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Sample records for ros mediate selenite-induced

  1. ROS-mediated regulation of CXCR4 in cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Chetram, Mahandranauth A.; Hinton, Cimona V.

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress and the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a role in cancer cells developing an advanced, phenotypic signature that associates with metastasis and progression. Increased ROS concentrations are involved in promoting cancer development and metastasis by inducing expression of oncogenes, suppressing activity of anti-survival molecules and by activating various cell survival and proliferation signaling pathways. Oxidative stress is higher in the epithelium of canc...

  2. ROS-mediated DNA methylation pattern alterations in carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qihan; Ni, Xiaohua

    2015-01-01

    Elevated levels of both reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DNA methylation are characteristic of various types of cancer cells. However, the relation between these two is not well understood. Here we will discuss the cause-consequence relationship between ROS and DNA methylation. Cancer research reveals that disregulation of DNA methylation results in regional CpG island hypermethylation and generalized genomic hypomethylation. ROS-induced oxidative stress is associated with both aberrant hypermethylation of tumor suppressor gene (TSG) promoter regions and global hypomethylation. The DNA oxidation structure, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), can induce DNA hypomethylation by inhibiting DNA methylation at nearby cytosine bases, while another DNA oxidation structure, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), may achieve active DNA demethylation processes, thus, causing DNA hypomethylation. Recently, it has been found that ROS can function as catalysts of DNA methylation, further accounting for TSG promoter hypermethylation. Moreover, ROS may induce site-specific hypermethylation via either the up-regulation of expression of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) or the formation of a new DNMT containing complex. In addition, these ROS-induced DNA methylation pattern alterations have been implicated with not only malignant transformation, but also the progression of numerous tumors. In conclusion, ROS can influence both aspects of DNA methylation changes through different mechanisms, which play an important role of epigenetic regulation in cancer cells. Therefore, the comprehension of mechanisms leading to epigenetic modifications associated with ROS may help better understand the carcinogenesis and progression, as well as aid in the development of potential biomarkers for better cancer diagnostics and novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:25585126

  3. ROS act as an upstream signal to mediate cadmium-induced mitophagy in mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xue; Qi, Yongmei; Zhang, Xiaoning; Gu, Xueyan; Cai, Hui; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Yingmei

    2015-01-01

    As a well known generator of reactive oxygen species (ROS), cadmium (Cd) is found to be an effective inducer of mitophagy in mouse kidney and liver cells. Here, we aim to elucidate whether Cd can also initiate mitophagy in mouse brain and what role ROS play in this process. Our results showed that Cd caused overproduction of ROS. Meanwhile, Cd induced mitophagy, as indicated by the collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), formation of mitophagosomes, increases of PINK1 level and LC3-II/LC3-I ratio and decrease of mitochondrial mass. Scavenging of ROS by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) or acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) rescued MMP and mitochondrial mass, and squelched PINK1 level, mitochondrial accumulation of Parkin and LC3-II/LC3-I ratio, suggesting that ROS were associated with Cd-induced mitophagy. Cyclosporine A (CsA), an inhibitor of mitophagy, blocked Cd-induced mitophagy and PINK1/Parkin pathway but failed to suppress ROS increase, revealing that ROS are the causes rather than the results of Cd-induced mitophagy. In conclusion, this study suggested that ROS functioned on the upstream of PINK1/Parkin pathway to mediate Cd-induced mitophagy. PMID:25464205

  4. Danshensu inhibits ?-adrenergic receptors-mediated cardiac fibrosis by ROS/p38 MAPK axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Haiyan; Tian, Aiju; Wu, Jimin; Yang, Chengzhi; Xing, Rui; Jia, Pu; Yang, Lingjian; Zhang, Youyi; Zheng, Xiaohui; Li, Zijian

    2014-01-01

    Danshensu, the effective ingredient of the plant Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen), has been widely used for treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Cardiac fibrosis is an important process in pathological cardiac remodeling and leads to heart failure. We investigated the effect of Danshensu on ?-adrenergic receptor (?-AR)-mediated cardiac fibrosis and the involved signaling transduction. Danshensu inhibited cardiofibroblast proliferation and collagen I synthesis induced by isoproterenol (ISO), a selective ?-AR agonist. Phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), which mediates ISO-induced cardiac fibrosis, was negatively regulated in this process. The negative regulation depended on the ISO inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Taken together, Danshensu may inhibit ?-AR-mediated cardiac fibrosis by negative regulation of ROS-p38 MAPK signaling. PMID:24882408

  5. PGC-1? buffers ROS-mediated removal of mitochondria during myogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldelli, S; Aquilano, K; Ciriolo, M R

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial biogenesis and mitophagy are recognized as critical processes underlying mitochondrial homeostasis. However, the molecular pathway(s) coordinating the balance between these cellular programs is still poorly investigated. Here, we show an induction of the nuclear and mitochondrial peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1?) during myogenesis, which in turn co-activates the transcription of nuclear and mtDNA-encoded mitochondrial genes. We demonstrate that PGC-1? also buffers oxidative stress occurring during differentiation by promoting the expression of antioxidant enzymes. Indeed, by downregulating PGC-1?, we observed an impairment of antioxidants expression, which was accompanied by a significant reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst and increase of oxidative damage to proteins. In parallel, we detected a decrease of mitochondrial mass and function as well as increased mitophagy through the ROS/FOXO1 pathway. Upon PGC-1? downregulation, we found ROS-dependent nuclear translocation of FOXO1 and transcription of its downstream targets including mitophagic genes such as LC3 and PINK1. Such events were significantly reverted after treatment with the antioxidant Trolox, suggesting that PGC-1? assures mitochondrial integrity by indirectly buffering ROS. Finally, the lack of PGC-1? gave rise to a decrease in MYOG and a strong induction of atrophy-related ubiquitin ligases FBXO32 (FBXO32), indicative of a degenerative process. Overall, our results reveal that in myotubes, PGC-1? takes center place in mitochondrial homeostasis during differentiation because of its ability to avoid ROS-mediated removal of mitochondria. PMID:25375380

  6. ROS mediated enhancement of radiation response by sps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Hyun Ju; Kim, Eun hee; Cho, Chul Koo; Lee, Su Jae; Lee, Yun Sil; Bae, Sang Woo [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    We employed subtractive hybridization methods to identify radiation induced genes. These genes are expected to have some role in radiation response among the identified genes, sps (interchangeable with HSDP) was shown to modulate radiation response. Stable cell line which overexpress sps enhanced p53 activity by increasing protein stability and activity as a transcription factor. Increased p53 was correlated with increased phosphorylation of serine residue 15 of p53 protein. Sps cell lines produced more p21 and MDM2 which are two representative p53 target genes. Increased level of p53 was due to increased protein stability. Half life of p53 was increased in sps cell lines. Increased p53 level was correlated with enhanced cell killing by irradiation in sps cell lines. Both UV and gamma radiation caused lowered cell viability of sps cell line. We conclude that overexpression of sps caused upregulation of p53, a main mediator of radiation response, and sensitized cells that stably expressed sps.

  7. Artemisinin induces ROS-mediated caspase3 activation in ASTC-a-1 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Feng-Lian; Chen, Tong-Sheng; Qu, Jun-Le; Liu, Cheng-Yi

    2010-02-01

    Artemisinin (ART), an antimalarial phytochemical from the sweet wormwood plant or a naturally occurring component of Artemisia annua, has been shown a potential anticancer activity by apoptotic pathways. In our report, cell counting kit (CCK-8) assay showed that treatment of human lung adenocarcinoma (ASTC-a-1) cells with ART effectively increase cell death by inducing apoptosis in a time- and dose-dependent fashion. Hoechst 33258 staining was used to detect apoptosis as well. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was observed in cells exposed to ART at concentrations of 400 ?M for 48 h. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), an oxygen radical scavenger, suppressed the rate of ROS generation and inhibited the ART-induced apoptosis. Moreover, AFC assay (Fluorometric assay for Caspase3 activity) showed that ROS was involved in ART-induced caspase3 acitvation. Taken together, our data indicate that ART induces ROS-mediated caspase3 activation in a time-and dose-dependent way in ASCT-a-1 cells.

  8. Regulation of Stem Cell Fate by ROS-mediated Alteration of Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jung Min; Lee, Hyun Jik; Jung, Young Hyun; Lee, Ki Hoon; Kim, Dah Ihm; Kim, Jeong Yeon; Ko, So Hee; Choi, Gee Euhn; Chai, Ing Ing; Song, Eun Ju; Oh, Ji Young; Lee, Sei-Jung; Han, Ho Jae

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells have attracted much attention due to their distinct features that support infinite self-renewal and differentiation into the cellular derivatives of three lineages. Recent studies have suggested that many stem cells both embryonic and adult stem cells reside in a specialized niche defined by hypoxic condition. In this respect, distinguishing functional differences arising from the oxygen concentration is important in understanding the nature of stem cells and in controlling stem cell fate for therapeutic purposes. ROS act as cellular signaling molecules involved in the propagation of signaling and the translation of environmental cues into cellular responses to maintain cellular homeostasis, which is mediated by the coordination of various cellular processes, and to adapt cellular activity to available bioenergetic sources. Thus, in this review, we describe the physiological role of ROS in stem cell fate and its effect on the metabolic regulation of stem cells. PMID:26019752

  9. Cadmium-induced teratogenicity: Association with ROS-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress in placenta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The placenta is essential for sustaining the growth of the fetus. An increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been associated with the impaired placental and fetal development. Cadmium (Cd) is a potent teratogen that caused fetal malformation and growth restriction. The present study investigated the effects of maternal Cd exposure on placental and fetal development. The pregnant mice were intraperitoneally injected with CdCl2 (4.5 mg/kg) on gestational day 9. As expected, maternal Cd exposure during early limb development significantly increased the incidences of forelimb ectrodactyly in fetuses. An obvious impairment in the labyrinth, a highly developed tissue of blood vessels, was observed in placenta of mice treated with CdCl2. In addition, maternal Cd exposure markedly repressed cell proliferation and increased apoptosis in placenta. An additional experiment showed that maternal Cd exposure significantly upregulated the expression of GRP78, an ER chaperone. Moreover, maternal Cd exposure induced the phosphorylation of placental eIF2?, a downstream molecule of PERK signaling. In addition, maternal Cd exposure significantly increased the level of placental CHOP, another target of PERK signaling, indicating that the unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling was activated in placenta of mice treated with CdCl2. Interestingly, alpha-phenyl-N-t-butylnitrone, a free radical spin-trapping agent, significantly alleviated Cd-induced placental ER stress and UPR. Taken together, these results suggest that reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated ER stress might be involved in Cd-induced impairment on placental and fetal development. Antioxidants may be used as pharmacological agents to protect against Cd-induced fetal malformation and growth restriction. -- Highlights: ? Cd induces fetal malformation and growth restriction. ? Cd induced placental ER stress and UPR. ? PBN alleviates Cd-induced ER stress and UPR in placenta. ? ROS-mediated ER stress might be involved in Cd-induced placental impairments. ? ROS-mediated ER stress might be involved in Cd-induced fetal malformations.

  10. Cadmium-induced teratogenicity: Association with ROS-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress in placenta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhen; Wang, Hua; Xu, Zhong Mei; Ji, Yan-Li; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Zhang, Cheng; Meng, Xiu-Hong; Zhao, Mei; Xu, De-Xiang, E-mail: xudex@126.com

    2012-03-01

    The placenta is essential for sustaining the growth of the fetus. An increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been associated with the impaired placental and fetal development. Cadmium (Cd) is a potent teratogen that caused fetal malformation and growth restriction. The present study investigated the effects of maternal Cd exposure on placental and fetal development. The pregnant mice were intraperitoneally injected with CdCl{sub 2} (4.5 mg/kg) on gestational day 9. As expected, maternal Cd exposure during early limb development significantly increased the incidences of forelimb ectrodactyly in fetuses. An obvious impairment in the labyrinth, a highly developed tissue of blood vessels, was observed in placenta of mice treated with CdCl{sub 2}. In addition, maternal Cd exposure markedly repressed cell proliferation and increased apoptosis in placenta. An additional experiment showed that maternal Cd exposure significantly upregulated the expression of GRP78, an ER chaperone. Moreover, maternal Cd exposure induced the phosphorylation of placental eIF2?, a downstream molecule of PERK signaling. In addition, maternal Cd exposure significantly increased the level of placental CHOP, another target of PERK signaling, indicating that the unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling was activated in placenta of mice treated with CdCl{sub 2}. Interestingly, alpha-phenyl-N-t-butylnitrone, a free radical spin-trapping agent, significantly alleviated Cd-induced placental ER stress and UPR. Taken together, these results suggest that reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated ER stress might be involved in Cd-induced impairment on placental and fetal development. Antioxidants may be used as pharmacological agents to protect against Cd-induced fetal malformation and growth restriction. -- Highlights: ? Cd induces fetal malformation and growth restriction. ? Cd induced placental ER stress and UPR. ? PBN alleviates Cd-induced ER stress and UPR in placenta. ? ROS-mediated ER stress might be involved in Cd-induced placental impairments. ? ROS-mediated ER stress might be involved in Cd-induced fetal malformations.

  11. Eugenol-inhibited root growth in Avena fatua involves ROS-mediated oxidative damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Nitina; Singh, Harminder Pal; Batish, Daizy Rani; Kohli, Ravinder Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Plant essential oils and their constituent monoterpenes are widely known plant growth retardants but their mechanism of action is not well understood. We explored the mechanism of phytotoxicity of eugenol, a monoterpenoid alcohol, proposed as a natural herbicide. Eugenol (100-1000?µM) retarded the germination of Avena fatua and strongly inhibited its root growth compared to the coleoptile growth. We further investigated the underlying physiological and biochemical alterations leading to the root growth inhibition. Eugenol induced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to oxidative stress and membrane damage in the root tissue. ROS generation measured in terms of hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical content increased significantly in the range of 24 to 144, 21 to 91, 46 to 173% over the control at 100 to 1000?µM eugenol, respectively. The disruption in membrane integrity was indicated by 25 to 125% increase in malondialdehyde (lipid peroxidation byproduct), and decreased conjugated diene content (~10 to 41%). The electrolyte leakage suggesting membrane damage increased both under light as well as dark conditions measured over a period from 0 to 30?h. In defense to the oxidative damage due to eugenol, a significant upregulation in the ROS-scavenging antioxidant enzyme machinery was observed. The activities of superoxide dismutases, catalases, ascorbate peroxidases, guaiacol peroxidases and glutathione reductases were elevated by ~1.5 to 2.8, 2 to 4.3, 1.9 to 5.0, 1.4 to 3.9, 2.5 to 5.5 times, respectively, in response to 100 to 1000?µM eugenol. The study concludes that eugenol inhibits early root growth through ROS-mediated oxidative damage, despite an activation of the antioxidant enzyme machinery. PMID:25752432

  12. Chloro-benzoquinones cause oxidative DNA damage through iron-mediated ROS production in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhilan; Zhou, Qiaohong; Zou, Dandan; Tian, Yun; Liu, Biyun; Zhang, Yongyuan; Wu, Zhenbin

    2015-09-01

    Chloro-benzoquinones (CBQs) are a group of disinfection byproducts that are suspected to be potentially carcinogenic. Here, the mechanism of DNA damage caused by CBQs in the presence of ferrous ions was investigated in an Escherichia coli wild type M5 strain and a mutant L5 (ahpCF katEG mutant) strain that carried an enhanced green fluorescent protein reporter under the control of a SOS response gene (recA) promoter. All tested CBQs (including para-benzoquinone, 2-chloro-para-benzoquinone, and dichloro-para-benzoquinones with different substitutes) caused substantial oxidative DNA damage with EC50 values in the micromolar range. Moreover, 2,5-dichloro-para-benzoquinone (2,5-DCBQ), a typical CBQ, caused substantial ROS production in E. coli mutant cells. And ROS scavengers provided partial protective effects on genotoxicity of 2,5-DCBQ to E. coli mutant cells. The addition of Fe(2+) to the 2,5-DCBQ exposure system caused an increase in DNA oxidative damage; iron-chelating agents could partially prevent these cells from DNA damage. Finally, intracellular AhpCF, catalase E, and catalase G were all found to play an important role in the survival of E. coli cells exposed to CBQs, as indicated by an increased sensitivity of the ahpCF katEG mutant L5 strain to treatment compared with wild type M5 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that CBQs cause oxidative DNA damage in E. coli cells through the participation of iron-mediated ROS production. PMID:25996850

  13. ROS and Sympathetically mediated Mitochondria activation in Brown Adipose Tissue contributes to Methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria CeciliaGMarcondes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine abuse has been shown to induce alterations in mitochondrial function in the brain as well as to induce hyperthermia, which contributes to neurotoxicity and Meth-associated mortality. Brown adipose tissue (BAT, a thermogenic site known to be important in neonates, has recently regained importance since being identified in significant amounts and in correlation with metabolic balance in human adults. Given the high mitochondrial content of BAT and its role in thermogenesis, we aimed to investigate whether BAT plays any role in the development of Meth-induced hyperthermia. By ablating or denervating BAT, we identified a partial contribution of this organ to Meth-induced hyperthermia. BAT ablation decreased temperature by 0.5oC and reduced the length of hyperthermia by 1 hr, compared to sham-operated controls. BAT denervation also affected the development of hyperthermia in correlation with decreased the expression of electron transport chain molecules, and increase on PCG1a levels, but without affecting Meth-induced UCP1 upregulation. Furthermore, in isolated BAT cells in culture, Meth, but not Norepinephrine (NE, induced H2O2 upregulation. In addition, we found that in vivo Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS play a role in Meth hyperthermia. Thus, sympathetically- mediated mitochondrial activation in the BAT and Meth-induced ROS are key components to the development of hyperthermia in Meth abuse.

  14. ROS-mediated abiotic stress-induced programmed cell death in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Veselin; Hille, Jacques; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Gechev, Tsanko S

    2015-01-01

    During the course of their ontogenesis plants are continuously exposed to a large variety of abiotic stress factors which can damage tissues and jeopardize the survival of the organism unless properly countered. While animals can simply escape and thus evade stressors, plants as sessile organisms have developed complex strategies to withstand them. When the intensity of a detrimental factor is high, one of the defense programs employed by plants is the induction of programmed cell death (PCD). This is an active, genetically controlled process which is initiated to isolate and remove damaged tissues thereby ensuring the survival of the organism. The mechanism of PCD induction usually includes an increase in the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which are utilized as mediators of the stress signal. Abiotic stress-induced PCD is not only a process of fundamental biological importance, but also of considerable interest to agricultural practice as it has the potential to significantly influence crop yield. Therefore, numerous scientific enterprises have focused on elucidating the mechanisms leading to and controlling PCD in response to adverse conditions in plants. This knowledge may help develop novel strategies to obtain more resilient crop varieties with improved tolerance and enhanced productivity. The aim of the present review is to summarize the recent advances in research on ROS-induced PCD related to abiotic stress and the role of the organelles in the process. PMID:25741354

  15. Evaluation of anticataract potential of Triphala in selenite-induced cataract: In vitro and in vivo studies

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Suresh Kumar; Kalaiselvan, V.; Srivastava, Sushma; Agrawal, Shyam S.; Saxena, Rohit

    2010-01-01

    Triphala (TP) is composed of Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula, and Terminalia belerica. The present study was undertaken to evaluate its anticataract potential in vitro and in vivo in a selenite-induced experimental model of cataract. In vitro enucleated rat lenses were maintained in organ culture containing Dulbecco’s Modified Eagles Medium alone or with the addition of 100?M selenite. These served as the normal and control groups, respectively. In the test group, the medium was su...

  16. Dual-function nanosystem for synergetic cancer chemo-/radiotherapy through ROS-mediated signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lizhen; Lai, Haoqiang; Chen, Tianfeng

    2015-05-01

    Radioresistance and limitation of irradiative dosage usually lead to failure in depletion of hypoxic tumors. Herein we developed multifunctional mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) as a carrier of a novel anticancer selenoamino acid (selenocystine, SeC), to achieve synergistic chemo-/radiotherapy. This multifunctional nanosystem effectively sensitizes cancer cells to X-ray radiotherapy. Conjugation of TAT cell penetrating peptide and transferrin to the surface of MSNs significantly enhances its internalization in cancer cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis. SeC@MSNs-Tf/TAT significantly enhanced X-ray-induced growth inhibition in cervical cancer cells by induction of apoptosis, mainly through death receptor-mediated extrinsic apoptotic pathway. Upon radiation, SeC@MSNs-Tf/TAT promoted intracellular ROS overproduction, which induced apoptotic cell death by affecting p53, AKT and MAPKs pathways. Furthermore, SeC@MSNs-Tf/TAT also significantly inhibited HeLa tumor growth in nude mice model through suppression of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis. In vivo toxicity of the SeC@MSNs-Tf/TAT nanoparticles was investigated using the mouse model. The results of histological analysis revealed that, the nanoparticles did not show any obvious damage to these major organs under the experimental conditions, including heart, liver, spleen, lung and kidney. Taken together, this study demonstrates an effective and safe strategy for cancer-targeted chemo-/radiotherapy of human cancers. PMID:25770995

  17. The mechanism of beta-adrenergic preconditioning: roles for adenosine and ROS during triggering and mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salie, Ruduwaan; Moolman, Johannes A; Lochner, Amanda

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of beta-adrenergic preconditioning (BPC). The roles of adenosine and its receptor subtypes, the generation of oxygen free radicals (ROS) and activation of the K(ATP) channels as well as the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI(3)K)/PKB/Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signal transduction pathways during the triggering and mediation phases were evaluated. Using the isolated working rat heart, BPC was elicited by administration of denopamine (beta1 adrenergic receptor agonist, 10(-7) M), isoproterenol (beta1/beta2 adrenergic receptor agonist, 10(-7) M) or formoterol (beta2 adrenergic receptor agonist, 10(-9) M) for 5 min followed by 5 min washout. Index ischaemia was 35 min regional ischaemia and infarct size determined using the tetrazolium method. The role of adenosine was studied using adenosine deaminase and selective antagonists as well as the PI(3)K and ERK inhibitors, wortmannin and PD98,059, bracketing the triggering and mediating phases. Involvement of ROS, PKC, the mitochondrial K(ATP) channels, release of endogenous opioids and bradykinin was studied by administration of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), bisindolylmaleimide, the K(ATP) channel blocker 5-hydroxydecanoate (5-HD), naloxone or HOE140, respectively. Activation of PKB/Akt and ERKp44/p42 during triggering and reperfusion was determined by Western blot. Preconditioning with all three beta-adrenergic receptor agonists caused a reduction in infarct size and an improvement in postischaemic function. BPC preconditioning with isoproterenol, denopamine or formoterol was abolished by the adenosine A3 receptor antagonist MRS1191 during both the triggering and mediation phases. Isoproterenol-induced preconditioning (beta1/beta2 PC) was attenuated by MRS1754, an adenosine A(2B) receptor antagonist, during the triggering phase and abolished during reperfusion. The mediation phase of beta1/beta2 PC was also abolished by ZM241385, an adenosine A(2A) antagonist. The free radical scavenger NAC caused a significant attenuation of cardioprotection induced by isoproterenol when administered during both trigger and mediation phases, while being effective during the trigger phase with denopamine and during reperfusion in formoterol preconditioned hearts. The mitochondrial K(ATP) channel blocker, 5-HD, was without effect on beta1/beta2 PC during both triggering and mediation phases. BPC in rat hearts is dependent on activation of the A(3) adenosine receptors by endogenously produced adenosine and production of free radicals during the triggering and mediation phases while the A(2A) and A(2B) adenosine receptors participate mainly during reperfusion. The mitochondrial K(ATP) channels do not contribute to cardioprotection at any stage. Activation of ERK and PI3K/PKB/Akt during the triggering and reperfusion phases is associated with cardioprotection. PMID:22797560

  18. Changes in mitochondrial morphology induced by calcium or rotenone in primary astrocytes occur predominantly through ros-mediated remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deheshi, Samineh; Dabiri, Bahram; Fan, Susu; Tsang, Michelle; Rintoul, Gordon L

    2015-06-01

    Morphological changes in mitochondria have been primarily attributed to fission and fusion, while the more pliable transformations of mitochondria (remodeling, rounding, or stretching) have been largely overlooked. In this study, we quantify the contributions of fission and remodeling to changes in mitochondrial morphology induced by the Ca(2+) ionophore 4Br-A23187 and the metabolic toxin rotenone. We also examine the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the regulation of mitochondrial remodeling. In agreement with our previous studies, mitochondrial remodeling, not fission, is the primary contributor to Ca(2+) -mediated changes in mitochondrial morphology induced by 4Br-A23187 in rat cortical astrocytes. Treatment with rotenone produced similar results. In both paradigms, remodeling was selectively blocked by antioxidants whereas fission was not, suggesting a ROS-mediated mechanism for mitochondrial remodeling. In support of this hypothesis, inhibition of endogenous ROS by overnight incubation in antioxidants resulted in elongated reticular networks of mitochondria. Examination of inner and outer mitochondrial membranes revealed that they largely acted in concert during the remodeling process. While mitochondrial morphology is traditionally ascribed to a net output of fission and fusion processes, in this study we provide evidence that the acute pliability of mitochondria can be a dominant factor in determining their morphology. More importantly, our results suggest that the remodeling process is independently regulated through a ROS-signaling mechanism. Mitochondrial morphology is traditionally ascribed to a balance of fission and fusion processes. We have shown that mitochondria can undergo more pliable transformations; remodeling, rounding, or stretching. We demonstrate that remodeling, not fission, is the primary contributor to calcium mediated changes in mitochondrial morphology in primary astrocytes. Others have shown fission is mediated by calcineurin. Our results suggest the remodeling process distinct from fission and is independently regulated through a ROS-signaling mechanism (CsA: Cyclosporine A; NAC: N-acetyl-l-cysteine; GSH: Reduced-L-Glutathione). PMID:25761412

  19. ROS accumulation and IGF-IR inhibition contribute to fenofibrate/PPAR? -mediated inhibition of Glioma cell motility in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del Valle Luis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glioblastomas are characterized by rapid cell growth, aggressive CNS infiltration, and are resistant to all known anticancer regimens. Recent studies indicate that fibrates and statins possess anticancer potential. Fenofibrate is a potent agonist of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPAR? that can switch energy metabolism from glycolysis to fatty acid ?-oxidation, and has low systemic toxicity. Fenofibrate also attenuates IGF-I-mediated cellular responses, which could be relevant in the process of glioblastoma cell dispersal. Methods The effects of fenofibrate on Glioma cell motility, IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR signaling, PPAR? activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS metabolism, mitochondrial potential, and ATP production were analyzed in human glioma cell lines. Results Fenofibrate treatment attenuated IGF-I signaling responses and repressed cell motility of LN-229 and T98G Glioma cell lines. In the absence of fenofibrate, specific inhibition of the IGF-IR had only modest effects on Glioma cell motility. Further experiments revealed that PPAR?-dependent accumulation of ROS is a strong contributing factor in Glioma cell lines responses to fenofibrate. The ROS scavenger, N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC, restored cell motility, improved mitochondrial potential, and increased ATP levels in fenofibrate treated Glioma cell lines. Conclusions Our results indicate that although fenofibrate-mediated inhibition of the IGF-IR may not be sufficient in counteracting Glioma cell dispersal, PPAR?-dependent metabolic switch and the resulting ROS accumulation strongly contribute to the inhibition of these devastating brain tumor cells.

  20. Intrinsic resistance triggered under acid loading within normal esophageal epithelial cells: NHE1- and ROS-mediated survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun Young; Lee, Yeon Joo; Cho, Eun Jeong; Shin, Chang Yell; Sohn, Uy Dong

    2015-07-01

    The transition to a pathological phenotype such as Barrett's esophagus occurs via induction of resistance upon repeated contact with gastric refluxate in esophagus. This study examined the molecular changes within normal esophageal epithelial cells (EECs) under short-term acid loading and the role of these changes in defensive resistance against acidic cytotoxicity. After primary cultured EECs were exposed to pH 4-acidified medium (AM4), cell viability was determined by the MTT assay. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and NAD(P)H oxidase (NOX) activity were measured. Activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) MEK/ERK1/2, p38 and JNK; phosphoinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt, and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) were detected by Western blot analysis or immunofluorescence staining. AM4 incubation induced intracellular ROS generation accompanied by increase in NOX activity, which was further increased by Na(+) /H(+) exchange-1 (NHE1)-dependent inhibition but was prevented by inhibition of NOX or mitochondria complex I. AM4 also induced phosphorylation of MEK/ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, PI3K/Akt, and nuclear translocation of NF-?B, and all these effects, except for p38 MAPK phosphorylation, were abolished by inhibition of ROS. ROS-dependent PI3K/Akt activation, which mediates NF-?B nuclear translocation, was inhibited by protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitors and NHE1-specific inhibitor. All inhibitors of NHE, ROS, PTK, PI3K, or NF-?B further decreased AM4-induced cell viability. Acid loading in the presence of NHE1-dependent protection induced ROS generation by activating NOX and mitochondria complex I, which stimulated PTK/PI3K/Akt/NF-?B-dependent survival in EEC. Our data indicate that normal EEC initially respond to acid loading through intrinsic survival activation. J. Cell. Physiol. 230: 1503-1514, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company. PMID:25522216

  1. LKB1 reduces ROS-mediated cell damage via activation of p38.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H-G; Zhai, Y-X; Chen, J; Lu, Y; Wang, J-W; Quan, C-S; Zhao, R-X; Xiao, X; He, Q; Werle, K D; Kim, H-G; Lopez, R; Cui, R; Liang, J; Li, Y-L; Xu, Z-X

    2015-07-01

    Liver kinase B1 (LKB1, also known as serine/threonine kinase 11, STK11) is a tumor suppressor mutated in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome and in a variety of sporadic cancers. Herein, we demonstrate that LKB1 controls the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and protects the genome from oxidative damage. Cells lacking LKB1 exhibit markedly increased intracellular ROS levels, excessive oxidation of DNA, increased mutation rates and accumulation of DNA damage, which are effectively prevented by ectopic expression of LKB1 and by incubation with antioxidant N-acetylcysteine. The role of LKB1 in suppressing ROS is independent of AMP-activated protein kinase, a canonical substrate of LKB1. Instead, under the elevated ROS, LKB1 binds to and maintains the activity of the cdc42-PAK1 (p21-activated kinase 1) complex, which triggers the activation of p38 and its downstream signaling targets, such as ATF-2, thereby enhancing the activity of superoxide dismutase-2 and catalase, two antioxidant enzymes that protect the cells from ROS accumulation, DNA damage and loss of viability. Our results provide a new paradigm for a non-canonical tumor suppressor function of LKB1 and highlight the importance of targeting ROS signaling as a potential therapeutic strategy for cancer cells lacking LKB1. PMID:25263448

  2. Estrogen-induced DNA synthesis in vascular endothelial cells is mediated by ROS signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felty Quentin

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since estrogen is known to increase vascular endothelial cell growth, elevated estrogen exposure from hormone replacement therapy or oral contraceptives has the potential to contribute in the development of abnormal proliferative vascular lesions and subsequent thickening of the vasculature. How estrogen may support or promote vascular lesions is not clear. We have examined in this study whether estrogen exposure to vascular endothelial cells increase the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, and estrogen-induced ROS is involved in the growth of endothelial cells. Methods The effect of estrogen on the production of intracellular oxidants and the role of estrogen-induced ROS on cell growth was studied in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. ROS were measured by monitoring the oxidation of 2'7'-dichlorofluorescin by spectrofluorometry. Endothelial cell growth was measured by a colorimetric immunoassay based on BrdU incorporation into DNA. Results Physiological concentrations of estrogen (367 fmol and 3.67 pmol triggered a rapid 2-fold increase in intracellular oxidants in endothelial cells. E2-induced ROS formation was inhibited to basal levels by cotreatment with the mitochondrial inhibitor rotenone (2 ?M and xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol (50 ?M. Inhibitors of NAD(PH oxidase, apocynin and DPI, did not block E2-induced ROS formation. Furthermore, the NOS inhibitor, L-NAME, did not prevent the increase in E2-induced ROS. These findings indicate both mitochondria and xanthine oxidase are the source of ROS in estrogen treated vascular endothelial cells. E2 treated cells showed a 2-fold induction of BrdU incorporation at 18 h which was not observed in cells exposed to vehicle alone. Cotreatment with ebselen (20 ?M and NAC (1 mM inhibited E2-induced BrdU incorporation without affecting the basal levels of DNA synthesis. The observed inhibitory effect of NAC and ebselen on E2-induced DNA synthesis was also shown to be dose dependent. Conclusion We have shown that estrogen exposure stimulates the rapid production of intracellular ROS and they are involved in growth signaling of endothelial cells. It appears that the early estrogen signaling does not require estrogen receptor genomic signaling because we can inhibit estrogen-induced DNA synthesis by antioxidants. Findings of this study may further expand research defining the underlying mechanism of how estrogen may promote vascular lesions. It also provides important information for the design of new antioxidant-based drugs or new antioxidant gene therapy to protect the cardiovascular health of individuals sensitive to estrogen.

  3. ROS-Mediated Cytotoxic Effect of Copper(II Hydrazone Complexes against Human Glioma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel A. Recio Despaigne

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available 2-Acetylpyridine acetylhydrazone (H2AcMe, 2-benzoylpyridine acetylhydrazone (H2BzMe and complexes [Cu(H2AcMeCl2] (1 and [Cu(H2BzMeCl2] (2 were assayed for their cytotoxicity against wild type p53 U87 and mutant p53 T98 glioma cells, and against MRC-5 fibroblast cells. Compounds 1 and 2 proved to be more active than the corresponding hydrazones against U87, but not against T98 cells. Compound 1 induced higher levels of ROS than H2AcMe in both glioma cell lines. H2AcMe and 1 induced lower levels of ROS in MRC5 than in U87 cells. Compound 2 induced lower levels of ROS in MRC5 than in T98 cells. The cytotoxic effect of 1 in U87 cells could be related to its ability to provoke the release of ROS, suggesting that the cytotoxicity of 1 might be somehow p53 dependent.

  4. HIF-1-mediated metabolic reprogramming reduces ROS levels and facilitates the metastatic colonization of cancers in lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tao; Zhu, Yuxi; Morinibu, Akiyo; Kobayashi, Minoru; Shinomiya, Kazumi; Itasaka, Satoshi; Yoshimura, Michio; Guo, Guozheng; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Harada, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) has been associated with distant tumor metastasis; however, its function in multiple metastatic processes has not yet been fully elucidated. In the present study, we demonstrated that cancer cells transiently upregulated HIF-1 activity during their metastatic colonization after extravasation in the lungs in hypoxia-independent and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent manners. Transient activation induced the expression of lactate dehydrogenase A and phosphorylation of the E1? subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase, which indicated the reprogramming of glucose metabolic pathways from mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation to anaerobic glycolysis and lactic acid fermentation. The administration of the HIF-1 inhibitor, YC-1, inhibited this reprogramming, increased intratumoral ROS levels, and eventually suppressed the formation of metastatic lung tumors. These results indicate that HIF-1-mediated metabolic reprogramming is responsible for the survival of metastatic cancers during their colonization in lungs by reducing cytotoxic ROS levels; therefore, its blockade by HIF-1-inhibitors is a rational strategy to prevent tumor metastasis. PMID:24452734

  5. Nickel (II)-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in human proximal tubule cells through a ROS- and mitochondria-mediated pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickel compounds are known to be toxic and carcinogenic in kidney and lung. In this present study, we investigated the roles of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondria in nickel (II) acetate-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in the HK-2 human renal cell line. The results showed that the cytotoxic effects of nickel (II) involved significant cell death and DNA damage. Nickel (II) increased the generation of ROS and induced a noticeable reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Analysis of the sub-G1 phase showed a significant increase in apoptosis in HK-2 cells after nickel (II) treatment. Pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) not only inhibited nickel (II)-induced cell death and DNA damage, but also significantly prevented nickel (II)-induced loss of MMP and apoptosis. Cell apoptosis triggered by nickel (II) was characterized by the reduced protein expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL and the induced the protein expression of Bad, Bcl-Xs, Bax, cytochrome c and caspases 9, 3 and 6. The regulation of the expression of Bcl-2-family proteins, the release of cytochrome c and the activation of caspases 9, 3 and 6 were inhibited in the presence of NAC. These results suggest that nickel (II) induces cytotoxicity and apoptosis in HK-2 cells via ROS generation and that the mitochondria-mediated apoptotic signaling pathway may be involved in the positive regulation of nickel (II)-induced renal cytotoxicity.

  6. ROS introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Weißhardt, Florian

    2014-01-01

    The open source "Robot Operating System" ROS offers highly developed robotics software components which can be used in flexible industrial applications. This introduction to ROS gives an overview about the capabillities and tools provided by ROS.

  7. Evaluation of anticataract potential of Triphala in selenite-induced cataract: In vitro and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Suresh Kumar; Kalaiselvan, V; Srivastava, Sushma; Agrawal, Shyam S; Saxena, Rohit

    2010-10-01

    Triphala (TP) is composed of Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula, and Terminalia belerica. The present study was undertaken to evaluate its anticataract potential in vitro and in vivo in a selenite-induced experimental model of cataract. In vitro enucleated rat lenses were maintained in organ culture containing Dulbecco's Modified Eagles Medium alone or with the addition of 100?M selenite. These served as the normal and control groups, respectively. In the test group, the medium was supplemented with selenite and different concentrations of TP aqueous extract. The lenses were incubated for 24 h at 37°C. After incubation, the lenses were processed to estimate reduced glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation product, and antioxidant enzymes. In vivo selenite cataract was induced in 9-day-old rat pups by subcutaneous injection of sodium selenite (25 ?mole/kg body weight). The test groups received 25, 50, and 75 mg/kg of TP intraperitoneally 4 h before the selenite challenge. At the end of the study period, the rats' eyes were examined by slit-lamp. TP significantly (P < 0.01) restored GSH and decreased malondialdehyde levels. A significant restoration in the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (P < 0.05), catalase (P < 0.05), glutathione peroxidase (P < 0.05), and glutathione-s-transferase (P < 0.005) was observed in the TP-supplemented group compared to controls. In vivo TF 25mg/kg developed only 20% nuclear cataract as compared to 100% in control. TP prevents or retards experimental selenite-induced cataract. This effect may be due to antioxidant activity. Further studies are warranted to explore its role in human cataract. PMID:21731375

  8. Patulin Induces Apoptosis through ROS-Mediated Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussabbeh, Manel; Ben Salem, Intidhar; Prola, Alexandre; Guilbert, Arnaud; Bacha, Hassen; Abid-Essefi, Salwa; Lemaire, Christophe

    2015-04-01

    Patulin (PAT) is a toxic metabolite produced by several filamentous fungi of the genera of Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Byssochlamys. PAT is the most common mycotoxin found in apples and apple-based products including juice, compotes, cider, and baby food. Exposure to this mycotoxin has been reported to induce intestinal and kidney injuries. This study investigated the mechanism of PAT-induced toxicity in human colon carcinoma (HCT116) and embryonic kidney cells (HEK293). We demonstrated that PAT activated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and unfolded protein response as evidenced by up-regulation of GRP78 and GADD34, splicing of XBP1 mRNA, and expression of the proapoptotic factor CHOP. This ER stress response was accompanied by the induction of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Apoptosis occurred with ROS production, drop in mitochondrial membrane potential and caspase activation. Further, we showed that deficiency of the proapoptotic protein Bax or Bak protected cells against PAT-induced apoptosis. The treatment of cells with the ROS scavenger N-acetyl cysteine inhibits the ER stress response and prevents mitochondrial apoptosis. Collectively, our data provide new mechanistic insights in the signaling pathways of the cell death induced by PAT and demonstrate that PAT induces cytotoxicity through a ROS-dependent mechanism involving ER stress and activation of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in human intestinal and kidney cells. PMID:25577197

  9. SAH-induced MMP activation and K V current suppression is mediated via both ROS-dependent and ROS-independent mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koide, Masayo; Wellman, George C

    2015-01-01

    Voltage-gated potassium (K V) channels regulate cerebral artery tone and have been implicated in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)-induced pathologies. Here, we examined whether matrix metalloprotease (MMP) activation contributes to SAH-induced K V current suppression and cerebral artery constriction via activation of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs). Using patch clamp electrophysiology, we observed that K V currents were selectively decreased in cerebral artery myocytes isolated from SAH model rabbits. Consistent with involvement of enhanced MMP and EGFR activity in SAH-induced K V current suppression, we found that: (1) oxyhemoglobin (OxyHb) and/or the exogenous EGFR ligand, heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF), failed to induce further K V current suppression after SAH and (2) gelatin zymography detected significantly higher MMP-2 activity after SAH. The removal of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by combined treatment with superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase partially inhibited OxyHb-induced K V current suppression. However, these agents had little effect on OxyHb-induced MMP-2 activation. Interestingly, in the presence of a broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor (GM6001), OxyHb failed to cause K V current suppression. These data suggest that OxyHb suppresses K V currents through both ROS-dependent and ROS-independent pathways involving MMP activation. The ROS-independent pathway involves activation of MMP-2, whereas the ROS-dependent pathway involves activation of a second unidentified MMP or ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease domain). PMID:25366605

  10. Artesunate Induces ROS-Mediated Apoptosis in Doxorubicin-Resistant T Leukemia Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efferth, Thomas; Giaisi, Marco; Merling, Annette; Krammer, Peter H.; Li-Weber, Min

    2007-01-01

    Background A major obstacle for successful cancer treatment often is the development of drug resistance in cancer cells during chemotherapy. Therefore, there is an urgent need for novel drugs with improved efficacy against tumor cells and with less toxicity on normal cells. Artesunate (ART), a powerful anti-malarial herbal compound, has been shown to inhibit growth of various tumor cell lines in vitro and of xenografted Kaposi's sarcoma in mice in vivo. However, the molecular mechanisms by which ART exerts its cytotoxicity have not been elucidated. The ART-class of anti-malarial compounds is attractive due to their activity against multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax strains. Another salient feature of these compounds is the lack of severe side effects in malaria patients. Methodology and Principal Findings In this study, we used T-cell leukemias as a model system to study the molecular mechanisms of ART-induced apoptosis. The most typical anticancer drugs are DNA intercalators such as Doxorubicin. To investigate drug sensitivity and resistance, we chose a Doxorubicin-resistant leukemia cell line and investigated the killing effect of ART on these cells. We show that ART induces apoptosis in leukemic T cells mainly through the mitochondrial pathway via generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), a mechanism different from Doxorubicin. This is confirmed by the fact that the antioxidant N-Acetyle-Cysteine (NAC) could completely block ROS generation and, consequently, inhibited ART-induced apoptosis. Therefore, ART can overcome the Doxorubicin-resistance and induce the Doxorubicin-resistant leukemia cells to undergo apoptosis. We also show that ART can synergize with Doxorubicin to enhance apoptotic cell death in leukemic T cells. This synergistic effect can be largely explained by the fact that ART and Doxorubicin use different killing mechanisms. Conclusions Our studies raise the possibility to develop ART in combination with other established anticancer drugs which induce apoptosis through the pathways or mechanisms different from ART. PMID:17668070

  11. Coenzyme Q10 protects astrocytes from ROS-induced damage through inhibition of mitochondria-mediated cell death pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Li; He, Mao-Tao; Chang, Yue; Mehta, Suresh L; He, Qing-Ping; Zhang, Jian-Zhong; Li, P Andy

    2015-01-01

    Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) acts by scavenging reactive oxygen species to protect neuronal cells against oxidative stress in neurodegenerative diseases. The present study was designed to examine whether CoQ10 was capable of protecting astrocytes from reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated damage. For this purpose, ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation was used as a tool to induce ROS stress to cultured astrocytes. The cells were treated with 10 and 25 ?g/ml of CoQ10 for 3 or 24 h prior to the cells being exposed to UVB irradiation and maintained for 24 h post UVB exposure. Cell viability was assessed by MTT conversion assay. Mitochondrial respiration was assessed by respirometer. While superoxide production and mitochondrial membrane potential were measured using fluorescent probes, levels of cytochrome C (cyto-c), cleaved caspase-9, and caspase-8 were detected using Western blotting and/or immunocytochemistry. The results showed that UVB irradiation decreased cell viability and this damaging effect was associated with superoxide accumulation, mitochondrial membrane potential hyperpolarization, mitochondrial respiration suppression, cyto-c release, and the activation of both caspase-9 and -8. Treatment with CoQ10 at two different concentrations started 24 h before UVB exposure significantly increased the cell viability. The protective effect of CoQ10 was associated with reduction in superoxide, normalization of mitochondrial membrane potential, improvement of mitochondrial respiration, inhibition of cyto-c release, suppression of caspase-9. Furthermore, CoQ10 enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis. It is concluded that CoQ10 may protect astrocytes through suppression of oxidative stress, prevention of mitochondrial dysfunction, blockade of mitochondria-mediated cell death pathway, and enhancement of mitochondrial biogenesis. PMID:25552930

  12. Sodium fluoride induces apoptosis in mouse embryonic stem cells through ROS-dependent and caspase- and JNK-mediated pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium fluoride (NaF) is used as a source of fluoride ions in diverse applications. Fluoride salt is an effective prophylactic for dental caries and is an essential element required for bone health. However, fluoride is known to cause cytotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner. Further, no information is available on the effects of NaF on mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). We investigated the mode of cell death induced by NaF and the mechanisms involved. NaF treatment greater than 1 mM reduced viability and DNA synthesis in mESCs and induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase. The addition of NaF induced cell death mainly by apoptosis rather than necrosis. Catalase (CAT) treatment significantly inhibited the NaF-mediated cell death and also suppressed the NaF-mediated increase in phospho-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK) levels. Pre-treatment with SP600125 or z-VAD-fmk significantly attenuated the NaF-mediated reduction in cell viability. In contrast, intracellular free calcium chelator, but not of sodium or calcium ion channel blockers, facilitated NaF-induced toxicity in the cells. A JNK specific inhibitor (SP600125) prevented the NaF-induced increase in growth arrest and the DNA damage-inducible protein 45?. Further, NaF-mediated loss of mitochondrial membrane potential was apparently inhibited by pifithrin-? or CAT inhibitor. These findings suggest that NaF affects viability of mESCs in a concentration-dependent manner, where more than 1 mM NaF causes apoptosis through hydroxyl radical-dependent and caspase- and JNK-mediated pathways. -- Highlights: ? The mode of NaF-induced cell death and the mechanisms involved were examined. ? NaF induced mainly apoptotic death of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). ? NaF induced mitochondrial-mediated and caspase-dependent apoptosis. ? JNK- and p53-mediated pathways are involved in NaF-mediated apoptosis in the cells. ? ROS are the up-stream effector in NaF-mediated activation of JNK and p53 in mESCs.

  13. Sodium fluoride induces apoptosis in mouse embryonic stem cells through ROS-dependent and caspase- and JNK-mediated pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen Ngoc, Tam Dan [Institute of Oral Biosciences and School of Dentistry (BK21 Program), Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Son, Young-Ok [Graduate Center for Toxicology, School of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0305 (United States); Lim, Shin-Saeng [Institute of Oral Biosciences and School of Dentistry (BK21 Program), Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Bioactive Material Sciences and Research Center of Bioactive Materials, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Shi, Xianglin [Graduate Center for Toxicology, School of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0305 (United States); Kim, Jong-Ghee [Institute of Oral Biosciences and School of Dentistry (BK21 Program), Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Jung Sun [Department of Maxillofacial Biomedical Engineering and Institute of Oral Biology, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Youngji [Institute of Oral Biosciences and School of Dentistry (BK21 Program), Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Young-Mi, E-mail: young@jbnu.ac.kr [Institute of Oral Biosciences and School of Dentistry (BK21 Program), Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong-Chae, E-mail: leejc88@jbnu.ac.kr [Institute of Oral Biosciences and School of Dentistry (BK21 Program), Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Graduate Center for Toxicology, School of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0305 (United States); Department of Bioactive Material Sciences and Research Center of Bioactive Materials, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Sodium fluoride (NaF) is used as a source of fluoride ions in diverse applications. Fluoride salt is an effective prophylactic for dental caries and is an essential element required for bone health. However, fluoride is known to cause cytotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner. Further, no information is available on the effects of NaF on mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). We investigated the mode of cell death induced by NaF and the mechanisms involved. NaF treatment greater than 1 mM reduced viability and DNA synthesis in mESCs and induced cell cycle arrest in the G{sub 2}/M phase. The addition of NaF induced cell death mainly by apoptosis rather than necrosis. Catalase (CAT) treatment significantly inhibited the NaF-mediated cell death and also suppressed the NaF-mediated increase in phospho-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK) levels. Pre-treatment with SP600125 or z-VAD-fmk significantly attenuated the NaF-mediated reduction in cell viability. In contrast, intracellular free calcium chelator, but not of sodium or calcium ion channel blockers, facilitated NaF-induced toxicity in the cells. A JNK specific inhibitor (SP600125) prevented the NaF-induced increase in growth arrest and the DNA damage-inducible protein 45?. Further, NaF-mediated loss of mitochondrial membrane potential was apparently inhibited by pifithrin-? or CAT inhibitor. These findings suggest that NaF affects viability of mESCs in a concentration-dependent manner, where more than 1 mM NaF causes apoptosis through hydroxyl radical-dependent and caspase- and JNK-mediated pathways. -- Highlights: ? The mode of NaF-induced cell death and the mechanisms involved were examined. ? NaF induced mainly apoptotic death of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). ? NaF induced mitochondrial-mediated and caspase-dependent apoptosis. ? JNK- and p53-mediated pathways are involved in NaF-mediated apoptosis in the cells. ? ROS are the up-stream effector in NaF-mediated activation of JNK and p53 in mESCs.

  14. NADPH Oxidase-2 Derived ROS Dictates Murine DC Cytokine-Mediated Cell Fate Decisions during CD4 T Helper-Cell Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Adam; Zhu, Nannan; Zhao, Yongge; Koontz, Sherry M.; Jackson, Sharon H.

    2011-01-01

    NADPH oxidase-2 (Nox2)/gp91phox and p47phox deficient mice are prone to hyper-inflammatory responses suggesting a paradoxical role for Nox2-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) as anti-inflammatory mediators. The molecular basis for this mode of control remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that IFN?/LPS matured p47phox?/?-ROS deficient mouse dendritic cells (DC) secrete more IL-12p70 than similarly treated wild type DC, and in an in vitro co-culture model IFN?/LPS matured p47phox?/? DC bias more ovalbumin-specific CD4+ T lymphocytes toward a Th1 phenotype than wild type (WT) DC through a ROS-dependent mechanism linking IL-12p70 expression to regulation of p38-MAPK activation. The Nox2-dependent ROS production in DC negatively regulates proinflammatory IL-12 expression in DC by constraining p38-MAPK activity. Increasing endogenous H2O2 attenuates p38-MAPK activity in IFN?/LPS stimulated WT and p47phox?/? DC, which suggests that endogenous Nox 2-derived ROS functions as a secondary messenger in the activated p38-MAPK signaling pathway during IL-12 expression. These findings indicate that ROS, generated endogenously by innate and adaptive immune cells, can function as important secondary messengers that can regulate cytokine production and immune cell cross-talk to control during the inflammatory response. PMID:22145029

  15. NADPH Oxidase-2 Derived ROS Dictates Murine DC Cytokine-Mediated Cell Fate Decisions during CD4 T Helper-Cell Commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Jendrysik, Meghan A.; Vasilevsky, Sam; Yi, Liang; Wood, Adam; Zhu, Nannan; Zhao, Yongge; Koontz, Sherry M.; Jackson, Sharon H.

    2011-01-01

    NADPH oxidase-2 (Nox2)/gp91phox and p47phox deficient mice are prone to hyper-inflammatory responses suggesting a paradoxical role for Nox2-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) as anti-inflammatory mediators. The molecular basis for this mode of control remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that IFN?/LPS matured p47phox?/?-ROS deficient mouse dendritic cells (DC) secrete more IL-12p70 than similarly treated wild type DC, and in an in vitro co-culture model IFN?/LPS matured p47phox?/?...

  16. FV-429 Induced Apoptosis Through ROS-Mediated ERK2 Nuclear Translocation and p53 Activation in Gastric Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuxin; Wei, Libin; Zhang, Haiwei; Dai, Qinsheng; Li, Zhiyu; Yu, Boyang; Guo, Qinglong; Lu, Na

    2015-08-01

    Following our previous finding which revealed that FV-429 induces apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells, in this study, we found that FV-429 could also induce apoptosis in human gastric cancer cells. Firstly, FV-429 inhibited the viability of BGC-823 and MGC-803 cells with IC50 values in the range of 38.10?±?6.28 and 31.53?±?6.84?µM for 24?h treatment by MTT-assay. Secondly, FV-429 induced apoptosis in BGC-823 and MGC-803 cells through the mitochondrial-mediated pathway, showing an increase in Bax/Bcl-2 ratios, and caspase-9 activation, without change in caspase-8. Further research revealed that the mitogen-activated protein kinases, including c-Jun N-terminal kinase, extracellular regulated kinase, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, could be activated by FV-429-induced high level ROS. Moreover, FV-429 also promoted the ERK2 nuclear translocation, resulting in the co-translocation of p53 to the nucleus and increased transcription of p53-regulated proapoptotic genes. FV-429 significantly inhibited the nude mice xenograft tumors growth of BGC-823 or MGC-803 cells in vivo. J. Cell. Biochem. 116: 1624-1637, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25650185

  17. PKD is a kinase of Vps34 that mediates ROS-induced autophagy downstream of DAPk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg-Lerner, A; Kimchi, A

    2012-05-01

    Autophagy, a process in which cellular components are engulfed and degraded within double-membrane vesicles termed autophagosomes, has an important role in the response to oxidative damage. Here we identify a novel cascade of phosphorylation events, involving a network of protein and lipid kinases, as crucial components of the signaling pathways that regulate the induction of autophagy under oxidative stress. Our findings show that both the tumor-suppressor death-associated protein kinase (DAPk) and protein kinase D (PKD), which we previously showed to be phosphorylated and consequently activated by DAPk, mediate the induction of autophagy in response to oxidative damage. Furthermore, we map the position of PKD within the autophagic network to Vps34, a lipid kinase whose function is indispensable for autophagy, and demonstrate that PKD is found in the same molecular complex with Vps34. PKD phosphorylates Vps34, leading to activation of Vps34, phosphatydilinositol-3-phosphate (PI(3)P) formation, and autophagosome formation. Consistent with its identification as a novel inducer of the autophagic machinery, we show that PKD is recruited to LC3-positive autophagosomes, where it localizes specifically to the autophagosomal membranes. Taken together, our results describe PKD as a novel Vps34 kinase that functions as an effecter of autophagy under oxidative stress. PMID:22095288

  18. Optogenetic control of ROS production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P. Wojtovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS are known to cause oxidative damage to DNA, proteins and lipids. In addition, recent evidence suggests that ROS can also initiate signaling cascades that respond to stress and modify specific redox-sensitive moieties as a regulatory mechanism. This suggests that ROS are physiologically-relevant signaling molecules. However, these sensor/effector molecules are not uniformly distributed throughout the cell. Moreover, localized ROS damage may elicit site-specific compensatory measures. Thus, the impact of ROS can be likened to that of calcium, a ubiquitous second messenger, leading to the prediction that their effects are exquisitely dependent upon their location, quantity and even the timing of generation. Despite this prediction, ROS signaling is most commonly intuited through the global administration of chemicals that produce ROS or by ROS quenching through global application of antioxidants. Optogenetics, which uses light to control the activity of genetically-encoded effector proteins, provides a means of circumventing this limitation. Photo-inducible genetically-encoded ROS-generating proteins (RGPs were originally employed for their phototoxic effects and cell ablation. However, reducing irradiance and/or fluence can achieve sub-lethal levels of ROS that may mediate subtle signaling effects. Hence, transgenic expression of RGPs as fusions to native proteins gives researchers a new tool to exert spatial and temporal control over ROS production. This review will focus on the new frontier defined by the experimental use of RGPs to study ROS signaling.

  19. Curcumin Induced Human Gastric Cancer BGC-823 Cells Apoptosis by ROS-Mediated ASK1-MKK4-JNK Stress Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The signaling mediated by stress-activated MAP kinases (MAPK, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK has well-established importance in cancer. In the present report, we investigated the effects of curcumin on the signaling pathway in human gastric cancer BGC-823 cells. Curcumin induced reactive oxygen species (ROS production and BGC-823 cells apoptosis. Inhibition of ROS generation by antioxidant (NAC or Trion significantly prevented curcumin-mediated apoptosis. Notably, we observed that curcumin activated ASK1, a MAPKKK that is oxidative stress sensitive and responsible to phosphorylation of JNK via triggering cascades, up-regulated an upstream effector of the JNK, MKK4, and phosphorylated JNK protein expression in BGC-823 cells. However, curcumin induced ASK1-MKK4-JNK signaling was attenuated by NAC. All the findings confirm the possibility that oxidative stress-activated ASK1-MKK4-JNK signaling cascade promotes the apoptotic response in curcumin-treated BGC-823 cells.

  20. Resistance to ROS1 Inhibition Mediated by EGFR Pathway Activation in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Kurtis D.; Mahale, Sakshi; Astling, David P.; Aisner, Dara L.; Le, Anh T.; Hinz, Trista K.; Vaishnavi, Aria; Bunn, Paul A.; Heasley, Lynn E.; Tan, Aik-choon; Camidge, D. Ross; Varella-garcia, Marileila; Doebele, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    The targeting of oncogenic ‘driver’ kinases with small molecule inhibitors has proven to be a highly effective therapeutic strategy in selected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. However, acquired resistance to targeted therapies invariably arises and is a major limitation to patient care. ROS1 fusion proteins are a recently described class of oncogenic driver, and NSCLC patients that express these fusions generally respond well to ROS1-targeted therapy. In this study, we sought...

  1. The T helper type 2 response to cysteine proteases requires dendritic cell–basophil cooperation via ROS-mediated signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Hua; Cao, Weiping; Kasturi, Sudhir Pai; Ravindran, Rajesh; Nakaya, Helder I.; Kundu, Kousik; Murthy, Niren; Kepler, Thomas B.; Malissen, Bernard; Pulendran, Bali

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms that initiate T helper type 2 (TH2) responses are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that cysteine protease–induced TH2 responses occur via ‘cooperation’ between migratory dermal dendritic cells (DCs) and basophils positive for interleukin 4 (IL-4). Subcutaneous immunization with papain plus antigen induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) in lymph node DCs and in dermal DCs and epithelial cells of the skin. ROS orchestrated TH2 responses by inducing oxidized lipids that...

  2. Upconversion nanoparticle-mediated photodynamic therapy induces THP-1 macrophage apoptosis via ROS bursts and activation of the mitochondrial caspase pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xing; Wang, Hao; Zheng, Longbin; Zhong, Zhaoyu; Li, Xuesong; Zhao, Jing; Kou, Jiayuan; Jiang, Yueqing; Zheng, Xiufeng; Liu, Zhongni; Li, Hongxia; Cao, Wenwu; Tian, Ye; Wang, You; Yang, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis (AS) is the most vital cardiovascular disease, which poses a great threat to human health. Macrophages play an important role in the progression of AS. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has emerged as a useful therapeutic modality not only in the treatment of cancer but also in the treatment of AS. The purpose of this study was to determine the molecular mechanisms underlying the activity of PDT, using mesoporous-silica-coated upconversion fluorescent nanoparticles encapsulating chlorin e6 (UCNPs-Ce6) in the induction of apoptosis in THP-1 macrophages. Here, we investigated the ability of UCNPs-Ce6-mediated PDT to induce THP-1 macrophage apoptosis by facilitating the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and regulation of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) to depolarize mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Both Bax translocation and the release of cytochrome C were examined using immunofluorescence and Western blotting. Our results indicated that the levels of ROS were significantly increased in the PDT group, resulting in both MPTP opening and MMP depolarization, which led to apoptosis. In addition, immunofluorescence and Western blotting revealed that PDT induced both Bax translocation and the release of cytochrome C, as well as upregulation of cleaved caspase-9, cleaved caspase-3, and cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Therefore, we demonstrated that UCNPs-Ce6-mediated PDT induces apoptosis in THP-1 macrophages via ROS bursts. The proapoptotic factor Bax subsequently translocates from the cytosol to the mitochondria, resulting in the MPTP opening and cytochrome C release. This study demonstrated the great potential of UCNPs-Ce6-mediated PDT in the treatment of AS. PMID:26045663

  3. Polypeptide Fraction from Arca subcrenata Induces Apoptosis and G2/M Phase Arrest in HeLa Cells via ROS-Mediated MAPKs Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xianjing; Zhang, Zhang; Liu, Ting; Song, Liyan; Zhu, Jianhua; Guo, Zhongyi; Cai, Jinghua; Yu, Rongmin

    2015-01-01

    Arca subcrenata is documented in the literature of marine Traditional Chinese Medicine. Polypeptide fraction from A. subcrenata, coded as P2, was demonstrated to possess significant antitumor activity in our previous study. However, the underlying mechanism remains undefined. The present study was carried out to investigate the underlying antitumor mechanism of P2 in human cervical cancer HeLa cells by MTT, FCM, LSCM, and western blot assays. The results revealed that P2 significantly induced apoptosis of HeLa cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. High level of ROS was provoked by P2, which was in turn responsible for induction of apoptosis through activation of intrinsic mitochondrial pathway and JNK1/2, p38 MAPK pathways, as well as inhibition of ERK1/2 pathway, as evidenced by the abrogation of P2's effect on HeLa cells preincubated with the ROS scavenger NAC. P2 also was observed to display significant effect on G2/M phase arrest by downregulating the expression of cyclin B1/cdc2 complex and upregulating the expression of p21. These findings demonstrate that P2 induces apoptosis and G2/M phase arrest in HeLa cells through ROS-mediated MAPKs pathways, suggesting that P2 would be worth investigating as a promising agent within the scope of marine drugs for treatment of cervical cancer.

  4. Targeted anti-colon cancer activities of a millet bran-derived peroxidase were mediated by elevated ROS generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Shuhua; Shi, Jiangying; Li, Zhen; Gao, Huixian; Shi, Tonglin; Li, Zongwei; Li, Zhuoyu

    2015-07-01

    Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) is the sixth most important cereal in the world. In particular, the millet-derived active components play important roles in disease prevention. In this study, we found that a peroxidase from foxtail millet bran, named FMBP, displayed profound inhibitory effects on the growth of human colon cancer cells, but not on that of the normal colon epithelial cells. Mechanistic investigations suggested that the selective anti-cancer effects of FMBP were mainly achieved by inducing more accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in colon cancer cells than normal cells. The preferential ROS accumulation in cancer cells by FMBP appears to be partially attributed to the down-regulation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) expression, and the reduction of catalase activities and glutathione contents. The increased ROS accumulation is speculated to block the STAT3 signaling pathway, which results in the anti-proliferative effects on colon cancer cells. Therefore, these results suggest that the millet bran-derived peroxidase has a therapeutic potential in the management of colon cancer. PMID:26075747

  5. TRPV1 mediates cell death in rat synovial fibroblasts through calcium entry-dependent ROS production and mitochondrial depolarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synoviocyte hyperplasia is critical for rheumatoid arthritis, therefore, potentially an important target for therapeutics. It was found in this work that a TRPV1 agonist capsaicin, and acidic solution (pH 5.5) induced increases in cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]c) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in synoviocytes isolated from a rat model of collagen-induced arthritis. The increases in both [Ca2+]c and ROS production were completely abolished in calcium-free buffer or by a TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine. Further experiments revealed that capsaicin and pH 5.5 solution caused mitochondrial membrane depolarization and reduction in cell viability; such effects were inhibited by capsazepine, or the NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodonium. Both capsaicin and pH 5.5 buffer induced apoptosis as shown by nuclear condensation and fragmentation. Furthermore, RT-PCR readily detected TRPV1 mRNA expression in the isolated synoviocytes. Taken together, these data indicated that TRPV1 activation triggered synoviocyte death by [Ca2+]c elevation, ROS production, and mitochondrial membrane depolarization

  6. ROS-mediated iron overload injures the hematopoiesis of bone marrow by damaging hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Xiao; Li, Deguan; Cao, Xiaoli; Zhang, Yuchen; Mu, Juan; Lu, Wenyi; Xiao, Xia; Li, Chengcheng; Meng, Juanxia; Chen, Jie; Li, Qing; Wang, Jishi; Meng, Aimin; Zhao, Mingfeng

    2015-01-01

    Iron overload, caused by hereditary hemochromatosis or repeated blood transfusions in some diseases, such as beta thalassemia, bone marrow failure and myelodysplastic syndrome, can significantly induce injured bone marrow (BM) function as well as parenchyma organ dysfunctions. However, the effect of iron overload and its mechanism remain elusive. In this study, we investigated the effects of iron overload on the hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) from a mouse model. Our results showed that iron overload markedly decreased the ratio and clonogenic function of murine HSPCs by the elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This finding is supported by the results of NAC or DFX treatment, which reduced ROS level by inhibiting NOX4 and p38MAPK and improved the long-term and multi-lineage engrafment of iron overload HSCs after transplantation. Therefore, all of these data demonstrate that iron overload injures the hematopoiesis of BM by enhancing ROS through NOX4 and p38MAPK. This will be helpful for the treatment of iron overload in patients with hematopoietic dysfunction. PMID:25970748

  7. Blockage of ROS and NF-?B-mediated inflammation by a new chalcone L6H9 protects cardiomyocytes from hyperglycemia-induced injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Peng; Wu, Lianpin; Qian, Yuanyuan; Fang, Qilu; Liang, Dandan; Wang, Jingying; Zeng, Chunlai; Wang, Yi; Liang, Guang

    2015-07-01

    Increased oxidative stress and cardiac inflammation have been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). We previously found that a novel chalcone derivative, L6H9, was able to reduce LPS-induced inflammatory response in macrophages. This study was designed to investigate its protective effects on DCM and the underlying mechanisms. H9C2 cells were cultured with DMEM containing 33mmol/L of glucose in the presence or absence of L6H9. Pretreatment with L6H9 significantly reduced high glucose-induced inflammatory cytokine expression, ROS level increase, mitochondrial dysfunction, cell apoptosis, fibrosis, and hypertrophy in H9c2 cells, which may be mediated by NF-?B inhibition and Nrf2 activation. In mice with STZ-induced diabetes, oral administration of L6H9 at 20mg/kg/day for 8weeks significantly decreased the cardiac cytokine and ROS level, accompanied by decreasing cardiac apoptosis and hypertrophy, and, finally, improved histological abnormalities and fibrosis, without affecting the hyperglycemia. L6H9 also attenuated the diabetes-induced NF-?B activation and Nrf2 decrease in diabetic hearts. These results strongly suggest that L6H9 may have great therapeutic potential in the treatment of DCM via blockage of inflammation and oxidative stress. This study also provides a deeper understanding of the regulatory role of Nrf2 and NF-?B in DCM, indicating that they may be important therapeutic targets for diabetic complications. PMID:25736300

  8. Fucoidan Derived from Undaria pinnatifida Induces Apoptosis in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma SMMC-7721 Cells via the ROS-Mediated Mitochondrial Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Hou

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Fucoidans, fucose-enriched sulfated polysaccharides isolated from brown algae and marine invertebrates, have been shown to exert anticancer activity in several types of human cancer, including leukemia and breast cancer and in lung adenocarcinoma cells. In the present study, the anticancer activity of the fucoidan extracted from the brown seaweed Undaria pinnatifida was investigated in human hepatocellular carcinoma SMMC-7721 cells, and the underlying mechanisms of action were investigated. SMMC-7721 cells exposed to fucoidan displayed growth inhibition and several typical features of apoptotic cells, such as chromatin condensation and marginalization, a decrease in the number of mitochondria, and in mitochondrial swelling and vacuolation. Fucoidan-induced cell death was associated with depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH, accumulation of high intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS, and accompanied by damage to the mitochondrial ultrastructure, depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, ??m and caspase activation. Moreover, fucoidan led to altered expression of factors related to apoptosis, including downregulating Livin and XIAP mRNA, which are members of the inhibitor of apoptotic protein (IAP family, and increased the Bax-to-Bcl-2 ratio. These findings suggest that fucoidan isolated from U. pinnatifida induced apoptosis in SMMC-7721 cells via the ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway.

  9. SFE-CO2 Extract from Typhonium giganteum Engl. Tubers, Induces Apoptosis in Human Hepatoma SMMC-7721 Cells Involvement of a ROS-Mediated Mitochondrial Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Typhonium giganteum Engl. (BaiFuzi is one of the herbs commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine against cancer. In our previous studies, 37 compounds were identified the SFE-CO2 (supercritical fluid extraction with CO2 extract by GC-MS, including the four major components [?-sitosterol (40.22%, campesterol (18.45%, n-hexadecanoic acid (9.52% and (Z,Z-9,12-octadecadienoic acid (8.15%]. The anti-cancer mechanisms of the SFE-CO2 extract from T. giganteum Engl. tubers have not been reported as yet. In this paper, the molecular mechanisms of the SFE-CO2 extract-mediated apoptosis in SMMC-7721 cells were further examined. SFE-CO2 extract inhibited the growth of SMMC-7721 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner, arrested the cell cycle in the S phase and G2/M phase, and induced apoptosis. In addition, reactive oxygen species (ROS increase, reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential, a rise in intracellular calcium levels were found in SMMC-7721 cells after treated with the extract. Western blot analysis showed that the extract caused down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression, and up-regulation of Bax expression. Moreover, caspase-3 and caspase-9 protease activity significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner. Collectively, our results showed that the SFE-CO2 extract from T. giganteum Engl. tubers induces apoptosis in SMMC-7721 cells involving a ROS-mediated mitochondrial signalling pathway.

  10. Photosensitized mefloquine induces ROS-mediated DNA damage and apoptosis in keratinocytes under ambient UVB and sunlight exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Neera; Dwivedi, Ashish; Mujtaba, Syed Faiz; Verma, Ankit; Chaturvedi, Rajnish; Ray, Ratan Singh; Singh, Gajendra

    2014-10-01

    The present study illustrates the photosensitizing behavior of mefloquine (MQ) in human skin keratinocytes under ambient doses of UVB and sunlight exposure. Photochemically, MQ generated reactive oxygen species superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical, and singlet oxygen through type I and type II photodynamic reactions, respectively, which caused photooxidative damage to DNA and formed localized DNA lesions cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. Photosensitized MQ reduced the viability of keratinocytes to 25 %. Significant level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was estimated through fluorescence probe DCF-H2. Increased apoptotic cells were evident through AO/EB staining and phosphatidyl serine translocation in cell membrane. Single-stranded DNA damage was marked through single-cell gel electrophoresis. Mitochondrial membrane depolarization and lysosomal destabilization were evident. Upregulation of Bax and p21 and downregulation of Bcl-2 genes and corresponding protein levels supported apoptotic cell death of keratinocyte cells. Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) were confirmed through immunofluorescence. In addition, hallmarks of apoptosis and G2/M phase cell cycle arrest were confirmed through flow cytometry analysis. Our findings suggest that MQ may damage DNA and produce DNA lesions which may induce differential biological responses in the skin on brief exposure to UVB and sunlight. PMID:25034908

  11. Mitochondrial and Cytoplasmic ROS Have Opposing Effects on Lifespan

    OpenAIRE

    Schaar, Claire E.; Dues, Dylan J.; Spielbauer, Katie K.; Machiela, Emily; Cooper, Jason F.; Senchuk, Megan; Hekimi, Siegfried; Van Raamsdonk, Jeremy M

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are highly reactive, oxygen-containing molecules that can cause molecular damage within the cell. While the accumulation of ROS-mediated damage is widely believed to be one of the main causes of aging, ROS also act in signaling pathways. Recent work has demonstrated that increasing levels of superoxide, one form of ROS, through treatment with paraquat, results in increased lifespan. Interestingly, treatment with paraquat robustly increases the already long lifesp...

  12. Dual Phases of Respiration Chain Defect-Augmented mROS-Mediated mCa2+ Stress during Oxidative Insult in Normal and ?0 RBA1 Astrocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Tsung-i; Lin, Muh-shi; Jou, Mei-jie

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial respiratory chain (RC) deficits, resulting in augmented mitochondrial ROS (mROS) generation, underlie pathogenesis of astrocytes. However, mtDNA-depleted cells (?0) lacking RC have been reported to be either sensitive or resistant to apoptosis. In this study, we sought to determine the effects of RC-enhanced mitochondrial stress following oxidative insult. Using noninvasive fluorescence probe-coupled laser scanning imaging microscopy, the ability to resist oxidative stress and ...

  13. Arsenic and chromium in drinking water promote tumorigenesis in a mouse colitis-associated colorectal cancer model and the potential mechanism is ROS-mediated Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xin; Mandal, Ardhendu K. [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Saito, Hiroshi [Department of Surgery and Physiology, Lucille P. Markey Cancer Center, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Pulliam, Joseph F.; Lee, Eun Y. [Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Ke, Zun-Ji; Lu, Jian; Ding, Songze [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Li, Li [Department of Family Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Shelton, Brent J.; Tucker, Thomas [Markey Cancer Control Program, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40504 (United States); Evers, B. Mark [Department of Surgery and Physiology, Lucille P. Markey Cancer Center, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Zhang, Zhuo [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Shi, Xianglin, E-mail: xshi5@uky.edu [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Exposure to carcinogenic metals, such as trivalent arsenic [As(III)] and hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)], through drinking water is a major global public health problem and is associated with various cancers. However, the mechanism of their carcinogenicity remains unclear. In this study, we used azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate (AOM/DSS)-induced mouse colitis-associated colorectal cancer model to investigate their tumorigenesis. Our results demonstrate that exposure to As(III) or Cr(VI), alone or in combination, together with AOM/DSS pretreatment has a promotion effect, increasing the colorectal tumor incidence, multiplicity, size, and grade, as well as cell inflammatory response. Two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry revealed that As(III) or Cr(VI) treatment alone significantly changed the density of proteins. The expression of ?-catenin and phospho-GSK was increased by treatment of carcinogenic metals alone. Concomitantly, the expression of NADPH oxidase1 (NOX1) and the level of 8-OHdG were also increased by treatment of carcinogenic metals alone. Antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, were decreased. Similarly, in an in vitro system, exposure of CRL-1807 to carcinogenic metals increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, the expression of ?-catenin, phospho-GSK, and NOX1. Inhibition of ROS generation by addition of SOD or catalase inhibited ?-catenin expression and activity. Our study provides a new animal model to study the carcinogenicity of As(III) and Cr(VI) and suggests that As(III) and Cr(VI) promote colorectal cancer tumorigenesis, at least partly, through ROS-mediated Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway. -- Highlights: ? Carcinogenic metals in drinking water promote colorectal tumor formation in vivo. ? Carcinogenic metals induce ?-catenin activation in vivo and in vitro. ? ROS generation induced by carcinogenic metals mediated ?-catenin activation.

