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Prevention of selenite induced oxidative stress and cataractogenesis by luteolin isolated from Vitex negundo.  

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Free radical mediated oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of cataract and the present study was to determine the efficacy of luteolin in preventing selenite induced oxidative stress and cataractogenesis in vitro. Luteolin is a bioactive flavonoid, isolated and characterized from the leaves of Vitex negundo. Lenses were extracted from Sprague-Dawley strain rats and were organ cultured in DMEM medium. They were divided into three groups with eight lenses in each group as follows: lenses cultured in normal medium (G I), supplemented with 0.1mM sodium selenite (G II) and sodium selenite and 2 ?g/ml luteolin (G III). Treatment was from the second to fifth day, while selenite administration was done on the third day. After the experimental period, lenses were taken out and various parameters were studied. The antioxidant potential of luteolin was assessed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. In the selenite induced group, morphological examination of the lenses showed dense cortical opacification and vacuolization. Biochemical examinations revealed a significant decrease in activities of antioxidant enzymes and enzymes of the glutathione system. Additionally decreased glutathione level and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were observed. Luteolin treatment abated selenite induced oxidative stress and cataractogenesis by maintaining antioxidant status, reducing ROS generation and lipid peroxidation in the lens. These finding demonstrated the anticataractogenic effect of luteolin by virtue of its antioxidant property, which has been reported in this paper for the first time. PMID:22342831

Rooban, B N; Sasikala, V; Gayathri Devi, V; Sahasranamam, V; Abraham, Annie

2012-03-01

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Prevention of Selenite-induced Cataractogenesis by Origanum vulgare Extract  

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Full Text Available The present study sought to assess antioxidant effect of Origanum vulgare extract in preventing selenite-induced cataractogenesis. This study was performed on Young white rats received sodium selenite (30 nmol g-1 birth weight subcutaneously on day 13 post partum during two months in 2009. Cataract formation and intensity was detected and measured by slit-lamp. Origanum vulgare (Ov extract (2 g kg-1 was given (1-2 times intraperitoneal at different times with respect to the selenite administration lens opacification was analyzed in selenite, selenite-Ov, Ov and control groups on day 7 after selenite administration. Ov extract have revealed a significant protective effect against selenite induced cataract when injected 1 and 2 day (2 times before selenite injection. There is a protective effect of Ov against selenite induced cataract formation. It is supposed that the anticataract effect of Ov extract could be based on direct or indirect antioxidant mechanisms.

M. Lashgari

2010-01-01

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Prevention of selenite-induced cataractogenesis by Origanum vulgare extract.  

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The present study sought to assess antioxidant effect of Origanum vulgare extract in preventing selenite-induced cataractogenesis. This study was performed on Young white rats received sodium selenite (30 nmol g(-1) birth weight) subcutaneously on day 13 post partum during two months in 2009. Cataract formation and intensity was detected and measured by slit-lamp. Origanum vulgare (Ov) extract (2 g kg(-1)) was given (1-2 times) intraperitoneal at different times with respect to the selenite administration lens opacification was analyzed in selenite, selenite-Ov, Ov and control groups on day 7 after selenite administration. Ov extract have revealed a significant protective effect against selenite induced cataract when injected 1 and 2 day (2 times) before selenite injection. There is a protective effect of Ov against selenite induced cataract formation. It is supposed that the anticataract effect of Ov extract could be based on direct or indirect antioxidant mechanisms. PMID:21850936

Dailami, K N; Azadbakht, M; Pharm, Z R; Lashgari, M

2010-08-01

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Feedback regulation via AMPK and HIF-1 mediates ROS-dependent longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans.  

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Mild inhibition of mitochondrial respiration extends the lifespan of many species. In Caenorhabditis elegans, reactive oxygen species (ROS) promote longevity by activating hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) in response to reduced mitochondrial respiration. However, the physiological role and mechanism of ROS-induced longevity are poorly understood. Here, we show that a modest increase in ROS increases the immunity and lifespan of C. elegans through feedback regulation by HIF-1 and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). We found that activation of AMPK as well as HIF-1 mediates the longevity response to ROS. We further showed that AMPK reduces internal levels of ROS, whereas HIF-1 amplifies the levels of internal ROS under conditions that increase ROS. Moreover, mitochondrial ROS increase resistance to various pathogenic bacteria, suggesting a possible association between immunity and long lifespan. Thus, AMPK and HIF-1 may control immunity and longevity tightly by acting as feedback regulators of ROS. PMID:25288734

Hwang, Ara B; Ryu, Eun-A; Artan, Murat; Chang, Hsin-Wen; Kabir, Mohammad Humayun; Nam, Hyun-Jun; Lee, Dongyeop; Yang, Jae-Seong; Kim, Sanguk; Mair, William B; Lee, Cheolju; Lee, Siu Sylvia; Lee, Seung-Jae

2014-10-21

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Impact of central and peripheral TRPV1 and ROS levels on proinflammatory mediators and nociceptive behavior  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1 channels are important membrane sensors on peripheral nerve endings and on supportive non-neuronal synoviocytes in the knee joint. TRPV 1 ion channels respond with activation of calcium and sodium fluxes to pH, thermal, chemical, osmotic, mechanical and other stimuli abundant in inflamed joints. In the present study, the kaolin/carrageenan (k/c induced knee joint arthritis model in rats, as well as primary and clonal human synoviocyte cultures were used to understand the reciprocal interactions between reactive nitroxidative species (ROS and functional TRPV1 channels. ROS generation was monitored with ROS sensitive dyes using live cell imaging in vitro and in spinal tissue histology, as well as with measurement of ROS metabolites in culture media using HPLC. Results Functional responses in the experimental arthritis model, including increased nociceptive responses (thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia and allodynia, knee joint temperature reflecting local blood flow, and spinal cord ROS elevations were reduced by the ROS scavenger PBN after intraperitoneal pretreatment. Increases in TRPV1 and ROS, generated by synoviocytes in vitro, were reciprocally blocked by TRPV1 antagonists and the ROS scavenger. Further evidence is presented that synoviocyte responses to ROS and TRPV1 activation include increases in TNF? and COX-2, both measured as an indicator of the inflammation in vitro. Conclusions The results demonstrate that contributions of ROS to pronociceptive responses and neurogenic inflammation are mediated both centrally and peripherally. Responses are mediated by TRPV1 locally in the knee joint by synoviocytes, as well as by ROS-induced sensitization in the spinal cord. These findings and those of others reported in the literature indicate reciprocal interactions between TRPV1 and ROS play critical roles in the pathological and nociceptive responses active during arthritic inflammation.

Lu Ying

2010-08-01

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ROS Mediates Radiation-Induced Differentiation in Human Lung Fibroblast  

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One of the most common tumors worldwide is lung cancer and the number of patients with lung cancer received radiotherapy is increasing rapidly. Although radiotherapy may have lots of advantages, it can also induce serious adverse effects such as acute radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis. Pulmonary fibrosis is characterized by excessive production of smooth muscle actin-alpha (a-SMA) and accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) such as collagen and fibronectin. There has been a great amount of research about fibrosis but the exact mechanism causing the reaction is not elucidated especially in radiation-induced fibrosis. Until now it has been known that several factors such as transforming growth factor (TGF-b), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), IL-6, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and reactive oxygen species are related to fibrosis. It is also reported that reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be induced by radiation and can act as a second messenger in various signaling pathways. Therefore we focused on the role of ROS in radiation induced fibrosis. Here, we suggest that irradiation generate ROS mainly through NOX4, result in differentiation of lung fibroblast into myofibroblast

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ROS Mediates Radiation-Induced Differentiation in Human Lung Fibroblast  

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One of the most common tumors worldwide is lung cancer and the number of patients with lung cancer received radiotherapy is increasing rapidly. Although radiotherapy may have lots of advantages, it can also induce serious adverse effects such as acute radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis. Pulmonary fibrosis is characterized by excessive production of smooth muscle actin-alpha (a-SMA) and accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) such as collagen and fibronectin. There has been a great amount of research about fibrosis but the exact mechanism causing the reaction is not elucidated especially in radiation-induced fibrosis. Until now it has been known that several factors such as transforming growth factor (TGF-b), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), IL-6, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and reactive oxygen species are related to fibrosis. It is also reported that reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be induced by radiation and can act as a second messenger in various signaling pathways. Therefore we focused on the role of ROS in radiation induced fibrosis. Here, we suggest that irradiation generate ROS mainly through NOX4, result in differentiation of lung fibroblast into myofibroblast.

Park, Sa Rah; Ahn, Ji Yeon; Kim, Mi Hyeung; Lim, Min Jin; Yun, Yeon Sook; Song, Jie Young [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2009-05-15

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PKC-? mediates TCDD-induced apoptosis of chondrocyte in ROS-dependent manner.  

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Exposure to dioxin-like compounds is associated with arthritis in humans. A recent study reported that 2,3,7,8,-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induces apoptosis in chondrocytes, which is a critical event in the pathogenesis of cartilage disease. In this study, protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathway was investigated to determine the mechanism of TCDD-induced rabbit articular chondrocyte apoptosis. TCDD exposure induced glutathione-mediated ROS generation and the translocation of PKC isozymes. Among the PKC isozymes tested, PKC-? showed the most sensitive translocation. The translocation was then blocked by ROS inhibitors (trolox and N-acetyl cysteine), a PKC-? inhibitor (rottlerin), a caspase-3 inhibitor (z-DEVD-fmk) or an AhR blocker (?-naphthoflavone). TCDD increased caspase-3 activity, the activating enzyme for PKC-?, and prior treatment with trolox blocked such an increase. These results suggest that the translocation of PKC-? was mediated by ROS-dependent caspase-3 activity. Pretreatment with rottlerin or trolox dampened TCDD-induced apoptosis of chondrocyte, as determined by TUNEL staining and ELISA. Taken together, this study suggests that ROS generation is an upstream event for TCDD-induced chondrocyte apoptosis and PKC-? mediates the apoptotic processes through ROS-dependent caspase-3 activation. This is a first finding demonstrating the role of PKC-? in chondrocyte apoptosis stimulated by an environmental pollutant. The results may contribute to understanding the mechanism of joint disease associated with the exposure of dioxin-like compounds and identifying a target for the therapeutic interventions. PMID:20846705

Lee, Hyun-Gyo; Yang, Jae-Ho

2010-11-01

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Vitex negundo modulates selenite-induced opacification and cataractogensis in rat pups.  

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Recently, much interest has been generated in the search for phytochemical therapeutics, as they are largely free from adverse side effects and economical. The goal of this study was to determine the efficacy of Vitex negundo in modulating the selenite-induced oxidative stress in vivo model. Sprague-Dawley rat pups of 8 days old were used for the study and divided into control (G I), selenite induced (G II), and selenite + V. negundo treated (G III). Cataract was induced by the single subcutaneous injection of sodium selenite (4 mg/kg body weight) on the tenth day and V. negundo (2.5 mg/Kg body weight) administered intraperitoneally from eighth to 15th day. Morphological examination of the rat lenses revealed no opacification in G I and mild opacification in G III whereas dense opacification in G II (stages 4-6). Levels of selenium in G II and G III showed no significant changes. The activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and Ca(2+)ATPase were significantly increased in G III compared to G II (p negundo on modulating biochemical parameters against selenite-induced cataract, which have been reported in this paper for the first time. PMID:20174976

Rooban, B N; Sasikala, V; Sahasranamam, V; Abraham, Annie

2010-12-01

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Artemisinin induces ROS-mediated caspase3 activation in ASTC-a-1 cells  

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Artemisinin (ART), an antimalarial phytochemical from the sweet wormwood plant or a naturally occurring component of Artemisia annua, has been shown a potential anticancer activity by apoptotic pathways. In our report, cell counting kit (CCK-8) assay showed that treatment of human lung adenocarcinoma (ASTC-a-1) cells with ART effectively increase cell death by inducing apoptosis in a time- and dose-dependent fashion. Hoechst 33258 staining was used to detect apoptosis as well. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was observed in cells exposed to ART at concentrations of 400 ?M for 48 h. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), an oxygen radical scavenger, suppressed the rate of ROS generation and inhibited the ART-induced apoptosis. Moreover, AFC assay (Fluorometric assay for Caspase3 activity) showed that ROS was involved in ART-induced caspase3 acitvation. Taken together, our data indicate that ART induces ROS-mediated caspase3 activation in a time-and dose-dependent way in ASCT-a-1 cells.

Xiao, Feng-Lian; Chen, Tong-Sheng; Qu, Jun-Le; Liu, Cheng-Yi

2010-02-01

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ROS-mediated TNF-? and MIP-2 gene expression in alveolar macrophages exposed to pine dust  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Respiratory symptoms, impaired lung function, and asthma have been reported in workers exposed to wood dust in a number of epidemiological studies. The underlying pathomechanisms, however, are not well understood. Here, we studied the effects of dust from pine (PD and heat-treated pine (HPD on the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS and inflammatory mediators in rat alveolar macrophages. Methods Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-? and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2 protein release, TNF-? and MIP-2 mRNA expression, and generation of ROS were studied as end points after treatment of rat alveolar macrophages with PD or HPD. In a separate series of experiments, the antioxidants glutathione and N-acetyl-L-cysteine were included in combination with wood dust. To determine the endogenous oxidative and antioxidant capacity of wood dusts, electron spin resonance (ESR spectroscopy was used. Results After 4 h incubation, both PD and HPD elicited a significantly (p Conclusion These results indicate that pine dust is able to induce expression of TNF-? and MIP-2 in rat alveolar macrophages by a mechanism that is, at least in part, mediated by ROS.

Husgafvel-Pursiainen Kirsti

2004-12-01

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Cadmium-induced teratogenicity: Association with ROS-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress in placenta  

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The placenta is essential for sustaining the growth of the fetus. An increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been associated with the impaired placental and fetal development. Cadmium (Cd) is a potent teratogen that caused fetal malformation and growth restriction. The present study investigated the effects of maternal Cd exposure on placental and fetal development. The pregnant mice were intraperitoneally injected with CdCl{sub 2} (4.5 mg/kg) on gestational day 9. As expected, maternal Cd exposure during early limb development significantly increased the incidences of forelimb ectrodactyly in fetuses. An obvious impairment in the labyrinth, a highly developed tissue of blood vessels, was observed in placenta of mice treated with CdCl{sub 2}. In addition, maternal Cd exposure markedly repressed cell proliferation and increased apoptosis in placenta. An additional experiment showed that maternal Cd exposure significantly upregulated the expression of GRP78, an ER chaperone. Moreover, maternal Cd exposure induced the phosphorylation of placental eIF2?, a downstream molecule of PERK signaling. In addition, maternal Cd exposure significantly increased the level of placental CHOP, another target of PERK signaling, indicating that the unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling was activated in placenta of mice treated with CdCl{sub 2}. Interestingly, alpha-phenyl-N-t-butylnitrone, a free radical spin-trapping agent, significantly alleviated Cd-induced placental ER stress and UPR. Taken together, these results suggest that reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated ER stress might be involved in Cd-induced impairment on placental and fetal development. Antioxidants may be used as pharmacological agents to protect against Cd-induced fetal malformation and growth restriction. -- Highlights: ? Cd induces fetal malformation and growth restriction. ? Cd induced placental ER stress and UPR. ? PBN alleviates Cd-induced ER stress and UPR in placenta. ? ROS-mediated ER stress might be involved in Cd-induced placental impairments. ? ROS-mediated ER stress might be involved in Cd-induced fetal malformations.

Wang, Zhen; Wang, Hua; Xu, Zhong Mei; Ji, Yan-Li; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Zhang, Cheng; Meng, Xiu-Hong; Zhao, Mei; Xu, De-Xiang, E-mail: xudex@126.com

2012-03-01

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Gambogic acid sensitizes ovarian cancer cells to doxorubicin through ROS-mediated apoptosis.  

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Ovarian cancer is one human malignancy which has response portly to doxorubicin. The anti-cancer activity of gambogic acid has been tested in in vitro and in vivo studies. In this study, we showed that gambogic acid, a natural compound, could potentiate the anticancer activity of doxorubicin in ovarian cancer through ROS-mediated apoptosis. Platinum-resistant human ovarian cancer cell line (SKOV-3) was treated with gambogic acid, doxorubicin, or the combination of both to investigate cell proliferation and apoptosis. We found that the combination of gambogic acid and doxorubicin causes synergistic loss of cell viability in SKOV-3 cells and this synergistic effect correlated with increased cellular ROS accumulation. Moreover, in vivo results showed that gambogic acid and doxorubicin combination resulted in a synergistic suppressing effect on tumor growth in ovarian cancer mice model. Taken together, the results suggested that doxorubicin in combination with gambogic acid might provide a promising therapeutic strategy to enhance chemosensitivity of ovarian cancer to doxorubicin. PMID:23436279

Wang, Jianxia; Yuan, Zhixiang

2013-09-01

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ROS and Sympathetically mediated Mitochondria activation in Brown Adipose Tissue contributes to Methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia  

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Full Text Available Methamphetamine abuse has been shown to induce alterations in mitochondrial function in the brain as well as to induce hyperthermia, which contributes to neurotoxicity and Meth-associated mortality. Brown adipose tissue (BAT, a thermogenic site known to be important in neonates, has recently regained importance since being identified in significant amounts and in correlation with metabolic balance in human adults. Given the high mitochondrial content of BAT and its role in thermogenesis, we aimed to investigate whether BAT plays any role in the development of Meth-induced hyperthermia. By ablating or denervating BAT, we identified a partial contribution of this organ to Meth-induced hyperthermia. BAT ablation decreased temperature by 0.5oC and reduced the length of hyperthermia by 1 hr, compared to sham-operated controls. BAT denervation also affected the development of hyperthermia in correlation with decreased the expression of electron transport chain molecules, and increase on PCG1a levels, but without affecting Meth-induced UCP1 upregulation. Furthermore, in isolated BAT cells in culture, Meth, but not Norepinephrine (NE, induced H2O2 upregulation. In addition, we found that in vivo Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS play a role in Meth hyperthermia. Thus, sympathetically- mediated mitochondrial activation in the BAT and Meth-induced ROS are key components to the development of hyperthermia in Meth abuse.

Maria CeciliaGMarcondes

2013-04-01

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Activation of NADPH oxidase subunit NCF4 induces ROS-mediated EMT signaling in HeLa cells.  

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The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a critical biological process characterized by morphological and behavioral changes in cells. The regulatory and signaling mechanisms of both developmental and pathological EMT have been investigated. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a role in early EMT, but the exact mechanism by which ROS are involved is unclear. We investigated ROS-mediated EMT in human HeLa cells. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?) treatments lead to dramatic NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) inductions in HeLa cells; antioxidant treatment prevented TGF-?-driven EMT. Over-expression of the p40phox subunit (NCF4) led to activation of the NOX2 complex and ROS production. We showed that NOX2 and NOX5 mRNA was increased, along with increased expression of several matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in response to NCF4 expression. Moreover, these changes were reversible upon ROS scavenging. Down-regulation of E-cadherin and up-regulation of Snail, Slug and vimentin occurred at the transcriptional level. We also showed that new EMT regulator, YB-1 is a downstream target in ROS-induced EMT. Together, these data suggest that ROS switching is necessary for increased EMT but is not required for the morphological changes that accompany EMT. PMID:24378533

Kim, Young Mee; Cho, Moonjae

2014-04-01

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Preventive effect of onion juice on selenite-induced experimental cataract  

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Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the effects of onion juice on sodium-selenite induced cataract formation. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two 10-day-old Wistar-albino rat pups were divided into four equal groups. Group 1 received only subcutaneous saline injection. In Group 2, sodium-selenite (30 nmol?/?g body weight was injected subcutaneously. In Group 3, subcutaneous sodium-selenite was injected and one drop 50% diluted fresh juice of crude onion was instilled every 8 h into the right eye for 14 days; the left eye received no treatment. Group 4 rats were similar to those of Group 3, the only difference being that of undiluted fresh juice of crude onion. The development of cataract was assessed. Rat lenses were analyzed for total antioxidant (TA level, and for activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPX and superoxide dismutase (SOD. Results: Both eyes of all rats in Group 1 did not exhibit cataract formation . In Group 2, all rats developed Grade 3 cataract in the lenses of both eyes. The difference in exhibited cataract in the lens of the right eyes in all rats between Group 2 and any eyes of groups 3 or 4 were significant ( P = 0.001. The mean TA level and mean activities of SOD and GPX in Group 2 rat lenses were significantly lower than the values in lenses of all rats in Group 1 ( P = 0.001, 0.003, 0.001, and in the lenses of the right eyes of rats in Groups 3 and 4 ( P = 0.001, 0.020, 0.001. Conclusion: Instillation of onion juice into the rat eyes can effectively prevent selenite-induced cataract formation. This effect was associated with increased TA level, SOD and GPX activities in the lens.

Javadzadeh Alireza

2009-01-01

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Divalent metal transporter 1 regulates iron-mediated ROS and pancreatic ß cell fate in response to cytokines  

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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to target-cell damage in inflammatory and iron-overload diseases. Little is known about iron transport regulation during inflammatory attack. Through a combination of in vitro and in vivo studies, we show that the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1ß induces divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) expression correlating with increased ß cell iron content and ROS production. Iron chelation and siRNA and genetic knockdown of DMT1 expression reduce cytokine-induced ROS formation and cell death. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in the absence of cytokines in Dmt1 knockout islets is defective, highlighting a physiological role of iron and ROS in the regulation of insulin secretion. Dmt1 knockout mice are protected against multiple low-dose streptozotocin and high-fat diet-induced glucose intolerance, models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively. Thus, ß cells become prone to ROS-mediated inflammatory damage via aberrant cellular iron metabolism, a finding with potential general cellular implications.

Hansen, Jakob Bondo; Tonnesen, Morten Fog

2012-01-01

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Divalent Metal Transporter 1 Regulates Iron-Mediated ROS and Pancreatic ? Cell Fate in Response to Cytokines  

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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to target-cell damage in inflammatory and iron-overload diseases. Little is known about iron transport regulation during inflammatory attack. Through a combination of in vitro and in vivo studies, we show that the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1? induces divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) expression correlating with increased ? cell iron content and ROS production. Iron chelation and siRNA and genetic knockdown of DMT1 expression reduce cytokine-induced ROS formation and cell death. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in the absence of cytokines in Dmt1 knockout islets is defective, highlighting a physiological role of iron and ROS in the regulation of insulin secretion. Dmt1 knockout mice are protected against multiple low-dose streptozotocin and high-fat diet-induced glucose intolerance, models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively. Thus, ? cells become prone to ROS-mediated inflammatory damage via aberrant cellular iron metabolism, a finding with potential general cellular implications.

Hansen, Jakob Bondo; Tonnesen, Morten Fog

2012-01-01

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SIGNALLING PATHWAY OF NADPH MEDIATED ROS-RNS IN DIABETIC NEPHROPATHY  

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Full Text Available Disorder of physiological signaling functions of reactive oxygen species (ROS superoxide (ROS are chemically reactive molecules containing oxygen, hydrogen peroxide, reactive nitrogen species (RNS nitric oxide and peroxynitrite are an important feature of diabetes mellitus. The balance between the production of ROS, notably superoxide anion (O?2 and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, and the antioxidant defense system that includes superoxide dismutase (SOD and peroxidases, determines the degree of oxidative stress. An increased production and/or decreased metabolism of ROS have been implicated in the pathogenesis of renal injury in diabetes mellitus (DM. Thus the regulation of ROS generation in diabetes by antioxidants seems to be a promising target for management of Diabetic nephropathy.

Tarar S.K.

2012-07-01

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The involvement of NADPH oxidase-mediated ROS in cytokine secretion from macrophages induced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis ESAT-6.  

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The 6-kDa early secretory antigenic target (ESAT-6) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is strongly correlated with subversion of innate immune responses against invading mycobacteria. To understand the role of ESAT-6 in macrophage response against M. tuberculosis, the effects of ESAT-6 on macrophage generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and production of cytokines were studied. ESAT-6-induced macrophage secretion of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and TNF-? was found in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Signaling inhibition experiments indicate that NF-?B activation mediated by p38/JNK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) was involved in ESAT-6-triggered cytokine production. Moreover, TLR2 was engaged in ESAT-6-stimulated macrophage activation via rapidly induced ROS production and regulated activation of JNK/p38 MAPKs and NF-?B. More importantly, NADPH oxidase-mediated ROS generation is required during this process. Our study has identified a novel signal transduction pathway involving NADPH-ROS-JNK/p38-NF-?B in ESAT-6-induced cytokine production from macrophages. These findings provide an important evidence to understand the pathogenesis of M. tuberculosis infection in the modulation of the immune response. PMID:24408010

Liu, Weiwei; Peng, Yuan; Yin, Yanlin; Zhou, Zhihui; Zhou, Wanding; Dai, Yalei

2014-06-01

 
 
 
 
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ROS accumulation and IGF-IR inhibition contribute to fenofibrate/PPAR? -mediated inhibition of Glioma cell motility in vitro  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Glioblastomas are characterized by rapid cell growth, aggressive CNS infiltration, and are resistant to all known anticancer regimens. Recent studies indicate that fibrates and statins possess anticancer potential. Fenofibrate is a potent agonist of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPAR? that can switch energy metabolism from glycolysis to fatty acid ?-oxidation, and has low systemic toxicity. Fenofibrate also attenuates IGF-I-mediated cellular responses, which could be relevant in the process of glioblastoma cell dispersal. Methods The effects of fenofibrate on Glioma cell motility, IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR signaling, PPAR? activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS metabolism, mitochondrial potential, and ATP production were analyzed in human glioma cell lines. Results Fenofibrate treatment attenuated IGF-I signaling responses and repressed cell motility of LN-229 and T98G Glioma cell lines. In the absence of fenofibrate, specific inhibition of the IGF-IR had only modest effects on Glioma cell motility. Further experiments revealed that PPAR?-dependent accumulation of ROS is a strong contributing factor in Glioma cell lines responses to fenofibrate. The ROS scavenger, N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC, restored cell motility, improved mitochondrial potential, and increased ATP levels in fenofibrate treated Glioma cell lines. Conclusions Our results indicate that although fenofibrate-mediated inhibition of the IGF-IR may not be sufficient in counteracting Glioma cell dispersal, PPAR?-dependent metabolic switch and the resulting ROS accumulation strongly contribute to the inhibition of these devastating brain tumor cells.

Del Valle Luis

2010-06-01

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The Endogenous Nitric Oxide Mediates Selenium-Induced Phytotoxicity by Promoting ROS Generation in Brassica rapa  

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Selenium (Se) is suggested as an emerging pollutant in agricultural environment because of the increasing anthropogenic release of Se, which in turn results in phytotoxicity. The most common consequence of Se-induced toxicity in plants is oxidative injury, but how Se induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst remains unclear. In this work, histofluorescent staining was applied to monitor the dynamics of ROS and nitric oxide (NO) in the root of Brassica rapa under Se(IV) stress. Se(IV)-induced faster accumulation of NO than ROS. Both NO and ROS accumulation were positively correlated with Se(IV)-induced inhibition of root growth. The NO accumulation was nitrate reductase (NR)- and nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-dependent while ROS accumulation was NADPH oxidase-dependent. The removal of NO by NR inhibitor, NOS inhibitor, and NO scavenger could alleviate Se(IV)-induced expression of Br_Rbohs coding for NADPH oxidase and the following ROS accumulation in roots, which further resulted in the amelioration of Se(IV)-induced oxidative injury and growth inhibition. Thus, we proposed that the endogenous NO played a toxic role in B. rapa under Se(IV) stress by triggering ROS burst. Such findings can be used to evaluate the toxic effects of Se contamination on crop plants. PMID:25333984

Hu, Liang-Bin; Li, You-Qin; Chen, Jian; Yang, Li-Fei

2014-01-01

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Nitric oxide (NO) counteracts cadmium induced cytotoxic processes mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) in Brassica juncea: cross-talk between ROS, NO and antioxidant responses.  

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Research on NO in plants has achieved huge attention in recent years mainly due to its function in plant growth and development under biotic and abiotic stresses. In the present study, we investigated Cd induced NO generation and its relationship to ROS and antioxidant regulation in Brassica juncea. Cd accumulated rapidly in roots and caused oxidative stress as indicated by increased level of lipid peroxidation and H2O2 thus, inhibiting the overall plant growth. It significantly decreased the root length, leaf water content and photosynthetic pigments. A rapid induction in intracellular NO was observed at initial exposures and low concentrations of Cd. A 2.74-fold increase in intracellular NO was recorded in roots treated with 25 ?M Cd than control. NO effects on Malondialdehyde (MDA) content and on antioxidant system was investigated by using sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a NO donor and a scavenger, [2-(4-carboxy-2-phenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylinidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide] (cPTIO). Roots pretreated with 5 mM SNP for 6 h when exposed to 25 ?M Cd for 24 h reduced the level of proline, non-protein thiols, SOD, APX and CAT in comparison to only Cd treatments. However, this effect was almost blocked by 100 ?M cPTIO pretreatment to roots for 1 h. This ameliorating effect of NO was specific because cPTIO completely reversed the effect in the presence of Cd. Thus, the present study report that NO strongly counteracts Cd induced ROS mediated cytotoxicity in B. juncea by controlling antioxidant metabolism as the related studies are not well reported in this species. PMID:23322177

Verma, Kusum; Mehta, S K; Shekhawat, G S

2013-04-01

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Extracellular Methemoglobin Mediated Early ROS Spike Triggers Osmotic Fragility and RBC Destruction: An Insight into the Enhanced Hemolysis During Malaria  

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Malaria infection is known to cause severe hemolysis due to production of abnormal RBCs and enhanced RBC destruction through apoptosis. Infected RBC lysis exposes uninfected RBC to the large amount of pro-oxidant molecules such as methemoglobin. Methemoglobin (MetHb) exposure dose dependently makes RBCs susceptible to osmotic stress and causes hemolysis. MetHb mediated oxidative stress in RBC correlated well with osmotic fragility and hemolysis. Interestingly, a reactive oxygen species (ROS) ...

Balaji, S. N.; Trivedi, Vishal

2012-01-01

25

Proopiomelanocortin gene delivery induces apoptosis in melanoma through NADPH oxidase 4-mediated ROS generation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hypoxia in the tumor microenvironment triggers differential signaling pathways for tumor survival. In this study, we characterize the involvement of hypoxia and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in the antineoplastic mechanism of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) gene delivery in a mouse B16-F10 melanoma model in vivo and in vitro. Histological analysis revealed increased TUNEL-positive cells and enhanced hypoxic activities in melanoma treated with adenovirus encoding POMC (Ad-POMC) but not control vector. Because the apoptotic cells were detected mainly in regions distant from blood vessels, it was hypothesized that POMC therapy might render melanoma cells vulnerable to hypoxic insult. Using a hypoxic chamber or cobalt chloride (CoCl2), we showed that POMC gene delivery elicited apoptosis and caspase-3 activation in cultured B16-F10 cells only under hypoxic conditions. The apoptosis induced by POMC gene delivery was associated with elevated ROS generation in vitro and in vivo. Blocking ROS generation using the antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine abolished the apoptosis and caspase-3 activities induced by POMC gene delivery and hypoxia. We further showed that POMC-derived melanocortins, including ?-MSH, ?-MSH, and ACTH, but not ?-MSH, contributed to POMC-induced apoptosis and ROS generation during hypoxia. To elucidate the source of ROS generation, application of the NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium attenuated ?-MSH-induced apoptosis and ROS generation, implicating the proapoptotic role of NADPH oxidase in POMC action. Of the NADPH oxidase isoforms, only Nox4 was expressed in B16-F10 cells, and Nox4 was also elevated in Ad-POMC-treated melanoma tissues. Silencing Nox4 gene expression with Nox4 siRNA suppressed the stimulatory effect of ?-MSH-induced ROS generation and cell apoptosis during hypoxia. In summary, we demonstrate that POMC gene delivery suppressed melanoma growth by inducing apoptosis, which was at least partly dependent on Nox4 upregulation. PMID:24412703

Liu, Guei-Sheung; Wu, Jian-Ching; Tsai, Han-En; Dusting, Gregory J; Chan, Elsa C; Wu, Chieh-Shan; Tai, Ming-Hong

2014-05-01

26

Stevioside induced ROS-mediated apoptosis through mitochondrial pathway in human breast cancer cell line MCF-7.  

Science.gov (United States)

Stevioside is a diterpene glycoside found in the leaf of Stevia rebaudiana, a traditional oriental medicinal herb, which has been shown to have various biological and ethno-medicinal activities including antitumor activity. In this study, we investigated the effects of stevioside on the cytotoxicity, induction of apoptosis, and the putative pathways of its action in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7). For the analysis of apoptotic pathway, measurement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and assessment of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP) were achieved. We showed that stevioside was a potent inducer of apoptosis and it conveyed the apoptotic signal via intracellular ROS generation; thereby inducing change in MTP and induction of mitochondrial mediated apoptotic pathway. Taken together, our data indicated that stevioside induces the ROS-mediated mitochondrial permeability transition and results in the increased expression of apoptotic proteins such as Bax, Bcl-2 and Caspase-9. Effect of stevioside on stress-related transcription factors like NF-E2-related factor-2 opens up a new vista for further studies. This is the first report on the mechanism of the antibreast cancer (in vitro) activity of stevioside. PMID:23061910

Paul, S; Sengupta, S; Bandyopadhyay, T K; Bhattacharyya, A

2012-01-01

27

Selenite-induced hormonal and signalling mechanisms during root growth of Arabidopsis thaliana L.  

Science.gov (United States)

Selenium excess can cause toxicity symptoms, e.g. root growth inhibition in non-hyperaccumulator plants such as Arabidopsis. Selenite-induced hormonal and signalling mechanisms in the course of development are poorly understood; therefore this study set out to investigate the possible hormonal and signalling processes using transgenic and mutant Arabidopsis plants. Significant alterations were observed in the root architecture of the selenite-treated plants, due to the loss of cell viability in the root apex. During mild selenite excess, the plants showed symptoms of the morphogenic response: primary root (PR) shortening and increased initiation of laterals, ensuring better nutrient and water uptake and stress acclimation. As well as lower meristem cell activity, the second reason for the Se-induced growth hindrance is the hormonal imbalance, since the in situ expression of the auxin-responsive DR5::GUS, and consequently the auxin levels, significantly decreased, while that of the cytokinin-inducible ARR5::GUS and the ethylene biosynthetic ACS8::GUS increased. It is assumed that auxin and ethylene might positively regulate selenium tolerance, since reduced levels of them resulted in sensitivity. Moreover, high cytokinin levels caused notable selenite tolerance. During early seedling development, nitric oxide (NO) contents decreased but hydrogen peroxide levels increased reflecting the antagonism between the two signal molecules during Se excess. High levels of NO in gsnor1-3, lead to selenite tolerance, while low NO production in nia1nia2 resulted in selenite sensitivity. Consequently, NO derived from the root nitrate reductase activity is responsible for the large-scale selenite tolerance in Arabidopsis. PMID:22988013

Lehotai, Nóra; Kolbert, Zsuzsanna; Peto, Andrea; Feigl, Gábor; Ördög, Attila; Kumar, Devanand; Tari, Irma; Erdei, László

2012-09-01

28

Cytotoxic effects of 15d-PGJ2 against osteosarcoma through ROS-mediated AKT and cell cycle inhibition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1), a critical cell cycle regulator, has been identified as a potential target in osteosarcoma (OS). 15-deoxy-?12, 14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2), a prostaglandin derivative, has shown its anti-tumor activity by inducing apoptosis through reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated inactivation of v-akt, a murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog, (AKT) in cancer cells. In the study analyzing its effects on arthritis, 15d-PGJ2 mediated shear-induced chondrocyte apoptosis via protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent regulation of PLK1. In this study, the cytotoxic effect and mechanism underlying 15d-PGJ2 effects against OS were explored using OS cell lines. 15d-PGJ2 induced significant G2/M arrest, and exerted time- and dose-dependent cytotoxic effects against all OS cell lines. Western blot analysis showed that both AKT and PKA-PLK1 were down-regulated in OS cell lines after treatment with 15d-PGJ2. In addition, transfection of constitutively active AKT or PLK1 partially rescued cells from 15d-PGJ2-induced apoptosis, suggesting crucial roles for both pathways in the anti-cancer effects of 15d-PGJ2. Moreover, ROS generation was found treatment with 15d-PGJ2, and its cytotoxic effect could be reversed with N-acetyl-l-cysteine. Furthermore, inhibition of JNK partially rescued 15d-PGJ2 cytotoxicity. Thus, ROS-mediated JNK activation may contribute to apoptosis through down-regulation of the p-Akt and PKA-PLK1 pathways. 15d-PGJ2 is a potential therapeutic agent for OS, exerting cytotoxicity mediated through both AKT and PKA-PLK1 inhibition, and these results form the basis for further analysis of its role in animal studies and clinical applications. PMID:24566468

Yen, Chueh-Chuan; Hsiao, Chung-Der; Chen, Wei-Ming; Wen, Yao-Shan; Lin, Yung-Chan; Chang, Ting-Wei; Yao, Fang-Yi; Hung, Shih-Chieh; Wang, Jir-You; Chiu, Jen-Hwey; Wang, Hsei-Wei; Lin, Chi-Hung; Chen, Tain-Hsiung; Chen, Paul Chih-Hsueh; Liu, Chien-Lin; Tzeng, Cheng-Hwai; Fletcher, Jonathan A

2014-02-15

29

Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles Induced Toxicity in Human Lung Cells: Role of ROS Mediated DNA Damage and Apoptosis  

Science.gov (United States)

Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) have promising industrial and biomedical applications. In spite of their applications, the toxicity of these NPs in biological/physiological environment is a major concern. Present study aimed to understand the molecular mechanism underlying the toxicity of CeO2 NPs on lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cells. After internalization, CeO2 NPs caused significant cytotoxicity and morphological changes in A549 cells. Further, the cell death was found to be apoptotic as shown by loss in mitochondrial membrane potential and increase in annexin-V positive cells and confirmed by immunoblot analysis of BAX, BCl-2, Cyt C, AIF, caspase-3, and caspase-9. A significant increase in oxidative DNA damage was found which was confirmed by phosphorylation of p53 gene and presence of cleaved poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP). This damage could be attributed to increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with concomitant decrease in antioxidant “glutathione (GSH)” level. DNA damage and cell death were attenuated by the application of ROS and apoptosis inhibitors N-acetyl-L- cysteine (NAC) and Z-DEVD-fmk, respectively. Our study concludes that ROS mediated DNA damage and cell cycle arrest play a major role in CeO2 NPs induced apoptotic cell death in A549 cells. Apart from beneficial applications, these NPs also impart potential harmful effects which should be properly evaluated prior to their use. PMID:24987704

Pandey, Alok K.

2014-01-01

30

mtDNA germ line variation mediated ROS generates retrograde signaling and induces pro-cancerous metabolic features  

Science.gov (United States)

mtDNA non-synonymous germ line variation (G10398A; p.A114T) has remained equivocal with least mechanistic understanding in showing an association with cancer. This has necessitated showing in-vitro how an over-expression within mitochondria of either of the variants produces higher intracellular ROS, resulting in differential anchorage dependent and independent growth. Both these features were observed to be relatively higher in ND3:114T variant. An elevated amount of intracellular carbonylated proteins and a reduced activity of a key glycolytic enzyme, Pyruvate kinase M2, along with high glucose uptake and lactate production were other pro-cancerous features observed. The retrograde signaling through surplus ROS was generated by post-ND3 over-expression regulated nuclear gene expression epigenetically, involving selectively the apoptotic-DDR-pathways. The feature of ND3 over-expression, inducing ROS mediated pro-cancerous features in the cells in in vitro, was replicated in a pilot study in a limited number of sporadic breast tumors, suggesting the importance of mitochondrial germ-line variant(s) in enabling the cells to acquire pro-cancerous features. PMID:25300428

Singh, Rajnish Kumar; Srivastava, Archita; Kalaiarasan, Ponnusamy; Manvati, Siddharth; Chopra, Rupali; Bamezai, Rameshwar N. K.

2014-01-01

31

Nickel (II)-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in human proximal tubule cells through a ROS- and mitochondria-mediated pathway  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nickel compounds are known to be toxic and carcinogenic in kidney and lung. In this present study, we investigated the roles of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondria in nickel (II) acetate-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in the HK-2 human renal cell line. The results showed that the cytotoxic effects of nickel (II) involved significant cell death and DNA damage. Nickel (II) increased the generation of ROS and induced a noticeable reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Analysis of the sub-G1 phase showed a significant increase in apoptosis in HK-2 cells after nickel (II) treatment. Pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) not only inhibited nickel (II)-induced cell death and DNA damage, but also significantly prevented nickel (II)-induced loss of MMP and apoptosis. Cell apoptosis triggered by nickel (II) was characterized by the reduced protein expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL and the induced the protein expression of Bad, Bcl-Xs, Bax, cytochrome c and caspases 9, 3 and 6. The regulation of the expression of Bcl-2-family proteins, the release of cytochrome c and the activation of caspases 9, 3 and 6 were inhibited in the presence of NAC. These results suggest that nickel (II) induces cytotoxicity and apoptosis in HK-2 cells via ROS generation and that the mitochondria-mediated apoptotic signaling pathway may be involved in the positive regulation of nickel (II)-induced renal cytotoxicity.

32

Nickel (II)-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in human proximal tubule cells through a ROS- and mitochondria-mediated pathway  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nickel compounds are known to be toxic and carcinogenic in kidney and lung. In this present study, we investigated the roles of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondria in nickel (II) acetate-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in the HK-2 human renal cell line. The results showed that the cytotoxic effects of nickel (II) involved significant cell death and DNA damage. Nickel (II) increased the generation of ROS and induced a noticeable reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Analysis of the sub-G1 phase showed a significant increase in apoptosis in HK-2 cells after nickel (II) treatment. Pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) not only inhibited nickel (II)-induced cell death and DNA damage, but also significantly prevented nickel (II)-induced loss of MMP and apoptosis. Cell apoptosis triggered by nickel (II) was characterized by the reduced protein expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL and the induced the protein expression of Bad, Bcl-Xs, Bax, cytochrome c and caspases 9, 3 and 6. The regulation of the expression of Bcl-2-family proteins, the release of cytochrome c and the activation of caspases 9, 3 and 6 were inhibited in the presence of NAC. These results suggest that nickel (II) induces cytotoxicity and apoptosis in HK-2 cells via ROS generation and that the mitochondria-mediated apoptotic signaling pathway may be involved in the positive regulation of nickel (II)-induced renal cytotoxicity.

Wang, Yi-Fen; Shyu, Huey-Wen [Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences and Biotechnology, Fooyin University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chang, Yi-Chuang [Department of Nursing, Fooyin University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Tseng, Wei-Chang [Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences and Biotechnology, Fooyin University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Huang, Yeou-Lih [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Lin, Kuan-Hua; Chou, Miao-Chen; Liu, Heng-Ling [Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences and Biotechnology, Fooyin University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chang-Yu, E-mail: mt037@mail.fy.edu.tw [Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences and Biotechnology, Fooyin University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

2012-03-01

33

Chimaphilin induces apoptosis in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells through a ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chimaphilin, 2,7-dimethyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, is extracted from pyrola [Passiflora incarnata Fisch.]. In this study, the anticancer activity and underlying mechanisms of chimaphilin toward human breast cancer MCF-7 cells are firstly investigated. Chimaphilin could inhibit the viability of MCF-7 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, and the IC50 value was 43.30?M for 24h. Chimaphilin markedly induced apoptosis through the investigation of characteristic apoptotic morphological changes, nuclear DNA fragmentation, annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide (PI) double staining. Flow cytometry assay revealed that chimaphilin triggered a significant generation of ROS and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential. Additionally, western blotting assay showed that chimaphilin suppressed Bcl-2 level and enhanced Bad level, then activated caspase-9 and caspase-3, and further activated the poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP), finally induced cell apoptosis involving the mitochondrial pathway. Furthermore, free radical scavengers N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) pretreatment test testified that chimaphilin could increase the generation of ROS, then induce cell apoptosis. In general, the present results demonstrated that chimaphilin induced apoptosis in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells via a ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway. PMID:24793375

Ma, Wei-Dong; Zou, Yong-Peng; Wang, Peng; Yao, Xiao-Hui; Sun, Yao; Duan, Ming-Hui; Fu, Yu-Jie; Yu, Bo

2014-08-01

34

mtDNA germ line variation mediated ROS generates retrograde signaling and induces pro-cancerous metabolic features.  

Science.gov (United States)

mtDNA non-synonymous germ line variation (G10398A; p.A114T) has remained equivocal with least mechanistic understanding in showing an association with cancer. This has necessitated showing in-vitro how an over-expression within mitochondria of either of the variants produces higher intracellular ROS, resulting in differential anchorage dependent and independent growth. Both these features were observed to be relatively higher in ND3:114T variant. An elevated amount of intracellular carbonylated proteins and a reduced activity of a key glycolytic enzyme, Pyruvate kinase M2, along with high glucose uptake and lactate production were other pro-cancerous features observed. The retrograde signaling through surplus ROS was generated by post-ND3 over-expression regulated nuclear gene expression epigenetically, involving selectively the apoptotic-DDR-pathways. The feature of ND3 over-expression, inducing ROS mediated pro-cancerous features in the cells in in vitro, was replicated in a pilot study in a limited number of sporadic breast tumors, suggesting the importance of mitochondrial germ-line variant(s) in enabling the cells to acquire pro-cancerous features. PMID:25300428

Singh, Rajnish Kumar; Srivastava, Archita; Kalaiarasan, Ponnusamy; Manvati, Siddharth; Chopra, Rupali; Bamezai, Rameshwar N K

2014-01-01

35

18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid induces apoptosis in pituitary adenoma cells via ROS/MAPKs-mediated pathway.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the anti-tumor effects of 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), a natural compound extracted from liquorice, against pituitary adenoma and its underlying mechanisms in cultured cells and mouse model of xenografted tumor. GA induced cellular damage in rat pituitary adenoma-derived MMQ and GH3 cells, manifested as reduced cell viability, increased lactate dehydrogenase release, elevated intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca(2+) concentration. GA also caused G0/G1 phase arrest, increased apoptosis rate and increased mitochondrial membrane permeabilization by suppressing the mitochondrial membrane potential and down-regulating a ratio of B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and Bax. GA activated calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and P38; but these activating effects were attenuated by pretreatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine, a ROS inhibitor. Pretreatment with KN93, a CaMKII inhibitor, also abolished the GA activation of JNK and P38. GA remarkably inhibited growth of pituitary adenoma grafted on nude mice. These results suggest that the anti-pituitary adenoma effect of GA is associated with its apoptotic actions by activating mitochondria-mediated ROS/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in particular CaMKII that may serve a linkage between ROS accumulation and the activation of JNK and P38. This study provides experimental evidence in the support of further developing GA as a chemotherapeutic agent for pituitary adenoma. PMID:24162829

Wang, Di; Wong, Hei-Kiu; Feng, Yi-Bin; Zhang, Zhang-Jin

2014-01-01

36

Neem (Azadirachta indica L.) leaf extract deteriorates oocyte quality by inducing ROS-mediated apoptosis in mammals.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neem (Azadirachta indica L.) leaf has been widely used in ayurvedic system of medicine for fertility regulation for a long time. The molecular mechanism by which neem leaf regulates female fertility remains poorly understood. Animal studies suggest that aqueous neem leaf extract (NLE) induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) - mediated granulosa cell apoptosis. Granulosa cell apoptosis deprives oocytes from nutrients, survival factors and cell cycle proteins required for the achievement of meiotic competency of follicular oocytes prior to ovulation. Under this situation, follicular oocyte becomes more susceptible towards apoptosis after ovulation. The increased level of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) inside the follicular fluid results in the transfer of H2O2 from follicular fluid to the oocyte. The increased level of H2O2 induces p53 activation and over expression of Bax protein that modulates mitochondrial membrane potential and trigger cytochrome c release. The increased cytosolic cytochrome c level induces caspase-9 and caspase-3 activities that trigger destruction of structural and specific proteins leading to DNA fragmentation and thereby oocyte apoptosis. Based on these animal studies, we propose that NLE induces generation of ROS and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis both in granulosa cells as well as in follicular oocyte. The induction of apoptosis deteriorates oocyte quality and thereby limits reproductive outcome in mammals. PMID:25197620

Chaube, Shail K; Shrivastav, Tulsidas G; Tiwari, Meenakshi; Prasad, Shilpa; Tripathi, Anima; Pandey, Ajai K

2014-01-01

37

Cracking the cytotoxicity code: apoptotic induction of 10-acetylirciformonin B is mediated through ROS generation and mitochondrial dysfunction.  

Science.gov (United States)

A marine furanoterpenoid derivative, 10-acetylirciformonin B (10AB), was found to inhibit the proliferation of leukemia, hepatoma, and colon cancer cell lines, with selective and significant potency against leukemia cells. It induced DNA damage and apoptosis in leukemia HL 60 cells. To fully understand the mechanism behind the 10AB apoptotic induction against HL 60 cells, we extended our previous findings and further explored the precise molecular targets of 10AB. We found that the use of 10AB increased apoptosis by 8.9%-87.6% and caused disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) by 15.2%-95.2% in a dose-dependent manner, as demonstrated by annexin-V/PI and JC-1 staining assays, respectively. Moreover, our findings indicated that the pretreatment of HL 60 cells with N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, diminished MMP disruption and apoptosis induced by 10AB, suggesting that ROS overproduction plays a crucial rule in the cytotoxic activity of 10AB. The results of a cell-free system assay indicated that 10AB could act as a topoisomerase catalytic inhibitor through the inhibition of topoisomerase II?. On the protein level, the expression of the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-xL and Bcl-2, caspase inhibitors XIAP and survivin, as well as hexokinase II were inhibited by the use of 10AB. On the other hand, the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax was increased after 10AB treatment. Taken together, our results suggest that 10AB-induced apoptosis is mediated through the overproduction of ROS and the disruption of mitochondrial metabolism. PMID:24857964

Shih, Huei-Chuan; El-Shazly, Mohamed; Juan, Yung-Shun; Chang, Chao-Yuan; Su, Jui-Hsin; Chen, Yu-Cheng; Shih, Shou-Ping; Chen, Huei-Mei; Wu, Yang-Chang; Lu, Mei-Chin

2014-05-01

38

Cracking the Cytotoxicity Code: Apoptotic Induction of 10-Acetylirciformonin B is Mediated through ROS Generation and Mitochondrial Dysfunction  

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Full Text Available A marine furanoterpenoid derivative, 10-acetylirciformonin B (10AB, was found to inhibit the proliferation of leukemia, hepatoma, and colon cancer cell lines, with selective and significant potency against leukemia cells. It induced DNA damage and apoptosis in leukemia HL 60 cells. To fully understand the mechanism behind the 10AB apoptotic induction against HL 60 cells, we extended our previous findings and further explored the precise molecular targets of 10AB. We found that the use of 10AB increased apoptosis by 8.9%–87.6% and caused disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP by 15.2%–95.2% in a dose-dependent manner, as demonstrated by annexin-V/PI and JC-1 staining assays, respectively. Moreover, our findings indicated that the pretreatment of HL 60 cells with N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC, a reactive oxygen species (ROS scavenger, diminished MMP disruption and apoptosis induced by 10AB, suggesting that ROS overproduction plays a crucial rule in the cytotoxic activity of 10AB. The results of a cell-free system assay indicated that 10AB could act as a topoisomerase catalytic inhibitor through the inhibition of topoisomerase II?. On the protein level, the expression of the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-xL and Bcl-2, caspase inhibitors XIAP and survivin, as well as hexokinase II were inhibited by the use of 10AB. On the other hand, the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax was increased after 10AB treatment. Taken together, our results suggest that 10AB-induced apoptosis is mediated through the overproduction of ROS and the disruption of mitochondrial metabolism.

Huei-Chuan Shih

2014-05-01

39

Caspases and ROS - Dependent Mechanism of Action Mediated by Combination of WP 631 and Epothilone B.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, the synergistic effects of WP 631 and epothilone B (Epo B) combination in human ovarian cancer cells (SKOV-3) cells are investigated and the reasons for the exact mechanisms of action of both drugs co-administered are explained. Compared with single drugs, the combination treatment significantly enhances apoptosis as confirmed by increases in caspases (-8, -9, -3) activity, ROS level and DNA damage and decreases in mitochondrial membrane potential. The combination of the compounds activated both caspase - 8 and -9, indicates that both pathways of apoptosis, extrinsic (induced by the effect of Epo B) and intrinsic (triggered mainly by WP 631) participate in the proposed treatment. Thus, the results of this study strongly suggest a synergistic action of the combined treatment with WP 631 and Epo B in SKOV-3 cells death induction. PMID:24913659

Rogalska, Aneta; Bukowska, Barbara; Marczak, Agnieszka

2014-01-01

40

TGF-?1-ROS-ATM-CREB signaling axis in macrophage mediated migration of human breast cancer MCF7 cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Macrophages in the tumor microenvironment play an important role in tumor cell survival. They influence the tumor cell to proliferate, invade into surrounding normal tissues and metastasize to local and distant sites. In this study, we evaluated the effect of conditioned medium from monocytes and macrophages on growth and migration of breast cancer cells. Macrophage conditioned medium (M?CM) containing elevated levels of cytokines TNF-?, IL-1? and IL-6 had a differential effect on non-invasive (MCF7) and highly invasive (MDA-MB-231) breast cancer cell lines. M?CM induced the secretion of TGF-?1 in MCF7 cells. This was associated with apoptosis in a fraction of cells and generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) and DNA damage in the remaining cells. This, in turn, increased expression of cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) and vimentin resulting in migration of cells. These effects were inhibited by neutralization of TNF-?, IL-1? and IL-6, inhibition of ROS and RNS, DNA damage and siRNA mediated knockdown of ATM. In contrast, MDA-MB-231 cells which had higher basal levels of pCREB were not affected by M?CM. In summary, we have found that pro-inflammatory cytokines secreted by macrophages induce TGF-?1 in tumor cells, which activate pCREB signaling, epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) responses and enhanced migration. PMID:24705025

Singh, Rajshri; Shankar, Bhavani S; Sainis, Krishna B

2014-07-01

 
 
 
 
41

Shikonin targets cytosolic thioredoxin reductase to induce ROS-mediated apoptosis in human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Shikonin, a major active component of the Chinese herbal plant Lithospermum erythrorhizon, has been applied for centuries in traditional Chinese medicine. Although shikonin demonstrates potent anticancer efficacy in numerous types of human cancer cells, the cellular targets of shikonin have not been fully defined. We report here that shikonin may interact with the cytosolic thioredoxin reductase (TrxR1), an important selenocysteine (Sec)-containing antioxidant enzyme with a C-terminal -Gly-Cys-Sec-Gly active site, to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated apoptosis in human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells. Shikonin primarily targets the Sec residue in TrxR1 to inhibit its physiological function, but further shifts the enzyme to an NADPH oxidase to generate superoxide anions, which leads to accumulation of ROS and collapse of the intracellular redox balance. Importantly, overexpression of functional TrxR1 attenuates the cytotoxicity of shikonin, whereas knockdown of TrxR1 sensitizes cells to shikonin treatment. Targeting TrxR1 with shikonin thus discloses a previously unrecognized mechanism underlying the biological activity of shikonin and provides an in-depth insight into the action of shikonin in the treatment of cancer. PMID:24583460

Duan, Dongzhu; Zhang, Baoxin; Yao, Juan; Liu, Yaping; Fang, Jianguo

2014-05-01

42

Pharmacologic IKK/NF-?B inhibition causes antigen presenting cells to undergo TNF? dependent ROS-mediated programmed cell death  

Science.gov (United States)

Monocyte-derived antigen presenting cells (APC) are central mediators of the innate and adaptive immune response in inflammatory diseases. As such, APC are appropriate targets for therapeutic intervention to ameliorate certain diseases. APC differentiation, activation and functions are regulated by the NF-?B family of transcription factors. Herein, we examined the effect of NF-?B inhibition, via suppression of the I?B Kinase (IKK) complex, on APC function. Murine bone marrow-derived macrophages and dendritic cells (DC), as well as macrophage and DC lines, underwent rapid programmed cell death (PCD) after treatment with several IKK/NF-?B inhibitors through a TNF?-dependent mechanism. PCD was induced proximally by reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, which causes a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of a caspase signaling cascade. NF-?B-inhibition-induced PCD of APC may be a key mechanism through which therapeutic targeting of NF-?B reduces inflammatory pathologies.

Tilstra, Jeremy S.; Gaddy, Daniel F.; Zhao, Jing; Davé, Shaival H.; Niedernhofer, Laura J.; Plevy, Scott E.; Robbins, Paul D.

2014-01-01

43

Ameliorative effect of acetyl-L-carnitine and/or nifedipine against selenite-induced cataractogenesis in young albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Free radical toxicity and calcium ion overload have been identified as the major two players in the causation of cataract. The current study was carried out to investigate the anti-cataractogenic effect of single and combined treatment with acetyl-l-carnitine and nifedipine in sodium selenite-induced cataract. Rat pups were divided into 5 groups; 1st group received intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) of saline and served as normal control, 2nd group received single subcutaneous injection of sodium selenite 30nmol/g body weight on p10 (postpartum day 10), 3rd and 4th groups received either acetyl-l-carnitine (200mg/kg, i.p.) or nifedipine (0.1mg/kg, i.p.) on p9, respectively, before the administration of sodium selenite, and the treatment continued till p14. Last group received the combined treatments of acetyl-l-carnitine and nifedipine in the same regimen. All animals were examined using a slit lamp and retroillumination then sacrificed on p30. Lenses were removed and processed for biochemical analyses, histopathological and electron microscopic examination. Selenite-treated groups showed significantly (P?0.05) lower values of redox system components (glutathione and glutathione reductase activity) and anti-oxidant enzymes? activities (superoxide dismutase and catalase) along with increased lipid peroxidation that was accompanied by 100% opacified crystalline lenses (mature cataract) with abnormal structure as detected by electron microscopy. It is concluded that acetyl-l-carnitine or nifedipine was able to partially protect against selenite-induced abnormalities. While, combined treatment with acetyl-l-carnitine and nifedipine was superior to individual treatments in slowing down the development of cataract by restoring the anti-oxidant defense and mitigating lipid peroxidation in the lens and hence represents an attractive anti-cataractogenic remedy. PMID:24530554

Farghaly, Lamiaa M; Ghobashy, Waleed A; Shoukry, Youssef; El-Azab, Mona F

2014-04-15

44

Induction of apoptosis by isoegomaketone from Perilla frutescens L. in B16 melanoma cells is mediated through ROS generation and mitochondrial-dependent, -independent pathway.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have demonstrated for the first time the mechanism underlying ROS-mediated mitochondria-dependent apoptotic cell death triggered by isoegomaketone (IK) treatment in melanoma cells. We showed that IK induced apoptotic cell death and tumor growth inhibition using tissue culture and in vivo models of B16 melanoma. Furthermore, we observed that IK effectively induced apoptotic cell death, including sub-G1 contents up-regulation, nuclei condensation, DNA fragmentation, and caspase activation in B16 melanoma cells. Pretreatment with caspase inhibitor increased the survival rate of IK-treated B16 cells, implying that caspases play a role in IK-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, IK treatment generated ROS in melanoma cells. We also determined whether or not IK-induced cell death is due to ROS production in B16 cells. N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) inhibitedIK-induced Bcl-2 family-mediated apoptosis. This result indicates that IK-induced apoptosis involves ROS generation as well as up-regulation of Bax and Bcl-2 expression, leading to release of cytochrome c and AIF. Our data suggest that IK inhibits growth and induces apoptosis in melanoma cells via activation of ROS-mediated caspase-dependent and -independent pathways. PMID:24380754

Kwon, Soon-Jae; Lee, Ju-Hye; Moon, Kwang-Deog; Jeong, Il-Yun; Ahn, Dong-U K; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Seo, Kwon-Il

2014-03-01

45

Sodium fluoride induces apoptosis in mouse embryonic stem cells through ROS-dependent and caspase- and JNK-mediated pathways  

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Sodium fluoride (NaF) is used as a source of fluoride ions in diverse applications. Fluoride salt is an effective prophylactic for dental caries and is an essential element required for bone health. However, fluoride is known to cause cytotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner. Further, no information is available on the effects of NaF on mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). We investigated the mode of cell death induced by NaF and the mechanisms involved. NaF treatment greater than 1 mM reduced viability and DNA synthesis in mESCs and induced cell cycle arrest in the G{sub 2}/M phase. The addition of NaF induced cell death mainly by apoptosis rather than necrosis. Catalase (CAT) treatment significantly inhibited the NaF-mediated cell death and also suppressed the NaF-mediated increase in phospho-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK) levels. Pre-treatment with SP600125 or z-VAD-fmk significantly attenuated the NaF-mediated reduction in cell viability. In contrast, intracellular free calcium chelator, but not of sodium or calcium ion channel blockers, facilitated NaF-induced toxicity in the cells. A JNK specific inhibitor (SP600125) prevented the NaF-induced increase in growth arrest and the DNA damage-inducible protein 45?. Further, NaF-mediated loss of mitochondrial membrane potential was apparently inhibited by pifithrin-? or CAT inhibitor. These findings suggest that NaF affects viability of mESCs in a concentration-dependent manner, where more than 1 mM NaF causes apoptosis through hydroxyl radical-dependent and caspase- and JNK-mediated pathways. -- Highlights: ? The mode of NaF-induced cell death and the mechanisms involved were examined. ? NaF induced mainly apoptotic death of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). ? NaF induced mitochondrial-mediated and caspase-dependent apoptosis. ? JNK- and p53-mediated pathways are involved in NaF-mediated apoptosis in the cells. ? ROS are the up-stream effector in NaF-mediated activation of JNK and p53 in mESCs.

