receiving increasing attention in these days. In this study, the toxicity of ZnO NPs in a human pulmonary adenocarcinoma cell line LTEP-a-2 was tested in vitro. Log-phase cells were exposed to different levels of ZnO NPs for hours, followed by colorimetric cell viability assay using tetrazolium salt and cell survival rate assay using trypan blue dye. Cell morphological changes were observed by Giemsa staining and light microscopy. Apoptosis was detected by using fluorescence microscopy and caspase-3 activity assay. Both intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were examined by a microplate-reader method. Results showed that ZnO NPs (? 0.01 ?g/mL) significantly inhibited proliferation (P < 0.05) and induced substantial apoptosis in LTEP-a-2 cells after 4 h of exposure. The intracellular ROS level rose up to 30-40% corresponding to significant depletion (approximately 70-80%) in GSH content in LTEP-a-2 cells (P < 0.05), suggesting that ZnO NPs induced apoptosis mainly through increased ROS production. This study elucidates the toxicological mechanism of ZnO NPs in human pulmonary adenocarcinoma cells and provides reference data for application of nanomaterials in the environment. PMID:26339612

  14. UV light induces premature senescence in Akt1-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts by increasing intracellular levels of ROS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akt/PKB plays a pivotal role in cell survival and proliferation. Previously, we reported that UV-irradiation induces extensive cell death in Akt2-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) while Akt1-/- MEFs show cell cycle arrest. Here, we find that Akt1-/- MEFs exhibit phenotypic changes characteristics of senescence upon UV-irradiation. An enlarged and flattened morphology, a reduced cell proliferation and an increased senescence-associated ?-galactosidase (SA ?-gal) staining indicate that Akt1-/- MEFs undergo premature senescence after UV-irradiation. Restoring Akt1 expression in Akt1-/- MEFs suppressed SA ?-gal activity, indicating that UV-induced senescence is due to the absence of Akt1 function. Notably, levels of ROS were rapidly increased upon UV-irradiation and the ROS scavenger NAC inhibits UV-induced senescence of Akt1-/- MEFs, suggesting that UV light induces premature senescence in Akt1-/- MEFs by modulating intracellular levels of ROS. In conjunction with our previous work, this indicates that different isoforms of Akt have distinct function in response to UV-irradiation.

  15. UV light induces premature senescence in Akt1-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts by increasing intracellular levels of ROS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jee, Hye Jin; Kim, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Ae Jeong; Bae, Yoe-Sik [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Sun Sik [Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Jeanho, E-mail: yunj@dau.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-05

    Akt/PKB plays a pivotal role in cell survival and proliferation. Previously, we reported that UV-irradiation induces extensive cell death in Akt2{sup -/-} mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) while Akt1{sup -/-} MEFs show cell cycle arrest. Here, we find that Akt1{sup -/-} MEFs exhibit phenotypic changes characteristics of senescence upon UV-irradiation. An enlarged and flattened morphology, a reduced cell proliferation and an increased senescence-associated {beta}-galactosidase (SA {beta}-gal) staining indicate that Akt1{sup -/-} MEFs undergo premature senescence after UV-irradiation. Restoring Akt1 expression in Akt1{sup -/-} MEFs suppressed SA {beta}-gal activity, indicating that UV-induced senescence is due to the absence of Akt1 function. Notably, levels of ROS were rapidly increased upon UV-irradiation and the ROS scavenger NAC inhibits UV-induced senescence of Akt1{sup -/-} MEFs, suggesting that UV light induces premature senescence in Akt1{sup -/-} MEFs by modulating intracellular levels of ROS. In conjunction with our previous work, this indicates that different isoforms of Akt have distinct function in response to UV-irradiation.

  16. Overexpression of Arachis hypogaea AREB1 Gene Enhances Drought Tolerance by Modulating ROS Scavenging and Maintaining Endogenous ABA Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Li

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available AhAREB1 (Arachis hypogaea Abscisic-acid Response Element Binding Protein 1 is a member of the basic domain leucine zipper (bZIP-type transcription factor in peanut. Previously, we found that expression of AhAREB1 was specifically induced by abscisic acid (ABA, dehydration and drought. To understand the drought defense mechanism regulated by AhAREB1, transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing AhAREB1 was conducted in wild-type (WT, and a complementation experiment was employed to ABA non-sensitivity mutant abi5 (abscisic acid-insensitive 5. Constitutive expression of AhAREB1 confers water stress tolerance and is highly sensitive to exogenous ABA. Microarray and further real-time PCR analysis revealed that drought stress, reactive oxygen species (ROS scavenging, ABA synthesis/metabolism-related genes and others were regulated in transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing AhAREB1. Accordingly, low level of ROS, but higher ABA content was detected in the transgenic Arabidopsis plants’ overexpression of AhAREB1. Taken together, it was concluded that AhAREB1 modulates ROS accumulation and endogenous ABA level to improve drought tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

  17. Effect of 900 MHz Electromagnetic Radiation on the Induction of ROS in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, E.; Mortazavi, S. M. J.; Ali-Ghanbari, A.; Sharifzadeh, S.; Ranjbaran, R.; Mostafavi-pour, Z.; Zal, F.; Haghani, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite numerous studies over a decade, it still remains controversial about the biological effects of RF EMF emitted by mobile phone telephony. Objective Here we investigated the effect of 900 MHz GSM on the induction of oxidative stress and the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human mononuclear cells, monocytes and lymphocytes as defence system cells. Method 6 ml Peripheral Blood samples were obtained from 13 healthy volunteers (21-30 year-old). Each sample was devided into 2 groups: one was exposed RF radiation emitted from a mobile phone simulator for 2 hour and the other used as control group which was not exposed to any fields. After that, mononuclear cells were isolated from peripheral blood by density gradient centrifugation in Ficoll-Paque. The intracellular ROS content in monocytes and lymphocytes was measured by the CM-H2DCFDA fluorescence probe using flowcytometry technique. Results Our results showed significant increase in  ROS production after exposure in population rich in monocytes. This effect was not significant in population rich in lymphocytes in comparison with non exposed cells. Conclusion The results obtained in this study clearly showed the oxidative stress induction capability of RF electromagnetic field in the portion of PBMCs mostly in monocytes, like the case of exposure to micro organisms, although the advantages or disadvantages of this effect should be evaluated. PMID:26396966

  18. Extracellular ?-crystallin protects astrocytes from cell death through activation of MAPK, PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and blockade of ROS release from mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhihui; Li, Rongyu; Stricker, Rolf; Reiser, Georg

    2015-09-16

    ?-Crystallin with two isoforms, ?A-crystallin (HSPB4) and ?B-crystallin (HSPB5), is found in eye lens, spleen, lung, kidney, cornea, skin, but also in brain. Several studies revealed roles of ?A/?B-crystallin in regulating cell viability and protection in the central nervous system. We previously demonstrated that ?-crystallin serves as an intracellular protectant in astrocytes. Compared to well-studied intracellular functions of ?-crystallin, there is limited proof for the role of ?-crystallin as extracellular protectant. In order to clarify protective effects of extracellular ?A/?B-crystallin, we exposed astrocytes to the toxic agents, staurosporine or C2-ceramide, or serum-starvation in the presence of ?A/?B-crystallin. Extracellular ?A/?B-crystallin protected astrocytes from staurosporine- and C2-ceramide-induced cell death. In addition, extracellular ?B-crystallin/HSPB5 effectively promoted astrocytes viability through phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38) and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) signaling pathways under serum-deprivation. Furthermore, ?B-crystallin/HSPB5 decreases the staurosporine-mediated cleavage of caspase 3 through PI3K/Akt signaling preventing apoptosis of astrocytes. Thus, the current study indicates that extracellular ?A/?B-crystallin protects astrocytes exposed to various harmful stimuli. Furthermore, application of ?B-crystallin/HSPB5 to isolated rat brain mitochondria inhibits ROS generation induced by complex III inhibition with Antimycin A. PMID:25998538

  19. Master spreadsheet for visual censusing corals by maximum diameter size class at site number ROS-7P on 2/10/2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This spreadsheet summarizes the number of corals photographed along a permanent transect line at Underwater Site ROS7P at Rose Atoll on 2102004.

  20. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK) 4 from rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is a novel member inducing ROS accumulation and cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Ye, Chaofei; Zhao, Rui; Li, Xin; Liu, Wu-Zhen; Wu, Feifei; Yan, Jingli; Jiang, Yuan-Qing; Yang, Bo

    2015-11-27

    MAPKKK is the largest family of MAPK cascade, which is known to play important roles in plant growth, development and immune responses. So far, only a few have been functionally characterized even in the model plant, Arabidopsis due to the potential functional redundancy of MAPKKK. We previously identified and cloned a few MAPKKK family genes from rapeseed. In this study, BnaMAPKKK4 was characterized as a member in eliciting accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and hypersensitive response (HR)-like cell death. This is accompanied with accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA), anthocyanin as well as nuclear DNA fragmentation. The transcript abundance of a series of ROS accumulation, cell death, and defense response related genes were up-regulated by the expression of MAPKKK4. Further investigation identified BnaMAPKKK4 elicited ROS through the downstream MPK3. These results indicate that BnaMAPKKK4 and its downstream components function in the ROS-induced cell death. PMID:26498521

  1. Master spreadsheet for visual censusing corals by maximum diameter size class at site number ROS-9P(C) on 7/31/1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This spreadsheet summarizes the number of corals photographed along a permanent transect line at Underwater Site ROS9PC at Rose Atoll on 7311999.

  2. Master spreadsheet for visual censusing corals by maximum diameter size class at site number ROS-9P(C) on 2/25/2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This spreadsheet summarizes the number of corals photographed along a permanent transect line at Underwater Site ROS9PC at Rose Atoll on 2252002.

  3. Master spreadsheet for visual censusing corals by maximum diameter size class at site number ROS-8P(A) on 7/29/1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This spreadsheet summarizes the number of corals photographed along a permanent transect line at Underwater Site ROS8PA at Rose Atoll on 7291999.

  4. Plumbagin-induced apoptosis in lymphocytes is mediated through increased reactive oxygen species production, upregulation of Fas, and activation of the caspase cascade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extracts from plants containing plumbagin (PLB) continue to be used as a treatment of a number of chronic immunologically-based diseases. However, most of these claims are supported only by anecdotal evidence with few scientific reports describing the mechanism of action or the efficacy of plumbagin in the suppression of the immune response. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that plumbagin-induced suppression of the immune response was mediated through the induction of apoptosis. Splenocytes from C57BL/6 mice cultured in the presence of 0.5 ?M or greater concentrations of PLB significantly reduced proliferative responses to mitogens, including anti-CD3 mAbs, concanavalin A (Con A), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) in vitro. Exposure of naive and activated splenocytes to PLB led to a significant increase in the levels of apoptosis. In addition, PLB treatment led to a significant increase in the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in naive and activated splenocytes. Furthermore, treatment with the ROS scavenger, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), prevented PLB-induced apoptosis, suggesting a role of ROS in PLB-induced apoptosis. PLB-induced apoptosis led to ROS-mediated activation of both the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways. In addition, plumbagin led to increased expression of Fas. Finally, treatment of mice with PLB (5 mg/kg) led to thymic and splenic atrophy as well as a significant suppression of the response to SEB and dinitroflourobenzene (DNFB) in vivo. Together, these results suggest that plumbagin has significant immunosuppressive properties which are mediated by generation of ROS, upregulation of Fas, and the induction of apoptosis.

  5. Mahanine, a novel mitochondrial complex-III inhibitor induces G0/G1 arrest through redox alteration-mediated DNA damage response and regresses glioblastoma multiforme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Kaushik; Bag, Arup K; Tripathi, Rakshamani; Samanta, Suman K; Pal, Bikas C; Shaha, Chandrima; Mandal, Chitra

    2014-01-01

    The Electron transport chain (ETC) is responsible for oxidative phosphorylation-mediated mitochondrial respiration. Here we wanted to address the mahanine-induced targeted pathways in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) in the context of G0/G1 phase arrest and redox alteration. We have demonstrated mahanine, as a novel mitochondrial complex-III inhibitor which induced G0/G1 phase arrest in GBM. This event was preceded by accumulation of intracellular ROS by the inhibition of mitochondrial ETC. The accumulated ROS induced DNA damage response (DDR), that mediated Chk1/Chk2 upregulation and activation which were essential factors for the G0/G1 arrest. NAC-mediated scavenging of ROS generation reduced the propensity of G0/G1 phase arrest in GBM cells by mahanine. Knockdown of Chk1/Chk2 also affected the cell cycle inhibitory potential of mahanine. During G0/G1 arrest, other hallmark proteins like, cyclin D1/cyclin D3, CDK4/CDK6 and CDC25A were also downregulated. The G0/G1 phase restriction property of mahanine was also established in in vivo mice model. Mahanine-induced complex-III inhibition triggered enhanced ROS in hypoxia responsible for higher G0/G1 arrest. Furthermore, we demonstrated that mahanine-treated G0/G1 arrested cells were less potent to form xenograft tumor in vivo. Additionally, they exhibited reduced ability to migrate and form intracellular tube-like structures. Moreover, they became susceptible to differentiate and astrocyte-like cells were generated from the epithelial lineage. Taken together, our results established that complex-III of ETC is one of the possible potential targets of mahanine. This nontoxic chemotherapeutic molecule enhanced ROS production, induced cell cycle arrest and thereafter regressed GBM without effecting normal astrocytes. PMID:25520856

  6. Technology-Use Mediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bansler, Jørgen P.; Havn, Erling C.

    2003-01-01

    This study analyzes how a group of ‘mediators’ in a large, multinational company adapted a computer-mediated communication technology (a ‘virtual workspace’) to the organizational context (and vice versa) by modifying features of the technology, providing ongoing support for users, and promoting appropriate conventions of use. Our findings corroborate earlier research on technology-use mediation, which suggests that such mediators can exert considerable influence on how a particular technology w...

  7. OGG1 Involvement in High Glucose-Mediated Enhancement of Bupivacaine-Induced Oxidative DNA Damage in SH-SY5Y Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhong-Jie; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Qing-Guo; Li, Le; Lai, Lu-Ying; Jiang, Shan; Xu, Shi-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Hyperglycemia can inhibit expression of the 8-oxoG-DNA glycosylase (OGG1) which is one of the key repair enzymes for DNA oxidative damage. The effect of hyperglycemia on OGG1 expression in response to local anesthetics-induced DNA damage is unknown. This study was designed to determine whether high glucose inhibits OGG1 expression and aggravates bupivacaine-induced DNA damage via reactive oxygen species (ROS). SH-SY5Y cells were cultured with or without 50?mM glucose for 8 days before they were treated with 1.5?mM bupivacaine for 24?h. OGG1 expression was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blot. ROS was estimated using the redox-sensitive fluorescent dye DCFH-DA. DNA damage was investigated with immunostaining for 8-oxodG and comet assays. OGG1 expression was inhibited in cells exposed to high glucose with concomitant increase in ROS production and more severe DNA damage as compared to control culture conditions, and these changes were further exacerbated by bupivacaine. Treatment with the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) prevented high glucose and bupivacaine mediated increase in ROS production and restored functional expression of OGG1, which lead to attenuated high glucose-mediated exacerbation of bupivacaine neurotoxicity. Our findings indicate that subjects with diabetes may experience more detrimental effects following bupivacaine use. PMID:26161242

  8. Bayesian Mediation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ying; MacKinnon, David P.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we propose Bayesian analysis of mediation effects. Compared with conventional frequentist mediation analysis, the Bayesian approach has several advantages. First, it allows researchers to incorporate prior information into the mediation analysis, thus potentially improving the efficiency of estimates. Second, under the Bayesian…

  9. Cytosolic alkalinization is a common and early messenger preceding the production of ROS and NO during stomatal closure by variable signals, including abscisic acid, methyl jasmonate and chitosan

    OpenAIRE

    Gonugunta, Vijay K.; Srivastava, Nupur; Raghavendra, Agepati S.

    2009-01-01

    Stomata are unique that they sense and respond to several internal and external stimuli, by modulating signaling components in guard cells. The levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO) and cytosolic calcium (Ca2+) increase significantly during stomatal closure by not only plant hormones [such as abscisic acid (ABA) or methyl jasmonate (MJ)] but also elicitors (such as chitosan). We observed that cytosolic alkalinization preceded the production of ROS as well as NO during ABA...

  10. Chlorella Induces Stomatal Closure via NADPH Oxidase-Dependent ROS Production and Its Effects on Instantaneous Water Use Efficiency in Vicia faba

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yan; Xu, Shan-Shan; Gao, Jing; Pan, Sha; Wang, Gen-Xuan

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been established to participate in stomatal closure induced by live microbes and microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). Chlorella as a beneficial microorganism can be expected to trigger stomatal closure via ROS production. Here, we reported that Chlorella induced stomatal closure in a dose-and time-dependent manner in epidermal peels of Vicia faba. Using pharmacological methods in this work, we found that the Chlorella-induced stomatal closure was a...

  11. 8,8'-Bieckol, isolated from edible brown algae, exerts its anti-inflammatory effects through inhibition of NF-?B signaling and ROS production in LPS-stimulated macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yeong-In; Jung, Seung-Hyun; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Choi, Jung-Hye

    2014-12-01

    Ecklonia cava (E. cava) is an abundant brown alga that contains high levels of phlorotannins, which are unique marine polyphenolic compounds. It has been suggested that E. cava phlorotannins exert anti-inflammatory effects. However, the anti-inflammatory effects and underlying molecular mechanism exerted by 8,8'-bieckol isolated from E. cava have not been reported. Thus, in this study, we examined the anti-inflammatory effects of 8,8'-bieckol on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated primary macrophages and RAW 264.7 macrophages. We found that 8,8'-bieckol suppressed key inflammatory mediator [i.e., nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)] production in both primary and RAW 264.7 macrophages. 8,8'-Bieckol inhibited NO by suppressing LPS-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) at the mRNA and protein levels in primary macrophages and RAW 264.7 cells. In addition, 8,8'-bieckol decreased the production and mRNA expression of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6), but not tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, in RAW 264.7 cells. Moreover, 8,8'-bieckol treatment diminished transactivation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) and nuclear translocation of the NF-?B p65 subunit and suppressed LPS-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in macrophages. Furthermore, 8,8'-bieckol markedly reduced mortality in LPS-induced septic mice. Taken together, these data indicate that the anti-inflammatory properties of 8,8'-bieckol are associated with the suppression of NO, PGE2, and IL-6 via negative regulation of the NF-?B pathway and ROS production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Moreover, 8,8'-bieckol protects mice from endotoxin shock. PMID:25261704

  12. Extract from Edible Red Seaweed (Gelidium amansii) Inhibits Lipid Accumulation and ROS Production during Differentiation in 3T3-L1 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Min-Jung; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Choi, Hyeon-Son; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2012-01-01

    Gelidium (G.) amansii is a red alga widely distributed in the shallow waters around East Asian countries. We investigated the effect of G. amansii on lipid accumulation and ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) production in 3T3-L1 cells. G. amansii extracts dose-dependently inhibited lipid formation and ROS generation in cultured cells. Our results showed that anti-adipogenic effect of G. amansii was due to the reduction in mRNA expressions of PPAR? peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? and aP2 (adipocyte protein 2). G. amansii extracts significantly decreased mRNA levels of a ROS-generator, NOX4 (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate hydrogen oxidase 4), and increased the protein levels of antioxidant enzymes including SOD1/2 (superoxide dis-mutases), Gpx (glutathione peroxidase), and GR (glutathione reductase), which can lead to the reduction of ROS in the cell. In addition, the G. amansii extract enhanced mRNA levels of adiponectin, one of the adipokines secreted from adipocytes, and GLUT4, glucose uptake protein. Taken together, our study shows that G. amansii extract inhibited lipid accumulation and ROS production by controlling adipogenic signals and ROS regulating genes. PMID:24471074

  13. Autophagy-Regulated ROS from Xanthine Oxidase Acts as an Early Effector for Triggering Late Mitochondria-Dependent Apoptosis in Cathepsin S-Targeted Tumor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Chang; Lee, Cheng-Che; Lin, Hsiao-Han; Chen, Mei-Chi; Lin, Chun-Cheng; Chang, Jang-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Cathepsin S (CTSS), which is highly expressed in various malignant tumor cells, has been proposed to promote tumor progression, migration, and invasion. CTSS inhibition not only blocks tumor cell invasion and endothelial tube formation but also induces cellular cytotoxicity. In our previous studies, we have observed that CTSS inhibition induces autophagy, which is responsible for up-regulating xanthine oxidase for early ROS generation and consequent cell death. However, whether the autophagy-regulated early ROS triggers apoptosis remains unclear. We conducted a long-term follow-up study to investigate the relationship between early autophagy and late mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. We demonstrated that early ROS generation is critical for mitochondria damage and the activation of intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Attenuating the early ROS level diminished later mitochondrial damage and downstream apoptotic signaling. Collectively, mitochondria-dependent apoptosis is regulated by autophagy-regulated early ROS, which serves as an early effector that triggers mitochondrial signaling for late apoptosis. The data emphasize the essential role of autophagy-regulated early ROS in triggering late apoptotic signaling. PMID:26029922

  14. The regulation of methyl jasmonate on hyphal branching and GA biosynthesis in Ganoderma lucidum partly via ROS generated by NADPH oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Liang; Gong, Li; Zhang, Xiangyang; Ren, Ang; Gao, Tan; Zhao, Mingwen

    2015-08-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is one of the best known medicinal basidiomycetes because it produces many pharmacologically active compounds, and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) was previously reported to induce the biosynthesis of ganoderic acids (GA) in G. lucidum. In this study, we found that MeJA not only increased the amount of GA but also increased the distance between hyphal branches by approximately 1.2-fold. Further analysis showed that MeJA could increase the intracellular ROS (reactive oxygen species) content by approximately 2.2-2.7-fold. Furthermore, the hyphal branching and GA biosynthesis regulated by MeJA treatment could be abolished by ROS scavengers to a level similar to or lower than that of the control group. These results indicated that the regulation of hyphal branching and GA biosynthesis by MeJA might occur via a ROS signaling pathway. Further analysis revealed that NADPH oxidase (NOX) plays an important role in MeJA-regulated ROS generation. Importantly, our results highlight that NOX functions in signaling cross-talk between ROS and MeJA. In addition, these findings provide an excellent opportunity to identify potential pathways linking ROS networks to MeJA signaling in fungi and suggest that plants and fungi share a conserved signaling-crosstalk mechanism. PMID:25512263

  15. Pycnogenol® inhibits lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes with the modulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production associated with antioxidant enzyme responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ok-Hwan; Seo, Min-Jung; Choi, Hyeon-Son; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2012-03-01

    Pycnogenol® is a group of flavonoids with antioxidant effects. Adipogenesis is the process of adipocyte differentiation. It causes the increase of lipids as well as ROS (reactive oxygen species). Lipid accumulation and ROS production were determined in 3?T3-L1 adipocyte, and the effect of Pycnogenol® was evaluated. Lipid accumulation was elevated in adipocyte treated with hydrogen peroxide, one of the ROS. Pycnogenol® showed an inhibitory effect on the lipid accumulation and ROS production during the adipogenesis. We also investigated the molecular events associated with ROS production and lipid accumulation. Our results showed that Pycnogenol® inhibited the mRNA expression of pro-oxidant enzymes, such as NOX4 (NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate hydrogen) oxidase 4), and the NADPH-producing G6PDH (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) enzyme. In addition, Pycnogenol® suppressed the mRNA abundance of adipogenic transcription factors, PPAR-? (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?) and C/EBP-? (CCAAT/enhancer binding protein ?), and their target gene, aP2 (adipocyte protein 2) responsible for fatty acid transportation. On the other hand, Pycnogenol® increased the abundance of antioxidant proteins such as Cu/Zn-SOD (copper-zinc superoxide dismutase), Mn-SOD (manganese superoxide dismutase), GPx (glutathione peroxidase) and GR (glutathione reductase). Our results suggest that Pycnogenol® inhibits lipid accumulation and ROS production by regulating adipogenic gene expression and pro-/antioxidant enzyme responses in adipocytes. PMID:21796705

  16. Barium inhibits arsenic-mediated apoptotic cell death in human squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima, Ichiro; Uemura, Noriyuki; Nizam, Saika; Khalequzzaman, Md; Thang, Nguyen D; Kumasaka, Mayuko Y; Akhand, Anwarul A; Shekhar, Hossain U; Nakajima, Tamie; Kato, Masashi

    2012-06-01

    Our fieldwork showed more than 1 ?M (145.1 ?g/L) barium in about 3 ?M (210.7 ?g/L) arsenic-polluted drinking well water (n = 72) in cancer-prone areas in Bangladesh, while the mean concentrations of nine other elements in the water were less than 3 ?g/L. The types of cancer include squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). We hypothesized that barium modulates arsenic-mediated biological effects, and we examined the effect of barium (1 ?M) on arsenic (3 ?M)-mediated apoptotic cell death of human HSC-5 and A431 SCC cells in vitro. Arsenic promoted SCC apoptosis with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and JNK1/2 and caspase-3 activation (apoptotic pathway). In contrast, arsenic also inhibited SCC apoptosis with increased NF-?B activity and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) expression level and decreased JNK activity (antiapoptotic pathway). These results suggest that arsenic bidirectionally promotes apoptotic and antiapoptotic pathways in SCC cells. Interestingly, barium in the presence of arsenic increased NF-?B activity and XIAP expression and decreased JNK activity without affecting ROS production, resulting in the inhibition of the arsenic-mediated apoptotic pathway. Since the anticancer effect of arsenic is mainly dependent on cancer apoptosis, barium-mediated inhibition of arsenic-induced apoptosis may promote progression of SCC in patients in Bangladesh who keep drinking barium and arsenic-polluted water after the development of cancer. Thus, we newly showed that barium in the presence of arsenic might inhibit arsenic-mediated cancer apoptosis with the modulation of the balance between arsenic-mediated promotive and suppressive apoptotic pathways. PMID:22526373