  14. Magnolol inhibits angiogenesis by regulating ROS-mediated apoptosis and the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway in mES/EB-derived endothelial-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gi Dae; Oh, Jedo; Park, Hyen-Joo; Bae, Kihwan; Lee, Sang Kook

    2013-08-01

    Magnolol, a neolignan from the traditional medicinal plant Magnolia obovata, has been shown to possess neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, anticancer and anti-angiogenic activities. However, the precise mechanism of the anti-angiogenic activity of magnolol remains to be elucidated. In the present study, the anti-angiogenic effect of magnolol was evaluated in mouse embryonic stem (mES)/embryoid body (EB)-derived endothelial-like cells. The endothelial-like cells were obtained by differentiation from mES/EB cells. Magnolol (20 µM) significantly suppressed the transcriptional and translational expression of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM), an endothelial biomarker, in mES/EB-derived endothelial-like cells. To further understand the molecular mechanism of the suppression of PECAM expression, signaling pathways were analyzed in the mES/EB-derived endothelial-like cells. Magnolol induced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by mitochondria, a process that was associated with the induction of apoptosis as determined by positive Annexin V staining and the activation of cleaved caspase-3. The involvement of ROS generation by magnolol was confirmed by treatment with an antioxidant, N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC). NAC inhibited the magnolol-mediated induction of ROS generation and suppression of PECAM expression. In addition, magnolol suppressed the activation of MAPKs (ERK, JNK and p38) and the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway in mES/EB-derived endothelial-like cells. Taken together, these findings demonstrate for the first time that the anti-angiogenic activity of magnolol may be associated with ROS-mediated apoptosis and the suppression of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway in mES/EB-derived endothelial-like cells. PMID:23708970

  15. Arsenic and chromium in drinking water promote tumorigenesis in a mouse colitis-associated colorectal cancer model and the potential mechanism is ROS-mediated Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to carcinogenic metals, such as trivalent arsenic [As(III)] and hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)], through drinking water is a major global public health problem and is associated with various cancers. However, the mechanism of their carcinogenicity remains unclear. In this study, we used azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate (AOM/DSS)-induced mouse colitis-associated colorectal cancer model to investigate their tumorigenesis. Our results demonstrate that exposure to As(III) or Cr(VI), alone or in combination, together with AOM/DSS pretreatment has a promotion effect, increasing the colorectal tumor incidence, multiplicity, size, and grade, as well as cell inflammatory response. Two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry revealed that As(III) or Cr(VI) treatment alone significantly changed the density of proteins. The expression of ?-catenin and phospho-GSK was increased by treatment of carcinogenic metals alone. Concomitantly, the expression of NADPH oxidase1 (NOX1) and the level of 8-OHdG were also increased by treatment of carcinogenic metals alone. Antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, were decreased. Similarly, in an in vitro system, exposure of CRL-1807 to carcinogenic metals increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, the expression of ?-catenin, phospho-GSK, and NOX1. Inhibition of ROS generation by addition of SOD or catalase inhibited ?-catenin expression and activity. Our study provides a new animal model to study the carcinogenicity of As(III) and Cr(VI) and suggests that As(III) and Cr(VI) promote colorectal cancer tumorigenesis, at least partly, through ROS-mediated Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway. -- Highlights: ? Carcinogenic metals in drinking water promote colorectal tumor formation in vivo. ? Carcinogenic metals induce ?-catenin activation in vivo and in vitro. ? ROS generation induced by carcinogenic metals mediated ?-catenin activation.

  16. A Novel Use of Gentamicin in the ROS-Mediated Sensitization of NCI-H460 Lung Cancer Cells to Various Anticancer Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Cuccarese, Michael F.; Singh, Amit; Amiji, Mansoor; O’doherty, George A.

    2013-01-01

    Aminoglycosides are broad-spectrum antibiotics that are used for the treatment of severe Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial infections. While bactericidal effects of aminoglycosides are due to binding to the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, aminoglycosides can affect protein synthesis, intracellular calcium levels and levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in eukaryotic cells. While aminoglycosides can be cytotoxic at high concentrations, our results show that at much lower dose...

  17. Application development with ROS

    OpenAIRE

    Weisshardt, Florian

    2014-01-01

    What is being established in research already is going to be standardized and adopted by industry. The open source "Robot Operating System" ROS offers highly developed robotics software components which can be used in flexible industrial applications.

  18. ROS and Autophagy: Interactions and Molecular Regulatory Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lulu; Tan, Jin; Miao, Yuyang; Lei, Ping; Zhang, Qiang

    2015-07-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant ingredients are a series of crucial signaling molecules in oxidative stress response. Under some pathological conditions such as traumatic brain injury, ischemia/reperfusion, and hypoxia in tumor, the relative excessive accumulation of ROS could break cellular homeostasis, resulting in oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Meanwhile, autophagy is also induced. In this process, oxidative stress could promote the formation of autophagy. Autophagy, in turn, may contribute to reduce oxidative damages by engulfing and degradating oxidized substance. This short review summarizes these interactions between ROS and autophagy in related pathological conditions referred to as above with a focus on discussing internal regulatory mechanisms. The tight interactions between ROS and autophagy reflected in two aspects: the induction of autophagy by oxidative stress and the reduction of ROS by autophagy. The internal regulatory mechanisms of autophagy by ROS can be summarized as transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation, which includes various molecular signal pathways such as ROS-FOXO3-LC3/BNIP3-autophagy, ROS-NRF2-P62-autophagy, ROS-HIF1-BNIP3/NIX-autophagy, and ROS-TIGAR-autophagy. Autophagy also may regulate ROS levels through several pathways such as chaperone-mediated autophagy pathway, mitophagy pathway, and P62 delivery pathway, which might provide a further theoretical basis for the pathogenesis of the related diseases and still need further research. PMID:25722131

  19. Indole-3-carbinol as inhibitors of glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis in osteoblastic cells through blocking ROS-mediated Nrf2 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hao; Gao, Xiang; Chen, Guanghua; Sun, Jiecong; Chu, Jiaqi; Jing, Kaipeng; Li, Peng; Zeng, Rong; Wei, Bo

    2015-05-01

    Apoptosis of osteoblasts induced by glucocorticoid (GC) has been identified as a main cause of osteoporosis, bone loss and fractures, and the oxidative stress was found as an important contributor. Therefore, natural or synthetic agents with antioxidant activities can antagonize GCs-induced apoptosis in osteoblasts, and thus demonstrate the potential application to reverse osteoporosis. In this study, we showed that, indole-3-carbinol (I3C), a natural product found in broadly consumed plants of the Brassica genus, could block the cytotoxic effects of dexamethasone (Dex), and elucidated the underlying molecular mechanisms. Firstly, we showed that, I3C could effectively suppress Dex-induced cytotoxicity and apoptotic cell death in osteoblastic cells, as evidenced by the decrease in Sub-G1 cell population. Treatment of the cells with Dex resulted in activation of caspase-3/-8/-9 and subsequent cleavage of PARP, which was also effectively blocked by co-incubation of I3C. Moreover, exposure to Dex triggered a rapid onset and time-dependent superoxide overproduction in osteoblastic cells, which was effectively suppressed by addition of I3C. Excess intracellular ROS induced by Dex significantly suppressed the expression levels of Nrf2 and the downstream effectors, HO1 and NQO1, but these changes could be reversed by I3C. Knockdown of Nrf2 using siRNA silencing technique significantly reversed the protective effects of I3C against Dex-induced apoptosis and ROS generation. Taken together, I3C can reverse cytotoxicity of Dex through blocking ROS overproduction and enhancement of Nrf2 expression. This study may provide a safe and good strategy for molecular intervention of GCs-induced osteoporosis by using natural products. PMID:25795137

  20. Synergistic effects of particulate matter (PM10) and SO2 on human non-small cell lung cancer A549 via ROS-mediated NF-?B activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Yang; Gao, Rui; Yue, Huifeng; Li, Guangke; Zhu, Na; Sang, Nan

    2015-05-01

    Since a real atmospheric scenario usually represents a system involving multiple pollutants, air pollution studies typically focused on describing adverse effects associated with exposure to individual pollutants cannot reflect actual health risk. Particulate matter (PM10) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) are two major pollutants derived from coal combustion processes and co-existing in coal-smoke air pollution, but their potentially synergistic toxicity remains elusive thus far. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic responses of PM10 and SO2, singly and in binary mixtures, using human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells, followed by clarifying the possible mechanisms for their interaction. The results indicated that the concomitant treatment of PM10 and SO2 at low concentrations led to synergistic injury in terms of cell survival and apoptosis occurrence, while PM10 and SO2 alone at the same concentrations did not cause damage to the cells. Also, radical oxygen species (ROS) production followed by nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) activation was involved in the above synergistic cytotoxicity, which was confirmed by the repression of the actions by an ROS inhibitor (NAC). This implies that assessment of health risk should consider the interactions between ambient PM and gaseous copollutants. PMID:25968268

  1. ROS-cleavable proline oligomer crosslinking of polycaprolactone for pro-angiogenic host response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sue Hyun; Boire, Timothy C; Lee, Jung Bok; Gupta, Mukesh K; Zachman, Angela L; Rath, Rutwik; Sung, Hak-Joon

    2014-11-01

    A reactive oxygen species (ROS)-degradable scaffold is fabricated by crosslinking biocompatible, hydrolytically-degradable poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) with a ROS-degradable oligoproline peptide, KP7K. The ROS-mediated degradability triggers favorable host responses of the scaffold including improved cell infiltration and angiogenesis in vivo, indicating its unique advantages for tissue engineering applications. PMID:25343029

  2. ROS Installation and Commissioning

    CERN Multimedia

    Gorini, B

    The ATLAS Readout group (a sub-group of TDAQ) has now completed the installation and commissioning of all of the Readout System (ROS) units. Event data from ATLAS is initially handled by detector specific hardware and software, but following a Level 1 Accept the data passes from the detector specific Readout Drivers (RODs) to the ROS, the first stage of the central ATLAS DAQ. Within the final ATLAS TDAQ system the ROS stores the data and on request makes it available to the Level 2 Trigger (L2) processors and to the Event Builder (EB) as required. The ROS is implemented as a large number of PCs housing custom built cards (ROBINs) and running custom multi-threaded software. Each ROBIN card (shown below) contains buffer memories to store the data, plus a field programmable gate array ( FPGA ) and an embedded PowerPC processor for management of the memories and data requests, and is implemented as a 64-bit 66 MHz PCI card. Both the software and the ROBIN cards have been designed and developed by the Readout g...

  3. The ROS Workshop

    CERN Multimedia

    Francis, D.

    The first week of February saw the taking place of the ReadOut Subsystem (ROS) workshop. The ROS is the subsystem of the Trigger, DAQ & DCS project which receives and buffers data from the detector ReadOut Drivers (RODs). On request it then provides a subset of this buffered data, the so-called Regions of Interest (RoI), to the Level 2 trigger. Using the subsequent Level 2 trigger decision, the ROS either removes the buffered event data from its buffers or sends the full event data to the Event Filter for further processing. The workshop took place over a four-day period at a location in the Jura. The average daily attendance was twenty people, which mainly represented the five main ATLAS institutes currently engaged in this Trigger, DAQ & DCS activity. The aim of the workshop was to bring to an end the current prototyping activities in this area and launch the next, final, phase of prototyping. This new phase of prototyping will build on the successful activities of the previous phase and will focus...

  4. Zinc oxide nanoparticles induce oxidative DNA damage and ROS-triggered mitochondria mediated apoptosis in human liver cells (HepG2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vyom; Anderson, Diana; Dhawan, Alok

    2012-08-01

    The wide scale use of Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles in the world consumer market makes human beings more prone to the exposure to ZnO nanoparticles and its adverse effects. The liver, which is the primary organ of metabolism, might act as a major target organ for ZnO nanoparticles after they gain entry into the body through any of the possible routes. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the apoptotic and genotoxic potential of ZnO nanoparticles in human liver cells (HepG2) and the underlying molecular mechanism of its cellular toxicity. The role of dissolution in the toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles was also investigated. Our results demonstrate that HepG2 cells exposed to 14-20 ?g/ml ZnO nanoparticles for 12 h showed a decrease in cell viability and the mode of cell death induced by ZnO nanoparticles was apoptosis. They also induced DNA damage which was mediated by oxidative stress as evidenced by an increase in Fpg sensitive sites. Reactive oxygen species triggered a decrease in mitochondria membrane potential and an increase in the ratio of Bax/Bcl2 leading to mitochondria mediated pathway involved in apoptosis. In addition, ZnO nanoparticles activated JNK, p38 and induced p53(Ser15) phosphorylation. However, apoptosis was found to be independent of JNK and p38 pathways. This study investigating the effects of ZnO nanoparticles in human liver cells has provided valuable insights into the mechanism of toxicity induced by ZnO nanoparticles. PMID:22395444

  5. ROS signalling – Specificity is required

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MØller, Ian Max; Sweetlove, Lee J

    2011-01-01

    The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) increases in plants under stress. ROS can damage cellular components, but they can also act in signal transduction to help the cell counteract the oxidative damage in the stressed compartment. H2O2 may induce a general stress response, but it does not have the required specificity to selectively regulate nuclear genes required for dealing with localized stress, e.g., in chloroplasts or mitochondria. We here argue that peptides deriving from proteolytic breakdown of oxidatively damaged proteins have the requisite specificity to act as secondary ROS messengers and regulate source-specific genes and in this way contribute to retrograde ROS signalling during oxidative stress. (This is a new project funded by FNU) References: Møller, I.M. & Sweetlove, L.J. 2010. ROS signalling – Specificity is required. Trends Plant Sci. 15: 370-374

  6. Learning ROS for robotics programming

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    The book will take an easy-to-follow and engaging tutorial approach, providing a practical and comprehensive way to learn ROS.If you are a robotic enthusiast who wants to learn how to build and program your own robots in an easy-to-develop, maintainable and shareable way, ""Learning ROS for Robotics Programming"" is for you. In order to make the most of the book, you should have some C++ programming background, knowledge of GNU/Linux systems, and computer science in general. No previous background on ROS is required, since this book provides all the skills required. It is also advisable to hav

  7. ROS signalling - specificity is required

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MØller, Ian M; Sweetlove, Lee J

    2010-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production increases in plants under stress. ROS can damage cellular components, but they can also act in signal transduction to help the cell counteract the oxidative damage in the stressed compartment. H2O2 might induce a general stress response, but it does not have the required specificity to selectively regulate nuclear genes required for dealing with localized stress, e.g. in chloroplasts or mitochondria. Here we argue that peptides deriving from proteolytic breakdown of oxidatively damaged proteins have the requisite specificity to act as secondary ROS messengers and regulate source-specific genes and in this way contribute to retrograde ROS signalling during oxidative stress. Likewise, unmodified peptides deriving from the breakdown of redundant proteins could help coordinate organellar and nuclear gene expression

  8. ROS and RNS in plant physiology: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Río, Luis A

    2015-05-01

    The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is the unavoidable consequence of aerobic life. ROS is a collective term that includes both oxygen radicals, like superoxide (O 2. -) and hydroxyl (·OH) radicals, and other non-radicals such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), singlet oxygen ((1)O2 or (1)?g), etc. In plants, ROS are produced in different cell compartments and are oxidizing species, particularly hydroxyl radicals and singlet oxygen, that can produce serious damage in biological systems (oxidative stress). However, plant cells also have an array of antioxidants which, normally, can scavenge the excess oxidants produced and so avoid deleterious effects on the plant cell bio-molecules. The concept of 'oxidative stress' was re-evaluated in recent years and the term 'oxidative signalling' was created. This means that ROS production, apart from being a potentially harmful process, is also an important component of the signalling network that plants use for their development and for responding to environmental challenges. It is known that ROS play an important role regulating numerous biological processes such as growth, development, response to biotic and environmental stresses, and programmed cell death. The term reactive nitrogen species (RNS) includes radicals like nitric oxide (NO· ) and nitric dioxide (NO2.), as well as non-radicals such as nitrous acid (HNO2) and dinitrogen tetroxide (N2O4), among others. RNS are also produced in plants although the generating systems have still not been fully characterized. Nitric oxide (NO·) has an important function as a key signalling molecule in plant growth, development, and senescence, and RNS, like ROS, also play an important role as signalling molecules in the response to environmental (abiotic) stress. Similarly, NO· is a key mediator, in co-operation with ROS, in the defence response to pathogen attacks in plants. ROS and RNS have been demonstrated to have an increasingly important role in biology and medicine. PMID:25873662

  9. Tumour suppressor SIRT3 deacetylates and activates manganese superoxide dismutase to scavenge ROS

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yaohui; Zhang, Jinye; Lin, Yan; Lei, Qunying; Guan, Kun-liang; Zhao, Shimin; Xiong, Yue

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondria manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) is a major antioxidant enzyme associated with several diseases. This study shows that SOD2 is inhibited by acetylation and activated by SIRT3-mediated deacetylation in response to reactive oxygen species (ROS).

  10. 8-Methly-4-(3-diethylaminopropylamino) pyrimido [4',5';4,5] thieno (2,3-b) quinoline (MDPTQ), a quinoline derivate that causes ROS-mediated apoptosis in leukemia cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study reports the biological activity of 8-methly-4-(3-diethylamino-propylamino) pyrimido [4';5';4,5] thieno (2,3-b) quinoline (MDPTQ), a quinoline derivative structurally related to ellipticine and suggests a possible mechanism through which the compound induces apoptosis in carcinoma cell lines. Out of the 8 cell lines used in the study as representatives of different types of cancer, MDPTQ was found to be effective only against leukemia cell lines (HL-60 and K-562) whereas it had no effect on normal human bone marrow cells (BMC) which were used as controls. Fall mitochondrial membrane potential and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) were mainly responsible for inducing apoptosis in the two cell lines. Cell death was demonstrated by increase in caspase 3 activity as well as phosphatidyl serine exposure. Pre-incubation with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) reduced the increased ROS and caspase 3 activity as well as phosphatidyl serine exposure. MDPTQ also caused cell cycle arrest in these cell lines. The above study for the first time reports the mode of action of a quinoline derivative, which could be a possible future candidate for leukemia therapy. However, there are lot of questions that need to be answered in terms of signalling pathways and its effects on animal models

  11. Expression of ROS1 predicts ROS1 gene rearrangement in inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornick, Jason L; Sholl, Lynette M; Dal Cin, Paola; Childress, Merrida A; Lovly, Christine M

    2015-05-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor is a distinctive, rarely metastasizing mesenchymal neoplasm composed of fascicles of spindle cells with a prominent inflammatory infiltrate. Roughly 50% of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors harbor ALK receptor tyrosine kinase gene rearrangements. Such tumors are usually positive for ALK by immunohistochemistry. The molecular pathogenesis of ALK-negative inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors is largely unknown. A recent study identified rearrangements of ROS1 (another tyrosine kinase receptor) in a subset of ALK-negative inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors. Immunohistochemistry for ROS1 has been shown to correlate with ROS1 rearrangement in lung adenocarcinomas. The purpose of this study was to determine whether immunohistochemistry for ROS1 could predict ROS1 rearrangement in inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor. In total, 30 inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors were evaluated, including 21 ALK-positive tumors (10 confirmed to harbor ALK rearrangements, with TPM3, CLTC, RANPB2, and FN1 fusion partners) and 9 ALK-negative tumors (including 2 known to harbor ROS1 rearrangements). Immunohistochemistry was performed on whole tissue sections following pressure cooker antigen retrieval using a rabbit anti-ROS1 monoclonal antibody. The results were scored as 'positive' or 'negative,' and the pattern of staining was recorded. Three ALK-negative inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (including both tumors with known ROS1 rearrangements) showed immunoreactivity for ROS1, whereas all ALK-positive inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors were negative for ROS1. One ROS1-positive inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (with YWHAE-ROS1 fusion) showed strong, diffuse cytoplasmic and nuclear staining; one case (with TFG-ROS1 fusion) showed weak, diffuse and dot-like cytoplasmic staining; and one case (fusion partner unknown) showed moderate, diffuse and dot-like cytoplasmic staining. Expression of ROS1 correlates with ROS1 gene rearrangement in inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor. These findings suggest that immunohistochemistry for ROS1 may be useful to support the diagnosis of a subset of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors and may select some clinically aggressive cases for targeted therapy directed against ROS1. PMID:25612511

  12. ROS-GC interlocked Ca2+-sensor S100B protein signaling in cone photoreceptors: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rameshwar K Sharma

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Photoreceptor rod outer segment membrane guanylate cyclase (ROS-GC is central to visual transduction; it generates cyclic GMP, the second messenger of the photon signal. Photoexcited rhodopsin initiates a biochemical cascade that leads to a drop in the intracellular level of cyclic GMP and closure of cyclic nucleotide gated (CNG ion channels. Recovery of the photoresponse requires resynthesis of cyclic GMP, typically by a pair of ROS-GCs, 1 and 2. In rods, ROS-GCs exist as complexes with GCAPs, which are Ca2+-sensing elements. There is a light-induced fall in intracellular Ca2+. As Ca2+ dissociates from GCAPs in the 20 to 200 nM range, ROS-GC activity rises to quicken the photoresponse recovery. GCAPs then progressively turn down ROS-GC activity as Ca2+ and cyclic GMP levels return to baseline. To date, GCAPs mediate the only known mechanism of ROS-GC regulation in the photoreceptors. However, in mammalian cone outer segments, cone synapses and ON bipolar cells, another Ca2+ sensor protein, S100B, complexes with ROS-GC1 and senses the Ca2+ signal with a K1/2 of 400 nM. Unlike GCAPs, S100B stimulates ROS-GC activity when Ca2+ is bound. Thus, the ROS-GC system in cones functions as a Ca2+ bimodal switch; with rising intracellular Ca2+, its activity is first turned down by GCAPs and then turned up by S100B. This presentation provides a historical perspective on the role of S100B in the photoreceptors, offers a pictorial model for the “bimodal” operation of the ROS-GC switch and projects future tasks that are needed to understand its operation. Some accounts of this review have been adopted from the original publications of these authors.

  13. Id?jos ir strukt?ros architekt?ros istorijoje

    OpenAIRE

    Samalavic?ius, Almantas Liudas

    2006-01-01

    Architekt?ros istorija Vakaruose ir Lietuvoje yra tyrin?jama ?vairiais aspektais. Apie tokius reikšmingus architekt?ros elementus kaip šviesa, spalva, garsas ir vanduo yra buv? reikšming? specializuot? studij? ši? reiškini? s?veikos su vieno ar kito istorinio laikotarpio architekt?ros k?riniais aptarti. Ta?iau iki šiol tokio pob?džio tyrimai apsiribodavo siaurais, fragmentiškais, griežtai specializuotais žvilgsniais ? atskir? kult?ros istorijos tarpsni? architekt...

  14. Enhanced aphid detoxification when confronted by a host with elevated ROS production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jiaxin; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan

    2015-04-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays an important role in plant defense responses against bacteria, fungi and insect pests. Most recently, we have demonstrated that loss of Arabidopsis thaliana BOTRYTIS-INDUCED KINASE1 (BIK1) function releases its suppression of aphid-induced H2O2 production and cell death, rendering the bik1 mutant more resistant to green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) than wild-type plants. However, little is known regarding how ROS-related gene expression is correlated with bik1-mediated resistance to aphids, or whether these aphids biochemically respond to the oxidative stress. Here, we show that the bik1 mutant exhibited elevated basal expression of ROS-generating and -responsive genes, but not ROS-metabolizing genes. Conversely, we detected enhanced detoxification enzymatic activities in aphids reared on bik1 plants compared to those on wild-type plants, suggesting that aphids counter the oxidative stress associated with bik1 through elevated metabolic resistance. PMID:25932782

  15. TAK1 regulates SCF expression to modulate PKB? activity that protects keratinocytes from ROS-induced apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, C R I; Tan, M J; Tan, S H; Tang, M B Y; Cheung, P C F; Tan, N S

    2011-01-01

    Dysregulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation contributes to many human pathologies, including cancer and diabetes. During normal wound repair, inflammation-induced ROS production must be tightly controlled, but the mechanisms reining their generation remain unclear. Herein, we show that transforming growth factor ?-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) directly regulates stem cell factor (SCF) expression, which activates the protein kinase B (PKB)? pro-survival pathway in a cell-autonomous manner to protect keratinocytes from ROS-mediated cell death. TAK1 is a pivotal inflammatory mediator whose expression was transiently elevated during wound healing, paralleling the ROS production profile. TAK1 deficiency in keratinocytes led to increased apoptosis in response to anoikis and TNF-? treatment and was associated with elevated ROS level as analyzed by FACS. Using organotypic skin co-culture and comparative growth factor array analysis, we revealed a cell-autonomous mechanism that involved the SCF/c-Kit/PKB? signaling cascade. Ectopic expression of TAK1 or treatment with exogenous recombinant SCF restored the increased ROS production and apoptotic cell death in TAK1-deficient keratinocytes. Conversely, normal keratinocytes treated with various inhibitors targeting the SCF/c-Kit/PKB? pathway exhibited increased ROS production and TNF-?- or anoikis-induced apoptosis. Our study reveals a novel anti-apoptotic role for SCF in keratinocytes and identifies TAK1 as a novel player uniting inflammation and ROS regulation in skin redox biology. PMID:21233843

  16. Mitochondria-derived ROS bursts disturb Ca²? cycling and induce abnormal automaticity in guinea pig cardiomyocytes: a theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qince; Su, Di; O'Rourke, Brian; Pogwizd, Steven M; Zhou, Lufang

    2015-03-15

    Mitochondria are in close proximity to the redox-sensitive sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) release [ryanodine receptors (RyRs)] and uptake [Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA)] channels. Thus mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species (mdROS) could play a crucial role in modulating Ca(2+) cycling in the cardiomyocytes. However, whether mdROS-mediated Ca(2+) dysregulation translates to abnormal electrical activities under pathological conditions, and if yes what are the underlying ionic mechanisms, have not been fully elucidated. We hypothesize that pathological mdROS induce Ca(2+) elevation by modulating SR Ca(2+) handling, which activates other Ca(2+) channels and further exacerbates Ca(2+) dysregulation, leading to abnormal action potential (AP). We also propose that the morphologies of elicited AP abnormality rely on the time of mdROS induction, interaction between mitochondria and SR, and intensity of mitochondrial oxidative stress. To test the hypotheses, we developed a multiscale guinea pig cardiomyocyte model that incorporates excitation-contraction coupling, local Ca(2+) control, mitochondrial energetics, and ROS-induced ROS release. This model, for the first time, includes mitochondria-SR microdomain and modulations of mdROS on RyR and SERCA activities. Simulations show that mdROS bursts increase cytosolic Ca(2+) by stimulating RyRs and inhibiting SERCA, which activates the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger, Ca(2+)-sensitive nonspecific cationic channels, and Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release, eliciting abnormal AP. The morphologies of AP abnormality are largely influenced by the time interval among mdROS burst induction and AP firing, dosage and diffusion of mdROS, and SR-mitochondria distance. This study defines the role of mdROS in Ca(2+) overload-mediated cardiac arrhythmogenesis and underscores the importance of considering mitochondrial targets in designing new antiarrhythmic therapies. PMID:25539710

  17. MITOCHONDRIAL REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES (ROS) AS SIGNALLING MOLECULES OF INTRACELLULAR PATHWAYS TRIGGERED BY THE CARDIAC RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN II-ALDOSTERONE SYSTEM (RAAS).

    OpenAIRE

    ErnestoAlejandroAiello

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondria represent major sources of basal reactive oxygen species (ROS) production of the cardiomyocyte. The role of ROS as signalling molecules that mediate different intracellular pathways has gained increasing interest among physiologists in the last years. In our lab, we have been studying the participation of mitochondrial ROS in the intracellular pathways triggered by the renin-angiotensin II-aldosterone system (RAAS) in the myocardium during the past few years. We have demonstrated...

  18. Towards Interactive, Incremental Programming of ROS Nodes

    OpenAIRE

    Adam, Sorin; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2014-01-01

    Writing software for controlling robots is a complex task, usually demanding command of many programming languages and requiring significant experimentation. We believe that a bottom-up development process that complements traditional component- and MDSD-based approaches can facilitate experimentation. We propose the use of an internal DSL providing both a tool to interactively create ROS nodes and a behaviour-replacement mechanism to interactively reshape existing ROS nodes...

  19. ROS signalling--specificity is required.

    OpenAIRE

    Møller, IM; Sweetlove, LJ

    2010-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production increases in plants under stress. ROS can damage cellular components, but they can also act in signal transduction to help the cell counteract the oxidative damage in the stressed compartment. H(2)O(2) might induce a general stress response, but it does not have the required specificity to selectively regulate nuclear genes required for dealing with localized stress, e.g. in chloroplasts or mitochondria. Here we argue that peptides deriving from proteo...

  20. Kult?ros paveldo vadyba Gotlande

    OpenAIRE

    Edlund, Lennart

    2005-01-01

    Per pastaruosius dvidešimt penkerius metus švediškas kult?ros paveldo vadybos modelis patyr? daugyb? permain?. Po buvusio biurokratinio, hierarchinio ir direktyvinio ?vertinimo dabar iš naujo atrandamas raidos procesas, kuriame d?mesio atsiduria tokie terminai, kaip demokratija, dalyvavimas, žmon?s ir tarptautin? perspektyva. Švedijos bei Europos kontekste tai ne atsitiktinumas, o veikiau Gotlando visuomen?s tendencij? ir bendrosios raidos rezultatas. Švedijos kult?ros pa...

  1. SIRT3 Controls Cancer Metabolic Reprogramming by Regulating ROS and HIF

    OpenAIRE

    Schumacker, Paul T.

    2011-01-01

    In this issue of Cancer Cell, Finley and coworkers report that genetic loss of the deacetylase SIRT3 leads to metabolic re-programming toward glycolysis. This shift is mediated by an increase in cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation that amplifies HIF-? stabilization and HIF-dependent gene expression, thereby driving the tumor phenotype.

  2. Anticancer effect of calycopterin via PI3K/Akt and MAPK signaling pathways, ROS-mediated pathway and mitochondrial dysfunction in hepatoblastoma cancer (HepG2) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Mohammad Ali; Farimani, Mahdi Moridi; Kiaei, Mahmoud

    2014-12-01

    Calycopterin is a flavonoid compound isolated from Dracocephalum kotschyi that has multiple medical uses, as an antispasmodic, analgesic, anti-hyperlipidemic, and immunomodulatory agents. However, its biological activity and the mechanism of action are poorly investigated. Herein, we investigated the apoptotic effect of calycopterin against the human hepatoblastoma cancer cell (HepG2) line. We discovered that calycopterin-treated HepG2 cells were killed off by apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner within 24 h, and was characterized by the appearance of nuclear shrinkage, cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase and DNA fragmentation. Calycopterin treatment also affected HepG2 cell viability: (a) by inhibiting cell cycle progression at the G2/M transition leading to growth arrest and apoptosis; (b) by decreasing the expression of mitotic kinase cdc2, mitotic phosphatase cdc25c, mitotic cyclin B1, and apoptotic factors pro-caspases-3 and -9; and (c) increasing the levels of mitochondrial apoptotic-related proteins, intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species, and nitric oxide. We further examined the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK 1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and p-38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and found they all were significantly increased in HepG2 cells treated with calycopterin. Interestingly, we discovered that treated cells had significantly lower Akt phosphorylation. This mode of action for calycopterin in our study provides strong support that inhibition of PI3K/Akt and activation of MAPKs are pivotal in G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of human hepatocarcinoma cells mediated by calycopterin. PMID:25060910

  3. TLR signaling augments macrophage bactericidal activity through mitochondrial ROS

    OpenAIRE

    West, A. Phillip; Brodsky, Igor E.; Rahner, Christoph; Woo, Dong Kyun; Erdjument-bromage, Hediye; Tempst, Paul; Walsh, Matthew C.; Choi, Yongwon; Shadel, Gerald S.; Ghosh, Sankar

    2011-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are essential components of the innate immune response against intracellular bacteria, and it is thought that professional phagocytes generate ROS primarily via the phagosomal NADPH oxidase (Phox) machinery1. However, recent studies have suggested that mitochondrial ROS (mROS) also contribute to macrophage bactericidal activity, although the mechanisms linking innate immune signaling to mitochondria for mROS generation remain unclear2-4. Here we demonstrate that ...

  4. ROS generation via NOX4 and its utility in the cytological diagnosis of urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujimoto Kiyohide

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reactive oxygen species (ROS production via NADPH oxidase (NOX contributes to various types of cancer progression. In the present research, we examined the pathobiological role of NADPH oxidase (NOX4-mediated generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in urothelial carcinoma (UC of the urinary bladder, and demonstrated the utility of ROS labeling in urine cytology. Methods NOX4 gene was silenced in vivo and in vitro by NOX4 siRNA transfection with or without atlocollagen. Cell cycle and measurement of ROS were analyzed by flowcytometry. Orthotopic implantation animal model was used in vivo experiment. NOX4 expression in urothelial carcinoma cells was observed by immunohistochemical analysis using surgical specimens of human bladder cancer. Urine cytology was performed after treatment with ROS detection reagents in addition to Papanicolaou staining. Results NOX4 was overexpressed in several UC cell lines and the NOX inhibitor, diphenylene iodonium reduced intracellular ROS and induced p16-dependent cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase. Moreover, silencing of NOX4 by siRNA significantly reduced cancer cell growth in vivo as assessed in an orthotopic mouse model. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated high expression of NOX4 in low grade/non-invasive and high grade/invasive UC including precancerous lesions such as dysplasia but not in normal urothelium. Then, we assessed the usefulness of cytological analysis of ROS producing cells in urine (ROS-C. Urine samples obtained from UC cases and normal controls were treated with fluorescent reagents labeling the hydrogen peroxide/superoxide anion and cytological atypia of ROS positive cells were analyzed. As a result, the sensitivity for detection of low grade, non-invasive UC was greatly increased (35% in conventional cytology (C-C vs. 75% in ROS-C, and the specificity was 95%. Through ROS-C, we observed robust improvement in the accuracy of follow-up urine cytology for cases with previously diagnosed UC, especially in those with low grade/non-invasive cancer recurrence (0% in C-C vs. 64% in ROS-C. Conclusions This is the first report demonstrating that ROS generation through NOX4 contributes to an early step of urothelial carcinogenesis and cancer cell survival. In addition, cytology using ROS labeling could be a useful diagnostic tool in human bladder cancer.

  5. Acidosis promotes invasiveness of breast cancer cells through ROS-AKT-NF-?B pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Subash C.; Singh, Ramesh; Pochampally, Radhika; Watabe, Kounosuke; Mo, Yin-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that acidic microenvironment promotes tumorigenesis, however, the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. In the present study, we show that acidosis promotes invasiveness of breast cancer cells through a series of signaling events. First, our study indicates that NF-?B is a key factor for acidosis-induced cell invasion. Acidosis activates NF-?B without affecting STAT3 activity; knockdown of NF-?B p65 abrogates the acidosis-induced invasion activity. Next, we show that the activation of NF-?B is mediated through phosphorylation and degradation of I?B?; and phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of p65. Upstream to NF-?B signaling, AKT is activated under acidic conditions. Moreover, acidosis induces generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which can be suppressed by ROS scavengers, reversing the acidosis-induced activation of AKT and NF-?B, and invasiveness. As a negative regulator of AKT, PTEN is oxidized and inactivated by the acidosis-induced ROS. Finally, inhibition of NADPH oxidase (NOX) suppresses acidosis-induced ROS production, suggesting involvement of NOX in acidosis-induced signaling cascade. Of considerable interest, acidosis-induced ROS production and activation of AKT and NF-?B can be only detected in cancer cells, but not in non-malignant cells. Together, these results demonstrate a cancer specific acidosis-induced signaling cascade in breast cancer cells, leading to cell invasion. PMID:25504433

  6. Selectivity in ROS-induced peptide backbone bond cleavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringfellow, Hannah M; Jones, Michael R; Green, Mandy C; Wilson, Angela K; Francisco, Joseph S

    2014-12-01

    Post-translational mechanisms of protein oxidation as a result of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can occur under physiological conditions to yield selective side-chain and backbone modifications including abstractions, donations, additions, substitutions, and fragmentation. In order to characterize the selectivity of radical-mediated fragmentation, quantum mechanical investigations using ab initio and density functional methods were employed to evaluate site, conformation, and pathway trends of small trialanine peptides resembling a ?-strand and a ?-turn. Comparisons of reaction enthalpies show that the diamide pathway is more energetically favorable than the ?-amidation pathway and that both pathways are site and conformationally selective. These findings readily contribute to the understanding of oxidative stress in biochemical processes. PMID:25369550

  7. Microcystin-LR-caused ROS generation involved in p38 activation and tau hyperphosphorylation in neuroendocrine (PC12) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Guanmin; Liu, Jinghui; Lin, Shuyan; Guo, Zonglou; Xu, Lihong

    2015-03-01

    Microcystin-LR (MC-LR), a potent specific hepatotoxin produced by cyanobacteria, has recently been reported to show neurotoxicity. Our previous study demonstrated that MC-LR caused the reorganization of cytoskeleton architectures and hyperphosphorylation of the cytoskeletal-associated proteins tau and HSP27 in neuroendocrine PC12 cell line by direct PP2A inhibition and indirect p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation. It has been shown that oxidative stress is extensively associated with MC-LR toxicity, mainly resulting from an excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, the mechanisms by which ROS mediates the cytotoxic action of MC-LR are unclear. In the present study, we investigated whether ROS might play a critical role in MC-LR-induced hyperphosphorylation of microtubule-associated protein tau and the activation of the MAPKs in PC12 cell line. The results showed that MC-LR had time- and concentration-dependent effects on ROS generation, p38-MAPK activation and tau phosphorylation. The time-course studies indicated similar biphasic changes in ROS generation and tau hyperphosphorylation, which started to increase within 1 h and reached the maximum level at 3 h followed by a decrease after prolonged treatment. Furthermore, pretreatment with the antioxidants, N-acetylcysteine and vitamin C, significantly decreased MC-LR-induced ROS generation and effectively attenuated p38-MAPK activation as well as tau hyperphosphorylation. Taken together, these findings suggest that ROS generation triggered by MC-LR is a key intracellular event that contributes to an induction of p38-MAPK activation and tau phosphorylation, and that blockade of this ROS-mediated redox-sensitive signal cascades may attenuate the toxic effects of MC-LR. PMID:24142891

  8. Sirt3, Mitochondrial ROS, Ageing, and Carcinogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    David Gius; Hyun-Seok Kim; Cha, Yong I.; Ozkan Ozden; Daniel Pennington, J.; Seong-Hoon Park; Nukhet Aykin-Burns; Spitz, Douglas R.; Haiyan Jiang

    2011-01-01

    One fundamental observation in cancer etiology is that the rate of malignancies in any mammalian population increases exponentially as a function of age, suggesting a mechanistic link between the cellular processes governing longevity and carcinogenesis. In addition, it is well established that aberrations in mitochondrial metabolism, as measured by increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), are observed in both aging and cancer. In this regard, genes that impact upon longevity have recently be...

  9. Sirt3, Mitochondrial ROS, Ageing, and Carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gius

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available One fundamental observation in cancer etiology is that the rate of malignancies in any mammalian population increases exponentially as a function of age, suggesting a mechanistic link between the cellular processes governing longevity and carcinogenesis. In addition, it is well established that aberrations in mitochondrial metabolism, as measured by increased reactive oxygen species (ROS, are observed in both aging and cancer. In this regard, genes that impact upon longevity have recently been characterized in S. cerevisiae and C. elegans, and the human homologs include the Sirtuin family of protein deacetylases. Interestingly, three of the seven sirtuin proteins are localized into the mitochondria suggesting a connection between the mitochondrial sirtuins, the free radical theory of aging, and carcinogenesis. Based on these results it has been hypothesized that Sirt3 functions as a mitochondrial fidelity protein whose function governs both aging and carcinogenesis by modulating ROS metabolism. Sirt3 has also now been identified as a genomically expressed, mitochondrial localized tumor suppressor and this review will outline potential relationships between mitochondrial ROS/superoxide levels, aging, and cell phenotypes permissive for estrogen and progesterone receptor positive breast carcinogenesis.

  10. TLR signaling augments macrophage bactericidal activity through mitochondrial ROS

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, A. Phillip; Brodsky, Igor E.; Rahner, Christoph; Woo, Dong Kyun; Erdjument-Bromage, Hediye; Tempst, Paul; Walsh, Matthew C.; Choi, Yongwon; Shadel, Gerald S.; Ghosh, Sankar

    2012-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are essential components of the innate immune response against intracellular bacteria, and it is thought that professional phagocytes generate ROS primarily via the phagosomal NADPH oxidase (Phox) machinery1. However, recent studies have suggested that mitochondrial ROS (mROS) also contribute to macrophage bactericidal activity, although the mechanisms linking innate immune signaling to mitochondria for mROS generation remain unclear2-4. Here we demonstrate that engagement of a subset of Toll-like receptors (TLR1, TLR2 and TLR4) results in the recruitment of mitochondria to macrophage phagosomes and augments mROS production. This response involves translocation of the TLR signaling adapter tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) to mitochondria where it engages evolutionarily conserved signaling intermediate in Toll pathways (ECSIT), a protein implicated in mitochondrial respiratory chain assembly5. Interaction with TRAF6 leads to ECSIT ubiquitination and enrichment at the mitochondrial periphery, resulting in increased mitochondrial and cellular ROS generation. ECSIT and TRAF6 depleted macrophages exhibit decreased levels of TLR-induced ROS and are significantly impaired in their ability to kill intracellular bacteria. Additionally, reducing macrophage mROS by expressing catalase in mitochondria results in defective bacterial killing, confirming the role of mROS in bactericidal activity. These results therefore reveal a novel pathway linking innate immune signaling to mitochondria, implicate mROS as important components of antibacterial responses, and further establish mitochondria as hubs for innate immune signaling. PMID:21525932

  11. TLR signalling augments macrophage bactericidal activity through mitochondrial ROS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, A Phillip; Brodsky, Igor E; Rahner, Christoph; Woo, Dong Kyun; Erdjument-Bromage, Hediye; Tempst, Paul; Walsh, Matthew C; Choi, Yongwon; Shadel, Gerald S; Ghosh, Sankar

    2011-04-28

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are essential components of the innate immune response against intracellular bacteria and it is thought that professional phagocytes generate ROS primarily via the phagosomal NADPH oxidase machinery. However, recent studies have suggested that mitochondrial ROS (mROS) also contribute to mouse macrophage bactericidal activity, although the mechanisms linking innate immune signalling to mitochondria for mROS generation remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that engagement of a subset of Toll-like receptors (TLR1, TLR2 and TLR4) results in the recruitment of mitochondria to macrophage phagosomes and augments mROS production. This response involves translocation of a TLR signalling adaptor, tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), to mitochondria, where it engages the protein ECSIT (evolutionarily conserved signalling intermediate in Toll pathways), which is implicated in mitochondrial respiratory chain assembly. Interaction with TRAF6 leads to ECSIT ubiquitination and enrichment at the mitochondrial periphery, resulting in increased mitochondrial and cellular ROS generation. ECSIT- and TRAF6-depleted macrophages have decreased levels of TLR-induced ROS and are significantly impaired in their ability to kill intracellular bacteria. Additionally, reducing macrophage mROS levels by expressing catalase in mitochondria results in defective bacterial killing, confirming the role of mROS in bactericidal activity. These results reveal a novel pathway linking innate immune signalling to mitochondria, implicate mROS as an important component of antibacterial responses and further establish mitochondria as hubs for innate immune signalling. PMID:21525932

  12. Studies on antibacterial activity of ZnO nanoparticles by ROS induced lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, R K; Nenavathu, Bhavani P; Gangishetty, Mahesh K; Reddy, A V R

    2012-06-01

    Recent studies indicated the role of ROS toward antibacterial activity. In our study we report ROS mediated membrane lipid oxidation of Escherichia coli treated with ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) as supported by detection and spectrophotometric measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA) by TBARS (thiobarbituric acid-reactive species) assay. The antibacterial effects of ZnO NPs were studied by measuring the growth curve of E. coli, which showed concentration dependent bacteriostatic and bacteriocidal effects of ZnO NPs. The antibacterial effects were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Further, antibacterial effect of ZnO NPs was found to decrease by introducing histidine to the culture medium treated with ZnO NPs. The ROS scavenging action of histidine was confirmed by treating histidine to the batch of Escherichia coli+ZnO NPs at the end of the lag phase of the growth curve (Set-I) and during inoculation (Set-II). A moderate bacteriostatic effect (lag in the E. coli growth) was observed in Set-II batch while Set-I showed no bacteriostatic effect. From these evidences we confirmed that the antibacterial effect of bare as well as TG capped ZnO NPs were due to membrane lipid peroxidation caused by the ROS generated during ZnO NPs interaction in culture medium. PMID:22348987

  13. ROS-dependent regulation of Parkin and DJ-1 localization during oxidative stress in neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joselin, Alvin P; Hewitt, Sarah J; Callaghan, Steve M; Kim, Raymond H; Chung, Young-Hwa; Mak, Tak W; Shen, Jie; Slack, Ruth S; Park, David S

    2012-11-15

    Mutations in several genes, including Parkin, PTEN-induced kinase 1 (Pink1) and DJ-1, are associated with rare inherited forms of Parkinson's disease (PD). Despite recent attention on the function of these genes, the interplay between DJ-1, Pink1 and Parkin in PD pathogenesis remains unclear. In particular, whether these genes regulate mitochondrial control pathways in neurons is highly controversial. Here we report that Pink1-dependent Parkin translocation does occur in mouse cortical neurons in response to a variety of mitochondrial damaging agents. This translocation only occurs in the absence of antioxidants in the neuronal culturing medium, implicating a key role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in this response. Consistent with these observations, ROS blockers also prevent Parkin recruitment in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Loss of DJ-1, a gene linked to ROS management, results in increased stress-induced Parkin recruitment and increased mitophagy. Expression of wild-type DJ-1, but not a cysteine-106 mutant associated with defective ROS response, rescues this accelerated Parkin recruitment. Interestingly, DJ-1 levels increase at mitochondria following oxidative damage in both fibroblasts and neurons, and this process also depends on Parkin and possibly Pink1. These results not only highlight the presence of a Parkin/Pink1-mediated pathway of mitochondrial quality control (MQC) in neurons, they also delineate a complex reciprocal relationship between DJ-1 and the Pink1/Parkin pathway of MQC. PMID:22872702

  14. PARP-1 hyperactivation and reciprocal elevations in intracellular Ca2+ during ROS-induced nonapoptotic cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengjiao; Xie, Ruiye; Munoz, Frances M; Lau, Serrine S; Monks, Terrence J

    2014-07-01

    The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of renal ischemia/reperfusion injury, and many other pathological conditions. DNA strand breaks caused by ROS lead to the activation of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 (PARP-1), the excessive activation of which can result in cell death. We have utilized a model in which 2,3,5-tris(glutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone (TGHQ), a nephrotoxic and nephrocarcinogenic metabolite of hydroquinone, causes ROS-dependent cell death in human renal proximal tubule epithelial cells (HK-2), to further elucidate the role of PARP-1 in ROS-dependent cell death. TGHQ-induced ROS generation, DNA strand breaks, hyperactivation of PARP-1, rapid depletion of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), elevations in intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations, and subsequent nonapoptotic cell death in both a PARP- and Ca(2+)-dependent manner. Thus, inhibition of PARP-1 with PJ34 completely blocked TGHQ-mediated accumulation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymers and NAD consumption, and delayed HK-2 cell death. In contrast, chelation of intracellular Ca(2+) with BAPTA completely abrogated TGHQ-induced cell death. Ca(2+) chelation also attenuated PARP-1 hyperactivation. Conversely, inhibition of PARP-1 modulated TGHQ-mediated changes in Ca(2+) homeostasis. Interestingly, PARP-1 hyperactivation was not accompanied by the translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) from mitochondria to the nucleus, a process usually associated with PARP-dependent cell death. Thus, pathways coupling PARP-1 hyperactivation to cell death are likely to be context-dependent, and therapeutic strategies designed to target PARP-1 need to recognize such variability. Our studies provide new insights into PARP-1-mediated nonapoptotic cell death, during which PARP-1 hyperactivation and elevations in intracellular Ca(2+) are reciprocally coupled to amplify ROS-induced nonapoptotic cell death. PMID:24752504

  15. Benzoquinone activates the ERK/MAPK signaling pathway via ROS production in HL-60 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benzene (BZ) is a class I carcinogen and its oxidation to reactive intermediates is a prerequisite of hematoxicity and myelotoxicity. The generated metabolites include hydroquinone, which is further oxidized to the highly reactive 1,4-benzoquinone (BQ) in bone marrow. Therefore, we explored the mechanisms underlying BQ-induced HL-60 cell proliferation by studying the role of BQ-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the activation of the ERK-MAPK signaling pathway. BQ treatment (0.01-30 ?M) showed that doses below 10 ?M did not significantly reduce viability. ROS production after 3 ?M BQ treatment increased threefold; however, catalase addition reduced ROS generation to basal levels. FACS analysis showed that BQ induced a fivefold increase in the proportion of cells in S-phase. We also observed a high proportion of Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) stained cells, indicating a higher DNA synthesis rate. BQ also produced rapid and prolonged phosphorylation of ERK1/2 proteins. Simultaneous treatment with catalase or PD98059, a potent MEK protein inhibitor, reduced cell recruitment into the S-phase and also abolished the ERK1/2 protein phosphorylation induced by BQ, suggesting that MEK/ERK is an important pathway involved in BQ-induced ROS mediated proliferation. The prolonged activation of ERK1/2 contributes to explain the increased S-phase cell recruitment and to understand the leukemogenic processes associated with exposure to benzene metabolites. Thus, the possible mechan metabolites. Thus, the possible mechanism by which BQ induce HL-60 cells to enter the cell cycle and proliferate is linked to ROS production and its growth promoting effects by specific activation of regulating genes known to be activated by redox mechanisms

  16. ROS-dependent anticandidal activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesized by using egg albumen as a biotemplate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoeb, M.; Singh, Braj R.; Khan, Javed A.; Khan, Wasi; Singh, Brahma N.; Singh, Harikesh B.; Naqvi, Alim H.

    2013-09-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have attracted great attention because of their superior optical properties and wide application in biomedical science. However, little is known about the anticandidal activity of ZnO NPs against Candida albicans (C. albicans). This study was designed to develop the green approach to synthesize ZnO NPs using egg white (denoted as EtZnO NPs) and investigated its possible mechanism of antimicrobial activity against C. albicans 077. It was also notable that anticandidal activity of EtZnO NPs is correlated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in a dose dependent manner. Protection of histidine against ROS clearly suggests the implication of ROS in anticandidal activity of EtZnO NPs. This green approach based on egg white-mediated synthesis of ZnO NPs paves the way for developing cost effective, eco-friendly and promising antimicrobial nanomaterial for applications in medicine.

  17. ROS-dependent anticandidal activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesized by using egg albumen as a biotemplate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have attracted great attention because of their superior optical properties and wide application in biomedical science. However, little is known about the anticandidal activity of ZnO NPs against Candida albicans (C. albicans). This study was designed to develop the green approach to synthesize ZnO NPs using egg white (denoted as EtZnO NPs) and investigated its possible mechanism of antimicrobial activity against C. albicans 077. It was also notable that anticandidal activity of EtZnO NPs is correlated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in a dose dependent manner. Protection of histidine against ROS clearly suggests the implication of ROS in anticandidal activity of EtZnO NPs. This green approach based on egg white-mediated synthesis of ZnO NPs paves the way for developing cost effective, eco-friendly and promising antimicrobial nanomaterial for applications in medicine. (paper)

  18. Iron and ferritin dependent ROS distribution impact Arabidopsis root system architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyt, Guilhem; Boudouf, Soukaina; Boucherez, Jossia; Gaymard, Frédéric; Briat, Jean-Franois

    2014-11-01

    Iron (Fe) homeostasis is integrated with the production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) whose distribution at the root tip participates in the control of root growth. Excess Fe increases ferritin abundance, enabling the storage of Fe which contributes to protection of plants against Fe-induced oxidative stress. AtFer1 and AtFer3 are the two ferritin genes expressed in the meristematic zone, pericycle and endodermis of the Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) root, and it is in these regions that we observe Fe stained dots. This staining disappears in the triple fer1-3-4 ferritin mutant. Fe excess decreases primary root length in the same way in wild-type and in fer1-3-4 mutant. In contrast, the Fe mediated decrease of lateral root (LR) length and density is enhanced in fer1-3-4 plants due to a defect in LR emergence. We observe that this interaction between excess Fe, ferritin and RSA is in part mediated by the H2O2/O2 (.-) balance between the root cell proliferation and differentiation zones regulated by the UPB1 transcription factor. Further, meristem size is also decreased in response to Fe excess in ferritin mutant plants, implicating cell cycle arrest mediated by the ROS-activated SMR5/SMR7 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors pathway in the interaction between Fe and RSA. PMID:25385697

  19. Adjudin protects rodent cochlear hair cells against gentamicin ototoxicity via the SIRT3-ROS pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Yizhou; Xia, Li; Shao, Jiaxiang; Yin, Shankai; Cheng, C Yan; Xia, Weiliang; Gao, Wei-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Hearing loss resulting from hair cell degeneration is a common disease that affects millions of people worldwide. Strategies to overcome the apparent irreversible hair cell loss in mammals become paramount for hearing protection. Here we reported that, by using a well-established gentamicin-induced hair cell loss model in vitro, adjudin, a multi-functional small molecule drug, protected cochlear hair cells from gentamicin damage. Immunohistochemistry, Western blotting and quantitative RT-PCR analyses revealed that adjudin exerted its otoprotective effects by up-regulating the level of Sirt3, a member of Sirtuin family protein located in mitochondria, which regulates reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in cochlear cells and inhibits the production of ROS and apoptotic cells induced by gentamicin. Sirt3 silencing experiments confirmed that Sirt3-ROS signaling axis mediated hair cell protection against gentamicin by adjudin, at least in part. Furthermore, adjudin's otoprotection effects were also observed in an in vivo gentamicin-injured animal model. Taken together, these findings identify adjudin as a novel otoprotective small molecule via elevating Sirt3 levels and Sirt3 may be of therapeutic value in hair cell protection from ototoxic insults. PMID:25640330

  20. ROS signaling, oxidative stress and Nrf2 in pancreatic beta-cell function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review focuses on the emerging evidence that reactive oxygen species (ROS) derived from glucose metabolism, such as H2O2, act as metabolic signaling molecules for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in pancreatic beta-cells. Particular emphasis is placed on the potential inhibitory role of endogenous antioxidants, which rise in response to oxidative stress, in glucose-triggered ROS and GSIS. We propose that cellular adaptive response to oxidative stress challenge, such as nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated antioxidant induction, plays paradoxical roles in pancreatic beta-cell function. On the one hand, induction of antioxidant enzymes protects beta-cells from oxidative damage and possible cell death, thus minimizing oxidative damage-related impairment of insulin secretion. On the other hand, the induction of antioxidant enzymes by Nrf2 activation blunts glucose-triggered ROS signaling, thus resulting in reduced GSIS. These two premises are potentially relevant to impairment of beta-cells occurring in the late and early stage of Type 2 diabetes, respectively. In addition, we summarized our recent findings that persistent oxidative stress due to absence of uncoupling protein 2 activates cellular adaptive response which is associated with impaired pancreatic beta-cell function.

  1. ROS-dependence of cyclooxygenase-2 induction in rats subjected to unilateral ureteral obstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oestergaard, Martin; Christensen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress resulting from unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) may be aggravated by increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Previous studies demonstrated increased COX-2 expression in renal medullary interstitial cells (RMIC) in response to UUO. We investigated both in vivo and in vitro the role of ROS in COX-2 induction in rats subjected to UUO and RMIC cells exposed to oxidative and mechanical stress. Rats subjected to 3-day UUO were treated with 2 mechanistically distinct antioxidants, the NADPH-oxidase inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) and the complex I inhibitor rotenone (ROT), to interfere with ROS production. We found that UUO-mediated induction of COX-2 in inner medulla was attenuated by both antioxidants. In addition, DPI and ROT reduced tubular damage and oxidative stress after UUO. Moreover, mechanical stretch induce COX-2 and oxidative stress in RMIC. Likewise, RMIC cells exposed to H2O2 as an inducer of oxidative stress showed increased COX-2 expression and activity, both of which were reduced by DPI and ROT. Similarly, ROS production, which was increased following exposure of RMIC cells to H2O2, was also reduced by DPI and ROT. Furthermore, oxidative stress-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 was blocked by both antioxidants, and inhibition of ERK1/2 and p38 attenuated COX-2 induction in RMIC cells. Notably, COX-2 inhibitors further exacerbated the oxidative stress level in H2O2-exposed RMIC cells. We conclude that oxidative stress as a consequence of UUO stimulates the COX-2 expression through activation of multiple MAP kinases and that COX-2 induction may exert a cytoprotective function in RMIC cells.

  2. Sonodynamic therapy induces the interplay between apoptosis and autophagy in K562 cells through ROS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaomin; Wang, Pan; Yang, Shuang; Zhang, Kun; Liu, Quanhong; Wang, Xiaobing

    2015-03-01

    Sonodynamic therapy (SDT) is a relatively new approach in the treatment of various cancers including leukemia cells. The aim of this study is to investigate the occurrence of apoptosis and autophagy after treated by protoporphyrin IX (PpIX)-mediated SDT (PpIX-SDT) on human leukemia K562 cells as well as the relationship between them. Firstly, mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis was observed through morphological observation and biochemical analysis. Meanwhile, SDT was shown to induce autophagy in K562 cells, which caused an increase in EGFP-LC3 puncta cells, a conversion of LC3 II/I, formation of acidic vesicular organelles (AVOs) and co-localization between LC3 and LAMP2 (a lysosome marker). Besides, pretreatment with autophagy inhibitor 3-MA or bafilomycin A1 was shown to provide protection against autophagy and to enhance SDT-induced apoptosis and necrosis, while the apoptosis suppressor z-VAD-fmk failed to affect formation of autophagic vacuoles or partially prevented SDT-induced cytotoxicity, which suggested that SDT-induced autophagy functioned as a survival mechanism. Additionally, this study reported apparent apoptosis and autophagy with dependence on intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Preliminary data showed that ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC) effectively blocked the SDT induced accumulation of ROS, reversed sono-damage, cell apoptosis and autophagy. Taken together, these data indicate that autophagy may be cytoprotective in our experimental system, and the ROS caused by PpIX-SDT treatment may play an important role in initiating apoptosis and autophagy. PMID:25578562

  3. Carbon monoxide differentially inhibits TLR signaling pathways by regulating ROS-induced trafficking of TLRs to lipid rafts

    OpenAIRE

    Nakahira, Kiichi; Kim, Hong Pyo; Geng, Xue Hui; Nakao, Atsunori; Wang, Xue; MURASE, NORIKO; Drain, Peter F.; Wang, XiaoMei; Sasidhar, Madhu; Nabel, Elizabeth G; Takahashi, Toru; Lukacs, Nicholas W.; Ryter, Stefan W.; Morita, Kiyoshi; Choi, Augustine M. K.

    2006-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO), a byproduct of heme catabolism by heme oxygenase (HO), confers potent antiinflammatory effects. Here we demonstrate that CO derived from HO-1 inhibited Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, 4, 5, and 9 signaling, but not TLR3-dependent signaling, in macrophages. Ligand-mediated receptor trafficking to lipid rafts represents an early event in signal initiation of immune cells. Trafficking of TLR4 to lipid rafts in response to LPS was reactive oxygen species (ROS) dependent because ...

  4. Hesperetin Induces Apoptosis in Breast Carcinoma by Triggering Accumulation of ROS and Activation of ASK1/JNK Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palit, Shreyasi; Kar, Susanta; Sharma, Gunjan; Das, Pijush K

    2015-08-01

    Hesperetin, a flavanone glycoside predominantly found in citrus fruits, exhibits a wide array of biological properties. In the present study hesperetin exhibited a significant cytotoxic effect in human breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner without affecting normal (HMEC) as well as immortalized normal mammary epithelial cells (MCF-10A). The cytotoxic effect of hesperetin was due to the induction of apoptosis as evident from the phosphatidyl-serine externalization, DNA fragmentation, caspase-7 activation, and PARP cleavage. Apoptosis was associated with caspase-9 activation, mitochondrial membrane potential loss, release of cytochrome c, and increase in Bax:Bcl-2 ratio. Pre-treatment with caspase-9 specific inhibitor (Z-LEHD-fmk) markedly attenuated apoptosis suggesting an involvement of intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic cascade. Further, DCFDA flow-cytometric analysis revealed triggering of ROS in a time-dependent manner. Pre-treatment with ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and glutathione markedly abrogated hesperetin-mediated apoptosis whereas carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) pretreatment along with DHR123-based flow-cytometry indicated the generation of cytosolic ROS. Profiling of MAPKs revealed activation of JNK upon hesperetin treatment which was abrogated upon NAC pre-treatment. Additionally, inhibition of JNK by SP600125 significantly reversed hesperetin-mediated apoptosis. The activation of JNK was associated with the activation of ASK1. Silencing of ASK1 resulted in significant attenuation of JNK activation as well as reversed the hesperetin-mediated apoptosis suggesting that hesperetin-mediated apoptosis of MCF-7 cells involves accumulation of ROS and activation of ASK1/JNK pathway. In addition, hesperetin also induced apoptosis in triple negative breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells via intrinsic pathway via activation of caspase -9 and -3 and increase in Bax:Bcl-2 ratio. J. Cell. Physiol. 230: 1729-1739, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25204891

  5. MaROS: Information Management Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, Daniel A.; Gladden, Roy E.; Wright, Jesse J.; Hy, Franklin H.; Rabideau, Gregg R.; Wallick, Michael N.

    2011-01-01

    This software is provided by the Mars Relay Operations Service (MaROS) task to a variety of Mars projects for the purpose of coordinating communications sessions between landed spacecraft assets and orbiting spacecraft assets at Mars. The Information Management Service centralizes a set of functions previously distributed across multiple spacecraft operations teams, and as such, greatly improves visibility into the end-to-end strategic coordination process. Most of the process revolves around the scheduling of communications sessions between the spacecraft during periods of time when a landed asset on Mars is geometrically visible by an orbiting spacecraft. These relay sessions are used to transfer data both to and from the landed asset via the orbiting asset on behalf of Earth-based spacecraft operators. This software component is an application process running as a Java virtual machine. The component provides all service interfaces via a Representational State Transfer (REST) protocol over https to external clients. There are two general interaction modes with the service: upload and download of data. For data upload, the service must execute logic specific to the upload data type and trigger any applicable calculations including pass delivery latencies and overflight conflicts. For data download, the software must retrieve and correlate requested information and deliver to the requesting client. The provision of this service enables several key advancements over legacy processes and systems. For one, this service represents the first time that end-to-end relay information is correlated into a single shared repository. The software also provides the first multimission latency calculator; previous latency calculations had been performed on a mission-by-mission basis.

  6. PF-06463922 is a potent and selective next-generation ROS1/ALK inhibitor capable of blocking crizotinib-resistant ROS1 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Helen Y; Li, Qiuhua; Engstrom, Lars D; West, Melissa; Appleman, Vicky; Wong, Katy A; McTigue, Michele; Deng, Ya-Li; Liu, Wei; Brooun, Alexei; Timofeevski, Sergei; McDonnell, Scott R P; Jiang, Ping; Falk, Matthew D; Lappin, Patrick B; Affolter, Timothy; Nichols, Tim; Hu, Wenyue; Lam, Justine; Johnson, Ted W; Smeal, Tod; Charest, Al; Fantin, Valeria R

    2015-03-17

    Oncogenic c-ros oncogene1 (ROS1) fusion kinases have been identified in a variety of human cancers and are attractive targets for cancer therapy. The MET/ALK/ROS1 inhibitor crizotinib (Xalkori, PF-02341066) has demonstrated promising clinical activity in ROS1 fusion-positive non-small cell lung cancer. However, emerging clinical evidence has shown that patients can develop resistance by acquiring secondary point mutations in ROS1 kinase. In this study we characterized the ROS1 activity of PF-06463922, a novel, orally available, CNS-penetrant, ATP-competitive small-molecule inhibitor of ALK/ROS1. In vitro, PF-06463922 exhibited subnanomolar cellular potency against oncogenic ROS1 fusions and inhibited the crizotinib-refractory ROS1(G2032R) mutation and the ROS1(G2026M) gatekeeper mutation. Compared with crizotinib and the second-generation ALK/ROS1 inhibitors ceritinib and alectinib, PF-06463922 showed significantly improved inhibitory activity against ROS1 kinase. A crystal structure of the PF-06463922-ROS1 kinase complex revealed favorable interactions contributing to the high-affinity binding. In vivo, PF-06463922 showed marked antitumor activity in tumor models expressing FIG-ROS1, CD74-ROS1, and the CD74-ROS1(G2032R) mutation. Furthermore, PF-06463922 demonstrated antitumor activity in a genetically engineered mouse model of FIG-ROS1 glioblastoma. Taken together, our results indicate that PF-06463922 has potential for treating ROS1 fusion-positive cancers, including those requiring agents with CNS-penetrating properties, as well as for overcoming crizotinib resistance driven by ROS1 mutation. PMID:25733882

  7. Philip Glass, Scott Walker ja Sigur Ros! / Immo Mihkelson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mihkelson, Immo, 1959-

    2007-01-01

    Pimedate Ööde 11. filmifestivali muusikafilme - Austraalia "Glass: Philipi portree 12 osas" (rež. Scott Hicks), Islandi "Sigur Ros kodus" (rež. Dean DeBois), Suurbritannia "Scott Walker: 30 Century Man" (rež. Stephen Kijak)

  8. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species: which ROS signals cardioprotection?

    OpenAIRE

    Garlid, Anders O.; Jaburek, Martin; Jacobs, Jeremy P.; Garlid, Keith D.

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondria are the major effectors of cardioprotection by procedures that open the mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channel (mitoKATP), including ischemic and pharmacological preconditioning. MitoKATP opening leads to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), which then activate a mitoKATP-associated PKC?, which phosphorylates mitoKATP and leaves it in a persistent open state (Costa AD, Garlid KD. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 295, H874–H882, 2008). The ROS responsible for this effect...

  9. Aged Garlic Extract Reduces ROS Production and Cell Death Induced by 6-Hydroxydopamine through Activation of the Nrf2-ARE Pathway in SH-SY5Y Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Fukuuchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many degenerative or pathological processes, such as aging, cancer and coronary heart disease, are related to reactive oxygen species (ROS and radical-mediated reactions. We examined the effectiveness of aged garlic extract (AGE, a garlic preparation rich in water-soluble cysteinyl moieties, for protection of cells from ROS produced by 6-hydroxy-dopamine (6-OHDA using human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Concomitant treatment of cells with AGE (2 and 4 mg/ml showed the dose-dependent protective effect on the cell death induced by 6-OHDA. In addition, the AGE treatment significantly suppressed the increase of ROS generation by 6-OHDA. Furthermore, the protective effect of AGE was accompanied by activation of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2-antioxidant response element (ARE pathway and the increase of mRNAs of heme oxygenase-1 and NAD(PH quinone oxidoreductase 1. These two enzymes are important in the cellular antioxidant system. These results indicated that AGE protected cells from ROS damage by not only capturing ROS directly but also activating the cellular antioxidant system by stimulating antioxidant gene expression via the Nrf2-ARE pathway. The present study suggested that AGE may be useful for prevention and treatment of cell damage caused by ROS.

  10. MITOCHONDRIAL REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES (ROS AS SIGNALLING MOLECULES OF INTRACELLULAR PATHWAYS TRIGGERED BY THE CARDIAC RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN II-ALDOSTERONE SYSTEM (RAAS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ErnestoAlejandroAiello

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria represent major sources of basal reactive oxygen species (ROS production of the cardiomyocyte. The role of ROS as signalling molecules that mediate different intracellular pathways has gained increasing interest among physiologists in the last years. In our lab, we have been studying the participation of mitochondrial ROS in the intracellular pathways triggered by the renin-angiotensin II-aldosterone system (RAAS in the myocardium during the past few years. We have demonstrated that acute activation of cardiac RAAS induces mitochondrial ATP-dependent potassium channel (mitoKATP opening with the consequent enhanced production of mitochondrial ROS. These oxidant molecules, in turn, activate membrane transporters, as sodium/hydrogen exchanger (NHE-1 and sodium/bicarbonate cotransporter (NBC via the stimulation of the ROS-sensitive MAPK cascade. The stimulation of such effectors leads to an increase in cardiac contractility. In addition, it is feasible to suggest that a sustained enhanced production of mitochondrial ROS induced by chronic cardiac RAAS, and hence, chronic NHE-1 and NBC stimulation, would also result in the development of cardiac hypertrophy.

  11. Cadmium induces autophagy through ROS-dependent activation of the LKB1-AMPK signaling in skin epidermal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium is a toxic heavy metal which is environmentally and occupationally relevant. The mechanisms underlying cadmium-induced autophagy are not yet completely understood. The present study shows that cadmium induces autophagy, as demonstrated by the increase of LC3-II formation and the GFP-LC3 puncta cells. The induction of autophagosomes was directly visualized by electron microscopy in cadmium-exposed skin epidermal cells. Blockage of LKB1 or AMPK by siRNA transfection suppressed cadmium-induced autophagy. Cadmium-induced autophagy was inhibited in dominant-negative AMPK-transfected cells, whereas it was accelerated in cells transfected with the constitutively active form of AMPK. mTOR signaling, a negative regulator of autophagy, was downregulated in cadmium-exposed cells. In addition, cadmium generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) at relatively low levels, and caused poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP) activation and ATP depletion. Inhibition of PARP by pharmacological inhibitors or its siRNA transfection suppressed ATP reduction and autophagy in cadmium-exposed cells. Furthermore, cadmium-induced autophagy signaling was attenuated by either exogenous addition of catalase and superoxide dismutase, or by overexpression of these enzymes. Consequently, these results suggest that cadmium-mediated ROS generation causes PARP activation and energy depletion, and eventually induces autophagy through the activation of LKB1-AMPK signaling and the down-regulation of mTOR signaling and the down-regulation of mTOR in skin epidermal cells. - Highlights: ? Cadmium, a toxic heavy metal, induces autophagic cell death through ROS-dependent activation of the LKB1-AMPK signaling. ? Cadmium generates intracellular ROS at low levels and this leads to severe DNA damage and PARP activation, resulting in ATP depletion, which are the upstream events of LKB1-AMPK-mediated autophagy. ? This novel finding may contribute to further understanding of cadmium-mediated diseases.

  12. Transcriptomic profiling of linolenic acid-responsive genes in ROS signaling from RNA-seq data in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata-Pérez, Capilla; Sánchez-Calvo, Beatriz; Begara-Morales, Juan C; Luque, Francisco; Jiménez-Ruiz, Jaime; Padilla, María N; Fierro-Risco, Jesús; Valderrama, Raquel; Fernández-Ocaña, Ana; Corpas, Francisco J; Barroso, Juan B

    2015-01-01

    Linolenic acid (Ln) released from chloroplast membrane galactolipids is a precursor of the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA). The involvement of this hormone in different plant biological processes, such as responses to biotic stress conditions, has been extensively studied. However, the role of Ln in the regulation of gene expression during abiotic stress situations mediated by cellular redox changes and/or by oxidative stress processes remains poorly understood. An RNA-seq approach has increased our knowledge of the interplay among Ln, oxidative stress and ROS signaling that mediates abiotic stress conditions. Transcriptome analysis with the aid of RNA-seq in the absence of oxidative stress revealed that the incubation of Arabidopsis thaliana cell suspension cultures (ACSC) with Ln resulted in the modulation of 7525 genes, of which 3034 genes had a 2-fold-change, being 533 up- and 2501 down-regulated genes, respectively. Thus, RNA-seq data analysis showed that an important set of these genes were associated with the jasmonic acid biosynthetic pathway including lypoxygenases (LOXs) and Allene oxide cyclases (AOCs). In addition, several transcription factor families involved in the response to biotic stress conditions (pathogen attacks or herbivore feeding), such as WRKY, JAZ, MYC, and LRR were also modified in response to Ln. However, this study also shows that Ln has the capacity to modulate the expression of genes involved in the response to abiotic stress conditions, particularly those mediated by ROS signaling. In this regard, we were able to identify new targets such as galactinol synthase 1 (GOLS1), methionine sulfoxide reductase (MSR) and alkenal reductase in ACSC. It is therefore possible to suggest that, in the absence of any oxidative stress, Ln is capable of modulating new sets of genes involved in the signaling mechanism mediated by additional abiotic stresses (salinity, UV and high light intensity) and especially in stresses mediated by ROS. PMID:25852698

  13. Transcriptomic profiling of linolenic acid-responsive genes in ROS signaling from RNA-seq data in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata-Pérez, Capilla; Sánchez-Calvo, Beatriz; Begara-Morales, Juan C.; Luque, Francisco; Jiménez-Ruiz, Jaime; Padilla, María N.; Fierro-Risco, Jesús; Valderrama, Raquel; Fernández-Ocaña, Ana; Corpas, Francisco J.; Barroso, Juan B.

    2015-01-01

    Linolenic acid (Ln) released from chloroplast membrane galactolipids is a precursor of the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA). The involvement of this hormone in different plant biological processes, such as responses to biotic stress conditions, has been extensively studied. However, the role of Ln in the regulation of gene expression during abiotic stress situations mediated by cellular redox changes and/or by oxidative stress processes remains poorly understood. An RNA-seq approach has increased our knowledge of the interplay among Ln, oxidative stress and ROS signaling that mediates abiotic stress conditions. Transcriptome analysis with the aid of RNA-seq in the absence of oxidative stress revealed that the incubation of Arabidopsis thaliana cell suspension cultures (ACSC) with Ln resulted in the modulation of 7525 genes, of which 3034 genes had a 2-fold-change, being 533 up- and 2501 down-regulated genes, respectively. Thus, RNA-seq data analysis showed that an important set of these genes were associated with the jasmonic acid biosynthetic pathway including lypoxygenases (LOXs) and Allene oxide cyclases (AOCs). In addition, several transcription factor families involved in the response to biotic stress conditions (pathogen attacks or herbivore feeding), such as WRKY, JAZ, MYC, and LRR were also modified in response to Ln. However, this study also shows that Ln has the capacity to modulate the expression of genes involved in the response to abiotic stress conditions, particularly those mediated by ROS signaling. In this regard, we were able to identify new targets such as galactinol synthase 1 (GOLS1), methionine sulfoxide reductase (MSR) and alkenal reductase in ACSC. It is therefore possible to suggest that, in the absence of any oxidative stress, Ln is capable of modulating new sets of genes involved in the signaling mechanism mediated by additional abiotic stresses (salinity, UV and high light intensity) and especially in stresses mediated by ROS. PMID:25852698

  14. Inhibition of Telomerase Activity by Oleanane Triterpenoid CDDO-Me in Pancreatic Cancer Cells is ROS-Dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash C. Gautam

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Methyl-2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11-dien-28-oate (CDDO-Me is a synthetic derivative of oleanolic acid, a triterpene, with apoptosis-inducing activity in a wide range of cancer cells. Induction of apoptosis by CDDO-Me is associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and inhibition of telomerase activity. In the present study, we investigated the role of ROS in inhibition of telomerase by CDDO-me. Treatment of MiaPaCa-2 and Panc-1 pancreatic cancer cell lines with CDDO-Me induced the production of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anions and inhibited the telomerase activity. Pretreatment of cells with N-acetylcycsteine, a general purpose antioxidant or overexpression of glutathione peroxidase (GPx or superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD-1 blocked the telomerase inhibitory activity of CDDO-Me. Furthermore, blocking ROS generation also prevented the inhibition of hTERT gene expression, hTERT protein production and expression of a number of hTERT–regulatory proteins by CDDO-Me (e.g., c-Myc, Sp1, NF-?B and p-Akt. Data also showed that Akt plays an important role in the activation of telomerase activity. Together, these data suggest that inhibition of telomerase activity by CDDO-Me is mediated through a ROS-dependent mechanism; however, more work is needed to fully understand the role of ROS in down-regulation of hTERT gene and hTERT-regulatory proteins by CDDO-Me.