Nguyen Ngoc, Tam Dan [Institute of Oral Biosciences and School of Dentistry (BK21 Program), Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Son, Young-Ok [Graduate Center for Toxicology, School of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0305 (United States); Lim, Shin-Saeng [Institute of Oral Biosciences and School of Dentistry (BK21 Program), Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Bioactive Material Sciences and Research Center of Bioactive Materials, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Shi, Xianglin [Graduate Center for Toxicology, School of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0305 (United States); Kim, Jong-Ghee [Institute of Oral Biosciences and School of Dentistry (BK21 Program), Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Jung Sun [Department of Maxillofacial Biomedical Engineering and Institute of Oral Biology, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Youngji [Institute of Oral Biosciences and School of Dentistry (BK21 Program), Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Young-Mi, E-mail: young@jbnu.ac.kr [Institute of Oral Biosciences and School of Dentistry (BK21 Program), Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong-Chae, E-mail: leejc88@jbnu.ac.kr [Institute of Oral Biosciences and School of Dentistry (BK21 Program), Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Graduate Center for Toxicology, School of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0305 (United States); Department of Bioactive Material Sciences and Research Center of Bioactive Materials, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-03-15

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Ampelopsin reduces endotoxic inflammation via repressing ROS-mediated activation of PI3K/Akt/NF-?B signaling pathways.  

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Ampelopsin (AMP), a plant flavonoid, has potent anti-inflammatory properties in vitro and in vivo. The molecular mechanisms of ampelopsin on pharmacological and biochemical actions of RAW264.7 macrophages in inflammation have not been clearly elucidated yet. In the present study, non-cytotoxic level of ampelopsin significantly inhibited the release of nitric oxide (NO) and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? in a dose-dependent manner. Consistent with NO inhibition, ampelopsin suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) by inhibiting nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) activation, which highly correlated with its inhibitory effect on I?B kinase (IKK) phosphorylation, I?B phosphorylation and NF-?B nuclear translocation. Further study demonstrated that ampelopsin suppressed LPS-induced activation of Akt without effecting mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) phosphorylation. A pharmacological inhibitor of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt pathway, LY294002, abrogated IKK/I?B/NF-?B-mediated iNOS gene expression. Finally, we certificated that ampelopsin reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and an anti-oxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) significantly repressed LPS-induced PI3K/Akt phosphorylation and the downstream IKK/I?B activation. NAC thereby inhibited LPS-induced iNOS expression and NO production. The present results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effect of ampelopsin is due to inhibiting the interconnected ROS/Akt/IKK/NF-?B signaling pathways. PMID:22193240

Qi, Shimei; Xin, Yinqiang; Guo, Yingtao; Diao, Ying; Kou, Xianjuan; Luo, Lan; Yin, Zhimin

2012-01-01

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TNF?-induced lysosomal membrane permeability is downstream of MOMP and triggered by caspase-mediated NDUFS1 cleavage and ROS formation.  

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When NF-?B activation or protein synthesis is inhibited, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF?) can induce apoptosis through Bax- and Bak-mediated mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) leading to caspase-3 activation. Additionally, previous studies have implicated lysosomal membrane permeability (LMP) and formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as early steps of TNF?-induced apoptosis. However, how these two events connect to MOMP and caspase-3 activation has been largely debated. Here, we present the novel finding that LMP induced by the addition of TNF? plus cycloheximide (CHX), the release of lysosomal cathepsins and ROS formation do not occur upstream but downstream of MOMP and require the caspase-3-mediated cleavage of the p75 NDUFS1 subunit of respiratory complex I. Both a caspase non-cleavable p75 mutant and the mitochondrially localized antioxidant MitoQ prevent LMP mediated by TNF? plus CHX and partially interfere with apoptosis induction. Moreover, LMP is completely blocked in cells deficient in both Bax and Bak, Apaf-1, caspase-9 or both caspase-3 and -7. Thus, after MOMP, active caspase-3 exerts a feedback action on complex I to produce ROS. ROS then provoke LMP, cathepsin release and further caspase activation to amplify TNF? apoptosis signaling. PMID:23788428

Huai, Jisen; Vögtle, F-Nora; Jöckel, Lars; Li, Yunbo; Kiefer, Thomas; Ricci, Jean-Ehrland; Borner, Christoph

2013-09-01

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Prolonged exposure of cortical neurons to oligomeric amyloid-? impairs NMDA receptor function via NADPH oxidase-mediated ROS production: protective effect of green tea (–-epigallocatechin-3-gallate  

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Full Text Available Excessive production of A? (amyloid ?-peptide has been shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of AD (Alzheimer's disease. Although not yet well understood, aggregation of A? is known to cause toxicity to neurons. Our recent study demonstrated the ability for oligomeric A? to stimulate the production of ROS (reactive oxygen species in neurons through an NMDA (N-methyl-d-aspartate-dependent pathway. However, whether prolonged exposure of neurons to aggregated A? is associated with impairment of NMDA receptor function has not been extensively investigated. In the present study, we show that prolonged exposure of primary cortical neurons to A? oligomers caused mitochondrial dysfunction, an attenuation of NMDA receptor-mediated Ca2+ influx and inhibition of NMDA-induced AA (arachidonic acid release. Mitochondrial dysfunction and the decrease in NMDA receptor activity due to oligomeric A? are associated with an increase in ROS production. Gp91ds-tat, a specific peptide inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, and Mn(III-tetrakis(4-benzoic acid-porphyrin chloride, an ROS scavenger, effectively abrogated A?-induced ROS production. Furthermore, A?-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, impairment of NMDA Ca2+ influx and ROS production were prevented by pre-treatment of neurons with EGCG [(?-epigallocatechin-3-gallate], a major polyphenolic component of green tea. Taken together, these results support a role for NADPH oxidase-mediated ROS production in the cytotoxic effects of A?, and demonstrate the therapeutic potential of EGCG and other dietary polyphenols in delaying onset or retarding the progression of AD.

Grace Y Sun

2011-02-01

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ROS-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in mammary epithelial cells is mediated by NF-?B-dependent activation of Snail  

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Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is characterized by loss of cell-cell junctions, polarity and epithelial markers, and in turn, acquisition of mesenchymal features and motility. Changes associated with this developmental process have been extensively implicated in breast cancer progression and metastasis. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been identified as specific inducers of EMT in mammary epithelial cells. MMP-3 induces EMT associated with malignant transformation via a pathway dependent upon production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). While the process by which exposure to MMP-3 leads to induction of ROS has been extensively studied, exactly how the MMP-3-induced ROS stimulate EMT remains unknown. Here, we used profiling methods to identify MMP-3-induced transcriptional alterations in mouse mammary epithelial cells, finding common overlap with changes mediated by nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) and found in advanced breast cancer. In cultured cells, we found that Snail, an ROS-dependent key mediator of MMP-3-induced changes, is regulated by NF-?B in response to MMP-3. More specifically, we found MMP-3 to cause binding of p65 and cRel NF-?B subunits to the Snail promoter, leading to its transcription. Our results identify a specific pathway by which MMPs induce EMT and malignant characteristics, and provide insight into potential therapeutic approaches to target MMP-associated breast cancers. PMID:24811539

Cichon, Magdalena A.; Radisky, Derek C.

2014-01-01

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Curcumin Induced Human Gastric Cancer BGC-823 Cells Apoptosis by ROS-Mediated ASK1-MKK4-JNK Stress Signaling Pathway  

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Full Text Available The signaling mediated by stress-activated MAP kinases (MAPK, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK has well-established importance in cancer. In the present report, we investigated the effects of curcumin on the signaling pathway in human gastric cancer BGC-823 cells. Curcumin induced reactive oxygen species (ROS production and BGC-823 cells apoptosis. Inhibition of ROS generation by antioxidant (NAC or Trion significantly prevented curcumin-mediated apoptosis. Notably, we observed that curcumin activated ASK1, a MAPKKK that is oxidative stress sensitive and responsible to phosphorylation of JNK via triggering cascades, up-regulated an upstream effector of the JNK, MKK4, and phosphorylated JNK protein expression in BGC-823 cells. However, curcumin induced ASK1-MKK4-JNK signaling was attenuated by NAC. All the findings confirm the possibility that oxidative stress-activated ASK1-MKK4-JNK signaling cascade promotes the apoptotic response in curcumin-treated BGC-823 cells.

Tao Liang

2014-09-01

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Mixed-ligand ruthenium polypyridyl complexes as apoptosis inducers in cancer cells, the cellular translocation and the important role of ROS-mediated signaling.  

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Ruthenium (Ru) polypyridyl complexes have emerged as leading players among the potential metal-based candidates for cancer treatment. However, the roles of cellular translocation in their action mechanisms remain elusive. Herein we present the synthesis and characterization of a series of ruthenium (Ru) complexes containing phenanthroline derivatives with varying lipophilicities, and examine their mechanism of anticancer action. Results showed that increasing the lipophilicity of complexes can enhance the rates of cellular uptake. The in vitro anticancer efficacy of these complexes depended on the levels of ROS overproduction, rather than on cellular Ru uptake levels. The introduction of a phenolic group on the ligand effectively enhanced their intracellular ROS generation and anticancer activities. In particular, complex , with an ortho-phenolic group on the ligand, exhibited better selectivity between cancer and normal cells in comparison with cisplatin. Notably, complex entered the cancer cells partially through transferrin receptor-mediated endocytosis, and then it translocated from lysosomes to the mitochondria, where it activated mitochondrial dysfunction by regulation of Bcl-2 family proteins, thus leading to intracellular ROS overproduction. Excess ROS amplified apoptotic signals by activating many downstream pathways such as p53 and MAPK pathways to promote cell apoptosis. Overall, this study provides a drug design strategy for discovery of Ru-based apoptosis inducers, and elucidates the intracellular translocation of these complexes. PMID:25087850

Zhao, Zhennan; Luo, Zuandi; Wu, Qiong; Zheng, Wenjie; Feng, Yanxian; Chen, Tianfeng

2014-10-28

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?-Hydroxyundec-9-enoic acid induces apoptosis through ROS-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress in non-small cell lung cancer cells.  

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?-Hydroxyundec-9-enoic acid (?-HUA), a hydroxyl unsaturated fatty acid derivative, is involved in the antifungal activity of wild rice (Oryza officinalis). Here, we investigated the anti-cancer activity of ?-HUA on a non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line. ?-HUA increased apoptosis and induced cleavages of caspase-6, caspase-9, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). ?-HUA treatment significantly induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. Suppression of CHOP expression and inhibiting ER stress by 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA) significantly attenuated the ?-HUA treatment-induced activation of caspase-6, caspase-9, and PARP, and subsequent apoptotic cell death, indicating a role for ER stress in ?-HUA-induced apoptosis. In addition, cells subjected to ?-HUA exhibited significantly increased quantity of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) inhibited ?-HUA-induced apoptotic cell death and ER stress signals, indicating a role for ROS in ER stress-mediated apoptosis in ?-HUA-treated cells. Taken together, these results suggest that sequential ROS generation and ER stress activation are critical in ?-HUA treatment-induced apoptosis and that ?-HUA represents a promising candidate for NSCLC treatment. PMID:24796672

Yang, Kyung Mi; Kim, Byeong Mo; Park, Jin-Byung

2014-06-01

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Fisetin inhibits osteoclastogenesis through prevention of RANKL-induced ROS production by Nrf2-mediated up-regulation of phase II antioxidant enzymes.  

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Osteoclasts (OCLs) are multinucleated bone-resorbing cells that are differentiated by stimulation with receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor. We recently demonstrated that regulation of heme-oxygenase 1 (HO-1), a stress-induced cytoprotective enzyme, also functions in OCL differentiation. In this study, we investigated effects of fisetin, a natural bioactive flavonoid that has been reported to induce HO-1 expression, on the differentiation of macrophages into OCLs. Fisetin inhibited the formation of OCLs in a dose-dependent manner and suppressed the bone-resorbing activity of OCLs. Moreover, fisetin-treated OCLs showed markedly decreased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, Akt, and Jun N-terminal kinase, but fisetin did not inhibit p38 phosphorylation. Fisetin up-regulated mRNA expression of phase II antioxidant enzymes including HO-1 and interfered with RANKL-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Studies with RNA interference showed that suppression of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a key transcription factor for phase II antioxidant enzymes, rescued fisetin-mediated inhibition of OCL differentiation. Furthermore, fisetin significantly decreased RANKL-induced nuclear translocation of cFos and nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic-1 (NFATc1), which is a transcription factor critical for osteoclastogenic gene regulation. Therefore, fisetin inhibits OCL differentiation through blocking RANKL-mediated ROS production by Nrf2-mediated up-regulation of phase II antioxidant enzymes. PMID:23538677

Sakai, Eiko; Shimada-Sugawara, Megumi; Yamaguchi, Yu; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Fumimoto, Reiko; Fukuma, Yutaka; Nishishita, Kazuhisa; Okamoto, Kuniaki; Tsukuba, Takayuki

2013-01-01

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Electromagnetic fields induce neural differentiation of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells via ROS mediated EGFR activation.  

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Even though the inducing effect of electromagnetic fields (EMF) on the neural differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) is a distinctive, the underlying mechanism of differentiation remains unclear. To find out the signaling pathways involved in the neural differentiation of BM-MSCs by EMF, we examined the CREB phosphorylation and Akt or ERK activation as an upstream of CREB. In hBM-MSCs treated with ELF-EMF (50 Hz, 1 mT), the expression of neural markers such as NF-L, MAP2, and NeuroD1 increased at 6 days and phosphorylation of Akt and CREB but not ERK increased at 90 min in BM-MSCs. Moreover, EMF increased phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) as an upstream receptor tyrosine kinase of PI3K/Akt at 90 min. It has been well documented that ELF-MF exposure may alter cellular processes by increasing intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentrations. Thus, we examined EMF-induced ROS production in BM-MSCs. Moreover, pretreatment with a ROS scavenger, N-acetylcystein, and an EGFR inhibitor, AG-1478, prevented the phosphorylation of EGFR and downstream molecules. These results suggest that EMF induce neural differentiation through activation of EGFR signaling and mild generation of ROS. PMID:23411410

Park, Jeong-Eun; Seo, Young-Kwon; Yoon, Hee-Hoon; Kim, Chan-Wha; Park, Jung-Keug; Jeon, Songhee

2013-03-01

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Oleanolic acid arrests cell cycle and induces apoptosis via ROS-mediated mitochondrial depolarization and lysosomal membrane permeabilization in human pancreatic cancer cells.  

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Oleanolic acid (OA), a pentacyclic triterpenoid, exhibits potential anti-tumor activity against many tumor cell lines. This study aims to examine the anti-tumor activity of OA on pancreatic cancer cells and its potential molecular mechanism. The results showed that the proliferation of Panc-28 cells was inhibited by OA in a concentration-dependent manner, with an IC50 (The half maximal inhibitory concentration) value of 46.35?µg ml(-1) , as determined by MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. The cell cycle was arrested in S phase and G2/M phase by OA. The study also showed that OA could induce remarkable apoptosis, evidenced by an increased percentage of early/late apoptotic cells, DNA ladder and nuclear morphology change. Further study revealed that OA could induce Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) generation, mitochondrial depolarization, release of cytochrome C, lysosomal membrane permeabilization and leakage of cathepin B. The expression of apoptosis-correlated proteins was also affected in cells treated with OA, including activation of caspases-3/9 and cleavage of PARP. Further study confirmed that ROS scavenger vitamin C could reverse the apoptosis induced by OA in Panc-28 cells. Our results provide evidence that OA arrests the cell cycle and induces apoptosis, possibly via ROS-mediated mitochondrial and a lysosomal pathway in Panc-28 cells. PMID:22678527

Wei, Jianteng; Liu, Ming; Liu, Haizhou; Wang, Hui; Wang, Fengxia; Zhang, Yuyan; Han, Lijun; Lin, Xiukun

2013-08-01

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Hydrogen sulfide prevents OGD/R-induced apoptosis via improving mitochondrial dysfunction and suppressing an ROS-mediated caspase-3 pathway in cortical neurons.  

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Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), an endogenous gaseous mediator, has been shown to have protective effects against neuronal damage caused by brain ischemia. In this study, we explored the potential effects of H2S on oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R)-induced neuronal apoptosis and the possible mechanisms. We find that sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, a donator of H2S) prevents OGD/R-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) elevation and activation of caspase-3 in cultured mouse cortical neurons. The pretreatment of N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC, an ROS scavenger) also prevents OGD/R-induced activation of caspase-3. Both NaHS and NAC counteract OGD/R-induced decline in mitochondria membrane potential (MMP). Additionally, NaHS, NAC or N-Acetyl-Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-CHO (DEVD-CHO, a caspase-3 inhibitor), is shown to significantly inhibit OGD/R-induced neuronal apoptosis. These data suggest that H2S can protect against OGD/R-induced neuronal apoptosis through improving mitochondria dysfunction and suppressing an ROS-activated caspase-3 signaling pathway. PMID:23770272

Luo, Yougen; Yang, Xifei; Zhao, Shenting; Wei, Churong; Yin, Yedong; Liu, Ting; Jiang, Sainv; Xie, Jiajun; Wan, Xiaomei; Mao, Muhua; Wu, Jiyun

2013-12-01

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Snake venom toxin from vipera lebetina turanica induces apoptosis of colon cancer cells via upregulation of ROS- and JNK-mediated death receptor expression  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Abundant research suggested that the cancer cells avoid destruction by the immune system through down-regulation or mutation of death receptors. Therefore, it is very important that finding the agents that increase the death receptors of cancer cells. In this study, we demonstrated that the snake venom toxin from Vipera lebetina turanica induce the apoptosis of colon cancer cells through reactive oxygen species (ROS and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK dependent death receptor (DR4 and DR5 expression. Methods We used cell viability assays, DAPI/TUNEL assays, as well as western blot for detection of apoptosis related proteins and DRs to demonstrate that snake venom toxin-induced apoptosis is DR4 and DR5 dependent. We carried out transient siRNA knockdowns of DR4 and DR5 in colon cancer cells. Results We showed that snake venom toxin inhibited growth of colon cancer cells through induction of apoptosis. We also showed that the expression of DR4 and DR5 was increased by treatment of snake venom toxin. Moreover, knockdown of DR4 or DR5 reversed the effect of snake venom toxin. Snake venom toxin also induced JNK phosphorylation and ROS generation, however, pretreatment of JNK inhibitor and ROS scavenger reversed the inhibitory effect of snake venom toxin on cancer cell proliferation, and reduced the snake venom toxin-induced upregulation of DR4 and DR5 expression. Conclusions Our results indicated that snake venom toxin could inhibit human colon cancer cell growth, and these effects may be related to ROS and JNK mediated activation of death receptor (DR4 and DR5 signals.

Park Mi

2012-06-01

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The p38 MAPK-regulated PKD1/CREB/Bcl-2 pathway contributes to selenite-induced colorectal cancer cell apoptosis in vitro and in vivo.  

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Supranutritional selenite has anti-cancer therapeutic effects in vivo; however, the detailed mechanisms underlying these effects are not clearly understood. Further studies would broaden our understanding of the anti-cancer effects of this compound and provide a theoretical basis for its clinical application. In this study, we primarily found that selenite exposure inhibited phosphorylation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-response element binding protein (CREB), leading to suppression of Bcl-2 in HCT116 and SW480 colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. Moreover, the selenite-induced inhibitory effect on PKD1 activation was involved in suppression of the CREB signalling pathway. Additionally, we discovered that selenite treatment can upregulate p38 MAPK phosphorylation, which results in inhibition of the PKD1/CREB/Bcl-2 survival pathway and triggers apoptosis. Finally, we established a colorectal cancer xenograft model and found that selenite treatment markedly inhibits tumour growth through the MAPK/PKD1/CREB/Bcl-2 pathway in vivo. Our results demonstrated that a supranutritional dose of selenite induced CRC cell apoptosis through inhibition of the PKD1/CREB/Bcl-2 axis both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:25128071

Hui, Kaiyan; Yang, Yang; Shi, Kejian; Luo, Hui; Duan, Jing; An, Jiajia; Wu, Pa; Ci, Yali; Shi, Lei; Xu, Caimin

2014-11-01

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A Small Library of Synthetic Di-Substituted 1, 4-Naphthoquinones Induces ROS-Mediated Cell Death in Murine Fibroblasts  

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Synthesis of compound libraries and their concurrent assessment as selective reagents for probing and modulating biological function continues to be an active area of chemical biology. Microwave-assisted solid-phase Dötz benzannulation reactions have been used to inexpensively synthesize 2, 3-disubstituted-1, 4-naphthoquinone derivatives. Herein, we report the biological testing of a small library of such compounds using a murine fibroblast cell line (L929). Assessment of cellular viability identified three categories of cytotoxic compounds: no toxicity, low/intermediate toxicity and high toxicity. Increased levels of Annexin-V-positive staining and of caspase 3 activity confirmed that low, intermediate, and highly toxic compounds promote cell death. The compounds varied in their ability to induce mitochondrial depolarization and formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Both cytotoxic and non-cytotoxic compounds triggered mitochondrial depolarization, while one highly cytotoxic compound did not. In addition, all cytotoxic compounds promoted increased intracellular ROS but the cells were only partially protected from compound-induced apoptosis when in the presence of superoxide dismutase, catalase, or ascorbic acid suggesting utilization of additional pro-death mechanisms. In summary, nine of twelve (75%) 1, 4-naphthoquinone synthetic compounds were cytotoxic. Although the mitochondria did not appear to be a central target for induction of cell death, all of the cytotoxic compounds induced ROS formation. Thus, the data demonstrate that the synthesis regime effectively created cytotoxic compounds highlighting the potential use of the regime and its products for the identification of biologically relevant reagents. PMID:25197824

Ramirez, Oscar; Motta-Mena, Laura B.; Cordova, Amanda; Garza, Kristine M.

2014-01-01

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?-Lipoic acid protected cardiomyoblasts from the injury induced by sodium nitroprusside through ROS-mediated Akt/Gsk-3? activation.  

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It has been long noted that cardiac cell apoptosis provoked by excessive production of nitric oxide (NO) plays important roles in the pathogenesis of variant cardiac diseases. Attenuation of NO-induced injury would be an alternative therapeutic approach for the development of cardiac disorders. This study investigated the effects of ?-lipoic acid (LA) on the injury induced by sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a widely used NO donor, in rat cardiomyoblast H9c2 cells. SNP challenge significantly decreased cell viability and increased apoptosis, as evidenced by morphological abnormalities, nuclear condensation and decline of mitochondrial potential (??m). These changes induced by SNP were significantly attenuated by LA pretreatment. Furthermore, LA pretreatment prevented the SNP-triggered suppression of Akt and Gsk-3? activation. Blockade of Akt activation with triciribin (API) completely abolished the cytoprotection of LA against SNP challenge. In addition, LA moderately increased intracellular ROS production. Interestingly, inhibition of ROS with N-acetylcysteine abrogated Akt/Gsk-3? activation and the LA-induced cytoprotection following SNP stimulation. Taken together, the results indicate that LA protected the SNP-induced injury in cardiac H9c2 cells through, at least in part, the activation of Akt/Gsk-3? signaling in a ROS-dependent mechanism. PMID:25193743

Jiang, Surong; Zhu, Weina; Wu, Jun; Li, Chuanfu; Zhang, Xiaojin; Li, Yuehua; Cao, Kejiang; Liu, Li

2014-12-01

 
 
 
 
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The onset of grapevine berry ripening is characterized by ROS accumulation and lipoxygenase-mediated membrane peroxidation in the skin  

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Background The ripening of fleshy fruits is a complex developmental program characterized by extensive transcriptomic and metabolic remodeling in the pericarp tissues (pulp and skin) making unripe green fruits soft, tasteful and colored. The onset of ripening is regulated by a plethora of endogenous signals tuned to external stimuli. In grapevine and tomato, which are classified as non-climacteric and climacteric species respectively, the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and extensive modulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging enzymes at the onset of ripening has been reported, suggesting that ROS could participate to the regulatory network of fruit development. In order to investigate this hypothesis, a comprehensive biochemical study of the oxidative events occurring at the beginning of ripening in Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot Noir has been undertaken. Results ROS-specific staining allowed to visualize not only H2O2 but also singlet oxygen (1O2) in berry skin cells just before color change in distinct subcellular locations, i.e. cytosol and plastids. H2O2 peak in sample skins at véraison was confirmed by in vitro quantification and was supported by the concomitant increase of catalase activity. Membrane peroxidation was also observed by HPLC-MS on galactolipid species at véraison. Mono- and digalactosyl diacylglycerols were found peroxidized on one or both ?-linolenic fatty acid chains, with a 13(S) absolute configuration implying the action of a specific enzyme. A lipoxygenase (PnLOXA), expressed at véraison and localizing inside the chloroplasts, was indeed able to catalyze membrane galactolipid peroxidation when overexpressed in tobacco leaves. Conclusions The present work demonstrates the controlled, harmless accumulation of specific ROS in distinct cellular compartments, i.e. cytosol and chloroplasts, at a definite developmental stage, the onset of grape berry ripening. These features strongly candidate ROS as cellular signals in fruit ripening and encourage further studies to identify downstream elements of this cascade. This paper also reports the transient galactolipid peroxidation carried out by a véraison-specific chloroplastic lipoxygenase. The function of peroxidized membranes, likely distinct from that of free fatty acids due to their structural role and tight interaction with photosynthesis protein complexes, has to be ascertained. PMID:24693871

2014-01-01

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Loss of Intralipid(R)- but Not Sevoflurane-Mediated Cardioprotection in Early Type-2 Diabetic Hearts of Fructose-Fed Rats: Importance of ROS Signaling  

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Background Insulin resistance and early type-2 diabetes are highly prevalent. However, it is unknown whether Intralipid® and sevoflurane protect the early diabetic heart against ischemia-reperfusion injury. Methods Early type-2 diabetic hearts from Sprague-Dawley rats fed for 6 weeks with fructose were exposed to 15 min of ischemia and 30 min of reperfusion. Intralipid® (1%) was administered at the onset of reperfusion. Peri-ischemic sevoflurane (2 vol.-%) served as alternative protection strategy. Recovery of left ventricular function was recorded and the activation of Akt and ERK 1/2 was monitored. Mitochondrial function was assessed by high-resolution respirometry and mitochondrial ROS production was measured by Amplex Red and aconitase activity assays. Acylcarnitine tissue content was measured and concentration-response curves of complex IV inhibition by palmitoylcarnitine were obtained. Results Intralipid® did not exert protection in early diabetic hearts, while sevoflurane improved functional recovery. Sevoflurane protection was abolished by concomitant administration of the ROS scavenger N-2-mercaptopropionyl glycine. Sevoflurane, but not Intralipid® produced protective ROS during reperfusion, which activated Akt. Intralipid® failed to inhibit respiratory complex IV, while sevoflurane inhibited complex I. Early diabetic hearts exhibited reduced carnitine-palmitoyl-transferase-1 activity, but palmitoylcarnitine could not rescue protection and enhance postischemic functional recovery. Cardiac mitochondria from early diabetic rats exhibited an increased content of subunit IV-2 of respiratory complex IV and of uncoupling protein-3. Conclusions Early type-2 diabetic hearts lose complex IV-mediated protection by Intralipid® potentially due to a switch in complex IV subunit expression and increased mitochondrial uncoupling, but are amenable to complex I-mediated sevoflurane protection. PMID:25127027

Zhang, Liyan; Affolter, Andreas; Gandhi, Manoj; Hersberger, Martin; Warren, Blair E.; Lemieux, Helene; Sobhi, Hany F.; Clanachan, Alexander S.; Zaugg, Michael

2014-01-01

63

Leonurine ameliorates LPS-induced acute kidney injury via suppressing ROS-mediated NF-?B signaling pathway.  

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Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an abrupt loss of kidney function. Severe AKI requires renal replacement therapy and has high mortality. Leonurine (LEO), an alkaloid isolated from Leonurus cardiaca, has shown biological effects such as antioxidant, anticoagulant, and anti-apoptosis. We have examined the effect of LEO on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced AKI in mice and further studied the mechanism involved. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine and cytokine were estimated in the serum or tissue. Kidney tissue specimens were used for biochemical estimations of lipid peroxides (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH), and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The effects of LEO on LPS-induced renal tissue damage were detected by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) stain and electron microscopy. The production of cytokines in the tissue and blood was measured by ELISA. Protein phosphorylation and protein subcellular localization were tested by Western blot. LEO is protected against LPS-induced AKI, improved animal survival and maintained the redox balance. The beneficial effects of LEO were accompanied by the down-regulation of TNF-?, IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, KIM-1 expression and by the inhibition of the phosphorylation of I?B? and p65 translocalization. These results suggest that LEO may suppress NF-?B activation and inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokine production via decreasing cellular ROS production. Accumulating studies have demonstrated that LEO reduces kidney injury and protects renal functions from LPS-induced kidney injury. PMID:24924288

Xu, Daliang; Chen, Maosheng; Ren, Xianzhi; Ren, Xianguo; Wu, Yonggui

2014-09-01

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Induction of Apoptosis by Costunolide in Bladder Cancer Cells is Mediated through ROS Generation and Mitochondrial Dysfunction  

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Full Text Available Despite the availability of several therapeutic options, a safer and more effective modality is urgently needed for treatment of bladder cancer. Costunolide, a member of sesquiterpene lactone family, possesses potent anticancer properties. In this study, for the first time we investigated the effects of costunolide on the cell viability and apoptosis in human bladder cancer T24 cells. Treatment of T24 cells with costunolide resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of cell viability and induction of apoptosis which was associated with the generation of ROS and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (??m. These effects were significantly blocked when the cells were pretreated with N-acetyl- cysteine (NAC, a specific ROS inhibitor. Exposure of T24 cells to costunolide was also associated with increased expression of Bax, down-regulation of Bcl-2, survivin and significant activation of caspase-3, and its downstream target PARP. These findings provide the rationale for further in vivo and clinical investigation of costunolide against human bladder cancer.

Ichiro Tsuji

2013-01-01

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Cucurbitacin B induces DNA damage, G2/M phase arrest, and apoptosis mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) in leukemia K562 cells.  

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Cucurbitacin B (Cuc B) is a natural product with potent anti-cancer activities in solid tumors. We investigated the anti-cancer effect of Cuc B on K562 leukemia cells. Cuc B drastically decreased cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner. Cuc B treatment caused DNA damage, as shown by long tails in the comet assay and increased ?H2AX protein expression. Immunofluorescence, Fluo3- AM, and JC-1 staining results showed that Cuc B treatment induced nuclear ?H2AX foci, increased intracellular calcium ion concentration, and depolarized mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), respectively. Cuc B induced G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis, as shown by flow cytometry, DNA fragmentation, and protein expression analyses. In addition, Cuc B dramatically increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation as measured by DCFH2-DA. N-acetyl-l-cysteine pretreatment significantly reversed Cuc B-induced DNA damage, increased intracellular calcium ion concentration, and reduced MMP, G2/M phase arrest, and apoptosis. Taken together, these results suggested that ROS mediated Cuc B-induced DNA damage, G2/M arrest, and apoptosis in K562 cells. This study provides novel mechanisms to better understand the underlying anti-cancer mechanisms of Cuc B. PMID:24893803

Guo, Jiajie; Zhao, Wenwen; Hao, Wenhui; Ren, Guowen; Lu, Jinjian; Chen, Xiuping

2014-01-01

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Fucoidan Derived from Undaria pinnatifida Induces Apoptosis in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma SMMC-7721 Cells via the ROS-Mediated Mitochondrial Pathway  

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Full Text Available Fucoidans, fucose-enriched sulfated polysaccharides isolated from brown algae and marine invertebrates, have been shown to exert anticancer activity in several types of human cancer, including leukemia and breast cancer and in lung adenocarcinoma cells. In the present study, the anticancer activity of the fucoidan extracted from the brown seaweed Undaria pinnatifida was investigated in human hepatocellular carcinoma SMMC-7721 cells, and the underlying mechanisms of action were investigated. SMMC-7721 cells exposed to fucoidan displayed growth inhibition and several typical features of apoptotic cells, such as chromatin condensation and marginalization, a decrease in the number of mitochondria, and in mitochondrial swelling and vacuolation. Fucoidan-induced cell death was associated with depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH, accumulation of high intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS, and accompanied by damage to the mitochondrial ultrastructure, depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, ??m and caspase activation. Moreover, fucoidan led to altered expression of factors related to apoptosis, including downregulating Livin and XIAP mRNA, which are members of the inhibitor of apoptotic protein (IAP family, and increased the Bax-to-Bcl-2 ratio. These findings suggest that fucoidan isolated from U. pinnatifida induced apoptosis in SMMC-7721 cells via the ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway.

Lin Hou

2013-06-01

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The Selective Target of Capsaicin on FASN Expression and De Novo Fatty Acid Synthesis Mediated through ROS Generation Triggers Apoptosis in HepG2 Cells  

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The inhibition of the mammalian de novo synthesis of long-chain saturated fatty acids (LCFAs) by blocking the fatty acid synthase (FASN) enzyme activity in tumor cells that overexpress FASN can promote apoptosis, without apparent cytotoxic to non-tumor cells. The present study aimed to focus on the potent inhibitory effect of capsaicin on the fatty acid synthesis pathway inducing apoptosis of capsaicin in HepG2 cells. The use of capsaicin as a source for a new FASN inhibitor will provide new insight into its possible application as a selective anti-cancer therapy. The present findings showed that capsaicin promoted apoptosis as well as cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase. The onset of apoptosis was correlated with a dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential (??m). Apoptotic induction by capsaicin was mediated by inhibition of FASN protein expression which was accompanied by decreasing its activity on the de novo fatty acid synthesis. The expression of FASN was higher in HepG2 cells than in normal hepatocytes that were resistant to undergoing apoptosis following capsaicin administration. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of capsaicin on FASN expression and activity was found to be mediated by an increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Treatment of HepG2 cells with capsaicin failed to alter ACC and ACLY protein expression, suggesting ACC and ACLY might not be the specific targets of capsaicin to induce apoptosis. An accumulation of malonyl-CoA level following FASN inhibition represented a major cause of mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic induction instead of deprivation of fatty acid per se. Here, we also obtained similar results with C75 that exhibited apoptosis induction by reducing the levels of fatty acid without any change in the abundance of FASN expression along with increasing ROS production. Collectively, our results provide novel evidence that capsaicin exhibits a potent anti-cancer property by targeting FASN protein in HepG2 cells. PMID:25255125

Impheng, Hathaichanok; Pongcharoen, Sutatip; Richert, Lysiane; Pekthong, Dumrongsak; Srisawang, Piyarat

2014-01-01

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Photosensitized mefloquine induces ROS-mediated DNA damage and apoptosis in keratinocytes under ambient UVB and sunlight exposure.  

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The present study illustrates the photosensitizing behavior of mefloquine (MQ) in human skin keratinocytes under ambient doses of UVB and sunlight exposure. Photochemically, MQ generated reactive oxygen species superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical, and singlet oxygen through type I and type II photodynamic reactions, respectively, which caused photooxidative damage to DNA and formed localized DNA lesions cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. Photosensitized MQ reduced the viability of keratinocytes to 25 %. Significant level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was estimated through fluorescence probe DCF-H2. Increased apoptotic cells were evident through AO/EB staining and phosphatidyl serine translocation in cell membrane. Single-stranded DNA damage was marked through single-cell gel electrophoresis. Mitochondrial membrane depolarization and lysosomal destabilization were evident. Upregulation of Bax and p21 and downregulation of Bcl-2 genes and corresponding protein levels supported apoptotic cell death of keratinocyte cells. Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) were confirmed through immunofluorescence. In addition, hallmarks of apoptosis and G2/M phase cell cycle arrest were confirmed through flow cytometry analysis. Our findings suggest that MQ may damage DNA and produce DNA lesions which may induce differential biological responses in the skin on brief exposure to UVB and sunlight. PMID:25034908

Yadav, Neera; Dwivedi, Ashish; Mujtaba, Syed Faiz; Verma, Ankit; Chaturvedi, Rajnish; Ray, Ratan Singh; Singh, Gajendra

2014-10-01

69

Cucurbitacin B induced ATM-mediated DNA damage causes G2/M cell cycle arrest in a ROS-dependent manner.  

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Cucurbitacins are a class of triterpenoids widely distributed in plant kingdom with potent anti-cancer activities both in vitro and in vivo by inducing cycle arrest, autophagy, and apoptosis. Cucurbitacin B (Cuc B), could induce S or G2/M cell cycle arrest in cancer cells while the detailed mechanisms remain to be clear. This study was designed to precisely dissect the signaling pathway(s) responsible for Cuc B induced cell cycle arrest in human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial A549 cells. We demonstrated that low concentrations of Cuc B dramatically induced G2/M phase arrest in A549 cells. Cuc B treatment caused DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) without affecting the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), the potential molecular target for Cuc B. Cuc B triggers ATM-activated Chk1-Cdc25C-Cdk1, which could be reversed by both ATM siRNA and Chk1 siRNA. Cuc B also triggers ATM-activated p53-14-3-3-? pathways, which could be reversed by ATM siRNA. Cuc B treatment also led to increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, which was inhibited by N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) pretreatment. Furthermore, NAC pretreatment inhibited Cuc B induced DNA damage and G2/M phase arrest. Taken together, these results suggested that Cuc B induces DNA damage in A549 cells mediated by increasing intracellular ROS formation, which lead to G2/M cell phase arrest through ATM-activated Chk1-Cdc25C-Cdk1 and p53-14-3-3-? parallel branches. These observations provide novel mechanisms and potential targets for better understanding of the anti-cancer mechanisms of cucurbitacins. PMID:24505404

Guo, Jiajie; Wu, Guosheng; Bao, Jiaolin; Hao, Wenhui; Lu, Jinjian; Chen, Xiuping

2014-01-01

70

Gallic acid, a major component of Toona sinensis leaf extracts, contains a ROS-mediated anti-cancer activity in human prostate cancer cells.  

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Prostate cancer, the most frequently diagnosed malignancy in elderly males of the United States, has become a major health issue in Asia. Previous studies have demonstrated that leaf extracts of Toona sinensis Roem. contain cytotoxic activity on several cancer cells including prostate cancer cells. In this study, gallic acid is identified as the major anti-cancer compound in T. sinensis leaf extracts. It is cytotoxic to DU145 prostate cancer cells, through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, which were reversed by antioxidants catalase and N-acetylcysteine. Furthermore, gallic acid is shown to block the growth of DU145 cells at G2/M phases by activating Chk1 and Chk2 and inhibiting Cdc25C and Cdc2 activities. In addition, gallic acid has a synergistic effect with doxorubicin in suppressing the growth of DU145 cells. Taken together, our results suggest that gallic acid has the potential to be developed into an anti-prostate cancer drug and is worthy of further studies. PMID:19589639

Chen, Huei-Mei; Wu, Yang-Chang; Chia, Yi-Chen; Chang, Fang-Rong; Hsu, Hseng-Kuang; Hsieh, Ya-Ching; Chen, Chih-Chen; Yuan, Shyng-Shiou

2009-12-28

71

Induction of ROS-dependent mitochondria-mediated intrinsic apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells by glycoprotein from Codium decorticatum.  

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Marine macroalgae consist of a range of bioactive molecules exhibiting different biological activities, and many of these properties are attributed to sulfated polysaccharides, fucoxanthin, phycobiliproteins, and halogenated compounds. In this study, a glycoprotein (GLP) with a molecular mass of ?48 kDa was extracted and purified from Codium decorticatum and investigated for its cytotoxic properties against human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. The IC?? values of GLP against MDA-MB-231 and normal breast HBL-100 cells (control) were 75 ± 0.23 ?g/mL (IC??), 55 ± 0.32 ?g/mL (IC??), and 30 ± 0.43 ?g/mL (IC??) and 90 ± 0.57 ?g/mL (IC??), 80 ± 0.48 ?g/mL (IC??), and 60 ± 0.26 ?g/mL (IC??), respectively. Chromatin condensation and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage studies showed that the GLP inhibited cell viability by inducing apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells. Induction of mitochondria-mediated intrinsic apoptotic pathway by GLP was evidenced by the events of loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (??(m)), bax/bcl-2 dysregulation, cytochrome c release, and activation of caspases 3 and 9. Apoptosis-associated factors such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and loss of ??(m) were evaluated by DCFH-DA staining and flow cytometry, respectively. Cell cycle arrest of G?/M phase and expression of apoptosis associated proteins were determined using flow cytometry and Western blotting, respectively. PMID:24694116

Thangam, Ramar; Senthilkumar, Dharmaraj; Suresh, Veeraperumal; Sathuvan, Malairaj; Sivasubramanian, Srinivasan; Pazhanichamy, Kalailingam; Gorlagunta, Praveen Kumar; Kannan, Soundarapandian; Gunasekaran, Palani; Rengasamy, Ramasamy; Sivaraman, Jayanthi

2014-04-16

72

Quercetin enhances apoptotic effect of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in ovarian cancer cells through reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated CCAAT enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP)-death receptor 5 pathway.  

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Although tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has shown efficacy in a phase 2 clinical trial, development of resistance to TRAIL by tumor cells is a major roadblock. We investigated whether quercetin, a flavonoid, can sensitize human ovarian cancer cells to TRAIL. Results indicate that quercetin sensitized cancer cells to TRAIL. The quercetin induced expression of death receptor DR5 but did not affect expression of DR4 in cancer cells. The induction of DR5 was mediated through activation of JNK and through upregulation of a transcription factor CCAAT enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP); as silencing of these signaling molecules abrogated the effect of quercetin. Upregulation of DR5 was mediated through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), as ROS scavengers reduced the effect of quercetin on JNK activation, CHOP upregulation, DR induction, TRAIL sensitization, downregulated the expression of cell survival proteins and upregulated the proapoptotic proteins. Furthermore, quercetin enhances TRAIL mediated inhibition of tumor growth of human SKOV-3 xenograft was associated with induction of apoptosis, activation of caspase-3, CHOP and DR5. Overall, our data suggest that quercetin enhances apoptotic death of ovarian cancer cells to TRAIL through upregulation of CHOP-induced DR5 expression following ROS mediated endoplasmic reticulum-stress. PMID:24612139

Yi, Liu; Zongyuan, Yang; Cheng, Gong; Lingyun, Zhang; Guilian, Yu; Wei, Gong

2014-05-01

73

Silymarin attenuates benzo(a)pyrene induced toxicity by mitigating ROS production, DNA damage and calcium mediated apoptosis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC).  

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Benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P), which is the most studied member of PAH family is released into the environment (air, water and soil) from natural and man-made sources including industrial and automobile exhaust fumes. Since B(a)P is an omnipresent environmental pollutant and is believed to be a risk factor for human chemical carcinogenesis, it is important to identify potent naturally occurring/synthetic agents that could modulate B(a)P-induced toxicity. The present study explores the effect of the flavonoid silymarin (2.4mg/ml) in counteracting the toxicity of B(a)P (1?M) in PBMC. Flourimetry and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy results showed that silymarin reduces the B(a)P induced ROS production and DNA damage. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy analysis and fluorescent microscopic pictures proved that silymarin reduces the increased intracellular calcium and apoptosis induction during B(a)P treatment. Furthermore, silymarin did not show any inhibition for CYP1B1 activity at transcriptional level by semiquantitative RT PCR but it affects the catalytic activity of Phase I CYP1A1/CYP1B1 enzyme (EROD assay) during B(a)P treatment. The findings reveal that silymarin possesses substantial protective effect against B(a)P induced DNA damage and calcium mediated apoptosis by inhibiting the catalytic activity of CYP1B1 and maintaining the intracellular calcium dysregulation; hence, it could be considered as a potential protective agent for environmental contaminant induced immunotoxicity. PMID:23067546

Perumal Vijayaraman, Kiruthiga; Muruganantham, Shanmuganathan; Subramanian, Manickavalli; Shunmugiah, Karutha Pandian; Kasi, Pandima Devi

2012-12-01

74

ROS inhibit autophagy by downregulating ULK1 mediated by the phosphorylation of p53 in selenite-treated NB4 cells.  

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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have an important role in regulating various cellular processes. Our previous study confirmed that selenite, an anti-tumour agent, triggered apoptosis through the production of ROS in multiple types of cancer cells. In this study, we discovered that ROS also inhibited protective autophagy by decreasing the expression of ULK1, an initiator of autophagy, in selenite-treated NB4 cells. Further experiments demonstrated that p-p53 (S392), a phosphorylation event promoted by p70S6K, bound to the promoter of ULK1 and modulated its expression. Experiments in a mouse tumour model with NB4 cells provided in vivo confirmation of the alterations in the p70S6K/p53/ULK1 axis. Collectively, our results show that ROS inhibited autophagy by downregulating the p70S6K/p53/ULK1 axis in selenite-treated NB4 cells. PMID:25429619

Ci, Y; Shi, K; An, J; Yang, Y; Hui, K; Wu, P; Shi, L; Xu, C

2014-01-01

75

Cigarette smoke extract-induced BEAS-2B cell apoptosis and anti-oxidative Nrf-2 up-regulation are mediated by ROS-stimulated p38 activation.  

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Abstract Cigarette smoke contains reactive oxygen (ROS) that can cause oxidative stress. It increases the number of apoptotic and necrotic lung cells and further induces the development of chronic airway disease. In this study, we investigated the effects of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on apoptosis in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). CSE exposure induced ROS generation and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation that are associated with the activation of apoptosis-regulating signal kinase 1 (ASK-1). N-acetylcysteine (a general antioxidant) attenuated the CSE-induced ASK-1 and p38 MAPK activation and cell apoptosis, suggesting a triggering role of ROS in ASK-1/p38 MAPK activation during apoptotic progression. In contrast, the inhibition and knockdown of p38 attenuated the expression of anti-oxidant master NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2) and CSE-induced apoptosis, suggesting that p38 MAPK modulates Nrf-2 expression and presumably prevents cell apoptosis. Taken together, the data presented in this manuscript demonstrate that the ROS-dependent ASK-1/p38 signaling cascade regulates CSE-induced BEAS-2B cell apoptosis. In addition, anti-oxidative Nrf-2 is also up-regulated by the ROS/p38 signaling cascade in this progression. PMID:25134437

Lin, Xi-Xi; Yang, Xin-Fu; Jiang, Jun-Xia; Zhang, Shui-Juan; Guan, Yan; Liu, Ya-Nan; Sun, Yan-Hong; Xie, Qiang-Min

2014-12-01

76

Verrucarin A induces apoptosis through ROS-mediated EGFR/MAPK/Akt signaling pathways in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells.  

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The present study was carried out to elucidate the mechanisms underlying Verrucarin A (VA)-induced cytotoxicity in human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. VA inhibited the growth of MDA-MB-231 cells by induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent mitochondrial apoptosis. Elevation of ROS production, associated with changes in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, led to loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) and cytochrome c release in VA-treated cells. Release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytosol triggered activation of caspase-3, PARP cleavage, DNA fragmentation, and finally apoptotic cell death. Furthermore, VA-induced apoptosis was accompanied by the activation of p38MAPK and inhibition of phosphorylation of EGFR as well as of Akt and ERK1/2. However, pre-treatment with n-acetyl cysteine, an ROS scavenger, and SB202190, a p38MAPK inhibitor, significantly inhibited VA-induced ROS generation, EGFR inhibition, p38MAPK activation and apoptosis. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of EGFR and ERK1/2 significantly accelerated the VA-induced apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells. Collectively, these results indicate that VA-induces ROS elevation in cancer cells, which results in the activation of p38MAPK and inhibition of EGFR/Akt/ERK signaling cascade and, ultimately, cancer cell death. PMID:24963595

Palanivel, Kandasamy; Kanimozhi, Veerasamy; Kadalmani, Balamuthu; Akbarsha, Mohammad Abdulkader

2014-11-01

77

Caspase-1/ASC Inflammasome-Mediated Activation of IL-1?-ROS-NF-?B Pathway for Control of Trypanosoma cruzi Replication and Survival Is Dispensable in NLRP3?/? Macrophages  

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In this study, we have utilized wild-type (WT), ASC?/?, and NLRP3?/? macrophages and inhibition approaches to investigate the mechanisms of inflammasome activation and their role in Trypanosoma cruzi infection. We also probed human macrophages and analyzed published microarray datasets from human fibroblasts, and endothelial and smooth muscle cells for T. cruzi-induced changes in the expression genes included in the RT Profiler Human Inflammasome arrays. T. cruzi infection elicited a subdued and delayed activation of inflammasome-related gene expression and IL-1? production in m?s in comparison to LPS-treated controls. When WT and ASC?/? macrophages were treated with inhibitors of caspase-1, IL-1?, or NADPH oxidase, we found that IL-1? production by caspase-1/ASC inflammasome required reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a secondary signal. Moreover, IL-1? regulated NF-?B signaling of inflammatory cytokine gene expression and, subsequently, intracellular parasite replication in macrophages. NLRP3?/? macrophages, despite an inability to elicit IL-1? activation and inflammatory cytokine gene expression, exhibited a 4-fold decline in intracellular parasites in comparison to that noted in matched WT controls. NLRP3?/? macrophages were not refractory to T. cruzi, and instead exhibited a very high basal level of ROS (>100-fold higher than WT controls) that was maintained after infection in an IL-1?-independent manner and contributed to efficient parasite killing. We conclude that caspase-1/ASC inflammasomes play a significant role in the activation of IL-1?/ROS and NF-?B signaling of cytokine gene expression for T. cruzi control in human and mouse macrophages. However, NLRP3-mediated IL-1?/NF?B activation is dispensable and compensated for by ROS-mediated control of T. cruzi replication and survival in macrophages. PMID:25372293

Dey, Nilay; Sinha, Mala; Gupta, Shivali; Gonzalez, Mariela Natacha; Fang, Rong; Endsley, Janice J.; Luxon, Bruce A.; Garg, Nisha Jain

2014-01-01

78

Arsenic and chromium in drinking water promote tumorigenesis in a mouse colitis-associated colorectal cancer model and the potential mechanism is ROS-mediated Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Exposure to carcinogenic metals, such as trivalent arsenic [As(III)] and hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)], through drinking water is a major global public health problem and is associated with various cancers. However, the mechanism of their carcinogenicity remains unclear. In this study, we used azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate (AOM/DSS)-induced mouse colitis-associated colorectal cancer model to investigate their tumorigenesis. Our results demonstrate that exposure to As(III) or Cr(VI), alone or in combination, together with AOM/DSS pretreatment has a promotion effect, increasing the colorectal tumor incidence, multiplicity, size, and grade, as well as cell inflammatory response. Two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry revealed that As(III) or Cr(VI) treatment alone significantly changed the density of proteins. The expression of ?-catenin and phospho-GSK was increased by treatment of carcinogenic metals alone. Concomitantly, the expression of NADPH oxidase1 (NOX1) and the level of 8-OHdG were also increased by treatment of carcinogenic metals alone. Antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, were decreased. Similarly, in an in vitro system, exposure of CRL-1807 to carcinogenic metals increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, the expression of ?-catenin, phospho-GSK, and NOX1. Inhibition of ROS generation by addition of SOD or catalase inhibited ?-catenin expression and activity. Our study provides a new animal model to study the carcinogenicity of As(III) and Cr(VI) and suggests that As(III) and Cr(VI) promote colorectal cancer tumorigenesis, at least partly, through ROS-mediated Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway. -- Highlights: ? Carcinogenic metals in drinking water promote colorectal tumor formation in vivo. ? Carcinogenic metals induce ?-catenin activation in vivo and in vitro. ? ROS generation induced by carcinogenic metals mediated ?-catenin activation.

79

Influence of aqueous media on the ROS-mediated toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles toward green fluorescent protein-expressing Escherichia coli under UV-365 irradiation.  

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The aqueous media could affect the physicochemical properties (e.g., surface charge, morphology, and aggregation) of ZnO nanoparticles (nZnO), leading to their different environmental impacts. In this study, the toxicity of nZnO toward the green fluorescent protein-expressing Escherichia coli cells under UV-365 light irradiaiton in various media was assessed, including deionized (DI) water, 0.85% NaCl, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), minimal Davis medium (MD), and Luria-Bertani medium (LB). The toxicity of nZnO was assessed by the conventional plate count method and the fluorescence intensity method, which consistently demonstrated that the nZnO toxicity was dependent on the medium components that varied the potency of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. In DI, NaCl, PBS, and MD medium, nZnO generated three types of ROS (O2(•-), •OH, and (1)O2), whereas in LB medium, nZnO generated O2(•-) and (1)O2. The total concentrations of ROS generated by nZnO in DI, NaCl, PBS, MD, and LB were 265.5 ± 15.9, 153.6 ± 8.6, 144.3 ± 6.9, 123.0 ± 6.0, and 115.6 ± 4.5 ?M, respectively. Furthermore, a linear correlation was established between the total concentrations of three types of ROS generated by nZnO and their bacterial mortality rate (R(2) = 0.92) in various media. Since the released Zn(2+) from nZnO under UV irradiation only accounted for less than 10% of the total Zn in all media, the ionic forms of zinc did not significantly contribute to the overall toxicity. This work aims at providing further insight into the medium type influences on the ROS production and the toxicity of nZnO toward the E. coli cells. PMID:24568235

Li, Yang; Niu, Junfeng; Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Lilan; Shang, Enxiang

2014-03-18

80

Nitric oxide signals ROS scavenger-mediated enhancement of PAL activity in nitrogen-deficient Matricaria chamomilla roots: side effects of scavengers.  

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Owing to the abundance of phenolic metabolites in plant tissue, their accumulation represents an important tool for stress protection. However, the regulation of phenolic metabolism is still poorly known. The regulatory role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) in nitrogen (N)-deficient chamomile roots treated for 24 h was studied using three ROS scavengers [dithiothreitol (DTT), salicylhydroxamic acid, and sodium benzoate]. Scavengers decreased the level of hydrogen peroxide and/or superoxide (and up-regulated ascorbate/guaiacol peroxidase and glutathione reductase), but, surprisingly, stimulated PAL activity. This up-regulation was correlated with increases in nitric oxide (NO) content, total soluble phenols, selected phenolic acids, and, partially, lignin (being expressed the most in DTT-exposed roots). We therefore tested the hypothesis that NO may be involved in these changes. Application of 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (PTIO) decreased PAL activity and the accumulation of soluble phenols in all treatments. Exogenous H(2)O(2) and NO also stimulated PAL activity and the accumulation of phenols. We conclude that NO, in addition to hydrogen peroxide, may regulate PAL activity during N deficiency. The anomalous effect of PTIO on NO content and possible mechanism of ROS scavenger-evoked NO increases in light of the current knowledge are also discussed. PMID:19345259

Kovácik, Jozef; Klejdus, Borivoj; Backor, Martin

2009-06-15

 
 
 
 
81

Strategy to enhance the anticancer efficacy of X-ray radiotherapy in melanoma cells by platinum complexes, the role of ROS-mediated signaling pathways.  

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Radiotherapy plays an important role in treatment of cancers with low toxicity to the surrounding normal tissues. However, it still fails to eradicate hypoxic tumors due to the occurrence of radioresistance. Therefore, the search for new radiation sensitizers is of great significance. Platinum (Pt) complexes have been identified as potential radiation sensitizers to increase the sensitivity of cancer cells to radiotherapy. In the present study, we have synthesized four Pt complexes containing (2 - benzimidazole [4, 5-f] - [1, 10] phenanthroline) ligand and found that they could effectively enhance the X-ray-induced growth inhibition against A375 human melanoma cells through induction of G2/M cell cycle arrest. In contrast, they showed much lower cytotoxicity toward human normal cells. The complexes also dramatically inhibited the TrxR activity and caused intracellular ROS overproduction, due to the Auger electron effect of heavy metal element under X-ray radiation. Excessive ROS triggered DNA damage and activated downstream signaling pathways, including the phosphorylation of p53 and p38MAPK, and down-regulation of phosphorylated AKT and ERK, finally resulted in increase of radiosensitivity and inhibition of tumor reproduction. Taken together, our results suggest that the synthetic Pt complexes could be further developed as sensitizers of X-ray radiotherapy. PMID:25135223

Xie, Qiang; Lan, Guoqiang; Zhou, Yangliang; Huang, Jiamin; Liang, Yuanwei; Zheng, Wenjie; Fu, Xiaoyan; Fan, Cundong; Chen, Tianfeng

2014-11-01

82

Arsenic and chromium in drinking water promote tumorigenesis in a mouse colitis-associated colorectal cancer model and the potential mechanism is ROS-mediated Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exposure to carcinogenic metals, such as trivalent arsenic [As(III)] and hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)], through drinking water is a major global public health problem and is associated with various cancers. However, the mechanism of their carcinogenicity remains unclear. In this study, we used azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate (AOM/DSS)-induced mouse colitis-associated colorectal cancer model to investigate their tumorigenesis. Our results demonstrate that exposure to As(III) or Cr(VI), alone or in combination, together with AOM/DSS pretreatment has a promotion effect, increasing the colorectal tumor incidence, multiplicity, size, and grade, as well as cell inflammatory response. Two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry revealed that As(III) or Cr(VI) treatment alone significantly changed the density of proteins. The expression of ?-catenin and phospho-GSK was increased by treatment of carcinogenic metals alone. Concomitantly, the expression of NADPH oxidase1 (NOX1) and the level of 8-OHdG were also increased by treatment of carcinogenic metals alone. Antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, were decreased. Similarly, in an in vitro system, exposure of CRL-1807 to carcinogenic metals increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, the expression of ?-catenin, phospho-GSK, and NOX1. Inhibition of ROS generation by addition of SOD or catalase inhibited ?-catenin expression and activity. Our study provides a new animal model to study the carcinogenicity of As(III) and Cr(VI) and suggests that As(III) and Cr(VI) promote colorectal cancer tumorigenesis, at least partly, through ROS-mediated Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway. PMID:22552367

Wang, Xin; Mandal, Ardhendu K; Saito, Hiroshi; Pulliam, Joseph F; Lee, Eun Y; Ke, Zun-Ji; Lu, Jian; Ding, Songze; Li, Li; Shelton, Brent J; Tucker, Thomas; Evers, B Mark; Zhang, Zhuo; Shi, Xianglin

2012-07-01

83

Radiation-induced apoptosis of neural precursors cell cultures: early modulation of the response mediated by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Apoptosis, the typical mode of radiation-induced cell death in developing Central Nervous System (CNS), is closely related with the oxidative status. Enhanced radiation-induced generation of ROS/RNS has been observed after exposures to low radiation doses leading to cellular amplification of signal transduction and further molecular and cellular radiation-responses. Moreover Nitric oxide (NO) and hydroxyl radical are implicated in dopaminergic neurotoxicity in different parading. This study is an attempt to address the participation of radiation-induced free radicals production, the contribution of endogenous NO generation, and the excitonic pathway, in the radiation-induced apoptosis of neural cortical precursors. Cortical cells obtained from at 17 gestational day (gd) were irradiated with doses from 0,2 Gy to 2 Gy at a dose-rate of 0.3 Gy/m. A significant decrease of Luminol-dependent Chemiluminescence was evident 30 m after irradiation reaching basal levels at 120 m follow for a tendency to increasing values Incubations with Superoxide Dismatuse (SOD) decreased significantly the chemiluminescence in irradiated samples NO content estimated by measuring the stable products NO{sub 2} and NO{sub 3} released to the culture medium in the same period, has shown a time-dependent accumulation from 1 h post-irradiation. the apoptosis, determined 24 h post-irradiation by flow cytometry, morphology and DNA fragmentation revealed a dose-effect relationship with significant differences from 0.4 Gy. The samples pre-treated with 10 mM of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) a precursor of intracellular GSH synthesis, shown a significant decrease of the apoptosis. Apoptosis was significantly increased in irradiated cells after inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) byL-NAME. We conclude that ROS/RNS play a pivotal role in the early signaling pathways leading to a radiation-induced cell death. (Author) 40 refs.