  17. Disulfiram eradicates tumor-initiating hepatocellular carcinoma cells in ROS-p38 MAPK pathway-dependent and -independent manners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Tetsuhiro; Suzuki, Eiichiro; Yuki, Kaori; Zen, Yoh; Oshima, Motohiko; Miyagi, Satoru; Saraya, Atsunori; Koide, Shuhei; Motoyama, Tenyu; Ogasawara, Sadahisa; Ooka, Yoshihiko; Tawada, Akinobu; Nakatsura, Tetsuya; Hayashi, Takehiro; Yamashita, Taro; Kaneko, Syuichi; Miyazaki, Masaru; Iwama, Atsushi; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    Tumor-initiating cells (TICs) play a central role in tumor development, metastasis, and recurrence. In the present study, we investigated the effect of disulfiram (DSF), an inhibitor of aldehyde dehydrogenase, toward tumor-initiating hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. DSF treatment suppressed the anchorage-independent sphere formation of both HCC cells. Flow cytometric analyses showed that DSF but not 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) drastically reduces the number of tumor-initiating HCC cells. The sphere formation assays of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM)(+) HCC cells co-treated with p38-specific inhibitor revealed that DSF suppresses self-renewal capability mainly through the activation of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-p38 MAPK pathway. Microarray experiments also revealed the enrichment of the gene set involved in p38 MAPK signaling in EpCAM(+) cells treated with DSF but not 5-FU. In addition, DSF appeared to downregulate Glypican 3 (GPC3) in a manner independent of ROS-p38 MAPK pathway. GPC3 was co-expressed with EpCAM in HCC cell lines and primary HCC cells and GPC3-knockdown reduced the number of EpCAM(+) cells by compromising their self-renewal capability and inducing the apoptosis. These results indicate that DSF impaired the tumorigenicity of tumor-initiating HCC cells through activation of ROS-p38 pathway and in part through the downregulation of GPC3. DSF might be a promising therapeutic agent for the eradication of tumor-initiating HCC cells. PMID:24454751

  18. Bystander normal human fibroblasts reduce damage response in radiation targeted cancer cells through intercellular ROS level modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation-induced bystander effect is a well-established phenomenon which results in damage in non-irradiated cells in response to signaling from irradiated cells. Since communication between irradiated and bystander cells could be reciprocal, we examined the mutual bystander response between irradiated cells and co-cultured with them non-irradiated recipients. Using a transwell culture system, irradiated human melanoma (Me45) cells were co-cultured with non-irradiated Me45 cells or normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF) and vice versa. The frequency of micronuclei and of apoptosis, ROS level, and mitochondrial membrane potential were used as the endpoints. Irradiated Me45 and NHDF cells induced conventional bystander effects detected as modest increases of the frequency of micronuclei and apoptosis in both recipient neighbors; the increase of apoptosis was especially high in NHDF cells co-cultured with irradiated Me45 cells. However, the frequencies of micronuclei and apoptosis in irradiated Me45 cells co-cultured with NHDF cells were significantly reduced in comparison with those cultured alone. This protective effect was not observed when irradiated melanomas were co-cultured with non-irradiated cells of the same line, or when irradiated NHDF fibroblasts were co-cultured with bystander melanomas. The increase of micronuclei and apoptosis in irradiated Me45 cells was paralleled by an increase in the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), which was reduced significantly when they were co-cultured for 24 h with NHDF cells. A small but significant elevation of ROS level in NHDF cells shortly after irradiation was also reduced by co-culture with non-irradiated NHDF cells. We propose that in response to signals from irradiated cells, non-irradiated NHDF cells trigger rescue signals, whose nature remains to be elucidated, which modify the redox status in irradiated cells. This inverse bystander effect may potentially have implications in clinical radiotherapy.

  19. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen (ROS and RNS) species generation and cell death in tomato suspension cultures--Botrytis cinerea interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrowska, E; Ró?alska, S; Ka?mierczak, A; Nawrocka, J; Ma?olepsza, U

    2015-01-01

    This article reports events connected to cell survival and Botrytis cinerea infection development in cell suspension cultures of two tomato cultivars which show different levels of susceptibility to the pathogen: cv. Corindo (more susceptible) and cv. Perkoz (less susceptible). In parallel changes in reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species generation and in S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) activity were studied. In vivo staining methods with acridine orange (AO) and ethidium bromide (EB) as well as fluorescent microscopy were used to assess tomato and B. cinerea cells death. The biochemical studies of ROS and RNS concentrations in plant cell extract were complemented by in vivo ROS and nitric oxide (NO) imaging using nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT), diaminobenzidine (DAB) and diaminofluorescein diacetate (DAF-DA) staining methods, and confocal microscope technique. B. cinerea infection proceeded slower in Perkoz cell cultures. It was evidenced by measuring the pathogen conidia germination and germination tube development in which nuclei revealing cell death dominated. Two different types of tomato cell death were observed: cells with necrotic nuclei dominated in Corindo whereas in Perkoz cells with characteristic of vacuolar death type prevailed. In Perkoz cells, constitutive levels of NO and S-nitrosothiols (SNO) were significantly higher and hydrogen peroxide (H?O?) and superoxide anion (O?(-)) concentrations were slightly higher as compared with Corindo cells. Moreover, increases in these molecule concentrations as a result of B. cinerea inoculation were observed in both, Perkoz and Corindo cell cultures. The enzymatic GSNOR activity seems to be an important player in controlling the SNO level in tomato cells. Involvements of the studied compounds in molecular mechanisms of tomato resistance to B. cinerea are discussed in the paper. PMID:25064634

  20. Activation of Rap1 inhibits NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS generation in retinal pigment epithelium and reduces choroidal neovascularization

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Haibo; Jiang, Yanchao; Shi, Dallas; Quilliam, Lawrence A; Chrzanowska-Wodnicka, Magdalena; Wittchen, Erika S.; Li, Dean Y; Hartnett, M. Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Activation of Rap1 GTPase can improve the integrity of the barrier of the retina pigment epithelium (RPE) and reduce choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Inhibition of NADPH oxidase activation also reduces CNV. We hypothesize that Rap1 inhibits NADPH oxidase-generated ROS and thereby reduces CNV formation. Using a murine model of laser-induced CNV, we determined that reduced Rap1 activity in RPE/choroid occurred with CNV formation and that activation of Rap1 by 2?-O-Me-cAMP (8CPT)-reduced lase...

  1. Effects of Mountain Ultra-Marathon Running on ROS Production and Oxidative Damage by Micro-Invasive Analytic Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrakic-Sposta, Simona; Gussoni, Maristella; Moretti, Sarah; Pratali, Lorenza; Giardini, Guido; Tacchini, Philippe; Dellanoce, Cinzia; Tonacci, Alessandro; Mastorci, Francesca; Borghini, Andrea; Montorsi, Michela; Vezzoli, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Aiming to gain a detailed insight into the physiological mechanisms involved under extreme conditions, a group of experienced ultra-marathon runners, performing the mountain Tor des Géants® ultra-marathon: 330 km trail-run in Valle d’Aosta, 24000 m of positive and negative elevation changes, was monitored. ROS production rate, antioxidant capacity, oxidative damage and inflammation markers were assessed, adopting micro-invasive analytic techniques. Methods Forty-six male athletes (45.04±8.75 yr, 72.6±8.4 kg, 1.76±0.05 m) were tested. Capillary blood and urine were collected before (Pre-), in the middle (Middle-) and immediately after (Post-) Race. Samples were analyzed for: Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) production by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance; Antioxidant Capacity by Electrochemistry; oxidative damage (8-hydroxy-2-deoxy Guanosine: 8-OH-dG; 8-isoprostane: 8-isoPGF2?) and nitric oxide metabolites by enzymatic assays; inflammatory biomarkers (plasma and urine interleukin-6: IL-6-P and IL-6-U) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA); Creatinine and Neopterin by HPLC, hematologic (lactate, glucose and hematocrit) and urine parameters by standard analyses. Results Twenty-five athletes finished the race, while twenty-one dropped out of it. A significant increase (Post-Race vs Pre) of the ROS production rate (2.20±0.27 vs 1.65±0.22 ?mol.min-1), oxidative damage biomarkers (8-OH-dG: 6.32±2.38 vs 4.16±1.25 ng.mg-1 Creatinine and 8-isoPGF2?: 1404.0±518.30 vs 822.51±448.91 pg.mg-1Creatinine), inflammatory state (IL-6-P: 66.42±36.92 vs 1.29±0.54 pg.mL-1 and IL-6-U: 1.33±0.56 vs 0.71±0.17 pg.mL1) and lactate production (+190%), associated with a decrease of both antioxidant capacity (-7%) and renal function (i.e. Creatinine level +76%) was found. Conclusions The used micro-invasive analytic methods allowed us to perform most of them before, during and immediately after the race directly in the field, by passing the need of storing and transporting samples for further analysis. Considered altogether the investigated variables showed up that exhaustive and prolonged exercise not only promotes the generation of ROS but also induces oxidative stress, transient renal impairment and inflammation. PMID:26540518

  2. C-Phycocyanin Confers Protection against Oxalate-Mediated Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunctions in MDCK Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Shukkur M.; Boppana, Nithin B.; Asokan, Devarajan; Sekaran, Shamala D.; Shankar, Esaki M.; Li, Chunying; Gopal, Kaliappan; Bakar, Sazaly A.; Karthik, Harve S.; Ebrahim, Abdul S.

    2014-01-01

    Oxalate toxicity is mediated through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via a process that is partly dependent on mitochondrial dysfunction. Here, we investigated whether C-phycocyanin (CP) could protect against oxidative stress-mediated intracellular damage triggered by oxalate in MDCK cells. DCFDA, a fluorescence-based probe and hexanoyl-lysine adduct (HEL), an oxidative stress marker were used to investigate the effect of CP on oxalate-induced ROS production and membrane lipid peroxidation (LPO). The role of CP against oxalate-induced oxidative stress was studied by the evaluation of mitochondrial membrane potential by JC1 fluorescein staining, quantification of ATP synthesis and stress-induced MAP kinases (JNK/SAPK and ERK1/2). Our results revealed that oxalate-induced cells show markedly increased ROS levels and HEL protein expression that were significantly decreased following pre-treatment with CP. Further, JC1 staining showed that CP pre-treatment conferred significant protection from mitochondrial membrane permeability and increased ATP production in CP-treated cells than oxalate-alone-treated cells. In addition, CP treated cells significantly decreased the expression of phosphorylated JNK/SAPK and ERK1/2 as compared to oxalate-alone-treated cells. We concluded that CP could be used as a potential free radical-scavenging therapeutic strategy against oxidative stress-associated diseases including urolithiasis. PMID:24691130

  3. Astrocyte Mediated Protection of Fetal Cerebral Cortical Neurons from Rotenone and Paraquat

    OpenAIRE

    Rathinam, Mary Latha; Watts, Lora Talley; Narasimhan, Madhusudhanan; Riar, Amanjot Kaur; Mahimainathan, Lenin; Henderson, George I.

    2012-01-01

    Primary cultures of fetal rat cortical neurons and astrocytes were used to test the hypothesis that astrocyte-mediated control of neuronal glutathione (GSH) is a potent factor in neuroprotection against rotenone and paraquat. In neurons, rotenone (0.025 to 1?M) for 4 and 24 h decreased viability as did paraquat (2 to 100?M). Rotenone (30nM) decreased neuronal viability and GSH by 24% and 30%, while ROS were increased by 56%. Paraquat (30?M) decreased neuronal viability and GSH by 36% and 70%,...

  4. Suppression of XBP1S Mediates High Glucose-Induced Oxidative Stress and Extracellular Matrix Synthesis in Renal Mesangial Cell and Kidney of Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Decui; Liu, Jia; Ni, Jun; Wang, Zhen; Shen, Yang; Zhou, Li(Nankai university, Tianjin, 300071, People's Republic of China); Huang, Yu; Wang, Jun; Xue, Hong; Zhang, Wei; Lu, Limin

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidences suggest that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was involved in multi pathological conditions, including diabetic nephropathy (DN). X-box binding protein 1(XBP1), as a key mediator of ER stress, has been proved having the capability of preventing oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated the effects of spliced XBP1 (XBP1S), the dominant active form of XBP1, on high glucose (HG)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis in ...

  5. Study on bystander effect and associated mechanism mediated through culture medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the bystander effect and associated mechanism mediated through the irradiated cell culture medium. Methods: Splenic natural killer (NK) cells were obtained from healthy male ICR strain mice. Culture medium irradiated with different doses of 60Co ?-rays was used for culturing Yac-I lymphoma cells. The degree of injury of the latter by activated NK cells was observed. A part of the culture media were pretreated with 1% DMSO, a scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS), in order to investigate the possible mechanism of a radiation-induced bystander response. Results: Severer injury was induced in Yac-I cells cultured in the media pre-irradiated with different doses of ?-rays than that in Yac-I cells cultured in unirradiated medium, as shown by increased sensitivity to murine splenic NK cells (P<0.01). Culturing Yac-I cells in DMSO-pretreated medium considerably reduced the activation of NK cells, especially in 0.25 Gy and 0.5 Gy ?-irradiated media. Therefore, it can be expected that DMSO can partly suppress ROS-induced bystander effect. Conclusion: The irradiated culture medium of Yac-I cells can trigger bystander effect. ROS likely plays an important role in radiation-induced bystander effect that can be partly suppressed by pretreatment with DMSO. (authors)

  6. Music, Radio, and Mediatization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Mads; Michelsen, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Mediatization has become a key concept for understanding the relations between media and other cultural and social fields. Contributing to the discussions related to the concept of mediatization this article discusses how practices of radio and music(al life) influence each other. We follow Deacon’s and Stanyer’s advice to supplement the concept of mediatization with ‘a series of additional concepts at lower levels of abstraction’ (2014: 1040), and suggest, in this respect, the notion of heterog...

  7. The Schizosaccharomyces pombe Mediator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venturi, Michela

    2013-01-01

    In the past several years great attention has been dedicated to the characterization of the Mediator complex in a different range of model organisms. Mediator is a conserved co-activator complex involved in transcriptional regulation and it conveys signals from regulatory transcription factors to the basal transcription machinery. Mediator was initially isolated from Saccharomyces cerevisiae based on its ability to render a RNA polymerase II in vitro transcription system responsive to activators...

  8. Mitochondrial DNA deletion and impairment of mitochondrial biogenesis are mediated by reactive oxygen species in ionizing radiation-induced premature senescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletion is a well-known marker for oxidative stress and aging, and contributes to harmful effects in cultured cells and animal tissues. mtDNA biogenesis genes (NRF-1, TFAM) are essential for the maintenance of mtDNA, as well as the transcription and replication of mitochondrial genomes. Considering that oxidative stress is known to affect mitochondrial biogenesis, we hypothesized that ionizing radiation (IR)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) causes mtDNA deletion by modulating the mitochondrial biogenesis, thereby leading to cellular senescence. Therefore, we examined the effects of IR on ROS levels, cellular senescence, mitochondrial biogenesis, and mtDNA deletion in IMR-90 human lung fibroblast cells. Young IMR-90 cells at population doubling (PD) 39 were irradiated at 4 or 8 Gy. Old cells at PD55, and H2O2-treated young cells at PD 39, were compared as a positive control. The IR increased the intracellular ROS level, senescence-associated ?-galactosidase (SA-?-gal) activity, and mtDNA common deletion (4977 bp), and it decreased the mRNA expression of NRF-1 and TFAM in IMR-90 cells. Similar results were also observed in old cells (PD 55) and H2O2-treated young cells. To confirm that a increase in ROS level is essential for mtDNA deletion and changes of mitochondrial biogenesis in irradiated cells, the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) were examined. In irradiated and H2O2-treated cells, 5 mM NAC significantly attenuated the increases of ROS, mtDNA deletion, and SA-?-gal activity, and recovered from decreased expressions of NRF-1 and TFAM mRNA. These results suggest that ROS is a key cause of IR-induced mtDNA deletion, and the suppression of the mitochondrial biogenesis gene may mediate this process.

  9. Mitochondrial DNA deletion and impairment of mitochondrial biogenesis are mediated by reactive oxygen species in ionizing radiation-induced premature senescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eom, Hyeon Soo; Jung, U Hee; Jo, Sung Kee [Radiation Biotechnology Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Sang [College of Natural Sciences, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletion is a well-known marker for oxidative stress and aging, and contributes to harmful effects in cultured cells and animal tissues. mtDNA biogenesis genes (NRF-1, TFAM) are essential for the maintenance of mtDNA, as well as the transcription and replication of mitochondrial genomes. Considering that oxidative stress is known to affect mitochondrial biogenesis, we hypothesized that ionizing radiation (IR)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) causes mtDNA deletion by modulating the mitochondrial biogenesis, thereby leading to cellular senescence. Therefore, we examined the effects of IR on ROS levels, cellular senescence, mitochondrial biogenesis, and mtDNA deletion in IMR-90 human lung fibroblast cells. Young IMR-90 cells at population doubling (PD) 39 were irradiated at 4 or 8 Gy. Old cells at PD55, and H2O2-treated young cells at PD 39, were compared as a positive control. The IR increased the intracellular ROS level, senescence-associated {beta}-galactosidase (SA-{beta}-gal) activity, and mtDNA common deletion (4977 bp), and it decreased the mRNA expression of NRF-1 and TFAM in IMR-90 cells. Similar results were also observed in old cells (PD 55) and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-treated young cells. To confirm that a increase in ROS level is essential for mtDNA deletion and changes of mitochondrial biogenesis in irradiated cells, the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) were examined. In irradiated and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-treated cells, 5 mM NAC significantly attenuated the increases of ROS, mtDNA deletion, and SA-{beta}-gal activity, and recovered from decreased expressions of NRF-1 and TFAM mRNA. These results suggest that ROS is a key cause of IR-induced mtDNA deletion, and the suppression of the mitochondrial biogenesis gene may mediate this process.

  10. Age-dependent increase of etheno-DNA-adducts in liver and brain of ROS overproducing OXYS rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) play a role in aging and degenerative diseases. To correlate oxidative stress and LPO-derived DNA damage, we determined etheno-DNA-adducts in liver and brain from ROS overproducing OXYS rats in comparison with age-matched Wistar rats. Liver DNA samples from 3- and 15-month-old OXYS and Wistar rats were analyzed for 1,N 6-ethenodeoxyadenosine (?dA) and 3,N 4-ethenodeoxycytidine (?dC) by immunoaffinity/32P-postlabelling. While ?dA and ?dC levels were not different in young rats, adduct levels were significantly higher in old OXYS rats when compared to old Wistar or young OXYS rats. Frozen rat brain sections were analyzed for ?dA by immunostaining of nuclei. Brains from old OXYS rats accumulated ?dA more frequently than age-matched Wistar rats. Our results demonstrate increased LPO-induced DNA damage in organs of OXYS rats which correlates with their known shorter life-span and elevated frequency of chronic degenerative diseases

  11. Effects of COX-2 inhibitors on ROS produced by Chlamydia pneumoniae-primed human promonocytic cells (THP-1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic inflammation through foam cells and macrophages is important in atherosclerosis development, and can be considered as therapeutic targets. Cyclooxygenase and NADPH-oxidase were expressed within atherosclerotic lesions. Reactive oxygen species produced by NADPH oxidase were found to trigger the cyclooxygenase-2 expression. The effects of preferential COX-2 inhibitors on ROS produced by Chlamydia-primed human monocytes (THP-1 cells) were evaluated by fluorescence, chemiluminescence, oxymetry, and EPR spin trapping. Fluorescence assays showed an increased production of ROS with Chlamydia versus cells primed by 10-8 M PMA. COX-2 inhibitors inhibited in a dose-dependent manner the luminol-enhanced CL while ibuprofen and diclofenac increased the chemiluminescence response. By EPR spin trapping, COX-2 inhibitors, ibuprofen, and diclofenac, exhibited a dose-dependent inhibiting effect (10 and 100 ?M) on the EPR signal appearance. Our cell model combining EPR, chemiluminescence, and oxymetry appeared relevant to study the modulating effects of preferential COX-2 inhibitors on the cell oxidant activity and chronic inflammatory diseases

  12. SpBADH of the halophyte Sesuvium portulacastrum strongly confers drought tolerance through ROS scavenging in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chenglong; Zhou, Yang; Fan, Jie; Fu, Yuhua; Shen, Longbin; Yao, Yuan; Li, Ruimei; Fu, Shaoping; Duan, Ruijun; Hu, Xinwen; Guo, Jianchun

    2015-11-01

    Glycine betaine (GB) accumulation is involved in abiotic stress. However, it is not known whether BADH, the key enzyme of GB synthesis, utilizes the antioxidant system to confer drought stress tolerance. In this study, a novel member of the ALDH10 gene family, SpBADH, was isolated from Sesuvium portulacastrum. The expression of this gene was up-regulated by NaCl, PEG6000, H2O2, ABA and high temperature in S. portulacastrum. SpBADH overexpression in Arabidopsis resulted in higher BADH activity and GB content and might increase tolerance to drought/osmotic stresses, specifically strong tolerance to drought stress. Transgenic lines exhibited lower MDA and H2O2 contents but higher proline, POD, SOD and CAT contents than the wild type under drought and osmotic stresses. SpBADH overexpression in Arabidopsis also enhanced the expression of ROS-related genes including AtSOD, AtPOD, AtCAT, AtAPX and Atpsb under drought and osmotic stresses. Thus, SpBADH increases plant tolerance to drought or osmotic stresses by reducing H2O2, increasing proline, and activating antioxidative enzymes to improve ROS scavenging. PMID:26368017

  13. The Marine Fungal Metabolite, Dicitrinone B, Induces A375 Cell Apoptosis through the ROS-Related Caspase Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Dicitrinone B, a rare carbon-bridged citrinin dimer, was isolated from the marine-derived fungus, Penicillium citrinum. It was reported to have antitumor effects on tumor cells previously; however, the details of the mechanism remain unclear. In this study, we found that dicitrinone B inhibited the proliferation of multiple tumor types. Among them, the human malignant melanoma cell, A375, was confirmed to be the most sensitive. Morphologic evaluation, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis rate analysis results showed that dicitrinone B significantly induced A375 cell apoptosis. Subsequent observation of reactive oxygen species (ROS accumulation and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP reduction revealed that the apoptosis induced by dicitrinone B may be triggered by over-producing ROS. Further studies indicated that the apoptosis was associated with both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways under the regulation of Bcl-2 family proteins. Caspase-9, caspase-8 and caspase-3 were activated during the process, leading to PARP cleavage. The pan-caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-FMK, could reverse dicitrinone B-induced apoptosis, suggesting that it is a caspase-dependent pathway. Our data for the first time showed that dicitrinone B inhibits the proliferation of tumor cells by inducing cell apoptosis. Moreover, compared with the first-line chemotherapy drug, 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu, dicitrinone B showed much more potent anticancer efficacy, suggesting that it might serve as a potential antitumor agent.