  15. Cadmium induces carcinogenesis in BEAS-2B cells through ROS-dependent activation of PI3K/AKT/GSK-3?/?-catenin signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Young-Ok; Wang, Lei; Poyil, Pratheeshkumar; Budhraja, Amit; Hitron, J. Andrew; Zhang, Zhuo [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Lee, Jeong-Chae [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); School of Dentistry and Institute of Oral Biosciences (BK21 program), Research Center of Bioactive Materials, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Shi, Xianglin, E-mail: xshi5@email.uky.edu [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Cadmium has been widely used in industry and is known to be carcinogenic to humans. Although it is widely accepted that chronic exposure to cadmium increases the incidence of cancer, the mechanisms underlying cadmium-induced carcinogenesis are unclear. The main aim of this study was to investigate the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cadmium-induced carcinogenesis and the signal transduction pathways involved. Chronic exposure of human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells to cadmium induced cell transformation, as evidenced by anchorage-independent growth in soft agar and clonogenic assays. Chronic cadmium treatment also increased the potential of these cells to invade and migrate. Injection of cadmium-stimulated cells into nude mice resulted in the formation of tumors. In contrast, the cadmium-mediated increases in colony formation, cell invasion and migration were prevented by transfection with catalase, superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1), or SOD2. In particular, chronic cadmium exposure led to activation of signaling cascades involving PI3K, AKT, GSK-3?, and ?-catenin and transfection with each of the above antioxidant enzymes markedly inhibited cadmium-mediated activation of these signaling proteins. Inhibitors specific for AKT or ?-catenin almost completely suppressed the cadmium-mediated increase in total and active ?-catenin proteins and colony formation. Moreover, there was a marked induction of AKT, GSK-3?, ?-catenin, and carcinogenic markers in tumor tissues formed in mice after injection with cadmium-stimulated cells. Collectively, our findings suggest a direct involvement of ROS in cadmium-induced carcinogenesis and implicate a role of AKT/GSK-3?/?-catenin signaling in this process. -- Highlights: ? Chronic exposure to cadmium induces carcinogenic properties in BEAS-2B cells. ? ROS involved in cadmium-induced tumorigenicity of BEAS-2B cells. ? Cadmium activates ROS-dependent AKT/GSK-3?/?-catenin-mediated signaling. ? ROS-dependent signaling as potential therapeutic targets in cadmium carcinogenesis.

  16. Cadmium induces carcinogenesis in BEAS-2B cells through ROS-dependent activation of PI3K/AKT/GSK-3?/?-catenin signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium has been widely used in industry and is known to be carcinogenic to humans. Although it is widely accepted that chronic exposure to cadmium increases the incidence of cancer, the mechanisms underlying cadmium-induced carcinogenesis are unclear. The main aim of this study was to investigate the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cadmium-induced carcinogenesis and the signal transduction pathways involved. Chronic exposure of human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells to cadmium induced cell transformation, as evidenced by anchorage-independent growth in soft agar and clonogenic assays. Chronic cadmium treatment also increased the potential of these cells to invade and migrate. Injection of cadmium-stimulated cells into nude mice resulted in the formation of tumors. In contrast, the cadmium-mediated increases in colony formation, cell invasion and migration were prevented by transfection with catalase, superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1), or SOD2. In particular, chronic cadmium exposure led to activation of signaling cascades involving PI3K, AKT, GSK-3?, and ?-catenin and transfection with each of the above antioxidant enzymes markedly inhibited cadmium-mediated activation of these signaling proteins. Inhibitors specific for AKT or ?-catenin almost completely suppressed the cadmium-mediated increase in total and active ?-catenin proteins and colony formation. Moreover, there was a marked induction of AKT, GSK-3?, ?-catenin, and carcinogenic markers in tumor tissues formed in mice after injection with cadmium-stimulated cells. Collectively, our findings suggest a direct involvement of ROS in cadmium-induced carcinogenesis and implicate a role of AKT/GSK-3?/?-catenin signaling in this process. -- Highlights: ? Chronic exposure to cadmium induces carcinogenic properties in BEAS-2B cells. ? ROS involved in cadmium-induced tumorigenicity of BEAS-2B cells. ? Cadmium activates ROS-dependent AKT/GSK-3?/?-catenin-mediated signaling. ? ROS-dependent signaling as potential therapeutic targets in cadmium carcinogenesis.

  17. NADPH oxidase/ROS-dependent PYK2 activation is involved in TNF-?-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in rat heart-derived H9c2 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Chuen-Mao, E-mail: chuenmao@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology and Health Aging Research Center, Chang Gung University, Kwei-San, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan (China); Heart Failure Center, Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Keelung, Keelung, Taiwan (China); Lee, I-Ta [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology and Health Aging Research Center, Chang Gung University, Kwei-San, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan (China); Department of Anesthetics, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou and College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Kwei-San, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Ru-Chun; Chi, Pei-Ling; Hsiao, Li-Der [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology and Health Aging Research Center, Chang Gung University, Kwei-San, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan (China)

    2013-10-15

    TNF-? plays a mediator role in the pathogenesis of chronic heart failure contributing to cardiac remodeling and peripheral vascular disturbances. The implication of TNF-? in inflammatory responses has been shown to be mediated through up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). However, the detailed mechanisms of TNF-?-induced MMP-9 expression in rat embryonic-heart derived H9c2 cells are largely not defined. We demonstrated that in H9c2 cells, TNF-? induced MMP-9 mRNA and protein expression associated with an increase in the secretion of pro-MMP-9. TNF-?-mediated responses were attenuated by pretreatment with the inhibitor of ROS (N-acetyl-L-cysteine, NAC), NADPH oxidase [apocynin (APO) or diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI)], MEK1/2 (U0126), p38 MAPK (SB202190), JNK1/2 (SP600125), NF-?B (Bay11-7082), or PYK2 (PF-431396) and transfection with siRNA of TNFR1, p47{sup phox}, p42, p38, JNK1, p65, or PYK2. Moreover, TNF-? markedly induced NADPH oxidase-derived ROS generation in these cells. TNF-?-enhanced p42/p44 MAPK, p38 MAPK, JNK1/2, and NF-?B (p65) phosphorylation and in vivo binding of p65 to the MMP-9 promoter were inhibited by U0126, SB202190, SP600125, NAC, DPI, or APO. In addition, TNF-?-mediated PYK2 phosphorylation was inhibited by NAC, DPI, or APO. PYK2 inhibition could reduce TNF-?-stimulated MAPKs and NF-?B activation. Thus, in H9c2 cells, we are the first to show that TNF-?-induced MMP-9 expression is mediated through a TNFR1/NADPH oxidase/ROS/PYK2/MAPKs/NF-?B cascade. We demonstrated that NADPH oxidase-derived ROS generation is involved in TNF-?-induced PYK2 activation in these cells. Understanding the regulation of MMP-9 expression and NADPH oxidase activation by TNF-? on H9c2 cells may provide potential therapeutic targets of chronic heart failure. - Highlights: • TNF-? induces MMP-9 secretion and expression via a TNFR1-dependent pathway. • TNF-? induces ROS/PYK2-dependent MMP-9 expression in H9c2 cells. • TNF-? induces MMP-9 expression via a NADPH oxidase/ROS-dependent NF-?B signaling. • TNF-? activates MAPK phosphorylation through NADPH oxidase/ROS generation.

  18. NADPH oxidase/ROS-dependent PYK2 activation is involved in TNF-?-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in rat heart-derived H9c2 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TNF-? plays a mediator role in the pathogenesis of chronic heart failure contributing to cardiac remodeling and peripheral vascular disturbances. The implication of TNF-? in inflammatory responses has been shown to be mediated through up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). However, the detailed mechanisms of TNF-?-induced MMP-9 expression in rat embryonic-heart derived H9c2 cells are largely not defined. We demonstrated that in H9c2 cells, TNF-? induced MMP-9 mRNA and protein expression associated with an increase in the secretion of pro-MMP-9. TNF-?-mediated responses were attenuated by pretreatment with the inhibitor of ROS (N-acetyl-L-cysteine, NAC), NADPH oxidase [apocynin (APO) or diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI)], MEK1/2 (U0126), p38 MAPK (SB202190), JNK1/2 (SP600125), NF-?B (Bay11-7082), or PYK2 (PF-431396) and transfection with siRNA of TNFR1, p47phox, p42, p38, JNK1, p65, or PYK2. Moreover, TNF-? markedly induced NADPH oxidase-derived ROS generation in these cells. TNF-?-enhanced p42/p44 MAPK, p38 MAPK, JNK1/2, and NF-?B (p65) phosphorylation and in vivo binding of p65 to the MMP-9 promoter were inhibited by U0126, SB202190, SP600125, NAC, DPI, or APO. In addition, TNF-?-mediated PYK2 phosphorylation was inhibited by NAC, DPI, or APO. PYK2 inhibition could reduce TNF-?-stimulated MAPKs and NF-?B activation. Thus, in H9c2 cells, we are the first to show that TNF-?-induced MMP-9 expression is mediated through a TNFR1/NADPH oxidase/ROS/PYK2/MAPKs/NF-?B cascade. We demonstrated that NADPH oxidase-derived ROS generation is involved in TNF-?-induced PYK2 activation in these cells. Understanding the regulation of MMP-9 expression and NADPH oxidase activation by TNF-? on H9c2 cells may provide potential therapeutic targets of chronic heart failure. - Highlights: • TNF-? induces MMP-9 secretion and expression via a TNFR1-dependent pathway. • TNF-? induces ROS/PYK2-dependent MMP-9 expression in H9c2 cells. • TNF-? induces MMP-9 expression via a NADPH oxidase/ROS-dependent NF-?B signaling. • TNF-? activates MAPK phosphorylation through NADPH oxidase/ROS generation

  19. Neoalbaconol induces cell death through necroptosis by regulating RIPK-dependent autocrine TNF? and ROS production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xinfang; Deng, Qipan; Li, Wei; Xiao, Lanbo; Luo, Xiangjian; Liu, Xiaolan; Yang, Lifang; Peng, Songling; Ding, Zhihui; Feng, Tao; Zhou, Jian; Fan, Jia; Bode, Ann M; Dong, Zigang; Liu, Jikai; Cao, Ya

    2015-02-10

    Necroptosis/regulated necrosis is a caspase-independent, but receptor interacting protein kinase (RIPK)-dependent form of cell death. In previous studies, neoalbaconol (NA), a constituent extracted from Albatrellus confluens, was demonstrated to induce necroptosis in some cancer cell lines. The molecular mechanism of NA-induced necroptosis is described in this research study. We determined that NA-induced cell death is partly dependent on tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?) feed-forward signaling. More importantly, NA abolished the ubiquitination of RIPK1 by down-regulating E3 ubiquitin ligases, cellular inhibitors of apoptosis protein 1/2 (cIAP1/2) and TNF? receptor-associated factors (TRAFs). The suppression of RIPK1 ubiquitination induced the activation of the non-canonical nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) pathway and stimulated the transcription of TNF?. Moreover, we also found that NA caused RIPK3-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and contribution to cell death. Taken together, these results suggested that two distinct mechanisms are involved in NA-induced necroptosis and include RIPK1/NF-?B-dependent expression of TNF? and RIPK3-dependent generation of ROS. PMID:25575821

  20. 2, 3, 7, 8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin induces premature senescence of astrocytes via WNT/?-catenin signaling and ROS production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xiaoke; Liang, Lingwei; Xi, Hanqing; Jiang, Shengyang; Jiang, Junkang; Tang, Cuiying; Liu, Xipeng; Liu, Suyi; Wan, Chunhua; Zhao, Jianya; Yang, Jianbin

    2015-07-01

    2, 3, 7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant that could exert significant neurotoxicity in the human nervous system. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanism underlying TCDD-mediated neurotoxicity has not been clarified clearly. Herein, we investigated the potential role of TCDD in facilitating premature senescence in astrocytes and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Using the senescence-associated ?-galactosidase (SA-?-Gal) assay, we demonstrated that TCDD exposure triggered significant premature senescence of astrocyte cells, which was accompanied by a marked activation of the Wingless and int (WNT)/?-catenin signaling pathway. In addition, TCDD altered the expression of senescence marker proteins, such as p16, p21 and GFAP, which together have been reported to be upregulated in aging astrocytes, in both dose- and time-dependent manners. Further, TCDD led to cell-cycle arrest, F-actin reorganization and the accumulation of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Moreover, the ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC) markedly attenuated TCDD-induced ROS production, cellular oxidative damage and astrocyte senescence. Notably, the application of XAV939, an inhibitor of WNT/?-catenin signaling pathway, ameliorated the effect of TCDD on cellular ?-catenin level, ROS production, cellular oxidative damage and premature senescence in astrocytes. In summary, our findings indicated that TCDD might induce astrocyte senescence via WNT/?-catenin and ROS-dependent mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25382668

  1. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species: which ROS signals cardioprotection?.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Garlid, A. O.; Jab?rek, Martin; Jacobs, J. P.; Garlid, K. D.

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 305, ?. 7 (2013), H960-H968. ISSN 0363-6135 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME09018; GA ?R(CZ) GAP301/11/0662 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : KATP channels * ROS signaling * cardiac ischemia * cardioportection * mitochondria Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.012, year: 2013

  2. Kuula : Sigur Ros rokiklubis. Kammemuusikat Tallinnas. Loomade reekviem

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    23. aug. esineb Tallinna rokiklubis Rock Café islandi bänd Sigur Ros. Pille Lille muusikute toetusfondi korraldatavast Tallinna Kammermuusika festivalist 17.-23. aug. Tallinna Rootsi Mihkli kirikus, Raekojas ja Jaani kirkus (vt. www.plmf.ee). Kontserdist Nargen Festivali raames 30. ja 31. aug. Tallinna loomaaias

  3. Photosensitizing nanoparticles and the modulation of ROS generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Dayane B; Baptista, Mauricio S

    2015-01-01

    The association of PhotoSensitizer (PS) molecules with nanoparticles (NPs) forming photosensitizing NPs, has emerged as a therapeutic strategy to improve PS tumor targeting, to protect PS from deactivation reactions and to enhance both PS solubility and circulation time. Since association with NPs usually alters PS photophysical and photochemical properties, photosensitizing NPs are an important tool to modulate ROS generation. Depending on the design of the photosensitizing NP, i.e., type of PS, the NP material and the method applied for the construction of the photosensitizing NP, the deactivation routes of the excited state can be controlled, allowing the generation of either singlet oxygen or other reactive oxygen species (ROS). Controlling the type of generated ROS is desirable not only in biomedical applications, as in Photodynamic Therapy where the type of ROS affects therapeutic efficiency, but also in other technological relevant fields like energy conversion, where the electron and energy transfer processes are necessary to increase the efficiency of photoconversion cells. The current review highlights some of the recent developments in the design of Photosensitizing NPs aimed at modulating the primary photochemical events after light absorption. PMID:26075198

  4. The interplay between autophagy and ROS in tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VassilikiKarantza

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS at physiological levels are important cell signaling molecules. However, aberrantly high ROS are intimately associated with disease and commonly observed in cancer. Mitochondria are primary sources of intracellular ROS, and their maintenance is essential to cellular health. Autophagy, an evolutionarily conserved process whereby cytoplasmic components are delivered to lysosomes for degradation, is responsible for mitochondrial turnover and removal of damaged mitochondria. Impaired autophagy is implicated in many pathological conditions, including neurological disorders, inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes, aging and cancer. The first reports connecting autophagy to cancer showed that allelic loss of the essential autophagy gene BECLIN1 (BECN1 is prevalent in human breast, ovarian and prostate cancers and that Becn1+/- mice develop mammary gland hyperplasias, lymphomas, and lung and liver tumors. Subsequent studies demonstrated that Atg5-/- and Atg7-/- livers give rise to adenomas, Atg4-/- mice are susceptible to chemical carcinogenesis, and Bif1-/- mice are prone to spontaneous tumors, indicating that autophagy defects promote tumorigenesis. Due to defective mitophagy, autophagy-deficient cells accumulate damaged mitochondria and deregulated ROS levels, which likely contribute to their tumor-initiating capacity. However, the role of autophagy in tumorigenesis is complex, as more recent work also revealed tumor dependence on autophagy: autophagy-competent mutant-Ras-expressing cells form tumors more efficiently than their autophagy-deficient counterparts; similarly, FIP200 deficiency suppresses PyMT-driven mammary tumorigenesis. These latter findings are attributed to the fact that tumors driven by powerful oncogenes have high metabolic demands catered to by autophagy. In this review, we discuss the relationship between ROS and autophagy and summarize our current knowledge on their functional interactions in tumorigenesis.

  5. Ligation of CD47 induces G1 arrest in EBV-transformed B cells through ROS generation, p38 MAPK/JNK activation, and Tap73 upregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ga Bin; Bang, Si Ra; Lee, Hyun-Kyung; Kim, Daejin; Kim, Seonghan; Kim, Jin Kyoung; Kim, Yeong Seok; Hur, Dae Young

    2014-01-01

    CD47 is expressed in normal activated cells as well as in several tumors. It also has been implicated as having antiangiogenic and antimetastatic properties, but its roles in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed B cells are still not fully understood. Herein, we report that EBV infection induced CD47 surface expression on B cells, and CD47 ligation with anti-CD47 mAb (B6H12) reduced cell proliferation and induced G1 arrest. CD47-induced G1 arrest was mediated through increased cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKi) and a simultaneously decreased CDK/cyclins, and p38 MAPK/JNK activation preceded binding of CDKi-CDK. Moreover, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and upregulation of both TAp73 and ER stress sensor proteins were detected after CD47 ligation, and p38 inhibitor SB203580 and JNK inhibitor SP600125 blocked upregulation of TAp73 and cell cycle arrest. We investigated whether ROS generation is the initial event of CD47-mediated G1 arrest because ROS scavenger NAC effectively abrogated the majority of CD47-mediated responses but SB203580 and SP600125 did not block ROS production. Taken together, we concluded that CD47 ligation on EBV-transformed B cells led to G1 arrest by ROS generation and, subsequently, there was p38 MAPK/JNK pathway activation, ER stress triggering, and TAp73 upregulation. Our findings provide data supporting CD47 as a feasible target for EBV-associated tumor therapy. PMID:24911792

  6. MAPK14/p38?-dependent modulation of glucose metabolism affects ROS levels and autophagy during starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desideri, Enrico; Vegliante, Rolando; Cardaci, Simone; Nepravishta, Ridvan; Paci, Maurizio; Ciriolo, Maria Rosa

    2014-09-01

    Increased glycolytic flux is a common feature of many cancer cells, which have adapted their metabolism to maximize glucose incorporation and catabolism to generate ATP and substrates for biosynthetic reactions. Indeed, glycolysis allows a rapid production of ATP and provides metabolic intermediates required for cancer cells growth. Moreover, it makes cancer cells less sensitive to fluctuations of oxygen tension, a condition usually occurring in a newly established tumor environment. Here, we provide evidence for a dual role of MAPK14 in driving a rearrangement of glucose metabolism that contributes to limiting reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and autophagy activation in condition of nutrient deprivation. We demonstrate that MAPK14 is phosphoactivated during nutrient deprivation and affects glucose metabolism at 2 different levels: on the one hand, it increases SLC2A3 mRNA and protein levels, resulting in a higher incorporation of glucose within the cell. This event involves the MAPK14-mediated enhancement of HIF1A protein stability. On the other hand, MAPK14 mediates a metabolic shift from glycolysis to the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) through the modulation of PFKFB3 (6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose 2,6-bisphosphatase 3) degradation by the proteasome. This event requires the presence of 2 distinct degradation sequences, KEN box and DSG motif Ser273, which are recognized by 2 different E3 ligase complexes. The mutation of either motif increases PFKFB3 resistance to starvation-induced degradation. The MAPK14-driven metabolic reprogramming sustains the production of NADPH, an important cofactor for many reduction reactions and for the maintenance of the proper intracellular redox environment, resulting in reduced levels of ROS. The final effect is a reduced activation of autophagy and an increased resistance to nutrient deprivation. PMID:25046111

  7. Clinical Significance of ROS1 Rearrangements in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luting XU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal rearrangements involving the ROS1 receptor tyrosine kinase gene have recently been described in multiple malignancies, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. ROS1 rearrangement defines a new molecular subset of NSCLC with the prevalence of ROS1 rearrangements around 1%-2%. ROS1-positive NSCLCs arise in young never-smokers with adenocarcinoma that are similar to those observed in patients with ALK-rearranged NSCLC. Crizotinib demonstrates in vitro activity and early clinical trial shows marked antitumor activity in ROS1-rearranged patients. The overall response rate is around 56% and the disease control rate at 8 weeks is about 76%. Further understanding the ROS1 fusions in the pathogenesis of NSCLC, methods to detect ROS1 rearrangements, and targeting ROS1-rearranged NSCLC patients with specific kinase inhibitors would lead to an era of personalized medicine.

  8. ROS1 gene rearrangement and copy number gain in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yan; Sun, Ping-Li; Kim, Hyojin; Park, Eunhyang; Shim, Hyo Sup; Jheon, Sanghoon; Kim, Kwhanmien; Lee, Choon-Taek; Chung, Jin-Haeng

    2015-01-01

    ROS1 has attracted much attention as a possible oncogenic driver and ROS1-rearranged tumors show sensitivity to most ALK inhibitors. We aimed to clarify the prevalence of ROS1 gene rearrangement and investigate the clinical implications of ROS1 gene copy number gain (CNG) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. We carried out fluorescent in situ hybridization with ROS1 and centromere enumeration 6 probes and immunohistochemistry for ROS1 protein expression. ROS1 rearrangement was detected in 3 of 375 samples (0.8 %); all of whom were female, never-smokers, and harbored an adenocarcinoma component. ROS1 gene CNG was found in 18 cases (4.8 %). ROS1 gene CNG was significantly associated with shorter disease-free survival (DFS, 12 vs. 58 months; p = 0.003) and shorter overall survival (OS, 40 vs. 67 months; p CNG. Multivariate analysis confirmed that ROS1 gene CNG was significantly associated with poorer DFS (hazard ratio [HR]=2.16, 95 % confidence interval [CI] = 1.22-3.81, p = 0.008), and OS ([HR] = 2.53, 95 % [CI] = 1.31-4.89, p = 0.006). ROS1 protein overexpression was observed in 5.0 % (18 out of 357), of which 2 cases harbored ROS1 gene rearrangement. There was no statistically significant correlation between ROS1 gene CNG and protein overexpression. This study demonstrated ROS1 gene rearrangement was detected in 0.8 % of surgically resected NSCLC; and ROS1 gene CNG is an independent poor prognostic factor. This survival analyses may contribute to future studies on the utility of ROS1-targeted therapy for patients. PMID:25374304

  9. The role of mitochondrial complex III in melatonin induced ROS production in cultured mesangial cells

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG, HONG-MEI; Zhang, Yi-Qiang; Zhang, Bin-Xian

    2010-01-01

    Melatonin is a potent scavenger of reactive oxygen (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). At pharmacological concentrations, however, melatonin is documented to cause ROS/RNS production, especially in cultured cancerous cells. Currently, the mechanism responsible for melatonin-induced ROS generation remains elusive. In this study, we provide evidence that melatonin, at micromolar concentrations induced rapid ROS generation by a mitochondrial dependent mechanism in primary human mesangial ...

  10. Overview of ALK and ROS1 Rearranged Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Chang Min

    2013-01-01

    Many attempts have been made to find genetic abnormalities inducing carcinogenesis after the development of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting EGFR in lung cancer. New target therapies have been already commercialized and studied along with the recent discovery of gene rearrangement involved in the carcinogenic process of non-small cell lung cancer. This study aims to investigate anplastic lymphoma kinase, c-ros oncogene 1, and receptor tyrosine kinase...

  11. Klinikiniai ir anatominiai kepen? strukt?ros dali? klasifikacijos pagrindai

    OpenAIRE

    Rutkauskas, Saulius; Gedrimas, Vytautas; Pundzius, Juozas; Barauskas, Giedrius; Basevic?ius, Algidas

    2006-01-01

    Tobul?jant gyvo žmogaus kepen? vidin?s sandaros pažinimo technologijoms (ultragarsas, kompiuterin? tomografija, magnetinis branduoli? rezonansas ir kt.), pl?tojama moderni kepen? chirurgija. Prieš operacij? ar jos metu chirurgai ir radiologai gali nustatyti kepen? pažeidimo viet?, dyd?, santyk? su kraujagysl?mis ir numatyti, koki? kepen? dal? reik?s pašalinti. Tod?l gydytojai turi žinoti anatomines ir klinikines kepen? strukt?ros ypatybes. Šio vidaus organo sud?tin...

  12. Gravitropic response induced by coumarin: Evidences of ROS distribution involvement

    OpenAIRE

    Lupini, Antonio; Araniti, Fabrizio; Sunseri, Francesco; Abenavoli, Maria Rosa

    2013-01-01

    Coumarin effects on gravitropic responses of Arabidopsis thaliana roots were here evaluated. Coumarin alone did not cause any alteration on gravitropic response showing a behavior similar to control plants. In contrast, TIBA and NPA, two auxin transport inhibitors, strongly modified root gravitropic responses. The addition of coumarin to the medium together with TIBA or NPA partially restored the effect of both inhibitors. Simultaneously, a semi-quantitative evaluation of ROS distribution was...

  13. P66SHC and Ageing: ROS and TOR?

    OpenAIRE

    Pani, Giovambattista

    2010-01-01

    Both Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and hyperactivation of the nutrient-sensing mTOR/S6 kinase cascade have been linked to aging and age-related diseases as well as to the anti-aging effect of calorie restriction. Recent findings that the pro-aging and pro-oxidant molecule p66shc contributes to S6K activation by nutrients and promotes insulin resistance and d...

  14. MicroRNA-145 suppresses ROS-induced Ca{sup 2+} overload of cardiomyocytes by targeting CaMKII?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Min-Ji [Cardiovascular Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seongsanno, Seodamun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seongsanno, Seodamun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Jin-Kyung [College of Pharmacy, Sookmyung Women’s University, 52 HyoChangWon-Gil, Yongsan-ku, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of); Ham, Onju; Song, Byeong-Wook; Lee, Se-Yeon [Cardiovascular Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seongsanno, Seodamun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seongsanno, Seodamun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chang Yeon; Park, Jun-Hee [Department of Integrated Omics for Biomedical Sciences, Graduate School, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodamun-gu, Seoul 120-759 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jiyun; Seo, Hyang-Hee [Cardiovascular Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seongsanno, Seodamun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seongsanno, Seodamun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Eunhyun [Severance Integrative Research Institute for Cerebral and Cardiovascular Disease, Yonsei University Health System, 250 Seongsanno, Seodamun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Woo-min [Department of Animal Resource, Sahmyook University, Seoul 139-742 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Hye Jin [Cardiovascular Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seongsanno, Seodamun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Hyun-Taek [College of Pharmacy, Sookmyung Women’s University, 52 HyoChangWon-Gil, Yongsan-ku, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2013-06-14

    Highlights: •CaMKII? mediates H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced Ca{sup 2+} overload in cardiomyocytes. •miR-145 can inhibit Ca{sup 2+} overload. •A luciferase assay confirms that miR-145 functions as a CaMKII?-targeting miRNA. •Overexpression of miR-145 regulates CaMKII?-related genes and ameliorates apoptosis. -- Abstract: A change in intracellular free calcium (Ca{sup 2+}) is a common signaling mechanism of reperfusion-induced cardiomyocyte death. Calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a critical regulator of Ca{sup 2+} signaling and mediates signaling pathways responsible for functions in the heart including hypertrophy, apoptosis, arrhythmia, and heart disease. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are involved in the regulation of cell response, including survival, proliferation, apoptosis, and development. However, the roles of miRNAs in Ca{sup 2+}-mediated apoptosis of cardiomyocytes are uncertain. Here, we determined the potential role of miRNA in the regulation of CaMKII dependent apoptosis and explored its underlying mechanism. To determine the potential roles of miRNAs in H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-mediated Ca{sup 2+} overload, we selected and tested 6 putative miRNAs that targeted CaMKII?, and showed that miR-145 represses CaMKII? protein expression and Ca{sup 2+} overload. We confirmed CaMKII? as a direct downstream target of miR-145. Furthermore, miR-145 regulates Ca{sup 2+}-related signals and ameliorates apoptosis. This study demonstrates that miR-145 regulates reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced Ca{sup 2+} overload in cardiomyocytes. Thus, miR-145 affects ROS-mediated gene regulation and cellular injury responses.

  15. MicroRNA-145 suppresses ROS-induced Ca2+ overload of cardiomyocytes by targeting CaMKII?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •CaMKII? mediates H2O2-induced Ca2+ overload in cardiomyocytes. •miR-145 can inhibit Ca2+ overload. •A luciferase assay confirms that miR-145 functions as a CaMKII?-targeting miRNA. •Overexpression of miR-145 regulates CaMKII?-related genes and ameliorates apoptosis. -- Abstract: A change in intracellular free calcium (Ca2+) is a common signaling mechanism of reperfusion-induced cardiomyocyte death. Calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a critical regulator of Ca2+ signaling and mediates signaling pathways responsible for functions in the heart including hypertrophy, apoptosis, arrhythmia, and heart disease. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are involved in the regulation of cell response, including survival, proliferation, apoptosis, and development. However, the roles of miRNAs in Ca2+-mediated apoptosis of cardiomyocytes are uncertain. Here, we determined the potential role of miRNA in the regulation of CaMKII dependent apoptosis and explored its underlying mechanism. To determine the potential roles of miRNAs in H2O2-mediated Ca2+ overload, we selected and tested 6 putative miRNAs that targeted CaMKII?, and showed that miR-145 represses CaMKII? protein expression and Ca2+ overload. We confirmed CaMKII? as a direct downstream target of miR-145. Furthermore, miR-145 regulates Ca2+-related signals and ameliorates apoptosis. This study demonstrates that miR-145 regulates reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced Ca2+ overload in cardiomyocytes. Thus, miR-145 affects ROS-mediated gene regulation and cellular injury responses

  16. The Affordance Template ROS Package for Robot Task Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Stephen; Dinh, Paul; Hambuchen, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the Affordance Template ROS package for quickly programming, adjusting, and executing robot applications in the ROS RViz environment. This package extends the capabilities of RViz interactive markers by allowing an operator to specify multiple end-effector waypoint locations and grasp poses in object-centric coordinate frames and to adjust these waypoints in order to meet the run-time demands of the task (specifically, object scale and location). The Affordance Template package stores task specifications in a robot-agnostic XML description format such that it is trivial to apply a template to a new robot. As such, the Affordance Template package provides a robot-generic ROS tool appropriate for building semi-autonomous, manipulation-based applications. Affordance Templates were developed by the NASA-JSC DARPA Robotics Challenge (DRC) team and have since successfully been deployed on multiple platforms including the NASA Valkyrie and Robonaut 2 humanoids, the University of Texas Dreamer robot and the Willow Garage PR2. In this paper, the specification and implementation of the affordance template package is introduced and demonstrated through examples for wheel (valve) turning, pick-and-place, and drill grasping, evincing its utility and flexibility for a wide variety of robot applications.

  17. Effect of Methyl Jasmonate on antioxidative enzyme activities and on the contents of ROS and H2O2 in Ricinus communis leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Martins dos Santos Soares; Thiago Freitas de Souza; Tânia Jacinto; Olga Lima Tavares Machado

    2010-01-01

    Jasmonates are a class of plant hormones that mediate various aspects in gene and metabolic regulation, defense, stress responses, reproduction and, possibly, communication. Oxidative stress stimulates synthesis of antioxidant metabolites and enhances antioxidant enzyme activities that could protect plant tissues. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of methyl jasmonate (JAME) treatment on the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and on the activities of H2O2 scavenging enzymes, such as s...

  18. Damaged DNA Binding Protein 2 in Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS Regulation and Premature Senescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradip Raychaudhuri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Premature senescence induced by DNA damage or oncogene is a critical mechanism of tumor suppression. Reactive oxygen species (ROS have been implicated in the induction of premature senescence response. Several pathological disorders such as cancer, aging and age related neurological abnormalities have been linked to ROS deregulation. Here, we discuss how Damaged DNA binding Protein-2 (DDB2, a nucleotide excision repair protein, plays an important role in ROS regulation by epigenetically repressing the antioxidant genes MnSOD and Catalase. We further revisit a model in which DDB2 plays an instrumental role in DNA damage induced ROS accumulation, ROS induced premature senescence and inhibition of skin tumorigenesis.

  19. The histone methyltransferase inhibitor, DZNep, up-regulates TXNIP, increases ROS production, and targets leukemia cells in AML.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianbiao; Bi, Chonglei; Cheong, Lip-Lee; Mahara, Sylvia; Liu, Shaw-Cheng; Tay, Kian-Ghee; Koh, Tze-Loong; Yu, Qiang; Chng, Wee-Joo

    2011-09-01

    Recent studies have shown that 3-Deazaneplanocin A (DZNep), a histone methyltransferase inhibitor, disrupts polycomb-repressive complex 2 (PRC2), and preferentially induces apoptosis in cancer cells, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. The present study demonstrates that DZNep induces robust apoptosis in AML cell lines, primary cells, and targets CD34(+)CD38(-) leukemia stem cell (LSC)-enriched subpopulations. Using RNA interference (RNAi), gene expression profiling, and ChIP, we identified that TXNIP, a major redox control molecule, plays a crucial role in DZNep-induced apoptosis. We show that disruption of PRC2, either by DZNep treatment or EZH2 knockdown, reactivates TXNIP, inhibits thioredoxin activity, and increases reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to apoptosis. Furthermore, we show that TXNIP is down-regulated in AML and is a direct target of PRC2-mediated gene silencing. Consistent with the ROS accumulation on DZNep treatment, we also see a signature of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-regulated genes, commonly associated with cell survival, down-regulated by DZNep. Taken together, we uncover a novel molecular mechanism of DZNep-mediated apoptosis and propose that EZH2 may be a potential new target for epigenetic treatment in AML. PMID:21734239

  20. N,N-dimethyl phytosphingosine induces caspase-8-dependent cytochrome c release and apoptosis through ROS generation in human leukemia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N,N-dimethyl phytosphingosine (DMPS) blocks the conversion of sphingosine to sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) by the enzyme sphingosine kinase (SK). In this study, we elucidated the apoptotic mechanisms of DMPS action on a human leukemia cell line using functional pharmacologic and genetic approaches. First, we demonstrated that DMPS-induced apoptosis is evidenced by nuclear morphological change, distinct internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, and an increased sub-G1 cell population. DMPS treatment led to the activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, accompanied by the cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and led to cytochrome c release, depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential, and downregulation of the anti-apoptotic members of the bcl-2 family. Ectopic expression of bcl-2 and bcl-xL conferred resistance of HL-60 cells to DMPS-induced cell death, suggesting that DMPS-induced apoptosis occurs predominantly through the activation of the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. We also observed that DMPS activated the caspase-8-Bid-Bax pathway and that the inhibition of caspase-8 by z-IETD-fmk or small interfering RNA suppressed the cleavage of Bid, cytochrome c release, caspase-3 activation, and apoptotic cell death. In addition, cells subjected to DMPS exhibited significantly increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and ROS scavengers, such as quercetin and Tiron, but not N-acetylcysteine (NAC), inhibited DMPS-induced activations of caspase-8, -3 anPS-induced activations of caspase-8, -3 and subsequent apoptotic cell death, indicating the role of ROS in caspase-8-mediated apoptosis. Taken together, these results indicate that caspase-8 acts upstream of caspase-3, and that the caspase-8-mediated mitochondrial pathway is important in DMPS-induced apoptosis. Our results also suggest that ROS are critical regulators of caspase-8-mediated apoptosis in DMPS-treated leukemia cells.

  1. Advanced Query and Data Mining Capabilities for MaROS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Paul; Wallick, Michael N.; Allard, Daniel A.; Gladden, Roy E.; Hy, Franklin H.

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Relay Operational Service (MaROS) comprises a number of tools to coordinate, plan, and visualize various aspects of the Mars Relay network. These levels include a Web-based user interface, a back-end "ReSTlet" built in Java, and databases that store the data as it is received from the network. As part of MaROS, the innovators have developed and implemented a feature set that operates on several levels of the software architecture. This new feature is an advanced querying capability through either the Web-based user interface, or through a back-end REST interface to access all of the data gathered from the network. This software is not meant to replace the REST interface, but to augment and expand the range of available data. The current REST interface provides specific data that is used by the MaROS Web application to display and visualize the information; however, the returned information from the REST interface has typically been pre-processed to return only a subset of the entire information within the repository, particularly only the information that is of interest to the GUI (graphical user interface). The new, advanced query and data mining capabilities allow users to retrieve the raw data and/or to perform their own data processing. The query language used to access the repository is a restricted subset of the structured query language (SQL) that can be built safely from the Web user interface, or entered as freeform SQL by a user. The results are returned in a CSV (Comma Separated Values) format for easy exporting to third party tools and applications that can be used for data mining or user-defined visualization and interpretation. This is the first time that a service is capable of providing access to all cross-project relay data from a single Web resource. Because MaROS contains the data for a variety of missions from the Mars network, which span both NASA and ESA, the software also establishes an access control list (ACL) on each data record in the database repository to enforce user access permissions through a multilayered approach.

  2. Involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the induction of genetic instability by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) that interact with cellular molecules, including DNA, lipids, and proteins. To know how ROS contribute to the induction of genetic instability, we examined the effect of the anti-ROS condition, using both ascorbic acid phosphate (APM) treatment or a low oxygen condition, on the induction of delayed reproductive cell death and delayed chromosome aberrations. The primary surviving colonies of mouse m5S-derived cl. 2011-14 cells irradiated with 6 Gy of X-rays were replated and allowed to form secondary colonies. The anti-ROS treatments were applied to either preirradiation culture or postirradiation cultures for primary or secondary colony formation. Both anti-ROS conditions relieved X-ray-induced acute cell killing to a similar extent. These anti-ROS conditions also relieved genetic instability when those conditions were applied during primary colony formation. However, no effect was observed when the conditions were applied during preirradiation culture and secondary colony formation. We also demonstrated that the amounts of ROS in X-ray-irradiated cells rapidly increase and then decrease at 6 hr postirradiation, and the levels of ROS then gradually decrease to a baseline within 2 weeks. The APM treatment kept the ROS production at a lower level than an untreated control. These results suggest that the cause of genetic instability might be fixed by ROS during a 2-week postirradiation period. (author)ation period. (author)

  3. Superoxide flashes: elemental events of mitochondrial ROS signaling in the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianhua; Jian, Chongshu; Zhang, Xing; Huang, Zhanglong; Xu, Jiejia; Hou, Tingting; Shang, Wei; Ding, Yi; Zhang, Wanrui; Ouyang, Meng; Wang, Yuefan; Yang, Zhen; Zheng, Ming; Cheng, Heping

    2012-05-01

    The role of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mitoROS) in cellular function remains obscure. By synthesizing recent data, we propose here that local dynamic mitoROS in the form of "superoxide flashes" serve as "signaling ROS" rather than "homeostatic ROS", distinguishable from basal mitoROS due to constitutive leakage of the electron transfer chain (ETC). Individual superoxide flashes are 10-s mitoROS bursts that are compartmentalized to a single mitochondrion or local mitochondrial networks. As a highly-conserved universal mitochondrial activity, it occurs in intact cells, in ex vivo beating hearts, and even in living animals. Unlike basal mitoROS, superoxide flashes are ignited by transient openings of a type of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), and their incidence is richly regulated by an array of factors that converge on either the mPTP or ETC. Emerging evidence has shown that superoxide flashes decode dietary and metabolic status or exercise, gauge oxidative stress (e.g., during reoxygenation after hypoxia or anoxia), and constitute early mitochondrial signals that initiate oxidative stress-related apoptosis in a context-dependent manner. That they make only a miniscule contribution to global ROS attests to the high efficiency of local ROS signaling. However, the exact mechanisms underlying superoxide flash formation, regulation and function remain uncertain. Future investigation is warranted to uncover the cellular logic and molecular pathways of local dynamic mitoROS signaling in heart muscle cells and many other cell types. PMID:22405973

  4. A novel synthetic analog of militarin, MA-1 induces mitochondrial dependent apoptosis by ROS generation in human lung cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Deok Hyo; Lim, Mi-Hee [Department of Biochemistry, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yu Ran [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 301-747 (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Gi-Ho [Mushroom Research Division, National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science, Rural Development Administration, Suwon 404-707 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Tae-Ho [R and D Center, Dong-A Pharmaceutical Co, Ltd, Yongin 446-905 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Byeong Hwa [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 301-747 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jae Youl [Department of Genetic Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Won O. [Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Park, Haeil [College of Pharmacy, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sunga, E-mail: sachoi@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 301-747 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Woong, E-mail: tawkim@kangwon.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    A synthetic Militarin analog-1[(2R,3R,4R,5R)-1,6-bis(4-(2,4,4-trimethylpentan-2-yl)phenoxy) hexane-2,3,4,5-tetraol] is a novel derivative of constituents from Cordyceps militaris, which has been used to treat a variety of chronic diseases including inflammation, diabetes, hyperglycemia and cancers. Here, we report for the first time the synthesis of Militarin analog-1 (MA-1) and the apoptotic mechanism of MA-1 against human lung cancer cell lines. Treatment with MA-1 significantly inhibited the viability of 3 human lung cancer cell lines. The inhibition of viability and growth in MA-1-treated A549 cells with an IC{sub 50} of 5 ?M were mediated through apoptosis induction, as demonstrated by an increase in DNA fragmentation, sub-G{sub 0}/G{sub 1}-DNA fraction, nuclear condensation, and phosphatidylserine exposure. The apoptotic cell death caused mitochondrial membrane permeabilization through regulation of expression of the Bcl-2 family proteins, leading to cytochrome c release in a time-dependent manner. Subsequently, the final stage of apoptosis, activation of caspase-9/-3 and cleavage of poly (ADP ribose) polymerase, was induced. Furthermore, A549 lung cancer cells were more responsive to MA-1 than a bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B), involving the rapid generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation. The pharmacological inhibition of ROS generation and JNK/p38 MAPK exhibited attenuated DNA fragmentation in MA-1-induced apoptosis. Oral administration of MA-1 also retarded growth of A549 orthotopic xenografts. In conclusion, the present study indicates that the new synthetic derivative MA-1 triggers mitochondrial apoptosis through ROS generation and regulation of MAPKs and may be a potent therapeutic agent against human lung cancer. - Highlights: • We report a novel synthesized derivative, militarin analog-1 (MA-1). • MA-1-induced cancer cell death was triggered by the ROS generation through MAPKs. • The MA-1-induced cell death was also modulated by the mitochondria-mediated pathway. • The apoptotic cancer cell death by MA-1 was also exhibited in orthotopic xenografts. • Our findings suggest MA-1 as a clinically useful agent for human lung cancer.

  5. A novel synthetic analog of militarin, MA-1 induces mitochondrial dependent apoptosis by ROS generation in human lung cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A synthetic Militarin analog-1[(2R,3R,4R,5R)-1,6-bis(4-(2,4,4-trimethylpentan-2-yl)phenoxy) hexane-2,3,4,5-tetraol] is a novel derivative of constituents from Cordyceps militaris, which has been used to treat a variety of chronic diseases including inflammation, diabetes, hyperglycemia and cancers. Here, we report for the first time the synthesis of Militarin analog-1 (MA-1) and the apoptotic mechanism of MA-1 against human lung cancer cell lines. Treatment with MA-1 significantly inhibited the viability of 3 human lung cancer cell lines. The inhibition of viability and growth in MA-1-treated A549 cells with an IC50 of 5 ?M were mediated through apoptosis induction, as demonstrated by an increase in DNA fragmentation, sub-G0/G1-DNA fraction, nuclear condensation, and phosphatidylserine exposure. The apoptotic cell death caused mitochondrial membrane permeabilization through regulation of expression of the Bcl-2 family proteins, leading to cytochrome c release in a time-dependent manner. Subsequently, the final stage of apoptosis, activation of caspase-9/-3 and cleavage of poly (ADP ribose) polymerase, was induced. Furthermore, A549 lung cancer cells were more responsive to MA-1 than a bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B), involving the rapid generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation. The pharmacological inhibition of ROS generation and JNK/p38 MAPK exhibited attenuated DNA fragmentation in MA-1-induced apoptosis. Oral administration of MA-1 also retarded growth of A549 orthotopic xenografts. In conclusion, the present study indicates that the new synthetic derivative MA-1 triggers mitochondrial apoptosis through ROS generation and regulation of MAPKs and may be a potent therapeutic agent against human lung cancer. - Highlights: • We report a novel synthesized derivative, militarin analog-1 (MA-1). • MA-1-induced cancer cell death was triggered by the ROS generation through MAPKs. • The MA-1-induced cell death was also modulated by the mitochondria-mediated pathway. • The apoptotic cancer cell death by MA-1 was also exhibited in orthotopic xenografts. • Our findings suggest MA-1 as a clinically useful agent for human lung cancer

  6. Ionized gas (plasma) delivery of reactive oxygen species (ROS) into artificial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung-Ha; Szili, Endre J.; Jenkins, A. Toby A.; Short, Robert D.

    2014-09-01

    This study was designed to enhance our understanding of how reactive oxygen species (ROS), generated ex situ by ionized gas (plasma), can affect the regulation of signalling processes within cells. A model system, comprising of a suspension of phospholipid vesicles (cell mimics) encapsulating a ROS reporter, was developed to study the plasma delivery of ROS into cells. For the first time it was shown that plasma unequivocally delivers ROS into cells over a sustained period and without compromising cell membrane integrity. An important consideration in cell and biological assays is the presence of serum, which significantly reduced the transfer efficiency of ROS into the vesicles. These results are key to understanding how plasma treatments can be tailored for specific medical or biotechnology applications. Further, the phospholipid vesicle ROS reporter system may find use in other studies involving the application of free radicals in biology and medicine.

  7. Damaged DNA Binding Protein 2 in Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Regulation and Premature Senescence

    OpenAIRE

    Pradip Raychaudhuri; Srilata Bagchi; Nilotpal Roy

    2012-01-01

    Premature senescence induced by DNA damage or oncogene is a critical mechanism of tumor suppression. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the induction of premature senescence response. Several pathological disorders such as cancer, aging and age related neurological abnormalities have been linked to ROS deregulation. Here, we discuss how Damaged DNA binding Protein-2 (DDB2), a nucleotide excision repair protein, plays an important role in ROS regulation by epigenetically rep...

  8. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) as early signals in root hair cells responding to rhizobial nodulation factors

    OpenAIRE

    Cárdenas, Luis; Quinto, Carmen

    2008-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in supporting polar growth in pollen tubes, fucoid cells and root hair cells. However, there is limited evidence showing ROS changes during the earliest stages of the interaction between legume roots and rhizobia. We recently reported using Phaseolus vulgaris as a model system, the occurrence of a transient increase of ROS, within seconds, at the tip of actively growing root hair cells after treatment with Nod factors (NFs).1 This transient response ...

  9. Rho GTPases and Nox dependent ROS production in skin. Is there a connection?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanley, Alanna; Hynes, Ailish

    2012-01-01

    Rho GTPases are a family of small GTP binding proteins most commonly known for the regulation of many cellular processes, including actin cytoskeleton re-organisation, cell proliferation, signal transduction and regulation of apoptosis. Additionally, a link between Rho GTPases and reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been shown. In line with the growing interest in the role of ROS in cell biology, the relevance of this connection is becoming increasingly clearer. ROS production is classically associated with oxidative metabolic pathways (e.g. respiratory chain, arachidonic acid). During these metabolic pathways, ROS are produced as by-products and these can be potentially toxic. However, numerous cell types contain dedicated enzymatic complexes, i.e., NADPH oxidase (Nox) complexes, for regulated production of ROS. This regulated production of ROS seems to be important for a number of fundamental cell biological processes, including cell growth, differentiation, migration, angiogenesis, aimed at maintaining tissue homeostasis. Data suggests that skin cells are capable of a regulated ROS production via Nox complexes. Members of the Rho GTPase family have been found to play a central regulatory role in Nox activity. In the present review we will focus on the involvement of Rho GTPases in regulated production of ROS with special emphasis on the skin. We will also discuss the possibility that some in vivo effects of the deletion of members of the Rho GTPase family in skin cells could potentially be linked to a reduced ability of regulated ROS production.

  10. Up-regulation of ROS by mitochondria-dependent bystander signaling contributes to genotoxicity of bystander effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Shaopeng [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Zhao Ye; Zhao Guoping [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Han Wei [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Bao Lingzhi [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Yu, K.N., E-mail: peter.yu@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Wu Lijun, E-mail: ljw@ipp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2009-06-18

    Genomic instability can be observed in bystander cells. However, the underlying mechanism(s) is still relatively unclear. In a previous study, we found that irradiated cells released mitochondria-dependent intracellular factor(s) which could lead to bystander {gamma}-H2AX induction. In this paper, we used normal ({rho}{sup +}) and mtDNA-depleted ({rho}{sup 0}) human-hamster hybrid cells to investigate mitochondrial effects on the genotoxicity in bystander effect through medium transfer experiments. Through the detection of DNA double-strand breaks with {gamma}-H2AX, we found that the fraction of {gamma}-H2AX positive cells changed with time when irradiation conditioned cell medium (ICCM) were harvested. ICCM harvested from irradiated {rho}{sup +} cells at 10 min post-irradiation ({rho}{sup +} ICCM{sub 10min}) caused larger increases of bystander {gamma}-H2AX induction comparing to {rho}{sup 0} ICCM{sub 10min}, which only caused a slight increase of bystander {gamma}-H2AX induction. The {rho}{sup +} ICCM{sub 10min} could also result in the up-regulation of ROS production (increased by 35% at 10 min), while there was no significant increase in cells treated with {rho}{sup 0} ICCM{sub 10min}. We treated cells with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), the scavenger of ROS, and quenched {gamma}-H2AX induction by {rho}{sup +} ICCM. Furthermore, after the medium had been transferred and the cells were continuously cultured for 7 days, we found significantly increased CD59{sup -} gene loci mutation (increased by 45.9%) and delayed cell death in the progeny of {rho}{sup +} ICCM-treated bystander cells. In conclusion, the work presented here suggested that up-regulation of the mitochondria-dependent ROS might be very important in mediating genotoxicity of bystander effects.

  11. Up-regulation of ROS by mitochondria-dependent bystander signaling contributes to genotoxicity of bystander effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genomic instability can be observed in bystander cells. However, the underlying mechanism(s) is still relatively unclear. In a previous study, we found that irradiated cells released mitochondria-dependent intracellular factor(s) which could lead to bystander ?-H2AX induction. In this paper, we used normal (?+) and mtDNA-depleted (?0) human-hamster hybrid cells to investigate mitochondrial effects on the genotoxicity in bystander effect through medium transfer experiments. Through the detection of DNA double-strand breaks with ?-H2AX, we found that the fraction of ?-H2AX positive cells changed with time when irradiation conditioned cell medium (ICCM) were harvested. ICCM harvested from irradiated ?+ cells at 10 min post-irradiation (?+ ICCM10min) caused larger increases of bystander ?-H2AX induction comparing to ?0 ICCM10min, which only caused a slight increase of bystander ?-H2AX induction. The ?+ ICCM10min could also result in the up-regulation of ROS production (increased by 35% at 10 min), while there was no significant increase in cells treated with ?0 ICCM10min. We treated cells with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), the scavenger of ROS, and quenched ?-H2AX induction by ?+ ICCM. Furthermore, after the medium had been transferred and the cells were continuously cultured for 7 days, we found significantly increased CD59-- gene loci mutation (increased by 45.9%) and delayed cell death in the progeny of ?+ ICCM-treated bystander cells. In conclusion, the work presented here suggested that up-regulation of the mitochondria-dependent ROS might be very important in mediating genotoxicity of bystander effects.

  12. Phosphorylation of caveolin-1 on tyrosine-14 induced by ROS enhances palmitate-induced death of beta-pancreatic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehinger, Sergio; Ortiz, Rina; Díaz, María Inés; Aguirre, Adam; Valenzuela, Manuel; Llanos, Paola; Mc Master, Christopher; Leyton, Lisette; Quest, Andrew F G

    2015-05-01

    A considerable body of evidence exists implicating high levels of free saturated fatty acids in beta pancreatic cell death, although the molecular mechanisms and the signaling pathways involved have not been clearly defined. The membrane protein caveolin-1 has long been implicated in cell death, either by sensitizing to or directly inducing apoptosis and it is normally expressed in beta cells. Here, we tested whether the presence of caveolin-1 modulates free fatty acid-induced beta cell death by reexpressing this protein in MIN6 murine beta cells lacking caveolin-1. Incubation of MIN6 with palmitate, but not oleate, induced apoptotic cell death that was enhanced by the presence of caveolin-1. Moreover, palmitate induced de novo ceramide synthesis, loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in MIN6 cells. ROS generation promoted caveolin-1 phosphorylation on tyrosine-14 that was abrogated by the anti-oxidant N-acetylcysteine or the incubation with the Src-family kinase inhibitor, PP2 (4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7(dimethylethyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine). The expression of a non-phosphorylatable caveolin-1 tyrosine-14 to phenylalanine mutant failed to enhance palmitate-induced apoptosis while for MIN6 cells expressing the phospho-mimetic tyrosine-14 to glutamic acid mutant caveolin-1 palmitate sensitivity was comparable to that observed for MIN6 cells expressing wild type caveolin-1. Thus, caveolin-1 expression promotes palmitate-induced ROS-dependent apoptosis in MIN6 cells in a manner requiring Src family kinase mediated tyrosine-14 phosphorylation. PMID:25572853

  13. Free Radicals Mediate Systemic Acquired Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixia Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Systemic acquired resistance (SAR is a form of resistance that protects plants against a broad spectrum of secondary infections. However, exploiting SAR for the protection of agriculturally important plants warrants a thorough investigation of the mutual interrelationships among the various signals that mediate SAR. Here, we show that nitric oxide (NO and reactive oxygen species (ROS serve as inducers of SAR in a concentration-dependent manner. Thus, genetic mutations that either inhibit NO/ROS production or increase NO accumulation (e.g., a mutation in S-nitrosoglutathione reductase [GSNOR] abrogate SAR. Different ROS function additively to generate the fatty-acid-derived azelaic acid (AzA, which in turn induces production of the SAR inducer glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P. Notably, this NO/ROS?AzA?G3P-induced signaling functions in parallel with salicylic acid-derived signaling. We propose that the parallel operation of NO/ROS and SA pathways facilitates coordinated regulation in order to ensure optimal induction of SAR.

  14. Moderate extracellular acidification inhibits capsaicin-induced cell death through regulating calcium mobilization, NF-{kappa}B translocation and ROS production in synoviocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Fen; Yang, Shuang; Zhao, Dan; Zhu, Shuyan; Wang, Yuxiang [Department of Biophysics, School of Physics and Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials of Education Ministry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Li, Junying, E-mail: jyli04@nankai.edu.cn [Department of Biophysics, School of Physics and Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials of Education Ministry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2012-07-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Moderate extracellular acidification regulates intracellular Ca{sup 2+} mobilization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Moderate acidification activates NF-{kappa}B nuclear translocation in synoviocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Moderate acidification depresses the ROS production induced by capsaicin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Moderate acidification inhibits capsaicin-caused synoviocyte death. -- Abstract: We previously show the expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) in primary synoviocytes from collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rats. Capsaicin and lowered extracellular pH from 7.4 to 5.5 induce cell death through TRPV1-mediated Ca{sup 2+} entry and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. However, under the pathological condition in rheumatoid arthritis, the synovial fluid is acidified to a moderate level (about pH 6.8). In the present study, we examined the effects of pH 6.8 on the TRPV1-mediated cell death. Our finding is different or even opposite from what was observed at pH 5.5. We found that the moderate extracellular acidification (from pH 7.4 to 6.8) inhibited the capsaicin-induced Ca{sup 2+} entry through attenuating the activity of TRPV1. In the mean time, it triggered a phospholipse C (PLC)-related Ca{sup 2+} release from intracellular stores. The nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B was found at pH 6.8, and this also depends on PLC activation. Moreover, the capsaicin-evoked massive ROS production and cell death were depressed at pH 6.8, both of which are dependent on the activation of PLC and NF-{kappa}B. Taken together, these results suggested that the moderate extracellular acidification inhibited the capsaicin-induced synoviocyte death through regulating Ca{sup 2+} mobilization, activating NF-{kappa}B nuclear translocation and depressing ROS production.

  15. Moderate extracellular acidification inhibits capsaicin-induced cell death through regulating calcium mobilization, NF-?B translocation and ROS production in synoviocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Moderate extracellular acidification regulates intracellular Ca2+ mobilization. ? Moderate acidification activates NF-?B nuclear translocation in synoviocytes. ? Moderate acidification depresses the ROS production induced by capsaicin. ? Moderate acidification inhibits capsaicin-caused synoviocyte death. -- Abstract: We previously show the expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) in primary synoviocytes from collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rats. Capsaicin and lowered extracellular pH from 7.4 to 5.5 induce cell death through TRPV1-mediated Ca2+ entry and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. However, under the pathological condition in rheumatoid arthritis, the synovial fluid is acidified to a moderate level (about pH 6.8). In the present study, we examined the effects of pH 6.8 on the TRPV1-mediated cell death. Our finding is different or even opposite from what was observed at pH 5.5. We found that the moderate extracellular acidification (from pH 7.4 to 6.8) inhibited the capsaicin-induced Ca2+ entry through attenuating the activity of TRPV1. In the mean time, it triggered a phospholipse C (PLC)-related Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. The nuclear translocation of NF-?B was found at pH 6.8, and this also depends on PLC activation. Moreover, the capsaicin-evoked massive ROS production and cell death were depressed at pH 6.8, both of which are dependent on the activation of PLC and NF-?B. Taken together, these results suggested that the moderate extracellular acidification inhibited the capsaicin-induced synoviocyte death through regulating Ca2+ mobilization, activating NF-?B nuclear translocation and depressing ROS production.

  16. Biochemical Adaptations in Zea mays Roots to Short-Term Pb(2+) Exposure: ROS Generation and Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Kaur, Shubhpreet; Singh, Harminder Pal; Batish, Daizy Rani; Kohli, Ravinder Kumar; Rishi, Valbha

    2015-08-01

    The present study investigated the effect of lead (0, 16, 40 and 80 mg L(-1) Pb(2+)) exposure for 3, 12 and 24 h on root biochemistry in hydroponically grown Zea mays (maize). Pb(2+) exposure (80 mg L(-1)) enhanced malondialdehyde content (239 %-427 %), reactive carbonyl groups (425 %-512 %) and H2O2 (129 %-294 %) accumulation during 3-24 h of treatment, thereby indicating cellular peroxidation and oxidative damage. The quantitative estimations were in accordance with in situ detection of ROS generation (using 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate dye) and H2O2 accumulation. Pb(2+) treatment significantly reduced ascorbate and glutathione content during 3-24 h of exposure. On the contrary, levels of non-protein thiols were enhanced by 3-11.8 time over control in response to 16-80 mg L(-1) Pb(2+) treatment, after 24 h. A dose-dependent induction in ascorbate peroxidase and lipoxygenase enzyme activity was observed in Z. mays roots. The activities of ascorbate-recycling enzymes (dehydroascorbate reductase and monodehydroascorbate reductase) were significantly increased in relation to concentration and duration of Pb(2+) treatment. The study concludes that Pb(2+)-exposure induces ROS-mediated oxidative damage during early period of exposure despite the upregulation of enzymes of ascorbate-glutathione cycle. PMID:26048438

  17. Production of ROS and its effects on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, human spermatozoa, and sperm function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardi Darmawan

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few decades many researchers studying the causes of male infertility have recently focused on the role played by reactive oxygen species (ROS – highly reactive oxidizing agents belonging to the class of free radicals. If ROS levels rise, oxidative stress (OS occurs, which results in oxygen and oxygen derived oxidants, and in turn increases the rates of cellular damage. In human, ROS are produced by a variety of semen components, and antioxidants in the seminal fluid keep their level balance. Small amounts of ROS help spermatozoa acquire their necessary fertilizing capabilities. Many researches showed that ROS attack DNA integrity in the sperm nucleus by causing base modification, DNA strand breaks, and chromatin cross linking. The DNA damage induced excessive levels of ROS and might accelerate the process of germ cell apoptosis leading to a decline in sperm counts associated with male infertility. This paper will review the molecular (cellular origins of ROS in human semen, how ROS damage sperm nuclear DNA, and how such DNA damage contributes to male infertility. Increased ROS production by spermatozoa is associated with a decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, which is an important indicator of functional integrity of the spermatozoa. Germ cell apoptosis is essential for normal spermatogenesis and its dysregulation may lead to male infertility. Thus, understanding the causes and mechanisms of germ cell apoptosis is of major importance in preventing male reproductive problems. Levels of apoptosis in mature spermatozoa that were significantly correlated with levels of seminal ROS determined by chemiluminescence assay indicate the linkage between ROS and male fertility problems. (Med J Indones 2007; 16:127-33 Keywords: Apoptosis, infertility, free radicals

  18. Antifungal activity of ZnO nanoparticles-the role of ROS mediated cell injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipovsky, Anat; Gedanken, Aharon [Department of Chemistry, Kanbar Laboratory for Nanomaterials, Institute of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel); Nitzan, Yeshayahu [Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel); Lubart, Rachel [Department of Chemistry, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan (Israel)

    2011-03-11

    Metal oxide nanoparticles have marked antibacterial activity. The toxic effect of these nanoparticles, such as those comprised of ZnO, has been found to occur due to an interaction of the nanoparticle surface with water, and to increase with a decrease in particle size. In the present study, we tested the ability of ZnO nanoparticles to affect the viability of the pathogenic yeast, Candida albicans (C. albicans). A concentration-dependent effect of ZnO on the viability of C. albicans was observed. The minimal fungicidal concentration of ZnO was found to be 0.1 mg ml{sup -1} ZnO; this concentration caused an inhibition of over 95% in the growth of C. albicans. ZnO nanoparticles also inhibited the growth of C. albicans when it was added at the logarithmic phase of growth. Addition of histidine (a quencher of hydroxyl radicals and singlet oxygen) caused reduction in the effect of ZnO on C. albicans depending on its concentration. An almost complete elimination of the antimycotic effect was achieved following addition of 5 mM of histidine. Exciting the ZnO by visible light increased the yeast cell death. The effects of histidine suggest the involvement of reactive oxygen species, including hydroxyl radicals and singlet oxygen, in cell death. In light of the above results it appears that metal oxide nanoparticles may provide a novel family of fungicidal compounds.

  19. The Protective Role of Antioxidants in the Defence against ROS/RNS-Mediated Environmental Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Borut Poljšak; Rok Fink

    2014-01-01

    Overproduction of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species can result from exposure to environmental pollutants, such as ionising and nonionising radiation, ultraviolet radiation, elevated concentrations of ozone, nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide, cigarette smoke, asbestos, particulate matter, pesticides, dioxins and furans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and many other compounds present in the environment. It appears that increased oxidative/nitrosative stress is often neglected mechanism by ...

  20. ROS-mediated genotoxicity of asbestos-cement in mammalian lung cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rödelsperger Klaus

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Asbestos is a known carcinogen and co-carcinogen. It is a persisting risk in our daily life due to its use in building material as asbestos-cement powder. The present study done on V79-cells (Chinese hamster lung cells demonstrates the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of asbestos-cement powder (ACP in comparison with chrysotile asbestos. A co-exposure of chrysotile and ACP was tested using the cell viability test and the micronucleus assay. The kinetochore analysis had been used to analyse the pathway causing such genotoxic effects. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances were determined as evidence for the production of reactive oxygen species. Both, asbestos cement as well as chrysotile formed micronuclei and induced loss of cell viability in a concentration- and time- dependent way. Results of TBARS analysis and iron chelator experiments showed induction of free radicals in ACP- and chrysotile exposed cultures. CaSO4 appeared to be a negligible entity in enhancing the toxic potential of ACP. The co-exposure of both, ACP and chrysotile, showed an additive effect in enhancing the toxicity. The overall study suggests that asbestos-cement is cytotoxic as well as genotoxic in vitro. In comparison to chrysotile the magnitude of the toxicity was less, but co-exposure increased the toxicity of both.

  1. PKD is a kinase of Vps34 that mediates ROS-induced autophagy downstream of DAPk

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenberg-lerner, A.; Kimchi, A.

    2011-01-01

    Autophagy, a process in which cellular components are engulfed and degraded within double-membrane vesicles termed autophagosomes, has an important role in the response to oxidative damage. Here we identify a novel cascade of phosphorylation events, involving a network of protein and lipid kinases, as crucial components of the signaling pathways that regulate the induction of autophagy under oxidative stress. Our findings show that both the tumor-suppressor death-associated protein kinase (DA...

  2. Mitochondrial NDUFS3 regulates the ROS-mediated onset of metabolic switch in transformed cells

    OpenAIRE

    Suhane, Sonal; Kanzaki, Hirotaka; Arumugaswami, Vaithilingaraja; Murali, Ramachandran; Ramanujan, V. Krishnan

    2013-01-01

    Aerobic glycolysis in transformed cells is an unique metabolic phenotype characterized by a hyperactivated glycolytic pathway even in the presence of oxygen. It is not clear if the onset of aerobic glycolysis is regulated by mitochondrial dysfunction and, if so, what the metabolic windows of opportunity available to control this metabolic switch (mitochondrial to glycolytic) landscape are in transformed cells. Here we report a genetically-defined model system based on the gene-silencing of a ...

  3. PGC-1? buffers ROS-mediated removal of mitochondria during myogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Baldelli, S; Aquilano, K; Ciriolo, M R

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial biogenesis and mitophagy are recognized as critical processes underlying mitochondrial homeostasis. However, the molecular pathway(s) coordinating the balance between these cellular programs is still poorly investigated. Here, we show an induction of the nuclear and mitochondrial peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1?) during myogenesis, which in turn co-activates the transcription of nuclear and mtDNA-encoded mitochondrial genes. We demon...

  4. Glial lipid droplets and ROS induced by mitochondrial defects promote neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lucy; Zhang, Ke; Sandoval, Hector; Yamamoto, Shinya; Jaiswal, Manish; Sanz, Elisenda; Li, Zhihong; Hui, Jessica; Graham, Brett H; Quintana, Albert; Bellen, Hugo J

    2015-01-15

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial defects in neurons are implicated in neurodegenerative disease. Here, we find that a key consequence of ROS and neuronal mitochondrial dysfunction is the accumulation of lipid droplets (LD) in glia. In Drosophila, ROS triggers c-Jun-N-terminal Kinase (JNK) and Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein (SREBP) activity in neurons leading to LD accumulation in glia prior to or at the onset of neurodegeneration. The accumulated lipids are peroxidated in the presence of ROS. Reducing LD accumulation in glia and lipid peroxidation via targeted lipase overexpression and/or lowering ROS significantly delays the onset of neurodegeneration. Furthermore, a similar pathway leads to glial LD accumulation in Ndufs4 mutant mice with neuronal mitochondrial defects, suggesting that LD accumulation following mitochondrial dysfunction is an evolutionarily conserved phenomenon, and represents an early, transient indicator and promoter of neurodegenerative disease. PMID:25594180

  5. Role of mitochondria ROS generation in ethanol-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation and cell death in astroglial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo GUERRI

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptors (TLRs and Nod-like receptors (NLRs are innate immunity sensors that provide an early/effective response to pathogenic or injury conditions. We have reported that ethanol-induced TLR4 activation triggers signaling inflammatory responses in glial cells, causing neuroinflammation and brain damage. However, it is uncertain if ethanol is able to activate NLRs /inflammasome in astroglial cells, which is the mechanism of activation, and whether there is crosstalk between both immune sensors in glial cells. Here we show that chronic ethanol treatment increases the co-localization of caspase-1 with GFAP+ cells, and up-regulates IL-1? and IL-18 in the frontal medial cortex in WT, but not in TLR4 knock-out mice. We further show that cultured cortical astrocytes expressed several inflammasomes (NLRP3, AIM2, NLRP1 and IPAF, although NLRP3 mRNA is the predominant form. Ethanol, as ATP and LPS treatments, up-regulates NLRP3 expression, and causes caspase-1 cleavage and the release of IL-1? and IL-18 in astrocytes supernatant. Ethanol-induced NLRP3/caspase-1 activation is mediated by mitochondrial (m ROS generation because when using a specific mitochondria ROS scavenger, the mito-TEMPO (500 ?M or NLRP3 blocking peptide (4?g/ml or a specific caspase-1 inhibitor, Z-YVAD-FMK (10 ?M, abrogates mROS release and reduces the up-regulation of IL-1? and IL-18 induced by ethanol or LPS or ATP. Confocal microscopy studies further confirm that ethanol, ATP or LPS promotes NLRP3/caspase-1 complex recruitment within the mitochondria to promote cell death by caspase-1-mediated pyroptosis, which accounts for ? 73 % of total cell death (?22% and the remaining (?25% die by caspase-3-dependent apoptosis. Suppression of the TLR4 function abrogates most ethanol effects on NLRP3 activation and reduces cell death. These findings suggest that NLRP3 participates, in ethanol-induced neuroinflammation and highlight the NLRP3/TLR4 crosstalk in ethanol-induced brain injury.

  6. Astaxanthin inhibits apoptosis in alveolar epithelial cells type II in vivo and in vitro through the ROS-dependent mitochondrial signalling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaodong; Wang, Bingsi; Lin, Shengcui; Jing, Lili; Mao, Cuiping; Xu, Pan; Lv, Changjun; Liu, Wen; Zuo, Ji

    2014-11-01

    Oxidative stress is an important molecular mechanism underlying lung fibrosis. The mitochondrion is a major organelle for oxidative stress in cells. Therefore, blocking the mitochondrial signalling pathway may be the best therapeutic manoeuver to ameliorate lung fibrosis. Astaxanthin (AST) is an excellent antioxidant, but no study has addressed the pathway of AST against pulmonary oxidative stress and free radicals by the mitochondrion-mediated signalling pathway. In this study, we investigated the antioxidative effects of AST against H2 O2 - or bleomycin (BLM)-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in alveolar epithelial cells type II (AECs-II) in vivo and in vitro. Our data show that AST blocks H2 O2 - or BLM-induced ROS generation and dose-dependent apoptosis in AECs-II, as characterized by changes in cell and mitochondria morphology, translocation of apoptotic proteins, inhibition of cytochrome c (Cyt c) release, and the activation of caspase-9, caspase-3, Nrf-2 and other cytoprotective genes. These data suggest that AST inhibits apoptosis in AECs-II cells through the ROS-dependent mitochondrial signalling pathway and may be of potential therapeutic value in lung fibrosis treatment. PMID:25215580

  7. The CREB/CRE transcriptional pathway: protection against oxidative stress-mediated neuronal cell death

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Boyoung; Cao, Ruifeng; Choi, Yun-sik; Cho, Hee-yeon; Rhee, Alex D.; Hah, Cyrus K.; Hoyt, Kari R.; Obrietan, Karl

    2009-01-01

    Formation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species is a precipitating event in an array of neuropathological conditions. In response to excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, transcriptionally-dependent mechanisms drive the upregulation of ROS scavenging proteins which, in turn, limit the extent of brain damage. Here, we employed a transgenic approach in which CREB-mediated transcription is repressed (via A-CREB) to examine the contribution of the CREB/CRE pathway to neuroprotection a...

  8. Regulation of ROS in transmissible gastroenteritis virus-activated apoptotic signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Li [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); College of Life Sciences, Hainan Normal University, Haikou, Hainan 571158 (China); Zhao, Xiaomin; Huang, Yong; Du, Qian; Dong, Feng; Zhang, Hongling; Song, Xiangjun; Zhang, Wenlong [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Tong, Dewen, E-mail: dwtong@nwsuaf.edu.cn [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China)

    2013-12-06

    Highlights: •TGEV infection induced ROS accumulation. •ROS accumulation is involved in TGEV-induced mitochondrial integrity impairment. •ROS is associated with p53 activation and apoptosis occurrence in TGEV-infected cells. -- Abstract: Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), an enteropathogenic coronavirus, causes severe lethal watery diarrhea and dehydration in piglets. Previous studies indicate that TGEV infection induces cell apoptosis in host cells. In this study, we investigated the roles and regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in TGEV-activated apoptotic signaling. The results showed that TGEV infection induced ROS accumulation, whereas UV-irradiated TGEV did not promote ROS accumulation. In addition, TGEV infection lowered mitochondrial transmembrane potential in PK-15 cell line, which could be inhibited by ROS scavengers, pyrrolidinedithiocarbamic (PDTC) and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). Furthermore, the two scavengers significantly inhibited the activation of p38 MAPK and p53 and further blocked apoptosis occurrence through suppressing the TGEV-induced Bcl-2 reduction, Bax redistribution, cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation. These results suggest that oxidative stress pathway might be a key element in TGEV-induced apoptosis and TGEV pathogenesis.

  9. TOR Complex 2-Ypk1 Signaling Maintains Sphingolipid Homeostasis by Sensing and Regulating ROS Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad J. Niles

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS are produced during normal metabolism and can function as signaling molecules. However, ROS at elevated levels can damage cells. Here, we identify the conserved target of rapamycin complex 2 (TORC2/Ypk1 signaling module as an important regulator of ROS in the model eukaryotic organism, S. cerevisiae. We show that TORC2/Ypk1 suppresses ROS produced both by mitochondria as well as by nonmitochondrial sources, including changes in acidification of the vacuole. Furthermore, we link vacuole-related ROS to sphingolipids, essential components of cellular membranes, whose synthesis is also controlled by TORC2/Ypk1 signaling. In total, our data reveal that TORC2/Ypk1 act within a homeostatic feedback loop to maintain sphingolipid levels and that ROS are a critical regulatory signal within this system. Thus, ROS sensing and signaling by TORC2/Ypk1 play a central physiological role in sphingolipid biosynthesis and in the maintenance of cell growth and viability.

  10. Measurements of UV-generated free radicals/reactive oxygen species (ROS) in skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrling, Th.; Jung, K.; Fuchs, J.

    2006-03-01

    Free radicals/reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated in skin by UV irradiation were measured by electron spin resonance (ESR). To increase the sensitivity of measurement the short life free radicals/ROS were scavenged and accumulated by using the nitroxyl probe 3-carboxy-2,2,5,5-tetrametylpyrrolidine-1-oxyl (PCA). The spatial distribution of free radicals/ROS measured in pig skin biopsies with ESR imaging after UV irradiation corresponds to the intensity decay of irradiance in the depth of the skin. The main part of free radicals/ROS were generated by UVA (320-400 nm) so that the spatial distribution of free radicals reaches up to the lower side of the dermis. In vivo measurements on human skin were performed with a L-band ESR spectrometer and a surface coil integrating the signal intensities from all skin layers to get a sufficient signal amplitude. Using this experimental arrangement the protection of UVB and UVA/B filter against the generation of free radicals/ROS in skin were measured. The protection against ROS and the repair of damages caused by them can be realized with active antioxidants characterized by a high antioxidative power (AP). The effect of UV filter and antioxidants corresponding to their protection against free radicals/ROS in skin generated by UVAB irradiation can be quantified by the new radical sun protection factor (RSF). The RSF indicates the increase of time for staying in the sun to generate the same number of free radicals/ROS in the skin like for the unprotected skin. Regarding the amount of generated free radicals/ROS in skin as an biophysical endpoint the RSF characterizes both the protection against UVB and UVA radiation.

  11. A systems biology perspective on Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cells in vivo are constantly exposed to reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated endogenously and exogenously. To defend against the deleterious consequences of ROS, cells contain multiple antioxidant enzymes expressed in various cellular compartments to scavenge these toxic species. Under oxidative stresses, these antioxidant enzymes are upregulated to restore redox homeostasis. Such an adaptive response results from the activation of a redox-sensitive gene regulatory network mediated by nuclear factor E2-related factor 2. To more completely understand how the redox control system is designed by nature to meet homeostatic goals, we have examined the network from a systems perspective using engineering approaches. As with man-made control devices, the redox control system can be decomposed into distinct functional modules, including transducer, controller, actuator, and plant. Cells achieve specific performance objectives by utilizing nested feedback loops, feedforward control, and ultrasensitive signaling motifs, etc. Given that endogenously generated ROS are also used as signaling molecules, our analysis suggests a novel mode of action to explain oxidative stress-induced pathological conditions and diseases. Specifically, by adaptively upregulating antioxidant enzymes, oxidative stress may inadvertently attenuate ROS signals that mediate physiological processes, resulting in aberrations of cellular functions and adverse consequences. Lastly, by simultaneously considequences. Lastly, by simultaneously considering the two competing cellular tasks-adaptive antioxidant defense and ROS signaling-we re-examine the premise that dietary antioxidant supplements is generally beneficial to human health. Our analysis highlights some possible adverse effects of these widely consumed antioxidants.