Gisone, P.; Dubner, D.; Robello, E.; Michelin, S.; Perez, M. R.

2004-07-01

84

Ammonia-induced Na,K-ATPase/ouabain-mediated EGF receptor transactivation, MAPK/ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling and ROS formation cause astrocyte swelling.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ammonia toxicity is clinically important and biologically poorly understood. We reported previously that 3mM ammonia chloride (ammonia), a relevant concentration for hepatic encephalopathy studies, increases production of endogenous ouabain and activity of Na,K-ATPase in astrocytes. In addition, ammonia-induced upregulation of gene expression of ?2 isoform of Na,K-ATPase in astrocytes could be inhibited by AG1478, an inhibitor of the EGF receptor (EGFR), and by PP1, an inhibitor of Src, but not by GM6001, an inhibitor of metalloproteinase and shedding of growth factor, suggesting the involvement of endogenous ouabain-induced EGF receptor transactivation. In the present cell culture study, we investigated ammonia effects on phosphorylation of EGF receptor and its intracellular signal pathway towards MAPK/ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT; interaction between EGF receptor, ?1, and ?2 isoforms of Na,K-ATPase, Src, ERK1/2, AKT and caveolin-1; and relevance of these signal pathways for ammonia-induced cell swelling, leading to brain edema, an often fatal complication of ammonia toxicity. We found that (i) ammonia increases EGF receptor phosphorylation at EGFR(845) and EGFR(1068); (ii) ammonia-induced ERK1/2 and AKT phosphorylation depends on the activity of EGF receptor and Src, but not on metalloproteinase; (iii) AKT phosphorylation occurs upstream of ERK1/2 phosphorylation; (iv) ammonia stimulates association between the ?1 Na,K-ATPase isoform, Src, EGF receptor, ERK1/2, AKT and caveolin-1; (v) ammonia-induced ROS production might occur later than EGFR transactivation; (vi) both ammonia induced ERK phosphorylation and ROS production can be abolished by canrenone, an inhibitor of ouabain, and (vii) ammonia-induced cell swelling depends on signaling via the Na,K-ATPase/ouabain/Src/EGF receptor/PI3K-AKT/ERK1/2, but in response to 3mM ammonia it does not appear until after 12h. Based on literature data it is suggested that the delayed appearance of the ammonia-induced swelling at this concentration reflects required ouabain-induced oxidative damage of the ion and water cotransporter NKCC1. This information may provide new therapeutic targets for treatment of hyperammonic brain disorders. PMID:24044899

Dai, Hongliang; Song, Dan; Xu, Junnan; Li, Baoman; Hertz, Leif; Peng, Liang

2013-11-01

85

E2F1 and c-Myc potentiate apoptosis through inhibition of NF-kappaB activity that facilitates MnSOD-mediated ROS elimination.  

Science.gov (United States)

Overexpression of c-Myc or E2F1 sensitizes host cells to various types of apoptosis. Here, we found that overexpressed c-Myc or E2F1 induces accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and thereby enhances serum-deprived apoptosis in NIH3T3 and Saos-2. During serum deprivation, MnSOD mRNA was induced by NF-kappaB in mock-transfected NIH3T3, while this induction was inhibited in NIH3T3 overexpressing c-Myc or E2F1. In these clones, E2F1 inhibited NF-kappaB activity by binding to its subunit p65 in competition with a heterodimeric partner p50. In addition to overexpressed E2F1, endogenous E2F1 released from Rb was also found to inhibit NF-kappaB activity in a cell cycle-dependent manner by using E2F1(+/+) and E2F1(-/-) murine embryonic fibroblasts. These results indicate that E2F1 promotes apoptosis by inhibiting NF-kappaB activity. PMID:12049738

Tanaka, Hirokazu; Matsumura, Itaru; Ezoe, Sachiko; Satoh, Yusuke; Sakamaki, Toshiyuki; Albanese, Chris; Machii, Takashi; Pestell, Richard G; Kanakura, Yuzuru

2002-05-01

86

Cu(II) inhibits hIAPP fibrillation and promotes hIAPP-induced beta cell apoptosis through induction of ROS-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP), the major component of the amyloid deposits found in the pancreatic islets of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), plays a central role in the loss of insulin-secreting pancreatic beta cells. Misfolded hIAPP fibrillating in islet beta cells may be one of the causations for T2DM. Studies have showed that fibrosis of hIAPP was inhibited by copper compounds while hIAPP-induced cytotoxicity was greatly stimulated. In this study, the suppression effects of three different forms of copper compounds CuCl2, CuSO4 and Cu(Gly)2 on amyloid fibril formation were examined in vitro. The results demonstrated that Cu(II) could interact with hIAPP to suppress the fibrosis without involvement of the anions. The fibrosis of hIAPP was inhibited by CuCl2, CuSO4 and Cu(Gly)2 with a similar degree. The particle size of hIAPP aggregates was decreased, which was further confirmed in atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. Moreover, approximative cytotoxicity-enhancing levels between CuCl2, CuSO4 and Cu(Gly)2 on hIAPP were also observed in INS-1 cells. Studies on the action mechanisms displayed that copper compounds increased hIAPP-induced cytotoxicity by facilitating apoptosis-promoting effect of hIAPP, which was dominated mainly by cation. Furthermore, Cu(II)-promoted ROS overproduction and mitochondrial disruption might be the main reason for the enhanced apoptosis. Taken together, our studies demonstrate clear interaction mechanisms of Cu(II) and hIAPP in pancreatic beta cells, and provide useful information for our understanding and treatment of T2DM. PMID:25108186

Ma, Lijuan; Li, Xiaoling; Wang, Yi; Zheng, Wenjie; Chen, Tianfeng

2014-11-01

87

?-Caryophyllene oxide inhibits growth and induces apoptosis through the suppression of PI3K/AKT/mTOR/S6K1 pathways and ROS-mediated MAPKs activation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Both PI3K/AKT/mTOR/S6K1 and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascades play an important role in cell proliferation, survival, angiogenesis, and metastasis of tumor cells. In the present report, we investigated the effects of ?-caryophyllene oxide (CPO), a sesquiterpene isolated from essential oils of medicinal plants such as guava (Psidium guajava), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), cinnamon (Cinnamomum spp.) clove (Eugenia caryophyllata), and black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) on the PI3K/AKT/mTOR/S6K1 and MAPK activation pathways in human prostate and breast cancer cells. We found that CPO not only inhibited the constitutive activation of PI3K/AKT/mTOR/S6K1 signaling cascade; but also caused the activation of ERK, JNK, and p38 MAPK in tumor cells. CPO induced increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation from mitochondria, which is associated with the induction of apoptosis as characterized by positive Annexin V binding and TUNEL staining, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome c, activation of caspase-3, and cleavage of PARP. Inhibition of ROS generation by N-acetylcysteine (NAC) significantly prevented CPO-induced apoptosis. Subsequently, CPO also down-regulated the expression of various downstream gene products that mediate cell proliferation (cyclin D1), survival (bcl-2, bcl-xL, survivin, IAP-1, and IAP-2), metastasis (COX-2), angiogenesis (VEGF), and increased the expression of p53 and p21. Interestingly, we also observed that CPO can significantly potentiate the apoptotic effects of various pharmacological PI3K/AKT inhibitors when employed in combination in tumor cells. Overall, these findings suggest that CPO can interfere with multiple signaling cascades involved in tumorigenesis and used as a potential therapeutic candidate for both the prevention and treatment of cancer. PMID:21924548

Park, Kyung-Ran; Nam, Dongwoo; Yun, Hyung-Mun; Lee, Seok-Geun; Jang, Hyeung-Jin; Sethi, Gautam; Cho, Somi K; Ahn, Kwang Seok

2011-12-22

88

ROS signalling – Specificity is required  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) increases in plants under stress. ROS can damage cellular components, but they can also act in signal transduction to help the cell counteract the oxidative damage in the stressed compartment. H2O2 may induce a general stress response, but it does not have the required specificity to selectively regulate nuclear genes required for dealing with localized stress, e.g., in chloroplasts or mitochondria. We here argue that peptides deriving from proteolytic breakdown of oxidatively damaged proteins have the requisite specificity to act as secondary ROS messengers and regulate source-specific genes and in this way contribute to retrograde ROS signalling during oxidative stress. (This is a new project funded by FNU) References: Møller, I.M. & Sweetlove, L.J. 2010. ROS signalling – Specificity is required. Trends Plant Sci. 15: 370-374

MØller, Ian Max; Sweetlove, Lee J

2011-01-01

89

A rapid and transient ROS generation by cadmium triggers apoptosis via caspase-dependent pathway in HepG2 cells and this is inhibited through N-acetylcysteine-mediated catalase upregulation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

eration by Cd triggers apoptosis via caspase-dependent pathway and subsequent mitochondrial pathway. NAC inhibits Cd-induced apoptosis through the blocking of ROS generation as well as the catalase upregulation

90

Stem cells and the impact of ROS signaling.  

Science.gov (United States)

An appropriate balance between self-renewal and differentiation is crucial for stem cell function during both early development and tissue homeostasis throughout life. Recent evidence from both pluripotent embryonic and adult stem cell studies suggests that this balance is partly regulated by reactive oxygen species (ROS), which, in synchrony with metabolism, mediate the cellular redox state. In this Primer, we summarize what ROS are and how they are generated in the cell, as well as their downstream molecular targets. We then review recent findings that provide molecular insights into how ROS signaling can influence stem cell homeostasis and lineage commitment, and discuss the implications of this for reprogramming and stem cell ageing. We conclude that ROS signaling is an emerging key regulator of multiple stem cell populations. PMID:25371358

Bigarella, Carolina L; Liang, Raymond; Ghaffari, Saghi

2014-11-01

91

Polymorphic ROS scavenging revealed by CCCP in a lizard  

Science.gov (United States)

Ingestion of antioxidants has been argued to scavenge circulating reactive molecules (e.g., free radicals), play a part in mate choice (by mediating access to this important resource), and perhaps increase life span. However, recent work has come to question these relationships. We have shown elsewhere in the polychromatic lizard, Ctenophorus pictus, that diet supplementation of carotenoids as antioxidants does not depress circulating natural reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and leads to no corresponding improvement of color traits. However, a much stronger test would be to experimentally manipulate the ROS levels themselves and assess carotenoid-induced ROS depression. Here, we achieve this by using carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone, which elevates superoxide (SO) formation approximately threefold at 10 ?M in this model system. We then look for depressing effects on ROS of the carotenoids in order to assess whether ‘super-production’ of SO makes carotenoid effects on elevated ROS levels detectable. The rationale for this treatment was that if not even such elevated levels of SO are reduced by carotenoid supplementation, the putative link carotenoids, ROS depression, and mate quality (in terms of antioxidant capacity) is highly questionable. We conclude that there is no significant effect of carotenoids on mean SO levels even at the induced ROS levels. However, our results showed a significant interaction effect between carotenoid treatment and male color, with red males having higher ROS levels than yellow males. We suggest that this may be because different pigments are differently involved in the generation of the integumental colors in the two morphs with concomitant effects on ROS depletion depending on carotenoid uptake or allocation to coloration and antioxidation.

Olsson, Mats; Wilson, Mark; Isaksson, Caroline; Uller, Tobias

2009-07-01

92

Current understanding of the mechanism and role of ROS in angiotensin II signal transduction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are proposed to induce cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis and hypertension, through several mechanisms. One such mechanism involves ROS acting as intracellular second messengers, which lead to induction of unique signal transductions. Angiotensin II (AngII), a potent cardiovascular pathogen, stimulates ROS production through vascular NADPH oxidases. The ROS production induced by AngII activates downstream ROS-sensitive kinases that are critical in mediating cardiovascular remodeling. Recent advances in gene transfer/knockout techniques have lead to numerous in vitro and in vivo studies that identify the potential components and mechanisms of ROS signal transduction by AngII which promote cardiovascular remodeling. In this review, we will focus our discussion on the signal transduction research elucidating ROS production and function induced by AngII using currently available molecular biotechnologies. PMID:16724941

Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Frank, Gerald D; Utsunomiya, Hirotoshi; Higuchi, Sadaharu; Eguchi, Satoru

2006-04-01

93

ROS signalling - specificity is required  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production increases in plants under stress. ROS can damage cellular components, but they can also act in signal transduction to help the cell counteract the oxidative damage in the stressed compartment. H2O2 might induce a general stress response, but it does not have the required specificity to selectively regulate nuclear genes required for dealing with localized stress, e.g. in chloroplasts or mitochondria. Here we argue that peptides deriving from proteolytic breakdown of oxidatively damaged proteins have the requisite specificity to act as secondary ROS messengers and regulate source-specific genes and in this way contribute to retrograde ROS signalling during oxidative stress. Likewise, unmodified peptides deriving from the breakdown of redundant proteins could help coordinate organellar and nuclear gene expression

MØller, Ian M; Sweetlove, Lee J

2010-01-01

94

Menadione triggers cell death through ROS-dependent mechanisms involving PARP activation without requiring apoptosis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Low levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can function as redox-active signaling messengers, whereas high levels of ROS induce cellular damage. Menadione generates ROS through redox cycling, and high concentrations trigger cell death. Previous work suggests that menadione triggers cytochrome c release from mitochondria, while other studies implicate activation of the mitochondrial permeability transition poreas the mediator of cell death. We investigated menadione-induced cell death in gene...

Loor, Gabriel; Kondapalli, Jyothisri; Schriewer, Jacqueline M.; Chandel, Navdeep S.; Vanden Hoek, Terry L.; Schumacker, Paul T.

2010-01-01

95

Targeting extracellular ROS signaling of tumor cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Expression of membrane-associated NADPH oxidase (NOX1) represents a characteristic feature of malignant cells. NOX1-derived extracellular superoxide anions are the basis for autocrine stimulation of proliferation, but also drive the HOCl and the NO/peroxynitrite signaling pathways. This may cause the elimination of transformed cells. Tumor cells express membrane-associated catalase that efficiently protects the cells against apoptosis-inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling. Membrane-associated superoxide dismutase (SOD) plays a co-modulatory protective role that is functionally interrelated with the protective effect mediated by catalase. Due to the co-localization of NOX1, catalase and SOD on the outer membrane of tumor cells, specific inhibition of membrane-associated SOD causes superoxide anion-dependent inhibition of catalase. This establishes a strong apoptotic signaling through the NO/peroxynitrite pathway. In parallel, it causes a drastic decrease in the concentration of proliferation-stimulating H2O2. Knowledge of the biochemical network on the surface of tumor cells should, therefore, allow development of specific novel strategies for tumor therapy, based on the specific features of tumor cell-specific extracellular ROS interactions. PMID:24692674

Bauer, Georg

2014-04-01

96

Scavenging ROS dramatically increase NMDA receptor whole-cell currents in painted turtle cortical neurons.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oxygen deprivation triggers excitotoxic cell death in mammal neurons through excessive calcium loading via over-activation of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors. This does not occur in the western painted turtle, which overwinters for months without oxygen. Neurological damage is avoided through anoxia-mediated decreases in NMDA and AMPA receptor currents that are dependent upon a modest rise in intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations ([Ca(2+)]i) originating from mitochondria. Anoxia also blocks mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, which is another potential signaling mechanism to regulate glutamate receptors. To assess the effects of decreased intracellular [ROS] on NMDA and AMPA receptor currents, we scavenged ROS with N-2-mercaptopropionylglycine (MPG) or N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Unlike anoxia, ROS scavengers increased NMDA receptor whole-cell currents by 100%, while hydrogen peroxide decreased currents. AMPA receptor currents and [Ca(2+)]i concentrations were unaffected by ROS manipulation. Because decreases in [ROS] increased NMDA receptor currents, we next asked whether mitochondrial Ca(2+) release prevents receptor potentiation during anoxia. Normoxic activation of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium (mKATP) channels with diazoxide decreased NMDA receptor currents and was unaffected by subsequent ROS scavenging. Diazoxide application following ROS scavenging did not rescue scavenger-mediated increases in NMDA receptor currents. Fluorescent measurement of [Ca(2+)]i and ROS levels demonstrated that [Ca(2+)]i increases before ROS decreases. We conclude that decreases in ROS concentration are not linked to anoxia-mediated decreases in NMDA/AMPA receptor currents but are rather associated with an increase in NMDA receptor currents that is prevented during anoxia by mitochondrial Ca(2+) release. PMID:25063855

Dukoff, David James; Hogg, David William; Hawrysh, Peter John; Buck, Leslie Thomas

2014-09-15

97

DNAM-1 ligand expression on Ag-stimulated T lymphocytes is mediated by ROS-dependent activation of DNA-damage response: relevance for NK-T cell interaction.  

Science.gov (United States)

An important role for natural killer (NK) cells in the regulation of T-cell responses is emerging, although the receptor pairs regulating the NK-T-cell interaction have still not been identified. We found that superantigen-stimulated T cells express Nectin-2 (CD112) and poliovirus receptor (PVR; CD155), the ligands of the activating NK receptor DNAX accessory molecule-1 (DNAM-1; CD226). Interestingly, only PVR was present at the T cell surface, particularly on cells in the S and G(2)/M phases of the cell cycle. The up-regulation of PVR expression involves DNA-damage response (DDR)-dependent pathways, because we found that pharmacologic inhibition of ATM and ATR kinases reduced PVR expression and that PVR was almost exclusively induced on cells expressing the DDR marker ?H2AX. Oxidative stress contributed to DDR activation, and our results showed impaired PVR levels in the presence of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), being monocytes the main ROS source needed for optimal PVR expression on activated T cells. Interestingly, in accordance with ligand expression, NK cells lysed allogeneic proliferating more efficiently than nonproliferating T lymphocytes, with a mechanism requiring the cooperation between DNAM-1 and NKG2D. These results could contribute to unraveling the role of NK cells in the down-regulation of T-cell responses in physiologic and pathologic processes such as autoimmunity or GVHD. PMID:21406724

Ardolino, Michele; Zingoni, Alessandra; Cerboni, Cristina; Cecere, Francesca; Soriani, Alessandra; Iannitto, Maria Luisa; Santoni, Angela

2011-05-01

98

Mitochondrial ROS regulates cytoskeletal and mitochondrial remodeling to tune cell and tissue dynamics in a model for wound healing.  

Science.gov (United States)

How cues that trigger the wound response result in tissue healing is a question of immense biological and medical importance. Here we uncover roles for mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) during Drosophila dorsal closure, a model for wound healing. By using real-time visualization of ROS activity and single-cell perturbation strategies, we demonstrate that stochasticities in ROS generation in the amnioserosa are necessary and sufficient to trigger cell delamination. We identify dose-dependent effects of mtROS on actomyosin and mitochondrial architecture, dynamics, and activity that mediate both stochasticities in cell behavior and the phases of tissue dynamics accompanying dorsal closure. Our results establish that ROS levels tune cell behavior and tissue dynamics qualitatively and quantitatively. They identify a pathway triggered by ROS and mediated by the Rho effector ROCK and its substrates that influences tissue patterning and homeostasis through the coordinate regulation of both mitochondrial morphology and tissue tension. PMID:24486154

Muliyil, Sonia; Narasimha, Maithreyi

2014-02-10

99

ROS production and Glut1 activity in two human megakaryocytic cell lines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been increasingly recognised as intracellular messengers in signal transduction following receptor activation by a variety of bioactive peptides including growth factors, cytokines and hormones. In this study ROS production and glucose transport activity were evaluated in the growth factor dependent M07e cells and in B1647 cells, not requiring additional hematopoietic cytokines for growth: the aim was to investigate whether ROS could be involved in the regulation of Glut1-mediated glucose uptake in both cell lines. The effect of the synthetic superoxide and hydrogen peroxide scavenger EUK-134 on DOG uptake activity and intracellular ROS formation supports the concept of reactive oxygen species as signalling molecules. In order to investigate ROS generation sources, diphenyleneiodonium, an inhibitor of flavoprotein centres and apocynin, an inhibitor of NAD(P)H oxidase, were used: they inhibit both ROS production and glucose uptake activation. All these data support the hypothesis that ROS can contribute to the regulation of glucose transport, not only in M07e cells but also in B1647 cells; we could speculate that one possible source of ROS, linked somehow with Glut1 activity, can be a NAD(P)H oxidase similar to that one present in phagocytic cells. PMID:15706059

Prata, Cecilia; Maraldi, Tullia; Zambonin, Laura; Fiorentini, Diana; Hakim, Gabriele; Landi, Laura

2004-01-01

100

A critical role for Romo1-derived ROS in cell proliferation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Low levels of endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) originating from NADPH oxidase have been implicated in various signaling pathways induced by growth factors and mediated by cytokines. However, the main source of ROS is known to be the mitochondria, and increased levels of ROS from the mitochondria have been observed in many cancer cells. Thus far, the mechanism of ROS production in cancer cell proliferation in the mitochondria is not well-understood. We recently identified a novel protein, ROS modulator 1 (Romo1), and reported that increased expression of Romo1-triggered ROS production in the mitochondria. The experiments conducted in the present study showed that Romo1-derived ROS were indispensable for the proliferation of both normal and cancer cells. Furthermore, whilst cell growth was inhibited by blocking the ERK pathway in cells transfected with siRNA directed against Romo1, the cell growth was recovered by addition of exogenous hydrogen peroxide. The results of this study suggest that Romo1-induced ROS may play an important role in redox signaling in cancer cells. PMID:18313394

Na, Ah Ram; Chung, Young Min; Lee, Seung Baek; Park, Seon Ho; Lee, Myeong-Sok; Yoo, Young Do

2008-05-01

 
 
 
 
101

A critical role for Romo1-derived ROS in cell proliferation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Low levels of endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) originating from NADPH oxidase have been implicated in various signaling pathways induced by growth factors and mediated by cytokines. However, the main source of ROS is known to be the mitochondria, and increased levels of ROS from the mitochondria have been observed in many cancer cells. Thus far, the mechanism of ROS production in cancer cell proliferation in the mitochondria is not well-understood. We recently identified a novel protein, ROS modulator 1 (Romo1), and reported that increased expression of Romo1-triggered ROS production in the mitochondria. The experiments conducted in the present study showed that Romo1-derived ROS were indispensable for the proliferation of both normal and cancer cells. Furthermore, whilst cell growth was inhibited by blocking the ERK pathway in cells transfected with siRNA directed against Romo1, the cell growth was recovered by addition of exogenous hydrogen peroxide. The results of this study suggest that Romo1-induced ROS may play an important role in redox signaling in cancer cells

102

ROS-PIAS? cross talk channelizes ATM signaling from resistance to apoptosis during chemosensitization of resistant tumors  

Science.gov (United States)

With the existing knowledge of ATM's role in therapeutic resistance, the present study aimed at identifying the molecular mechanisms that influence ATM to oscillate between chemoresistance and chemosensitivity. We observed that the redox status of tumors functions as a major determinant of ATM-dependent ‘resistance-to-apoptosis' molecular switch. At a low reactive oxygen species (ROS) condition during genotoxic insult, the ATM/sumoylated-IKK? interaction induced NF?B activation that resisted JNK-mediated apoptosis, whereas increasing cellular ROS restored ATM/JNK apoptotic signaling. A search for the upstream missing link revealed that high ROS induces oxidation and ubiquitin-mediated degradation of PIAS?, thereby disrupting PIAS?-IKK? cross talk, a pre-requisite for IKK? sumoylation and subsequent NF?B activation. Interruption in the PIAS?-mediated resistance pathway channels ATM signaling toward ATM/JNK pro-death circuitry. These in vitro results also translated to sensitive and resistant tumor allograft mouse models in which low ROS-induced resistance was over-ruled in PIAS? knockout tumors, while its overexpression inhibited high ROS-dependent apoptotic cues. Cumulatively, our findings identified an unappreciated yet critical combinatorial function of cellular ROS and PIAS? in regulating ATM-mediated chemosensitization of resistant tumors. Thus, therapeutic strategies employing ROS upregulation to inhibit PIAS? during genotoxic therapy may, in future, help to eliminate the problems of NF?B-mediated tumor drug resistance. PMID:24457965

Mohanty, S; Saha, S; Md S Hossain, D; Adhikary, A; Mukherjee, S; Manna, A; Chakraborty, S; Mazumdar, M; Ray, P; Das, K; Chakraborty, J; Sa, G; Das, T

2014-01-01

103

Synthesis, characterization and ROS-mediated cytotoxic action of novel (S,S)-1,3-propanediamine-N,N'-di-2-(3-cyclohexyl)propanoic acid and corresponding esters.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study involves the synthesis and characterization of novel cyclohexyl 1,3-propanediamine-N,N'-diacetate molecules as well as investigation of their cytotoxic action. New acid 1a was synthesized by reaction between (S)-2-amino-3-cyclohexylpropanoic acid and 1,3-dibromopropane, while the esters (1b-1e) derived from this acid were obtained by reaction of the corresponding absolute alcohol, thionyl chloride and synthesized acid. All compounds were characterized by IR, ESI-MS, ((1)H, (13)C and HSQC) NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The cytotoxic activity of all compounds was tested on several tumour cell lines: human (U251) and rat (C6) glioma, human promyelocytic leukaemia (HL-60), human neuroblastoma (SHSY-5Y) and mouse fibrosarcoma (L929) as well as primary rat astrocytes. The present study reveals potent antitumour activity of novel purely organic compounds (1a-1e), which was most pronounced in human glioma (U251) cells. The esterification is required for the novel compounds' cytotoxic action since the n-butyl ester 1e was the most efficient compound. Importantly, n-butyl ester 1e was more toxic to glioma cells in comparison to rat astrocytes, with 24-h IC50 values lower than those for cisplatin. n-Butyl ester 1e induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and caused an oxidative-stress-derived accumulation of glioma cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle, as well as caspase activation and DNA fragmentation, suggesting that apoptosis induction plays an important role in the novel compounds' antiglioma action. PMID:24836201

Savi?, Aleksandar; Misirli?-Den?i?, Sonja; Dulovi?, Marija; Mihajlovi?-Lali?, Ljiljana E; Jovanovi?, Maja; Grguri?-Šipka, Sanja; Markovi?, Ivanka; Sabo, Tibor J

2014-06-01

104

3D perception with ROS and PCL  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nowadays, first experiences in 3D perception can be easily obtained using ROS and PCL. ROS provides a communication layer and a user-friendly 3D visualization toolkit. PCL is an open source library containing various algorithms for point cloud processing.

Arbeiter, Georg

2014-01-01

105

3D perception with ROS and PCL  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nowadays, first experiences in 3D perception can be easily obtained using ROS and PCL. ROS provides a communication layer and a user-friendly 3D visualization toolkit. PCL is an open source library containing various algorithms for point cloud processing.

Arbeiter, Georg

2013-01-01

106

ROS1 immunohistochemistry for detection of ROS1-rearranged lung adenocarcinomas.  

Science.gov (United States)

ROS1 gene rearrangements are reported in 1% to 2% of lung adenocarcinomas (ACAs) and are associated with response to the multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor crizotinib. ROS1 rearrangements can be detected using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH); however, immunohistochemistry (IHC) for ROS1 protein is a promising alternate screening modality. In this study, we examine the correlation between ROS1 IHC and FISH and describe the clinicopathologic characteristics of ROS1-rearranged lung tumors. ROS1 IHC was performed using clone D4D6 on whole-tissue sections. In a validation cohort, IHC was compared with ROS1 break-apart FISH in 53 cases of lung ACA enriched for an absence of known genetic alterations and never-smoking status. In a screening cohort, we performed ROS1 IHC on 167 consecutive cases of lung ACA from a routine molecular diagnostic practice and confirmed positive results by FISH. In the validation cohort, 6 cases (11%) were both FISH and IHC positive. One FISH-negative case was strongly ROS1 IHC positive. All IHC-negative cases were FISH negative. In the screening cohort, 2 of 167 (1.2%) had strong, diffuse ROS1 protein expression; a rearrangement was confirmed by FISH in both. ROS1-translocated tumors were wild type for EGFR, KRAS, and ALK and commonly had solid growth with mucinous/cribriform features and psammomatous calcification. ROS1 protein expression in tumor cells is 100% sensitive and 92% specific for ROS1 rearrangements by FISH. ROS1 IHC is an effective screening tool for this rare but clinically important subset of lung ACAs. PMID:23887156

Sholl, Lynette M; Sun, Heather; Butaney, Mohit; Zhang, Chengsheng; Lee, Charles; Jänne, Pasi A; Rodig, Scott J

2013-09-01

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ROS1 Immunohistochemistry for Detection of ROS1-Rearranged Lung Adenocarcinomas  

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ROS1 gene rearrangements are reported in 1–2% of lung adenocarcinomas (ACA) and are associated with response to the multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, crizotinib. ROS1 rearrangements can be detected using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) however immunohistochemistry (IHC) for ROS1 protein is a promising alternate screening modality. In this study we examine the correlation between ROS1 IHC and FISH and describe the clinicopathologic characteristics of ROS1-rearranged lung tumors. ROS1 IHC was performed using clone D4D6 (Cell Signaling Technology, Danvers, MA) on whole tissue sections. In a validation cohort, IHC was compared to ROS1 break-apart FISH in 53 cases of lung ACA enriched for an absence of known genetic alterations and never-smoking status. In a screening cohort, we performed ROS1 IHC on 167 consecutive cases of lung ACA from a routine molecular diagnostics practice and confirmed positive results by FISH. In the validation cohort, 6 cases (11%) were both FISH and IHC positive. One FISH-negative case was strongly ROS1 IHC positive. All IHC negative cases were FISH negative. In the screening cohort, 2 of 167 (1.2%) had strong, diffuse ROS1 protein expression; a rearrangement was confirmed by FISH in both. ROS1-translocated tumors were wild type for EGFR, KRAS, and ALK and commonly had solid growth with mucinous/cribriform features and psammomatous calcification. ROS1 protein expression in tumor cells is 100% sensitive and 92% specific for ROS1 rearrangements by FISH. ROS1 IHC is an effective screening tool for this rare but clinically important subset of lung ACA. PMID:23887156

Sholl, Lynette M.; Sun, Heather; Butaney, Mohit; Zhang, Chengsheng; Lee, Charles; Janne, Pasi A.; Rodig, Scott J.

2013-01-01

108

Differential responses of pancreatic ?-cells to ROS and RNS  

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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) direct the activation of distinct signaling pathways that determine cell fate. In this study, the pathways activated and the mechanisms by which ROS and RNS control the viability of pancreatic ?-cells were examined. Although both nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induce DNA damage, reduce cell viability, and activate AMPK, the mechanisms of AMPK activation and cell death induction differ between each reactive species. Nitric oxide activates the unfolded protein and heat shock responses and MAPK kinase signaling, whereas H2O2 stimulates p53 stabilization and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activation but fails to induce the unfolded protein or heat shock responses or MAPK activation. The control of cell fate decisions is selective for the form of stress. H2O2-mediated reduction in ?-cell viability is controlled by PARP, whereas cell death in response to nitric oxide is PARP independent but associated with the nuclear localization of GAPDH. These findings show that both ROS and RNS activate AMPK, induce DNA damage, and reduce cell viability; however, the pathways controlling the responses of ?-cells are selective for the type of reactive species. PMID:23321474

Meares, Gordon P.; Fontanilla, Dominique; Broniowska, Katarzyna A.; Andreone, Teresa; Lancaster, Jack R.

2013-01-01

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Literature-based discovery of diabetes- and ROS-related targets  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Reactive oxygen species (ROS are known mediators of cellular damage in multiple diseases including diabetic complications. Despite its importance, no comprehensive database is currently available for the genes associated with ROS. Methods We present ROS- and diabetes-related targets (genes/proteins collected from the biomedical literature through a text mining technology. A web-based literature mining tool, SciMiner, was applied to 1,154 biomedical papers indexed with diabetes and ROS by PubMed to identify relevant targets. Over-represented targets in the ROS-diabetes literature were obtained through comparisons against randomly selected literature. The expression levels of nine genes, selected from the top ranked ROS-diabetes set, were measured in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG of diabetic and non-diabetic DBA/2J mice in order to evaluate the biological relevance of literature-derived targets in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy. Results SciMiner identified 1,026 ROS- and diabetes-related targets from the 1,154 biomedical papers (http://jdrf.neurology.med.umich.edu/ROSDiabetes/. Fifty-three targets were significantly over-represented in the ROS-diabetes literature compared to randomly selected literature. These over-represented targets included well-known members of the oxidative stress response including catalase, the NADPH oxidase family, and the superoxide dismutase family of proteins. Eight of the nine selected genes exhibited significant differential expression between diabetic and non-diabetic mice. For six genes, the direction of expression change in diabetes paralleled enhanced oxidative stress in the DRG. Conclusions Literature mining compiled ROS-diabetes related targets from the biomedical literature and led us to evaluate the biological relevance of selected targets in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy.

Pande Manjusha

2010-10-01

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Hydroxychavicol, a betel leaf component, inhibits prostate cancer through ROS-driven DNA damage and apoptosis.  

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Dietary phytochemicals are excellent ROS-modulating agents and have been shown to effectively enhance ROS levels beyond toxic threshold in cancer cells to ensure their selective killing while leaving normal cells unscathed. Here we demonstrate that hydroxychavicol (HC), extracted and purified from Piper betel leaves, significantly inhibits growth and proliferation via ROS generation in human prostate cancer, PC-3 cells. HC perturbed cell-cycle kinetics and progression, reduced clonogenicity and mediated cytotoxicity by ROS-induced DNA damage leading to activation of several pro-apoptotic molecules. In addition, HC treatment elicited a novel autophagic response as evidenced by the appearance of acidic vesicular organelles and increased expression of autophagic markers, LC3-IIb and beclin-1. Interestingly, quenching of ROS with tiron, an antioxidant, offered significant protection against HC-induced inhibition of cell growth and down regulation of caspase-3, suggesting the crucial role of ROS in mediating cell death. The collapse of mitochondrial transmembrane potential by HC further revealed the link between ROS generation and induction of caspase-mediated apoptosis in PC-3 cells. Our data showed remarkable inhibition of prostate tumor xenografts by ~72% upon daily oral administration of 150mg/kg bw HC by quantitative tumor volume measurements and non-invasive real-time bioluminescent imaging. HC was well-tolerated at this dosing level without any observable toxicity. This is the first report to demonstrate the anti-prostate cancer efficacy of HC in vitro and in vivo, which is perhaps attributable to its selective prooxidant activity to eliminate cancer cells thus providing compelling grounds for future preclinical studies to validate its potential usefulness for prostate cancer management. PMID:25064160

Gundala, Sushma Reddy; Yang, Chunhua; Mukkavilli, Rao; Paranjpe, Rutugandha; Brahmbhatt, Meera; Pannu, Vaishali; Cheng, Alice; Reid, Michelle D; Aneja, Ritu

2014-10-01

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Kult?ros paveldo vadyba Gotlande  

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Per pastaruosius dvidešimt penkerius metus švediškas kult?ros paveldo vadybos modelis patyr? daugyb? permain?. Po buvusio biurokratinio, hierarchinio ir direktyvinio ?vertinimo dabar iš naujo atrandamas raidos procesas, kuriame d?mesio atsiduria tokie terminai, kaip demokratija, dalyvavimas, žmon?s ir tarptautin? perspektyva. Švedijos bei Europos kontekste tai ne atsitiktinumas, o veikiau Gotlando visuomen?s tendencij? ir bendrosios raidos rezultatas. Švedijos kult?ros pa...

Edlund, Lennart

2005-01-01

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An Intimate Relationship between ROS and Insulin Signalling: Implications for Antioxidant Treatment of Fatty Liver Disease  

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Oxidative stress damages multiple cellular components including DNA, lipids, and proteins and has been linked to pathological alterations in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) emission, resulting from nutrient overload and mitochondrial dysfunction, is thought to be a principal mediator in NAFLD progression, particularly toward the development of hepatic insulin resistance. In the context of insulin signalling, ROS has a dual role, as both a facilitator and inhibitor of the insulin signalling cascade. ROS mediate these effects through redox modifications of cysteine residues affecting phosphatase enzyme activity, stress-sensitive kinases, and metabolic sensors. This review highlights the intricate relationship between redox-sensitive proteins and insulin signalling in the context of fatty liver disease, and to a larger extent, the importance of reactive oxygen species as primary signalling molecules in metabolically active cells. PMID:24672550

Besse-Patin, Aurele; Estall, Jennifer L.

2014-01-01

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The LRRK2 inhibitor GSK2578215A induces protective autophagy in SH-SY5Y cells: involvement of Drp-1-mediated mitochondrial fission and mitochondrial-derived ROS signaling.  

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Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene have been associated with Parkinson's disease, and its inhibition opens potential new therapeutic options. Among the drug inhibitors of both wild-type and mutant LRRK2 forms is the 2-arylmethyloxy-5-subtitutent-N-arylbenzamide GSK257815A. Using the well-established dopaminergic cell culture model SH-SY5Y, we have investigated the effects of GSK2578215A on crucial neurodegenerative features such as mitochondrial dynamics and autophagy. GSK2578215A induces mitochondrial fragmentation of an early step preceding autophagy. This increase in autophagosome results from inhibition of fusion rather than increases in synthesis. The observed effects were shared with LRRK2-IN-1, a well-described, structurally distinct kinase inhibitor compound or when knocking down LRRK2 expression using siRNA. Studies using the drug mitochondrial division inhibitor 1 indicated that translocation of the dynamin-related protein-1 has a relevant role in this process. In addition, autophagic inhibitors revealed the participation of autophagy as a cytoprotective response by removing damaged mitochondria. GSK2578215A induced oxidative stress as evidenced by the accumulation of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal in SH-SY5Y cells. The mitochondrial-targeted reactive oxygen species scavenger MitoQ positioned these species as second messengers between mitochondrial morphologic alterations and autophagy. Altogether, our results demonstrated the relevance of LRRK2 in mitochondrial-activated pathways mediating in autophagy and cell fate, crucial features in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25118928

Saez-Atienzar, S; Bonet-Ponce, L; Blesa, J R; Romero, F J; Murphy, M P; Jordan, J; Galindo, M F

2014-01-01

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Anticancer effect of calycopterin via PI3K/Akt and MAPK signaling pathways, ROS-mediated pathway and mitochondrial dysfunction in hepatoblastoma cancer (HepG2) cells.  

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Calycopterin is a flavonoid compound isolated from Dracocephalum kotschyi that has multiple medical uses, as an antispasmodic, analgesic, anti-hyperlipidemic, and immunomodulatory agents. However, its biological activity and the mechanism of action are poorly investigated. Herein, we investigated the apoptotic effect of calycopterin against the human hepatoblastoma cancer cell (HepG2) line. We discovered that calycopterin-treated HepG2 cells were killed off by apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner within 24 h, and was characterized by the appearance of nuclear shrinkage, cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase and DNA fragmentation. Calycopterin treatment also affected HepG2 cell viability: (a) by inhibiting cell cycle progression at the G2/M transition leading to growth arrest and apoptosis; (b) by decreasing the expression of mitotic kinase cdc2, mitotic phosphatase cdc25c, mitotic cyclin B1, and apoptotic factors pro-caspases-3 and -9; and (c) increasing the levels of mitochondrial apoptotic-related proteins, intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species, and nitric oxide. We further examined the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK 1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and p-38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and found they all were significantly increased in HepG2 cells treated with calycopterin. Interestingly, we discovered that treated cells had significantly lower Akt phosphorylation. This mode of action for calycopterin in our study provides strong support that inhibition of PI3K/Akt and activation of MAPKs are pivotal in G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of human hepatocarcinoma cells mediated by calycopterin. PMID:25060910

Esmaeili, Mohammad Ali; Farimani, Mahdi Moridi; Kiaei, Mahmoud

2014-12-01

115

Downregulation of ROS-FIG inhibits cell proliferation, colony-formation, cell cycle progression, migration and invasion, while inducing apoptosis in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma cells  

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Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is the second most common primary liver cancer with poor responsiveness to existing drug therapies. Therefore, novel treatment strategies against ICC are required to improve survival. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the role of fused-in-glioblastoma-c-ros-oncogene1 (FIG-ROS) fusion gene in ICC. ROS was positively expressed in ICC tissues and HUCCT1 cells. Plasmids expressing ROS- and FIG-specific shRNAs were constructed and transfected into HUCCT1 cells. The results showed that single transfection of ROS- or FIG-specific shRNA inhibited HUCCT1 cell proliferation, colony formation, cell cycle progression, migration and invasion, while inducing apoptosis. Moreover, the co-inhibition of ROS- and FIG-specific shRNA exhibited stronger effects on HUCCT1 cell proliferation, apoptosis, colony formation, cell cycle progression, migration and invasion, when compared to single inhibition of ROS and FIG. Furthermore, findings of this study suggested that the AKT signaling pathway was involved in the ROS-FIG-mediated biological processes of HUCCT1 cells. In summary, the results suggest that FIG-ROS plays an oncogenic role in ICC. Additionally, ROS1-6290 and FIG-363 segments may become effective therapeutic targets for ICC harboring ROS-FIG fusion protein. PMID:24968753

DENG, GANG; HU, CHENGHUAN; ZHU, LEI; HUANG, FEIZHOU; HUANG, WEI; XU, HONGBO; NIE, WANPIN

2014-01-01

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Downregulation of ROS-FIG inhibits cell proliferation, colony?formation, cell cycle progression, migration and invasion, while inducing apoptosis in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma cells.  

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Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is the second most common primary liver cancer with poor responsiveness to existing drug therapies. Therefore, novel treatment strategies against ICC are required to improve survival. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the role of fused-in-glioblastoma-c-ros-oncogene1 (FIG-ROS) fusion gene in ICC. ROS was positively expressed in ICC tissues and HUCCT1 cells. Plasmids expressing ROS- and FIG-specific shRNAs were constructed and transfected into HUCCT1 cells. The results showed that single transfection of ROS- or FIG-specific shRNA inhibited HUCCT1 cell proliferation, colony formation, cell cycle progression, migration and invasion, while inducing apoptosis. Moreover, the co-inhibition of ROS- and FIG-specific shRNA exhibited stronger effects on HUCCT1 cell proliferation, apoptosis, colony formation, cell cycle progression, migration and invasion, when compared to single inhibition of ROS and FIG. Furthermore, findings of this study suggested that the AKT signaling pathway was involved in the ROS-FIG-mediated biological processes of HUCCT1 cells. In summary, the results suggest that FIG-ROS plays an oncogenic role in ICC. Additionally, ROS1-6290 and FIG-363 segments may become effective therapeutic targets for ICC harboring ROS-FIG fusion protein. PMID:24968753

Deng, Gang; Hu, Chenghuan; Zhu, Lei; Huang, Feizhou; Huang, Wei; Xu, Hongbo; Nie, Wanpin

2014-09-01

117

ROS generation via NOX4 and its utility in the cytological diagnosis of urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Reactive oxygen species (ROS production via NADPH oxidase (NOX contributes to various types of cancer progression. In the present research, we examined the pathobiological role of NADPH oxidase (NOX4-mediated generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in urothelial carcinoma (UC of the urinary bladder, and demonstrated the utility of ROS labeling in urine cytology. Methods NOX4 gene was silenced in vivo and in vitro by NOX4 siRNA transfection with or without atlocollagen. Cell cycle and measurement of ROS were analyzed by flowcytometry. Orthotopic implantation animal model was used in vivo experiment. NOX4 expression in urothelial carcinoma cells was observed by immunohistochemical analysis using surgical specimens of human bladder cancer. Urine cytology was performed after treatment with ROS detection reagents in addition to Papanicolaou staining. Results NOX4 was overexpressed in several UC cell lines and the NOX inhibitor, diphenylene iodonium reduced intracellular ROS and induced p16-dependent cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase. Moreover, silencing of NOX4 by siRNA significantly reduced cancer cell growth in vivo as assessed in an orthotopic mouse model. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated high expression of NOX4 in low grade/non-invasive and high grade/invasive UC including precancerous lesions such as dysplasia but not in normal urothelium. Then, we assessed the usefulness of cytological analysis of ROS producing cells in urine (ROS-C. Urine samples obtained from UC cases and normal controls were treated with fluorescent reagents labeling the hydrogen peroxide/superoxide anion and cytological atypia of ROS positive cells were analyzed. As a result, the sensitivity for detection of low grade, non-invasive UC was greatly increased (35% in conventional cytology (C-C vs. 75% in ROS-C, and the specificity was 95%. Through ROS-C, we observed robust improvement in the accuracy of follow-up urine cytology for cases with previously diagnosed UC, especially in those with low grade/non-invasive cancer recurrence (0% in C-C vs. 64% in ROS-C. Conclusions This is the first report demonstrating that ROS generation through NOX4 contributes to an early step of urothelial carcinogenesis and cancer cell survival. In addition, cytology using ROS labeling could be a useful diagnostic tool in human bladder cancer.

Fujimoto Kiyohide

2011-10-01

118

TNF-alpha-induced ROS production triggering apoptosis is directly linked to Romo1 and Bcl-X(L).  

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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) have an important function in cell death by activating c-Jun N-terminal kinase. However, the exact mechanism of mitochondrial ROS production, after TNF-alpha stimulation, is not clearly understood. In this study, we determined that ROS modulator 1 (Romo1) and B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-X(L)) are directly associated with TNF-alpha-induced ROS production. In response to TNF-alpha, TNF complex II, which consists of receptor-interacting protein 1, TNF receptor-associated protein with death domain, TNF receptor-associated factor 2, Fas-associated death domain protein, and pro-caspase-8, binds to the C-terminus of Romo1 located in the mitochondria. Concurrently, Romo1 recruits Bcl-X(L) to reduce the mitochondrial membrane potential, resulting in ROS production and apoptotic cell death. On the basis of these results, we suggest that Romo1 is a molecular bridge between TNF-alpha signaling and the mitochondria for ROS production that triggers TNF-alpha-mediated apoptosis, as well as a novel target in the development of anti-inflammatory agents that block the origin of ROS production. PMID:20203691

Kim, J J; Lee, S B; Park, J K; Yoo, Y D

2010-09-01

119

Sirt3, Mitochondrial ROS, Ageing, and Carcinogenesis  

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Full Text Available One fundamental observation in cancer etiology is that the rate of malignancies in any mammalian population increases exponentially as a function of age, suggesting a mechanistic link between the cellular processes governing longevity and carcinogenesis. In addition, it is well established that aberrations in mitochondrial metabolism, as measured by increased reactive oxygen species (ROS, are observed in both aging and cancer. In this regard, genes that impact upon longevity have recently been characterized in S. cerevisiae and C. elegans, and the human homologs include the Sirtuin family of protein deacetylases. Interestingly, three of the seven sirtuin proteins are localized into the mitochondria suggesting a connection between the mitochondrial sirtuins, the free radical theory of aging, and carcinogenesis. Based on these results it has been hypothesized that Sirt3 functions as a mitochondrial fidelity protein whose function governs both aging and carcinogenesis by modulating ROS metabolism. Sirt3 has also now been identified as a genomically expressed, mitochondrial localized tumor suppressor and this review will outline potential relationships between mitochondrial ROS/superoxide levels, aging, and cell phenotypes permissive for estrogen and progesterone receptor positive breast carcinogenesis.

David Gius

2011-09-01

120

Map17, a ROS-dependent oncogene  

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Full Text Available MAP17 is a small 17 kDa non-glycosylated membrane protein previously identified as being overexpressed in carcinomas. Breast tumor cells that overexpress MAP17 show an increased tumoral phenotype with enhanced proliferative capabilities both in the presence or the absence of contact inhibition, decreased apoptotic sensitivity and increased migration. MAP17-expressing clones also grow better in nude mice. The increased malignant cell behavior induced by MAP17 is associated with an increase in reactive oxygen species, ROS, production, and the treatment of MAP17-expressing cells with antioxidants results in a reduction in the tumorigenic properties of these cells. The MAP17-dependent increase in ROS and tumorigenesis relies on its PDZ-binding domain because disruption of this sequence by point mutations abolishes the ability of MAP17 to enhance ROS production and tumorigenesis. MAP17 is overexpressed in a great variety of human carcinomas, including breast tumors. Immunohistochemical analysis of MAP17 during cancer progression demonstrates that overexpression of the protein strongly correlates with tumoral progression. Generalized MAP17 overexpression in human carcinomas indicates that MAP17 can be a good marker for tumorigenesis and, especially, for malignant progression.

AmancioCarnero

2012-09-01

 
 
 
 
121

Comparison of UVA-induced ROS and sunscreen nanoparticle-generated ROS in human immune cells.  

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Oxidative damage to cells and tissues from free radicals induced by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation can be attenuated by sunscreen components, such as ZnO and TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs). Although it is known that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated by cells upon exposure to ZnO and TiO2 NPs, it is unknown to what extent the amount generated is altered with UV co-exposure. As it is a critical component for determining the relative risk of these NPs when used in sunscreen formulations, we have investigated ROS generation by these NPs in human THP-1 monocyte immune cells following UVA co-exposure. Whilst the applied UVA dose (6.7 J cm(-2)) did not alter cell viability after 24 h, it induced significant ROS production - causing a 7-fold increase in intracellular peroxide and 3.3-fold increase in mitochondrial superoxide levels after 1 h. However, co-exposure to NPs and UVA generated the same or less ROS than with UVA exposure alone, with the exception of anatase TiO2, which showed significantly increased levels. These findings indicate that ROS generation from nanosunscreens is, in most cases, an insignificant contributor to the overall risk associated with oxidative stress from UVA exposure itself. PMID:24664431

Shen, Cenchao; Turney, Terence W; Piva, Terrence J; Feltis, Bryce N; Wright, Paul F A

2014-05-01

122

Novel signaling axis for ROS generation during K-Ras-induced cellular transformation.  

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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are well known to be involved in oncogene-mediated cellular transformation. However, the regulatory mechanisms underlying ROS generation in oncogene-transformed cells are unclear. In the present study, we found that oncogenic K-Ras induces ROS generation through activation of NADPH oxidase 1 (NOX1), which is a critical regulator for the K-Ras-induced cellular transformation. NOX1 was activated by K-Ras-dependent translocation of p47(phox), a subunit of NOX1 to plasma membrane. Of note, PKC?, when it was activated by PDPK1, directly bound to the SH3-N domain of p47(phox) and catalyzed the phosphorylation on Ser348 and Ser473 residues of p47(phox) C-terminal in a K-Ras-dependent manner, finally leading to its membrane translocation. Notably, oncogenic K-Ras activated all MAPKs (JNK, ERK and p38); however, only p38 was involved in p47(phox)-NOX1-dependent ROS generation and consequent transformation. Importantly, K-Ras-induced activation of p38 led to an activation of PDPK1, which then signals through PKC?, p47(phox) and NOX1. In agreement with the mechanism, inhibition of p38, PDPK1, PKC?, p47(phox) or NOX1 effectively blocked K-Ras-induced ROS generation, anchorage-independent colony formation and tumor formation. Taken together, our findings demonstrated that oncogenic K-Ras activates the signaling cascade p38/PDPK1/PKC?/p47(phox)/NOX1 for ROS generation and consequent malignant cellular transformation. PMID:24632950

Park, M-T; Kim, M-J; Suh, Y; Kim, R-K; Kim, H; Lim, E-J; Yoo, K-C; Lee, G-H; Kim, Y-H; Hwang, S-G; Yi, J-M; Lee, S-J

2014-08-01

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Up-regulation of ROS by mitochondria-dependent bystander signaling contributes to genotoxicity of bystander effects  

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cantly increased CD59- gene loci mutation (increased by 45.9%) and delayed cell death in the progeny of ?+ ICCM-treated bystander cells. In conclusion, the work presented here suggested that up-regulation of the mitochondria-dependent ROS might be very important in mediating genotoxicity of bystander effects.

124

Mitohormesis: Promoting Health and Lifespan by Increased Levels of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS).  

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Increasing evidence indicates that reactive oxygen species (ROS), consisting of superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and multiple others, do not only cause oxidative stress, but rather may function as signaling molecules that promote health by preventing or delaying a number of chronic diseases, and ultimately extend lifespan. While high levels of ROS are generally accepted to cause cellular damage and to promote aging, low levels of these may rather improve systemic defense mechanisms by inducing an adaptive response. This concept has been named mitochondrial hormesis or mitohormesis. We here evaluate and summarize more than 500 publications from current literature regarding such ROS-mediated low-dose signaling events, including calorie restriction, hypoxia, temperature stress, and physical activity, as well as signaling events downstream of insulin/IGF-1 receptors, AMP-dependent kinase (AMPK), target-of-rapamycin (TOR), and lastly sirtuins to culminate in control of proteostasis, unfolded protein response (UPR), stem cell maintenance and stress resistance. Additionally, consequences of interfering with such ROS signals by pharmacological or natural compounds are being discussed, concluding that particularly antioxidants are useless or even harmful. PMID:24910588

Ristow, Michael; Schmeisser, Kathrin

2014-05-01

125

ROS-Dependent Antiproliferative Effect of Brassinin Derivative Homobrassinin in Human Colorectal Cancer Caco2 Cells  

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Full Text Available This study was designed to examine the in vitro antiproliferative effect of brassinin and its derivatives on human cancer cell lines. Among seven tested compounds, homobrassinin (K1; N-[2-(indol-3-ylethyl]-S-methyldithiocarbamate exhibited the most potent activity with IC50 = 8.0 ?M in human colorectal Caco2 cells and was selected for further studies. The flow cytometric analysis revealed a K1-induced increase in the G2/M phase associated with dysregulation of ?-tubulin, ?1-tubulin and ?5-tubulin expression. These findings suggest that the inhibitory effect of K1 can be mediated via inhibition of microtubule formation. Furthermore, simultaneously with G2/M arrest, K1 also increased population of cells with sub-G1 DNA content which is considered to be a marker of apoptotic cell death. Apoptosis was also confirmed by annexin V/PI double staining, DNA fragmentation assay and chromatin condensation assay. The apoptosis was associated with the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, caspase-3 activation as well as intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS production. Moreover, the antioxidant Trolox blocked ROS production, changes in MMP and decreased K1 cytotoxicity, which confirmed the important role of ROS in cell apoptosis. Taken together, our data demonstrate that K1 induces ROS-dependent apoptosis in Caco2 cells and provide the rationale for further in vivo anticancer investigation.

Martin Kello

2014-07-01

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The involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cell cycle activation (G0-to-G1 transition) of plant cells  

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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in various cellular processes in plants. Among those, resistance to abiotic stress, defence mechanisms and cell expansion have been intensively studied during the last years. We recently demonstrated that ROS, in concert with auxin, have a role in cell cycle activation of differentiated leaf cells.1 In this addendum we provide further evidence to show that oxidative stress/ROS accelerate auxin-mediated cell cycle entry (G0-to-G1) and may have a posit...

Fehe?r, Attila; O?tvo?s, Krisztina; Pasternak, Taras P.; Szandtner, Alado?r Pettko?

2008-01-01

127

ROS function in redox signaling and oxidative stress.  

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Oxidative stress refers to elevated intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that cause damage to lipids, proteins and DNA. Oxidative stress has been linked to a myriad of pathologies. However, elevated ROS also act as signaling molecules in the maintenance of physiological functions--a process termed redox biology. In this review we discuss the two faces of ROS--redox biology and oxidative stress--and their contribution to both physiological and pathological conditions. Redox biology involves a small increase in ROS levels that activates signaling pathways to initiate biological processes, while oxidative stress denotes high levels of ROS that result in damage to DNA, protein or lipids. Thus, the response to ROS displays hormesis, given that the opposite effect is observed at low levels compared with that seen at high levels. Here, we argue that redox biology, rather than oxidative stress, underlies physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:24845678

Schieber, Michael; Chandel, Navdeep S

2014-05-19

128

The interplay between autophagy and ROS in tumorigenesis  

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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) at physiological levels are important cell signaling molecules. However, aberrantly high ROS are intimately associated with disease and commonly observed in cancer. Mitochondria are primary sources of intracellular ROS, and their maintenance is essential to cellular health. Autophagy, an evolutionarily conserved process whereby cytoplasmic components are delivered to lysosomes for degradation, is responsible for mitochondrial turnover and removal of damaged mitoc...

Kongara, Sameera; Karantza, Vassiliki

2012-01-01

129

Potentiating antibacterial activity by predictably enhancing endogenous microbial ROS production  

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The ever-increasing incidence of antibiotic-resistant infections combined with a weak pipeline of new antibiotics has created a global public health crisis1. Accordingly, novel strategies for enhancing our antibiotic arsenal are needed. As antibiotics kill bacteria in part by inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS)2–4, we reasoned that targeting microbial ROS production might potentiate antibiotic activity. Here we show that ROS production can be predictably enhanced in Escherichia coli, inc...

Brynildsen, Mark P.; Winkler, Jonathan A.; Spina, Catherine S.; Macdonald, I. Cody; Collins, James J.

2012-01-01

130

Amorphous nanosilica induce endocytosis-dependent ROS generation and DNA damage in human keratinocytes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Clarifying the physicochemical properties of nanomaterials is crucial for hazard assessment and the safe application of these substances. With this in mind, we analyzed the relationship between particle size and the in vitro effect of amorphous nanosilica (nSP. Specifically, we evaluated the relationship between particle size of nSP and the in vitro biological effects using human keratinocyte cells (HaCaT. Results Our results indicate that exposure to nSP of 70 nm diameter (nSP70 induced an elevated level of reactive oxygen species (ROS, leading to DNA damage. A markedly reduced response was observed using submicron-sized silica particles of 300 and 1000 nm diameter. In addition, cytochalasin D-treatment reduced nSP70-mediated ROS generation and DNA damage, suggesting that endocytosis is involved in nSP70-mediated cellular effects. Conclusions Thus, particle size affects amorphous silica-induced ROS generation and DNA damage of HaCaT cells. We believe clarification of the endocytosis pathway of nSP will provide useful information for hazard assessment as well as the design of safer forms of nSPs.

Hirai Toshiro

2011-01-01

131

Benzoquinone activates the ERK/MAPK signaling pathway via ROS production in HL-60 cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Benzene (BZ) is a class I carcinogen and its oxidation to reactive intermediates is a prerequisite of hematoxicity and myelotoxicity. The generated metabolites include hydroquinone, which is further oxidized to the highly reactive 1,4-benzoquinone (BQ) in bone marrow. Therefore, we explored the mechanisms underlying BQ-induced HL-60 cell proliferation by studying the role of BQ-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the activation of the ERK-MAPK signaling pathway. BQ treatment (0.01-30 ?M) showed that doses below 10 ?M did not significantly reduce viability. ROS production after 3 ?M BQ treatment increased threefold; however, catalase addition reduced ROS generation to basal levels. FACS analysis showed that BQ induced a fivefold increase in the proportion of cells in S-phase. We also observed a high proportion of Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) stained cells, indicating a higher DNA synthesis rate. BQ also produced rapid and prolonged phosphorylation of ERK1/2 proteins. Simultaneous treatment with catalase or PD98059, a potent MEK protein inhibitor, reduced cell recruitment into the S-phase and also abolished the ERK1/2 protein phosphorylation induced by BQ, suggesting that MEK/ERK is an important pathway involved in BQ-induced ROS mediated proliferation. The prolonged activation of ERK1/2 contributes to explain the increased S-phase cell recruitment and to understand the leukemogenic processes associated with exposure to benzene metabolites. Thus, the possible mechan metabolites. Thus, the possible mechanism by which BQ induce HL-60 cells to enter the cell cycle and proliferate is linked to ROS production and its growth promoting effects by specific activation of regulating genes known to be activated by redox mechanisms

132

Biochemical studies on hemoglobin modified with reactive oxygen species (ROS).  