  14. Doxorubicin-induced necrosis is mediated by poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) but is independent of p53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyeon-Jun; Kwon, Hyuk-Kwon; Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Gui, Xiangai; Achek, Asma; Kim, Jae-Ho; Choi, Sangdun

    2015-01-01

    Necrosis, unregulated cell death, is characterized by plasma membrane rupture as well as nuclear and cellular swelling. However, it has recently been reported that necrosis is a regulated form of cell death mediated by poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1). PARP1 is thought to mediate necrosis by inducing DNA damage, although this remains unconfirmed. In this study, we examined the mechanisms of PARP1-mediated necrosis following doxorubicin (DOX)-induced DNA damage in human kidney proximal tubular (HK-2) cells. DOX initiated DNA damage response (DDR) and upregulated PARP1 and p53 expression, resulting in morphological changes similar to those observed during necrosis. Additionally, DOX induced mitochondrial hyper-activation, as evidenced by increased mitochondrial respiration and cytosolic ATP (cATP) production. However, DOX affected mitochondrial mass. DOX-induced DNA damage, cytosolic reactive oxygen species (cROS) generation, and mitochondrial hyper-activation decreased in cells with inhibited PARP1 expression, while generation of nitric oxide (NO) and mitochondrial ROS (mROS) remained unaffected. Moreover, DOX-induced DNA damage, cell cycle changes, and oxidative stress were not affected by p53 inhibition. These findings suggest that DNA damage induced necrosis through a PARP1-dependent and p53-independent pathway. PMID:26522181

  15. Artemisinin induces A549 cell apoptosis dominantly via a reactive oxygen species-mediated amplification activation loop among caspase-9, -8 and -3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Weijie; Xiao, Fenglian; Wang, Xiaoping; Chen, Tongsheng

    2013-10-01

    This report is designed to explore the roles of caspase-8, -9 and -3 in artemisinin (ARTE)-induced apoptosis in non-small cell lung cancer cells (A549 cells). ARTE induced reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated apoptosis in dose- and time-dependent fashion. Although ARTE treatment did not induce Bid cleavage and significant loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, it induced release of Smac and AIF but not cytochrome c from mitochondria, and silencing of Bak but not Bax significantly prevented ARTE-induced cytotoxicity. Moreover, ARTE treatment induced ROS-dependent activation of caspase-9, -8 and -3. Of the utmost importance, silencing or inhibiting any one of caspase-8, -9 and -3 almost completely prevented ARTE-induced activation of all the three caspases and remarkably abrogated the cytotoxicity of ARTE, suggesting that ARTE triggered an amplification activation loop among caspase-9, -8 and -3. Collectively, our data demonstrate that ARTE induces a ROS-mediated amplification activation loop among caspase-9, -8 and -3 to dominantly mediate the apoptosis of A549 cells. PMID:23661289

  16. Reactive oxygen species-mediated therapeutic response and resistance in glioblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, E; Judkins, J; Salomonis, N; Matlaf, L; Soteropoulos, P; McAllister, S; Soroceanu, L

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) resistance to therapy is the most common cause of tumor recurrence, which is ultimately fatal in 90% of the patients 5 years after initial diagnosis. A sub-population of tumor cells with stem-like properties, glioma stem cells (GSCs), is specifically endowed to resist or adapt to the standard therapies, leading to therapeutic resistance. Several anticancer agents, collectively termed redox therapeutics, act by increasing intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, we investigated mechanisms underlying GSC response and resistance to cannabidiol (CBD), a non-toxic, non-psychoactive cannabinoid and redox modulator. Using primary GSCs, we showed that CBD induced a robust increase in ROS, which led to the inhibition of cell survival, phosphorylated (p)-AKT, self-renewal and a significant increase in the survival of GSC-bearing mice. Inhibition of self-renewal was mediated by the activation of the p-p38 pathway and downregulation of key stem cell regulators Sox2, Id1 and p-STAT3. Following CBD treatment, a subset of GSC successfully adapted, leading to tumor regrowth. Microarray, Taqman and functional assays revealed that therapeutic resistance was mediated by enhanced expression of the antioxidant response system Xc catalytic subunit xCT (SLC7A11 (solute carrier family 7 (anionic amino-acid transporter light chain), member 11)) and ROS-dependent upregulation of mesenchymal (MES) markers with concomitant downregulation of proneural (PN) markers, also known as PN–MES transition. This ‘reprogramming' of GSCs occurred in culture and in vivo and was partially due to activation of the NFE2L2 (NRF2 (nuclear factor, erythroid 2-like)) transcriptional network. Using genetic knockdown and pharmacological inhibitors of SLC7A11, we demonstrated that combining CBD treatment with the inhibition of system Xc resulted in synergistic ROS increase leading to robust antitumor effects, that is, decreased GSC survival, self-renewal, and invasion. Our investigation provides novel mechanistic insights into the antitumor activity of redox therapeutics and suggests that combinatorial approaches using small molecule modulators of ROS offer therapeutic benefits in GBM. PMID:25590811

  17. Nickel nanowires induced and reactive oxygen species mediated apoptosis in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleve MG

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Md. Zakir Hossain1, Maurice G Kleve21Applied Biosciences (Bionanotechnology Research, Department of Applied Science, 2Molecular Biotechnology and Microscopy Laboratory, Department of Biology, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, Arkansas, USABackground: The ability to evade apoptosis is one of the key properties of cancer. The apoptogenic effect of nickel nanowires (Ni NWs on cancer cell lines has never been adequately addressed. Due to the unique physicochemical characteristics of Ni NWs, we envision the development of a novel anticancer therapeutics specifically for pancreatic cancer. Thus, we investigated whether Ni NWs induce ROS-mediated apoptosis in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma (Panc-1 cells. Methods: In this study Ni NWs were fabricated using the electrodeposition method. Synthesized Ni NWs were physically characterized by energy dispersive X-ray analysis, UV-Vis spectroscopy of NanoDrop 2000 (UV-Vis, magnetization study, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Assessment of morphological apoptotic characteristics by phase contrast microscopy (PCM, Ni-NWs-induced apoptosis staining with ethidium bromide (EB and acridine orange (AO followed by fluorescence microscopy (FM was performed. For molecular biological and biochemical characterization, Panc-1 cell culture and cytotoxic effect of Ni NWs were determined by using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. Quantitative apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry staining with propidium iodide through cell cycle arrest and generation of ROS using 2', 7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate fluorescence intensity. In all experiments, Panc-1 cancer cells without any treatment were used as the negative controls.Results: The intracellular uptake of Ni NWs through endocytosis by Panc-1 cells was observed by PCM. EB and AO staining of FM and MTT assay qualitatively and quantitatively confirmed the extent of apoptosis. Flow cytometric cell cycle arrest and ROS generation indicated Ni NWs as inducers of apoptotic cell death.Conclusion: We investigated the role of Ni NWs as inducers of ROS-mediated apoptosis in Panc-1 cells. These results suggested that Ni NWs could be an effective apoptotic agent for Panc-1 cells and have good potential for further research into a clinical treatment selective for pancreatic cancer.Keywords: Ni NWs, apoptosis, Panc-1, MTT assay, flow cytometry, cell cycle arrest, ROS

  18. HSV infection induces production of ROS, which potentiate signaling from pattern recognition receptors: role for S-glutathionylation of TRAF3 and 6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dosal, Regina Gonzalez; Horan, Kristy A

    2011-01-01

    The innate immune response constitutes the first line of defense against infections. Pattern recognition receptors recognize pathogen structures and trigger intracellular signaling pathways leading to cytokine and chemokine expression. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are emerging as an important regulator of some of these pathways. ROS directly interact with signaling components or induce other post-translational modifications such as S-glutathionylation, thereby altering target function. Applying live microscopy, we have demonstrated that herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection induces early production of ROS that are required for the activation of NF-?B and IRF-3 pathways and the production of type I IFNs and ISGs. All the known receptors involved in the recognition of HSV were shown to be dependent on the cellular redox levels for successful signaling. In addition, we provide biochemical evidence suggesting S-glutathionylation of TRAF family proteins to be important. In particular, by performing mutational studies we show that S-glutathionylation of a conserved cysteine residue of TRAF3 and TRAF6 is important for ROS-dependent activation of innate immune pathways. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that ROS are essential for effective activation of signaling pathways leading to a successful innate immune response against HSV infection.

  19. Tyrosol Prevents Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Cardiac Injury in H9c2 Cells: Involvement of ROS, Hsp70, JNK and ERK, and Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liwei Sun

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ischemia-Reperfusion (I/R injury causes ROS overproduction, creating oxidative stress, and can trigger myocyte death, resulting in heart failure. Tyrosol is an antioxidant abounded in diets and medicine. Our objective was to investigate the protective effect of tyrosol on I/R-caused mortality in H9c2 cardiomyocytes through its influence on ROS, Hsp70, ERK, JNK, Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-8. A simulated I/R model was used, myocytes loss was examined by MTT, and ROS levels were measured using DCFH-DA. Nuclear condensation and caspase-3 activity were assessed by DAPI staining and fluorometric assay. Phosphorylated ERK and JNK were determined by electrochemiluminescent ELISA, and Hsp70, Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-8 were examined by Western blotting. Results show that tyrosol salvaged myocyte loss, inhibited nuclear condensation and caspase-3 activity dose-dependently, indicating its protection against I/R-caused myocyte loss. Furthermore, tyrosol significantly inhibited ROS accumulation and activation of ERK and JNK, augmenting Hsp70 expression. Besides, tyrosol inhibited I/R-induced apoptosis, associated with retained anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein, and attenuated pro-apoptotic Bax protein, resulting in a preservation of Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Finally, tyrosol notably decreased cleaved caspase-8 levels. In conclusion, cytoprotection of tyrosol in I/R-caused myocyte mortality was involved with the mitigation of ROS, prohibition of the activation of ERK, JNK and caspase-8, and elevation of Hsp70 and Bcl-2/Bax ratio.

  20. Natural polyamines and synthetic analogs modify the growth and the morphology of Pyrus communis pollen tubes affecting ROS levels and causing cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloisi, Iris; Cai, Giampiero; Tumiatti, Vincenzo; Minarini, Anna; Del Duca, Stefano

    2015-10-01

    Polyamines (PAs) are small molecules necessary for pollen maturation and tube growth. Their role is often controversial, since they may act as pro-survival factors as well as factors promoting Programmed Cell Death (PCD). The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of exogenous PAs on the apical growth of pear (Pyrus communis) pollen tube and to understand if PAs and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are interconnected in the process of tip-growth. In the present study besides natural PAs, also aryl-substituted spermine and methoctramine (Met 6-8-6) analogs were tested. Among the natural PAs, Spm showed strongest effects on tube growth. Spm entered through the pollen tube tip, then diffused in the sub-apical region that underwent drastic morphological changes, showing enlarged tip. Analogs were mostly less efficient than natural PAs but BD23, an asymmetric synthetic PAs bearing a pyridine ring, showed similar effects. These effects were related to the ability of PAs to cause the decrease of ROS level in the apical zone, leading to cell death, counteracted by the caspase-3 inhibitor Ac-DEVD-CHO (DEVD). In conclusions, ROS are essential for pollen germination and a strict correlation between ROS regulation and PA concentration is reported. Moreover, an imbalance between ROS and PAs can be detrimental thereby driving pollen toward cell death. PMID:26398794

  1. Insight into the Mechanism of Antibacterial Activity of ZnO: Surface Defects Mediated Reactive Oxygen Species Even in the Dark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi Prasanna, V; Vijayaraghavan, Rajagopalan

    2015-08-25

    A systematic and complete antibacterial study on well-designed and well-characterized microparticle (micro), nanoparticle (nano), and capped nano ZnO has been carried out in both dark and light conditions with the objective of arriving at the mechanism of the antibacterial activity of ZnO, particularly in the dark. The present systematic study has conclusively proved that reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as (•)OH, (•)O2(-), and H2O2 are significantly produced from aqueous suspension of ZnO even in the dark and are mainly responsible for the activity in the dark up to 17%, rather than Zn(2+) ion leaching as proposed earlier. This work further confirms that surface defects play a major role in the production of ROS both in the presence and absence of light. In the dark, superoxide ((•)O2(-)) radical mediated ROS generation through singly ionized oxygen vacancy is proposed for the first time, and it is confirmed by EPR and scavenger studies. ROS such as (•)O2(-), H2O2, and (•)OH have been estimated by UV-visible spectroscopy using nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT), KMnO4 titrations, and fluorescence spectroscopy, respectively. These are correlated to the antibacterial activity of ZnO in the dark and light. The activity is found to be highest for nano ZnO and least for micro ZnO, with capped ZnO between the two, highlighting the important role of surface defects in generation of ROS. The surface charge density of ZnO in dark and light has been estimated for the first time to the best of our knowledge, and it can influence antibacterial activity. Our work proposes a new mechanism mediated by superoxide species, for antibacterial activity of ZnO especially in the dark. PMID:26222950

  2. ROS-mediated enhanced transcription of CYP38 promotes the plant tolerance to high light stress by suppressing GTPase activation of PsbO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongqiang; Zeng, Lizhang; Xing, Da

    2015-01-01

    As a member of the Immunophilin family, cyclophilin38 (CYP38) is discovered to be localized in the thylakoid lumen, and is reported to be a participant in the function regulation of thylakoid membrane protein. However, the molecule mechanisms remain unclear. We found that, CYP38 plays an important role in the process of regulating and protecting the plant to resist high light (HL) stress. Under HL condition, the gene expression of CYP38 is enhanced, and if CYP38 gene is deficient, photochemistry efficiency, and chlorophyll content falls distinctly, and excessive reactive oxygen species synthesis occurs in the chloroplast. Western blot results showed that the D1 degradation rate of cyp38 mutant plants is faster than that of wide type plants. Interestingly, both gene expression and activity of PsbO2 were drastically enhanced in cyp38 mutant plants and less changed when the deleted gene of CYP38 was restored under HL treatment. This indicates that CYP38 may impose a negative regulation effect on PsbO2, which exerts a positive regulation effect in facilitating the dephosphorylation and subsequent degradation of D1. It is also found that, under HL condition, the cytoplasmic calcium ([Ca2+]cyt) concentration and the gene expression level of calmodulin 3 (CaM3) arose markedly, which occurs upstream of CYP38 gene expression. In conclusion, our results indicate that CYP38 plays an important role in plant strengthening HL resistibility, which provides a new insight in the research of mechanisms of CYP38 protein in plants.

  3. Induction of ROS-independent JNK-activation-mediated apoptosis by a novel coumarin-derivative, DMAC, in human colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mei-Hsiang; Cheng, Chia-Hsiung; Chen, Ku-Chung; Lee, Wai-Theng; Wang, Yen-Fang; Xiao, Cai-Qin; Lin, Cheng-Wei

    2014-07-25

    In this study, we investigated the antitumor activity of a novel coumarin derivative, 5,7-dihydroxy-4-methyl-6-(3-methylbutanoyl)-coumarin (DMAC), on colorectal carcinoma. DMAC treatment resulted in substantial proapoptotic activity against colon cancer HCT116 and LoVo cells. Induction of apoptotic characteristics, including cellular shrinkage, chromatin condensation, and Annexin V detection, was observed following DMAC treatment. Mechanistically, we observed that DMAC elicited induction of proteolytic cascade activation including cleavage of caspase-3 and poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) expression and loss of the antiapoptotic proteins, Mcl-1 and Bcl-XL, accompanied by an increase in expression of the proapoptotic protein, Bak. In addition, suppressing c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK), but not extracellular-regulated protein kinase (ERK) or p38, substantially diminished DMAC-induced cell death and caspase-3 and PARP cleavage. However, pretreatment with antioxidants, including N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) and diphenylene iodonium (DPI), failed to protect against DMAC-elicited apoptosis. Pretreatment with the JNK inhibitor, SP600125, suppressed DMAC-induced JNK phosphorylation, which was accompanied by a reversal of Bcl-XL expression. Moreover, combining DMAC treatment with the conventional anticancer drugs, 5-FU and CPT-11, considerably enhanced their therapeutic efficacies. Structural-activity relationship analyses further revealed that an alkylation substitution at position 6 of the coumarin ring was critical for inducing apoptosis, and the phenyl group at position 4 might have enhanced its bioactivity. Our data showed that DMAC can be used as part of a promising strategy to enhance therapeutic efficacies, and could be used to develop an approach for structure-based drug design for cancer treatment. PMID:24812029

  4. The Selective Target of Capsaicin on FASN Expression and De Novo Fatty Acid Synthesis Mediated through ROS Generation Triggers Apoptosis in HepG2 Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Impheng, Hathaichanok; Pongcharoen, Sutatip; Richert, Lysiane; Pekthong, Dumrongsak; Srisawang, Piyarat

    2014-01-01

    The inhibition of the mammalian de novo synthesis of long-chain saturated fatty acids (LCFAs) by blocking the fatty acid synthase (FASN) enzyme activity in tumor cells that overexpress FASN can promote apoptosis, without apparent cytotoxic to non-tumor cells. The present study aimed to focus on the potent inhibitory effect of capsaicin on the fatty acid synthesis pathway inducing apoptosis of capsaicin in HepG2 cells. The use of capsaicin as a source for a new FASN inhibitor will provide new ...

  5. Redox cycling of endogenous copper by thymoquinone leads to ROS-mediated DNA breakage and consequent cell death: putative anticancer mechanism of antioxidants

    OpenAIRE

    H. Zubair; Khan, H Y; A. Sohail; Azim, S; Ullah, M F; Ahmad, A.; Sarkar, F.H.; Hadi, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Plant-derived dietary antioxidants have attracted considerable interest in recent past for their chemopreventive and cancer therapeutic abilities in animal models. Thymoquinone (TQ) is the major bioactive constituent of volatile oil of Nigella sativa and has been shown to exert various pharmacological properties, such as anti-inflammatory, cardiovascular, analgesic, anti-neoplastic, anticancer and chemopreventive. Although several mechanisms have been suggested for the chemopreventive and ant...

  6. Plant mediator: Mediating the jasmonate response

    OpenAIRE

    Kidd, Brendan N; Aitken, Elizabeth A; Schenk, Peer M.; Manners, John M.; Kazan, Kemal

    2010-01-01

    Jasmonate (JA) signaling plays an important role in regulating both plant defense and development. We have recently reported that the PHYTOCHROME AND FLOWERING TIME1 (PFT1) gene, which encodes the MEDIATOR25 subunit of the plant Mediator complex, is a key regulator of JA regulated transcription. We showed that the pft1 mutant had attenuated expression of a wide range of JA responsive genes and altered resistance to fungal pathogens. Here we examine the position of PFT1/MED25 within the JA pat...

  7. N-acetyl cysteine protects human oral keratinocytes from Bis-GMA-induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest by inhibiting reactive oxygen species-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction and the PI3K/Akt pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu; Gu, Ying-Xin; Mo, Jia-Ji; Shi, Jun-Yu; Qiao, Shi-Chong; Lai, Hong-Chang

    2015-12-01

    Bisphenol-A-glycidyl methacrylate (Bis-GMA) released from dental resin materials causes various toxic effects on gingival epithelium. Thus the underlying mechanisms of its cytotoxicity should be elucidated for safety use. One potential cause of cell damage is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) beyond the capacity of a balanced redox regulation. In this study, we found that exposure of human oral keratinocytes (HOKs) to Bis-GMA caused apoptosis and G1/S cell cycle arrest in parallel with an increased ROS level. Moreover, Bis-GMA induced a depletion of mitochondrial membrane potential, an increase in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, an activation of caspase-3 and altered expressions of cell cycle-related proteins (p21, PCNA, cyclinD1). Furthermore, the co-treatment of the ROS scavenger N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) obviously attenuated Bis-GMA-induced toxicity. Here we also evaluated the effects of Bis-GMA on the ROS-related PI3k/Akt pathway. We found that Bis-GMA inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt, whereas the amount of phosphorylated Akt was reverted to the control level in the presence of NAC. Our findings suggested that the toxic effects of Bis-GMA were related to ROS production and the antioxidant NAC effectively reduced Bis-GMA-mediated cytotoxicity. PMID:26343756

  8. Teaching Mediated Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Michael L.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses approaches to teaching a mediated public relations course, emphasizing the World Wide Web. Outlines five course objectives, assignments and activities, evaluation, texts, and lecture topics. Argues that students mastering these course objectives will understand ethical issues relating to media use, using mediated technology in public…

  9. Mediation and Domestic Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Faget

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the potential and limits of recourse to mediation for regulating domestic violence. On the basis of an empirical study of its implementation in France and of the existing academic literature, it shows the existence of two types of practices reflecting two conceptions of mediation and more generally, two conceptions of the articulation between social and penal regulation

  10. Mediator redefines itself

    OpenAIRE

    Sennett, Nicholas C; Taatjes, Dylan J.

    2014-01-01

    Mediator is a large and structurally dynamic protein complex that is globally required for eukaryotic transcription by RNA polymerase II. In a recent paper published in Cell Research, Wang et al. report for the first time the location of distinct subunits and redefine domains in the S. cerevisiae Mediator complex.

  11. Reactive oxygen species induce cell death via Akt signaling in rat osteoblast-like cell line ROS 17/2.8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Xie, Qing-Yun; Quan, Yi; Pan, Xian-Ming; Liao, Dong-Fa

    2015-12-01

    In bones, osteoblasts are responsible for bone formation. The cell death of osteoblasts may cause a series of bone diseases and lead to bone loss, such as osteoarthrosis, hyperparathyroidism, and Paget's disease. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are reported as a main factor for osteoblast cell death and further several bone diseases. However, the detailed mechanism is still largely unknown. Here, we found that ROS could induce cell death of rat osteoblast-like cell line ROS 17/2.8 via Akt (protein kinase B). Also, the mammalian target of rapamycin signaling was involved in this process. Our findings could help to reveal the cellular mechanism of osteoblast cell death, which is served for the pursuit of clinical treatment targets of relative bone diseases. PMID:23788393

  12. Caloric restriction restores the chronological life span of the Goa1 null mutant of Candida albicans in spite of high cell levels of ROS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Calderone, Richard; Sun, Nuo; Wang, Yun; Li, Dongmei

    2012-12-01

    The Candida albicans Goa1p is required for mitochondrial functions. In a strain lacking GOA1 (GOA31), respiration, mitochondrial membrane potential, complex I (CI) activity of the electron transport chain, and ATP synthesis are significantly decreased. A shortened chronological life span (CLS) of GOA31 occurs in 2% glucose that is associated with an increase in cell reactive oxidant species (ROS) and apoptosis. We now show that caloric restriction (CR) in media containing 0.5% glucose instead of 2% glucose-SC extends the CLS to the level of parental and gene-reconstituted strains. Paradoxically, ROS levels in GOA31 far exceed those of control strains in 0.5% glucose and, as a consequence, increased lipid peroxidation occurs even though CLS is restored. Microarray analysis was used to characterize transcriptional changes during CR in GOA31. We found that CR shifts cells of all strains to a non-glucose carbon metabolism (?-oxidation). Our model of ROS formation in GOA31 follows the paradigm that the generation of oxygen radicals from ?-oxidation of cell lipids via FADH(2) (CII) and NADH (CI) creates an unfavorable cellular FADH(2)/NADH ratio that causes a transient overload in CII activity resulting in excess free cell radicals. In GOA31 the CI and peroxisomal dysfunctions increase the levels of ROS compared to control strains. Recovery from high levels of ROS may be associated with an increase in iron and sugar transporters, as well as an anti-stress response that includes the SOD1 and GPX1. Thus, CR creates a favorable growth environment, but cells of GOA31 must overcome a high but transient ROS production. PMID:23063955

  13. Audit with feedback (AWF) as a CME tool for radiation oncologists (ROs): evaluation of efficacy, perception, and cost-effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meta-analyses demonstrate Audit with Feedback (AWF) is effective CME, however educational efficacy for ROs is unknown. We evaluated an AWF CME intervention for ROs, determining efficacy, cost-effectiveness and participant satisfaction. CME program: CME incorporated fortnightly random patient chart audit, scoring management adequacy via checklist. Scores were presented at a same-day institutional meeting, and case management discussed. Senior peers provided educational feedback. RO behavior/performance was evaluated via chart review of new patients seen 2 months before commencement of CME (T0), and after 12 months of CME (T1). A validated instrument scored 19 items as '0' (inadequate/inappropriate) or '1' (adequate/appropriate). Comparisons of mean point-score for 10 behaviour items targeted by the CME AWF checklist, 3 non-targeted behaviour items, and 6 performance items were made; also percent charts achieving a '1' for each item at T0 and T1. A 14-item participant questionnaire measured satisfaction before and after efficacy results were known. Responses scored from 0 (very dissatisfied) to 5 (very satisfied), then averaged. Annual cost and cost-per-point gained incorporated salaries of organizers/ participants, and consumables. 113 and 118 charts were evaluated at T0 and T1. Mean score of targeted behavior improved between T0 and T1 (8.7 to 9.2 out of 10,p=0.0001), with no significant improvement for non-targeted behavior/performance items. Improvement occurred for 'Decision for treatment' (non-targeted; percent charts scoring '1' increased from 84% to 92%,p=0.08), and targeted items 'Letter to referrer' (53% to 66%,p=0.04), 'Treatment intent' (54 to 77%,p=0.0002), 'Laterality doublet' (91 to 98%, p=0.04), and 'Isodose-plan signed' (94 to 100%,p=0.006). Improvements varied between ROs. Participant satisfaction was positive, increasing from 3.2 to 3.7 after efficacy result distribution (p=0.0001). Annual costs and cost-per-point gained were $AUD13,820 and $27. Audit with comparative, educational feedback is cost-effective and positively-perceived CME, significantly improving targeted RO behavior. RO CME design and evaluation require further research

  14. A reversible early oxidized redox state that precedes macromolecular ROS damage in aging non-transgenic and 3xTg-AD mouse neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, D; LeVault, K.; Barnett, A; Brewer, G. J.

    2012-01-01

    The brain depends on redox electrons from NADH to produce ATP and oxyradicals (ROS). Since ROS damage and mitochondrial dysregulation are prominent in aging and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and their relationship to redox state is unclear, we wanted to know whether an oxidative redox shift precedes these markers and leads to macromolecular damage in a mouse model of AD. We used the 3xTg-AD mouse model that displays cognitive deficits beginning at 4 months. Hippocampal/cortical neurons were isolat...

  15. ROS release and Hsp70 expression after exposure to 1,800 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic fields in primary human monocytes and lymphocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Lantow, M.; Lupke, M.; Frahm, J; Mattsson, M. O.; Kuster, N; Simko, M.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate if 1,800 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) can induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) release and/or changes in heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) expression in human blood cells, using different exposure and co-exposure conditions. Human umbilical cord blood-derived monocytes and lymphocytes were used to examine ROS release after exposure to continuous wave or different GSM signals (GSM-DTX and GSM-Talk) at 2 W/kg for 30 or 45 min of continuo...