  12. Investigating the protective effect of lithium against high glucose-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells: involvements of ROS, JNK and P38 MAPKs, and apoptotic mitochondria pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminzadeh, A; Dehpour, A R; Safa, M; Mirzamohammadi, S; Sharifi, A M

    2014-11-01

    Hyperglycemia that occurs under the diabetic condition is a major cause of diabetic complications such as diabetic neuropathy, one of the most common diabetes-related complications. It is well known that hyperglycemia could result in generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Over production of ROS recommended as an important mediator for apoptotic signaling pathway as well as a key early event in the development of diabetic neuropathy. Recently, many studies have indicated that lithium has robust neuroprotective effect in relation to several neurodegenerative diseases. The present study aimed to examine effects of lithium on high glucose (HG)-induced neurotoxicity and to determine some of the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in this response in PC12 cells as a neuronal culture model for diabetic neuropathy. PC12 cells were pretreated with different concentrations of lithium for 7 days, exposed to HG for 24 h. Cell viability was measured by MTT assay. ROS and lipid peroxidation levels as well as superoxide dismutase activity were measured. In order to examine the underlying molecular mechanisms, the expressions of Bax, Bcl-2, Caspase-3, total and phosphorylated JNK and P38 MAPK were also analyzed by Western blotting. The present results indicated that pretreatment with 1 mM lithium has protected PC12 cells against HG-induced apoptotic cell death. It could reduce ROS generation, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, Caspase-3 activation, and JNK and P38 MAPK phosphorylation. It may be concluded that in HG condition, lithium pretreatment could prevent mitochondrial apoptosis as well as JNK and P38 MAPK pathway in PC12 cells. PMID:25073869

  13. Šiuolaikin?s Lietuvos architekt?ros menin?s raiškos tendencijos

    OpenAIRE

    Mac?iulis, Algimantas

    2014-01-01

    Apibendrinantis ir holistinis tyrimas atskleidžia ir ?vardina iki šiol Lietuvos architekt?rologijoje netyrin?tas XX a. antros pus?s architekt?ros kryptys atspindin?ias nagrin?jamo laikme?io sociokult?rinius ir politinius procesus. Tyrimo medžiaga nustato Lietuvos architekt?ros menin?s raiškos viet? pasauliniame kontekste,tuo pa?iu išryškina vietin?s architekt?ros savitumus. Naujai ?vardintos kryptys ir tendencijos sukuria teorin? pagrind? tolesniems Lietuvos architekt?...

  14. Pasyvi?j? priemaiš? pernašos ypatumai Baltijos j?ros Lietuvos priekrant?je

    OpenAIRE

    Daunaravic?iene?, Asta

    2008-01-01

    Pasyvi?j? priemaiš? j?rin?je aplinkoje ?vertinimas ypa? svarbus gamtosauginiu aspektu. Ypatingas d?mesys skiriamas Baltijos j?ros ekologinei b?klei, kuri? lemia j?ros dubens ypatyb?s, silpnas ryšys su Pasauliniu vandenynu, klimatin?s ir hidrometeorologin?s s?lygos. Pastaraisiais dešimtme?iais j?ros baseine did?ja antropogenin?s kilm?s teršal? kiekis. Branduolin?s fizikos ir technikos pl?tra neišvengiamai sukelia technogenin?s kilm?s radionuklid? patekim? ? j?...

  15. SAH-induced MMP activation and KV current suppression is mediated via both ROS-dependent and ROS-independent mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Koide, Masayo; George C. Wellman

    2015-01-01

    Voltage-gated potassium (KV) channels regulate cerebral artery tone and have been implicated in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)-induced pathologies. Here, we examined whether matrix metalloprotease (MMP) activation contributes to SAH-induced KV current suppression and cerebral artery constriction via activation of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs). Using patch clamp electrophysiology, we observed that KV currents were selectively decreased in cerebral artery myocytes isolated from SAH m...

  16. Mediation Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mackinnon, David P.; Fairchild, Amanda J.; Fritz, Matthew S.

    2007-01-01

    Mediating variables are prominent in psychological theory and research. A mediating variable transmits the effect of an independent variable on a dependent variable. Differences between mediating variables and confounders, moderators, and covariates are outlined. Statistical methods to assess mediation and modern comprehensive approaches are described. Future directions for mediation analysis are discussed.

  17. HIV-induced kidney cell injury: role of ROS-induced downregulated vitamin D receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Salhan, Divya; Husain, Mohammad; Subrati, Ashaan; Goyal, Rohan; Singh, Tejinder; Rai, Partab; Malhotra, Ashwani; Singhal, Pravin C.

    2012-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been demonstrated to contribute to HIV-induced tubular cell injury. We hypothesized that HIV-induced ROS generation may be causing tubular cell injury through downregulation of vitamin D receptor (VDR) and associated downstream effects. In the present study, HIV not only downregulated tubular cell VDR expression but also inflicted DNA injury. On the other hand, EB-1089, a VDR agonist (VD), inhibited both downregulation of VDR and tubular cell DNA injury in t...

  18. ROS generation and multiple forms of mammalian mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mrá?ek, Tomáš; Holzerová, Eliška; Drahota, Zden?k; Ková?ová, Nikola; Vrbacký, Marek; Ješina, Pavel; Houšt?k, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 1837, ?. 1 (2014), s. 98-111. ISSN 0005-2728 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GPP303/10/P227; GA MŠk(CZ) LL1204 Grant ostatní: Univerzita Karlova(CZ) 750213 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : mitochondrial glycerol -3-phosphate dehydrogenase * ROS production * supercomplex * in-gel ROS detection Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.353, year: 2014

  19. 657WTAPELL663 motif of the photoreceptor ROS-GC1: A general phototransduction switch

    OpenAIRE

    Duda, Teresa; Pertzev, Alexandre; Sharma, Rameshwar K.

    2011-01-01

    This study documents the identity of an intriguing transduction mechanism of the [Ca2+]i signals by the photoreceptor ROS-GC1. Despite their distal residences and operational modes in phototransduction, the two GCAPs transmit and activate ROS-GC1 through a common Ca2+ transmitter switch (Ca2+TS). A combination of immunoprecipitation, fluorescent spectroscopy, mutational analyses and reconstitution studies has been used to demonstrate that the structure of this switch is 657WTAPELL663. The two...

  20. Pogostemon cablin as ROS Scavenger in Oxidant-Induced Cell Death of Human Neuroglioma Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Young Kyun Kim; Su In Cho; Su Jin Cho; Bu-Yeo Kim; Hyung Woo Kim

    2010-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide range of acute and long-term neurodegenerative diseases. This study was undertaken to examine the efficacy of Pogostemon cablin, a well-known herb in Korean traditional medicine, on ROS-induced brain cell injury. Pogostemon cablin effectively protected human neuroglioma cell line A172 against both the necrotic and apoptotic cell death induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The effect of Pogostemon cablin was dose d...

  1. Oleic, Linoleic and Linolenic Acids Increase ROS Production by Fibroblasts via NADPH Oxidase Activation

    OpenAIRE

    Hatanaka, Elaine; Dermargos, Alexandre; Hirata, Aparecida Emiko; Vinolo, Marco Aure?lio Ramirez; Carpinelli, Angelo Rafael; Newsholme, Philip; Armelin, Hugo Aguirre; Curi, Rui

    2013-01-01

    The effect of oleic, linoleic and ?-linolenic acids on ROS production by 3T3 Swiss and Rat 1 fibroblasts was investigated. Using lucigenin-amplified chemiluminescence, a dose-dependent increase in extracellular superoxide levels was observed during the treatment of fibroblasts with oleic, linoleic and ?-linolenic acids. ROS production was dependent on the addition of ?-NADH or NADPH to the medium. Diphenyleneiodonium inhibited the effect of oleic, linoleic and ?-linolenic acids on fibrobl...

  2. Induction of apoptosis by plumbagin through reactive oxygen species-mediated inhibition of topoisomerase II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been recognized as key molecules, which can selectively modify proteins and therefore regulate cellular signalling including apoptosis. Plumbagin, a naphthoquinone exhibiting antitumor activity, is known to generate ROS and has been found to inhibit the activity of topoisomerase II (Topo II) through the stabilization of the Topo II-DNA cleavable complex. The objective of this research was to clarify the role of ROS and Topo II inhibition in the induction of apoptosis mediated by plumbagin. As determined by the comet assay, plumbagin induced DNA cleavage in HL-60 cells, whereas in a cell line with reduced Topo II activity-HL-60/MX2, the level of DNA damage was significantly decreased. The onset of DNA strand break formation in HL-60 cells was delayed in comparison with the generation of intracellular ROS. In HL-60/MX2 cells, ROS were generated at a similar rate, whereas a significant reduction in the level of DNA damage was detected. The pretreatment of cells with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) attenuated plumbagin-induced DNA damage, pointing out to the involvement of ROS generation in cleavable complex formation. These results suggest that plumbagin-induced ROS does not directly damage DNA but requires the involvement of Topo II. Furthermore, experiments carried out using light spectroscopy indicated no direct interactions between plumbagin and DNA. The induction of apoptosis was significantly delayed in HL-60/MX2 cells indicating the involed in HL-60/MX2 cells indicating the involvement of Topo II inhibition in plumbagin-mediated apoptosis. Thus, these findings strongly suggest ROS-mediated inhibition of Topo II as an important mechanism contributing to the apoptosis-inducing properties of plumbagin

  3. Tetramethylpyrazine inhibits CoCl2 -induced neurotoxicity through enhancement of Nrf2/GCLc/GSH and suppression of HIF1?/NOX2/ROS pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Dongsheng; Su, Yufei; Li, Yingxia; Wu, Chuanjie; Meng, Yi; Peng, Xin; Cui, Yinglin

    2015-08-01

    Hypoxia-mediated neurotoxicity contributes to various neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis. Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP), a major bioactive component purified from Ligusticum wallichii Franchat, exhibited potent neuroprotective effect. However, the mechanism of TMP-exerted neuroprotective effect against hypoxia was not clear. In the study, we investigated the mechanism of the neuroprotective effect of TMP against hypoxia induced by CoCl2 in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that TMP could protect against CoCl2 -induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells and in rats, as evidenced by enhancement of cell viability in PC12 cells and improvement of learning and memory ability in rats treated with CoCl2 . TMP could inhibit mitochondrial dysfunction, mitochondrial apoptotic molecular events, and thus apoptosis induced by CoCl2 . TMP inhibited CoCl2 -increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, which may contribute to hypoxia-related neurotoxicity induced by CoCl2 . The antioxidant and neuroprotective activities of TMP involved two pathways: one was the enhancement of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/catalytic subunit of ?-glutamylcysteine ligase-mediated regulation of GSH and the other was the inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 ?/NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2)-mediated ROS generation. These two pathways contributed to improvement of oxidative stress and thus the amelioration of apoptosis under hypoxic conditions. These results have appointed a new path toward the understanding of pathogenesis and TMP-related therapy of hypoxia-related neurodegenerative diseases. We proposed two cascades for tetramethylpyrazine-exhibited protective effects against CoCl2 -induced neurotoxicity: One is enhancement of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2-catalytic subunit of ?-glutamylcysteine ligase-mediated regulation of glutathone and the other was the inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 ?-NADPH oxidase-2-mediated ROS generation. We think these findings should provide a new understanding of pathogenesis and tetramethylpyrazine-related therapy of hypoxia-related neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25952107

  4. Pogostemon cablin as ROS Scavenger in Oxidant-induced Cell Death of Human Neuroglioma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung Woo; Cho, Su Jin; Kim, Bu-Yeo; Cho, Su In; Kim, Young Kyun

    2010-06-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide range of acute and long-term neurodegenerative diseases. This study was undertaken to examine the efficacy of Pogostemon cablin, a well-known herb in Korean traditional medicine, on ROS-induced brain cell injury. Pogostemon cablin effectively protected human neuroglioma cell line A172 against both the necrotic and apoptotic cell death induced by hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). The effect of Pogostemon cablin was dose dependent at concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 5?mg ml(-1). Pogostemon cablin significantly prevented depletion of cellular ATP and activation of poly ADP-ribose polymerase induced by H(2)O(2). The preservation of functional integrity of mitochondria upon the treatment of Pogostemon cablin was also confirmed by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide assay. Furthermore, Pogostemon cablin significantly prevented H(2)O(2)-induced release of cytochrome c into cytosol. Determination of intracellular ROS showed that Pogostemon cablin might exert its role as a powerful scavenger of intracellular ROS. The present study suggests the beneficial effect of Pogostemon cablin on ROS-induced neuroglial cell injury. The action of Pogostemon cablin as a ROS-scavenger might underlie the mechanism. PMID:18955302

  5. Looking into a Conceptual Framework of ROS–miRNA–Atrial Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seahyoung Lee

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation (AF has been recognized as a major cause of cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality. MicroRNAs (miRNAs represent recent additions to the collection of biomolecules involved in arrhythmogenesis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS have been independently linked to both AF and miRNA regulation. However, no attempts have been made to investigate the possibility of a framework composed of ROS–miRNA–AF that is related to arrhythmia development. Therefore, this review was designed as an attempt to offer a new approach to understanding AF pathogenesis. The aim of this review was to find and to summarize possible connections that exist among AF, miRNAs and ROS to understand the interactions among the molecular entities underlying arrhythmia development in the hopes of finding unappreciated mechanisms of AF. These findings may lead us to innovative therapies for AF, which can be a life-threatening heart condition. A systemic literature review indicated that miRNAs associated with AF might be regulated by ROS, suggesting the possibility that miRNAs translate cellular stressors, such as ROS, into AF pathogenesis. Further studies with a more appropriate experimental design to either prove or disprove the existence of an ROS–miRNA–AF framework are strongly encouraged.

  6. Intercultural Mediation

    OpenAIRE

    Dragos Marian Radulescu; Denisa Mitrut

    2012-01-01

    The Intercultural Mediator facilitates exchanges between people of different socio-cultural backgrounds and acts as a bridge between immigrants and national and local associations, health organizations, services and offices in order to foster integration of every single individual. As the use mediation increases, mediators are more likely to be involved in cross-cultural mediation, but only the best mediators have the opportunity to mediate cross border business disputes or international poli...

  7. Arctigenin, a dietary phytoestrogen, induces apoptosis of estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer cells through the ROS/p38 MAPK pathway and epigenetic regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chia-Jung; Kuo, Po-Lin; Hsu, Ying-Chan; Huang, Ya-Fang; Tsai, Eing-Mei; Hsu, Ya-Ling

    2014-02-01

    This study investigates the anticancer effect of arctigenin (ATG), a natural lignan product of Arctium lappa L., in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. Results indicate that ATG inhibits MDA-MB-231 cell growth by inducing apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. ATG triggers the mitochondrial caspase-independent pathways, as indicated by changes in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, resulting in AIF and EndoG nuclear translocation. ATG increased cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by increasing p22(phox)/NADPH oxidase 1 interaction and decreasing glutathione level. ATG clearly increases the activation of p38 MAPK, but not JNK and ERK1/2. Antioxidant EUK-8, a synthetic catalytic superoxide and hydrogen peroxide scavenger, significantly decreases ATG-mediated p38 activation and apoptosis. Blocking p38 with a specific inhibitor suppresses ATG-mediated Bcl-2 downregulation and apoptosis. Moreover, ATG activates ATF-2, a transcription factor activated by p38, and then upregulates histone H3K9 trimethylation in the Bcl-2 gene promoter region, resulting in Bcl-2 downregulation. Taken together, the results demonstrate that ATG induces apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells via the ROS/p38 MAPK pathway and epigenetic regulation of Bcl-2 by upregulation of histone H3K9 trimethylation. PMID:24140706

  8. Hexokinase II inhibitor, 3-BrPA induced autophagy by stimulating ROS formation in human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qianwen; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Pei; Chao, Zhenhua; Xia, Fei; Jiang, Chenchen; Zhang, Xudong; Jiang, Zhiwen; Liu, Hao

    2014-03-01

    Hexokinase II (HKII), a key enzyme of glycolysis, is widely over-expressed in cancer cells. 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA), an inhibitor of HK II, has been proposed as a specific antitumor agent. Autophagy is a process that regulates the balance between protein synthesis and protein degradation. Autophagy in mammalian systems occurs under basal conditions and can be stimulated by stresses, including starvation, oxidative stress. Therefore, we hypothesized that 3-BrPA could induce autophagy. In the present study, we explored the mechanism of 3-BrPA and its combined action with chloroquine. Our results demonstrate that in MDA-MB-435 and in MDA-MB-231 cells, 3-BrPA induces autophagy, which can be inhibited by chloroquine. Furthermore, the combined treatment synergistically decreased the number of viable cells. Interestingly, the combined treatment triggered apoptosis in MDA-MB-435 cells, while it induced necroptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells. ROS mediated cell death when 3-BrPA and CQ were co-administered. Finally, CQ enhanced the anticancer efficacy of 3-BrPA in vivo. Collectively, our results show that 3-BrPA triggers autophagy, increasing breast cancer cell resistance to 3-BrPA treatment and that CQ enhanced 3-BrPA-induced cell death in breast cancer cells by stimulating ROS formation. Thus, inhibition of autophagy may be an innovative strategy for adjuvant chemotherapy of breast cancer.human skeletal muscle. Efficient Mirk depletion in SU86.86 pancreatic cancer cells by an inducible shRNA decreased expression of eight antioxidant genes. Thus both cancer cells and differentiated myotubes utilize Mirk kinase to relieve oxidative stress. PMID:25053988

  9. Spatio-temporal model of endogenous ROS and raft-dependent WNT/beta-catenin signaling driving cell fate commitment in human neural progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Fiete; Lemcke, Heiko; Ewald, Roland; Rharass, Tareck; Uhrmacher, Adelinde M

    2015-03-01

    Canonical WNT/?-catenin signaling is a central pathway in embryonic development, but it is also connected to a number of cancers and developmental disorders. Here we apply a combined in-vitro and in-silico approach to investigate the spatio-temporal regulation of WNT/?-catenin signaling during the early neural differentiation process of human neural progenitors cells (hNPCs), which form a new prospect for replacement therapies in the context of neurodegenerative diseases. Experimental measurements indicate a second signal mechanism, in addition to canonical WNT signaling, being involved in the regulation of nuclear ?-catenin levels during the cell fate commitment phase of neural differentiation. We find that the biphasic activation of ?-catenin signaling observed experimentally can only be explained through a model that combines Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and raft dependent WNT/?-catenin signaling. Accordingly after initiation of differentiation endogenous ROS activates DVL in a redox-dependent manner leading to a transient activation of down-stream ?-catenin signaling, followed by continuous auto/paracrine WNT signaling, which crucially depends on lipid rafts. Our simulation studies further illustrate the elaborate spatio-temporal regulation of DVL, which, depending on its concentration and localization, may either act as direct inducer of the transient ROS/?-catenin signal or as amplifier during continuous auto-/parcrine WNT/?-catenin signaling. In addition we provide the first stochastic computational model of WNT/?-catenin signaling that combines membrane-related and intracellular processes, including lipid rafts/receptor dynamics as well as WNT- and ROS-dependent ?-catenin activation. The model's predictive ability is demonstrated under a wide range of varying conditions for in-vitro and in-silico reference data sets. Our in-silico approach is realized in a multi-level rule-based language, that facilitates the extension and modification of the model. Thus, our results provide both new insights and means to further our understanding of canonical WNT/?-catenin signaling and the role of ROS as intracellular signaling mediator. PMID:25793621

  10. Synergistic Apoptosis of CML Cells by Buthionine Sulfoximine and Hydroxychavicol Correlates with Activation of AIF and GSH-ROS-JNK-ERK-iNOS Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Avik Acharya; Chaudhuri, Jaydeep; Biswas, Nabendu; Manna, Anirban; Chatterjee, Saurav; Mahato, Sanjit K.; Chaudhuri, Utpal; Jaisankar, Parasuraman; Bandyopadhyay, Santu

    2013-01-01

    Background Hydroxychavicol (HCH), a constituent of Piper betle leaf has been reported to exert anti-leukemic activity through induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aim of the study is to optimize the oxidative stress –induced chronic myeloid leukemic (CML) cell death by combining glutathione synthesis inhibitor, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) with HCH and studying the underlying mechanism. Materials and Methods Anti-proliferative activity of BSO and HCH alone or in combination against a number of leukemic (K562, KCL22, KU812, U937, Molt4), non-leukemic (A549, MIA-PaCa2, PC-3, HepG2) cancer cell lines and normal cell lines (NIH3T3, Vero) was measured by MTT assay. Apoptotic activity in CML cell line K562 was detected by flow cytometry (FCM) after staining with annexinV-FITC/propidium iodide (PI), detection of reduced mitochondrial membrane potential after staining with JC-1, cleavage of caspase- 3 and poly (ADP)-ribose polymerase proteins by western blot analysis and translocation of apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) by confocal microscopy. Intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH) was measured by colorimetric assay using GSH assay kit. 2?,7?-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCF-DA) and 4-amino-5-methylamino-2?,7?-difluorofluorescein (DAF-FM) were used as probes to measure intracellular increase in ROS and nitric oxide (NO) levels respectively. Multiple techniques like siRNA transfection and pharmacological inhibition were used to understand the mechanisms of action. Results Non-apoptotic concentrations of BSO significantly potentiated HCH-induced apoptosis in K562 cells. BSO potentiated apoptosis-inducing activity of HCH in CML cells by caspase-dependent as well as caspase-independent but apoptosis inducing factor (AIF)-dependent manner. Enhanced depletion of intracellular GSH induced by combined treatment correlated with induction of ROS. Activation of ROS- dependent JNK played a crucial role in ERK1/2 activation which subsequently induced the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). iNOS- mediated production of NO was identified as an effector molecule causing apoptosis of CML cells. Conclusion/Significance BSO synergizes with HCH in inducing apoptosis of CML cells through the GSH-ROS-JNK-ERK-iNOS pathway. PMID:24040019

  11. Lysosome-controlled efficient ROS overproduction against cancer cells with a high pH-responsive catalytic nanosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jingke; Shao, Yiran; Wang, Liyao; Zhu, Yingchun

    2015-04-01

    Excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been proved to damage cancer cells efficiently. ROS overproduction is thus greatly desirable for cancer therapy. To date, ROS production is generally uncontrollable and outside cells, which always bring severe side-effects in the vasculature. Since most ROS share a very short half-life and primarily react close to their site of formation, it would be more efficient if excess ROS are controllably produced inside cancer cells. Herein, we report an efficient lysosome-controlled ROS overproduction via a pH-responsive catalytic nanosystem (FeOx-MSNs), which catalyze the decomposition of H2O2 to produce considerable ROS selectively inside the acidic lysosomes (pH 5.0) of cancer cells. After a further incorporation of ROS-sensitive TMB into the nanosystem (FeOx-MSNs-TMB), both a distinct cell labeling and an efficient death of breast carcinoma cells are obtained. This lysosome-controlled efficient ROS overproduction suggests promising applications in cancer treatments.Excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been proved to damage cancer cells efficiently. ROS overproduction is thus greatly desirable for cancer therapy. To date, ROS production is generally uncontrollable and outside cells, which always bring severe side-effects in the vasculature. Since most ROS share a very short half-life and primarily react close to their site of formation, it would be more efficient if excess ROS are controllably produced inside cancer cells. Herein, we report an efficient lysosome-controlled ROS overproduction via a pH-responsive catalytic nanosystem (FeOx-MSNs), which catalyze the decomposition of H2O2 to produce considerable ROS selectively inside the acidic lysosomes (pH 5.0) of cancer cells. After a further incorporation of ROS-sensitive TMB into the nanosystem (FeOx-MSNs-TMB), both a distinct cell labeling and an efficient death of breast carcinoma cells are obtained. This lysosome-controlled efficient ROS overproduction suggests promising applications in cancer treatments. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental section, supplementary figures and characterization of as-prepared compounds. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr00706b

  12. Thrombin, a mediator of cerebrovascular inflammation in AD and hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PaulaGrammas

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Considerable evidence implicates hypoxia and vascular inflammation in Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Thrombin, a multifunctional inflammatory mediator, is demonstrable in the brains of AD patients both in the vessel walls and senile plaques. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (HIF-1?, a key regulator of the cellular response to hypoxia, is also upregulated in the vasculature of human AD brains. The objective of this study is to investigate inflammatory protein expression in the cerebrovasculature of transgenic AD mice and to explore the role of thrombin as a mediator of cerebrovascular inflammation and oxidative stress in AD and in hypoxia-induced changes in brain endothelial cells. Immunofluorescent analysis of the cerebrovasculature in AD mice demonstrates significant (p<0.01-0.001 increases in thrombin, HIF-1?, interleukin-6 (IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, and reactive oxygen species (ROS compared to controls. Administration of the thrombin inhibitor dabigatran (100 mg/kg to AD mice for 34 wks significantly decreases expression of inflammatory proteins and ROS. Exposure of cultured brain endothelial cells to hypoxia for 6 h causes an upregulation of thrombin, HIF-1?, MCP-1, IL-6 and MMP2 and ROS. Treatment of endothelial cells with the dabigatran (1 nM reduces ROS generation and inflammatory protein expression (p<0.01-0.001. The data demonstrate that inhibition of thrombin in culture blocks the increase in inflammatory protein expression and ROS generation evoked by hypoxia. Also, administration of dabigatran to transgenic AD mice diminishes expression of inflammatory proteins and ROS in the cerebromicrovasculature. Taken together, these results suggest that inhibiting thrombin generation could have therapeutic value in AD and other disorders where hypoxia, inflammation and oxidative stress are involved.

  13. Antioxidant pathways are up-regulated during biological nitrogen fixation to prevent ROS-induced nitrogenase inhibition in Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus

    OpenAIRE

    Alquéres, Sylvia M. C.; Oliveira, Jose Henrique M.; Nogueira, Eduardo M.; Guedes, Helma V.; Oliveira, Pedro L; Câmara, Fernando; Baldani, Jose I.; Martins, Orlando B.

    2010-01-01

    Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, an endophyte isolated from sugarcane, is a strict aerobe that fixates N2. This process is catalyzed by nitrogenase and requires copious amounts of ATP. Nitrogenase activity is extremely sensitive to inhibition by oxygen and reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, the elevated oxidative metabolic rates required to sustain biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) may favor an increased production of ROS. Here, we explored this paradox and observed that ROS levels are...

  14. ??ALA-PDT?HL60????????? ROS Detection in HL60 Based on ALA-PDT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ???

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ????????(photodynamic therapy, PDT?????????????????????PDT????????????????????PDT?????????????????????????????????ALA-PDT?HL60???????????????????ALA???10 mM/L??????4 h??????60 min???????????????????????HL60?????????PDT???93.2%?With the development of the basic research of photodynamic therapy (PDT and a wide range of potential clinical applications have be carried out. The monitoring of reactive oxygen species (ROS which produced in PDT has become a hot issue of PDT research in recent years. In the paper, the status of ROS in HL60 cells were investigated by fluorescence spectra acquired during PDT. The results showed that the largest number of ROS in PDT was achieved at the optimized conditions(the cells incubation time is 4 hours, the added concentration of ALA is 10 mM/L, in which up to 93.2% PDT efficiency for the HL60 Cells can be obtained within 60 minutes.

  15. Elucidating hormonal/ROS networks during seed germination: insights and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diaz-Vivancos, Pedro; Barba Espin, Gregorio

    2013-01-01

    While authors have traditionally emphasized the deleterious effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on seed biology, their role as signaling molecules during seed dormancy alleviation and germination is now the focus of many studies around the world. Over the last few years, studies using “-omics” technologies together with physiological and biochemical approaches have revealed that seed germination is a very complex process that depends on multiple biochemical and molecular variables. The pivotal role of phytohormones in promoting germination now appears to be interdependent with ROS metabolism, involving mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade activation, gene expression and post-translational protein modifications. This review is, thus, an attempt to summarize the new discoveries involving ROS and seed germination. The study of these interactions may supply markers of seed quality that might eventually be used in breeding programs to improve crop yields.

  16. ?????? ?????? ??? ???????? ???????? ?? ??????? ???? (?? ?????????? ???????????-????????????? ?????-?????? | Verlibro vertimo ? rus? kalb? praradim? analiz? (Literat?ros vertimo mokyklos-studijos duomenimis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ????? ????????

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Straipsnyje Tartu Literat?ros vertimo mokyklos-studijos duomenimis analizuojamas eiliavimo b?das verlibras, kur? d?l neaiškaus metro ir tariamo paprastumo beveik visuomei b?na sud?tinga išversti ? rus? kalb?. Kaip taisykl?, verlibras nemetriškas, neturi rim? ir dažnai net nesilaikant aliteracijos principo. Straipsnyje pademonstruoti ?vair?s verlibro vertimo b?dai, pateikiami atlikti Literat?ros vertimo mokyklos-studijos student? vertimo iš rus? ? est? kalb? pavyzdžiai. ir atlikt? vertim? praradim? analiz?. Autoriaus siekis buvo atskleisti verlibro, labai sunkiai „priskiepijamo“ rus? eil?darai, vertim? b?d? sistemiškum?.

  17. Antiaging, antistress and ROS scavenging activity of crude extract of Ocimum sanctum (L.) in Caenorhabditis elegans (Maupas, 1900).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Rakesh; Gupta, Shipra; Shukla, Virendra; Tandon, Sudeep; Shukla, Vibha

    2013-07-01

    Since aging is the most important risk factor for variety of diseases, the discovery of a wide range of chemical modulators of aging in model organisms encourages new strategies for targeting age associated diseases. Simple genetic manipulation leads to long-lived and healthy animals, so any compound which could have similar effect would prove a boon to mankind. In the present study, effect of different pharmacological doses (1.0, 0.1, 0.01 and 0.001 mg/mL) of O. sanctum crude extract were used to determine their impact on life span, thermotolerance and ROS scavenging activities in C. elegans. The results revealed that 1 mg/mL of O. sanctum extract significantly extended the life span of C. elegans. The extract also proved to be a strong free radical scavenger and increased resistance against thermal stress. It is also suggested that the protective and life span extending action of the crude extract is not only due to its antioxidant capacity but may also be mediated by modulation of some signaling pathways. Thus, in addition to all the known medicinal property of Ocimum, it is capable of increasing stress tolerance and life span in C. elegans. PMID:23898550

  18. Regulation of adhesion molecules expression in TNF-?-stimulated brain microvascular endothelial cells by tanshinone IIA: involvement of NF-?B and ROS generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chao; Xue, Hong-Li; Bai, Chang-Lin; Fu, Rong

    2011-03-01

    Pro-inflammatory cytokine-mediated expression of cell surface adhesion molecules plays a key role in endothelial cell injury, leading to vascular inflammation and the development of many cerebrovascular diseases. Thus, antiinflammatory agents targeting these adhesion molecules may represent potential drugs for the prevention and treatment of cerebrovascular diseases. The present study explored the effects of tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA), an active ingredient present in the Salvia miltiorrhiza root, on the expression of cellular adhesion molecules in TNF-?-stimulated brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVECs). Treatment with Tan IIA was found to suppress the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), resulting in inhibition of TNF-?-induced adhesion of neutrophils to BMVECs in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, Tan IIA significantly inhibited TNF-?-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which was accompanied by decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Treatment with Tan IIA also inhibited nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) activation. Together, these results suggest that Tan IIA regulates TNF-?-induced expression of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 through inhibition of NF-?B activation and ROS generation in BMVECs. PMID:20687137

  19. Hydrogen-Rich Saline Attenuates Acute Renal Injury in Sodium Taurocholate-Induced Severe Acute Pancreatitis by Inhibiting ROS and NF-?B Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qiao; Liao, Kang-Shu; Zhao, Kai-Liang; Zuo, Teng; Deng, Wen-Hong; Chen, Chen; Yu, Jia; Guo, Wen-Yi; He, Xiao-Bo; Abliz, Ablikim; Wang, Peng; Zhao, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen (H2), a new antioxidant, was reported to reduce •OH and ONOO? selectively and inhibit certain proinflammatory mediators to product, without disturbing metabolic redox reactions or ROS involved in cell signaling. We herein aim to explore its protective effects on acute renal injury in sodium taurocholate-induced acute pancreatitis and its possible mechanisms. Rats were injected with hydrogen-rich saline (HRS group) or normal saline (SO and SAP group) through tail intravenously (6?mL/kg) and compensated subcutaneously (20?mL/kg) after successful modeling. Results showed that hydrogen-rich saline attenuated the following: (1) serum Cr and BUN, (2) pancreatic and renal pathological injuries, (3) renal MDA, (4) renal MPO, (5) serum IL-1?, IL-6, and renal TNF-?, HMGB1, and (6) tyrosine nitration, I?B degradation, and NF-?B activation in renal tissues. In addition, it increased the level of IL-10 and SOD activity in renal tissues. These results proved that hydrogen-rich saline attenuates acute renal injury in sodium taurocholate-induced acute pancreatitis, presumably because of its detoxification activity against excessive ROS, and inhibits the activation of NF-?B by affecting I?B nitration and degradation. Our findings highlight the potential value of hydrogen-rich saline as a new therapeutic method on acute renal injury in severe acute pancreatitis clinically. PMID:25878401

  20. Induction and determination of ROS and their effect on peroxisome dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Pinho, So?nia Andreia Almeida

    2010-01-01

    Peroxissomas são organelos celulares de membrana simples, os quais têm importantes funções metabólicas, como por exemplo metabolismo de lípidos e ROS, sendo assim indispensáveis para a saúde e desenvolvimento humano. Os peroxissomas são organelos altamente flexíveis e dinâmicos que rapidamente se agregam, multiplicam e degradam em resposta a necessidades metabólicas. Em cultura celular, o stress oxidativo e outros estímulos externos (ex. factores de crescimento,...

  1. Apoptotic Effect of Wortmannolone on Cancer Cells through Potent ROS Induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña, Ulyana Muñoz; Fatima, Nighat; Ahmed, Safia; Chang, Leng Chee; de Blanco, Esperanza J. Carcache

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear factor ?appa-B inhibitors isolated from natural sources that induce apoptosis are promising new agents with anticancer properties. Wortmannin and wortmannolone were isolated from endophytic fungus (Penicillum polonicum) and showed NF-?B inhibitory effects with inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.47 ?M and 2.06 ?M for wortmannin and wortmannolone, respectively. The activity was compared with rocaglamide (IC50=0.075 ?M). The mechanism through which wortmannin and wortmannolone exhibited an attenuating effect on the NF-?B pathway was further evaluated in this study. Wortmannolone showed significant reactive oxygen species (ROS) inducing effects in HeLa cervical cells. The ROS inducing effect was concentration dependent, and the ROS generating activity was comparable with daunomycin, a potent chemotherapeutic agent. The findings suggested that the elevated formation of ROS was partially involved in the induction of apoptosis in treated cells. Potent cytotoxic and apoptotic effects were also displayed in MDA-MB-231 hormone independent breast cancer cells when treated with wortmannolone (IC50=3.79 nM). Thus, wortmannolone, a furanosteroid from an endophytic fungus, is a promising agent for further drug development. PMID:25663936

  2. Photocatalytic ROS production and phototoxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles is dependent on solar UV radiation spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) and its consequent phototoxicity to Daphnia magna were measured under different solar UV radiation spectrum by applying a series of optical filters in a solar simulator. Removing UVB (280-32...

  3. Role of TLR4/NADPH oxidase/ROS-activated p38 MAPK in VCAM-1 expression induced by lipopolysaccharide in human renal mesangial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee I-Ta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In bacteria-induced glomerulonephritis, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 activation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS, a key component of the outer membranes of Gram-negative bacteria can increase oxidative stress and the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1, which recruits leukocytes to the glomerular mesangium. However, the mechanisms underlying VCAM-1 expression induced by LPS are still unclear in human renal mesangial cells (HRMCs. Results We demonstrated that LPS induced VCAM-1 mRNA and protein levels associated with an increase in the promoter activity of VCAM-1, determined by Western blot, RT-PCR, and promoter assay. LPS-induced responses were inhibited by transfection with siRNAs of TLR4, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88, Nox2, Nox4, p47phox, c-Src, p38 MAPK, activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2, and p300 or pretreatment with the inhibitors of reactive oxygen species (ROS, edaravone, NADPH oxidase [apocynin (APO or diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI], c-Src (PP1, p38 MAPK (SB202190, and p300 (GR343. LPS induced NADPH oxidase activation, ROS production, and p47phox translocation from the cytosol to the membrane, which were reduced by PP1 or c-Src siRNA. We observed that LPS induced TLR4, MyD88, c-Src, and p47phox complex formation determined by co-immunoprecipitation and Western blot. We further demonstrated that LPS stimulated ATF2 and p300 phosphorylation and complex formation via a c-Src/NADPH oxidase/ROS/p38 MAPK pathway. Up-regulation of VCAM-1 led to enhancing monocyte adhesion to HRMCs challenged with LPS, which was inhibited by siRNAs of c-Src, p47phox, p38 MAPK, ATF2, and p300 or pretreatment with an anti-VCAM-1 neutralizing antibody. Conclusions In HRMCs, LPS-induced VCAM-1 expression was, at least in part, mediated through a TLR4/MyD88/ c-Src/NADPH oxidase/ROS/p38 MAPK-dependent p300 and ATF2 pathway associated with recruitment of monocyte adhesion to kidney. Blockade of these pathways may reduce monocyte adhesion via VCAM-1 suppression and attenuation of the inflammatory responses in renal diseases.

  4. CysLT1 receptor-induced human airway smooth muscle cells proliferation requires ROS generation, EGF receptor transactivation and ERK1/2 phosphorylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capra Valérie

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cysteine-containing leukotrienes (cysteinyl-LTs are pivotal inflammatory mediators that play important roles in the pathophysiology of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and other inflammatory conditions. In particular, cysteinyl-LTs exert a variety of effects with relevance to the aetiology of asthma such as smooth muscle contraction, eosinophil recruitment, increased microvascular permeability, enhanced mucus secretion and decreased mucus transport and, finally, airway smooth muscle cells (ASMC proliferation. We used human ASMC (HASMC to identify the signal transduction pathway(s of the leukotriene D4 (LTD4-induced DNA synthesis. Methods Proliferation of primary HASMC was measured by [3H]thymidine incorporation. Phosphorylation of EGF receptor (EGF-R and ERK1/2 was assessed with a polyclonal anti-EGF-R or anti-phosphoERKl/2 monoclonal antibody. A Ras pull-down assay kit was used to evaluate Ras activation. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS was estimated by measuring dichlorodihydrofluorescein (DCF oxidation. Results We demonstrate that in HASMC LTD4-stimulated thymidine incorporation and potentiation of EGF-induced mitogenic signaling mostly depends upon EGF-R transactivation through the stimulation of CysLT1-R. Accordingly, we found that LTD4 stimulation was able to trigger the increase of Ras-GTP and, in turn, to activate ERK1/2. We show here that EGF-R transactivation was sensitive to pertussis toxin (PTX and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K inhibitors and that it occurred independently from Src activity, despite the observation of a strong impairment of LTD4-induced DNA synthesis following Src inhibition. More interestingly, CysLT1-R stimulation increased the production of ROS and N-acetylcysteine (NAC abolished LTD4-induced EGF-R phosphorylation and thymidine incorporation. Conclusion Collectively, our data demonstrate that in HASMC LTD4 stimulation of a Gi/o coupled CysLT1-R triggers the transactivation of the EGF-R through the intervention of PI3K and ROS. While PI3K and ROS involvement is an early event, the activation of Src occurs downstream of EGF-R activation and is followed by the classical Ras-ERK1/2 signaling pathway to control G1 progression and cell proliferation.

  5. Antioxidant pathways are up-regulated during biological nitrogen fixation to prevent ROS-induced nitrogenase inhibition in Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alquéres, Sylvia M C; Oliveira, Jose Henrique M; Nogueira, Eduardo M; Guedes, Helma V; Oliveira, Pedro L; Câmara, Fernando; Baldani, Jose I; Martins, Orlando B

    2010-10-01

    Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, an endophyte isolated from sugarcane, is a strict aerobe that fixates N(2). This process is catalyzed by nitrogenase and requires copious amounts of ATP. Nitrogenase activity is extremely sensitive to inhibition by oxygen and reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, the elevated oxidative metabolic rates required to sustain biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) may favor an increased production of ROS. Here, we explored this paradox and observed that ROS levels are, in fact, decreased in nitrogen-fixing cells due to the up-regulation of transcript levels of six ROS-detoxifying genes. A cluster analyses based on common expression patterns revealed the existence of a stable cluster with 99.8% similarity made up of the genes encoding the ?-subunit of nitrogenase Mo-Fe protein (nifD), superoxide dismutase (sodA) and catalase type E (katE). Finally, nitrogenase activity was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by paraquat, a redox cycler that increases cellular ROS levels. Our data revealed that ROS can strongly inhibit nitrogenase activity, and G. diazotrophicus alters its redox metabolism during BNF by increasing antioxidant transcript levels resulting in a lower ROS generation. We suggest that careful controlled ROS production during this critical phase is an adaptive mechanism to allow nitrogen fixation. PMID:20697694

  6. Effect of Iron-Mediated Oxidative Stress on Insulin Resistance Through the Forkhead Box-Containing Protein O Subfamily-1 (FOXO-1) Pathway in Chronic Hepatitis C

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshinao Kobayashi; Motoh Iwasa; Hirohide Miyachi; Ryosuke Sugimoto; Hideaki Tanaka; Rumi Mifuji-Moroka; Naoki Fujita; Yasuhiro Sumida; Yoshiyuki Takei

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is often associated with glucose metabolic disorders and iron overload. It has recently been shown that reactive oxygen species (ROS) increase gluconeogenesis in hepatocytes through the forkhead box-containing protein O subfamily-1 (FOXO1)-dependent pathway. The aim of this study is proving a cause-and-effect relationship between iron-mediated ROS production and insulin resistance (IR) in chronic hepatitis C (CH-C) patients. Methods: The study ...

  7. L-Carnitine Protects against Carboplatin-Mediated Renal Injury: AMPK- and PPAR?-Dependent Inactivation of NFAT3

    OpenAIRE

    Sue, Yuh-mou; Chou, Hsiu-chu; Chang, Chih-cheng; Yang, Nian-jie; Chou, Ying; Juan, Shu-hui

    2014-01-01

    We have previously shown that carboplatin induces inflammation and apoptosis in renal tubular cells (RTCs) through the activation of the nuclear factor of activated T cells-3 (NFAT3) protein by reactive oxygen species (ROS), and that the ROS-mediated activation of NFAT3 is prevented by N-acetyl cysteine and heme oxygenase-1 treatment. In the current study, we investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms of the protective effect of L-carnitine on carboplatin-mediated renal injury. Balb/c m...

  8. Ca2+-sensors and ROS-GC: Interlocked sensory transduction elements: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RameshwarKSharma

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available From its initial discovery that ROS-GC membrane guanylate cyclase is a mono-modal Ca2+-transduction system linked exclusively with the phototransduction machinery to the successive finding that it embodies a remarkable bimodal Ca2+signaling device, its widened transduction role in the general signaling mechanisms of the sensory neuron cells was envisioned. A theoretical concept was proposed where Ca2+-modulates ROS-GC through its generated cyclic GMP via a nearby cyclic nucleotide gated channel and creates a hyper- or depolarized sate in the neuron membrane (Ca2+ Binding Proteins 1:1, 7-11, 2006. The generated electric potential then becomes a mode of transmission of the parent [Ca2+]i signal. Ca2+ and ROS-GC are interlocked messengers in multiple sensory transduction mechanisms. This comprehensive review discusses the developmental stages to the present status of this concept and demonstrates how neuronal Ca2+-sensor proteins are the interconnected elements of this elegant ROS-GC transduction system. The focus is on the dynamism of the structural composition of this system, and how it accommodates selectivity and elasticity for the Ca2+ signals to perform multiple tasks linked with the SENSES of vision, smell and possibly of taste and the pineal gland. An intriguing illustration is provided for the Ca2+ sensor GCAP1 which displays its remarkable ability for its flexibility in function from being a photoreceptor sensor to an odorant receptor sensor. In doing so it reverses its function from an inhibitor of ROS-GC to the stimulator of ONE-GC membrane guanylate cyclase.

  9. Zeolite encapsulation decreases TiO2-photosensitized ROS generation in cultured human skin fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Biao; Scaiano, J C; English, Ann M

    2006-01-01

    Sunscreens protect skin against sunburn. However, studies have demonstrated that UV-irradiated sunscreen components such as titanium dioxide (TiO2) promote the photogeneration of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Because encapsulation of TiO2 within zeolites alters its photocatalytic activity, supramolecular composites based on NaY zeolite hosts containing TiO2 guests were prepared, and the effects on ROS formation in cells under UVA-irradiation evaluated. DCFH-DA (2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate) was used as a profluorescent probe to monitor intracellular ROS. The detection of intracellular 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein (DCF) fluorescence by confocal microscopy revealed that DCFH-DA was taken up, hydrolyzed and oxidized by yeast cells and cultured human skin fibroblasts within 20 and 6 min, respectively. Higher DCF fluorescence was observed in fibroblasts following UVA irradiation in the absence but not in the presence of the radical nitroxide, TEMPOL (4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperydine-1-oxyl), which exhibits superoxide dismutase-mimetic and catalase-mimetic activity. UVA-induced fluorescence increased by approximately 50% in the presence of 32-nm anatase TiO2 particles and decreased by essentially an equal amount in the presence of TiO2 encapsulated within NaY zeolites (TiO2@NaY). Addition of the uncomplexed NaY host also decreased (by approximately 30%) the amount of UVA-induced fluorescence but, unexpectedly, the combination of the free guest and host (TiO2+NaY) caused a doubling of the fluorescence. Protection of cells against TiO2-induced intracellular ROS by encapsulation suggests that supramolecular species may be beneficial in photoprotection of the skin. In contrast, the potentiation of TiO2-induced ROS by uncomplexed NaY points to a critical role for formulation when free TiO2 is used as a sun screen ingredient. PMID:16149847

  10. Anticancer potential of Conium maculatum extract against cancer cells in vitro: Drug-DNA interaction and its ability to induce apoptosis through ROS generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Jesmin; Panigrahi, Ashis Kumar; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Conium maculatum extract is used as a traditional medicine for cervix carcinoma including homeopathy. However, no systematic work has so far been carried out to test its anti-cancer potential against cervix cancer cells in vitro. Thus, in this study, we investigated whether ethanolic extract of conium is capable of inducing cytotoxicity in different normal and cancer cell lines including an elaborate study in HeLa cells. Materials and Methods: Conium's effects on cell cycle, reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and apoptosis, if any, were analyzed through flow cytometry. Whether Conium could damage DNA and induce morphological changes were also determined microscopically. Expression of different proteins related to cell death and survival was critically studied by western blotting and ELISA methods. If Conium could interact directly with DNA was also determined by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Results: Conium treatment reduced cell viability and colony formation at 48 h and inhibited cell proliferation, arresting cell cycle at sub-G stage. Conium treatment lead to increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) at 24 h, increase in MMP depolarization, morphological changes and DNA damage in HeLa cells along with externalization of phosphatidyl serine at 48 hours. While cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation led HeLa cells toward apoptosis, down-regulation of Akt and NFkB inhibited cellular proliferation, indicating the signaling pathway to be mediated via the mitochondria-mediated caspase-3-dependent pathway. CD-spectroscopy revealed that Conium interacted with DNA molecule. Conclusion: Overall results validate anti-cancer potential of Conium and provide support for its use in traditional systems of medicine. PMID:25298670

  11. Basal and T?-induced ROS production in lymphocyte mitochondria is increased in type 2 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anthonsen, S; Larsen, J

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial function, including production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), is important in the pathogenesis of diabetes and its complications. Thyroid hormones are major regulator of these processes. Hence, the aim of this study was to examine the thyroid hormone regulation of ROS production in human lymphocytes in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM). Lymphocytes from 10 controls and 10 persons with T2DM were examined. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was examined by flow cytometry after staining with MitoTracker Green (MTG). Similarly ROS was measured following staining with carboxy-H?DCFDA. MMP was increased in T2DM patients and T? stimulation increased MMP in controls [1398 a.u. (979-4094) vs. 2156 a.u. (1611-15189), p=0.04, median and quartiles] as well as in T2DM patients [9167 a.u. (7387-11746) vs. 20274 a.u. (17183-27839 p=0.004, median and quartiles]. Basal ROS concentration was increased in lymphocytes from T2DM and T? significantly stimulated ROS concentration in controls [3691 a.u. (2584-6396) vs. 5650 a.u. (3001-7802) p=0.013, median and quartiles] and in T2DM patients [19271 a.u. (6288-25282) vs. 23178 a.u. (10004-28857) p=0.013, median and quartiles]. The ratio of ROS production related to MMP was significantly higher in T2DM, unstimulated as well as T?-stimulated in T2DM. Unstimulated and T? stimulated ROS production and MMP were higher in lymphocytes from diabetic patients. An altered balance between ROS production and MMP, favoring ROS production in T2DM patients, was found suggesting that an increased mitochondrial sensitivity for T? may be a significant factor responsible for increased ROS activity in diabetic patients.

  12. Iron Overload Induced Apoptotic Cell Death in Isolated Rat Hepatocytes Mediated by Reactive Oxygen Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolamir Allameh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolated rat hepatocytes in culture were incubated with different concentrations of iron-sorbitol (50, 100, 150, and 200 µM to assess the changes in reactive oxygen species (ROS and lipid peroxidation leading to apoptotic hepatocyte cell death. The viability of hepatocytes was declined depending on the iron concentration. One hour incubation of the cells with 100 µM iron resulted in decreased of the hepatocyte viability down to 50% (EC50 µM. Cellular glutathione (GSH was depleted depending on the concentration of iron added to the hepatocytes in culture. Decline in cellular GSH was associated with elevation in reactive oxygen species (ROS generation and formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS as index of lipid peroxidation. TBARS concentration was elevated in hepatocytes exposed to >100 µM of iron for 40 min. A significant increase in ROS formation was also observed in cells incubated with 75 µM of iron for 60 and 120 min. The consequences of ROS-mediated damages to hepatocytes were observed by DNA fragmentation, nuclear staining by propidium iddide and finally with induction of apoptotic hepatocyte cell death. Terminal deoxynucleotie transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling i.e. TUNEL assay (In situ- cell death-detection kit and nuclear staining were also used to confirm apoptosis. These data clearly show that iron overload can cause apoptotic cell death in isolated hepatocytes and generation of ROS precedes other changes related to oxidative stress.

  13. Detection and quantification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in indoor air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesinos, V Nahuel; Sleiman, Mohamad; Cohn, Sebastian; Litter, Marta I; Destaillats, Hugo

    2015-06-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as free radicals and peroxides, are environmental trace pollutants potentially associated with asthma and airways inflammation. These compounds are often not detected in indoor air due to sampling and analytical limitations. This study developed and validated an experimental method to sample, identify and quantify ROS in indoor air using fluorescent probes. Tests were carried out simultaneously using three different probes: 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin (DCFH) to detect a broad range of ROS, Amplex ultra Red® (AuR) to detect peroxides, and terephthalic acid (TPA) to detect hydroxyl radicals (HO(•)). For each test, air samples were collected using two impingers in series kept in an ice bath, containing each 10mL of 50mM phosphate buffer at pH 7.2. In tests with TPA, that probe was also added to the buffer prior to sampling; in the other two tests, probes and additional reactants were added immediately after sampling. The concentration of fluorescent byproducts was determined fluorometrically. Calibration curves were developed by reacting DCFH and AuR with known amounts of H2O2, and using known amounts of 2-hydroxyterephthalic acid (HTPA) for TPA. Low detection limits (9-13nM) and quantification limits (18-22nM) were determined for all three probes, which presented a linear response in the range 10-500nM for AuR and TPA, and 100-2000nM for DCFH. High collection efficiency (CE) and recovery efficiency (RE) were observed for DCFH (CE=RE=100%) and AuR (CE=100%; RE=73%) by sampling from a laboratory-developed gas phase H2O2 generator. Interference of co-occurring ozone was evaluated and quantified for the three probes by sampling from the outlet of an ozone generator. The method was demonstrated by sampling air emitted by two portable air cleaners: a strong ozone generator (AC1) and a plasma generator (AC2). High ozone levels emitted by AC1 did not allow for simultaneous determination of ROS levels due to high background levels associated with ozone decomposition in the buffer. However, emitted ROS were quantified at the outlet of AC2 using two of the three probes. With AuR, the concentration of peroxides in air emitted by the air cleaner was 300ppt of H2O2 equivalents. With TPA, the HO(•) concentration was 47ppt. This method is best suited to quantify ROS in the presence of low ozone levels. PMID:25863366

  14. N-acetylcysteine attenuates reactive-oxygen-species-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress during liver ischemia-reperfusion injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yong; Pu, Li-Yong; Lu, Ling; Wang, Xue-Hao; Zhang, Feng; Rao, Jian-Hua

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and tissue injury during liver ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI). METHODS: Mice were injected with NAC (300 mg/kg) intraperitoneally 2 h before ischemia. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting determined ER stress molecules (GRP78, ATF4 and CHOP). To analyze the role of NAC in reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated ER stress and apoptosis, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was examined in cultured hepatocytes treated by H2O2 or thapsigargin (TG). RESULTS: NAC treatment significantly reduced the level of ROS and attenuated ROS-induced liver injury after IRI, based on glutathione, malondialdehyde, serum alanine aminotransferase levels, and histopathology. ROS-mediated ER stress was significantly inhibited in NAC-treated mice. In addition, NAC treatment significantly reduced caspase-3 activity and apoptosis after reperfusion, which correlated with the protein expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl. Similarly, NAC treatment significantly inhibited LDH release from hepatocytes treated by H2O2 or TG. CONCLUSION: This study provides new evidence for the protective effects of NAC treatment on hepatocytes during IRI. Through inhibition of ROS-mediated ER stress, NAC may be critical to inhibit the ER-stress-related apoptosis pathway. PMID:25386077

  15. Selenium compounds induce ROS in human high-metastatic large cell lung cancer cell line L9981

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengfei LIU

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective It has been proved that methylseleninic acid (MSA is a kind of artificially developed selenium compound, which appeared to be the best candidate for cancer prevention and therapy. Reduced glutathione is not only critical to MSA metabolism, but also is a kind of protective antioxidant which could remove the oxygen free radical promptly and maintain the intracellular redox status stable. The aim of this study is to explore the anticancer effects of ROS induced by MSA and the molecular mechanisms of MSA on induction of ROS. Methods We confirmed that MSA and selenite have the anticancer effect in the human high-metastatic large cell lung cancer cell line L9981 by growth inhibition detection, we detect the ROS induced by MSA and selenite in L9981 by fluorescence microscopy, and use flow cytometry to quantitate the ROS induced by NAC together with selenium compounds. Results ?MSA 2.5 ?M and 5.0 ?M selenite could inhibit the L9981 growth, Increasing the concentration resulted in a more pronounced effect. ?MSA and selenite could induce ROS in L9981. ?incubated NAC with selenite could significantly inhibit the ROS but increase the ROS treated by NAC with MSA. Conclusions ?MSA and selenite had anti-L9981 effect. ?Oxidative stress reaction may participate in the induction of apoptosis by MSA and selenite in lung cancer cell line L9981.

  16. Tetrandrine induces autophagy and differentiation by activating ROS and Notch1 signaling in leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Men, Qiuxu; Wu, Guixian; Yu, Chunrong; Huang, Zan; Liu, Xin; Li, Wenhua

    2015-04-10

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is a differentiating agent for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). However, the therapeutic efficacy of ATRA has limitations. Tetrandrine is a traditional Chinese medicinal herb extract with antitumor effects. In this study, we investigated the effects of tetrandrine on human PML-RAR?-positive acute promyelocytic leukemia cells. Tetrandrine inhibited tumors in vivo. It induced autophagy and differentiation by triggering ROS generation and activating Notch1 signaling. Tetrandrine induced autophagy and differentiation in M5 type patient primary leukemia cells. The in vivo results indicated that low concentrations of tetrandrine inhibited leukemia cells proliferation and induced autophagy and then facilitated their differentiation, by activating ROS and Notch1 signaling. We suggest that tetrandrine is a potential agent for the treatment of APL by inducing differentiation of leukemia cells. PMID:25797266

  17. Seasonal trends in the composition and ROS activity of fine particulate matter in Baghdad, Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Samera Hussein; Shafer, Martin Merrill; Kadhim, Ahmed K. H.; Al-Omran, Sabah M.; Schauer, James Jay

    2015-01-01

    Baghdad suffers from severe atmospheric particulate matter (PM) pollution and has limited infrastructure to monitor and control PM-pollution. To help better understand the nature of particulate matter in Baghdad, daily PM2.5 samples were collected every 6th day from September, 2012 to September, 2013. The samples were analyzed for chemical composition and cellular oxidative stress activity using a macrophage-based assay. The annual average PM2.5 concentration was 50 ± 19 ?g m-3, and was comprised of approximately 28% crustal materials, 26% organic carbon (OC), 17% sulfate, 12% elemental carbon (EC), and 8.0% ammonium ion. No clear seasonal trend was observed for the total PM2.5 mass and PM2.5 OC, but EC exhibited higher concentrations in the warmer months, likely due to the extensive use of electric generators operated by diesel and gasoline for cooling. April showed the lowest levels of both EC and OC compared with other months due to both sand and rainstorm events which led to increased deposition and dispersion of local emissions. Concentrations of nitrate ion were low in all seasons due to the high temperatures and low humidity, but slightly higher levels were observed in the cooler months of winter. The oxidative stress (reactive oxygen species (ROS)) activity (59 ± 35 ?g Zymosan equivalents m-3) of the PM was relatively lower than in other studied areas. Association between the water soluble PM constituents and the oxidative activity was investigated using a multi-linear regression model which showed no strong relationships between ROS activity and the water soluble components of PM2.5, but a moderate correlation of water soluble organic carbon from biomass burning (WSOC-BB) was observed (R2 = 0.52). Biomass burning PM has been shown to be an important contributor to ROS activity in other published studies, but additional work is needed to better understand the sources leading to the ROS activity in Baghdad.

  18. ira_laser_tools: a ROS LaserScan manipulation toolbox

    OpenAIRE

    Ballardini, Augusto Luis; Fontana, Simone; Furlan, Axel; Domenico G. Sorrenti

    2014-01-01

    Laser scanners are sensors of widespread use in robotic applications. Under the Robot Operating System (ROS) the information generated by laser scanners can be conveyed by either LaserScan messages or in the form of PointClouds. Many publicly available algorithms (mapping, localization, navigation, etc.) rely on LaserScan messages, yet a tool for handling multiple lasers, merging their measurements, or to generate generic LaserScan messages from PointClouds, is not available...

  19. High efficiency of ROS production by glycerophosphate dehydrogenase in mammalian mitochondria.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mrá?ek, Tomáš; Pecinová, Alena; Vrbacký, Marek; Drahota, Zden?k; Houšt?k, Josef

    2009-01-01

    Ro?. 481, ?. 1 (2009), s. 30-36. ISSN 0003-9861 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520; GA ?R(CZ) GA303/06/1261 Grant ostatní: EC(XE) LSHM-CT-2004-503116 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : mGPDH * ROS * mitochondria Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.046, year: 2009

  20. Cryopreservation affects ROS-induced oxidative stress and antioxidant response in Arabidopsis seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guan-Qun; Ren, Li; Zhang, Jie; Reed, Barbara M; Zhang, Di; Shen, Xiao-Hui

    2015-02-01

    Plant recovery status after cryopreservation by vitrification had a negative relationship to the oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings germinated for 48 h or 72 h with different survival tolerances were examined at five steps of cryopreservation, to determine the role of ROS (O2(-), H2O2 and OH) and antioxidant systems (SOD, POD, CAT, AsA and GSH) in cryo-injury. In addition, the effects of the steps on membrane lipid peroxidation were studied using malondialdehyde (MDA) as an indicator. The results indicated that H2O2-induced oxidative stress at the steps of dehydration and rapid warming was the main cause of cryo-injury of 48-h seedlings (high survival rate) and 72-h seedlings (no survival). The H2O2 was mainly generated in cotyledons, shoot tips and roots of seedlings as indicated by Amplex Red staining. Low survival of 72-h seedlings was associated with severe membrane lipid peroxidation, which was caused by increased OH generation activity and decreased SOD activity. The antioxidant-related gene expression by qRT-PCR and physiological assays suggested that the antioxidant system of 48-h seedlings were activated by ROS, and they mounted a defense against oxidative stress. A high level of ROS led to the weakening of the antioxidant system of 72-h seedlings. Correlation analysis indicated that enhanced antioxidant enzymes activities contributed to the high survival rate of 48-h seedlings, which could reflect by cryopreservation of antioxidant mutant seedlings. This model system indicated that elevated CAT activity and AsA content were determinants of cryogenic stress tolerance, whose manipulation could improve the recovery of seedlings after cryopreservation. PMID:25489814

  1. EW-7197 inhibits hepatic, renal, and pulmonary fibrosis by blocking TGF-?/Smad and ROS signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-A; Kim, Min-Jin; Park, So-Yeon; Kim, Jung-Shin; Lee, Seon-Joo; Woo, Hyun Ae; Kim, Dae-Kee; Nam, Jeong-Seok; Sheen, Yhun Yhong

    2015-05-01

    Fibrosis is an inherent response to chronic damage upon immense apoptosis or necrosis. Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-?1) signaling plays a key role in the fibrotic response to chronic liver injury. To develop anti-fibrotic therapeutics, we synthesized a novel small-molecule inhibitor of the TGF-? type I receptor kinase (ALK5), EW-7197, and evaluated its therapeutic potential in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) mouse, bile duct ligation (BDL) rat, bleomycin (BLM) mouse, and unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) mouse models. Western blot, immunofluorescence, siRNA, and ChIP analysis were carried out to characterize EW-7197 as a TGF-?/Smad signaling inhibitor in LX-2, Hepa1c1c7, NRK52E, and MRC5 cells. In vivo anti-fibrotic activities of EW-7197 were examined by microarray, immunohistochemistry, western blotting, and a survival study in the animal models. EW-7197 decreased the expression of collagen, ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), fibronectin, 4-hydroxy-2, 3-nonenal, and integrins in the livers of CCl4 mice and BDL rats, in the lungs of BLM mice, and in the kidneys of UUO mice. Furthermore, EW-7197 extended the lifespan of CCl4 mice, BDL rats, and BLM mice. EW-7197 blocked the TGF-?1-stimulated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), collagen, and ?-SMA in LX-2 cells and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) isolated from mice. Moreover, EW-7197 attenuated TGF-?- and ROS-induced HSCs activation to myofibroblasts as well as extracellular matrix accumulation. The mechanism of EW-7197 appeared to be blockade of both TGF-?1/Smad2/3 and ROS signaling to exert an anti-fibrotic activity. This study shows that EW-7197 has a strong potential as an anti-fibrosis therapeutic agent via inhibition of TGF-?-/Smad2/3 and ROS signaling. PMID:25487606

  2. ROS, Notch, and Wnt Signaling Pathways: Crosstalk between Three Major Regulators of Cardiovascular Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Caliceti, C.; Nigro, P.; Rizzo, P.; Ferrari, R.

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS), traditionally viewed as toxic by-products that cause damage to biomolecules, now are clearly recognized as key modulators in a variety of biological processes and pathological states. The development and regulation of the cardiovascular system require orchestrated activities; Notch and Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathways are implicated in many aspects of them, including cardiomyocytes and smooth muscle cells survival, angiogenesis, progenitor cells recruitment and...

  3. Mars Express Forward Link Capabilities for the Mars Relay Operations Service (MaROS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, Daniel A.; Wallick, Michael N.; Gladden, Roy E.; Wang, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This software provides a new capability for landed Mars assets to perform forward link relay through the Mars Express (MEX) European Union orbital spacecraft. It solves the problem of standardizing the relay interface between lander missions and MEX. The Mars Operations Relay Service (MaROS) is intended as a central point for relay planning and post-pass analysis for all Mars landed and orbital assets. Through the first two phases of implementation, MaROS supports relay coordination through the Odyssey orbiter and the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). With this new software, MaROS now fully integrates the Mars Express spacecraft into the relay picture. This new software generates and manages a new set of file formats that allows for relay request to MEX for forward and return link relay, including the parameters specific to MEX. Existing MEX relay planning interactions were performed via email exchanges and point-to-point file transfers. By integrating MEX into MaROS, all transactions are managed by a centralized service for tracking and analysis. Additionally, all lander missions have a single, shared interface with MEX and do not have to integrate on a mission-by mission basis. Relay is a critical element of Mars lander data management. Landed assets depend largely upon orbital relay for data delivery, which can be impacted by the availability and health of each orbiter in the network. At any time, an issue may occur to prevent relay. For this reason, it is imperative that all possible orbital assets be integrated into the overall relay picture.

  4. 5-Lipoxygenase regulates senescence-like growth arrest by promoting ROS-dependent p53 activation

    OpenAIRE

    Catalano, Alfonso; Rodilossi, Sabrina; Caprari, Paola; Coppola, Vincenzo; Procopio, Antonio

    2004-01-01

    5-Lipoxygenase (5LO) is involved in the production of leukotrienes and reactive oxygen species (ROS) from arachidonic acid. Its strong activation has been associated with several diseases like cancer and neurodegeneration. Here we show that 5LO activity increases during senescence-like growth arrest induced by oncogenic ras or culture history in both human and mouse embryo fibroblasts. Overexpression of 5LO promotes senescence-like growth arrest via a p53/p21-dependent pathway, and this occur...

  5. Intracellular ROS Protection Efficiency and Free Radical-Scavenging Activity of Curcumin

    OpenAIRE

    Barzegar, Abolfazl; Moosavi-movahedi, Ali A.

    2011-01-01

    Curcumin has many pharmaceutical applications, many of which arise from its potent antioxidant properties. The present research examined the antioxidant activities of curcumin in polar solvents by a comparative study using ESR, reduction of ferric iron in aqueous medium and intracellular ROS/toxicity assays. ESR data indicated that the steric hindrance among adjacent big size groups within a galvinoxyl molecule limited the curcumin to scavenge galvinoxyl radicals effectively, while curcumin s...

  6. Carbon black nanoparticles promote endothelial activation and lipid accumulation in macrophages independently of intracellular ROS production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Yi; Roursgaard, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to nanoparticles (NPs) may cause vascular effects including endothelial dysfunction and foam cell formation, with oxidative stress and inflammation as supposed central mechanisms. We investigated oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction and lipid accumulation caused by nano-sized carbon black (CB) exposure in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), THP-1 (monocytes) and THP-1 derived macrophages (THP-1a). The proliferation of HUVECs or co-cultures of HUVECs and THP-1 cells were unaffected by CB exposure, whereas there was increased cytotoxicity, assessed by the LDH and WST-1 assays, especially in THP-1 and THP-1a cells. The CB exposure decreased the glutathione (GSH) content in THP-1 and THP-1a cells, whereas GSH was increased in HUVECs. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was increased in all cell types after CB exposure. A reduction of the intracellular GSH concentration by buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) pre-treatment further increased the CB-induced ROS production in THP-1 cells and HUVECs. The expression of adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, but not adhesion of THP-1 to HUVECs or culture dishes, was elevated by CB exposure, whereas these effects were unaffected by BSO pre-treatment. qRT-PCR showed increased VCAM1 expression, but no change in GCLM and HMOX1 expression in CB-exposed HUVECs. Pre-exposure to CB induced lipid accumulation in THP-1a cells, which was not affected by the presence of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine. In addition, the concentrations of CB to induce lipid accumulation were lower than the concentrations to promote intracellular ROS production in THP-1a cells. In conclusion, exposure to nano-sized CB induced endothelial dysfunction and foam cell formation, which was not dependent on intracellular ROS production.

  7. DNA Lesions Caused by ROS and RNOS: A Review of Interactions and Reactions Involving Guanine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, P. K.; Mishra, P. C.

    DNA is constantly attacked by a large number of endogenous and exogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen oxide species (RNOS), and alkylating agents which produce a wide variety of modifications of its constituents, particularly the bases. Some of these modifications (lesions) are hazardous to normal cell functioning, and are implicated in several lethal conditions including chronic inflammatory diseases, atherosclerosis, aging, mutation, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders, such as the Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.

  8. Tetrandrine induces autophagy and differentiation by activating ROS and Notch1 signaling in leukemia cells

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ting; Men, Qiuxu; Wu, Guixian; Yu, Chunrong; Huang, Zan; Liu, Xin; Li, Wenhua

    2015-01-01

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is a differentiating agent for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). However, the therapeutic efficacy of ATRA has limitations. Tetrandrine is a traditional Chinese medicinal herb extract with antitumor effects. In this study, we investigated the effects of tetrandrine on human PML-RAR?-positive acute promyelocytic leukemia cells. Tetrandrine inhibited tumors in vivo. It induced autophagy and differentiation by triggering ROS generation and activa...

  9. Impact of UV light on the plant cell wall, methane emissions and ROS production

    OpenAIRE

    Messenger, David James

    2009-01-01

    This study presents the first attempt to combine the fields of ultraviolet (UV) photobiology, plant cell wall biochemistry, aerobic methane production and reactive oxygen species (ROS) mechanisms to investigate the effect of UV radiation on vegetation foliage. Following reports of a 17% increase in decomposition rates in oak (Quercus robur) due to increased UV, which were later ascribed to changes in cell wall carbohydrate extractability, this study investigated the effects of ...

  10. Influence of thiol stress on oxidative phosphorylation and generation of ROS in Streptomyces coelicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemendra J. Vekaria

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Thiols play very important role in the intracellular redox homeostasis. Imbalance in the redox status leads to changes in the intracellular metabolism including respiration. Thiol stress, a reductive type of stress can also cause redox imbalance. When Gram-positive bacterium Strep- tomyces coelicolor was exposed to thiol stress, catalaseA was induced. Induction of catalaseA is the consequence of elevation of ROS (reactive oxygen species. The two major sources of reactive oxygen species are Fenton reaction and slippage of electrons from electron transport chain during respiration. Hence, the effect of thiol stress was checked on the rate of oxidative phosphorylation in S. coelicolor. We found correlation in the increase of oxidative phosphorylation rate and the generation of ROS, subsequently leading to induction of catalase. It was observed that thiol stress does not affect the functionality of the individual complexes of the ETC, but still there was an increase in the overall respiration, which may lead to generation of more ROS leading to induction of catalase.

  11. Protoporphyrin IX-dependent photodynamic production of endogenous ROS stimulates cell proliferation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blazquez-Castro, Alfonso; Carrasco, Elisa

    2012-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy using methyl 5-aminolevulinate (MAL) as a precursor of the photosensitizing agent protoporphyrin IX is widely used in clinical practice for the treatment of different pathologies, including cancer. In this therapeutic modality, MAL treatment promotes the forced accumulation of the endogenous photoactive compound protoporphyrin IX in target malignant cells. Subsequent irradiation of treated tissues with an appropriate visible light source induces the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that, once accumulated above a critical level, promote cell death. Here we demonstrate that a photodynamic treatment with low MAL concentrations can be used to promote a moderate production of endogenous ROS, which efficiently stimulates cell growth in human immortalized keratinocytes (HaCaT). We also show that this proliferative response requires Src kinase activity and is associated to a transient induction of cyclin D1 expression. Taken together, these results demonstrate for the first time that acombination of light and a photoactive compound can be used to modulate cell cycle progression through Src kinase activation and that a moderate intracellular increase of photogenerated ROS efficiently stimulates cell proliferation.

  12. Mitochondrial oxidant production by a pollutant dust and NO-mediated apoptosis in human alveolar macrophage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuh-Chin T; Soukup, Joleen; Harder, Shirley; Becker, Susanne

    2003-01-01

    Residual oil fly ash (ROFA) is a pollutant dust that stimulates production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from mitochondria and apoptosis in alveolar macrophages (AM), but the relationship between these two processes is unclear. In this study, human AM were incubated with ROFA or vanadyl sulfate (VOSO(4)), the major metal constituent in ROFA, with or without nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), and mitochondrial electron transport inhibitors. Interactions among production of ROS, nitric oxide (NO), and apoptosis of AM were determined. ROFA-stimulated ROS production was attenuated by DPI, rotenone, antimycin, and NaN(3), but not by L-NAME, a pattern mimicked by VOSO(4). ROFA-induced apoptosis was inhibited by L-NAME and a caspase-3-like protease inhibitor, but not by mitochondrial inhibitors. ROFA enhanced NO-mediated increase in caspase-3-like activity. VOSO(4) had minor effects on apoptosis. Thus ROFA-stimulated production of ROS from mitochondria was independent of apoptosis of AM, which was mediated by activation of caspase-3-like proteases and NO. The pro-oxidant effect but not the proapoptotic effect of ROFA was mediated by vanadium. PMID:12388087

  13. Lead-zinc interactions in the production of osteocalcin by ROS 17/2.8 osteoblastic bone cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The serum level of osteocalcin, a bone specific protein produced by osteoblasts and used clinically as a marker of osteoblast acceptive, is decreased in lead intoxicated children. Previous studies suggest that the reduced osteocalcin production appears to be the result of impaired transcriptional regulation of this 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 gene product, and not translation. As part of a study to investigate the potential interaction of Pb2+ with Zn2+, and with the zinc fingers of the vitamin D receptor, ROS cells were treated with 0, 5, 10, or 25 ?M lead acetate for 24 hr, in the presence of 10, 30, or 50 ?M Zn followed by an additional 24 hr treatment with lead with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (100 pg/ml media). At the end of this period a radioimmunoassay was conducted to determine the amount of osteocalcin in the cells and secreted in the media. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 caused an increase in osteocalcin secreted into the media in cultures containing 0 ?M lead, but this increase was inhibited by lead in a concentration dependent manner, so that osteocalcin secretion in 10 or 25 ?M lead treated groups was less than cultures without 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 treatment. This inhibitory effect of lead was blocked by increasing the medium zinc concentration of 50 ?M. Increasing medium Pb2+ concentrations decreased the amount of 65Zn taken up by cells by ?30%, which was nullified bylls by ?30%, which was nullified by increasing medium Zn. These results suggest that lead produces a localized and specific Zn deficiency in the vitamin D receptor zinc finger, and perhaps other zinc metalloproteins, and that these effects of lead are not mediated through general effects on RNA or protein synthesis

  14. Characterization of structure and coagulation behaviour of refractory organic substances (ROS) using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and x-ray microscopy; Charakterisierung von Struktur und Koagulationsverhalten von Refraktaeren Organischen Saeuren (ROS) mit Hilfe von Neutronenkleinwinkelstreuung (SANS), Roentgenkleinwinkelstreuung (SAXS) und Roentgenmikroskopie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pranzas, P.K. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstofforschung

    1999-07-01

    In this work structure, coagulation and complexation behaviour of aquatic refractory organic substances (ROS) (humic and fulvic acids) were characterized. For this purpose a structural analytical system with the methods small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and X-ray microscopy with synchrotron radiation was developed and established. Size distributions of ROS of different origin were calculated from the scattering curves. Spherical ROS units were obtained, which coagulated by forming chainlike structures or disordered ROS agglomerates at higher concentrations. Additionally the average molecular weights of several ROS were calculated. Studies of the coagulation behaviour of ROS towards copper ions resulted in larger ROS-agglomerates besides the spherical ROS units. A linear relation between the addition of Cu{sup 2+} and the formation of the ROS-Cu{sup 2+}-agglomerates was found. With X-ray microscopy an extensive ROS-Cu{sup 2}-network structure could be registrated. For mercury and cadmium ions such coagulation interactions were not found. Investigations with X-ray microscopy of the coagulation behaviour of ROS towards the cationic surfactant DTB resulted in micel-like structures of equal size, which were spread throughout the solution. With increasing concentrations of DTB larger agglomerates up to network structures were obtained. (orig.) [German] In dieser Arbeit wurden Struktur, Koagulations- und Komplexierungsverhalten von aquatischen refraktaeren organischen Saeuren (ROS) (Humin- und Fulvinsaeuren) charakterisiert. Zu diesem Zweck wurde ein strukturanalytisches Gesamtsystem mit den Methoden Neutronenkleinwinkelstreuung (SANS), Roentgenkleinwinkelstreuung (SAXS) und Roentgenmikroskopie mit Synchrotronstrahlung entwickelt und etabliert. Fuer ROS unterschiedlicher Herkunft in Loesung wurden Groessenverteilungen aus den Streukurven berechnet. Es wurden kugelfoermige ROS-Einheiten gefunden, die bei hoeheren ROS-Konzentrationen unter der Bildung von Kettenstrukturen oder ungeordneten ROS-Agglomeraten koagulierten. Aus den SANS-Streukurven wurden fuer ausgewaehlte ROS zusaetzlich die mittleren Molekulargewichte berechnet, wobei ebenfalls eine Agglomeratbildung beobachtet wurde. Studien des Koagulationsverhaltens von ROS gegenueber Kupferionen ergaben zusaetzlich zu den kugelfoermigen ROS-Einheiten groessere ROS-Cu{sup 2+}-Agglomerate. Ein linearer Zusammenhang zwischen der Cu{sup 2+}-Zugabe und der Bildung der ROS-Cu{sup 2+}-Agglomerate wurde festgestellt. Mit der Roentgenmikroskopie wurden grossflaechige ROS-Cu{sup 2+}-Netzwerkstrukturen abgebildet. Fuer Quecksilber- und Cadmium-Ionen wurde keine derartige Koagulationswechselwirkung gefunden. Untersuchungen des Koagulationsverhaltens der ROS gegenueber Tensiden mit der Roentgenmikroskopie ergaben bei ansteigenden Konzentrationen des kationischen Standard-Tensids DTB in der ganzen Loesung verteilte mizellartige Strukturen gleicher Groesse sowie groessere Agglomerate bis hin zu Netzwerkstrukturen. Die aufgefuehrten Strukturen zeigen sowohl das Potential des etablierten strukturanalytischen Systems als auch die Komplexitaet und Vielfalt der Koagulationswechselwirkungen von ROS und damit die mannigfaltigen Prozesse im Bereich zwischen geloester Phase und Suspension. (orig.)