Science.gov (United States)

Hemoglobin is the iron-containing oxygen transporting metalloprotein in the red cells of blood in mammals and other animals. Hemoprotein-mediated oxidative stress is thought to play a major role in pathophysiology of cerebral hemorrhage, blast pressure injury, crush injury, myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury. Hemoglobin undergoes oxidation-reduction reactions that lead to both generation and consumption of highly reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. In the present study, hemoglobin molecule was treated with hydrogen peroxide and the modification so incurred was analyzed by UV spectra, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and detection of carbonyl content. Our observations suggest that carbonyl content increases with increase in concentration of hydrogen peroxide. Production of hydroxyl radical was assessed by using benzoate degradation analysis. Our results was in tandem with the fact that hemoglobin on treatment with hydrogen peroxide rapidly generates free-radical species that can degrade benzoate to thiobarbituric acid reactive material which on reacting with thiobarbituric acid gives color. The increase in absorbance of ROS-modified hemoglobin at 532 nm shows the increase in benzoate degradation, which is a parameter of hydroxyl radical formation with increase in concentration of hydrogen peroxide. Modified hemoglobin was treated with catalase, mannitol, thiourea, glutathion, sodium benzoate and their effect were detected by spectroscopy and SDS-PAGE (12%). Substantial scavenging effect of aforementioned antioxidants reiterates the formation of hydroxyl radical. Catalase shows the maximum scavenging effect followed by thiourea and mannitol. PMID:21416337

Khaket, Tejinder Pal; Ahmad, Rizwan

2011-08-01

133

Formononetin potentiates epirubicin-induced apoptosis via ROS production in HeLa cells in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

The frequent development of multidrug resistance (MDR) hampers the efficacy of available anticancer drugs in treating cervical cancer. In this study, we aimed to use formononetin (7-hydroxy-4'-methoxyisoflavone), a potential herbal isoflavone, to intensify the chemosensitivity of human cervical cancer HeLa cells to epirubicin, an anticancer drug. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were correlated with MDR modulation mechanisms, including the transporter inhibition and apoptosis induction. Our results revealed that formononetin significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity of epirubicin. Co-incubation of epirubicin with formononetin increased the ROS levels, including hydrogen peroxide and superoxide free radicals. Epirubicin alone markedly increased the mRNA expression of MDR1, MDR-associated protein (MRP) 1, and MRP2. In contrast, formononetin alone or combined treatment decreased the mRNA expression of MRP1 and MRP2. This result indicates that efflux transporter-mediated epirubicin resistance is inhibited at different degrees by the addition of formononetin. This isoflavone significantly intensified epirubicin uptake into HeLa cells. Apoptosis was induced by formononetin and/or epirubicin, as signified by nuclear DNA fragmentation, chromatin condensation, increased sub-G1 and G2/M phases. The cotreatment triggered the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway indicated by increased Bax-to-Bcl-2 expression ratio, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and significant activation of caspase-9 and -3. In addition, extrinsic/caspases-8 apoptotic pathway was also induced by the cotreatment. N-acetyl cysteine abrogated these events induced by formononetin, supporting the involvement of ROS in the MDR reversal mechanism. This study pioneered in demonstrating that formononetin may potentiate the cytotoxicity of epirubicin in HeLa cells through the ROS-mediated MRP inhibition and concurrent activation of the mitochondrial and death receptor pathways of apoptosis. Hence, the circumvention of pump and non-pump resistance using formononetin and epirubicin may pave the way for a powerful chemotherapeutic regimen for treating human cervical cancer. PMID:23867903

Lo, Yu-Li; Wang, Wanjen

2013-10-01

134

[Relation analysis between intracellular distribution of nanomateriarls, ROS generation and DNA damage].  

Science.gov (United States)

With recent development of nanotechnology, nanomaterials (NMs) have been developed with innovative function and expected to cause a paradigm shift in various industry such as cosmetics, medicine and food. NMs begin to establish firm position in Japan as base of various industrials, in fact, a part of them have been already applied to various products. On the other hand, it is suggested that these innovative properties may induce unknown biological responses. It is concerned about the effect of these innovative properties to human health. Based on these situations, to evaluate risk of NMs, it is started to collect information about safety of NMs (Nano Safety Science). With this in mind, we analyzed the relationship between particle size and the in vitro effect of amorphous nanosilica (nSP) using human keratinocyte cells (HaCaT). Our results indicate that exposure to nSP of 70 nm diameter (nSP70) induced an elevated level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to DNA damage. On the other hand, a markedly reduced response was observed using submicron-sized silica particles. Next, we investigate relationship between endocytosis, generation of ROS and DNA damage using endocytosis inhibitor, cytochalasin D (CytoD). As result, CytoD -treatment reduced nSP70-mediated ROS generation and DNA damage. This suggested that endocytosis is involved in nSP70-mediated cellular effects. Thus, particle size affects amorphous silica-induced ROS generation and DNA damage in HaCaT cells. We believe that clarification of the endocytosis pathway of nSP will provide useful information for hazard identification as well as the design of safer forms of nSP. PMID:22382833

Yoshida, Tokuyuki; Yoshikawa, Tomoaki; Nabeshi, Hiromi; Tsutsumi, Yasuo

2012-01-01

135

ROS-dependent anticandidal activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesized by using egg albumen as a biotemplate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have attracted great attention because of their superior optical properties and wide application in biomedical science. However, little is known about the anticandidal activity of ZnO NPs against Candida albicans (C. albicans). This study was designed to develop the green approach to synthesize ZnO NPs using egg white (denoted as EtZnO NPs) and investigated its possible mechanism of antimicrobial activity against C. albicans 077. It was also notable that anticandidal activity of EtZnO NPs is correlated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in a dose dependent manner. Protection of histidine against ROS clearly suggests the implication of ROS in anticandidal activity of EtZnO NPs. This green approach based on egg white-mediated synthesis of ZnO NPs paves the way for developing cost effective, eco-friendly and promising antimicrobial nanomaterial for applications in medicine. (paper)

136

The interplay between ROS and tubulin cytoskeleton in plants  

Science.gov (United States)

Plants have to deal with reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, since it could potentially cause severe damages to different cellular components. On the other hand, ROS functioning as important second messengers are implicated in various developmental processes and are transiently produced during biotic or abiotic stresses. Furthermore, the microtubules (MTs) play a primary role in plant development and appear as potent players in sensing stressful situations and in the subsequent cellular responses. Emerging evidence suggests that ROS affect MTs in multiple ways. The cellular redox status seems to be tightly coupled with MTs. ROS signals regulate the organization of tubulin cytoskeleton and induce tubulin modifications. This review aims at summarizing the signaling mechanisms and the key operators orchestrating the crosstalk between ROS and tubulin cytoskeleton in plant cells. The contribution of several molecules, including microtubule associated proteins, oxidases, kinases, phospholipases, and transcription factors, is highlighted. PMID:24521945

Livanos, Pantelis; Galatis, Basil; Apostolakos, Panagiotis

2014-01-01

137

Mitochondrial flashes: new insights into mitochondrial ROS signalling and beyond.  

Science.gov (United States)

Respiratory mitochondria undergo stochastic, intermittent bursts of superoxide production accompanied by transient depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential and reversible opening of the membrane permeability transition pore. These discrete events were named 'superoxide flashes' for the reactive oxygen species (ROS) signal involved, and 'mitochondrial flashes' (mitoflashes) for the entirety of the multifaceted and intertwined mitochondrial processes. In contrast to the flashless basal ROS production of 'homeostatic ROS' for redox regulation, bursting ROS production during mitoflashes may provide 'signalling ROS' at the organelle level, fulfilling distinctly different cell functions. Mounting evidence indicates that mitoflash frequency is richly regulated over a broad range, and represents a novel, universal, and 'digital' readout of mitochondrial functional status and of the mitochondrial stress response. An emerging view is that mitoflashes participate in vital processes including metabolism, cell differentiation, the stress response and ageing. These recent advances shed new light on the role of mitochondrial functional dynamics in health and disease. PMID:25038239

Hou, Tingting; Wang, Xianhua; Ma, Qi; Cheng, Heping

2014-09-01

138

Activation of PPAR? counteracts angiotensin II-induced ROS generation by inhibiting rac1 translocation in vascular smooth muscle cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Angiotensin II (Ang II)-mediated modification of the redox milieu of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) has been implicated in several pathophysiological processes, including cell proliferation, migration and differentiation. In this study, we demonstrate that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ? counteracts Ang II-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in VSMCs. Activation of PPAR? by GW501516, a specific ligand for PPAR?, significantly reduced Ang II-induced ROS generation in VSMCs. This effect was, however, reversed in the presence of small interfering (si)RNA against PPAR?. The marked increase in ROS levels induced by Ang II was also eliminated by the inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) but not of protein kinase C, suggesting the involvement of the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway in this process. Accordingly, ablation of Akt with siRNA further enhanced the inhibitory effects of GW501516 in Ang II-induced superoxide production. Ligand-activated PPAR? also blocked Ang II-induced translocation of Rac1 to the cell membrane, inhibiting the activation of NADPH oxidases and consequently ROS generation. These results indicate that ligand-activated PPAR? plays an important role in the cellular response to oxidative stress by decreasing ROS generated by Ang II in vascular cells. PMID:22519881

Lee, Hanna; Ham, Sun Ah; Kim, Min Young; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Paek, Kyung Shin; Kang, Eun Sil; Kim, Hyo Jung; Hwang, Jung Seok; Yoo, Taesik; Park, Chankyu; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Lim, Dae-Seog; Han, Chang Woo; Seo, Han Geuk

2012-07-01

139

Potentiating antibacterial activity by predictably enhancing endogenous microbial ROS production.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ever-increasing incidence of antibiotic-resistant infections combined with a weak pipeline of new antibiotics has created a global public health crisis. Accordingly, novel strategies for enhancing our antibiotic arsenal are needed. As antibiotics kill bacteria in part by inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS), we reasoned that targeting microbial ROS production might potentiate antibiotic activity. Here we show that ROS production can be predictably enhanced in Escherichia coli, increasing the bacteria's susceptibility to oxidative attack. We developed an ensemble approach of genome-scale, metabolic models capable of predicting ROS production in E. coli. The metabolic network was systematically perturbed and its flux distribution analyzed to identify targets predicted to increase ROS production. Targets that were predicted in silico were experimentally validated and further shown to confer increased susceptibility to oxidants. Validated targets also increased susceptibility to killing by antibiotics. This work establishes a systems-based method to tune ROS production in bacteria and demonstrates that increased microbial ROS production can potentiate killing by oxidants and antibiotics. PMID:23292609

Brynildsen, Mark P; Winkler, Jonathan A; Spina, Catherine S; MacDonald, I Cody; Collins, James J

2013-02-01

140

Singlet oxygen and ROS in a new light: low-dose subcellular photodynamic treatment enhances proliferation at the single cell level.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two-photon excitation of a sensitizer with a focused laser beam was used to create a spatially-localized subcellular population of reactive oxygen species, ROS, in single HeLa cells. The sensitizer used was protoporphyrin IX, PpIX, endogenously derived from 5-aminolevulinic acid delivered to the cells. Although we infer that singlet oxygen, O2(a(1)?g), is one ROS produced upon irradiation of PpIX under these conditions, it is possible that the superoxide ion, O2(-?), may also play a role in this system. With a "high" dose of PpIX-sensitized ROS, the expected death of the cell was observed. However, under "low dose" conditions, clear signs of cell proliferation were observed. The present results facilitate studies of ROS-mediated signalling in imaging-based single cell experiments. PMID:25051122

Blázquez-Castro, Alfonso; Breitenbach, Thomas; Ogilby, Peter R

2014-09-01

 
 
 
 
141

Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species: which ROS signals cardioprotection?  

Science.gov (United States)

Mitochondria are the major effectors of cardioprotection by procedures that open the mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channel (mitoKATP), including ischemic and pharmacological preconditioning. MitoKATP opening leads to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), which then activate a mitoKATP-associated PKC?, which phosphorylates mitoKATP and leaves it in a persistent open state (Costa AD, Garlid KD. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 295, H874-H882, 2008). The ROS responsible for this effect is not known. The present study focuses on superoxide (O2(·-)), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hydroxyl radical (HO(·)), each of which has been proposed as the signaling ROS. Feedback activation of mitoKATP provides an ideal setting for studying endogenous ROS signaling. Respiring rat heart mitochondria were preincubated with ATP and diazoxide, together with an agent being tested for interference with this process, either by scavenging ROS or by blocking ROS transformations. The mitochondria were then assayed to determine whether or not the persistent phosphorylated open state was achieved. Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), dimethylformamide (DMF), deferoxamine, Trolox, and bromoenol lactone each interfered with formation of the ROS-dependent open state. Catalase did not interfere with this step. We also found that DMF blocked cardioprotection by both ischemic preconditioning and diazoxide. The lack of a catalase effect and the inhibitory effects of agents acting downstream of HO(·) excludes H2O2 as the endogenous signaling ROS. Taken together, the results support the conclusion that the ROS message is carried by a downstream product of HO(·) and that it is probably a product of phospholipid oxidation. PMID:23913710

Garlid, Anders O; Jaburek, Martin; Jacobs, Jeremy P; Garlid, Keith D

2013-10-01

142

ROS signaling, oxidative stress and Nrf2 in pancreatic beta-cell function  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This review focuses on the emerging evidence that reactive oxygen species (ROS) derived from glucose metabolism, such as H2O2, act as metabolic signaling molecules for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in pancreatic beta-cells. Particular emphasis is placed on the potential inhibitory role of endogenous antioxidants, which rise in response to oxidative stress, in glucose-triggered ROS and GSIS. We propose that cellular adaptive response to oxidative stress challenge, such as nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated antioxidant induction, plays paradoxical roles in pancreatic beta-cell function. On the one hand, induction of antioxidant enzymes protects beta-cells from oxidative damage and possible cell death, thus minimizing oxidative damage-related impairment of insulin secretion. On the other hand, the induction of antioxidant enzymes by Nrf2 activation blunts glucose-triggered ROS signaling, thus resulting in reduced GSIS. These two premises are potentially relevant to impairment of beta-cells occurring in the late and early stage of Type 2 diabetes, respectively. In addition, we summarized our recent findings that persistent oxidative stress due to absence of uncoupling protein 2 activates cellular adaptive response which is associated with impaired pancreatic beta-cell function.

143

MaROS: Information Management Service  

Science.gov (United States)

This software is provided by the Mars Relay Operations Service (MaROS) task to a variety of Mars projects for the purpose of coordinating communications sessions between landed spacecraft assets and orbiting spacecraft assets at Mars. The Information Management Service centralizes a set of functions previously distributed across multiple spacecraft operations teams, and as such, greatly improves visibility into the end-to-end strategic coordination process. Most of the process revolves around the scheduling of communications sessions between the spacecraft during periods of time when a landed asset on Mars is geometrically visible by an orbiting spacecraft. These relay sessions are used to transfer data both to and from the landed asset via the orbiting asset on behalf of Earth-based spacecraft operators. This software component is an application process running as a Java virtual machine. The component provides all service interfaces via a Representational State Transfer (REST) protocol over https to external clients. There are two general interaction modes with the service: upload and download of data. For data upload, the service must execute logic specific to the upload data type and trigger any applicable calculations including pass delivery latencies and overflight conflicts. For data download, the software must retrieve and correlate requested information and deliver to the requesting client. The provision of this service enables several key advancements over legacy processes and systems. For one, this service represents the first time that end-to-end relay information is correlated into a single shared repository. The software also provides the first multimission latency calculator; previous latency calculations had been performed on a mission-by-mission basis.

Allard, Daniel A.; Gladden, Roy E.; Wright, Jesse J.; Hy, Franklin H.; Rabideau, Gregg R.; Wallick, Michael N.

2011-01-01

144

Amorphous nanosilica particles induce ROS generation in Langerhans cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Generation of total intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured in XS52 cells, a Langerhans cell-like line, treated with different sized amorphous silica particles. The results suggested that exposure to amorphous nanosilica particles (nSPs) with a particle size of 70 nm induced a higher level of ROS generation than did exposure to micron-sized amorphous silica particles. This finding means that it is essential to examine the biological effects of ROS generated after exposure to nSPs, which will provide useful information for hazard identification as well as the design of safer nanomaterials. PMID:22957442

Yoshida, T; Yoshikawa, T; Nabeshi, H; Matsuyama, K; Hirai, T; Akase, T; Yoshioka, Y; Itoh, N; Tsutsumi, Y

2012-08-01

145

ROS dependence of cyclooxygenase-2 induction in rats subjected to unilateral ureteral obstruction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oxidative stress resulting from unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) may be aggravated by increased production of ROS. Previous studies have demonstrated increased cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression in renal medullary interstitial cells (RMICs) in response to UUO. We investigated, both in vivo and in vitro, the role of ROS in the induction of COX-2 in rats subjected to UUO and in RMICs exposed to oxidative and mechanical stress. Rats subjected to 3-day UUO were treated with two mechanistically distinct antioxidants, the NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) and the complex I inhibitor rotenone (ROT), to interfere with ROS production. We found that UUO-mediated induction of COX-2 in the inner medulla was attenuated by both antioxidants. In addition, DPI and ROT reduced tubular damage and oxidative stress after UUO. Moreover, mechanical stretch induced COX-2 and oxidative stress in RMICs. Likewise, RMICs exposed to H2O2 as an inducer of oxidative stress showed increased COX-2 expression and activity, both of which were reduced by DPI and ROT. Similarly, ROS production, which was increased after exposure of RMICs to H2O2, was also reduced by DPI and ROT. Furthermore, oxidative stress-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 was blocked by both antioxidants, and inhibition of ERK1/2 and p38 attenuated the induction of COX-2 in RMICs. Notably, COX-2 inhibitors further exacerbated the oxidative stress level in H2O2-exposed RMICs. We conclude that oxidative stress as a consequence of UUO stimulates COX-2 expression through the activation of multiple MAPKs and that the induction of COX-2 may exert a cytoprotective function in RMICs. PMID:24226522

Ostergaard, Martin; Christensen, Michael; Nilsson, Line; Carlsen, Inge; Frøkiær, Jørgen; Nørregaard, Rikke

2014-01-01

146

ROS-dependence of cyclooxygenase-2 induction in rats subjected to unilateral ureteral obstruction  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Oxidative stress resulting from unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) may be aggravated by increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Previous studies demonstrated increased COX-2 expression in renal medullary interstitial cells (RMIC) in response to UUO. We investigated both in vivo and in vitro the role of ROS in COX-2 induction in rats subjected to UUO and RMIC cells exposed to oxidative and mechanical stress. Rats subjected to 3-day UUO were treated with 2 mechanistically distinct antioxidants, the NADPH-oxidase inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) and the complex I inhibitor rotenone (ROT), to interfere with ROS production. We found that UUO-mediated induction of COX-2 in inner medulla was attenuated by both antioxidants. In addition, DPI and ROT reduced tubular damage and oxidative stress after UUO. Moreover, mechanical stretch induce COX-2 and oxidative stress in RMIC. Likewise, RMIC cells exposed to H2O2 as an inducer of oxidative stress showed increased COX-2 expression and activity, both of which were reduced by DPI and ROT. Similarly, ROS production, which was increased following exposure of RMIC cells to H2O2, was also reduced by DPI and ROT. Furthermore, oxidative stress-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 was blocked by both antioxidants, and inhibition of ERK1/2 and p38 attenuated COX-2 induction in RMIC cells. Notably, COX-2 inhibitors further exacerbated the oxidative stress level in H2O2-exposed RMIC cells. We conclude that oxidative stress as a consequence of UUO stimulates the COX-2 expression through activation of multiple MAP kinases and that COX-2 induction may exert a cytoprotective function in RMIC cells.

Oestergaard, Martin; Christensen, Michael

2013-01-01

147

Prostaglandin E2 is critical for the development of niacin-deficiency-induced photosensitivity via ROS production  

Science.gov (United States)

Pellagra is a photosensitivity syndrome characterized by three ``D's'': diarrhea, dermatitis, and dementia as a result of niacin deficiency. However, the molecular mechanisms of photosensitivity dermatitis, the hallmark abnormality of this syndrome, remain unclear. We prepared niacin deficient mice in order to develop a murine model of pellagra. Niacin deficiency induced photosensitivity and severe diarrhea with weight loss. In addition, niacin deficient mice exhibited elevated expressions of COX-2 and PGE syntheses (Ptges) mRNA. Consistently, photosensitivity was alleviated by a COX inhibitor, deficiency of Ptges, or blockade of EP4 receptor signaling. Moreover, enhanced PGE2 production in niacin deficiency was mediated via ROS production in keratinocytes. In line with the above murine findings, human skin lesions of pellagra patients confirmed the enhanced expression of Ptges. Niacin deficiency-induced photosensitivity was mediated through EP4 signaling in response to increased PGE2 production via induction of ROS formation.

Sugita, Kazunari; Ikenouchi-Sugita, Atsuko; Nakayama, Yasuko; Yoshioka, Haruna; Nomura, Takashi; Sakabe, Jun-Ichi; Nakahigashi, Kyoko; Kuroda, Etsushi; Uematsu, Satoshi; Nakamura, Jun; Akira, Shizuo; Nakamura, Motonobu; Narumiya, Shuh; Miyachi, Yoshiki; Tokura, Yoshiki; Kabashima, Kenji

2013-10-01

148

Molecular pathways: ROS1 fusion proteins in cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetic alterations that lead to constitutive activation of kinases are frequently observed in cancer. In many cases, the growth and survival of tumor cells rely upon an activated kinase such that inhibition of its activity is an effective anticancer therapy. ROS1 is a receptor tyrosine kinase that has recently been shown to undergo genetic rearrangements in a variety of human cancers, including glioblastoma, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), cholangiocarcinoma, ovarian cancer, gastric adenocarcinoma, colorectal cancer, inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor, angiosarcoma, and epithelioid hemangioendothelioma. These rearrangements create fusion proteins in which the kinase domain of ROS1 becomes constitutively active and drives cellular proliferation. Targeting ROS1 fusion proteins with the small-molecule inhibitor crizotinib is showing promise as an effective therapy in patients with NSCLC whose tumors are positive for these genetic abnormalities. This review discusses the recent preclinical and clinical findings on ROS1 gene fusions in cancer. PMID:23719267

Davies, Kurtis D; Doebele, Robert C

2013-08-01

149

Philip Glass, Scott Walker ja Sigur Ros! / Immo Mihkelson  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Pimedate Ööde 11. filmifestivali muusikafilme - Austraalia "Glass: Philipi portree 12 osas" (rež. Scott Hicks), Islandi "Sigur Ros kodus" (rež. Dean DeBois), Suurbritannia "Scott Walker: 30 Century Man" (rež. Stephen Kijak)

Mihkelson, Immo, 1959-

2007-01-01

150

Hypoxia Triggers AMPK Activation through Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Activation of Calcium Release-Activated Calcium Channels ?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an energy sensor activated by increases in [AMP] or by oxidant stress (reactive oxygen species [ROS]). Hypoxia increases cellular ROS signaling, but the pathways underlying subsequent AMPK activation are not known. We tested the hypothesis that hypoxia activates AMPK by ROS-mediated opening of calcium release-activated calcium (CRAC) channels. Hypoxia (1.5% O2) augments cellular ROS as detected by the redox-sensitive green fluorescent protein (roGFP) but...

Mungai, Paul T.; Waypa, Gregory B.; Jairaman, Amit; Prakriya, Murali; Dokic, Danijela; Ball, Molly K.; Schumacker, Paul T.

2011-01-01

151

Lietuvos meno ir kult?ros paveldo tapatumo tyrimai  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

„Lietuvos meno ir kult?ros paveldo tapatumo tyrim?“ klasteris ?kurtas 2007 m., j? sudaro 10 mokslinink?, 6 doktorantai. Klasteryje pl?tojami Lietuvos meno ir kult?ros paveldo tyrimai. Mokslin? veikla derinama su paveldo objekt? ekspertavimu ir animavimo projektais. Mokslinink? iniciatyva prad?tas leisti žurnalas „Meno istorija ir kritika“ 2007 m. ?rašytas ? MLA International Bibliography. Svariausi? rezultat? (mokslini? straipsni?, kit? leidini?, surengt? konfere...

Luks?ionyte?, Nijole?; Kulvietyte?-slavinskiene?, Aus?rine?

2012-01-01

152

Rac2-MRC-cIII-generated ROS cause genomic instability in chronic myeloid leukemia stem cells and primitive progenitors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase (CML-CP) is induced by BCR-ABL1 oncogenic tyrosine kinase. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors eliminate the bulk of CML-CP cells, but fail to eradicate leukemia stem cells (LSCs) and leukemia progenitor cells (LPCs) displaying innate and acquired resistance, respectively. These cells may accumulate genomic instability, leading to disease relapse and/or malignant progression to a fatal blast phase. In the present study, we show that Rac2 GTPase alters mitochondrial membrane potential and electron flow through the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex III (MRC-cIII), thereby generating high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in CML-CP LSCs and primitive LPCs. MRC-cIII-generated ROS promote oxidative DNA damage to trigger genomic instability, resulting in an accumulation of chromosomal aberrations and tyrosine kinase inhibitor-resistant BCR-ABL1 mutants. JAK2(V617F) and FLT3(ITD)-positive polycythemia vera cells and acute myeloid leukemia cells also produce ROS via MRC-cIII. In the present study, inhibition of Rac2 by genetic deletion or a small-molecule inhibitor and down-regulation of mitochondrial ROS by disruption of MRC-cIII, expression of mitochondria-targeted catalase, or addition of ROS-scavenging mitochondria-targeted peptide aptamer reduced genomic instability. We postulate that the Rac2-MRC-cIII pathway triggers ROS-mediated genomic instability in LSCs and primitive LPCs, which could be targeted to prevent the relapse and malignant progression of CML. PMID:22411871

Nieborowska-Skorska, Margaret; Kopinski, Piotr K; Ray, Regina; Hoser, Grazyna; Ngaba, Danielle; Flis, Sylwia; Cramer, Kimberly; Reddy, Mamatha M; Koptyra, Mateusz; Penserga, Tyrone; Glodkowska-Mrowka, Eliza; Bolton, Elisabeth; Holyoake, Tessa L; Eaves, Connie J; Cerny-Reiterer, Sabine; Valent, Peter; Hochhaus, Andreas; Hughes, Timothy P; van der Kuip, Heiko; Sattler, Martin; Wiktor-Jedrzejczak, Wieslaw; Richardson, Christine; Dorrance, Adrienne; Stoklosa, Tomasz; Williams, David A; Skorski, Tomasz

2012-05-01

153

Carbon monoxide differentially inhibits TLR signaling pathways by regulating ROS-induced trafficking of TLRs to lipid rafts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Carbon monoxide (CO), a byproduct of heme catabolism by heme oxygenase (HO), confers potent antiinflammatory effects. Here we demonstrate that CO derived from HO-1 inhibited Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, 4, 5, and 9 signaling, but not TLR3-dependent signaling, in macrophages. Ligand-mediated receptor trafficking to lipid rafts represents an early event in signal initiation of immune cells. Trafficking of TLR4 to lipid rafts in response to LPS was reactive oxygen species (ROS) dependent because ...

Nakahira, Kiichi; Kim, Hong Pyo; Geng, Xue Hui; Nakao, Atsunori; Wang, Xue; Murase, Noriko; Drain, Peter F.; Wang, Xiaomei; Sasidhar, Madhu; Nabel, Elizabeth G.; Takahashi, Toru; Lukacs, Nicholas W.; Ryter, Stefan W.; Morita, Kiyoshi; Choi, Augustine M. K.

2006-01-01

154

PO2 Cycling Reduces Diaphragm Fatigue by Attenuating ROS Formation  

Science.gov (United States)

Prolonged muscle exposure to low PO2 conditions may cause oxidative stress resulting in severe muscular injuries. We hypothesize that PO2 cycling preconditioning, which involves brief cycles of diaphragmatic muscle exposure to a low oxygen level (40 Torr) followed by a high oxygen level (550 Torr), can reduce intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as attenuate muscle fatigue in mouse diaphragm under low PO2. Accordingly, dihydrofluorescein (a fluorescent probe) was used to monitor muscular ROS production in real time with confocal microscopy during a lower PO2 condition. In the control group with no PO2 cycling, intracellular ROS formation did not appear during the first 15 min of the low PO2 period. However, after 20 min of low PO2, ROS levels increased significantly by ?30% compared to baseline, and this increase continued until the end of the 30 min low PO2 condition. Conversely, muscles treated with PO2 cycling showed a complete absence of enhanced fluorescence emission throughout the entire low PO2 period. Furthermore, PO2 cycling-treated diaphragm exhibited increased fatigue resistance during prolonged low PO2 period compared to control. Thus, our data suggest that PO2 cycling mitigates diaphragm fatigue during prolonged low PO2. Although the exact mechanism for this protection remains to be elucidated, it is likely that through limiting excessive ROS levels, PO2 cycling initiates ROS-related antioxidant defenses. PMID:25299212

Zuo, Li; Diaz, Philip T.; Chien, Michael T.; Roberts, William J.; Kishek, Juliana; Best, Thomas M.; Wagner, Peter D.

2014-01-01

155

Domain-specific gene activation by parathyroid hormone in osteoblastic ROS17/2.8 cells.  

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Parathyroid hormone (PTH)-mediated gene activation was assessed in the osteoblast-like rat cell line ROS17/2.8 with two PTH fragments harboring distinct activating domains: PTH-(1-34) and PTH-(28-48). The PTH response of genes expressed immediate early in the cell cycle or in the osteoblast developmental sequence was investigated. In addition, subtractive cloning was used to identify genes in ROS17/2.8 cells that are activated by the two PTH domains. PTH-(1-34) immediately increased the transcript levels of c-fos and c-jun at a considerably higher rate than PTH-(28-48). A significant immediate PTH effect on osteoblastic marker genes could not be detected, with the exception of elevated ornithine decarboxylase transcript levels. However, continuous application of PTH-(1-34) increased transcript levels of the osteoblast-specific osteocalcin gene and reduced those of other osteoblastic marker genes including alkaline phosphatase and the PTH/PTH-related peptide receptor. By subtractive cloning, nine cDNAs were isolated corresponding to mRNAs directly up-regulated by PTH-(1-34) or PTH-(28-48). Among these were a cyclic phosphodiesterase, a (cytosine 5)-methyltransferase, an 80-kDa protein kinase C substrate, junB, and a novel GC-binding protein. Three cDNAs are unknown at present. Interestingly, in all cases, the efficiency of gene activation by PTH-(28-48) was substantially lower in comparison with PTH-(1-34). PTH-mediated protein kinase C signaling in ROS17/2.8 cells may therefore constitute a minor pathway in comparison with the dominant cAMP/protein kinase A cascade. PMID:8702988

Hollnagel, A; Schröder, D; Gross, G

1996-09-01

156

Function of cytochrome P450 enzymes RosC and RosD in the biosynthesis of rosamicin macrolide antibiotic produced by Micromonospora rosaria.  

Science.gov (United States)

The cytochrome P450 enzyme-encoding genes rosC and rosD were cloned from the rosamicin biosynthetic gene cluster of Micromonospora rosaria IFO13697. The functions of RosC and RosD were demonstrated by gene disruption and complementation with M. rosaria and bioconversion of rosamicin biosynthetic intermediates with Escherichia coli expressing RosC and RosD. It is proposed that M. rosaria IFO13697 has two pathway branches that lead from the first desosaminyl rosamicin intermediate, 20-deoxo-20-dihydro-12,13-deepoxyrosamicin, to rosamicin. PMID:23274670

Iizaka, Yohei; Higashi, Noriko; Ishida, Masanari; Oiwa, Reina; Ichikawa, Yumi; Takeda, Moeka; Anzai, Yojiro; Kato, Fumio

2013-03-01

157

Aged Garlic Extract Reduces ROS Production and Cell Death Induced by 6-Hydroxydopamine through Activation of the Nrf2-ARE Pathway in SH-SY5Y Cells  

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Full Text Available Many degenerative or pathological processes, such as aging, cancer and coronary heart disease, are related to reactive oxygen species (ROS and radical-mediated reactions. We examined the effectiveness of aged garlic extract (AGE, a garlic preparation rich in water-soluble cysteinyl moieties, for protection of cells from ROS produced by 6-hydroxy-dopamine (6-OHDA using human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Concomitant treatment of cells with AGE (2 and 4 mg/ml showed the dose-dependent protective effect on the cell death induced by 6-OHDA. In addition, the AGE treatment significantly suppressed the increase of ROS generation by 6-OHDA. Furthermore, the protective effect of AGE was accompanied by activation of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2-antioxidant response element (ARE pathway and the increase of mRNAs of heme oxygenase-1 and NAD(PH quinone oxidoreductase 1. These two enzymes are important in the cellular antioxidant system. These results indicated that AGE protected cells from ROS damage by not only capturing ROS directly but also activating the cellular antioxidant system by stimulating antioxidant gene expression via the Nrf2-ARE pathway. The present study suggested that AGE may be useful for prevention and treatment of cell damage caused by ROS.

Tomoko Fukuuchi

2013-01-01

158

Surfactin-induced apoptosis through ROS-ERS-Ca2+-ERK pathways in HepG2 cells.  

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Although surfactin is able to inhibit cancer cell proliferation and to induce cancer cell apoptosis, the molecular mechanism responsible for this process remain elusive. In this study, the signaling network underlying the apoptosis of human hepatoma (HepG2) cells induced by surfactin was investigated. It is found that the reaction oxygen species (ROS) production and intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) accumulation are both induced HepG2 cells apoptosis. The [Ca(2+)]i exaltation was partly depended on the Ca(2+) release from inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and ryanodine (Ry) receptors channels, which both triggered endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS). The results showed that surfactin induced the ROS production and ROS production led to ERS. The occurrence of ERS increased the [Ca(2+)]i level and the processes associated with blocking extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. According to a comprehensive review of all the evidence, it is concluded that surfactin induces apoptosis of HepG2 cells through a ROS-ERS-Ca(2+) mediated ERK pathway. PMID:23733672

Wang, Chun-ling; Liu, Chuan; Niu, Li-li; Wang, Li-rui; Hou, Li-hua; Cao, Xiao-hong

2013-01-01

159

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced cytokine production and cytotoxicity of PAMAM dendrimers in J774A.1 cells  

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The immunotoxicity of three generations of polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers (G-4, G-5 and G-6) was evaluated in mouse macrophage cells in vitro. Using the Alamar blue and MTT assays, a generation dependent cytotoxicity of the PAMAM dendrimers was found whereby G-6 > G-5 > G-4. The toxic response of the PAMAM dendrimers correlated well with the number of surface primary amino groups, with increasing number resulting in an increase in toxic response. An assessment of intracellular ROS generation by the PAMAM dendrimers was performed by measuring the increased fluorescence as a result of intracellular oxidation of Carboxy H2DCFDA to DCF both quantitatively using plate reader and qualitatively by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The inflammatory mediators macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2), tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interleukin-6, (IL-6) were measured by the enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) following exposure of mouse macrophage cells to PAMAM dendrimers. A generation dependent ROS and cytokine production was found, which correlated well with the cytotoxicological response and therefore number of surface amino groups. A clear time sequence of increased ROS generation (maximum at ? 4 h), TNF-? and IL-6 secretion (maximum at ? 24 h), MIP-2 levels and cell death (? 72 h) was observed. The intracellular ROS generation and cytokine production induced cytotoxicity point towards the mechanistic pathway of cell death upon exposure to PAMAM dendrimers.

160

Induction of Apoptosis and Antiproliferative Activity of Naringenin in Human Epidermoid Carcinoma Cell through ROS Generation and Cell Cycle Arrest  

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A natural predominant flavanone naringenin, especially abundant in citrus fruits, has a wide range of pharmacological activities. The search for antiproliferative agents that reduce skin carcinoma is a task of great importance. The objective of this study was to analyze the anti-proliferative and apoptotic mechanism of naringenin using MTT assay, DNA fragmentation, nuclear condensation, change in mitochondrial membrane potential, cell cycle kinetics and caspase-3 as biomarkers and to investigate the ability to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) initiating apoptotic cascade in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Results showed that naringenin exposure significantly reduced the cell viability of A431 cells (p<0.01) with a concomitant increase in nuclear condensation and DNA fragmentation in a dose dependent manner. The intracellular ROS generation assay showed statistically significant (p<0.001) dose-related increment in ROS production for naringenin. It also caused naringenin-mediated epidermoid carcinoma apoptosis by inducing mitochondrial depolarization. Cell cycle study showed that naringenin induced cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase of cell cycle and caspase-3 analysis revealed a dose dependent increment in caspase-3 activity which led to cell apoptosis. This study confirms the efficacy of naringenin that lead to cell death in epidermoid carcinoma cells via inducing ROS generation, mitochondrial depolarization, nuclear condensation, DNA fragmentation, cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase and caspase-3 activation.

Jafri, Asif; Ahmad, Sheeba; Afzal, Mohammad; Arshad, Md

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Genistein Inhibits Osteoclastic Differentiation of RAW 264.7 Cells via Regulation of ROS Production and Scavenging  

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Full Text Available Genistein, a phytoestrogen, has been demonstrated to have a bone-sparing and antiresorptive effect. Genistein can inhibit the osteoclast formation of receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B ligand (RANKL-induced RAW 264.7 cells by preventing the translocation of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B, a redox-sensitive factor, to the nucleus. Therefore, the suppressive effect of genistein on the reactive oxygen species (ROS level during osteoclast differentiation and the mechanism associated with the control of ROS levels by genistein were investigated. The cellular antioxidant capacity and inhibitory effect of genistein were confirmed. The translation and activation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1, as well as the disruption of the mitochondrial electron transport chain system were obviously suppressed by genistein in a dose-dependent manner. The induction of phase II antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, was enhanced by genistein. In addition, the translational induction of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 was notably increased by genistein. These results provide that the inhibitory effects of genistein on RANKL-stimulated osteoclast differentiation is likely to be attributed to the control of ROS generation through suppressing the translation and activation of Nox1 and the disruption of the mitochondrial electron transport chain system, as well as ROS scavenging through the Nrf2-mediated induction of phase II antioxidant enzymes, such as SOD1 and HO-1.

Sang-Hyun Lee

2014-06-01

162

Cadmium induces autophagy through ROS-dependent activation of the LKB1-AMPK signaling in skin epidermal cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cadmium is a toxic heavy metal which is environmentally and occupationally relevant. The mechanisms underlying cadmium-induced autophagy are not yet completely understood. The present study shows that cadmium induces autophagy, as demonstrated by the increase of LC3-II formation and the GFP-LC3 puncta cells. The induction of autophagosomes was directly visualized by electron microscopy in cadmium-exposed skin epidermal cells. Blockage of LKB1 or AMPK by siRNA transfection suppressed cadmium-induced autophagy. Cadmium-induced autophagy was inhibited in dominant-negative AMPK-transfected cells, whereas it was accelerated in cells transfected with the constitutively active form of AMPK. mTOR signaling, a negative regulator of autophagy, was downregulated in cadmium-exposed cells. In addition, cadmium generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) at relatively low levels, and caused poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP) activation and ATP depletion. Inhibition of PARP by pharmacological inhibitors or its siRNA transfection suppressed ATP reduction and autophagy in cadmium-exposed cells. Furthermore, cadmium-induced autophagy signaling was attenuated by either exogenous addition of catalase and superoxide dismutase, or by overexpression of these enzymes. Consequently, these results suggest that cadmium-mediated ROS generation causes PARP activation and energy depletion, and eventually induces autophagy through the activation of LKB1-AMPK signaling and the down-regulation of mTOR in skin epidermal cells. - Highlights: ? Cadmium, a toxic heavy metal, induces autophagic cell death through ROS-dependent activation of the LKB1-AMPK signaling. ? Cadmium generates intracellular ROS at low levels and this leads to severe DNA damage and PARP activation, resulting in ATP depletion, which are the upstream events of LKB1-AMPK-mediated autophagy. ? This novel finding may contribute to further understanding of cadmium-mediated diseases.

163

Mitochondrial proticity and ROS signaling: lessons from the uncoupling proteins.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fifty years since Peter Mitchell proposed the theory of chemiosmosis, the transformation of cellular redox potential into ATP synthetic capacity is still a widely recognized function of mitochondria. Mitchell used the term 'proticity' to describe the force and flow of the proton circuit across the inner membrane. When the proton gradient is coupled to ATP synthase activity, the conversion of fuel to ATP is efficient. However, uncoupling proteins (UCPs) can cause proton leaks resulting in poor fuel conversion efficiency, and some UCPs might control mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Once viewed as toxic metabolic waste, ROS are now implicated in cell signaling and regulation. Here, we discuss the role of mitochondrial proticity in the context of ROS production and signaling. PMID:22591987

Mailloux, Ryan J; Harper, Mary-Ellen

2012-09-01

164

Ischaemic accumulation of succinate controls reperfusion injury through mitochondrial ROS.  

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Ischaemia-reperfusion injury occurs when the blood supply to an organ is disrupted and then restored, and underlies many disorders, notably heart attack and stroke. While reperfusion of ischaemic tissue is essential for survival, it also initiates oxidative damage, cell death and aberrant immune responses through the generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although mitochondrial ROS production in ischaemia reperfusion is established, it has generally been considered a nonspecific response to reperfusion. Here we develop a comparative in vivo metabolomic analysis, and unexpectedly identify widely conserved metabolic pathways responsible for mitochondrial ROS production during ischaemia reperfusion. We show that selective accumulation of the citric acid cycle intermediate succinate is a universal metabolic signature of ischaemia in a range of tissues and is responsible for mitochondrial ROS production during reperfusion. Ischaemic succinate accumulation arises from reversal of succinate dehydrogenase, which in turn is driven by fumarate overflow from purine nucleotide breakdown and partial reversal of the malate/aspartate shuttle. After reperfusion, the accumulated succinate is rapidly re-oxidized by succinate dehydrogenase, driving extensive ROS generation by reverse electron transport at mitochondrial complex I. Decreasing ischaemic succinate accumulation by pharmacological inhibition is sufficient to ameliorate in vivo ischaemia-reperfusion injury in murine models of heart attack and stroke. Thus, we have identified a conserved metabolic response of tissues to ischaemia and reperfusion that unifies many hitherto unconnected aspects of ischaemia-reperfusion injury. Furthermore, these findings reveal a new pathway for metabolic control of ROS production in vivo, while demonstrating that inhibition of ischaemic succinate accumulation and its oxidation after subsequent reperfusion is a potential therapeutic target to decrease ischaemia-reperfusion injury in a range of pathologies. PMID:25383517

Chouchani, Edward T; Pell, Victoria R; Gaude, Edoardo; Aksentijevi?, Dunja; Sundier, Stephanie Y; Robb, Ellen L; Logan, Angela; Nadtochiy, Sergiy M; Ord, Emily N J; Smith, Anthony C; Eyassu, Filmon; Shirley, Rachel; Hu, Chou-Hui; Dare, Anna J; James, Andrew M; Rogatti, Sebastian; Hartley, Richard C; Eaton, Simon; Costa, Ana S H; Brookes, Paul S; Davidson, Sean M; Duchen, Michael R; Saeb-Parsy, Kourosh; Shattock, Michael J; Robinson, Alan J; Work, Lorraine M; Frezza, Christian; Krieg, Thomas; Murphy, Michael P

2014-11-20

165

Influenza A virus and TLR7 activation potentiate NOX2 oxidase-dependent ROS production in macrophages.  

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Influenza A virus infects resident alveolar macrophages in the respiratory tract resulting in Toll like receptor 7 (TLR7) activation that triggers an inflammatory response to resolve the infection. Macrophages are also major sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via the NOX2-containing NADPH oxidase. Although ROS are crucial for pathogen clearance, in response to influenza A virus, ROS are touted as being culprit mediators of the lung tissue injury. The aim of the present study was to determine whether influenza A virus infection and TLR7 activation of macrophages, results in alterations in their ROS production. Here we demonstrate using immunofluorescence that influenza A virus (Hong Kong X-31 strain; H3N2) internalizes in RAW264.7 cells and mouse alveolar macrophages within 1 h, resulting in a significant enhancement in the stimulated NOX2 oxidase-dependent oxidative burst, although virus had no effect on basal ROS. The specific TLR7 agonist imiquimod (10 ?g/ml) elevated basal superoxide production and, in a similar fashion to influenza A virus, enhanced NOX2 oxidase-dependent oxidative burst. By contrast, the TLR3 agonist, poly I:C (1-100 ?g/ml) failed to influence the oxidative burst to NOX2 oxidase. A peptide corresponding to the region 337-348 on p47phox conjugated to a HIV-tat, designed to inhibit the phosphorylation of Ser346 on p47phox suppressed the influenza A virus- and imiquimod-induced enhancement in the oxidative burst. In conclusion, this study demonstrates for the first time that influenza A virus and TLR7 activation enhance the NOX2 oxidase-dependent oxidative burst in macrophages, which might underpin the acute lung injury to influenza A virus infection. PMID:24869957

To, E E; Broughton, B R S; Hendricks, K S; Vlahos, R; Selemidis, S

2014-08-01

166

Psoralidin induces autophagy through ROS generation which inhibits the proliferation of human lung cancer A549 cells  

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Psoralidin (PSO), a natural furanocoumarin, is isolated from Psoralea corylifolia L. possessing anti-cancer properties. However, the mechanisms of its effects remain unclear. Herein, we investigated its anti-proliferative effect and potential approaches of action on human lung cancer A549 cells. Cell proliferation and death were measured by MTT and LDH assay respectively. Apoptosis was detected with Hoechst 33342 staining by fluorescence microscopy, Annexin V-FITC by flow cytometry and Western blot analysis for apoptosis-related proteins. The autophagy was evaluated using MDC staining, immunofluorescence assay and Western blot analyses for LC3-I and LC3-II. In addition, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was measured by DCFH2-DA with flow cytometry. PSO dramatically decreased the cell viabilities in dose- and time-dependent manner. However, no significant change was observed between the control group and the PSO-treated groups in Hoechst 33342 and Annexin V-FITC staining. The expression of apoptosis-related proteins was not altered significantly either. While the MDC-fluorescence intensity and the expression ratio of LC3-II/LC3-I was remarkably increased after PSO treatment. Autophagy inhibitor 3-MA blocked the production of LC3-II and reduced the cytotoxicity in response to PSO. Furthermore, PSO increased intracellular ROS level which was correlated to the elevation of LC3-II. ROS scavenger N-acetyl cysteine pretreatment not only decreased the ROS level, reduced the expression of LC3-II but also reversed PSO induced cytotoxicity. PSO inhibited the proliferation of A549 cells through autophagy but not apoptosis, which was mediated by inducing ROS production. PMID:25250213

Hao, Wenhui; Zhang, Xuenong; Zhao, Wenwen

2014-01-01

167

Psoralidin induces autophagy through ROS generation which inhibits the proliferation of human lung cancer A549 cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Psoralidin (PSO), a natural furanocoumarin, is isolated from Psoralea corylifolia L. possessing anti-cancer properties. However, the mechanisms of its effects remain unclear. Herein, we investigated its anti-proliferative effect and potential approaches of action on human lung cancer A549 cells. Cell proliferation and death were measured by MTT and LDH assay respectively. Apoptosis was detected with Hoechst 33342 staining by fluorescence microscopy, Annexin V-FITC by flow cytometry and Western blot analysis for apoptosis-related proteins. The autophagy was evaluated using MDC staining, immunofluorescence assay and Western blot analyses for LC3-I and LC3-II. In addition, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was measured by DCFH2-DA with flow cytometry. PSO dramatically decreased the cell viabilities in dose- and time-dependent manner. However, no significant change was observed between the control group and the PSO-treated groups in Hoechst 33342 and Annexin V-FITC staining. The expression of apoptosis-related proteins was not altered significantly either. While the MDC-fluorescence intensity and the expression ratio of LC3-II/LC3-I was remarkably increased after PSO treatment. Autophagy inhibitor 3-MA blocked the production of LC3-II and reduced the cytotoxicity in response to PSO. Furthermore, PSO increased intracellular ROS level which was correlated to the elevation of LC3-II. ROS scavenger N-acetyl cysteine pretreatment not only decreased the ROS level, reduced the expression of LC3-II but also reversed PSO induced cytotoxicity. PSO inhibited the proliferation of A549 cells through autophagy but not apoptosis, which was mediated by inducing ROS production. PMID:25250213

Hao, Wenhui; Zhang, Xuenong; Zhao, Wenwen; Chen, Xiuping

2014-01-01

168

Surveillance-activated defenses block the ROS-induced mitochondrial unfolded protein response.  

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Disturbance of cellular functions results in the activation of stress-signaling pathways that aim at restoring homeostasis. We performed a genome-wide screen to identify components of the signal transduction of the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPR(mt)) to a nuclear chaperone promoter. We used the ROS generating complex I inhibitor paraquat to induce the UPR(mt), and we employed RNAi exposure post-embryonically to allow testing genes whose knockdown results in embryonic lethality. We identified 54 novel regulators of the ROS-induced UPR(mt). Activation of the UPR(mt), but not of other stress-signaling pathways, failed when homeostasis of basic cellular mechanisms such as translation and protein transport were impaired. These mechanisms are monitored by a recently discovered surveillance system that interprets interruption of these processes as pathogen attack and depends on signaling through the JNK-like MAP-kinase KGB-1. Mutation of kgb-1 abrogated the inhibition of ROS-induced UPR(mt), suggesting that surveillance-activated defenses specifically inhibit the UPR(mt) but do not compromise activation of the heat shock response, the UPR of the endoplasmic reticulum, or the SKN-1/Nrf2 mediated response to cytosolic stress. In addition, we identified PIFK-1, the orthologue of the Drosophila PI 4-kinase four wheel drive (FWD), and found that it is the only known factor so far that is essential for the unfolded protein responses of both mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. This suggests that both UPRs may share a common membrane associated mechanism. PMID:23516373

Runkel, Eva D; Liu, Shu; Baumeister, Ralf; Schulze, Ekkehard

2013-01-01

169

Effect of ionizing radiation on the differentiation of ROS 17/2.8 osteoblasts through free radicals  

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Although the acceleration of bone regeneration by radiation has been reported, the mechanisms of action of radiation on bone are unclear. The present results indicate that ionizing radiation-stimulated differentiation could result from the generation of reactive oxygen species during radiation exposure. The free radical release is considered as the most important mechanism of bone effect by radiation treatment. In addition, we report that radiation induced transient activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase/ stress-activated protein kinase (JNK/SAPK) activation and the transcription factor, AP-1. The JNK and AP-1 activation is mediated with radiation-released free radicals in ROS 17/2.8 osteoblasts. These results indicate that ionizing radiation at a single dose of up to 5 Gray stimulates differentiation of ROS 17/2.8 osteoblasts via free radial release which may affect JNK/SAPK and AP-1 activities. (author)

170

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) modulate AMPA receptor phosphorylation and cell-surface localization in concert with pain-related behavior.  

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Sensitization of dorsal horn neurons (DHNs) in the spinal cord is dependent on pain-related synaptic plasticity and causes persistent pain. The DHN sensitization is mediated by a signal transduction pathway initiated by the activation of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDA-Rs). Recent studies have shown that elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and phosphorylation-dependent trafficking of GluA2 subunit of ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate receptors (AMPA-Rs) are a part of the signaling pathway for DHN sensitization. However, the relationship between ROS and AMPA-R phosphorylation and trafficking is not known. Thus, this study investigated the effects of ROS scavengers on the phosphorylation and cell-surface localization of GluA1 and GluA2. Intrathecal NMDA- and intradermal capsaicin-induced hyperalgesic mice were used for this study since both pain models share the NMDA-R activation-dependent DHN sensitization in the spinal cord. Our behavioral, biochemical, and immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated that: 1) NMDA-R activation in vivo increased the phosphorylation of AMPA-Rs at GluA1 (S818, S831, and S845) and GluA2 (S880) subunits; 2) NMDA-R activation in vivo increased cell-surface localization of GluA1 but decreased that of GluA2; and 3) reduction of ROS levels by ROS scavengers PBN (N-tert-butyl-?-phenylnitrone) or TEMPOL (4-hydroxy-2, 2, 6, 6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl) reversed these changes in AMPA-Rs, as well as pain-related behavior. Given that AMPA-R trafficking to the cell surface and synapse is regulated by NMDA-R activation-dependent phosphorylation of GluA1 and GluA2, our study suggests that the ROS-dependent changes in the phosphorylation and cell-surface localization of AMPA-Rs are necessary for DHN sensitization and thus, pain-related behavior. We further suggest that ROS reduction will ameliorate these molecular changes and pain. PMID:22770842

Lee, Daniel Z; Chung, Jin M; Chung, Kyungsoon; Kang, Myoung-Goo

2012-09-01

171

Cadmium induces carcinogenesis in BEAS-2B cells through ROS-dependent activation of PI3K/AKT/GSK-3?/?-catenin signaling  

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Cadmium has been widely used in industry and is known to be carcinogenic to humans. Although it is widely accepted that chronic exposure to cadmium increases the incidence of cancer, the mechanisms underlying cadmium-induced carcinogenesis are unclear. The main aim of this study was to investigate the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cadmium-induced carcinogenesis and the signal transduction pathways involved. Chronic exposure of human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells to cadmium induced cell transformation, as evidenced by anchorage-independent growth in soft agar and clonogenic assays. Chronic cadmium treatment also increased the potential of these cells to invade and migrate. Injection of cadmium-stimulated cells into nude mice resulted in the formation of tumors. In contrast, the cadmium-mediated increases in colony formation, cell invasion and migration were prevented by transfection with catalase, superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1), or SOD2. In particular, chronic cadmium exposure led to activation of signaling cascades involving PI3K, AKT, GSK-3?, and ?-catenin and transfection with each of the above antioxidant enzymes markedly inhibited cadmium-mediated activation of these signaling proteins. Inhibitors specific for AKT or ?-catenin almost completely suppressed the cadmium-mediated increase in total and active ?-catenin proteins and colony formation. Moreover, there was a marked induction of AKT, GSK-3?, ?-catenin, and carcinogenic markers in tumor tissues formed in mice after injection with cadmium-stimulated cells. Collectively, our findings suggest a direct involvement of ROS in cadmium-induced carcinogenesis and implicate a role of AKT/GSK-3?/?-catenin signaling in this process. -- Highlights: ? Chronic exposure to cadmium induces carcinogenic properties in BEAS-2B cells. ? ROS involved in cadmium-induced tumorigenicity of BEAS-2B cells. ? Cadmium activates ROS-dependent AKT/GSK-3?/?-catenin-mediated signaling. ? ROS-dependent signaling as potential therapeutic targets in cadmium carcinogenesis.

Son, Young-Ok; Wang, Lei; Poyil, Pratheeshkumar; Budhraja, Amit; Hitron, J. Andrew; Zhang, Zhuo [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Lee, Jeong-Chae [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); School of Dentistry and Institute of Oral Biosciences (BK21 program), Research Center of Bioactive Materials, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Shi, Xianglin, E-mail: xshi5@email.uky.edu [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

2012-10-15

172

Cadmium induces carcinogenesis in BEAS-2B cells through ROS-dependent activation of PI3K/AKT/GSK-3?/?-catenin signaling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cadmium has been widely used in industry and is known to be carcinogenic to humans. Although it is widely accepted that chronic exposure to cadmium increases the incidence of cancer, the mechanisms underlying cadmium-induced carcinogenesis are unclear. The main aim of this study was to investigate the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cadmium-induced carcinogenesis and the signal transduction pathways involved. Chronic exposure of human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells to cadmium induced cell transformation, as evidenced by anchorage-independent growth in soft agar and clonogenic assays. Chronic cadmium treatment also increased the potential of these cells to invade and migrate. Injection of cadmium-stimulated cells into nude mice resulted in the formation of tumors. In contrast, the cadmium-mediated increases in colony formation, cell invasion and migration were prevented by transfection with catalase, superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1), or SOD2. In particular, chronic cadmium exposure led to activation of signaling cascades involving PI3K, AKT, GSK-3?, and ?-catenin and transfection with each of the above antioxidant enzymes markedly inhibited cadmium-mediated activation of these signaling proteins. Inhibitors specific for AKT or ?-catenin almost completely suppressed the cadmium-mediated increase in total and active ?-catenin proteins and colony formation. Moreover, there was a marked induction of AKT, GSK-3?, ?-catenin, and carcinogenic markers in tumor tissues formed in mice after injection with cadmium-stimulated cells. Collectively, our findings suggest a direct involvement of ROS in cadmium-induced carcinogenesis and implicate a role of AKT/GSK-3?/?-catenin signaling in this process. -- Highlights: ? Chronic exposure to cadmium induces carcinogenic properties in BEAS-2B cells. ? ROS involved in cadmium-induced tumorigenicity of BEAS-2B cells. ? Cadmium activates ROS-dependent AKT/GSK-3?/?-catenin-mediated signaling. ? ROS-dependent signaling as potential therapeutic targets in cadmium carcinogenesis.

173

Using ROS for agricultural robotics : design considerations and experiences  

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We report on experiences of using the ROS middleware for developmentof agricultural robots. We describe software related design considerations for all maincomponents in developed subsystems as well as drawbacks and advantages with thechosen approaches. This work was partly funded by the European Commission(CROPS GA no 246252).

Barth, Ruud; Baur, Jo?rg; Buschmann, Thomas; Edan, Yael; Hellstro?m, Thomas; Nguyen, Thanh; Ringdahl, Ola; Saeys, Wouter; Salinas, Carlota; Vitzrabin, Efi

2014-01-01

174

Kuula : Sigur Ros rokiklubis. Kammemuusikat Tallinnas. Loomade reekviem  

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23. aug. esineb Tallinna rokiklubis Rock Café islandi bänd Sigur Ros. Pille Lille muusikute toetusfondi korraldatavast Tallinna Kammermuusika festivalist 17.-23. aug. Tallinna Rootsi Mihkli kirikus, Raekojas ja Jaani kirkus (vt. www.plmf.ee). Kontserdist Nargen Festivali raames 30. ja 31. aug. Tallinna loomaaias

2008-01-01

175

Identification and characterisation of ROS modulator 1 in Lampetra japonica.  

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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a heterogeneous group of highly reactive molecules that oxidise targets in biological systems. ROS are also considered important immune regulators. In this study, we identified a homologue of reactive oxygen species modulator 1 (Romo1) in the Japanese lamprey (Lampetra japonica). The L japonica Romo1 (Lj-Romo1) gene shares high sequence homology with the Romo1 genes of jawed vertebrates. Real-time quantitative PCR demonstrated the wide distribution of Lj-Romo1 in lamprey tissues. Furthermore, after the lampreys were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the level of Lj-Romo1 mRNA was markedly up-regulated in the liver, gill, kidney, and intestine tissues. Lj-Romo1 was localised to the mitochondria and has the capacity to increase the ROS level in cells. The results obtained in the present study will help us to understand the roles of Romo1 in ROS production and innate immune responses in jawless vertebrates. PMID:23685010

Zhao, Chunhui; Feng, Bin; Cao, Ying; Xie, Peng; Xu, Jie; Pang, Yue; Liu, Xin; Li, Qingwei

2013-08-01

176

NADPH oxidase/ROS-dependent PYK2 activation is involved in TNF-?-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in rat heart-derived H9c2 cells  

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TNF-? plays a mediator role in the pathogenesis of chronic heart failure contributing to cardiac remodeling and peripheral vascular disturbances. The implication of TNF-? in inflammatory responses has been shown to be mediated through up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). However, the detailed mechanisms of TNF-?-induced MMP-9 expression in rat embryonic-heart derived H9c2 cells are largely not defined. We demonstrated that in H9c2 cells, TNF-? induced MMP-9 mRNA and protein expression associated with an increase in the secretion of pro-MMP-9. TNF-?-mediated responses were attenuated by pretreatment with the inhibitor of ROS (N-acetyl-L-cysteine, NAC), NADPH oxidase [apocynin (APO) or diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI)], MEK1/2 (U0126), p38 MAPK (SB202190), JNK1/2 (SP600125), NF-?B (Bay11-7082), or PYK2 (PF-431396) and transfection with siRNA of TNFR1, p47phox, p42, p38, JNK1, p65, or PYK2. Moreover, TNF-? markedly induced NADPH oxidase-derived ROS generation in these cells. TNF-?-enhanced p42/p44 MAPK, p38 MAPK, JNK1/2, and NF-?B (p65) phosphorylation and in vivo binding of p65 to the MMP-9 promoter were inhibited by U0126, SB202190, SP600125, NAC, DPI, or APO. In addition, TNF-?-mediated PYK2 phosphorylation was inhibited by NAC, DPI, or APO. PYK2 inhibition could reduce TNF-?-stimulated MAPKs and NF-?B activation. Thus, in H9c2 cells, we are the first to show that TNF-?-induced MMP-9 expression is mediated through a TNFR1/NADPH oxidase/ROS/PYK2/MAPKs/NF-?B cascade. We demonstrated that NADPH oxidase-derived ROS generation is involved in TNF-?-induced PYK2 activation in these cells. Understanding the regulation of MMP-9 expression and NADPH oxidase activation by TNF-? on H9c2 cells may provide potential therapeutic targets of chronic heart failure. - Highlights: • TNF-? induces MMP-9 secretion and expression via a TNFR1-dependent pathway. • TNF-? induces ROS/PYK2-dependent MMP-9 expression in H9c2 cells. • TNF-? induces MMP-9 expression via a NADPH oxidase/ROS-dependent NF-?B signaling. • TNF-? activates MAPK phosphorylation through NADPH oxidase/ROS generation

177

ROS and brain diseases: the good, the bad, and the ugly.  