  16. Annatto constituent cis-bixin has selective antimyeloma effects mediated by oxidative stress and associated with inhibition of thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibodeau, Jennifer D; Isham, Crescent R; Bible, Keith C

    2010-10-01

    In pursuit of the anticancer effects of seeds of the rain forest plant Bixa orellana (annatto), we found that its constituent cis-bixin induced cytotoxicity in a wide variety of tumor cell lines (IC(50) values from 10 to 50 microM, 24-h exposures) and, importantly, also selectively killed freshly collected patient multiple myeloma cells and highly drug-resistant multiple myeloma cell lines. Mechanistic studies indicated that cis-bixin-induced cytotoxicity was greatly attenuated by co-treatment with glutathione or N-acetylcysteine (NAC); whereas fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) assays using the cell-permeable dyes 5-(and-6) chloromethyl-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, acetyl ester (CM-H(2)DCFDA), or dihydroethidium demonstrated that cis-bixin rapidly induced cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in dose- and time-dependent fashions, collectively implicating ROS as contributory to cis-bixin-induced cytotoxicity. In pursuit of potential contributors to ROS imposition by cis-bixin, we found that cis-bixin inhibited both thioredoxin (Trx) and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR1) activities at concentrations comparable to those required for cytotoxicity, implicating the inhibition of these redox enzymes as potentially contributing to its ability to impose cellular ROS and to kill cancer cells. Collectively, our studies indicate that the annatto constituent cis-bixin has intriguing selective antimyeloma activity that appears to be mediated through effects on redox signaling. PMID:20170403

  17. Hypoxia sensing in the fetal chicken femoral artery is mediated by the mitochondrial electron transport chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoer, Bea; Cogolludo, Angel L

    2010-01-01

    Vascular hypoxia sensing is transduced into vasoconstriction in the pulmonary circulation, whereas systemic arteries dilate. Mitochondrial electron transport chain (mETC), reactive O(2) species (ROS), and K(+) channels have been implicated in the sensing/signaling mechanisms of hypoxic relaxation in mammalian systemic arteries. We aimed to investigate their putative roles in hypoxia-induced relaxation in fetal chicken (19 days of incubation) femoral arteries mounted in a wire myograph. Acute hypoxia (Po(2) approximately 2.5 kPa) relaxed the contraction induced by norepinephrine (1 microM). Hypoxia-induced relaxation was abolished or significantly reduced by the mETC inhibitors rotenone (complex I), myxothiazol and antimycin A (complex III), and NaN(3) (complex IV). The complex II inhibitor 3-nitroproprionic acid enhanced the hypoxic relaxation. In contrast, the relaxations mediated by acetylcholine, sodium nitroprusside, or forskolin were not affected by the mETC blockers. Hypoxia induced a slight increase inROS production (as measured by 2,7-dichlorofluorescein-fluorescence), but hypoxia-induced relaxation was not affected by scavenging of superoxide (polyethylene glycol-superoxide dismutase) or H(2)O(2) (polyethylene glycol-catalase) or by NADPH-oxidase inhibition (apocynin). Also, the K(+) channel inhibitors tetraethylammonium (nonselective), diphenyl phosphine oxide-1 (voltage-gated K(+) channel 1.5), glibenclamide (ATP-sensitive K(+) channel), iberiotoxin (large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel), and BaCl(2) (inward-rectifying K(+) channel), as well as ouabain (Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase inhibitor) did not affect hypoxia-induced relaxation. The relaxation was enhanced in the presence of the voltage-gated K(+) channel blocker 4-aminopyridine. In conclusion, our experiments suggest that the mETC plays a critical role in O(2) sensing in fetal chicken femoral arteries. In contrast, hypoxia-induced relaxation appears not to be mediated by ROS or K(+) channels.

  18. Organic aerosols associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by water-soluble PM2.5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Vishal; Fang, Ting; Xu, Lu; Peltier, Richard E; Russell, Armistead G; Ng, Nga Lee; Weber, Rodney J

    2015-04-01

    We compare the relative toxicity of various organic aerosol (OA) components identified by an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) based on their ability to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). Ambient fine aerosols were collected from urban (three in Atlanta, GA and one in Birmingham, AL) and rural (Yorkville, GA and Centerville, AL) sites in the Southeastern United States. The ROS generating capability of the water-soluble fraction of the particles was measured by the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay. Water-soluble PM extracts were further separated into the hydrophobic and hydrophilic fractions using a C-18 column, and both fractions were analyzed for DTT activity and water-soluble metals. Organic aerosol composition was measured at selected sites using a high-resolution time-of-flight AMS. Positive matrix factorization of the AMS spectra resolved the organic aerosol into isoprene-derived OA (Isop_OA), hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA), less-oxidized oxygenated OA, (LO-OOA), more-oxidized OOA (MO-OOA), cooking OA (COA), and biomass burning OA (BBOA). The association of the DTT activity of water-soluble PM2.5 (WS_DTT) with these factors was investigated by linear regression techniques. BBOA and MO-OOA were most consistently linked with WS_DTT, with intrinsic water-soluble activities of 151 ± 20 and 36 ± 22 pmol/min/?g, respectively. Although less toxic, MO-OOA was most widespread, contributing to WS_DTT activity at all sites and during all seasons. WS_DTT activity was least associated with biogenic secondary organic aerosol. The OA components contributing to WS_DTT were humic-like substances (HULIS), which are abundantly emitted in biomass burning (BBOA) and include highly oxidized OA from multiple sources (MO-OOA). Overall, OA contributed approximately 60% to the WS_DTT activity, with the remaining probably from water-soluble metals, which were mostly associated with the hydrophilic WS_DTT fraction. PMID:25748105

  19. Incidence of the core composition on the stability, the ROS production and the toxicity of CdSe quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauffer, Florence-Anaïs [Université de Lorraine, Laboratoire Réactions et Génie des Procédés (LRGP), UMR 7274, CNRS, 1 rue Grandville, BP 20451, 54001 Nancy Cedex (France); Université de Lorraine, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l’Environnement (LCPME), UMR 7564, CNRS, 15 Avenue du Charmois, 54500 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Merlin, Christophe [Université de Lorraine, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l’Environnement (LCPME), UMR 7564, CNRS, 15 Avenue du Charmois, 54500 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Balan, Lavinia [Institut de Science des Matériaux de Mulhouse (IS2M), LRC 7228, 15 rue Jean Starcky, 68093 Mulhouse (France); Schneider, Raphaël, E-mail: raphael.schneider@univ-lorraine.fr [Université de Lorraine, Laboratoire Réactions et Génie des Procédés (LRGP), UMR 7274, CNRS, 1 rue Grandville, BP 20451, 54001 Nancy Cedex (France)

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Aqueous phase routes for the production of MSA-capped CdSe and alloyed CdSe(S) QDs were developed. • Despite their higher content in cadmium, CdSe(S) QDs are less toxic than CdSe ones. • Hydroxyl radical production is correlated to the photostability of the dots. • The surface chemistry and the reactivity of QDs play a crucial role on their phototoxicity. - Abstract: Mercaptosuccinic acid-capped CdSe and alloyed CdSe(S) QDs were prepared in aqueous solution at 100 and 170 °C, respectively. These dots were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and UV–vis and photoluminescence spectroscopies. The dots were found to be of similar size (ca. 2 nm) but differ in their composition and surface chemistry. The photostability of the QDs was found to correlate with their ability to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon light activation. CdSe QDs produce hydroxyl radicals immediately after irradiation due to their modest photostability, while CdSe(S) QDs start to generate the hydroxyl radicals only once they start to be bleached (ca. 30 min). Cytotoxicity experiments conducted on Escherichia coli cells revealed that CdSe QDs were the more toxic despite being the least loaded in cadmium. In addition, consistent with ROS assays, the cytotoxicity of the CdSe QDs appeared light-dependent and is in accordance with a light-dependent oxidative stress observed with an oxyR-based whole cell biosensor. Our results demonstrate the crucial role played by nanoparticles synthesis process on their PL properties, their stability and their toxicity.

  20. The SbMT-2 gene from a halophyte confers abiotic stress tolerance and modulates ROS scavenging in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Amit Kumar; Patel, Manish Kumar; Mishra, Avinash; Tiwari, Vivekanand; Jha, Bhavanath

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metals are common pollutants of the coastal saline area and Salicornia brachiata an extreme halophyte is frequently exposed to various abiotic stresses including heavy metals. The SbMT-2 gene was cloned and transformed to tobacco for the functional validation. Transgenic tobacco lines (L2, L4, L6 and L13) showed significantly enhanced salt (NaCl), osmotic (PEG) and metals (Zn++, Cu++ and Cd++) tolerance compared to WT plants. Transgenic lines did not show any morphological variation and had enhanced growth parameters viz. shoot length, root length, fresh weight and dry weight. High seed germination percentage, chlorophyll content, relative water content, electrolytic leakage and membrane stability index confirmed that transgenic lines performed better under salt (NaCl), osmotic (PEG) and metals (Zn++, Cu++ and Cd++) stress conditions compared to WT plants. Proline, H2O2 and lipid peroxidation (MDA) analyses suggested the role of SbMT-2 in cellular homeostasis and H2O2 detoxification. Furthermore in vivo localization of H2O2 and O2-; and elevated expression of key antioxidant enzyme encoding genes, SOD, POD and APX evident the possible role of SbMT-2 in ROS scavenging/detoxification mechanism. Transgenic lines showed accumulation of Cu++ and Cd++ in root while Zn++ in stem under stress condition. Under control (unstressed) condition, Zn++ was accumulated more in root but accumulation of Zn++ in stem under stress condition suggested that SbMT-2 may involve in the selective translocation of Zn++ from root to stem. This observation was further supported by the up-regulation of zinc transporter encoding genes NtZIP1 and NtHMA-A under metal ion stress condition. The study suggested that SbMT-2 modulates ROS scavenging and is a potential candidate to be used for phytoremediation and imparting stress tolerance. PMID:25340650

  1. Delta robot controlled by robotic operating system / Robot delta controlado con sistema operativo robótico (R.O.S.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    David Raimundo, Rivas-Lalaleo; Eddie Egberto, Galarza-Zambrano; Diana Carolina, Tumbaco-Mendoza; Wilmer Enrique, Quimbita-Zapata; Omar Vinicio, Galarza-Barrionuevo.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Los robots paralelos, son más rápidos y más robusto que los robots tipo serie, se utilizan servomotores para la generación de movimiento en cada una de sus articulaciones, que son controlados de forma independiente. El control y conexión de los actuadores se lo realiza mediante buses de comunicación [...] con la finalidad de reducir las probabilidades de fallos. . En este trabajo, se propone implementar un sistema de control para robots paralelos, basado en la interfaz RS-232. Se utilizó el Sistema Operativo Robótico (ROS) para controlar los conjuntos de actuadores, y un algoritmo desarrollado Python apoyado por las bibliotecas OpenCV. Los experimentos en una aplicación dibujo con gráficos bidimensionales mostraron que la implementación de la red de actuadores y el algoritmo de control proporcionan robustez, velocidad de respuesta y fiabilidad (inferior fallan probabilidad), gracias a la reducción de los puntos de conexión. Abstract in english Parallel robots, which are faster and more robust than serial robots, use servomotors for movement generation on each of their joints, which are independently controlled. This control is usually addressed by wired connections, which increases the fail probability and has an effect on the actuation s [...] peed. In this work, we propose to implement a wireless control system for parallel robots, based on RS-232 interface. We used Robotic Operation System (ROS) for controlling the joint actuators, and a Python developed algorithm supported by OpenCV libraries. Experiments in a drawing application with bidimensional plots showed that the network implementation and the control algorithm provide us with increased robustness, response velocity and reliability (lower fail probability), thanks to the reduction of connection points.

  2. Incidence of the core composition on the stability, the ROS production and the toxicity of CdSe quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Aqueous phase routes for the production of MSA-capped CdSe and alloyed CdSe(S) QDs were developed. • Despite their higher content in cadmium, CdSe(S) QDs are less toxic than CdSe ones. • Hydroxyl radical production is correlated to the photostability of the dots. • The surface chemistry and the reactivity of QDs play a crucial role on their phototoxicity. - Abstract: Mercaptosuccinic acid-capped CdSe and alloyed CdSe(S) QDs were prepared in aqueous solution at 100 and 170 °C, respectively. These dots were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and UV–vis and photoluminescence spectroscopies. The dots were found to be of similar size (ca. 2 nm) but differ in their composition and surface chemistry. The photostability of the QDs was found to correlate with their ability to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon light activation. CdSe QDs produce hydroxyl radicals immediately after irradiation due to their modest photostability, while CdSe(S) QDs start to generate the hydroxyl radicals only once they start to be bleached (ca. 30 min). Cytotoxicity experiments conducted on Escherichia coli cells revealed that CdSe QDs were the more toxic despite being the least loaded in cadmium. In addition, consistent with ROS assays, the cytotoxicity of the CdSe QDs appeared light-dependent and is in accordance with a light-dependent oxidative stress observed with an oxyR-based whole cell biosensor. Our results demonstrate the crucial role played by nanoparticles synthesis process on their PL properties, their stability and their toxicity

  3. General resonance mediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGarrie, Moritz

    2012-07-15

    We extend the framework of general gauge mediation to cases where the mediating fields have a nontrivial spectral function, as might arise from strong dynamics. We demonstrate through examples that this setup describes a broad class of possible models of gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking. A main emphasis is to give general formulas for cross sections for {sigma}(visible {yields} hidden) in these resonance models. We will also give formulas for soft masses, A-terms and demonstrate the framework with a holographic setup.

  4. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Five Mediates Activation of Lung Xanthine Oxidoreductase in Response to Hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bo S.; Serebreni, Leonid; Fallica, Jonathan; Hamdan, Omar; Wang, Lan; Johnston, Laura; Kolb, Todd; Damarla, Mahendra; Damico, Rachel; Hassoun, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) is involved in oxidative metabolism of purines and is a source of reactive oxygen species (ROS). As such, XOR has been implicated in oxidant-mediated injury in multiple cardiopulmonary diseases. XOR enzyme activity is regulated, in part, via a phosphorylation-dependent, post-translational mechanism, although the kinase(s) responsible for such hyperactivation are unknown. Methods and Results Using an in silico approach, we identified a cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) consensus motif adjacent to the XOR flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) binding domain. CDK5 is a proline-directed serine/threonine kinase historically linked to neural development and injury. We tested the hypothesis that CDK5 and its activators are mediators of hypoxia-induced hyperactivation of XOR in pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (EC) and the intact murine lung. Using complementary molecular and pharmacologic approaches, we demonstrated that hypoxia significantly increased CDK5 activity in EC. This was coincident with increased expression of the CDK5 activators, cyclin-dependent kinase 5 activator 1 (CDK5r1 or p35/p25), and decreased expression of the CDK5 inhibitory peptide, p10. Expression of p35/p25 was necessary for XOR hyperactivation. Further, CDK5 physically associated with XOR and was necessary and sufficient for XOR phosphorylation and hyperactivation both in vitro and in vivo. XOR hyperactivation required the target threonine (T222) within the CDK5-consensus motif. Conclusions and Significance These results indicate that p35/CDK5-mediated phosphorylation of T222 is required for hypoxia-induced XOR hyperactivation in the lung. Recognizing the contribution of XOR to oxidative injury in cardiopulmonary disease, these observations identify p35/CDK5 as novel regulators of XOR and potential modifiers of ROS-mediated injury. PMID:25831123

  5. Technology-Use Mediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bansler, Jørgen P.; Havn, Erling C.

    2004-01-01

    Implementation of new computer-mediated communication (CMC) systems in organizations is a complex socio-technical endeavour, involving the mutual adaptation of technology and organization over time. Drawing on the analytic concept of sensemaking, this paper provides a theoretical perspective that deepens our understanding of how organizations appropriate new electronic communication media. The paper analyzes how a group of mediators in a large, multinational company adapted a new web-based CMC t...

  6. Neurally Mediated Syncope

    OpenAIRE

    Zaqqa, Munir; Massumi, Ali

    2000-01-01

    Neurally mediated syncope is a disorder of the autonomic regulation of postural tone, which results in hypotension, bradycardia, and loss of consciousness. A wide variety of stimuli can trigger this reflex, the most common stimulus being orthostatic stress. Typically, a patient with neurally mediated syncope experiences nausea, lightheadedness, a feeling of warmth, and pallor before abruptly losing consciousness. If the cause of syncope is unclear, a stepwise approach is necessary to arrive a...

  7. Hypercharged Anomaly Mediation

    CERN Document Server

    Dermisek, Radovan; Wang, Lian-Tao

    2007-01-01

    We show that, in string models with the MSSM residing on D-branes, the bino mass can be generated in a geometrically separated hidden sector. Hypercharge mediation thus naturally teams up with anomaly mediation. The mixed scenario predicts a distinctive yet viable superpartner spectrum, provided that the ratio \\alpha between the bino and gravitino mass lies in the range 0.05 35 TeV. We summarize some of the phenomenological features of this scenario.

  8. Hypercharged Anomaly Mediation

    OpenAIRE

    Dermisek, Radovan; Verlinde, Herman; Wang, Lian-Tao

    2007-01-01

    We show that, in string models with the MSSM residing on D-branes, the bino mass can be generated in a geometrically separated hidden sector. Hypercharge mediation thus naturally teams up with anomaly mediation. The mixed scenario predicts a distinctive yet viable superpartner spectrum, provided that the ratio \\alpha between the bino and gravitino mass lies in the range 0.05 35 TeV. We summarize some of the phenomenological features of this s...

  9. Photoactivation of ROS Production in Situ Transiently Activates Cell Proliferation in Mouse Skin and in the hair Follicle Stem Cell Niche Promoting Hair Growth and Wound Healing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrasco, Elisa; Calvo, María I

    2015-01-01

    The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the regulation of hair follicle cycle and skin homeostasis is poorly characterized. ROS have been traditionally linked to human disease and ageing, but recent findings suggest that can also have beneficial physiological functions in vivo in mammals. To test this hypothesis, we transiently switched on in situ ROS production in mouse skin. This process activated cell proliferation in the tissue and, interestingly, in the bulge region of the hair follicle, a major reservoir of epidermal stem cells, promoting hair growth as well as stimulating tissue repair after severe burn injury. We further show that these effects were associated with a transient Src kinase phosphorylation at Tyr416 and with a strong transcriptional activation of the prolactin family 2 subfamily c of growth factors. Our results point to potentially relevant modes of skin homeostasis regulation and demonstrate that a local and transient ROS production can regulate stem cell and tissue function in thewhole organism.Journal of Investigative Dermatology accepted article preview online, 02 July 2015. doi:10.1038/jid.2015.248.

  10. Relationship of semen hyperviscosity with IL-6, TNF-?, IL-10 and ROS production in seminal plasma of infertile patients with prostatitis and prostato-vesiculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiglione, R; Salemi, M; Vicari, L O; Vicari, E

    2014-12-01

    Changes in levels of oxidative damage products in semen and their relationship to seminal fluid viscosity (SFV) have recently received increasing research interest. We analysed whether SFV was associated with ROS generation, levels of cytokines TNF-alpha (TNF-?), IL-6 and IL-10 and seminal leucocyte concentration, and whether ROS production was related to the extent of infections/inflammations at one (prostatitis) or two (prostato-vesiculitis) male accessory glands. We studied 169 infertile patients, with chronic bacterial prostatitis (PR, n = 74) and/or bilateral prostato-vesiculitis (PV, n = 95), as diagnosed by the ultrasound (US) criteria. Healthy fertile men (n = 42) served as controls. In the PV patient group, SFV, semen characteristics and ROS production had median values that were significantly higher than those found in PR patients and controls, although other sperm variables had values significantly lower than those found in PR patients or controls. In PV infertile patients, ROS generation and pro-inflammatory cytokines levels were higher than those found in PR infertile patients and controls, although seminal IL-10 levels in PV and PR patients were lower than those found in the controls. In PR patients, the levels of SFV were positively related to TNF-? (r = 0.67; P oxidative stress in infertile men and increased pro-inflammatory interleukins in patients with male accessory gland infection, more when the infection was extended to the seminal vesicles. PMID:24329571

  11. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the healing of severe corneal injuries, such as alkali burns or irradiation of the eye with UVB rays.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    ?ejková, Jitka

    Maui, 2004. s. -. [The John A.Boswick,MD Burn and Wound Care Symposium. 23.02.2004-27.02.2004, Maui] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA304/03/0419 Keywords : Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry

  12. Impact of solar UV radiation on toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles through photocatalytic reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and photo-induced dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study investigated the impact of solar UV radiation on ZnO nanoparticle toxicity through photocatalytic ROS generation and photo-induced dissolution. Toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles to Daphnia magna was examined under laboratory light versus simulated solar UV radiatio...

  13. Development and testing of an online method to measure ambient fine particulate reactive oxygen species (ROS based on the 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin (DCFH assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. King

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available An online, semi-continuous instrument to measure fine particle (PM2.5 reactive oxygen species (ROS was developed based on the fluorescent probe 2'7'-dichlorofluorescin (DCFH. Parameters that influence probe response were first characterized to develop an optimal method for use in a field instrument. The online method used a mist chamber scrubber to collect total (gas plus particle ROS components (ROSt alternating with gas phase ROS (ROSg by means of an inline filter. Particle phase ROS (ROSp was determined by the difference between ROSt and ROSg. The instrument was deployed in urban Atlanta, Georgia, USA, and at a rural site during various seasons. Concentrations from the online instrument generally agreed well with those from an intensive filter measurement of ROSp. Concentrations of the ROSp measurements made with this instrument were lower than reported in other studies, often below the instrument's average limit of detection (0.15 nmol H2O2 equivalents m?3. Mean ROSp concentrations were 0.26 nmol H2O2 equivalents m?3 at the Atlanta urban sites compared to 0.14 nmol H2O2 equivalents m?3 at the rural site.

  14. Development and testing of an online method to measure ambient fine particulate Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS based on the 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin (DCFH assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. King

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available An online, semi-continuous instrument to measure fine particle (PM2.5 reactive oxygen species (ROS was developed based on the fluorescent probe 2'7'-dichlorofluorescin (DCFH. Parameters that influence probe response were first characterized to develop an optimal method for use in a field instrument. The online method used a mist chamber scrubber to collect total (gas plus particle ROS components (ROSt alternating with gas phase ROS (ROSg by means of an inline filter. Particle phase ROS (ROSp was determined by difference between ROSt and ROSg. The instrument was deployed in urban Atlanta, Georgia, and at a rural site during various seasons. Concentrations from the online instrument generally agreed well with those from an intensive filter measurement of ROSp. Concentrations of the ROSp measurements made with this instrument were lower than reported in other studies, often below the instrument's average limit of detection (0.15 nmol H2O2 equivalents m?3. Mean ROSp concentrations were 0.26 nmol H2O2 equivalents m?3 at the Atlanta urban sites compared to 0.14 nmol H2O2 equivalents m?3 at the rural site.

  15. Development and testing of an online method to measure ambient fine particulate reactive oxygen species (ROS) based on the 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin (DCFH) assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, L. E.; Weber, R. J.

    2013-07-01

    An online, semi-continuous instrument to measure fine particle (PM2.5) reactive oxygen species (ROS) was developed based on the fluorescent probe 2'7'-dichlorofluorescin (DCFH). Parameters that influence probe response were first characterized to develop an optimal method for use in a field instrument. The online method used a mist chamber scrubber to collect total (gas plus particle) ROS components (ROSt) alternating with gas phase ROS (ROSg) by means of an inline filter. Particle phase ROS (ROSp) was determined by the difference between ROSt and ROSg. The instrument was deployed in urban Atlanta, Georgia, USA, and at a rural site during various seasons. Concentrations from the online instrument generally agreed well with those from an intensive filter measurement of ROSp. Concentrations of the ROSp measurements made with this instrument were lower than reported in other studies, often below the instrument's average limit of detection (0.15 nmol H2O2 equivalents m-3). Mean ROSp concentrations were 0.26 nmol H2O2 equivalents m-3 at the Atlanta urban sites compared to 0.14 nmol H2O2 equivalents m-3 at the rural site.