  15. Dihydroartemisinin induces autophagy and inhibits the growth of iron-loaded human myeloid leukemia K562 cells via ROS toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zeng; Hu, Wei; Zhang, Jia-li; Wu, Xiu-hua; Zhou, Hui-jun

    2012-01-01

    ? DHA induced K562 cells autophagy followed by LC3-II protein expression. ? The DHA-induced autophagy might be ROS dependent. ? Inhibition of K562 cell proliferation by DHA was also dependent upon iron decrease.

  16. SIRT3 is a Mitochondrial Tumor Suppressor: A Scientific Tale that Connects Aberrant Cellular ROS, the Warburg Effect, and Carcinogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Haigis, Marcia C.; Deng, Chu-xia; Finley, Lydia W. S.; Kim, Hyun-seok; Gius, David

    2012-01-01

    Tumors exhibit metabolic reprogramming characterized by increased cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the preferential use of glucose, as first published by Otto Warburg in 1956, referred to as the “Warburg effect.” However, the mechanism(s) linking these processes remain largely elusive. Murine tumors lacking Sirt3 exhibit abnormally high levels of ROS that directly induce genomic instability and increase HIF-1? protein levels. The subsequent transcription of HIF?-dependent targ...

  17. Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii rosR is required for interaction with clover, biofilm formation and adaptation to the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piersiak Tomasz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii is a symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacterium that elicits nodules on roots of host plants Trifolium spp. Bacterial surface polysaccharides are crucial for establishment of a successful symbiosis with legumes that form indeterminate-type nodules, such as Trifolium, Pisum, Vicia, and Medicago spp. and aid the bacterium in withstanding osmotic and other environmental stresses. Recently, the R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii RosR regulatory protein which controls exopolysaccharide production has been identified and characterized. Results In this work, we extend our earlier studies to the characterization of rosR mutants which exhibit pleiotropic phenotypes. The mutants produce three times less exopolysaccharide than the wild type, and the low-molecular-weight fraction in that polymer is greatly reduced. Mutation in rosR also results in quantitative alterations in the polysaccharide constituent of lipopolysaccharide. The rosR mutants are more sensitive to surface-active detergents, antibiotics of the beta-lactam group and some osmolytes, indicating changes in the bacterial membranes. In addition, the rosR mutants exhibit significant decrease in motility and form a biofilm on plastic surfaces, which differs significantly in depth, architecture, and bacterial viability from that of the wild type. The most striking effect of rosR mutation is the considerably decreased attachment and colonization of root hairs, indicating that the mutation affects the first stage of the invasion process. Infection threads initiate at a drastically reduced rate and frequently abort before they reach the base of root hairs. Although these mutants form nodules on clover, they are unable to fix nitrogen and are outcompeted by the wild type in mixed inoculations, demonstrating that functional rosR is important for competitive nodulation. Conclusions This report demonstrates the significant role RosR regulatory protein plays in bacterial stress adaptation and in the symbiotic relationship between clover and R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii 24.2.

  18. NADPH Oxidase versus Mitochondria-Derived ROS in Glucose-Induced Apoptosis of Pericytes in Early Diabetic Retinopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Rakesh Chibber; Kohner, Eva M.; Tarr, Joanna M.; Mustapha, Nik M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. Using apocynin (inhibitor of NADPH oxidase), and Mitoquinol 10 nitrate (MitoQ; mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant), we addressed the importance of mitochondria versus NADPH oxidase-derived ROS in glucose-induced apoptosis of pericytes. Methods. NADPH oxidase was localised using Western blot analysis and cytochrome C reduction assay. Apoptosis was detected by measuring caspase-3 activity. Intracellular glucose concentration, ROS formation and N?-(carboxymethyl) lysine (CML) ...

  19. Modulation of rosR Expression and Exopolysaccharide Production in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii by Phosphate and Clover Root Exudates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Skorupska

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The acidic exopolysaccharide (EPS secreted in large amounts by the symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacterium Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii is required for the establishment of an effective symbiosis with the host plant Trifolium spp. EPS biosynthesis in rhizobia is a very complex process regulated at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels and influenced by various nutritional and environmental conditions. The R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii rosR gene encodes a transcriptional regulator with a C2H2 type zinc-finger motif involved in positive regulation of EPS synthesis. In silico sequence analysis of the 450-bp long rosR upstream region revealed the presence of several inverted repeats (IR1 to IR6 and motifs with significant identity to consensus sequences recognized by PhoB and LysR-type proteins associated with phosphate- and flavonoid-dependent gene regulation in R. leguminosarum. Using a set of sequentially truncated rosR-lacZ transcriptional fusions, the role of the individual motifs and the effect of phosphate and clover root exudates on rosR expression were established. In addition, the significance of IR4 inverted repeats in the repression, and P2–10 hexamer in the activation of rosR transcription, respectively, was found. The expression of rosR increased in the presence of phosphate (0.1–20 mM and clover root exudates (10 ?M. PHO boxes and the LysR motif located upstream of the rosR translation start site were engaged in the regulation of rosR transcription. The synthesis of EPS and biofilm formation decreased at high phosphate concentrations, but increased in the presence of clover root exudates, indicating a complex regulation of these processes.

  20. TAK1 regulates SCF expression to modulate PKB? activity that protects keratinocytes from ROS-induced apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, C. R. I.; Tan, M. J.; Tan, S. H.; Tang, M. B. Y.; Cheung, P. C. F.; Tan, N. S.

    2011-01-01

    Dysregulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation contributes to many human pathologies, including cancer and diabetes. During normal wound repair, inflammation-induced ROS production must be tightly controlled, but the mechanisms reining their generation remain unclear. Herein, we show that transforming growth factor ?-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) directly regulates stem cell factor (SCF) expression, which activates the protein kinase B (PKB)? pro-survival pathway in a cell-autonomous man...

  1. Membrane depolarization is the trigger for PI3K/Akt activation and leads to the generation of ROS

    OpenAIRE

    Chatterjee, Shampa; Browning, Elizabeth A.; Hong, Nankang; Debolt, Kris; Sorokina, Elena M.; Liu, Weidong; Birnbaum, Morris J.; Fisher, Aron B.

    2011-01-01

    Loss of fluid shear stress (ischemia) to the lung endothelium causes endothelial plasma membrane depolarization via ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channel closure, initiating a signaling cascade that leads to NADPH oxidase (NOX2) activation and ROS production. Since wortmannin treatment significantly reduces ROS production with ischemia, we investigated the role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) in shear-associated signaling. Pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells in perfused lungs subjected to...

  2. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a key factor for stimulation of macrophage proliferation by ceramide 1-phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We previously demonstrated that ceramide 1-phosphate (C1P) is mitogenic for fibroblasts and macrophages. However, the mechanisms involved in this action were only partially described. Here, we demonstrate that C1P stimulates reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in primary bone marrow-derived macrophages, and that ROS are required for the mitogenic effect of C1P. ROS production was dependent upon prior activation of NADPH oxidase by C1P, which was determined by measuring phosphorylation of the p40phox subunit and translocation of p47phox from the cytosol to the plasma membrane. In addition, C1P activated cytosolic calcium-dependent phospholipase A2 and protein kinase C-?, and NADPH oxidase activation was blocked by selective inhibitors of these enzymes. These inhibitors, and inhibitors of ROS production, blocked the mitogenic effect of C1P. By using BHNB-C1P (a photolabile caged-C1P analog), we demonstrate that all of these C1P actions are caused by intracellular C1P. It can be concluded that the enzyme responsible for C1P-stimulated ROS generation in bone marrow-derived macrophages is NADPH oxidase, and that this enzyme is downstream of PKC-? and cPLA2-? in this pathway. -- Highlights: ? Ceramide 1-phosphate (C1P) stimulates reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. ? The enzyme responsible for ROS generation by C1P in macrophages is NADPH oxidase. ? NADPH oxidase lies downstream of cPLA2-? and PKC-? in this pathway. ? ROS generation is essential for the stimulation of macrophage proliferation by C1P.

  3. Mitochondria-Derived Reactive Intermediate Species Mediate Asbestos-Induced Genotoxicity and Oxidative Stress–Responsive Signaling Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Sarah X.L.; PARTRIDGE, MICHAEL A.; Ghandhi, Shanaz A; Davidson, Mercy M.; Amundson, Sally A.; Hei, Tom K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The incidence of asbestos-induced human cancers is increasing worldwide, and considerable evidence suggests that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important mediators of these diseases. Our previous studies suggested that mitochondria might be involved in the initiation of oxidative stress in asbestos-exposed mammalian cells.

  4. MST1 activation by curcumin mediates JNK activation, Foxo3a nuclear translocation and apoptosis in melanoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Teng, E-mail: tengyu33@yahoo.com [Department of Dermatology, Shandong Ji-ning No. 1 People’s Hospital, Shandong Province 272011 (China); Ji, Jiang [Department of Dermatology, The Second Hospital Affiliated of Soochow University, SuZhou, Jiangsu Province 215000 (China); Guo, Yong-li [Department of Oncology, Shandong Ji-ning No. 1 People’s Hospital, Shandong Province 272011 (China)

    2013-11-08

    Highlights: •Curcumin activates MST1 in melanoma cells. •MST1 mediates curcumin-induced apoptosis of melanoma cells. •ROS production is involved in curcumin-induced MST1 activation. •MST1 mediates curcumin-induced JNK activation in melanoma cells. •MST1 mediates curcumin-induced Foxo3a nuclear translocation and Bim expression. -- Abstract: Different groups including ours have shown that curcumin induces melanoma cell apoptosis, here we focused the role of mammalian Sterile 20-like kinase 1 (MST1) in it. We observed that curcumin activated MST1-dependent apoptosis in cultured melanoma cells. MST1 silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) suppressed curcumin-induced cell apoptosis, while MST1 over-expressing increased curcumin sensitivity. Meanwhile, curcumin induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in melanoma cells, and the ROS scavenger, N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), almost blocked MST1 activation to suggest that ROS might be required for MST1 activation by curcumin. c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) activation by curcumin was dependent on MST1, since MST1 inhibition by RNAi or NAC largely inhibited curcumin-induced JNK activation. Further, curcumin induced Foxo3 nuclear translocation and Bim-1 (Foxo3 target gene) expression in melanoma cells, such an effect by curcumin was inhibited by MST1 RNAi. In conclusion, we suggested that MST1 activation by curcumin mediates JNK activation, Foxo3a nuclear translocation and apoptosis in melanoma cells.

  5. MST1 activation by curcumin mediates JNK activation, Foxo3a nuclear translocation and apoptosis in melanoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Curcumin activates MST1 in melanoma cells. •MST1 mediates curcumin-induced apoptosis of melanoma cells. •ROS production is involved in curcumin-induced MST1 activation. •MST1 mediates curcumin-induced JNK activation in melanoma cells. •MST1 mediates curcumin-induced Foxo3a nuclear translocation and Bim expression. -- Abstract: Different groups including ours have shown that curcumin induces melanoma cell apoptosis, here we focused the role of mammalian Sterile 20-like kinase 1 (MST1) in it. We observed that curcumin activated MST1-dependent apoptosis in cultured melanoma cells. MST1 silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) suppressed curcumin-induced cell apoptosis, while MST1 over-expressing increased curcumin sensitivity. Meanwhile, curcumin induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in melanoma cells, and the ROS scavenger, N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), almost blocked MST1 activation to suggest that ROS might be required for MST1 activation by curcumin. c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) activation by curcumin was dependent on MST1, since MST1 inhibition by RNAi or NAC largely inhibited curcumin-induced JNK activation. Further, curcumin induced Foxo3 nuclear translocation and Bim-1 (Foxo3 target gene) expression in melanoma cells, such an effect by curcumin was inhibited by MST1 RNAi. In conclusion, we suggested that MST1 activation by curcumin mediates JNK activation, Foxo3a nuclear translocation and apoptosis in melanoma cells

  6. ROS production is increased in the kidney but not in the brain of Dahl rats with salt hypertension elicited in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vokurková, M; Rauchová, H; ?ezá?ová, L; Van??ková, I; Zicha, J

    2015-06-11

    Enhanced production of superoxide radicals by nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase in the brain and/or kidney of salt hypertensive Dahl rats has been proposed to participate in the pathogenesis of this form of experimental hypertension. Most information was obtained in young Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) rats subjected to high salt intake prior to sexual maturation. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate whether salt hypertension induced in adult DS rats is also accompanied with a more pronounced oxidative stress in the brain or kidney as compared to Dahl salt-resistant (DR) controls. NADPH oxidase activity as well as the content of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and conjugated dienes (oxidative index), which indicate a degree of lipid peroxidation, were evaluated in two brain regions (containing either hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus or rostral ventrolateral medulla) as well as in renal medulla and cortex. High salt intake induced hypertension in DS rats but did not modify blood pressure in DR rats. DS and DR rats did not differ in NADPH oxidase-dependent production of ROS, TBARS content or oxidative index in either part of the brain. In addition, high-salt diet did not change significantly any of these brain parameters. In contrast, the enhanced NADPH oxidase-mediated ROS production (without significant signs of increased lipid peroxidation) was detected in the renal medulla of salt hypertensive DS rats. Our findings suggest that there are no signs of enhanced oxidative stress in the brain of adult Dahl rats with salt hypertension induced in adulthood. PMID:26066975

  7. Cytotoxic mechanisms of Zn{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} involve Na{sup +}/H{sup +} exchanger (NHE) activation by ROS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koutsogiannaki, Sophia [Laboratory of Animal Physiology, Zoology Department, School of Biology, Faculty of Science, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Evangelinos, Nikolaos [Laboratory of Animal Physiology, Zoology Department, School of Biology, Faculty of Science, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Koliakos, George [Department of Biological Chemistry, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, P.O. Box 17034, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Kaloyianni, Martha [Laboratory of Animal Physiology, Zoology Department, School of Biology, Faculty of Science, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)]. E-mail: kaloyian@bio.auth.gr

    2006-07-20

    The signaling mechanism induced by cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) in gill cells of Mytilus galloprovincialis was investigated. Both metals cause an increase in {center_dot}O{sub 2} {sup -} production, with Cd to be more potent (216 {+-} 15%) than Zn (150 {+-} 9.5%), in relation to control value (100%). The metals effect was reversed after incubation with the amiloride analogue, EIPA, a selective Na{sup +}/H{sup +} exchanger (NHE) inhibitor as well as in the presence of calphostin C, a protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor. The heavy metals effect on {center_dot}O{sub 2} {sup -} production was mediated via the interaction of metal ions with {alpha}{sub 1}- and {beta}-adrenergic receptors, as shown after incubation with their respective agonists and antagonists. In addition, both metals caused an increase in intracellular pH (pHi) of gill cells. EIPA together with either metal significantly reduced the effect of each metal treatment on pHi. Incubation of gill cells with the oxidants rotenone, antimycin A and pyruvate caused a significant increase in pHi ({delta}pHi 0.830, 0.272 and 0.610, respectively), while in the presence of the anti-oxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) a decrease in pHi ({delta}pHi -0.090) was measured, indicating that change in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by heavy metals affects NHE activity. When rosiglitazone was incubated together with either heavy metal a decrease in O{sub 2} {sup -} production was observed. Our results show a key role of NHE in the signal transduction pathway induced by Zn and Cd in gill cells, with the involvement of ROS, PKC, adrenergic and PPAR-{gamma} receptors. In addition, differences between the two metals concerning NHE activation, O{sub 2} {sup -} production and interaction with adrenergic receptors were observed.

  8. Basal and T3-induced ROS Production in Lymphocyte Mitochondria is Increased in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anthonsen, Stine; Larsen, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial function, including production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), is important in the pathogenesis of diabetes and its complications. Thyroid hormones are major regulator of these processes. Hence, the aim of this study was to examine the thyroid hormone regulation of ROS production in human lymphocytes in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM). Lymphocytes from 10 controls and 10 persons with T2DM were examined. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was examined by flow cytometry after staining with MitoTracker Green (MTG). Similarly ROS was measured following staining with carboxy-H2DCFDA. MMP was increased in T2DM patients and T3 stimulation increased MMP in controls [1 398 a.u. (979-4 094) vs. 2 156 a.u. (1 611-15 189), p=0.04, median and quartiles] as well as in T2DM patients [9 167 a.u. (7 387-11 746) vs. 20 274 a.u. (17 183-27 839 p=0.004, median and quartiles]. Basal ROS concentration was increased in lymphocytes from T2DM and T3 significantly stimulated ROS concentration in controls [3 691 a.u. (2 584-6 396) vs. 5 650 a.u. (3 001-7 802) p=0.013, median and quartiles] and in T2DM patients [19 271 a.u. (6 288-25 282) vs. 23 178 a.u. (10 004-28 857) p=0.013, median and quartiles]. The ratio of ROS production related to MMP was significantly higher in T2DM, unstimulated as well as T3-stimulated in T2DM. Unstimulated and T3 stimulated ROS production and MMP were higher in lymphocytes from diabetic patients. An altered balance between ROS production and MMP, favoring ROS production in T2DM patients, was found suggesting that an increased mitochondrial sensitivity for T3 may be a significant factor responsible for increased ROS activity in diabetic patients.

  9. Hydrogen peroxide priming modulates abiotic oxidative stress tolerance: insights from ROS detoxification and scavenging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mohammad A; Bhattacharjee, Soumen; Armin, Saed-Moucheshi; Qian, Pingping; Xin, Wang; Li, Hong-Yu; Burritt, David J; Fujita, Masayuki; Tran, Lam-Son P

    2015-01-01

    Plants are constantly challenged by various abiotic stresses that negatively affect growth and productivity worldwide. During the course of their evolution, plants have developed sophisticated mechanisms to recognize external signals allowing them to respond appropriately to environmental conditions, although the degree of adjustability or tolerance to specific stresses differs from species to species. Overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS; hydrogen peroxide, H2O2; superoxide, [Formula: see text]; hydroxyl radical, OH(?) and singlet oxygen, (1)O2) is enhanced under abiotic and/or biotic stresses, which can cause oxidative damage to plant macromolecules and cell structures, leading to inhibition of plant growth and development, or to death. Among the various ROS, freely diffusible and relatively long-lived H2O2 acts as a central player in stress signal transduction pathways. These pathways can then activate multiple acclamatory responses that reinforce resistance to various abiotic and biotic stressors. To utilize H2O2 as a signaling molecule, non-toxic levels must be maintained in a delicate balancing act between H2O2 production and scavenging. Several recent studies have demonstrated that the H2O2-priming can enhance abiotic stress tolerance by modulating ROS detoxification and by regulating multiple stress-responsive pathways and gene expression. Despite the importance of the H2O2-priming, little is known about how this process improves the tolerance of plants to stress. Understanding the mechanisms of H2O2-priming-induced abiotic stress tolerance will be valuable for identifying biotechnological strategies to improve abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants. This review is an overview of our current knowledge of the possible mechanisms associated with H2O2-induced abiotic oxidative stress tolerance in plants, with special reference to antioxidant metabolism. PMID:26136756

  10. Differential Ca2+-Sensor GCAPs Modes of Photoreceptor ROS-GC1 Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Duda, Teresa; Pertzev, Alexandre; Sharma, Rameshwar K.

    2012-01-01

    Photoreceptor ROS-GC1 (Rod outer segment membrane guanylate cyclase) is a vital component of phototransduction. It is a bimodal Ca2+ signal transduction switch, operating between 20 nM to near 1000 nM range. Modulated by Ca2+ sensors GCAP1 and GCAP2, lowering of [Ca2+]i from 200 to 20 nM progressively turns it “ON”. Similarly, does the modulation by the Ca2+ sensor S100B, raising [Ca2+]i from 100 to 1000 nM. The GCAP-mode plays a vital role in phototransduction in both rods and cones; and...

  11. Neurocalcin ? Modulation of ROS-GC1, a New Model of Ca2+ Signaling†

    OpenAIRE

    Venkataraman, Venkateswar; Duda, Teresa; Ravichandran, Sarangan; Sharma, Rameshwar K.

    2008-01-01

    ROS-GC1 membrane guanylate cyclase is a Ca2+ bimodal signal transduction switch. It is turned “off” by a rise in free Ca2+ from nanomolar to the semicromolar range in the photoreceptor outer segments and the olfactory bulb neurons; by a similar rise in the bipolar and ganglion retinal neurons it is turned “on”. These opposite operational modes of the switch are specified by its Ca2+ sensing devices, respectively termed GCAPs and CD-GCAPs. Neurocalcin ? is a CD-GCAP. In the present st...

  12. Ethanol increases matrix metalloproteinase-12 expression via NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production in macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Jin; Nepal, Saroj; Lee, Eung-Seok; Jeong, Tae Cheon [College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsanbuk-do 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang-Hyun [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Pil-Hoon, E-mail: parkp@yu.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsanbuk-do 712-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Matrix metalloproteinase-12 (MMP-12), an enzyme responsible for degradation of extracellular matrix, plays an important role in the progression of various diseases, including inflammation and fibrosis. Although most of those are pathogenic conditions induced by ethanol ingestion, the effect of ethanol on MMP-12 has not been explored. In the present study, we investigated the effect of ethanol on MMP-12 expression and its potential mechanisms in macrophages. Here, we demonstrated that ethanol treatment increased MMP-12 expression in primary murine peritoneal macrophages and RAW 264.7 macrophages at both mRNA and protein levels. Ethanol treatment also significantly increased the activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADPH) oxidase and the expression of NADPH oxidase-2 (Nox2). Pretreatment with an anti-oxidant (N-acetyl cysteine) or a selective inhibitor of NADPH oxidase (diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI)) prevented ethanol-induced MMP-12 expression. Furthermore, knockdown of Nox2 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) prevented ethanol-induced ROS production and MMP-12 expression in RAW 264.7 macrophages, indicating a critical role for Nox2 in ethanol-induced intracellular ROS production and MMP-12 expression in macrophages. We also showed that ethanol-induced Nox2 expression was suppressed by transient transfection with dominant negative I?B-? plasmid or pretreatment with Bay 11-7082, a selective inhibitor of NF-?B, in RAW 264.7 macrophages. In addition, ethanol-induced Nox2 expression was also attenuated by treatment with a selective inhibitor of p38 MAPK, suggesting involvement of p38 MAPK/NF-?B pathway in ethanol-induced Nox2 expression. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ethanol treatment elicited increase in MMP-12 expression via increase in ROS production derived from Nox2 in macrophages. - Highlights: • Ethanol increases ROS production through up-regulation of Nox2 in macrophages. • Enhanced oxidative stress contributes to ethanol-induced MMP-12 expression. • p38 MAPK/NF-?B signaling pathway modulates ethanol-induced Nox2 expression.

  13. Imaging of Intracellular and Extracellular ROS Levels in Atherosclerotic Mouse Aortas Ex Vivo: Effects of Lipid Lowering by Diet or Atorvastatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrand, Matias; Gustafsson Trajkovska, Maria; Perman-Sundelin, Jeanna; Fogelstrand, Per; Adiels, Martin; Johansson, Martin; Mattsson-Hultén, Lillemor

    2015-01-01

    Objective The first objective was to investigate if intracellular and extracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within the mouse aorta increase before or after diet-induced lesion formation. The second objective was to investigate if intracellular and extracellular ROS correlates to cell composition in atherosclerotic lesions. The third objective was to investigate if intracellular and extracellular ROS levels within established atherosclerotic lesions can be reduced by lipid lowering by diet or atorvastatin. Approach and Results To address our objectives, we established a new imaging technique to visualize and quantify intracellular and extracellular ROS levels within intact mouse aortas ex vivo. Using this technique, we found that intracellular, but not extracellular, ROS levels increased prior to lesion formation in mouse aortas. Both intracellular and extracellular ROS levels were increased in advanced lesions. Intracellular ROS correlated with lesion content of macrophages. Extracellular ROS correlated with lesion content of smooth muscle cells. The high levels of ROS in advanced lesions were reduced by 5 days high dose atorvastatin treatment but not by lipid lowering by diet. Atorvastatin treatment did not affect lesion inflammation (aortic arch mRNA levels of CXCL 1, ICAM-1, MCP-1, TNF-?, VCAM, IL-6, and IL-1?) or cellular composition (smooth muscle cell, macrophage, and T-cell content). Conclusions Aortic levels of intracellular ROS increase prior to lesion formation and may be important in initiation of atherosclerosis. Our results suggest that within lesions, macrophages produce mainly intracellular ROS whereas smooth muscle cells produce extracellular ROS. Short term atorvastatin treatment, but not lipid lowering by diet, decreases ROS levels within established advanced lesions; this may help explain the lesion stabilizing and anti-inflammatory effects of long term statin treatment. PMID:26098110

  14. Zerumbone increases oxidative stress in a thiol-dependent ROS-independent manner to increase DNA damage and sensitize colorectal cancer cells to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locally advanced rectal cancers are treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy followed by surgery. In a minority (?20%) of patients, no tumor is present at the time of surgery; these patients with a complete pathologic response (pathCR) to neoadjuvant therapy have better treatment outcomes. Unfortunately, the inherent radioresistance of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells dictates that the majority of patients do not achieve a pathCR. Efforts to improve these odds have fueled the search for novel, relatively less-toxic radiosensitizers with distinct molecular mechanism(s) and broad-spectrum anticancer activities. Here, we use zerumbone, a sesquiterpene from the edible ginger (Zingiber zerumbet Smith), to enhance radiosensitivity of CRC cells. Short exposure to zerumbone (7 h) profoundly sensitized CRC cells, independent of their p53 or k-RAS status. Zerumbone enhanced radiation-induced cell cycle arrest (G2/M), increased radiation-induced apoptosis, but induced little apoptosis by itself. Zerumbone significantly enhanced radiation-induced DNA damage, as evident by delayed resolution of post-irradiation nuclear ?H2AX foci, whereas zerumbone treatment alone did not induce ?H2AX foci formation. Zerumbone pretreatment inhibited radiation-induced nuclear expression of DNA repair proteins ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and DNA-PKcs. Interestingly, zerumbone-mediated radiosensitization did not involve reactive oxygen species (ROS), but was mediated through depletion of cellular glutathione (GSH). Ability of only thiol-based antioxidants to abrogate zerumbone-mediated radiosensitization further corroborated this hypothesis. The ?,?-unsaturated carbonyl group in zerumbone was found to be essential for its bioactivity as zerumbone analog ?-Humulene that lacks this functional group, could neither radiosensitize CRC cells, nor deplete cellular GSH. Our studies elucidate novel mechanism(s) of zerumbone's ability to enhance CRC radiosensitivity

  15. Apoptosis induction by silica nanoparticles mediated through reactive oxygen species in human liver cell line HepG2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silica nanoparticles are increasingly utilized in various applications including agriculture and medicine. In vivo studies have shown that liver is one of the primary target organ of silica nanoparticles. However, possible mechanisms of hepatotoxicity caused by silica nanoparticles still remain unclear. In this study, we explored the reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated apoptosis induced by well-characterized 14 nm silica nanoparticles in human liver cell line HepG2. Silica nanoparticles (25–200 ?g/ml) induced a dose-dependent cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. Silica nanoparticles were also found to induce oxidative stress in dose-dependent manner indicated by induction of ROS and lipid peroxidation and depletion of glutathione (GSH). Quantitative real-time PCR and immunoblotting results showed that both the mRNA and protein expressions of cell cycle checkpoint gene p53 and apoptotic genes (bax and caspase-3) were up-regulated while the anti-apoptotic gene bcl-2 was down-regulated in silica nanoparticles treated cells. Moreover, co-treatment of ROS scavenger vitamin C significantly attenuated the modulation of apoptotic markers along with the preservation of cell viability caused by silica nanoparticles. Our data demonstrated that silica nanoparticles induced apoptosis in human liver cells, which is ROS mediated and regulated through p53, bax/bcl-2 and caspase pathways. This study suggests that toxicity mechanisms of silica nanoparticles should be further investigated at in vivo level. -- Highlights: ? We explored the mechanisms of toxicity caused by silica NPs in human liver HepG2 cells. ? Silica NPs induced a dose-dependent cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. ? Silica NPs induced ROS generation and oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner. ? Silica NPs were also modulated apoptosis markers both at mRNA and protein levels. ? ROS mediated apoptosis induced by silica NPs was preserved by vitamin C.

  16. Particulate matter air pollution disrupts endothelial cell barrier via calpain-mediated tight junction protein degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ting

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to particulate matter (PM is a significant risk factor for increased cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. The mechanism of PM-mediated pathophysiology remains unknown. However, PM is proinflammatory to the endothelium and increases vascular permeability in vitro and in vivo via ROS generation. Objectives We explored the role of tight junction proteins as targets for PM-induced loss of lung endothelial cell (EC barrier integrity and enhanced cardiopulmonary dysfunction. Methods Changes in human lung EC monolayer permeability were assessed by Transendothelial Electrical Resistance (TER in response to PM challenge (collected from Ft. McHenry Tunnel, Baltimore, MD, particle size >0.1??m. Biochemical assessment of ROS generation and Ca2+ mobilization were also measured. Results PM exposure induced tight junction protein Zona occludens-1 (ZO-1 relocation from the cell periphery, which was accompanied by significant reductions in ZO-1 protein levels but not in adherens junction proteins (VE-cadherin and ?-catenin. N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC, 5?mM reduced PM-induced ROS generation in ECs, which further prevented TER decreases and atteneuated ZO-1 degradation. PM also mediated intracellular calcium mobilization via the transient receptor potential cation channel M2 (TRPM2, in a ROS-dependent manner with subsequent activation of the Ca2+-dependent protease calpain. PM-activated calpain is responsible for ZO-1 degradation and EC barrier disruption. Overexpression of ZO-1 attenuated PM-induced endothelial barrier disruption and vascular hyperpermeability in vivo and in vitro. Conclusions These results demonstrate that PM induces marked increases in vascular permeability via ROS-mediated calcium leakage via activated TRPM2, and via ZO-1 degradation by activated calpain. These findings support a novel mechanism for PM-induced lung damage and adverse cardiovascular outcomes.

  17. Ethanol attenuates peripheral NMDAR-mediated vascular oxidative stress and pressor response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Marie A; Abdel-Rahman, Abdel A

    2015-08-01

    There are no studies on the acute effect of ethanol on peripheral N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-mediated increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and blood pressure (BP). We tested the hypothesis that ethanol antagonism of peripheral NMDAR dampens systemic NMDA-evoked increases in vascular ROS and BP. We investigated the effect of ethanol (1 g/kg) on BP and heart rate (HR) responses elicited by systemic bolus (125-1000 ?g/kg, intra-venous [i.v.]) or infused (180 ?g/kg/min) NMDA in conscious male Sprague-Dawley rats. We also hypothesized that peripheral NMDAR blockade with DL-2-Amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (AP-5; 5 mg/kg, i.v.) uncovers an ethanol- (1 or 1.5 g/kg) evoked hypotensive response. Ethanol attenuated the peripheral NMDAR-mediated pressor and bradycardic responses caused by NMDA infusion, and ex vivo studies revealed parallel ethanol attenuation of peripheral NMDAR-mediated increases in vascular ROS. While ethanol (1 or 1.5 g/kg) alone had no effect on BP, the higher dose caused a hypotensive response in the presence of NMDAR blockade (AP-5). Blood ethanol concentrations were not statistically different in the groups that received ethanol alone or along with NMDA or AP-5. These findings are the first to demonstrate ethanol attenuation of peripheral NMDAR-mediated pressor response, and the uncovering of ethanol-evoked hypotension in the presence of peripheral NMDAR blockade. PMID:25986731

  18. Isoalantolactone Induces Reactive Oxygen Species Mediated Apoptosis in Pancreatic Carcinoma PANC-1 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Khan, Chuan Ding, Azhar Rasul, Fei Yi, Ting Li, Hongwen Gao, Rong Gao, Lili Zhong, Kun Zhang, Xuedong Fang, Tonghui Ma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Isoalantolactone, a sesquiterpene lactone compound possesses antifungal, antibacteria, antihelminthic and antiproliferative activities. In the present study, we found that isoalantolactone inhibits growth and induces apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells. Further mechanistic studies revealed that induction of apoptosis is associated with increased generation of reactive oxygen species, cardiolipin oxidation, reduced mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome c and cell cycle arrest at S phase. N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC, a specific ROS inhibitor restored cell viability and completely blocked isoalantolactone-mediated apoptosis in PANC-1 cells indicating that ROS are involved in isoalantolactone-mediated apoptosis. Western blot study showed that isoalantolactone increased the expression of phosphorylated p38 MAPK, Bax, and cleaved caspase-3 and decreased the expression of Bcl-2 in a dose-dependent manner. No change in expression of phosphorylated p38 MAPK and Bax was found when cells were treated with isoalantolactone in the presence of NAC, indicating that activation of these proteins is directly dependent on ROS generation. The present study provides evidence for the first time that isoalantolactone induces ROS-dependent apoptosis through intrinsic pathway. Furthermore, our in vivo toxicity study demonstrated that isoalantolactone did not induce any acute or chronic toxicity in liver and kidneys of CD1 mice at dose of 100 mg/kg body weight. Therefore, isoalantolactone may be a safe chemotherapeutic candidate for the treatment of human pancreatic carcinoma.

  19. Isoalantolactone Induces Reactive Oxygen Species Mediated Apoptosis in Pancreatic Carcinoma PANC-1 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad; Ding, Chuan; Rasul, Azhar; Yi, Fei; Li, Ting; Gao, Hongwen; Gao, Rong; Zhong, Lili; Zhang, Kun; Fang, Xuedong; Ma, Tonghui

    2012-01-01

    Isoalantolactone, a sesquiterpene lactone compound possesses antifungal, antibacteria, antihelminthic and antiproliferative activities. In the present study, we found that isoalantolactone inhibits growth and induces apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells. Further mechanistic studies revealed that induction of apoptosis is associated with increased generation of reactive oxygen species, cardiolipin oxidation, reduced mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome c and cell cycle arrest at S phase. N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC), a specific ROS inhibitor restored cell viability and completely blocked isoalantolactone-mediated apoptosis in PANC-1 cells indicating that ROS are involved in isoalantolactone-mediated apoptosis. Western blot study showed that isoalantolactone increased the expression of phosphorylated p38 MAPK, Bax, and cleaved caspase-3 and decreased the expression of Bcl-2 in a dose-dependent manner. No change in expression of phosphorylated p38 MAPK and Bax was found when cells were treated with isoalantolactone in the presence of NAC, indicating that activation of these proteins is directly dependent on ROS generation. The present study provides evidence for the first time that isoalantolactone induces ROS-dependent apoptosis through intrinsic pathway. Furthermore, our in vivo toxicity study demonstrated that isoalantolactone did not induce any acute or chronic toxicity in liver and kidneys of CD1 mice at dose of 100 mg/kg body weight. Therefore, isoalantolactone may be a safe chemotherapeutic candidate for the treatment of human pancreatic carcinoma. PMID:22532787

  20. Diorcinol D Exerts Fungicidal Action against Candida albicans through Cytoplasm Membrane Destruction and ROS Accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Chang, Wenqiang; Zhang, Ming; Li, Xiaobin; Jiao, Yang; Lou, Hongxiang

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans, which is the most common human fungal pathogen, causes high mortality among immunocompromised patients. Antifungal drug resistance becomes a major challenge for the management of Candida infection. Diorcinol D (DD), a diphenyl ether derivative isolated from an endolichenic fungus, exerted fungicidal action against Candida species. In this study, we investigated the possible mechanism of its antifungal activity. The change of membrane dynamics and permeability suggested that the cell membrane was disrupted by the treatment of DD. This was further supported by the evidences of intracellular glycerol accumulation, alteration of cell ultrastructure, and down-regulation of genes involved in cell membrane synthesis. In addition, the treatment of C. albicans with DD resulted in the elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which caused the dysfunction of mitochondria. These altogether suggested that DD exerted its antifungal activity through cytoplasmic membrane destruction and ROS accumulation. This finding is helpful to uncover the underlying mechanisms for the diphenyl ether derivatives and provides a potential application in fighting clinical fungal infections. PMID:26047493

  1. DNA damage by smoke: Protection by turmeric and other inhibitors of ROS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivas, L.; Shalini, V.K. (Department of Nutrition and Food Safety, Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore (India))

    1991-01-01

    Twigs-dry leaves smoke condensate (TDS), as a source of clastogenic ROS and carcinogenic PAH, was investigated for its in vitro DNA-damaging effect in calf thymus DNA and human peripheral lymphocytes. An aqueous turmeric component--Aq.T--with an established antioxidant activity, was tested as a DNA protectant. TDS induced 13-fold damage to calf thymus DNA as judged by the emergence of a DNA damage specific, fluorescent product (em: 405 nm). Aq.T at 800 ng/microL extended 69% protection to calf thymus DNA and was comparable to the other protectants such as curcumin, BHA, vitamin E, SOD, and CAT. In human peripheral lymphocytes, TDS induced extensive DNA damage in comparison with the tumor promoter TPA, as judged by FADU. Aq.T at 300 ng/microL extended 90% protection to human lymphocyte DNA against TDS-induced damage, and was more effective than the other protectants--DABCO, D-mannitol, sodium benzoate, vitamin E (ROS quenchers), SOD, CAT (antioxidant enzymes), tannic acid, flufenamic acid, BHA, BHT, n-PG, curcumin and quercetin (antioxidants). Aq.T offered 65% protection to human lymphocyte DNA against TPA-induced damage and was comparable to SOD. The above results indicate that TDS induces substantial DNA damage in calf thymus DNA and human lymphocytes and Aq.T is an efficient protectant.

  2. Palmitate promotes autophagy and apoptosis through ROS-dependent JNK and p38 MAPK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Chang, Fen; Li, Fang; Fu, Hui; Wang, Jinlan; Zhang, Shangli; Zhao, Jing; Yin, Deling

    2015-07-31

    Palmitate (PA), one of the most prevalent saturated fatty acids, causes myocardial dysfunction. However, the mechanisms by which PA induces cell apoptosis and autophagy remain to be elucidated. We showed that autophagy was induced in an mTORC1-dependent way and played a protective role against PA-induced apoptosis, which was verified by pretreatment with 3-methyladenine (3MA) and rapamycin. However, p62 began to accumulate after 18 h treatment with PA, suggesting prolonged exposure to PA lead to an impairment of autophagic flux. PA enhanced ROS production as well as activated p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) and c-jun NH2 terminal kinases (JNKs). The antioxidant N-Acety-l-Cysteine (NAC) was found to attenuate the JNK and p38 MAPK activation with a concomitant reduction of PA-induced autophagy and apoptosis. Furthermore, both JNK and p38 MAPK inhibitors were shown to directly abrogate caspase 7 cleavage as well as the conversion of LC3BI to LC3BII. Thus, we demonstrate that PA stimulates autophagy and apoptosis via ROS-dependent JNK and p38 MAPK pathways. PMID:26002468

  3. Rod and cone photoreceptor cells produce ROS in response to stress in a live retinal explant system.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bhatt, Lavinia

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can lead to oxidative stress, which is a strong contributory factor to many ocular diseases. In this study, the removal of trophic factors is used as a model system to investigate the effects of stress in the retina. The aims were to determine if both rod and cone photoreceptor cells produce ROS when they are deprived of trophic factor support and to demonstrate if the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (Nox) enzymes are responsible for this ROS production. METHODS: Retinas were explanted from mice aged between postnatal days 8-10 and cultured overnight. The following morning, confocal microscopy combined with various fluorescent probes was used to detect the production of ROS. Each time peanut agglutinin (PNA), a cone photoreceptor marker, was used to facilitate orientation of the retina. Dihydroethidium and dihydrorhodamine 123 (DHR123) were used to determine which cells produce ROS. Subsequently, western blots of retinal serial sections were used to detect the presence of Noxs in the different retinal layers. The Nox inhibitor apocynin was then tested to determine if it altered the production of ROS within these cells. RESULTS: Live retinal explants, viewed at high magnifications using confocal microscopy, displayed an increase in the fluorescent products of dihydroethidium and DHR123 upon serum removal when compared to controls. DHR123 fluorescence, once oxidized, localized to mitochondria and was found in the same focal plane as the PNA staining. This showed that cones and rods produced ROS when stressed. Retinal serial sectioning established that the photoreceptor layer expressed Nox4, dual oxidase (Duox) 1, and Duox2 at varying levels. Finally, the Nox inhibitor apocynin decreased the burst stimulated by the stress of serum removal. CONCLUSIONS: Confocal microscopy and PNA staining allowed differentiation of cell types within the outermost layers of the retina, demonstrating that both rods and cones generated ROS in response to the stress of serum deprivation. Nox4 was the most abundantly expressed Nox in the photoreceptor layer, but Duox1 and Duox2 were also present at detectable levels, and as apocynin reduced the levels of ROS produced, this implied that these proteins may play some role in this production.

  4. Ceramide-Mediated Apoptosis in Lung Epithelial Cells Is Regulated by Glutathione

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrentiadou, Sophia N.; Chan, Chris; Kawcak, T’Nay; Ravid, Tommer; Tsaba, Adili; van der Vliet, Albert; Rasooly, Reuven; Goldkorn, Tzipora

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are mediators of lung injury, and glutathione (GSH) is the major nonprotein antioxidant that protects the cell from oxidative stress. We have recently shown that H2O2 induces ceramide-mediated apoptosis in human lung epithelial cells. We hypothesized that ROS-mediated depletion of GSH plays a regulatory role in ceramide generation, and thus in the induction of apoptosis. Our present studies demonstrate that GSH at physiologic concentrations (1 to 10 mM) inhibits ceramide production in a time- and dose-dependent manner in A549 human alveolar epithelial cells. On the other hand, buthionine-sulfoximine–mediated depletion of intracellular GSH induces elevation of ceramide levels and apoptosis. In addition, GSH blocks H2O2-mediated induction of intracellular ceramide generation and apoptosis. These effects were not mimicked by oxidized GSH (GSSG) or other thiol antioxidants, such as dithiothreitol and 2-mercaptoethanol. Moreover, increase of intracellular H2O2, mediated by inhibition of catalase by aminotriazole, also induces ceramide generation and apoptosis. These effects were blocked by N-acetylcysteine. Our results suggest that GSH depletion may be the link between oxidative stress and ceramide-mediated apoptosis in the lung. PMID:11726392

  5. Oxidation-extraction spectrometry of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by chlorophyllin magnesium (Chl-Mg) under ultrasonic irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuwei; Cheng, Chunping; Wang, Jun; Jin, Xudong; Liu, Bin; Wang, Zhiqiu; Gao, Jingqun; Kang, Pingli

    2011-09-01

    In order to examine the mechanism and process of sonodynamic reaction, the chlorophyllin magnesium (Chl-Mg) acting as a sonosensitizer was irradiated by ultrasound, and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected by the method of oxidation-extraction spectrometry (OES). That is, under ultrasonic irradiation in the presence of Chl-Mg, the 1,5-diphenyl carbazide (DPCI) is oxidized by generated ROS into 1,5-diphenyl carbazone (DPCO), which can be extracted by mixed organic solvent and display a obvious visible absorption at 563 nm wavelength. Besides, the generation conditions of ROS were also reviewed. The results demonstrated that the quantities of generated ROS increased with the increase of ultrasonic irradiation time, Chl-Mg concentration and DPCI concentration. Finally, several radical scavengers (l-Histidine (His), 2,6-Di-tert-butyl-methylphenol (BHT) and Vitamin C (VC)) were used to determine the kind of the generated ROS. It was found that at least the hydroxyl radical (OH) and singlet oxygen ( 1O 2) were generated in the presence of Chl-Mg under ultrasonic irradiation. It is wish that this paper might offer some valuable references for the study on the mechanism of SDT and the application of Chl-Mg in tumor treatment.

  6. Loss of Sirt3 Limits Bone Marrow Cell-Mediated Angiogenesis and Cardiac Repair in Post-Myocardial Infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Heng; Li, Lanfang; Chen, Jian-xiong

    2014-01-01

    Sirtuin-3 (Sirt3) has a critical role in the regulation of human aging and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. A recent study has identified Sirt3 as an essential regulator of stem cell aging. This study investigated whether Sirt3 is necessary for bone marrow cell (BMC)-mediated cardiac repair in post-myocardial infarction (MI). In vitro, BMC-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) from wild type (WT) and Sirt3KO mice were cultured. EPC angiogenesis, ROS formation and apoptosis were ...

  7. The small GTPase RALA controls c-Jun N-terminal kinase-mediated FOXO activation by regulation of a JIP1 scaffold complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Maaike C W; van Gogh, Inkie J A; Smits, Alida M M; van Triest, Miranda; Dansen, Tobias B; Visscher, Marieke; Polderman, Paulien E; Vliem, Marjolein J; Rehmann, Holger; Burgering, Boudewijn M T

    2013-07-26

    FOXO (forkhead box O) transcription factors are tumor suppressors and increase the life spans of model organisms. Cellular stress, in particular oxidative stress caused by an increase in levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), activates FOXOs through JNK-mediated phosphorylation. Importantly, JNK regulation of FOXO is evolutionarily conserved. Here we identified the pathway that mediates ROS-induced JNK-dependent FOXO regulation. Following increased ROS, RALA is activated by the exchange factor RLF (RalGDS-like factor), which is in complex with JIP1 (C-Jun-amino-terminal-interacting protein 1) and JNK. Active RALA consequently regulates assembly and activation of MLK3, MKK4, and JNK onto the JIP1 scaffold. Furthermore, regulation of FOXO by RALA and JIP1 is conserved in C. elegans, where both ral-1 and jip-1 depletion impairs heat shock-induced nuclear translocation of the FOXO orthologue DAF16. PMID:23770673

  8. DEXH box RNA helicase-mediated mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production in Arabidopsis mediates crosstalk between abscisic acid and auxin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Junna; Duan, Ying; Hua, Deping; Fan, Guangjiang; Wang, Li; Liu, Yue; Chen, Zhizhong; Han, Lihua; Qu, Li-Jia; Gong, Zhizhong

    2012-05-01

    It is well known that abscisic acid (ABA) promotes reactive oxygen species (ROS) production through plasma membrane-associated NADPH oxidases during ABA signaling. However, whether ROS from organelles can act as second messengers in ABA signaling is largely unknown. Here, we identified an ABA overly sensitive mutant, abo6, in a genetic screen for ABA-mediated inhibition of primary root growth. ABO6 encodes a DEXH box RNA helicase that is involved in regulating the splicing of several genes of complex I in mitochondria. The abo6 mutant accumulated more ROS in mitochondria, as established using a mitochondrial superoxide indicator, circularly permuted yellow fluorescent protein. Two dominant-negative mutations in ABA insensitive1 (abi1-1) and abi2-1 greatly reduced ROS production in mitochondria. The ABA sensitivity of abo6 can also be compromised by the atrbohF mutation. ABA-mediated inhibition of seed germination and primary root growth in abo6 was released by the addition of reduced GSH and exogenous auxin to the medium. Expression of auxin-responsive markers ProDR5:GUS (for synthetic auxin response element D1-4 with site-directed mutants in the 5'-end from soybean):?-glucuronidase) and Indole-3-acetic acid inducible2:GUS was greatly reduced by the abo6 mutation. Hence, our results provide molecular evidence for the interplay between ABA and auxin through the production of ROS from mitochondria. This interplay regulates primary root growth and seed germination in Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:22652060

  9. The Frequency and Clinical Implication of ROS1 and RET Rearrangements in Resected Stage IIIA-N2 Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Huang, Ma-Yan; Zhang, Zi-Chen; Wang, Jing; Cen, Wen-Jian; Shao, Jian-Yong

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the frequency and clinicopathological features of ROS1 and RET rearrangements in N2 node positive stage IIIA (IIIA-N2) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, we retrospectively screened 204 cases with a tissue microarray (TMA) panel by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), and confirmed by direct sequencing and immunohistochemistry (IHC). The relationship between ROS1 or RET rearrangements, clinicopathological features, and prognostic factors were analyzed in resected stage IIIA-N2 NSCLC. Of the 204 cases, 4 cases were confirmed with ROS1 rearrangement, but no RET rearrangement was detected. All 4 ROS1-rearranged cases were adenocarcinomas. The predominant pathological type was acinar pattern in ROS1-rearranged tumors, except for 1 case harboring a mixture acinar and mucous tumor cells. Variants of ROS1 rearrangement were SDC4-ROS1 (E2:E32), SDC4-ROS1 (E4:E32) and SDC4-ROS1 (E4:E34). There was no significant association between ROS1 rearrangement and clinicopathological characteristics. In this cohort, multivariate analysis for overall survival (OS) indicated that squamous cell carcinoma and lobectomy were independent predictors of poor prognosis; R0 surgical resection and non-pleural invasion were independent predictors of good prognosis. In resected stage IIIA-N2 NSCLC patients, ROS1-rearranged cases tended to occur in younger patients with adenocarcinomas. The prognosis of resected stage IIIA-N2 is generally considered poor, but patients with ROS1 rearrangement will benefit from the targeted therapy. PMID:25905642

  10. Induction of ROS generation by fluconazole in Candida glabrata: activation of antioxidant enzymes and oxidative DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahl, Camila Donato; Behling, Camile Saul; Hackenhaar, Fernanda S; de Carvalho E Silva, Mélany Natuane; Putti, Jordana; Salomon, Tiago B; Alves, Sydney Hartz; Fuentefria, Alexandre; Benfato, Mara S

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we assessed the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by subinhibitory concentration of fluconazole in susceptible and resistant Candida glabrata strains at stationary growth phase and measured their oxidative responses parameters: glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), consumption of hydrogen peroxide, and total glutathione, as well as oxidative damage in lipids, proteins, and DNA. Data showed that fluconazole increased generation of ROS and GPx and SOD enzymatic activity in treated cells; however, these enzymatic activities did not differ between resistant and susceptible strains. Susceptible strains exhibited higher GST activity than resistant, and when susceptible cells were treated with fluconazole, GST activity decreased. Fluconazole treatment cause oxidative damage only in DNA. There are a possible participation of ROS, as organic peroxides and O2(•-), in antifungal mechanism of fluconazole, which results in higher GPx and SOD enzymatic activities and oxidative DNA damage in C. glabrata. PMID:25935629

  11. Inclusion complexes of chloramphenicol with ?-cyclodextrin and aminoacids as a way to increase drug solubility and modulate ROS production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiassa, Virginia; Zoppi, Ariana; Albesa, Inés; Longhi, Marcela R

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to improve the solubility of chloramphenicol and reduce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in leucocytes induced by this drug, using complexation. Multicomponent complexes were prepared by the addition of ?-cyclodextrin with glycine or cysteine. Nuclear magnetic resonance and phase solubility studies provided information at the molecular level on the structure of the complexes and their association binding constants, respectively. In the solid state, all systems were extensively characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis and X-ray powder diffraction. Antimicrobial activity of inclusion complexes was investigated by agar diffusion methods. Finally ROS determination by chemiluminescence was used to investigate the effect of complex formation on the potential toxicity in human leucocytes. These studies revealed that multicomponent complexes can increase the aqueous solubility of chloramphenicol as well as reducing the stress by ROS production in leucocytes and maintaining its microbiological activity. PMID:25659705

  12. DDM1 and ROS1 have a role in UV-B induced- and oxidative DNA damage in A. thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qüesta, Julia I.; Fina, Julieta P.; Casati, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Absorption of UV-B by DNA induces the formation of covalent bonds between adjacent pyrimidines. In maize and arabidopsis, plants deficient in chromatin remodeling show increased DNA damage compared to WT plants after a UV-B treatment. However, the role of enzymes that participate in DNA methylation in DNA repair after UV-B damage was not previously investigated. In this work, we analyzed how chromatin remodeling activities that have an effect on DNA methylation affects the repair of UV-B damaged DNA using plants deficient in the expression of DDM1 and ROS1. First, we analyzed their regulation by UV-B radiation in arabidopsis plants. Then, we demonstrated that ddm1 mutants accumulated more DNA damage after UV-B exposure compared to Col0 plants. Surprisingly, ros1 mutants show less CPDs and 6-4PPs than WT plants after the treatment under light conditions, while the repair under dark conditions is impaired. Transcripts for two photolyases are highly induced by UV-B in ros1 mutants, suggesting that the lower accumulation of photoproducts by UV-B is due to increased photorepair in these mutants. Finally, we demonstrate that oxidative DNA damage does not occur after UV-B exposure in arabidopsis plants; however, ros1 plants accumulate high levels of oxoproducts, while ddm1 mutants have less oxoproducts than Col0 plants, suggesting that both ROS1 and DDM1 have a role in the repair of oxidative DNA damage. Together, our data provide evidence that both DDM1 and ROS1, directly or indirectly, participate in UV-B induced- and oxidative DNA damage repair. PMID:24155752

  13. Surface topography of hydroxyapatite affects ROS17/2.8 cells response A topografia de superfície da hidroxiapatita afeta a resposta de células ROS17/2.8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto Luiz Rosa

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxyapatite (HA has been used in orthopedic, dental, and maxillofacial surgery as a bone substitute. The aim of this investigation was to study the effect of surface topography produced by the presence of microporosity on cell response, evaluating: cell attachment, cell morphology, cell proliferation, total protein content, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity. HA discs with different percentages of microporosity (A hidroxiapatita (HA tem sido utilizada como revestimento de implantes e para substituição de tecido ósseo. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da topografia de superfície da HA, resultante da presença de microporosidade, sobre a adesão, a morfologia e proliferação celulares, a medida de proteína total e a atividade de fosfatase alcalina. Discos de HA com diferentes porcentagens de microporosidade (< 5%, 15% e 30% foram fabricados por uma combinação das técnicas de pressão uniaxial e sinterização. Células ROS17/2.8 foram cultivadas sobre os discos de HA. Para a adesão, as células foram cultivadas por duas horas. A morfologia foi avaliada após sete dias. A proliferação, medida de proteína total e atividade de ALP foram avaliadas após sete e quatorze dias. Os dados foram comparados por ANOVA e teste de Duncan quando apropriado. A adesão (p = 0,11 e a medida de proteína total (p = 0,31 não foram afetadas pela topografia de superfície. A proliferação após sete e quatorze dias (p = 0,0007 e p = 0,003, respectivamente, e a atividade de ALP (p = 0,0007 foram significantemente menores na superfície irregular (HA30. Esses resultados sugerem que eventos iniciais não são afetados pela topografia, enquanto superfícies com topografias mais regulares (microporosidade de 15% ou menos favoreceram eventos intermediários e finais, como proliferação e atividade de ALP.

  14. Ca2+-modulated ROS-GC1 transduction system in testes and its presence in the spermatogenic cells

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Jankowska; Sharma, Rameshwar K.

    2014-01-01

    ROS-GC1 belongs to the Ca2+-modulated sub-family of membrane guanylate cyclases. It primarily exists and is linked with signaling of the sensory neurons – sight, smell, taste, and pinealocytes. Exceptionally, it is also present and is Ca2+-modulated in t he non-neuronal cells, the sperm cells in the testes, where S100B protein serves as its Ca2+ sensor. The present report demonstrates the identification of an additional Ca2+ sensor of ROS-GC1 in the testes, neurocalcin ?. Through mouse mol...

  15. 8-bromo-7-methoxychrysin-induced apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells involves ROS and JNK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Hong Yang, Xing Zheng, Jian-Guo Cao, Hong-Lin Xiang, Fei Liu, Yuan Lv

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate whether the apoptotic activities of 8-bromo-7-methoxychrysin (BrMC involve reactive oxygen species (ROS generation and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK activation in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HCC.METHODS: HepG2, Bel-7402 and L-02 cell lines were cultured in vitro and the apoptotic effects of BrMC were evaluated by flow cytometry (FCM after propidium iodide (PI staining, caspase-3 activity using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, and DNA agarose gel electrophoresis. ROS production was evaluated by FCM after dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCHF-DA probe labeling. The phosphorylation level of JNK and c-Jun protein was analyzed by Western blotting.RESULTS: FCM after PI staining showed a dose-dependent increase in the percentage of the sub-G1 cell population (P < 0.05, reaching 39.0% ± 2.8% of HepG2 cells after 48 h of treatment with BrMC at 10 ?mol/L. The potency of BrMC to HepG2 and Bel-7402 (32.1% ± 2.6% cells was found to be more effective than the lead compound, chrysin (16.2% ± 1.6% for HepG2 cells and 11.0% ± 1.3% for Bel-7402 cell at 40 ?mol/L and similar to 5-flurouracil (33.0% ± 2.1% for HepG2 cells and 29.3% ± 2.3% for Bel-7402 cells at 10 ?mol/L. BrMC had little effect on human embryo liver L-02 cells, with the percentage of sub-G1 cell population 5.4% ± 1.8%. Treatment of HepG2 cells with BrMC for 48 h also increased the levels of active caspase-3, in a concentration-dependent manner. z-DEVD-fmk, a caspase-3-specific inhibitor, prevented the activation of caspase-3. Treatment with BrMC at 10 ?mol/L for 48 h resulted in the formation of a DNA ladder. Treatment of cells with BrMC (10 ?mol/L increased mean fluorescence intensity of DCHF-DA in HepG2 cells from 7.2 ± 1.12 at 0 h to 79.8 ± 3.9 at 3 h and 89.7 ± 4.7 at 6 h. BrMC did not affect ROS generation in L-02 cells. BrMC treatment failed to induce cell death and caspase-3 activation in HepG2 cells pretreated with N-acetylcysteine (10 mmol/L. In addition, in HepG2 cells treated with BrMC (2.5, 5.0, 10.0 ?mol/L for 12 h, JNK activation was observed. Peak JNK activation occurred at 12 h post-treatment and this activation persisted for up to 24 h. The expression of phosphorylated JNK and c-Jun protein after 12 h with BrMC-treated cells was inhibited by N-acetylcysteine and SP600125 pre-treatment, but GW9662 had no effect. SP600125 substantially reduced BrMC-induced cell death and caspase-3 activation of HepG2 cells. N-acetylcysteine and GW9662 also attenuated induction of cell death and caspase-3 activation in HepG2 cells treated with BrMC.CONCLUSION: BrMC induces apoptosis of HCC cells by ROS generation and sustained JNK activation.

  16. SkiROS : A four tiered architecture for task-level programming of industrial mobile manipulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rovida, Francesco; Schou, Casper

    During the last decades, the methods for intuitive task level programming of robots have become a fundamental point of interest for industrial application. The paper in hand presents SkiROS (Skill-based Robot Operating System) a novel software architecture based on the skills paradigm. The skill paradigm has already been used and tested within the FP7 project TAPAS, and we are going to use it in several new FP7 projects (CARLOS, STAMINA, ACAT). It facilitates task-level programming of mobile manipulators by providing the robot with a set of movement primitives, skills and tasks. This hierarchy brings many advantages, where the most relevant is the separation of control in the layers of hardware abstraction(proxy), multi-sensory control(primitive), object-level abstraction (skill) and planning (task). The de?nition and the clear division in different abstraction levels allows the implementation of a ?exible, highly modular system for the development of cognitive robot tasks.

  17. UV-B affects photosynthesis, ROS production and motility of the freshwater flagellate, Euglena agilis Carter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? We proposed a hypothesis for the UV-B protective/adaptive mechanism in Euglena agilis. After moderate levels of UV-B radiation, ROS plays a signaling role to shut down photosynthetic system for protection against harmful UV radiation. ? E. agilis exposed to excessive UV appears to become animal-like, investing all its stored energy into movement rather than into sustaining its photosynthetic machinery. ? This adaptation allows E. agilis to avoid harmful UV and seek a safe place where the organism may regain its photosynthetic capacity for survival. - Abstract: The effects of ultraviolet B (UV-B; 295–320 nm) radiation on certain vital physiological (photosynthesis), biochemical (production of reactive oxygen species – ROS) and behavioral (motility and orientation) characteristics were investigated in the unicellular photoautotroph, Euglena agilis Carter. The photosynthetic performance of E. agilis was recorded after exposure of between 15 and 60 min followed by a period of recovery lasting 6–24 h under dim light (5–10 ?mol photons m?2 s?1). The maximum quantum yield of PS II (Fv/Fm) was reduced to 65% and 14% of initial values immediately following 15 and 30 min UV-B exposure, but recovered to 100 and 86% of the initials, respectively. Values of rETRmax in E. agilis exposed to 15 min UV-B were similar to those of the initials, but a 30 min UV exposure resulted in 75% reduction of rE in 75% reduction of rETRmax with only a 43% recovery as compared with the initial after 24 h recovery. After a 60 min UV-B exposure, there were no Chl a fluorescence signals, and hence no Fv/Fm or rETRmax. A UV dose-dependent increase in DCFH-DA fluorescence was found in E. agilis cells, reflecting an increase in ROS production. After exposures to UV-B for between 15 and 60 min, the percentages of motile cells in the population decreased to 76, 39 and 15%, respectively. Following 24 h in dim light, the percentage of motile cells increased to between 66% and 95% of the initial value. The velocity of non-irradiated cells was 60 ?m s?1, which decreased to 16–35 ?m s?1 immediately following exposure for 15–60 min. After periods of time in dim light (6, 12 and 24 h) velocities had recovered to between 44 and 81% of the initial value. In untreated controls, the r-value was 0.23, indicating random movement of E. agilis, but it increased to 0.35 and 0.72 after exposure to UV-B for 30 and 60 min, respectively. There was a tendency towards vertical downward movement of cells proportional to the duration of exposure. The compactness of E. agilis decreased from 2.9 in controls to 1.8–2.3 in cells treated with UV-B although significant recovery followed. UV-B dose-dependent interaction between photosynthetic activity, ROS production and movement is discussed in terms of a UV-protective mechanism in E. agilis.

  18. SkiROS: A four tiered architecture for task-level programming of industrial mobile manipulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rovida, Francesco; Schou, Casper

    During the last decades, the methods for intuitive task level programming of robots have become a fundamental point of interest for industrial application. The paper in hand presents SkiROS (Skill-based Robot Operating System) a novel software architecture based on the skills paradigm. The skill paradigm has already been used and tested within the FP7 project TAPAS, and we are going to use it in several new FP7 projects (CARLOS, STAMINA, ACAT). It facilitates task-level programming of mobile manipulators by providing the robot with a set of movement primitives, skills and tasks. This hierarchy brings many advantages, where the most relevant is the separation of control in the layers of hardware abstraction(proxy), multi-sensory control(primitive), object-level abstraction (skill) and planning (task). The de?nition and the clear division in different abstraction levels allows the implementation of a ?exible, highly modular system for the development of cognitive robot tasks.

  19. Modelling the hypersensitivity of cancer cells to infra-red laser pulse: breaking ROS defence machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolovski, S. G.; Goltsov, A.; Rafailov, E. U.

    2013-03-01

    Infra-red lasers (1268 nm) were reported to induce irreversible oxidative stress in cancer cells through direct triplet-->single oxygen transition designating a novel cancer treatment equally with photodynamic therapy. We using in vitro and in silico approaches revealed that main impact on the cell oxidative state makes cascade of secondary reactive oxygen species triggered by primary laser-pulse-induced singlet oxygen and irreversible depletion of cellular antioxidative thioredoxin system in tumour. Based on these cancer cell features we can propose laser impulse strategy of killing cancer cells where initial impulse(s) may deplete antioxidant system making cancer cells deadly vulnerable to the next cascade of ROS by following impulse(s) at non-thermal doses.

  20. Evidence for mobile phone radiation exposure effects on reproductive pattern of male rats: role of ROS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesari, Kavindra Kumar; Behari, Jitendra

    2012-09-01

    The relationship between radiofrequency electromagnetic fields emitted from mobile phone and infertility is a matter of continuing debate. It is postulated that these radiations may affect the reproduction pattern spell by targeting biochemistry of sperm. In an attempt to expedite the issue, 70 days old Wistar rats (n = 6) were exposed to mobile phone radiofrequency (RF) radiation for 2 h per day for 45 days and data compared with sham exposed (n = 6) group. A significant decrease (P reduction in testosterone, an increase in caspase-3, and distortion in spermatozoa could be caused by overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in animals under mobile phone radiation exposure. Our findings on these biomarkers are clear indications of possible health implications of repeated exposure to mobile phone radiation. PMID:22897402

  1. Reactive oxygen species-mediated kinase activation by dihydrotanshinone in tanshinones-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wayne Y W; Liu, Ken W K; Yeung, John H K

    2009-11-18

    The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) in tanshinones-induced apoptosis was investigated in HepG2 cells in this study. The major tanshinones (cryptotanshinone, dihydrotanshinone, tanshinone I, tanshinone IIA), isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza, inhibit cell growth and induce caspase-dependent apoptosis concentration-dependently, with dihydrotanshinone being the most potent. All four tanshinones were found to induce ROS generation, but only dihydrotanshinone can induce activation of p38 MAPK. The p38 MAPK activation by dihydrotanshinone was inhibited by N-acetyl cysteine pretreatment. It is thus concluded that ROS-mediated p38 MAPK activation plays a vital role in dihydrotanshinone-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. PMID:19467570

  2. Patulin triggers NRF2-mediated survival mechanisms in kidney cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillay, Y; Phulukdaree, A; Nagiah, S; Chuturgoon, A A

    2015-06-01

    Patulin (PAT), a mycotoxin contaminant of apples and apple products, has been implicated in nephrotoxicity. PAT depletes glutathione (GSH) and elevates reactive oxygen species (ROS). The antioxidant (AO) response is activated by Nuclear erythroid 2-related factor (NRF2) and enhanced by Silent information regulator 3 (SIRT3). The effects of PAT on these molecules have yet to be examined. We investigated the effects of PAT on AO response survival pathways in human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293). PAT cytotoxicity on HEK293 cells was evaluated (MTT assay; 24 h; [0-100 ?M]) to determine an IC50. GSH levels were measured using luminometry. Intracellular ROS was evaluated by flow cytometry. Protein expression of Keap1, NRF2, SIRT3 and PGC-1? was quantified by western blotting and gene expression of SOD2, CAT and GPx was evaluated by qPCR. PAT caused a dose dependent decrease in HEK293 cell viability and a significant increase in levels of intracellular ROS (p = 0.0006). A significant increase in protein expression (p = 0.029) was observed. PAT increased gene expression of SOD2 and CAT (p = 0.0043), however, gene expression of GPx was significantly reduced (p = 0.0043). These results show the up-regulation of NRF2 mediated AO mechanisms in response to PAT toxicity. PMID:25772858

  3. Natural borneol enhances bisdemethoxycurcumin-induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase through up-regulation of intracellular ROS in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianping; Li, Lin; Su, Jianyu; Chen, Tianfeng

    2015-03-11

    Bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDCur) has been found widely in foods such as cheese, butter, etc., and in curry (powder) as a spice. It has been reported to possess anticancer activity. However, its poor absorption limited its application. Natural borneol (NB) has been used as a promoter of drug absorption and widely used in candies, beverages, baked goods, chewing gum and other foods. Thus, we investigated whether NB could potentiate the cellular uptake of BDCur, and elucidated the molecular mechanisms of their combined inhibitory effects on HepG2 cells. Our results demonstrate that NB significantly enhanced the cellular uptake of BDCur. Induction of cell cycle arrest in HepG2 cells by NB and BDCur in combination was evidenced by accumulation of the G2/M cell population. Further investigation on the molecular mechanism showed that NB and BDCur in combination resulted in a significant decrease in the expression level of Cdc2 and cyclin B. Moreover, studies also found that ROS acted as an upstream mediator in NB/BDCur-induced HepG2 cell growth inhibition and led to DNA damage with up-regulation of the expression level of phosphorylated ATM and p53. Our findings suggest that the strategy of using NB and BDCur in combination may have promising potential applications in cancer chemoprevention. PMID:25537301

  4. Redox cycling of Cu(II) by 6-mercaptopurine leads to ROS generation and DNA breakage: possible mechanism of anticancer activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Sayeed Ur; Zubair, Haseeb; Sarwar, Tarique; Husain, Mohammed Amir; Ishqi, Hassan Mubarak; Nehar, Shamshun; Tabish, Mohammad

    2015-02-01

    6-Mercaptopurine (6MP) is a well-known purine antimetabolite used to treat childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia and other diseases. Cancer cells as compared to normal cells are under increased oxidative stress and show high copper level. These differences between cancer cells and normal cells can be targeted to develop effective cancer therapy. Pro-oxidant property of 6MP in the presence of metal ions is not well documented. Redox cycling of Cu(II) to Cu(I) was found to be efficiently mediated by 6MP. We have performed a series of in vitro experiments to demonstrate the pro-oxidant property of 6MP in the presence of Cu(II). Studies on human lymphocytes confirmed the DNA damaging ability of 6MP in the presence of Cu(II). Since 6MP possesses DNA damaging ability by producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the presence of Cu(II), it may also possess apoptosis-inducing activity by involving endogenous copper ions. Essentially, this would be an alternative and copper-dependent pathway for anticancer activity of 6MP. PMID:25344215

  5. Reactive oxygen species regulated mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in PC12 cells exposed to chlorpyrifos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Eun [Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hanyang Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae Hyeon [Hanyang Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Graduate School of Biomedical Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, In Chul [Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Hyun Chul, E-mail: hckoh@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hanyang Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Graduate School of Biomedical Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-01

    Reactive oxidative species (ROS) generated by environmental toxicants including pesticides could be one of the factors underlying the neuronal cell damage in neurodegenerative diseases. In this study we found that chlorpyrifos (CPF) induced apoptosis in dopaminergic neuronal components of PC12 cells as demonstrated by the activation of caspases and nuclear condensation. Furthermore, CPF also reduced the tyrosine hydroxylase-positive immunoreactivity in substantia nigra of the rat. In addition, CPF induced inhibition of mitochondrial complex I activity. Importantly, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) treatment effectively blocked apoptosis via the caspase-9 and caspase-3 pathways while NAC attenuated the inhibition of mitochondrial complex I activity as well as the oxidative metabolism of dopamine (DA). These results demonstrated that CPF-induced apoptosis was involved in mitochondrial dysfunction through the production of ROS. In the response of cellular antioxidant systems to CPF, we found that CPF treatment increased HO-1 expression while the expression of CuZnSOD and MnSOD was reduced. In addition, we found that CPF treatment activated MAPK pathways, including ERK 1/2, the JNK, and the p38 MAP kinase in a time-dependent manner. NAC treatment abolished MAPK phosphorylation caused by CPF, indicating that ROS are upstream signals of MAPK. Interestingly, MAPK inhibitors abolished cytotoxicity and reduced ROS generation by CPF treatment. Our results demonstrate that CPF induced neuronal cell death in part through MAPK activation via ROS generation, suggesting its potential to generate oxidative stress via mitochondrial damage and its involvement in oxidative stress-related neurodegenerative disease. -- Highlights: ? Chlorpyrifos induces apoptosis. ? Chlorpyrifos inhibits mitochondrial complex I activity. ? ROS is involved in chlorpyrifos-induced apoptosis. ? Chlorpyrifos affects cellular antioxidant systems. ? Chlorpyrifos-induced apoptosis mediates activation of MAPK.

  6. Reactive oxygen species regulated mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in PC12 cells exposed to chlorpyrifos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactive oxidative species (ROS) generated by environmental toxicants including pesticides could be one of the factors underlying the neuronal cell damage in neurodegenerative diseases. In this study we found that chlorpyrifos (CPF) induced apoptosis in dopaminergic neuronal components of PC12 cells as demonstrated by the activation of caspases and nuclear condensation. Furthermore, CPF also reduced the tyrosine hydroxylase-positive immunoreactivity in substantia nigra of the rat. In addition, CPF induced inhibition of mitochondrial complex I activity. Importantly, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) treatment effectively blocked apoptosis via the caspase-9 and caspase-3 pathways while NAC attenuated the inhibition of mitochondrial complex I activity as well as the oxidative metabolism of dopamine (DA). These results demonstrated that CPF-induced apoptosis was involved in mitochondrial dysfunction through the production of ROS. In the response of cellular antioxidant systems to CPF, we found that CPF treatment increased HO-1 expression while the expression of CuZnSOD and MnSOD was reduced. In addition, we found that CPF treatment activated MAPK pathways, including ERK 1/2, the JNK, and the p38 MAP kinase in a time-dependent manner. NAC treatment abolished MAPK phosphorylation caused by CPF, indicating that ROS are upstream signals of MAPK. Interestingly, MAPK inhibitors abolished cytotoxicity and reduced ROS generation by CPF treatment. Our results demonstrate that CPF induced neuronal cell death in part through MAPK activation via ROS generation, suggesting its potential to generate oxidative stress via mitochondrial damage and its involvement in oxidative stress-related neurodegenerative disease. -- Highlights: ? Chlorpyrifos induces apoptosis. ? Chlorpyrifos inhibits mitochondrial complex I activity. ? ROS is involved in chlorpyrifos-induced apoptosis. ? Chlorpyrifos affects cellular antioxidant systems. ? Chlorpyrifos-induced apoptosis mediates activation of MAPK.