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The brain is a major metabolizer of oxygen and yet has relatively feeble protective antioxidant mechanisms. This paper reviews the Janus-faced properties of reactive oxygen species. It will describe the positive aspects of moderately induced ROS but it will also outline recent research findings concerning the impact of oxidative and nitrooxidative stress on neuronal structure and function in neuropsychiatric diseases, including major depression. A common denominator of all neuropsychiatric diseases including schizophrenia and ADHD is an increased inflammatory response of the brain caused either by an exposure to proinflammatory agents during development or an accumulation of degenerated neurons, oxidized proteins, glycated products, or lipid peroxidation in the adult brain. Therefore, modulation of the prooxidant-antioxidant balance provides a therapeutic option which can be used to improve neuroprotection in response to oxidative stress. We also discuss the neuroprotective role of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) in the aged brain in response to oxidative stressors and nanoparticle-mediated delivery of ROS-scavenging drugs. The antioxidant therapy is a novel therapeutic strategy. However, the available drugs have pleiotropic actions and are not fully characterized in the clinic. Additional clinical trials are needed to assess the risks and benefits of antioxidant therapies for neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:24381719

Popa-Wagner, Aurel; Mitran, Smaranda; Sivanesan, Senthilkumar; Chang, Edwin; Buga, Ana-Maria

2013-01-01

178

Methemoglobin exposure produces toxicological effects in macrophages due to multiple ROS spike induced apoptosis.  

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Macrophages are an integral part of the immune system, required to produce a robust immune response against an infectious organism. Presence of methemoglobin in body fluids such as blood, cerebrospinal fluid and urine is associated with tissue damage. We tested cytotoxic effects of MetHb and underlying molecular events in mouse macrophage cell line J774A.1. MetHb exposure dose dependently reduced macrophage viability in an MTT assay. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observation of MetHb treated macrophage indicated death (less number of cells per field), severe damage to membrane structure and accumulation of particulate matter in the cytosol. The macrophage death during MetHb exposure was due to induction of apoptosis as indicated by annexin-V/FITC staining and DNA fragmentation analysis. MetHb treatment generated a periodic ROS spikes with time in the macrophage cytosol to develop oxidative stress. Scavenging ROS spikes with NAC, mannitol or PBN dose dependently protected macrophages against MetHb induced toxicity, apoptosis and cellular membrane damage. Our work highlighted the contributions of MetHb mediated toxicity toward macrophage and its potential role in tissue damage and immune depression during malaria and other hemolytic disorders. PMID:23041250

Deshmukh, Rohitas; Trivedi, Vishal

2013-02-01

179

The interplay between autophagy and ROS in tumorigenesis  

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Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS at physiological levels are important cell signaling molecules. However, aberrantly high ROS are intimately associated with disease and commonly observed in cancer. Mitochondria are primary sources of intracellular ROS, and their maintenance is essential to cellular health. Autophagy, an evolutionarily conserved process whereby cytoplasmic components are delivered to lysosomes for degradation, is responsible for mitochondrial turnover and removal of damaged mitochondria. Impaired autophagy is implicated in many pathological conditions, including neurological disorders, inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes, aging and cancer. The first reports connecting autophagy to cancer showed that allelic loss of the essential autophagy gene BECLIN1 (BECN1 is prevalent in human breast, ovarian and prostate cancers and that Becn1+/- mice develop mammary gland hyperplasias, lymphomas, and lung and liver tumors. Subsequent studies demonstrated that Atg5-/- and Atg7-/- livers give rise to adenomas, Atg4-/- mice are susceptible to chemical carcinogenesis, and Bif1-/- mice are prone to spontaneous tumors, indicating that autophagy defects promote tumorigenesis. Due to defective mitophagy, autophagy-deficient cells accumulate damaged mitochondria and deregulated ROS levels, which likely contribute to their tumor-initiating capacity. However, the role of autophagy in tumorigenesis is complex, as more recent work also revealed tumor dependence on autophagy: autophagy-competent mutant-Ras-expressing cells form tumors more efficiently than their autophagy-deficient counterparts; similarly, FIP200 deficiency suppresses PyMT-driven mammary tumorigenesis. These latter findings are attributed to the fact that tumors driven by powerful oncogenes have high metabolic demands catered to by autophagy. In this review, we discuss the relationship between ROS and autophagy and summarize our current knowledge on their functional interactions in tumorigenesis.

VassilikiKarantza

2012-11-01

180

The interplay between autophagy and ROS in tumorigenesis.  

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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) at physiological levels are important cell signaling molecules. However, aberrantly high ROS are intimately associated with disease and commonly observed in cancer. Mitochondria are primary sources of intracellular ROS, and their maintenance is essential to cellular health. Autophagy, an evolutionarily conserved process whereby cytoplasmic components are delivered to lysosomes for degradation, is responsible for mitochondrial turnover and removal of damaged mitochondria. Impaired autophagy is implicated in many pathological conditions, including neurological disorders, inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes, aging, and cancer. The first reports connecting autophagy to cancer showed that allelic loss of the essential autophagy gene BECLIN1 (BECN1) is prevalent in human breast, ovarian, and prostate cancers and that Becn1(+) (/) (-) mice develop mammary gland hyperplasias, lymphomas, lung and liver tumors. Subsequent studies demonstrated that Atg5(-/-) and Atg7(-/-) livers give rise to adenomas, Atg4C(-/-) mice are susceptible to chemical carcinogenesis, and Bif1(-/-) mice are prone to spontaneous tumors, indicating that autophagy defects promote tumorigenesis. Due to defective mitophagy, autophagy-deficient cells accumulate damaged mitochondria and deregulated ROS levels, which likely contribute to their tumor-initiating capacity. However, the role of autophagy in tumorigenesis is complex, as more recent work also revealed tumor dependence on autophagy: autophagy-competent mutant-Ras-expressing cells form tumors more efficiently than their autophagy-deficient counterparts; similarly, FIP200 deficiency suppresses PyMT-driven mammary tumorigenesis. These latter findings are attributed to the fact that tumors driven by powerful oncogenes have high metabolic demands catered to by autophagy. In this review, we discuss the relationship between ROS and autophagy and summarize our current knowledge on their functional interactions in tumorigenesis. PMID:23181220

Kongara, Sameera; Karantza, Vassiliki

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

2, 3, 7, 8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-P-dioxin (TCDD) induces premature senescence in human and rodent neuronal cells via ROS-dependent mechanisms.  

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The widespread environmental pollutant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a potent toxicant that causes significant neurotoxicity. However, the biological events that participate in this process remain largely elusive. In the present study, we demonstrated that TCDD exposure triggered apparent premature senescence in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) and human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Senescence-associated ?-galactosidase (SA-?-Gal) assay revealed that TCDD induced senescence in PC12 neuronal cells at doses as low as 10 nM. TCDD led to F-actin reorganization and the appearance of an alternative senescence marker, ?-H2AX foci, both of which are important features of cellular senescence. In addition, TCDD exposure altered the expression of senescence marker proteins, such as p16, p21 and p-Rb, in both dose- and time-dependent manners. Furthermore, we demonstrated that TCDD promotes mitochondrial dysfunction and the accumulation of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in PC12 cells, leading to the activation of signaling pathways that are involved in ROS metabolism and senescence. TCDD-induced ROS generation promoted significant oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation. Notably, treatment with the ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC) markedly attenuated TCDD-induced ROS production, cellular oxidative damage and neuronal senescence. Moreover, we found that TCDD induced a similar ROS-mediated senescence response in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. In sum, these results demonstrate for the first time that TCDD induces premature senescence in neuronal cells by promoting intracellular ROS production, supporting the idea that accelerating the onset of neuronal senescence may be an important mechanism underlying TCDD-induced neurotoxic effects. PMID:24587053

Wan, Chunhua; Liu, Jiao; Nie, Xiaoke; Zhao, Jianya; Zhou, Songlin; Duan, Zhiqing; Tang, Cuiying; Liang, Lingwei; Xu, Guangfei

2014-01-01

182

Protective Effects of Andrographolide Analogue AL-1 on ROS-Induced RIN-m? Cell Death by Inducing ROS Generation  

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Oxidative stress is considered to be a major factor contributing to pathogenesis and progression of many diseases. A novel andrographolide-lipoic acid conjugate (AL-1) could protect pancreatic ?-cells from reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced oxidative injury. However, its protective mechanism is still unclear. In this work, we used proteomics to identify AL-1-regulated proteins in ?-cells and found that 13 of the 71 proteins regulated by AL-1 were closely associated with antioxidation. These differential proteins were mainly involved in the ERK1/2 and AKT1 signaling pathways. Functional investigation demonstrated that AL-1 exerted its protective effects on H2O2-induced cell death of ?-cells by generating NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS to activate ERK1/2 and AKT1 signaling pathways. As a consequence, the expressions of antioxidant proteins including Trx1, Prx1 and Prx5, and anti-apoptotic proteins including PDCD6IP, prohibitin, galectin-1 and HSP were upregulated. AL-1 probably worked as a “vaccinum” to activate the cellular antioxidant system by inducing the generation of low concentration ROS which then reciprocally protected ?-cells from oxidative damage caused by high-level ROS from H2O2. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive proteomic analysis illustrating a novel molecular mechanism for the protective effects of antioxidants on ?-cells from H2O2-induced cell death. PMID:23750203

Wang, Yang; Zhong, Yin; Tan, Zi-Lu; Wang, Yuqiang; He, Qing-Yu

2013-01-01

183

Protective effects of andrographolide analogue AL-1 on ROS-induced RIN-m? cell death by inducing ROS generation.  

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Oxidative stress is considered to be a major factor contributing to pathogenesis and progression of many diseases. A novel andrographolide-lipoic acid conjugate (AL-1) could protect pancreatic ?-cells from reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced oxidative injury. However, its protective mechanism is still unclear. In this work, we used proteomics to identify AL-1-regulated proteins in ?-cells and found that 13 of the 71 proteins regulated by AL-1 were closely associated with antioxidation. These differential proteins were mainly involved in the ERK1/2 and AKT1 signaling pathways. Functional investigation demonstrated that AL-1 exerted its protective effects on H2O2-induced cell death of ?-cells by generating NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS to activate ERK1/2 and AKT1 signaling pathways. As a consequence, the expressions of antioxidant proteins including Trx1, Prx1 and Prx5, and anti-apoptotic proteins including PDCD6IP, prohibitin, galectin-1 and HSP were upregulated. AL-1 probably worked as a "vaccinum" to activate the cellular antioxidant system by inducing the generation of low concentration ROS which then reciprocally protected ?-cells from oxidative damage caused by high-level ROS from H2O2. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive proteomic analysis illustrating a novel molecular mechanism for the protective effects of antioxidants on ?-cells from H2O2-induced cell death. PMID:23750203

Yan, Guang-Rong; Zhou, Hui-Hua; Wang, Yang; Zhong, Yin; Tan, Zi-Lu; Wang, Yuqiang; He, Qing-Yu

2013-01-01

184

Subneurotoxic copper(II)-induced NF-?B-dependent microglial activation is associated with mitochondrial ROS.  

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Microglia-mediated neuroinflammation and the associated neuronal damage play critical roles in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. Evidence shows an elevated concentration of extracellular copper(II) in the brains of these disorders, which may contribute to neuronal death through direct neurotoxicity. Here we explored whether extracellular copper(II) triggers microglial activation. Primary rat microglia and murine microglial cell line BV-2 cells were cultured and treated with copper(II). The content of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and nitric oxide in the medium was determined. Extracellular hydrogen peroxide was quantified by a fluorometric assay with Amplex Red. Mitochondrial superoxide was measured by MitoSOX oxidation. At subneurotoxic concentrations, copper(II) treatment induced a dose- and time-dependent release of TNF-? and nitric oxide from microglial cells, and caused an indirect, microglia-mediated neurotoxicity that was blocked by inhibition of TNF-? and nitric oxide production. Copper(II)-initiated microglial activation was accompanied with reduced I?B-? expression as well as phosphorylation and translocation of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) p65 and was blocked by NF-?B inhibitors (BAY11-7082 and SC-514). Moreover, copper(II) treatment evoked a rapid release of hydrogen peroxide from microglial cells, an effect that was not affected by NADPH oxidase inhibitors. N-acetyl-cysteine, a scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS), abrogated copper(II)-elicited microglial release of TNF-? and nitric oxide and subsequent neurotoxicity. Importantly, mitochondrial production of superoxide, paralleled to extracellular release of hydrogen peroxide, was induced after copper(II) stimulation. Our findings suggest that extracellular copper(II) at subneurotoxic concentrations could trigger NF-?B-dependent microglial activation and subsequent neurotoxicity. NADPH oxidase-independent, mitochondria-derived ROS may be involved in this activation. PMID:24530511

Hu, Zhuqin; Yu, Fengxiang; Gong, Ping; Qiu, Yu; Zhou, Wei; Cui, Yongyao; Li, Juan; Chen, Hongzhuan

2014-04-15

185

MAPK14/p38?-dependent modulation of glucose metabolism affects ROS levels and autophagy during starvation.  

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Increased glycolytic flux is a common feature of many cancer cells, which have adapted their metabolism to maximize glucose incorporation and catabolism to generate ATP and substrates for biosynthetic reactions. Indeed, glycolysis allows a rapid production of ATP and provides metabolic intermediates required for cancer cells growth. Moreover, it makes cancer cells less sensitive to fluctuations of oxygen tension, a condition usually occurring in a newly established tumor environment. Here, we provide evidence for a dual role of MAPK14 in driving a rearrangement of glucose metabolism that contributes to limiting reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and autophagy activation in condition of nutrient deprivation. We demonstrate that MAPK14 is phosphoactivated during nutrient deprivation and affects glucose metabolism at 2 different levels: on the one hand, it increases SLC2A3 mRNA and protein levels, resulting in a higher incorporation of glucose within the cell. This event involves the MAPK14-mediated enhancement of HIF1A protein stability. On the other hand, MAPK14 mediates a metabolic shift from glycolysis to the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) through the modulation of PFKFB3 (6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose 2,6-bisphosphatase 3) degradation by the proteasome. This event requires the presence of 2 distinct degradation sequences, KEN box and DSG motif Ser273, which are recognized by 2 different E3 ligase complexes. The mutation of either motif increases PFKFB3 resistance to starvation-induced degradation. The MAPK14-driven metabolic reprogramming sustains the production of NADPH, an important cofactor for many reduction reactions and for the maintenance of the proper intracellular redox environment, resulting in reduced levels of ROS. The final effect is a reduced activation of autophagy and an increased resistance to nutrient deprivation. PMID:25046111

Desideri, Enrico; Vegliante, Rolando; Cardaci, Simone; Nepravishta, Ridvan; Paci, Maurizio; Ciriolo, Maria Rosa

2014-09-01

186

Ras-induced ROS upregulation affecting cell proliferation is connected with cell type-specific alterations of HSF1/SESN3/p21Cip1/WAF1 pathways.  

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Oncogenes of the RAS family regulate many of the cell's activities, including proliferation, survival and differentiation. Activating mutations in these genes are common events for many types of cancer. One of the contradictory points concerning the biological significance of Ras activation is its dual effect (pro- or anti-proliferative) on cell reproduction. One of mechanisms by which Ras proteins influence cell growth is a regulation of intracellular level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), second messengers affecting variety of cellular processes including cell proliferation. Recently it was shown that repression of SESN1 and SESN3 genes, whose protein products control regeneration of peroxiredoxins, can play a critical role in Ras-induced ROS upregulation. In the present study we have found that Ras-induced repression of SESN3 expression and ROS upregulation is mediated via the modifications of transcriptional activity of HSF1. Interestingly, mutant Ras overexpression altered the activity of HSF1 in opposite directions in different cell contexts, in particular in human normal fibroblasts and HaCaT immortalized keratinocytes, but these opposite changes caused similar repression of SESN3 expression followed by elevation of ROS content and inhibition of cell proliferation in corresponding cell types. The inhibitory effect on cell proliferation was mediated by upregulation of p21(Cip1/WAF1). Thus, HSF1/SESN3/ROS/p21(Cip1/WAF1)-mediated deceleration of cell growth may contribute to cell defense systems protecting the organism from excessive proliferation of cells that overexpress activated Ras oncoproteins. PMID:23388456

Zamkova, Maria; Khromova, Natalia; Kopnin, Boris P; Kopnin, Pavel

2013-03-01

187

Human Mut T Homolog 1 (MTH1): a roadblock for the tumor-suppressive effects of oncogenic RAS-induced ROS.  

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Oncogenic RAS-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) trigger barriers to cell transformation and cancer progression through tumor-suppressive responses such as cellular senescence or cell death. We have recently shown that oncogenic RAS-induced DNA damage and attendant premature senescence can be prevented by overexpressing human MutT Homolog 1 (MTH1), the major mammalian detoxifier of the oxidized DNA precursor, 8-oxo-dGTP. Paradoxically, RAS-induced ROS are also able to participate in tumor progression via transformative processes such as mitogenic signaling, the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), anoikis inhibition, and PI3K/Akt-mediated survival signaling. Here we provide a preliminary insight into the influence of MTH1 levels on the EMT phenotype and Akt activation in RAS-transformed HMLE breast epithelial cells. Within this context, we will discuss the implications of MTH1 upregulation in oncogenic RAS-sustaining cells as a beneficial adaptive change that inhibits ROS-mediated cell senescence and participates in the maintenance of ROS-associated tumor-promoting mechanisms. Accordingly, targeting MTH1 in RAS-transformed tumor cells will not only induce proliferative defects but also potentially enhance therapeutic cytotoxicity by shifting cellular response away from pro-survival mechanisms. PMID:22790201

Rai, Priyamvada

2012-01-01

188

Heat stress induces ROS production and histone phosphorylation in celomocytes of Eisenia hortensis  

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The effect of heat stress on celomocytes (leukocytes) from Eisenia hortensis was investigated by measuring the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). After culturing celomocytes at temperatures ranging from 4 °C (control) to 44 °C for 3-16 h, ROS levels were measured using a flow cytometric method employing dihydrorhodamine 123 (DHR123) for ROS detection and 7-aminoactinomycin D (7-AAD) as a viability stain. Reproducibly we observed significant (p < 0.05) increases in ROS production a...

Ra, Tumminello; Sl, Fuller-espie

2013-01-01

189

Perfluorooctane sulfonate induces apoptosis of cerebellar granule cells via a ROS-dependent protein kinase C signaling pathway.  

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Perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) have been widely used in a variety of industry and consumer products. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), a prominent member of perfluoroalkyls, is known as a neurotoxicant in developing brain and affects behavior and motor activity. However, mechanism of neurotoxicity still remains unknown. In this study, we attempted to analyze apoptotic effects of PFOS on developing neuron. Cerebellar granule cells derived from 7-day old SD rats and grown in culture for additional 7 days were used to mimic postnatal day (PND)-14 conditions. PFOS exposure increased ROS production, which was blocked by ROS inhibitor, N-acetylcysteine (NAC). PFOS selectively induced dose-dependent translocations of PKC-?, -?II and -? among PKC isozymes tested. The translocation of these specific PKC isozymes was blocked by NAC. A panel of different approaches was utilized to detect apoptotic effects. PFOS induced caspase-3 activity and nucleosomal DNA fragmentation in a dose-dependent manner, which were blocked by pretreatment of NAC. These apoptotic effects were further confirmed by TUNEL staining. Increases of caspase-3 activity and nucleosomal DNA fragmentation were dampened by the inhibition of PKC isozymes using siRNA technique. Taken together, our results suggest that PFOS may induce apoptosis of cerebellar granule cells via a ROS-mediated PKC signaling pathway. PKC signal transduction pathway is pivotal in learning and memory and apoptosis of neuronal cells is a critical event in neurotoxicity. Thus, this study may contribute to understand a new mechanistic aspect of PFOS-induced neurotoxicities. PMID:22326494

Lee, Hyun-Gyo; Lee, Youn Ju; Yang, Jae-Ho

2012-06-01

190

Fluoxetine a novel anti-hepatitis C virus agent via ROS-, JNK-, and PPAR?/?-dependent pathways.  

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More than 20% of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients receiving interferon-alpha (IFN-?)-based anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy experienced significant depression, which was relieved by treatment with fluoxetine. However, whether and how fluoxetine affected directly the anti-HCV therapy remained unclear. Here, we demonstrated that fluoxetine inhibited HCV infection and blocked the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid accumulation in Huh7.5 cells. Fluoxetine facilitated the IFN-?-mediated antiviral actions via activations of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-1 and c-Jun amino-terminal kinases (JNK). Alternatively, fluoxetine elevated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) response element activity under HCV infection. The inhibitory effects of fluoxetine on HCV infection and lipid accumulation, but not production of ROS, were partially reversed by the PPAR-?, -?, and JNK antagonists. Furthermore, fluoxetine intervention to the IFN-?-2b regimen facilitated to reduce HCV titer and alanine transaminase level for CHC patients. Therefore, fluoxetine intervention to the IFN-?-2b regimen improved the efficacy of anti-HCV treatment, which might be related to blockades of ROS generation and lipid accumulation and activation of host antiviral JNK/STAT-1 and PPAR?/? signals. PMID:25151487

Young, Kung-Chia; Bai, Chyi-Huey; Su, Hui-Chen; Tsai, Pei-Ju; Pu, Chien-Yu; Liao, Chao-Sheng; Lin, Yu-Min; Lai, Hsin-Wen; Chong, Lee-Won; Tsai, Yau-Sheng; Tsao, Chiung-Wen

2014-10-01

191

Osthole Attenuates Doxorubicin-Induced Apoptosis in PC12 Cells through Inhibition of Mitochondrial Dysfunction and ROS Production  

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Doxorubicin (DOX) is a potent, broad-spectrum chemotherapeutic drug used for treatment of several types of cancers. Despite its effectiveness, it has a wide range of toxic side effects, many of which most likely result from its inherent prooxidant activity. It has been reported that DOX has toxic effects on normal tissues, including brain tissue. In the current study, we investigated the protective effect of osthole isolated from Prangos ferulacea (L.) Lindl. on oxidative stress and apoptosis induced by DOX in PC12 as a neuronal model cell line. PC12 cells were pretreated with osthole 2?h after treatment with different concentrations of DOX. 24?h later, the cell viability, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), the activity of caspase-3, the expression ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, and the generation of intracellular ROS were detected. We found that pretreatment with osthole on PC12 cells significantly reduced the loss of cell viability, the activity of caspase-3, the increase in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and the generation of intracellular ROS induced by DOX. Moreover, pretreatment with osthole led to an increase in MMP in PC12 cells. In conclusion, our results indicated that pretreatment with nontoxic concentrations of osthole protected PC12 cells from DOX-mediated apoptosis by inhibition of ROS production. PMID:25013759

Shokoohinia, Yalda; Hosseinzadeh, Leila; Moieni-Arya, Maryam; Mostafaie, Ali; Mohammadi-Motlagh, Hamid-Reza

2014-01-01

192

Role of ROS in ischemia-induced lung angiogenesis  

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Pulmonary artery obstruction and subsequent lung ischemia have been shown to induce systemic angiogenesis despite preservation of normoxia. The underlying mechanisms, however, remain poorly understood. In a mouse model of lung ischemia induced by left pulmonary artery ligation (LPAL), we showed previously, the formation of a new systemic vasculature to the ischemic lung. We hypothesize that LPAL in the mouse increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and these molecules play an initi...

Nijmeh, Julie; Moldobaeva, Aigul; Wagner, Elizabeth M.

2010-01-01

193

Antioxidants successfully reduce ROS production in propionic acidemia fibroblasts.  

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Propionic acidemia (PA), caused by a deficiency of the mitochondrial biotin dependent enzyme propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCC) is one of the most frequent organic acidurias in humans. Most PA patients present in the neonatal period with metabolic acidosis and hyperammonemia, developing different neurological symptoms, movement disorders and cardiac complications. There is strong evidence indicating that oxidative damage could be a pathogenic factor in neurodegenerative, mitochondrial and metabolic diseases. Recently, we identified an increase in ROS levels in PA patients-derived fibroblasts. Here, we analyze the capability of seven antioxidants to scavenge ROS production in PA patients' cells. Tiron, trolox, resveratrol and MitoQ significantly reduced ROS content in patients and controls' fibroblasts. In addition, changes in the expression of two antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, were observed in PA patients-derived fibroblasts after tiron and resveratrol treatment. Our results in PA cellular models establish the proof of concept of the potential of antioxidants as an adjuvant therapy for PA and pave the way for future assessment of antioxidant strategies in the murine model of PA. PMID:25159844

Gallego-Villar, Lorena; Pérez, Belén; Ugarte, Magdalena; Desviat, Lourdes R; Richard, Eva

2014-09-26

194

Foretinib is a potent inhibitor of oncogenic ROS1 fusion proteins  

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The rapidly growing recognition of the role of oncogenic ROS1 fusion proteins in the malignant transformation of multiple cancers, including lung adenocarcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma, and glioblastoma, is driving efforts to develop effective ROS1 inhibitors for use as molecularly targeted therapy. Using a multidisciplinary approach involving small molecule screening in combination with in vitro and in vivo tumor models, we show that foretinib (GSK1363089) is a more potent ROS1 inhibitor than crizotinib (PF-02341066), an ALK/ROS inhibitor currently in clinical evaluation for lung cancer patients harboring ROS1 rearrangements. Whereas crizotinib has demonstrated promising early results in patients with ROS1-rearranged non–small-cell lung carcinoma, recently emerging clinical evidence suggests that patients may develop crizotinib resistance due to acquired point mutations in the kinase domain of ROS1, thus necessitating identification of additional potent ROS1 inhibitors for therapeutic intervention. We confirm that the ROS1G2032R mutant, recently reported in clinical resistance to crizotinib, retains foretinib sensitivity at concentrations below safe, clinically achievable levels. Furthermore, we use an accelerated mutagenesis screen to preemptively identify mutations in the ROS1 kinase domain that confer resistance to crizotinib and demonstrate that these mutants also remain foretinib sensitive. Taken together, our data strongly suggest that foretinib is a highly effective ROS1 inhibitor, and further clinical investigation to evaluate its potential therapeutic benefit for patients with ROS1-driven malignancies is warranted. PMID:24218589

Davare, Monika A.; Saborowski, Anna; Eide, Christopher A.; Tognon, Cristina; Smith, Rebecca L.; Elferich, Johannes; Agarwal, Anupriya; Tyner, Jeffrey W.; Shinde, Ujwal P.; Lowe, Scott W.; Druker, Brian J.

2013-01-01

195

Screening of ROS1 Rearrangements in Lung Adenocarcinoma by Immunohistochemistry and Comparison with ALK Rearrangements  

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ROS1 rearrangement is a predictive biomarker for response to the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, crizotinib. We investigated the usefulness of ROS1 immunohistochemistry (IHC) for the detection of patients who harbor ROS1 rearrangements in two separate cohorts. We also compared ROS1 IHC with ALK IHC in terms of diagnostic performance to predict each gene rearrangement. In a retrospective cohort, IHC was performed in 219 cases of lung adenocarcinoma with already known genetic alterations. In a prospective cohort, we performed IHC for 111 consecutive cases of lung adenocarcinoma and confirmed the results by subsequent FISH. In the retrospective cohort, all 8 ROS1-rearranged tumors were immunoreactive, and 14 of 211 ROS1-wild cases were immunoreactive (sensitivity 100% and specificity 93.4%). In the prospective cohort, all IHC-negative cases were FISH-negative, and 5 of 34 ROS1 immunoreactive cases were ROS1-rearranged (sensitivity 100% and specificity 72.6%). In ROS1-wild tumors, ROS1 protein was more expressed in the tumors of ever-smokers than in those of never-smokers (p?=?0.003). ALK IHC showed 100% sensitivity and 98.1 to 100% specificity in both patient cohorts. In conclusion, ROS1 IHC is highly sensitive, but less specific compared with ALK IHC for detection of the corresponding rearrangement. ROS1 IHC-reactive tumors, especially when the tumor is stained with moderate to strong intensity or a diffuse pattern, are recommended to undergo FISH to confirm the gene rearrangement. PMID:25058391

Cha, Yoon Jin; Lee, Jae Seok; Kim, Hye Ryun; Lim, Sun Min; Cho, Byoung Chul; Lee, Chang Young; Shim, Hyo Sup

2014-01-01

196

Oleanane Triterpenoid CDDO-Me Inhibits Growth and Induce Apoptosis in Prostate Cancer Cells through a ROS-dependent Mechanism  

Science.gov (United States)

CDDO-Me, a synthetic triterpenoid derived from oleanolic acid, is a promising anticancer agent that has shown strong activity against a wide variety cancer types in vitro and in vivo. We have previously shown that CDDO-Me induces apoptosis in prostate cancer cells irrespective of their hormonal status. To further understand the proapoptotic mechanism of CDDO-Me, we investigated the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mediating the apoptosis inducing activity of CDDO-Me in LNCaP and PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines. Here, we show that CDDO-Me induces ROS generation from both nonmitochondrial and mitochondrial sources, which is associated with induction of apoptosis as characterized by increased annexin V-binding, cleavage of PARP-1 and procaspases -3,-8, -9, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and release of cytochrome c. In addition, CDDO-Me inhibited cell survival Akt, NF-?B and mTOR signaling proteins. The inhibition of ROS generation by N-acetylcysteine (NAC) or by overexpression of antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase1 (SOD1) prevented CDDO-Me-induced apoptosis. Pretreatment with NAC blocked annexin V-binding, cleavage of PARP-1 and procaspases -3,-8, -9, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and release of cytochrome c by CDDO-Me. NAC also prevented the inhibition of constitutively active Akt, NF-?B and mTOR by CDDO-Me. Together, these data indicate that ROS plays an essential role in induction of apoptosis by CDDO-Me in prostate cancer cells. PMID:19782051

Deeb, Dorrah; Gao, Xiaohua; Jiang, Hao; Janic, Branislava; Arbab, Ali S.; Rojanasakul, Yon; Dulchavsky, Scott A.; Gautam, Subhash C.

2009-01-01

197

MicroRNA-145 suppresses ROS-induced Ca2+ overload of cardiomyocytes by targeting CaMKII?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: •CaMKII? mediates H2O2-induced Ca2+ overload in cardiomyocytes. •miR-145 can inhibit Ca2+ overload. •A luciferase assay confirms that miR-145 functions as a CaMKII?-targeting miRNA. •Overexpression of miR-145 regulates CaMKII?-related genes and ameliorates apoptosis. -- Abstract: A change in intracellular free calcium (Ca2+) is a common signaling mechanism of reperfusion-induced cardiomyocyte death. Calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a critical regulator of Ca2+ signaling and mediates signaling pathways responsible for functions in the heart including hypertrophy, apoptosis, arrhythmia, and heart disease. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are involved in the regulation of cell response, including survival, proliferation, apoptosis, and development. However, the roles of miRNAs in Ca2+-mediated apoptosis of cardiomyocytes are uncertain. Here, we determined the potential role of miRNA in the regulation of CaMKII dependent apoptosis and explored its underlying mechanism. To determine the potential roles of miRNAs in H2O2-mediated Ca2+ overload, we selected and tested 6 putative miRNAs that targeted CaMKII?, and showed that miR-145 represses CaMKII? protein expression and Ca2+ overload. We confirmed CaMKII? as a direct downstream target of miR-145. Furthermore, miR-145 regulates Ca2+-related signals and ameliorates apoptosis. This study demonstrates that miR-145 regulates reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced Ca2+ overload in cardiomyocytes. Thus, miR-145 affects ROS-mediated gene regulation and cellular injury responses

198

Damaged DNA Binding Protein 2 in Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS Regulation and Premature Senescence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Premature senescence induced by DNA damage or oncogene is a critical mechanism of tumor suppression. Reactive oxygen species (ROS have been implicated in the induction of premature senescence response. Several pathological disorders such as cancer, aging and age related neurological abnormalities have been linked to ROS deregulation. Here, we discuss how Damaged DNA binding Protein-2 (DDB2, a nucleotide excision repair protein, plays an important role in ROS regulation by epigenetically repressing the antioxidant genes MnSOD and Catalase. We further revisit a model in which DDB2 plays an instrumental role in DNA damage induced ROS accumulation, ROS induced premature senescence and inhibition of skin tumorigenesis.

Pradip Raychaudhuri

2012-09-01

199

C. elegans Epidermal Wounding Induces a Mitochondrial ROS Burst that Promotes Wound Repair.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide are generated at wound sites and act as long-range signals in wound healing. The roles of other ROS in wound repair are little explored. Here, we reveal a cytoprotective role for mitochondrial ROS (mtROS) in Caenorhabditis elegans skin wound healing. We show that skin wounding causes local production of mtROS superoxide at the wound site. Inhibition of mtROS levels by mitochondrial superoxide-specific antioxidants blocks actin-based wound closure, whereas elevation of mtROS promotes wound closure and enhances survival of mutant animals defective in wound healing. mtROS act downstream of wound-triggered Ca(2+) influx. We find that the mitochondrial calcium uniporter MCU-1 is essential for rapid mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake and mtROS production after wounding. mtROS can promote wound closure by local inhibition of Rho GTPase activity via a redox-sensitive motif. These findings delineate a pathway acting via mtROS that promotes cytoskeletal responses in wound healing. PMID:25313960

Xu, Suhong; Chisholm, Andrew D

2014-10-13

200

Role of CaMKII and ROS in rapid pacing-induced apoptosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tachycardia promotes cell death and cardiac remodeling, leading to congestive heart failure. However, the underlying mechanism of tachycardia- or rapid pacing (RP)-induced cell death remains unknown. Myocyte loss by apoptosis is recognized as a critical factor in the progression to heart failure and simulation of tachycardia by RP has been shown to increase the intracellular levels of at least two potentially proapoptotic molecules, Ca(2+) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, whether these molecules mediate tachycardia- or RP-induced cell death has yet to be determined. The aim of this study was to examine the subcellular mechanisms underlying RP-induced apoptosis. For this purpose rat ventricular myocytes were maintained quiescent or paced at 0.5, 5 and 8Hz for 1hr. RP at 5 and 8Hz decreased myocyte viability by 58±3% and 75±6% (n=24), respectively, compared to cells maintained at 0.5Hz, and increased caspase-3 activity and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, indicative of apoptosis. RP-induced cell death and apoptosis were prevented when pacing protocols were conducted in the presence of either the ROS scavenger, MPG, or nifedipine to reduce Ca(2+) entry or the CaMKII inhibitors, KN93 and AIP. Consistently, myocytes from transgenic mice expressing a CaMKII inhibitory peptide (AC3-I) were protected against RP-induced cell death. Interestingly, tetracaine and carvedilol used to reduce ryanodine receptor (RyR) diastolic Ca(2+) release, and ruthenium red used to prevent Ca(2+) entry into the mitochondria prevented RP-induced cell death, whereas PI3K inhibition with Wortmannin exacerbated pacing-induced cell mortality. We conclude that CaMKII activation and ROS production are involved in RP-induced apoptosis. Particularly, our results suggest that CaMKII-dependent posttranslational modifications of the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR) leading to enhanced diastolic Ca(2+) release and mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload could be the underlying mechanism involved. We further show that RP simultaneously activates a protective cascade involving PI3K/AKT signaling which is however, insufficient to completely suppress apoptosis. PMID:23911439

Sepúlveda, Marisa; Gonano, Luis A; Back, Tom G; Chen, S R Wayne; Vila Petroff, Martin

2013-10-01

 
 
 
 
201

Ursolic acid induces autophagy in U87MG cells via ROS-dependent endoplasmic reticulum stress.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malignant gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors, and novel ways of treating gliomas are urgently needed. Ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpenoid, has been reported to exhibit promising antitumor activity. Here, we evaluated the effects of UA on U87MG cells and explored the underlying molecular mechanisms. The results demonstrated that both G1-phase arrest and autophagy were induced by UA in U87MG cells. Evidence of UA-induced autophagy included the formation of acidic vesicular organelles, increase of autophagolysosomes and LC3-II accumulation. UA was also found to induce ER stress and an increase in intracellular calcium accompanied by ROS production. The increase in free cytosolic calcium induced by UA activated the CaMKK-AMPK-mTOR kinase signaling cascade, which ultimately triggered autophagy. Western blot analysis showed that UA promoted the phosphorylation of PERK and eIF2?; this was followed by the upregulation of the downstream protein CHOP, implying the involvement of the ER stress-mediated PERK/eIF2?/CHOP pathway in glioma cells. Meanwhile, UA activated IRE1? and subsequently increased the levels of phosphorylated JNK and Bcl-2, resulting in the dissociation of Beclin1 from Bcl-2. Furthermore, TUDCA and the silencing of either PERK or IRE1? partially blocked the UA-induced accumulation of LC3-II, suggesting that ER stress precedes the process of autophagy. Additionally, NAC attenuated the UA-induced elevation in cytosolic calcium, ER stress markers and autophagy-related proteins, indicating that UA triggered ER stress and autophagy via a ROS-dependent pathway. Collectively, our findings revealed a novel cellular mechanism triggered by UA and provide a molecular basis for developing UA into a drug candidate. PMID:24802810

Shen, Shuying; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Rui; Tu, Xintao; Gong, Xingguo

2014-07-25

202

Advanced Query and Data Mining Capabilities for MaROS  

Science.gov (United States)

The Mars Relay Operational Service (MaROS) comprises a number of tools to coordinate, plan, and visualize various aspects of the Mars Relay network. These levels include a Web-based user interface, a back-end "ReSTlet" built in Java, and databases that store the data as it is received from the network. As part of MaROS, the innovators have developed and implemented a feature set that operates on several levels of the software architecture. This new feature is an advanced querying capability through either the Web-based user interface, or through a back-end REST interface to access all of the data gathered from the network. This software is not meant to replace the REST interface, but to augment and expand the range of available data. The current REST interface provides specific data that is used by the MaROS Web application to display and visualize the information; however, the returned information from the REST interface has typically been pre-processed to return only a subset of the entire information within the repository, particularly only the information that is of interest to the GUI (graphical user interface). The new, advanced query and data mining capabilities allow users to retrieve the raw data and/or to perform their own data processing. The query language used to access the repository is a restricted subset of the structured query language (SQL) that can be built safely from the Web user interface, or entered as freeform SQL by a user. The results are returned in a CSV (Comma Separated Values) format for easy exporting to third party tools and applications that can be used for data mining or user-defined visualization and interpretation. This is the first time that a service is capable of providing access to all cross-project relay data from a single Web resource. Because MaROS contains the data for a variety of missions from the Mars network, which span both NASA and ESA, the software also establishes an access control list (ACL) on each data record in the database repository to enforce user access permissions through a multilayered approach.

Wang, Paul; Wallick, Michael N.; Allard, Daniel A.; Gladden, Roy E.; Hy, Franklin H.

2013-01-01

203

Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma preferentially induces apoptosis in p53-mutated cancer cells by activating ROS stress-response pathways.  

Science.gov (United States)

Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma (NTAPP) is an ionized gas at room temperature and has potential as a new apoptosis-promoting cancer therapy that acts by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, it is imperative to determine its selectivity and standardize the components and composition of NTAPP. Here, we designed an NTAPP-generating apparatus combined with a He gas feeding system and demonstrated its high selectivity toward p53-mutated cancer cells. We first determined the proper conditions for NTAPP exposure to selectively induce apoptosis in cancer cells. The apoptotic effect of NTAPP was greater for p53-mutated cancer cells; artificial p53 expression in p53-negative HT29 cells decreased the pro-apoptotic effect of NTAPP. We also examined extra- and intracellular ROS levels in NTAPP-treated cells to deduce the mechanism of NTAPP action. While NTAPP-mediated increases in extracellular nitric oxide (NO) did not affect cell viability, intracellular ROS increased under NTAPP exposure and induced apoptotic cell death. This effect was dose-dependently reduced following treatment with ROS scavengers. NTAPP induced apoptosis even in doxorubicin-resistant cancer cell lines, demonstrating the feasibility of NTAPP as a potent cancer therapy. Collectively, these results strongly support the potential of NTAPP as a selective anticancer treatment, especially for p53-mutated cancer cells. PMID:24759730

Ma, Yonghao; Ha, Chang Seung; Hwang, Seok Won; Lee, Hae June; Kim, Gyoo Cheon; Lee, Kyo-Won; Song, Kiwon

2014-01-01

204

N,N-dimethyl phytosphingosine induces caspase-8-dependent cytochrome c release and apoptosis through ROS generation in human leukemia cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

N,N-dimethyl phytosphingosine (DMPS) blocks the conversion of sphingosine to sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) by the enzyme sphingosine kinase (SK). In this study, we elucidated the apoptotic mechanisms of DMPS action on a human leukemia cell line using functional pharmacologic and genetic approaches. First, we demonstrated that DMPS-induced apoptosis is evidenced by nuclear morphological change, distinct internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, and an increased sub-G1 cell population. DMPS treatment led to the activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, accompanied by the cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and led to cytochrome c release, depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential, and downregulation of the anti-apoptotic members of the bcl-2 family. Ectopic expression of bcl-2 and bcl-xL conferred resistance of HL-60 cells to DMPS-induced cell death, suggesting that DMPS-induced apoptosis occurs predominantly through the activation of the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. We also observed that DMPS activated the caspase-8-Bid-Bax pathway and that the inhibition of caspase-8 by z-IETD-fmk or small interfering RNA suppressed the cleavage of Bid, cytochrome c release, caspase-3 activation, and apoptotic cell death. In addition, cells subjected to DMPS exhibited significantly increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and ROS scavengers, such as quercetin and Tiron, but not N-acetylcysteine (NAC), inhibited DMPS-induced activations of caspase-8, -3 and subsequent apoptotic cell death, indicating the role of ROS in caspase-8-mediated apoptosis. Taken together, these results indicate that caspase-8 acts upstream of caspase-3, and that the caspase-8-mediated mitochondrial pathway is important in DMPS-induced apoptosis. Our results also suggest that ROS are critical regulators of caspase-8-mediated apoptosis in DMPS-treated leukemia cells.

205

Ionized gas (plasma) delivery of reactive oxygen species (ROS) into artificial cells  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was designed to enhance our understanding of how reactive oxygen species (ROS), generated ex situ by ionized gas (plasma), can affect the regulation of signalling processes within cells. A model system, comprising of a suspension of phospholipid vesicles (cell mimics) encapsulating a ROS reporter, was developed to study the plasma delivery of ROS into cells. For the first time it was shown that plasma unequivocally delivers ROS into cells over a sustained period and without compromising cell membrane integrity. An important consideration in cell and biological assays is the presence of serum, which significantly reduced the transfer efficiency of ROS into the vesicles. These results are key to understanding how plasma treatments can be tailored for specific medical or biotechnology applications. Further, the phospholipid vesicle ROS reporter system may find use in other studies involving the application of free radicals in biology and medicine.

Hong, Sung-Ha; Szili, Endre J.; Jenkins, A. Toby A.; Short, Robert D.

2014-09-01

206

Cytosolic and mitochondrial ROS in staurosporine-induced retinal cell apoptosis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study, we investigated the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and calcium in staurosporine (STS)-induced apoptosis in cultured retinal neurons, under conditions of maintained membrane integrity. The antioxidants idebenone (IDB), glutathione-ethylester (GSH/EE), trolox, and Mn(III)tetrakis (4-benzoic acid) porphyrin chloride (MnTBAP) significantly reduced STS-induced caspase-3-like activity and intracellular ROS generation. Endogenous sources of ROS production were investigat...

Gil, Joana; Almeida, Sandra; Oliveira, Catarina R.; Rego, A. Cristina

2003-01-01

207

ROS generate dalle NAD(P)H ossidasi nella segnalazione redox in linee cellulari leucemiche  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Discovery of the Nox family has led to the concept that ROS are “intentionally” generated and are biologically functional in various cell types. Over the last decades, ROS have been shown to be involved in several physiological and pathological processes and ROS producing enzymes have been suggested as a target for drug development. The mechanism involved in the prosurvival effect of cytokines on the human acute myeloid leukaemia cell lines M07e and B1647 is investigated. A decrease in i...

Vieceli Dalla Sega, Francesco

2011-01-01

208

Activation of TLR4 signaling promotes gastric cancer progression by inducing mitochondrial ROS production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic infection, such as Helicobacter pylori infection, has been associated with the development of gastric cancer (GC). Pathogen-associated molecular patterns can trigger inflammatory responses via Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in GC. Here we showed that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) was highly expressed in GC cells and was associated with the aggressiveness of GC. The binding of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to TLR4 on GC cells enhanced proliferation without affecting apoptosis. Higher level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was induced after activation of TLR4 signaling in GC. Using oxidase inhibitors and antioxidants, we found that mitochondrial ROS (mROS) was major source of TLR4-stimulated ROS generation. This elevated mROS production can be inhibited by diphenylene iodonium (DPI), and the blocking of the mROS production rather than ROS neutralization resulted in cell cycle arrest and the loss of mitochondrial potential, which were plausible reason for decreased cell viability. Furthermore, the increased mROS owing to TLR4 signaling resulted in the activation of Akt phosphorylation and NF-?B p65 nuclear translocation. Altogether, these results reveal a novel pathway linking innate immune signaling to GC cell proliferation, implicate mROS as an important component of cell survival signals and further establish mitochondria as hubs for GC therapies. PMID:24030146

Yuan, X; Zhou, Y; Wang, W; Li, J; Xie, G; Zhao, Y; Xu, D; Shen, L

2013-01-01

209

Mitochondrial ROS deficiency and diabetic complications: AMP[K]-lifying the adaptation to hyperglycemia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Global, sustained production of ROS has deleterious effects on tissue structure and function and gives rise to biochemical and physiological changes associated with organ senescence. Specific, localized ROS metabolites generated by mitochondria and NADPH oxidases also transduce homeostatic information in response to metabolic, mechanical, and inflammatory cues. In this issue of the JCI, Dugan and colleagues demonstrate that mitochondrial-derived ROS, which is maintained by a feed-forward AMP kinase activation cascade, is reduced in diabetes and plays an adaptive role in preserving renal glomerular function during hyperglycemia. This enlightened view of mitochondrial ROS biology forces us to reconsider therapeutic approaches to metabolic disease complications such as diabetic nephropathy. PMID:24135143

Towler, Dwight A

2013-11-01

210

Mitochondrial ROS production and subsequent ERK phosphorylation are necessary for temperature preconditioning of isolated ventricular myocytes  

Science.gov (United States)

Hypothermia and hypothermic preconditioning are known to be profoundly cardioprotective, but the molecular mechanisms of this protection have not been fully explained. In this study, temperature preconditioning (16?°C) was found to be cardioprotective in isolated adult rat ventricular myocytes, enhancing contractile recovery and preventing calcium dysregulation after oxidative stress. Hypothermic preconditioning preserved mitochondrial function by delaying the pathological opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), whereas transient mPTP flickering remained unaltered. For the first time, reactive oxygen species (ROS) from the mitochondria are shown to be released exclusively during the hypothermic episodes of the temperature-preconditioning protocol. Using a mitochondrially targeted ROS biosensor, ROS release was shown during the brief bursts to 16?°C of temperature preconditioning. The ROS scavenger N-(2-mercaptopropionyl) glycine attenuated ROS accumulation during temperature preconditioning, abolishing the protective delay in mPTP opening. Temperature preconditioning induces ROS-dependant phosphorylation of the prosurvival kinase extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2. ERK1/2 activation was shown to be downstream of ROS release, as the presence of a ROS scavenger during temperature preconditioning completely blocked ERK1/2 activation. The cardioprotective effects of temperature preconditioning on mPTP opening were completely lost by inhibiting ERK1/2 activation. Thus, mitochondrial ROS release and ERK1/2 activation are both necessary to signal the cardioprotective effects of temperature preconditioning in cardiac myocytes. PMID:22764104

Bhagatte, Y; Lodwick, D; Storey, N

2012-01-01

211

Rho GTPases and Nox dependent ROS production in skin. Is there a connection?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Rho GTPases are a family of small GTP binding proteins most commonly known for the regulation of many cellular processes, including actin cytoskeleton re-organisation, cell proliferation, signal transduction and regulation of apoptosis. Additionally, a link between Rho GTPases and reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been shown. In line with the growing interest in the role of ROS in cell biology, the relevance of this connection is becoming increasingly clearer. ROS production is classically associated with oxidative metabolic pathways (e.g. respiratory chain, arachidonic acid). During these metabolic pathways, ROS are produced as by-products and these can be potentially toxic. However, numerous cell types contain dedicated enzymatic complexes, i.e., NADPH oxidase (Nox) complexes, for regulated production of ROS. This regulated production of ROS seems to be important for a number of fundamental cell biological processes, including cell growth, differentiation, migration, angiogenesis, aimed at maintaining tissue homeostasis. Data suggests that skin cells are capable of a regulated ROS production via Nox complexes. Members of the Rho GTPase family have been found to play a central regulatory role in Nox activity. In the present review we will focus on the involvement of Rho GTPases in regulated production of ROS with special emphasis on the skin. We will also discuss the possibility that some in vivo effects of the deletion of members of the Rho GTPase family in skin cells could potentially be linked to a reduced ability of regulated ROS production.

Stanley, Alanna; Hynes, Ailish

2012-01-01

212

ROS-mediated genotoxicity of asbestos-cement in mammalian lung cells in vitro  

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Full Text Available Abstract Asbestos is a known carcinogen and co-carcinogen. It is a persisting risk in our daily life due to its use in building material as asbestos-cement powder. The present study done on V79-cells (Chinese hamster lung cells demonstrates the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of asbestos-cement powder (ACP in comparison with chrysotile asbestos. A co-exposure of chrysotile and ACP was tested using the cell viability test and the micronucleus assay. The kinetochore analysis had been used to analyse the pathway causing such genotoxic effects. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances were determined as evidence for the production of reactive oxygen species. Both, asbestos cement as well as chrysotile formed micronuclei and induced loss of cell viability in a concentration- and time- dependent way. Results of TBARS analysis and iron chelator experiments showed induction of free radicals in ACP- and chrysotile exposed cultures. CaSO4 appeared to be a negligible entity in enhancing the toxic potential of ACP. The co-exposure of both, ACP and chrysotile, showed an additive effect in enhancing the toxicity. The overall study suggests that asbestos-cement is cytotoxic as well as genotoxic in vitro. In comparison to chrysotile the magnitude of the toxicity was less, but co-exposure increased the toxicity of both.

Rödelsperger Klaus

2005-10-01

213

Antifungal activity of ZnO nanoparticles-the role of ROS mediated cell injury  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Metal oxide nanoparticles have marked antibacterial activity. The toxic effect of these nanoparticles, such as those comprised of ZnO, has been found to occur due to an interaction of the nanoparticle surface with water, and to increase with a decrease in particle size. In the present study, we tested the ability of ZnO nanoparticles to affect the viability of the pathogenic yeast, Candida albicans (C. albicans). A concentration-dependent effect of ZnO on the viability of C. albicans was observed. The minimal fungicidal concentration of ZnO was found to be 0.1 mg ml{sup -1} ZnO; this concentration caused an inhibition of over 95% in the growth of C. albicans. ZnO nanoparticles also inhibited the growth of C. albicans when it was added at the logarithmic phase of growth. Addition of histidine (a quencher of hydroxyl radicals and singlet oxygen) caused reduction in the effect of ZnO on C. albicans depending on its concentration. An almost complete elimination of the antimycotic effect was achieved following addition of 5 mM of histidine. Exciting the ZnO by visible light increased the yeast cell death. The effects of histidine suggest the involvement of reactive oxygen species, including hydroxyl radicals and singlet oxygen, in cell death. In light of the above results it appears that metal oxide nanoparticles may provide a novel family of fungicidal compounds.

Lipovsky, Anat; Gedanken, Aharon [Department of Chemistry, Kanbar Laboratory for Nanomaterials, Institute of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel); Nitzan, Yeshayahu [Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel); Lubart, Rachel [Department of Chemistry, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan (Israel)

2011-03-11

214

Antifungal activity of ZnO nanoparticles-the role of ROS mediated cell injury  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Metal oxide nanoparticles have marked antibacterial activity. The toxic effect of these nanoparticles, such as those comprised of ZnO, has been found to occur due to an interaction of the nanoparticle surface with water, and to increase with a decrease in particle size. In the present study, we tested the ability of ZnO nanoparticles to affect the viability of the pathogenic yeast, Candida albicans (C. albicans). A concentration-dependent effect of ZnO on the viability of C. albicans was observed. The minimal fungicidal concentration of ZnO was found to be 0.1 mg ml-1 ZnO; this concentration caused an inhibition of over 95% in the growth of C. albicans. ZnO nanoparticles also inhibited the growth of C. albicans when it was added at the logarithmic phase of growth. Addition of histidine (a quencher of hydroxyl radicals and singlet oxygen) caused reduction in the effect of ZnO on C. albicans depending on its concentration. An almost complete elimination of the antimycotic effect was achieved following addition of 5 mM of histidine. Exciting the ZnO by visible light increased the yeast cell death. The effects of histidine suggest the involvement of reactive oxygen species, including hydroxyl radicals and singlet oxygen, in cell death. In light of the above results it appears that metal oxide nanoparticles may provide a novel family of fungicidal compounds.

215

Cell Protective, ABC Triblock Polymer-Based Thermoresponsive Hydrogels with ROS-Triggered Degradation and Drug Release.  

Science.gov (United States)

A combination of anionic and RAFT polymerization was used to synthesize an ABC triblock polymer poly[(propylenesulfide)-block-(N,N-dimethylacrylamide)-block-(N-isopropylacrylamide)] (PPS-b-PDMA-b-PNIPAAM) that forms physically cross-linked hydrogels when transitioned from ambient to physiologic temperature and that incorporates mechanisms for reactive oxygen species (ROS) triggered degradation and drug release. At ambient temperature (25 °C), PPS-b-PDMA-b-PNIPAAM assembled into 66 ± 32 nm micelles comprising a hydrophobic PPS core and PNIPAAM on the outer corona. Upon heating to physiologic temperature (37 °C), which exceeds the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of PNIPAAM, micelle solutions (at ?2.5 wt %) sharply transitioned into stable, hydrated gels. Temperature-dependent rheology indicated that the equilibrium storage moduli (G') of hydrogels at 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5 wt % were 20, 380, and 850 Pa, respectively. The PPS-b-PDMA-b-PNIPAAM micelles were preloaded with the model drug Nile red, and the resulting hydrogels demonstrated ROS-dependent drug release. Likewise, exposure to the peroxynitrite generator SIN-1 degraded the mechanical properties of the hydrogels. The hydrogels were cytocompatible in vitro and were demonstrated to have utility for cell encapsulation and delivery. These hydrogels also possessed inherent cell-protective properties and reduced ROS-mediated cellular death in vitro. Subcutaneously injected PPS-b-PDMA-b-PNIPAAM polymer solutions formed stable hydrogels that sustained local release of the model drug Nile red for 14 days in vivo. These collective data demonstrate the potential use of PPS-b-PDMA-b-PNIPAAM as an injectable, cyto-protective hydrogel that overcomes conventional PNIPAAM hydrogel limitations such as syneresis, lack of degradability, and lack of inherent drug loading and environmentally responsive release mechanisms. PMID:25254509

Gupta, Mukesh K; Martin, John R; Werfel, Thomas A; Shen, Tianwei; Page, Jonathan M; Duvall, Craig L

2014-10-22

216

A novel synthetic analog of Militarin, MA-1 induces mitochondrial dependent apoptosis by ROS generation in human lung cancer cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

A synthetic Militarin analog-1[(2R,3R,4R,5R)-1,6-bis(4-(2,4,4-trimethylpentan-2-yl)phenoxy) hexane-2,3,4,5-tetraol] is a novel derivative of constituents from Cordyceps militaris, which has been used to treat a variety of chronic diseases including inflammation, diabetes, hyperglycemia and cancers. Here, we report for the first time the synthesis of Militarin analog-1 (MA-1) and the apoptotic mechanism of MA-1 against human lung cancer cell lines. Treatment with MA-1 significantly inhibited the viability of 3 human lung cancer cell lines. The inhibition of viability and growth in MA-1-treated A549 cells with an IC50 of 5?M were mediated through apoptosis induction, as demonstrated by an increase in DNA fragmentation, sub-G0/G1-DNA fraction, nuclear condensation, and phosphatidylserine exposure. The apoptotic cell death caused mitochondrial membrane permeabilization through regulation of expression of the Bcl-2 family proteins, leading to cytochrome c release in a time-dependent manner. Subsequently, the final stage of apoptosis, activation of caspase-9/-3 and cleavage of poly (ADP ribose) polymerase, was induced. Furthermore, A549 lung cancer cells were more responsive to MA-1 than a bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B), involving the rapid generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation. The pharmacological inhibition of ROS generation and JNK/p38 MAPK exhibited attenuated DNA fragmentation in MA-1-induced apoptosis. Oral administration of MA-1 also retarded growth of A549 orthotopic xenografts. In conclusion, the present study indicates that the new synthetic derivative MA-1 triggers mitochondrial apoptosis through ROS generation and regulation of MAPKs and may be a potent therapeutic agent against human lung cancer. PMID:24161344

Yoon, Deok Hyo; Lim, Mi-Hee; Lee, Yu Ran; Sung, Gi-Ho; Lee, Tae-Ho; Jeon, Byeong Hwa; Cho, Jae Youl; Song, Won O; Park, Haeil; Choi, Sunga; Kim, Tae Woong

2013-12-15

217

Effect of Methyl Jasmonate on antioxidative enzyme activities and on the contents of ROS and H2O2 in Ricinus communis leaves  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Jasmonates are a class of plant hormones that mediate various aspects in gene and metabolic regulation, defense, stress responses, reproduction and, possibly, communication. Oxidative stress stimulates synthesis of antioxidant metabolites and enhances antioxidant enzyme activities that could protect plant tissues. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of methyl jasmonate (JAME treatment on the reactive oxygen species (ROS and on the activities of H2O2 scavenging enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC 1.15.1.1, catalase (CAT; EC 1.11.1.6, ascorbate peroxidase (APX EC; 1.11.1.1, and guaiacol peroxidase (GPX; EC 1.11.1.7 in Ricinus communis leaves. The activity of CAT and GPX was transient while SOD activity decreased and APX increased after treatment with JAME. In addition, JAME exposure induced ROS accumulation.

Alexandra Martins dos Santos Soares

2010-01-01

218

Effect of Methyl Jasmonate on antioxidative enzyme activities and on the contents of ROS and H2O2 in Ricinus communis leaves  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Jasmonates are a class of plant hormones that mediate various aspects in gene and metabolic regulation, defense, stress responses, reproduction and, possibly, communication. Oxidative stress stimulates synthesis of antioxidant metabolites and enhances antioxidant enzyme activities that could protect [...] plant tissues. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of methyl jasmonate (JAME) treatment on the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and on the activities of H2O2 scavenging enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT; EC 1.11.1.6), ascorbate peroxidase (APX EC; 1.11.1.1), and guaiacol peroxidase (GPX; EC 1.11.1.7) in Ricinus communis leaves. The activity of CAT and GPX was transient while SOD activity decreased and APX increased after treatment with JAME. In addition, JAME exposure induced ROS accumulation.

Alexandra Martins dos Santos, Soares; Thiago Freitas de, Souza; Tânia, Jacinto; Olga Lima Tavares, Machado.