  16. Dieckol Attenuates Microglia-mediated Neuronal Cell Death via ERK, Akt and NADPH Oxidase-mediated Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yanji; Park, Jee-Yun; Wu, Jinji; Lee, Ji Hyung; Yang, Yoon-Sil; Kang, Moon-Seok; Jung, Sung-Cherl; Park, Joo Min; Yoo, Eun-Sook; Kim, Seong-Ho; Ahn Jo, Sangmee; Suk, Kyoungho; Eun, Su-Yong

    2015-05-01

    Excessive microglial activation and subsequent neuroinflammation lead to synaptic loss and dysfunction as well as neuronal cell death, which are involved in the pathogenesis and progression of several neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, the regulation of microglial activation has been evaluated as effective therapeutic strategies. Although dieckol (DEK), one of the phlorotannins isolated from marine brown alga Ecklonia cava, has been previously reported to inhibit microglial activation, the molecular mechanism is still unclear. Therefore, we investigated here molecular mechanism of DEK via extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), Akt and nicotinamide adenine dinuclelotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase-mediated pathways. In addition, the neuroprotective mechanism of DEK was investigated in microglia-mediated neurotoxicity models such as neuron-microglia co-culture and microglial conditioned media system. Our results demonstrated that treatment of anti-oxidant DEK potently suppressed phosphorylation of ERK in lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1 µg/ml)-stimulated BV-2 microglia. In addition, DEK markedly attenuated Akt phosphorylation and increased expression of gp91 (phox) , which is the catalytic component of NADPH oxidase complex responsible for microglial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Finally, DEK significantly attenuated neuronal cell death that is induced by treatment of microglial conditioned media containing neurotoxic secretary molecules. These neuroprotective effects of DEK were also confirmed in a neuron-microglia co-culture system using enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-transfected B35 neuroblastoma cell line. Taken together, these results suggest that DEK suppresses excessive microglial activation and microglia-mediated neuronal cell death via downregulation of ERK, Akt and NADPH oxidase-mediated pathways. PMID:25954126

  17. NEFAs activate the oxidative stress-mediated NF-?B signaling pathway to induce inflammatory response in calf hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaoxia; Li, Dangdang; Deng, Qinghua; Li, Yu; Sun, Guoquan; Yuan, Xue; Song, Yuxiang; Wang, Zhe; Li, Xiaobing; Li, Xinwei; Liu, Guowen

    2015-01-01

    Non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) are important induction factors of inflammatory responses in some metabolic diseases. High plasma levels of NEFAs and oxidative stress exist in the dairy cows with ketosis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether high levels of NEFAs can induce inflammatory response and the specific molecular mechanism in the hepatocytes of dairy cow. In vitro, primary cultured bovine hepatocytes were treated with different concentrations of NEFAs, PDTC (an NF-?B inhibitor) and NAC (an antioxidant). NEFAs significantly activated NF-?B pathway. Activated NF-?B upregulated the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, thereby inducing inflammatory response in bovine hepatocytes. When PDTC was added, activation of NF-?B-mediated inflammatory response induced by NEFAs was inhibited. NEFAs treatment results in the overproduction of the markers of oxidative stress, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA), which were ameliorated by NAC treatment. These increased ROS and MDA were caused by decreasing activity of antioxidant system, including glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase, in bovine hepatocytes treated with NEFAs. NAC also ameliorated NEFAs-mediated NF-?B activation and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These results indicate that high concentrations of NEFAs can induce cattle hepatocytes inflammatory response through activating the oxidative stress-mediated NF-?B signaling pathway. PMID:25465477

  18. Celastrol stimulates hypoxia-inducible factor-1 activity in tumor cells by initiating the ROS/Akt/p70S6K signaling pathway and enhancing hypoxia-inducible factor-1? protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiaoxi; Sun, Shengkun; Zhao, Ming; Cheng, Xiang; Chen, Guozhu; Lin, Song; Guan, Yifu; Yu, Xiaodan

    2014-01-01

    Celastrol, a tripterine derived from the traditional Chinese medicine plant Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F. ("Thunder of God Vine"), has been reported to have multiple effects, such as anti-inflammation, suppression of tumor angiogenesis, inhibition of tumor growth, induction of apoptosis and protection of cells against human neurodegenerative diseases. However, the mechanisms that underlie these functions are not well defined. In this study, we reported for the first time that Celastrol could induce HIF-1? protein accumulation in multiple cancer cell lines in an oxygen-independent manner and that the enhanced HIF-1? protein entered the nucleus and promoted the transcription of the HIF-1 target genes VEGF and Glut-1. Celastrol did not influence HIF-1? transcription. Instead, Celastrol induced the accumulation of the HIF-1? protein by inducing ROS and activating Akt/p70S6K signaling to promote HIF-1? translation. In addition, we found that the activation of Akt by Celastrol was transient. With increased exposure time, inhibition of Hsp90 chaperone function by Celastrol led to the subsequent depletion of the Akt protein and thus to the suppression of Akt activity. Moreover, in HepG2 cells, the accumulation of HIF-1? increased the expression of BNIP3, which induced autophagy. However, HIF-1? and BNIP3 did not influence the cytotoxicity of Celastrol because the main mechanism by which Celastrol kills cancer cells is through stimulating ROS-mediated JNK activation and inducing apoptosis. Furthermore, our data showed that the dose required for Celastrol to induce HIF-1? protein accumulation and enhance HIF-1? transcriptional activation was below its cytotoxic threshold. A cytotoxic dose of Celastrol for cancer cells did not display cytotoxicity in LO2 normal human liver cells, which indicated that the novel functions of Celastrol in regulating HIF-1 signaling and inducing autophagy might be used in new applications, such as in anti-inflammation and protection of cells against human neurodegenerative diseases. Future studies regarding these applications are required. PMID:25383959

  19. Astragaloside IV prevents damage to human mesangial cells through the inhibition of the NADPH oxidase/ROS/Akt/NF??B pathway under high glucose conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Li, Weiping; Li, Weizu; Xiong, Li; Li, Guiping; Ma, Rong

    2014-07-01

    Glomerular hypertrophy and hyperfiltration are the two major pathological characteristics of the early stages of diabetic nephropathy (DN), which are respectively related to mesangial cell (MC) proliferation and a decrease in calcium influx conducted by canonical transient receptor potential cation channel 6 (TRPC6). The marked increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by hyperglycemia is the main sponsor of multiple pathological pathways in DN. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase is an important source of ROS production in MCs. Astragaloside IV (AS?IV) is an active ingredient of Radix Astragali which has a potent antioxidative effect. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether high glucose (HG)?induced NADPH oxidase activation and ROS production contribute to MC proliferation and the downregulation of TRPC6 expression; we also wished to determine the effects of AS?IV on MCs under HG conditions. Using a human glomerular mesangial cell line, we found that treatment with AS?IV for 48 h markedly attenuated HG?induced proliferation and the hypertrophy of MCs in a dose?dependent manner. The intracellular ROS level was also markedly reduced following treatment with AS?IV. In addition, the enhanced activity of NADPH oxidase and the expression level of NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) protein were decreased. Treatment with AS?IV also inhibited the phosphorylation level of Akt and I?B? in the MCs. In addition, TRPC6 protein expression and the intracellular free calcium concentration were also markedly reduced following treatment with AS?IV under HG conditions. These results suggest that AS?IV inhibits HG?induced mesangial cell proliferation and glomerular contractile dysfunction through the NADPH oxidase/ROS/Akt/nuclear factor??B (NF??B) pathway, providing a new perspective for the clinical treatment of DN. PMID:24718766

  20. The mediation procedure in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandrina Zaharia; Monica Saleh-Ali

    2009-01-01

    The mediation activity as an alternative way of solving conflicts occupies an important place in modernsociety. Currently, the mediation reached its maturity worldwide being adopted without reservations.The future of solving conflicts is undoubtedly closely related to mediation. XXth century is the century of solvingconflicts amiably outside the court room. In Romania and the mediation profession were regulated by the Law no.192/2006, on the basis of the idea that mediation is one of the majo...

  1. Reactive oxygen species mediate Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis through PI3K/AKT-dependent activation of GSK-3?/?-catenin signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Young-Ok; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Wang, Lei; Wang, Xin; Fan, Jia; Kim, Dong-Hern; Lee, Ju-Yeon; Zhang, Zhuo [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0305 (United States); Lee, Jeong-Chae [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0305 (United States); School of Dentistry and Institute of Oral Biosciences, Research Center of Bioactive Materials, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Shi, Xianglin, E-mail: xshi5@email.uky.edu [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0305 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Cr(VI) compounds are known human carcinogens that primarily target the lungs. Cr(VI) produces reactive oxygen species (ROS), but the exact effects of ROS on the signaling molecules involved in Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis have not been extensively studied. Chronic exposure of human bronchial epithelial cells to Cr(VI) at nanomolar concentrations (10–100 nM) for 3 months not only induced cell transformation, but also increased the potential of these cells to invade and migrate. Injection of Cr(VI)-stimulated cells into nude mice resulted in the formation of tumors. Chronic exposure to Cr(VI) increased levels of intracellular ROS and antiapoptotic proteins. Transfection with catalase or superoxide dismutase (SOD) prevented Cr(VI)-mediated increases in colony formation, cell invasion, migration, and xenograft tumors. While chronic Cr(VI) exposure led to activation of signaling cascades involving PI3K/AKT/GSK-3?/?-catenin and PI3K/AKT/mTOR, transfection with catalase or SOD markedly inhibited Cr(VI)-mediated activation of these signaling proteins. Inhibitors specific for AKT or ?-catenin almost completely suppressed the Cr(VI)-mediated increase in total and active ?-catenin proteins and colony formation. In particular, Cr(VI) suppressed autophagy of epithelial cells under nutrition deprivation. Furthermore, there was a marked induction of AKT, GSK-3?, ?-catenin, mTOR, and carcinogenic markers in tumor tissues formed in mice after injection with Cr(VI)-stimulated cells. Collectively, our findings suggest that ROS is a key mediator of Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis through the activation of PI3K/AKT-dependent GSK-3?/?-catenin signaling and the promotion of cell survival mechanisms via the inhibition of apoptosis and autophagy. - Highlights: • Chronic exposure to Cr(VI) induces carcinogenic properties in BEAS-2B cells. • ROS play an important role in Cr(VI)-induced tumorigenicity of BEAS-2B cells. • PI3K/AKT/GSK-3?/?-catenin signaling involved in Cr(VI) carcinogenesis. • The inhibition of apoptosis and autophagy contributes to Cr(VI) carcinogenesis.

  2. Enfermera en los "Años del Hambre": El relato de Amelia Ros, enfermera puericultora Being a nurse in the "Hunger Years"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Martínez Pozo

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Amelia Ros, enfermera puericultora, nos ofrece la oportunidad de conocer a través de su relato biográfico una página que ya pertenece a la historia de la enfermería reciente, aquella que aún puede rememorarse por personas que la vivieron. Me refiero a la enfermería de la posguerra. Nuestra informante nos adentra en unas manifestaciones de la profesión de los cuidados que no se entenderían si no se comprende el contexto donde tuvieron lugar, por eso ella pone énfasis en mostrar aspectos como los valores en los que se asentaba, la profesión vivida como una vocación, el cumplimiento del deber, el servicio a la persona como algo sagrado. También nos describe los campos de acción en los que actuaba: para las enfermeras de esta época lo sanitario iba unido a lo social, como algo indivisible debido a la situación económica y social en que se vivía en la España de los años cuarenta, como ella nos dice "eran años del hambre". Con su relato me gustaría reconocer y hacer memoria de las enfermeras de esa época que a través de tantas dificultades supieron dar un paso adelante en la historia de la mujer y de la enfermería con su trabajo y su hacer personal.Amelia Ros, a children's nurse, gives us the opportunity of getting to know through her biographic story the recent nurse's history, the one that can be remembered through the people that lived it. We are talking about the nursing in the Spanish post civil war. Our informant guides us through an expression of the care profession that wouldn't make sense if we don't locate it in the context where it took place. For that reason, she emphasizes the core values of the profession, how being a nurse was a vocation, it was to accomplish a duty, and how giving care was considered as something sacred. The fields in which she acted are also described. At those times nurses considered that sanitary and social services were linked, it was something indivisible due to the economic and social context of Spain in the forties (the hunger years, as she describes it. With her story I would like to acknowledge nurses of those times that faced so many difficulties and that served to advance in the women and nurse history thanks to their jobs and her personal work.

  3. Surface modification of amorphous nanosilica particles suppresses nanosilica-induced cytotoxicity, ROS generation, and DNA damage in various mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? There is increasing concern regarding the potential health risks of nanomaterials. ? We evaluated the effect of surface properties of nanomaterials on cellular responses. ? We showed that the surface properties play an important in determining its safety. ? These data provide useful information for producing safer nanomaterials. -- Abstract: Recently, nanomaterials have been utilized in various fields. In particular, amorphous nanosilica particles are increasingly being used in a range of applications, including cosmetics, food technology, and medical diagnostics. However, there is concern that the unique characteristics of nanomaterials might induce undesirable effects. The roles played by the physical characteristics of nanomaterials in cellular responses have not yet been elucidated precisely. Here, by using nanosilica particles (nSPs) with a diameter of 70 nm whose surface was either unmodified (nSP70) or modified with amine (nSP70-N) or carboxyl groups (nSP70-C), we examined the relationship between the surface properties of nSPs and cellular responses such as cytotoxicity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and DNA damage. To compare the cytotoxicity of nSP70, nSP70-N, or nSP70-C, we examined in vitro cell viability after nSP treatment. Although the susceptibility of each cell line to the nSPs was different, nSP70-C and nSP70-N showed lower cytotoxicity than nSP70 in all cell lines. Furthermore, the generation of ROS and induction of DNA damage in nSP70-C- and nSP70-N-treated cells were lower than those in nSP70-treated cells. These results suggest that the surface properties of nSP70 play an important role in determining its safety, and surface modification of nSP70 with amine or carboxyl groups may be useful for the development of safer nSPs. We hope that our results will contribute to the development of safer nanomaterials.

  4. Surface modification of amorphous nanosilica particles suppresses nanosilica-induced cytotoxicity, ROS generation, and DNA damage in various mammalian cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Tokuyuki [Laboratory of Toxicology and Safety Science, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Yoshioka, Yasuo, E-mail: yasuo@phs.osaka-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Toxicology and Safety Science, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Matsuyama, Keigo; Nakazato, Yasutaro; Tochigi, Saeko; Hirai, Toshiro; Kondoh, Sayuri [Laboratory of Toxicology and Safety Science, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nagano, Kazuya [Laboratory of Biopharmaceutical Research, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, 7-6-8 Saitoasagi, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0085 (Japan); Abe, Yasuhiro [Cancer Biology Research Center, Sanford Research/USD, 2301 E. 60th Street N, Sioux Falls, SD 57104 (United States); Kamada, Haruhiko; Tsunoda, Shin-ichi [Laboratory of Biopharmaceutical Research, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, 7-6-8 Saitoasagi, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0085 (Japan); The Center for Advanced Medical Engineering and Informatics, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nabeshi, Hiromi [Division of Foods, National Institute of Health Sciences, 1-18-1, Kamiyoga, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-8501 (Japan); Yoshikawa, Tomoaki [Laboratory of Toxicology and Safety Science, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Tsutsumi, Yasuo, E-mail: ytsutsumi@phs.osaka-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Toxicology and Safety Science, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Laboratory of Biopharmaceutical Research, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, 7-6-8 Saitoasagi, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0085 (Japan); The Center for Advanced Medical Engineering and Informatics, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2012-11-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is increasing concern regarding the potential health risks of nanomaterials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We evaluated the effect of surface properties of nanomaterials on cellular responses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We showed that the surface properties play an important in determining its safety. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These data provide useful information for producing safer nanomaterials. -- Abstract: Recently, nanomaterials have been utilized in various fields. In particular, amorphous nanosilica particles are increasingly being used in a range of applications, including cosmetics, food technology, and medical diagnostics. However, there is concern that the unique characteristics of nanomaterials might induce undesirable effects. The roles played by the physical characteristics of nanomaterials in cellular responses have not yet been elucidated precisely. Here, by using nanosilica particles (nSPs) with a diameter of 70 nm whose surface was either unmodified (nSP70) or modified with amine (nSP70-N) or carboxyl groups (nSP70-C), we examined the relationship between the surface properties of nSPs and cellular responses such as cytotoxicity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and DNA damage. To compare the cytotoxicity of nSP70, nSP70-N, or nSP70-C, we examined in vitro cell viability after nSP treatment. Although the susceptibility of each cell line to the nSPs was different, nSP70-C and nSP70-N showed lower cytotoxicity than nSP70 in all cell lines. Furthermore, the generation of ROS and induction of DNA damage in nSP70-C- and nSP70-N-treated cells were lower than those in nSP70-treated cells. These results suggest that the surface properties of nSP70 play an important role in determining its safety, and surface modification of nSP70 with amine or carboxyl groups may be useful for the development of safer nSPs. We hope that our results will contribute to the development of safer nanomaterials.

  5. Metadata based mediator generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Critchlow, T

    1998-03-01

    Mediators are a critical component of any data warehouse, particularly one utilizing partially materialized views; they transform data from its source format to the warehouse representation while resolving semantic and syntactic conflicts. The close relationship between mediators and databases, requires a mediator to be updated whenever an associated schema is modified. This maintenance may be a significant undertaking if a warehouse integrates several dynamic data sources. However, failure to quickly perform these updates significantly reduces the reliability of the warehouse because queries do not have access to the m current data. This may result in incorrect or misleading responses, and reduce user confidence in the warehouse. This paper describes a metadata framework, and associated software designed to automate a significant portion of the mediator generation task and thereby reduce the effort involved in adapting the schema changes. By allowing the DBA to concentrate on identifying the modifications at a high level, instead of reprogramming the mediator, turnaround time is reduced and warehouse reliability is improved.

  6. The inhibitory effect of CIL-102 on the growth of human astrocytoma cells is mediated by the generation of reactive oxygen species and induction of ERK1/2 MAPK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CIL-102 (1-[4-(furo[2,3-b]quinolin-4-ylamino)phenyl]ethanone) is the major active agent of the alkaloid derivative of Camptotheca acuminata, with multiple pharmacological activities, including anticancer effects and promotion of apoptosis. The mechanism by which CIL-102 inhibits growth remains poorly understood in human astrocytoma cells. Herein, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which CIL-102 affects the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell cycle G2/M arrest in glioma cells. Treatment of U87 cells with 1.0 ?M CIL-102 resulted in phosphorylation of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK1/2), downregulation of cell cycle-related proteins (cyclin A, cyclin B, cyclin D1, and cdk1), and phosphorylation of cdk1Tyr15 and Cdc25cSer216. Furthermore, treatment with the ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 abolished CIL-102-induced Cdc25cSer216 expression and reversed CIL-102-inhibited cdk1 activation. In addition, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), an ROS scavenger, blocked cell cycle G2/M arrest and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Cdc25cSer216 in U87 cells. CIL-102-mediated ERK1/2 and ROS production, and cell cycle arrest were blocked by treatment with specific inhibitors. In conclusion, we have identified a novel CIL-102-inhibited proliferation in U87 cells by activating the ERK1/2 and Cdc25cSer216 cell cycle-related proteins and inducing ROS production; this might be a new mechanism in human astrocytoma cells. -- Highlights: ? We show the effects of CIL-102 on the G2/M arrest of human astrocytoma cells. ? ROS and the Ras/ERK1/2 triggering pathways are involved in the CIL-102 treatment. ? CIL-102 induces sustained activation of ERK1/2 and Cdc25c and ROS are required.

  7. The inhibitory effect of CIL-102 on the growth of human astrocytoma cells is mediated by the generation of reactive oxygen species and induction of ERK1/2 MAPK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teng, Chih-Chuan [Institute of Nursing and Department of Nursing, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Chronic Diseases and Health Promotion Research Center, CGUST, Taiwan (China); Institute of Basic Medicine Science, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Kuo, Hsing-Chun [Institute of Nursing and Department of Nursing, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Chronic Diseases and Health Promotion Research Center, CGUST, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Ho-Chen [Department of General Education, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, CGUST, Taiwan (China); Wang, Ting-Chung [Department of Neurosurgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chia-Yi Center, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Sciences, Chang Gung University, Gueishan, Taiwan (China); Sze, Chun-I, E-mail: szec@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Institute of Basic Medicine Science, Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy and Pathology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China)

    2012-08-15

    CIL-102 (1-[4-(furo[2,3-b]quinolin-4-ylamino)phenyl]ethanone) is the major active agent of the alkaloid derivative of Camptotheca acuminata, with multiple pharmacological activities, including anticancer effects and promotion of apoptosis. The mechanism by which CIL-102 inhibits growth remains poorly understood in human astrocytoma cells. Herein, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which CIL-102 affects the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell cycle G2/M arrest in glioma cells. Treatment of U87 cells with 1.0 ?M CIL-102 resulted in phosphorylation of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK1/2), downregulation of cell cycle-related proteins (cyclin A, cyclin B, cyclin D1, and cdk1), and phosphorylation of cdk1Tyr{sup 15} and Cdc25cSer{sup 216}. Furthermore, treatment with the ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 abolished CIL-102-induced Cdc25cSer{sup 216} expression and reversed CIL-102-inhibited cdk1 activation. In addition, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), an ROS scavenger, blocked cell cycle G2/M arrest and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Cdc25cSer{sup 216} in U87 cells. CIL-102-mediated ERK1/2 and ROS production, and cell cycle arrest were blocked by treatment with specific inhibitors. In conclusion, we have identified a novel CIL-102-inhibited proliferation in U87 cells by activating the ERK1/2 and Cdc25cSer{sup 216} cell cycle-related proteins and inducing ROS production; this might be a new mechanism in human astrocytoma cells. -- Highlights: ? We show the effects of CIL-102 on the G2/M arrest of human astrocytoma cells. ? ROS and the Ras/ERK1/2 triggering pathways are involved in the CIL-102 treatment. ? CIL-102 induces sustained activation of ERK1/2 and Cdc25c and ROS are required.

  8. 6-Shogaol enhances renal carcinoma Caki cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis through reactive oxygen species-mediated cytochrome c release and down-regulation of c-FLIP(L) expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Min Ae; Woo, Seon Min; Min, Kyoung-jin; Kim, Shin; Park, Jong-Wook; Kim, Dong Eun; Kim, Sang Hyun; Choi, Yung Hyun; Kwon, Taeg Kyu

    2015-02-25

    6-Shogaol, a potent bioactive compound in ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), has been reported for anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity. In this study, we investigated the effect of 6-shogaol to enhance tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-mediated apoptosis. The combined treatment with 6-shogaol and TRAIL markedly induces apoptosis in various cancer cells (renal carcinoma Caki cells, breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells and glioma U118MG cells), but not in normal mesangial cells and normal mouse kidney cells. 6-Shogaol reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and released cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytosol via Bax activation. Furthermore, we found that 6-shogaol induced down-regulation of c-FLIP(L) expression at the post-translational levels and the overexpression of c-FLIP(L) markedly inhibited 6-shogaol plus TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Moreover, 6-shogaol increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in Caki cells. Pretreatment with ROS scavengers attenuated 6-shogaol plus TRAIL-induced apoptosis through inhibition of MMP reduction and down-regulation of c-FLIP(L) expression. In addition, 6-gingerol, another phenolic alkanone isolated from ginger, did not enhance TRAIL-induced apoptosis and down-regulate c-FLIP(L) expression. Taken together, our results demonstrated that 6-shogaol enhances TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in renal carcinoma Caki cells via ROS-mediated cytochrome c release and down-regulation of c-FLIP(L) expression. PMID:25619640

  9. Coenzyme Q0 from Antrodia cinnamomea in Submerged Cultures Induces Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Apoptosis in A549 Human Lung Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Cheng-Han; Yeh, Szu-Chien; Chen, Chun-Jen; Lee, Kung-Ta

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the anticancer effects of Antrodia cinnamomea, a medicinal mushroom from Taiwan, on A549 human lung cancer cells using the ethyl acetate extract from submerged culture filtrates. Our results showed that 2,3-dimethoxy-5-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone (coenzyme Q0; CoQ0) derived from A. cinnamomea submerged culture filtrates has anticancer activity. CoQ0 treatment reduced the viability of A549, HepG2, and SW480 cancer cell lines. Furthermore, CoQ0 induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and apoptosis in A549 cells, which was inhibited by the antioxidant ascorbic acid. To our knowledge, these data demonstrate for the first time that CoQ0 derived from A. cinnamomea submerged culture filtrates exerts its anticancer effect through the induction of ROS-mediated apoptosis in A549 human lung cancer cells. PMID:25431605

  10. The role of lysosomes in BDE 47-mediated activation of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaohui; Wang, Jian; Lu, Chengquan; Zhu, Chunyan; Qian, Bo; Li, Zhenwei; Liu, Chang; Shao, Jing; Yan, Jinsong

    2015-04-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a group of widely used flame retardants. The rising presence of PBDEs in human tissues has received considerable concerns with regard to potential health risks. While the mitochondrial-apoptotic pathway has been suggested in PBDEs-induced apoptosis, the role of lysosomes is yet to be understood. In the present study, HepG2 cells were exposed to BDE 47 at various concentrations and durations to establish the causal and temporal relationships among various cellular events, such as cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), apoptosis, and expression of cytochrome C and caspase 3. The involvement of lysosomes was simultaneously studied by evaluating lysosomal membrane permeability (LMP) and changes in the expression of cathepsin B, a lysosome hydrolase. In addition, a cathepsin B inhibitor (10 ?M CA-074) was used to determine the involvement of lysosomes and potential interactions between lysosomes and mitochondria. Our results showed that ROS production was an initial response of HepG2 to BDE 47 exposure, followed by a decreased MMP; a loss of MMP caused additional ROS generation which acted to induce LMP; an increased LMP resulted in a release of cathepsin B which aggravated the loss of MMP leading to release of cytochrome C and caspase 3 and subsequent apoptosis. Pretreatment with CA-074 did not abolish the initial ROS generation, however, all downstream events were dramatically alleviated. Taken together, our data indicate that lysosomes might be involved in BDE 47-mediated mitochondrial-apoptotic pathway in HepG2 cells, possibly through feedback interactions between mitochondria and lysosomes. PMID:25479806

  11. Apoptosis induction of human prostate carcinoma cells by cordycepin through reactive oxygen species?mediated mitochondrial death pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Hyeon; Park, Cheol; Jeong, Jin-Woo; Kim, Min Jeong; Seo, Min Jeong; Kang, Byoung Won; Park, Jeong Uck; Kim, Gi-Young; Choi, Byung Tae; Choi, Yung Hyun; Jeong, Yong Kee

    2013-03-01

    Cordycepin is the main functional component of Cordyceps militaris, which has been widely used in oriental traditional medicine. This compound has been shown to possess many pharmacological properties, such as enhancing the body's immune function, and anti-inflammatory, anti-aging and anticancer effects. In the present study, we investigated the apoptotic effects of cordycepin in human prostate carcinoma cells. We found that treatment with cordycepin significantly inhibited cell growth by inducing apoptosis in PC-3 cells. Apoptosis induction of PC-3 cells by cordycepin showed correlation with proteolytic activation of caspase-3 and -9, but not caspase-8, and concomitant degradation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerases, collapse of the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). In addition, cordycepin treatment resulted in an increase of the Bax/Bcl-2 (or Bcl-xL) ratio, downregulation of inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family members, Bax conformational changes, and release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to the cytosol. The cordycepin-induced apoptosis was also associated with the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, the quenching of ROS generation with antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine conferred significant protection against cordycepin-elicited ROS generation, disruption of the MMP, modulation of Bcl-2 and IAP family proteins, caspase-3 and -9 activation and apoptosis. This indicates that the cellular ROS generation plays a pivotal role in the initiation of cordycepin-triggered apoptotic death. Collectively, our findings suggest that cordycepin is a potent inducer of apoptosis of prostate cancer cells via a mitochondrial-mediated intrinsic pathway and that this agent may be of value in the development of a potential therapeutic candidate for both the prevention and treatment of cancer. PMID:23292300

  12. Images and mediation

    OpenAIRE

    Olivier, Bert

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the question of mediation via images. Its point of departure is the work of Kant on the mediation of human reality by the faculty of reason, including imagination and the forms of space and time, as well as the categories of the understanding, all of which combine to render an intelligible, spatiotemporal world, as opposed to the inaccessible realm of ‘things-in-themselves’. This is followed by a scrutiny of Gombrich’s claim, that artistic schemata comprise a...