  7. PARK2-mediated mitophagy is involved in regulation of HBEC senescence in COPD pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Saburo; Araya, Jun; Kurita, Yusuke; Kobayashi, Kenji; Takasaka, Naoki; Yoshida, Masahiro; Hara, Hiromichi; Minagawa, Shunsuke; Wakui, Hiroshi; Fujii, Satoko; Kojima, Jun; Shimizu, Kenichiro; Numata, Takanori; Kawaishi, Makoto; Odaka, Makoto; Morikawa, Toshiaki; Harada, Toru; Nishimura, Stephen L; Kaneko, Yumi; Nakayama, Katsutoshi; Kuwano, Kazuyoshi

    2015-03-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS)-induced mitochondrial damage with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production has been implicated in COPD pathogenesis by accelerating senescence. Mitophagy may play a pivotal role for removal of CS-induced damaged mitochondria, and the PINK1 (PTEN-induced putative kinase 1)-PARK2 pathway has been proposed as a crucial mechanism for mitophagic degradation. Therefore, we sought to investigate to determine if PINK1-PARK2-mediated mitophagy is involved in the regulation of CS extract (CSE)-induced cell senescence and in COPD pathogenesis. Mitochondrial damage, ROS production, and cell senescence were evaluated in primary human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC). Mitophagy was assessed in BEAS-2B cells stably expressing EGFP-LC3B, using confocal microscopy to measure colocalization between TOMM20-stained mitochondria and EGFP-LC3B dots as a representation of autophagosome formation. To elucidate the involvement of PINK1 and PARK2 in mitophagy, knockdown and overexpression experiments were performed. PINK1 and PARK2 protein levels in lungs from patients were evaluated by means of lung homogenate and immunohistochemistry. We demonstrated that CSE-induced mitochondrial damage was accompanied by increased ROS production and HBEC senescence. CSE-induced mitophagy was inhibited by PINK1 and PARK2 knockdown, resulting in enhanced mitochondrial ROS production and cellular senescence in HBEC. Evaluation of protein levels demonstrated decreased PARK2 in COPD lungs compared with non-COPD lungs. These results suggest that PINK1-PARK2 pathway-mediated mitophagy plays a key regulatory role in CSE-induced mitochondrial ROS production and cellular senescence in HBEC. Reduced PARK2 expression levels in COPD lung suggest that insufficient mitophagy is a part of the pathogenic sequence of COPD. PMID:25714760

  8. Safflor yellow B suppresses angiotensin II-mediated human umbilical vein cell injury via regulation of Bcl-2/p22{sup phox} expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chaoyun; He, Yanhao [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai, Shandong 264003 (China); Department of Pharmacology, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Key Laboratory of Environment and Genes Related to Disease, Ministry of Education, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710061 (China); Yang, Ming; Sun, Hongliu; Zhang, Shuping [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai, Shandong 264003 (China); Wang, Chunhua, E-mail: chunhuawang2012@163.com [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai, Shandong 264003 (China)

    2013-11-15

    Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) are derived from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase. Angiotensin II (Ang II) can cause endothelial dysfunction by promoting intracellular ROS generation. Safflor yellow B (SYB) effectively inhibits ROS generation by upregulating Bcl-2 expression. In this study, we examined the effects of SYB on Ang II-induced injury to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and elucidated the roles of NADPH oxidase and Bcl-2. We treated cultured HUVECs with Ang II, SYB, and Bcl-2 siRNA, and determined NADPH oxidase activity and ROS levels. Furthermore, cellular and mitochondrial physiological states were evaluated, and the expression levels of target proteins were analyzed. Ang II significantly enhanced intracellular ROS levels, caused mitochondrial membrane dysfunction, and decreased cell viability, leading to apoptosis. This was associated with increased expression of AT1R and p22{sup phox}, increased NADPH oxidase activity, and an increased ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, leading to decreases in antioxidant enzyme activities, which were further strengthened after blocking Bcl-2. Compared to Ang II treatment alone, co-treatment with SYB significantly reversed HUVEC injury. Taken together, these results demonstrate that SYB could significantly protect endothelial cells from Ang II-induced cell damage, and that it does so by upregulating Bcl-2 expression and inhibiting ROS generation. - Highlights: • Angiotensin II depresses mitochondria physiological function. • Angiotensin II activates NADPH oxidase via up-regulating expresion of p22{sup phox}. • Bcl-2 plays a pivotal role in improving mitochondria function and regulates ROS level. • Inhibitor of Bcl-2 promotes angiotensin II mediated HUVEC injury. • SYB attenuates angiotensin II mediated HUVEC injury via up regulating Bcl-2 expression.

  9. Safflor yellow B suppresses angiotensin II-mediated human umbilical vein cell injury via regulation of Bcl-2/p22phox expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) are derived from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase. Angiotensin II (Ang II) can cause endothelial dysfunction by promoting intracellular ROS generation. Safflor yellow B (SYB) effectively inhibits ROS generation by upregulating Bcl-2 expression. In this study, we examined the effects of SYB on Ang II-induced injury to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and elucidated the roles of NADPH oxidase and Bcl-2. We treated cultured HUVECs with Ang II, SYB, and Bcl-2 siRNA, and determined NADPH oxidase activity and ROS levels. Furthermore, cellular and mitochondrial physiological states were evaluated, and the expression levels of target proteins were analyzed. Ang II significantly enhanced intracellular ROS levels, caused mitochondrial membrane dysfunction, and decreased cell viability, leading to apoptosis. This was associated with increased expression of AT1R and p22phox, increased NADPH oxidase activity, and an increased ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, leading to decreases in antioxidant enzyme activities, which were further strengthened after blocking Bcl-2. Compared to Ang II treatment alone, co-treatment with SYB significantly reversed HUVEC injury. Taken together, these results demonstrate that SYB could significantly protect endothelial cells from Ang II-induced cell damage, and that it does so by upregulating Bcl-2 expression and inhibiting ROS generation. - Highlights: • Angiotensin II depresses mitochondria physiological function. • Angiotensin II activates NADPH oxidase via up-regulating expresion of p22phox. • Bcl-2 plays a pivotal role in improving mitochondria function and regulates ROS level. • Inhibitor of Bcl-2 promotes angiotensin II mediated HUVEC injury. • SYB attenuates angiotensin II mediated HUVEC injury via up regulating Bcl-2 expression

  10. PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF MEDIATION

    OpenAIRE

    IULIA FLOCA

    2011-01-01

    Today the Romanian state gives some advantages to those who use mediation. If the Romanian state would take further steps, mediation would work as in the countries with old tradition. The article refers to success and failure got in the two years of practice. The mediation can be seen in two aspects: The first aspect regarding the mediation itself can lead to a mediation agreement. The mediation agreement gives both winnings to the conflict parts and professional satisfactions to the mediator...

  11. Examination of the mechanism of phenanthrenequinone toxicity to Vibrio fischeri: evidence for a reactive oxygen species-mediated toxicity mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenxi; Nykamp, Julie; Huang, Xiao-Dong; Gerhardt, Karen; Dixon, D George; Greenberg, Bruce M

    2009-08-01

    Phenanthrenequinone (PHQ) is a photoproduct of phenanthrene, one of the most prevalent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the environment. Phenanthrenequinone is a compound of substantial interest, because its toxicity can be much greater than its parent chemical to aquatic organisms. The toxicity mechanisms of PHQ to the luminescent marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri were examined in the present study. Phenanthrenequinone can redox cycle in bacterial cells and transfer electrons to O2, enhancing the production of superoxide (O*2-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and other reactive oxygen species (ROS). Exposure of cells to PHQ increased activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), which detoxifies the ROS superoxide. Concentrations of PHQ that induced the production of H2O2 and other ROS, as well as the elevated levels of Fe-SOD, were correlated with its toxicity as measured by luminescence. Furthermore, toxicity of PHQ to V. fischeri was lowered under the anaerobic conditions, suggesting that the absence of oxygen, which would limit the production of ROS, alleviated toxicity of PHQ. Thus, a ROS-mediated toxicity mechanism of PHQ is highly implicated by in the present study. PMID:19265456

  12. Asperlin induces G2/M arrest through ROS generation and ATM pathway in human cervical carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? A new anti-cancer effect of an antibiotics, asperlin, is exploited. ? Asperlin induced human cervical cancer cell apoptosis through ROS generation. ? Asperlin activated DNA-damage related ATM protein and cell cycle associated proteins. ? Asperlin could be developed as a new anti-cancer therapeutics. -- Abstract: We exploited the biological activity of an antibiotic agent asperlin isolated from Aspergillus nidulans against human cervical carcinoma cells. We found that asperlin dramatically increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation accompanied by a significant reduction in cell proliferation. Cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP and reduction of Bcl-2 could also be detected after asperlin treatment to the cells. An anti-oxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), however, blocked all the apoptotic effects of asperlin. The involvement of oxidative stress in asperlin induced apoptosis could be supported by the findings that ROS- and DNA damage-associated G2/M phase arrest and ATM phosphorylation were increased by asperlin. In addition, expression and phosphorylation of cell cycle proteins as well as G2/M phase arrest in response to asperlin were significantly blocked by NAC or an ATM inhibitor KU-55933 pretreatment. Collectively, our study proved for the first time that asperlin could be developed as a potential anti-cancer therapeutics through ROS generation in HeLa cells.

  13. ROS enhancement by silicon nanoparticles in X-ray irradiated aqueous suspensions and in glioma C6 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The capability of silicon nanoparticles to increase the yield of reactive species upon 4 MeV X-ray irradiation of aqueous suspensions and C6 glioma cell cultures was investigated. ROS generation was detected and quantified using several specific probes. The particles were characterized by FTIR, XPS, TEM, DLS, luminescence, and adsorption spectroscopy before and after irradiation to evaluate the effect of high energy radiation on their structure. The total concentration of O2•?/HO2•, HO•, and H2O2 generated upon 4-MeV X-ray irradiation of 6.4 ?M silicon nanoparticle aqueous suspensions were on the order of 10 ?M per Gy, ten times higher than that obtained in similar experiments but in the absence of particles. Cytotoxic 1O2 was generated only in irradiation experiments containing the particles. The particle surface became oxidized to SiO2 and the luminescence yield reduced with the irradiation dose. Changes in the surface morphology did not affect, within the experimental error, the yields of ROS generated per Gy. X-ray irradiation of glioma C6 cell cultures with incorporated silicon nanoparticles showed a marked production of ROS proportional to the radiation dose received. In the absence of nanoparticles, the cells showed no irradiation-enhanced ROS generation. The obtained results indicate that silicon nanoparticles of 1O2 upon X-ray irradiation opens novel approaches in the design of therapy strategies.

  14. Measurement of OH, NO, O and N atoms in helium plasma jet for ROS/RNS controlled biomedical processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonemori, Seiya; Kamakura, Taku; Ono, Ryo

    2014-10-01

    Atmospheric-pressure plasmas are of emerging interest for new plasma applications such as cancer treatment, cell activation and sterilization. In those biomedical processes, reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) are said that they play significant role. It is though that active species give oxidative stress and induce biomedical reactions. In this study, we measured OH, NO, O and N atoms using laser induced fluorescence (LIF) measurement and found that voltage polarity affect particular ROS. When negative high voltage was applied to the plasma jet, O atom density was tripled compared to the case of positive applied voltage. In that case, O atom density was around 3 × 1015 [cm-3] at maximum. In contrast, OH and NO density did not change their density depending on the polarity of applied voltage, measured as in order of 1013 and 1014 [cm-3] at maximum, respectively. From ICCD imaging measurement, it could be seen that negative high voltage enhanced secondary emission in plasma bullet propagation and it can affect the effective production of particular ROS. Since ROS/RNS dose can be a quantitative criterion to control plasma biomedical application, those measurement results is able to be applied for in vivo and in vitro plasma biomedical experiments. This study is supported by the Grant-in-Aid for Science Research by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sport, Science and Technology.

  15. A deficiency of apoptosis inducing factor (AIF in Harlequin mouse heart mitochondria paradoxically reduces ROS generation during ischemia-reperfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QunChen

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: A deficiency of AIF within mitochondria does not increase ROS production during IR, indicating that AIF functions less as an antioxidant within mitochondria. The decreased cardiac injury in Hq mouse heart accompanied by less AIF translocation to the nucleus suggests that AIF relocation, rather than the AIF content within mitochondria, contributes to cardiac injury during IR.

  16. High activity of mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase and glycerophosphate-dependent ROS production in prostate cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most malignant cells are highly glycolytic and produce high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) compared to normal cells. Mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (mGPDH) participates in the reoxidation of cytosolic NADH by delivering reducing equivalents from this molecule into the electron transport chain, thus sustaining glycolysis. Here, we investigate the role of mGPDH in maintaining an increased rate of glycolysis and evaluate glycerophosphate-dependent ROS production in prostate cancer cell lines (LNCaP, DU145, PC3, and CL1). Immunoblot, polarographic, and spectrophotometric analyses revealed that mGPDH abundance and activity was significantly elevated in prostate cancer cell lines when compared to the normal prostate epithelial cell line PNT1A. Furthermore, both the glycolytic capacity and glycerophosphate-dependent ROS production was increased 1.68- to 4.44-fold and 5- to 7-fold, respectively, in prostate cancer cell lines when compared to PNT1A cells. Overall, these data demonstrate that mGPDH is involved in maintaining a high rate of glycolysis and is an important site of electron leakage leading to ROS production in prostate cancer cells

  17. Ibuprofen causes photocleavage through ROS generation and intercalates with DNA: a combined biophysical and molecular docking approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Mohammed Amir; Sarwar, Tarique; Rehman, Sayeed Ur; Ishqi, Hassan Mubarak; Tabish, Mohammad

    2015-06-01

    Ibuprofen is an important nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug endowed with various pharmacological and biological activities. In the present study, the photochemical properties of ibuprofen were evaluated by assaying the generation of various reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide, singlet oxygen and the hydroxyl radical. ROS generated by ibuprofen in the presence of white light causes DNA strand scission as observed by plasmid nicking assay. Ibuprofen induced ROS generation is also capable of causing DNA degradation in lymphocytes as observed by photocomet assay. ROS generation properties of ibuprofen were further strengthened by the formation of carbonyl groups in BSA and TBARS in linoleic acid as observed by carbonyl assay and lipid peroxidation assay respectively. We have also investigated the mode of interaction of ibuprofen with calf thymus DNA through a series of in vitro experiments. UV-visible spectroscopy established the formation of a complex between ibuprofen and Ct DNA. The steady state fluorescence experiments at different temperatures revealed a binding constant of ?10(4) L mol(-1), which is indicative of intercalative binding between ibuprofen and the DNA helix. Analysis of the various thermodynamic parameters ?G, ?H and ?S calculated at different temperatures indicated that the hydrogen bonds played a major role in the interaction. The intercalative binding mode is further confirmed by competitive displacement assays, urea denaturation, iodide quenching, viscosity measurements and CD analysis. In silico molecular docking revealed the binding of ibuprofen within the GC base pairs of DNA, confirming the intercalative binding mode. PMID:25761147

  18. TREATMENT OF BOAR SPERM WITH RESPIRATION INHIBITOR MENADIONE: EFFECTS ON MOTILITY, REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES (ROS), MITOCHONDRIAL TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL (MMP), AND ATP CONTENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previously we found that live, fresh or thawed boar sperm show little tendency to accumulate ROS spontaneously, but live sperm accumulated ROS during a 30 min incubation with xanthine and xanthine oxidase and showed marked reduction in motility. High MMP is required to drive the F0/F1 ATPase respons...

  19. Hitting the Bull’s-Eye in Metastatic Cancers—NSAIDs Elevate ROS in Mitochondria, Inducing Malignant Cell Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen John Ralph

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Tumor metastases that impede the function of vital organs are a major cause of cancer related mortality. Mitochondrial oxidative stress induced by hypoxia, low nutrient levels, or other stresses, such as genotoxic events, act as key drivers of the malignant changes in primary tumors to enhance their progression to metastasis. Emerging evidence now indicates that mitochondrial modifications and mutations resulting from oxidative stress, and leading to OxPhos stimulation and/or enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS production, are essential for promoting and sustaining the highly metastatic phenotype. Moreover, the modified mitochondria in emerging or existing metastatic cancer cells, by their irreversible differences, provide opportunities for selectively targeting their mitochondrial functions with a one-two punch. The first blow would block their anti-oxidative defense, followed by the knockout blow—promoting production of excess ROS, capitulating the terminal stage—activation of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP, specifically killing metastatic cancer cells or their precursors. This review links a wide area of research relevant to cellular mechanisms that affect mitochondria activity as a major source of ROS production driving the pro-oxidative state in metastatic cancer cells. Each of the important aspects affecting mitochondrial function are discussed including: hypoxia, HIFs and PGC1 induced metabolic changes, increased ROS production to induce a more pro-oxidative state with reduced antioxidant defenses. It then focuses on how the mitochondria, as a major source of ROS in metastatic cancer cells driving the pro-oxidative state of malignancy enables targeting drugs affecting many of these altered processes and why the NSAIDs are an excellent example of mitochondria-targeted agents that provide a one-two knockout activating the mPTP and their efficacy as selective anticancer metastasis drugs.

  20. Mitochondria-targeted ROS scavenger improves post-ischemic recovery of cardiac function and attenuates mitochondrial abnormalities in aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobales, Nelson; Nuñez, Rebeca E; Jang, Sehwan; Parodi-Rullan, Rebecca; Ayala-Peña, Sylvette; Sacher, Joshua R; Skoda, Erin M; Wipf, Peter; Frontera, Walter; Javadov, Sabzali

    2014-12-01

    Mitochondria-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of aging and age-associated diseases. In this study, we evaluated the effects of XJB-5-131 (XJB), a mitochondria-targeted ROS and electron scavenger, on cardiac resistance to ischemia-reperfusion (IR)-induced oxidative stress in aged rats. Male adult (5-month old, n=17) and aged (29-month old, n=19) Fischer Brown Norway (F344/BN) rats were randomly assigned to the following groups: adult (A), adult+XJB (AX), aged (O), and aged+XJB (OX). XJB was administered 3 times per week (3mg/kg body weight, IP) for four weeks. At the end of the treatment period, cardiac function was continuously monitored in excised hearts using the Langendorff technique for 30 min, followed by 20 min of global ischemia, and 60-min reperfusion. XJB improved post-ischemic recovery of aged hearts, as evidenced by greater left ventricular developed-pressures and rate-pressure products than the untreated, aged-matched group. The state 3 respiration rates at complexes I, II and IV of mitochondria isolated from XJB-treated aged hearts were 57% (P<0.05), 25% (P<0.05) and 28% (P<0.05), respectively, higher than controls. Ca(2+)-induced swelling, an indicator of permeability transition pore opening, was reduced in the mitochondria of XJB-treated aged rats. In addition, XJB significantly attenuated the H2O2-induced depolarization of the mitochondrial inner membrane as well as the total and mitochondrial ROS levels in cultured cardiomyocytes. This study underlines the importance of mitochondrial ROS in aging-induced cardiac dysfunction and suggests that targeting mitochondrial ROS may be an effective therapeutic approach to protect the aged heart against IR injury. PMID:25451170

  1. Cadmium-induced glutathionylation of actin occurs through a ROS-independent mechanism: Implications for cytoskeletal integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choong, Grace; Liu, Ying; Xiao, Weiqun; Templeton, Douglas M., E-mail: doug.templeton@utoronto.ca

    2013-10-15

    Cadmium disrupts the actin cytoskeleton in rat mesangial cells, and we have previously shown that this involves a complex interplay involving activation of kinase signaling, protein translocation, and disruption of focal adhesions. Here we investigate the role that glutathionylation of actin plays in Cd{sup 2+}-associated cytoskeletal reorganization. Low concentrations of Cd{sup 2+} (0.5–2 ?M) caused an increase in actin glutathionylation by 6 h, whereas at higher concentrations glutathionylation remained at basal levels. Although oxidation with diamide increased glutathionylation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) were not involved in the Cd{sup 2+}-dependent effect, as only Cd{sup 2+} concentrations above 2 ?M were sufficient to increase ROS. However, low [Cd{sup 2+}] increased total glutathione levels without affecting the ratio of reduced/oxidized glutathione, and inhibition of glutathione synthesis suppressed actin glutathionylation. Cadmium increased the activity of the enzyme glutaredoxin, which influences the equilibrium between glutathionylated and deglutathionylated proteins and thus may influence levels of glutathionylated actin. Together these observations show that cadmium-dependent effects on actin glutathionylation are affected by glutathione metabolism and not by direct effects of ROS on thiol chemistry. In vitro polymerization assays with glutathionylated actin show a decreased rate of polymerization. In contrast, immunofluorescence of cytoskeletal structure in intact cells suggests that increases in actin glutathionylation accompanying increased glutathione levels occurring under low Cd{sup 2+} exposure are protective in vivo, with cytoskeletal disruption ensuing only when higher Cd{sup 2+} concentrations increase ROS levels and prevent an increase in actin–glutathione conjugates. - Highlights: • Cadmium disrupts the actin cytoskeleton in mesangial cells. • Cadmium induces glutathionylation of actin at low concentrations. • Glutathionylation requires glutathione synthesis but is independent of ROS. • Glutathionylation is protective against cytoskeletal disruption at low cadmium.

  2. Unifying mechanism for addiction and toxicity of abused drugs with application to dopamine and glutamate mediators: electron transfer and reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacic, Peter

    2005-01-01

    There are many unknown aspects concerning the mode of action of abused drugs. Recently, a unifying theme for toxicity and addiction was reported based on electron transfer (ET), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and oxidative stress (OS). The main drugs involved are nicotine, cocaine, alcohol, phencyclidine, ecstasy, amphetamines, morphine-heroin, tetrahydrocannabinol, and therapeutic drugs (benzodiazepines, phenytoin, phenobarbital, aspirin, and acetaminophen). A major source of ROS is ET functionalities, of which the main ones found in abused drug metabolites are quinones and imines (or iminiums). Minor types are the nitroxide metabolite from cocaine, and alpha-dicarbonyl from alcohol. The theoretical approach enjoys support from reports on formation of ET metabolites, generation of ROS, protection by antioxidants (AOs), electrochemical studies, and cell signaling. Dopamine (DA) mediation of drug abuse has been the focus of much attention during the past decades. Recently, a similar role for glutamate (Glu) has come under study. Superficially, from a mechanistic vantage point, these findings might be regarded as in conflict with the ET-ROS-OS scheme. Many investigators believe that each drug or mediator operates by its own distinct mechanism. The present report provides evidence that a commonality in mode of action exists for both abused drugs and the DA-Glu operators. In the case of DA, oxidative metabolism yields o-quinones and semiquinones which can redox cycle with oxygen to provide various ROS. Electrochemical studies support the possibility of ET transformations by these quinones in the biological domain. In relation to cell signaling, DA is involved in formation of cAMP followed by a cascade of other events. A similar scenario exists in the case of Glu, in which an iminocarboxylic acid metabolite is hypothesized to play an ET role. The various phenomena are rationalized within the context of ET-ROS-OS, as was done earlier for abused drugs. Thus, a common mode of action may exist for both categories since all provide metabolites with similar properties. Stimulation of mediator production by abused drugs can occur with subsequent oxidation by ROS, some of which may be supplied by the drugs. In addition to prevention, the difficult topic of addiction mechanism is addressed from the viewpoint of ET and ROS involvement. Low levels of ROS would pertain since high concentrations are related to toxicity. A report that tetrahydrocannabinol does not comprise a substantial risk is in accord with little evidence of OS and absence of ET functionalities in the drug and reported metabolites. PMID:15893124

  3. Paleomagnetic Investigations Along The Bitlis-Za?ros Suture Zone From Mesozoic to Recent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ülker, Beyza; Cengiz Çinku, Mualla; Hirt, Ann

    2013-04-01

    The tectonic evolution of SE Anatolia is associated with the collision between the Taurides and the Arabian platform in the Early Cenozoic, after the final closure of the southern branch of the Neotethys Ocean during Upper Cretaceous to early Eocene times. The ongoing deformation was characterized by northward movement of Arabia, followed by westward extrusion of the Anatolian region, by displacement along the northern and eastern Anatolian Transform Faults. Previous paleomagnetic studies in the investigation area are limited by Pliocene-Miocene rocks, concerning the tectonic deformation due to neotectonic phase whereas no data are reported about the tectonic deformation history since the closure of the southern Neotethyan oceanic basin. For this purpose we carried out a paleomagnetic study from Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks at a total of 34 localities along the Bitlis-Za?ros suture zone. Preliminary paleomagnetic results from Upper Jurassic platform carbonates show a mean direction of D/I = 12.7°/58.3°, (k =32.9 , ?95 = 5.6°) after tilt correction and a paleolatitude of 39° N (±5) which is consistent the Eurasian paleolatitude. The Upper Cretaceous rocks were defined with a mean direction of D/I = 349.1°/39.5°, (k = 3.86 , ?95 = 6.5°) and a paleolatitude of 18.9° N (+3.8 / - 3.5) which is in agreement with coeval paleomagnetic directions from stable Africa-Arabia. The paleomagnetic rotations suggest ~17° and ~40° CW rotation in the western site of the Bitlis-Za?ros suture zone whereas the eastern part show CCW rotation in the order of ~40° and ~5°, suggesting two phase of contemporaneous rotation. The Middle Eocene mean direction D/I = 4.3°/32.2°, (k =16.26 , ?95 =5.7 °) differ significantly from the Middle Miocene mean direction (D/I = 324.9°/58.3°, k =11.41 , ?95 = 8°), indicating that the region experienced important rotation since the Middle Eocene. This research was supported by Research Fund of the Istanbul University. Project number 23607.

  4. Reactive oxygen species mediates homocysteine-induced mitochondrial biogenesis in human endothelial cells: Modulation by antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been proposed that homocysteine (Hcy)-induces endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). A previous report has shown that Hcy promotes mitochondrial damage. Considering that oxidative stress can affect mitochondrial biogenesis, we hypothesized that Hcy-induced ROS in endothelial cells may lead to increased mitochondrial biogenesis. We found that Hcy-induced ROS (1.85-fold), leading to a NF-?B activation and increase the formation of 3-nitrotyrosine. Furthermore, expression of the mitochondrial biogenesis factors, nuclear respiratory factor-1 and mitochondrial transcription factor A, was significantly elevated in Hcy-treated cells. These changes were accompanied by increase in mitochondrial mass and higher mRNA and protein expression of the subunit III of cytochrome c oxidase. These effects were significantly prevented by pretreatment with the antioxidants, catechin and trolox. Taken together, our results suggest that ROS is an important mediator of mitochondrial biogenesis induced by Hcy, and that modulation of oxidative stress by antioxidants may protect against the adverse vascular effects of Hcy

  5. Anticancer activity of hispidin via reactive oxygen species-mediated apoptosis in colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Ji-Hong; Lee, Yoon-Mi; Park, Sa Ra; Kim, Da Hye; Lim, Beong Ou

    2014-08-01

    Few studies have been performed on the anticancer activity of hispidin, a phenolic compound produced from the medicinal mushroom Phellinus linteus. Herein, we studied hispidin-induced apoptosis, which is associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in colon cancer cells. Hispidin was found to reduce cell viability both in mouse and human colon cancer cells. Apoptotic cell morphological changes were observed by microscopy, and apoptosis was assessed in hispidin-treated cells using a biochemical method. The results showed accumulation of the sub-G1 cell population and increase in early apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, hispidin induced apoptosis through up-regulation of both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. Although the molecular mechanism underlying hispidin-induced apoptosis is known to involve the generation of ROS, however hispidin did not show any apoptosis in the pre-treatment with a ROS scavenger, N-acetyl-L-cysteine. In conclusion, hispidin induces both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways mediated by ROS in colon cancer cells, thereby suggesting that hispidin could be a promising new anticancer agent. PMID:25075033

  6. Mediated homogenization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homogenization protocols model the quantum mechanical evolution of a system to a fixed state independently from its initial configuration by repeatedly coupling it with a collection of identical ancillas. Here we analyze these protocols within the formalism of ''relaxing'' channels providing an easy-to-check sufficient condition for homogenization. In this context we describe mediated homogenization schemes where a network of connected qudits relaxes to a fixed state by only partially interacting with a bath. We also study configurations which allow us to introduce entanglement among the elements of the network. Finally we analyze the effect of having competitive configurations with two different baths and we prove the convergence to dynamical equilibrium for Heisenberg chains

  7. Cordyceps sinensis polysaccharide inhibits PDGF-BB-induced inflammation and ROS production in human mesangial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Yan; Liu, Dan; Wang, Wang; Zhao, Huan; Wang, Min; Yin, Hongping

    2015-07-10

    CPS-F, a polysaccharide derived from Cordyceps sinensis, is a potential anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative agent. We demonstrated that CPS-F not only inhibits platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB)-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), TNF-? receptor 1 (TNFR1), and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), but also acts synergistically in combination with MAPK/ERK inhibitor U0126 and PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002. Additionally, up-regulation of pro-inflammatory factors was reversed by use of a combination of CPS-F and NADPH oxidase (NOX) inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI) or silencing of NOX1. Furthermore, CPS-F prevents the PDGF receptor ? (PDGFR?) promoter activity induced by PDGF-BB in transfected cells and ameliorates increased levels of TNF-?, TNFR1, and MCP-1 when PDGFR? is silenced, thereby suggesting that CPS-F possesses a bidirectional regulatory function. Our findings suggest CPS-F may exert its therapeutic effect for the treatment of glomerulonephritis related to human mesangial cells (HMCs) through the ERK1/2/Akt pathways. PMID:25857968

  8. Lack of K-Dependent Oxidative Stress in Cotton Roots Following Coronatine-Induced ROS Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Xin; Hu, Zebing; Wang, Sufang; Zhang, Jinbao; Wang, Xiaojing; Wang, Qinglian; Zhang, Baohong

    2015-01-01

    Coronatine [COR] is a novel type of plant growth regulator with similarities in structure and property to jasmonate. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between increased root vitality induced by 10 nM COR and reactive oxygen species scavenging under potassium (K)-replete (2.5 mM) and K-deficient (0.05 mM) conditions in hydroponic cultured cotton seedlings. K-replete and K-deficient conditions increased root vitality by 2.7- and 3.5-fold, respectively. COR treatment significantly decreased lipid peroxidation in cotton seedlings determined by reduction in MDA levels. These results suggest that COR improves the functioning of both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems. Under K-replete and K-deficient conditions, COR significantly increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes SOD (only for K-repletion), CAT, GPX, and APX comparing; COR also significantly increased DPPH-radical scavenging activity. However, COR led to 1.6- and 1.7-fold increases in superoxide anion (O2•-) concentrations, and 5.7- and 2.1-fold increases in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels, respectively. Additionally, COR intensified the DAB staining of H2O2 and the NBT staining of O2•-. Therefore, our results reveal that COR-induced ROS accumulation stimulates the activities of most antioxidant enzymes but does not induce oxidative stress in cotton roots. PMID:25955838

  9. Ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica (A. Juss.) causing apoptosis by ROS upregulation in Dirofilaria immitis microfilaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Niladri; Saini, Prasanta; Mukherjee, Suprabhat; Roy, Priya; Gayen, Prajna; Babu, Santi P Sinha

    2014-10-01

    Dirofilaria immitis is the causative agent of cardiopulmonary dirofilariasis in the Canine family. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of the ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica leaves (EEA) against the microfilaria (mf) of D. immitis in vitro. EEA was evaluated for different compound classes through HPTLC. Relative motility, mortality and morphological alterations were observed in the mf after exposure to EEA. The effect of EEA on redox status in the treated mf was evaluated by some key enzymatic and non-enzymatic parameters. An enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in the treated mf along with altered redox status was evident. DNA fragmentation and terminal-deoxynucleotidyl-transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) confirmed apoptosis. In addition, western blotting revealed down-regulation of anti-apoptotic protein and up-regulation of pro-apoptotic proteins. Taken together, the microfilaricidal activity of EEA can be attributed to its capacity to inflict oxidative stress culminating in apoptosis. PMID:25092478

  10. Microglial ROS production in an electrical rat post-status epilepticus model of epileptogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettenbeck, Maruja L; Rüden, Eva-Lotta von; Bienas, Silvia; Carlson, Regina; Stein, Veronika M; Tipold, Andrea; Potschka, Heidrun

    2015-07-10

    Reactive oxygen species and inflammatory signaling have been identified as pivotal pathophysiological factors contributing to epileptogenesis. Considering the development of combined anti-inflammatory and antioxidant treatment strategies with antiepileptogenic potential, a characterization of the time course of microglial reactive oxygen species generation during epileptogenesis is of major interest. Thus, we isolated microglia cells and analyzed the generation of reactive oxygen species by flow cytometric analysis in an electrical rat post-status epilepticus model. Two days post status epilepticus, a large-sized cell cluster exhibited a pronounced response with excessive production of reactive oxygen species upon stimulation with phorbol-myristate-acetate. Neither in the latency phase nor in the chronic phase with spontaneous seizures a comparable cell population with induction of reactive oxygen species was identified. We were able to demonstrate in the electrical rat post-status-epilepticus model, that microglial ROS generation reaches a peak after the initial insult, is only marginally increased in the latency phase, and returns to control levels during the chronic epileptic phase. The data suggest that a combination of anti-inflammatory and radical scavenging approaches might only be beneficial during a short time window after an epileptogenic brain insult. PMID:26007700

  11. Micro dynamics in mediation

    OpenAIRE

    Boserup, Hans

    2014-01-01

    The author has identified a number of styles in mediation, which lead to different processes and different outcomes. Through discourse and conversation analysis he examines the micro dynamics in three of these, the postmodern styles: systemic, transformative and narrative mediation. The differences between the three mediation ideologies and practice is illustrated through role play scripts enacted in each style. Mediator and providers of mediation and trainers in mediation are encouraged to a...

  12. Differential effects of buffer pH on Ca2+-induced ROS emission with inhibited mitochondrial complexes I and III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Daniel P.; Camara, Amadou K. S.; Stowe, David F.; Lubbe, Ryan; Aldakkak, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Excessive mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) emission is a critical component in the etiology of ischemic injury. Complex I and complex III of the electron transport chain are considered the primary sources of ROS emission during cardiac ischemia and reperfusion (IR) injury. Several factors modulate ischemic ROS emission, such as an increase in extra-matrix Ca2+, a decrease in extra-matrix pH, and a change in substrate utilization. Here we examined the combined effects of these factors on ROS emission from respiratory complexes I and III under conditions of simulated IR injury. Guinea pig heart mitochondria were suspended in experimental buffer at a given pH and incubated with or without CaCl2. Mitochondria were then treated with either pyruvate, a complex I substrate, followed by rotenone, a complex I inhibitor, or succinate, a complex II substrate, followed by antimycin A, a complex III inhibitor. H2O2 release rate and matrix volume were compared with and without adding CaCl2 and at pH 7.15, 6.9, or 6.5 with pyruvate + rotenone or succinate + antimycin A to simulate conditions that may occur during in vivo cardiac IR injury. We found a large increase in H2O2 release with high [CaCl2] and pyruvate + rotenone at pH 6.9, but not at pHs 7.15 or 6.5. Large increases in H2O2 release rate also occurred at each pH with high [CaCl2] and succinate + antimycin A, with the highest levels observed at pH 7.15. The increases in H2O2 release were associated with significant mitochondrial swelling, and both H2O2 release and swelling were abolished by cyclosporine A, a desensitizer of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). These results indicate that ROS production by complex I and by complex III is differently affected by buffer pH and Ca2+ loading with mPTP opening. The study suggests that changes in the levels of cytosolic Ca2+ and pH during IR alter the relative amounts of ROS produced at mitochondrial respiratory complex I and complex III. PMID:25805998

  13. Phenomenological Implications of Deflected Mirage Mediation: Comparison with Mirage Mediation

    OpenAIRE

    Altunkaynak, Baris; Everett, Lisa L.; Kim, Ian-woo; Nelson, Brent D.; Rao, Yongyan

    2010-01-01

    We compare the collider phenomenology of mirage mediation and deflected mirage mediation, which are two recently proposed "mixed" supersymmetry breaking scenarios motivated from string compactifications. The scenarios differ in that deflected mirage mediation includes contributions from gauge mediation in addition to the contributions from gravity mediation and anomaly mediation also present in mirage mediation. The threshold effects from gauge mediation can drastically alte...

  14. PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF MEDIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IULIA FLOCA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Today the Romanian state gives some advantages to those who use mediation. If the Romanian state would take further steps, mediation would work as in the countries with old tradition. The article refers to success and failure got in the two years of practice. The mediation can be seen in two aspects: The first aspect regarding the mediation itself can lead to a mediation agreement. The mediation agreement gives both winnings to the conflict parts and professional satisfactions to the mediator. The second part concerns the mediation contract. It is very important for the mediator who wants to practice and to gain money. The mediation will work in Romania when the mediator passes from the pro-bono stage to winnings. The article refers to the conditions of the appearance of mediation in Romania, the purpose for which it was founded, the usefulness of mediations to relieve the number of court cases and increase the efficiency of the courts, as well as the results obtained from the adoption of the mediation laws until now. The practical aspects leading to the mode in which Romanians perceive mediation and wish to participate or not in the sessions of mediation Recommendations for promoting mediation in Romania

  15. In vitro cytotoxic evaluation of MgO nanoparticles and their effect on the expression of ROS genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaran, Rangarajulu Senthil; Choi, Yong-Keun; Singh, Vijay; Song, Hak-Jin; Song, Kyung-Guen; Kim, Kwang Jin; Kim, Hyung Joo

    2015-01-01

    Water-dispersible MgO nanoparticles were tested to investigate their cytotoxic effects on oxidative stress gene expression. In this in vitro study, genes related to reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and catalase, were quantified using real-time polymerase chain reactions (molecular level) and molecular beacon technologies (cellular level). The monodispersed MgO nanoparticles, 20 nm in size, were used to treat human cancer cell lines (liver cancer epithelial cells) at different concentrations (25, 75 and 150 µg/mL) and incubation times (24, 48 and 72 h). Both the genetic and cellular cytotoxic screening methods produced consistent results, showing that GST and catalase ROS gene expression was maximized at 150 µg/mL nanoparticle treatment with 48 h incubation. However, the genotoxic effect of MgO nanoparticles was not significant compared with control experiments, which indicates its significant potential applications in nanomedicine as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool. PMID:25854426

  16. In Vitro Cytotoxic Evaluation of MgO Nanoparticles and Their Effect on the Expression of ROS Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangarajulu Senthil Kumaran

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Water-dispersible MgO nanoparticles were tested to investigate their cytotoxic effects on oxidative stress gene expression. In this in vitro study, genes related to reactive oxygen species (ROS, glutathione S-transferase (GST and catalase, were quantified using real-time polymerase chain reactions (molecular level and molecular beacon technologies (cellular level. The monodispersed MgO nanoparticles, 20 nm in size, were used to treat human cancer cell lines (liver cancer epithelial cells at different concentrations (25, 75 and 150 µg/mL and incubation times (24, 48 and 72 h. Both the genetic and cellular cytotoxic screening methods produced consistent results, showing that GST and catalase ROS gene expression was maximized at 150 µg/mL nanoparticle treatment with 48 h incubation. However, the genotoxic effect of MgO nanoparticles was not significant compared with control experiments, which indicates its significant potential applications in nanomedicine as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool.

  17. ROS enhancement by silicon nanoparticles in X-ray irradiated aqueous suspensions and in glioma C6 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Gara, Pedro M. [CITOMA, Fundacion Avanzar, Instituto de Terapia Radiante S.A., CIO La Plata (Argentina); Garabano, Natalia I. [University of Buenos Aires, Departamento de Quimica Biologica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, UBA (Argentina); Llansola Portoles, Manuel J. [UNLP, INIFTA, Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas (Argentina); Moreno, M. Sergio [Centro Atomico Bariloche (Argentina); Dodat, Diego; Casas, Oscar R. [CITOMA, Fundacion Avanzar, Instituto de Terapia Radiante S.A., CIO La Plata (Argentina); Gonzalez, Monica C., E-mail: gonzalez@inifta.unlp.edu.ar [UNLP, INIFTA, Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas (Argentina); Kotler, Monica L., E-mail: kotler@qb.fcen.uba.ar [University of Buenos Aires, Departamento de Quimica Biologica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, UBA (Argentina)

    2012-03-15

    The capability of silicon nanoparticles to increase the yield of reactive species upon 4 MeV X-ray irradiation of aqueous suspensions and C6 glioma cell cultures was investigated. ROS generation was detected and quantified using several specific probes. The particles were characterized by FTIR, XPS, TEM, DLS, luminescence, and adsorption spectroscopy before and after irradiation to evaluate the effect of high energy radiation on their structure. The total concentration of O{sub 2}{sup Bullet -}/HO{sub 2}{sup Bullet}, HO{sup Bullet}, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} generated upon 4-MeV X-ray irradiation of 6.4 {mu}M silicon nanoparticle aqueous suspensions were on the order of 10 {mu}M per Gy, ten times higher than that obtained in similar experiments but in the absence of particles. Cytotoxic {sup 1}O{sub 2} was generated only in irradiation experiments containing the particles. The particle surface became oxidized to SiO{sub 2} and the luminescence yield reduced with the irradiation dose. Changes in the surface morphology did not affect, within the experimental error, the yields of ROS generated per Gy. X-ray irradiation of glioma C6 cell cultures with incorporated silicon nanoparticles showed a marked production of ROS proportional to the radiation dose received. In the absence of nanoparticles, the cells showed no irradiation-enhanced ROS generation. The obtained results indicate that silicon nanoparticles of <5 nm size have the potential to be used as radiosensitizers for improving the outcomes of cancer radiotherapy. Their capability of producing {sup 1}O{sub 2} upon X-ray irradiation opens novel approaches in the design of therapy strategies.

  18. Relationship of ROS and NO in X-ray induced bystander effects in HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accumulating evidence indicates that irradiated cells can release signals which induce a series of biological responses in non-exposed cells. This is known as irradiation-induced bystander effects. Both reactive oxygen species(ROS)and nitric oxide(NO) play important roles in bystander effects. In this study, we determined the relationship of ROS and NO in the signaling pathway of bystander effects. HeLa cells were treated with or without dimethy sulfoxide(DMSO) before X-ray irradiation, and micronuclei formation as well as cell proliferation rate was detected in both irradiated and bystander cells. In addition,we also detected inducible nitric oxide synthase(iNOS)expression and NO level in irradiated cells using Western blotting and DAF-FM DA fluorescent probe, respectively. Our results showed that micronuclei were induced in irradiated and bystander cells while DMSO treatment significantly suppressed the formation of micronuclei in both of them. We also found that when cells were irradiated their proliferation rate was suppressed while DMSO treatment eliminated this inhibition effect.In contrast, the cells received conditioned medium from irradiated cells proliferated more quickly than the cells received medium from non-irradiated cells while DMSO treatment reduced the difference. Finally, we found that irradiated cells had higher level of iNOS and NO compared to non-irradiated controls, whereas DMSO treatment decreased their levels. These results suggest that ROS is levels. These results suggest that ROS is the upstream signal of NO in X-ray induced bystander effects in HeLa cells. (authors)

  19. Artemisinin dimer anti-cancer activity correlates with heme-catalyzed ROS generation and ER stress induction

    OpenAIRE

    Stockwin, Luke H.; Han, Bingnan; Yu, Sherry X.; Hollingshead, Melinda G.; Elsohly, Mahmoud A.; Gul, Waseem; Slade, Desmond; Galal, Ahmed M.; Newton, Dianne L.

    2009-01-01

    Analogs of the malaria therapeutic, artemisinin, possess in vitro and in vivo anti-cancer activity. In this study, two dimeric artemisinins (NSC724910 and 735847) were studied to determine their mechanism of action. Dimers were >1000 fold more active than monomer and treatment was associated with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis induction. Dimer activity was inhibited by the anti-oxidant L-NAC, the iron chelator desferroxamine, and exogenous hemin. Similarly, induction of...

  20. Enterococcus faecalis infection causes inflammation, intracellular oxphos-independent ROS production, and DNA damage in human gastric cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strickertsson, Jesper A B; Madsen, Claus Desler

    2013-01-01

    Achlorhydria caused by e.g. atrophic gastritis allows for bacterial overgrowth, which induces chronic inflammation and damage to the mucosal cells of infected individuals driving gastric malignancies and cancer. Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) can colonize achlohydric stomachs and we therefore wanted to study the impact of E. faecalis infection on inflammatory response, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, mitochondrial respiration, and mitochondrial genetic stability in gastric mucosal cells.

  1. Effect of freezing desiccation on cold hardiness, ROS, membrane lipid levels and antioxidant status in spruce seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Pawe? M. Pukacki; Emilia Kami?ska-Ro?ek

    2005-01-01

    The symptoms of oxidative stress and antioxidative response were investigated on Norway spruce seedlings subjected to freezing desiccation conditions. Three-year-old seedlings were exposed to freezing desiccation at -3oC and -10oC for 45 days in two acclimation stages: autumn (October) and winter (January). The stress enhanced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS): superoxide radical anion (O2.-), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Concentrations of low molecular antioxidants: glutathion...

  2. Bystander normal human fibroblasts reduce damage response in radiation targeted cancer cells through intercellular ROS level modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation-induced bystander effect is a well-established phenomenon which results in damage in non-irradiated cells in response to signaling from irradiated cells. Since communication between irradiated and bystander cells could be reciprocal, we examined the mutual bystander response between irradiated cells and co-cultured with them non-irradiated recipients. Using a transwell culture system, irradiated human melanoma (Me45) cells were co-cultured with non-irradiated Me45 cells or normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF) and vice versa. The frequency of micronuclei and of apoptosis, ROS level, and mitochondrial membrane potential were used as the endpoints. Irradiated Me45 and NHDF cells induced conventional bystander effects detected as modest increases of the frequency of micronuclei and apoptosis in both recipient neighbors; the increase of apoptosis was especially high in NHDF cells co-cultured with irradiated Me45 cells. However, the frequencies of micronuclei and apoptosis in irradiated Me45 cells co-cultured with NHDF cells were significantly reduced in comparison with those cultured alone. This protective effect was not observed when irradiated melanomas were co-cultured with non-irradiated cells of the same line, or when irradiated NHDF fibroblasts were co-cultured with bystander melanomas. The increase of micronuclei and apoptosis in irradiated Me45 cells was paralleled by an increase in the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), which wasr reactive oxygen species (ROS), which was reduced significantly when they were co-cultured for 24 h with NHDF cells. A small but significant elevation of ROS level in NHDF cells shortly after irradiation was also reduced by co-culture with non-irradiated NHDF cells. We propose that in response to signals from irradiated cells, non-irradiated NHDF cells trigger rescue signals, whose nature remains to be elucidated, which modify the redox status in irradiated cells. This inverse bystander effect may potentially have implications in clinical radiotherapy.

  3. Enterococcus faecalis Infection Causes Inflammation, Intracellular Oxphos-Independent ROS Production, and DNA Damage in Human Gastric Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickertsson, Jesper A. B.; Desler, Claus; Martin-Bertelsen, Tomas; Machado, Ana Manuel Dantas; Wadstrøm, Torkel; Winther, Ole; Rasmussen, Lene Juel; Friis-Hansen, Lennart

    2013-01-01

    Background Achlorhydria caused by e.g. atrophic gastritis allows for bacterial overgrowth, which induces chronic inflammation and damage to the mucosal cells of infected individuals driving gastric malignancies and cancer. Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) can colonize achlohydric stomachs and we therefore wanted to study the impact of E. faecalis infection on inflammatory response, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, mitochondrial respiration, and mitochondrial genetic stability in gastric mucosal cells. Methods To separate the changes induced by bacteria from those of the inflammatory cells we established an in vitro E. faecalis infection model system using the gastric carcinoma cell line MKN74. Total ROS and superoxide was measured by fluorescence microscopy. Cellular oxygen consumption was characterized non-invasively using XF24 microplate based respirometry. Gene expression was examined by microarray, and response pathways were identified by Gene Set Analysis (GSA). Selected gene transcripts were verified by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Mitochondrial mutations were determined by sequencing. Results Infection of MKN74 cells with E. faecalis induced intracellular ROS production through a pathway independent of oxidative phosphorylation (oxphos). Furthermore, E. faecalis infection induced mitochondrial DNA instability. Following infection, genes coding for inflammatory response proteins were transcriptionally up-regulated while DNA damage repair and cell cycle control genes were down-regulated. Cell growth slowed down when infected with viable E. faecalis and responded in a dose dependent manner to E. faecalis lysate. Conclusions Infection by E. faecalis induced an oxphos-independent intracellular ROS response and damaged the mitochondrial genome in gastric cell culture. Finally the bacteria induced an NF-?B inflammatory response as well as impaired DNA damage response and cell cycle control gene expression. Transcript profiling Array Express accession number E-MEXP-3496. PMID:23646188

  4. Nox2 mediates skeletal muscle insulin resistance induced by a high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto Padron de Figueiredo, Alvaro; Salmon, Adam B; Bruno, Francesca; Jimenez, Fabio; Martinez, Herman G; Halade, Ganesh V; Ahuja, Seema S; Clark, Robert A; DeFronzo, Ralph A; Abboud, Hanna E; El Jamali, Amina

    2015-05-22

    Inflammation and oxidative stress through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are consistently associated with metabolic syndrome/type 2 diabetes. Although the role of Nox2, a major ROS-generating enzyme, is well described in host defense and inflammation, little is known about its potential role in insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Insulin resistance induced by a high fat diet was mitigated in Nox2-null mice compared with wild-type mice after 3 or 9 months on the diet. High fat feeding increased Nox2 expression, superoxide production, and impaired insulin signaling in skeletal muscle tissue of wild-type mice but not in Nox2-null mice. Exposure of C2C12 cultured myotubes to either high glucose concentration, palmitate, or H2O2 decreases insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation and glucose uptake. Pretreatment with catalase abrogated these effects, indicating a key role for H2O2 in mediating insulin resistance. Down-regulation of Nox2 in C2C12 cells by shRNA prevented insulin resistance induced by high glucose or palmitate but not H2O2. These data indicate that increased production of ROS in insulin resistance induced by high glucose in skeletal muscle cells is a consequence of Nox2 activation. This is the first report to show that Nox2 is a key mediator of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. PMID:25825489

  5. Unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling regulates arsenic trioxide-mediated macrophage innate immune function disruption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, Ritesh K.; Li, Changzhao; Chaudhary, Sandeep C. [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Ballestas, Mary E. [Department of Pediatrics Infectious Disease, Children' s of Alabama, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL (United States); Elmets, Craig A. [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Robbins, David J. [Department of Surgery, Molecular Oncology Program, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami (United States); Matalon, Sadis [Department of Anesthesiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Deshane, Jessy S. [Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Afaq, Farrukh [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Bickers, David R. [Department of Dermatology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York (United States); Athar, Mohammad, E-mail: mathar@uab.edu [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Arsenic exposure is known to disrupt innate immune functions in humans and in experimental animals. In this study, we provide a mechanism by which arsenic trioxide (ATO) disrupts macrophage functions. ATO treatment of murine macrophage cells diminished internalization of FITC-labeled latex beads, impaired clearance of phagocytosed fluorescent bacteria and reduced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These impairments in macrophage functions are associated with ATO-induced unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling pathway characterized by the enhancement in proteins such as GRP78, p-PERK, p-eIF2?, ATF4 and CHOP. The expression of these proteins is altered both at transcriptional and translational levels. Pretreatment with chemical chaperon, 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA) attenuated the ATO-induced activation in UPR signaling and afforded protection against ATO-induced disruption of macrophage functions. This treatment also reduced ATO-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Interestingly, treatment with antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) prior to ATO exposure, not only reduced ROS production and UPR signaling but also improved macrophage functions. These data demonstrate that UPR signaling and ROS generation are interdependent and are involved in the arsenic-induced pathobiology of macrophage. These data also provide a novel strategy to block the ATO-dependent impairment in innate immune responses. - Highlights: • Inorganic arsenic to humans and experimental animals disrupt innate immune responses. • The mechanism underlying arsenic impaired macrophage functions involves UPR signaling. • Chemical chaperon attenuates arsenic-mediated macrophage function impairment. • Antioxidant, NAC blocks impairment in arsenic-treated macrophage functions.

  6. NADPH Oxidase 4 Mediates TGF?1-induced CCN2 in Gingival Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, W H; Deng, Y T; Hsieh, Y P; Wu, K J; Kuo, M Y P

    2015-07-01

    Transforming growth factor ? (TGF?) plays a central role in the pathogenesis of gingival overgrowth (GO). Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF; or CCN2) is induced by TGF? in human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) and is overexpressed in GO tissues. CCN2 creates an environment favorable for fibrogenesis and is required for the maximal profibrotic effects of TGF?. We previously showed that Src, JNK, and Smad3 mediate TGF?1-induced CCN2 protein expression in HGFs. Moreover, Src is an upstream signaling transducer of JNK and Smad3. Recent studies suggested that NADPH oxidase (NOX)-dependent redox mechanisms are involved in mediating the profibrotic effects of TGF?. In this study, we demonstrated that TGF?1 upregulated NOX4 protein expression and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in HGFs. Genetic or pharmacologic targeting of NOX4 abrogated TGF?1-induced ROS production; Src, JNK, and Smad3 activation; and CCN2 and type I collagen protein expression in HGFs. Our results indicated that NOX4-derived ROS play pivotal roles in activating Src kinase activity leading to the activation of canonical (Smad3) and noncanonical (JNK) cascades that cooperate to attain maximum CCN2 expression. Furthermore, we demonstrated that curcumin significantly inhibited the TGF?1-induced NOX4 protein expression in HGFs. Curcumin potentially qualifies as an agent to control GO by suppressing TGF?1-induced NOX4 expression in HGFs. PMID:25858818

  7. Unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling regulates arsenic trioxide-mediated macrophage innate immune function disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenic exposure is known to disrupt innate immune functions in humans and in experimental animals. In this study, we provide a mechanism by which arsenic trioxide (ATO) disrupts macrophage functions. ATO treatment of murine macrophage cells diminished internalization of FITC-labeled latex beads, impaired clearance of phagocytosed fluorescent bacteria and reduced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These impairments in macrophage functions are associated with ATO-induced unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling pathway characterized by the enhancement in proteins such as GRP78, p-PERK, p-eIF2?, ATF4 and CHOP. The expression of these proteins is altered both at transcriptional and translational levels. Pretreatment with chemical chaperon, 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA) attenuated the ATO-induced activation in UPR signaling and afforded protection against ATO-induced disruption of macrophage functions. This treatment also reduced ATO-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Interestingly, treatment with antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) prior to ATO exposure, not only reduced ROS production and UPR signaling but also improved macrophage functions. These data demonstrate that UPR signaling and ROS generation are interdependent and are involved in the arsenic-induced pathobiology of macrophage. These data also provide a novel strategy to block the ATO-dependent impairment in innate immune responses. - Highlights: • Inorganic arsenic to humans and experimental animals disrupt innate immune responses. • The mechanism underlying arsenic impaired macrophage functions involves UPR signaling. • Chemical chaperon attenuates arsenic-mediated macrophage function impairment. • Antioxidant, NAC blocks impairment in arsenic-treated macrophage functions

  8. Shikonin Inhibits the Proliferation of Human Lens Epithelial Cells by Inducing Apoptosis through ROS and Caspase-Dependent Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Rong Huang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Shikonin is a compound from the herbal plant Lithospermum erythrorhizon that has been proved to possess powerful anti-proliferative effect on many kinds of cancers and to be safe in in vivo study. Posterior capsular opacification (PCO, the most frequent complication of cataract surgery, is mainly caused by the uncontrolled proliferation of retained human lens epithelial cells (HLEs. In this study, we investigated the effect of shikonin on the proliferation of HLEs and explored its underlying mechanism of action. Shikonin significantly inhibited the proliferation of HLEs in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Its anti-proliferative effect was exerted through induction of apoptosis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS generation played an essential role in this apoptotic process. Interestingly, scavenging of ROS completely blocked the apoptosis induced by shikonin. In addition, the treatment of shikonin in HLEs significantly increased the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, disrupted mitochondria membrane potential (MMP and activated caspases. The inhibition of caspase largely blocks the apoptosis. The changes of MAPK pathway were also demonstrated. Shikonin effectively inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK, while it activated the phosphorylation of JNK and p38. These results suggested that shikonin inhibited the proliferation of HLEs by inducing apoptosis through ROS generation and the caspase-dependent pathway and the MAPK pathway was also involved.

  9. Effect of freezing desiccation on cold hardiness, ROS, membrane lipid levels and antioxidant status in spruce seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawe? M. Pukacki

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The symptoms of oxidative stress and antioxidative response were investigated on Norway spruce seedlings subjected to freezing desiccation conditions. Three-year-old seedlings were exposed to freezing desiccation at -3oC and -10oC for 45 days in two acclimation stages: autumn (October and winter (January. The stress enhanced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS: superoxide radical anion (O2.-, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. Concentrations of low molecular antioxidants: glutathione (GSH, ascorbic acid (AsA and a-tocopherol declined at both low temperatures and acclimation stages. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD increased with ROS production, while guaiacol peroxidase (POX activity decreased. The freeze-induced desiccation of needles was significantly correlated with the cold hardiness (LT50, the level of low-molecular antioxidants, and POX activity, but not with SOD activity. Under extreme freezing desiccation conditions, these reactions continued, leading to the degradation of membrane phospholipids and a strong decrease in cold hardiness. The results show that membranes are the primary site of injury induced by ROS, produced under the influence of low temperature combined with dehydration. The acclimation response of Norway spruce needles to the oxidative stress generated by long-term cold and/or freezing desiccation is discussed.

  10. UV light induces premature senescence in Akt1-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts by increasing intracellular levels of ROS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akt/PKB plays a pivotal role in cell survival and proliferation. Previously, we reported that UV-irradiation induces extensive cell death in Akt2-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) while Akt1-/- MEFs show cell cycle arrest. Here, we find that Akt1-/- MEFs exhibit phenotypic changes characteristics of senescence upon UV-irradiation. An enlarged and flattened morphology, a reduced cell proliferation and an increased senescence-associated ?-galactosidase (SA ?-gal) staining indicate that Akt1-/- MEFs undergo premature senescence after UV-irradiation. Restoring Akt1 expression in Akt1-/- MEFs suppressed SA ?-gal activity, indicating that UV-induced senescence is due to the absence of Akt1 function. Notably, levels of ROS were rapidly increased upon UV-irradiation and the ROS scavenger NAC inhibits UV-induced senescence of Akt1-/- MEFs, suggesting that UV light induces premature senescence in Akt1-/- MEFs by modulating intracellular levels of ROS. In conjunction with our previous work, this indicates that different isoforms of Akt have distinct function in response to UV-irradiation.

  11. Overexpression of Arachis hypogaea AREB1 Gene Enhances Drought Tolerance by Modulating ROS Scavenging and Maintaining Endogenous ABA Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Li

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available AhAREB1 (Arachis hypogaea Abscisic-acid Response Element Binding Protein 1 is a member of the basic domain leucine zipper (bZIP-type transcription factor in peanut. Previously, we found that expression of AhAREB1 was specifically induced by abscisic acid (ABA, dehydration and drought. To understand the drought defense mechanism regulated by AhAREB1, transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing AhAREB1 was conducted in wild-type (WT, and a complementation experiment was employed to ABA non-sensitivity mutant abi5 (abscisic acid-insensitive 5. Constitutive expression of AhAREB1 confers water stress tolerance and is highly sensitive to exogenous ABA. Microarray and further real-time PCR analysis revealed that drought stress, reactive oxygen species (ROS scavenging, ABA synthesis/metabolism-related genes and others were regulated in transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing AhAREB1. Accordingly, low level of ROS, but higher ABA content was detected in the transgenic Arabidopsis plants’ overexpression of AhAREB1. Taken together, it was concluded that AhAREB1 modulates ROS accumulation and endogenous ABA level to improve drought tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

  12. Thiourea, a ROS scavenger, regulates source-to-sink relationship to enhance crop yield and oil content in Brassica juncea (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Manish; Srivastava, Ashish Kumar; D'Souza, Stanislaus Francis; Penna, Suprasanna

    2013-01-01

    In the present agricultural scenario, the major thrust is to increase crop productivity so as to ensure sustainability. In an earlier study, foliar application of thiourea (TU; a non physiological thiol based ROS scavenger) has been demonstrated to enhance the stress tolerance and yield of different crops under field condition. Towards this endeavor, present work deals with the effect of TU on photosynthetic efficiency and source-to-sink relationship of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) for understanding its mode of action. The application of TU increased the efficiency of both PSI and PSII photosystems and vegetative growth of plant. The comparative analysis of sucrose to starch ratio and expression level of sugar transporters confirmed the higher source and sink strength in response to TU treatment. The biochemical evidence in support of this was derived from higher activities of sucrose phosphate synthase and fructose-1,6-bis-phosphatase at source; and sucrose synthase and different classes of invertases at both source and sink. This indicated an overall increase in photoassimilate level at sink. An additional contribution through pod photosynthesis was confirmed through the analysis of phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase enzyme activity and level of organic acids. The increased photoassimilate level was also co-ordinated with acetyl coA carboxylase mediated oil biosynthesis. All these changes were ultimately reflected in the form of 10 and 20% increase in total yield and oil content, respectively under TU treatment as compared to control. Additionally, no change was observed in oil composition of seeds derived from TU treated plants. The study thus signifies the co-ordinated regulation of key steps of photosynthesis and source-to-sink relationship through the external application of TU resulting in increased crop yield and oil content. PMID:24058504

  13. General Gaugino Mediation

    OpenAIRE

    Sudano, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    The spectrum of a class of gaugino mediation models with arbitrary hidden sector is considered. These models are defined by a diagonal breaking of the mediating gauge group, which places them outside the realm of General Gauge Mediation. While gauginos get masses as in ordinary gauge mediation, the scalar masses are screened.

  14. Master spreadsheet for visual censusing corals by maximum diameter size class at Site Number ROS-5P on 2/20/2002

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This spreadsheet summarizes the number of corals photographed along a permanent transect line at Underwater Site ROS5P at Rose Atoll on 2202002.

  15. Chlorella Induces Stomatal Closure via NADPH Oxidase-Dependent ROS Production and Its Effects on Instantaneous Water Use Efficiency in Vicia faba

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yan; Xu, Shan-shan; Gao, Jing; Pan, Sha; Wang, Gen-xuan

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been established to participate in stomatal closure induced by live microbes and microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). Chlorella as a beneficial microorganism can be expected to trigger stomatal closure via ROS production. Here, we reported that Chlorella induced stomatal closure in a dose-and time-dependent manner in epidermal peels of Vicia faba. Using pharmacological methods in this work, we found that the Chlorella-induced stomatal closure was a...

  16. 2-(4-chlorophenyl)benzo-1,4-quinone induced ROS-signaling inhibits proliferation in human non-malignant prostate epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhuri, Leena; Sarsour, Ehab H.; Goswami, Prabhat C.

    2010-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their metabolites are environmental chemical contaminants which can produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) by auto-oxidation of dihydroxy PCBs as well as the reduction of quinones and redox-cycling. We investigate the hypothesis that 2-(4-chlorophenyl)benzo-1,4-quinone (4-Cl-BQ), a metabolite of 4-chlorobiphenyl (PCB3), induced ROS-signaling inhibits cellular proliferation. Monolayer cultures of exponentially growing asynchronous human non-malignant prostat...

  17. Reduced mitochondrial ROS, enhanced antioxidant defense, and distinct age-related changes in oxidative damage in muscles of long-lived Peromyscus leucopus

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Yun; Pulliam, Daniel A.; Liu, Yuhong; Hamilton, Ryan T.; Jernigan, Amanda L.; Bhattacharya, Arunabh; Sloane, Lauren B.; Qi, Wenbo; Chaudhuri, Asish; Buffenstein, Rochelle; Ungvari, Zoltan; Austad, Steven N.; Remmen, Holly

    2013-01-01

    Comparing biological processes in closely related species with divergent life spans is a powerful approach to study mechanisms of aging. The oxidative stress hypothesis of aging predicts that longer-lived species would have lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and/or an increased antioxidant capacity, resulting in reduced oxidative damage with age than in shorter-lived species. In this study, we measured ROS generation in the young adult animals of the long-lived white-footed mouse,...

  18. Effects of Coptis extract combined with chemotherapeutic agents on ROS production, multidrug resistance, and cell growth in A549 human lung cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    He, Chengwei; Rong, Rong; Liu, Jing; Wan, Jianbo; Zhou, Keyuan; Kang, Jing Xuan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Non–small cell lung cancer is associated with high expression of multidrug resistance (MDR) proteins and low production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Coptis extract (COP), a Chinese medicinal herb, and its major constituent, berberine (BER), have anticancer properties. This study aims to investigate the effects of COP and BER combined with chemotherapeutic agents, including fluorouracil (5-FU), camptothecin (CPT), and paclitaxel (TAX), on cell proliferation, ROS production, ...

  19. Effects of Coptis extract combined with chemotherapeutic agents on ROS production, multidrug resistance, and cell growth in A549 human lung cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    He Chengwei; Rong Rong; Liu Jing; Wan Jianbo; Zhou Keyuan; Kang Jing X

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Non–small cell lung cancer is associated with high expression of multidrug resistance (MDR) proteins and low production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Coptis extract (COP), a Chinese medicinal herb, and its major constituent, berberine (BER), have anticancer properties. This study aims to investigate the effects of COP and BER combined with chemotherapeutic agents, including fluorouracil (5-FU), camptothecin (CPT), and paclitaxel (TAX), on cell proliferation, ROS prod...

  20. THE EFFECT OF MiRNA-29a AND MiRNA-21 ON ROS PRODUCTION IN PANCREATIC BETA CELLS BEARING ELEVATED LEVEL OF GLUCOSE

    OpenAIRE

    Tombaz, Tuce

    2012-01-01

    Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is a complex, highly prevalent metabolic disease characterized by high levels of glucose, caused mainly by impairment in both insulin secretion and insulin action. The hallmarks of type 2 diabetes are beta cell dysfunction and insulin resistance. The resultant hyperglycemia leads to chronic oxidative stress for all tissues due to abnormally elevated concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The normal physiological level of ROS is important for cell sign...

  1. Redox-mediated activation of latent transforming growth factor-beta 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcellos-Hoff, M. H.; Dix, T. A.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF beta) is a multifunctional cytokine that orchestrates response to injury via ubiquitous cell surface receptors. The biological activity of TGF beta is restrained by its secretion as a latent complex (LTGF beta) such that activation determines the extent of TGF beta activity during physiological and pathological events. TGF beta action has been implicated in a variety of reactive oxygen-mediated tissue processes, particularly inflammation, and in pathologies such as reperfusion injury, rheumatoid arthritis, and atherosclerosis. It was recently shown to be rapidly activated after in vivo radiation exposure, which also generates reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the present studies, the potential for redox-mediated LTGF beta activation was investigated using a cell-free system in which ROS were generated in solution by ionizing radiation or metal ion-catalyzed ascorbate reaction. Irradiation (100 Gray) of recombinant human LTGF beta in solution induced 26% activation compared with that elicited by standard thermal activation. Metal-catalyzed ascorbate oxidation elicited extremely efficient recombinant LTGF beta activation that matched or exceeded thermal activation. The efficiency of ascorbate activation depended on ascorbate concentrations and the presence of transition metal ions. We postulate that oxidation of specific amino acids in the latency-conferring peptide leads to a conformation change in the latent complex that allows release of TGF beta. Oxidative activation offers a novel route for the involvement of TGF beta in tissue processes in which ROS are implicated and endows LTGF beta with the ability to act as a sensor of oxidative stress and, by releasing TGF beta, to function as a signal for orchestrating the response of multiple cell types. LTGF beta redox sensitivity is presumably directed toward recovery of homeostasis; however, oxidation may also be a mechanism of LTGF beta activation that can be deleterious during disease mechanisms involving chronic ROS production.

  2. Cloning and characterization of two lipopolysaccharide-binding protein/bactericidal permeability-increasing protein (LBP/BPI) genes from the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus with diversified function in modulating ROS production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yina; Li, Chenghua; Che, Zhongjie; Zhang, Pengjuan; Zhang, Weiwei; Duan, Xuemei; Li, Ye

    2015-09-01

    Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein and bactericidal permeability-increasing protein (LBP/BPI) play crucial role in modulating cellular signals in response to Gram-negative bacteria infection. In the present study, two isoforms of LBP/BPI genes (designated as AjLBP/BPI1 and AjLBP/BPI2, respectively) were cloned from the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus by RACE approach. The full-length cDNAs of AjLBP/BPI1 and AjLBP/BPI2 were of 1479 and 1455 bp and encoded two secreted proteins of 492 and 484 amino acid residues, respectively. Signal peptide, two BPI/LBP/CETP and one central domain were totally conserved in the deduced amino acid of AjLBP/BPI1 and AjLBP/BPI2. Phylogentic analysis further supported that AjLBP/BPI1 and AjLBP/BPI2 belonged to new members of invertebrates LBP/BPI family. Spatial expression analysis revealed that both AjLBP/BPI1 and AjLBP/BPI2 were ubiquitously expressed in all examined tissues with the larger magnitude in AjLBP/BPI1. The Vibrio splenfidus challenge and LPS stimulation could significantly up-regulate the mRNA expression of both AjLBP/BPI1 and AjLBP/BPI2, with the increase of AjLBP/BPI2 expression occurred earlier than that of AjLBP/BPI1. More importantly, we found that LPS induced ROS production was markedly depressed after AjLBP/BPI1 knock-down, but there was no significant change by AjLBP/BPI2 silencing. Consistently, the expression level of unclassified AjToll, not AjTLR3, was tightly correlated with that of AjLBP/BPI1. Silencing the AjToll also depressed the ROS production in the cultured coelomocytes. All these results indicated that AjLBP/BPI1 and AjLBP/BPI2 probably played distinct roles in bacterial mediating immune response in sea cucumber, and AjLBP/BPI1 depressed coelomocytes ROS production via modulating AjToll cascade. PMID:25956196

  3. Effect of Iron-Mediated Oxidative Stress on Insulin Resistance Through the Forkhead Box-Containing Protein O Subfamily-1 (FOXO-1 Pathway in Chronic Hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinao Kobayashi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is often associated with glucose metabolic disorders and iron overload. It has recently been shown that reactive oxygen species (ROS increase gluconeogenesis in hepatocytes through the forkhead box-containing protein O subfamily-1 (FOXO1-dependent pathway. The aim of this study is proving a cause-and-effect relationship between iron-mediated ROS production and insulin resistance (IR in chronic hepatitis C (CH-C patients. Methods: The study included 42 patients with CH-C (22 males and 20 females, median age 53 years. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR value was assessed for each patient at entry. Gene expression levels in the biopsied liver tissues were determined by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT- PCR. In addition, the effect of ROS on gluconeogenesis was assessed using HepG2 cells treated with a well-known ROS generator, diethylmaleate (DEM. Results: The serum ferritin levels were significantly correlated with the serum aspartate aminotransferase level, alanine aminotransferase level, HOMA-IR value, grade of fatty accumulation, total hepatic iron score, and 8-OH-deoxy-2’-guanosine (8-OHdG-positive cell count. FOXO1 expression was correlated with 8-OHdG-positive cell count, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK expression, and HOMA-IR. In HepG2 cells, the gene transcription of FOXO1 and PEPCK was increased by DEM treatment, which was associated with an increase in non-phosphorylated FOXO1 protein in the nuclear fraction. Conclusions: Iron-mediated ROS production enhances gluconeogenesis through the FOXO1-mediated pathway and is an affecting factor to IR in patients with CH-C.

  4. SPINDLY, ERECTA, and its ligand STOMAGEN have a role in redox-mediated cortex proliferation in the Arabidopsis root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hongchang; Kong, Danyu; Wei, Pengcheng; Hao, Yueling; Torii, Keiko U; Lee, Jin Suk; Li, Jie

    2014-12-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are harmful to all living organisms and therefore they must be removed to ensure normal growth and development. ROS are also signaling molecules, but so far little is known about the mechanisms of ROS perception and developmental response in plants. We here report that hydrogen peroxide induces cortex proliferation in the Arabidopsis root and that SPINDLY (SPY), an O-linked glucosamine acetyltransferase, regulates cortex proliferation by maintaining cellular redox homeostasis. We also found that mutation in the leucine-rich receptor kinase ERECTA and its putative peptide ligand STOMAGEN block the effect of hydrogen peroxide on root cortex proliferation. However, ERECTA and STOMAGEN are expressed in the vascular tissue, whereas extra cortex cells are produced from the endodermis, suggesting the involvement of intercellular signaling. SPY appears to act downstream of ERECTA, because the spy mutation still caused cortex proliferation in the erecta mutant background. We therefore have not only gained insight into the mechanism by which SPY regulates root development but also uncovered a novel pathway for ROS signaling in plants. The importance of redox-mediated cortex proliferation as a protective mechanism against oxidative stress is also discussed. PMID:25267734

  5. c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase-induced proteasomal degradation of c-FLIPL/S and Bcl2 sensitize prostate cancer cells to Fas- and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis by tetrandrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Pankaj; Vishwanatha, Jamboor K

    2014-10-15

    Tetrandrine, a constituent of Chinese herb Stephania tetrandra, causes cell death in prostate cancer, but the molecular mechanisms leading to apoptosis is not known. Here we demonstrated that tetrandrine selectively inhibits the growth of prostate cancer PC3 and DU145 cells compared to normal prostate epithelial PWR-1E cells. Tetrandrine-induced cell death in prostate cancer cells is caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK1/2). JNK1/2-mediated proteasomal degradation of c-FLIPL/S and Bcl2 proteins are key events in the sensitization of prostate cancer cells to Fas- and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis by tetrandrine. Tetrandrine-induced JNK1/2 activation caused the translocation of Bax to mitochondria by disrupting its association with Bcl2 which was accompanied by collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), cytosolic release of cytochrome c and Smac, and apoptotic cell death. Additionally, tetrandrine-induced JNK1/2 activation increased the phosphorylation of Bcl2 at Ser70 and facilitated its degradation via the ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal pathway. In parallel, tetrandrine-mediated ROS generation also caused the induction of ligand-independent Fas-mediated apoptosis by activating procaspase-8 and Bid cleavage. Inhibition of procaspase-8 activation attenuated the cleavage of Bid, loss of MMP and caspase-3 activation suggest that tetrandrine-induced Fas-mediated apoptosis is associated with the mitochondrial pathway. Furthermore, most of the signaling effects of tetrandrine on apoptosis were significantly attenuated in the presence of antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine, thereby confirming the involvement of ROS in these events. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that tetrandrine-induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells is initiated by ROS generation and that both intrinsic and extrinsic pathway contributes to cell death. PMID:25181458

  6. Bystander normal human fibroblasts reduce damage response in radiation targeted cancer cells through intercellular ROS level modulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widel, Maria, E-mail: maria.widel@polsl.pl [Biosystem Group, Department of Automatics, Electronics and Informatics, Silesian University of Technology, 16 Akademicka Street, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Przybyszewski, Waldemar M., E-mail: wmp@io.gliwice.pl [Center for Translational Research and Molecular Biology, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Branch Gliwice, 15 Wybrzeze Armii Krajowej, 44-101 Gliwice (Poland); Cieslar-Pobuda, Artur [Biosystem Group, Department of Automatics, Electronics and Informatics, Silesian University of Technology, 16 Akademicka Street, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Saenko, Yuri V. [Department of Pharmacology and Biochemistry, Center of Nanotechnology and Materials, Ulyanovsk State University (Russian Federation); Rzeszowska-Wolny, Joanna [Biosystem Group, Department of Automatics, Electronics and Informatics, Silesian University of Technology, 16 Akademicka Street, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland)

    2012-03-01

    The radiation-induced bystander effect is a well-established phenomenon which results in damage in non-irradiated cells in response to signaling from irradiated cells. Since communication between irradiated and bystander cells could be reciprocal, we examined the mutual bystander response between irradiated cells and co-cultured with them non-irradiated recipients. Using a transwell culture system, irradiated human melanoma (Me45) cells were co-cultured with non-irradiated Me45 cells or normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF) and vice versa. The frequency of micronuclei and of apoptosis, ROS level, and mitochondrial membrane potential were used as the endpoints. Irradiated Me45 and NHDF cells induced conventional bystander effects detected as modest increases of the frequency of micronuclei and apoptosis in both recipient neighbors; the increase of apoptosis was especially high in NHDF cells co-cultured with irradiated Me45 cells. However, the frequencies of micronuclei and apoptosis in irradiated Me45 cells co-cultured with NHDF cells were significantly reduced in comparison with those cultured alone. This protective effect was not observed when irradiated melanomas were co-cultured with non-irradiated cells of the same line, or when irradiated NHDF fibroblasts were co-cultured with bystander melanomas. The increase of micronuclei and apoptosis in irradiated Me45 cells was paralleled by an increase in the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), which was reduced significantly when they were co-cultured for 24 h with NHDF cells. A small but significant elevation of ROS level in NHDF cells shortly after irradiation was also reduced by co-culture with non-irradiated NHDF cells. We propose that in response to signals from irradiated cells, non-irradiated NHDF cells trigger rescue signals, whose nature remains to be elucidated, which modify the redox status in irradiated cells. This inverse bystander effect may potentially have implications in clinical radiotherapy.