219

Production of ROS and its effects on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, human spermatozoa, and sperm function  

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Full Text Available Over the past few decades many researchers studying the causes of male infertility have recently focused on the role played by reactive oxygen species (ROS – highly reactive oxidizing agents belonging to the class of free radicals. If ROS levels rise, oxidative stress (OS occurs, which results in oxygen and oxygen derived oxidants, and in turn increases the rates of cellular damage. In human, ROS are produced by a variety of semen components, and antioxidants in the seminal fluid keep their level balance. Small amounts of ROS help spermatozoa acquire their necessary fertilizing capabilities. Many researches showed that ROS attack DNA integrity in the sperm nucleus by causing base modification, DNA strand breaks, and chromatin cross linking. The DNA damage induced excessive levels of ROS and might accelerate the process of germ cell apoptosis leading to a decline in sperm counts associated with male infertility. This paper will review the molecular (cellular origins of ROS in human semen, how ROS damage sperm nuclear DNA, and how such DNA damage contributes to male infertility. Increased ROS production by spermatozoa is associated with a decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, which is an important indicator of functional integrity of the spermatozoa. Germ cell apoptosis is essential for normal spermatogenesis and its dysregulation may lead to male infertility. Thus, understanding the causes and mechanisms of germ cell apoptosis is of major importance in preventing male reproductive problems. Levels of apoptosis in mature spermatozoa that were significantly correlated with levels of seminal ROS determined by chemiluminescence assay indicate the linkage between ROS and male fertility problems. (Med J Indones 2007; 16:127-33 Keywords: Apoptosis, infertility, free radicals

Hardi Darmawan

2007-05-01

220

Cigarette smoke extract upregulates heme oxygenase-1 via PKC/NADPH oxidase/ROS/PDGFR/PI3K/Akt pathway in mouse brain endothelial cells  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In the brain, the inducible form of heme oxygenase (HO-1 has been recently demonstrated to exacerbate early brain injury produced by intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke which incident rate has been correlated with cigarette smoking previously. Interestingly, cigarette smoke (CS or chemicals present in CS have been shown to induce HO-1 expression in various cell types, including cerebral endothelial cells. However, the mechanisms underlying CS modulating HO-1 protein expression are not completely understood in the brain vessels. Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanisms underlying CS modulating HO-1 protein expression in cerebral endothelial cells. Methods Cultured cerebral endothelial cells (bEnd.3 were used to investigate whether a particulate phase of cigarette smoke extract (PPCSE regulates HO-1 expression and to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in HO-1 expression in bEnd.3 cells. Results We demonstrated that PPCSE (30 ?g/ml significantly induced HO-1 protein expression and its enzymatic activity in bEnd.3 cells determined by western blotting and bilirubin formation, respectively. PPCSE-induced HO-1 expression was mediated through phosphatidylcholine phospholipase C (PC-PLC, PKC?, and PI3K/Akt which were observed by pretreatment with their respective pharmacological inhibitors or transfection with dominant negative mutants of PKC? and Akt. ROS scavenger (N-acetyl-L-cysteine, NAC blocked the PPCSE-induced ROS generation and HO-1 expression. Pretreatment with selective inhibitors of PKC? (rottlerin and NADPH oxidase [diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI and apocynin (APO] attenuated the PPCSE-induced NADPH oxidase activity, ROS generation, and HO-1 expression. In addition, we found that PPCSE induced PI3K/Akt activation via NADPH oxidase/ROS-dependent PDGFR phosphorylation. Conclusions Taken together, these results suggested that PPCSE-induced HO-1 expression is mediated by a PC-PLC/PKC?/NADPH oxidase-dependent PDGFR/PI3K/Akt pathway in bEnd.3 cells.

Kou Yu

2011-08-01

 
 
 
 
221

Moderate extracellular acidification inhibits capsaicin-induced cell death through regulating calcium mobilization, NF-{kappa}B translocation and ROS production in synoviocytes  

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Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Moderate extracellular acidification regulates intracellular Ca{sup 2+} mobilization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Moderate acidification activates NF-{kappa}B nuclear translocation in synoviocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Moderate acidification depresses the ROS production induced by capsaicin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Moderate acidification inhibits capsaicin-caused synoviocyte death. -- Abstract: We previously show the expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) in primary synoviocytes from collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rats. Capsaicin and lowered extracellular pH from 7.4 to 5.5 induce cell death through TRPV1-mediated Ca{sup 2+} entry and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. However, under the pathological condition in rheumatoid arthritis, the synovial fluid is acidified to a moderate level (about pH 6.8). In the present study, we examined the effects of pH 6.8 on the TRPV1-mediated cell death. Our finding is different or even opposite from what was observed at pH 5.5. We found that the moderate extracellular acidification (from pH 7.4 to 6.8) inhibited the capsaicin-induced Ca{sup 2+} entry through attenuating the activity of TRPV1. In the mean time, it triggered a phospholipse C (PLC)-related Ca{sup 2+} release from intracellular stores. The nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B was found at pH 6.8, and this also depends on PLC activation. Moreover, the capsaicin-evoked massive ROS production and cell death were depressed at pH 6.8, both of which are dependent on the activation of PLC and NF-{kappa}B. Taken together, these results suggested that the moderate extracellular acidification inhibited the capsaicin-induced synoviocyte death through regulating Ca{sup 2+} mobilization, activating NF-{kappa}B nuclear translocation and depressing ROS production.

Hu, Fen; Yang, Shuang; Zhao, Dan; Zhu, Shuyan; Wang, Yuxiang [Department of Biophysics, School of Physics and Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials of Education Ministry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Li, Junying, E-mail: jyli04@nankai.edu.cn [Department of Biophysics, School of Physics and Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials of Education Ministry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

2012-07-20

222

Viscolin reduces VCAM-1 expression in TNF-?-treated endothelial cells via the JNK/NF-?B and ROS pathway.  

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Viscolin, a major active component in a chloroform extract of Viscum coloratum, has antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. We focused on its effects on the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?)-treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The TNF-?-induced expression of VCAM-1 was significantly reduced by respectively 38±7 or 34±16% when HUVECs were pretreated with 10 or 30?M viscolin, as shown by Western blotting, and was also significantly reduced by pretreatment with the antioxidants N-acetylcysteine, diphenylene iodonium chloride, and apocynin. Viscolin also reduced TNF-?-induced VCAM-1 mRNA expression and promoter activity, decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activity, and significantly reduced the binding of monocytes to TNF-?-stimulated HUVECs. The attenuation of TNF-?-induced VCAM-1 expression and cell adhesion was partly mediated by a decrease in JNK phosphorylation. Furthermore, viscolin reduced VCAM-1 expression in the aorta of TNF-?-treated mice in vivo. Taken together, these data show that viscolin inhibits TNF-?-induced JNK phosphorylation, nuclear translocation of NF-?B p65, and ROS generation and thereby suppresses VCAM-1 expression, resulting in reduced adhesion of leukocytes. These results also suggest that viscolin may prevent the development of atherosclerosis and inflammatory responses. PMID:21767632

Liang, Chan-Jung; Wang, Shu-Huei; Chen, Yung-Hsiang; Chang, Shih-Sheng; Hwang, Tong-Long; Leu, Yann-Lii; Tseng, Ying-Chih; Li, Chi-Yuan; Chen, Yuh-Lien

2011-10-01

223

KULT?ROS STUDIJ? IR TARPKULT?RINIO UGDYMO PROGRAM? SUDERINAMUMAS IR PAPILDOMUMAS  

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Magistro darbe, remiantis Lietuvos ir užsienio moksline literat?ra analizuojamas kult?ros studij? mokslini? tyrim? poveikis tarpkult?riniam ugdymui. Pateikiami tarpkult?rini? kompetencij? modeliai, pagrindiniai aspektai, lemiantys kult?ros studij? pranašum? tarpkult?riškumo dimensijoje gilinant tarpkult?rines kompetencijas, bei aptariamos tarpkult?rinio ugdymo papildomumo galimyb?s.

Godelis, Marius

2008-01-01

224

Life-history Constraints on the Mechanisms that Control the Rate of ROS Production.  

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The quest to understand why and how we age has led to numerous lines of investigation that have gradually converged to consider mitochondrial metabolism as a major player. During mitochondrial respiration a small and variable amount of the consumed oxygen is converted to reactive species of oxygen (ROS). For many years, these ROS have been perceived as harmful by-products of respiration. However, evidence from recent years indicates that ROS fulfill important roles as cellular messengers. Results obtained using model organisms suggest that ROS-dependent signalling may even activate beneficial cellular stress responses, which eventually may lead to increased lifespan. Nevertheless, when an overload of ROS cannot be properly disposed of, its accumulation generates oxidative stress, which plays a major part in the ageing process. Comparative studies about the rates of ROS production and oxidative damage accumulation, have led to the idea that the lower rate of mitochondrial oxygen radical generation of long-lived animals with respect to that of their short-lived counterpart, could be a primary cause of their slow ageing rate. A hitherto largely under-appreciated alternative view is that such lower rate of ROS production, rather than a cause may be a consequence of the metabolic constraints imposed for the large body sizes that accompany high lifespans. To help understanding the logical underpinning of this rather heterodox view, herein I review the current literature regarding the mechanisms of ROS formation, with particular emphasis on evolutionary aspects. PMID:24955029

Aledo, Juan Carlos

2014-06-01

225

Screening for the FIG-ROS1 fusion in biliary tract carcinomas by nested PCR.  

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ROS1 rearrangements have been detected in a variety of tumors and are considered as suitable targets of anticancer therapies. We developed a new, quick, specific, and sensitive PCR test to screen for the FIG-ROS1 fusion and applied it to a series of Italian patients with bile duct carcinoma (BTC). Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues, derived from 65 Italian BTC patients, and six cell lines were analyzed by nested PCR to investigate the prevalence of a previously reported FIG-ROS1 fusion. The specificity and sensitivity of nested PCR were investigated in FIG-ROS1 positive U118MG cells in reconstitution experiments with peripheral blood mononuclear cells. We found that six out of 65 (9%) BTC patients were positive for the FIG-ROS1 fusion, comprising two out of 14 (14%) gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) patients and four out of 25 (16%) extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ECC) patients. None of the 26 intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma cases harbored the FIG-ROS1 fusion. All the cell lines were negative for this variant. In conclusion, 14-16% of GBC and ECC were positive for FIG-ROS1. This may have clinical implications, since these patients will potentially benefit from the treatment with specific ROS1 inhibitors. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25231053

Peraldo Neia, Caterina; Cavalloni, Giuliana; Balsamo, Antonella; Venesio, Tiziana; Napoli, Francesca; Sassi, Francesco; Martin, Vittoria; Frattini, Milo; Aglietta, Massimo; Leone, Francesco

2014-12-01

226

Temporal dynamics of ROS biogenesis under simulated solar radiation in the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis PCC 7937.  

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We studied the temporal generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis PCC 7937 under simulated solar radiation using WG 280, WG 295, WG 305, WG 320, WG 335, WG 345, and GG 400 nm cut-off filters to find out the minimum exposure time and most effective region of the solar spectrum inducing highest level of ROS. There was no significant generation of ROS in all treatments in comparison to the samples kept in the dark during the first 8 h of exposure; however, after 12 h of exposure, ROS were significantly generated in samples covered with 305, 295, or 280 nm cut-off filters. In contrast with ROS, the fragmentation of filaments was predominantly seen in 280 nm cut-off filter covered samples after 12 h of exposure. After 24 h of exposure, ROS levels were significantly higher in all samples than in the dark; however, the ROS signals were more pronounced in 320, 305, 295, or 280 nm cut-off filter covered samples. In contrast, the length of filaments was reduced in 305, 295, or 280 nm cut-off filter covered samples after 24 h of exposure. Thus, fragmentation of the filament was induced by all wavelengths of the UV-B region contrary to the UV-A region where only shorter wavelengths were able to induce the fragmentation. In contrast, ROS were generated by all wavelengths of the solar spectrum after 24 h of exposure; however, shorter wavelengths of both the UV-A and the UV-B regions were more effective in generating ROS in comparison to their higher wavelengths and photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). Moreover, lower wavelengths of UV-B were more efficient than the lower wavelengths of the UV-A radiation. Findings from this study suggest that certain threshold levels of ROS are required to induce the fragmentation of filaments. PMID:24633292

Singh, Shailendra P; Rastogi, Rajesh P; Häder, Donat-P; Sinha, Rajeshwar P

2014-09-01

227

NADPH oxidase/ROS-dependent PYK2 activation is involved in TNF-?-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in rat heart-derived H9c2 cells.  

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TNF-? plays a mediator role in the pathogenesis of chronic heart failure contributing to cardiac remodeling and peripheral vascular disturbances. The implication of TNF-? in inflammatory responses has been shown to be mediated through up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). However, the detailed mechanisms of TNF-?-induced MMP-9 expression in rat embryonic-heart derived H9c2 cells are largely not defined. We demonstrated that in H9c2 cells, TNF-? induced MMP-9 mRNA and protein expression associated with an increase in the secretion of pro-MMP-9. TNF-?-mediated responses were attenuated by pretreatment with the inhibitor of ROS (N-acetyl-l-cysteine, NAC), NADPH oxidase [apocynin (APO) or diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI)], MEK1/2 (U0126), p38 MAPK (SB202190), JNK1/2 (SP600125), NF-?B (Bay11-7082), or PYK2 (PF-431396) and transfection with siRNA of TNFR1, p47(phox), p42, p38, JNK1, p65, or PYK2. Moreover, TNF-? markedly induced NADPH oxidase-derived ROS generation in these cells. TNF-?-enhanced p42/p44 MAPK, p38 MAPK, JNK1/2, and NF-?B (p65) phosphorylation and in vivo binding of p65 to the MMP-9 promoter were inhibited by U0126, SB202190, SP600125, NAC, DPI, or APO. In addition, TNF-?-mediated PYK2 phosphorylation was inhibited by NAC, DPI, or APO. PYK2 inhibition could reduce TNF-?-stimulated MAPKs and NF-?B activation. Thus, in H9c2 cells, we are the first to show that TNF-?-induced MMP-9 expression is mediated through a TNFR1/NADPH oxidase/ROS/PYK2/MAPKs/NF-?B cascade. We demonstrated that NADPH oxidase-derived ROS generation is involved in TNF-?-induced PYK2 activation in these cells. Understanding the regulation of MMP-9 expression and NADPH oxidase activation by TNF-? on H9c2 cells may provide potential therapeutic targets of chronic heart failure. PMID:23774252

Yang, Chuen-Mao; Lee, I-Ta; Hsu, Ru-Chun; Chi, Pei-Ling; Hsiao, Li-Der

2013-10-15

228

Neurospora crassa Light Signal Transduction Is Affected by ROS.  

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In the ascomycete fungus Neurospora crassa blue-violet light controls the expression of genes responsible for differentiation of reproductive structures, synthesis of secondary metabolites, and the circadian oscillator activity. A major photoreceptor in Neurospora cells is WCC, a heterodimeric complex formed by the PAS-domain-containing polypeptides WC-1 and WC-2, the products of genes white collar-1 and white collar-2. The photosignal transduction is started by photochemical activity of an excited FAD molecule noncovalently bound by the LOV domain (a specialized variant of the PAS domain). The presence of zinc fingers (the GATA-recognizing sequences) in both WC-1 and WC-2 proteins suggests that they might function as transcription factors. However, a critical analysis of the phototransduction mechanism considers the existence of residual light responses upon absence of WCC or its homologs in fungi. The data presented point at endogenous ROS generated by a photon stimulus as an alternative input to pass on light signals to downstream targets. PMID:22046507

Belozerskaya, Tatiana A; Gessler, Natalia N; Isakova, Elena P; Deryabina, Yulia I

2012-01-01

229

Role of mitochondria ROS generation in ethanol-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation and cell death in astroglial cells  

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Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and NOD-like receptors (NLRs) are innate immunity sensors that provide an early/effective response to pathogenic or injury conditions. We have reported that ethanol-induced TLR4 activation triggers signaling inflammatory responses in glial cells, causing neuroinflammation and brain damage. However, it is uncertain if ethanol is able to activate NLRs/inflammasome in astroglial cells, which is the mechanism of activation, and whether there is crosstalk between both immune sensors in glial cells. Here we show that chronic ethanol treatment increases the co-localization of caspase-1 with GFAP+ cells, and up-regulates IL-1? and IL-18 in the frontal medial cortex in WT, but not in TLR4 knockout mice. We further show that cultured cortical astrocytes expressed several inflammasomes (NLRP3, AIM2, NLRP1, and IPAF), although NLRP3 mRNA is the predominant form. Ethanol, as ATP and LPS treatments, up-regulates NLRP3 expression, and causes caspase-1 cleavage and the release of IL-1? and IL-18 in astrocytes supernatant. Ethanol-induced NLRP3/caspase-1 activation is mediated by mitochondrial (m) reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation because when using a specific mitochondria ROS scavenger, the mito-TEMPO (500 ?M) or NLRP3 blocking peptide (4 ?g/ml) or a specific caspase-1 inhibitor, Z-YVAD-FMK (10 ?M), abrogates mROS release and reduces the up-regulation of IL-1? and IL-18 induced by ethanol or LPS or ATP. Confocal microscopy studies further confirm that ethanol, ATP or LPS promotes NLRP3/caspase-1 complex recruitment within the mitochondria to promote cell death by caspase-1-mediated pyroptosis, which accounts for ?73% of total cell death (?22%) and the remaining (?25%) die by caspase-3-dependent apoptosis. Suppression of the TLR4 function abrogates most ethanol effects on NLRP3 activation and reduces cell death. These findings suggest that NLRP3 participates, in ethanol-induced neuroinflammation and highlight the NLRP3/TLR4 crosstalk in ethanol-induced brain injury. PMID:25136295

Alfonso-Loeches, Silvia; Urena-Peralta, Juan R.; Morillo-Bargues, Maria Jose; Oliver-De La Cruz, Jorge; Guerri, Consuelo

2014-01-01

230

Role of mitochondria ROS generation in ethanol-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation and cell death in astroglial cells  

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Full Text Available Toll-like receptors (TLRs and Nod-like receptors (NLRs are innate immunity sensors that provide an early/effective response to pathogenic or injury conditions. We have reported that ethanol-induced TLR4 activation triggers signaling inflammatory responses in glial cells, causing neuroinflammation and brain damage. However, it is uncertain if ethanol is able to activate NLRs /inflammasome in astroglial cells, which is the mechanism of activation, and whether there is crosstalk between both immune sensors in glial cells. Here we show that chronic ethanol treatment increases the co-localization of caspase-1 with GFAP+ cells, and up-regulates IL-1? and IL-18 in the frontal medial cortex in WT, but not in TLR4 knock-out mice. We further show that cultured cortical astrocytes expressed several inflammasomes (NLRP3, AIM2, NLRP1 and IPAF, although NLRP3 mRNA is the predominant form. Ethanol, as ATP and LPS treatments, up-regulates NLRP3 expression, and causes caspase-1 cleavage and the release of IL-1? and IL-18 in astrocytes supernatant. Ethanol-induced NLRP3/caspase-1 activation is mediated by mitochondrial (m ROS generation because when using a specific mitochondria ROS scavenger, the mito-TEMPO (500 ?M or NLRP3 blocking peptide (4?g/ml or a specific caspase-1 inhibitor, Z-YVAD-FMK (10 ?M, abrogates mROS release and reduces the up-regulation of IL-1? and IL-18 induced by ethanol or LPS or ATP. Confocal microscopy studies further confirm that ethanol, ATP or LPS promotes NLRP3/caspase-1 complex recruitment within the mitochondria to promote cell death by caspase-1-mediated pyroptosis, which accounts for ? 73 % of total cell death (?22% and the remaining (?25% die by caspase-3-dependent apoptosis. Suppression of the TLR4 function abrogates most ethanol effects on NLRP3 activation and reduces cell death. These findings suggest that NLRP3 participates, in ethanol-induced neuroinflammation and highlight the NLRP3/TLR4 crosstalk in ethanol-induced brain injury.

ConsueloGUERRI

2014-08-01

231

ROS formation and glutathione levels in human oral fibroblasts exposed to TEGDMA and camphorquinone.  

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Glutathione (GSH) is important for the self-protection of cells against oxidative stress and toxic xenobiotics, whereas reactive oxygen species (ROS) at elevated concentrations may cause detrimental alterations of cell membranes, DNA, and other cellular structures. The present investigation addressed the effects of triethylene-glycoldimethacrylate (TEGDMA) and camphorquinone (CQ) on glutathione metabolism and the formation of ROS in oral cells. Primary human pulp fibroblasts were exposed to various concentrations of TEGDMA and CQ (0.1-5 mM). Subsequently, GSH concentration and ROS formation were analyzed with the use of the monobromobimane assay (GSH) and 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) (ROS). The endogenous ROS hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was used as a positive control (0.02-2 mM). TEGDMA significantly decreased GSH at concentrations between 0.5 and 5 mM (por=1 mM, but had only a moderate effect on GSH at the highest test concentration. Hydrogen peroxide increased ROS and simultaneously decreased GSH at concentrations of >or=0.2 mM. These data show that the investigated substances may cause cell damage due to various mechanisms, GSH decrease and/or ROS increase. As a consequence, TEGDMA and CQ released into an aqueous environment from resinous materials might interact, thus generating significant cytotoxic effects even at low concentrations. PMID:16080163

Engelmann, J; Volk, J; Leyhausen, G; Geurtsen, W

2005-11-01

232

A novel Drosophila SOD2 mutant demonstrates a role for mitochondrial ROS in neurodevelopment and disease  

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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play essential roles in cell signaling, survival, and homeostasis. Aberrant ROS lead to disease and contribute to the aging process. Numerous enzymes and vigilant antioxidant pathways are required to regulate ROS for normal cellular health. Mitochondria are a major source of ROS, and mechanisms to prevent elevated ROS during oxidative phosphorylation require super oxide dismutase (SOD) activity. SOD2, also known as MnSOD, is targeted to mitochondria and is instrumental in regulating ROS by conversion of superoxides to hydrogen peroxide, which is further broken down into H2O and oxygen. Here, we describe the identification of a novel mutation within the mitochondrial SOD2 enzyme in Drosophila that results in adults with an extremely shortened life span, sensitivity to hyperoxia, and neuropathology. Additional studies demonstrate that this novel mutant, SOD2bewildered, exhibits abnormal brain morphology, suggesting a critical role for this protein in neurodevelopment. We investigated the basis of this neurodevelopmental defect and discovered an increase in aberrant axonal that could underlie the aberrant neurodevelopment and brain morphology defects. This novel allele, SOD2bewildered, provides a unique opportunity to study the effects of increased mitochondrial ROS on neural development, axonal targeting, and neural cell degeneration in vivo. PMID:22950046

Celotto, Alicia M; Liu, Zhaohui; VanDemark, Andrew P; Palladino, Michael J

2012-01-01

233

ROS generation and multiple forms of mammalian mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.  

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Overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in a range of pathologies. Mitochondrial flavin dehydrogenases glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (mGPDH) and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) represent important ROS source, but the mechanism of electron leak is still poorly understood. To investigate the ROS production by the isolated dehydrogenases, we used brown adipose tissue mitochondria solubilized by digitonin as a model. Enzyme activity measurements and hydrogen peroxide production studies by Amplex Red fluorescence, and luminol luminescence in combination with oxygraphy revealed flavin as the most likely source of electron leak in SDH under in vivo conditions, while we propose coenzyme Q as the site of ROS production in the case of mGPDH. Distinct mechanism of ROS production by the two dehydrogenases is also apparent from induction of ROS generation by ferricyanide which is unique for mGPDH. Furthermore, using native electrophoretic systems, we demonstrated that mGPDH associates into homooligomers as well as high molecular weight supercomplexes, which represent native forms of mGPDH in the membrane. By this approach, we also directly demonstrated that isolated mGPDH itself as well as its supramolecular assemblies are all capable of ROS production. PMID:23999537

Mrá?ek, Tomáš; Holzerová, Eliška; Drahota, Zden?k; Ková?ová, Nikola; Vrbacký, Marek; Ješina, Pavel; Houšt?k, Josef

2014-01-01

234

A stochastic step model of replicative senescence explains ROS production rate in ageing cell populations.  

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Increases in cellular Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) concentration with age have been observed repeatedly in mammalian tissues. Concomitant increases in the proportion of replicatively senescent cells in ageing mammalian tissues have also been observed. Populations of mitotic human fibroblasts cultured in vitro, undergoing transition from proliferation competence to replicative senescence are useful models of ageing human tissues. Similar exponential increases in ROS with age have been observed in this model system. Tracking individual cells in dividing populations is difficult, and so the vast majority of observations have been cross-sectional, at the population level, rather than longitudinal observations of individual cells.One possible explanation for these observations is an exponential increase in ROS in individual fibroblasts with time (e.g. resulting from a vicious cycle between cellular ROS and damage). However, we demonstrate an alternative, simple hypothesis, equally consistent with these observations which does not depend on any gradual increase in ROS concentration: the Stochastic Step Model of Replicative Senescence (SSMRS). We also demonstrate that, consistent with the SSMRS, neither proliferation-competent human fibroblasts of any age, nor populations of hTERT overexpressing human fibroblasts passaged beyond the Hayflick limit, display high ROS concentrations. We conclude that longitudinal studies of single cells and their lineages are now required for testing hypotheses about roles and mechanisms of ROS increase during replicative senescence. PMID:22359661

Lawless, Conor; Jurk, Diana; Gillespie, Colin S; Shanley, Daryl; Saretzki, Gabriele; von Zglinicki, Thomas; Passos, João F

2012-01-01

235

Regulation of ROS in transmissible gastroenteritis virus-activated apoptotic signaling  

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Highlights: •TGEV infection induced ROS accumulation. •ROS accumulation is involved in TGEV-induced mitochondrial integrity impairment. •ROS is associated with p53 activation and apoptosis occurrence in TGEV-infected cells. -- Abstract: Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), an enteropathogenic coronavirus, causes severe lethal watery diarrhea and dehydration in piglets. Previous studies indicate that TGEV infection induces cell apoptosis in host cells. In this study, we investigated the roles and regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in TGEV-activated apoptotic signaling. The results showed that TGEV infection induced ROS accumulation, whereas UV-irradiated TGEV did not promote ROS accumulation. In addition, TGEV infection lowered mitochondrial transmembrane potential in PK-15 cell line, which could be inhibited by ROS scavengers, pyrrolidinedithiocarbamic (PDTC) and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). Furthermore, the two scavengers significantly inhibited the activation of p38 MAPK and p53 and further blocked apoptosis occurrence through suppressing the TGEV-induced Bcl-2 reduction, Bax redistribution, cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation. These results suggest that oxidative stress pathway might be a key element in TGEV-induced apoptosis and TGEV pathogenesis.

Ding, Li [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); College of Life Sciences, Hainan Normal University, Haikou, Hainan 571158 (China); Zhao, Xiaomin; Huang, Yong; Du, Qian; Dong, Feng; Zhang, Hongling; Song, Xiangjun; Zhang, Wenlong [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Tong, Dewen, E-mail: dwtong@nwsuaf.edu.cn [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China)

2013-12-06

236

Regulation of ROS in transmissible gastroenteritis virus-activated apoptotic signaling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: •TGEV infection induced ROS accumulation. •ROS accumulation is involved in TGEV-induced mitochondrial integrity impairment. •ROS is associated with p53 activation and apoptosis occurrence in TGEV-infected cells. -- Abstract: Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), an enteropathogenic coronavirus, causes severe lethal watery diarrhea and dehydration in piglets. Previous studies indicate that TGEV infection induces cell apoptosis in host cells. In this study, we investigated the roles and regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in TGEV-activated apoptotic signaling. The results showed that TGEV infection induced ROS accumulation, whereas UV-irradiated TGEV did not promote ROS accumulation. In addition, TGEV infection lowered mitochondrial transmembrane potential in PK-15 cell line, which could be inhibited by ROS scavengers, pyrrolidinedithiocarbamic (PDTC) and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). Furthermore, the two scavengers significantly inhibited the activation of p38 MAPK and p53 and further blocked apoptosis occurrence through suppressing the TGEV-induced Bcl-2 reduction, Bax redistribution, cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation. These results suggest that oxidative stress pathway might be a key element in TGEV-induced apoptosis and TGEV pathogenesis

237

Fenretinide induces mitochondrial ROS and inhibits the mitochondrial respiratory chain in neuroblastoma.  

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Fenretinide induces apoptosis in neuroblastoma by induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, we investigated the role of mitochondria in fenretinide-induced cytotoxicity and ROS production in six neuroblastoma cell lines. ROS induction by fenretinide was of mitochondrial origin, demonstrated by detection of superoxide with MitoSOX, the scavenging effect of the mitochondrial antioxidant MitoQ and reduced ROS production in cells without a functional mitochondrial respiratory chain (Rho zero cells). In digitonin-permeabilized cells, a fenretinide concentration-dependent decrease in ATP synthesis and substrate oxidation was observed, reflecting inhibition of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. However, inhibition of the mitochondrial respiratory chain was not required for ROS production. Co-incubation of fenretinide with inhibitors of different complexes of the respiratory chain suggested that fenretinide-induced ROS production occurred via complex II. The cytotoxicity of fenretinide was exerted through the generation of mitochondrial ROS and, at higher concentrations, also through inhibition of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. PMID:19941060

Cuperus, Roos; Leen, René; Tytgat, Godelieve A M; Caron, Huib N; van Kuilenburg, André B P

2010-03-01

238

Šiuolaikin?s architekt?ros orientyrai: ikoniški pastatai hierarchin?s klasifikacijos sistemoje  

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Full Text Available Architekt?ros orientyrai dažnai aptariami bendrai su gamtin?s aplinkos elementais ir nenagrin?jami atsietai. Ta?iau pastar?j? met? miest? vystymo tendencijos, nuolat did?jantis antropogenini? orientyr? skai?ius miestovaizdyje bei auganti j? svarba reikalauja atidesnio poži?rio ? šiuos miest? urbanistin?s strukt?ros elementus. Straipsnyje aptariamas ikonišk? pastat? fenomenas bei kiti šiuolaikiniai architekt?ros orientyrai – aplinkoje savo fizin?mis bei estetin?mis savyb?mis išsiskiriantys pastatai, urbanistiniai elementai bei ši? kompleksai. Atsižvelgiant ? pastar?j? met? miest? raidos kryptis bei urbanizuotos erdv?s suvokimo sampratos poky?ius, si?loma šiuolaikin?s architekt?ros orientyrus skirstyti ? ikoniškos architekt?ros, erdvin?s strukt?ros dominan?i? ir išsiskirian?i? ženkl? hierarchinius tipus. Aptariamos skirting? tip? architekt?ros orientyr? skiriamosios savyb?s.Straipsnis lietuvi? kalba

Almantas Bružas

2011-06-01

239

Surface functionalization of titanium dioxide nanoparticles: Photo-stability and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation  

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Metal oxide nanoparticles are becoming increasingly prevalent in society for applications of sunscreens, cosmetics, paints, biomedical imaging, and photovoltaics. Due to the increased surface area to volume ratio of nanoparticles compared to bulk materials, it is important to know the health and safety impacts of these materials. One mechanism of toxicity of nominally "safe" materials such as TiO 2 is through the photocatalytic generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS production and ligand degradation can affect the bioavailability of these particles in aqueous organisms. We have investigated ROS generation by functionalized TiO2 nanoparticles and its influence on aggregation and bioavailability and toxicity to zebrafish embryos/larvae. For these studies we investigated anatase TiO2 nanoparticles. For application purposes and solution stability, the TiO2 nanoparticles were functionalized with a variety of ligands such as citrate, 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, and ascorbate. We quantitatively examined the amount of ROS produced in aqueous solution using fluorescent probes and see that more ROS is produced under UV light than in the dark control. Our measurements show that TiO2 toxicity reaches a maximum for nanoparticles with smaller diameters, and is correlated with surface area dependent changes in ROS generation. In an effort to reduce toxicity through control of the surface and surface ligands, we synthesized anatase nanoparticles of different sizes, functionalized them with different ligands, and examined the resulting ROS generation and ligand stability. Using a modular ligand containing a hydrophobic inner region and a hydrophilic outer region, we synthesized water-stable nanoparticles, via two different chemical reactions, having much-reduced ROS generation and thus reduced toxicity. These results suggest new strategies for making safer nanoparticles while still retaining their desired properties. We also examine the degradation of the different ligands on the surface of the particles using XPS and FTIR. The combination of ROS production and ligand degradation can affect the bioavailability of these particles in aqueous species.

Louis, Kacie M.

240

Astaxanthin inhibits apoptosis in alveolar epithelial cells type II in vivo and in vitro through the ROS-dependent mitochondrial signalling pathway.  

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Oxidative stress is an important molecular mechanism underlying lung fibrosis. The mitochondrion is a major organelle for oxidative stress in cells. Therefore, blocking the mitochondrial signalling pathway may be the best therapeutic manoeuver to ameliorate lung fibrosis. Astaxanthin (AST) is an excellent antioxidant, but no study has addressed the pathway of AST against pulmonary oxidative stress and free radicals by the mitochondrion-mediated signalling pathway. In this study, we investigated the antioxidative effects of AST against H2 O2 - or bleomycin (BLM)-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in alveolar epithelial cells type II (AECs-II) in vivo and in vitro. Our data show that AST blocks H2 O2 - or BLM-induced ROS generation and dose-dependent apoptosis in AECs-II, as characterized by changes in cell and mitochondria morphology, translocation of apoptotic proteins, inhibition of cytochrome c (Cyt c) release, and the activation of caspase-9, caspase-3, Nrf-2 and other cytoprotective genes. These data suggest that AST inhibits apoptosis in AECs-II cells through the ROS-dependent mitochondrial signalling pathway and may be of potential therapeutic value in lung fibrosis treatment. PMID:25215580

Song, Xiaodong; Wang, Bingsi; Lin, Shengcui; Jing, Lili; Mao, Cuiping; Xu, Pan; Lv, Changjun; Liu, Wen; Zuo, Ji

2014-11-01

 
 
 
 
241

A novel protein, Romo1, induces ROS production in the mitochondria.  

Science.gov (United States)

The majority of endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. An imbalance in ROS production alters the intracellular redox homeostasis, triggers DNA damage, and contributes to cancer development and progression. This study identified a novel protein, reactive oxygen species modulator 1 (Romo1), which is localized in the mitochondria. Romo1 was found to increase the level of ROS in the cells. Increased Romo1 expression was observed in various cancer cell lines. This suggests that the increased Romo1 expression during cancer progression may cause persistent oxidative stress to tumor cells, which can increase their malignancy. PMID:16842742

Chung, Young Min; Kim, Jun Suk; Yoo, Young Do

2006-09-01

242

Sodium selenite induced changes during ripening in post-harvest banana (Musa sapientum) fruits.  

Science.gov (United States)

The metabolic role of selenium, if any, in plant systems has received little attention, as opposed to animal and other systems where many studies have been performed. Post-harvest banana (Musa sapientum) fruits treated with 1 mM solutions of sodium selenite show an increase in the rate of ripening. Visually, typical ripening changes in colour, aroma and tissue softness were observed to occur earlier in sodium selenite-treated fruits as compared to controls. These results were substantiated biochemically, enzymologically and physiologically, showing a strong relationship of this phenomenon with the oxidative changes. PMID:2177992

Udar, N S; Modi, V V

1990-10-01

243

Psoriasin (S100A7) increases the expression of ROS and VEGF and acts through RAGE to promote endothelial cell proliferation.  

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Psoriasin (S100A7), originally identified in psoriasis, is a calcium-binding protein belonging to the multigenic S100 family. In high-grade ductal carcinoma in situ, psoriasin was identified as one of the most abundant transcripts. We have previously shown that psoriasin was induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Moreover, the downregulation of psoriasin by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) led to the reduced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and inhibited tumor growth in vivo. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether psoriasin could have direct effects on endothelial cells. In this study we demonstrated that psoriasin increased VEGF expression in mammary epithelial cells. The treatment of endothelial cells with recombinant psoriasin increased proliferation comparable to that of recombinant VEGF protein. No change in proliferation was seen when endothelial cells were infected with psoriasin-expressing adenoviruses, suggesting that the proliferative effect of psoriasin was mediated by a specific receptor. Treatment with sRAGE, targeting the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), thus inhibited endothelial cell proliferation and tube formation enhanced by recombinant psoriasin. We showed that VEGF expression was not induced by hydrogen peroxide, when psoriasin was silenced by shRNA, which led to the hypothesis that psoriasin induces ROS. Indeed, psoriasin was shown to induce ROS in both endothelial and epithelial cells. Moreover, sRAGE inhibited the psoriasin-dependent generation of ROS in endothelial cells. Finally, treatment with antioxidant Bcl-2 protein abolished the effect of psoriasin on endothelial cell proliferation. Our data suggest that psoriasin expression in mammary epithelial cells leads to increased endothelial cell proliferation in a paracrine manner through RAGE. Psoriasin may therefore play a role in breast cancer progression by promoting oxidative stress response and angiogenesis. PMID:22189627

Shubbar, Emman; Vegfors, Jenny; Carlström, Maria; Petersson, Stina; Enerbäck, Charlotta

2012-07-01

244

nNOS(+ striatal neurons, a subpopulation spared in Huntington Disease, possess functional NMDA receptors but fail to generate mitochondrial ROS in response to an excitotoxic challenge  

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Full Text Available Hungtinton’s disease (HD is a neurodegenerative condition characterized by severe neuronal loss in the cortex and striatum that leads to motor and behavioral deficits. Excitotoxicity is thought to be involved in HD and several studies have indicated that NMDA receptor (NMDAR overactivation can play a role in the selective neuronal loss found in HD. Interestingly, a small subset of striatal neurons (less than 1% of the overall population is found to be spared in post-mortem HD brains. These neurons are medium-sized aspiny interneurons that highly express the neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase (nNOS. Intriguingly, nNOS(+ neurons show reduced vulnerability to NMDAR-mediated excitotoxicity. Mechanisms underlying this reduced vulnerability are still largely unknown. One untested possibility is that nNOS(+ neurons possess fewer or less functioning NMDARs. Employing single cell calcium imaging we challenged this hypothesis and found that cultured striatal nNOS(+ neurons show NMDAR-evoked responses that are identical to the ones observed in the overall population of nNOS(- neurons. NMDAR-dependent dysregulation of intraneuronal Ca2+ is known to generate high levels of reactive oxygen species of mitochondrial origin (mt-ROS, a crucial step in the excitotoxic cascade. With confocal imaging and dihydrorhodamine (DHR; a ROS-sensitive probe we compared mt-ROS levels generated by NMDAR activation in nNOS(+ and (- striatal neurons. DHR experiments revealed that nNOS(+ neurons failed to produce significant amounts of mt-ROS in response to NMDA exposure, thereby providing a mechanism for their reduced vulnerability to excitotoxicity.

StefanoLSensi

2013-05-01

245

Investigating the Protective Effect of Lithium Against High Glucose-Induced Neurotoxicity in PC12 Cells: Involvements of ROS, JNK and P38 MAPKs, and Apoptotic Mitochondria Pathway.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hyperglycemia that occurs under the diabetic condition is a major cause of diabetic complications such as diabetic neuropathy, one of the most common diabetes-related complications. It is well known that hyperglycemia could result in generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Over production of ROS recommended as an important mediator for apoptotic signaling pathway as well as a key early event in the development of diabetic neuropathy. Recently, many studies have indicated that lithium has robust neuroprotective effect in relation to several neurodegenerative diseases. The present study aimed to examine effects of lithium on high glucose (HG)-induced neurotoxicity and to determine some of the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in this response in PC12 cells as a neuronal culture model for diabetic neuropathy. PC12 cells were pretreated with different concentrations of lithium for 7 days, exposed to HG for 24 h. Cell viability was measured by MTT assay. ROS and lipid peroxidation levels as well as superoxide dismutase activity were measured. In order to examine the underlying molecular mechanisms, the expressions of Bax, Bcl-2, Caspase-3, total and phosphorylated JNK and P38 MAPK were also analyzed by Western blotting. The present results indicated that pretreatment with 1 mM lithium has protected PC12 cells against HG-induced apoptotic cell death. It could reduce ROS generation, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, Caspase-3 activation, and JNK and P38 MAPK phosphorylation. It may be concluded that in HG condition, lithium pretreatment could prevent mitochondrial apoptosis as well as JNK and P38 MAPK pathway in PC12 cells. PMID:25073869

Aminzadeh, A; Dehpour, A R; Safa, M; Mirzamohammadi, S; Sharifi, A M

2014-11-01

246

The molecular basis for adhesion-mediated suppression of reactive oxygen species generation by human neutrophils  

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Human neutrophil adherence to ECMs induces an initial inhibition of stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, followed by an enhanced phase of oxidant production. The initial integrin-mediated suppression of ROS constitutes a mechanism to prevent inappropriate tissue damage as leukocytes migrate to inflammatory sites. The Rac2 guanosine 5?-triphosphatase (GTPase) is a critical regulatory component of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase. We show that activation of Rac2 is inhibited in adhe...

Zhao, Tieming; Benard, Valerie; Bohl, Benjamin P.; Bokoch, Gary M.

2003-01-01

247

Regulation of ROS in transmissible gastroenteritis virus-activated apoptotic signaling.  

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Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), an enteropathogenic coronavirus, causes severe lethal watery diarrhea and dehydration in piglets. Previous studies indicate that TGEV infection induces cell apoptosis in host cells. In this study, we investigated the roles and regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in TGEV-activated apoptotic signaling. The results showed that TGEV infection induced ROS accumulation, whereas UV-irradiated TGEV did not promote ROS accumulation. In addition, TGEV infection lowered mitochondrial transmembrane potential in PK-15 cell line, which could be inhibited by ROS scavengers, pyrrolidinedithiocarbamic (PDTC) and N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC). Furthermore, the two scavengers significantly inhibited the activation of p38 MAPK and p53 and further blocked apoptosis occurrence through suppressing the TGEV-induced Bcl-2 reduction, Bax redistribution, cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation. These results suggest that oxidative stress pathway might be a key element in TGEV-induced apoptosis and TGEV pathogenesis. PMID:24225120

Ding, Li; Zhao, Xiaomin; Huang, Yong; Du, Qian; Dong, Feng; Zhang, Hongling; Song, Xiangjun; Zhang, Wenlong; Tong, Dewen

2013-12-01

248

A preliminary cyber-physical security assessment of the Robot Operating System (ROS)  

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Over the course of the last few years, the Robot Operating System (ROS) has become a highly popular software framework for robotics research. ROS has a very active developer community and is widely used for robotics research in both academia and government labs. The prevalence and modularity of ROS cause many people to ask the question: "What prevents ROS from being used in commercial or government applications?" One of the main problems that is preventing this increased use of ROS in these applications is the question of characterizing its security (or lack thereof). In the summer of 2012, a crowd sourced cyber-physical security contest was launched at the cyber security conference DEF CON 20 to begin the process of characterizing the security of ROS. A small-scale, car-like robot was configured as a cyber-physical security "honeypot" running ROS. DEFFCON-20 attendees were invited to find exploits and vulnerabilities in the robot while network traffic was collected. The results of this experiment provided some interesting insights and opened up many security questions pertaining to deployed robotic systems. The Federal Aviation Administration is tasked with opening up the civil airspace to commercial drones by September 2015 and driverless cars are already legal for research purposes in a number of states. Given the integration of these robotic devices into our daily lives, the authors pose the following question: "What security exploits can a motivated person with little-to-no experience in cyber security execute, given the wide availability of free cyber security penetration testing tools such as Metasploit?" This research focuses on applying common, low-cost, low-overhead, cyber-attacks on a robot featuring ROS. This work documents the effectiveness of those attacks.

McClean, Jarrod; Stull, Christopher; Farrar, Charles; Mascareñas, David

2013-05-01

249

Triiodothyronine (T3 does not induce Rankl expression in rat Ros 17/2.8 cells Triiodotironina (T3 não induz a expressão de Rankl em células de rato ROS 17/2.8  

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Full Text Available Osteoclastogenesis may be regulated via activation of the RANK/RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B/ receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand system, which is mediated by osteoblasts. However, the bone loss mechanism induced by T3 (triiodothyronine is still controversial. In this study, osteoblastic lineage rat cells (ROS 17/2.8 were treated with T3 (10-8 M, 10-9 M, and 10-10 M, and RANKL mRNA (messenger RNA expression was measured by semiquantitative RT-PCR. Our results show that T3 concentrations used did not significantly enhance RANKL expression compared to controls without hormone treatment. This data suggests that other mechanisms, unrelated to the RANK/RANKL system, might be to activate osteoclast differentiation in these cells.A osteoclastogênese pode ser regulada via ativação do sistema RANK/RANKL (receptor ativador do fator nuclear kapa B/ ligante do receptor do fator nuclear kapa B, que é mediado pelos osteoblastos. Entretanto, o mecanismo de perda óssea induzido pelo T3 (triiodotironina ainda é controverso. Neste estudo, a linhagem osteoblástica de células de rato ROS 17/2.8 foi tratada com T3 (10-8 M, 10-9 M e 10-10 M, e a expressão do mRNA do RANKL foi medida por RT-PCR semiquantitativo. Nossos resultados mostraram que as concentrações de T3 utilizadas não induziram significativamente a expressão do RANKL, comparado ao controle (sem tratamento hormonal. Estes dados sugerem que outros mecanismos, não relacionados ao sistema RANK/RANKL, são usados para ativar a diferenciação osteoclástica nestas células.

Patrícia P. Saraiva

2008-02-01

250

Triiodothyronine (T3) does not induce Rankl expression in rat Ros 17/2.8 cells / Triiodotironina (T3) não induz a expressão de Rankl em células de rato ROS 17/2.8  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A osteoclastogênese pode ser regulada via ativação do sistema RANK/RANKL (receptor ativador do fator nuclear kapa B/ ligante do receptor do fator nuclear kapa B), que é mediado pelos osteoblastos. Entretanto, o mecanismo de perda óssea induzido pelo T3 (triiodotironina) ainda é controverso. Neste es [...] tudo, a linhagem osteoblástica de células de rato ROS 17/2.8 foi tratada com T3 (10-8 M, 10-9 M e 10-10 M), e a expressão do mRNA do RANKL foi medida por RT-PCR semiquantitativo. Nossos resultados mostraram que as concentrações de T3 utilizadas não induziram significativamente a expressão do RANKL, comparado ao controle (sem tratamento hormonal). Estes dados sugerem que outros mecanismos, não relacionados ao sistema RANK/RANKL, são usados para ativar a diferenciação osteoclástica nestas células. Abstract in english Osteoclastogenesis may be regulated via activation of the RANK/RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B/ receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand) system, which is mediated by osteoblasts. However, the bone loss mechanism induced by T3 (triiodothyronine) is still controversial. [...] In this study, osteoblastic lineage rat cells (ROS 17/2.8) were treated with T3 (10-8 M, 10-9 M, and 10-10 M), and RANKL mRNA (messenger RNA) expression was measured by semiquantitative RT-PCR. Our results show that T3 concentrations used did not significantly enhance RANKL expression compared to controls without hormone treatment. This data suggests that other mechanisms, unrelated to the RANK/RANKL system, might be to activate osteoclast differentiation in these cells.

Patrícia P., Saraiva; Silvania S., Teixeira; Célia Regina, Nogueira; Carlos Roberto, Padovani.

2008-02-01

251

Genetic silencing of Nrf2 enhances X-ROS in dysferlin-deficient muscle  

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Full Text Available Oxidative stress is a critical disease modifier in the muscular dystrophies. Recently, we discovered a pathway by which mechanical stretch activates NADPH Oxidase 2 (NoX2 dependent ROS generation (X-ROS. Our work in dystrophic skeletal muscle revealed that X-ROS is excessive in dystrophin-deficient (mdx skeletal muscle and contributes to muscle injury susceptibility, a hallmark of the dystrophic process. We also observed widespread alterations in expression of genes associated with the X-ROS pathway and redox homeostasis in muscles from both Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients and mdx mice. As nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 plays an essential role in the transcriptional regulation of genes involved in redox homeostasis, we hypothesized that Nrf2 deficiency may contribute to enhanced X-ROS signaling by reducing redox buffering. To directly test the effect of diminished Nrf2 activity, Nrf2 was genetically silenced in the A/J model of dysferlinopathy - a model with a mild histopathologic and functional phenotype. Nrf2-deficient A/J mice exhibited significant muscle-specific functional deficits, histopathologic abnormalities, and dramatically enhanced X-ROS compared to control A/J and WT mice, both with functional Nrf2. Having identified that reduced Nrf2 activity is a negative disease modifier, we propose that strategies targeting Nrf2 activation may address the generalized reduction in redox homeostasis to halt or slow dystrophic progression.

ChristopherWilliamWard

2014-02-01

252

Reactive oxygen species (ROS – a family of fate deciding molecules pivotal in constructive inflammation and wound healing  

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Full Text Available Wound healing requires a fine balance between the positive and deleterious effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS; a group of extremely potent molecules, rate limiting in successful tissue regeneration. A balanced ROS response will debride and disinfect a tissue and stimulate healthy tissue turnover; suppressed ROS will result in infection and an elevation in ROS will destroy otherwise healthy stromal tissue. Understanding and anticipating the ROS niche within a tissue will greatly enhance the potential to exogenously augment and manipulate healing.Tissue engineering solutions to augment successful healing and remodelling of wounded or diseased tissue rely on a controlled balance between the constructive and destructive capacity of the leukocyte secretome, including ROS.This review comprehensively considers leukocyte derived ROS in tissue repair with particular interest in surgical intervention with inclusion of a biomaterial. The article considers ROS fundamental chemistry, formation, stimulation and clearance before applying this to discuss the implications of ROS in healing tissue with and without a biomaterial. We also systematically discuss ROS in leukocyte signalling and compare and contrast experimental means of measuring ROS.

N Bryan

2012-09-01

253

Cytotoxic mechanisms of Zn2+ and Cd2+ involve Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE) activation by ROS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The signaling mechanism induced by cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) in gill cells of Mytilus galloprovincialis was investigated. Both metals cause an increase in ·O2 - production, with Cd to be more potent (216 ± 15%) than Zn (150 ± 9.5%), in relation to control value (100%). The metals effect was reversed after incubation with the amiloride analogue, EIPA, a selective Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE) inhibitor as well as in the presence of calphostin C, a protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor. The heavy metals effect on ·O2 - production was mediated via the interaction of metal ions with ?1- and ?-adrenergic receptors, as shown after incubation with their respective agonists and antagonists. In addition, both metals caused an increase in intracellular pH (pHi) of gill cells. EIPA together with either metal significantly reduced the effect of each metal treatment on pHi. Incubation of gill cells with the oxidants rotenone, antimycin A and pyruvate caused a significant increase in pHi (?pHi 0.830, 0.272 and 0.610, respectively), while in the presence of the anti-oxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) a decrease in pHi (?pHi -0.090) was measured, indicating that change in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by heavy metals affects NHE activity. When rosiglitazone was incubated together with either heavy metal a decrease in O2 - production was observed. Our results show a key role of NHE ur results show a key role of NHE in the signal transduction pathway induced by Zn and Cd in gill cells, with the involvement of ROS, PKC, adrenergic and PPAR-? receptors. In addition, differences between the two metals concerning NHE activation, O2 - production and interaction with adrenergic receptors were observed

254

Hexokinase II inhibitor, 3-BrPA induced autophagy by stimulating ROS formation in human breast cancer cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hexokinase II (HKII), a key enzyme of glycolysis, is widely over-expressed in cancer cells. 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA), an inhibitor of HK II, has been proposed as a specific antitumor agent. Autophagy is a process that regulates the balance between protein synthesis and protein degradation. Autophagy in mammalian systems occurs under basal conditions and can be stimulated by stresses, including starvation, oxidative stress. Therefore, we hypothesized that 3-BrPA could induce autophagy. In the present study, we explored the mechanism of 3-BrPA and its combined action with chloroquine. Our results demonstrate that in MDA-MB-435 and in MDA-MB-231 cells, 3-BrPA induces autophagy, which can be inhibited by chloroquine. Furthermore, the combined treatment synergistically decreased the number of viable cells. Interestingly, the combined treatment triggered apoptosis in MDA-MB-435 cells, while it induced necroptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells. ROS mediated cell death when 3-BrPA and CQ were co-administered. Finally, CQ enhanced the anticancer efficacy of 3-BrPA in vivo. Collectively, our results show that 3-BrPA triggers autophagy, increasing breast cancer cell resistance to 3-BrPA treatment and that CQ enhanced 3-BrPA-induced cell death in breast cancer cells by stimulating ROS formation. Thus, inhibition of autophagy may be an innovative strategy for adjuvant chemotherapy of breast cancer.human skeletal muscle. Efficient Mirk depletion in SU86.86 pancreatic cancer cells by an inducible shRNA decreased expression of eight antioxidant genes. Thus both cancer cells and differentiated myotubes utilize Mirk kinase to relieve oxidative stress. PMID:25053988

Zhang, Qianwen; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Pei; Chao, Zhenhua; Xia, Fei; Jiang, Chenchen; Zhang, Xudong; Jiang, Zhiwen; Liu, Hao

2014-03-01

255

Intercultural Mediation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Intercultural Mediator facilitates exchanges between people of different socio-cultural backgrounds and acts as a bridge between immigrants and national and local associations, health organizations, services and offices in order to foster integration of every single individual. As the use mediation increases, mediators are more likely to be involved in cross-cultural mediation, but only the best mediators have the opportunity to mediate cross border business disputes or international poli...

Dragos Marian Radulescu; Denisa Mitrut

2012-01-01

256

Neferine from Nelumbo nucifera induces autophagy through the inhibition of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway and ROS hyper generation in A549 cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previously we have reported that neferine from the medicinal plant Nelumbo nucifera, inhibited cancer cell proliferation by inducing apoptosis. The present study was focused on the action mechanism of neferine in inducing autophagy in lung cancer cells. Neferine markedly inhibited A549 cell proliferation in a dose dependent manner. Acidic vesicular accumulation was observed in neferine treated cells as an indication of autophagy. Neferine could induce the conversion of LC3B-I to LC3B-II without affecting the expression levels of PI3KCIII and Beclin1. It has been observed that neferine mediated autophagy is dependent on inhibition of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling by neferine. Neferine treatment could also lead to the ROS hypergeneration and depletion of cellular antioxidant, GSH. The results demonstrate that neferine-induced autophagy is mediated through ROS hypergeneration and mTOR inhibition. Taken together, the present study unveils a novel mechanism of action of neferine on lung cancer cells in the induction of autophagy. PMID:23993526

Poornima, Paramasivan; Weng, Ching Feng; Padma, Viswanadha Vijaya

2013-12-15

257

Induction of apoptosis by plumbagin through reactive oxygen species-mediated inhibition of topoisomerase II  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been recognized as key molecules, which can selectively modify proteins and therefore regulate cellular signalling including apoptosis. Plumbagin, a naphthoquinone exhibiting antitumor activity, is known to generate ROS and has been found to inhibit the activity of topoisomerase II (Topo II) through the stabilization of the Topo II-DNA cleavable complex. The objective of this research was to clarify the role of ROS and Topo II inhibition in the induction of apoptosis mediated by plumbagin. As determined by the comet assay, plumbagin induced DNA cleavage in HL-60 cells, whereas in a cell line with reduced Topo II activity-HL-60/MX2, the level of DNA damage was significantly decreased. The onset of DNA strand break formation in HL-60 cells was delayed in comparison with the generation of intracellular ROS. In HL-60/MX2 cells, ROS were generated at a similar rate, whereas a significant reduction in the level of DNA damage was detected. The pretreatment of cells with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) attenuated plumbagin-induced DNA damage, pointing out to the involvement of ROS generation in cleavable complex formation. These results suggest that plumbagin-induced ROS does not directly damage DNA but requires the involvement of Topo II. Furthermore, experiments carried out using light spectroscopy indicated no direct interactions between plumbagin and DNA. The induction of apoptosis was significantly delayed in HL-60/MX2 cells indicating the involed in HL-60/MX2 cells indicating the involvement of Topo II inhibition in plumbagin-mediated apoptosis. Thus, these findings strongly suggest ROS-mediated inhibition of Topo II as an important mechanism contributing to the apoptosis-inducing properties of plumbagin

258

The alternative Medicago truncatula defense proteome of ROS--defective transgenic roots during early microbial infection  

Science.gov (United States)

ROP-type GTPases of plants function as molecular switches within elementary signal transduction pathways such as the regulation of ROS synthesis via activation of NADPH oxidases (RBOH-respiratory burst oxidase homolog in plants). Previously, we reported that silencing of the Medicago truncatula GTPase MtROP9 led to reduced ROS production and suppressed induction of ROS-related enzymes in transgenic roots (MtROP9i) infected with pathogenic (Aphanomyces euteiches) and symbiotic microorganisms (Glomus intraradices, Sinorhizobium meliloti). While fungal infections were enhanced, S. meliloti infection was drastically impaired. In this study, we investigate the temporal proteome response of M. truncatula MtROP9i transgenic roots during the same microbial interactions under conditions of deprived potential to synthesize ROS. In comparison with control roots (Mtvector), we present a comprehensive proteomic analysis using sensitive MS protein identification. For four early infection time-points (1, 3, 5, 24 hpi), 733 spots were found to be different in abundance: 213 spots comprising 984 proteins (607 unique) were identified after S. meliloti infection, 230 spots comprising 796 proteins (580 unique) after G. intraradices infection, and 290 spots comprising 1240 proteins (828 unique) after A. euteiches infection. Data evaluation by GelMap in combination with a heatmap tool allowed recognition of key proteome changes during microbial interactions under conditions of hampered ROS synthesis. Overall, the number of induced proteins in MtROP9i was low as compared with controls, indicating a dual function of ROS in defense signaling as well as alternative response patterns activated during microbial infection. Qualitative analysis of induced proteins showed that enzymes linked to ROS production and scavenging were highly induced in control roots, while in MtROP9i the majority of proteins were involved in alternative defense pathways such as cell wall and protein degradation. PMID:25101099

Kiirika, Leonard M.; Schmitz, Udo; Colditz, Frank

2014-01-01

259

Synergistic Apoptosis of CML Cells by Buthionine Sulfoximine and Hydroxychavicol Correlates with Activation of AIF and GSH-ROS-JNK-ERK-iNOS Pathway  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Hydroxychavicol (HCH), a constituent of Piper betle leaf has been reported to exert anti-leukemic activity through induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aim of the study is to optimize the oxidative stress –induced chronic myeloid leukemic (CML) cell death by combining glutathione synthesis inhibitor, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) with HCH and studying the underlying mechanism. Materials and Methods Anti-proliferative activity of BSO and HCH alone or in combination against a number of leukemic (K562, KCL22, KU812, U937, Molt4), non-leukemic (A549, MIA-PaCa2, PC-3, HepG2) cancer cell lines and normal cell lines (NIH3T3, Vero) was measured by MTT assay. Apoptotic activity in CML cell line K562 was detected by flow cytometry (FCM) after staining with annexinV-FITC/propidium iodide (PI), detection of reduced mitochondrial membrane potential after staining with JC-1, cleavage of caspase- 3 and poly (ADP)-ribose polymerase proteins by western blot analysis and translocation of apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) by confocal microscopy. Intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH) was measured by colorimetric assay using GSH assay kit. 2?,7?-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCF-DA) and 4-amino-5-methylamino-2?,7?-difluorofluorescein (DAF-FM) were used as probes to measure intracellular increase in ROS and nitric oxide (NO) levels respectively. Multiple techniques like siRNA transfection and pharmacological inhibition were used to understand the mechanisms of action. Results Non-apoptotic concentrations of BSO significantly potentiated HCH-induced apoptosis in K562 cells. BSO potentiated apoptosis-inducing activity of HCH in CML cells by caspase-dependent as well as caspase-independent but apoptosis inducing factor (AIF)-dependent manner. Enhanced depletion of intracellular GSH induced by combined treatment correlated with induction of ROS. Activation of ROS- dependent JNK played a crucial role in ERK1/2 activation which subsequently induced the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). iNOS- mediated production of NO was identified as an effector molecule causing apoptosis of CML cells. Conclusion/Significance BSO synergizes with HCH in inducing apoptosis of CML cells through the GSH-ROS-JNK-ERK-iNOS pathway. PMID:24040019

Chowdhury, Avik Acharya; Chaudhuri, Jaydeep; Biswas, Nabendu; Manna, Anirban; Chatterjee, Saurav; Mahato, Sanjit K.; Chaudhuri, Utpal; Jaisankar, Parasuraman; Bandyopadhyay, Santu

2013-01-01

260

Intercultural Mediation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Intercultural Mediator facilitates exchanges between people of different socio-cultural backgrounds and acts as a bridge between immigrants and national and local associations, health organizations, services and offices in order to foster integration of every single individual. As the use mediation increases, mediators are more likely to be involved in cross-cultural mediation, but only the best mediators have the opportunity to mediate cross border business disputes or international politics conflicts. This article attempts to provide a new perspective about the intercultural mediation.

Dragos Marian Radulescu

2012-11-01

 
 
 
 
261

Lovastatin inhibits human B lymphoma cell proliferation by reducing intracellular ROS and TRPC6 expression.  

Science.gov (United States)

Clinical evidence suggests that statins reduce cancer incidence and mortality. However, there is lack of in vitro data to show the mechanism by which statins can reduce the malignancies of cancer cells. We used a human B lymphoma Daudi cells as a model and found that lovastatin inhibited, whereas exogenous cholesterol (Cho) stimulated, proliferation cell cycle progression in control Daudi cells, but not in the cells when transient receptor potential canonical 6 (TRPC6) channel was knocked down. Lovastatin decreased, whereas Cho increased, the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) respectively by decreasing or increasing the expression of p47-phox and gp91-phox (NOX2). Reducing intracellular ROS with either a mimetic superoxide dismutase (TEMPOL) or an NADPH oxidase inhibitor (apocynin) inhibited cell proliferation, particularly in Cho-treated cells. The effects of TEMPOL or apocynin were mimicked by inhibition of TRPC6 with SKF-96365. Lovastatin decreased TRPC6 expression and activity via a Cho-dependent mechanism, whereas Cho increased TRPC6 expression and activity via an ROS-dependent mechanism. Consistent with the fact that TRPC6 is a Ca(2+)-permeable channel, lovastatin decreased, but Cho increased, intracellular Ca(2+) also via ROS. These data suggest that lovastatin inhibits malignant B cell proliferation by reducing membrane Cho, intracellular ROS, TRPC6 expression and activity, and intracellular Ca(2+). PMID:24518247

Song, Xiang; Liu, Bing-Chen; Lu, Xiao-Yu; Yang, Li-Li; Zhai, Yu-Jia; Eaton, Amity F; Thai, Tiffany L; Eaton, Douglas C; Ma, He-Ping; Shen, Bao-Zhong

2014-05-01

262

Adhesive protein-free synthetic hydrogels for retinal pigment epithelium cell culture with low ROS level.  