  13. Hypercharged Anomaly Mediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermíšek, Radovan; Verlinde, Herman; Wang, Lian-Tao

    2008-04-01

    We show that, in string models with the minimal supersymmetric standard model residing on D-branes, the bino mass can be generated in a geometrically separated hidden sector. Hypercharge mediation thus naturally teams up with anomaly mediation. The mixed scenario predicts a distinctive yet viable superpartner spectrum, provided that the ratio ? between the bino and gravitino mass lies in the range 0.05?|?|?0.25 and m3/2?35TeV. We summarize some of the experimental signatures of this scenario.

  14. Azoxystrobin-induced excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and inhibition of photosynthesis in the unicellular green algae Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Zhu, Bin; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the short-term toxicity of azoxystrobin (AZ), one of strobilurins used as an effective fungicidal agent to control the Asian soybean rust, on aquatic unicellular algae Chlorella vulgaris. The median percentile inhibition concentration (IC??) of AZ for C. vulgaris was found to be 510 ?g L(-1). We showed that the algal cells were obviously depressed or shrunk in 300 and 600 ?g L(-1) AZ treatments by using the electron microscopy. Furthermore, 19, 75, and 300 ?g L(-1) AZ treatments decreased the soluble protein content and chlorophyll concentrations in C. vulgaris and altered the energy-photosynthesis-related mRNA expression levels in 48- and 96-h exposure periods. Simultaneously, our results showed that AZ could increase the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) level and compromise superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), glutathione S transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, and glutathione (GSH) content. These situations might render C. vulgaris more vulnerable to oxidative damage. Overall, the present study indicated that AZ might be toxic to the growth of C. vulgaris, affect energy-photosynthesis-related mRNA expressions, and induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction in C. vulgaris. PMID:25672875

  15. Investigation of the rates of surface and bulk ROS-generating reactions using indigo dye as an indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Carly; Clark, Douglas; Graves, David

    2014-10-01

    We present evidence for the existence of two distinct processes that contribute to the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) in liquids exposed to cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) in air. At the plasma-liquid interface, there exists a fast surface reaction zone where RONS from the gas phase interact with species in the liquid. RONS can also be produced by ``slow'' chemical reactions in the bulk liquid, even long after plasma exposure. To separate the effects of these processes, we used indigo dye as an indicator of ROS production; specifically generation of hydroxyl radical. The rate of indigo decolorization while in direct contact with CAP is compared with the expected rate of hydroxyl radical generation at the liquid surface. When added to aqueous solutions after CAP exposure, indigo dye reacts on a time scale consistent with the production of peroxynitrous acid, ONOOH, which is known to decompose to hydroxyl radical below a pH of 6.8. In this study, the CAP used was a air corona discharge plasma run in a positive streamer mode.

  16. Synergistic Activity of Carfilzomib and Panobinostat in Multiple Myeloma Cells via Modulation of ROS Generation and ERK1/2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lu; Gao, Minjie; Yang, Guang; Tao, Yi; Kong, Yuanyuan; Yang, Ruixue; Meng, Xiuqin; Ai, Gongwen; Wei, Rong; Wu, Huiqun; Wu, Xiaosong; Shi, Jumei

    2015-01-01

    Relapse of disease and subsequent resistance to established therapies remain as major challenges in the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM). New therapeutic options are needed for these extensively pretreated patients. To explore an optimized combinational therapy, interactions between the irreversible proteasome inhibitor carfilzomib exhibiting a well-tolerated side-effect profile and histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) panobinostat (LBH589) were examined in MM cells. Coadministration of carfilzomib and LBH589 led to a synergistic inhibition of proliferation in MM cells. Further studies showed that the combined treatment synergistically increased mitochondrial injury, caspase activation, and apoptosis in MM cells. Lethality of the carfilzomib/LBH589 combination was associated with the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and ERK1/2 inactivation. In addition, the free radical scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC) could block carfilzomib and LBH589-induced oxidative stress and the subsequent apoptosis. Together, these findings argue that the strategy of combining carfilzomib and LBH589 warrants attention in MM. PMID:26000292

  17. Ligand-Independent Activation of Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Receptor ? during Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Transactivator of Transcription and Cocaine-Mediated Smooth Muscle Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalvi, Pranjali N; Gupta, Vijayalaxmi G; Griffin, Brooke R; O'Brien-Ladner, Amy; Dhillon, Navneet K

    2015-09-01

    Our previous study supports an additive effect of cocaine to human immunodeficiency virus infection in the development of pulmonary arteriopathy through enhancement of proliferation of pulmonary smooth muscle cells (SMCs), while also suggesting involvement of platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) activation in the absence of further increase in PDGF-BB ligand. Redox-related signaling pathways have been shown to regulate tyrosine kinase receptors independent of ligand binding, so we hypothesized that simultaneous treatment of SMCs with transactivator of transcription (Tat) and cocaine may be able to indirectly activate PDGFR through modulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) without the need for PDGF binding. We found that blocking the binding of ligand using suramin or monoclonal IMC-3G3 antibody significantly reduced ligand-induced autophosphorylation of Y1009 without affecting ligand-independent transphosphorylation of Y934 residue on PDGFR? in human pulmonary arterial SMCs treated with both cocaine and Tat. Combined treatment of human pulmonary arterial SMCs with cocaine and Tat resulted in augmented production of superoxide radicals and hydrogen peroxide when compared with either treatment alone. Inhibition of this ROS generation prevented cocaine- and Tat-mediated Src activation and transphosphorylation of PDGFR? at Y934 without any changes in phosphorylation of Y1009, in addition to attenuation of smooth muscle hyperplasia. Furthermore, pretreatment with an Src inhibitor, PP2, also suppressed cocaine- and Tat-mediated enhanced Y934 phosphorylation and smooth muscle proliferation. Finally, we report total abrogation of cocaine- and Tat-mediated synergistic increase in cell proliferation on inhibition of both ligand-dependent and ROS/Src-mediated ligand-independent phosphorylation of PDGFR?. PMID:25569182

  18. MHY-449, a novel dihydrobenzofuro[4,5-b][1,8]naphthyridin-6-one derivative, mediates oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in AGS human gastric cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seon Hee; Kang, Yong Jung; Sung, Bokyung; Kim, Dong Hwan; Lim, Hyun Sook; Kim, Hye Rim; Kim, Seong Jin; Yoon, Jeong-Hyun; Moon, Hyung Ryong; Chung, Hae Young; Kim, Nam Deuk

    2015-07-01

    MHY-449 is a novel dihydrobenzofuro[4,5-b][1,8]naphthyridin-6-one derivative designed and synthesized as a potential anticancer agent. The present study aimed to examine the anticancer activity and underlying mechanism of MHY-449. The cell viability assay performed in AGS human gastric carcinoma cells demonstrated that MHY-449 inhibited cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner. MHY-449 induced AGS cell death via apoptosis. The underlying molecular mechanism of MHY-449-mediated apoptosis was also investigated. MHY-449 promoted the upregulation of Fas and Fas-ligand, and activation of caspase-8, suggesting the involvement of a Fas-mediated extrinsic pathway in MHY-449-induced apoptosis. In addition, it was found that MHY-449-induced apoptosis was accompanied by the upregulation of Bax, p21(WAF1/CIP1), p27(KIP1), and p53 and suppression of Bcl-2. MHY-449 exposure activated the caspase cascade and subsequent poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage. Furthermore, the pan-caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-FMK, significantly attenuated MHY-449-induced apoptosis, indicating that the apoptosis was caspase-dependent. Moreover, the apoptogenic effect of MHY-449 was reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent. This result was confirmed by the induction of ROS by MHY-449 and by evidence that the scavenging of ROS by N-acetyl-L-cysteine inhibited MHY-449-induced cell death. Taken together, these results demonstrated that MHY-449 triggers apoptosis via caspase activation and ROS production. This result provides a novel mechanistic explanation and a basis for developing this compound as a novel candidate for human cancer therapy. PMID:25998412

  19. Activator-Mediator binding regulates Mediator-cofactor interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Ebmeier, Christopher C.; Taatjes, Dylan J.

    2010-01-01

    The 26-subunit, 1.2 MDa human Mediator complex is essential for expression of perhaps all protein-coding genes. Activator binding triggers major structural shifts within Mediator, suggesting a straightforward means to spatially and temporally regulate Mediator activity. By using mass spectrometry (MudPIT) and other techniques, we have compared the subunit composition of Mediator in three different structural states: bound to the activator SREBP-1a, VP16, or an activator-free state. As expecte...

  20. Synthesis of selenazolopyridine derivatives with capability to induce apoptosis in human breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells through scavenge of intracellular ROS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Meiyun; Ji, Shengbin; Wu, Zhaojun; Li, Yiqun; Zheng, Wenjie; Zhou, Hua; Chen, Tianfeng

    2015-05-26

    A series of selenazolopyridine derivatives have been synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction, high resolution NMR and Mass spectrum. The in vitro anticancer activities of the synthetic compounds were screened against a panel of human cancer cell lines, human breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells, human liver carcinoma HepG2 cells and L02 normal cell line by MTT assay. By analyzing the structure-activity relationship among the synthetic compounds, it was found that 2-(phenylamino) selenazolo [5,4-b] pyridine, (PSeD, 7) had higher growth inhibitory effect on MCF-7 cells. The intracellular mechanism of cell death was evaluated by flow cytometric analysis and ROS assay, which revealed that PSeD could induce MCF-7 cells apoptosis by scavenging intracellular ROS. Taken together, we regard PSeD as an antioxidant which could inhibit cancer cell growth through induction of apoptosis. PMID:25874334

  1. The edible red alga, Gracilaria verrucosa, inhibits lipid accumulation and ROS production, but improves glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Mi-Seon; Choi, Hyeon-Son; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2013-07-01

    Gracilaria verrucosa is a red alga that is widely distributed in seaside areas of many countries. We examined the effect of G. verrucosa extract on adipogenesis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 cells. Oil red O staining and a nitroblue tetrazolium assay showed that G. verrucosa extract inhibited lipid accumulation and ROS production, respectively. mRNA levels of adipogenic transcription factors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha, as well as of their target gene, adipocyte protein 2, were reduced upon treatment with G. verrucosa extract. However, G. verrucosa extract increased glucose uptake, glucose transporter-4 expression, and AMP-activated protein kinase? (AMPK?) phosphorylation compared to the control. Our results suggest that the anti-adipogenic and insulin-sensitive effects of G. verrucosa extract can be recapitulated to activation of AMPK?. PMID:22991308

  2. Hispolon inhibits breast cancer cell migration by reversal of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition via suppressing the ROS/ERK/Slug/E-cadherin pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhao; Sun, Yi-Sheng; Chen, Wei; Lv, Long-Xian; Li, Yong-Quan

    2016-02-01

    Hispolon has been shown to have anticancer effects on various tumors. However, whether hispolon exerts anti-migration activity in breast cancer cells and the underlying mechanisms, have not been elucidated yet. In the present study, our data demonstrated that hispolon inhibited TPA-induced breast cancer MCF-7 cell migration at sub-toxic concentrations in vitro. Hispolon decreased the level of cellular ROS significantly and repressed TPA-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), accompanied by upregulation of E-cadherin and downregulation of the transcriptional repressor Slug. Furthermore, N-acetyl-cysteine, an antioxidant agent, markedly suppressed TPA-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, cell migration and activation of ERK. Taken together, our results indicated that hispolon suppressed the migration of breast cancer cells via suppressing the ROS/ERK/Slug/E?cadherin pathway. Hispolon may be developed as a potential antimetastasis agent to breast cancer. PMID:26718128

  3. Celastrol induces apoptosis and autophagy via the ROS/JNK signaling pathway in human osteosarcoma cells: an in vitro and in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H-Y; Zhang, J; Sun, L-L; Li, B-H; Gao, H-L; Xie, T; Zhang, N; Ye, Z-M

    2015-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant tumor of bone, the long-term survival of which has stagnated in the past several decades. Celastrol, a triterpene from traditional Chinese medicine, has been proved to possess potent anti-tumor effect on various cancers. However, the effect of celastrol on human osteosarcoma and the underlying mechanisms remains to be elucidated. We reported here that celastrol could inhibit cell proliferation by causing G2/M phase arrest. Exposure to celastrol resulted in the activation of caspase-3, -8, and -9, indicating that celastrol induced apoptosis through both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. Autophagy occurred in celastrol-treated cells as evidenced by formation of autophagosome and accumulation of LC3B-II. The celastrol-induced cell death was remarkably restored by the combination of autophagy and apoptosis inhibitors. Furthermore, inhibition of apoptosis enhanced autophagy while suppression of autophagy diminished apoptosis. Celastrol also induced JNK activation and ROS generation. The JNK inhibitor significantly attenuated celastrol-triggered apoptosis and autophagy while ROS scavenger could completely reverse them. The ROS scavenger also prevented G2/M phase arrest and phosphorylation of JNK. Importantly, we found that celastrol had the similar effects on primary osteosarcoma cells. Finally, in vivo, celastrol suppressed tumor growth in the mouse xenograft model. Taken together, our results revealed that celastrol caused G2/M phase arrest, induced apoptosis and autophagy via the ROS/JNK signaling pathway in human osteosarcoma cells. Celastrol is therefore a promising candidate for development of antitumor drugs targeting osteosarcoma. PMID:25611379

  4. Celastrol induces apoptosis and autophagy via the ROS/JNK signaling pathway in human osteosarcoma cells: an in vitro and in vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H-Y; Zhang, J; Sun, L-L; Li, B-H; Gao, H-L; Xie, T; Zhang, N; Ye, Z-M

    2015-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant tumor of bone, the long-term survival of which has stagnated in the past several decades. Celastrol, a triterpene from traditional Chinese medicine, has been proved to possess potent anti-tumor effect on various cancers. However, the effect of celastrol on human osteosarcoma and the underlying mechanisms remains to be elucidated. We reported here that celastrol could inhibit cell proliferation by causing G2/M phase arrest. Exposure to celastrol resulted in the activation of caspase-3, -8, and -9, indicating that celastrol induced apoptosis through both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. Autophagy occurred in celastrol-treated cells as evidenced by formation of autophagosome and accumulation of LC3B-II. The celastrol-induced cell death was remarkably restored by the combination of autophagy and apoptosis inhibitors. Furthermore, inhibition of apoptosis enhanced autophagy while suppression of autophagy diminished apoptosis. Celastrol also induced JNK activation and ROS generation. The JNK inhibitor significantly attenuated celastrol-triggered apoptosis and autophagy while ROS scavenger could completely reverse them. The ROS scavenger also prevented G2/M phase arrest and phosphorylation of JNK. Importantly, we found that celastrol had the similar effects on primary osteosarcoma cells. Finally, in vivo, celastrol suppressed tumor growth in the mouse xenograft model. Taken together, our results revealed that celastrol caused G2/M phase arrest, induced apoptosis and autophagy via the ROS/JNK signaling pathway in human osteosarcoma cells. Celastrol is therefore a promising candidate for development of antitumor drugs targeting osteosarcoma. PMID:25611379

  5. Enterococcus faecalis Infection Causes Inflammation, Intracellular Oxphos-Independent ROS Production, and DNA Damage in Human Gastric Cancer Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strickertsson, Jesper A. B; Desler, Claus; Martin-Bertelsen, Tomas; Machado, Ana Manuel; Wadstrøm, Torkel; Winther, Ole; Rasmussen, Lene Juel; Friis-Hansen, Lennart

    2013-01-01

    Background Achlorhydria caused by e.g. atrophic gastritis allows for bacterial overgrowth, which induces chronic inflammation and damage to the mucosal cells of infected individuals driving gastric malignancies and cancer. Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) can colonize achlohydric stomachs and we therefore wanted to study the impact of E. faecalis infection on inflammatory response, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, mitochondrial respiration, and mitochondrial genetic stability in gastr...

  6. Effect of CO, NOx and SO2 on ROS production, photosynthesis and ascorbate–glutathione pathway to induce Fragaria×annasa as a hyperaccumulator?

    OpenAIRE

    Muneer, Sowbiya; Kim, Tae Hwan; Choi, Byung Chul; Lee, Beom Seon; Lee, Jeong Hyun

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of carbon monoxide (CO), nitroxide (NOx) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) on ROS production, photosynthesis and ascorbate–glutathione pathway in strawberry plants. The results showed that both singlet oxygen (O2?1) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content increased in CO, NOx and SO2 treated strawberry leaves. A drastic reduction of primary metabolism of plants (photosynthesis), with the closure of stomata, resulted in a reduction of protein, carbohydrate and...

  7. Enterococcus faecalis Infection Causes Inflammation, Intracellular Oxphos-Independent ROS Production, and DNA Damage in Human Gastric Cancer Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strickertsson, Jesper A. B; Desler, Claus

    2013-01-01

    Background Achlorhydria caused by e.g. atrophic gastritis allows for bacterial overgrowth, which induces chronic inflammation and damage to the mucosal cells of infected individuals driving gastric malignancies and cancer. Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) can colonize achlohydric stomachs and we therefore wanted to study the impact of E. faecalis infection on inflammatory response, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, mitochondrial respiration, and mitochondrial genetic stability in gastric mucosal cells. Methods To separate the changes induced by bacteria from those of the inflammatory cells we established an in vitro E. faecalis infection model system using the gastric carcinoma cell line MKN74. Total ROS and superoxide was measured by fluorescence microscopy. Cellular oxygen consumption was characterized non-invasively using XF24 microplate based respirometry. Gene expression was examined by microarray, and response pathways were identified by Gene Set Analysis (GSA). Selected gene transcripts were verified by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Mitochondrial mutations were determined by sequencing. Results Infection of MKN74 cells with E. faecalis induced intracellular ROS production through a pathway independent of oxidative phosphorylation (oxphos). Furthermore, E. faecalis infection induced mitochondrial DNA instability. Following infection, genes coding for inflammatory response proteins were transcriptionally up-regulated while DNA damage repair and cell cycle control genes were down-regulated. Cell growth slowed down when infected with viable E. faecalis and responded in a dose dependent manner to E. faecalis lysate. Conclusions Infection by E. faecalis induced an oxphos-independent intracellular ROS response and damaged the mitochondrial genome in gastric cell culture. Finally the bacteria induced an NF-?B inflammatory response as well as impaired DNA damage response and cell cycle control gene expression.

  8. Percussion tools as indicator of domestic activities. Study of the non-knap materials in the central sector of the unit SG at Font del Ros (Berga, Berguedà)

    OpenAIRE

    Xavier RODA GILABERT

    2010-01-01

    The analysis of the percussion tools in the central sector of Font del Ros Mesolithic unit (SG) characterize in a more precise way the technical gestures and the chaînes opératoires in which this objects they met involved. The combination among experimental archaeology, morfo-technological analysis and the macro traces observation has facilitated the characterization of the stigmas produced by the different works. Detected patterns constitute an example of the activities carried out with the ...

  9. ROS production and gene expression in alveolar macrophages exposed to PM2.5 from Baghdad, Iraq: Seasonal trends and impact of chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Samera H; Schauer, James J; Antkiewicz, Dagmara S; Shafer, Martin M; Kadhim, Ahmed Kh

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the impact of changes in atmospheric particulate matter (PM) composition on oxidative stress markers in an in-vitro alveolar macrophage (AM) model. Fifty-three PM2.5 samples were collected during a year-long PM sampling campaign in Baghdad, Iraq, a semi-arid region of the country. Monthly composites were analyzed for chemical composition and for biological activity using in-vitro measurements of ROS production and gene expression in the AM model. Twelve genes that were differentially expressed upon PM exposure were identified and their co-associations with the composition of PM2.5 were examined. Ten of those genes were up-regulated in January and April composites; samples which also exhibited high ROS activity and relatively high PM mass concentration. ROS production was statistically correlated with total PM2.5 mass, levoglucosan (a wood burning tracer) and several trace elements of the PM (especially V and Ni, which are associated with oil combustion). The expression of several cytokine genes was found to be moderately associated with PM mass, crustal materials (indication of dusty days or dust storms) and certain metals (e.g. V, Fe and Ni) in the PM. Thus, the ROS activity association with PM2.5, may, in part, be driven by redox-active metals. The antioxidant response genes (Nqo1 and Hmox1) were moderately associated with polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and showed a good correlation (r-Pearson of >0.7) with metals linked to vehicle-related emissions (i.e. Cu, Zn and Sb). Examining these associations in a larger sample pool (e.g. daily samples) would improve the power of the analysis and may strengthen the implication of these chemicals in the oxidative stress of biological systems, which could aid in the development of new metrics of PM toxicity. PMID:26618301

  10. Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) activation induces autophagy in thymocytes through ROS-regulated AMPK and Atg4C pathways.

    OpenAIRE

    Farfariello, Valerio

    2012-01-01

    Autophagy is a highly conserved process involved in lymphocyte development and differentiation. Herein, we demonstrated for the first time that triggering of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) by the specific agonist capsaicin (CPS) induces autophagy in mouse thymocytes. TRPV1-dependent autophagy required calcium influx and ROS generation resulting in AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) activation. CPS specifically increased autophagy related 4C (Atg4C) mRNA expression and induced oxida...

  11. Modulation of arsenic trioxide-induced apoptosis by genistein and functionally related agents in U937 human leukaemia cells. Regulation by ROS and mitogen-activated protein kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Yolanda; Calle, Consuelo; de Blas, Elena; Aller, Patricio

    2009-11-10

    The proved radio- and chemo-sensitizing capacity of genistein supports the potential use of this isoflavone in antitumour therapies. In this regard, we recently reported that genistein potentiates apoptosis induction by the anti-leukaemic agent arsenic trioxide (ATO) via reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and p38-MAPK activation. In the present study we analyze the action of agents sharing functional similarities with the isoflavone, namely 17-beta-estradiol, the DNA topoisomerase II poison etoposide, and the tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitors herbimycin A, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and adaphostin, in U937 and other human acute myeloid leukaemia cell lines. Co-treatment with 17-beta-estradiol or etoposide failed to stimulate ROS production and potentiate ATO-provoked apoptosis, although etoposide caused G(2)/M cycle arrest, in the same manner as genistein. By contrast, all PTK inhibitors increased ATO-provoked apoptosis, with similar efficacy as genistein. Daidzein, a genistein analogue without PTK-inhibiting activity, failed to potentiate apoptosis, and co-treatment with orthovanadate attenuated the sensitizing capacity of genistein. Apoptosis potentiation by PTK inhibitors was associated to ROS over-accumulation and stimulation of p38-MAPK phosphorylation, was mimicked by conventional pro-oxidant agents (exogenous H(2)O(2) and the glutathione-depleting agent dl-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine), and was attenuated by the antioxidant agent N-acetyl-l-cysteine, and by the p38-MAPK inhibitor SB203580 or p38-MAPK-directed siRNAs. On the other hand, the PTK inhibitors caused disparate effects on ERK phosphorylation, and co-treatment with the MEK/ERK inhibitor PD98059 enhanced the pro-apoptotic capacity of the PTK inhibitors. These results suggest that PTK inhibition, together with ROS generation and p38-MAPK activation, are responsible for the chemo-sensitizing action of genistein and functionally related agents in leukaemia cells. PMID:19720055

  12. Digitization : New trajectories of mediatization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnemann, Niels Ole

    2014-01-01

    Processes of digitization have for years represented a major trend in the developments of modern society but have only recently been related to processes of mediatization. The purpose of this article is to look into the relation between the concepts of mediatization and digitization and to clarify what a concept of digital media might add to the understanding of processes of mediatization and what the concept of mediatization might add to the understanding of digital media. It is argued that digital media open an array of new trajectories in human communication, trajectories which were not anticipated in previous conceptualizations of media and mediatization. If digital media are to be included, the concept of mediatization has to be revised and new parameters are to be built into the concept of media. At the same time it is argued that the concept of mediatization still provides a variety of perspectives of relevance for the study of digital media. The claim that the concept of mediatization has to be reinterpreted in order to embrace digital media can only be legitimized if digital media are conceived of as distinct from the media formerly referred to by mediatization theory. Such main characteristics are presented and digital media defined in section 3, while section 2 is devoted to theories of mediatization and the notion of media. Section 4 analyses the relation between mediatization and digitization. Finally, in section 5, Medium Theory is revisited to harvest some missing fruits in contemporary mediatization theory.