  7. Intracellular ROS protection efficiency and free radical-scavenging activity of quercetin and quercetin-encapsulated liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei-Sadabady, Rogaie; Eidi, Akram; Zarghami, Nosratollah; Barzegar, Abolfazl

    2014-06-24

    Quercetin (3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxyflavone) is a natural bio-flavonoid originating from fruits, vegetables, seeds, berries, and tea. The antioxidant activity of quercetin and its protective effects against cardiovascular disorders, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-viral activities have been extensively documented; however, the clinical request of quercetin in cancer treatment is significantly limited due to its very poor delivery features. In order to increase the hydrophilicity and drug delivery capability, we encapsulated quercetin into liposomes. Our data indicated that liposomal quercetin can significantly improve the solubility and bioavailability of quercetin and can be used as an effective antioxidant for ROS protection within the polar cytoplasm, and the nano-sized quercetin encapsulated by liposomes enhanced the cellular uptake (cancer cell human MCF_7). Quercetin has many pharmaceutical applications, many of which arise from its potent antioxidant properties. The present research examined the antioxidant activities of quercetin in polar solvents by a comparative study using reduction of ferric iron in aqueous medium, intracellular ROS/toxicity assays, and reducing DPPH assays. Cell viability and ROS assays demonstrated that quercetin was able to penetrate into the polar medium inside the cells and to protect them against the highly toxic and deadly belongings of cumene hydroperoxide. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a liposomal formulation of quercetin can suggestively improve its solubility and bioavailability and can be a possible request in the treatment of tumor. The authors encapsulated quercetin in a liposomal delivery system. They studied the in vitro effects of this compound on proliferation using human MCF-7 carcinoma cells. The activity of liposomal quercetin was equal to or better than that of free quercetin at equimolar concentrations. Our data indicated that liposomal quercetin can significantly improve the solubility and bioavailability of quercetin and can be a potential application in the treatment of tumor. PMID:24959911

  8. Inhibition of mTOR prevents ROS production initiated by ethidium bromide-induced mitochondrial DNA depletion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ChristianSell

    2014-07-01

    Treatment of cells with rapamycin created a situation in which cells were better able to adapt to the mitochondrial dysfunction, resulting in decreased ROS and increased cell viability but did not prevent the reduction in mitochondrial DNA. These effects may be due to a more efficient flux through the electron transport chain, increased autophagy, or enhanced AKT signaling, coupled with a reduced growth rate. Together, the results suggest that mTOR activity is affected by mitochondrial stress, which may be part of the retrograde signal system required for normal mitochondrial homeostasis.

  9. HYD1-induced increase in ROS leads to autophagy and necrotic cell death in multiple myeloma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Nair, Rajesh R.; Emmons, Michael F.; Cress, Anne E.; Argilagos, Raul F.; Lam, Kit; Kerr, William T.; Wang, Hong-gong; Dalton, William S.; Hazlehurst, Lori A.

    2009-01-01

    HYD1 is a D-amino acid peptide that was previously shown to inhibit adhesion of prostate cancer cells to the extracellular matrix. In this study, we show that in addition to inhibiting adhesion of multiple myeloma (MM) cells to fibronectin, HYD1 induces cell death in MM cells as a single agent. HYD1-induced cell death was necrotic in nature as shown by: (a) decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential (??m); (b) loss of total cellular ATP, and; (c) increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) ...

  10. General Gauge Mediation

    OpenAIRE

    Meade, Patrick; Seiberg, Nathan; Shih, David

    2008-01-01

    We give a general definition of gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking which encompasses all the known gauge mediation models. In particular, it includes both models with messengers as well as direct mediation models. A formalism for computing the soft terms in the generic model is presented. Such a formalism is necessary in strongly-coupled direct mediation models where perturbation theory cannot be used. It allows us to identify features of the entire class of gauge mediati...

  11. Bayesian Mediation Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Ying; Mackinnon, David P.

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes Bayesian analysis of mediation effects. Compared to conventional frequentist mediation analysis, the Bayesian approach has several advantages. First, it allows researchers to incorporate prior information into the mediation analysis, thus potentially improving the efficiency of estimates. Second, under the Bayesian mediation analysis, inference is straightforward and exact, which makes it appealing for studies with small samples. Third, the Bayesian approach is conceptua...

  12. Mediation as Signal

    OpenAIRE

    Holler, M. J.; Lindner, I.

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes mediation as a signal. Starting from a stylized case, a game theoretical model of one-sided incomplete information, taken from Cho and Kreps (1987), is applied to discuss strategic effects of mediation. It turns out that to reject mediation can be interpreted as a ”negative signal” while the interpretation of accepting or proposing mediation is ambiguous and does not necessarily change the prior beliefs of the uninformed party. This asymmetry suggests th...

  13. Mediation in cadastral audits

    OpenAIRE

    C?rc?ek, Jure

    2012-01-01

    This thesis presents methods of solving disputes with help of mediation in cases of cadastral audits, such as boundary assessments, reparcelations and boundary equalizations. Mediation is a process where clients try to resolve their dispute peacefully with help of a third person (mediator). The thesis also describes the case definition of the border and in non - judicial proceedings, as well as a detailed description of the law on mediation in civil matters, and the Law on alternative disp...

  14. Generalized Causal Mediation Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Albert, Jeffrey M.; Nelson, Suchitra

    2011-01-01

    The goal of mediation analysis is to assess direct and indirect effects of a treatment or exposure on an outcome. More generally, we may be interested in the context of a causal model as characterized by a directed acyclic graph (DAG), where mediation via a specific path from exposure to outcome may involve an arbitrary number of links (or ‘stages’). Methods for estimating mediation (or pathway) effects are available for a continuous outcome and a continuous mediator related via a linear ...

  15. Hybrid Gauge Mediation

    OpenAIRE

    Mcgarrie, Moritz

    2011-01-01

    Inspired by four dimensional (de)constructions, we use the framework of "General gauge mediation in five dimensions" to interpolate between gaugino and ordinary gauge mediation. In particular we emphasise that an intermediate hybrid regime of mediation may be obtained in these higher dimensional models as has been obtained in the quiver gauge models.

  16. Bayesian Mediation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ying; MacKinnon, David P.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we propose Bayesian analysis of mediation effects. Compared with conventional frequentist mediation analysis, the Bayesian approach has several advantages. First, it allows researchers to incorporate prior information into the mediation analysis, thus potentially improving the efficiency of estimates. Second, under the Bayesian…

  17. Polyethylenimine-coated SPIONs trigger macrophage activation through TLR-4 signaling and ROS production and modulate podosome dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulens-Arias, Vladimir; Rojas, José M; Pérez-Yagüe, Sonia; Morales, María P; Barber, Domingo F

    2015-06-01

    Polyethylenimine (PEI) is widely used as transfection agent in preclinical studies, both in vitro and in vivo. Due to their unique chemical and physical properties, SPIONs (superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles) have been thoroughly studied as nanocarriers. PEI appears to activate different immune cells to an inflammatory response (M1/TH1), whereas the SPION-induced response seems to be context-dependent; the immunogenicity of the combination of these components has not been studied. Here we show that PEI-coated SPIONs (PMag) activate macrophages, as determined by measuring IL-12 secretion into culture medium and upregulation of several genes linked to the M1 phenotype. PMag-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, p44/p42 MAPK and JNK, and upregulation of CD40, CD80, CD86 and I-A/I-E activation markers. PMag-induced macrophage activation depended partially on TLR4 (Toll-like receptor 4) and ROS (reactive oxygen species) signaling. Comparison of these responses with the LPS (lipopolysaccharide)-induced phenotype showed differences in gene expression profiling. PMag positively modulated podosome formation in murine macrophages, but hampered gelatin degradation by these cells. In conclusion, PMag induced an M1-like phenotype that was partially dependent on both TLR4 and ROS. These results show the adjuvant potential of PMag and suggest their use in vaccination schedules. PMID:25818455

  18. The Marine Fungal Metabolite, Dicitrinone B, Induces A375 Cell Apoptosis through the ROS-Related Caspase Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Dicitrinone B, a rare carbon-bridged citrinin dimer, was isolated from the marine-derived fungus, Penicillium citrinum. It was reported to have antitumor effects on tumor cells previously; however, the details of the mechanism remain unclear. In this study, we found that dicitrinone B inhibited the proliferation of multiple tumor types. Among them, the human malignant melanoma cell, A375, was confirmed to be the most sensitive. Morphologic evaluation, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis rate analysis results showed that dicitrinone B significantly induced A375 cell apoptosis. Subsequent observation of reactive oxygen species (ROS accumulation and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP reduction revealed that the apoptosis induced by dicitrinone B may be triggered by over-producing ROS. Further studies indicated that the apoptosis was associated with both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways under the regulation of Bcl-2 family proteins. Caspase-9, caspase-8 and caspase-3 were activated during the process, leading to PARP cleavage. The pan-caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-FMK, could reverse dicitrinone B-induced apoptosis, suggesting that it is a caspase-dependent pathway. Our data for the first time showed that dicitrinone B inhibits the proliferation of tumor cells by inducing cell apoptosis. Moreover, compared with the first-line chemotherapy drug, 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu, dicitrinone B showed much more potent anticancer efficacy, suggesting that it might serve as a potential antitumor agent.

  19. Inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine potentiates synergistically anti-cancer property of artemisinin by promoting ROS dependent apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguli, Arnab; Choudhury, Diptiman; Datta, Satabdi; Bhattacharya, Surela; Chakrabarti, Gopal

    2014-12-01

    Artemisinin (ART) is a well-known anti-malarial drug, and recently it is shown prospective to selectively kill cancer cells. But low potency makes it inappropriate for use as an anticancer drug. In this study, we modulated the ART-induced autophagy to increase Potency of ART as an anticancer agent. ART reduced the cell viability and colony forming ability of non-small lung carcinoma (A549) cells and it was non-toxic against normal lung (WI38) cells. ART induced autophagy at the early stage of treatment. Pre-treatment with chloroquine (CQ) and followed by ART treatment had synergistic combination index (CI) for cell death. Inhibition of autophagy by CQ pre-treatment led to accumulation of acidic vacuoles (AVOs) which acquainted with unprocessed damage mitochondria that subsequently promoted ROS generation, and resulted releases of Cyt C in cytosol that caused caspase-3 dependent apoptosis cell death in ART-treated A549 cells. Scavenging of ROS by antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) inhibited caspase-3 activity and rescued the cells from apoptosis. Similar effects were observed in other cancer cells SCC25 and MDA-MB-231. The appropriate manipulation of autophagy by using CQ provides a powerful strategy to increase the Potency of selective anticancer property of ART. PMID:25308836

  20. Effects of COX-2 inhibitors on ROS produced by Chlamydia pneumoniae-primed human promonocytic cells (THP-1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic inflammation through foam cells and macrophages is important in atherosclerosis development, and can be considered as therapeutic targets. Cyclooxygenase and NADPH-oxidase were expressed within atherosclerotic lesions. Reactive oxygen species produced by NADPH oxidase were found to trigger the cyclooxygenase-2 expression. The effects of preferential COX-2 inhibitors on ROS produced by Chlamydia-primed human monocytes (THP-1 cells) were evaluated by fluorescence, chemiluminescence, oxymetry, and EPR spin trapping. Fluorescence assays showed an increased production of ROS with Chlamydia versus cells primed by 10-8 M PMA. COX-2 inhibitors inhibited in a dose-dependent manner the luminol-enhanced CL while ibuprofen and diclofenac increased the chemiluminescence response. By EPR spin trapping, COX-2 inhibitors, ibuprofen, and diclofenac, exhibited a dose-dependent inhibiting effect (10 and 100 ?M) on the EPR signal appearance. Our cell model combining EPR, chemiluminescence, and oxymetry appeared relevant to study the modulating effects of preferential COX-2 inhibitors on the cell oxidant activity and chronic inflammatory diseases

  1. General gauge mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We give a general definition of gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking which encompasses all the known gauge mediation models. In particular, it includes both models with messengers as well as direct mediation models. A formalism for computing the soft terms in the generic model is presented. Such a formalism is necessary in strongly-coupled direct mediation models where perturbation theory cannot be used. It allows us to identify features of the entire class of gauge mediation models and to distinguish them from specific signatures of various subclasses. (author)

  2. Cell-Surface Receptors Transactivation Mediated by G Protein-Coupled Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Cattaneo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs are seven transmembrane-spanning proteins belonging to a large family of cell-surface receptors involved in many intracellular signaling cascades. Despite GPCRs lack intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity, tyrosine phosphorylation of a tyrosine kinase receptor (RTK occurs in response to binding of specific agonists of several such receptors, triggering intracellular mitogenic cascades. This suggests that the notion that GPCRs are associated with the regulation of post-mitotic cell functions is no longer believable. Crosstalk between GPCR and RTK may occur by different molecular mechanism such as the activation of metalloproteases, which can induce the metalloprotease-dependent release of RTK ligands, or in a ligand-independent manner involving membrane associated non-receptor tyrosine kinases, such as c-Src. Reactive oxygen species (ROS are also implicated as signaling intermediates in RTKs transactivation. Intracellular concentration of ROS increases transiently in cells stimulated with GPCR agonists and their deliberated and regulated generation is mainly catalyzed by enzymes that belong to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase family. Oxidation and/or reduction of cysteine sulfhydryl groups of phosphatases tightly controls the activity of RTKs and ROS-mediated inhibition of cellular phosphatases results in an equilibrium shift from the non-phosphorylated to the phosphorylated state of RTKs. Many GPCR agonists activate phospholipase C, which catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bis-phosphate to produce inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate and diacylglicerol. The consequent mobilization of Ca2+ from endoplasmic reticulum leads to the activation of protein kinase C (PKC isoforms. PKC? mediates feedback inhibition of RTK transactivation during GPCR stimulation. Recent data have expanded the coverage of transactivation to include Serine/Threonine kinase receptors and Toll-like receptors. Herein, we discuss the main mechanisms of GPCR-mediated cell-surface receptors transactivation and the pathways involved in intracellular responses induced by GPCR agonists. These studies may suggest the design of novel strategies for therapeutic interventions.

  3. HSV infection induces production of ROS, which potentiate signaling from pattern recognition receptors: role for S-glutathionylation of TRAF3 and 6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dosal, Regina Gonzalez; Horan, Kristy A

    2011-01-01

    The innate immune response constitutes the first line of defense against infections. Pattern recognition receptors recognize pathogen structures and trigger intracellular signaling pathways leading to cytokine and chemokine expression. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are emerging as an important regulator of some of these pathways. ROS directly interact with signaling components or induce other post-translational modifications such as S-glutathionylation, thereby altering target function. Applying live microscopy, we have demonstrated that herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection induces early production of ROS that are required for the activation of NF-?B and IRF-3 pathways and the production of type I IFNs and ISGs. All the known receptors involved in the recognition of HSV were shown to be dependent on the cellular redox levels for successful signaling. In addition, we provide biochemical evidence suggesting S-glutathionylation of TRAF family proteins to be important. In particular, by performing mutational studies we show that S-glutathionylation of a conserved cysteine residue of TRAF3 and TRAF6 is important for ROS-dependent activation of innate immune pathways. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that ROS are essential for effective activation of signaling pathways leading to a successful innate immune response against HSV infection.

  4. Effects of Coptis extract combined with chemotherapeutic agents on ROS production, multidrug resistance, and cell growth in A549 human lung cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Chengwei

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non–small cell lung cancer is associated with high expression of multidrug resistance (MDR proteins and low production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Coptis extract (COP, a Chinese medicinal herb, and its major constituent, berberine (BER, have anticancer properties. This study aims to investigate the effects of COP and BER combined with chemotherapeutic agents, including fluorouracil (5-FU, camptothecin (CPT, and paclitaxel (TAX, on cell proliferation, ROS production, and MDR in A549 human non-small cell lung cancer cells. Methods A549 cells were treated with different doses of COP and BER, combined with 5-FU, CPT, and TAX. Cell viability was measured by an XTT (2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4- nitro-5-sulfophenyl-2?H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide assay. Intracellular ROS levels were determined by measuring the oxidative conversion of cell permeable 2?,7?-dichlorofluorescein diacetate to fluorescent dichlorofluorescein. MDR of A549 cells was assessed by rhodamine 123 retention assay. Results Both COP and BER significantly inhibited A549 cell growth in a dose-dependent manner. Combinations of COP or BER with chemotherapeutic agents (5-FU, CPT, and TAX exhibited a stronger inhibitory effect on A549 cell growth. In addition, COP and BER increased ROS production and reduced MDR in A549 cells. Conclusion As potential adjuvants to chemotherapy for non–small cell lung cancer, COP and BER increase ROS production, reduce MDR, and enhance the inhibitory effects of chemotherapeutic agents on A549 cell growth.

  5. Tetrandrine induces G1/S cell cycle arrest through the ROS/Akt pathway in EOMA cells and inhibits angiogenesis in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wenkai; Jiang, Yajie; Men, Qiuxu; Yuan, Ling; Huang, Zebo; Liu, Ting; Li, Wenhua; Liu, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Tetrandrine, a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid, is known to inhibit tumor cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in cancer models in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, tetrandrine significantly inhibited the proliferation of mouse endothelial cells (EOMA cell) and induced G1/S arrest in EOMA cells, in which the expressions of cyclin D and cyclin E and CDKs were downregulated. Tetrandrine treatment also caused intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Pretreatment with NAC, which is a ROS inhibitor, blocked G1/S cell arrest and cyclin regulation induced by tetrandrine, implying that ROS generation plays an important role in tetrandrine-induced cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, a decreased phospho-Akt protein level after tetrandrine treatment was reversible with the removal of the intracellular ROS by NAC. Notably, overexpression of Akt decreased tetrandrine-induced G1/S arrest. Finally, we verified the antiangiogenic effects of tetrandrine in vivo in a liver cancer xenograft model in nude mice. In conclusion, tetrandrine inhibits EOMA cell growth through the ROS/Akt pathway, and it could be a promising compound for cancer therapy as an inhibitor of tumor vascular growth. PMID:25355542

  6. Calcium Overload and in vitro Apoptosis of the C6 Glioma Cells Mediated by Sonodynamic Therapy (Hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether and ultrasound)

    OpenAIRE

    Hao, Dongning; Song, Yanbin; Che, Zhen; Liu, Qi

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the role of intracellular calcium overload in the in vitro apoptosis of C6 glioma cells mediated by low level ultrasound and hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether (HMME) therapy. The frequency of ultrasound was optimized by the cell viability assay using 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT). The apoptotic rate, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were determined by flow cytome...

  7. Natural resistance to ascorbic acid induced oxidative stress is mainly mediated by catalase activity in human cancer cells and catalase-silencing sensitizes to oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    Klingelhoeffer Christoph; Kämmerer Ulrike; Koospal Monika; Mühling Bettina; Schneider Manuela; Kapp Michaela; Kübler Alexander; Germer Christoph-Thomas; Otto Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Ascorbic acid demonstrates a cytotoxic effect by generating hydrogen peroxide, a reactive oxygen species (ROS) involved in oxidative cell stress. A panel of eleven human cancer cell lines, glioblastoma and carcinoma, were exposed to serial dilutions of ascorbic acid (5-100?mmol/L). The purpose of this study was to analyse the impact of catalase, an important hydrogen peroxide-detoxifying enzyme, on the resistance of cancer cells to ascorbic acid mediated oxidative stress...

  8. Study on bystander effect and associated mechanism mediated through culture medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the bystander effect and associated mechanism mediated through the irradiated cell culture medium. Methods: Splenic natural killer (NK) cells were obtained from healthy male ICR strain mice. Culture medium irradiated with different doses of 60Co ?-rays was used for culturing Yac-I lymphoma cells. The degree of injury of the latter by activated NK cells was observed. A part of the culture media were pretreated with 1% DMSO, a scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS), in order to investigate the possible mechanism of a radiation-induced bystander response. Results: Severer injury was induced in Yac-I cells cultured in the media pre-irradiated with different doses of ?-rays than that in Yac-I cells cultured in unirradiated medium, as shown by increased sensitivity to murine splenic NK cells (P<0.01). Culturing Yac-I cells in DMSO-pretreated medium considerably reduced the activation of NK cells, especially in 0.25 Gy and 0.5 Gy ?-irradiated media. Therefore, it can be expected that DMSO can partly suppress ROS-induced bystander effect. Conclusion: The irradiated culture medium of Yac-I cells can trigger bystander effect. ROS likely plays an important role in radiation-induced bystander effect that can be partly suppressed by pretreatment with DMSO. (authors)

  9. Fibroblast-to-myofibroblast switch is mediated by NAD(PH oxidase generated reactive oxygen species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lirija Alili

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumour–stroma interaction is a prerequisite for tumour progression in skin cancer. Hereby, a critical step in stromal function is the transition of tumour-associated fibroblasts to MFs (myofibroblasts by growth factors, for example TGF? (transforming growth factor beta(. In this study, the question was addressed of whether fibroblast-associated NAD(PH oxidase (NADH/NADPH oxidase, known to be activated by TGF?1, is involved in the fibroblast-to-MF switch. The up-regulation of ?SMA (alpha smooth muscle actin, a biomarker for MFs, is mediated by a TGF?1-dependent increase in the intracellular level of ROS (reactive oxygen species. This report demonstrates two novel aspects of the TGF?1 signalling cascade, namely the generation of ROS due to a biphasic NAD(PH oxidase activity and a ROS-dependent downstream activation of p38 leading to a transition of dermal fibroblasts to MFs that can be inhibited by the selective NAD(PH oxidase inhibitor apocynin. These data suggest that inhibition of NAD(PH oxidase activity prevents the fibroblast-to-MF switch and may be important for chemoprevention in context of a ‘stromal therapy’ which was described earlier.

  10. Promiscuous methionyl-tRNA synthetase mediates adaptive mistranslation to protect cells against oxidative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Young; Kim, Dae Gyu; Kim, Byung-Gyu; Yang, Won Suk; Hong, Jeena; Kang, Taehee; Oh, Young Sun; Kim, Kyung Rok; Han, Byung Woo; Hwang, Byung Joon; Kang, Beom Sik; Kang, Mi-Sun; Kim, Myung-Hee; Kwon, Nam Hoon; Kim, Sunghoon

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARSs) acylate transfer (t)RNAs with amino acids. Charging tRNAs with the right amino acids is the first step in translation; therefore, the accurate and error-free functioning of ARSs is an essential prerequisite for translational fidelity. A recent study found that methionine (Met) can be incorporated into non-Met residues of proteins through methionylation of non-cognate tRNAs under conditions of oxidative stress. However, it was not understood how this mis-methionylation is achieved. Here, we report that methionyl-tRNA synthetase (MRS) is phosphorylated at Ser209 and Ser825 by extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK1/2) under conditions of stress caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS), and that this phosphorylated MRS shows increased affinity for non-cognate tRNAs with lower affinity for tRNAMet, leading to an increase in Met residues in cellular proteins. The expression of a mutant MRS containing the substitutions S209D and S825D, mimicking dual phosphorylation, reduced ROS levels and cell death. This controlled inaccuracy of MRS seems to serve as a defense mechanism against ROS-mediated damage at the cost of translational fidelity. PMID:25097229

  11. Functional analysis of molecular mechanisms of radiation induced apoptosis, that are not mediated by DNA damages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of low-dose irradiation pose new challenges on the radiation protection efforts. Enhanced cellular radiation sensitivity is displayed by disturbed cellular reactions and resulting damage like cell cycle arrest, DNA repair and apoptosis. Apoptosis serves as genetically determinate parameter for the individual radiation sensitivity. In the frame of the project the radiation-induced apoptosis was mechanistically investigated. Since ionizing radiation induced direct DNA damage and generates a reactive oxygen species, the main focus of the research was the differentiation and weighting of DNA damage mediated apoptosis and apoptosis caused by the reactive oxygen species (ROS).

  12. Mitochondrial DNA deletion and impairment of mitochondrial biogenesis are mediated by reactive oxygen species in ionizing radiation-induced premature senescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eom, Hyeon Soo; Jung, U Hee; Jo, Sung Kee [Radiation Biotechnology Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Sang [College of Natural Sciences, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletion is a well-known marker for oxidative stress and aging, and contributes to harmful effects in cultured cells and animal tissues. mtDNA biogenesis genes (NRF-1, TFAM) are essential for the maintenance of mtDNA, as well as the transcription and replication of mitochondrial genomes. Considering that oxidative stress is known to affect mitochondrial biogenesis, we hypothesized that ionizing radiation (IR)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) causes mtDNA deletion by modulating the mitochondrial biogenesis, thereby leading to cellular senescence. Therefore, we examined the effects of IR on ROS levels, cellular senescence, mitochondrial biogenesis, and mtDNA deletion in IMR-90 human lung fibroblast cells. Young IMR-90 cells at population doubling (PD) 39 were irradiated at 4 or 8 Gy. Old cells at PD55, and H2O2-treated young cells at PD 39, were compared as a positive control. The IR increased the intracellular ROS level, senescence-associated {beta}-galactosidase (SA-{beta}-gal) activity, and mtDNA common deletion (4977 bp), and it decreased the mRNA expression of NRF-1 and TFAM in IMR-90 cells. Similar results were also observed in old cells (PD 55) and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-treated young cells. To confirm that a increase in ROS level is essential for mtDNA deletion and changes of mitochondrial biogenesis in irradiated cells, the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) were examined. In irradiated and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-treated cells, 5 mM NAC significantly attenuated the increases of ROS, mtDNA deletion, and SA-{beta}-gal activity, and recovered from decreased expressions of NRF-1 and TFAM mRNA. These results suggest that ROS is a key cause of IR-induced mtDNA deletion, and the suppression of the mitochondrial biogenesis gene may mediate this process.

  13. Mitochondrial DNA deletion and impairment of mitochondrial biogenesis are mediated by reactive oxygen species in ionizing radiation-induced premature senescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletion is a well-known marker for oxidative stress and aging, and contributes to harmful effects in cultured cells and animal tissues. mtDNA biogenesis genes (NRF-1, TFAM) are essential for the maintenance of mtDNA, as well as the transcription and replication of mitochondrial genomes. Considering that oxidative stress is known to affect mitochondrial biogenesis, we hypothesized that ionizing radiation (IR)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) causes mtDNA deletion by modulating the mitochondrial biogenesis, thereby leading to cellular senescence. Therefore, we examined the effects of IR on ROS levels, cellular senescence, mitochondrial biogenesis, and mtDNA deletion in IMR-90 human lung fibroblast cells. Young IMR-90 cells at population doubling (PD) 39 were irradiated at 4 or 8 Gy. Old cells at PD55, and H2O2-treated young cells at PD 39, were compared as a positive control. The IR increased the intracellular ROS level, senescence-associated ?-galactosidase (SA-?-gal) activity, and mtDNA common deletion (4977 bp), and it decreased the mRNA expression of NRF-1 and TFAM in IMR-90 cells. Similar results were also observed in old cells (PD 55) and H2O2-treated young cells. To confirm that a increase in ROS level is essential for mtDNA deletion and changes of mitochondrial biogenesis in irradiated cells, the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) were examined. In irradiated and H2O2-treated cells, 5 m>2O2-treated cells, 5 mM NAC significantly attenuated the increases of ROS, mtDNA deletion, and SA-?-gal activity, and recovered from decreased expressions of NRF-1 and TFAM mRNA. These results suggest that ROS is a key cause of IR-induced mtDNA deletion, and the suppression of the mitochondrial biogenesis gene may mediate this process.

  14. JNK-dependent Atg4 upregulation mediates asperphenamate derivative BBP-induced autophagy in MCF-7 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yanchun; Luo, Qiyu [Department of Pharmacology, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang 110016 (China); Yuan, Lei [School of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang 110016 (China); Miao, Caixia; Mu, Xiaoshuo [Department of Pharmacology, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang 110016 (China); Xiao, Wei [Jiangsu Kanion Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Nanjing 222001 (China); Li, Jianchun [Department of Pharmacology, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang 110016 (China); Sun, Tiemin, E-mail: suntiemin@126.com [School of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang 110016 (China); Ma, Enlong, E-mail: maenlong@hotmail.com [Department of Pharmacology, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang 110016 (China); Jiangsu Kanion Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Nanjing 222001 (China)

    2012-08-15

    N-Benzoyl-O-(N?-(1-benzyloxycarbonyl-4-piperidiylcarbonyl) -D-phenylalanyl)-D-phenylalaninol (BBP), a novel synthesized asperphenamate derivative with the increased solubility, showed growth inhibitory effect on human breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The growth inhibitory effect of BBP was associated with induction of autophagy, which was demonstrated by the development of acidic vesicular organelles, cleavage of LC3 and upregulation of Atg4 in BBP-treated MCF-7 cells. Since the application of Atg4 siRNA totally blocked the cleavage of LC3, we demonstrated a central role of Atg4 in BBP-induced autophagy. The further studies showed that BBP increased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and pretreatment with NAC effectively blocked the accumulation of ROS, autophagy and growth inhibition triggered by BBP. Moreover, BBP induced the activation of JNK, and JNK inhibitor SP600125 reversed autophagy, the increase of Atg4 levels, conversion of LC3 and growth inhibition induced by BBP. Knockdown of JNK by siRNA efficiently inhibited ROS production and autophagy, but antioxidant NAC failed to block JNK activation induced by BBP, indicating that JNK activation may be a upstream signaling of ROS and should be a core component in BBP-induced autophagic signaling pathway. These results suggest that BBP produces its growth inhibitory effect through induction of the autophagic cell death in MCF-7 cells, which is modulated by a JNK-dependent Atg4 upregulation involving ROS production. -- Highlights: ? Asperphenamate derivative BBP with increased solubility was synthesized. ? BBP selectively inhibited the growth of human breast tumor cells. ? The growth inhibitory effect of BBP was associated with induction of autophagy. ? JNK-dependent Atg4 upregulation mediated BBP-induced autophagy.

  15. JNK-dependent Atg4 upregulation mediates asperphenamate derivative BBP-induced autophagy in MCF-7 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N-Benzoyl-O-(N?-(1-benzyloxycarbonyl-4-piperidiylcarbonyl) -D-phenylalanyl)-D-phenylalaninol (BBP), a novel synthesized asperphenamate derivative with the increased solubility, showed growth inhibitory effect on human breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The growth inhibitory effect of BBP was associated with induction of autophagy, which was demonstrated by the development of acidic vesicular organelles, cleavage of LC3 and upregulation of Atg4 in BBP-treated MCF-7 cells. Since the application of Atg4 siRNA totally blocked the cleavage of LC3, we demonstrated a central role of Atg4 in BBP-induced autophagy. The further studies showed that BBP increased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and pretreatment with NAC effectively blocked the accumulation of ROS, autophagy and growth inhibition triggered by BBP. Moreover, BBP induced the activation of JNK, and JNK inhibitor SP600125 reversed autophagy, the increase of Atg4 levels, conversion of LC3 and growth inhibition induced by BBP. Knockdown of JNK by siRNA efficiently inhibited ROS production and autophagy, but antioxidant NAC failed to block JNK activation induced by BBP, indicating that JNK activation may be a upstream signaling of ROS and should be a core component in BBP-induced autophagic signaling pathway. These results suggest that BBP produces its growth inhibitory effect through induction of the autophagic cell death in MCF-7 cells, which is modulated by a JNK-dependent Atg4 upregulation involving ROS production. -- Highlights: ? Asperphenamate derivative BBP with increased solubility was synthesized. ? BBP selectively inhibited the growth of human breast tumor cells. ? The growth inhibitory effect of BBP was associated with induction of autophagy. ? JNK-dependent Atg4 upregulation mediated BBP-induced autophagy.

  16. Induction of ROS-independent JNK-activation-mediated apoptosis by a novel coumarin-derivative, DMAC, in human colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mei-Hsiang; Cheng, Chia-Hsiung; Chen, Ku-Chung; Lee, Wai-Theng; Wang, Yen-Fang; Xiao, Cai-Qin; Lin, Cheng-Wei

    2014-07-25

    In this study, we investigated the antitumor activity of a novel coumarin derivative, 5,7-dihydroxy-4-methyl-6-(3-methylbutanoyl)-coumarin (DMAC), on colorectal carcinoma. DMAC treatment resulted in substantial proapoptotic activity against colon cancer HCT116 and LoVo cells. Induction of apoptotic characteristics, including cellular shrinkage, chromatin condensation, and Annexin V detection, was observed following DMAC treatment. Mechanistically, we observed that DMAC elicited induction of proteolytic cascade activation including cleavage of caspase-3 and poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) expression and loss of the antiapoptotic proteins, Mcl-1 and Bcl-XL, accompanied by an increase in expression of the proapoptotic protein, Bak. In addition, suppressing c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK), but not extracellular-regulated protein kinase (ERK) or p38, substantially diminished DMAC-induced cell death and caspase-3 and PARP cleavage. However, pretreatment with antioxidants, including N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) and diphenylene iodonium (DPI), failed to protect against DMAC-elicited apoptosis. Pretreatment with the JNK inhibitor, SP600125, suppressed DMAC-induced JNK phosphorylation, which was accompanied by a reversal of Bcl-XL expression. Moreover, combining DMAC treatment with the conventional anticancer drugs, 5-FU and CPT-11, considerably enhanced their therapeutic efficacies. Structural-activity relationship analyses further revealed that an alkylation substitution at position 6 of the coumarin ring was critical for inducing apoptosis, and the phenyl group at position 4 might have enhanced its bioactivity. Our data showed that DMAC can be used as part of a promising strategy to enhance therapeutic efficacies, and could be used to develop an approach for structure-based drug design for cancer treatment. PMID:24812029

  17. Protective Efficacy of Vitamins C and E on p,p?-DDT-Induced Cytotoxicity via the ROS-Mediated Mitochondrial Pathway and NF-?B/FasL Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Xiaoting; Song, Li; Liu, Xiangyuan; Chen, Meilan; Li, Zhuoyu; Cheng, Long; Ren, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Dichlorodiphenoxytrichloroethane (DDT) is a known persistent organic pollutant and liver damage toxicant. However, there has been little emphasis on the mechanism underlying liver damage toxicity of DDT and the relevant effective inhibitors. Hence, the present study was conducted to explore the protective effects of vitamin C (VC) and vitamin E (VE) on the cytotoxicity of DDT in HL-7702 cells and elaborate the specific molecular mechanisms. The results demonstrated that p,p?-DDT exposure at...

  18. Prostaglandin reductase 2 modulates ROS-mediated cell death and tumor transformation of gastric cancer cells and is associated with higher mortality in gastric cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Emily Yun-Chia; Tsai, Shu-Huei; Shun, Chia-Tung; Hee, Siow-Wey; Chang, Yi-Cheng; Tsai, Yun-Chih; Tsai, Jaw-Shiun; Chen, Hsian-Ju; Chou, Jia-Wei; Lin, Shih-Yao; Chuang, Lee-Ming

    2012-10-01

    Various prostanoids and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) ligands play an important role in gastric cancer. Previously, we demonstrated that prostaglandin reductase 2 (PTGR2) catalyzes the reduction of the PPAR? ligand 15-keto-PGE(2) into 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-PGE(2). Here, we present functional data and clinical relevance for the role of PTGR2 in gastric cancer. Using lentiviral technology in AGS and SNU-16 gastric cancer cell lines, we either down-regulated or overexpressed PTGR2. In vitro analysis showed that PTGR2 knockdown resulted in decreased proliferation rate and colony formation, and in vivo xenograft models showed slower growth of tumors. Mechanistically, PTGR2 knockdown induced cell death, altered mitochondrial function, and increased reactive oxygen species production, which led to activation of ERK1/2 and caspase 3, with increased Bcl-2 and suppressed Bax expression. PTGR2 overexpression showed the opposite outcomes. Clinically, immunopathological staining showed strong PTGR2 expression in the gastric tumor portion, relative to nearby nontumor portions, and its expression negatively correlated with survival of patients with intestinal-type gastric cancer. Finally, in contrast to PTGR2-overexpressing cells, PTGR2-knockdown cells were more sensitive to cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil. Taken together, our findings not only provide functional and mechanistic evidence of the involvement of PTGR2 in gastric cancer, but also provide clinical observations affirming the significance of PTGR2 in gastric cancer and suggesting that PTGR2-target based therapy is worth further evaluation. PMID:22998775

  19. ROS-Mediated Autophagy Induced by Dysregulation of Lipid Metabolism Plays a Protective Role in Colorectal Cancer Cells Treated with Gambogic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Haiyuan; Lei, Yunlong; Yuan, Ping; Li, Lingjun; Luo, Chao; Gao, Rui; Tian, Jun; Feng, Zuohua; Nice, Edouard C.; Sun, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Gambogic acid (GA), the main active component of gamboge resin, has potent antitumor activity both in vivo and in vitro. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we found that GA could initiate autophagy in colorectal cancer cells, and inhibition of the autophagy process accelerated the effect of proliferative inhibition and apoptotic cell death induced by GA, implying a protective role of autophagy. Two-dimensional electrophoresis-based proteomics showed th...

  20. Mediation and Legal Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Zaitseva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of alternative dispute resolution procedures raises a number of new problems and questions for jurisprudence and legal practice. Many of these are closely related to the implementation of mediation procedures. Significant attention has been paid in the legal literature to the need for mediators’ legal education. Nowadays a professional lawyer usually performs the functions of a mediator. Nevertheless, in some countries the competence of mediators can be limited. In fact, such persons may be prohibited from providing any legal assistance to the parties. A direct prohibition of this kind exists in Russian legislation. To what degree is this prohibition realistic and reasonable? Different countries enjoy different approaches to the possibility of providing disputing parties with a mediator’s legal assistance in addressing issues requiring legal advice or in the drafting of legal documents. Different approaches to this issue have appeared for various reasons. The absence of consensus is caused by a contradiction between the principle of mediator neutrality in the conflict resolution process and the goals of dispute settlement in which a legally competent intermediary is involved. To ensure the effectiveness of the mediation process, legislators should seek out more flexible ways of regulating procedure. Mandatory regulation itself contradicts the spirit of ‘semi-formal’ alternative (extrajudicial methods for conflict resolution. As such, the presence of direct prohibitions or severe restrictions may not only become challenging in the performance of law but such peremptory norms can also make mediation unattractive and ineffective for some particular types of dispute, such as labor disputes. The principle of preserving a mediator’s neutrality is possible if exercised within the framework of a balanced approach to reasonable limits and discretionary rules for the provision of certain types of legal assistance to disputing parties.The present article aims to consider the possibilities and limitations on a mediator’s ability to provide particular types of legal assistance where the guarantee of non-discrimination between disputing parties’ interests is presupposed.

  1. Study of high-LET radiation-produced radical/ROS species and indirect strand break induction in naked dsDNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of radiation damage contributed by radiolytically produced radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an important issue in understanding both acute and long-term radiation effects. In this study, naked linear T7 phage DNA is used as a simplified model system for genetic radiation damage to determine the DNA strand break induction and oxidative cluster damage from radiation-induced radicals/ROS. In the first experiment run, a distinction could be made between the total effect from radiation-induced radicals and the relative damage contribution of produced hydroxyl radicals (OH·). The dependence of radical/ROS-induced double strand breaks (DSB) damage on the primary beam composition could be demonstrated with a monochromatic 290 MeV/n 12C6+ and degraded beam. In addition, the relative production of OH· for these beam modalities was determined with the fluorescent molecular probe carboxyl-3-coumarin acid (3-CCA). (author)

  2. Insulin-mediated oxidative stress and DNA damage in LLC-PK1 pig kidney cell line, female rat primary kidney cells, and male ZDF rat kidneys in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Eman Maher; Kreissl, Michael C; Kaiser, Franz R; Arias-Loza, Paula-Anahi; Stopper, Helga

    2013-04-01

    Hyperinsulinemia, a condition with excessively high insulin blood levels, is related to an increased cancer incidence. Diabetes mellitus is the most common of several diseases accompanied by hyperinsulinemia. Because an elevated kidney cancer risk was reported for diabetic patients, we investigated the induction of genomic damage by insulin in LLC-PK1 pig kidney cells, rat primary kidney cells, and ZDF rat kidneys. Insulin at a concentration of 5nM caused a significant increase in DNA damage in vitro. This was associated with the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the presence of antioxidants, blockers of the insulin, and IGF-I receptors, and a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor, the insulin-mediated DNA damage was reduced. Phosphorylation of protein kinase B (PKB or AKT) was increased and p53 accumulated. Inhibition of the mitochondrial and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphatase oxidase-related ROS production reduced the insulin-mediated damage. In primary rat cells, insulin also induced genomic damage. In kidneys from healthy, lean ZDF rats, which were infused with insulin to yield normal or high blood insulin levels, while keeping blood glucose levels constant, the amounts of ROS and the tumor protein (p53) were elevated in the high-insulin group compared with the control level group. ROS and p53 were also elevated in diabetic obese ZDF rats. Overall, insulin-induced oxidative stress resulted in genomic damage. If the same mechanisms are active in patients, hyperinsulinemia might cause genomic damage through the induction of ROS contributing to the increased cancer risk, against which the use of antioxidants and/or ROS production inhibitors might exert protective effects. PMID:23456362

  3. Artemisinin induces A549 cell apoptosis dominantly via a reactive oxygen species-mediated amplification activation loop among caspase-9, -8 and -3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Weijie; Xiao, Fenglian; Wang, Xiaoping; Chen, Tongsheng

    2013-10-01

    This report is designed to explore the roles of caspase-8, -9 and -3 in artemisinin (ARTE)-induced apoptosis in non-small cell lung cancer cells (A549 cells). ARTE induced reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated apoptosis in dose- and time-dependent fashion. Although ARTE treatment did not induce Bid cleavage and significant loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, it induced release of Smac and AIF but not cytochrome c from mitochondria, and silencing of Bak but not Bax significantly prevented ARTE-induced cytotoxicity. Moreover, ARTE treatment induced ROS-dependent activation of caspase-9, -8 and -3. Of the utmost importance, silencing or inhibiting any one of caspase-8, -9 and -3 almost completely prevented ARTE-induced activation of all the three caspases and remarkably abrogated the cytotoxicity of ARTE, suggesting that ARTE triggered an amplification activation loop among caspase-9, -8 and -3. Collectively, our data demonstrate that ARTE induces a ROS-mediated amplification activation loop among caspase-9, -8 and -3 to dominantly mediate the apoptosis of A549 cells. PMID:23661289

  4. Reactive oxygen species-mediated therapeutic response and resistance in glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, E; Judkins, J; Salomonis, N; Matlaf, L; Soteropoulos, P; McAllister, S; Soroceanu, L

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) resistance to therapy is the most common cause of tumor recurrence, which is ultimately fatal in 90% of the patients 5 years after initial diagnosis. A sub-population of tumor cells with stem-like properties, glioma stem cells (GSCs), is specifically endowed to resist or adapt to the standard therapies, leading to therapeutic resistance. Several anticancer agents, collectively termed redox therapeutics, act by increasing intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, we investigated mechanisms underlying GSC response and resistance to cannabidiol (CBD), a non-toxic, non-psychoactive cannabinoid and redox modulator. Using primary GSCs, we showed that CBD induced a robust increase in ROS, which led to the inhibition of cell survival, phosphorylated (p)-AKT, self-renewal and a significant increase in the survival of GSC-bearing mice. Inhibition of self-renewal was mediated by the activation of the p-p38 pathway and downregulation of key stem cell regulators Sox2, Id1 and p-STAT3. Following CBD treatment, a subset of GSC successfully adapted, leading to tumor regrowth. Microarray, Taqman and functional assays revealed that therapeutic resistance was mediated by enhanced expression of the antioxidant response system Xc catalytic subunit xCT (SLC7A11 (solute carrier family 7 (anionic amino-acid transporter light chain), member 11)) and ROS-dependent upregulation of mesenchymal (MES) markers with concomitant downregulation of proneural (PN) markers, also known as PN-MES transition. This 'reprogramming' of GSCs occurred in culture and in vivo and was partially due to activation of the NFE2L2 (NRF2 (nuclear factor, erythroid 2-like)) transcriptional network. Using genetic knockdown and pharmacological inhibitors of SLC7A11, we demonstrated that combining CBD treatment with the inhibition of system Xc resulted in synergistic ROS increase leading to robust antitumor effects, that is, decreased GSC survival, self-renewal, and invasion. Our investigation provides novel mechanistic insights into the antitumor activity of redox therapeutics and suggests that combinatorial approaches using small molecule modulators of ROS offer therapeutic benefits in GBM. PMID:25590811

  5. Nickel nanowires induced and reactive oxygen species mediated apoptosis in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleve MG

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Md. Zakir Hossain1, Maurice G Kleve21Applied Biosciences (Bionanotechnology Research, Department of Applied Science, 2Molecular Biotechnology and Microscopy Laboratory, Department of Biology, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, Arkansas, USABackground: The ability to evade apoptosis is one of the key properties of cancer. The apoptogenic effect of nickel nanowires (Ni NWs on cancer cell lines has never been adequately addressed. Due to the unique physicochemical characteristics of Ni NWs, we envision the development of a novel anticancer therapeutics specifically for pancreatic cancer. Thus, we investigated whether Ni NWs induce ROS-mediated apoptosis in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma (Panc-1 cells. Methods: In this study Ni NWs were fabricated using the electrodeposition method. Synthesized Ni NWs were physically characterized by energy dispersive X-ray analysis, UV-Vis spectroscopy of NanoDrop 2000 (UV-Vis, magnetization study, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Assessment of morphological apoptotic characteristics by phase contrast microscopy (PCM, Ni-NWs-induced apoptosis staining with ethidium bromide (EB and acridine orange (AO followed by fluorescence microscopy (FM was performed. For molecular biological and biochemical characterization, Panc-1 cell culture and cytotoxic effect of Ni NWs were determined by using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. Quantitative apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry staining with propidium iodide through cell cycle arrest and generation of ROS using 2', 7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate fluorescence intensity. In all experiments, Panc-1 cancer cells without any treatment were used as the negative controls.Results: The intracellular uptake of Ni NWs through endocytosis by Panc-1 cells was observed by PCM. EB and AO staining of FM and MTT assay qualitatively and quantitatively confirmed the extent of apoptosis. Flow cytometric cell cycle arrest and ROS generation indicated Ni NWs as inducers of apoptotic cell death.Conclusion: We investigated the role of Ni NWs as inducers of ROS-mediated apoptosis in Panc-1 cells. These results suggested that Ni NWs could be an effective apoptotic agent for Panc-1 cells and have good potential for further research into a clinical treatment selective for pancreatic cancer.Keywords: Ni NWs, apoptosis, Panc-1, MTT assay, flow cytometry, cell cycle arrest, ROS

  6. Audit with feedback (AWF) as a CME tool for radiation oncologists (ROs): evaluation of efficacy, perception, and cost-effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meta-analyses demonstrate Audit with Feedback (AWF) is effective CME, however educational efficacy for ROs is unknown. We evaluated an AWF CME intervention for ROs, determining efficacy, cost-effectiveness and participant satisfaction. CME program: CME incorporated fortnightly random patient chart audit, scoring management adequacy via checklist. Scores were presented at a same-day institutional meeting, and case management discussed. Senior peers provided educational feedback. RO behavior/performance was evaluated via chart review of new patients seen 2 months before commencement of CME (T0), and after 12 months of CME (T1). A validated instrument scored 19 items as '0' (inadequate/inappropriate) or '1' (adequate/appropriate). Comparisons of mean point-score for 10 behaviour items targeted by the CME AWF checklist, 3 non-targeted behaviour items, and 6 performance items were made; also percent charts achieving a '1' for each item at T0 and T1. A 14-item participant questionnaire measured satisfaction before and after efficacy results were known. Responses scored from 0 (very dissatisfied) to 5 (very satisfied), then averaged. Annual cost and cost-per-point gained incorporated salaries of organizers/ participants, and consumables. 113 and 118 charts were evaluated at T0 and T1. Mean score of targeted behavior improved between T0 and T1 (8.7 to 9.2 out of 10,p=0.0001), with no significant improvement for non-targeted behavior/performance items. Improvement occurred forerformance items. Improvement occurred for 'Decision for treatment' (non-targeted; percent charts scoring '1' increased from 84% to 92%,p=0.08), and targeted items 'Letter to referrer' (53% to 66%,p=0.04), 'Treatment intent' (54 to 77%,p=0.0002), 'Laterality doublet' (91 to 98%, p=0.04), and 'Isodose-plan signed' (94 to 100%,p=0.006). Improvements varied between ROs. Participant satisfaction was positive, increasing from 3.2 to 3.7 after efficacy result distribution (p=0.0001). Annual costs and cost-per-point gained were $AUD13,820 and $27. Audit with comparative, educational feedback is cost-effective and positively-perceived CME, significantly improving targeted RO behavior. RO CME design and evaluation require further research

  7. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in dopaminergic cells exposed to methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazawa, Masashi; Wagner, Jarrad R; Kirby, Michael L; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G

    2002-07-01

    Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT), an organic manganese-containing gasoline additive, was investigated to determine whether MMT potentially causes dopaminergic neurotoxic effects. MMT is acutely cytotoxic and dopamine-producing cells (PC-12) seemed to be more susceptible to cytotoxic effects than nondopaminergic cells (striatal gamma-aminobutyric acidergic and cerebellar granule cells). MMT also potently depleted dopamine apparently by cytoplasmic vesicular release to the cytosol, a neurochemical change resembling other dopaminergic neurotoxicants. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), an early effect in toxicant-induced apoptosis, occurred within 15 min of MMT exposure. MMT caused a loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (DeltaPsim), a likely source of ROS generation. The ROS signal further activated caspase-3, an important effector caspase, which could be inhibited by antioxidants (Trolox or N-acetyl cysteine). Predepletion of dopamine by using alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (tyrosine hydroxylase inhibitor) treatment partially prevented caspase-3 activation, denoting a significant dopamine and/or dopamine by-product contribution to initiation of apoptosis. Genomic DNA fragmentation, a terminal hallmark of apoptosis, was induced concentration dependently by MMT but completely prevented by pretreatment with Trolox, deprenyl (monoamine oxidase-B inhibitor), and alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine. A final set of critical experiments was performed to verify the pharmacological studies using a stable Bcl-2-overexpressing PC-12 cell line. Bcl-2-overexpressing cells were significantly refractory to MMT-induced ROS generation, caspase-3 activation, and loss of DeltaPsim and were completely resistant to MMT-induced DNA fragmentation. Taken together, the results presented herein demonstrate that oxidative stress plays an important role in mitochondrial-mediated apoptotic cell death in cultured dopamine-producing cells after exposure to MMT. PMID:12065696

  8. Differential inflammatory mediator response in vitro from murine macrophages to lactobacilli and pathogenic intestinal bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinkiewicz, J; Ciszek, M; Bobek, M; Strus, M; Heczko, P B; Kurnyta, M; Biedro?, R; Chmielarczyk, A

    2007-06-01

    Chronic active colitis (including inflammatory bowel disease - IBD) is maintained by a variety of pro-inflammatory mediators. Certain intestinal bacterial strains may induce colitis, whereas some strains (e.g. Lactobacillus spp.) show a protective effect in colitis owing to their anti-inflammatory activity. In this study, we have examined the production of selected inflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO) and the expression of haeme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) by murine peritoneal macrophages stimulated in vitro by the intestinal bacterial strains, isolated from mice with colitis. Lactobacillus strains (Lactobacillus reuteri, L. johnsonii, L. animalis/murinus) and two potentially pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis) induced the production of substantial amounts of cytokines with a strain specific profile. Despite some interstrain differences, all lactobacilli induced production of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10(high), IL-6(low), IL-12p70(low)). Conversely, E. faecalis and E. coli induced the production of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-12p70), the cytokines essential for chronic IBD. Macrophages released comparably substantial amounts of ROS in response to all Lactobacillus strains tested, while E. coli and E. faecalis ability to induce generation of ROS was negligible. In contrast to ROS, the production of NO/NO(2) (-) by macrophages activated with all bacterial strains tested was similar. Moreover, for the first time, it has been shown that intestinal bacteria differed in their ability to induce expression of HO-1, a stress-inducible enzyme with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The beneficial immunoregulatory properties of candidate probiotic bacteria for the treatment of IBD are discussed. PMID:17504445

  9. Prospects for Mirage Mediation

    OpenAIRE

    Pierce, Aaron; Thaler, Jesse

    2006-01-01

    Mirage mediation reduces the fine-tuning in the minimal supersymmetric standard model by dynamically arranging a cancellation between anomaly-mediated and modulus-mediated supersymmetry breaking. We explore the conditions under which a mirage "messenger scale" is generated near the weak scale and the little hierarchy problem is solved. We do this by explicitly including the dynamics of the SUSY-breaking sector needed to cancel the cosmological constant. The most plausible sc...

  10. General resonance mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We extend the framework of general gauge mediation to cases where the mediating fields have a nontrivial spectral function, as might arise from strong dynamics. We demonstrate through examples that this setup describes a broad class of possible models of gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking. A main emphasis is to give general formulas for cross sections for ?(visible ? hidden) in these resonance models. We will also give formulas for soft masses, A-terms and demonstrate the framework with a holographic setup.

  11. Panthenol-stabilized cerium dioxide nanoparticles for cosmeceutic formulations against ROS-induced and UV-induced damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zholobak, N M; Shcherbakov, A B; Bogorad-Kobelska, A S; Ivanova, O S; Baranchikov, A Ye; Spivak, N Ya; Ivanov, V K

    2014-01-01

    A method of panthenol-stabilized cerium dioxide nanoparticles synthesis was developed and their effect on the survival rate of human epidermoid cancer cells HEp-2 and diploid epithelial swine testicular cell line (ST-cells) under oxidative stress conditions induced by hydrogen peroxide introduction and UV irradiation was studied. The results obtained indicate that the use of panthenol as a stabilizer supposedly provides a substantial increase in the efficiency of protection. The degree of protection is determined by panthenol-to-ceria molar ratio. The combination of panthenol and nano-ceria protects biological objects under study from reactive oxygen species (ROS) and UV-irradiation more effectively than individual panthenol or ceria. The protective action of panthenol-stabilized cerium dioxide nanoparticles depends strongly on their composition and the means of their application. PMID:24300997

  12. Gamma radiation protects fruit quality in tomato by inhibiting the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were conducted to examine the individual and combined effect of two different electromagnetic energies, i.e., gamma ray viz 0.1, 0.5 and 1 kGy and static magnetic field (50 mT for 1 h) and their combination (0.5 kGy + 50 mT) on the shelf life of tomato and evaluates the biochemical attributes that influence the fruit ripening and fruit quality. Magnetic field application either alone or in combination with gamma irradiation was not effective in delaying the ripening process. Gamma ray exposed fruits at 0.5 and 1 kGy showed an extended shelf life due to delayed fruit ripening and reduced lycopene synthesis and ethylene production. Efficient ROS scavenging ability and consequent reduction in oxidative damage in the irradiated treatment may cause favorable biochemical changes to facilitate delayed ripening of the tomato fruits. (author)

  13. Change of choline compounds in sodium selenite-induced apoptosis of rats used as quantitative analysis by in vitro 9.4T MR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Zhen; Wu, Lin-Ping

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To study liver cell apoptosis caused by the toxicity of selenium and observe the alteration of choline compounds using in vitro 9.4T high resolution magnetic resonance spectroscopy. METHODS: Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups. The rats in the treatment group were intraperitoneally injected with sodium selenite and the control group with distilled water. All rats were sacrificed and the livers were dissected. (1)H-MRS data were collected using in vitro 9.4T high resolution magnetic resonance spectrometer. Spectra were processed using XWINNMR and MestRe-c 4.3. HE and TUNEL staining was employed to detect and confirm the change of liver cells. RESULTS: Good (1)H-MR spectra of perchloric acid extract from liver tissue of rats were obtained. The conventional metabolites were detected and assigned. Concentrations of different ingredient choline compounds in treatment group vs control group were as follows: total choline compounds, 5.08 +/- 0.97 mmol/L vs 3.81 +/- 1.16 mmol/L (P = 0.05); and free choline, 1.07 +/- 0.23 mmol/L vs 0.65 +/- 0.20 mmol/L (P = 0.00). However, there was no statistical significance between the two groups. The hepatic sinus and cellular structure of hepatic cells in treatment group were abnormal. Apoptosis of hepatic cells was confirmed by TUNEL assay. CONCLUSION: High dose selenium compounds can cause the rat liver lesion and induce cell apoptosis in vivo. High resolution (1)H-MRS in vitro can detect diversified metabolism. The changing trend for different ingredient of choline compounds is not completely the same at early period of apoptosis.

  14. Implementing general gauge mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently there has been much progress in building models of gauge mediation, often with predictions different than those of minimal gauge mediation. Meade, Seiberg, and Shih have characterized the most general spectrum which can arise in gauge-mediated models. We discuss some of the challenges of building models of general gauge mediation, especially the problem of messenger parity and issues connected with R symmetry breaking and CP violation. We build a variety of viable, weakly coupled models which exhibit some or all of the possible low energy parameters.

  15. Incidence of the core composition on the stability, the ROS production and the toxicity of CdSe quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauffer, Florence-Anaïs [Université de Lorraine, Laboratoire Réactions et Génie des Procédés (LRGP), UMR 7274, CNRS, 1 rue Grandville, BP 20451, 54001 Nancy Cedex (France); Université de Lorraine, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l’Environnement (LCPME), UMR 7564, CNRS, 15 Avenue du Charmois, 54500 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Merlin, Christophe [Université de Lorraine, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l’Environnement (LCPME), UMR 7564, CNRS, 15 Avenue du Charmois, 54500 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Balan, Lavinia [Institut de Science des Matériaux de Mulhouse (IS2M), LRC 7228, 15 rue Jean Starcky, 68093 Mulhouse (France); Schneider, Raphaël, E-mail: raphael.schneider@univ-lorraine.fr [Université de Lorraine, Laboratoire Réactions et Génie des Procédés (LRGP), UMR 7274, CNRS, 1 rue Grandville, BP 20451, 54001 Nancy Cedex (France)

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Aqueous phase routes for the production of MSA-capped CdSe and alloyed CdSe(S) QDs were developed. • Despite their higher content in cadmium, CdSe(S) QDs are less toxic than CdSe ones. • Hydroxyl radical production is correlated to the photostability of the dots. • The surface chemistry and the reactivity of QDs play a crucial role on their phototoxicity. - Abstract: Mercaptosuccinic acid-capped CdSe and alloyed CdSe(S) QDs were prepared in aqueous solution at 100 and 170 °C, respectively. These dots were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and UV–vis and photoluminescence spectroscopies. The dots were found to be of similar size (ca. 2 nm) but differ in their composition and surface chemistry. The photostability of the QDs was found to correlate with their ability to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon light activation. CdSe QDs produce hydroxyl radicals immediately after irradiation due to their modest photostability, while CdSe(S) QDs start to generate the hydroxyl radicals only once they start to be bleached (ca. 30 min). Cytotoxicity experiments conducted on Escherichia coli cells revealed that CdSe QDs were the more toxic despite being the least loaded in cadmium. In addition, consistent with ROS assays, the cytotoxicity of the CdSe QDs appeared light-dependent and is in accordance with a light-dependent oxidative stress observed with an oxyR-based whole cell biosensor. Our results demonstrate the crucial role played by nanoparticles synthesis process on their PL properties, their stability and their toxicity.

  16. Human cell line-dependent WC-Co nanoparticle cytotoxicity and genotoxicity: a key role of ROS production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paget, V; Moche, H; Kortulewski, T; Grall, R; Irbah, L; Nesslany, F; Chevillard, S

    2015-02-01

    Although tungsten carbide-cobalt (WC-Co) nanoparticles (NPs) have been widely used because of their robustness, their risk to human health remains poorly studied, despite the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classifying them as "probably carcinogenic" for humans (Group 2A) in 2006. Our current study aimed at defining the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of one set of commercially available 60-nm diameter WC-Co NPs on three human cell lines representative of potential target organs: A549 (lung), Hep3B (liver), and Caki-1 (kidney). The cytotoxicity of WC-Co NPs was determined by evaluating cell impedance (xCELLigence), cell survival/death, and cell cycle checkpoints. Flow cytometry was used to not only evaluate cell cycle checkpoints, but to also estimate reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. In addition, ?-H2Ax foci detection (confocal microscopy), considered to be the most sensitive technique for studying DNA double-strand breaks, was utilized to evaluate genotoxicity. As a final part of this study, we assessed the cellular incorporation of WC-Co NPs, first byflow cytometry (side scatter), and then by confocal microscopy (light reflection) to ensure that the NPs had entered cells. Overall, our current findings demonstrate that WC-Co NPs induce cell mortality, DNA double-strand breaks, and cell cycle arrest in human renal (Caki-1) and liver (Hep3B) cell lines, but do not induce significant cytotoxic effects in A549 lung cells. Interestingly, although WC-Co NPs effectively entered the cells in all 3 lines tested, ROS were detected in Caki-1 and Hep3B, but not in A549. This may explain the great differences in the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects we observed between these lines. PMID:25398624

  17. Pyrogallol, ROS generator inhibits As4.1 juxtaglomerular cells via cell cycle arrest of G2 phase and apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrogallol as a catechin compound has been employed as an O2 · - generator and often used to investigate the role of ROS in the biological system. Here, we investigated the in vitro effect of pyrogallol on cell growth, cell cycle and apoptosis in As4.1 juxtaglomerular cells. Dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth was observed with IC50 of about 60 ?M for 48 h using MTT assay. Pyrogallol (100 ?M) did not alter intracellular H2O2 level and catalase activity, but increased the intracellular O2 · - level and decreased SOD activity in As4.1 cells. DNA flow cytometric analysis indicated that 50 and 100 ?M pyrogallol significantly increased G2 phase cells as compared with those of pyrogallol-untreated cells. Also, pyrogallol induced apoptosis as evidenced by flow cytometric detection of sub-G1 DNA content, annexin V binding assay and DAPI staining. This apoptosis process was accompanied with the loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (?? m), Bcl-2 decrease, caspase-3 activation and PARP cleavage. Pan caspase inhibitor (Z-VAD) could significantly rescue As4.1 cells from pyrogallol-induced cell death. But, the inhibitors of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 did not prevent apoptotic events in pyrogallol-treated As4.1 cells. Taken together, we have demonstrated that an ROS inducer, pyrogallol inhibits the growth of As4.1 JG cells via cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and sugcycle arrest and apoptosis, and suggest that the compound exhibits an anti-proliferative efficacy on these cells

  18. Naringin inhibits ROS-activated MAPK pathway in high glucose-induced injuries in H9c2 cardiac cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingfu; Guo, Runmin; Yan, Hai; Tian, Lihong; You, Qiong; Li, Shanghai; Huang, Ruina; Wu, Keng

    2014-04-01

    Naringin, an active flavonoid isolated from citrus fruit extracts, exhibits biological and pharmacological properties, such as antioxidant activity and antidiabetic effect. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway has been shown to participate in hyperglycaemia-induced injury. The present study tested the hypothesis that naringin protects against high glucose (HG)-induced injuries by inhibiting MAPK pathway in H9c2 cardiac cells. To examine this, the cells were treated with 35 mM glucose (HG) for 24 hr to establish a HG-induced cardiomyocyte injury model. The cells were pre-treated with 80 ?M naringin for 2 hr before exposure to HG. The findings of this study showed that exposure of H9c2 cells to HG for 24 hr markedly induced injuries, as evidenced by a decrease in cell viability, increases in apoptotic cells and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, as well as dissipation of mitochondrial membrance potential (MMP). These injuries were significantly attenuated by the pre-treatment of cells with either naringin or SB203580 (a selective inhibitor of p38 MAPK) or U0126 (a selective inhibitor of extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2, ERK1/2) or SP600125 (a selective inhibitor of c-jun N-termanal kinase, JNK) before exposure to HG, respectively. Furthermore, exposure of cells to HG increased the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, ERK1/2 and JNK. The increased activation of MAPK pathway was ameliorated by pre-treatment with either naringin or N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), a ROS scavenger, which also reduced HG-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis, leading to increase in cell viability and decrease in apoptotic cells. In conclusion, our findings provide new evidence for the first time that naringin protects against HG-induced injuries by inhibiting the activation of MAPK (p38 MAPK, ERK1/2 and JNK) and oxidative stress in H9c2 cells. PMID:24118820

  19. Skeletal muscle mitochondria exhibit decreased pyruvate oxidation capacity and increased ROS emission during surgery-induced acute insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagve, Martin; Gjessing, Petter Fosse; Fuskevåg, Ole Martin; Larsen, Terje S; Irtun, Øivind

    2015-04-15

    Development of acute insulin resistance represents a negative factor after surgery, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We investigated the postoperative changes in insulin sensitivity, mitochondrial function, enzyme activities, and release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in skeletal muscle and liver in pigs on the 2nd postoperative day after major abdominal surgery. Peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity were assessed by d-[6,6-(2)H2]glucose infusion and hyperinsulinemic euglycemic step clamping. Surgical trauma elicited a decline in peripheral insulin sensitivity (?34%, P l-carnitine (PC) was unchanged. Mitochondrial leak respiration with PC was increased in SSM (1.9-fold, P < 0.05) and IFM (2.5-fold, P < 0.05), indicating FFA-induced uncoupling. The activity of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) was reduced (?32%, P < 0.01) and positively correlated to the decline in peripheral insulin sensitivity (r = 0.748, P < 0.05). All other mitochondrial enzyme activities were unchanged. No changes in mitochondrial function in liver were observed. Mitochondrial H2O2 and O2 (·-) emission was measured spectrofluorometrically, and H2O2 was increased in SSM, IFM, and liver mitochondria (?2.3-, ?2.5-, and ?2.3-fold, respectively, all P < 0.05). We conclude that an impairment in skeletal muscle mitochondrial PDC activity and pyruvate oxidation capacity arises in the postoperative phase along with increased ROS emission, suggesting a link between mitochondrial function and development of acute postoperative insulin resistance. PMID:25670828

  20. Delta robot controlled by robotic operating system / Robot delta controlado con sistema operativo robótico (R.O.S.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    David Raimundo, Rivas-Lalaleo; Eddie Egberto, Galarza-Zambrano; Diana Carolina, Tumbaco-Mendoza; Wilmer Enrique, Quimbita-Zapata; Omar Vinicio, Galarza-Barrionuevo.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Los robots paralelos, son más rápidos y más robusto que los robots tipo serie, se utilizan servomotores para la generación de movimiento en cada una de sus articulaciones, que son controlados de forma independiente. El control y conexión de los actuadores se lo realiza mediante buses de comunicación [...] con la finalidad de reducir las probabilidades de fallos. . En este trabajo, se propone implementar un sistema de control para robots paralelos, basado en la interfaz RS-232. Se utilizó el Sistema Operativo Robótico (ROS) para controlar los conjuntos de actuadores, y un algoritmo desarrollado Python apoyado por las bibliotecas OpenCV. Los experimentos en una aplicación dibujo con gráficos bidimensionales mostraron que la implementación de la red de actuadores y el algoritmo de control proporcionan robustez, velocidad de respuesta y fiabilidad (inferior fallan probabilidad), gracias a la reducción de los puntos de conexión. Abstract in english Parallel robots, which are faster and more robust than serial robots, use servomotors for movement generation on each of their joints, which are independently controlled. This control is usually addressed by wired connections, which increases the fail probability and has an effect on the actuation s [...] peed. In this work, we propose to implement a wireless control system for parallel robots, based on RS-232 interface. We used Robotic Operation System (ROS) for controlling the joint actuators, and a Python developed algorithm supported by OpenCV libraries. Experiments in a drawing application with bidimensional plots showed that the network implementation and the control algorithm provide us with increased robustness, response velocity and reliability (lower fail probability), thanks to the reduction of connection points.

  1. Interaction between ROS dependent DNA damage, mitochondria and p38 MAPK underlies senescence of human adult stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodkina, Aleksandra; Shatrova, Alla; Abushik, Polina; Nikolsky, Nikolay; Burova, Elena

    2014-06-01

    Human endometrium-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMESCs) enter the premature senescence under sublethal oxidative stress, however underlying mechanism remains unknown. Here, we showed that exogenous H2O2 induces a rapid phosphorylation and co-localization of ATM, H2A.X, 53BP1 leading to DNA damage response (DDR) activation. DDR was accompanied with nuclear translocation of p-p53 followed by up-regulation of p21Waf1 and the permanent hypophosphorylation of pRb. Additionally, the increased p38MAPK/MAPKAPK-2 activation persisted in H2O2-treated cells. We suggest that both p53/p21/pRb and p38MAPK/MAPKAPK-2 pathways are responsible for establishing an irreversible cell cycle arrest that is typical of senescence. The process of further stabilization of senescence required prolonged DDR signaling activation that was provided by the permanent ROS production which in turn was regulated by both p38MAPK and the increased functional mitochondria. To reverse senescence, the pharmacological inhibition of p38MAPK was performed. Cell treatment with SB203580 was sufficient to recover partially senescence phenotype, to block the ROS elevation, to decrease the mitochondrial function, and finally to rescue proliferation. Thus, suppression of the p38MAPK pathway resulted in a partial prevention of H2O2-induced senescence of hMESCs. The current study is the first to reveal the molecular mechanism of the premature senescence of hMESCs in response to oxidative stress. PMID:24934860

  2. Effects of 5-fluorouracil on morphology, cell cycle, proliferation, apoptosis, autophagy and ROS production in endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focaccetti, Chiara; Bruno, Antonino; Magnani, Elena; Bartolini, Desirée; Principi, Elisa; Dallaglio, Katiuscia; Bucci, Eraldo O; Finzi, Giovanna; Sessa, Fausto; Noonan, Douglas M; Albini, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Antimetabolites are a class of effective anticancer drugs interfering in essential biochemical processes. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) and its prodrug Capecitabine are widely used in the treatment of several solid tumors (gastro-intestinal, gynecological, head and neck, breast carcinomas). Therapy with fluoropyrimidines is associated with a wide range of adverse effects, including diarrhea, dehydration, abdominal pain, nausea, stomatitis, and hand-foot syndrome. Among the 5-FU side effects, increasing attention is given to cardiovascular toxicities induced at different levels and intensities. Since the mechanisms related to 5-FU-induced cardiotoxicity are still unclear, we examined the effects of 5-FU on primary cell cultures of human cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells, which represent two key components of the cardiovascular system. We analyzed at the cellular and molecular level 5-FU effects on cell proliferation, cell cycle, survival and induction of apoptosis, in an experimental cardioncology approach. We observed autophagic features at the ultrastructural and molecular levels, in particular in 5-FU exposed cardiomyocytes. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) elevation characterized the endothelial response. These responses were prevented by a ROS scavenger. We found induction of a senescent phenotype on both cell types treated with 5-FU. In vivo, in a xenograft model of colon cancer, we showed that 5-FU treatment induced ultrastructural changes in the endothelium of various organs. Taken together, our data suggest that 5-FU can affect, both at the cellular and molecular levels, two key cell types of the cardiovascular system, potentially explaining some manifestations of 5-FU-induced cardiovascular toxicity. PMID:25671635

  3. Incidence of the core composition on the stability, the ROS production and the toxicity of CdSe quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Aqueous phase routes for the production of MSA-capped CdSe and alloyed CdSe(S) QDs were developed. • Despite their higher content in cadmium, CdSe(S) QDs are less toxic than CdSe ones. • Hydroxyl radical production is correlated to the photostability of the dots. • The surface chemistry and the reactivity of QDs play a crucial role on their phototoxicity. - Abstract: Mercaptosuccinic acid-capped CdSe and alloyed CdSe(S) QDs were prepared in aqueous solution at 100 and 170 °C, respectively. These dots were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and UV–vis and photoluminescence spectroscopies. The dots were found to be of similar size (ca. 2 nm) but differ in their composition and surface chemistry. The photostability of the QDs was found to correlate with their ability to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon light activation. CdSe QDs produce hydroxyl radicals immediately after irradiation due to their modest photostability, while CdSe(S) QDs start to generate the hydroxyl radicals only once they start to be bleached (ca. 30 min). Cytotoxicity experiments conducted on Escherichia coli cells revealed that CdSe QDs were the more toxic despite being the least loaded in cadmium. In addition, consistent with ROS assays, the cytotoxicity of the CdSe QDs appeared light-dependent and is in accordance with a light-dependent oxidative stress observed with an oxyR-based whole cell biosensor. Our results demonstrate the crucial role played by nanoparticles synthesis process on their PL properties, their stability and their toxicity

  4. CpG ODNs induced autophagy via reactive oxygen species (ROS) in Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mingzhe; Wang, Lingling; Jiang, Shuai; Liu, Rui; Zhao, Depeng; Chen, Hao; Song, Xiaorui; Song, Linsheng

    2015-09-01

    Autophagy is a highly conserved intracellular homeostatic process involved in numerous responses in both vertebrate and invertebrate. In the present study, autophagy in hemocytes of Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis was observed by Western-blot and immunofluorescence assay, and its induction by CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) was investigated. The increase of LC3-conversion (LC3-II/LC3-I) and LC3-puncta formation were observed in hemocytes of crabs after rapamycin injection. And the ratio of LC3-conversion and the percentage of LC3-puncta formation were also significantly increased after CpG ODNs stimulation, and the highest values were 1.89-fold and 3.77-fold compared to that in pUC57 group at 24?h post-injection. Moreover, the mRNA expression levels of autophagy-related genes, EsGabarap and EsAtg7, both dramatically increased after CpG ODNs injection, and reached the peak at 6?h post-injection, which were 2.66- and 2.82-fold (P?autophagy triggered by CpG ODNs were abolished after the treatment of the ROS scavenger, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). It was suggested that CpG ODNs could induce autophagy and up-regulate the expression levels of autophagy-related genes in crabs via the activation of ROS generation in the hemocytes. The results provided useful information to understand autophagy in crab, and they were also helpful for the application of CpG ODNs as the novel immune stimulants in aquaculture. PMID:25912358

  5. Teaching Mediated Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Michael L.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses approaches to teaching a mediated public relations course, emphasizing the World Wide Web. Outlines five course objectives, assignments and activities, evaluation, texts, and lecture topics. Argues that students mastering these course objectives will understand ethical issues relating to media use, using mediated technology in public…

  6. Autophagic cell death of human hepatoma G2 cells mediated by procyanidins from Castanea mollissima Bl. Shell-induced reactive oxygen species generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yuqing; Ke, Jiajia; Zhang, Haihui; He, Yuanqing; Sun, Guibo; Sun, Xiaobo

    2014-12-01

    The autophagy of human hepatoma G2 (HepG2) cells induced by procyanidins from chestnut (Castanea mollissima Bl.) shell (CSPCs) was investigated, and the inherent relationship between autophagic levels and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was studied. The results showed that CSPCs induced HepG2 cell death in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, increased the accumulation of autophagolysosomes and microtubule-associated proteins light chain 3-II (LC3-II, a marker of autophagy). However, these phenomena were not observed in the group pretreated with the autophagy inhibitor 3-MA, suggesting that CSPCs induced HepG2 cell autophagy. Furthermore, we found that CSPCs triggered ROS generation in cells, while the levels of ROS decreased in the N-acetylcysteine (Nac) co-treatment, revealing that CSPCs-mediated autophagy was partly blocked by Nac. In addition, treatment with CSPCs decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential of HepG2 cells. These results suggested CSPCs could trigger autophagy via ROS generation, which may be associated with the mitochondria-dependent signaling way. PMID:25289774

  7. Annatto constituent cis-bixin has selective antimyeloma effects mediated by oxidative stress and associated with inhibition of thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibodeau, Jennifer D; Isham, Crescent R; Bible, Keith C

    2010-10-01

    In pursuit of the anticancer effects of seeds of the rain forest plant Bixa orellana (annatto), we found that its constituent cis-bixin induced cytotoxicity in a wide variety of tumor cell lines (IC(50) values from 10 to 50 microM, 24-h exposures) and, importantly, also selectively killed freshly collected patient multiple myeloma cells and highly drug-resistant multiple myeloma cell lines. Mechanistic studies indicated that cis-bixin-induced cytotoxicity was greatly attenuated by co-treatment with glutathione or N-acetylcysteine (NAC); whereas fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) assays using the cell-permeable dyes 5-(and-6) chloromethyl-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, acetyl ester (CM-H(2)DCFDA), or dihydroethidium demonstrated that cis-bixin rapidly induced cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in dose- and time-dependent fashions, collectively implicating ROS as contributory to cis-bixin-induced cytotoxicity. In pursuit of potential contributors to ROS imposition by cis-bixin, we found that cis-bixin inhibited both thioredoxin (Trx) and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR1) activities at concentrations comparable to those required for cytotoxicity, implicating the inhibition of these redox enzymes as potentially contributing to its ability to impose cellular ROS and to kill cancer cells. Collectively, our studies indicate that the annatto constituent cis-bixin has intriguing selective antimyeloma activity that appears to be mediated through effects on redox signaling. PMID:20170403

  8. Reactive oxygen species-mediated activation of the Src-epidermal growth factor receptor-Akt signaling cascade prevents bortezomib-induced apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jinlin; Cui, Anguo; Song, Peiying; Hua, Hui; Luo, Ting; Jiang, Yangfu

    2015-01-01

    Proteasomes are essential for numerous cellular processes, including the cell cycle, regulation of gene expression and responses to cellular stress. Proteasome inhibitors are promising anticancer agents. The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib effectively suppresses certain types of cancer, including multiple myeloma and mantle cell lymphoma. However, bortezomib poorly inhibits solid tumors, including hepatocellular carcinoma. The activation of Akt represents an adaptive response that prevents bortezomib-induced cell apoptosis. In the present study, bortezomib induced phosphorylation of EGFR, Src and Akt in hepatoma cells and inhibition of Src reduced bortezomib-induced EGFR and Akt phosphorylation. Treatment of hepatoma cells with bortezomib led to an increase in the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). The ROS scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine inhibits bortezomib-induced ROS production and abrogates the phosphorylation of Src, epidermal growth factor receptor and Akt. The combination of bortezomib and saracatinib, a Src inhibitor, synergistically induced hepatoma cell apoptosis. The present study concluded that ROS mediated the activation of the Src-EGFR-Akt cascade by bortezomib. The combination of the Src inhibitor and bortezomib holds promise in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:25338626

  9. Role of mitochondrial DNA in cells exposed to irradiation. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is required for G2 checkpoint upon irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitochondria have their own genome encoding subunits of the electron transport chain. Using cells lacking mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA, ?0 cells), we studied the role of mtDNA in irradiation. Loss of mtDNA inhibited cell growth and reduced the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as compared to ?+ cells. ?+ cells were more resistant to irradiation than ?0 cells. Upon irradiation, ?0 cells showed delayed G2 arrest and decreased ability of a cell to recover from the G2 checkpoint compared to ?+ cells. Irradiation increased the generation of ROS even more in ?+ cells. Irradiation markedly increased the levels of phosphorylated forms of extracellular-regulated kinases, p42 and p44 (ERK1/2) in ?+ cells, whereas phosphorylated levels of the kinases were affected slightly in ?0 cells. Furthermore, inhibition of the ERK pathway led to a delayed G2 arrest and a delayed recovery from the arrest in irradiated ?+ cells, and treatment with NAC also induced dysfunction of the G2 checkpoint in irradiated ?+ cells. These results suggest that the accumulation of ROS potentiated ERK1/2 kinases after irradiation in ?+ cells, leading to less sensitivity to irradiation. Thus, mtDNA is important for the generation of ROS that act as second messenger. (author)

  10. SirT1 knockdown potentiates radiation-induced bystander effect through promoting c-Myc activity and thus facilitating ROS accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yuexia; Tu, Wenzhi; Zhang, Jianghong; He, Mingyuan; Ye, Shuang; Dong, Chen; Shao, Chunlin

    2015-02-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) has important implications for secondary cancer risk assessment during cancer radiotherapy, but the bystander signaling processes, especially under hypoxic condition, are still largely unclear. The present study found that micronuclei (MN) formation could be induced in the non-irradiated HL-7702 hepatocyte cells after being treated with the conditioned medium from irradiated hepatoma HepG2 and SK-Hep-1 cells under either normoxia or hypoxia. This bystander response was dramatically diminished or enhanced when the SirT1 gene of irradiated hepatoma cells was overexpressed or knocked down, respectively, especially under hypoxia. Meanwhile, SirT1 knockdown promoted transcriptional activity for c-Myc and facilitated ROS accumulation. But both of the increased bystander responses and ROS generation due to SirT1-knockdown were almost completely suppressed by c-Myc interference. Moreover, ROS scavenger effectively abolished the RIBE triggered by irradiated hepatoma cells even with SirT1 depletion. These findings provide new insights that SirT1 has a profound role in regulating RIBE where a c-Myc-dependent release of ROS may be involved. PMID:25772107

  11. ?-Lipoic acid increases tolerance of cardiomyoblasts to glucose/glucose oxidase-induced injury via ROS-dependent ERK1/2 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yuzhen; Li, Rongrong; Ma, Yujie; Wang, Xiaohui; Li, Chuanfu; Zhang, Xiaojin; Ma, Rong; Ding, Zhengnian; Liu, Li

    2012-04-01

    ?-Lipoic acid (LA) has been shown to improve the diabetic cardiac symptoms. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated precisely. We have reported recently that LA potentially protected neurons from substance-induced apoptosis. We hypothesized that LA could attenuate cardiac cells death induced by oxidative stress derived from high glucose. To test this possibility, we examined the effects of LA on d-glucose/glucose oxidase (DG/GO, 30mM/5mU)-induced injury in rat cardiomyoblast H9c2 cells. We observed that LA pretreatment significantly increased cell viability in DG/GO-challenged cells. LA pretreatment also attenuated DG/GO-induced apoptosis as evidenced by decreases in both nuclear condensation and loss of mitochondrial potential. In addition, LA activated ERK1/2 and moderately increased ROS production. Blockade of ERK1/2 activation by PD98059 completely abolished LA-induced protection against DG/GO challenge. Inhibition of ROS by N-acetylcysteine abrogated LA-induced ERK1/2 activation and cytoprotection. Furthermore, we observed that the ROS production induced by LA was significantly slower and milder than that by DG/GO. Our results suggest that pretreatment with LA moderately increased ROS production to induce a preconditioning-like effect by ERK1/2 activation thereby increased tolerance of H9c2 cells to DG/GO challenge. PMID:22366396

  12. A cell type-specific view on the translation of mRNAs from ROS-responsive genes upon paraquat treatment of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benina, Maria; Ribeiro, Dimas Mendes; Gechev, Tsanko S; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Schippers, Jos H M

    2015-02-01

    Oxidative stress causes dramatic changes in the expression levels of many genes. The formation of a functional protein through successful mRNA translation is central to a coordinated cellular response. To what extent the response towards reactive oxygen species (ROS) is regulated at the translational level is poorly understood. Here we analysed leaf- and tissue-specific translatomes using a set of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana lines expressing a FLAG-tagged ribosomal protein to immunopurify polysome-bound mRNAs before and after oxidative stress. We determined transcript levels of 171 ROS-responsive genes upon paraquat treatment, which causes formation of superoxide radicals, at the whole-organ level. Furthermore, the translation of mRNAs was determined for five cell types: mesophyll, bundle sheath, phloem companion, epidermal and guard cells. Mesophyll and bundle sheath cells showed the strongest response to paraquat treatment. Interestingly, several ROS-responsive transcription factors displayed cell type-specific translation patterns, while others were translated in all cell types. In part, cell type-specific translation could be explained by the length of the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) and the presence of upstream open reading frames (uORFs). Our analysis reveals insights into the translational regulation of ROS-responsive genes, which is important to understanding cell-specific responses and functions during oxidative stress. PMID:24738758

  13. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the healing of severe corneal injuries, such as alkali burns or irradiation of the eye with UVB rays.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    ?ejková, Jitka

    Maui, 2004. s. -. [The John A.Boswick,MD Burn and Wound Care Symposium. 23.02.2004-27.02.2004, Maui] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA304/03/0419 Keywords : Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry

  14. Increased oxidative status in Ras2Val19 affects mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocator function via ROS signaling in S.cerevisiae.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlavatá, Lydie; Ježek, Petr; Nystrom, T.