Science.gov (United States)

Engineering of human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cell monolayer with low level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is important for regenerative RPE-based therapies. However, it is still challenging to culture RPE monolayer with low ROS level on soft substrates in vitro. To address this, we developed cytocompatible hydrogels to culture human RPE cell monolayer for future use in regenerative RPE-based therapies. The cell adhesion, proliferation, monolayer formation, morphology, survival, and ROS level of human ARPE-19 cells cultured on the surfaces of negatively charged poly (2-acrylamido-2-methyl propane sulfonic sodium) (PNaAMPS) and neutral poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide) (PDMAAm) hydrogels with different stiffness were investigated. The importance of hydrogel stiffness on the cell function was firstly highlighted on the base of determined optimal Young's modulus for cultivation of RPE cell monolayer with relatively low ROS level. The construction of RPE cell monolayer with low ROS level on the PNaAMPS hydrogel may hold great potential as promising candidates for transplantation of RPE cell monolayer-hydrogel construct into the subretinal space to repair retinal functions. PMID:23913900

Chen, Yong Mei; Liu, Zhen Qi; Feng, Zhi Hui; Xu, Feng; Liu, Jian Kang

2014-07-01

263

Inhibitory phlorotannins from the edible brown alga Ecklonia stolonifera on total reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in the pathogenesis of many human degenerative diseases such as cancer, aging, arteriosclerosis, and rheumatism. Much attention has been focused on the development of safe and effective antioxidants. To discover sources of antioxidative activity in marine algae, extracts from 17 kinds of seaweed were screened for their inhibitory effect on total ROS generation in kidney homogenate using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA). ROS inhibition was seen in three species: Ulva pertusa, Symphyocladia latiuscula, and Ecklonia stolonifera. At a final concentration of 25 microg/mL, U. pertusa inhibited 85.65+/-20.28% of total ROS generation, S. latiscula caused 50.63+/-0.09% inhibitory, and the Ecklonia species was 44.30+/-7.33% inhibition. E. stolonifera Okamura (Laminariaceae), which belongs to the brown algae, has been further investigated because it is commonly used as a foodstuff in Korea. Five compounds, phloroglucinol (1), eckstolonol (2), eckol (3), phlorofucofuroeckol A (4), and dieckol (5), isolated from the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the methanolic extract of E. stolonifera inhibited total ROS generation. PMID:15022722

Kang, Hye Sook; Chung, Hae Young; Kim, Ji Young; Son, Byeng Wha; Jung, Hyun Ah; Choi, Jae Sue

2004-02-01

264

Elucidating hormonal/ROS networks during seed germination: insights and perspectives  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

While authors have traditionally emphasized the deleterious effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on seed biology, their role as signaling molecules during seed dormancy alleviation and germination is now the focus of many studies around the world. Over the last few years, studies using “-omics” technologies together with physiological and biochemical approaches have revealed that seed germination is a very complex process that depends on multiple biochemical and molecular variables. The pivotal role of phytohormones in promoting germination now appears to be interdependent with ROS metabolism, involving mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade activation, gene expression and post-translational protein modifications. This review is, thus, an attempt to summarize the new discoveries involving ROS and seed germination. The study of these interactions may supply markers of seed quality that might eventually be used in breeding programs to improve crop yields.

Barba Espin, Gregorio

2013-01-01

265

Thrombin, a mediator of cerebrovascular inflammation in AD and hypoxia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Considerable evidence implicates hypoxia and vascular inflammation in Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Thrombin, a multifunctional inflammatory mediator, is demonstrable in the brains of AD patients both in the vessel walls and senile plaques. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (HIF-1?, a key regulator of the cellular response to hypoxia, is also upregulated in the vasculature of human AD brains. The objective of this study is to investigate inflammatory protein expression in the cerebrovasculature of transgenic AD mice and to explore the role of thrombin as a mediator of cerebrovascular inflammation and oxidative stress in AD and in hypoxia-induced changes in brain endothelial cells. Immunofluorescent analysis of the cerebrovasculature in AD mice demonstrates significant (p<0.01-0.001 increases in thrombin, HIF-1?, interleukin-6 (IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, and reactive oxygen species (ROS compared to controls. Administration of the thrombin inhibitor dabigatran (100 mg/kg to AD mice for 34 wks significantly decreases expression of inflammatory proteins and ROS. Exposure of cultured brain endothelial cells to hypoxia for 6 h causes an upregulation of thrombin, HIF-1?, MCP-1, IL-6 and MMP2 and ROS. Treatment of endothelial cells with the dabigatran (1 nM reduces ROS generation and inflammatory protein expression (p<0.01-0.001. The data demonstrate that inhibition of thrombin in culture blocks the increase in inflammatory protein expression and ROS generation evoked by hypoxia. Also, administration of dabigatran to transgenic AD mice diminishes expression of inflammatory proteins and ROS in the cerebromicrovasculature. Taken together, these results suggest that inhibiting thrombin generation could have therapeutic value in AD and other disorders where hypoxia, inflammation and oxidative stress are involved.

PaulaGrammas

2013-05-01

266

Hyperoxygenation Attenuated a Murine Model of Atopic Dermatitis through Raising Skin Level of ROS.  

Science.gov (United States)

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease resulting from excessive stimulation of immune cells. Traditionally, reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the progression of inflammatory diseases, but several opposing observations suggest the protective role of ROS in inflammatory disease. Recently, we demonstrated ROS prevented imiquimod-induced psoriatic dermatitis through enhancing regulatory T cell function. Thus, we hypothesized AD might also be attenuated in elevated levels of ROS through tissue hyperoxygenation, such as by hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) or applying an oxygen-carrying chemical, perfluorodecalin (PFD). Elevated levels of ROS in the skin have been demonstrated directly by staining with dihydroethidum as well as indirectly by immunohistochemistry (IHC) for indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). A murine model of AD was developed by repeated application of a chemical irritant (1% 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene) and house dust mite (Dermatophagoide farinae) extract on one ear of BALB/c mice. The results showed treatment with HBOT or PFD significantly attenuated AD, comparably with 0.1% prednicarbate without any signs of side effects, such as telangiectasia. The expressions of interleukin-17A and interferon-? were also decreased in the AD lesions by treatment with HBOT or PFD. Enhanced expression of IDO and reduced level of hypoxia-inducible factor-1?, in association with increased frequency of FoxP3+ regulatory T cells in the AD lesions, might be involved in the underlying mechanism of oxygen therapy. Taken together, it was suggested that tissue hyperoxygenation, by HBOT or treatment with PFD, might attenuate AD through enhancing skin ROS level. PMID:25275529

Kim, Hyung-Ran; Kim, Jung-Hwan; Choi, Eun-Jeong; Lee, Yeo Kyong; Kie, Jeong-Hae; Jang, Myoung Ho; Seoh, Ju-Young

2014-01-01

267

HIV-induced kidney cell injury: role of ROS-induced downregulated vitamin D receptor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been demonstrated to contribute to HIV-induced tubular cell injury. We hypothesized that HIV-induced ROS generation may be causing tubular cell injury through downregulation of vitamin D receptor (VDR) and associated downstream effects. In the present study, HIV not only downregulated tubular cell VDR expression but also inflicted DNA injury. On the other hand, EB-1089, a VDR agonist (VD), inhibited both downregulation of VDR and tubular cell DNA injury in the HIV milieu. H(2)O(2) (an O(-) donor) directly downregulated tubular cell VDR, whereas catalase, a free radical scavenger, inhibited HIV-induced downregulation of tubular cell VDR expression. HIV also stimulated the tubular cell renin-angiotensin system (RAS) through downregulation of VDR. Because losartan (an ANG II blolcker) partially inhibited HIV-induced tubular cell ROS generation while ANG II directly stimulated tubular cell ROS generation, it appears that HIV-induced ROS production was partly contributed by the RAS activation. VD not only inhibited HIV-induced RAS activation but also attenuated tubular cell ROS generation. Tubular cells displayed double jeopardy in the HIV milieu induction of double-strand breaks and attenuated DNA repair; additionally, in the HIV milieu, tubular cells exhibited enhanced expression of phospho-p53 and associated downstream signaling. A VDR agonist and an ANG II blocker not only preserved expression of tubular cell DNA repair proteins but also inhibited induction of double-strand breaks. In in vivo studies, renal cortical sections of Tg26 mice displayed attenuated expression of VDR both in podocytes and tubular cells. In addition, renal cortical sections of Tg26 mice displayed enhanced oxidative stress-induced kidney cell DNA damage. These findings indicated that HIV-induced tubular cell downregulation of VDR contributed to the RAS activation and associated tubular cell DNA damage. However, both VD and RAS blockade provided protection against these effects of HIV. PMID:22647636

Salhan, Divya; Husain, Mohammad; Subrati, Ashaan; Goyal, Rohan; Singh, Tejinder; Rai, Partab; Malhotra, Ashwani; Singhal, Pravin C

2012-08-15

268

Hyperoxygenation Attenuated a Murine Model of Atopic Dermatitis through Raising Skin Level of ROS  

Science.gov (United States)

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease resulting from excessive stimulation of immune cells. Traditionally, reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the progression of inflammatory diseases, but several opposing observations suggest the protective role of ROS in inflammatory disease. Recently, we demonstrated ROS prevented imiquimod-induced psoriatic dermatitis through enhancing regulatory T cell function. Thus, we hypothesized AD might also be attenuated in elevated levels of ROS through tissue hyperoxygenation, such as by hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) or applying an oxygen-carrying chemical, perfluorodecalin (PFD). Elevated levels of ROS in the skin have been demonstrated directly by staining with dihydroethidum as well as indirectly by immunohistochemistry (IHC) for indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). A murine model of AD was developed by repeated application of a chemical irritant (1% 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene) and house dust mite (Dermatophagoide farinae) extract on one ear of BALB/c mice. The results showed treatment with HBOT or PFD significantly attenuated AD, comparably with 0.1% prednicarbate without any signs of side effects, such as telangiectasia. The expressions of interleukin-17A and interferon-? were also decreased in the AD lesions by treatment with HBOT or PFD. Enhanced expression of IDO and reduced level of hypoxia-inducible factor-1?, in association with increased frequency of FoxP3+ regulatory T cells in the AD lesions, might be involved in the underlying mechanism of oxygen therapy. Taken together, it was suggested that tissue hyperoxygenation, by HBOT or treatment with PFD, might attenuate AD through enhancing skin ROS level. PMID:25275529

Choi, Eun-Jeong; Lee, Yeo Kyong; Kie, Jeong-Hae; Jang, Myoung Ho; Seoh, Ju-Young

2014-01-01

269

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in enhancement of NMDA-receptor phosphorylation in animal models of pain  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent studies indicate that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in neuropathic pain, predominantly through spinal mechanisms. Since the data suggest that ROS are involved in central sensitization, the present study examines the levels of activated N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the dorsal horn before and after removal of ROS with a ROS scavenger, phenyl-N-t-butyl nitrone (PBN), in animal models of pain. Tight ligation of the L5 spinal nerve was used for the neuropa...

Gao, Xiu; Kim, Hee Kee; Chung, Jin Mo; Chung, Kyungsoon

2007-01-01

270

ROS, Notch, and Wnt signaling pathways: crosstalk between three major regulators of cardiovascular biology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reactive oxygen species (ROS), traditionally viewed as toxic by-products that cause damage to biomolecules, now are clearly recognized as key modulators in a variety of biological processes and pathological states. The development and regulation of the cardiovascular system require orchestrated activities; Notch and Wnt/? -catenin signaling pathways are implicated in many aspects of them, including cardiomyocytes and smooth muscle cells survival, angiogenesis, progenitor cells recruitment and differentiation, arteriovenous specification, vascular cell migration, and cardiac remodelling. Several novel findings regarding the role of ROS in Notch and Wnt/?-catenin modulation prompted us to review their emerging function in the cardiovascular system during embryogenesis and postnatally. PMID:24689035

Caliceti, C; Nigro, P; Rizzo, P; Ferrari, R

2014-01-01

271

Attenuation of Proinflammatory Responses by S-[6]-Gingerol via Inhibition of ROS/NF-Kappa B/COX2 Activation in HuH7 Cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction. Hepatic inflammation underlies the pathogenesis of chronic diseases such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. S-[6]-Gingerol has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties. Important inflammatory mediators of interleukins include nuclear factor ? B (NF ? B) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2). We now explore the mechanism of anti-inflammatory effects of S-[6]-gingerol in liver cells. Methods. HuH7 cells were stimulated with IL1? to establish an in vitro hepatic inflammatory model. Results. S-[6]-Gingerol attenuated IL1?-induced inflammation and oxidative stress in HuH7 cells, as evidenced by decreasing mRNA levels of inflammatory factor IL6, IL8, and SAA1, suppression of ROS generation, and increasing mRNA levels of DHCR24. In addition, S-[6]-gingerol reduced IL1?-induced COX2 upregulation as well as NF ? B activity. Similar to the protective effects of S-[6]-gingerol, both NS-398 (a selective COX2 inhibitor) and PDTC (a selective NF ? B inhibitor) suppressed mRNA levels of IL6, IL8, and SAA1. Importantly, PDTC attenuated IL1?-induced overexpression of COX2. Of particular note, the protective effect of S-[6]-gingerol against the IL1?-induced inflammatory response was similar to that of BHT, an ROS scavenger. Conclusions. The findings of this study demonstrate that S-[6]-gingerol protects HuH7 cells against IL1?-induced inflammatory insults through inhibition of the ROS/NF ? B/COX2 pathway. PMID:23843863

Li, Xiao-Hong; McGrath, Kristine C Y; Tran, Van H; Li, Yi-Ming; Duke, Colin C; Roufogalis, Basil D; Heather, Alison K

2013-01-01

272

Thymoquinone inhibits tumor growth and induces apoptosis in a breast cancer xenograft mouse model: the role of p38 MAPK and ROS.  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to narrow therapeutic window of cancer therapeutic agents and the development of resistance against these agents, there is a need to discover novel agents to treat breast cancer. The antitumor activities of thymoquinone (TQ), a compound isolated from Nigella sativa oil, were investigated in breast carcinoma in vitro and in vivo. Cell responses after TQ treatment were assessed by using different assays including MTT assay, annexin V-propidium iodide staining, Mitosox staining and Western blot. The antitumor effect was studied by breast tumor xenograft mouse model, and the tumor tissues were examined by histology and immunohistochemistry. The level of anti-oxidant enzymes/molecules in mouse liver tissues was measured by commercial kits. Here, we show that TQ induced p38 phosphorylation and ROS production in breast cancer cells. These inductions were found to be responsible for TQ's anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects. Moreover, TQ-induced ROS production regulated p38 phosphorylation but not vice versa. TQ treatment was found to suppress the tumor growth and this effect was further enhanced by combination with doxorubicin. TQ also inhibited the protein expression of anti-apoptotic genes, such as XIAP, survivin, Bcl-xL and Bcl-2, in breast cancer cells and breast tumor xenograft. Reduced Ki67 and increased TUNEL staining were observed in TQ-treated tumors. TQ was also found to increase the level of catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione in mouse liver tissues. Overall, our results demonstrated that the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of TQ in breast cancer are mediated through p38 phosphorylation via ROS generation. PMID:24098377

Woo, Chern Chiuh; Hsu, Annie; Kumar, Alan Prem; Sethi, Gautam; Tan, Kwong Huat Benny

2013-01-01

273

Induction of reactive oxygen species-mediated autophagy by a novel microtubule-modulating agent.  

Science.gov (United States)

Autophagy is being increasingly implicated in both cell survival and death. However, the intricate relationships between drug-induced autophagy and apoptosis remain elusive. Here we demonstrate that a tubulin-binding noscapine analog, (R)-9-bromo-5-((S)-4,5-dimethoxy-1,3-dihydroisobenzofuran-1-yl)-4-methoxy-6-methyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-[1,3]-di-oxolo[4,5-g]isoquinoline (Red-Br-nos), exerts a novel autophagic response followed by apoptotic cell death in human prostate cancer PC-3 cells. Red-Br-nos-induced autophagy was an early event detectable within 12 h that displayed a wide array of characteristic features including double membranous vacuoles with entrapped organelles, acidic vesicular organelles, and increased expression of LC3-II and beclin-1. Red-Br-nos-triggered release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and attenuation of ROS by tiron, a ROS scavenger, reduced the sub-G(1) population suggesting ROS-dependent apoptosis. Abrogation of ROS also reduced autophagy indicating that ROS triggers autophagy. Pharmacological and genetic approaches to inhibit autophagy uncovered the protective role of Red-Br-nos-induced autophagy in PC-3 cells. Direct effects of the drug on mitochondria viz. disruption of normal cristae architecture and dissipation of mitochondrial transmembrane potential revealed a functional link between ROS generation, autophagy, and apoptosis induction. This is the first report to demonstrate the protective role of ROS-mediated autophagy and induction of caspase-independent ROS-dependent apoptosis in PC-3 cells by Red-Br-nos, a member of the noscapinoid family of microtubule-modulating anticancer agents. PMID:20404319

Karna, Prasanthi; Zughaier, Susu; Pannu, Vaishali; Simmons, Robert; Narayan, Satya; Aneja, Ritu

2010-06-11

274

Flavonoids identified from Korean Scutellaria baicalensis induce apoptosis by ROS generation and caspase activation on human fibrosarcoma cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of flavonoids from Korean Scutellaria baicalensis on fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells and their underlying molecular mechanism were investigated in this study. Flavonoids affected HT1080 cell proliferation by interrupting cell cycle progress, obviously augmenting the proportion of sub-G1 and diminishing that of G1 phase, and undergoing apoptosis at the tested dosage (100-400 ?g/mL). In addition, the mediated apoptosis was mainly caused by total reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and by up-regulating the ratio of Bax/Bcl-xL, triggering caspase cascades (caspase-3, -9 and -8), and inactivating PARP, dose-dependently. The proteomics results showed that AP-4, ARID 5B, HNRNP K, PLOG, Prdx6, and myosin-1, associated with cell growth, differentiation and development, and overexpressed in gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, etc., were statistically down-regulated after the flavonoids treatment. Taken together, our data demonstrated that flavonoids from Korean S. baicalensis induced apoptosis in HT1080 cells, which involved a hierarchy of cellular pathways and multiple signal proteins, and might be a potential anticancer therapeutic agent. PMID:24707875

Zhang, Jue; Park, Hyeon-Soo; Kim, Jin-A; Hong, Gyeong-Eun; Nagappan, Arulkumar; Park, Kwang-Il; Kim, Gon-Sup

2014-01-01

275

Antiaging, antistress and ROS scavenging activity of crude extract of Ocimum sanctum (L.) in Caenorhabditis elegans (Maupas, 1900).  

Science.gov (United States)

Since aging is the most important risk factor for variety of diseases, the discovery of a wide range of chemical modulators of aging in model organisms encourages new strategies for targeting age associated diseases. Simple genetic manipulation leads to long-lived and healthy animals, so any compound which could have similar effect would prove a boon to mankind. In the present study, effect of different pharmacological doses (1.0, 0.1, 0.01 and 0.001 mg/mL) of O. sanctum crude extract were used to determine their impact on life span, thermotolerance and ROS scavenging activities in C. elegans. The results revealed that 1 mg/mL of O. sanctum extract significantly extended the life span of C. elegans. The extract also proved to be a strong free radical scavenger and increased resistance against thermal stress. It is also suggested that the protective and life span extending action of the crude extract is not only due to its antioxidant capacity but may also be mediated by modulation of some signaling pathways. Thus, in addition to all the known medicinal property of Ocimum, it is capable of increasing stress tolerance and life span in C. elegans. PMID:23898550

Pandey, Rakesh; Gupta, Shipra; Shukla, Virendra; Tandon, Sudeep; Shukla, Vibha

2013-07-01

276

Polyphenols and mitochondria: an update on their increasingly emerging ROS-scavenging independent actions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Polyphenols, ubiquitously present in fruits and vegetables, have been traditionally viewed as antioxidant molecules. Such contention emerged, mainly from their well established in vitro ability to scavenge free radicals and other reactive oxygen species (ROS). During the last decade, however, increasing evidence has emerged supporting the ability of certain polyphenols to also exert numerous ROS-scavenging independent actions. Although the latter can comprise the whole cell, particular attention has been placed on the ability of polyphenols to act, whether favorably or not, on a myriad of mitochondrial processes. Thus, some particular polyphenols are now recognized as molecules capable of modulating pathways that define mitochondrial biogenesis (i.e., inducing sirtuins), mitochondrial membrane potential (i.e., mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening and uncoupling effects), mitochondrial electron transport chain and ATP synthesis (i.e., modulating complexes I to V activity), intra-mitochondrial oxidative status (i.e., inhibiting/inducing ROS formation/removal enzymes), and ultimately mitochondrially-triggered cell death (i.e., modulating intrinsic-apoptosis). The present review describes recent evidence on the ability of some polyphenols to modulate each of the formerly mentioned pathways, and discusses on how, by acting on such mitochondrial processes, polyphenols may afford protection against those mitochondrial damaging events that appear to be key in the cellular toxicity induced by various xenobiotics as well as that seen during the development of several ROS-related diseases. PMID:24875147

Sandoval-Acuña, Cristian; Ferreira, Jorge; Speisky, Hernán

2014-10-01

277

The Carboxy-Terminal Domain of ROS1 Is Essential for 5-Methylcytosine DNA Glycosylase Activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Arabidopsis thaliana repressor of silencing 1 (ROS1) is a multi-domain bifunctional DNA glycosylase/lyase, which excises 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) as well as thymine and 5-hydroxymethyluracil (i.e., the deamination products of 5mC and 5hmC) when paired with a guanine, leaving an apyrimidinic (AP) site that is subsequently incised by the lyase activity. ROS1 is slow in base excision and fast in AP lyase activity, indicating that the recognition of pyrimidine modifications might be a rate-limiting step. In the C-terminal half, the enzyme harbors a helix-hairpin-helix DNA glycosylase domain followed by a unique C-terminal domain. We show that the isolated glycosylase domain is inactive for base excision but retains partial AP lyase activity. Addition of the C-terminal domain restores the base excision activity and increases the AP lyase activity as well. Furthermore, the two domains remain tightly associated and can be co-purified by chromatography. We suggest that the C-terminal domain of ROS1 is indispensable for the 5mC DNA glycosylase activity of ROS1. PMID:25240767

Hong, Samuel; Hashimoto, Hideharu; Kow, Yoke Wah; Zhang, Xing; Cheng, Xiaodong

2014-11-11

278

Photocatalytic ROS production and phototoxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles is dependent on solar UV radiation spectrum  

Science.gov (United States)

Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) and its consequent phototoxicity to Daphnia magna were measured under different solar UV radiation spectrum by applying a series of optical filters in a solar simulator. Removing UVB (280-32...

279

Hydroxytyrosol induces apoptosis in human colon cancer cells through ROS generation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cancer cells are usually under higher levels of oxidative stress compared to normal cells. We hypothesized that the introduction of additional reactive oxygen species (ROS) or the suppression of antioxidant activity may selectively enhance cancer cell killing by generating oxidative agents through stress overload or stress sensitization. The aim of this work was to test whether hydroxytyrosol (HT), one of the major polyphenolic constituents of extra virgin olive oil, could exert anti-cancer effects on human colon adenocarcinoma cells via its ability to induce apoptosis through ROS generation. HT exhibits preferential anti-proliferative effects on human colon cancer cells (DLD1 cells) but not on normal colon epithelial 1807 cells. HT causes oxidative stress, activates the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway, phosphorylates FOXO3a and then downregulates FOXO3a's target genes. Combined with SOD or catalase treatment, there are different responses in HT-treated DLD1 cells. The results support the hypothesis that the two main species of ROS, superoxide and H2O2, play different roles in cancer cell survival. The present work shows that HT induces apoptotic cell death and mitochondrial dysfunction by generating ROS in colon cancer cells. This research presents important evidence on the in vitro chemopreventive effect of HT and shows that the disruption of the intrinsic redox status promotes cancer cell death. PMID:24953710

Sun, Lijuan; Luo, Cheng; Liu, Jiankang

2014-08-01

280

TGF-?1 induces senescence of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells via increase of mitochondrial ROS production  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (bmMSCs) are multipotent cells that can differentiate into diverse cell types, including cardiomyocytes. BmMSC-based transplantation is capable of repairing acute and chronic myocardial infarction. Prior to the transplantation, MSCs are usually induced in vitro by biological reagents and chemicals for directional differentiation. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?) is one of the most commonly used biological reagents for induction of cardiomyocyte differentiation of bmMSCs. Previous studies have shown that TGF-? induces senescence in several cell types. However, whether TGF-? affects senescence of bmMSCs has not been elucidated. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of TGF-?1 on senescence of bmMSCs and the underlying mechanisms. Results We found that TGF-?1 increased activity of senescence-associated-galactosidase (SA-Gal) and production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) in bmMSCs in a dose-dependent manner. TGF-?1 also significantly decreased expression of superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) and Id1, and increased expression of 4-Hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) subunits and p16 in bmMSCs in a dose-dependent manner. Pre-treatment with mtROS inhibitor acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR, 0.1 mM) significantly inhibited TGF-?1-induced mtROS production and SA-Gal activity. Conclusion TGF-?1 can induce senescence of bmMSCs, which at least partially depends on mtROS production. PMID:24886313

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Heat stress induces ROS production and histone phosphorylation in celomocytes of Eisenia hortensis  

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Full Text Available The effect of heat stress on celomocytes (leukocytes from Eisenia hortensis was investigated by measuring the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. After culturing celomocytes at temperatures ranging from 4 °C (control to 44 °C for 3-16 h, ROS levels were measured using a flow cytometric method employing dihydrorhodamine 123 (DHR123 for ROS detection and 7-aminoactinomycin D (7-AAD as a viability stain. Reproducibly we observed significant (p < 0.05 increases in ROS production and decreases in cell viability at temperatures of 28 °C and above. We then examined the effect of heat stress on histone phosphorylation employing antibodies specific for ?H2AX as an indicator of histone modification. Celomocytes were incubated at temperatures ranging between 20 °C to 35 °C for 16 h and antibodies specific for phosphorylated serines in H2AX histones were employed through flow cytometric analysis. Comparing controls to heat-stressed samples using three separate assays reproducibly confirmed significant H2AX phosphorylation (p < 0.05. Collectively, these results emphasize the importance of selecting appropriate temperatures for rearing invertebrates in laboratory-based habitats and for culturing invertebrate cells when conducting in vitro assays in order to minimize oxidative stress. The possible cellular effects of heat stress in soil ecosystems associated with global warming events is also considered.

RA Tumminello

2013-07-01

282

Use of chemical probes to detect mitochondrial ROS by flow cytometry and spectrofluorometry.  

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Aerobic respiration is a major source of energy in eukaryotic cells. In this setting, ATP production by the mitochondrial respiratory chain relies on the availability of NADH and FADH2 to donate protons and electrons. The flux of electrons down the electron transport chain, based on a series of oxidation-reduction reactions, releases energy that allow for the transport of H(+) ions across the inner mitochondrial membrane. The resulting proton-motive force is employed to drive ATP synthesis, while the final acceptor of the electrons flowing through the respiratory chain if molecular oxygen. A side effect of this process is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). While mitochondrial ROS (mtROS) production has been linked to many pathological conditions (i.e., aging and tumorigenesis), recent evidence suggests that multiple cells, including malignant cells, employ these by-products of energy production as signals to control various cellular processes. Here, we describe protocols to use chemical probes for measuring mtROS production in intact cells by flow cytometry and spectrofluorometry. PMID:24862269

Chen, Jing; Mathews, Clayton E

2014-01-01

283

MicroRNA-155 induction by Mycobacterium bovis BCG enhances ROS production through targeting SHIP1.  

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Macrophages play a critical role in the host immune response against mycobacterial infection. Our previous study has demonstrated that microRNA-155 (miR-155), one of the most important small non-coding RNAs in the immune system, promotes oxygen-independent mycobacterial killing in macrophages. However, little is known regarding the role of miR-155 in modulating oxygen-dependent mycobactericidal response in macrophages, including the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). In the present study, we demonstrated that miR-155 was increased in macrophages after Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) infection. Moreover, the BCG-induced upregulation of miR-155 in macrophages was dependent on TLR2, NF-?B and JNK signaling pathways. More importantly, our study explored that miR-155 significantly elevated ROS production in macrophages, although miR-155 had no influence on the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression or nitric oxide (NO) production. In addition, our study demonstrated that miR-155 repressed the expression of src homology 2 (SH2) containing inositol 5-phosphatase1 (SHIP1), and knockdown of SHIP1 greatly increased ROS production in BCG-infected macrophages. Collectively, these data indicate that miR-155 modulates ROS but not RNS production by targeting SHIP1, which may provide a better understanding of the host anti-mycobacterial response. PMID:24937178

Wang, Jinli; Wu, Minhao; Wen, Jinsheng; Yang, Kun; Li, Miao; Zhan, Xiaoxia; Feng, Lianqiang; Li, Meiyu; Huang, Xi

2014-11-01

284

Lojalumo programa kult?ros marketinge: Šv. Kristoforo kamerinio orkestro klubo komunikacijos strategijos k?rimas  

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Magistro darbo objektas – Šv. Kristoforo kamerinio orkestro klubo marketingo komunikacijos strategija. Darbo tikslas – parengti marketingo komunikacijos strategij?, jos pagrindiniu elementu pasirenkant lojalumo program?. Darbo uždaviniai: išanalizuoti marketingo komunikacijos elementus teoriniu aspektu; atskleisti lojalumo program? samprat?, išskirti j? funkcijas, išanalizuoti lojalumo program? kult?ros produktams taikymo galimybes šiandienin?s rinkos s?lygomis; atlikti eks...

Vadlu?gaite?, Agne?

2014-01-01

285

Icariside II inhibits cell proliferation and induces cell cycle arrest through the ROS?p38?p53 signaling pathway in A375 human melanoma cells.  

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Icariside II (IS) is a metabolite of icariin, which is derived from Herba Epimedii. In the present study, the antiproliferative effects of IS on A375 human melanoma cells were examined in vitro and a possible mechanism through the ROS?p38?p53 pathway is discussed. A cell WST?8 assay revealed that treatment with IS markedly reduced cell viability from 77 to 21% (25 and 100 µM, respectively), and cell counting demonstrated that IS treatment reduced cell proliferation. IS treatment also induced cell cycle arrest of A375 cells at the G0/G1 and G2/M transitions and inhibited the expression of cell?cycle related proteins, including cyclin E, cyclin?dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), cyclin B1 and phosphorylated cyclin?dependent kinase 1 (P?CDK1). In this study, it was determined that IS inhibits cell proliferation and induces cell cycle arrest through the generation of reactive oxygen species and activation of p38 and p53. These findings were further supported by the evidence that pretreatment with N?acetyl?L?cysteine, SB203580 or pifithrin?? significantly blocked IS?induced reduction of cell viability, increase of cell death and cell cycle arrest. In conclusion, IS inhibits cell proliferation and induces cell cycle arrest. Crucially, it was confirmed that these effects were mediated at least in part by activating the ROS?p38?p53 pathway. PMID:25333296

Wu, Jinfeng; Song, Tao; Liu, Shuyong; Li, Xiaomei; Li, Gang; Xu, Jinhua

2015-01-01

286

Protection of Tong-Sai-Mai Decoction against Apoptosis Induced by H2O2 in PC12 Cells: Mechanisms via Bcl-2-Mitochondria-ROS-INOS Pathway  

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Tong-Sai-Mai decoction (TSM) is a Chinese materia medica polyherbal formulation that has been applied in treating brain ischemia for hundreds of years. Because it could repress the oxidative stress in in vivo studies, now we focus on the in vitro studies to investigate the mechanism by targeting the oxidative stress dependent signaling. The relation between the neurogenesis and the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production remains largely unexamined. PC12 cells are excitable cell types widely used as in vitro model for neuronal cells. Most marker genes that are related to neurotoxicity, apoptosis, and cell cycles are expressed at high levels in these cells. The aim of the present study is to explore the cytoprotection of TSM against hydrogen peroxide- (H2O2-) induced apoptosis and the molecular mechanisms underlying PC12 cells. Our findings revealed that TSM cotreatment with H2O2 restores the expression of bcl-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase (INOS), and mitochondria membrane potential. Meanwhile, it reduces intracellular [Ca2+] concentration, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, and the expression of caspase-3 and bax. The results of the present study suggested that the cytoprotective effects of the TSM might be mediated, at least in part, by the bcl-2-mitochondria-ROS-INOS pathway. Due to its nontoxic characteristics, TSM could be further developed to treat the neurodegenerative diseases which are closely associated with the oxidative stress.

Lee, Maxwell Kim Kit; Lu, Yin; Di, Liu-qing; Xu, Hui-qin

2014-01-01

287

Cellular localization of ROS and NO in olive reproductive tissues during flower development  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have shown that reactive oxygen species (ROS and nitric oxide (NO are involved in the signalling processes taking place during the interactions pollen-pistil in several plants. The olive tree (Olea europaea L. is an important crop in Mediterranean countries. It is a dicotyledonous species, with a certain level of self-incompatibility, fertilisation preferentially allogamous, and with an incompatibility system of the gametophytic type not well determined yet. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether relevant ROS and NO are present in the stigmatic surface and other reproductive tissues in the olive over different key developmental stages of the reproductive process. This is a first approach to find out the putative function of these signalling molecules in the regulation of the interaction pollen-stigma. Results The presence of ROS and NO was analyzed in the olive floral organs throughout five developmental stages by using histochemical analysis at light microscopy, as well as different fluorochromes, ROS and NO scavengers and a NO donor by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The "green bud" stage and the period including the end of the "recently opened flower" and the "dehiscent anther" stages displayed higher concentrations of the mentioned chemical species. The stigmatic surface (particularly the papillae and the stigma exudate, the anther tissues and the pollen grains and pollen tubes were the tissues accumulating most ROS and NO. The mature pollen grains emitted NO through the apertural regions and the pollen tubes. In contrast, none of these species were detected in the style or the ovary. Conclusion The results obtained clearly demonstrate that both ROS and NO are produced in the olive reproductive organs in a stage- and tissue- specific manner. The biological significance of the presence of these products may differ between early flowering stages (defence functions and stages where there is an intense interaction between pollen and pistil which may determine the presence of a receptive phase in the stigma. The study confirms the enhanced production of NO by pollen grains and tubes during the receptive phase, and the decrease in the presence of ROS when NO is actively produced.

Alché Juan

2010-02-01

288

Cellular localization of ROS and NO in olive reproductive tissues during flower development  

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Background Recent studies have shown that reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) are involved in the signalling processes taking place during the interactions pollen-pistil in several plants. The olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is an important crop in Mediterranean countries. It is a dicotyledonous species, with a certain level of self-incompatibility, fertilisation preferentially allogamous, and with an incompatibility system of the gametophytic type not well determined yet. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether relevant ROS and NO are present in the stigmatic surface and other reproductive tissues in the olive over different key developmental stages of the reproductive process. This is a first approach to find out the putative function of these signalling molecules in the regulation of the interaction pollen-stigma. Results The presence of ROS and NO was analyzed in the olive floral organs throughout five developmental stages by using histochemical analysis at light microscopy, as well as different fluorochromes, ROS and NO scavengers and a NO donor by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The "green bud" stage and the period including the end of the "recently opened flower" and the "dehiscent anther" stages displayed higher concentrations of the mentioned chemical species. The stigmatic surface (particularly the papillae and the stigma exudate), the anther tissues and the pollen grains and pollen tubes were the tissues accumulating most ROS and NO. The mature pollen grains emitted NO through the apertural regions and the pollen tubes. In contrast, none of these species were detected in the style or the ovary. Conclusion The results obtained clearly demonstrate that both ROS and NO are produced in the olive reproductive organs in a stage- and tissue- specific manner. The biological significance of the presence of these products may differ between early flowering stages (defence functions) and stages where there is an intense interaction between pollen and pistil which may determine the presence of a receptive phase in the stigma. The study confirms the enhanced production of NO by pollen grains and tubes during the receptive phase, and the decrease in the presence of ROS when NO is actively produced. PMID:20181244

2010-01-01

289

Antioxidant pathways are up-regulated during biological nitrogen fixation to prevent ROS-induced nitrogenase inhibition in Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus.  

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Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, an endophyte isolated from sugarcane, is a strict aerobe that fixates N(2). This process is catalyzed by nitrogenase and requires copious amounts of ATP. Nitrogenase activity is extremely sensitive to inhibition by oxygen and reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, the elevated oxidative metabolic rates required to sustain biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) may favor an increased production of ROS. Here, we explored this paradox and observed that ROS levels are, in fact, decreased in nitrogen-fixing cells due to the up-regulation of transcript levels of six ROS-detoxifying genes. A cluster analyses based on common expression patterns revealed the existence of a stable cluster with 99.8% similarity made up of the genes encoding the ?-subunit of nitrogenase Mo-Fe protein (nifD), superoxide dismutase (sodA) and catalase type E (katE). Finally, nitrogenase activity was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by paraquat, a redox cycler that increases cellular ROS levels. Our data revealed that ROS can strongly inhibit nitrogenase activity, and G. diazotrophicus alters its redox metabolism during BNF by increasing antioxidant transcript levels resulting in a lower ROS generation. We suggest that careful controlled ROS production during this critical phase is an adaptive mechanism to allow nitrogen fixation. PMID:20697694

Alquéres, Sylvia M C; Oliveira, Jose Henrique M; Nogueira, Eduardo M; Guedes, Helma V; Oliveira, Pedro L; Câmara, Fernando; Baldani, Jose I; Martins, Orlando B

2010-10-01

290

Ca2+-sensors and ROS-GC: Interlocked sensory transduction elements: A review  

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Full Text Available From its initial discovery that ROS-GC membrane guanylate cyclase is a mono-modal Ca2+-transduction system linked exclusively with the phototransduction machinery to the successive finding that it embodies a remarkable bimodal Ca2+signaling device, its widened transduction role in the general signaling mechanisms of the sensory neuron cells was envisioned. A theoretical concept was proposed where Ca2+-modulates ROS-GC through its generated cyclic GMP via a nearby cyclic nucleotide gated channel and creates a hyper- or depolarized sate in the neuron membrane (Ca2+ Binding Proteins 1:1, 7-11, 2006. The generated electric potential then becomes a mode of transmission of the parent [Ca2+]i signal. Ca2+ and ROS-GC are interlocked messengers in multiple sensory transduction mechanisms. This comprehensive review discusses the developmental stages to the present status of this concept and demonstrates how neuronal Ca2+-sensor proteins are the interconnected elements of this elegant ROS-GC transduction system. The focus is on the dynamism of the structural composition of this system, and how it accommodates selectivity and elasticity for the Ca2+ signals to perform multiple tasks linked with the SENSES of vision, smell and possibly of taste and the pineal gland. An intriguing illustration is provided for the Ca2+ sensor GCAP1 which displays its remarkable ability for its flexibility in function from being a photoreceptor sensor to an odorant receptor sensor. In doing so it reverses its function from an inhibitor of ROS-GC to the stimulator of ONE-GC membrane guanylate cyclase.

RameshwarKSharma

2012-04-01

291

Role of TLR4/NADPH oxidase/ROS-activated p38 MAPK in VCAM-1 expression induced by lipopolysaccharide in human renal mesangial cells  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In bacteria-induced glomerulonephritis, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 activation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS, a key component of the outer membranes of Gram-negative bacteria can increase oxidative stress and the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1, which recruits leukocytes to the glomerular mesangium. However, the mechanisms underlying VCAM-1 expression induced by LPS are still unclear in human renal mesangial cells (HRMCs. Results We demonstrated that LPS induced VCAM-1 mRNA and protein levels associated with an increase in the promoter activity of VCAM-1, determined by Western blot, RT-PCR, and promoter assay. LPS-induced responses were inhibited by transfection with siRNAs of TLR4, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88, Nox2, Nox4, p47phox, c-Src, p38 MAPK, activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2, and p300 or pretreatment with the inhibitors of reactive oxygen species (ROS, edaravone, NADPH oxidase [apocynin (APO or diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI], c-Src (PP1, p38 MAPK (SB202190, and p300 (GR343. LPS induced NADPH oxidase activation, ROS production, and p47phox translocation from the cytosol to the membrane, which were reduced by PP1 or c-Src siRNA. We observed that LPS induced TLR4, MyD88, c-Src, and p47phox complex formation determined by co-immunoprecipitation and Western blot. We further demonstrated that LPS stimulated ATF2 and p300 phosphorylation and complex formation via a c-Src/NADPH oxidase/ROS/p38 MAPK pathway. Up-regulation of VCAM-1 led to enhancing monocyte adhesion to HRMCs challenged with LPS, which was inhibited by siRNAs of c-Src, p47phox, p38 MAPK, ATF2, and p300 or pretreatment with an anti-VCAM-1 neutralizing antibody. Conclusions In HRMCs, LPS-induced VCAM-1 expression was, at least in part, mediated through a TLR4/MyD88/ c-Src/NADPH oxidase/ROS/p38 MAPK-dependent p300 and ATF2 pathway associated with recruitment of monocyte adhesion to kidney. Blockade of these pathways may reduce monocyte adhesion via VCAM-1 suppression and attenuation of the inflammatory responses in renal diseases.

Lee I-Ta

2012-11-01

292

Bcl-XL prevents serum deprivation-induced oxidative stress mediated by Romo1.  

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B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-XL) has been known to suppress serum deprivation-induced cell death, while reactive oxygen species modulator 1 (Romo1) is responsible for a serum deprivation-induced increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, we investigated whether Bcl-XL expression could inhibit the serum deprivation-induced increase in ROS and cell death, which are mediated by Romo1. We found that Bcl-XL expression effectively blocked serum deprivation- and Romo1-triggered ROS generation. Bcl-XL also inhibited apoptotic cell death induced by both serum deprivation and oxidative stress. From these results, we suggest that increased Bcl-XL expression, which is observed in many cancer cells, confers resistance to oxidative stress in the cancer cells by suppressing Romo1-mediated oxidative stress. PMID:21399876

Lee, Seung Baek; Kim, Hyung Jung; Shin, Jungar; Kang, Sung Tae; Kang, Seongman; Yoo, Young Do

2011-05-01

293

Curcumin inhibits LPS-induced inflammation in rat vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro via ROS-relative TLR4-MAPK/NF-?B pathways  

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Aim: To investigate whether curcumin (Cur) suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) of rats, and to determine its molecular mechanisms. Methods: Primary rat VSMCs were treated with LPS (1 ?g/L) and Cur (5, 10, or 30 ?mol/L) for 24 h. The levels of MCP-1, TNF-?, and iNOS were measured using ELISA and real-time RT-PCR. NO level was analyzed with the Griess reaction. Western-blotting was used to detect the activation of TLR4, MAPKs, I?B?, NF-?B p65, and the p47phox subunit of NADPH oxidase in the cells. Results: Treatment of VSMCs with LPS dramatically increased expression of inflammatory cytokines MCP-1 and TNF-?, expression of TLR4 and iNOS, and NO production. LPS also significantly increased phosphorylation of I?B?, nuclear translocation of NF-?B (p65) and phosphorylation of MAPKs in VSMCs. Furthermore, LPS significantly increased production of intracellular ROS, and decreased expression of p47phox subunit of NADPH oxidase. Pretreatment with Cur concentration-dependently attenuated all the aberrant changes in LPS-treated VSMCs. The LPS-induced overexpression of MCP-1 and TNF-?, and NO production were attenuated by pretreatment with the ERK inhibitor PD98059, the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580, the NF-?B inhibitor PDTC or anti-TLR4 antibody, but not with the JNK inhibitor SP600125. Conclusion: Cur suppresses LPS-induced overexpression of inflammatory mediators in VSMCs in vitro via inhibiting the TLR4-MAPK/NF-?B pathways, partly due to block of NADPH-mediated intracellular ROS production. PMID:23645013

Meng, Zhe; Yan, Chao; Deng, Qian; Gao, Deng-feng; Niu, Xiao-lin

2013-01-01

294

Cypermethrin induces astrocyte damage: role of aberrant Ca(2+), ROS, JNK, P38, matrix metalloproteinase 2 and migration related reelin protein.  

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Cypermethrin is a synthetic type II pyrethroid, derived from a natural pyrethrin of the chrysanthemum plant. Cypermethrin-mediated neurotoxicity is well studied; however, relatively less is known of its effect on astrocyte development and migration. Astrocytes are the major components of blood brain barrier (BBB), and astrocyte damage along with BBB dysfunction impair the tight junction (TJ) proteins resulting in altered cell migration and neurodegeneration. Here, we studied the mechanism of cypermethin mediated rat astrocyte damage and BBB disruption, and determined any change in expression of proteins associated with cell migration. Through MTT assay we found that cypermethrin reduced viability of cultured rat astrocytes. Immunolabelling with astrocyte marker, glial fibrillary acidic protein, revealed alteration in astrocyte morphology. The astrocytes demonstrated an enhanced release of intracellular Ca(++) and ROS, and up-regulation in p-JNK and p-P38 levels in a time-dependent manner. Cypermethrin disrupted the BBB (in vivo) in developing rats and attenuated the expression of the extracellular matrix molecule (ECM) and claudin-5 in cultured astrocytes. We further observed an augmentation in the levels of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2), known to modulate cellular migration and disrupt the developmental ECM and BBB. We observed an increase in the levels of reelin, involved in cell migration, in cultured rat astrocytes. The reelin receptor, ?3?1integrin, and a mammalian cytosolic protein Disabled1 (Dab1) were also up-regulated. Overall, our study demonstrates that cypermethrin induces astrocyte injury via modulation in Ca(++), ROS, JNK and P38 pathways, which may alter MMP expression and reelin dependent astrocyte migration during brain development. PMID:24861934

Maurya, Shailendra Kumar; Mishra, Juhi; Tripathi, Vinay Kumar; Sharma, Rolee; Siddiqui, Mohammed Haris

2014-05-01

295

Yuwen02f1 suppresses LPS-induced endotoxemia and adjuvant-induced arthritis primarily through blockade of ROS formation, NFkB and MAPK activation.  

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Phagocytes release inflammatory mediators to defense harmful stimuli upon bacterial invasion, however, excessive inflammatory reaction leads to tissue damage and manifestation of pathological states. Therefore, targeting on uncontrolled inflammation seems feasible to control numerous inflammation-associated diseases. Under the drug screening process of synthetic diphenylpyrazole derivatives, we discovered compound yuwen02f1 possesses anti-inflammatory effects in decreasing the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines including TNF? and IL-6, nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as inhibiting migration of LPS-stimulated phagocytes. In addition, we observed that the molecular mechanism of yuwen02f1-mediated anti-inflammation is associated with decreasing phosphorylation of MAPK molecules including ERK1/2, JNK and p38, and attenuating translocation of p47(phox) and p67(phox) to the cell membrane. Yuwen02f1 also reverses I?B? degradation and attenuates the expression of NF?B-related downstream inducible enzymes like iNOS and COX-2. Furthermore, we found that yuwen02f1 attenuates some pathological syndromes of LPS-induced sepsis and adjuvant-induced arthritis in mice, as evidenced by decreasing the cytokine production, reversing thrombocytopenic syndrome, protecting the mice from tissue injury in septic mice, and attenuating paw edema in arthritic mice as well. These results suggest that yuwen02f1 is a potential anti-inflammatory agent for alleviating syndromes of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases as evidenced by attenuating the generation of cytokines and down-regulating the expression of iNOS and COX-2 through the blockade of ROS generation and NADPH oxidase, NF?B and MAPK activation pathways in LPS-stimulated phagocytes. PMID:23142712

Hsu, Chun-Chieh; Lien, Jin-Cherng; Chang, Chia-Wen; Chang, Chien-Hsin; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Huang, Tur-Fu

2013-02-01

296

Endosome-mediated autophagy  

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Activation of TLR signaling has been shown to induce autophagy in antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Using high-resolution microscopy approaches, we show that in LPS-stimulated dendritic cells (DCs), autophagosomes emerge from MHC class II compartments (MIICs) and harbor both the molecular machinery for antigen processing and the autophagosome markers LC3 and ATG16L1. This ENdosome-Mediated Autophagy (ENMA) appears to be the major type of autophagy in DCs, as similar structures were observed upon established autophagy-inducing conditions (nutrient deprivation, rapamycin) and under basal conditions in the presence of bafilomycin A1. Autophagosome formation was not significantly affected in DCs expressing ATG4BC74A mutant and atg4b?/? bone marrow DCs, but the degradation of the autophagy substrate SQSTM1/p62 was largely impaired. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the previously described DC aggresome-like LPS-induced structures (DALIS) contain vesicular membranes, and in addition to SQSTM1 and ubiquitin, they are positive for LC3. LC3 localization on DALIS is independent of its lipidation. MIIC-driven autophagosomes preferentially engulf the LPS-induced SQSTM1-positive DALIS, which become later degraded in autolysosomes. DALIS-associated membranes also contain ATG16L1, ATG9 and the Q-SNARE VTI1B, suggesting that they may represent (at least in part) a membrane reservoir for autophagosome expansion. We propose that ENMA constitutes an unconventional, APC-specific type of autophagy, which mediates the processing and presentation of cytosolic antigens by MHC class II machinery, and/or the selective clearance of toxic by-products of elevated ROS/RNS production in activated DCs, thereby promoting their survival. PMID:23481895

Kondylis, Vangelis; van Nispen tot Pannerden, Hezder E.; van Dijk, Suzanne; ten Broeke, Toine; Wubbolts, Richard; Geerts, Willie J.; Seinen, Cor; Mutis, Tuna; Heijnen, Harry F.G.

2013-01-01

297

Andrographolide downregulates the v-Src and Bcr-Abl oncoproteins and induces Hsp90 cleavage in the ROS-dependent suppression of cancer malignancy.  

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Andrographolide is a diterpenoid compound isolated from Andrographis paniculata that exhibits anticancer activity. We previously reported that andrographolide suppressed v-Src-mediated cellular transformation by promoting the degradation of Src. In the present study, we demonstrated the involvement of Hsp90 in the andrographolide-mediated inhibition of Src oncogenic activity. Using a proteomics approach, a cleavage fragment of Hsp90? was identified in andrographolide-treated cells. The concentration- and time-dependent induction of Hsp90 cleavage that accompanied the reduction in Src was validated in RK3E cells transformed with either v-Src or a human truncated c-Src variant and treated with andrographolide. In cancer cells, the induction of Hsp90 cleavage by andrographolide and its structural derivatives correlated well with decreased Src levels, the suppression of transformation, and the induction of apoptosis. Moreover, the andrographolide-induced Hsp90 cleavage, Src degradation, inhibition of transformation, and induction of apoptosis were abolished by a ROS inhibitor, N-acetyl-cysteine. Notably, Hsp90 cleavage, decreased levels of Bcr-Abl (another known Hsp90 client protein), and the induction of apoptosis were also observed in human K562 leukemia cells treated with andrographolide or its active derivatives. Together, we demonstrated a novel mechanism by which andrographolide suppressed cancer malignancy that involved inhibiting Hsp90 function and reducing the levels of Hsp90 client proteins. Our results broaden the molecular basis of andrographolide-mediated anticancer activity. PMID:24161787

Liu, Sheng-Hung; Lin, Chao-Hsiung; Liang, Fong-Ping; Chen, Pei-Fen; Kuo, Cheng-Deng; Alam, Mohd Mujahid; Maiti, Barnali; Hung, Shih-Kai; Chi, Chin-Wen; Sun, Chung-Ming; Fu, Shu-Ling

2014-01-15

298

Uncoupling and reactive oxygen species (ROS)--a double-edged sword for ?-cell function? "Moderation in all things".  

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The ability of the mitochondrion to (a) manage fuel import to oxidize for adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) generation while (b) protecting itself and the cellular environment from electron leak, which can generate highly reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a delicate balancing act. ATP is the currency of the cell and as such serves a signaling function as a substrate partner to many kinases and ion channels. While various ROS species have been viewed as a dangerous and toxic group of molecules, it also has a role as a signal derived from mitochondria, as well as other enzymatic sources: a double-edged sword. Current efforts to understand the biochemical mechanisms affected by ROS as a signal--usually noted to be hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))--are exciting, but this duality of ROS effects also pose challenges in managing its levels to protect cells. The mitochondrial uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2), UCP3, and the permeability transition pore have been integral to efforts to try to understand what role mitochondrial-derived ROS have in cells. In this piece we reflect on mitochondrial ROS and uncoupling proteins as signaling regulators. It seems that when it comes to ROS and uncoupling the proverb "Moderation in all things" is apt. PMID:23168277

Collins, Sheila; Pi, Jingbo; Yehuda-Shnaidman, Einav

2012-12-01

299

A tidal wave of signals: calcium and ROS at the forefront of rapid systemic signaling.  

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Systemic signaling pathways enable multicellular organisms to prepare all of their tissues and cells to an upcoming challenge that may initially only be sensed by a few local cells. They are activated in plants in response to different stimuli including mechanical injury, pathogen infection, and abiotic stresses. Key to the mobilization of systemic signals in higher plants are cell-to-cell communication events that have thus far been mostly unstudied. The recent identification of systemically propagating calcium (Ca(2+)) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) waves in plants has unraveled a new and exciting cell-to-cell communication pathway that, together with electric signals, could provide a working model demonstrating how plant cells transmit long-distance signals via cell-to-cell communication mechanisms. Here, we summarize recent findings on the ROS and Ca(2+) waves and outline a possible model for their integration. PMID:25088679

Gilroy, Simon; Suzuki, Nobuhiro; Miller, Gad; Choi, Won-Gyu; Toyota, Masatsugu; Devireddy, Amith R; Mittler, Ron

2014-10-01

300

Antagonism between abscisic acid and gibberellins is partially mediated by ascorbic acid during seed germination in rice.  

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The antagonism between abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin (GA) plays a key role in controlling seed germination, but the mechanism of antagonism during this process is not known. In the associated study, we investigated the relationship among ABA, reactive oxygen species (ROS), ascorbic acid (ASC) and GA during rice seed germination. ROS production is reduced by ABA, which hence results in decreasing ASC accumulation during imbibition. GA accumulation was also suppressed by a reduced ROS and ASC level, whereas application of exogenous ASC can partially rescue seed germination from ABA treatment. Further results show that production of ASC, which acts as a substrate in GA biosynthesis, was significantly inhibited by lycorine which thus suppressed the accumulation of GA. Consequently, expression of GA biosynthesis genes was suppressed by the low levels of ROS and ASC in ABA-treated seeds. These studies reveal a new role for ASC in mediating the antagonism between ABA and GA during seed germination in rice. PMID:22516812

Ye, Nenghui; Zhang, Jianhua

2012-05-01

 
 
 
 
301

Prooxidant properties of p66shc are mediated by mitochondria in human cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

p66shc is a protein product of an mRNA isoform of SHC1 gene that has a pro-oxidant and pro-apoptotic activity and is implicated in the aging process. Mitochondria were suggested as a major source of the p66shc-mediated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), although the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We studied effects of p66shc on oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide or by serum deprivation in human colon carcinoma cell line RKO and in diploid human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). An shRNA-mediated knockdown of p66shc suppressed and an overexpression of a recombinant p66shc stimulated the production of ROS in the both models. This effect was not detected in the mitochondrial DNA-depleted ?0-RKO cells that do not have the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC). The p66shc-dependent accumulation of mitochondrial ROS was detected with HyPer-mito, a mitochondria-targeted fluorescent protein sensor for hydrogen peroxide. The fragmentation of mitochondria induced by mitochondrial ROS was significantly reduced in the p66shc deficient RKO cells. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidants SkQ1 and SkQR1 also decreased the oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide or by serum deprivation. Together the data indicate that the p66shc-dependant ROS production during oxidative stress has mitochondrial origin in human normal and cancer cells. PMID:24618848

Galimov, Evgeny R; Chernyak, Boris V; Sidorenko, Alena S; Tereshkova, Alesya V; Chumakov, Peter M

2014-01-01

302

Iron Overload Induced Apoptotic Cell Death in Isolated Rat Hepatocytes Mediated by Reactive Oxygen Species  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Isolated rat hepatocytes in culture were incubated with different concentrations of iron-sorbitol (50, 100, 150, and 200 µM to assess the changes in reactive oxygen species (ROS and lipid peroxidation leading to apoptotic hepatocyte cell death. The viability of hepatocytes was declined depending on the iron concentration. One hour incubation of the cells with 100 µM iron resulted in decreased of the hepatocyte viability down to 50% (EC50 µM. Cellular glutathione (GSH was depleted depending on the concentration of iron added to the hepatocytes in culture. Decline in cellular GSH was associated with elevation in reactive oxygen species (ROS generation and formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS as index of lipid peroxidation. TBARS concentration was elevated in hepatocytes exposed to >100 µM of iron for 40 min. A significant increase in ROS formation was also observed in cells incubated with 75 µM of iron for 60 and 120 min. The consequences of ROS-mediated damages to hepatocytes were observed by DNA fragmentation, nuclear staining by propidium iddide and finally with induction of apoptotic hepatocyte cell death. Terminal deoxynucleotie transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling i.e. TUNEL assay (In situ- cell death-detection kit and nuclear staining were also used to confirm apoptosis. These data clearly show that iron overload can cause apoptotic cell death in isolated hepatocytes and generation of ROS precedes other changes related to oxidative stress.