  13. A Higher Form (of) Mediation

    OpenAIRE

    Verlinde, Herman; Wang, Lian-Tao; Wijnholt, Martijn; Yavin, Itay

    2007-01-01

    We exhibit a simple and robust mechanism for mediation of supersymmetry breaking between geometrically separated D-branes in type II string theory. The mediation proceeds via RR p-forms that couple via linear Chern-Simons terms to the abelian vector bosons on the branes. From a 4-d low energy perspective, the mechanism reduces to U(1) mediation.

  14. A Higher Form (of) Mediation

    CERN Document Server

    Verlinde, Herman; Wijnholt, Martijn; Yavin, Itay

    2008-01-01

    We exhibit a simple and robust mechanism for mediation of supersymmetry breaking between geometrically separated D-branes in type II string theory. The mediation proceeds via RR p-forms that couple via linear Chern-Simons terms to the abelian vector bosons on the branes. From a 4-d low energy perspective, the mechanism reduces to U(1) mediation.

  15. Effect of CO, NOx and SO2 on ROS production, photosynthesis and ascorbate–glutathione pathway to induce Fragaria×annasa as a hyperaccumulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowbiya Muneer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the effect of carbon monoxide (CO, nitroxide (NOx and sulfur dioxide (SO2 on ROS production, photosynthesis and ascorbate–glutathione pathway in strawberry plants. The results showed that both singlet oxygen (O2?1 and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 content increased in CO, NOx and SO2 treated strawberry leaves. A drastic reduction of primary metabolism of plants (photosynthesis, with the closure of stomata, resulted in a reduction of protein, carbohydrate and sucrose content due to production of reactive oxygen species (ROS under prolonged exposure of gas stress. The resulting antioxidant enzymes were increased under a low dose of gas stress, whereas they were decreased due to a high dose of gas stress. Our results indicate that increased ROS may act as a signal to induce defense responses to CO, NOx and SO2 gas stress. The increased level of antioxidant enzymes plays a significant role in plant protection due to which strawberry plants can be used as a hyperaccumulator to maintain environmental pollution, however, the defense capacity cannot sufficiently alleviate oxidative damage under prolonged exposure of CO, NOx and SO2 stress.

  16. Responses of Solid Tumor Cells in DMEM to Reactive Oxygen Species Generated by Non-Thermal Plasma and Chemically Induced ROS Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Neha; Uddin, Nizam; Sim, Geon Bo; Hong, Young June; Baik, Ku Youn; Kim, Chung Hyeok; Lee, Su Jae; Kaushik, Nagendra Kumar; Choi, Eun Ha

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we assessed the role of different reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by soft jet plasma and chemical-induced ROS systems with regard to cell death in T98G, A549, HEK293 and MRC5 cell lines. For a comparison with plasma, we generated superoxide anion (O2-), hydroxyl radical (HO.), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) with chemicals inside an in vitro cell culture. Our data revealed that plasma decreased the viability and intracellular ATP values of cells and increased the apoptotic population via a caspase activation mechanism. Plasma altered the mitochondrial membrane potential and eventually up-regulated the mRNA expression levels of BAX, BAK1 and H2AX gene but simultaneously down-regulated the levels of Bcl-2 in solid tumor cells. Moreover, a western blot analysis confirmed that plasma also altered phosphorylated ERK1/2/MAPK protein levels. At the same time, using ROS scavengers with plasma, we observed that scavengers of HO. (mannitol) and H2O2 (catalase and sodium pyruvate) attenuated the activity of plasma on cells to a large extent. In contrast, radicals generated by specific chemical systems enhanced cell death drastically in cancer as well as normal cell lines in a dose-dependent fashion but not specific with regard to the cell type as compared to plasma.

  17. Activation of MAPK Is Required for ROS Generation and Exocytosis in HMC-1 Cells Induced by Trichomonas vaginalis-Derived Secretory Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narantsogt, Giimaa; Min, Arim; Nam, Young Hee; Lee, Young Ah; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Agvaandaram, Gurbadam; Dorjsuren, Temuulen; El-Benna, Jamel; Shin, Myeong Heon

    2015-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellated protozoan parasite that causes vaginitis and cervicitis in women and asymptomatic urethritis and prostatitis in men. Mast cells have been reported to be predominant in vaginal smears and vaginal walls of patients infected with T. vaginalis. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), activated by various stimuli, have been shown to regulate the transcriptional activity of various cytokine genes in mast cells. In this study, we investigated whether MAPK is involved in ROS generation and exocytotic degranulation in HMC-1 cells induced by T. vaginalis-derived secretory products (TvSP). We found that TvSP induces the activation of MAPK and NADPH oxidase in HMC-1 cells. Stimulation with TvSP induced phosphorylation of MAPK and p47phox in HMC-1 cells. Stimulation with TvSP also induced up-regulation of CD63, a marker for exocytosis, along the surfaces of human mast cells. Pretreatment with MAPK inhibitors strongly inhibited TvSP-induced ROS generation and exocytotic degranulation. Finally, our results suggest that TvSP induces intracellular ROS generation and exocytotic degranulation in HMC-1 via MAPK signaling. PMID:26537039

  18. Silibinin, a natural flavonoid, induces autophagy via ROS-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction and loss of ATP involving BNIP3 in human MCF7 breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Kai; Wang, Wei; Jin, Xin; Wang, Zhaoyang; Ji, Zhiwei; Meng, Guanmin

    2015-06-01

    Silibinin, derived from the milk thistle plant (Silybum marianum), has anticancer and chemopreventive properties. Silibinin has been reported to inhibit the growth of various types of cancer cells. However, the mechanisms by which silibinin exerts an anticancer effect are poorly defined. The present study aimed to investigate whether silibinin-induced cell death might be attributed to autophagy and the underlying mechanisms in human MCF7 breast cancer cells. Our results showed that silibinin-induced cell death was greatly abrogated by two specific autophagy inhibitors, 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and bafilomycin-A1 (Baf-A1). In addition, silibinin triggered the conversion of light chain 3 (LC3)-I to LC3-II, promoted the upregulation of Atg12-Atg5 formation, increased Beclin-1 expression, and decreased the Bcl-2 level. Moreover, we noted elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, concomitant with the dissipation of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (??m) and a drastic decline in ATP levels following silibinin treatment, which were effectively prevented by the antioxidants, N-acetylcysteine and ascorbic acid. Silibinin stimulated the expression of Bcl-2 adenovirus E1B 19-kDa-interacting protein 3 (BNIP3), a pro-death Bcl-2 family member, and silencing of BNIP3 greatly inhibited silibinin-induced cell death, decreased ROS production, and sustained ??m and ATP levels. Taken together, these findings revealed that silibinin induced autophagic cell death through ROS-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction and ATP depletion involving BNIP3 in MCF7 cells. PMID:25891311

  19. Mitochondrial aquaporin-8 knockdown in human hepatoma HepG2 cells causes ROS-induced mitochondrial depolarization and loss of viability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human aquaporin-8 (AQP8) channels facilitate the diffusional transport of H2O2 across membranes. Since AQP8 is expressed in hepatic inner mitochondrial membranes, we studied whether mitochondrial AQP8 (mtAQP8) knockdown in human hepatoma HepG2 cells impairs mitochondrial H2O2 release, which may lead to organelle dysfunction and cell death. We confirmed AQP8 expression in HepG2 inner mitochondrial membranes and found that 72 h after cell transfection with siRNAs targeting two different regions of the human AQP8 molecule, mtAQP8 protein specifically decreased by around 60% (p 2O2 release, assessed by Amplex Red, was reduced by about 45% (p 2O2 release and that its defective expression causes ROS-induced mitochondrial depolarization via the mitochondrial permeability transition mechanism, and cell death. -- Highlights: ? Aquaporin-8 is expressed in mitochondria of human hepatoma HepG2 cells. ? Aquaporin-8 knockdown impairs mitochondrial H2O2 release and increases ROS. ? Aquaporin-8 knockdown causes ROS-induced mitochondrial depolarization and cell death. ? Mitochondrial permeability transition blockage prevents depolarization and cell death.

  20. The sulfated laminarin triggers a stress transcriptome before priming the SA- and ROS-dependent defenses during grapevine's induced resistance against Plasmopara viticola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Adrien; Trouvelot, Sophie; Kelloniemi, Jani; Frettinger, Patrick; Wendehenne, David; Daire, Xavier; Joubert, Jean-Marie; Ferrarini, Alberto; Delledonne, Massimo; Flors, Victor; Poinssot, Benoit

    2014-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) is susceptible to many pathogens which cause significant losses to viticulture worldwide. Chemical control is available, but agro-ecological concerns have raised interest in alternative methods, especially in triggering plant immunity by elicitor treatments. The ?-glucan laminarin (Lam) and its sulfated derivative (PS3) have been previously demonstrated to induce resistance in grapevine against downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola). However, if Lam elicits classical grapevine defenses such as oxidative burst, pathogenesis-related (PR)-proteins and phytoalexin production, PS3 triggered grapevine resistance via a poorly understood priming phenomenon. The aim of this study was to identify the molecular mechanisms of the PS3-induced resistance. For this purpose we studied i) the signaling events and transcriptome reprogramming triggered by PS3 treatment on uninfected grapevine, ii) grapevine immune responses primed by PS3 during P. viticola infection. Our results showed that i) PS3 was unable to elicit reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration variations, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation but triggered a long lasting plasma membrane depolarization in grapevine cells, ii) PS3 and Lam shared a common stress-responsive transcriptome profile that partly overlapped the salicylate- (SA) and jasmonate-(JA)-dependent ones. After P. viticola inoculation, PS3 specifically primed the SA- and ROS-dependent defense pathways leading to grapevine induced resistance against this biotroph. Interestingly pharmacological approaches suggested that the plasma membrane depolarization and the downstream ROS production are key events of the PS3-induced resistance. PMID:24516597

  1. Host lysozyme-mediated lysis of Lactococcus lactis facilitates delivery of colitis-attenuating superoxide dismutase to inflamed colons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballal, Sonia A; Veiga, Patrick; Fenn, Kathrin; Michaud, Monia; Kim, Jason H; Gallini, Carey Ann; Glickman, Jonathan N; Quéré, Gaëlle; Garault, Peggy; Béal, Chloé; Derrien, Muriel; Courtin, Pascal; Kulakauskas, Saulius; Chapot-Chartier, Marie-Pierre; van Hylckama Vlieg, Johan; Garrett, Wendy S

    2015-06-23

    Beneficial microbes that target molecules and pathways, such as oxidative stress, which can negatively affect both host and microbiota, may hold promise as an inflammatory bowel disease therapy. Prior work showed that a five-strain fermented milk product (FMP) improved colitis in T-bet(-/-) Rag2(-/-) mice. By varying the number of strains used in the FMP, we found that Lactococcus lactis I-1631 was sufficient to ameliorate colitis. Using comparative genomic analyses, we identified genes unique to L. lactis I-1631 involved in oxygen respiration. Respiration of oxygen results in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Also, ROS are produced at high levels during intestinal inflammation and cause tissue damage. L. lactis I-1631 possesses genes encoding enzymes that detoxify ROS, such as superoxide dismutase (SodA). Thus, we hypothesized that lactococcal SodA played a role in attenuating colitis. Inactivation of the sodA gene abolished L. lactis I-1631's beneficial effect in the T-bet(-/-) Rag2(-/-) model. Similar effects were obtained in two additional colonic inflammation models, Il10(-/-) mice and dextran sulfate sodium-treated mice. Efforts to understand how a lipophobic superoxide anion (O2 (-)) can be detoxified by cytoplasmic lactoccocal SodA led to the finding that host antimicrobial-mediated lysis is a prerequisite for SodA release and SodA's extracytoplasmic O2 (-) scavenging. L. lactis I-1631 may represent a promising vehicle to deliver antioxidant, colitis-attenuating SodA to the inflamed intestinal mucosa, and host antimicrobials may play a critical role in mediating SodA's bioaccessibility. PMID:26056274

  2. Neuroprotection by genipin against reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species-mediated injury in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Rebecca H; Silva, Victoria A; Ahmed, Ijaz; Shreiber, David I; Morrison, Barclay

    2014-01-16

    Genipin, the multipotent ingredient in Gardenia jasmenoides fruit extract (GFE), may be an effective candidate for treatment following stroke or traumatic brain injury (TBI). Secondary injury includes damage mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), which can alter the biological function of key cellular structures and eventually lead to cell death. In this work, we studied the neuroprotective potential of genipin against damage stemming from ROS and RNS production in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSC), as well as its potential as a direct free radical scavenger. A 50 µM dose of genipin provided significant protection against tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP), a damaging organic peroxide. This dosage of genipin significantly reduced cell death at 48 h compared to vehicle control (0.1% DMSO) when administered 0, 1, 6, and 24 h after addition of tBHP. Similarly, genipin significantly reduced cell death at 48 h when administered 0, 1, 2, and 6h after addition of rotenone, which generates reactive oxygen species via a more physiologically relevant mechanism. Furthermore, genipin significantly reduced both cell death and nitrite levels at 24 h caused by S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), a direct nitric oxide (NO) donor, and successfully quenched 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), a stable free radical, suggesting that genipin may act as a direct free radical scavenger. Our encouraging findings suggest that genipin should be tested in animal models of CNS injury with a significant component of ROS- and RNS-mediated damage, such as TBI and stroke, to assess its in vivo efficacy. PMID:24275198

  3. Eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase mediates monocrotaline-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension via reactive oxygen species-dependent vascular remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameshima, Satoshi; Kazama, Kyosuke; Okada, Muneyoshi; Yamawaki, Hideyuki

    2015-05-15

    Pulmonary arterial (PA) hypertension (PAH) is a progressive and lethal disease that is caused by increased vascular contractile reactivity and structural remodeling. These changes contribute to increasing pulmonary peripheral vascular resistance, finally leading to right heart failure and death. Eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase (eEF2K) is a Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase. We previously revealed that eEF2K protein increases in the mesenteric artery from spontaneously hypertensive rats and partly mediates the development of hypertension via a promotion of ROS-dependent vascular inflammatory responses and proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells. However, a role of eEF2K in the pathogenesis of PAH is unknown. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that eEF2K may be involved in the pathogenesis of PAH. PAH was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of monocrotaline (MCT; 60 mg/kg) to rats. A specific eEF2K inhibitor, A-484954 (2.5 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)), was intraperitoneally injected for 14 days. Long-term A-484954 treatment inhibited MCT-induced increased PA pressure. It was revealed that A-484954 inhibited MCT-induced PA hypertrophy and fibrosis but not impairment of endothelium-dependent and -independent relaxation. Furthermore, A-484954 inhibited MCT-induced NADPH oxidase-1 expression and ROS generation as well as matrix metalloproteinase-2 activation. In conclusion, the present results suggest that eEF2K at least partly mediates MCT-induced PAH via stimulation of vascular structural remodeling perhaps through NADPH oxidase-1/ROS/matrix metalloproteinase-2 pathway. PMID:25770246

  4. 7 CFR 400.94 - Mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...mediation program may request mediation by contacting the RSO, which will provide the participant with a list of acceptable mediators. (g) An appellant may only mediate an adverse decision once. (h) If the dispute is not completely resolved in...

  5. 24 CFR 3288.35 - Mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...in HUD-Administered States § 3288.35 Mediation. (a) Mediator. The dispute resolution provider will provide for the selection of a mediator. The selected mediator will not be the person who screened the dispute resolution...

  6. 7 CFR 614.11 - Mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...dispute will be mediated by a qualified mediator as defined at § 614.2(p). ...to reach a settlement agreement. The mediator will notify the State Conservationist...official for consideration. (f) Mediator impartiality. (1) No person...

  7. Berberine induces apoptosis via ROS generation in PANC-1 and MIA-PaCa2 pancreatic cell lines

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S.H., Park; J.H., Sung; E.J., Kim; N., Chung.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death. Gemcitabine is widely used as a chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of pancreatic cancer, but the prognosis is still poor. Berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid extracted fro [...] m a variety of natural herbs, possesses a variety of pharmacological properties including anticancer effects. In this study, we investigated the anticancer effects of berberine and compared its use with that of gemcitabine in the pancreatic cancer cell lines PANC-1 and MIA-PaCa2. Berberine inhibited cell growth in a dose-dependent manner by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. After berberine treatment, the G1 phase of PANC-1 cells increased by 10% compared to control cells, and the G1 phase of MIA-PaCa2 cells was increased by 2%. Whereas gemcitabine exerts antiproliferation effects through S-phase arrest, our results showed that berberine inhibited proliferation by inducing G1-phase arrest. Berberine-induced apoptosis of PANC-1 and MIA-PaCa2 cells increased by 7 and 2% compared to control cells, respectively. Notably, berberine had a greater apoptotic effect in PANC-1 cells than gemcitabine. Upon treatment of PANC-1 and MIA-PaCa2 with berberine at a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50), apoptosis was induced by a mechanism that involved the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) rather than caspase 3/7 activation. Our findings showed that berberine had anti-cancer effects and may be an effective drug for pancreatic cancer chemotherapy.

  8. In situ dynamics of O2, pH and cyanobacterial transcripts associated with CCM, photosynthesis and detoxification of ROS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Sheila I; Steunou, Anne-Soisig; Bhaya, Devaki; Kühl, Michael; Grossman, Arthur R

    2011-01-01

    The relative abundance of transcripts encoding proteins involved in inorganic carbon concentrating mechanisms (CCM), detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and photosynthesis in the thermophilic cyanobacterium Synechococcus OS-B? was measured in hot spring microbial mats over two diel cycles, and was coupled with in situ determinations of incoming irradiance and microenvironmental dynamics of O2 and pH. Fluctuations in pH and O2 in the mats were largely driven by the diel cycle of solar irradiance, with a pH variation from ?7.0 to ?9.5, and O2 levels ranging from anoxia to supersaturation during night and day, respectively. Levels of various transcripts from mat cyanobacteria revealed several patterns that correlated with incident irradiance, O2 and pH within the mat matrix. Transcript abundances for most genes increased during the morning dark–light transition. Some transcripts remained at a near constant level throughout the light period, whereas others showed an additional increase in abundance as the mat underwent transition from low-to-high light (potentially reflecting changes in O2 concentration and pH), followed by either a decreased abundance in the early afternoon, or a gradual decline during the early afternoon and into the evening. One specific transcipt, psbA1, was the lowest during mid-day under high irradiance and increased when the light levels declined. We discuss these complex in situ transcriptional patterns with respect to environmental and endogenous cues that might impact and regulate transcription over the diel cycle. PMID:20740024

  9. In situ dynamics of O2, pH and cyanobacterial transcripts associated with CCM, photosynthesis and detoxification of ROS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sheila I; Steunou, Anne-Soisig

    2011-01-01

    The relative abundance of transcripts encoding proteins involved in inorganic carbon concentrating mechanisms (CCM), detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and photosynthesis in the thermophilic cyanobacterium Synechococcus OS-B' was measured in hot spring microbial mats over two diel cycles, and was coupled with in situ determinations of incoming irradiance and microenvironmental dynamics of O(2) and pH. Fluctuations in pH and O(2) in the mats were largely driven by the diel cycle of solar irradiance, with a pH variation from ~7.0 to ~9.5, and O(2) levels ranging from anoxia to supersaturation during night and day, respectively. Levels of various transcripts from mat cyanobacteria revealed several patterns that correlated with incident irradiance, O(2) and pH within the mat matrix. Transcript abundances for most genes increased during the morning dark-light transition. Some transcripts remained at a near constant level throughout the light period, whereas others showed an additional increase in abundance as the mat underwent transition from low-to-high light (potentially reflecting changes in O(2) concentration and pH), followed by either a decreased abundance in the early afternoon, or a gradual decline during the early afternoon and into the evening. One specific transcipt, psbA1, was the lowest during mid-day under high irradiance and increased when the light levels declined. We discuss these complex in situ transcriptional patterns with respect to environmental and endogenous cues that might impact and regulate transcription over the diel cycle.

  10. Berberine induces apoptosis via ROS generation in PANC-1 and MIA-PaCa2 pancreatic cell lines

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S.H., Park; J.H., Sung; E.J., Kim; N., Chung.

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death. Gemcitabine is widely used as a chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of pancreatic cancer, but the prognosis is still poor. Berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid extracted from a variety of natural herbs, possesses a variety of pharmac [...] ological properties including anticancer effects. In this study, we investigated the anticancer effects of berberine and compared its use with that of gemcitabine in the pancreatic cancer cell lines PANC-1 and MIA-PaCa2. Berberine inhibited cell growth in a dose-dependent manner by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. After berberine treatment, the G1 phase of PANC-1 cells increased by 10% compared to control cells, and the G1 phase of MIA-PaCa2 cells was increased by 2%. Whereas gemcitabine exerts antiproliferation effects through S-phase arrest, our results showed that berberine inhibited proliferation by inducing G1-phase arrest. Berberine-induced apoptosis of PANC-1 and MIA-PaCa2 cells increased by 7 and 2% compared to control cells, respectively. Notably, berberine had a greater apoptotic effect in PANC-1 cells than gemcitabine. Upon treatment of PANC-1 and MIA-PaCa2 with berberine at a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50), apoptosis was induced by a mechanism that involved the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) rather than caspase 3/7 activation. Our findings showed that berberine had anti-cancer effects and may be an effective drug for pancreatic cancer chemotherapy.

  11. The mediatization of journalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aske Kammer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Proposing an explanation of current macro-sociological changes and institutional transformations in journalism, this article argues that journalism is currently undergoing a process of mediatization. Drawing upon the international research literature as well as statements from interviews with news workers working on Danish news websites, the article examines four current trends in journalism that are closely connected to the rise of news on the web, namely the use of the affordances of news websites, radical commercialization, increased audience participation in news production, and the increased multi-skilling and simultaneous de-skilling of journalists. Taken together, these trends reflect a process through which journalism increasingly subsumes itself to the logic of the media, suggesting mediatization as an adequate explanatory framework. One implication of such a process is that journalism seems to be transforming from an occupational profession into an organizational one.

  12. The Peace Mediator Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Guazzini, Andrea; Carletti, Timoteo; Bagnoli, Franco; Vilone, Daniele

    2009-01-01

    Statistical mechanics has proven to be able to capture the fundamental rules underlying phenomena of social aggregation and opinion dynamics, well studied in disciplines like sociology and psychology. This approach is based on the underlying paradigm that the interesting dynamics of multi-agent systems emerge from the correct definition of few parameters governing the evolution of each individual. Into this context, we propose a new model of opinion dynamics based on the psychological construct named "cognitive dissonance". Our system is made of interacting individuals, the agents, each bearing only two dynamical variables (respectively "opinion" and "affinity") self-consistently adjusted during time evolution. We also define two special classes of interacting entities, both acting for a peace mediation process but via different course of action: "diplomats" and "auctoritates". The behaviour of the system with and without peace mediators (PMs) is investigated and discussed with reference to corresponding psyc...

  13. Mitochondrial aquaporin-8 knockdown in human hepatoma HepG2 cells causes ROS-induced mitochondrial depolarization and loss of viability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchissio, Maria Julia; Francés, Daniel Eleazar Antonio; Carnovale, Cristina Ester; Marinelli, Raúl Alberto, E-mail: rmarinel@unr.edu.ar

    2012-10-15

    Human aquaporin-8 (AQP8) channels facilitate the diffusional transport of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} across membranes. Since AQP8 is expressed in hepatic inner mitochondrial membranes, we studied whether mitochondrial AQP8 (mtAQP8) knockdown in human hepatoma HepG2 cells impairs mitochondrial H{sub 2}O{sub 2} release, which may lead to organelle dysfunction and cell death. We confirmed AQP8 expression in HepG2 inner mitochondrial membranes and found that 72 h after cell transfection with siRNAs targeting two different regions of the human AQP8 molecule, mtAQP8 protein specifically decreased by around 60% (p < 0.05). Studies in isolated mtAQP8-knockdown mitochondria showed that H{sub 2}O{sub 2} release, assessed by Amplex Red, was reduced by about 45% (p < 0.05), an effect not observed in digitonin-permeabilized mitochondria. mtAQP8-knockdown cells showed an increase in mitochondrial ROS, assessed by dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (+ 120%, p < 0.05) and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (? 80%, p < 0.05), assessed by tetramethylrhodamine-coupled quantitative fluorescence microscopy. The mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoTempol prevented ROS accumulation and dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential. Cyclosporin A, a mitochondrial permeability transition pore blocker, also abolished the mtAQP8 knockdown-induced mitochondrial depolarization. Besides, the loss of viability in mtAQP8 knockdown cells verified by MTT assay, LDH leakage, and trypan blue exclusion test could be prevented by cyclosporin A. Our data on human hepatoma HepG2 cells suggest that mtAQP8 facilitates mitochondrial H{sub 2}O{sub 2} release and that its defective expression causes ROS-induced mitochondrial depolarization via the mitochondrial permeability transition mechanism, and cell death. -- Highlights: ? Aquaporin-8 is expressed in mitochondria of human hepatoma HepG2 cells. ? Aquaporin-8 knockdown impairs mitochondrial H{sub 2}O{sub 2} release and increases ROS. ? Aquaporin-8 knockdown causes ROS-induced mitochondrial depolarization and cell death. ? Mitochondrial permeability transition blockage prevents depolarization and cell death.