    Elsevier. Ro?. 1757, ?. 5-6 /S1/ (2006), s. 418-418. ISSN 0005-2728. [European Bioenergetics Conference /14./. 22.07.2006-27.07.2006, Moscow] Keywords : adenine nucleotide translocator * ROS * S.cerevisiae Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  15. Particulate Matter Disrupts Human Lung Endothelial Barrier Integrity via ROS- and p38 MAPK–Dependent Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ting; Chiang, Eddie T.; Moreno-vinasco, Liliana; Lang, Gabriel D.; Pendyala, Srikanth; Samet, Jonathan M.; Geyh, Alison S.; Breysse, Patrick N.; Chillrud, Steven N.; Natarajan, Viswanathan; Garcia, Joe G. N.

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have linked exposure to airborne pollutant particulate matter (PM) with increased cardiopulmonary mortality and morbidity. The mechanisms of PM-mediated lung pathophysiology, however, remain unknown. We tested the hypothesis that PM, via enhanced oxidative stress, disrupts lung endothelial cell (EC) barrier integrity, thereby enhancing organ dysfunction. Using PM collected from Ft. McHenry Tunnel (Baltimore, MD), we assessed PM-mediated changes in transendothelial electr...

  16. Hypoxia sensing in the fetal chicken femoral artery is mediated by the mitochondrial electron transport chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoer, Bea; Cogolludo, Angel L

    2010-01-01

    Vascular hypoxia sensing is transduced into vasoconstriction in the pulmonary circulation, whereas systemic arteries dilate. Mitochondrial electron transport chain (mETC), reactive O(2) species (ROS), and K(+) channels have been implicated in the sensing/signaling mechanisms of hypoxic relaxation in mammalian systemic arteries. We aimed to investigate their putative roles in hypoxia-induced relaxation in fetal chicken (19 days of incubation) femoral arteries mounted in a wire myograph. Acute hypoxia (Po(2) approximately 2.5 kPa) relaxed the contraction induced by norepinephrine (1 microM). Hypoxia-induced relaxation was abolished or significantly reduced by the mETC inhibitors rotenone (complex I), myxothiazol and antimycin A (complex III), and NaN(3) (complex IV). The complex II inhibitor 3-nitroproprionic acid enhanced the hypoxic relaxation. In contrast, the relaxations mediated by acetylcholine, sodium nitroprusside, or forskolin were not affected by the mETC blockers. Hypoxia induced a slight increase inROS production (as measured by 2,7-dichlorofluorescein-fluorescence), but hypoxia-induced relaxation was not affected by scavenging of superoxide (polyethylene glycol-superoxide dismutase) or H(2)O(2) (polyethylene glycol-catalase) or by NADPH-oxidase inhibition (apocynin). Also, the K(+) channel inhibitors tetraethylammonium (nonselective), diphenyl phosphine oxide-1 (voltage-gated K(+) channel 1.5), glibenclamide (ATP-sensitive K(+) channel), iberiotoxin (large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel), and BaCl(2) (inward-rectifying K(+) channel), as well as ouabain (Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase inhibitor) did not affect hypoxia-induced relaxation. The relaxation was enhanced in the presence of the voltage-gated K(+) channel blocker 4-aminopyridine. In conclusion, our experiments suggest that the mETC plays a critical role in O(2) sensing in fetal chicken femoral arteries. In contrast, hypoxia-induced relaxation appears not to be mediated by ROS or K(+) channels.

  17. Development and validation of a LC-MS method with electrospray ionization for the determination of the imidazole H3 antagonist ROS203 in rat plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacondio, Federica; Silva, Claudia; Fioni, Alessandro; Mor, Marco; Rivara, Mirko; Bordi, Fabrizio; Flammini, Lisa; Ballabeni, Vigilio; Barocelli, Elisabetta

    2008-01-01

    A rapid, simple and sensitive liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method was developed and validated for the determination of the imidazole H(3) antagonist ROS203 in rat plasma, using the superior homologue ROS287 as internal standard. Analyses were performed on an Agilent 1100 Series HPLC system employing a Supelco Ascentis C(18) column and isocratic elution with acetonitrile-10mM ammonium acetate buffer pH 4.0 (30:70, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min. An Applied Biosystems/MDS Sciex 150-EX single quadrupole mass spectrometer, equipped with an electrospray ionization interface was employed, operating in the positive ion mode. Plasma samples were deproteinized with acetonitrile (1:2), evaporated under nitrogen stream, reconstituted in the mobile phase and 5 microL were injected into the system. The retention times of ROS203 and IS were 2.20 and 2.90 min, respectively. Calibration curves in spiked plasma were linear over the concentration range of 2610-2.61 ng/mL with determination coefficients >0.99. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 2.61 ng/mL. The accuracy of the method was within 15%. Intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations were less or equal to 9.50% or 7.19%, respectively. The applicability of the LC-MS method was tested employing plasma samples obtained after i.p. administration of ROS203 to female Wistar rats to support a behavioral in vivo study. The specificity of the method was confirmed by the absence of interferences from endogenous substances. The reported method can provide the necessary sensitivity, linearity, precision, accuracy and specificity to allow the determination of ROS203 in rat plasma samples to support further pharmacokinetic assays. PMID:17959330

  18. Salidroside protects Caenorhabditis elegans neurons from polyglutamine-mediated toxicity by reducing oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lingyun; Li, Haifeng; Zhang, Ju; Yang, Fan; Huang, Aizhen; Deng, Jingjing; Liang, Ming; Ma, Fangli; Hu, Minghua; Huang, Zebo

    2014-01-01

    Polyglutamine (polyQ) aggregation plays a pivotal role in the pathological process of Huntington's disease and other polyQ disorders. Therefore, strategies aiming at restoring dysfunction and reducing stresses mediated by polyQ toxicity are of therapeutic interest for proteotoxicity diseases. Salidroside, a glycoside from Rhodiola rosea, has been shown to have a variety of bioactivities, including antioxidant activity. Using transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans models, we show here that salidroside is able to reduce neuronal death and behavioral dysfunction mediated by polyQ expressed in ASH neurons, but the neuroprotective effect is not associated with prevention of polyQ aggregation per se. Further experiments reveal that the neuroprotective effect of salidroside in C. elegans models involves its antioxidant capabilities, including decrease of ROS levels and paraquat-induced mortality, increase of antioxidant enzyme activities and reduction of lipid peroxidation. These results demonstrate that salidroside exerts its neuroprotective function against polyQ toxicity via oxidative stress pathways. PMID:24918543

  19. Generalized causal mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Jeffrey M; Nelson, Suchitra

    2011-09-01

    The goal of mediation analysis is to assess direct and indirect effects of a treatment or exposure on an outcome. More generally, we may be interested in the context of a causal model as characterized by a directed acyclic graph (DAG), where mediation via a specific path from exposure to outcome may involve an arbitrary number of links (or "stages"). Methods for estimating mediation (or pathway) effects are available for a continuous outcome and a continuous mediator related via a linear model, while for a categorical outcome or categorical mediator, methods are usually limited to two-stage mediation. We present a method applicable to multiple stages of mediation and mixed variable types using generalized linear models. We define pathway effects using a potential outcomes framework and present a general formula that provides the effect of exposure through any specified pathway. Some pathway effects are nonidentifiable and their estimation requires an assumption regarding the correlation between counterfactuals. We provide a sensitivity analysis to assess the impact of this assumption. Confidence intervals for pathway effect estimates are obtained via a bootstrap method. The method is applied to a cohort study of dental caries in very low birth weight adolescents. A simulation study demonstrates low bias of pathway effect estimators and close-to-nominal coverage rates of confidence intervals. We also find low sensitivity to the counterfactual correlation in most scenarios. PMID:21306353

  20. Gravity in gauge mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate O'Raifeartaigh-type models for F-term supersymmetry breaking in gauge mediation scenarios in the presence of gravity. It is pointed out that the vacuum structure of those models is such that in metastable vacua gravity mediation contribution to scalar masses is always suppressed to the level below 1 percent, almost sufficient for avoiding FCNC problem. Close to that limit, gravitino mass can be in the range 10-100 GeV, opening several interesting possibilities for gauge mediation models, including Giudice-Masiero mechanism for ? and B? generation. Gravity sector can include stabilized moduli.

  1. Axionic Mirage Mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this talk, we propose a model of mirage mediation, in which Peccei-Quinn symmetry is incorporated. In this axionic mirage mediation, it is shown that the Peccei-Quinn symmetry breaking scale is dynamically determined around 1010 GeV to 1012 GeV due to the supersymmetry breaking effects. The problems in the original mirage mediation such as the ?-problem and the moduli problem can be solved simultaneouly. Furthermore, in our model the axino, which is the superpartner of the axion, is the lightest sparticle.

  2. General resonance mediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGarrie, Moritz

    2012-07-15

    We extend the framework of general gauge mediation to cases where the mediating fields have a nontrivial spectral function, as might arise from strong dynamics. We demonstrate through examples that this setup describes a broad class of possible models of gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking. A main emphasis is to give general formulas for cross sections for {sigma}(visible {yields} hidden) in these resonance models. We will also give formulas for soft masses, A-terms and demonstrate the framework with a holographic setup.

  3. Enfermera en los "Años del Hambre": El relato de Amelia Ros, enfermera puericultora Being a nurse in the "Hunger Years"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Martínez Pozo

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Amelia Ros, enfermera puericultora, nos ofrece la oportunidad de conocer a través de su relato biográfico una página que ya pertenece a la historia de la enfermería reciente, aquella que aún puede rememorarse por personas que la vivieron. Me refiero a la enfermería de la posguerra. Nuestra informante nos adentra en unas manifestaciones de la profesión de los cuidados que no se entenderían si no se comprende el contexto donde tuvieron lugar, por eso ella pone énfasis en mostrar aspectos como los valores en los que se asentaba, la profesión vivida como una vocación, el cumplimiento del deber, el servicio a la persona como algo sagrado. También nos describe los campos de acción en los que actuaba: para las enfermeras de esta época lo sanitario iba unido a lo social, como algo indivisible debido a la situación económica y social en que se vivía en la España de los años cuarenta, como ella nos dice "eran años del hambre". Con su relato me gustaría reconocer y hacer memoria de las enfermeras de esa época que a través de tantas dificultades supieron dar un paso adelante en la historia de la mujer y de la enfermería con su trabajo y su hacer personal.Amelia Ros, a children's nurse, gives us the opportunity of getting to know through her biographic story the recent nurse's history, the one that can be remembered through the people that lived it. We are talking about the nursing in the Spanish post civil war. Our informant guides us through an expression of the care profession that wouldn't make sense if we don't locate it in the context where it took place. For that reason, she emphasizes the core values of the profession, how being a nurse was a vocation, it was to accomplish a duty, and how giving care was considered as something sacred. The fields in which she acted are also described. At those times nurses considered that sanitary and social services were linked, it was something indivisible due to the economic and social context of Spain in the forties (the hunger years, as she describes it. With her story I would like to acknowledge nurses of those times that faced so many difficulties and that served to advance in the women and nurse history thanks to their jobs and her personal work.

  4. Surface modification of amorphous nanosilica particles suppresses nanosilica-induced cytotoxicity, ROS generation, and DNA damage in various mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? There is increasing concern regarding the potential health risks of nanomaterials. ? We evaluated the effect of surface properties of nanomaterials on cellular responses. ? We showed that the surface properties play an important in determining its safety. ? These data provide useful information for producing safer nanomaterials. -- Abstract: Recently, nanomaterials have been utilized in various fields. In particular, amorphous nanosilica particles are increasingly being used in a range of applications, including cosmetics, food technology, and medical diagnostics. However, there is concern that the unique characteristics of nanomaterials might induce undesirable effects. The roles played by the physical characteristics of nanomaterials in cellular responses have not yet been elucidated precisely. Here, by using nanosilica particles (nSPs) with a diameter of 70 nm whose surface was either unmodified (nSP70) or modified with amine (nSP70-N) or carboxyl groups (nSP70-C), we examined the relationship between the surface properties of nSPs and cellular responses such as cytotoxicity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and DNA damage. To compare the cytotoxicity of nSP70, nSP70-N, or nSP70-C, we examined in vitro cell viability after nSP treatment. Although the susceptibility of each cell line to the nSPs was different, nSP70-C and nSP70-N showed lower cytotoxicity than nSP70 in all cell lines. Furthermore, the generation of ROS and induction of DNA damage in nSP70-C- and nSP70-N-treated cells were lower than those in nSP70-treated cells. These results suggest that the surface properties of nSP70 play an important role in determining its safety, and surface modification of nSP70 with amine or carboxyl groups may be useful for the development of safer nSPs. We hope that our results will contribute to the development of safer nanomaterials.

  5. Epithelial adhesion mediated by pilin SpaC is required for Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-induced cellular responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardita, Courtney S; Mercante, Jeffrey W; Kwon, Young Man; Luo, Liping; Crawford, Madelyn E; Powell, Domonica N; Jones, Rheinallt M; Neish, Andrew S

    2014-08-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is a widely used probiotic, and the strain's salutary effects on the intestine have been extensively documented. We previously reported that strain GG can modulate inflammatory signaling, as well as epithelial migration and proliferation, by activating NADPH oxidase 1-catalyzed generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, how strain GG induces these responses is unknown. Here, we report that strain GG's probiotic benefits are dependent on the bacterial-epithelial interaction mediated by the SpaC pilin subunit. By comparing strain GG to an isogenic mutant that lacks SpaC (strain GG?spaC), we establish that SpaC is necessary for strain GG to adhere to gut mucosa, that SpaC contributes to strain GG-induced epithelial generation of ROS, and that SpaC plays a role in strain GG's capacity to stimulate extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK/MAPK) signaling in enterocytes. In addition, we show that SpaC is required for strain GG-mediated stimulation of cell proliferation and protection against radiologically inflicted intestinal injury. The identification of a critical surface protein required for strain GG to mediate its probiotic influence advances our understanding of the molecular basis for the symbiotic relationship between some commensal bacteria of the gut lumen and enterocytes. Further insights into this relationship are critical for the development of novel approaches to treat intestinal diseases. PMID:24928883

  6. Dieckol Attenuates Microglia-mediated Neuronal Cell Death via ERK, Akt and NADPH Oxidase-mediated Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yanji; Park, Jee-Yun; Wu, Jinji; Lee, Ji Hyung; Yang, Yoon-Sil; Kang, Moon-Seok; Jung, Sung-Cherl; Park, Joo Min; Yoo, Eun-Sook; Kim, Seong-Ho; Ahn Jo, Sangmee; Suk, Kyoungho; Eun, Su-Yong

    2015-05-01

    Excessive microglial activation and subsequent neuroinflammation lead to synaptic loss and dysfunction as well as neuronal cell death, which are involved in the pathogenesis and progression of several neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, the regulation of microglial activation has been evaluated as effective therapeutic strategies. Although dieckol (DEK), one of the phlorotannins isolated from marine brown alga Ecklonia cava, has been previously reported to inhibit microglial activation, the molecular mechanism is still unclear. Therefore, we investigated here molecular mechanism of DEK via extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), Akt and nicotinamide adenine dinuclelotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase-mediated pathways. In addition, the neuroprotective mechanism of DEK was investigated in microglia-mediated neurotoxicity models such as neuron-microglia co-culture and microglial conditioned media system. Our results demonstrated that treatment of anti-oxidant DEK potently suppressed phosphorylation of ERK in lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1 µg/ml)-stimulated BV-2 microglia. In addition, DEK markedly attenuated Akt phosphorylation and increased expression of gp91 (phox) , which is the catalytic component of NADPH oxidase complex responsible for microglial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Finally, DEK significantly attenuated neuronal cell death that is induced by treatment of microglial conditioned media containing neurotoxic secretary molecules. These neuroprotective effects of DEK were also confirmed in a neuron-microglia co-culture system using enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-transfected B35 neuroblastoma cell line. Taken together, these results suggest that DEK suppresses excessive microglial activation and microglia-mediated neuronal cell death via downregulation of ERK, Akt and NADPH oxidase-mediated pathways. PMID:25954126

  7. Icaritin attenuates cigarette smoke-mediated oxidative stress in human lung epithelial cells via activation of PI3K-AKT and Nrf2 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinfeng; Xu, Hailin; Wong, Pok Fai; Xia, Shijin; Xu, Jinhua; Dong, Jingcheng

    2014-02-01

    Icariin is the major active ingredient of Herba Epimedii. Icaritin (ICT) is a hydrolytic product of Icariin. In the present study, we investigated the protective role of ICT against cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-mediated oxidative stress in human lung epithelial A549 cells. As demonstrated by the WST-8 assay, exposure to CSE (2.5%, 5%, and 10%) reduced the cell viability of A549 cells (84%, 64% and 53%) in a dose-dependent manner and treatment with ICT 10 ?M dramatically attenuated CSE induced cytotoxicity (73% and 64%). The MFI data suggested that CSE induced oxidative stress by generating ROS (230) and 10 ?M ICT treatment attenuated CSE-induced ROS production (90). 10 ?M ICT treatment resulted in significant AKT activation, Nrf2 nuclear translocation, increased GCL transcription and GSH levels, as compared with CSE exposure alone. However, ICT-mediated upregulation of GCL transcription in CSE-treated cells were lost in Nrf2 siRNA-transfected cells. Furthermore, inhibition of PI3K/AKT signaling by LY294002 partially prevents ICT-induced nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and GCL transcription. These findings suggest that ICT attenuates CS-induced oxidative stress by quenching ROS and also by upregulating GSH via a PI3K-AKT-Nrf2-dependent mechanism. Further studies are required to confirm that a similar protective effect of ICT occurs in the lungs in vivo in response to CS exposure. PMID:24333105

  8. Ethanol-induced apoptosis in human liver adenocarcinoma cells (SK-Hep1): Fas- and mitochondria-mediated pathways and interaction with MAPK signaling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morio, Yuri; Tsuji, Mayumi; Inagaki, Manami; Nakagawa, Mai; Asaka, Yuri; Oyamada, Hideto; Furuya, Kanji; Oguchi, Katsuji

    2013-09-01

    For studying molecular mechanisms regulating the fate of ethanol-treated hepatocytes, involvement of Fas in ethanol-induced apoptosis was examined in human liver adenocarcinoma (SK-Hep1) cells in which the function of Fas-associated death domain (FADD) protein was knocked down by transfection. In FADD-knocked down cells, while ethanol-induced increase in generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was unaffected, apoptosis was significantly suppressed, demonstrating the involvement of Fas in ethanol-induced hepatocyte apoptosis more directly than in the past reports. On the other hand, effects of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), which is well known to determine the fate of various cells, on ethanol-induced apoptosis have not been examined in SK-Hep1 cells. Of three major MAPKs, only p38 MAPK and JNK were found activated by 200 mM ethanol treatment. When cells were incubated with inhibitors of p38 MAPK and JNK, ethanol-induced apoptosis was decreased while ROS generation was unaffected, and examination of pro-apoptotic Bax and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 levels showed decrease of the former and increase of the latter. We concluded that oxidative stress inflicted by ROS triggered Fas-mediated and mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathways in ethanol-treated SK-Hep1 cells, and that p38 MAPK and JNK were promoting mitochondrial pathway, suggesting interaction between apoptosis and MAPK signaling systems. PMID:23726865

  9. Analysis of changes in microRNA expression profiles in response to the troxerutin-mediated antioxidant effect in human dermal papilla cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kyung Mi; An, Sungkwan; Lee, Ok-Kyu; Lee, Myung Joo; Lee, Jeong Pyo; Lee, Kwang Sik; Lee, Ghang Tai; Lee, Kun Kook; Bae, Seunghee

    2015-08-01

    Dermal papilla (DP) cells function as important regulators of the hair growth cycle. The loss of these cells is a primary cause of diseases characterized by hair loss, including alopecia, and evidence has revealed significantly increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in hair tissue and DP cells in the balding population. In the present study, troxerutin, a flavonoid derivative of rutin, was demonstrated to have a protective effect against H2O2?mediated cellular damage in human DP (HDP) cells. Biochemical assays revealed that pretreatment with troxerutin exerted a protective effect against H2O2?induced loss of cell viability and H2O2?induced cell death. Further experiments confirmed that troxerutin inhibited the H2O2?induced production of ROS and upregulation of senescence?associated ??galactosidase activity. Using microRNA (miRNA) microarrays, the present study identified 24 miRNAs, which were differentially expressed in the troxerutin?pretreated, H2O2?treated HDP cells. Subsequent prediction using bioinformatics analysis revealed that the altered miRNAs were functionally involved in several cell signaling pathways, including the mitogen?activated protein kinase and WNT pathways. Overall, these results indicated that ROS?mediated cellular damage was inhibited by troxerutin and suggested that the use of troxerutin may be an effective approach in the treatment of alopecia. PMID:25955790

  10. Mediation in Romanian Legislation

    OpenAIRE

    Gianina Anemona Radu

    2012-01-01

    The complexity of the current social relations generates the necessity of developing and applyingnew methods of settling conflicts. Mediation can serve as an effective tool in resolving various conflictsincluding the criminal matters. This article gives a panoramic view on the application of the concept ofmediation and highlights the main features of mediation in criminal cases as they are reported to the nationallegislation and the legislation of Romania. Therefore the advantages of mediatio...

  11. Images and mediation

    OpenAIRE

    Olivier, Bert

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the question of mediation via images. Its point of departure is the work of Kant on the mediation of human reality by the faculty of reason, including imagination and the forms of space and time, as well as the categories of the understanding, all of which combine to render an intelligible, spatiotemporal world, as opposed to the inaccessible realm of ‘things-in-themselves’. This is followed by a scrutiny of Gombrich’s claim, that artistic schemata comp...

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL CONFLICT MEDIATION

    OpenAIRE

    Mihut, Gabriela G.

    2011-01-01

    At a time of global economic crisis followed by resource crisis, a period in which the world seeks alternative resources through eco-investment, environmental conflicts are inevitable. Romania is among the few countries that do not pay enough attention to environmental conflicts and to the advantages to of solving them through mediation procedure. The present paper deals with areas in which conflicts can be applied in environmental mediation and its benefits.

  13. Azoxystrobin-induced excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and inhibition of photosynthesis in the unicellular green algae Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Zhu, Bin; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the short-term toxicity of azoxystrobin (AZ), one of strobilurins used as an effective fungicidal agent to control the Asian soybean rust, on aquatic unicellular algae Chlorella vulgaris. The median percentile inhibition concentration (IC50) of AZ for C. vulgaris was found to be 510 ?g L(-1). We showed that the algal cells were obviously depressed or shrunk in 300 and 600 ?g L(-1) AZ treatments by using the electron microscopy. Furthermore, 19, 75, and 300 ?g L(-1) AZ treatments decreased the soluble protein content and chlorophyll concentrations in C. vulgaris and altered the energy-photosynthesis-related mRNA expression levels in 48- and 96-h exposure periods. Simultaneously, our results showed that AZ could increase the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) level and compromise superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), glutathione S transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, and glutathione (GSH) content. These situations might render C. vulgaris more vulnerable to oxidative damage. Overall, the present study indicated that AZ might be toxic to the growth of C. vulgaris, affect energy-photosynthesis-related mRNA expressions, and induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction in C. vulgaris. PMID:25672875

  14. Fluoride Increases Superoxide Production and Impairs the Respiratory Chain in ROS 17/2.8 Osteoblastic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fina, Brenda Lorena; Lombarte, Mercedes; Rigalli, Juan Pablo; Rigalli, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    It is known that fluoride produces oxidative stress. Inflammation in bone tissue and an impairment of the respiratory chain of liver have been described in treatments with fluoride. Whether the impairment of the respiratory chain and oxidative stress are related is not known. The aim of this work was to study the effects of fluoride on the production of superoxide radical, the function of the respiratory chain and the increase in oxidative stress in ROS 17/2.8 osteoblastic cells. We measured the effect of fluoride (100 µM) on superoxide production, oxygen consumption, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes activities of cultured cells following the treatment with fluoride. Fluoride decreased oxygen consumption and increased superoxide production immediately after its addition. Furthermore, chronic treatment with fluoride increased oxidative stress status in osteoblastic cells. These results indicate that fluoride could damage bone tissue by inhibiting the respiratory chain, increasing the production of superoxide radicals and thus of the others reactive oxygen species. PMID:24964137

  15. Aspergillus fumigatus stimulates the NLRP3 inflammasome through a pathway requiring ROS production and the Syk tyrosine kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saïd-Sadier, Najwane; Padilla, Eduardo; Langsley, Gordon; Ojcius, David M

    2010-01-01

    Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a life-threatening disease that occurs in immunodepressed patients when infected with Aspergillus fumigatus. This fungus is the second most-common causative agent of fungal disease after Candida albicans. Nevertheless, much remains to be learned about the mechanisms by which A. fulmigatus activates the innate immune system. We investigated the inflammatory response to conidia and hyphae of A. fumigatus and specifically, their capacity to trigger activation of an inflammasome. Our results show that in contrast to conidia, hyphal fragments induce NLRP3 inflammasome assembly, caspase-1 activation and IL-1beta release from a human monocyte cell line. The ability of Aspergillus hyphae to activate the NLRP3 inflammasome in the monocytes requires K(+) efflux and ROS production. In addition, our data show that NLRP3 inflammasome activation as well as pro-IL-1beta expression relies on the Syk tyrosine kinase, which is downstream from the pathogen recognition receptor Dectin-1, reinforcing the importance of Dectin-1 in the innate immune response against fungal infection. Furthermore, we show that treatment of monocytes with corticosteroids inhibits transcription of the gene encoding IL-1beta. Thus, our data demonstrate that the innate immune response against A. fumigatus infection involves a two step activation process, with a first signal promoting expression and synthesis of pro-IL-1beta; and a second signal, involving Syk-induced activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and caspase-1, allowing processing and secretion of the mature cytokine. PMID:20368800

  16. ROS-induced DNA damage and PARP-1 are required for optimal induction of starvation-induced autophagy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez-Vargas, José Manuel; Ruiz-Magaña, María José

    2012-01-01

    In response to nutrient stress, cells start an autophagy program that can lead to adaptation or death. The mechanisms underlying the signaling from starvation to the initiation of autophagy are not fully understood. In the current study we show that the absence or inactivation of PARP-1 strongly delays starvation-induced autophagy. We have found that DNA damage is an early event of starvation-induced autophagy as measured by ¿-H2AX accumulation and comet assay, with PARP-1 knockout cells displaying a reduction in both parameters. During starvation, ROS-induced DNA damage activates PARP-1, leading to ATP depletion (an early event after nutrient deprivation). The absence of PARP-1 blunted AMPK activation and prevented the complete loss of mTOR activity, leading to a delay in autophagy. PARP-1 depletion favors apoptosis in starved cells, suggesting a pro-survival role of autophagy and PARP-1 activation after nutrient deprivation. In vivo results show that neonates of PARP-1 mutant mice subjected to acute starvation, also display deficient liver autophagy, implying a physiological role for PARP-1 in starvation-induced autophagy. Thus, the PARP signaling pathway is a key regulator of the initial steps of autophagy commitment following starvation.

  17. Photocatalytic generation of multiple ROS types using low-temperature crystallized anodic TiO? nanotube arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yulong; Brame, Jonathon; Que, Wenxiu; Xiu, Zongming; Xie, Haixia; Li, Qilin; Fabian, Marian; Alvarez, Pedro J

    2013-09-15

    This study investigates the photocatalytic efficiency, type of reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced, and potential for structural and morphological modification of anodic TiO? nanotubes (NTs) synthesized using a novel, energy efficient, low temperature crystallization process. These TiO? NTs show greater photocatalytic efficiency than traditional high-temperature sintered NTs or supported Degussa P25 TiO?, as measured by degradation of methyl orange, a model organic dye pollutant. EPR analysis shows that low-temperature crystallized TiO? NTs generate both hydroxyl radicals and singlet oxygen, while high-temperature sintered TiO? NTs generate primarily hydroxyl radicals but no singlet oxygen. This "cocktail" of reactive oxygen species, combined with an increased surface area, contributes to the increased efficiency of this photocatalytic material. Furthermore, variation of the NT crystallization parameters enables control of structural and morphological properties so that TiO?-NTs can be optimized for scale-up and for specific treatment scenarios. PMID:23811364

  18. Protective effect of myokine IL-15 against H2O2-mediated oxidative stress in skeletal muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengna; Li, Yinghui; Tang, Yulong; Lin, Binbin; Kong, Xiangfeng; Oladele, Oso Abimbola; Yin, Yulong

    2014-11-01

    The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during oxidative stress may cause cellular injury. Interleukin-15 (IL-15) is one of the skeletal muscle secreted myokines, and there is no information that reported its anti-oxidative capability in skeletal muscle. The aim of this study therefore is to investigate the protective effects of myokine IL-15 against H2O2-mediated oxidative stress in C2C12 myoblasts. The results showed that IL-15 pre-incubation reduced the intracellular creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities, decreased the ROS overload, and protect the mitochondrial network via up-regulated mRNA expression levels of IL-15 and uncoupling protein 3. It also down-regulated the levels of IL-6 and p21 of the myoblasts compared to the cells treated only with H2O2. Meanwhile, apurinic/aprimidinic endonuclease 1 expression and the Akt signaling pathway were stimulated. These effects could contribute to the resumption of cell viability and act as protective mechanism. In conclusion, myokine IL-15 could be a novel endogenous regulator to control intracellular ROS production and attenuate oxidative stress in skeletal muscle cells. PMID:25103021

  19. Reactive oxygen species mediate Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis through PI3K/AKT-dependent activation of GSK-3?/?-catenin signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cr(VI) compounds are known human carcinogens that primarily target the lungs. Cr(VI) produces reactive oxygen species (ROS), but the exact effects of ROS on the signaling molecules involved in Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis have not been extensively studied. Chronic exposure of human bronchial epithelial cells to Cr(VI) at nanomolar concentrations (10–100 nM) for 3 months not only induced cell transformation, but also increased the potential of these cells to invade and migrate. Injection of Cr(VI)-stimulated cells into nude mice resulted in the formation of tumors. Chronic exposure to Cr(VI) increased levels of intracellular ROS and antiapoptotic proteins. Transfection with catalase or superoxide dismutase (SOD) prevented Cr(VI)-mediated increases in colony formation, cell invasion, migration, and xenograft tumors. While chronic Cr(VI) exposure led to activation of signaling cascades involving PI3K/AKT/GSK-3?/?-catenin and PI3K/AKT/mTOR, transfection with catalase or SOD markedly inhibited Cr(VI)-mediated activation of these signaling proteins. Inhibitors specific for AKT or ?-catenin almost completely suppressed the Cr(VI)-mediated increase in total and active ?-catenin proteins and colony formation. In particular, Cr(VI) suppressed autophagy of epithelial cells under nutrition deprivation. Furthermore, there was a marked induction of AKT, GSK-3?, ?-catenin, mTOR, and carcinogenic markers in tumor tissues formed in mice after injection with Cr(VI)-stimulated cells. Collectively, our findings suggest that ROS is a key mediator of Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis through the activation of PI3K/AKT-dependent GSK-3?/?-catenin signaling and the promotion of cell survival mechanisms via the inhibition of apoptosis and autophagy. - Highlights: • Chronic exposure to Cr(VI) induces carcinogenic properties in BEAS-2B cells. • ROS play an important role in Cr(VI)-induced tumorigenicity of BEAS-2B cells. • PI3K/AKT/GSK-3?/?-catenin signaling involved in Cr(VI) carcinogenesis. • The inhibition of apoptosis and autophagy contributes to Cr(VI) carcinogenesis

  20. Reactive oxygen species mediate Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis through PI3K/AKT-dependent activation of GSK-3?/?-catenin signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Young-Ok; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Wang, Lei; Wang, Xin; Fan, Jia; Kim, Dong-Hern; Lee, Ju-Yeon; Zhang, Zhuo [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0305 (United States); Lee, Jeong-Chae [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0305 (United States); School of Dentistry and Institute of Oral Biosciences, Research Center of Bioactive Materials, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Shi, Xianglin, E-mail: xshi5@email.uky.edu [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0305 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Cr(VI) compounds are known human carcinogens that primarily target the lungs. Cr(VI) produces reactive oxygen species (ROS), but the exact effects of ROS on the signaling molecules involved in Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis have not been extensively studied. Chronic exposure of human bronchial epithelial cells to Cr(VI) at nanomolar concentrations (10–100 nM) for 3 months not only induced cell transformation, but also increased the potential of these cells to invade and migrate. Injection of Cr(VI)-stimulated cells into nude mice resulted in the formation of tumors. Chronic exposure to Cr(VI) increased levels of intracellular ROS and antiapoptotic proteins. Transfection with catalase or superoxide dismutase (SOD) prevented Cr(VI)-mediated increases in colony formation, cell invasion, migration, and xenograft tumors. While chronic Cr(VI) exposure led to activation of signaling cascades involving PI3K/AKT/GSK-3?/?-catenin and PI3K/AKT/mTOR, transfection with catalase or SOD markedly inhibited Cr(VI)-mediated activation of these signaling proteins. Inhibitors specific for AKT or ?-catenin almost completely suppressed the Cr(VI)-mediated increase in total and active ?-catenin proteins and colony formation. In particular, Cr(VI) suppressed autophagy of epithelial cells under nutrition deprivation. Furthermore, there was a marked induction of AKT, GSK-3?, ?-catenin, mTOR, and carcinogenic markers in tumor tissues formed in mice after injection with Cr(VI)-stimulated cells. Collectively, our findings suggest that ROS is a key mediator of Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis through the activation of PI3K/AKT-dependent GSK-3?/?-catenin signaling and the promotion of cell survival mechanisms via the inhibition of apoptosis and autophagy. - Highlights: • Chronic exposure to Cr(VI) induces carcinogenic properties in BEAS-2B cells. • ROS play an important role in Cr(VI)-induced tumorigenicity of BEAS-2B cells. • PI3K/AKT/GSK-3?/?-catenin signaling involved in Cr(VI) carcinogenesis. • The inhibition of apoptosis and autophagy contributes to Cr(VI) carcinogenesis.

  1. The inhibitory effect of CIL-102 on the growth of human astrocytoma cells is mediated by the generation of reactive oxygen species and induction of ERK1/2 MAPK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teng, Chih-Chuan [Institute of Nursing and Department of Nursing, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Chronic Diseases and Health Promotion Research Center, CGUST, Taiwan (China); Institute of Basic Medicine Science, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Kuo, Hsing-Chun [Institute of Nursing and Department of Nursing, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Chronic Diseases and Health Promotion Research Center, CGUST, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Ho-Chen [Department of General Education, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, CGUST, Taiwan (China); Wang, Ting-Chung [Department of Neurosurgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chia-Yi Center, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Sciences, Chang Gung University, Gueishan, Taiwan (China); Sze, Chun-I, E-mail: szec@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Institute of Basic Medicine Science, Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy and Pathology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China)

    2012-08-15

    CIL-102 (1-[4-(furo[2,3-b]quinolin-4-ylamino)phenyl]ethanone) is the major active agent of the alkaloid derivative of Camptotheca acuminata, with multiple pharmacological activities, including anticancer effects and promotion of apoptosis. The mechanism by which CIL-102 inhibits growth remains poorly understood in human astrocytoma cells. Herein, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which CIL-102 affects the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell cycle G2/M arrest in glioma cells. Treatment of U87 cells with 1.0 ?M CIL-102 resulted in phosphorylation of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK1/2), downregulation of cell cycle-related proteins (cyclin A, cyclin B, cyclin D1, and cdk1), and phosphorylation of cdk1Tyr{sup 15} and Cdc25cSer{sup 216}. Furthermore, treatment with the ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 abolished CIL-102-induced Cdc25cSer{sup 216} expression and reversed CIL-102-inhibited cdk1 activation. In addition, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), an ROS scavenger, blocked cell cycle G2/M arrest and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Cdc25cSer{sup 216} in U87 cells. CIL-102-mediated ERK1/2 and ROS production, and cell cycle arrest were blocked by treatment with specific inhibitors. In conclusion, we have identified a novel CIL-102-inhibited proliferation in U87 cells by activating the ERK1/2 and Cdc25cSer{sup 216} cell cycle-related proteins and inducing ROS production; this might be a new mechanism in human astrocytoma cells. -- Highlights: ? We show the effects of CIL-102 on the G2/M arrest of human astrocytoma cells. ? ROS and the Ras/ERK1/2 triggering pathways are involved in the CIL-102 treatment. ? CIL-102 induces sustained activation of ERK1/2 and Cdc25c and ROS are required.

  2. The inhibitory effect of CIL-102 on the growth of human astrocytoma cells is mediated by the generation of reactive oxygen species and induction of ERK1/2 MAPK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CIL-102 (1-[4-(furo[2,3-b]quinolin-4-ylamino)phenyl]ethanone) is the major active agent of the alkaloid derivative of Camptotheca acuminata, with multiple pharmacological activities, including anticancer effects and promotion of apoptosis. The mechanism by which CIL-102 inhibits growth remains poorly understood in human astrocytoma cells. Herein, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which CIL-102 affects the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell cycle G2/M arrest in glioma cells. Treatment of U87 cells with 1.0 ?M CIL-102 resulted in phosphorylation of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK1/2), downregulation of cell cycle-related proteins (cyclin A, cyclin B, cyclin D1, and cdk1), and phosphorylation of cdk1Tyr15 and Cdc25cSer216. Furthermore, treatment with the ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 abolished CIL-102-induced Cdc25cSer216 expression and reversed CIL-102-inhibited cdk1 activation. In addition, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), an ROS scavenger, blocked cell cycle G2/M arrest and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Cdc25cSer216 in U87 cells. CIL-102-mediated ERK1/2 and ROS production, and cell cycle arrest were blocked by treatment with specific inhibitors. In conclusion, we have identified a novel CIL-102-inhibited proliferation in U87 cells by activating the ERK1/2 and Cdc25cSer216 cell cycle-related proteins and inducing ROS production; this might be a new mechanism in human astrocytoma cells. -- Highlights: ? We show the effects of CIL-102 on the G2/M arrest of human astrocytoma cells. ? ROS and the Ras/ERK1/2 triggering pathways are involved in the CIL-102 treatment. ? CIL-102 induces sustained activation of ERK1/2 and Cdc25c and ROS are required.

  3. Protective effect of the poly(ADP-ribose polymerase inhibitor PJ34 on mitochondrial depolarization-mediated cell death in hepatocellular carcinoma cells involves attenuation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase-2 and protein kinase B/Akt activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radnai Balazs

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 2,4-Dimethoxyphenyl-E-4-arylidene-3-isochromanone (IK11 was previously described to induce apoptotic death of A431 tumor cells. In this report, we investigated the molecular action of IK11 in the HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line to increase our knowledge of the role of poly (ADP-ribose-polymerase (PARP, protein kinase B/Akt and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK activation in the survival and death of tumor cells and to highlight the possible role of PARP-inhibitors in co-treatments with different cytotoxic agents in cancer therapy. Results We found that sublethal concentrations of IK11 prevented proliferation, migration and entry of the cells into their G2 phase. At higher concentrations, IK11 induced reactive oxygen species (ROS production, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2 (JNK2, and substantial loss of HepG2 cells. ROS production appeared marginal in mediating the cytotoxicity of IK11 since N-acetyl cysteine was unable to prevent it. However, the PARP inhibitor PJ34, although not a ROS scavenger, strongly inhibited both IK11-induced ROS production and cell death. JNK2 activation seemed to be a major mediator of the effect of IK11 since inhibition of JNK resulted in a substantial cytoprotection while inhibitors of the other kinases failed to do so. Inhibition of Akt slightly diminished the effect of IK11, while the JNK and Akt inhibitor and ROS scavenger trans-resveratrol completely protected against it. Conclusions These results indicate significant involvement of PARP, a marginal role of ROS and a pro-apoptotic role of Akt in this system, and raise attention to a novel mechanism that should be considered when cancer therapy is augmented with PARP-inhibition, namely the cytoprotection by inhibition of JNK2.

  4. The mediation procedure in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandrina Zaharia; Monica Saleh-Ali

    2009-01-01

    The mediation activity as an alternative way of solving conflicts occupies an important place in modernsociety. Currently, the mediation reached its maturity worldwide being adopted without reservations.The future of solving conflicts is undoubtedly closely related to mediation. XXth century is the century of solvingconflicts amiably outside the court room. In Romania and the mediation profession were regulated by the Law no.192/2006, on the basis of the idea that mediation is one of the majo...

  5. Coenzyme Q0 from Antrodia cinnamomea in Submerged Cultures Induces Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Apoptosis in A549 Human Lung Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Cheng-Han; Yeh, Szu-Chien; Chen, Chun-Jen; Lee, Kung-Ta

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the anticancer effects of Antrodia cinnamomea, a medicinal mushroom from Taiwan, on A549 human lung cancer cells using the ethyl acetate extract from submerged culture filtrates. Our results showed that 2,3-dimethoxy-5-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone (coenzyme Q0; CoQ0) derived from A. cinnamomea submerged culture filtrates has anticancer activity. CoQ0 treatment reduced the viability of A549, HepG2, and SW480 cancer cell lines. Furthermore, CoQ0 induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and apoptosis in A549 cells, which was inhibited by the antioxidant ascorbic acid. To our knowledge, these data demonstrate for the first time that CoQ0 derived from A. cinnamomea submerged culture filtrates exerts its anticancer effect through the induction of ROS-mediated apoptosis in A549 human lung cancer cells. PMID:25431605

  6. Nelfinavir, an HIV protease inhibitor, induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in human cervical cancer cells via the ROS-dependent mitochondrial pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Tong; Du, Lanying; Pham, Petra; Zhu, Bo; Jiang, Shibo

    2015-08-01

    HIV protease inhibitors (HIV-PIs) are a class of antiretroviral drugs designed to target the viral protease. Strikingly, these drugs have also been reported to possess antitumor effect. In this study, we evaluated the activity of one HIV-PI, Nelfinavir, against human cervical cancer cells. We found that Nelfinavir inhibited the growth of cervical cancer cell lines at the lowest micromolar concentrations clinically attainable. Nelfinavir promoted apoptosis and arrested the cell cycle at G1 phase. Apoptosis is attributed to the promotion of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which results in the translocation of mitochondrial apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) to the nucleus. We further showed that Nelfinavir increased mitochondrial ROS production by decreasing manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) protein levels. Taken together, our results suggest that Nelfinavir can be repositioned as a cervical cancer therapeutic. PMID:25937300

  7. Sodium fluoride induces apoptosis through reactive oxygen species-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway in Sertoli cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Lin, Xinwei; Huang, Hui; Feng, Demin; Ba, Yue; Cheng, Xuemin; Cui, Liuxin

    2015-04-01

    Excessive fluoride exposure is known to contribute to reproductive system dysfunction, ultimately leading to pathological damage and apoptosis in cells. Although both oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stresses have been implicated in fluorosis, the signaling pathways and their roles in sodium fluoride (NaF)-induced apoptosis of Sertoli cells have been sparsely described. In this study, oxidative damage, ER stress, and apoptosis were analyzed after Sertoli cells were treated with varying doses of NaF for 24hr. Moreover, the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and pro-apoptotic transcription factor CHOP knockdown were used to clarify the precise interplay between reactive oxygen species (ROS), ER stress and their roles in NaF-induced apoptosis in Sertoli cells. The present study indicated that NaF significantly decreased cell viability and induced apoptosis in Sertoli cells. In addition, NaF exposure facilitated the accumulation of ROS and increased nuclear translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in Sertoli cells. Treatment with NAC caused remarkable recovery from these NaF-induced responses. Meanwhile, excessive NaF triggered ER stress as evidenced by up-regulated glucose-regulated protein 78kDa (GRP78), PKR-like ER kinase (PERK), phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2? (p-eIF2?) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-homologous protein (CHOP), without affecting total eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2? (eIF2?). NAC effectively blocked the activation of ER stress, suggesting that NaF-induced ROS is an early event that triggers ER stress. Taken together, the results demonstrate that the ROS-mediated ER stress pathway is the crucial mechanistic event involved in NaF-induced apoptosis of Sertoli cells. PMID:25872712

  8. Bortezomib induces G2-M arrest in human colon cancer cells through ROS-inducible phosphorylation of ATM-CHK1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yong Sang; Hong, Seung-Woo; Kim, Seung-Mi; Jin, Dong-Hoon; Shin, Jae-Sik; Yoon, Dok Hyun; Kim, Kyu-Pyo; Lee, Jae-Lyun; Heo, Dae Seog; Lee, Jung Shin; Kim, Tae Won

    2012-07-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers; however, the development of drugs to treat the condition has reached a plateau. Bortezomib (PS-341, Velcade®) is a proteasome inhibitor approved for the treatment of hematological malignancies, including multiple myeloma. A few trials of bortezomib, alone or in combination chemotherapy, for CRC patients have been reported; however, the results were largely inconclusive. This may be related to a lack of understanding of the drug's mechanism of action. Although bortezomib is reported to induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in various human cancer cells, the inhibitory mechanism involved is not clear. In this study, the effect of bortezomib as a treatment for human CRC was examined in vitro using three CRC cell lines. Bortezomib induced G2-M arrest in CRC cells. Investigation of G2-M phase-related cell cycle proteins involved in the response to bortezomib revealed that the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-cell cycle checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK1) pathway, but not ATM and Rad3-related (ATR), was activated, resulting in the inactivation of cdc2. Bortezomib caused an increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and treatment with the ROS scavenger NAC inhibited phosphorylation of ATM leading to a decrease in the number of cells in G2-M phase. Thus, increased ROS levels after exposure to bortezomib resulted in ATM phosphorylation. In addition, knockdown of endogenous ATM by RNA interference resulted in decreased sensitivity to bortezomib. These results suggest that bortezomib induces G2-M arrest through ROS-inducible ATM phosphorylation and demonstrate that bortezomib is a potential candidate for further investigations in the treatment for CRC patients. PMID:22552540

  9. Antithetical modes of and the Ca2+ sensors targeting in ANF-RGC and ROS-GC1 membrane guanylate cyclases

    OpenAIRE

    TeresaDuda; Karl-WilhelmKoch

    2012-01-01

    The membrane guanylate cyclase family has been branched into three subfamilies: natriuretic peptide hormone surface receptors, Ca2+-modulated neuronal ROS-GC, and Ca2+-modulated odorant surface receptor ONE-GC. The first subfamily is solely modulated by the extracellularly generated hormonal signals; the second, by the intracellularly generated sensory and sensory-linked signals; and the third, by combination of these two. The present study defines a new paradigm and a new mechanism of Ca2+ s...

  10. Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) activation induces autophagy in thymocytes through ROS-regulated AMPK and Atg4C pathways.

    OpenAIRE

    Farfariello, Valerio

    2012-01-01

    Autophagy is a highly conserved process involved in lymphocyte development and differentiation. Herein, we demonstrated for the first time that triggering of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) by the specific agonist capsaicin (CPS) induces autophagy in mouse thymocytes. TRPV1-dependent autophagy required calcium influx and ROS generation resulting in AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) activation. CPS specifically increased autophagy related 4C (Atg4C) mRNA expression and induced oxida...

  11. Enterococcus faecalis Infection Causes Inflammation, Intracellular Oxphos-Independent ROS Production, and DNA Damage in Human Gastric Cancer Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strickertsson, Jesper A. B; Desler, Claus

    2013-01-01

    Background Achlorhydria caused by e.g. atrophic gastritis allows for bacterial overgrowth, which induces chronic inflammation and damage to the mucosal cells of infected individuals driving gastric malignancies and cancer. Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) can colonize achlohydric stomachs and we therefore wanted to study the impact of E. faecalis infection on inflammatory response, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, mitochondrial respiration, and mitochondrial genetic stability in gastric mucosal cells. Methods To separate the changes induced by bacteria from those of the inflammatory cells we established an in vitro E. faecalis infection model system using the gastric carcinoma cell line MKN74. Total ROS and superoxide was measured by fluorescence microscopy. Cellular oxygen consumption was characterized non-invasively using XF24 microplate based respirometry. Gene expression was examined by microarray, and response pathways were identified by Gene Set Analysis (GSA). Selected gene transcripts were verified by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Mitochondrial mutations were determined by sequencing. Results Infection of MKN74 cells with E. faecalis induced intracellular ROS production through a pathway independent of oxidative phosphorylation (oxphos). Furthermore, E. faecalis infection induced mitochondrial DNA instability. Following infection, genes coding for inflammatory response proteins were transcriptionally up-regulated while DNA damage repair and cell cycle control genes were down-regulated. Cell growth slowed down when infected with viable E. faecalis and responded in a dose dependent manner to E. faecalis lysate. Conclusions Infection by E. faecalis induced an oxphos-independent intracellular ROS response and damaged the mitochondrial genome in gastric cell culture. Finally the bacteria induced an NF-?B inflammatory response as well as impaired DNA damage response and cell cycle control gene expression.

  12. A novel copper complex induces ROS generation in doxorubicin resistant Ehrlich ascitis carcinoma cells and increases activity of antioxidant enzymes in vital organs in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Efferth Thomas; Mukherjee Pratima; Pal Smarajit; Dutta Pranabananda; Panda Gouri S; Chatterjee Shilpak; Majumder Surajit; Basu Jayati; Mookerjee Ananda; Roy Syamal; Choudhuri Soumitra K

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background In search of a suitable GSH-depleting agent, a novel copper complex viz., copper N-(2-hydroxyacetophenone) glycinate (CuNG) has been synthesized, which was initially found to be a potential resistance modifying agent and later found to be an immunomodulator in mice model in different doses. The objective of the present work was to decipher the effect of CuNG on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and antioxidant enzymes in normal and doxorubicin-resistant Ehrlich asci...

  13. Thiourea, a ROS Scavenger, Regulates Source-to-Sink Relationship to Enhance Crop Yield and Oil Content in Brassica juncea (L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Manish; Srivastava, Ashish Kumar; D Souza, Stanislaus Francis; Penna, Suprasanna

    2013-01-01

    In the present agricultural scenario, the major thrust is to increase crop productivity so as to ensure sustainability. In an earlier study, foliar application of thiourea (TU; a non physiological thiol based ROS scavenger) has been demonstrated to enhance the stress tolerance and yield of different crops under field condition. Towards this endeavor, present work deals with the effect of TU on photosynthetic efficiency and source-to-sink relationship of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) for un...

  14. Helicobacter pylori induces IL-1? and IL-18 production in human monocytic cell line through activation of NLRP3 inflammasome via ROS signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Liu, Sheng; Luo, Jingjing; Liu, Anyuan; Tang, Shuangyang; Liu, Shuo; Yu, Minjun; Zhang, Yan

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated whether Helicobacter pylori could activate the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor (NLR) family, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in human macrophages and the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in inflammasome activation. Phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-differentiated human acute monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1 was infected with H. pylori. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-18 in supernatant were measured by ELISA. Intracellular ROS level was analyzed by flow cytometry. Quantitative real-time PCR and western blot analysis were employed to determine the mRNA and protein expression levels of NLRP3 and caspase-1 in THP-1 cells, respectively. Our results showed that H. pylori infection could induce IL-1? and IL-18 production in PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Moreover, secretion of IL-1? and IL-18 in THP-1 cells following H. pylori infection was remarkably reduced by NLRP3-specific small interfering RNA treatment. In addition, the intracellular ROS level was elevated by H. pylori infection, which could be eliminated by the ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Furthermore, NAC treatment could inhibit NLRP3 inflammasome formation and caspase-1 activation and suppress the release of IL-1? and IL-18 from H. pylori-infected THP-1 cells. These findings provide novel insights into the innate immune response against H. pylori infection, which could potentially be used for the prevention and treatment of H. pylori-related diseases. PMID:25834143

  15. Metadata based mediator generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Critchlow, T

    1998-03-01

    Mediators are a critical component of any data warehouse, particularly one utilizing partially materialized views; they transform data from its source format to the warehouse representation while resolving semantic and syntactic conflicts. The close relationship between mediators and databases, requires a mediator to be updated whenever an associated schema is modified. This maintenance may be a significant undertaking if a warehouse integrates several dynamic data sources. However, failure to quickly perform these updates significantly reduces the reliability of the warehouse because queries do not have access to the m current data. This may result in incorrect or misleading responses, and reduce user confidence in the warehouse. This paper describes a metadata framework, and associated software designed to automate a significant portion of the mediator generation task and thereby reduce the effort involved in adapting the schema changes. By allowing the DBA to concentrate on identifying the modifications at a high level, instead of reprogramming the mediator, turnaround time is reduced and warehouse reliability is improved.

  16. Responses of solid tumor cells in DMEM to reactive oxygen species generated by non-thermal plasma and chemically induced ROS systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Neha; Uddin, Nizam; Sim, Geon Bo; Hong, Young June; Baik, Ku Youn; Kim, Chung Hyeok; Lee, Su Jae; Kaushik, Nagendra Kumar; Choi, Eun Ha

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we assessed the role of different reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by soft jet plasma and chemical-induced ROS systems with regard to cell death in T98G, A549, HEK293 and MRC5 cell lines. For a comparison with plasma, we generated superoxide anion (O2(-)), hydroxyl radical (HO·), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) with chemicals inside an in vitro cell culture. Our data revealed that plasma decreased the viability and intracellular ATP values of cells and increased the apoptotic population via a caspase activation mechanism. Plasma altered the mitochondrial membrane potential and eventually up-regulated the mRNA expression levels of BAX, BAK1 and H2AX gene but simultaneously down-regulated the levels of Bcl-2 in solid tumor cells. Moreover, a western blot analysis confirmed that plasma also altered phosphorylated ERK1/2/MAPK protein levels. At the same time, using ROS scavengers with plasma, we observed that scavengers of HO· (mannitol) and H2O2 (catalase and sodium pyruvate) attenuated the activity of plasma on cells to a large extent. In contrast, radicals generated by specific chemical systems enhanced cell death drastically in cancer as well as normal cell lines in a dose-dependent fashion but not specific with regard to the cell type as compared to plasma. PMID:25715710

  17. Silibinin, a natural flavonoid, induces autophagy via ROS-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction and loss of ATP involving BNIP3 in human MCF7 breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Kai; Wang, Wei; Jin, Xin; Wang, Zhaoyang; Ji, Zhiwei; Meng, Guanmin

    2015-06-01

    Silibinin, derived from the milk thistle plant (Silybum marianum), has anticancer and chemopreventive properties. Silibinin has been reported to inhibit the growth of various types of cancer cells. However, the mechanisms by which silibinin exerts an anticancer effect are poorly defined. The present study aimed to investigate whether silibinin-induced cell death might be attributed to autophagy and the underlying mechanisms in human MCF7 breast cancer cells. Our results showed that silibinin-induced cell death was greatly abrogated by two specific autophagy inhibitors, 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and bafilomycin-A1 (Baf-A1). In addition, silibinin triggered the conversion of light chain 3 (LC3)-I to LC3-II, promoted the upregulation of Atg12-Atg5 formation, increased Beclin-1 expression, and decreased the Bcl-2 level. Moreover, we noted elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, concomitant with the dissipation of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (??m) and a drastic decline in ATP levels following silibinin treatment, which were effectively prevented by the antioxidants, N-acetylcysteine and ascorbic acid. Silibinin stimulated the expression of Bcl-2 adenovirus E1B 19-kDa-interacting protein 3 (BNIP3), a pro-death Bcl-2 family member, and silencing of BNIP3 greatly inhibited silibinin-induced cell death, decreased ROS production, and sustained ??m and ATP levels. Taken together, these findings revealed that silibinin induced autophagic cell death through ROS-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction and ATP depletion involving BNIP3 in MCF7 cells. PMID:25891311

  18. Protective effects of salidroside in the MPTP/MPP(+)-induced model of Parkinson's disease through ROS-NO-related mitochondrion pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Songhai; He, Hong; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Xiaojun; Chen, Jianzong

    2015-04-01

    Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease causing tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and gait impairment. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction play important roles in the development of Parkinson disease. Salidroside (Sal), a phenylpropanoid glycoside isolated from Rhodiola rosea L., has potent antioxidant properties. Previous work from our group suggests that Sal might protect dopaminergic neurons through inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) generation. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of Sal in MPTP/MPP(+) models of Parkinson's disease in an attempt to elucidate the underlying mechanism of protection. We found that Sal pretreatment protected dopaminergic neurons against MPTP/MPP(+)-induced toxicity in a dose-dependent manner by: (1) reducing the production of ROS-NO, (2) regulating the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax, (3) decreasing cytochrome-c and Smac release, and inhibiting caspase-3, caspas-6, and caspas-9 activation, and (4) reducing ?-synuclein aggregation. The present study supports the hypothesis that Sal may act as an effective neuroprotective agent through modulation of the ROS-NO-related mitochondrial pathway in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24913834

  19. Responses of Solid Tumor Cells in DMEM to Reactive Oxygen Species Generated by Non-Thermal Plasma and Chemically Induced ROS Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Neha; Uddin, Nizam; Sim, Geon Bo; Hong, Young June; Baik, Ku Youn; Kim, Chung Hyeok; Lee, Su Jae; Kaushik, Nagendra Kumar; Choi, Eun Ha

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we assessed the role of different reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by soft jet plasma and chemical-induced ROS systems with regard to cell death in T98G, A549, HEK293 and MRC5 cell lines. For a comparison with plasma, we generated superoxide anion (O2-), hydroxyl radical (HO.), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) with chemicals inside an in vitro cell culture. Our data revealed that plasma decreased the viability and intracellular ATP values of cells and increased the apoptotic population via a caspase activation mechanism. Plasma altered the mitochondrial membrane potential and eventually up-regulated the mRNA expression levels of BAX, BAK1 and H2AX gene but simultaneously down-regulated the levels of Bcl-2 in solid tumor cells. Moreover, a western blot analysis confirmed that plasma also altered phosphorylated ERK1/2/MAPK protein levels. At the same time, using ROS scavengers with plasma, we observed that scavengers of HO. (mannitol) and H2O2 (catalase and sodium pyruvate) attenuated the activity of plasma on cells to a large extent. In contrast, radicals generated by specific chemical systems enhanced cell death drastically in cancer as well as normal cell lines in a dose-dependent fashion but not specific with regard to the cell type as compared to plasma.

  20. Effect of CO, NOx and SO2 on ROS production, photosynthesis and ascorbate–glutathione pathway to induce Fragaria×annasa as a hyperaccumulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowbiya Muneer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the effect of carbon monoxide (CO, nitroxide (NOx and sulfur dioxide (SO2 on ROS production, photosynthesis and ascorbate–glutathione pathway in strawberry plants. The results showed that both singlet oxygen (O2?1 and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 content increased in CO, NOx and SO2 treated strawberry leaves. A drastic reduction of primary metabolism of plants (photosynthesis, with the closure of stomata, resulted in a reduction of protein, carbohydrate and sucrose content due to production of reactive oxygen species (ROS under prolonged exposure of gas stress. The resulting antioxidant enzymes were increased under a low dose of gas stress, whereas they were decreased due to a high dose of gas stress. Our results indicate that increased ROS may act as a signal to induce defense responses to CO, NOx and SO2 gas stress. The increased level of antioxidant enzymes plays a significant role in plant protection due to which strawberry plants can be used as a hyperaccumulator to maintain environmental pollution, however, the defense capacity cannot sufficiently alleviate oxidative damage under prolonged exposure of CO, NOx and SO2 stress.

  1. Liver-X-receptor activator prevents homocysteine-induced production of IgG antibodies from murine B lymphocytes via the ROS-NF-?B pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our previous study showed that homosysteine (Hcy) promotes proliferation of mouse splenic B lymphocytes. In this study, we investigated whether Hcy could stimulate the production of IgG antibodies. Hcy significantly increased the production of IgG antibodies from resting B lymphocytes. B lymphocytes from ApoE-knockout mice with hyperhomocysteinemia showed elevated IgG secretion at either the basal Hcy level or in response to lipopolysaccharide. Hcy promoted reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, and free radical scavengers, MnTMPyP decreased Hcy-induced IgG secretion. The inhibitor of NF-?B (MG132) also significantly reduced Hcy-induced IgG secretion. Furthermore, Hcy-induced formation of ROS, activation of NF-?B, and secretion of IgG could be inhibited by the liver-X-receptor (LXR) agonist TO 901317. Thus, our data provide strong evidence that HHcy induces IgG production from murine splenic B lymphocytes both in vitro and in vivo. The mechanism might be through the ROS-NF-?B pathway and can be attenuated by the activation of LXR

  2. Berberine induces apoptosis via ROS generation in PANC-1 and MIA-PaCa2 pancreatic cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S H; Sung, J H; Kim, E J; Chung, N

    2015-02-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death. Gemcitabine is widely used as a chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of pancreatic cancer, but the prognosis is still poor. Berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid extracted from a variety of natural herbs, possesses a variety of pharmacological properties including anticancer effects. In this study, we investigated the anticancer effects of berberine and compared its use with that of gemcitabine in the pancreatic cancer cell lines PANC-1 and MIA-PaCa2. Berberine inhibited cell growth in a dose-dependent manner by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. After berberine treatment, the G1 phase of PANC-1 cells increased by 10% compared to control cells, and the G1 phase of MIA-PaCa2 cells was increased by 2%. Whereas gemcitabine exerts antiproliferation effects through S-phase arrest, our results showed that berberine inhibited proliferation by inducing G1-phase arrest. Berberine-induced apoptosis of PANC-1 and MIA-PaCa2 cells increased by 7 and 2% compared to control cells, respectively. Notably, berberine had a greater apoptotic effect in PANC-1 cells than gemcitabine. Upon treatment of PANC-1 and MIA-PaCa2 with berberine at a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50), apoptosis was induced by a mechanism that involved the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) rather than caspase 3/7 activation. Our findings showed that berberine had anti-cancer effects and may be an effective drug for pancreatic cancer chemotherapy. PMID:25517919

  3. Berberine induces apoptosis via ROS generation in PANC-1 and MIA-PaCa2 pancreatic cell lines

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S.H., Park; J.H., Sung; E.J., Kim; N., Chung.

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death. Gemcitabine is widely used as a chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of pancreatic cancer, but the prognosis is still poor. Berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid extracted from a variety of natural herbs, possesses a variety of pharmac [...] ological properties including anticancer effects. In this study, we investigated the anticancer effects of berberine and compared its use with that of gemcitabine in the pancreatic cancer cell lines PANC-1 and MIA-PaCa2. Berberine inhibited cell growth in a dose-dependent manner by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. After berberine treatment, the G1 phase of PANC-1 cells increased by 10% compared to control cells, and the G1 phase of MIA-PaCa2 cells was increased by 2%. Whereas gemcitabine exerts antiproliferation effects through S-phase arrest, our results showed that berberine inhibited proliferation by inducing G1-phase arrest. Berberine-induced apoptosis of PANC-1 and MIA-PaCa2 cells increased by 7 and 2% compared to control cells, respectively. Notably, berberine had a greater apoptotic effect in PANC-1 cells than gemcitabine. Upon treatment of PANC-1 and MIA-PaCa2 with berberine at a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50), apoptosis was induced by a mechanism that involved the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) rather than caspase 3/7 activation. Our findings showed that berberine had anti-cancer effects and may be an effective drug for pancreatic cancer chemotherapy.

  4. Berberine induces apoptosis via ROS generation in PANC-1 and MIA-PaCa2 pancreatic cell lines

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S.H., Park; J.H., Sung; E.J., Kim; N., Chung.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death. Gemcitabine is widely used as a chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of pancreatic cancer, but the prognosis is still poor. Berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid extracted fro [...] m a variety of natural herbs, possesses a variety of pharmacological properties including anticancer effects. In this study, we investigated the anticancer effects of berberine and compared its use with that of gemcitabine in the pancreatic cancer cell lines PANC-1 and MIA-PaCa2. Berberine inhibited cell growth in a dose-dependent manner by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. After berberine treatment, the G1 phase of PANC-1 cells increased by 10% compared to control cells, and the G1 phase of MIA-PaCa2 cells was increased by 2%. Whereas gemcitabine exerts antiproliferation effects through S-phase arrest, our results showed that berberine inhibited proliferation by inducing G1-phase arrest. Berberine-induced apoptosis of PANC-1 and MIA-PaCa2 cells increased by 7 and 2% compared to control cells, respectively. Notably, berberine had a greater apoptotic effect in PANC-1 cells than gemcitabine. Upon treatment of PANC-1 and MIA-PaCa2 with berberine at a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50), apoptosis was induced by a mechanism that involved the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) rather than caspase 3/7 activation. Our findings showed that berberine had anti-cancer effects and may be an effective drug for pancreatic cancer chemotherapy.

  5. In situ dynamics of O2, pH and cyanobacterial transcripts associated with CCM, photosynthesis and detoxification of ROS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sheila I; Steunou, Anne-Soisig

    2011-01-01

    The relative abundance of transcripts encoding proteins involved in inorganic carbon concentrating mechanisms (CCM), detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and photosynthesis in the thermophilic cyanobacterium Synechococcus OS-B' was measured in hot spring microbial mats over two diel cycles, and was coupled with in situ determinations of incoming irradiance and microenvironmental dynamics of O(2) and pH. Fluctuations in pH and O(2) in the mats were largely driven by the diel cycle of solar irradiance, with a pH variation from ~7.0 to ~9.5, and O(2) levels ranging from anoxia to supersaturation during night and day, respectively. Levels of various transcripts from mat cyanobacteria revealed several patterns that correlated with incident irradiance, O(2) and pH within the mat matrix. Transcript abundances for most genes increased during the morning dark-light transition. Some transcripts remained at a near constant level throughout the light period, whereas others showed an additional increase in abundance as the mat underwent transition from low-to-high light (potentially reflecting changes in O(2) concentration and pH), followed by either a decreased abundance in the early afternoon, or a gradual decline during the early afternoon and into the evening. One specific transcipt, psbA1, was the lowest during mid-day under high irradiance and increased when the light levels declined. We discuss these complex in situ transcriptional patterns with respect to environmental and endogenous cues that might impact and regulate transcription over the diel cycle.

  6. Exploring general gauge mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We explore various aspects of General Gauge Mediation (GGM). We present a reformulation of the correlation functions used in GGM, and further elucidate their IR and UV properties. Additionally we clarify the issue of UV sensitivity in the calculation of the soft masses in the MSSM, highlighting the role of the supertrace over the messenger spectrum. Finally, we present weakly coupled messenger models which fully cover the parameter space of GGM. These examples demonstrate that the full parameter space of GGM is physical and realizable. Thus it should be considered a valid basis for future phenomenological explorations of gauge mediation.

  7. Hypercharged Anomaly Mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that, in string models with the minimal supersymmetric standard model residing on D-branes, the bino mass can be generated in a geometrically separated hidden sector. Hypercharge mediation thus naturally teams up with anomaly mediation. The mixed scenario predicts a distinctive yet viable superpartner spectrum, provided that the ratio ? between the bino and gravitino mass lies in the range 0.05 3/2 > or approx. 35 TeV. We summarize some of the experimental signatures of this scenario

  8. Bax translocation mediated mitochondrial apoptosis and caspase dependent photosensitizing effect of Ficus religiosa on cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haneef, Jazir; Parvathy, Muraleedharan; M, Parvathy; Thankayyan R, Santhosh Kumar; Sithul, Hima; Sreeharshan, Sreeja

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of the present work was to investigate the potential effect of acetone extract of Ficus religosa leaf (FAE) in multiple apoptosis signalling in human breast cancer cells. FAE treatment significantly induced dose and time dependent, irreversible inhibition of breast cancer cell growth with moderate toxicity to normal breast epithelial cells. This observation was validated using Sulforhodamine B assay. Cell cycle analysis by Flow cytometry showed cell cycle arrest in G1 phase and induction of sub-G0 peak. FAE induced chromatin condensation and displayed an increase in apoptotic population in Annexin V-FITC/PI (Fluorescein isothiocyanate/Propidium iodide) double staining. FAE stimulated the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in multiple breast cancer cell lines when compared to normal diploid cells. To understand the role of Bax in FAE induced apoptosis, we employed a sensitive cell based platform of MCF-7 cells expressing Bax-EGFP. Bax translocation to mitochondria was accompanied by the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential and marked elevation in LEHDase activity (Caspase 9). Consistent with this data, FAE induced Caspase activation as evidenced by ratio change in FRET Caspase sensor expressing MCF-7 cell line and cleavage of prominent Caspases and PARP. Interestingly, FAE accelerated cell death in a mitochondrial dependent manner in continuous live cell imaging mode indicating its possible photosensitizing effect. Intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by FAE played a critical role in mediating apoptotic cell death and photosensitizing activity. FAE induced dose and time dependent inhibition of cancer cell growth which was associated with Bax translocation and mitochondria mediated apoptosis with the activation of Caspase 9 dependent Caspase cascade. FAE also possessed strong photosensitizing e