Abdolamir Allameh

2008-01-01

303

Sensitivity of Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor Cells to TRAIL Is Augmented by Loss of NF1 through Modulation of MYC/MAD and Is Potentiated by Curcumin through Induction of ROS  

Science.gov (United States)

Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) is a rare aggressive form of sarcoma often associated with the tumor syndrome neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). We investigated the effects of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) on NF1 associated MPNST and determinants of TRAIL sensitivity. MPNST cell lines with complete neurofibromin deficiency were sensitive to apoptotic cell death induced by TRAIL whereas MPNST cells with retained neurofibromin expression or normal human Schwann cells were resistant. Increased sensitivity to TRAIL was associated with overexpression of death receptors, especially DR5. Re-expression of the GAP related domain of neurofibromin (NF1-GRD) suppressed DR5 expression and decreased sensitivity to TRAIL. We show that death receptor expression and TRAIL sensitivity critically depend on c-MYC and that c-MYC amounts are increased by MEK/ERK and PI3K/AKT signalling pathways which are suppressed by neurofibromin. Furthermore PI3K/AKT signalling strongly suppresses the MYC-antagonist MAD1 which significantly contributes to TRAIL sensitivity. Re-expression of the NF1-GRD decreased c-MYC and increased MAD1 amounts suggesting that neurofibromin influences TRAIL sensitivity at least in part by modulating the MYC/MAX/MAD network. The phytochemical curcumin further increased the sensitivity of neurofibromin deficient MPNST cells to TRAIL. This was presumably mediated by ROS, as it correlated with increased ROS production, was blocked by N-acetylcysteine and mimicked by exogenous ROS. PMID:23437333

Reuss, David E.; Mucha, Jana; Hagenlocher, Christian; Ehemann, Volker; Kluwe, Lan; Mautner, Victor; von Deimling, Andreas

2013-01-01

304

Carbon black nanoparticles promote endothelial activation and lipid accumulation in macrophages independently of intracellular ROS production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exposure to nanoparticles (NPs) may cause vascular effects including endothelial dysfunction and foam cell formation, with oxidative stress and inflammation as supposed central mechanisms. We investigated oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction and lipid accumulation caused by nano-sized carbon black (CB) exposure in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), THP-1 (monocytes) and THP-1 derived macrophages (THP-1a). The proliferation of HUVECs or co-cultures of HUVECs and THP-1 cells were unaffected by CB exposure, whereas there was increased cytotoxicity, assessed by the LDH and WST-1 assays, especially in THP-1 and THP-1a cells. The CB exposure decreased the glutathione (GSH) content in THP-1 and THP-1a cells, whereas GSH was increased in HUVECs. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was increased in all cell types after CB exposure. A reduction of the intracellular GSH concentration by buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) pre-treatment further increased the CB-induced ROS production in THP-1 cells and HUVECs. The expression of adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, but not adhesion of THP-1 to HUVECs or culture dishes, was elevated by CB exposure, whereas these effects were unaffected by BSO pre-treatment. qRT-PCR showed increased VCAM1 expression, but no change in GCLM and HMOX1 expression in CB-exposed HUVECs. Pre-exposure to CB induced lipid accumulation in THP-1a cells, which was not affected by the presence of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine. In addition, the concentrations of CB to induce lipid accumulation were lower than the concentrations to promote intracellular ROS production in THP-1a cells. In conclusion, exposure to nano-sized CB induced endothelial dysfunction and foam cell formation, which was not dependent on intracellular ROS production. PMID:25184212

Cao, Yi; Roursgaard, Martin; Danielsen, Pernille Høgh; Møller, Peter; Loft, Steffen

2014-01-01

305

Glucosamine attenuates cigarette smoke-induced lung inflammation by inhibiting ROS-sensitive inflammatory signaling.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cigarette smoking causes persistent lung inflammation that is mainly regulated by redox-sensitive pathways. We have reported that cigarette smoke (CS) activates a NADPH oxidase-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS)-sensitive AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway leading to induction of lung inflammation. Glucosamine, a dietary supplement used to treat osteoarthritis, has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, whether glucosamine has similar beneficial effects against CS-induced lung inflammation remains unclear. Using a murine model we show that chronic CS exposure for 4 weeks increased lung levels of 4-hydroxynonenal (an oxidative stress biomarker), phospho-AMPK, and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 and induced lung inflammation; all of these CS-induced events were suppressed by chronic treatment with glucosamine. Using human bronchial epithelial cells, we demonstrate that cigarette smoke extract (CSE) sequentially activated NADPH oxidase; increased intracellular levels of ROS; activated AMPK, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B), and signal transducer and activator of transcription proteins 3 (STAT3); and induced interleukin-8 (IL-8). Additionally, using a ROS scavenger, a siRNA that targets AMPK, and various pharmacological inhibitors, we identified the signaling cascade that leads to induction of IL-8 by CSE. All these CSE-induced events were inhibited by glucosamine pretreatment. Our findings suggest a novel role for glucosamine in alleviating the oxidative stress and lung inflammation induced by chronic CS exposure in vivo and in suppressing the CSE-induced IL-8 in vitro by inhibiting both the ROS-sensitive NADPH oxidase/AMPK/MAPK signaling pathway and the downstream transcriptional factors NF-?B and STAT3. PMID:24486342

Wu, Yuh-Lin; Lin, An-Hsuan; Chen, Chao-Hung; Huang, Wen-Chien; Wang, Hsin-Yi; Liu, Meng-Han; Lee, Tzong-Shyuan; Ru Kou, Yu

2014-04-01

306

ROS homeostasis in halophytes in the context of salinity stress tolerance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Halophytes are defined as plants that are adapted to live in soils containing high concentrations of salt and benefiting from it, and thus represent an ideal model to understand complex physiological and genetic mechanisms of salinity stress tolerance. It is also known that oxidative stress signalling and reactive oxygen species (ROS) detoxification are both essential components of salinity stress tolerance mechanisms. This paper comprehensively reviews the differences in ROS homeostasis between halophytes and glycophytes in an attempt to answer the questions of whether stress-induced ROS production is similar between halophytes and glycophytes; is the superior salinity tolerance in halophytes attributed to higher antioxidant activity; and is there something special about the specific 'pool' of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in halophytes. We argue that truly salt-tolerant species possessing efficient mechanisms for Na(+) exclusion from the cytosol may not require a high level of antioxidant activity, as they simply do not allow excessive ROS production in the first instance. We also suggest that H2O2 'signatures' may operate in plant signalling networks, in addition to well-known cytosolic calcium 'signatures'. According to the suggested concept, the intrinsically higher superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels in halophytes are required for rapid induction of the H2O2 'signature', and to trigger a cascade of adaptive responses (both genetic and physiological), while the role of other enzymatic antioxidants may be in decreasing the basal levels of H2O2, once the signalling has been processed. Finally, we emphasize the importance of non-enzymatic antioxidants as the only effective means to prevent detrimental effects of hydroxyl radicals on cellular structures. PMID:24368505

Bose, Jayakumar; Rodrigo-Moreno, Ana; Shabala, Sergey

2014-03-01

307

Influence of thiol stress on oxidative phosphorylation and generation of ROS in Streptomyces coelicolor  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Thiols play very important role in the intracellular redox homeostasis. Imbalance in the redox status leads to changes in the intracellular metabolism including respiration. Thiol stress, a reductive type of stress can also cause redox imbalance. When Gram-positive bacterium Strep- tomyces coelicolor was exposed to thiol stress, catalaseA was induced. Induction of catalaseA is the consequence of elevation of ROS (reactive oxygen species). The two major sources of reactive oxygen species are F...

Vekaria, Hemendra J.; Ratna Prabha Chivukula

2010-01-01

308

Automobili? keli? ir j? infrastrukt?ros racionalaus tobulinimo teoriniai principai ir praktiniai b?dai  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Šiame straipsnyje aptarti Lietuvos valstybin?s reikšm?s automobili? keli? infrastrukt?ros racionalaus tobulinimo teoriniai principai, pateikti praktiniai šio svarbaus uždavinio sprendimo b?dai. Parodyta, kaip turistams, poilsiautojams ir kitiems keleiviams prie automobili? keli? teikiamos paslaugos, kaip keli? dangos b?kl? gali lemti turist?, poilsiautoj? ir kit? keleivi? srautus. Viena svarbiausi? turizmo pl?tros s?lyg? – prie automobili? keli? turi b?ti tinkamai ...

Petkevic?ius, Kazys; Petkevic?iene?, Birute?

2005-01-01

309

Short chain fatty acids and cadmium cytotoxicity in ROS 17/2. 8 cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

ROS 17/2.8 rat osteosarcoma cells are extremely sensitive to the cytotoxic effects of Cd. In naive cells, sensitivity to Cd is associated with poor inducibility of metallothionein (MT). Treatment of ROS 17/2.8 cells with Na butyrate (NaB) results in increased resistance to Cd cytotoxicity and increased MT gene expression. The relation between the structure of short chain fatty acids and the alterations of Cd cytotoxicity in ROS 17/2.8 cells was investigated by culture of cells in the presence of 1 or 5 mM Na acetate, NaB, methyl butyrate, isobutyric acid, methyl isobutyrate and caproic acid. Among these compounds, only 5 mM NaB significantly increased the survival of ROS cells exposed to 0.1 to 10 {mu}M Cd and only NaB treatment was effective in increasing MT gene inducibility. The role of inhibition of DNA replication by NaB in cell resistance to Cd was examined. Among compounds tested, only 5 mM NaB significantly inhibited DNA synthesis. However, in cells in which DNA synthesis is inhibited by exposure to hydroxyurea, addition and removal of NaB from culture medium modulates cellular resistance to Cd. Hence, the effectiveness of NaB as a modifier of cell response to Cd is not due entirely to changes in cell proliferation. Additionally, rigid structural constraints for effectiveness dictate that only NaB is a potent modifier of resistance to Cd.

Thomas, D.J.; Angle, C.R.; Swanson, S.A. (Univ. of Nebraska, Omaha (United States))

1991-03-11

310

Mars Express Forward Link Capabilities for the Mars Relay Operations Service (MaROS)  

Science.gov (United States)

This software provides a new capability for landed Mars assets to perform forward link relay through the Mars Express (MEX) European Union orbital spacecraft. It solves the problem of standardizing the relay interface between lander missions and MEX. The Mars Operations Relay Service (MaROS) is intended as a central point for relay planning and post-pass analysis for all Mars landed and orbital assets. Through the first two phases of implementation, MaROS supports relay coordination through the Odyssey orbiter and the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). With this new software, MaROS now fully integrates the Mars Express spacecraft into the relay picture. This new software generates and manages a new set of file formats that allows for relay request to MEX for forward and return link relay, including the parameters specific to MEX. Existing MEX relay planning interactions were performed via email exchanges and point-to-point file transfers. By integrating MEX into MaROS, all transactions are managed by a centralized service for tracking and analysis. Additionally, all lander missions have a single, shared interface with MEX and do not have to integrate on a mission-by mission basis. Relay is a critical element of Mars lander data management. Landed assets depend largely upon orbital relay for data delivery, which can be impacted by the availability and health of each orbiter in the network. At any time, an issue may occur to prevent relay. For this reason, it is imperative that all possible orbital assets be integrated into the overall relay picture.

Allard, Daniel A.; Wallick, Michael N.; Gladden, Roy E.; Wang, Paul

2012-01-01

311

Impact of Nox5 Polymorphisms on Basal and Stimulus-Dependent ROS Generation  

Science.gov (United States)

Nox5 is an EF-hand containing, calcium-dependent isoform of the NADPH oxidase family of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generating enzymes. Altered expression and activity of Nox5 has been reported in cardiovascular diseases and cancers but the absence of Nox5 in rodents has precluded a greater understanding of its physiological and pathophysiological roles. Multiple polymorphisms have been identified within the coding sequence of human Nox5, but whether this translates into altered enzyme function is unknown. Herein, we have generated 15 novel mutants of Nox5? to evaluate the effect of exonic SNPs on basal and stimulated enzyme activity. Compared to the WT enzyme, ROS production was unchanged or slightly modified in the majority of mutants, but significantly decreased in 7. Focusing on M77K, Nox5 activity was dramatically reduced in unstimulated cells and following challenge with both calcium- and phosphorylation-dependent stimuli despite equivalent levels of expression. The M77K mutation did not influence the Nox5 phosphorylation or the ability to bind Hsp90, but in cell-free assays with excess co-factors and calcium, ROS production was dramatically reduced. A more conservative substitution M77V arising from another SNP yielded a different profile of enzyme activity and suggests a critical role of M77 in calcium-dependent ROS production. Two C-terminal mutants, R530H and G542R, were observed that had little to no activity and relatively high minor allele frequency (MAF). In conclusion, we have identified 7 missense SNPs in Nox5 that result in little or no enzyme activity. Whether humans with dysfunctional Nox5 variants have altered physiology or disease remains to be determined. PMID:24992705

Wang, Yusi; Chen, Feng; Le, Brian; Stepp, David W.; Fulton, David J. R.

2014-01-01

312

Impact of UV light on the plant cell wall, methane emissions and ROS production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study presents the first attempt to combine the fields of ultraviolet (UV) photobiology, plant cell wall biochemistry, aerobic methane production and reactive oxygen species (ROS) mechanisms to investigate the effect of UV radiation on vegetation foliage. Following reports of a 17% increase in decomposition rates in oak (Quercus robur) due to increased UV, which were later ascribed to changes in cell wall carbohydrate extractability, this study investigated the effects of ...

Messenger, David James

2009-01-01

313

Carbon black nanoparticles promote endothelial activation and lipid accumulation in macrophages independently of intracellular ROS production  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Exposure to nanoparticles (NPs) may cause vascular effects including endothelial dysfunction and foam cell formation, with oxidative stress and inflammation as supposed central mechanisms. We investigated oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction and lipid accumulation caused by nano-sized carbon black (CB) exposure in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), THP-1 (monocytes) and THP-1 derived macrophages (THP-1a). The proliferation of HUVECs or co-cultures of HUVECs and THP-1 cells were unaffected by CB exposure, whereas there was increased cytotoxicity, assessed by the LDH and WST-1 assays, especially in THP-1 and THP-1a cells. The CB exposure decreased the glutathione (GSH) content in THP-1 and THP-1a cells, whereas GSH was increased in HUVECs. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was increased in all cell types after CB exposure. A reduction of the intracellular GSH concentration by buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) pre-treatment further increased the CB-induced ROS production in THP-1 cells and HUVECs. The expression of adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, but not adhesion of THP-1 to HUVECs or culture dishes, was elevated by CB exposure, whereas these effects were unaffected by BSO pre-treatment. qRT-PCR showed increased VCAM1 expression, but no change in GCLM and HMOX1 expression in CB-exposed HUVECs. Pre-exposure to CB induced lipid accumulation in THP-1a cells, which was not affected by the presence of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine. In addition, the concentrations of CB to induce lipid accumulation were lower than the concentrations to promote intracellular ROS production in THP-1a cells. In conclusion, exposure to nano-sized CB induced endothelial dysfunction and foam cell formation, which was not dependent on intracellular ROS production.

Cao, Yi; Roursgaard, Martin

2014-01-01

314

Phonon Raman scattering of RFe4P12 and ROs4Sb12  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Raman-active phonons are completely assigned for RFe4P12 and ROs4Sb12 (R=La, Ce, Pr and Nd) at 300K. Normal mode analysis concludes that the force constant between rare-earth and pnictogen at icosahedron is strong compared with other rare-earth compounds. This is the experimental evidence to support the strong hybridization effect in the filled skutterudite

315

Sveikatos prieži?ros ?staigoje teikiam? socialini? paslaug? kokyb?s vertinimas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Magistro baigiamajame darbe išanalizuota ir ?vertinta sveikatos prieži?ros institucijoje teikiam? socialini? paslaug? kokyb?, iškelta kokyb?s matavimo ir vertinimo problema bei pateikti si?lymai, kaip šias problemas spr?sti. Pirmojoje darbo dalyje teoriniu aspektu tiriama vieš?j? paslaug? vadyba, pateikiama socialini? paslaug? samprata, aptariamas jos teisinis reglamentavimas. Antrojoje dalyje nagrin?jama paslaug? kokyb?s vadyba, paslaug? kokyb?s sampratos problematika...

Laz?auninkiene?, Justina

2013-01-01

316

Projekt? vadyba psichikos sveikatos prieži?ros ir socialin?s globos ?staigose  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Šiuo metu psichikos sveikatos sri?iai skiriamas ypatingas d?mesys, vykdomi sprendimai ?traukia pa?ias ?staigas ? keitimosi proces?. Tai s?lygoja projekt? vadybos poreikio atsiradim?. Šio darbo tikslas - atlikti psichikos sveikatos prieži?ros ir globos ?staig? situacijos teorin? analiz?, išnagrin?ti valstyb?s politik? sprendžiant j? problemas bei tyrimu nustatyti ši? ?staig? motyvacij? ir galimybes keistis vykdant projektus. Šios ?staigos pasirinktos atsižvelgia...

C?epulyte?, Rimante?

2014-01-01

317

Influence of thiol stress on oxidative phosphorylation and generation of ROS in Streptomyces coelicolor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Thiols play very important role in the intracellular redox homeostasis. Imbalance in the redox status leads to changes in the intracellular metabolism including respiration. Thiol stress, a reductive type of stress can also cause redox imbalance. When Gram-positive bacterium Strep- tomyces coelicolor was exposed to thiol stress, catalaseA was induced. Induction of catalaseA is the consequence of elevation of ROS (reactive oxygen species. The two major sources of reactive oxygen species are Fenton reaction and slippage of electrons from electron transport chain during respiration. Hence, the effect of thiol stress was checked on the rate of oxidative phosphorylation in S. coelicolor. We found correlation in the increase of oxidative phosphorylation rate and the generation of ROS, subsequently leading to induction of catalase. It was observed that thiol stress does not affect the functionality of the individual complexes of the ETC, but still there was an increase in the overall respiration, which may lead to generation of more ROS leading to induction of catalase.

Hemendra J. Vekaria

2010-11-01

318

ROS Induction by Human Calprotectin in K562 and the Reversal Effect of Vitamin E  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Calprotectin is a calcium and zinc-binding protein complex that is abundant in the cytosol of neutrophils released under inflammatory conditions. However, the exact role of this factor has not been elucidated. It is composed of 8 and 14 kDa subunits and has the capacity to induce apoptosis in various tumor cells in a zinc-reversible manner. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS, which are the byproducts of normal cellular oxidative process, regulates the initiation of apoptotic signaling. Recently, it has been shown that calprotectin plays an important role in phagocyte NADPH oxidase activation. In addition, the pretreatment of colon cancer cells with the antioxidant N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine (NAC prevents apoptosis inducs by calprotectin. In the present study, we further investigate the growth inhibitory effect of calprotectin via ROS induction. For the first time it is shown that human calprotectin induced ROS and apoptosis in K562 cells revealed by conversion of Dichlorodihydroflurescin Diacetate (DCFH2-DA to DCF and the enhancement of cell surface binding to Annexin V-FITC appropriately. More over, it is demonstrated that naturally occurring antioxidant vitamin E (50-200 ?M significantly reversed the effect of calprotectin proposing the beneficial effect of vitamin E as a natural antioxidant in restriction of calprotectin cytotoxic activity during excessive production of this protein.

2007-01-01

319

Urban PM2.5 induces ROS generation and RBC damage in COPD patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Particulate matters (PM) produce adverse effects on the respiratory system and cause COPD. These effects are thought to involve intrinsic generation of ROS which are present in ambient PM (transition metals and aromatic organic compounds). Here, we examined the chemical composition and ultra-microscopic structure of PM2.5. The effect of this PM was studied in red blood cell (RBC) membranes (ghosts) from healthy volunteers (n = 11) and COPD patients (n = 43). These effects were compared with that produced by a Fenton metal-catalytic ROS generator. Oxidative biomarkers and cell damage were singificantly increased in presence of PM2.5 or ROS generator in RBC of COPD patients as compared with those in cells from healthy volunteers. In contrast, total SH groups, band 3 phospho-tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase) and glucose-6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activities were all diminished in cells from COPD patients. In conclusion, PM2.5 increases damage to RBCs from COPD patients, decreases the activity of PTPase and G6PD, and alters the function of the anionic exchanger (AE1) and the antioxidant response by decreasing SH groups. PMID:21622092

Torres-Ramos, Yessica D; Montoya-Estrada, Araceli; Guzman-Grenfell, Alberto M; Mancilla-Ramirez, Javier; Cardenas-Gonzalez, Beatriz; Blanco-Jimenez, Salvador; Sepulveda-Sanchez, Jose D; Ramirez-Venegas, Alejandra; Hicks, Juan J

2011-01-01

320

SERPINA3K Plays Antioxidant Roles in Cultured Pterygial Epithelial Cells through Regulating ROS System  

Science.gov (United States)

We recently demonstrated that SERPINA3K, a serine proteinase inhibitor, has antioxidant activity in the cornea. Here we investigated the antioxidant effects of SERPINA3K on the pterygial, which is partially caused by oxidative stress in pathogenesis. The head part of primary pterygial tissue was dissected and then cultured in keratinocyte serum-free defined medium (KSFM). The cultured pterygial epithelial cells (PECs) were treated with SERPINA3K. The cell proliferation and migration of PECs were measured and analyzed. Western blot and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay were performed. It showed that SERPINA3K significantly suppressed the cell proliferation of PECs in a concentration-dependent manner, compared with cultured human conjunctival epithelial cells. SERPINA3K also inhibited the cell migration of PECs. Towards its underlying mechanism, SERPINA3K had antioxidant activities on the PECs by significantly inhibiting NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4), which is an important enzyme of ROS generation, and by elevating the levels of key antioxidant factors of ROS: such as NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (quinone 1) (NQO1), NF-E2–related factor-2 (NRF2) and superoxide dismutases (SOD2). Meanwhile, SERPINA3K down-regulated the key effectors of Wnt signaling pathway: ?-catenin, nonphospho-?-catenin, and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6). We provided novel evidence that SERPINA3K had inhibitory effects on pterygium and SERPINA3K played antioxidant role via regulating the ROS system and antioxidants. PMID:25296038

Ge, Lianping; Zhou, Jing; Chen, Longlong; Zhou, Tong; Zong, Rongrong; Xiao, Xinye; Dong, Nuo; Yang, Maomin; Ma, Jian-xing; Liu, Zuguo; Zhou, Yueping

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Loss of UCP2 Attenuates Mitochondrial Dysfunction without Altering ROS Production and Uncoupling Activity  

Science.gov (United States)

Although mitochondrial dysfunction is often accompanied by excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, we previously showed that an increase in random somatic mtDNA mutations does not result in increased oxidative stress. Normal levels of ROS and oxidative stress could also be a result of an active compensatory mechanism such as a mild increase in proton leak. Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) was proposed to play such a role in many physiological situations. However, we show that upregulation of UCP2 in mtDNA mutator mice is not associated with altered proton leak kinetics or ROS production, challenging the current view on the role of UCP2 in energy metabolism. Instead, our results argue that high UCP2 levels allow better utilization of fatty acid oxidation resulting in a beneficial effect on mitochondrial function in heart, postponing systemic lactic acidosis and resulting in longer lifespan in these mice. This study proposes a novel mechanism for an adaptive response to mitochondrial cardiomyopathy that links changes in metabolism to amelioration of respiratory chain deficiency and longer lifespan. PMID:24945157

Kukat, Alexandra; Dogan, Sukru Anil; Edgar, Daniel; Mourier, Arnaud; Jacoby, Christoph; Maiti, Priyanka; Mauer, Jan; Becker, Christina; Senft, Katharina; Wibom, Rolf; Kudin, Alexei P.; Hultenby, Kjell; Flogel, Ulrich; Rosenkranz, Stephan; Ricquier, Daniel; Kunz, Wolfram S.; Trifunovic, Aleksandra

2014-01-01

322

Loss of UCP2 attenuates mitochondrial dysfunction without altering ROS production and uncoupling activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although mitochondrial dysfunction is often accompanied by excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, we previously showed that an increase in random somatic mtDNA mutations does not result in increased oxidative stress. Normal levels of ROS and oxidative stress could also be a result of an active compensatory mechanism such as a mild increase in proton leak. Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) was proposed to play such a role in many physiological situations. However, we show that upregulation of UCP2 in mtDNA mutator mice is not associated with altered proton leak kinetics or ROS production, challenging the current view on the role of UCP2 in energy metabolism. Instead, our results argue that high UCP2 levels allow better utilization of fatty acid oxidation resulting in a beneficial effect on mitochondrial function in heart, postponing systemic lactic acidosis and resulting in longer lifespan in these mice. This study proposes a novel mechanism for an adaptive response to mitochondrial cardiomyopathy that links changes in metabolism to amelioration of respiratory chain deficiency and longer lifespan. PMID:24945157

Kukat, Alexandra; Dogan, Sukru Anil; Edgar, Daniel; Mourier, Arnaud; Jacoby, Christoph; Maiti, Priyanka; Mauer, Jan; Becker, Christina; Senft, Katharina; Wibom, Rolf; Kudin, Alexei P; Hultenby, Kjell; Flögel, Ulrich; Rosenkranz, Stephan; Ricquier, Daniel; Kunz, Wolfram S; Trifunovic, Aleksandra

2014-06-01

323

Protoporphyrin IX-dependent photodynamic production of endogenous ROS stimulates cell proliferation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Photodynamic therapy using methyl 5-aminolevulinate (MAL) as a precursor of the photosensitizing agent protoporphyrin IX is widely used in clinical practice for the treatment of different pathologies, including cancer. In this therapeutic modality, MAL treatment promotes the forced accumulation of the endogenous photoactive compound protoporphyrin IX in target malignant cells. Subsequent irradiation of treated tissues with an appropriate visible light source induces the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that, once accumulated above a critical level, promote cell death. Here we demonstrate that a photodynamic treatment with low MAL concentrations can be used to promote a moderate production of endogenous ROS, which efficiently stimulates cell growth in human immortalized keratinocytes (HaCaT). We also show that this proliferative response requires Src kinase activity and is associated to a transient induction of cyclin D1 expression. Taken together, these results demonstrate for the first time that acombination of light and a photoactive compound can be used to modulate cell cycle progression through Src kinase activation and that a moderate intracellular increase of photogenerated ROS efficiently stimulates cell proliferation.

Blazquez-Castro, Alfonso; Carrasco, Elisa

2012-01-01

324

Shear-induced endothelial mechanotransduction: the interplay between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) and the pathophysiological implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hemodynamic shear stress, the blood flow-generated frictional force acting on the vascular endothelial cells, is essential for endothelial homeostasis under normal physiological conditions. Mechanosensors on endothelial cells detect shear stress and transduce it into biochemical signals to trigger vascular adaptive responses. Among the various shear-induced signaling molecules, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) have been implicated in vascular homeostasis and diseases. In this review, we explore the molecular, cellular, and vascular processes arising from shear-induced signaling (mechanotransduction) with emphasis on the roles of ROS and NO, and also discuss the mechanisms that may lead to excessive vascular remodeling and thus drive pathobiologic processes responsible for atherosclerosis. Current evidence suggests that NADPH oxidase is one of main cellular sources of ROS generation in endothelial cells under flow condition. Flow patterns and magnitude of shear determine the amount of ROS produced by endothelial cells, usually an irregular flow pattern (disturbed or oscillatory) producing higher levels of ROS than a regular flow pattern (steady or pulsatile). ROS production is closely linked to NO generation and elevated levels of ROS lead to low NO bioavailability, as is often observed in endothelial cells exposed to irregular flow. The low NO bioavailability is partly caused by the reaction of ROS with NO to form peroxynitrite, a key molecule which may initiate many pro-atherogenic events. This differential production of ROS and RNS (reactive nitrogen species) under various flow patterns and conditions modulates endothelial gene expression and thus results in differential vascular responses. Moreover, ROS/RNS are able to promote specific post-translational modifications in regulatory proteins (including S-glutathionylation, S-nitrosylation and tyrosine nitration), which constitute chemical signals that are relevant in cardiovascular pathophysiology. Overall, the dynamic interplay between local hemodynamic milieu and the resulting oxidative and S-nitrosative modification of regulatory proteins is important for ensuing vascular homeostasis. Based on available evidence, it is proposed that a regular flow pattern produces lower levels of ROS and higher NO bioavailability, creating an anti-atherogenic environment. On the other hand, an irregular flow pattern results in higher levels of ROS and yet lower NO bioavailability, thus triggering pro-atherogenic effects. PMID:24410814

Hsieh, Hsyue-Jen; Liu, Ching-Ann; Huang, Bin; Tseng, Anne Hh; Wang, Danny Ling

2014-01-01

325

Mentha piperita essential oil induces apoptosis in yeast associated with both cytosolic and mitochondrial ROS-mediated damage.  

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Mentha piperita (MP), also known as peppermint, is an aromatic and medicinal plant widely used in the food industry, perfumery and cosmetic, pharmacy and traditional medicine. Its essential oil (EO) displays antimicrobial activity against a range of bacteria and fungi. In this study, we found that MP EO lethal cytotoxicity is associated with increased levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial fragmentation and chromatin condensation, without loss of the plasma membrane integrity, indicative of an apoptotic process. Overexpression of cytosolic catalase and superoxide dismutases reverted the lethal effects of the EO and of its major component menthol. Conversely, deficiency in Sod1p (cytosolic copper-zinc-superoxide dismutase) greatly increased sensitivity to both agents, but deficiency in Sod2p (mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase) only induced sensitivity under respiratory growth conditions. Mentha piperita EO increased the frequency of respiratory deficient mutants indicative of damage to the mitochondrial genome, although increase in mitochondrial thiol oxidation does not seem to be involved in the EO toxicity. PMID:25065265

Ferreira, Patrícia; Cardoso, Teresa; Ferreira, Filipa; Fernandes-Ferreira, Manuel; Piper, Peter; Sousa, Maria João

2014-11-01

326

Boswellia ovalifoliolata abrogates ROS mediated NF-?B activation, causes apoptosis and chemosensitization in Triple Negative Breast Cancer cells.  

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The present study was aimed to evaluvate the apoptogenic potential of ethanolic extract of leaves from Boswellia ovalifoliolata (BL EthOH) and to unravel the molecular mechanisms implicated in apoptosis of Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) cells. BL EthOH was cytotoxic against TNBC cells like MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-453 with IC?? concentrations 67.48 ± 5.45 and 70.03 ± 4.76 ?g/ml, respectively. Apoptotic studies showed that BL EthOH was able to induce apoptosis and western blot studies demonstrated that BL EthOH significantly decreased the Phospho-NF-?B (ser536), PCNA, anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 expression and increased the expression of pro-apoptotic protein Bax, in MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-453 cell lines when compared with untreated cells. Besides, BL EthOH has synergistic chemosensitizing effects on TNBC cells and increased the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin and cisplatin. PMID:24908637

Thummuri, Dinesh; Jeengar, Manish Kumar; Shrivastava, Shweta; Areti, Aparna; Yerra, Veera Ganesh; Yamjala, Samyuktha; Komirishetty, Prashanth; Naidu, V G M; Kumar, Ashutosh; Sistla, Ramakrishna

2014-07-01

327

Mediating the potent ROS toxicity of acrolein in neurons with silica nanoparticles and a natural product approach  

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Acrolein, a very reactive aldehyde, is a culprit in the biochemical cascade after primary, mechanical spinal cord injury (SCI), which leads to the destruction of tissue initially unharmed, referred to as "secondary injury". Additionally, in models of multiple sclerosis (MS) and some clinical research, acrolein levels are significantly increased. Due to its ability to make more copies of itself in the presence of tissue via lipid peroxidation, researchers believe that acrolein plays a role in the increased destruction of the central nervous system in both SCI and MS. Hydralazine, an FDAapproved hypotensive drug, has been shown to scavenge acrolein, but its side effects and short half life at the appropriate dose for acrolein scavenging must be improved for beneficial clinical translation. Therefore, a nanomedical approach has been designed using silica nanoparticles as a porous delivery vehicle hydralazine. The silica particles are formed in a one-step method that incorporates poly(ethylene) glycol (PEG), a stealth molecule, directly onto the nanoparticles. As an additional avenue for study, a natural product in green tea, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), has been explored for its ability to react with acrolein, disabling its reactive capabilities. Upon demonstration of attenuating acrolein, EGCG's delivery may also be improved using the nanomedical approach. The current work exposes the potential of using silica nanoparticles as a delivery vehicle and EGCG's antioxidant capabilities in B35 neuroblastoma cells exposed to acrolein. We also measure nanotoxicity to individual rat neurons using high-throughput image scanning cytometry.

White-Schenk, Désirée.; Shi, Riyi; Leary, James F.

2014-03-01

328

Role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in CDDO-Me-mediated growth inhibition and apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells  

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CDDO-Me, an oleanane synthetic triterpenoid has shown strong antitumorigeic activity towards diverse cancer cell types including colorectal cancer cells. In the present study, we investigated the role of free radicals in the growth inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing activity of CDDO-Me in colorectal cancer cells lines. Results demonstrated that CDDO-Me potently inhibited the growth of colorectal cancer cells and pretreatment of cancer cells with small-molecule antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) completely blocked the growth inhibitory activity of CDDO-Me. CDDO-Me caused the generation of reactive oxygen species, which was inhibited by NAC and mitochondrial chain 1 complex inhibitors DPI and rotenone. CDDO-Me induced apoptosis as demonstrated by the cleavage of PARP-1, activation of procaspases -3, -8, and -9 and mitochondrial depolarization and NAC blocked the activation of these apoptosis related processes. Furthermore, induction of apoptosis by CDDO-Me was associated with the inhibition of antiapoptotic/prosurvival Akt, mTOR and NF-?B signaling proteins and the inhibition of these signaling molecules was blocked by NAC. Together these studies provided evidence that CDDO-Me is a potent anticancer agent, which imparts growth inhibition and apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells through the generation of free radicals. PMID:21699019

Gao, Xiaohua; Deeb, Dorrah; Liu, Patricia; Liu, Yongbo; Arbab-Ali, Syed; Dulchavsky, Scott A.; Gautam, Subhash C.

2013-01-01

329

Sodium fluoride induces apoptosis in mouse embryonic stem cells through ROS-dependent and caspase- and JNK-mediated pathways  

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Sodium fluoride (NaF) is used as a source of fluoride ions in diverse applications. Fluoride salt is an effective prophylactic for dental caries and is an essential element required for bone health. However, fluoride is known to cause cytotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner. Further, no information is available on the effects of NaF on mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). We investigated the mode of cell death induced by NaF and the mechanisms involved. NaF treatment greater than 1 mM...

Ngoc, Tam Dan Nguyen; Son, Young-ok; Lim, Shin-saeng; Shi, Xianglin; Kim, Jong-ghee; Heo, Jung Sun; Choe, Youngji; Lee, Jeong-chae

2012-01-01

330

[The Nox/Duox family of ROS-generating NADPH oxidases].  

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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by the NADPH oxidases are conventionally thought to be cytotoxic and mutagenic and at high levels induce an oxidative stress response. The phagocyte NADPH oxidase catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of molecular oxygen to generate superoxide O2-., which can dismute to generate ROS species. Together, these ROS participate in host defence by killing or damaging invading microbes. Flavocytochrome b558 is the catalytic core of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase and consists of a large glycoprotein gp91phox or Nox-2 and a small protein p22phox. The other components of the NADPH oxidase are cytosolic proteins, namely p67phox, p47phox, p40phox and Rac. A defect in any of the genes encoding gp91phox, p22phox, p67phox or p47phox results in chronic granulomatous disease, a genetic disorder characterized by severe and recurrent infections. Evidence is rapidly accumulating that low level of ROS were produced by NADPH oxidase homologs in non-phagocytic cells. To date, six human homologs (Nox-1, Nox-3, Nox-4, Nox-5, Duox-1 and Duox-2) have been recently identified in a variety of non-phagocytic cells. The identification of Nox-1 was quickly followed by the cloning of Nox-3, Nox-4, and Nox-5. In parallel, two very large members of the Nox family were discovered, namely Duox-1 and Duox-2, initially also referred to as thyroid oxidases. The physiological functions of Nox-dependent ROS generation are in progress and still require detailed characterization. Activation mechanisms and tissue distribution of the different members of the Nox family are very different, suggesting distinct physiological functions. Nox family enzymes are likely to be involved in a variety of physiological events including cell proliferation, host defence, differentiation, apoptosis, senescence and activation of growth-related signaling pathways. An increase and a decrease in the function of Nox enzymes can contribute to a wide range of pathological processes. PMID:17101097

Guichard, Cécile; Pedruzzi, Eric; Fay, Michèle; Ben Mkaddem, Sanae; Coant, Nicolas; Daniel, Fanny; Ogier-Denis, Eric

2006-11-01

331

Lead-zinc interactions in the production of osteocalcin by ROS 17/2.8 osteoblastic bone cells  

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The serum level of osteocalcin, a bone specific protein produced by osteoblasts and used clinically as a marker of osteoblast acceptive, is decreased in lead intoxicated children. Previous studies suggest that the reduced osteocalcin production appears to be the result of impaired transcriptional regulation of this 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 gene product, and not translation. As part of a study to investigate the potential interaction of Pb2+ with Zn2+, and with the zinc fingers of the vitamin D receptor, ROS cells were treated with 0, 5, 10, or 25 ?M lead acetate for 24 hr, in the presence of 10, 30, or 50 ?M Zn followed by an additional 24 hr treatment with lead with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (100 pg/ml media). At the end of this period a radioimmunoassay was conducted to determine the amount of osteocalcin in the cells and secreted in the media. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 caused an increase in osteocalcin secreted into the media in cultures containing 0 ?M lead, but this increase was inhibited by lead in a concentration dependent manner, so that osteocalcin secretion in 10 or 25 ?M lead treated groups was less than cultures without 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 treatment. This inhibitory effect of lead was blocked by increasing the medium zinc concentration of 50 ?M. Increasing medium Pb2+ concentrations decreased the amount of 65Zn taken up by cells by ?30%, which was nullified bylls by ?30%, which was nullified by increasing medium Zn. These results suggest that lead produces a localized and specific Zn deficiency in the vitamin D receptor zinc finger, and perhaps other zinc metalloproteins, and that these effects of lead are not mediated through general effects on RNA or protein synthesis

332

A mitochondrial thioredoxin-sensitive mechanism regulates TGF-?-mediated gene expression associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition.  

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Transforming growth factor (TGF)-? is a pro-oncogenic cytokine that induces the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a crucial event in tumor progression. During TGF-?-mediated EMT in NMuMG mouse mammary epithelial cells, we observed sustained increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in the cytoplasm and mitochondria with a concomitant decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular glutathione levels. In pseudo ?0 cells, whose respiratory chain function was impaired, the increase in intracellular ROS levels was abrogated, suggesting an important role of mitochondrial activity as a trigger for TGF-?-stimulated ROS generation. In line with this, TGF-?-mediated expression of the EMT marker fibronectin was inhibited not only by chemicals that interfere with ROS signaling but also by exogenously expressed mitochondrial thioredoxin (TXN2) independent of Smad signaling. Of note, TGF-?-mediated induction of HMGA2, a central mediator of EMT and metastatic progression, was similarly impaired by TXN2 expression, revealing a novel mechanism involving a thiol oxidation reaction in mitochondria, which regulates TGF-?-mediated gene expression associated with EMT. PMID:24342608

Ishikawa, Fumihiro; Kaneko, Emi; Sugimoto, Tadashi; Ishijima, Takahiro; Wakamatsu, Masami; Yuasa, Aya; Sampei, Ruriko; Mori, Kazunori; Nose, Kiyoshi; Shibanuma, Motoko

2014-01-17

333

Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii rosR is required for interaction with clover, biofilm formation and adaptation to the environment  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii is a symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacterium that elicits nodules on roots of host plants Trifolium spp. Bacterial surface polysaccharides are crucial for establishment of a successful symbiosis with legumes that form indeterminate-type nodules, such as Trifolium, Pisum, Vicia, and Medicago spp. and aid the bacterium in withstanding osmotic and other environmental stresses. Recently, the R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii RosR regulatory protein which controls exopolysaccharide production has been identified and characterized. Results In this work, we extend our earlier studies to the characterization of rosR mutants which exhibit pleiotropic phenotypes. The mutants produce three times less exopolysaccharide than the wild type, and the low-molecular-weight fraction in that polymer is greatly reduced. Mutation in rosR also results in quantitative alterations in the polysaccharide constituent of lipopolysaccharide. The rosR mutants are more sensitive to surface-active detergents, antibiotics of the beta-lactam group and some osmolytes, indicating changes in the bacterial membranes. In addition, the rosR mutants exhibit significant decrease in motility and form a biofilm on plastic surfaces, which differs significantly in depth, architecture, and bacterial viability from that of the wild type. The most striking effect of rosR mutation is the considerably decreased attachment and colonization of root hairs, indicating that the mutation affects the first stage of the invasion process. Infection threads initiate at a drastically reduced rate and frequently abort before they reach the base of root hairs. Although these mutants form nodules on clover, they are unable to fix nitrogen and are outcompeted by the wild type in mixed inoculations, demonstrating that functional rosR is important for competitive nodulation. Conclusions This report demonstrates the significant role RosR regulatory protein plays in bacterial stress adaptation and in the symbiotic relationship between clover and R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii 24.2.

Piersiak Tomasz

2010-11-01

334

Toward real-time regional earthquake simulation II: Real-time Online earthquake Simulation (ROS) of Taiwan earthquakes  

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We developed a Real-time Online earthquake Simulation system (ROS) to simulate regional earthquakes in Taiwan. The ROS uses a centroid moment tensor solution of seismic events from a Real-time Moment Tensor monitoring system (RMT), which provides all the point source parameters including the event origin time, hypocentral location, moment magnitude and focal mechanism within 2 min after the occurrence of an earthquake. Then, all of the source parameters are automatically forwarded to the ROS to perform an earthquake simulation, which is based on a spectral-element method (SEM). A new island-wide, high resolution SEM mesh model is developed for the whole Taiwan in this study. We have improved SEM mesh quality by introducing a thin high-resolution mesh layer near the surface to accommodate steep and rapidly varying topography. The mesh for the shallow sedimentary basin is adjusted to reflect its complex geometry and sharp lateral velocity contrasts. The grid resolution at the surface is about 545 m, which is sufficient to resolve topography and tomography data for simulations accurate up to 1.0 Hz. The ROS is also an infrastructural service, making online earthquake simulation feasible. Users can conduct their own earthquake simulation by providing a set of source parameters through the ROS webpage. For visualization, a ShakeMovie and ShakeMap are produced during the simulation. The time needed for one event is roughly 3 min for a 70 s ground motion simulation. The ROS is operated online at the Institute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica (http://ros.earth.sinica.edu.tw/). Our long-term goal for the ROS system is to contribute to public earth science outreach and to realize seismic ground motion prediction in real-time.

Lee, Shiann-Jong; Liu, Qinya; Tromp, Jeroen; Komatitsch, Dimitri; Liang, Wen-Tzong; Huang, Bor-Shouh

2014-06-01

335

Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a key factor for stimulation of macrophage proliferation by ceramide 1-phosphate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We previously demonstrated that ceramide 1-phosphate (C1P) is mitogenic for fibroblasts and macrophages. However, the mechanisms involved in this action were only partially described. Here, we demonstrate that C1P stimulates reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in primary bone marrow-derived macrophages, and that ROS are required for the mitogenic effect of C1P. ROS production was dependent upon prior activation of NADPH oxidase by C1P, which was determined by measuring phosphorylation of the p40phox subunit and translocation of p47phox from the cytosol to the plasma membrane. In addition, C1P activated cytosolic calcium-dependent phospholipase A2 and protein kinase C-?, and NADPH oxidase activation was blocked by selective inhibitors of these enzymes. These inhibitors, and inhibitors of ROS production, blocked the mitogenic effect of C1P. By using BHNB-C1P (a photolabile caged-C1P analog), we demonstrate that all of these C1P actions are caused by intracellular C1P. It can be concluded that the enzyme responsible for C1P-stimulated ROS generation in bone marrow-derived macrophages is NADPH oxidase, and that this enzyme is downstream of PKC-? and cPLA2-? in this pathway. -- Highlights: ? Ceramide 1-phosphate (C1P) stimulates reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. ? The enzyme responsible for ROS generation by C1P in macrophages is NADPH oxidase. ? NADPH oxidase lies downstream of cPLA2-? and PKC-? in this pathway. ? ROS generation is essential for the stimulation of macrophage proliferation by C1P.

336

Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a key factor for stimulation of macrophage proliferation by ceramide 1-phosphate  

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We previously demonstrated that ceramide 1-phosphate (C1P) is mitogenic for fibroblasts and macrophages. However, the mechanisms involved in this action were only partially described. Here, we demonstrate that C1P stimulates reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in primary bone marrow-derived macrophages, and that ROS are required for the mitogenic effect of C1P. ROS production was dependent upon prior activation of NADPH oxidase by C1P, which was determined by measuring phosphorylation of the p40phox subunit and translocation of p47phox from the cytosol to the plasma membrane. In addition, C1P activated cytosolic calcium-dependent phospholipase A{sub 2} and protein kinase C-{alpha}, and NADPH oxidase activation was blocked by selective inhibitors of these enzymes. These inhibitors, and inhibitors of ROS production, blocked the mitogenic effect of C1P. By using BHNB-C1P (a photolabile caged-C1P analog), we demonstrate that all of these C1P actions are caused by intracellular C1P. It can be concluded that the enzyme responsible for C1P-stimulated ROS generation in bone marrow-derived macrophages is NADPH oxidase, and that this enzyme is downstream of PKC-{alpha} and cPLA{sub 2}-{alpha} in this pathway. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ceramide 1-phosphate (C1P) stimulates reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The enzyme responsible for ROS generation by C1P in macrophages is NADPH oxidase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NADPH oxidase lies downstream of cPLA{sub 2}-{alpha} and PKC-{alpha} in this pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ROS generation is essential for the stimulation of macrophage proliferation by C1P.

Arana, Lide; Gangoiti, Patricia; Ouro, Alberto; Rivera, Io-Guane; Ordonez, Marta; Trueba, Miguel [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of the Basque Country, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Lankalapalli, Ravi S.; Bittman, Robert [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Queens College of The City University of New York, Flushing, NY 11367-1597 (United States); Gomez-Munoz, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.gomez@ehu.es [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of the Basque Country, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)

2012-02-15

337

Modulation of rosR Expression and Exopolysaccharide Production in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii by Phosphate and Clover Root Exudates  

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Full Text Available The acidic exopolysaccharide (EPS secreted in large amounts by the symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacterium Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii is required for the establishment of an effective symbiosis with the host plant Trifolium spp. EPS biosynthesis in rhizobia is a very complex process regulated at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels and influenced by various nutritional and environmental conditions. The R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii rosR gene encodes a transcriptional regulator with a C2H2 type zinc-finger motif involved in positive regulation of EPS synthesis. In silico sequence analysis of the 450-bp long rosR upstream region revealed the presence of several inverted repeats (IR1 to IR6 and motifs with significant identity to consensus sequences recognized by PhoB and LysR-type proteins associated with phosphate- and flavonoid-dependent gene regulation in R. leguminosarum. Using a set of sequentially truncated rosR-lacZ transcriptional fusions, the role of the individual motifs and the effect of phosphate and clover root exudates on rosR expression were established. In addition, the significance of IR4 inverted repeats in the repression, and P2–10 hexamer in the activation of rosR transcription, respectively, was found. The expression of rosR increased in the presence of phosphate (0.1–20 mM and clover root exudates (10 ?M. PHO boxes and the LysR motif located upstream of the rosR translation start site were engaged in the regulation of rosR transcription. The synthesis of EPS and biofilm formation decreased at high phosphate concentrations, but increased in the presence of clover root exudates, indicating a complex regulation of these processes.

Anna Skorupska

2011-06-01

338

Repression of Sestrin Family Genes Contributes to Oncogenic Ras-Induced ROS Up-Regulation and Genetic Instability  

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Oncogenic mutations within RAS genes and inactivation of p53 are the most common events in cancer. Earlier we reported that activated Ras contributes to chromosome instability, especially in p53-deficient cells. Here we show that an increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative DNA damage represents a major mechanism of Ras-induced mutagenesis. Introduction of oncogenic H- or N-Ras caused elevated intracellular ROS, accumulation of 8-oxo-dG and increased number of chro...

Kopnin, Pavel B.; Agapova, Larissa S.; Kopnin, Boris P.; Chumakov, Peter M.

2007-01-01

339

NADPH Oxidase versus Mitochondria-Derived ROS in Glucose-Induced Apoptosis of Pericytes in Early Diabetic Retinopathy.  

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Objectives. Using apocynin (inhibitor of NADPH oxidase), and Mitoquinol 10 nitrate (MitoQ; mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant), we addressed the importance of mitochondria versus NADPH oxidase-derived ROS in glucose-induced apoptosis of pericytes. Methods. NADPH oxidase was localised using Western blot analysis and cytochrome C reduction assay. Apoptosis was detected by measuring caspase-3 activity. Intracellular glucose concentration, ROS formation and Nepsilon-(carboxymethyl) lysine (CML) content were measured using Amplex Red assay kit, dihydroethidium (DHE), and competitive immunoabsorbant enzyme-linked assay (ELISA), respectively. Results. NADPH oxidase was localised in the cytoplasm of pericytes suggesting ROS production within intracellular compartments. High glucose (25 mM) significantly increased apoptosis, intracellular glucose concentration, and CML content. Apoptosis was associated with increased gp91phox expression, activity of NADPH oxidase, and intracellular ROS production. Apocynin and not MitoQ significantly blunted the generation of ROS, formation of intracellular CML and apoptosis. Conclusions. NADPH oxidase and not mitochondria-derived ROS is responsible for the accelerated apoptosis of pericytes in diabetic retinopathy. PMID:20652059

Mustapha, Nik M; Tarr, Joanna M; Kohner, Eva M; Chibber, Rakesh

2010-01-01

340

Reactive oxygen species mediated apoptosis of esophageal cancer cells induced by marine triprenyl toluquinones and toluhydroquinones.  

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Marine invertebrates, algae, and microorganisms are prolific producers of novel secondary metabolites. Some of these secondary metabolites have the potential to be developed as chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases, including cancer. We describe here the mechanism leading to apoptosis of esophageal cancer cell lines in the presence of triprenylated toluquinones and toluhydroquinones originally isolated from the Arminacean nudibranch Leminda millecra. Triprenylated toluquinone-induced and toluhydroquinone-induced cell death is mediated via apoptosis after a cell cycle block. Molecular events include production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), followed by induction and activation of c-Jun (AP1) via c-Jun-NH2-kinase-mediated and extracellular signal-regulated kinase-mediated pathways. Partial resistance to these compounds could be conferred by the ROS scavengers Trolox and butylated hydroxyanisol, a c-Jun-NH2-kinase inhibitor, and inhibition of c-Jun with a dominant negative mutant (TAM67). Interestingly, the levels of ROS produced varied between compounds, but was proportional to the ability of each compound to kill cells. Because cancer cells are often more susceptible to ROS, these compounds present a plausible lead for new antiesophageal cancer treatments and show the potential of the South African marine environment to provide new chemical entities with potential clinical significance. PMID:17876050

Whibley, Catherine E; McPhail, Kerry L; Keyzers, Robert A; Maritz, Michelle F; Leaner, Virna D; Birrer, Michael J; Davies-Coleman, Michael T; Hendricks, Denver T

2007-09-01

 
 
 
 
341

Axion mediation  

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We explore the possibility that supersymmetry breaking is mediated to the Standard Model sector through the interactions of a generalized axion multiplet that gains a F-term expectation value. Using an effective field theory framework we enumerate the most general possible set of axion couplings and compute the Standard Model sector soft-supersymmetry-breaking terms. Unusual, non-minimal spectra, such as those of both natural and split supersymmetry are easily implemented. We discuss example models and low-energy spectra, as well as implications of the particularly minimal case of mediation via the QCD axion multiplet. We argue that if the Peccei-Quinn solution to the strong-CP problem is realized in string theory then such axion-mediation is generic, while in a field theory model it is a natural possibility in both DFSZ- and KSVZ-like regimes. Axion mediation can parametrically dominate gravity-mediation and is also cosmologically beneficial as the constraints arising from axino and gravitino overproduction are reduced. Finally, in the string context, axion mediation provides a motivated mechanism where the UV completion naturally ameliorates the supersymmetric flavor problem.

Baryakhtar, Masha; Hardy, Edward; March-Russell, John

2013-07-01

342

Lipid peroxidation end product 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal triggers unfolded protein response and heme oxygenase-1 expression in PC12 cells: Roles of ROS and MAPK pathways.  

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This study investigates the roles of ROS overproduction and MAPK signaling pathways in the induction of unfolded protein response (UPR) and the expression of Phase II enzymes in response to 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal (4-HNE) in a neuronal-like catecholaminergic PC12 cells. Our results showed that 4-HNE triggered three canonical pathways of UPR, namely IRE1-XBP1, PERK-eIF2?-ATF4 and ATF6, and induced the expression of UPR-targeted genes, GRP78, CHOP, TRB3, PUMA, and GADD34, as well as Phase II enzymes, HO-1 and GCLC. 4-HNE also induced apoptosis, intracellular calcium accumulation, caspase-3 activation, and G0/G1 cell cycle arrest, which was correlated with the increased expression of GADD45?. The addition of tiron, a cellular permeable superoxide scavenger, scavenged 4-HNE-mediated ROS formation, but did not alleviate cytotoxicity, or the expression of UPR-targeted genes or Phase II enzymes, indicating that ROS overproduction per se did not play a major role in 4-HNE-caused deleterious effects. HO-1 expression was attenuated by Nrf2 siRNA and chemical chaperone 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA), suggesting HO-1 expression was regulated by Nrf2-ARE, which may work downstream of ER stress. 4-HNE treatment promptly induced ERK, JNK and p38 MAPK activation. Addition of p38 MAPK specific inhibitor SB203580 attenuated HO-1 upregulation, but enhanced expression of CHOP, PUMA and TRB3, and cytotoxicity. These results indicate that 4-HNE-induced transient p38 MAPK activation may serve as an upstream negative regulator of ER stress and confer adaptive cytoprotection against 4-HNE-mediated cell injury. PMID:24291486

Lin, Meng-Han; Yen, Jui-Hung; Weng, Ching-Yi; Wang, Lisu; Ha, Choi-Lan; Wu, Ming-Jiuan

2014-01-01

343

High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) impaired cardiac excitation-contraction coupling by enhancing the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) leak through TLR4-ROS signaling in cardiomyocytes.  

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High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a proinflammatory mediator playing an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiac dysfunction in many diseases. In this study, we explored the effects of HMGB1 on Ca(2+) handling and cellular contractility in cardiomyocytes to seek for the mechanisms underlying HMGB1-induced cardiac dysfunction. Our results show that HMGB1 increased the frequency of Ca(2+) sparks, reduced the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) content, and decreased the amplitude of systolic Ca(2+) transient and myocyte contractility in dose-dependent manners in adult rat ventricular myocytes. Inhibiting high-frequent Ca(2+) sparks with tetracaine largely inhibited the alterations of SR load and Ca(2+) transient. Blocking Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) with TAK-242 or knockdown of TLR4 by RNA interference remarkably inhibited HMGB1 induced high-frequent Ca(2+) sparks and restored the SR Ca(2+) content. Concomitantly, the amplitude of systolic Ca(2+) transient and myocyte contractility had significantly increased. Furthermore, HMGB1 increased the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and consequently enhanced oxidative stress and CaMKII-activated phosphorylation (pSer2814) in ryanodine receptor 2 (RyR2). TAK-242 pretreatment significantly decreased intracellular ROS levels and oxidative stress and hyperphosphorylation in RyR2, similar to the effects of antioxidant MnTBAP. Consistently, MnTBAP normalized HMGB1-impaired Ca(2+) handling and myocyte contractility. Taken together, our findings suggest that HMGB1 enhances Ca(2+) spark-mediated SR Ca(2+) leak through TLR4-ROS signaling pathway, which causes partial depletion of SR Ca(2+) content and hence decreases systolic Ca(2+) transient and myocyte contractility. Prevention of SR Ca(2+) leak may be an effective therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cardiac dysfunction related to HMGB1 overproduction. PMID:24937603

Zhang, Cuicui; Mo, Miaohua; Ding, Wenwen; Liu, Wenjuan; Yan, Dewen; Deng, Jianxin; Luo, Xinping; Liu, Jie

2014-09-01

344

Effect of LLLT on the level of ATP and ROS from organ of corti cells  

Science.gov (United States)

It is well established that ototoxic antibiotics and acoustic trauma can damage cochlear hair cells and cause hearing loss. Previous studies using transcanal LLLT (Low level laser therapy) showed that LLLT can promote recovery of hearing thresholds and cochlear hair cells. However, its mechanism has not been studied. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the mechanism of hearing recovery from gentamicin induced ototoxic hearing loss by LLLT. Methods: HEI- OC1 (House ear institute organ of Corti) cells were cultured for 18 hours and ototoxicity was induced by gentamicin (GM) treatment to the cells. Cultured cells were divided into 6 groups, No treatment control, LLLT only, GM 6.6 mM and GM 13.1 mM, GM 6.6 mM+LLLT and GM 13.1 mM+LLLT cells. LD laser 808 nm, 15 mW, was irradiated to the cultured cells for 15 min, at 4 hours after GM treatment to the cells. ATP was assayed using the ATP assay Kit. ROS was measured using confocal microscope after application of H2DCFDA dye. Results: ATP was decreased in GM 13.1 mM cells and increased in LLLT only cells and GM 13.1 mM+LLLT cells compared to control and 13.1 mM cells. ROS was increased in GM 6.6 mM and GM 13.1 mM cells, and decreased in GM 6.6 mM+LLLT and GM 13.1 mM+LLLT cells compared to GM 6.6 and 13.1 mM cells immediately after laser irradiation. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that LLLT on GM treated HEI-OC1 cells increased ATP and decreased ROS that may contribute to the recovery of hearing.

Rhee, ChungKu; Chang, So-Young; Ahn, Jin-Chul; Suh, Myung-Whan; Jung, Jae Yun

2014-03-01

345

Perovskito strukt?ros aliuminat? ir kobaltat? sintez? zoli?-geli? metodu  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Šiame darbe vienfazis perovskito strukt?ros gadolinio aliuminatas GdAlO3 zoli?-geli? metodu buvo gautas 1000 oC temperat?roje, gadolinio jon? šaltiniu naudojant Gd2O3, kompleksus sudaran?iu reagentu – 1,2 etandiol?, nat?rali? vyno r?gšt?, citrin? r?gšt? arba citrin? r?gšties ir etanolamino mišin?. Sintetinant GdAlO3, gaut? tyrim? rezultatai parod?, kaip yra svarbu zoli? geli? procese pasirinkti tinkamas pradines medžiagas bei kompleksus su metalais sudaran?ius ...

C?iz?auskaite?, Sigute?

2009-01-01

346

Chromosome 11 protects against DNA damage by reactive oxygen species (ROS)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent evidence suggests that chromosome 11 plays an important role in determining a cell's sensitivity to DNA damage by ROS. The induction of micronuclei (MN) by treatment with ROS was found to be reduced in a bladder carcinoma cell line (open-quotes parentclose quotes) when a normal chromosome 11 was inserted (open-quotes hybridclose quotes). These studies have been extended to include a third cell line (open-quotes revertantclose quotes) derived from the open-quotes hybridclose quotes by spontaneous loss of the chromosome (11) insert. In this study, MN induction and nuclear division indices (NDI) were determined in all 3 lines after exposure to either hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) (0-32.3 ?M) or to ?-radiation (0-3 Gy). For both agents, there was a significant protection against induction of MN in the hybrid cell line (p2O2-induced damage than against damage by irradiation. At the highest dose for H2O2 (32.3?M), induced MN frequencies for hybrid cells (3.7%) were approximately 5-fold lower than frequencies in the parent (17.1%) or revertant (18.6%) cells. In contrast, after 1 Gy of irradiation, induced MN frequencies in hybrid cells (18.7%) were 1.4-fold less than either the parent (26.2%) or revertant (27.6%) cells (ratio at 3 Gy was 1.4-fold also). The 2 treatments also had a different effect oneatments also had a different effect on the NDI (an index of toxicity and/or growth inhibition). Both treatments induced a decrease in NDI. The chromosome 11 insert protected hybrid cells from this effect but only after exposure to H2O2 and not to irradiation. These data suggest a protective effect against ROS. Since only a portion of DNA damage from ?-ray treatment is due to ROS, this may account for the reduced ability of the chromosome 11 to provide a protective effect against DNA damage due to ?-ray exposure

347

Dynamic Modeling of Anode Function in Enzyme-Based Biofuel Cells Using High Mediator Concentration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The working principle of enzyme-based biofuel cells (EBFCs is the same as that of conventional fuel cells. In an EBFC system, the electricity-production process is very intricate. Analysis requires a mathematical model that can adequately describe the EBFC and predict its performance. This paper develops a dynamic model simulating the discharge performance of the anode for which supported glucose oxidase and mediator immobilize in the EBFC. The dynamic transport behavior of substrate, redox state (ROS of enzyme, enzyme-substrate complex, and the mediator creates different potential changes inside the anode. The potential-step method illustrates the dynamic phenomena of substrate diffusion, ROS of enzyme, production of enzyme-substrate complex, and reduction of the mediator with different potential changes.

Der-Sheng Chan

2012-07-01

348

Axion Mediation  

CERN Document Server

We explore the possibility that supersymmetry breaking is mediated to the Standard Model sector through the interactions of a generalized axion multiplet that gains a F-term expectation value. Using an effective field theory framework we enumerate the most general possible set of axion couplings and compute the Standard Model sector soft-supersymmetry-breaking terms. Unusual, non-minimal spectra, such as those of both natural and split supersymmetry are easily implemented. We discuss example models and low-energy spectra, as well as implications of the particularly minimal case of mediation via the QCD axion multiplet. We argue that if the Peccei-Quinn solution to the strong-CP problem is realized in string theory then such axion-mediation is generic, while in a field theory model it is a natural possibility in both DFSZ- and KSVZ-like regimes. Axion mediation can parametrically dominate gravity-mediation and is also cosmologically beneficial as the constraints arising from axino and gravitino overproduction ...

Baryakhtar, Masha; March-Russell, John

2013-01-01

349

Light regulation of cGMP metabolism in toad rod outer segments (ROS) deduced from intact photoreceptor and cellfree kinetics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The rate of cGMP hydrolysis by phosphodiesterase (PDE) in intact ROS, monitored in dark-adapted isolated toad retina by the rate of 18O appearance in guanine nucleotide ?-phosphoryls, is 1/360th of that observed in disrupted ROS at a substrate concentration equivalent to the total [cGMP] in ROS. Low to moderate photic stimuli increase this cGMP hydrolytic rate up to 10-fold in intact ROS with little or no change in total [cGMP]. G-protein activation determined in intact ROS by the fraction of GDP labeled with 18O corresponds with light-related increases in cGMP flux. In contrast, relatively high intensities and extended illumination cause attenuation of maximal cGMP hydrolysis with proportionate reductions in total [cGMP]. From these observations combined with the effects of activated G-protein on kinetics and cGMP binding of ROS PDE the following model for light-regulation of cGMP metabolism was deduced: cGMP flux in intact ROS is severely restricted in the dark state because approximately 99% of the cGMP is bound to high affinity sites on the non-stimulated form of PDE. This constraint is relieved when activated G-protein converts the cGMP-binding form of PDE to a high K/sub m/ catalytic form. cGMP is then redistributed to a dynamic pool where it is available to PDE catalytic sites and lower affini