  14. Translational pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling for an orally available novel inhibitor of anaplastic lymphoma kinase and c-Ros oncogene 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Shinji; Lam, Justine L; Zou, Helen Y; Wang, Hui; Smeal, Tod; Vicini, Paolo

    2014-10-01

    An orally available macrocyclic small molecule, PF06463922 [(10R)-7-amino-12-fluoro-2,10,16-trimethyl-15-oxo-10,15,16,17-tetrahydro-2H-8,4-(metheno)pyrazolo[4,3-h][2,5,11]benzoxadiazacyclotetradecine-3-carbonitrile], is a selective inhibitor of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and c-Ros oncogene 1 (ROS1). The objectives of the present study were to characterize the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationships of PF06463922 between its systemic exposures, pharmacodynamic biomarker (target modulation), and pharmacologic response (antitumor efficacy) in athymic mice implanted with H3122 non-small cell lung carcinomas expressing echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4)-ALK mutation (EML4-ALK(L1196M)) and with NIH3T3 cells expressing CD74-ROS1. In these nonclinical tumor models, PF06463922 was orally administered to animals with EML4-ALK(L1196M) and CD74-ROS1 at twice daily doses of 0.3-20 and 0.01-3 mg/kg per dose, respectively. Plasma concentration-time profiles of PF06463922 were adequately described by a one-compartment pharmacokinetic model. Using the model-simulated plasma concentrations, a pharmacodynamic indirect response model with a modulator sufficiently fit the time courses of target modulation (i.e., ALK phosphorylation) in tumors of EML4-ALK(L1196M)-driven models with EC50,in vivo of 36 nM free. A drug-disease model based on an indirect response model reasonably fit individual tumor growth curves in both EML4-ALK(L1196M)- and CD74-ROS1-driven models with the estimated tumor stasis concentrations of 51 and 6.2 nM free, respectively. Thus, the EC60,in vivo (52 nM free) for ALK inhibition roughly corresponded to the tumor stasis concentration in an EML4-ALK(L1196M)-driven model, suggesting that 60% ALK inhibition would be required for tumor stasis. Accordingly, we proposed that the EC60,in vivo for ALK inhibition corresponding to the tumor stasis could be considered a minimum target efficacious concentration of PF06463922 for cancer patients in a phase I trial. PMID:25073473

  15. Teachers as mediators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorf, Hans; Kelly, Peter; Hohmann, Ulrike; Pratt, Nick

    2012-01-01

    Within the context of lower secondary English teaching in South West England, this study identifies in broad terms the competing goals between which English teachers mediate and the explicit and hidden tensions that result. To understand the interactions of competing goals, teachers’ goal-oriented behaviours are referenced to a set of idealised ‘role types’ based on the dimensions of goals, norms, discourses and practices. It is asserted that competing goals, significant to particular educationa...

  16. Protein- mediated enamel mineralization

    OpenAIRE

    Moradian-Oldak, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Enamel is a hard nanocomposite bioceramic with significant resilience that protects the mammalian tooth from external physical and chemical damages. The remarkable mechanical properties of enamel are associated with its hierarchical structural organization and its thorough connection with underlying dentin. This dynamic mineralizing system offers scientists a wealth of information that allows the study of basic principals of organic matrix-mediated biomineralization and can potentially be uti...

  17.  Mode, Mediation og Fortætninger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie; Jespersen, Astrid Pernille; Jantzen, Laura Sophie

    2008-01-01

    Med udgangspunkt i et igangværende projekt om mode-kommunikation vil denne artikel diskutere teoretiske, metodologiske og empiriske spørgsmål om relationerne mellem modens æstetik, socialitet og materialitet. Artiklen bidrager til STS litteraturen ved at udvide de centrale debatter til en ny empirisk kontekst; mode specifikt og det æstetisk-kulturelle felt generelt. Artiklen introducerer begrebet "mediation" (Hennion 1997, 2007) som en indgang til at diskutere teoretiske forbindelser mellem mode...

  18. Translation as cultural mediator

    OpenAIRE

    Roxana Petcu

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the role that translation plays as cultural mediator, as it already widely accepted that translation involves not just two languages, but two cultures, two worlds that are brought into close contact with each other. Obviously, between the two cultures, the two worlds that translation compares and contrasts there are both similarities and dissimilarities. What is of interest to us is the way in which dissimilarities should be approached in the process of tra...

  19. Den sundhedsfremmende mediator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Jeppe

    2009-01-01

      Mediatorer er en relativ ny aktør-type og job-funktion, som passer godt ind i det dynamiske videns- og netværkssamfund. I sundhedsfremmende arbejde med vægt på borgernes deltagelse kan mediatorer spille en nøglerolle. Det er derfor vigtigt begrebsmæssigt at kunne skelne mellem forskellige typer mediering samt mellem forskellige mediator-roller og tilhørsforhold. Det er også vigtigt at være bevidst om de centrale kvaliteter, risici og dilemmaer, som mediering indebærer i forhold til involvering...

  20. Mediatization and Government Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Bo; Valentini, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Social actors see exposure in the news media as attractive for publicity purposes and are under pressure to adapt their press work to a “media logic” to be attractive sources for journalists and editors. This article investigates the European Parliament’s press officers’ professional practices in the light of mediatization and government communication theories. Without one pan-European public sphere, the European Parliament, like the other European Union (EU) institutions, competes with national...

  1. The Strategic Mediator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossignoli, Cecilia; Carugati, Andrea; Mola, Lapo

    2009-01-01

    The last 10 years have witnessed the emergence of electronic marketplaces as players that leverage new technologies to facilitate B2B internet-mediated collaborative business. Nowadays these players are augmenting their services from simple intermediation to include new inter-organizational relationships. The interest of this paper is to investigate the shift in the role and evolution of services proposed by e-marketplaces in response to the demands of the market participants. We carried out a l...

  2. Amplitude mediated chimera states

    OpenAIRE

    Sethia, Gautam C; Sen, Abhijit; Johnston, George L.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of obtaining chimera state solutions of the non-local Complex Ginzburg-Landau Equation (NLCGLE) in the strong coupling limit when it is important to retain amplitude variations. Our numerical studies reveal the existence of a variety of amplitude mediated chimera states (including stationary and non-stationary two cluster chimera states), that display intermittent emergence and decay of amplitude dips in their phase incoherent regions. The exis...

  3. When Memories are Mediated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth; Bjerregaard, Mette

    2013-01-01

    Acts of mass violence, including murder on civilians, genocide, oppression and wars, can mobilize memories of the involved persons and following generations in a certain historical situation. Acts of mass violence can also create a sort of looking glass of culturally dominant memories that are mediated through stories: told and retold as oral stories through generations, as myths or sagas, or remediated as contemporary documentary film accounts or more fictional film accounts. In these processes...

  4. Religious Mediators in Palestine

    OpenAIRE

    Shehada, N.Y.

    2006-01-01

    The spatial and social fragmentation of the Palestinian territories has not only weakened judicial and police systems, but also undermined classical conflict resolution mechanisms based on kinship and other forms of social proximity. In this context, new religious mediators are gaining ground. The author shows that by appealing to “Islamic values” as the only remaining connecting principle, these new legal actors have played a key role in preventing the disintegration of now isolated communit...

  5. RAGE mediates the inactivation of nAChRs in sympathetic neurons under high glucose conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandna, Andrew R; Nair, Manoj; Chang, Christine; Pennington, Paul R; Yamamoto, Yasuhiko; Mousseau, Darrell D; Campanucci, Verónica A

    2015-02-01

    Autonomic dysfunction is a serious complication of diabetes and can lead to cardiovascular abnormalities and premature death. It was recently proposed that autonomic dysfunction is triggered by oxidation-mediated inactivation of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), impairing synaptic transmission in sympathetic ganglia and resulting in autonomic failure. We investigated whether the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and its role in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) could be contributing to the events that initiate sympathetic malfunction under high glucose conditions. Using biochemical, live imaging and electrophysiological tools we demonstrated that exposure of sympathetic neurons to high glucose increases RAGE expression and oxidative markers, and that incubation with RAGE ligands (e.g. AGEs, S100 and HMGB1) mimics both ROS elevation and nAChR inactivation. In contrast, co-treatment with either antioxidants or an anti-RAGE IgG prevented the inactivation of nAChRs. Lastly, a role for RAGE in this context was corroborated by the lack of sensitivity of sympathetic neurons from RAGE knock-out mice to high glucose. These data define a pivotal role for RAGE in initiating the events associated with exposure of sympathetic neurons to high glucose, and strongly support RAGE signaling as a potential therapeutic target in the autonomic complications associated with diabetes. PMID:25431195

  6. Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 mediates denbinobin-induced apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Shiow-Lin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the present study, we explore the role of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1 in denbinobin-induced apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma (A549 cells. Denbinobin-induced cell apoptosis was attenuated by an ASK1 dominant-negative mutant (ASK1DN, two antioxidants (N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC and glutathione (GSH, a c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK inhibitor (SP600125, and an activator protein-1 (AP-1 inhibitor (curcumin. Treatment of A549 cells with denbinobin caused increases in ASK1 activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS production, and these effects were inhibited by NAC and GSH. Stimulation of A549 cells with denbinobin caused JNK activation; this effect was markedly inhibited by NAC, GSH, and ASK1DN. Denbinobin induced c-Jun phosphorylation, the formation of an AP-1-specific DNA-protein complex, and Bim expression. Bim knockdown using a bim short interfering RNA strategy also reduced denbinobin-induced A549 cell apoptosis. The denbinobin-mediated increases in c-Jun phosphorylation and Bim expression were inhibited by NAC, GSH, SP600125, ASK1DN, JNK1DN, and JNK2DN. These results suggest that denbinobin might activate ASK1 through ROS production to cause JNK/AP-1 activation, which in turn induces Bim expression, and ultimately results in A549 cell apoptosis.

  7. Nox4-dependent activation of cofilin mediates VSMC reorientation in response to cyclic stretching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, Marcelo F; Valdivia, Alejandra; Smolensky, Alexander; Verma, Kiran; Taylor, W Robert; San Martín, Alejandra

    2015-08-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are subjected to various types of mechanical forces within the vessel wall. Although it is known that VSMCs undergo cell body reorientation in response to mechanical stimulation, how this mechanical stretch is transduced within the cell into biochemical signals causing cytoskeleton reorganization remains unclear. Cofilin, a protein that controls actin dynamics, is activated by Slingshot phosphatase-dependent serine 3 dephosphorylation by redox-dependent mechanisms. Nox4 is a main source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the vessel wall that localizes in association with the cytoskeleton. Therefore, we hypothesize that Nox4 mediates redox-dependent activation of cofilin, which is required for cytoskeletal reorganization and cell reorientation after mechanical stimulation. In this study, we found that mechanical stretch stimulates ROS production in VSMCs and that the signaling that leads to cell reorientation requires hydrogen peroxide but not superoxide. Indeed, mechanical stretch induces cofilin activation and stretch-induced cytoskeletal reorganization, and cell reorientation is inhibited in cells where cofilin activity has been downregulated. Importantly, Nox4-deficient cells fail to activate cofilin and to undergo cell reorientation, a phenotype rescued by the expression of a constitutively active cofilin mutant. Our results demonstrate that in VSMCs mechanical stimulation activates cofilin by a Nox4-dependent mechanism and that this pathway is required for cytoskeleton reorganization and cell reorientation. PMID:25998423

  8. Transcriptomics and Functional Genomics of ROS-Induced Cell Death Regulation by RADICAL-INDUCED CELL DEATH1

    OpenAIRE

    Brosché, Mikael; Blomster, Tiina; Salojärvi, Jarkko; Cui, Fuqiang; Sipari, Nina; Leppälä, Johanna; Lamminmäki, Airi; Tomai, Gloria; Narayanasamy, Shaman; Reddy, Ramesha A.; Keinänen, Markku; Overmyer, Kirk; Kangasjärvi, Jaakko

    2014-01-01

    Plant responses to changes in environmental conditions are mediated by a network of signaling events leading to downstream responses, including changes in gene expression and activation of cell death programs. Arabidopsis thaliana RADICAL-INDUCED CELL DEATH1 (RCD1) has been proposed to regulate plant stress responses by protein-protein interactions with transcription factors. Furthermore, the rcd1 mutant has defective control of cell death in response to apoplastic reactive oxygen species (RO...

  9. Electron transfer mediation by aqueous C60 aggregates in H2O2/UV advanced oxidation of indigo carmine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Ling; Moor, Kyle; Zhang, Bo; He, Yiliang; Kim, Jae-Hong

    2014-10-01

    C60 fullerene has long been known to exhibit favorable electron accepting and shuttling properties, but little is known about the possibility of electron transfer mediation by fullerene aggregates (nC60) in water. In this study, we investigated the electron shuttling capabilities of nC60 using UV/H2O2 as a model oxidation process in the presence of an electron donor, indigo carmine (IC). nC60 addition to the IC/H2O2 system was found to drastically increase IC degradation and shift the reactive oxygen species (ROS) balance, favoring the formation of superoxide and perhydroxyl radical species compared to hydroxyl radicals. Results indicate that nC60 can act as an electron mediator, where the adsorbed IC donates an electron to nC60, which is subsequently transferred to H2O2 or perhydroxyl radical.C60 fullerene has long been known to exhibit favorable electron accepting and shuttling properties, but little is known about the possibility of electron transfer mediation by fullerene aggregates (nC60) in water. In this study, we investigated the electron shuttling capabilities of nC60 using UV/H2O2 as a model oxidation process in the presence of an electron donor, indigo carmine (IC). nC60 addition to the IC/H2O2 system was found to drastically increase IC degradation and shift the reactive oxygen species (ROS) balance, favoring the formation of superoxide and perhydroxyl radical species compared to hydroxyl radicals. Results indicate that nC60 can act as an electron mediator, where the adsorbed IC donates an electron to nC60, which is subsequently transferred to H2O2 or perhydroxyl radical. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr03647f

  10. The communicative figurations of mediatized worlds: mediatization research in times of the “mediation of everything”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Hepp

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available When various media in their entirety mark how we articulate our social worlds, we need an approach of mediatization research that reflects this transmediality. To develop such an approach, the article discusses the institutionalist and social-constructivist traditions of mediatization research. Both concur that mediatization is a concept to capture the interrelation between the change of media and communication, and the change of culture and society. Such a conceptual reflection offers the chance to view the mediatization as the change of transmedial communicative figurations. Based on this theoretical foundation, the article reflects a twofold operationalization, i.e. as diachronous and synchronous mediatization research.

  11. Fashion, Mediations & Method Assemblages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie; Jespersen, Astrid Pernille

    This paper discusses relations between aesthetics of fashion and the sociality of fashion. It takes as its premise that aesthetics and sociality are co-constructed, and cannot be regarded as separate - although this has been the norm in the academic traditions of aesthetics and sociology, respectively. The paper thus takes on aesthetics and the social in a manner closely related to a core argument of STS - namely that the scientific fact, and the social processes of constructing, distributing, and using that fact, are co-constructed (Callon, 1986; Latour, 1993). The paper thus contributes to STS literature by expanding one of its central debates to a new empirical setting; fashion specifically, and the aesthetic-cultural field on a more general level. In trying to make a theoretical connection between aesthetics and sociality of fashion, the paper suggests the term of "mediator" (Hennion, 1997). "Mediation" is an activity rather than an actor; a co-constructive relation that creates what it mediates - the producer and the consumer. Hennion argues "that something effectively `happens´ in this process, which transforms the ways things were before" (Hennion & Grenier 2000, p. 346). Hennion belongs to a small but growing group of post-critical cultural sociologists, much inspired by contributions of STS. Methodologically, however, there seems to be a shortage of tools of approaching "that which effectively happens" within this post-critical movement of cultural sociology, and therefore, it is an important ambition of this paper to go into a methodological discussion of how "that which effectively happens" can be approached. To this end, the paper will combine Hennion's term of the "mediator" with John Laws methodological term of "method assemblages". Method assemblages is a suggested as a way of handling multiple, fluid realities with multiple, fluid methods. Empirically, the paper works with mediation in fashion - that is efforts the active shaping of relations between producer and consumer through communication, marketing and PR. Fashion mediation is by no means simple, but organise complex relations between individuals and social contexts, aesthetics and production, distribution and consumption, as well as relations between fluidity and stability. By addressing the field of fashion, the paper proposes to shed light on an empirical setting which has so far been studied either as a purely aesthetic-cultural phenomenon, or as a purely economic-sociological one. Moreover, the paper proposes to contribute to the debate in the STS community and literature by expanding the reach and breadth of some of its core arguments.  References: Callon, M. (1986). Some Elements of a Sociology of Translation - Domestication of the Scallops and Fishermen of St. Brieuc Bay. Power, Action, and Belief - A New Sociology of Knowledge. J. Law. London, Routledge and Keagan Paul: 196-233. Hennion, A. (1997). "Baroque and rock: Music, mediators and musical taste." Poetics 24: 414 - 435. Latour, B. (1993). We Have Never Been Modern. New York, Harvester-Wheatsheaf. Law, J. (2004). After Method - mess in social science research. London and New York, Routledge.

  12. Valproic acid protects motor neuron death by inhibiting oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated cytochrome C release after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jee Y; Maeng, Sejung; Kang, So R; Choi, Hye Y; Oh, Tae H; Ju, Bong G; Yune, Tae Y

    2014-03-15

    Both oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress are known to contribute to secondary injury, ultimately leading to cell death after spinal cord injury (SCI). Here, we showed that valproic acid (VPA) reduced cell death of motor neurons by inhibiting cytochrome c release mediated by oxidative stress and ER stress after SCI. After SCI, rats were immediately injected with VPA (300?mg/kg) subcutaneously and further injected every 12?h for an indicated time period. Motor neuron cell death at an early time after SCI was significantly attenuated by VPA treatment. Superoxide anion (O2-) production and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression linked to oxidative stress was increased after injury, which was inhibited by VPA. In addition, VPA inhibited c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation, which was activated and peaked at an early time after SCI. Furthermore, JNK activation and c-Jun phosphorylation were inhibited by a broad-spectrum reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, Mn (III) tetrakis (4-benzoic acid) porphyrin (MnTBAP), indicating that ROS including O2- increased after SCI probably contribute to JNK activation. VPA also inhibited cytochrome c release and caspase-9 activation, which was significantly inhibited by SP600125, a JNK inhibitor. The levels of phosphorylated Bim and Mcl-1, which are known as downstream targets of JNK, were significantly reduced by SP600125. On the other hand, VPA treatment inhibited ER stress-induced caspase-12 activation, which is activated in motor neurons after SCI. In addition, VPA increased the Bcl-2/Bax ratio and inhibited CHOP expression. Taken together, our results suggest that cell death of motor neurons after SCI is mediated through oxidative stress and ER stress-mediated cytochrome c release and VPA-inhibited cytochrome c release by attenuating ROS-induced JNK activation followed by Mcl-1 and Bim phosphorylation and ER stress-coupled CHOP expression. PMID:24294888

  13. Toll-like receptor 4 mediates microglial activation and production of inflammatory mediators in neonatal rat brain following hypoxia: role of TLR4 in hypoxic microglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Linli

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypoxia induces microglial activation which causes damage to the developing brain. Microglia derived inflammatory mediators may contribute to this process. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 has been reported to induce microglial activation and cytokines production in brain injuries; however, its role in hypoxic injury remains uncertain. We investigate here TLR4 expression and its roles in neuroinflammation in neonatal rats following hypoxic injury. Methods One day old Wistar rats were subjected to hypoxia for 2 h. Primary cultured microglia and BV-2 cells were subjected to hypoxia for different durations. TLR4 expression in microglia was determined by RT-PCR, western blot and immunofluorescence staining. Small interfering RNA (siRNA transfection and antibody neutralization were employed to downregulate TLR4 in BV-2 and primary culture. mRNA and protein expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1? and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS was assessed. Reactive oxygen species (ROS, nitric oxide (NO and NF-?B levels were determined by flow cytometry, colorimetric and ELISA assays respectively. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1? mRNA and protein expression was quantified and where necessary, the protein expression was depleted by antibody neutralization. In vivo inhibition of TLR4 with CLI-095 injection was carried out followed by investigation of inflammatory mediators expression via double immunofluorescence staining. Results TLR4 immunofluorescence and protein expression in the corpus callosum and cerebellum in neonatal microglia were markedly enhanced post-hypoxia. In vitro, TLR4 protein expression was significantly increased in both primary microglia and BV-2 cells post-hypoxia. TLR4 neutralization in primary cultured microglia attenuated the hypoxia-induced expression of TNF-?, IL-1? and iNOS. siRNA knockdown of TLR4 reduced hypoxia-induced upregulation of TNF-?, IL-1?, iNOS, ROS and NO in BV-2 cells. TLR4 downregulation-mediated inhibition of inflammatory cytokines in primary microglia and BV-2 cells was accompanied by the suppression of NF-?B activation. Furthermore, HIF-1? antibody neutralization attenuated the increase of TLR4 expression in hypoxic BV-2 cells. TLR4 inhibition in vivo attenuated the immunoexpression of TNF-?, IL-1? and iNOS on microglia post-hypoxia. Conclusion Activated microglia TLR4 expression mediated neuroinflammation via a NF-?B signaling pathway in response to hypoxia. Hence, microglia TLR4 presents as a potential therapeutic target for neonatal hypoxia brain injuries.

  14. Inhibition of lipase and inflammatory mediators by Chlorella lipid extracts for antiacne treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibi, G

    2015-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease, and its treatment is challenging due to the multifactorial etiology and emergence of antibiotic-resistant Propionibacterium acnes strains. This study was focused to reduce antibiotics usage and find an alternate therapeutic source for treating acne. Lipid extracts of six Chlorella species were tested for inhibition of lipase, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, cytokine production using P. acnes (Microbial Type Culture Collection 1951). Lipase inhibitory assay was determined by dimercaprol Tributyrate - 5, 5'- dithiobis 2-nitrobenzoic acid method and ROS production assay was performed using nitro-blue tetrazolium test. The anti-inflammatory activity of algal lipid extracts was determined by in vitro screening method based on inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) produced by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of lipid extracts were determined by microdilution method, and the fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Chlorella ellipsoidea has the highest lipase inhibitory activity with 61.73% inhibition, followed by Chlorella vulgaris (60.31%) and Chlorella protothecoides (58.9%). Lipid extracts from C. protothecoides and C. ellipsoidea has significantly reduced the ROS production by 61.27% and 58.34% respectively. Inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-? showed the inhibition ranging from 58.39% to 78.67%. C. vulgaris has exhibited the MICvalue of 10 ?g/ml followed by C. ellipsoidea, C. protothecoides and Chlorella pyrenoidosa (20 ?g/ml). FAME analysis detected 19 fatty acids of which 5 were saturated fatty acids, and 14 were unsaturated fatty acids ranging from C14 to C24. The results suggest that lipid extracts of Chlorella species has significant inhibitory activity on P. acnes by inhibiting lipase activity. Further, anti-inflammatory reaction caused by the pathogen could be reduced by the inhibiting the production of ROS and inflammatory mediators TNF-? and exposes new frontiers on the antiacne activities of Chlorella lipid extracts. PMID:25709963

  15. Copper mediated neurological disorder: visions into amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer and Menkes disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Anami; Dev, Kapil; Tanwar, Ranjeet S; Selwal, Krishan K; Tyagi, Pankaj K

    2015-01-01

    Copper (Cu) is a vital redox dynamic metal that is possibly poisonous in superfluous. Metals can traditionally or intricately cause propagation in reactive oxygen species (ROS) accretion in cells and this may effect in programmed cell death. Accumulation of Cu causes necrosis that looks to be facilitated by DNA damage, followed by activation of P53. Cu dyshomeostasis has also been concerned in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or Menkes disease and is directly related to neurodegenerative syndrome that usually produces senile dementia. These mortal syndromes are closely related with an immense damage of neurons and synaptic failure in the brain. This review focuses on copper mediated neurological disorders with insights into amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer and Menkes disease. PMID:24975171

  16. Holographic Gauge Mediation

    CERN Document Server

    Benini, Francesco; Franco, Sebastian; Kachru, Shamit; Simic, Dusan; Verlinde, Herman

    2009-01-01

    We discuss gravitational backgrounds where supersymmetry is broken at the end of a warped throat, and the SUSY-breaking is transmitted to the Standard Model via gauginos which live in (part of) the bulk of the throat geometry. We find that the leading effect arises from splittings of certain "messenger mesons," which are adjoint KK-modes of the D-branes supporting the Standard Model gauge group. This picture is a gravity dual of a strongly coupled field theory where SUSY is broken in a hidden sector and transmitted to the Standard Model via a relative of semi-direct gauge mediation.

  17. Holographic Gauge Mediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benini, Francesco; /Princeton U.; Dymarsky, Anatoly; /Stanford U., ITP; Franco, Sebastian; /Santa Barbara, KITP; Kachru, Shamit; Simic, Dusan; /Stanford U., ITP /SLAC; Verlinde, Herman; /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study

    2009-06-19

    We discuss gravitational backgrounds where supersymmetry is broken at the end of a warped throat, and the SUSY-breaking is transmitted to the Standard Model via gauginos which live in (part of) the bulk of the throat geometry. We find that the leading effect arises from splittings of certain 'messenger mesons,' which are adjoint KK-modes of the D-branes supporting the Standard Model gauge group. This picture is a gravity dual of a strongly coupled field theory where SUSY is broken in a hidden sector and transmitted to the Standard Model via a relative of semi-direct gauge mediation.

  18. Holographic gauge mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss gravitational backgrounds where supersymmetry is broken at the end of a warped throat, and the SUSY-breaking is transmitted to the Standard Model via gauginos which live in (part of) the bulk of the throat geometry. We find that